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Full text of "Memoirs of a veteran who served as a private in the 60's in the war between the states; personal incidents, experiences and observations"

3 1822026'S 7<S' 




LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 
SAN DIEGO 

V 



UNIVERSITY.OF, CALIFORNIA SAN D EGC 




3 1822026857029 







Yours truly, 



I. HERMANN 



Memoirs of a Veteran 



Who served as a Private in the 60's 
in the War between the States 



Personal Incidents, Experiences 
and Observations 



Written by 

CAPT. I. HERMANN 
^ 

Who Served in the Three Branches of the Confederate Army 



ATLANTA. GA.: 

BYRD PRINTING COMPANY 

1911 



Copyright 1911 

By I. Hermann 

All rights reserved 



INTRODUCTION. 

The following reminiscences after due and 
careful consideration, are dedicated to the 
young, who are pausing at the portals of man- 
hood, as well as womanhood, and who are con- 
fronted with illusory visions and representa- 
tions, the goal of which is but seldom attained, 
even by the fewest fortunates, and then only by 
unforeseen circumstances and haphazards, not 
illustrated in the mapped out program for 
future welfare, greatness and success. 

Often the most sanguine persons have such 
optimistic illusions, which, unless most carefully 
considered will lead them into irreparable 
errors. Even the political changes, often times 
necessary in the government of men, are great 
factors to smash into fragments the best and 
most illusory plans, and cast into the shadow, 
for a time being at least, the kindliest, philan- 
thropic and best intentions of individual efforts, 
until the Wheel of Fortune again turns in his 
direction, casting a few sparks of hope in his 
ultimate favor, and which is seldom realized. 

If the reader of the above has been induced 
to think and carefully consider, before acting 
hastily, the writer feels that he has accom- 
plished some good in the current affairs of 
human events. 



CHAPTER I. 

A PICTURE. 

Entering the post-office for my daily mail, 
I noticed in the lobby, hanging on the wall, a 
beautiful, attractive and highly colored land- 
scape and manhood therein displayed in its 
perfection, gaudily dressed in spotless uni- 
forms; some on horse-back, some afoot, with 
a carriage as erect and healthful demeanor 
that the artist could undoubtedly produce; he 
was at his best, setting forth a life of ease and 
comfort that would appeal to the youngster, 
patriot and careless individual, that therein is 
a life worth living for. Even the social fea- 
tures have not been omitted where men and offi- 
cers stand in good comradeship. Peace and re- 
pose, and a full dinner pail are the environment 
of the whole representation. 

It is the advertisement of an army recruiting 
officer, who wants to enlist young, healthy men 
for the service of the executive branch of our 
National Government, to defend the boundaries 
of our territory, to protect our people against 
the invasion of a foreign foe, to even invade 



8 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

a foreign land, to kill and be killed at the be- 
hest of the powers that be, for an insult whether 
imaginary or real, that probably could have 
been settled through better entente, or if the 
political atmosphere would have thought to 
leave the matter of misunderstanding or mis- 
construction to a tribunal of arbitration. 

The writer himself was once a soldier; the 
uniform he wore did not correspond with that 
of the picture above, it was rather the reverse 
in all its features. He enlisted in the Confed- 
erate service in 1861, when our homes were 
invaded, in defense of our firesides, and the 
Confederate States of America, who at that 
time, were an organized Government. 

Usually an artist, when he represents a sub- 
ject on canvas, uses a dark background, to 
bring forth in bright relief, the subject of his 
work. But I, not being an artist, reverse the 
matter in controversy, and put the bright side 
first. 

OTHER PICTURES. 

When in 1861 the Southern States, known as 
the Slave States, severed their connection with 
the Federal Government and formed a Confed- 
eracy of their own, which under the Federal 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 9 

Constitution and Common Compact, they had a 
perfect right to do, they sent Commissioners, 
composed of John Forsyth, Martin J. Craw- 
ford and A. B. Boman to Washington, with 
power to adjust in a peaceable manner, any dif- 
ferences existing between the Confederate 
Government and their late associates. Our 
Government refrained from committing any 
overt act, or assault, and proposed strictly to 
act on the defensive, until that Government, in 
a most treacherous manner, attempted to main- 
tain by force of arms, property, then in their 
possession and belonging to the Confederate 
Government, and which they had promised to 
surrender or abandon. But on the contrary; 
they sent a fleet loaded with provisions, men 
and munitions of war, to hold and keep Port 
Sumter, in the harbor of South Carolina, con- 
trary to our expectations, and as a menace to 
our new born Nation. 

Then, as now, there were State troops, or 
military organizations, and being on the alert, 
under the direction of our Government, and 
under the immediate command of General 
Beauregard, they fired on the assaulting fleet to 
prevent a most flagrant outrage, and after a 



10 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

fierce conflict, the Fort was surrendered, by one 
Capt. Anderson, then in command. 

Abraham Lincoln, the then President of the 
United States, called out 75,000 troops, which 
was construed by us as coercion on the part of 
the Federal Government, so as to prevent the 
Confederates from carrying out peaceably the 
maintenance of a Government already formed. 
To meet such contingency President Jefferson 
Davis called for volunteers. More men pre- 
sented themselves properly organized into Com- 
panies, than we had arms to furnish. Patriot- 
ism ran high, and people took up arms as by 
one common impulse, and formed themselves 
into regiments and brigades. 

The Federal Government, with few excep- 
tions, had all the arsenals in their possession. 
We were therefore not in a condition to physi- 
cally withstand a very severe onslaught, but 
when the Northern Army attempted on July 
21, 1861, to have a holiday in Eichmond, the 
Capital of the Confederate States, we taught 
them a lesson at Manassas, and inscribed a page 
in history for future generations to contem- 
plate. 




So Mounting a Stump, I Proceeded to 
Introduce Myself. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Federal army under General Scott con- 
sisted of over 60,000 men, while that of General 
J. E. Johnston was only half that number. 
Someone asked General Scott, why he, the hero 
of Mexico, had -failed to enter Richmond. He 
answered, because the boys that led him into 
Mexico are the very ones that kept him out of 
Richmond. 

The proclamation of Abraham Lincoln calling 
out for troops was responded to with alacrity. 
In the meantime, we on the Confederate side, 
were not asleep; Washington County had then 
only one military organization of infantry 
called the Washington Rifles, commanded by 
Captain Seaborn Jones, a very gallant old gen- 
tleman, who was brave and patriotic. The fol- 
lowing was a list of the Company's membership, 
who, by a unanimous vote, offered their services 
to the newly formed Government to repel the 
invader: (See Appendix A.). Their services 
were accepted, and they were ordered to Macon, 
Ga., as a camp of instructions, and for the for- 
mation of a regiment, of which the following 



12 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

companies formed the contingent their names, 
letters, and captains. (See Appendix B.) 

J. N. Kamsey, of Columbus, Ga., was elected 
Colonel. "We were ordered to Pensacola, Fla., 
for duty, and to guard that port, and to keep 
from landing any troops by our enemy who 
were in possession of the fort, guarding the 
entrance of that harbor. This was in the month 
of April, 1861. From Pensacola the regiment 
was ordered to Northwestern Virginia. The 
Confederate Capital was also changed from 
Montgomery, Ala., where the Confederate Gov- 
ernment was organized, and Jefferson Davis 
nominated its President, to Richmond, Va. 

About the middle of May, the same year, 
twenty-one young men of this County, of which 
the writer formed a contingent part, resolved 
to join the Washington Rifles, who had just 
preceded us on their way to Virginia. We ren- 
dezvoused at Davisboro, a station on the Central 
of Georgia Railway. We were all in high spir- 
it on the day of our departure. The people of 
the neighborhood assembled to wish us God- 
speed and a safe return. It was a lovely day 
and patriotism ran high. We promised a sat- 
isfactory result as soldiers of the Confederate 
States of America. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 13 

At Richmond, Va., we were met by Presi- 
dent Davis, who came to shake hands with the 
"boys in gray", and speak words of encourage- 
ment. From Richmond we traveled by rail to 
Staunton, where we were furnished with accou- 
trements by Colonel Mikel Harmon, and which 
consisted of muskets converted into percussion 
cap, weapons, from old revolutionary flint and 
steel guns, possessing a kicking power that 
would put "Old Maude" to shame. My little 
squad had resolved to stick to one another 
through all emergencies, to aid and assist each 
other and to protect one another. Those resolu- 
tions were carried out to the letter as long as 
we continued together. We still went by rail to 
Buffalo Gap, when we had to foot it over the 
mountains to McDowell, a little village in the 
Valley of the Blue Ridge. Foot-sore and weary 
we struck camp. The inhabitants were hospi- 
table and kind, and we informed ourselves 
about everything in that country, Laurel Hill 
being our destination. 

An old fellow whose name is Sanders, a very 
talkative gentlemen, told us how, he by himself 
ran a dozen Yankees; every one of us became 
interested as to how he did it, so he stated that 
one morning he went to salt his sheep in the 



14 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

pasture all of a sudden there appeared a dozen 
or more Yankee soldiers, so he picked up his 
gun, and ran first, and they ran after him, but 
did not catch him. We all felt pretty well sold 
cut and had a big laugh, for the gentleman 
demonstrated his tale in a very dramatic way. 

The following morning, we concluded to hire 
teams to continue our journey, which was within 
two days march of our destination. We passed 
Monterey, another village at the foot of the 
Alleghany Mountains, about twelve miles from 
McDowell. We crossed the Allaghany into 
Green Brier County, passed Huttensville, 
another little village at the foot of Cheat Moun- 
tain, from there to Beverly, a village about 
twelve miles from Laurel Hill, where we were 
entertained with a spread, the people having 
heard of our approach. We camped there that 
night, and passed commandery resolution upon 
its citizens, and their kind hospitality. The 
following day we arrived at Laurel Hill, where 
the army, about 3,000 strong, was encamped. 
The boys were glad to see us, and asked thou- 
sands of questions about their home-folks, all of 
which was answered as far as possible. The 
writer being a Frenchman, a rather scarce arti- 
cle in those days in this country, elicited no lit- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 15 

tie curiosity among the members of the First 
Georgia Regiment. Sitting in my tent, reading 
and writing, at the same time enjoying my pipe, 
I noted at close intervals shadows excluding the 
light of day looking for the cause, the party or 
parties instantly withdrew. Major U. M. Irwiii 
entered; I asked him the cause for such curios- 
ity, he stated laughing, "Well, I told some fel- 
lows we'd brought a live Frenchman with us. 
I suppose those fellows want to get a peep at 
you. " I at once got up, mounted an old stump, 
and introduced myself to the crowd : * * Gentle- 
men, it seems that I am eliciting a great deal of 
curiosity ; now all of you will know me as Isaac 
Hermann, a native Frenchman, who came to 
assist you to fight the Yankees." Having thus 
made myself known, I took the privilege to ask 
those with whom I came in contact their names, 
and what Company they belonged to, and thus 
in a short time I knew every man in the Reg- 
iment. We were now installed and regularly 
enrolled for duty. 



CHAPTER III. 

Laurel Hill is a plateau situated to the right 
of Rich Mountain, the pass of which was occu- 
pied by Governor Wise, with a small force. 

In the early part of July, General McClelland, 
in command of the Federal troops, made a 
demonstration on our front. Our position was 
somewhat fortified by breastworks; the enemy 
came in close proximity to our camp and kept 
us on the Qui-vive; their guns were of long 
range, while ours would' not carry over fifty 
yards. Picket duties were performed by whole 
companies, taking possession of the surround- 
ing, commanding hills. Many shots hissed in 
close proximity, without our being able to locate 
the direction from which they came, and with- 
out our even being able to hear the report of 
the guns. Very little damage, however, was 
done, except by some stray ball, now and then. 
It was the writer's time to stand guard, not far 
in front of the camp, his beat was alongside 
the ditches. In front of me the enemy had 
planted a cannon. The shots came at regular 
intervals in direct line with my beat, but the 
shots fell somewhat short, by about fifty to sev- 
enty-five yards. I saw many hit the ground. 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 17 

When Lieutenant Colonel Clark, came round on 
a tour of inspection, I remarked, "Colonel, am 
I placed here as a target to be shot at by those 
fellows yonder. One of their shots came rather 
close for comfort. ' ' He said, * ' Take your beat 
in the ditch, and when you see the smoke, tuck 
your head below the breastworks " which was 
three and one-half feet deep the dirt drawn 
towards the front, which protected me up to 
my shoulders. For nearly two hours, until 
relieved, I kept close watch for the smoke of 
their gun, which I approximated was about a 
mile distant, and there I learned that it took the 
report of the cannon eight seconds to reach me 
after seeing the smoke, and the whiz of the 
(missel four seconds later still; this gave me 
about twelve seconds to dodge the ball any- 
how, I was very willing when relief came, for 
the other fellow to take my place. In the after- 
noon, minnie balls rather multipherous, were 
hissing among the boys in camp, but up to that 
time there was no damage done, when a cavalry- 
man came in and reported that some of the 
enemy was occupying an old log house situated 
about a half mile in front of us, and it was 
there through the cracks of that building came 
the missiles that made the fellows dodge about. 
General Garnett, our Commander, ordered out 



18 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

two companies of infantry, who, taking a long 
detour through the woods placed themselves in 
position to receive them as they emerged from 
the building, and with two pieces of artillery, 
sent balls and shells through their improvised 
fort. Out came the "Yanks" only to fall into 
the hands of those ready to give them a warm 
reception. 

On that evening, three days rations were 
issued. At dark it commenced drizzling rain; 
we were ordered to strike camp, and we took up 
the line of march to the rear, when I learned 
that the enemy had whipped out Governor 
"Wise's forces on Eich Mountain and threatened 
our rear. We marched the whole of that night, 
only to find our retreat to Beverly blockaded 
by the enemy who had felled many trees across 
the road, the only turn-pike leading to that 
place. 

We had to retrace our steps for several miles, 
and take what is known as mountain trail, lead- 
ing in a different direction, marching all day. 
The night again, which was dark and dreary 
multiplied our misgivings. The path we fol- 
lowed, was as stated, a narrow mountain path, 
on the left insurmountable mountains, while on 
the right very deep precipices ; many teams that 



WAR 'BETWEEN THE STATES 19 

left the rut on account of the darkness, were 
precipitated down the precipices and abandoned. 
Thus, after two nights and one day of steady 
marching, we arrived at Carricks' Ford, a ford- 
able place on the north fork of the Potomac 
River. The water was breast-deep, and we went 
into it like ducks, when of a sudden, the Yan- 
kees appeared, firing into our column. They 
struck us about and along the wagon train, 
capturing the same, while the advance column 
stampeded. We lost our regimental colors, 
which were in the baggage wagon, in charge 
of G. W. Kelly, who abandoned it with all the 
Company's effects, to save himself. 

Colonel Ramsey, in fact all our officers were )c 
elected on account of their cleverness at home. 
This being a strictly agricultural country, the 
men and officers knew more about farming than 
about military tactics. Colonel Ramsey was an 
eminent lawyer of Columbus, Georgia. He 
gave the command, " Georgian, retreat," and 
the rout was complete. It was a great mistake 
that the Government did not assign military 
men to take charge in active campaigns ; many 
blunders might have been evaded and many 
lives spared at the beginning of the war. 

One half of my regiment was assigned as rear 



20 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

guards and marched therefore, in the rear of the 
column behind the wagon train. We were con- 
sequently left to take care of ourselves the best 
we could. General Garnett was killed in the 
melee. Had we had officers who understood any- 
thing about military tactics, these reminiscences 
might be told differently. 

As soon as we heard firing in our front, we at 
once formed ourselves into line of battle, in a 
small corn patch across the stream, on our 
immediate right, at the foot of a high moun- 
tain. It seemed to have been new ground and 
the corn was luxuriantly thick. The logs that 
were there were rolled into line, thus serving 
as terraces, and also aff orded us splendid breast- 
works. We were hardly in position, when artil- 
lery troops appeared and crossed the ford, not 
seventy-five yards from where we were in line, 
seeing them, without being seen ourselves. 
Major Harvey Thompson, who was in Com- 
mand of our forces, which were not over four 
hundred and fifty strong, seeing some men mak- 
ing ready to fire, gave orders not to fire, as they 
were our own men crossing the stream, and thus 
lost the opportunity of making himself famous, 
for it proved to be the enemy's artillery in our 
immediate front. Had he given orders to fire 



21 



and charge, we could have been on them before 
they could possibly have formed themselves 
into battery, captured their guns, killed and 
captured many of their men, and would have 
turned into victory what proved to have become 
a disastrous defeat. 

Thus being cut off from our main forces, who 
were in full retreat, and fearing to be captured, 
we climbed the mountain in our rear, expecting 
to cut across in a certain direction, and rejoin 
our forces some distance beyond. Thus began 
a dreary march of three days and four nights in 
a perfect wilderness, soaked to the bone and 
nothing to eat, cutting our way through the 
heavy growth of laurel bushes, we had to take 
it in Indian file, in single column. 

Many pathetic instances came to my obser- 
vation ; some reading testaments, others taking 
from their breast-pocket, next to their heart, 
pictures of loved ones, dropping tears of 
despair, as they mournfully returned them to 
their receptacle. An instance which impressed 
itself forcibly on my mind, was the filial affec- 
tion displayed between father and son, and in 
which the writer put to good use, the Biblical 
story of King Solomon, where two women 
claimed the same child, but in this instance 



22 



neither wanted to claim. It was thus : Captain 
Jones found a piece of tallow candle about one 
inch long in his haversack, and presented it to 
his son, Weaver, saying, "Eat that, son, it will 
sustain life;" "No, father, you eat it, I am 
younger than you, and stronger, and therefore 
can hold out longer." There they stood 
looking affectionately at each other, the Captain 
holding the piece of candle between his fingers. 
So I said, ' ' Captain, hand it to me, I will divide 
it for you. ' ' Having my knife in hand, I cut it 
lengthwise, following the wick, giving each 
half, and passing the blade between my lips. It 
was the first taste of anything the writer had 
had in four days. 



CHAPTER IV. 

When night overtook us, we had to remain in 
our track until daylight would enable us to pro- 
ceed. When at about nine o'clock A. M. word 
was passed up the line, from mouth to mouth 
"A Guide! A man and his son who will guide 
us out of here." Then Major Thompson, who 
was in front sent word down the line for the 
men to come up. The guides sent word up the 
line to meet them half way, that they were very 
tired, so it was arranged that Major Thompson 
met them about center, where the writer was. 
The guides introduced themselves as Messrs. 
Parson, father and son. The senior was a man 
of about fifty years, rather ungainly as to looks, 
and somewhat cross-eyed, while his son was a 
strong athletic young man, about twenty-three. 
They said they were trappers, collecting furs 
for the market. It must be remarked that that 
country was perfectly wild, and uninhabited, for 
during all this long march I had not seen a sin- 
gle settlement, but it contained many wild 
beasts, such as bears, panthers, foxes, deer, etc. 
He related that a tall young man by the name 
of Jasper Stubbs, belonging to Company E, 
First Regiment, Washington Rifles, came to his 



24 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

quarters very early this morning, inquiring if 
any soldiers had passed by, saying he found a 
nook under a projecting rock where he stood in 
column the night before, and to protect himself 
from dew, he lay down to rest, and fell asleep. 
When he awoke, it was day and he found his 
comrades gone, and that he was by himself. The 

surface of ground or rock, was a solid moss-bed, 

i 

consequently he could not tell which way our 
tracks pointed, and he happened to take the 
reverse course which we went, and thus came 
to where the Parsons lived. Stubbs was mis- 
sing, thus proving that the men '& story must be 
true. It must also be remembered that the 
majority of the people in Western Virginia 
were in sympathy with the enemy, and thus pos- 
sessed of many informers or spies, who would 
give information as to our whereabouts and 
doings. 

A conference was held among the officers as 
to what was best to be done. Parson claimed 
to be in sympathy with the South, and he knew 
that we would not be able to carry out our 
design, and that we would all perish, so he put 
out to lead us out of our dilemma. Major 
Thompson was for putting the Parsons under 
arrest, and force them to lead us in the direction 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 25 

we first assumed, or perish with us. Parsons 
spoke up and said, " Gentlemen, I am in your 
power ; the country through which you propose 
to travel is not habitable, I have been raised 
in these regions, and there is not a living soul 
within forty miles in the direction you propose 
to go, and at the rate you are compelled to 
advance, you would all perish to death, and 
your carcasses left for food to the wild beasts 
of the forest." The conference was divided, 
some hesitated, others were for adopting Major 
Thompson's plan, when the writer stepped for- 
ward, saying, "Gentlemen, up to now, I have 
obeyed orders, but I for one, prefer to be shot 
by an enemy's bullet, than to perish like a cow- 
ard in this wild region. ' ' Captain Jones tapped 
me on the shoulder, remarking; "Well spoken y 
Hermann, those are my sentiments Company 
E, About Face!". Captain Crump, command- 
ing Company I, from Augusta, Ga., followed 
suit, and thus the whole column faced about, 
ready to follow the Parsons. 

The writer made the following proposition: 
That Mr. Parson and son be disarmed, for both 
carried hunting rifles ; that I would follow them 
within twenty paces, while the column should 
follow within two hundred yards, thus in case of 



26 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

treachery they would be warned by report of my 
gun, that there is danger ahead. These precau- 
tions I deemed necessary in case of an ambush. 
Addressing myself to our guides, I said, ' ' Gen- 
tlemen, you occupy an enviable position ; if you 
prove true, of which I have no doubt myself, 
you'd be amply rewarded, but should you prove 
otherwise, your hide is mine, and there is not 
enough guns in Yankeedom to prevent me from 
shooting you." At this point, a private from 
the Gate City Guards, whose name is Wm. 
Leatherwood, remarked, ''You shall not go 
alone, I will accompany you." I thanked him 
kindly, saying I would be glad if he would. Thus 
we retraced our steps, following our leaders, 
when after about three miles march we struck 
a mountain stream, in the bed of which we 
waded for nine miles, the water varying from 
knee to waist deep, running very rapidly over 
mossy, slippery rocks, and through gorges as if 
the mountains were cut in twain and hewn 
down. In some places, the walls were so high, 
affording a narrow dark passage, I don't believe 
God's sun ever shone down there. I was so 
chilled, I felt myself freezing to death in mid 
summer, for it was about the 17th of July ; dark- 
ness was setting in, and I had not seen the sun 
that day, although the sky was cloudless, when 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 27 

to my great relief we came to a little opening on 
our left, the mountain receding, leaving about an 
acre of level ground, with a luxuriant growth of 
grass. Our guides said they lived within a 
quarter of a mile from there. I said, let us rest 
and wait for the rest of the men. When after a 
little rest, I started again, 1 was too weak to 
make the advance, although provisions were in 
sight. I had to be relieved, and some others 
took my place, while I lay exhausted on the 
grass. Happily some of the men had paper that 
escaped humidity; loading a musket with wad- 
ding, they fired into a rotten stump, setting it 
on fire, and by persistent blowing, produced a 
bright little flame, which soon developed into a 
large camp fire, around which the boys dried 
themselves. 

Parson proved himself a noble, patriotic 
host. After a couple of hours, he sent us a large 
pone of corn-bread, baked in an old-fashioned 
oven. I received about an inch square as my 
share, the sweetest morsel that ever passed 
my lips. It was sufficient to allay the gnawing 
of my empty stomach, it had a strange effect 
on me, for every time I would stand up, my 
knees would give way and down I went other- 
wise I felt no inconvenience. 



28 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

It was a remarkable fact that every man was 
able to keep up with our small column and we 
did not lose a single man up to that time. 



CHAPTER V. 

The next morning Mr. Parson drove up two 
nice, seal fat beeves, to get rations was a quick 
performance, and the meat was devoured before 
it had time to get any of the animal heat out of 
it, some ate it raw, others stuck it on the ramrod 
of their gun and held it over the fire, in the 
meantime biting off great mouthfulls while the 
balance was broiling on his improvised cooking 
utensil. Mr. Parson also brought us some meal, 
which being made into dough was baked in the 
ashes, and thus we all had a square meal and 
some left to carry in our haversack. 

Mr. Parson was tolerably well to do, he 
owned some land, raised his truck, had a small 
apple orchard, and indulged in stock-raising. 
He owned several horses and some of the offi- 
cers bought of him. The writer feeling badly 
jaded, also concluded he would buy himself a 
horse, and paid his price, $95.00 for a horse, 
but Major Thompson, being of a timid nature, 
was afraid that too many horsemen might 
attract attention, refused to let me ride by the 
wagon-road, so Mr. Parson said there was a 
mountain path that I could follow that would 



30 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

lead in the big road some few miles beyond, but 
that I would have to lead the animal for about 
a couple of miles, when I would be able to ride. 
Dr. Whitaker, a worthy member of my Com- 
pany, and a good companion, offered me his ser- 
vices to get the animal over the roughest part 
of the route. I accepted his offer, and promised 
that we would ride by turns, so I took the horse 
by the bridle and led him, Whitaker following 
behind, coaxing him along. The mountain was 
so steep I had to talk to keep the horse on his 
feet, but nevertheless he slipped several times 
and we worried to get him up again. We made 
slow headway; the column had advanced, and 
we lost sight of it, and were left alone, worrying 
with the horse, who finally lost foothold again, 
and rolled over. The writer was forced to 
turn loose the bridle to keep from being dragged 
along into the hollow. The horse rolled over 
and over, making every effort to gain his feet, 
but to no avail, until he reached the bottom, 
where he appeared no bigger than a goat. I 
felt sorry for the poor animal, so I went down, 
took off his saddle and bridle, placed them on 
a rock, and left him to take care of himself. I 
rejoined Dr. Whitaker. Relieved of our burden, 
we followed the trail made by the column. 
About sunset we caught sight of them, just as 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 31 

they crossed Green Brier River, a wide, but 
shallow stream. At that place the water was 
waist deep in the center, running very swift, as 
mountain streams do, over slippery moss-cov- 
ered rocks. When center of the river, I lost 
foot hold and the stream, swift as it was, swept 
me under, and in my feeble condition I had a 
struggle to recover myself. I lost my rations, 
which were swept down stream, a great loss to 
me, but undoubtedly served as a fine repast for 
the fishes which abounded in those waters. 

The column continued its line of march, pas- 
sing a settlement, the first dwelling I had seen 
in five days. I called at the gate ; receiving no 
answer, I walked into the porch; the door being 
ajar, I pushed it open and found an empty room, 
with the exception of a wooden bench, and an 
old-fashioned, home-made primitive empty bed- 
stead, with cords serving to support the bedding 
that the owners had hurriedly removed before 
our arrival. I called again. Presently a young 
woman presented herself. After passing greet- 
ings of the day I asked, "Where are the folks?" 
She said, "They are not here," (the surround- 
ings indicated a hasty exit). I said, "So I see. 
Where are they?" She said she did not know, 
undoubtedly not willing to divulge. "Who lives 



32 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

here?" "Mr. Snider." "And you don't know 
where he is ? " " No, he heard you all were com- 
ing, and not being in sympathy with you all, he 
left." "Well, he ought not to have done so, 
nobody would have harmed him or hurt a hair 
on his head. He is entitled to his opinion, as 
long as he does not take up arms against us." 
So I recounted the accident that had befallen 
me, and wanted to replenish my provisions. 
I asked if I could buy something to eat. She 
said, "There are no provisions in the house", 
"Well, I hope you would not object to my mak- 
ing a fire in this fire-place to dry myself." She 
said she had no objection. It must be remem- 
bered that the fire-places in those days were 
very roomy indeed. I found wood on the wood- 
pile, and soon had a roaring fire. It was late 
in the evening, and I intended to pass that night 
under shelter, for I was chilled to the bone. In 
moving the bench in front of the fire, on which 
to spread my jacket to dry, I noticed a pail cov- 
ered, and full of fresh milk, "Well, you can 
sell me some of that milk, can't you?" She 
said, "You can have all you want for nothing." 
I thanked her and said I wish I had some meal 
and I could well make out. She said, "I will 
see if I can find any", and presently she 
returned with sufficient to make myself a large 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 33 

hoe-cake. I baked the same on an old shovel. 
While it was baking my clothes were drying on 
my body, affording a luxuriant steam bath. I 
had a tin cup. I drank some of the milk and had 
a plentiful repast. I handed her a quarter of a 
dollar to pay for the meal, which she accepted 
with some hesitancy. All at once the girl dis- 
appeared and left me in charge. It was most 
dark, when someone hollowed at the gate ; recog- 
nizing the voices, I found them to be two men 
of my Company, viz., G. A. Tarbutton and J. A. 
Roberson. I met them and invited them in. 
To tell the truth, I did not much like the myste- 
rious surroundings of those premises, especi- 
ally as the girl asked me not to divulge that she 
let me have some meal. 

My comrades and self took in the situation; 
we conferred with one another and agreed to 
spend the night under shelter in a warm room, 
a luxury not enjoyed in some time and not to 
be abandoned. They had informed me that the 
Column had encamped less than a quarter of a 
mile beyond and they had returned to this place 
in search of some Apple Jack. We concluded 
to take it by turns, while two of us are asleep, 
the third will stand guard and keep up the fire, 
for the reader must know that notwithstanding 



34 MEMOIRS OF A VETEKAN 

the season, the nights were very cold in those 
mountain regions and were especially so with 
wet garments on. 

The following morning my comrades left, but 
before leaving we disposed of the milk in the 
pail. I remained in the hope of again seeing 
my charming hostess, and induce her to sell me 
some provisions for my journey along. I saw 
in the woods, some old hens scratching, and I 
thought I might persuade her to sell me one. 
Presently she came with a plate of ham, chicken 
and biscuits which she offered me. I accepted, 
and not wishing to embarrass her, did not ask 
any questions. Presently, old man Snider 
appeared. He was a fine looking specimen of 
manhood, had a ruddy complexion and appeared 
physically Herculean. After exchanging a lit- 
tle commonplace talk, he followed me to where 
the boys camped. He was seemingly astonished 
to see so many gentlemen among the so-called 
savage rebels. I asked him if he could induce 
his daughter to bake me a chicken, he answered, 
"I suppose I could." "What will it be worth !" 
"Half a dollar" he guessed. I gave him the 
money and he said he would bring me the 
chicken, which he did, and it was a fine one, well 
cooked. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 35 

' [* The people in that thinly populated section of 
the country lived a very primitive life, they 
were mostly ignorant. They did their own work, 
had plenty to live on, owned no negroes and 
were very kind-hearted after you got acquainted. 
They had strange notions about the Rebels, 
thinking we were terrible fellows. The origi- 
nal settlers of Northwestern Virginia were 
Dutch, a very simple and hard-working honest 
people. 

At about three o'clock in the afternoon, hav- 
ing had a long rest, we again took up the line of 
march by short stages, still under the guidance 
of one of our guides, and from that day on, we 
continued our march, passing Cheat Mountain, 
Allegheny Mountains, until finally we reached 
McDowell. Coming down Cheat Mountain, the 
boys were treated to a strange sight, especially 
those who were raised in a low country and who 
had never seen any mountains, for in those days 
there was not much traveling done, and the 
majority of the people did not often venture 
away from their homes. 

The little village of Huttensville lies just at 
the foot of Cheat Mountain, a mountain of great 
altitude. The houses below us did not appear 
to be larger than bird cages, but plainly in 



36 MEMOIRS OF A VETEBAN 

view, first to the right and then to the left, as 
the pike would tack, the mountain being very 
steep. It was a lovely day, the sun had risen in 
all its splendor, when as if by magic, our view 
below us was obscured by what seemed to be a 
very heavy fog, and we lost sight of the little 
village. Still the sun was shining warm, and as 
we were going down hill it was easy going, and 
as we approached the village, the veil that had 
obscured our view lifted itself and the people 
reported to have experienced one of the heaviest 
storms in their lives, the proof of which we 
noticed in t"Ee mud and washouts which were 
visible, while we who were above the clouds did 
not receive a single drop. 



CHAPTER VI. 

At McDowell we formed a reunion with the 
rest of our forces, who in their flight made a 
long detour, passing through a portion of Mary- 
land adjoining that part of West Virginia. The 
following evening we had dress parade and the 
Adjutant's report of those who were missing. 
The writer does not remember the entire casu- 
alties of that affair, but found that his little 
squad of twenty-one were all present or account- 
ed for. 

My friend, Eagle, from whom we hired teams 
to carry us to Laurel Hill was present and he 
came to shake hands with me while we were in 
line ; he was glad to see me. A general order to 
disband the regiment for ten days was read, in 
order to enable the men to seek the needed rest. 
Mr. Eagle came to me at once, saying, "I take 
care of you and your friends, the twenty-one 
that I hauled to Laurel Hill, at my house. It 
shall not cost you a cent", a most generous and 
acceptable offer. I called for my Davisboro 
fellows, and followed Mr. Eagle to his home, 
where he entertained us in a most substantial 
manner. He was a man well-to-do, an old bach- 



38 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

elor. The household consisted of himself and 
two spinster sisters, all between forty and fifty 
years of age ; and a worthy mother in the sev- 
enties, also a brother who was a harmless lune r 
roving at will and coming home when he pleased, 
a very inoffensive creature ; his name was Chris. 
The mother, although for years in that country, 
still could not talk the English language. Un- 
tiringly and seemingly in the best of mood, 
they performed their duties in preparing meals 
for that hungry army. Chris got kinder mys- 
tified to see so many strangers in the house. He 
walked about the premises all day, saying, 
"Whoo-p-e-ee Soldiers fighting against the 
war", and no matter what you asked him, his 
reply was, "Whoo-o-p-e-ee, Soldiers fighting 
against the war-ha-ha-ha-ha!" 

At the expiration of the ten days leave, we 
bade our host good-bye. We wanted to remu- 
nerate him, at least in part, for all of his trouble 
in our behalf, but he would not receive the least 
remuneration, saying, "I am sorry I could not 
have done more." "We rendezvoused in the town, 
but a great many were missing on account of 
sickness, the measles of a very virulent nature 
having broken out among the men, and many 
succumbed from the disease. We were ordered 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 39 

back to Monterey and went into camp. The meas- 
les still continued to be prevalent and two of my 
Davisboro comrades died of it, viz., John Lewis 
and Noah Turner, two as clever boys as ever 
were born. I felt very sad over the occurrence. 
Their bodies were sent home and they were 
buried at New Hope Church. 

General B. E. Lee, rode up one day, and we 
were ordered in line for inspection, he was rid- 
ing a dapple gray horse. He looked every inch 
a soldier. His countenance had a very paternal 
and kind expression. He was clean shaven, 
with the exception of a heavy iron gray mus- 
tache. He complimented us for our soldiery 
bearing. He told Captain Jones that he never 
saw a finer set of men. We camped at Mon- 
terey for a month. During all this time, when 
the people at home became aware of our disas- 
ter, they at once went to work to make up uni- 
forms and other kinds of wearing apparels. 
Every woman that could ply a needle exerted 
herself, and before we left Monterey for Green 
Brier, Major Newman, who always a useful and 
patriotic citizen, made his appearance among 
the boys, with the product of the patriotic 
women of Washington County. Every man was 
remembered munificently, and it is due to the 



40 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

good women of the county that we were all com- 
fortably shod and clothed to meet the rigorous 
climate of a winter season in that wild region. 



CHAPTER VII. 

AY bile still in earnps at Monterey, the Four- 
teenth Georgia Regiment, on their way to Hun- 
tersville, with a Company of our County, under 
command of Captain Bob Harmon, encamped 
close to us. The boys were glad to meet and 
intermingled like brothers. A day or so after 
we were ordered to move to Green Brier at the 
foot of the Allegheny and Cheat Mountains, the 
enemy occupying the latter, under general Rey- 
nolds. 

Our picket lines extended some three miles 
beyond our encampment, while the enemy's also 
extended to several miles beyond their encamp- 
ment, leaving a neutral space unoccupied by 
either forces. Often reconnoitering parties 
would meet beyond the pickets and exchange 
shots, and often pickets were killed at their 
posts by an enemy slipping up through the 
bushes unaware to the victim. I always consid- 
ered such as willful murder. 

It became my time to go on picket; the post 
Assigned to me was on the banks of the River, 
three miles beyond our camps. The night before 
one of our men was shot from across the River. 



42 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

Usually three men were detailed to perform 
that duty, so that they can divide watch every 
two hours, one to guard and two to sleep, if such 
was possible. On that occasion the guard wo 
doubled and six men were detailed, and while 
four lay on the ground in blankets, two were on 
the look-out. The post we picked out was under 
a very large oak; in our immediate rear was a 
corn field the corn of which was already appro- 
priated by the cavalry. The field was sur- 
rounded by a low fence and the boys at rest lay 
in the fence corners. It was a bright starlight 
September night, no moon visible, but one could 
distinguish an object some distance beyond. I 
was on the watch. It was about eleven P. M., 
ivhen through the still night, I heard foot-steps 
and the breaking of corn stalks. I listened 
intently, and the noise ceased. Presently I 
heard it again; being on the alert, and so was 
my fellow-watchman, we cautiously awoke the 
men who were happy in the arms of Morpheus, 
not even dreaming of any danger besetting 
their surroundings. I whispered to them to get 
ready quietly, that we heard the approach of 
someone walking in our front. The guns which 
were in reach beside them were firmly grasped. 
We listened and watched, in a stooping posi- 
tion, when the noise started again, yet a little 




A Picket Shot While on Du'.y, Nothing 
Short of Murder. 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 43 

more pronounced and closer. We were ready 
to do our duty. I became impatient at the delay, 
and not wishing to be taken by surprise, I 
thought I would surprise somebody myself, so 
took my musket at a trail, crept along the fence 
to reconnoiter, while my comrades kept their 
position. When suddenly appeared ahead of 
me a white object, apparently a shirt bosom. I 
cocked my gun, but my target disappeared, and 
I heard a horse snorting. On close inspection, 
I found that it was a loose horse grazing, and 
what I took for a shirt bosom was his pale face, 
which sometimes showed, when erect, then dis- 
appeared while grazing. I returned and report- 
ed, to the great relief of us all. Heretofore, 
men on guard at the outpost would fire their 
guns on hearing any unusual noise and thus 
alarming the army, which at once would put 
itself in readiness for defense, only to find out 
that it was a false alarm and that they were 
needlessly disturbed. Such occurrences hap- 
pened too often, therefore a general order was 
read that any man that would fire his gun need- 
lessly and without good cause, or could not give 
a good reason for doing so would be court-mar- 
tialed and dealt with accordingly. Therefore, 
the writer was especially careful not to violate 
these orders. 



44 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

At another time it became again my lot to go 
on vidette duty. This time it was three miles in 
the opposite direction in the rear of the camp 
in the Allegheny, in a Northwesterly direction, 
in a perfect wilderness, an undergrowth of a 
virgin forest. It was a very gloomy evening 
the clouds being low. A continual mist was fall- 
ing. It was in the latter part of September. "We 
were placed in a depressed piece of ground sur- 
rounded by mountains. The detail consisted of 
Walker Knight, Alfred Barnes and myself. Cor- 
poral Renfroe, whose duty was to place us in 
position, gave us the following instructions and 
returned to camp: " Divide your time as usual, 
no fire allowed, shoot anyone approaching with- 
out challenge." Night was falling fast, and in 
a short while there was Egyptian darkness. We 
could not even see our hands before our eyes. 
There was a small spruce pine, the stem about 
five inches in diameter, with its limbs just above 
our heads. We placed ourselves under it as ;i 
protection from the mist, and in case it would 
rain. All at once, we heard a terrible yell, just 
such as a wild cat might send forth, only many 
times louder. This was answered it seemed 
like, from every direction. Barnes remarked 
" What in the world is that!" I said, "Panthers, 
it looks like the woods are full of them." The 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 45 

panthers, from what we learned from inhabi- 
tants are dangerous animals, and often attack 
man, being a feline species, they can see in the 
dark. I said, "There is no sleep for us, let us 
form a triangle, back to back against this tree, 
so in case of an attack, we are facing in every 
direction." Not being able to see, our guns and 
bayonets were useless, and we took our pocket 
knives in hand in case of an attack at close 
quarters. The noise of these beasts kept up a 
regular chorus all night long, and we would have 
preferred to meet a regiment of the enemy than 
to be placed in such a posit i.on. We were all 
young and inexperienced. I was the oldest, and 
not more than twenty-three years old. Walker 
Knight said, "Boys, I can't stand it any lon- 
ger, I am going back to camp." I said, "Wal- 
ker, would you leave your post to be rourt-mar- 
tialed, and reported as a coward? Then, you 
would not find the way back, this dark night, 
and be torn up before you would get there. 
Here, we can protect each other." Occasion- 
ally we heard dry limbs on the ground, crack, 
as if someone walking on them. This was rather 
close quarters to be comfortable, especially 
when one could not see at all. There we stood, 
not a word was spoken above a whisper, when 
we heard a regular snarl close by, then Barnes 



46 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

said, "What is that?" I said, "I expect it is a 
bear." All this conversation was in the lowest 
whisper ; to tell the truth, it was the worst night 
I ever passed, and my friend Knight, even now 
says that he could feel his hair on his head stand 
straight up. 

My dear reader, don't you believe we were 
glad when day broke on us? It was seemingly 
the longest night I ever spent, and so say my 
two comrades. 

The country from Monterey to Cheat Moun- 
tain was not inhabited, with the exception of a 
tavern on top of the Allegheny, where trav- 
elers might find refreshments for man and 
beast. The enemy often harassed us with 
scouting parties, and attacking isolated posts. 
To check these maneuvres, we did the same; 
so one evening, Lieutenant Dawson of the 
Twelfth Georgia Regiment, Captain Willis 
Hawkins ' Company from Sumter County, and 
which regiment formed a contingent part of our 
forces at Green Brier River, came to me say- 
ing, ' ' Hermann, I want you tonight. ' ' He was 
a fearless scout, a kind of warfare that suited 
his taste, and he always called on me on such 
occasions. And after my last picket experience, 
I was only too willing to go with him, as it 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 47 

relieved me from army duty the day following, 
and I preferred that kind of excitement to stand- 
ing guard duty. 

"VVe left at dark, and marched about four 
miles, towards the enemy's camp to Cheat Eiver, 
a rather narrow stream to be a river. A wooden 
bridge spanned the stream. We halted this 
side. On our right was a steep mountain, the 
turn pike or road rounded it nearly at its base. 
The mountain side was covered with flat loose 
rocks of all sizes, averaging all kinds of thick- 
ness. By standing some on their edge, and prop- 
ping them with another rock, afforded fine pro- 
tection against minnie balls. In this manner 
we placed ourselves in position behind this im- 
provised breastworks. 

The mot d'ordre was not to fire until the com- 
mand was given. We were ten in number, and 
the understanding was to fire as we lay, so as to 
hit as many as possible. At about ten o'clock 
P. M. we heard the enemy crossing the bridge, 
their horses 's hoofs were muffled so as to make 
a noiseless crossing, and take our pickets by sur- 
prise. They came within fifty yards of us and 
halted in Column. Lieutenant Dawson com- 
manded the man next to him to pass it up the 
line to make ready to shoot, when he commanded 



48 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

in a loud voice, "Fire!" Instantly, as per one 
crack of a musket, all of us fired, and conster- 
nation reigned among the enemy's ranks; those 
that could get away stampeded across the bridge. 
We did not leave our position until day. When 
we saw the way was clear, we gathered them 
up, took care of the wounded and buried the 
dead several of our shots were effective. On 
the 3rd of October, they made an attack on us 
in full force, and while they drove in our pick- 
etc, we had ample time to prepare to give them 
a warm reception. 

The following is a description of the battle 
ground and a description of our forces: 

On the extreme right, in an open meadow, 
not far from the banks of the river, was the 
First Georgia Regiment, lying flat on the 
grass ; to the immediate left and rear was a bat- 
tery of four guns, on a mount immediately con- 
fronting the turn pike, and fortified by breast- 
works, and supported by the Forty-fourth Vir- 
ginia Regiment, commanded by Colonel Scott; 
further to left, across the road was a masked 
battery, with abatis in front, Captain Ander- 
son commanding, and supported by the Third 
Arkansas Regiment and the Twelfth Georgia 
Regiment, commanded by Colonels Rusk and 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 49 

Johnston respectively. As the enemy came 
down the turn pike, the battery on our left, com- 
manding that position, opened on them, the 
enemy from across the river responded with 
alacrity, and there was a regular artillery duel 
continuously. Their infantry filed to their left, 
extending their line beyond that of the First 
Georgia, they followed the edge of the stream 
at the foot of the mountain. We detached two 
Companies from the Regiment further to our 
right, to extend our line. They were not more 
than two hundred yards in front. The balance 
of the regiment lay low in its position ; the order 
was to shoot low, and not before we could see 
the white of their eyes. 

The enemy would fire on us continually, but 
the balls went over us and did no damage. 
While maneuvring thus on our right, they made 
a vigorous attack on Anderson's battery, but 
were repulsed with heavy loss. Late in the 
afternoon they withdrew. Our casualties were 
very small, and that of the enemy considerable. 

Colonel Ramsey, who, early that morning went 
out on an inspection tour, dismounted for some 
cause, his horse came into camp without a rider, 
and we gave him up for lost, but later, a little 
before dark, he came in camp, to the great 



50 MEMOIBS OF A VETEKAN 

rejoicing of the regiment, for we all loved him. 
General Henry E. Jackson was our commander 
at that time, and soon afterwards was trans- 
ferred South. 

The enemy had all the advantage by the supe- 
riority of their arms, while ours were muzzle 
loaders, carrying balls but a very short dis- 
tance; theirs were long range, hence we could 
not reach them only at close quarters. A very 
amusing instant was had during their desultory 
firing. The air was full of a strange noise; it 
did not sound like the hiss of a minnie-ball, nor 
like that of a cannon ball. It was clearly audi- 
ble all along the line of the First Georgia; the 
boys could not help tucking their heads. The 
next day some of the men picked up a ram rod 
at the base of a tree where it struck broadside, 
and curved into a half circle. It was unlike any 
we had, and undoubtedly the fellow forgot to 
draw it out of the gun, fired it at us, and this 
was the strange sound we heard which made us 
dodge. A few nights later, a very dark night, 
we sent out a strong detachment, under Com- 
mand of Colonel Talliaferro to cut off their 
pickets, which extended to Slavins Cabin (an 
old abandoned log house). To cross the river 
we put wagons in the run ; a twelve inch plank 
connected the wagons and served as a bridge. 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 51 

On the other side of the river was a torch bearer, 
holding his torch so that the men could see how 
to cross. The torch blinded me, and instead of 
looking ahead, I looked down. It seemed that 
the men with the torch shifted the light, casting 
the shadow of a connecting plank to the right, 
when instead of stepping on the plank, I stepped 
on the shadow, and down in the water I went 
(rather a cold bath in October) and before 
morning, my clothing was actually frozen. In 
crossing Cheat River Bridge, the road tacked to 
the left, making a sudden turn, which ran par- 
allel with the same road under it. The head of 
the column having reached there, the rear think- 
ing them to be enemies, fired into them. Haply 
no one was hurt before the mistake was discov- 
ered, but the enemy got notice of our approach 
by the firing, and had withdrawn, so the expe- 
dition was for naught. We were back in camp 
about eight o'clock the following morning. 

At the latter end of the month Colonel 
Edward Johnson concluded to attack General 
Reynolds in his stronghold on Cheat Mountain. 

The Third Arkansas Regiment, under com- 
mand of Colonel Rusk, was detached and sent to 
the rear, taking a long detour a couple of days 
ahead, and making demonstrations, while the 



52 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

main force would attack them in front. Colonel 
Busk was to give the signal for attack. Early 
in the night we sent out a large scouting party 
to attack their pickets, and drive them in. Lieu- 
tenant Dawson was in command. Early that 
day we started with all the forces up Cheat 
Mountain, a march of twelve miles. During the 
progress of our march the advance guard hav- 
ing performed what was assigned them to do, 
returned by a settlement road running paral- 
lel with the turn pike for some distance, when of 
a sudden, balls were hissing among us and some 
of the men were hit. The fire was returned at 
once, and flanker drawn out whose duty it was 
to march "on the flank of the column, some 
twenty paces by its side, keeping a sharp look- 
out. I mistook the order, and went down into 
the woods as a scout, the firing still going n, 
and I was caught between them both. I hugged 
close to the ground keeping a sharp look-out to 
my right. When I recognized the Company's 
uniform, and some of my own men, I hollowed 
at them to stop firing, that they were shooting 
our own men, when they hollowed, " Hurrah for 
Jeff Davis," when from above, Colonel John- 
son responded, "Damn lies, boys, pop it to 
them, ' ' when Weaver Jones stuck a white hand- 
kerchief on his bayonet and -the firing ceased. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 53 

Sergeant P. E. Talliaferro was hit in the breast 
by a spent ball. Weaver had a lock of his hair 
just above his ear cut off as though it had been 
shaved off. One man was wounded and bled to 
death, another was wounded and recovered. 
Such mistakes happened often in our lines for 
the lack of sound military knowledge. 

The man that bled to death was from the 
Dahlonega Guards. He said while dying, that 
he would not mind being killed by an enemy's 
bullet, but to be killed by his own friends is too 
bad. Everything was done that could be done 
for the poor fellow, but of no avail. 

The column advanced to a plateau, overlook- 
ing the enemy's camp. We placed our guns in 
battery, waiting for the Eusk signal, which was 
never given; we waited until four o'clock P. M. 
and retraced our steps without firing a gun. 
We saw their lines of fortification and their 
flags flying from a bastion, but not a soul was 
visible. We thought Eeynolds had given us the 
slip and that we would find him in our rear and 
in our camp before we could get back, so we 
double quicked at a fox trot, until we reached 
our quarters in the early part of the night. 

Colonel Eusk came in two days afterward, 
and reported that his venture was impracticable. 



54 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

Cold winter was approaching with rapid strides 
and rations were not to the entire satisfaction 
of our men. The beef that was issued to us, 
although very fine, had become a monotonous 
diet, and the men longed for something else, 
they had become satiated with it, so I proposed 
to Captain Jones that if he would report me 
accounted for in his report, that I would go 
over to Monterey and McDowell on a foraging 
expedition, and bring provisions for the Com- 
pany. He said he would, but I must not get 
him into trouble, for the orders were that no 
permits be issued for anyone to leave camp and 
that all passes, if any be issued, must be coun- 
tersigned by Captain Anderson, who was 
appointed Commander of the post. We still 
were without tents for they were captured by 
the enemy at Carricks Ford, and we sheltered 
ourselves the best we could with the blankets 
we had received from home. The snow had 
fallen during the night to the depth of eight 
inches, and it was a strange sight to see the 
whole camp snowed under, (literally speak- 
ing). When morning approached, the writer 
while not asleep, was not entirely aroused. He 
lay there under his blanket, a gentle perspira- 
tion was oozing from every pore of his skin, 
when suddenly, he aroused himself, and rose up. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 55^ 

Not a man was to be seen, the hillocks of snow, 
however, showed where they lay, so I hollowed, 
"look at the snow." Like jumping out of the 
graves, the men pounced up in a jiffy, they were 
wrestling and snowballing and rubbing each 
other with it. After, having performed all the 
duties devolving upon me that afternoon, I 
started up the Allegheny where some members 
of my Company with others, were detailed, 
building winter quarters. Every carpenter in 
the whole command was detailed for that 
purpose* 



CHAPTER VIII. 

When some three miles beyond camps, I 
noted a little smoke arising as I approached. I 
noted that it was the outpost. My cap was cov- 
ered with an oil cloth, and I had an overcoat 
with a cape, such as officers wore; hence the 
guard could not tell whether I was a private, 
corporal or a general. I noticed that they had 
seen me approach. One of them advanced to the 
road to challenge me, but I spoke first. I knew 
it was against the -orders to have a fire at the 
outpost on vidette duty so I said, "Who told you 
to have a fire? Put out that fire, sirs, don't you 
know it is strictly prohibited?" "What is your 
name what Company do you belong to, and 
what is your regiment?" all of which was 
answered. I took my little note book and pen- 
cil, and made an entry, or at least made a bluff 
in this direction, and said, "You'll hear from me 
again." I had the poor fellow scared pretty 
badly, and they never even made any demand 
on me to find out who I was. They belonged 
to Colonel Scott's regiments. The bluff worked 
like a charm, and I marched on. When about 
six miles from camp, I was pretty tired, walk- 
ing in the snow and up-hill. I saw General 



WAK BETWEEN THE STATES 57 



Henry R. Jackson, and Major B. L. Blum, com- 
ing along in a jersey wagon. The General 
asked me where I was going, it was my time 
to get a little scared. I answered that I was 
going on top the Allegheny where they built 
winter quarters. "Get in the wagon, you can 
ride, we are going that way. ' ' I thanked them ; 
undoubtedly the General thought that I was 
detailed to go there and to assist in that work. 
This is the last I saw of General Jackson in 
that country. 

Among the men I found Tom Tyson, Richard 
Hines, William Roberson (surnamed "Cru- 
soe"). I spent the night with them in a cabin 
they had built and the following morning I 
took an early start down the mountain toward 
Monterey. It had continued to snow all the 
night and it lay to the depth of twelve inches. 
I could only follow the road by the opening dis- 
tance of the tree tops, and which sometimes was 
misleading. I passed the half-way house, 
known as the tavern, about 9 o'clock A: M. 
Four hundred yards beyond, going in an oblique 
direction at an angle of about 45 degrees, I saw 
a large bear going through the woods ; he was 
a fine specimen, his fur was as black as coal. I 
approximate his size as about between three 
hundred and four hundred pounds. He turned 



58 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

his head and looked at me and stopped. I at 
once halted, bringing my musket to a trail. I 
was afraid to fire for fear of missing my mark, 
my musket being inaccurate, so I reserved my 
fire for closer quarters, the bear being at least 
fifty yards from me, and he followed his course 
in a walk. I was surprised and said to myself, 
' * Old fellow, if you let me alone, I surely will 
not bother you. ' ' 

I watched him 'till he was out of my sight. 
My reason for not shooting him was two-fold; 
first, I was afraid I might miss him, and my gun 
being a muzzle loader, the distance between us 
was too short, and he would have been on me 
before I could have reloaded, so I reserved my 
fire, expecting to get in closer proximity. I was 
agreeably surprised when he continued his jour- 
ney. When I came to Monterey that afternoon, 
I told some of its citizens what a narrow escape 
I had. They smiled and said " Bears seldom 
attack human, unless in very great extremities, 
but I did well not to have shot unless I was sure 
that I would have killed him, for a wounded 
bear would stop the flow of blood with his fur, 
by tapping himself on the wound, and face 
his antagonist, and I could have been sure he 
would have gotten the best of me." 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 59 

From Monterey I went over to McDowell, 
fourteen miles, to see my friend Eagle and his 
brother-in-law, Sanders, he that made the 
twelve Yankees run by running in front of 
them. I stated my business and invoked their 
assistance, which they cheerfully extended. In 
about three days we had about as much as a 
four horse team could pull. 

Provisions sold cheap. One could buy a fine 
turkey for fifty cents, a chicken for fifteen to 
twenty cents, butter twelve and one-half cents 
and everything else in proportion. Apples were 
given me for the gathering of them. Bacon 
and hams for seyen to eight cents per pound, the 
finest cured I ever tasted. 

The people in these regions lived bountifully, 
and always had an abundance to spare. Mr. 
Eagle furnished the team and accompanied me 
to camp, free of charge. Money was a scarce 
article at that time among the boys; the gov- 
ernment was several months in arrear with our 
pay, but we expected to be paid off daily, so 
Mr. Eagle said he would be responsible to the 
parties that furnished the provisions, and the 
Company could pay him when we got our 
money; he was one of the most liberal and 



60 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

patriotic men that it was my pleasure to meet 
during the war. 

Four days later, Captain Jones received our 
money. I kept a record of all the provisions 
furnished to each man, and the captain deduct- 
ed the amount from each. I wrote Eagle to 
come up and get his money; he came, and 
received every cent that was due him. 

But I must not omit an incident that occurred 
when near our camp with the load of provisions. 
I had to pass hard by the Twelfth Georgia Reg- 
iment, which was camped on the side of the 
turnpike, when some of the men who were as 
anxious for a change of diet as we were, came to 
me and proposed to buy some of my provisions. 
I stated that they were sold and belonged to 
Company E, First Regiment, and that I could 
not dispose of them. Some Smart- Aleks, such 
as one may find among any gathering of men, 
proposed to charge the wagon and appropriate 
its contents by force. Seeing trouble ahead, I 
drew my pistol, when about a dozen men ran out 
with their guns. Eagle turned pale, he thought 
his time had come, when a Lieutenant inter- 
fered, asking the cause of the disturbance, 
which I stated. He said, "Men, none of that, 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 61 

back with those guns. ' ' He mounted the wagon 
and accompanied us to my camp, which was a 
few hundred yards beyond. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Once later, I was called out for fatigue duty. 
I said, "Corporal, what is to be done?" He 
answered, "To cut wood for the blacksmith 
shop." I replied, "You had better get some- 
one else who knows how, I never cut a stick in 
my life," he said, "You are not too old to learn 
how." This was conclusive, so he furnished me 
with an axe, and we marched into the woods, 
and he said he would be back directly wi'th a 
wagon to get the wood and he left me. I was 
looking about me to find a tree, not too large, 
one that I thought I could manage. I spied a 
sugar maple about eight inches in diameter. I 
sent my axe into it, but did not take my cut 
large enough to reach the center, when it came 
down to a feather edge and I did not have judg- 
ment enough to know how to enlarge my cut by 
cutting from above, so I started a new cut from 
the right, another from the left, bringing the 
center to a pivot of about three inches in diam- 
eter, as solid as the Eock of Gibraltar; finally, 
by continuous hacking, I brought it to a point 
where I could push it back and forth. The 
momentum finally broke the center, but in place 
of falling, the top lodged in a neighboring tree, 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 63 

and I could not dislodge it. I worked hard, the 
perspiration ran down my face, my hands were 
lacerated, I finally got mad, and sent the axe 
a-glimmering, and it slid under the snow. After 
awhile my corporal came for the wood; "Where 
is the wood?" I showed him the tree; "Is that 
all you have done?" I could not restrain any 
longer, I said, "Confound you, I told you I did 
not know anything about cutting wood." 
"Where is the axe?", we looked everywhere 
but could not find it ; it must have slid under the 
snow and left no trace, so he arrested me and 
conducted me before Colonel Edward Johnson, 
a West Pointer, in command of the post. He 
was at his desk writing; turning to face us, he 
addressed himself to me, who stood there, cap 
in hand, while the Corporal stood there with 
his kept on his head. "What can I do for you?" 
I said, looking at the Corporal. "He has me 
under arrest and brought me here." Looking 
at the corporal the Colonel said, "Pull off your 
hat, sir, when you enter officers' quarters." (I 
would not have taken a dollar for that). The 
Corporal pulled off his cap. "What have you 
arrested him for?" The Corporal answered 
that I was regularly detailed to cut wood for the 
blacksmith shop, and that I failed to do my duty, 
and lost the axe he furnished me. "Why did 



64 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

you not cut the wood?" said the Colonel. "I 
tried," said I, "I told him that I had never cut 
any wood and did not know how ; where I came 
from there are no woods. Look at my hands." 
They were badly blistered and lacerated. The 
Colonel cursed out the Corporal as an imbecile, 
for not getting someone who was used to such 
work. I told the Colonel how hard I had tried 
and what I had done. The Colonel smiled and 
said, "What did you do with the axe?"; 
"When the tree lodged and I could not budge 
it, I got mad and made a swing or two with the 
axe, and let her slide; it must have slid under 
the snow, and we could not find it." "What 
have you done for a living?" "After I quit 
school, I clerked in a store. " "Can you write? ' ' 
"Oh, yes!" "Let me see." "My hand is too 
sore and hurt now." "Well, come around to- 
morrow, I may get you a job here." 

Next day I called at his quarters, and he put 
me to copying some documents and reports, 
which I did to his satisfaction. I had warm 
quarters and was relieved from camp duties for 
a little while. 

This brings us to about the middle of Decem- 
ber, and we were ordered to Winchester. Col- 
onel Johnson with his Regiment and a small 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 65 

force, was left in charge of the Winter Quarters 
on the Allegheny, so I took leave of him to join 
my Company. 

Colonel Johnson, while a little brusk in his 
demeanor, was a clever, social gentleman, and 
a good fighter, which he proved to be when the 
enemy made a night descent on him and took 
him by surprise. He rallied his men, barefooted 
in the snow, knee-deep, thrashed out the enemy 
and held the fort ; he was promoted to General 
and was afterwards known as the Allegheny 
Johnson. 

My Command having preceded me, I went tc 
Staunton, where I met J. T. Youngblood, Rob- 
ert Parnelle and others from my Company. I 
also met Lieutenant B. D. Evans of my Com- 
pany, just returned from a visit from home. 
We took the stage coach from Stanton to Win- 
chester through Kanawah Valley. We passed 
Woodstock, Strasburg, New Market, Middle- 
town, and arrived at Winchester in due time. 
General T. J. Jackson in command, we had a 
splendid camp about a mile to the left of the 
city. The weather had greatly moderated and 
the snow was melting. The regiment had re- 
ceived tents to which we built chimneys with flat 
rocks that were abundant all around us. The 



66 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

flour barrels served as chimney stacks, and we 
were comfortable; rations were also good and 
plentiful, but hardly were we installed when we 
received orders to strike camps. The men were 
greatly disappointed ; we expected to be permit- 
ted to spend winter there, We took up the line 
of march late in the evening, marched all night 
and struck Bath early in the morning, took the 
enemy by surprise while they were fixing their 
morning meal, which they left, and the boys 
regaled . themselves. The Commissary and 
Quartermaster also left a good supply behind 
in their rapid flight, and we appropriated many 
provisions, shoes, blankets and overcoats ; from 
Bath we marched to Hancock, whipped out a 
.small force of the enemy, and continued our 
force to Romney where we struck camps. 
Bomney is a small town situated on the other 
side of the Potomac River. General Jackson 
demanded the surrender of the place, the 
enemy refused, so he ordered the non-combat- 
ants to leave, as he would bombard the town. 
Bringing up a large cannon which we called 
"Long Tom" owing to its size, he fired one 
round and ordered us to fall back. All this was 
during Christmas week. 

On our return it turned very cold and sleeted ; 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 67 

the road became slick and frozen, and not being 
prepared for the emergency, I saw mules, 
horses and men take some of the hardest falls, 
as we retraced our steps, the road being down 
grade. This short campaign was a success an4 
accomplished all it intended from a military 
standpoint, although we lost many men from 
exposure; pneumonia was prevalent among 
many of our men. We have now returned to 
Winchester. The writer himself, at that time, 
thought that this campaign was at a great sac- 
rifice of lives from hardships and exposures, but 
later on, learned that it was intended as a check 
to enable General Lee in handling his forces 
against an overwhelming force of the enemy, 
and being still reinforced and whose battle cry 
still was "On to Richmond." It was for this 
reason that General "Stonewall" Jackson 
threatened Washington via Eomney and the 
enemy had .to recall their reinforcements 
intended against General Lee to protect Wash- 
ington. 



The men from the Southern States were 
used to such rigorous climate and many of eur 
men had to succumb from exposure. My Com- 
pany lost three men from pneumonia, viz: 
Sam and Richard Hines, two splendid soldiers, 



68 MEMORIES OP A VETERAN 

and brothers, and Lorenzo Medlock. The writer 
also was incapacitated. There were no prepa- 
rations in Winchester for such contingencies, 
so the churches were used as hospitals. The 
men were packed in the pews wrapped in their 
blankets, others were lying on the nasty humid 
floor, for it must be remembered that the streets 
in Winchester were perfect lobbies of dirt and 
snow tramped over by men, horses and vehicles. 
While there in that condition I had the good 
fortune to be noted by one of my regiment, he 
was tall and of herculean form, his name was 
Griswold, and while he and myself on a previ- 
ous occasion had some misunderstanding and 
therefore not on speaking terms, he came to me 
and extended his hand, saying: "Let us be 
friends, we have hard times enough without 
adding to it." I was too sick to talk, but 
extended my hand, in token of having buried the 
hatchet. He asked me if he could do anything 
for me. I shook my head and shut my eyes. I 
was very weak. When I opened them he was 
gone. During the day he returned, saying: 
"I found a better place for you at a private 
house. He wrapped me in my blanket and 
carried me on his shoulders a distance of over 
three blocks. Mrs. Mandelbawm, the lady of the 
house, had a nice comfortable room prepared 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 69 

for me, and Griswold waited on me like a 
brother, he was a powerful man, but very over- 
bearing at times, but had a good heart. Mr. 
Mandelbawm sent their family physician, who 
prescribed for me. He pronounced me very 
sick, he did not know how it might terminate. 
It took all his efforts and my determination to 
get well after three weeks struggling to accom- 
plish this end. My friend came to see me daily 
when off duty. 

The regiment's term of enlistment will soon 
have expired, for we only enlisted for one year. 
The regiment received marching order, not being 
strong enough for duty. Through the recom- 
mendation of my doctor and regimental color, 
I was discharged and sent home. The regiment 
had been ordered to Tennessee, but owing to a 
wreck on the road they were disbanded at 
Petersburg, Va., and the boys arrived home ten 
days later than I. 

In getting my transportation the Quarter- 
master asked me to deliver a package to General 
Beaureguard as I would pass via Manassas 
Junction. When I arrived I inquired far his 
quarters, when I was informed that he had left 
for Centreville, I followed to that place, when 
I was told he had left for Richmond. Arriving 



70 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

at Richmond I went at once to the Executive 
Department in quest of him and should I fail to 
find him, would leave my package there, which 

I did. This was on Saturday evening, I had not 
a copper in money with me, but I had my pay 
roll ; going at once to the Treasury Department, 
to my utter consternation, I found it closed. A 
very affable gentlemen informed me that the 
office was closed until Monday morning. I said, 

II What am I to do, I have not a cent of money in 
my pocket and no baggage," for at that time 
hotels had adopted a rule that guests without 
baggage would have to pay in advance. I 
remarked that I could not stay out in the streets, 
so the gentleman pulled a $10.00 bill out of his 
pocket and handed it to me saying, "Will that 
do you until Monday morning, 8 o'clock? When 
the office will be open, everything will be all 
right. ' ' I thanked him very kindly. Monday I 
presented my bill which was over six months in 
arrears. They paid it at once in Alabama State 
bills, a twenty-five cent silver and two cents cop- 
pers. I did not question the correctness of their 
calculation. I took the money and went in quest 
of my friend who so kindly advanced me the 
$10.00. I found him sitting at a desk. He 
was very busy. I handed him a $10.00 bill and 
again thanked him for his kindness ; he refused 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 71 

it saying: "Never mind, you are a long ways 
from home and may need it. " I replied that I 
had enough to make out without it, I said that 
I appreciated it, but didn't like to take presents 
from strangers; he said, "We are no stran- 
gers, my name is Juda P. Benjamin." Mr. 
Benjamin was at that time Secretary of the 
Treasury of the Confederate States. He was 
an eminent lawyer from the State of Louisi- 
ana, he became later on Secretary of War, and 
when Lee surrendered he escaped to England 
to avoid the wrath of the Federal Officials who 
offered a premium for his capture. He became 
Queen's Consul in England and his reputation 
became international. No American who was 
stranded ever appealed to him in vain, espe- 
cially those from the South. It is said of him 
that he gave away fortunes in charity. 

I came back to Georgia among my friends 
who were proud to see me. Having no near 
relations, such as father or mother, sisters or 
brothers to welcome me, as had my comrades, 
my friends all over the County took pride in 
performing that duty, and thus ended my first 
year's experience as a soldier in the war be- 
tween the States. 



CHAPTER X. 

Notwithstanding the arduous campaign and 
severe hardships endured during my first year's 
service, I did not feel the least depressed in 
spirit or patriotism. On the contrary the arms 
of the Confederacy in the main had proven them- 
selves very successful in repelling the enemy's 
attacks and forcing that government continu- 
ally to call new levees to crush our forces in the 
field. 

Those measures on the part of our adversa- 
ries appealed to every patriot at home and 
regardless of hardships already endured. Hence 
the First Georgia Regiment although disbanded 
as an organization, the rank and file had suffi- 
cient pluck to re-enter the service for the period 
of the war regardless as to how long it might 
last. Possessing some hard endured experience, 
many of them organized commands of their 
own, or joined other commands as subalterns or 
commissioned officers. 

The following is a roll of promotion from 
the members of the Washington Rifles as first 
organized. See Appendix D. 

The foregoing record proves that the Wash- 
ington Rifles were composed of men capable of 
handling forces and that it had furnished men 



WAS BETWEEN THE STATES 73 

and officers in every branch of service in the 
Confederate States Army, and had been active 
after their return home from their first year's 
experience in raising no little army themselves, 
and what I have recorded of the "Washington 
Rifles may be written of every Company com- 
posing the First Georgia Regiment. 

The State of Georgia furnished more men 
than any other State, and Washington County 
furnished more Companies than any other 
County in the State. 

Such men cannot be denominated as rebels 
or traitors, epithets that our enemies would fain 
have heaped upon us. If the true history of 
the United States as written before the war and 
adopted in every school-house in the land, 
North, South, East and West, did not demon- 
strate them as patriots, ready and willing to 
sacrifice all but honor on the altar of their 
country. 

On the first of May, 1862, Sergeant E. P. 
Howell came to me saying: " Herman, how 
would you like to help me make up an artillery 
Company? I have a relative in South Carolina 
who is a West Pointer and understands that 
branch of the service. The Yankees are mak- 
ing tremendous efforts for new levees and we, 
of the South, have to meet them. " "All right, ' ' 



74 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

said I, "I am tired after my experience with 
infantry, having gone through with 'Stone- 
wall's' foot cavalry in his Romney campaign." 
The following day we made a tour in the neigh- 
borhood and enlisted a few of our old comrades 
in our enterprise. We put a notice in the Her- 
ald, a weekly paper edited by J. M. G. Medlock, 
that on the 10th day of May we would meet in 
Sandersville for organization, and then and 
there we formed an artillery Company that 
was to be known as the Sam Eobinson Artillery 
Company, in honor of an old and venerable 
citizen of our County. 

General Eobinson, in appreciation of our hav- 
ing named the Company in his honor presented 
the organization with $1,000.00, which money 
was applied in uniforming us. 

The following members formed the composite 
of said Company, and Robert Martin, known 
as "Bob Martin" from Barnwell, S. C., was 
elected Captain. See appendix E. 

The writer was appointed bugler with rank 
of Sergeant. 

That night after supper, it being moon-light, 
Mr. A. J. Linville a North Carolinian, a school 
teacher boarding at my lodging proposed to 
me as I performed on the flute, he being a vio- 
linist, to have some music on the water. He 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 75 

then explained that water is a conductor of 
sound and that one could hear playing on it for 
a long distance and music would sound a great 
deal sweeter and more melodious than on land. 
The Ogeechee River ran within a couple of hun- 
dred yards from the house. There was on the 
bank and close to the bridge a party of gentle- 
men fishing, having a large camp fire and pre- 
pared to have a fish-fry, so Linville and myself 
took a boat that was moored above the bridge 
and quietly, unbeknown to anybody paddled 
about 1 1-4 mile up stream, expecting to float 
down with the current. Although it was the 
month of May the night was chilly enough for 
an overcoat. Linville and myself struck up a 
tune, allowing the boat to float along with the 
current, the oar laying across my lap. Every- 
thing was lovely, the moon was shining bright 
and I enjoyed the novelty of the surroundings 
and the music, when an over-hanging limb of a* 
tree struck me on the neck. Wishing to disen- 
gage myself, I gave it a shove, and away went 
the boat from under me and I fell backwards 
into the stream in 12 feet of water. To gain the 
surface I had to do some hard kicking, my boots 
having filled with water and my heavy overcoat 
kept me weighted down. 



76 MEMORIES OF A VETERAX 

When reaching the surface after a hard strug- 
gle my first observation was for the boat which 
was about 50 yards below, Linville swinging to 
a limb. I called him to meet me, and he replied 
that he had no oar, that I kicked it out of the 
boat. The banks on each side were steep and 
my effecting a landing was rather slim. I spied 
a small bush half-way up the embankment, I 
made for it perfectly exhausted, I grabbed it, 
the bank was too steep and slippery to enable 
me to land, so I held on and rested and man- 
aged to disembarrass myself of the overcoat 
and told Linville to hold on, that I was coming. 
I could not get my boots off, so I made an extra 
effort to reach him anyhow, as the current would 
assist me by being in my favor, so I launched 
oft. I reached the boat perfectly worn out. I 
do not think I could have made another stroke. 
After a little breathing spell and by a tremen- 
dous effort I hoisted myself into the boat, but 
not before it dipped some water. 

On our way I picked up my discarded over- 
coat and a piece of a limb which served as a 
rudder to guide the boat to a successful land- 
ing, and thus ended the music on the water. 

We went to the house, changed our clothes 
and returned, mingling with the fishermen and 
kept all the fun we had to ourselves. They all 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 77 

made a fine catch and there was fish a plenty 
for all. Linville and myself enjoyed the repast, 
as the physical exercise we had just undergone 
sharpened our appetite. 

A few days later we rendezvoued at Sanders- 
ville, and the Company left for Savannah, our 
camp of instruction. Under the tuition of 
Jacobi, leader of the band of the 32nd Georgia, 
W. H. Harrison's Regiment, I soon learned all 
the calls and commands. 

While thus engaged the Company had a gross 
misunderstanding with Capt. Martin, who, 
before coming in contact with the members of 
his command, was an entire stranger to them. 
Most all were ignorant of military duties, but 
strictly honest and patriotic citizens. Capt. 
Martin was a strict disciplinarian and putting 
the screws on rather a little too tight placed him 
into disfavor with the men, who petitioned him 
to resign, otherwise they would prefer charges 
against him. Thus matters stood when I 
returned to camp. Martin was tried before a 
board and exonerated. To revenge himself 
upon those who were active in his persecution 
he reduced those that were non-commissioned 
officers to ranks and appointed others in their 
stead; and to make matters more galling, 
appointed a substitute, a mercenary as orderly 



78 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

Sergeant over a Company of volunteers, who 
solely served their country through patriotism. 
Ned Irwin, when elevated to the position he 
was, proved himself a worthy tool in the hand 
of his promoter. Men could not express an 
opinion on hardly any subject without being 
reported, he would sneak about in the dark, 
crouch behind a tent evesdropping and make 
report as unfavorably as he could to bring the 
individual into disfavor. He made himself so 
obnoxious that he did not have a friend in the 
whole Company, and when he died at Yazoo 
City, you could hear freely expressed the 
following sentiment: "Poor old Ned is dead, 
thank God this saves some good men of having 
to kill him/' 

When I returned to camp I presented myself 
before Capt. Martin who examined me as to my 
proficiency as a bugler. I said, * ' Captain, there 
has been quite some changes made since I have 
been away," he said, "Yes, the men have 
accused me of speculating on their rations." I 
said I was very sorry that such a state of affairs 
existed among officers and men, where harmony 
ought to prevail; he said he insisted that those 
charges be substantiated and demanded a court 
martial, who on hearing the facts cleared him 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 79 

of any criminality, so he punished the leaders 
f the gang by reducing them to ranks. 

Capt. Martin, however, proved himself a 
capable officer in handling artillery and the men 
finally came to love him on account of his effi- 
ciency and fairness. 

While in camp of instructions in Savannah, 
the Government furnished us with six brass 
pieces (2 Howitzer and 4 Napoleon) with the 
necessary accoutrement and horses and we were 
ordered to Bryan County in support of Fort 
McAllister. We went into camp by the side of 
the Ogeechee River, about three miles this side 
of the Fort, which camp we named "Camp 
McAllister. ' ' The fort was an earth structure, 
strongly constructed with redoubts and para- 
pets. The magazine underground was strongly 
protected by heavy timbers, and so was what 
we called bomb-proof, for the men not actually 
engaged, but who were ready to relieve those 
who were, or became disabled under fire and 
exposure, and compelled to be at their post of 
duty. Short reliefs were necessary, for it is 
hard work to manage heavy seige guns, but 
the heaviest in that fort were only of forty-two 
caliber. For some time nothing of importance 
worth to chronicle happened ; the boys attended 



80 MEMOBIES OP A VETEKAN 

to their regular camp life duty, roll calls and 
drills; those off duty went fishing along the 
river banks. 

The country surrounding was low, flat, 
marshy and replete with malarial fever, so 
that we had to remove our camp several miles 
further up the river, but still within close call 
of the fort. This new camp was called ' ' Camp 
Arnold," in honor of Doctor Arnold, on whose 
land we stationed. One morning I was ordered 
to blow the call, only one man, Sergeant Cox, 
reported. All the rest of the command were 
down with chills and fever. There was no qui- 
nine to be had, owing to the blockade, such 
medicines being considered by our adversaries 
as contraband of war. Men tried every remedy 
possible, even drank cottonseed tea, at the sug- 
gestion of a country physician by the name of 
Dr. Turner, who pronounced it as a good sub- 
stitute (it was in taste if not in efficiency). The 
writer was also stricken with the disease, and 
was sent to Whitesville Hospital, about thirty 
miles from Savannah on the Central of Georgia 
Railroad. Dr. Whitehead was in charge of the 
same, and Madam Cazzier and her daughter 
from New Orleans were matrons. During my 
fever spells I would rave sometimes and not 
having been in this country over three years in 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 81 

all, my friends predominated over the English 
language. Madam Cazzier, who spoke French 
also, took a great interest in me; in fact, she 
was strictly interested in all the patients, but 
she seemed to be a little partial to myself, and 
spent some time by my bedside when the fever 
was off, and would tell me what I said during 
my delirium. She nursed me and devoted on me 
a motherly care, for which I shall always 
remain thankful. My recuperation was rapid, 
and I soon felt myself again. 

One morning it was announced that General 
Mercer of Savannah, and the Board of Inspec- 
tors were to come on a round of inspection, 
when we heard heavy firing, the sounds coming 
from the east. Presently we heard that the 
enemy with a large fleet was attacking Fort 
McAllister. General Mercer and his Board had 
come up from Savannah on a special train. He 
called for all convalescent, able to fight to vol- 
unteer to go to the front. I presented myself; 
I was the only one. We cut loose the locomotive 
and one car and went flying to Savannah at 
the rate of a mile a minute, crossed the City in 
a buss at full speed to the Gulf Depot, now 
known as the S. F. & W., just in time to board 
the train to Way Station, twelve miles from 
Savannah. An ambulance carried us to the 



8'2 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

Fort; the whole distance from the hospital to 
the Fort was about fifty-two miles. We changed 
conveyances three times and arrived at desti- 
nation in less than two hours. Capt. Martin was 
in charge of a Mortar Detachment, so I 
reported to him for duty, but my place had been 
taken, and the detachment was complete, hence 
he had no use for me. I learned that Major 
Galley, the Commander of the Fort, had been 
killed by the first shot from the enemy's guns, 
which penetrated a sixteen foot embankment, 
knocked off the left hand trunnion of a thirty- 
two pounder, and struck the Major above the 
ear, and took off the top of his head, so Captain 
Anderson, of the Savannah Blues, took com- 
mand. Captain Martin sent me up the Eiver to 
a band about half a mile to the rear, which posi- 
tion placed me at a triangle point to the Fort 
and the gun boats. I was instructed to notice 
the effect of our shots on the enemy's boats. I 
kept tally sheets as to the hits between the bel- 
ligerent points. From my observation I counted 
seventy-five hits by the guns of the Fort, and 
one hundred and seventy-five hits by those of 
the boats, which raised a cloud of dust equal to 
an explosion of a mine. Their caliber being 
three hundred and seventy-five pounders, and 
fifteen inches in diameter, while our shots merely 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 83 

made a bright spot where they struck the heavy 
armoured vessels and ricochet beyond. While 
thus observing I noted a strange move of one of 
the boats, suddenly I saw an immense flash, and 
a splash in the river a couple of yards in front 
of me. The water being very clear, we noted 
a large projective at the bottom of the stream, 
evidently aimed at me, as it was in direct line, 
as I sat on my horse; undoubtedly they must 
have taken me for a commanding officer and 
thus paid me their res I mean disrespect. 

A concourse of people in the neighborhood 
gathered to observe this unequal artillery duel 
of five armoured gun boats and eleven wooden 
mortar boats hidden behind a point below the 
Fort, sending their projectiles like a shower of 
aerolites into and around the Fort. Undaunted, 
the boys stood by their guns, having the satis- 
faction to notice one of the armoured vessels 
break their line and floating down the River, 
evidently having been struck in some vital part, 
and thus placed hors de combat. This bom- 
bardment continued from early morning until 
near sundown, when the enemy withdrew, we 
giving them parting shots as they steamed 
down to their blockade station, lying in wait for 
the Nashville, a blockade runner, who plyed 
between Nassau, and any Confederate Port, 



84 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

which it might enter with goods, easily disposed 
of at remunerative prices. The Fort was badly 
dilapidated, our breast-works had been blown 
to atoms, the guns exposed to plain view, all 
port holes demolished, the barracks injured by 
fire, which the boys extinguished while the bat- 
tle was raging ; in fact, had a cyclone struck the 
Fort in its full majestic force, it could not have 
been worse. However, that night we pressed 
into service all the negroes on the rice planta- 
tions. Spades, shovels and pick axes were 
handled with alacrity; baskets, bags and bar- 
rels were filled, the enfeebled portions of the 
Fort were reinforced by working like Trojans 
all night long, and the Fort was again placed in 
a presentable condition. 

Early the following morning, when the enemy 
again appeared, undoubtedly to take possession, 
as the Fort would have been untenable in the 
condition they left it the previous evening, we 
opened fire on them, but they had seen what 
had been done during the night, saw at once 
that we were not disposed to give up ; they with- 
drew without even returning our fire, and the 
boys would remark, they are treating us with 
silent contempt. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 85 

For awhile we enjoyed repose and the lux- 
uries of the season at the Southern sea-coast, 
hunting squirrels, rabbits and fishing, getting 
leave of absence to visit home for a few days, 
when one day the report reached us that the 
enemy effected a landing at Killkanee, some 
distance below us and to our right. The bat- 
tery was called out and we took up the line of 
march to meet the enemy. We camped that 
night near a church, when we were informed 
that the enemy's demonstration was against a 
small salt works, an enterprising citizen having 
erected a small furnace with a half a dozen boil- 
ers, in which he boiled sea water to obtain salt, 
which, at that time, was selling at a dollar a 
pound by the hundred pound sack. The Com- 
pany returned to camp. 

About ten days later word came late one 
afternoon that the enemy is making for Poco- 
talico, a small station on the Savannah and 
Charleston Railroad, intending to burn a long 
range of trestle on said road. Two detachments 
were sent to that place by post haste, arriving 
in time to place themselves in position, in as 
quiet a way as possible. At about ten o'clock 
P. M. we heard a very noisy demonstration 
to our right, through the marshes of the 
swamps; many torches became visible. They 



86 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

undoubtedly expected the place to be unpro- 
tected; when they came within full range we 
sent canister and schrapanel into the ranks; 
they fell back in confusion, leaving dead and 
wounded behind. This expedition started out 
from Beauford, S. C., then in possession of the 
enemy. One dark night the tide being up, the 
Nashville loaded with cotton attempted to run 
the gauntlet of the blockaders. On the turn of 
the river just opposite the Fort, the River 
Ogechee being about a mile wide, the vessel run 
aground on a sand bank, and was unable to 
extricate itself. The enemy being on the look- 
out, spied her position and came within firing 
distance; the Fort fired at them furiously, but 
they paid no attention to us, but concentrated 
their fire on the steamer Nashville with hot 
shots and soon had her in flames. The crew 
jumped overboard 'and swam ashore like ducks. 
The steamer was burned and completely 
destroyed. I was again taken with chills and 
fever and sent home by way of Dr. Whitehead's 
hospital. Sergeant Hines also came home to 
recuperate, when one morning I suggested to 
have an egg-nog. Cousin Abe was a merchant 
before the war, and still kept a store at Fenns 
Bridge, but the store had but few remnants in 
it. He only kept such goods as people were wil- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 87 

ling to dispose of in the way of exchange, for 
something else, and among his stock, he had a 
barrel of corn whiskey. I said, "Bill, if you 
furnish the eggs, I will furnish the sugar and 
whiskey; my chill will be on at eleven o'clock; 
we have an hour yet and kill or cure, I 'm going 
to drink nog. It may help me." Dr. White- 
head had supplied me with a vial of Fowler's 
Solution, which was nearly exhausted, and which 
had done me no good. Sergeant Hines came up, 
brought a dozen eggs and we made a nog. At ten 
thirty A. M. I took the first goblet, he made it 
tolerably strong. I replenished and enjoyed the 
contents, and as we were sipping it quietly, I 
looked at my watch and was surprised to see it 
was fiften minutes past eleven and no chill. We 
slowly finished the third glass, I felt the effects 
of it somewhat, but we were not intoxicated. 
At twelve o'clock the dinner bell rang at the 
house, and it was the first time in two weeks 
that I was able to partake of that meal, the 
chills always interfering. I never had another 
chill in twenty years thereafter, hence I never 
became a prohibitionist. I believe the abuse of 
whiskey is wrong, while its proper use is right. 
Sergeant Hines and myself, after a few days 
longer among our friends, returned to our 
camp. 



CHAPTER XI. 

The following incident caused a rupture of 
friendship between Lieutenant Evan P. Howell 
and myself, which made military service unnec- 
essarily harder on me, owing to our respective 
ranks. One night, it was on a Saturday, I had 
occasion to get up, it was late. I passed the 
sentinel on post number one, and recognized 
William Tolson on duty. I passed the usual 
greeting of " Hello! Bill, how do you do," "0, 
Ike, I'm so sick. I've one of the hardest chills 
on me I ever had." "Why don't you call the 
Corporal of the Guard, and get relief!" He 
replied, he wished I would call him, so I called 
"Corporal of the Guard, post number one." 
Corporal William O'Quinn came up to see 
what's up. I said, "Corporal, Tolson is sick 
and ought to be relieved." Presently the Cor- 
poral returned from headquarters, saying the 
officers are all gone over to Patterson, they were 
having a dance at the Quartermaster's, Major 
Cranston, and there is no one at headquarters 
but Dr. Stevenson who is drunk, and I can 't get 
any sense out of him. When I told him that one 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 89 

of the men were sick, he said "You see that 
puppy, is he not the finest you have ever seen?" 
having reference to a small dog he fondled. 
* * Finding out that I can 't get any relief, I came 
back, so I told Tolson to go in and I would 
stand guard in his place. Tolson was a good 
soldier, he was a native Englishman, and when 
he got over his chill he was loud in his denun- 
ciation as to his treatment, so he was punished 
for having spoken derogatory about the officers 
and condemned to wear ball and chain for twen- 
ty-four hours. This was the first time that I 
knew there was such a thing as a ball and chain 
in camp for the punishment of man. The fol- 
lowing Monday night, the writer having found 
out all about the particulars and the doings at 
the Quartermaster's, wrote up a program of 
intoxication at Granston Hall, Saturday night, 
March 1863. I treated the matter more of a 
burlesque than otherwise, and wound up in 
these words: "That's the way Confederate 
whiskey goes, pop goes the Government." 
Captain Martin was off and Lieutenant Howell 
was in command. Lieutenants Bland and Rob- 
erson laughed over the matter and took it good 
naturedly. W. N. Harmon was the only man 
in the Company who saw me write the article, 



90 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

and when finished I read it to him. He pro- 
nounced it a good joke and asked me what I was 
going to do with it. I said, "I am going to 
stick it up on the big pine where general orders 
are posted, so that the men can read it after 
reveille call, so he made some light-wood pegs, 
and we went together and posted it. The arti- 
cle was not signed, and was written in a round 
handwriting. The men enjoyed it and laughed 
a great deal over it, when Sergeant Fulford 
came up and tore down the paper, and carried 
it to the officer's tent. They inquired, what is 
the matter, what are the men laughing about. 
He presented the paper. Lieutenant Howell, 
after reading it, got raving mad, while Lieuten- 
ants Eoberson and Bland took it good na- 
turedly. Lieutenant Howell was determined to 
find out the author, so during the day he took up 
the men by fours and swore them on the Bible, 
if they knew who wrote the paper. I was at 
the station on that day and was absent. When 
I returned to my mess, they told me what was 
going on, and that Lieutenant Howell was try- 
ing to find out who wrote that article, so I said, 
"Bill," meaning William Harmon, "He took 
up the wrong men; if he had called on me I 
would have saved him that trouble". He an- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 91 

swered, "Well, what will you do?" "Well, you 
don't believe that I would swear to a lie?" I got 
up saying, "I will satisfy his curiosity," and up 
to his tent I went. He was sitting in a chair 
smoking. "Good evening Lieutenant," says I. 
"I understand that you are very anxious to 
know who wrote that paper Sergeant Fulford 
submitted for your inspection. I can give you 
all the information you require." Lieutenant 
Howell at once brightened up and became all 
smiles. "You know who did it?" "Your 
humble servant." In a twinkling his counte- 
nance changed. He became pale with rage, 
working himself into a passion, and very per- 
emptorily ordered me to stand at attention. I 
at once planted my heels together to form a per- 
fect angle, placed my little fingers along the 
seams of my pantaloons, my arms extending at 
full length, my body erect, facing my superior 
officer. I humbly remarked, "Will that do?" 
"What did you do it for?" "You had your 
fun, am I not entitled to have some?" "You 
made false charges ; you said we drank Govern- 
ment whiskey. I want you to understand what 
liquor we drank we bought and paid for it." 
"Well, Lieutenant, I have not accused any- 
body ; not even mentioned a single name, but if 



92 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

the cap fits you, you can wear it. I have noth- 
ing to retract." By that time, Howell was 
surely mad. "I-I-I reduce you to ranks ! I put 
you on double duty for thirty days and to wear 
ball and chain." "Is that all?" "Lieutenant, 
I volunteered in the Confederate army to do my 
full duty, as I always have done, in regard to 
duty ; you only can put me on every other day, 
but when it comes to degrading me by making 
me wear ball and chain, I give you fair notice 
that I will kill any man who attempts to place 
the same on my limbs," and I made my exit,, 
going to my mess-mates. "Well, how did you 
come out?" the boys asked me. I related what 
had passed between Lieutenant and I. William 
Harmon, then said, "Did you tell him that I 
helped you stick it up!" I said, "No, I shoul- 
dered the whole responsibility. What good 
would it do to implicate you?" "Well you* 
shall not be the only one to do double duty," 
and off he went to tell Lieutenant Howell that 
he also had a hand in it, and consequently he- 
was also condemned to double duty for thirty 
days. "Did he also tell you to wear ball and 
chain ? ' ' Harmon said * ' No. ' * 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 93 

That iiiglit, I slept, as the saying is, with one 
eye open. I had my pistol within easy reach, 
and my sabre by my side. No attempt however, 
was made to chain me. The following morning 
I was called for guard duty. I took my post, 
carrying my sabre across my neck, bear fashion. 
My post was in full view of the officers' head- 
quarters. When Lieutenant Howell sent Ser- 
geant Hines to me to tell me if I didn't carry my 
sabre at ' * Carry Sabre, ' ' he would keep me on 
four hours instead of two. Having been the 
bugler of the Company I was never instructed 
how to carry sabre. ' ' Sergeant, can 't you teach 
me how?" Hines remarked, "I know you know 
better how to handle a sabre than anyone in 
camp. I have seen you and Hoffman fight at 
Laurel Hill. I tell you, I have been on duty all 
night and I would like to go to sleep. This may 
be fun to you, but not to me, just now. ' ' I said, 
''Well Bill, go ahead," so I carried my sword 
to suit his Excellency, the commanding officer. 

Later in the day J. J. Sheppard came to me 
saying, ' ' Ike, Lieutenant Howell told me that I 
was appointed bugler in your place." "Well, 
sir, I congratulate you on your promotion." 
"He said for me to ask you for the bugle." I 
said, "All right Sheppard," I took the bugle 



94 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

and broke it in halves and handed it to Shep- 
pard. He looked astonished I remarked, 
"That instrument is private property and 
belongs to me, my money paid for it, and I have 
a right to handle it as I please, not meaning any 
disrespect to you, Sheppard." The following 
day, word came in camp for volunteers to han- 
dle siege pieces in Charleston, S. C. The enemy 
making heavy demonstration against that City. 
The Company sent men they could spare, 
among whom I formed a contingent part. My 
detachment was placed in the battery in charge 
of a heavy siege gun. The people of that City 
treated us royally and brought us plenty of pro- 
visions besides what we got from the commis- 
sary. We remained there a couple of weeks. 
The whole business turned out to be a fiasco, 
and we returned back to our camps. It was 
one of the most pleasant periods I have enjoyed 
during the whole war. I was again called on 
duty when I remarked, "This comes around 
pretty often." The Sergeant remarked, "You 
have to finish your sentence." I at once went 
to headquarters and met Lieutenant Howell and 
said, * * Do you intend to make me finish the pen- 
alty you imposed on me?" "To be sure, I do," 
was his reply. "Well, you can't do it after you 
accepted my services for Charleston," and I 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 95 

demanded a court-martial before I would finish 
it. Afterwards Sergeant Hines came from 
headquarters, saying, "Howell said, Ike got 
me," "I have no right to inflict a continuance of 
punishment after accepting his services in some 
other direction, but confound him, I'll get even 
with him." Thus matters stood, when some 
fine day the ball and chain was missing, no one 
knew what became of it, but somewhere in the 
middle of the Ogeechee Biver some two hundred 
yards below Camp Arnold, it may be found now, 
having rested there these forty six years. 

On the eighth of May we were ordered to 
Mississippi. We went by the way of Columbus, 
Ga., arriving there about three o'clock P. M. 
The ladies had prepared a fine spread for us 
at the depot. The men were hungry. Capt. F. 
G. WilMns being mayor of the City, Mayor Wil- 
kins was Captain of the Columbus Guards, Com- 
pany B, First Eegiment, Georgia Volunteers, 
and on his return home, after his severe expe- 
rience of one year's military service, he pre- 
ferred civil service as more congenial to his 
feelings. He was a brave and fearless soldier. 
At Carricks Ford, he and twelve of his men got 
mixed in with the Yankees, who at that time 
wore also grey uniforms. They were Ohio 



96 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

troops. Captain Wilkins on seeing his dilemma, 
formed his men into line, then into column mak- 
ing them go through evolutions, and manual of 
arms, and marched them to the rear, and out 
of the Yankee columns without being suspicion- 
ed or receiving a scratch. Such coolness is not 
often exhibited on a danger line, and Captain 
Wilkins reached Monterey long before any of 
the Regiment did, and saved himself and his 
men a great deal of hardship. 

When alighting from the train and seeing all 
those good things prepared for us, I at once took 
my position. A lady remarked, ''Help your- 
self. ' ' I took hold of a piece of fowl, and as I 
was about to take a bite, someone struck me on 
the arm with such force that the piece of fowl 
dropped out of my hand, and someone said, 
i i Those things are not for you. ' ' It was Mayor 
Wilkins. He was glad to see me, and said, "I 
have something better for you, boys. How 
many of the First Georgia are here? Get them 
all together and follow me." We were about a 
dozen of the old Washington Rifles. He con- 
ducted us to a room where we met a committee 
of gentlemen. After the usual shaking hands 
and introductions, we passed into another cham- 
ber. I never beheld a more bountiful and ar- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 97 

tistically prepared spread. Provisions arranged 
on a revolving table, shelved to a pyramid, 
and loaded with delicious wines. In a corner of 
the room was a table covered with case liquors 
of every description, and some fine cigars. I 
was astonished, I had no idea such delicacies 
could have been gotten in the whole Confed- 
eracy. We surely did enjoy the hospitality of 
that Committee. Mayor Wilkins introduced 
me to a Mr. Eothschild, saying, "I want you to 
take good care of him, he is a splendid fellow. ' ' 
Turning to me he said, * ' Hermann, I want you 
to stay all night with this gentleman, he 
will treat you all right. ' ' I said, ' ' Captain Wil- 
kins, I can't leave camps without a permit, and 
myself and Captain Howell are not on such 
terms as for me to ask him for any favors." 
"Well, I'll arrange that, you come along." 
Captain Wilkins said to Howell, "I want Ike 
to go home with my friend here," designating 
Mr. Rothschild. Captain Howell said, "You'll 
have to be here by seven o'clock, A. M. The 
train will leave at that time." Mr. Eothschild 
spoke up, saying, "I'll have him here on time." 
I was royally treated ; the lady of the house and 
daughter played on the piano and sang. I 
joined in the chorus 'till late in the night, when 
I was shown to my room, nicely furnished, a 



98 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

nice clean feather bed and all the requisites for 
comfort, but I could not sleep, I did not lay com- 
fortable. The two years service I had seen, 
made a feather bed rather an impediment to my 
repose, having become accustomed to sleep out 
doors on the hard ground, with my knapsack 
as a pillow, so I got up, put my knap sack under 
my head and lay by the side 1 of the bed on the 
carpet, and slept like a log the balance of the 
night ; so soundly, that I did not hear the negro 
boy who was sent to my room to blacken my 
boots, open the door, but I heard a noise like 
someone slamming the door and I heard some- 
one running down stairs. I heard many voices 
talking, and someone coming up stairs, opening 
the door very unceremoniously, I looked there 
was Mr. Rothschild,- greatly astonished and 
laughing, he could hardly talk. Finally he said, 
* * What in the world made you lay on the floor. ' ' 
I explained to him that being no longer used 
to sleeping on a bed, I could not rest until I got 
on the hard floor. Then he told me he had sent 
up a boy to blacken my boots, who had scared 
them all by telling them that the man up stairs 
had fallen off of the bed and lay dead on the 
floor. I took my ablution, and went down to 
breakfast, all enjoying that I was still able to 
do justice to the meal that my kind host and 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 99 

hostess set before me. After many thanks and 
good byes to Mr. and Mrs. Rothschild and the 
family, Mr. Rothschild and myself went down 
to the train, which was in waiting. Everytning 
was soon ready and we departed for Mobile, 
Ala. At Greenville, Ala., I met General W. H. 
T. Walker for the first time. Martin's battery 
was assigned to his brigade. Captain Martin 
was promoted to Major, and Chief of Start of 
General Walker's brigade, and Lieutenant Evan 
P. Howell, by right of seniority, took his place 
as Captain. From Mobile, we went to Jackson, 
Miss., one section of two cannons were left 
behind under charge of Lieutenant Robson. Ths 
balance arrived at destination at about three 
o'clock P. M., May 12th, 1863. We unloaded the 
pieces at once, and all the accoutrements, all 
the horses and harnessed them up without the 
loss of any time, took up the line of march 
towards Raymond Springs. The weather was 
very warm and the road of red clay was very 
dusty for men marching in columns. The dust 
would rise like clouds of ashes at every step. 
It must be remembered that it was ration day, 
but we had no time to draw any. As we 
advanced, we met General Gists' Brigade just 
out of a fight with General Grant's forces, who 
landed at Port Gibson, on his forward move 



100 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

to Vicksburg. General Gist had several pris- 
oners. Among them was a Captain. I spoke 
to him and asked him about the strength 
of 'Grant's army. Of course, I did not ex- 
pect a truthful answer. He replied, "If 
you'll keep on in the direction you are go- 
ing, you will meet him. He is not so very 
far, ahead of you, and when you do meet him, 
you will think he has more than enough to eat 
you all up." Well, he did tell the truth, and it- 
has been our misfortune all through the war to 
fight against many odds. We kept advancing, 
when of a sudden the command was ordered to 
halt. We formed ourselves into battery, and I 
was placed in charge of a detachment. General 
Walker ordered me to follow him. About two 
hundred yards ahead the road took a sudden 
turn around the bluff, which commanded a 
straight stretch of about a mile. General Walk- 
er ordered me to unlimber my gun and place 
it in position, so as to command that road, and 
ordered me to fire into any cavalry that might 
appear. At the further end of my view was a 
water mill. I remarked, "General, had I not 
better let them advance somewhat, so as not to 
waste too much ammunition?" "You must use 
your own judgment," said he. Looking about 
me, I saw no infantry in close proximity, so I 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 101 

ventured to ask him where my support was. 
He answered, "Support Hell! If they charge 
you, fight them with the hand spikes, don't you 
never leave this post," and left. 

Mr. James F. Brooks acted as my No. 1. I 
asked him if he had made his will, if not, he had 
better, as we were there to stay. We watched 
with all our eyes, we saw no enemies. Just 
about dark, we were ordered to limber up, and 
double quick to the rear, for about a mile, the 
enemy having taken another route and we were 
in danger of being cut off. Weary and foot- 
sore, having marched about ten miles that after- 
noon, we retraced our steps within about three 
miles of Jackson, hungry and thirsty, we 
marched on, large oaks bordered the road at 
places and the roots protruded above the sur- 
face of the ground; having on a pair of shoes, 
left foot number six for a number 8 foot, while 
my right shoe was a number 10 brogan, I cram- 
med cotton in shoe number 10 to prevent too 
much friction and cut off the end of number 6 
to avoid the painful sensation of being cramped, 
but misfortunes never come single the night 
became dark and it threatened to rain. I stum- 
bled over one of those protruding roots and 
tore off half of my unprotected toe nail on my 



102 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

left foot, a most excruciating and painful sen- 
sation. I did not swear, because I was speech- 
less. I mounted the caisson, our horses were 
jaded, had had no food nor water that day, but 
managed to get into camp. Dr. Stewart, our 
surgeon was left at Jackson, with a few of our 
command who were sick. W. J. Bell was our 
ambulance driver. He drove me to Dr. Stew- 
art's camp to dress my wound that night. I was 
all 0. K. next morning, when the ball opened 
after day break. Our pickets announced the 
enemy's advance. The skirmishes then came 
into play and kept the advance at some bay for 
some time, our forces placing themselves in posi- 
tion to receive them in due form. We were 
five thousand strong, while the enemy numbered 
twenty-five thousand. At about eleven A. M. 
orders came from our right to left to fall back, 
and we gradually withdrew, putting on our pro- 
longs, and firing occasionally as we retraced our 
steps. When the fight first opened I was in the 
rear, as stated, on account of my foot, but after 
being dressed and hearing the firing, I made for 
the front, and reported to Captain Howell for 
duty, while he was in line of battle on the 
extreme left. He said his detachment was com- 
plete, to report to the next. Having only four 
pieces of artillery in action, two under charge 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 103 

of Lieutenant Robson not having yet arrived, 
they were placed along the front about two hun- 
dred yards apart, all had full working force. I 
retraced my steps and so reported to the Cap- 
tain, saying, "Well, Captain, there being no use 
for me here, I shall go to the rear to protect 
myself and watch the progress of the fight, 
should there be any casualties in the Company 
I'll take their place no use for me to be here 
unless I can be of some service." Up to that 
time the skirmish line was still contending for 
every inch of the ground. Captain Howell says 
to me, "You stay here, and act as my orderly. 
I'm hoarse anyhow, and you have a good voice 
and can repeat my orders and commands, " so I 
was installed by the side of the Captain. The 
ground on which we stood was a gradual incline, 
while that of the enemy was about on a level 
with us, leaving a sort of a basin or valley 
between both lines. It was a novel sight to see 
our skirmishers contending every inch of the 
ground before an overwhelming force, to see 
them, load and fire, and gradually falling back, 
facing the advancing foe. When suddenly they 
emerged from the woods, where they were con- 
cealed, and advanced in platoon form, sending 
their deadly missiles into our thin skirmishers 
ranks. I said, "This is more than our men can 



104 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

stand, let me throw a shell over their heads, 
into their ranks." He answered, "Do so, but 
don't shoot our men." "No danger," said I. 
I depressed the bridge of my piece, raising the 
muzzle about four fingers. No. four pulled the 
laniard. It had a good effect, and resulted in 
stopping their advance, and thus enables our 
skirmishers to come in. My fire also gave them 
our position and distance. They at once formed 
a battery in front of us. I aimed a second shot 
at a white horse. Captain Howell watching its 
effect. I being behind the gun, the smoke pre 
vented me from so doing, when he said, "You 
got him." I soon found out that I had done 
some damage and that my range was accurate, 
for they centered their fire of several pieces 
against my own. One of their shots passed over 
my gun and knocked off its sight, passed 
between the detachment, striking the caisson lid 
in the rear and staving it in, and thus prevent- 
ing us for a few minutes in replying. We had 
to break it open with the hand spikes to get 
ammunition. They undoubtedly thought that 
we were irreparably silenced, and paid their 
respects to some other part of our line, but we 
resumed business again, and they came back at 
us. I saw a ball rolling on the ground, about 
six feet to my right. It seemed to be about the 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 105 

same caliber as ours. It rolled up a stump, 
bouncing about fifteen feet in the air. I thought 
it was a solid shot and wanting to send it back 
to them through the muzzle of our gun, I ran 
after it. It proved to be a shell, as it exploded, 
and a piece of it struck my arm. It was a pain- 
ful wound, but not serious. Another ball struck 
a tree about eight inches in diameter, knocked 
out a chip, which struck my face and caused 
me to see the seven stars in plain day light and 
very near got a scalp of Captain Howell, who 
stood behind that tree. Orders came for Cap- 
tain Howell to fall back. He asked me to inform 
Major Martin, who was in command of the piece 
at the extreme right, that he was falling back. 
I had to traverse the whole front of our line. I 
took the color bearers' horse, a fine animal. 
We named him Stonewall. The enemy's fire 
was rather high, as they came up the incline 
and the balls rattled through the tree tops like 
hail. It commenced raining very hard. I dis- 
mounted and took it afoot. On my way passing 
the third section, Sim Bland, who acted as num- 
ber 6, and whose duty it was to carry the ammu- 
nition from the caisson and to hand it to No. 2 
who inserts it in the muzzle of the gun, while 
No. 1 rammed it home. As I crossed him at a 
trot, I remarked, "Sim, this is hot time." 



106 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

Before he could reply, a solid cannon ball had 
struck him. Poor fellow, he did not know what 
hit him, for he was dead. His whole left side 
entirely torn to pieces. 

The enemy was now advancing more rapidly, 
as our whole line had given away. On my return 
I found my horse also shot down. I was trying 
to save the body of Bland, but couldn't get the 
assistance needed. I went through his pockets 
and took what he had therein and gave it to his 
brother, Lieutenant Bland. The enemy pushed 
me so close I had to take to the woods in my 
immediate rear, the trees of which somewhat 
protected me from the enemy's fire. About a 
hundred yards further I found Sergeant New- 
some with his gun and a detachment, trying to 
make for the public road leading to Jackson. 
He had managed so far to drive his commas 
evading the trees of the forest, when suddenly 
he was confronted by a plank fence which stood 
perfectly erect, not a plank missing and about 
five feet high. He ordered the horses cut out 
of the harness, and was about to abandon his 
guns, when I hollered, "No Sergeant, don't do 
it! Bide through between the posts, they are 
wide enough apart, knock down the planks." I 
put myself in action and kicked against the 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 107 

planks, when the whole panel fell over, carry- 
ing several others with it, for all the posts were 
completely rotten at the ground, and thus I 
saved this piece of artillery and probably the 
men. We reached the road and marched in col- 
umn. It was raining hard and every man was 
soaked to the skin. The column halted, having 
fallen back about a half a mile, firing as they 
went, when again we formed in line of battle. 
I was very tired, and sat down by the road side. 
WTien called again into action, I found that I 
could not use my arm, and that the leaders of 
my leg had contracted at my groins. The 
enemy had again out-flanked us, and the men 
lifted me on a caisson. 

The horses stalled. The road being very 
muddy, the men had to assist at the wheel to 
pull the carriages out of the mud, by using all 
their efforts, so I had to get down, for I felt 
that after all the gun would have to be aban- 
doned, and I did not care to be taken prisoner, 
but General Joseph E. Johnston made a stand a 
little further on, until the Yankees outflanked 
him again. Major Martin happened to be just 
passing me on his horse. I begged him to take 
me behind him, as I could not walk. He answer- 
ed, "It is impossible, we are going to make 



108 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

another stand. Get in the ambulance." When 
the ambulance came in sight, it was full to over- 
flow with wounded and dying. The Major again 
rode up. I said "Major Martin, can't you get 
me out of my difficulty," he replied, "Hermann, 
do the best you can to take care of yourself. If 
they capture you, I will have you exchanged as 
soon as possible." Poor consolation, I thought, 
but I was determined not to be taken if I pos- 
sibly could help it, so I started towards Jackson ; 
taking the e'dge of the woods, first on account of 
the mud, then as somewhat of a protection from 
the bullets. My locomotion was slow, from eight 
to ten inches was the longest strides I was able 
to make, and this with excruciating pains. Pres- 
ently our forces rushed past me and formed 
again into line of battle, thus leaving me be- 
tween both lines, the bullets coming from either 
direction, when again I entered our line. This 
maneuvre happened three times before I reached 
Jackson, in a stretch of three miles. It was 
then four o'clock p. m. 



CHAPTER XII. 

When we reached Jackson the previous 
day I noted a flat by the side of the railroad 
bridge. I was thinking to cross Pearl Eiver 
by that means, so I started to the right towards 
the railroad bridge. On my way down the 
street a lady was standing over a tub of whis- 
key with a dipper in her hand. She said to me, 
* ' Poor fellow, are you wounded ! ' ' I said, * * Yes. ' ' 
She dipped up a dipper full of whiskey, which 
I drank. It had a good effect on my shattered 
nerves and did not cause me the least dizziness. 
It was the medicine I surely needed. On arriv- 
ing at the River, I found the flat was gone, the 
railroad bridge was the only chance left me to 
cross. I crawled up the embankment and found 
that the cross ties were too far apart for me to 
step it, owing to my contracted leaders, so I 
concluded to "coon it" on my hands and knees 
on the stringers, holding onto the rail. 

The bridge is a long one and very high, Jack- 
son being built on a high bluff. When about 
half way across I heard a great deal of noise 
and reports of fire arms ; I heard bullets whiz- 
zing by. Finally bullets were hitting the trestle 



110 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

beneath me and in front of me. Looking back 
I saw at a distance of about four hundred yards 
a force of the enemy, which I judged to be about 
half a regiment, coming up the lowlands in a 
flank around Jackson. My first impulse was, 
can I make it across, or must I surrender? I 
concluded to take the chances, and continued 
to cross. Bullets were striking beneath me, 
and in front, splinters were flying. One ball hit 
the rail about six inches in front of my hand. 
They were gaining on me fast, when at last I 
reached the other side, laying myself flat on the 
track, I rolled over, down about an eighteen 
foot embankment. Thus being protected from 
the enemy's bullets, I entered the swamp not 
far beside the road leading to Branton, I noted 
a large hollow poplar tree. It must have been 
four or five feet in diameter. I crawled in, I 
felt faint and weak, had not eaten anything that 
day. I must have fainted; when presently I 
heard the sound of artillery and musketry to 
my right across the river and the noise of an 
empty wagon coming from towards Branton. I 
took a reconnoitering look, and saw Jackson on 
fire and a wagon driven by a negro, holding the 
lines over four splendid mules, coming towards 
the city. I took my stand in the road, pistol in 
hand. The following conversation ensued : 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 111 

"Halt. Where are you going?" 

"To Jackson. Marse Eichard sent me to 
fotch his things. He is afraid the Yankees 
would cotch him." 

"How will you get across?" 

"Goes on the flat, sah." 

"There is no flat now." 

"Yes there is, and Marse Richard " 

"Turn the head of the mules towards Bran- 
ton, or you are a dead Negro" aiming at him 
as I spoke. He exclaimed, "Don't shoot Mars- 
ter, I'll do as you say." He turned the mules 
towards where he came from. I crawled behind 
in the wagon, pistol in hand, and at a gallop all 
the way for twelve miles. We entered Branton 
in the early part of the night. The people were 
still up at the Hotel. The excitement ran high 
about the enemies capturing Jackson. Branton 
was a nice little village. The negro proved to 
be a run-away. Had stolen the team from the 
quarter-master and running with it to the 
enemy. The lady of the hotel came to me say- 
ing, "Are you wounded!" I stated my condi- 
tion, and she sympathized with me, saying, 
"Poor fellow, I expect you need something to 



112 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

eat." I surely did, for I was more dead than 
alive, after having passed such an eventful day. 
I ate a hearty supper. I was given a shirt. She 
bandaged my arm, which was smarting badly. 
She furnished me a room and a bottle of mus- 
tang linament to rub myself. My clothes which 
were full of mud were washed and dried by a 
large fire. The following morning, I felt really 
refreshed. It is unnecessary to say that I slept 
well that night. At an early hour that morning, 
the alarm of "The Yankees are coming. They 
are only four miles from here and Johnston is 
retreating towards Canton." Everybody that 
could get away, left. The quartermaster had 
an old broken down horse, which he tendered me 
for having saved his fine team, and I left the 
town on horse back, thanking my hostess for all 
her kindness. About two miles from Branton I 
met up with three men from my Company, viz, 
A. P. Heath, Jackson O'Quinn and Harmon 
Fields. They were not in the fight, having been 
on the sick list and not fit for duty, so we trav- 
eled together for some distance. We reached a 
settlement, which from appearance, belonged to- 
well-to-do people. The gentleman of the prem- 
ises was standing at the gate leading to the 
house. I said to my comrades that I would have 
to rest and recuperate until I got well, so I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 113 

addressed myself to the proprietor, "Sir, can 
you take care of a wounded Confederate? He 
put his hand in his hip pocket in quick motion, 
as if to draw a pistol, but instead drew a small 
slate and pencil, handed it to me with a motion 
to write my request, which I did. He rubbed it 
out and wrote swiftly in a scholarly style, 
"Nothing I have is too good for a Confederate 
soldier. Walk in all of you." His name was 
Williams, unfortunately deaf and dumb, but 
very intelligent. His family consisted of a wife 
and two daughters, and all seemed to be well 
educated and comfortably situated. They were 
very solicitous in their attentions to us. The 
girls played on the piano while I entertained the 
old man, by writing on his slate my experience 
of the previous day. He looked at me in wonder, 
and occasionally took hold of my hand and 
shook it. I remained his guest for nearly a 
week, until we located our Company, and where 
to meet it. I got entirely well, my arm was 
healing nicely, under the care of Mrs. Williams. 
Our forces had located at Canton. He sent us 
mule-back through Pearl River Swamp to the 
Canton road, while I rode my horse. He re- 
fused to take any remuneration for anything he 
had done for us, so I sent back my horse with a 



114 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

note and begged him to accept the same and 
thanking them all for what they had done 
for us. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The following day I entered camp with my 
comrades among great cheers, all having 
thought me dead or a prisoner. Major Martin 
asked me how I got through. I told him I took 
his advice and did the best I could. I re- 
lated to him the incidents that I met with. 
He said, "Well, I congratulate you. I don't 
believe one in a thousand would have escaped. ' ' 
"I was glad I was the one." We were ordered 
to strike tents at Canton, and we retraced our 
steps again towards Jackson, a distance of be- 
tween twenty and twenty-five miles. It was one 
of the hottest days of the season. The road bed 
being red clay. Our forces now amounted to 
about eight thousand" men, and marching in 
column with artillery, wagon train and all the 
paraphernalia appertaining to a moving army, 
raised such intense dust that it was impossible 
to recognize one's file-leader in his immediate 
front. Every step of every individual raised 
clouds of dust, which lay ankle deep. It was 
actually suffocating. Men and horses would 
gasp for breath. The men occasionally would 
expectorate large lumps of clay that settled in 
their throats, and no water to be had. We didn't 



116 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

pass a single stream of any kind. It was a forced 
march to get in the enemy's rear and to cut off 
re-inforcement and supplies for Grant's invad- 
ing forces onto Vicksburg. The enemy was also 
making back to Jackson on the Clinton Road 
which ran nearly parallel to the Canton Road, 
and we could see their advance by the column of 
dust to our right. Just before dark a very 
heavy rain and thunder storm set in. It was 
preferable to the previous conditions of the 
weather, although it put us half leg deep in 
sticky red mud. It got so dark we could not 
see anything and the rain continued pouring 
down in all its fury. It was nip and tuck as to 
which army would reach Jackson first. We got 
there just a little ahead of the enemy in time to 
occupy the ditches which now were nearly knee 
deep in water. In that condition we passed the 
night, expecting to be attacked momentarily. 
Men were detailed long in the rear to cook 
rations for the men in the ditch, which were 
issued along the line, and consisted of corn 
bread cooked (a la hate) and a piece of fat 
bacon. A very amusing incident happened to 
one of my comrades, "W. A. Grimes, who early 
on our march, and before the dust got so dense, 
had to step aside for some reason, and being 
detained while the column kept onward, threw 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 117 

him some distance behind his command. The 
State of Georgia had sent her troops some 
shoes; the description of my draw I have 
already stated, and some white wool hats. 
Grimes put his name on the front of his hat 
in large capital letters, and as he hurried to 
catch up with his command, someone hollowed 
as he passed, "How are you Bill Grimes?" 
Grimes stopped in surprise to see who knew him 
in some other command. Others took up the 
word all along the line of "How are you Bill 
Grimes?" Grimes hurried on, on his way, the 
perspiration running down his face, which had 
the appearance of being covered with a mask. 
He could not account for his sudden popular- 
ity until he pulled off his hat to wipe off his face. 
He saw his name on his hat and quickly turned 
it wrong side out. His name had passed all 
along the column faster than he could travel 
and passed Howell's Battery long before he 
caught up with it. Early in the morning the 
enemy made demonstrations all along our line 
and was repulsed. It had quit raining. The 
artillery kept up a desultory fire for eight days 
and nights. The enemy's forces were at least 
three to our one and therefore, could relieve 
each other, while we were obliged to be kept 
continually on duty, and consequently became 



118 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

exhausted, my eyes were blood shot, men 
loaded and fired mechanically, and when so 
exhausted that I couldn't stand any longer, I 
dropped beside one of the pieces and in a jiffy, 
was asleep. I couldn't even hear the report of 
the guns within a few feet of me. The strain 
was more than my physique could stand. I got 
sick and unconscious, and when I came to 
myself, I was in Yazoo City in a private house, 
snugly fixed, and a kindly lady by my bedside, 
whose name was Mrs. Lyons. She cried for 
joy to see me recover my senses. I asked her 
where I was and how long I had been there. She 
said just a week. I asked her what place it was 
and she said "Yazoo City." I shall always 
remember gratefully the kind treatment I 
received from that worthy family, and when 
after a week's convalescence, I took my leave 
with many thanks. The lady said she hoped 
that her brother who was in the Virginia army 
would in case of sickness receive the attention 
that she would bestow on any Confederate sol- 
dier. Such was the spirit that prevailed 
throughout the Confederate States. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

I rejoined my command at Morton station 
on the M. & 0. Railroad. The object of the 
second fight at Jackson, as I understood it, was 
to get in the rear of the investing army of 
Vicksburg under General Grant. General 
Joseph E. Johnston expected a reinforcement, 
sufficient so as to cut off supplies from the 
invading army, and to attack it in the rear, 
while General Pemberton might make a sortie 
and attack it in the front, and thus save Vicks- 
burg from capture. Our reinforcement never 
came. We then moved to Vaughn Station and 
thus hung in the rear of Grant, but not strong 
enough to venture an attack, unless in concert 
with General Pemperton who was defeated at 
Big Black and bottled up in Vicksburg, his 
stronghold. A very sad incident happened in 
our camp. Lieutenant Ruben Bland, a very 
kind officer and beloved by all his men, died. His 
brother Sim, as stated, was killed at the first 
fight at Jackson. They were very much 
attached to each other and brooding over his 
misfortune, some thought he took opium with 
suicidal intent, others thought otherwise. The 
writer was sitting on a box on the railroad plat- 



120 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

form, smoking his pipe. Close to the platform 
stood the Company's ambulance. In passing me 
Lieutenant Bland remarked, "Well, Ike, you 
seem to enjoy your pipe," I answered, "I do, 
I smoke the pipe of peace," he smiled and said, 
"Yes, everything looks peaceable here, I 
believe I am going to take a nap in this ambu- 
lance. ' ' About a quarter of an hour after, Quin- 
ten Dudley who was Hospital Steward, had 
cause to get some medicine out of the medicine 
chest that Dr. Stewart kept in the ambulance. 
He immediately gave the alarm that Lieutenant 
Bland was dead. I could not believe it. I 
jumped off the platform into the ambulance, 
and there lay Lieutenant Bland stretched out 
in full length, his face purple. Dr. Stewart, 
who at once was on hand opened an artery on 
top of his head. He bled freely. He tried to 
get up artificial respiration by working his arm 
back and forth, but to no avail. Bland was 
dead beyond recovery and mourned by every 
member of the Company. 

It was on a very warm June day when I con- 
cluded to have a general cleaning up. It must 
be remembered that we lost all of our personal 
effects, which we destroyed to keep them from 
falling into the enemy's hands, and our ward- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 121 

robes only consisted of what we carried on our 
backs and filth begot what we called " creepers", 
and one not used to such made him feel most 
miserable, so I took a camp kettle which also 
served for our culinary purposes to boil my 
clothes in, and while they were drying in the 
sun, I crept into the bushes in the shade and fell 
asleep. During my repose some miscreant stole 
my shirt, and for several weeks I did not have a 
shirt on my back, so one day it came to my 
knowledge that Gen. W. H. T. Walker, our Di- 
vision Commander, having been promoted, and 
Colonel Claude Wilson, was appointed as Brig- 
adier General in his place, offered a reward of 
thirty days furlough and a fine saddle horse to 
ride during the war to any man that would 
carry a dispatch to General Pemperton who 
was then besieged in Vicksburg. I told Ser- 
geant Hines if any man needed a furlough I did, 
in the fix I was in. I believe I will go and offer 
my services. He laughed and said, "Well, good 
luck old fellow." So I started to headquarters 
which were in an abandoned farm house, about 
a quarter of a mile distant from where our bat- 
tery was in camp. I walked to the sentinel who 
halted me. I want to <see Gen. Walker. "You 
can't get in." "Call the officer of the guard," 
says I, which he did and the Lieutenant came 



122 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

up. I stated to Mm that I wanted to see Gen. 
Walker. ''Follow me," says he, which I did. 
There were at least from twenty to twenty-five 
officers of all grades sitting in a large room, 
engaged, it seemed to me, in social conversa- 
tion. I walked 'Straight up to General Walker 
and stated my business, and what I had heard 
he offered to any man who would successfully 
carry a dispatch to General Pemperton at 
Vicksburg. "I thought, if any man needed a 
furlough, it was I." Opening my jacket which 
was closely buttoned, although it was a hot day 
in July, I displayed my nakedness. "I have 
not even, as you see, a shirt to wear." It 
raised a giggle among some of the officers, while 
others looked upon me in sympathy. I stated 
how I lost that only shirt I possessed. Just at 
that time entered Major Martin. Recognizing 
me, he said, "Hermann, you here?" He 
seemed rather surprised. I stated the object of 
my visit. He turned to General Walker, saying, 
"General, I stand sponsor for this man. He 
belongs to my battery, and he is one of the best." 
I inclined my head in recognition of the com- 
pliment paid me, and he extended me his hand. 
In the meantime, General Walker called me and 
said, "You see that small trunk in yonder cor- 
ner. Therein is my wardrobe. I believe I have 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 123 

three shirts therein ; that is all I have I divide 
go and get you one. We are about the same 
size. I hope it will fit you." I made for the 
little hairy trunk, no bigger than a good hand 
valise and slightly oval, opened the lid, saying, 
"Beggars ought not to be choosers. I will take 
the first I come to," which was a clean white 
shirt, with cuffs and collars attached. Off went 
my jacket in the presence of the company ; into 
the garment I went, feeling a thousand per cent, 
better. I said, "Well, General, I've heard of 
some stepping into other men's shoes, but never 
before have I known of a high private slipping 
into a General's shirt at one jump." This 
brought a big laugh from the assembly, the 
General joining heartily. I thanked him and 
extended my hand in token of my appre- 
ciation. He remarked, "You are surely 
welcome, come around tomorrow at eleven 
o'clock A. M., and we will talk matters 
over." He asked, "Have you ever been to 
Vicksburg." "No Sir." "Do you know anj - 
thing about the country around, and about the 
City?" "This is my first experience in these 
diggins." "How would you manage?" "I'll 
be governed by circumstances as they present 
themselves." After a pause he repeated, 
"Come around tomorrow at eleven o'clock." I 



124 MEMOEIES OF A VETERAN 

gave the military salute and started towards the 
door, when he called me saying, "Do you ever 
drink anything?" I answered, "General, this is 
a strange question. Why didn't Jack eat his 
supper? I've not seen a drop since we left Jack- 
son," and I stated how I got that. He laughed 
and said, "Go in that room," indicating the door 
with his index finger. "You will find a table in 
there with liquors, I think a good drink will do 
you good." One invitation was sufficient. I 
stepped into the next room, and there I beheld 
a round table loaded with all kinds of bottles,- 
containing different liquors, some labeled differ- 
ent kinds of whiskies, brandies, gin, schedam, 
schnapps, etc. I took the square bottle of sche- 
dam and poured me out a stiff drink, thanked 
the General and departed for my camp, but not 
being in the habit of drinking, I felt the effects 
of the liquor. I felt somewhat, what I may call 
buoyant, and in for any fun. I met Sergeant 
W.H.Hines. He said, "Ike, what luck?" "The 
best in the world, ' ' 'tapping myself on the breast. 
"You see that shirt, this once was General Wal- 
ker's, now it's mine." I told him all that passed 
at headquarters. The next day I reported as 
directed. The General said, "Well, Hermann, 
the jig is up. While we were talking about the 
matter yesterday, Pemberton surrendered, and 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 125 

I therefore do not need your services. ' ' I said, 
well, I wish he had held out until some other day 
than the fourth of July." The General said, 

"Yes." 

As I started to camp, the General said, "Well, 
Hermann I thank you anyhow for your offer 
and you shall have a furlough all the same. I 
give you two weeks. I hope you will have a nice 
time." Major Martin who was present said 
also, he hoped I would have a nice time. I 
replied, "M'ajor, I have not a cent of money, 
how can I have a nice time. We have not been 
paid off since we left Savannah. Have you some 
money? If so I would like to borrow until I get 
mine from the Government." He said, he had 
a fifty dollar bill. If it would do me any good, 1 
could have it. He handed me the bill which was 
then worth about two or three dollars in specie. 
Such was the depreciation of our currency. I 
went into the interior about ten miles from 
camp. The people were downcast. They did 
not know what would become of them. Jackson, 
the capital of the State, in the hands of the 
enemy. Vicksburg, a large and well fortified 
city and defended by a large army had surren- 
dered and its defenders taken prisoners. The 
people were in despair, not knowing what evil 



126 MEMOEIES OF A VETERAN 

awaited them. I soon found out that camp& 
among the boys was the more congenial place 
for me, so after an absence of three days I 
returned. 



CHAPTEE XV. 

So one good afternoon, J. B. Thomas, a good' 
clever comrade and good soldier, and myself 
took a stroll and incidentally looking for some- 
thing to eat. We passed a vegetable garden, 
a luxury we -seldom enjoyed. On the side of the 
pailings were some squashes. Thomas remark- 
ed, I wish I had some of them. I said, "Well, 
slip one of those palings and get a few, I'll be on 
the watch out." No sooner said than done. 
Thomas gathered about a dozen the size of my 
fist. He stuck them in his shirt bosom. I gave 
him the alarm that the lady was watching him. 
As he looked up he saw her at the other end of 
the garden. He started through the opening he 
had made quicker than a rabbit could have done 
when pursued by hounds. Thomas is a man of 
small statue and very short legged, but he 
split the air to beat the band. We were both 
in our shirt sleeves, no vests, only wore pants 
confined around the waist by a belt, the squashes 
were bobbing up and down in his shirt, as he 
progressed and the proprietress after him. 
Finally the squashes lifted the shirt out of his 
confines and down came the squashes rolling 
on the ground. Thomas did not stop, but cast- 



128 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

ing a regretful side glance at his booty, he sped 
on to camp, while his garment was floating to 
the breeze, caused by his velocity. When the 
woman reached the spot where the squashes lay 
scattered,, she stopped, looking after the fleeing 
individual and sending a full vocabulary of 
invectives after him. I who had followed leis- 
urely caught up while she gathered her squashes 
into her apron. I remarked, " Madam, you seem 
to have spilled your vegetables." "No, it was 
not me that spilled them, it's that good for 
nothing somebody, there he runs he stole them 
out of my garden." I said, "He ought not to 
have done it, if I knew who he was I would 
report him." She said, "I would not have 
minded to give him some if he had asked me 
for them, but I don't like for anybody to go into 
my garden and take what belongs to me. ' ' Poor 
^voman, she had no idea that within a few days 
;after our departure, the enemy would appear 
and not only appropriate the needful, but 
iv^ould destroy all the rest to keep her from en- 
joying any of it. She offered me some of the 
squashes which I accepted with thanks. I car- 
ried them to Thomas, saying she would have 
given you some if you had asked for them. 
Thomas replied, he wished he had known it. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

The fall of Vicksburg ended the Mississippi 
Campaign, and our troops were ordered to join 
the Army of Tennessee. All had left with the 
exception of the Mississippi Eegiment and our 
battery who were awaiting transportation. Our 
commissary had also gone ahead of us and so 
we were left to "root hog or die." We had to 
eat once in awhile any how. Quinton Dudley 
and myself took a stroll to the commissary of 
the Mississippi Eegiment. I learned that his 
name was Coleman. Passing through the build- 
ing which was an old wooden railroad ware- 
house about a hundred feet long and forty wide r 
Quinton picked up a piece of rock salt from a 
large pile. Captain Coleman saw him put some- 
thing in his haversack. In a brisk manner, said r 
"What is that you have taken?" He showed 
him a piece of salt the size of a hen egg. "Put 
it back," he hollowed at him. Quinton threw 
it back on the pile very much humiliated. On 
our leaving the building, I spied on the platform 
at the other end of the warehouse a large hogs- 
head full of smoked meat of all descriptions, 
there were sides, shoulders and hams. They 
looked very enticing for hungry men like we 



130 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

were. We went to camp and reported how that 
Captain had caught Quinton who was very timid 
and did not like to be caught in the act. Others 
felt different about such. We were entitled to 
a living while in the field on duty. Some sug- 
gested that we go and charge the commissary 
and get some rations. I said, "That would 
bring on some trouble. Maybe we might get 
some of that meat by strategy," so we planned 
that W. N. Harmon should take ten men around 
and about the warehouse, while I would engage 
the Captain in conversation, during which time 
Harmon and his men would help themselves to 
rations. I awaited an opportune moment when 
Captain Coleman was at the other end of the 
building from where the hogshead of meat stood. 
Entering by that end, I walked squarely up to 
>;the Captain, extending my hand. "How do 
you do, Captain Colernan? I'm very glad to 
meet you, it is an unexpected pleasure. How 
long since you have heard from home?" He 
looked at me in surprise-, holding onto my hand. 
I heard some meat drop on the ground. I knew 
the meat was flying campwards. "Well." said 
Capt. Coleman, "you have the advantage of me.' 
"Don't you know me?" says I? He replied, 
"Well, your face is familiar to me, but I can't 
place you. Are you not from Emanuel county, 




'Madam, ha*;e you spilled your vegetables?" 
I enquired 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 131 

tjeorgia?" "No, but I have some kinfolks in 
Georgia with my name." "Well, then I am 
mistaken and beg your pardon." "We have a 
lake on the Ogeechee River called Coleman's 
Lake. I went there often for fishing, and was 
sure you were one of the Colemans that lived 
there when at home. You favor them very 
much." "Well, said he, they may be some kin 
to me." By that time, between thirty and forty 
pieces of meat had changed hands. The next 
morning transportation came, and we loaded 
the cars which carried us to the Tennessee 
Army, then under the command of General 
Bragg, who was then retreating, leaving Ten- 
nessee to the tender care of the Federals, under 
command of General E-osencrantz. Our forces 
took a stand around and about Lookout Moun- 
tain and Chickamauga. We struck camp some 
distance from the main forces after unloading 
the train and watering and feeding the horses. 
The boys took a swim in the river, a luxury not 
realized for many days past. I was detailed to 
cut underbrush in the woods to assist stretch- 
ing ropes to corral our horses. I was not quite 
as green in handling an axe by this time as I 
was in Virginia, when I was detailed to cut wood 
for the blacksmith shop. I was again taken sick 
with risings in my ear. I suffered as only those 



132 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

who ever suffered with such affliction knew 
how to extend their sympathy. The pains were 
simply excruciating and threw me into hot fever. 
We were ordered to strike camps. We marched 
that forenoon until eleven o'clock. The sun 
was shining in full force. I could no longep 
keep up. I stopped by the roadside and lay 
down, waiting for the Company's baggage 
wagon to come along. Lorenzo Stephens was 
the driver. After awhile he appeared on foot. 
One of the rear axles of his wagon having bro- 
ken, he therefore hurried forward to get some 
assistance. In the meantime, the ambulance 
came along in charge of the Company surgeon. 
He had me picked up and placed in it. He said 
I had high fever and gave me some medicine, 
and as we passed the station of a railroad, the 
name of which I did not know, I was put on the 
train with others and sent to the Atlanta Hos- 
pital, in charge of Dr. Paul Eve, of Augusta, 
Dr. Eosser being in charge of my ward. I was 
suffering terribly, both of my ears were dis- 
charging corruption. Through suffering and 
hardship, my general health was giving away. 
I needed rest and time to recuperate. Medi- 
cines were hard to get, and I was slow in recov- 
ering my strength. One day Dr. Rosser asked 
me if I would like to have a furlough. He 



WAS BETWEEN THE STATES 133 

thought it would help me. I said, ' ' Yes, the best 
in the world, as soon as I can gain a little 
strength, " so he and Dr. Eve came to my cot the 
following morning, and after examining my 
condition, departed. Dr. Eosser came again in 
the afternoon and handed me a thirty days fur- 
lough. I was very grateful to him. He was a 
perfect gentleman, hard working and sympa- 
thetic. I came home to my foster mother, Mrs. 
Jas. L. Braswell, under whose care I soon 
gained strength. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Before leaving the hospital I requested 
Dr. Bosser to inform my Captain of my 
whereabouts and of my physical condition, 
which he promised he would do, and I have no 
doubts he did. "While at home I also corre- 
sponded with some of my comrades. I enjoyed 
my furlough at Fenns Bridge among my friends. 
Colonel Sol. Newsome, Hudson W. Sheppard, 
Bennett Hall, W. J. Lyons, Daniel Inman and 
others, who came after their mail and inciden- 
tally brought their fishing tackle and guns to 
fish and hunt in the Ogeechee river and swamp. 
In the meantime discussing the ups and downs 
of the men in the field. The above named citi- 
zens were all slave owners and above the requi- 
site age for military duty. It was quite a pas- 
time for me to hear them discuss among them- 
selves the politics of that day, for be it under- 
stood they were not exactly a unit in sentiment 
as regards secession. They were about equally 
divided; some for the union, while those who 
differed brought some of the most convincing 
arguments to my mind to bear on the situation, 
and although young in the cause of politics, I 
was obliged to take sides with them, as a matter 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 135 

of right, as we saw it. Those who opposed did 
not question our right, but differed as to the 
policy pursued. They contended that we were 
wrong in judgment as the sequel had proven. 
In fact, we were not prepared for such tre- 
mendous onslaughts as we had to meet, and we 
believed and had reliance on our so-called 
friends across Mason and Dixon line, which 
proved to be as bitter as the rankest abolition- 
ists. One morning, Mr. Brantley came up and 
brought the Georgian, a county news paper, say- 
ing, "Hermann, your name is in this paper." I 
said, "Is it?" "Listen." 

"The following men are absent from their 
Commands without leave, and should they not 
immediately report for duty, they will be re- 
ported as deserters: J. J. Sheppard, I. Her- 
mann and others whose names I have forgotten, 
It was signed Captain Evan P. Howell, com- 
manding battery. I said, "Gentlemen, it is a 
lie, and here is the proof, showing my sick fur- 
lough from Dr. Paul Eve." Mr. Lyons then 
spoke up, "Well, what are you going to do 
about it?" I walked into cousin Abe's store, 
took a sheet of paper and addressed, Mr. J. N. G. 
Metlock, Editor of the Sandersville Georgian," 



136 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

11 My dear sir : 

In perusing your previous issue I noted Capt. 
Evan P. Howell's advertisement, which among 
others I was named as one absent without leave, 
and should I not report immediately to my com- 
mand, he would publish me as a deserter. Now 
in simple justice to myself, I wish to inform 
Capt. Howell, as well as the public, that his 
statement is false, that I have a furlough grant- 
ing me leave of absence and that under no con- 
sideration would I be away from my command, 

Very respectfully, 

I. Hermann. 
At Home. 

P. S. Please forward copy of your next issue 
to Captain Howell and charge expenses to me." 

I returned to my friends and said, "Gentle- 
men, this is my reply, and when my time is up, 
I shall report, either to Dr. Paul Eve, or Cap- 
tain Howell." Colonel Sol Newsome tapped 
me on the shoulder, saying, "Hurrah, Hurrah 
for you, Hermann. " In a few days later, Ser- 
geant W. H. Hines, and four men of my Com- 
pany came to arrest me. I said to them, "You 
can't do it as long as I have authority to remain 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 137 

here," and showed them my furlough, which 
lacked about two weeks of having expired. They 
were all glad I was properly fixed and so 
expressed themselves. They were also glad of 
the opportunities they had to call upon their 
respective families, which they would not have 
had otherwise. 

From Fenns Bridge I went to Macon to spend 
a few days with a cousin who lived there. As I 
walked the street one named Colson who 
belonged to the Provost Guard came up saying, 
"Ike old fellow, I have orders to arrest you." 
"What for, Colson?" He answered, he did not 
know. "Who gave you the orders?" He said 
' ' Major Roland. " " Let us go up and see him. ' * 
We walked up from Cherry Street to Triangu- 
lar block, where Roland, who was commander 
of the Post, had his headquarters. The room 
was full of men and officers, among whom I rec- 
ognized Captain Napier, who had lost a limb in 
Virginia; the rest were all strangers to me. 
Major Eoland addressed himself to me "What 
can I do for you?" "You had me arrested." 
Colson was standing there ; I looked at him ; he 
said "You gave me the orders." "What is your 
name ? " " Isaac Hermann. ' ' Roland brightened 
up; "You are the fellow I was after; you are 



138 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

reported as a deserter." I pulled my furlough, 
which was somewhat dilapidated from constant 
wear and tear ; he scrutinized it closely, handing 
it back to me, saying, "This paper is forged; 
some brother countryman fixed it up for you. ' ' 
"You are a liar," I said. Quick as lightning 
he grabbed and drew his sword, which was lying 
on the table, exclaiming as he faced me, "I am 
an officer." In the meantime I executed a half 
about, drawing my pistol, saying: "I am a pri- 
vate; if you make a move I'll put daylight 
through you." And there we stood, facing each 
other for a few seconds, when one of the officers 
in the room approached me, saying in a whisper, 
"Put up your pistol, I am your friend." 
"Who are you?" "I am Paton Colquitt, Col- 
onel of the 46th Ga. Reg't., stationed at 
Charleston, S. C., I am on my way to my com- 
mand, but intend now to remain to see you out, ' ' 
I extended my hand and he shook it heartily. 
Major Roland looked very pale ; the rest of the 
company present looked on with interest. 
Eoland ordered a Sergeant and four men as a 
guard to escort me to the guard house. I said 
"I'll die first, right here, before I'll march 
through Macon, guarded like a horse thief. I 
have not done anything to be arrested for; I 
am known in Macon and will not submit to any 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 139 

such indignity." Colonel Colquitt stepped up 
to the table, saying, "Will you take me as spon- 
sor for this gentleman, to report at any place 
you may designate, without a guard?" Roland 
could not refuse, so trembling he wrote me (a 
billet de logement) : "To the Officer in Com- 
mand at the Calaboose : Admit the Bearer. By 
order of Major Roland, Commanding Provost 
Post, Macon, Georgia." Before calling at the 
prison I passed to where my cousin lived. I 
stated what had happened, so that she would not 
look for me, as I was stopping at her house. 
She was much distressed and feared personal 
harm would befall me. I reassured her the best 
I knew how and requested her to let me have a 
blanket, if she could spare one, so that I could 
sleep on it that night. I rolled the blanket, tied 
the ends together with a string and drew it 
across my shoulder. On the way I thought of 
the threat Captain Howell made at Bryant 
County, Camp Arnold, when Sergt. Hines 
reported to me what he said, that he would get 
me yet. I was mad ; I was honor bound to report 
at the calaboose. Col. Colquitt was my spon- 
sor, I could not go back on him. Finally I 
arrived at the prison, an old building, about 
25 by 40; it might have been used as a stable. 
I presented my ticket for admittance, the offi- 



140 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

cer looked at it, read it, then looked at me and 
smiled, and said, "Well, this is unusual." I 
disengaged myself of the blanket, as he unlocked 
the door. The room was packed with men, 
among them some Yankees, or some in Federal 
uniforms. As the door was locked behind me 
one of the inmates hollowed. "There is a new 
comer, he must sing us a song;" I remarked, 
I rather felt like fighting than singing just now, 
when a big strapping fellow presented himself, 
with his coat off, saying, as he put himself in a 
fighting attitude, "Here is your mule;" I an- 
swered as I hit him, "Here is your rider." I 
struck him such an unexpected blow that it 
stunned him, when he said he had enough, 
as I was to double him. He apologized, say- 
ing he was just funning; I answered and 
said, "I meant it, and you believe it now; 
I am obliged to you for having given me 
this opportunity, for I have been badly 
treated." I need not say that I was respect- 
fully treated by the rest of the inmates. And 
while room to lay down was at a premium, I had 
all I needed for that purpose. The following 
morning at the break of day, my name was 
called at the wicket; I answered. The door 
swung open and there stood Col. Colquitt, smil- 
ing. "Well, you are a free man"; "How did 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 141 

you do it!" "Ask me no questions and I'll tell 
you no lies." I said, "Let me get my blanket 
I borrowed on the way." He answered: "The 
train that will carry me to my regiment will 
leave in half an hour, and I have done what I 
intended before going ; I wish I had a thousand 
men like you, and I would walk through Yan- 
keedom." I thanked him heartily for what he 
said and did, promising never to forget it, and 
I never have. We walked some distance together, 
the atmosphere was chilly, and I proposed to 
him if he would accept a treat from me in the 
way of a drink; he said, "With great pleasure." 
We found a place on our way 'to the depot, 
which was not very far, as the Calaboose was 
situated a little back of the Brown House, and 
we drank a drink of as mean potato whiskey, 
the only kind the men had, at one dollar a dram, 
that was ever distilled. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

As matters now stood, I was determined 
not to return to my Company until I was 
entirely recovered to my usual health. So 
I reported to Dr. Green in charge of the 
Floyd House Hospital for treatment. He 
asked me what was the matter with me ; I told 
him I did not know. He stripped me and made 
a thorough examination, and when he got 
through he said, "You have an enlargement of 
the heart, and ought not to be exposed." He 
prescribed for me, and I reported to him daily 
until my furlough had expired. I felt a great 
deal better and was about ready to return to 
my command, but Dr. Green advised me not to 
do it yet awhile. I said, "My furlough is out;" 
He said, "That does not make any difference, 
you are under my charge for the present. ' ' In 
the meantime Major Roland was removed as 
Commander of the Post at Macon and Col. 
Aiken was appointed in his stead. While in the 
Hospital I made myself useful, and Dr. Green 
appointed me General Ward-Master. My duties 
were to look over the entire wards and see that 
those under me did their duty, and that all 
inmates were properly attended to. One good 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 143 

morning Sergt. Haywood Ainsworth came to 
me, saying, "Ike I have in my possession a let- 
ter for the Commander of the Post, Col. Aiken, 
from Capt. Evan P. Howell ; he is giving you the 
devil ; he sent me after you. *If you go with me 
to the command I will not deliver it." I said, 
"Haywood, do you know what he writes in that 
letter?" "No, not exactly, but it is very 
severe." "I'd like to see what he says." 
"Have you seen Col. Aiken; does he know 
you?" No. "I will tell you what we will do; 
you give me the letter and I will deliver it 
myself ; you can see that I do it, he will not know 
me from you, as he does not know either of us." 
Ainsworth laughed and says, "Well as you 
say." So we both marched up to the Provost 
Marshal's office. Col. Aiken was sitting in a chair 
at his desk. I walked up to him, gave him the 
military salute, handed him the letter and took 
my position behind his chair, looking over his 
shoulder as he read the letter. Capt. Howell did 
not at all times write a very legible hand for one 
not used to his writing ; hence I being used to it, 
got through before the Colonel did, I took a lit- 
tle step to my left and rear, awaiting Col. 
Aiken 's orders. * ' Sergeant, where is the man ? " 
asked he. "He is in the Floyd house hospital, 
in charge of Dr. Green. " "Is he sick." "I sup- 



144 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

pose so." "Then he is under proper authority, I 
can do nothing in this case, as it stands. You 
go and see Dr. Green and ask him if Hermann 
is well enough to \ be discharged and go to 
camp. If so and he refuses to go, come to me 
and I will give the necessary assistance re- 
quired." I thanked him, saying, "Col. I do not 
think there will be any necessity for me ta 
trouble you further," and Haywood and myself 
left, laughing all the way. Sergt. Ainsworth 
then said, Well Ike, you are a good one, I know 
you won't give me away. I said, You surely 
do not think that of me. Oh no ! I have all con- 
fidence in you. Well, what are you going to do T 
I will go back with you ; I shall face the gentle- 
man and tell him what I think of him. What 
was in the letter, what did he say? He stated 
in the letter that I was a very desperate charac- 
ter; that I left in time of battle; that he had 
used all his efforts to get me back to my com- 
mand, and had failed. To please give Sergt, 
Ainsworth all necessary assistance to accom- 
plish that object. Continuing, I said, Haywood r 
you like to go home; so do I. Suppose we ga 
to Washington county for a few days, say until 
Friday. You living in town put a notice in the 
paper, stating that you will return to our camp 
which is now at Dalton, and will take pleasure 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 145 

in forwarding anything that may be sent to the 
hoys from their friends and families. Sergt. 
Ainsworth said, That is a good idea. I said, 
Well I will meet you at Tennille Friday on the 
night train. But before we go, I must have the 
approval of Dr. Green, under whose charge I 
now am; so we went to see Dr. Green: I 
stated to him that I would like to return to my 
command. He said, You are not well enough 
to do camp duty. I said, Well, under circum- 
stances as they are, I am willing to take my 
chances. I stated to him the facts as they were, 
in the presence of Sergt. Ainsworth, who co- 
incided to everything I said. Then I remarked, 
Doctor, you have been very kind to me, and 
done me lots of good, for which I am very grate- 
ful, but I can't rest under such imputation; I 
intend to straighten matters out. So he said, 
Well, if I can do anything for you or be any 
service to you, let me know what it is and I will 
be glad to do it. I said, All I want is for you 
to give me a statement under what condition I 
placed myself under your care, and the date of 
my admittance and discharge, and your opin- 
ion as to my present condition for active ser- 
vice. He said he would do that, he would make 
a statement and have it ready in an hour. In 
the meantime Sergt. Ainsworth and myself 



146 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

took a stroll through the city. I told my rela- 
tives and friends good bye. We returned to the 
hospital, they were all sorry I left them. Doc- 
tor Green gave me the papers I required, I put 
them in my pocket unopened. He said, If there 
is anything else you need, let me know. I 
thanked him very kindly, and we left for Was! 1 
ington county. Sergt. Ainsworth said to me y 
Dr. Green seems to think a great deal of you; 
he seems to be a perfect gentleman. I said, Yes,, 
everybody who comes in contact with him likes 
him; he is a very conscientious Doctor and 
is very attentive to his business. Friday night 
I took the train at Davisboro; I had about a 
dozen boxes for the boys in camp, under my 
charge at Tennille. Sergt. Ainsworth met me 
with as many more boxes, and we travelled to 
Dalton ; it took us two nights and a day to get 
there. It was Sunday morning early, when we 
reached camp. The boys were all glad to see 
us, we delivered our trust and there was plenty 
of good things to eat in camp, in consequence of 
our forethought. During my absence from camp 
Dr. Stewart was transferred and Dr. Beau- 
champ took his place. I had never seen him 
before, so I at once reported to him, gave him 
my papers from Dr. Green and he at once 
relieved me from active duty. Then I stated to- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 14? 

him why I had returned to camp, and the feud 
that existed between Capt. Howell and myself, 
and what he had done and said. So I was 
determined to face the worst. I walked about 
that day among the boys in camp, all of whom 
were my friends; if I had an enemy in camp 
outside of Capt. Howell, I did not know it. 
About four o'clock p. m. I bethought myself 
since I was not arrested after the awful charges 
having been made against me, I had probably 
better report my presence, although every one 
in camp, Captain included, knew I was there. 
So I just met Sergt. Hines, being very intimate 
with him, I said, Bill, you want to have some 
fun? Come with me, I am going to report at 
headquarters; since all that hullabaloo I am 
still unmolested. The officers quarters were 
about one hundred yards up on a ridge from 
where the pieces were parked. Capt. Howell 
was sitting in front of his tent. I gave him the 
salute, saying, Well, here I am. He answered, 
I thought I never would see you again. I said 
probably you would not, if it had not been for 

some d d lies written to Col. Aiken, Provost 

Marshal at Macon. Who wrote them 1 ? Capt. 
Evan P. Howell, Comdg. Battery. If you think 
that I am afraid of powder and ball, try me ten 
steps. Do you mean it as a challenge 1 ? You 



148 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

are an officer; I am a private; it is for you to 
construe it as you see fit. I'll have you court- 
martialed and shot. I dare you to do it. In the 
meantime Sergt. Hines was swinging to my 
jacket and we withdrew. So Hines said, If 
I had known that you would get mad that way 
I would not have come with you. So I remarked, 
I wanted you to come and be a witness, as to 
what should pass between him and me. A half 
hour later Sergt. Hines came to me, saying, Ike, 
you are on duty tonight. By whose orders? 
Capt. Howell 's. I said, It is not a rule to put a 
man on guard duty who had passed two nights 
in succession without sleep, he might fall asleep 
on his post. However, I did not come here to 
do duty, I merely came to see what punishment 
Capt. Howell would inflict on me, as he stated 
that I deserted; and again, I am relieved from 
duty by Dr. Beauchamp. Sergt. Hines made his 
report. I saw Capt. Howell hastily walk over to 
Dr. Beauchamp 's quarters and expostulated 
with him as to my ability of doing duty, thus 
impugning the Doctor's capacity as a physician, 
he who after a thorough examination having 
passed on my condition; I heard Dr. Beau- 
champ speaking in a loud voice : ' i Capt. How- 
ell, if you would attend to your duty as faith- 
fully as I do mine you would get along better 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 149 

with your men. ' ' Howell replied that he would 
have me examined by a Board of Physicians. 
That's all right, that is exactly what Hermann 
asked me to have done and I have already set 
him down to meet the Board at Dalton on next 
Wednesday. In the meantime Dr. Beauchamp 
treated me and I reported to him daily, when 
able to be up; if not he came to my quarters. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Wednesday came, the day I was to report before 
the Board; I was not feeling as well as I had 
a day or so previous. I went to Bell, our ambu- 
lance driver, saying Joe, I have to meet the 
Board today at Dalton, you will have to carry 
me there. He answered he could not do it as 
he had orders from Capt. Howell to have the 
ambulance ready for him, as he wanted to make 
a social call, so I said no more. Dr. Beau- 
champ who saw me walking about in camp, came 
to me saying, I thought you were going to Dal- 
ton today. I said I would go but Mr. Bell said 
the Capt. engaged the ambulance to go on a 
social call; I thought that vehicle belonged to 
your department and is intended for the sick 
only. So it is, says the Doctor, and I am going 
to see about it. I said, Doctor, I do not feel 
well enough to walk three miles and back today. 
In a few minutes Joe Bell drove up with the 
ambulance, saying, Ike, get ready, I will drive 
you to town. So I went before the field Board 
of Surgeons and Physicians. Dr. Beauchamp 
had sent in his report of me, and I was pro- 
nounced unfit for active duty and discharged 
from service on account of ill health. This 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 151 

action took me from under the jurisdiction of 
Capt. Howell, greatly to my relief. I thanked 
the Board, saying, Gentlemen, I enlisted for 
the war, and at times I am able to do some duty. 
There are other duties besides standing guard, 
camping out and shooting. I am willing to do 
anything I am able to do. About that time 
Major Martin came in, undoubtedly sent there 
by Capt. Howell. After speaking to the Doctors 
he turned to me, we shook hands and he said, 
"Well Hermann, take good care of yourself, I 
hope you will recover and get entirely well ; you 
have been badly treated, I am sorry to say. 
Good bye. We again shook hands, he mounted 
his horse and departed at a gallop. The Board 
gave me an order to report to Gen. E. K. Smith, 
who was then in Atlanta, doing post duty. He 
asked me how long I had been on the sick list, 
and I replied about three months. He said, Can 
you do any office work; I answered I did not 
know to what kind of work he would assign me 
to. He said, Can you write? I told him yes; 
so he put me to copying some documents, which 
I did to his satisfaction. The desk at which he 
put me to work was breast high and I had to 
stand up. The following day I was suffering 
so I could not do anything, and I had no more 
medicine. The next day I felt worse. Dr. G. 



152 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

G. Crawford called in the office; he was in 
charge of the fair ground hospital. General 
Smith said, Doctor, what is the matter with 
this man; since yesterday, he seems to be suf- 
fering very much. Dr. Crawford spoke to me 
and asked what my complaint was. I told him 
I was suffering in my chest, and I was trying to 
write at that desk and grew worse. He said, 
You are a Frenchman? I said Yes. He said 
he could tell it from my brogue. And he then 
talked French to me and told me he studied 
medicine in Paris, and having lived there my- 
self our conversation grew interesting to both 
of us. So he turned to General Smith and said 
General, I think I can help him considerably, 
even if I can't cure him. So General said, 
" Hermann, you go with Dr. Crawford, he will 
take charge of you. And we left together for 
the fair ground hospital, a temporary institu- 
tion, built of wood, roughly put up, consisting 
of several wards, whitewashed in and out. I 
found Dr. Crawford to be a perfect gentleman 
and very interesting and we got along like 
brothers; he was very kind to me. Under his 
treatment I recuperated wonderfully and in a 
couple of weeks I thought I was entirely cured. 
I made myself as useful as possible, still con- 
tinuing my course of medicine. Dr. Crawford 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 153 

appointed me to the same position I held under 
Dr. Green at the Floyd hospital at Macon, and 
he was well pleased with my work, as well as the 
inmates of the hospital. 



CHAPTER XX. 

General Bragg was removed from the com- 
mand of the army of Tennessee and Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston appointed in his place early in the 
Spring of 1864. The campaign opened and Gen. 
J. T. Sherman commanded the Federal forces. 
His sanguinary and uncivilized warfare on the 
defenseless is a matter of history. His careless 
application of the torch, destroying by fire what- 
soever he could not carry off, leaving the old 
and decripid, the women and children to per- 
ish in his wake as he marched through Georgia, 
and reducing to ashes everything within his 
reach, within a scope of territory fifty miles 
wide by over three hundred miles long. John- 
ston's army consisted of only about half the 
strength of that of his antagonist, consequently 
he adopted tactics by which he reduced Sher- 
man's army every time that General would 
make an attack. Joseph E. Johnston acted all 
along on the defensive, but was ever ready to 
inflict severe punishment. When General Sher- 
man would force his lines of defense, thus Gen- 
eral Johnston generally ceded ground. While 
his defeats were actual victories, as the ceme- 
teries along the line of his march indicate. The 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 155 

hospitals were filling up with sick and wounded ; 
provisions became scarce, especially as our ter- 
ritory became gradually contracted. So Dr. 
Crawford came to me one morning, saying, 
"Hermann, I want to send you out on a for- 
aging expedition. Do you think you can buy up 
provisions for the hospital? I just drew my 
allowance of $10,000.00; it wont buy much at 
present prices." Yes, I can try and make it go 
as far as possible. What do you say? I 
remarked, Doctor, I will try and do my best. 
So he gave me two packages of newly struck 
Confederate money, all the way from $1,000.00 
to $5.00 bills, more money than I had ever had 
in my possession, and I was actually afraid to 
carry such sums around with me, although I 
knew it was not of much value. I also wanted 
all the linen, lint and bandages that I could get. 
I came to Washington county where I was 
known ; I put a notice in the weekly paper edited 
by J. M. G. Medlock, setting forth my mission, 
and that I would gladly receive any contribu- 
tion for the sick and wounded at the fair ground 
hospital in Atlanta, under the charge of Dr. 
Geo. G. Crawford, of the army of Tennessee, 
and that I would pay the market price to any 
who did not feel able to contribute the same free 
of charge ; that I would publish all contributions 



156 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

in the Central Georgian. I wrote to the Central 
Railroad Company's office at Savannah, asking 
them to kindly spare me two box cars, one at 
Bartow and one at Davisboro, on a certain day, 
when I would load them with provisions for the 
hospital. The officials kindly offered me the 
cars free of charge. It was on Thursday I 
came to Bartow. Mr. Sam Evans, the agent, 
gave me all his assistance, and provisions com- 
menced to rolling in. Mr. Warren from Louis- 
ville, Ga., sent me four horse wagon loads of 
flour from his mill, free of charge. Mr. Tarver, 
a large planter, brought me a heavy load of 
meats, chicken, eggs, butter, etc. Mr. B. G. 
Smith also brought me a hogshead of hams, 
shoulders and sides, the meat all nicely smoked, 
and 100 pounds of leaf lard, chickens, eggs and 
sweet potatoes, in fact the farmers of that sec- 
tion, all well to do people and slave owners, 
vied with each other as to who could do the most. 
I filled up the car that day with the choicest pro- 
visions which did not cost me a nickel. Many 
poor women would bring me the last chicken 
they had, and when I wanted to pay for the same 
refused to take the money, and regretted they 
could not do any more. They unraveled all the 
old linen table cloth and brought me bags full of 
lint and bandages. That night I forwarded the 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 157 

car under special instructions by Mr. Evans 
that it contained perishable goods, labeled for 
the hospital in Atlanta. The following day I 
went to Davisboro, G-a. "VV. C. Riddle, Simon 
Thomas, Daniel Inman, Ben Jordan, Syl 
Prince, Daniel Harris and others in that 
neighborhood proved themselves as generous 
and patriotic as the people of Bartow and 
filled my car to overflowing with all kinds of pro- 
visions, with the exception of one instance; in 
regard to his worthy family I will withhold his 
name. He was a well to do farmer and had a 
profession. He was a hot secessionist and made 
speeches to that effect. On the day of receiving 
he came up in a fine buggy, with a bushel of 
sweet potatoes. I said to him, What are they 
worth? He answered, "Four dollars," I think 
is what they are selling at. I paid the money 
and he departed, and that was all the money 
on the debit side of the $10,000.00. The same 
was published as stated in the Georgian. I 
returned to Atlanta with the last car of provis- 
ions and when I alighted from the car the hos- 
pital convalescents actually carried me on tEeir 
shoulders and would not let me walk. Dr. Craw- 
ford looked on me in wonder when I returned 
my account and gave him back the $10,000.00 
minus $4.00, and said, "Well that gives me money 



158 MEMOEIES OF A VETERAN 

to fix up my hospital as it should be. He bought 
sheets and mattresses and had the hospital ren- 
ovated and made as comfortable as money could 
make it. Under Dr. Crawford's treatment I 
again became strong and the paroxisms of pain 
gradually gave way and became less frequent 
until I really considered that I was a well man 
again. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

My cousin in Macon gave a little social 
entertainment and sent me an invitation. I 
showed the same to the Doctor, and he said, 
Well go, I give you 48 hours. The following 
morning I hurried to the Quartermaster with 
my furlough for transportation by placing my 
permission on his desk. The train just blew the 
signal for departure ; I picked up the transpor- 
tation and in my hurry left my furlough on the 
desk. Between Atlanta and Griffin the guards 
passed through the coaches to inspect all papers 
of the passengers. When they came to me I 
found my transportation in my side pocket 
minus my forty-eight hours leave of absence. I 
explained how it might have happened, and' 
hoped they would let me continue, but I was; 
requested to get off at Griffin, which I did, and 
asked the guard to conduct me to the Provost 
Marshal, so that I might explain, and he could 
inform himself, never doubting but that he 
would wire and inform himself of the cor- 
rectness of my statement and let me pro- 
ceed. Instead, he told me he had heard such 
statements before and informed the guard to 
be especially vigilant in regard to me, so I 



160 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

was conducted to an old livery stable that 
served as a prison. This was in Dec. 1863. I 
spoke to my guard if there was not a way by 
which I could communicate with Dr. Crawford 
in Atlanta; he said he did not know. I said, 
Please tell the Provost to write to Dr. Crawford 
about me. Presently one of the guards brought 
me a broom, saying, It is a rule when a new 
comer comes to make him sweep out the cala- 
boose. I said, Well this time you will have to 
break your rule. Do I understand that you 
refuse to comply? I certainly do. He went to 
the Sergt. of the Guard and made his report 
as to what passed between us. The Sergt. came 
at once, saying I understand you refuse to 
sweep out the calaboose. I certainly do; is it 
for this which I am arrested? He said, Do you 
know the penalty, sir? No, and I don't care, 
was my reply. He remarked, You'll be bucked 
and gagged for two hours. I again said, "You'll 
have a nice time doing it." He answered. Not 
so much talk ; pull off your overcoat. I said, If I 
do I'll make you feel sorry for it. All this oc- 
curred while I was standing before the fire place, 
with my hands behind me. In front of me about 
five feet distance, stood a wooden bench. The 
Sergeant stood between me and it. Calling 
for the guard to come up, they asked him 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 161 

if they should bring their guns. He said 
no, only one bring his gun. They came up. 
When the Sergeant put his hand on me as 
if to unbutton my coat. I had moistened 
the knuckles of my fingers by passing them 
between my lips, concentrated the muscles' 
tension and struck the Sergeant over the 
bridge of his nose, sending him sprawling back- 
ward over the bench, his head hitting the pave- 
ment, and I had to dodge to avoid his heels hit- 
ting me under the chin. The man who had the 
musket made a lunge at me. Fortunately I had 
a memorandum book in my side pocket which he 
hit and dented the leaves of it half way through. 
I grabbed at the gun and caught it just at the 
curve of the bayonet, close to the muscle, and 
jerked it out of his hands. I made moulinets, 
holding the gun by the barrel and bayonet, and 
drove the whole guard, consisting of twelve 
men, before me. One of them stopped at the 
rack, close to the door, which was open, to reach 
for a gun, when I hit him with the butt end on 
the arm, just below the shoulder, and sent him 
to the ground, falling as he went in the middle 
of the street. The exit of the men out of the 
guard house was so hasty it attracted the atten- 
tion of the populace so that in a very short 
space of time a crowd had assembled before the 



162 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

door, looking askance as to what had happened, 
among which was a Lieut. Colonel, judging from 
the ensign he wore. Advancing to me, who stood 
quietly at the entrance, at parade rest, he, 
undoubtedly thinking that I was the sentinel, 
asked me what was the matter, what are the 
casualties. I simply remarked, Nobody hurt on 
my side, Colonel. What is all this assemblage 
here doing? So I explained to him what had 
happened and the cause of it. He asked me 
where were the guards. I pointed out some of 
them in the crowd; they gradually approached. 
He asked some of them to lead him to the Pro- 
vost Marshal, whose name was Capt. Willis, 
which gentleman (pardon the expression), he 
berated to the utmost, telling him that he was 
not fit for a hog herder much less to be in com- 
mand of human beings, who ever heard of buck- 
ing and gagging in the Confederate Army. I 
iim going to report you to the proper authori- 
ties, and he ordered him to send me back to 
Atlanta by the next train, so that I might prove 
my assertion. The train from Macon to Atlanta 
was due within half an hour, so I was sent back 
under guard of a Lieutenant and four men with 
loaded muskets, with orders to shoot should I 
make an effort to escape. Luckily in my school 
days, which were close to an army post, I went 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 163 

twice a week to the armory to take lessons in 
boxing and sword exercise, and while I do not 
profess to be an expert in those sciences, they 
served me tolerably well in the above stated 
instance, and others through which it has been 
my misfortune to pass. Arriving in Atlanta, I 
was conducted to the Provost Marshal. The 
Lieutenant in command of the guard handed 
him a letter which the Provost read, after which 
he looked at me, standing in the middle of the 
room, and said, "Well Lieutenant, I'll take 
charge of the prisoner ; you can go back by the 
next train. The Lieutenant saluted him and he 
and his guard departed. It was between four 
and five o'clock in the afternoon. There were 
two more men at the office at their desks, and 
they soon left the room, leaving me and the 
Provost by ourselves. Turning to me he said, 
You belong to Walker's Brigade? I said, Yes, 
Howell's Battery. He said, Well I thought I 

knew you. He said, Well you got in a h 1 of 

a scrape. I answered that I did not know that 
a man losing his furlough was so criminal. He 
looked up at me in surprise, saying, This is not 
what you are charged with; you are charged 
with striking a superior officer ; do you know the 
penalty! Yes, shot if found guilty. What did 
you do it for? About that time I had been eye- 



164 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

ing my questioner all along, I thought I knew 
him but I could not place him. He was Capt. 
Beebee of a South Carolina Regiment. I 
answered him thus, "Well, Captain, I fought 
for the rights of the Confederacy for the last 
three years and thought five minutes for myself 
was not too much." I explained to him all of 
the circumstances leading to my present condi- 
tion. He exclaimed, "My God, why did you not 
kill him?" I said I did my best, I only got one 
lick at him and I give him a good one. He said 
Go over to the quartermaster's and see if you 
find your papers; if not I will give you some 
that will carry you through. I ran across the 
street, asking the quartermaster if I did not 
leave my furlough on his desk that morning. 
He opened a drawer and handed me my paper. 
I thanked him and reported my find to Capt. 
Beebee, who said, I know you are alright, you 
can go. We shook hands and I went my way to 
the fair ground hospital for the night to make a 
new start in the morning. Dr. Crawford seeing 
me said, I thought you had gone to Macon. I 
answered that I had gone a part of the way and 
was brought back under guards. How was 
that? So I recounted to him all the circum- 
stances and illustrated with a musket the pic- 
ture of the guard getting out of my reach. Dr, 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 16 5 

Crawford laughed till he cried. Well you had 
a time of it said he. I sure did, and half of my 
permit is out. He said, Well go and stay as long 
as you like it, but not too long. He wrote me 
another permit and I again made for the train 
leading to Macon. This time the guard did not 
-come aboard inspecting papers, but the train 
on arriving at Griffin was entered by the guards 
and papers were shown. I was sitting by the 
window of my coach when I heard some one say 
"Sergt. there is the fellow, the same fellow," 
pointing at me. I had not noticed the Sergt. at 
first as I was looking above and beyond him, 
and I saw him standing right close beside the 
train, in front of the window. I put out my 
head to speak to him ; he had a bandage around 
his forehead and both of his eyes were inflamed 
and discolored. I said to him, Sergt. are you 
hurt? He did not reply, so I said, I am sorry 
for you, the next time you want to have some 
fun in the bucking, gagging line you try some 
one else who likes that kind of sport better than 
I do. The train departed and nobody even 
looked at my papers that day. I arrived at 
Macon a day after the feast, but had a pleasant 
day anyhow. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Before the battle of Resaca Dr. Crawford was 
ordered to move his hospital further into the 
interior, so he located at Vineville, a suburb of 
Macon. He pitched his buildings in front of 
Mr. Burrell Jordan's premises and sent me 
again on a foraging expedition. I came again 
home to Washington County, expecting to make 
headquarters at the home of Mr. Benjamin G. 
Smith, where I was always welcome. Mr. Smith 
however, at that time seemed to be very much 
disturbed and not in his usual pleasant and 
cheerful mood. I asked him the cause of his 
troubles; he handed me a slip of paper just 
received from Lieut. Stone, recruiting agent at 
Sandersville, to be sure and report without fail 
at Sandersville on the following Thursday to be 
mustered into service. Mr. Smith was a wid- 
ower; his wife had died a couple of years pre- 
vious, leaving him an only daughter about four 
years old. Mr. Smith was the owner of about 
one hunded slaves and a very large plantation. 
He remarked to me, Hermann, I do not mind 
going to the front, but what is to become of my 
dear little Jenny among all those negroes; this 
is more than I can stand. Mr. Smith was a great 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 167 

benefactor to the indigent widows and orphans, 
and soldiers families. He contributed unstint- 
edly to the wants of those at home whose male 
persons were at the front fighting the battles 
of their country; in fact he run his whole plan- 
tation in their interest, making thousands of 
provisions which he distributed among them as 
they stood in need and without remuneration. 
This was the period of the war when everybody 
able to bear arms was called to the front, and 
the saying was, "The Government is robbing 
the cradle and the grave." Sherman was ad- 
vancing; Johnston was falling back; the people 
were clamorous for a test fight, General John- 
ston could not see the advantage of the same 
and still kept retreating. The battle of Ken- 
nesaw mountain was hotly contested, with 
severe punishment to the enemy but Johnston 
withdrew and thus fell back to the gates of 
Atlanta. Keferring again to Mr. Smith, I told 
him I thought I had a solution to his troubles. 
1 said, Carry your little girl to Mrs. Francis, 
your sister; she will take care of her. This is 
only Tuesday, we will run up to Macon tonight, 
and I will plead your cause before Governor 
Brown, who had established his headquarters 
there. I think it worth a trial anyway, you can't 
lose anything by it anyhow. This was about 



168 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

3 o'clock p. m. He at once gave orders to his 
cook to boil a ham and make biscuits and that 
night about midnight we took the train to 
Macon, Ga. We took breakfast at my cousin's 
and repaired to the Governor's headquarters. 
I saw the Governor in front of a table, exam- 
ining some papers. I said, This is Governor 
Brown? He said Yes, what will you have? I 
introduced myself, stating that I was a member 
of HowelPs Battery, and that on account of dis- 
abilities was relieved from duty and assigned 
by Dr. Crawford as foraging agent. I related 
the condition of Mr. Smith and his surround- 
ings, saying, That man is worth as much at 
home as a regiment at the front. The Gover- 
nor at once wrote on a sheet of paper, handing 
it to Mr. Smith, said, Hand this to the enrolling 
officer. It was an exemption from military duty. 
We took our leave, thanking the Governor. Mr. 
Smith was so overcome with the fact that I had 
never seen such emotion displayed by a man; 
tears ran down his cheeks, his thoughts con- 
centrated on his "Sis" as he called his little 
daughter Jenny. 

Mr. Smith lived to a ripe old age. He was of 
a very benevolent disposition. He was a relig- 
ious man but not a fanatic, quick answering and 



WAK BETWEEN THE STATES 169 

very charitable. Many now prosperous and 
substantial citizens owe their start in life to 
his munificence. He was as gentle as a woman 
but as firm as a rock in his convictions. In his 
death Washington County has sustained an 
irreparable loss and the State a true and loyal 
citizen. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

General Joseph E. Johnston was removed 
from command and General John B. Hood was 
appointed in his stead. Dr. Crawford was 
ordered to remove to Montgomery, Ala. In 
reference to the battle of Besaca I omitted to 
state that I received a letter from my friend 
B. S. Jordan, whom I had appointed as local 
agent to forward supplies for the general hos- 
pital, that his brother, Jas. P., a Capt. in the 
57th Ga. Eegt., and a dear friend of mine, was 
dangerously wounded. I at once set out in 
quest of him and found him lying on a pallet on 
the platform of the depot. He was suffering, but 
when he saw me he brightened up. I said, poor 
fellow, are you wounded badly? He said, Yes, 
and indicated the place. Now I have to refer to 
a little incident that transpired at the time when 
Capt. Jordan had organized a Company and 
was about to leave for the front: This was in 
1862. When I had already experienced one 
year's service in the 1st Ga. Regiment. I said, 
"Well, James, don't you let me hear of you being 
shot in the back. He was indignant. Never, 
replied he, emphatically. But when he indi- 
cated his wound, I remarked at once : Shot in 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 171 

the back, as I expected. Suffering as lie was, 
he laughed heartily and said I want to explain; 
I said, No explanation is necessary, the evi- 
dence is before me. He remarked, Yes, but 
I want to explain how it was done. I said 
evidently by a musket ball in the hands of 
a Yankee, and so I teased him until he 
nearly forgot all about his wound, which was 
in the fleshy part of his hip. Captain James 
P. Jordan was of a noble and chivalrous 
disposition and his Company had seen much 
hard service. He explained that they were 
ordered forward on a double quick to charge 
the enemy in their immediate front, when owing 
to some obstructions his Company got out of 
line, turning towards them to align them a ball 
had struck him and he was carried to the rear. 
I carried him to the .Vineville hospital. Dr. 
Crawford extracted the ball, and when his Uncle 
Burrell heard of his being there he had him 
removed to his home and well taken care of. 

It must be remembered matters were getting 
very squally; every available man and boy was 
called to the front. The battle of Atlanta was 
fought and lost at a great sacrifice to both sides, 
on July 21st, 1864, Gen. W. H. T. Walker on 
our side, General McPherson on the Federal 



172 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

side, were both killed. The City was sacked 
and laid into ruins as a result of the most unciv- 
ilized warfare. General Hood changed his tac- 
tics, and -after the engagement at Jonesboro he 
swung to Sherman's rear, expecting by that 
move to cut off Sherman's supplies and rein- 
forcements, and Sherman having now no army 
in front to oppose him marched through the 
length of Georgia by rapid strides to the sea, 
Savannah being his objective point. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

The prisoners at Andersonville, amounting 
to many thousand, owing to their Government 
refusing to exchange them, preferring to let 
them die in their congested condition rather 
than to release those of ours, caused untold 
hardships on those unfortunate fellows. Their 
own Government even refused to furnish them 
with the requisite medical relief and medicine 
which became unobtainable on account of the 
close cordon of blockaders guarding our ports 
of entry. It must be remembered that while we 
on the Confederate side had only seven hundred 
thousand available men, in round numbers, in 
every branch of the service, our adversary had, 
according to statistics, two million, seven hun- 
dred thousand men in the field, and while we had 
exhausted all our resources they still had the 
whole world to draw from. Neither were they 
particular then, as now, as to wha'i kind of emi- 
grants landed in Castle Garden or Ellis Island, 
but they accepted the scum of the world, paying 
fifteen hundred dollars bounty as an incentive 
to enlist in their army. Such were the condi- 
tions in the latter part of 1864. General Whee- 
ler's Cavalry was the only force that swung 



174 MEMOEIES OF A VETEBAN- 

close to Sherman's flanks, thus keeping his col- 
umns more compact and preventing them from 
doing more depredations than they did. Even 
as it was, they lived on the fat of the land, and 
as stated, wantonly destroyed what they could 
not carry along, to the detriment of the defence- 
less women and children. 

Dr. Crawford was ordered to remove his hos- 
pital to Montgomery, Alabama. I was out for- 
aging ; I was at Davisboro, Station No. 12, 
Central E. E. when a train load of the Ander- 
sonville prisoners stopped at the station. The 
train consisted of a long string of box cars. 
Davisboro was not then the prosperous little 
city it is now ; it consisted of only one dwelling 
and outhouses usually attached to a prosperous 
plantation, and a store house; it was owned 
by Mrs. Hardwick, the great grandmother of 
our now Congressman, T. W. Hardwick, an 
elderly widow lady, who for the accommodation 
of the railroad kept an eating house where the 
train hands would get their meals as the trains 
passed on schedule time. Curiosity led me to 
approach the train, which was heavily guarded 
by sentinels stationed in the open doors and on 
top of the cars, with loaded muskets, to prevent 
escapes, when I heard the grand hailing words 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 175 

of distress from an inmate of the car. Being a 
Mason, I demanded what was wanted, when 
some one appealed to me, "For God's sake give 
me something to eat, I am starving to death; 
somebody stole my rations and I have not eaten 
anything for three days." Being meal time I 
at once run in the dining room of the Hardwick 
House, picked up a plate with ham and one with 
biscuits, and ran to the train, called on the man 
in Masonic terms', and handed him the provis- 
ions that I had wrapped up in a home made 
napkin, bordered with indigo blue. It was seven 
o'clock p. m. and one could not distinguish the 
features of an individual; it was a starless, 
foggy night. After the train left I entered the 
house and excused myself for the rudeness of 
taking the provisions as I did. Mrs. Hardwick 
not having been in the dining room at the time 
I explained to her that my obligations were 
such that I had to render assistance to any dis- 
tressed Brother Mason; he applying to me as 
such; "I am now ready to pay you for all the 
damages I did," and this was her reply: "I 
don't charge you anything honey, I am glad you 
did it. ' ' But not so with her housekeeper, Miss 
Eliza Jackson, who berated me for everything 
she could think of, saying, "They had no right 
,to come here and fight us ; you are nothing but a 



176 MEMOBIES OF A VETERAN 

Yankee yourself," etc., etc. Miss Jackson was 
a long ways beyond her teens, so I said, "Mis& 
Liza, you are mad, because owing to the war 
your chances for marriage have greatly dimin- 
ished, especially with the disposition you have." 
Those present enjoyed her discomfiture. 

Usually when troops were about to be ordered 
in transit, they were issued three days rations, 
all of which were often walloped out of sight 
at one square meal on account of its meager- 
ness ; undoubtedly that is what happened to my 
Masonic Brother; he received his rations and 
someone stole them. I myself often ate at one 
meal what was intended to last me three days 
and trusted for the future. I never felt any 
remorse of conscience to get something to eat, 
if I could; I felt that the people for whom I 
devoted my services in those days, owed me a 
living, and when the authorities failed to sup- 
ply it, I took it where I could find it. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

I rejoined Dr. Crawford and he sent me out 
again. I took the train to Greenville, Alabama, 
.and walked about eight miles to Col. Bowens', 
who was an uncle of Mrs. John George. Mrs. 
George was a niece of Mrs. Braswell, where I 
boarded. She came to spend many days with 
her Aunt while I was with the family; her 
home was only about three miles distant. 
She married Mr. George and moved to But- 
ler County, Alabama. Mr. Bowen, her un- 
cle, furnished me with a horse and I rode 
-out to see them. Butler county is a sort 
of an out of the way place, and that country 
had not been overrun with soldiers, and pro- 
visions were plentiful. When I hollowed at the 
gate she recognized me at once 'and was over- 
joyed; she took me around the neck and kissed 
me. George ran out saying, "Mollie! Mollie! 
What are you doing." She said, "Never mind 
that is home folks." Poor woman, she was so 
overcome to see someone from home that she 
actually cried for joy. They were a happy fam- 
ily. I gave them all the news about their peo- 
ple, as I had just come from there. I stated 
my business and both of them set in the follow- 



178 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

ing day to assist me in my duty. Butler county, 
where they lived was a very hilly country, but 
tolerably thickly settled, and provisions came 
in by the quantities. I, with the assistance of 
my host and hostess, filled a single box of egg& 
six by three feet long and three feet high. W& 
stood every one on its end with alternate layers 
of bran and sawdust and carried them over a 
very rough road to Greenville, together with a 
great many chickens and shipped them to the 
hospital, and we only lost three dozen eggs by 
breakage. One morning we heard the report 
that the enemy, in great force, was approaching. 
People were leaving the city. With the excep- 
tion of a small garrison there was no defense^ 
Dr. Crawford had to abandon the city, removed 
all that were in condition to get away, but there 
were about a half a dozen men who were too sick 
to be removed. The enemy came into the city 
soon after we left. Dr. Crawford remarked to 
me that evening, "Herman, I am going to send 
you back to take charge of the hospital and those 
poor fellows that I could not get away." I 
demurred, saying that I did not care to be taken 
prisoner. He said, "Listen; In all civilized 
warfare the medical department is exempt from 
molestation." I said, "From the way this war 
is waged it is not altogether civilized, but I am 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 179 

under your orders ; I'll do what you want me to 
do." He said, "I'll take it as a great favor; 
I can't abandon those poor fellows, some one 
has to take care of them and administer to their 
wants." He said he did not know where he 
would locate but wherever he went I must come 
back to him. I was then about nine miles from 
Montgomery. It was late in the evening, and I 
took it afoot back." When passing through 
Macon on my way to Montgomery, I passed a 
night with my cousin, Mrs. Wurzbourg, whose 
husband was exempt from military duty on 
account of physical infirmity. My jacket which 
I wore was threadbare, and even (holy). He 
presented me with one of his blue flannel sack 
coats. I had previously been able, through Dr. 
Crawford, to get enough cloth for a pair of 
pants and vest. It was blockade goods which 
the Government had purchased, and it was 
of a coarse textile, and of a light blue cast, 
and thus I was fairly decently clothed. In 
those days the Confederate grey was very 
much lacking, and men, as well as women, 
had to wear anything, of any color they 
could get hold of. So after leaving Dr. Craw- 
ford, to return to the hospital at Montgom- 
ery, I stopped over at a cottage. The pro- 
prietor had a watch repair and jewelry shop in 



180 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

Montgomery, who owned a small plantation 
about six miles from the city. He had left the 
city for lack of business, and now lived at his 
country home. He was an Englishman, his wife 
was French. This book being written entirely 
from memory, after a lapse of about a half a 
century, I can't remember the names of those 
people, but they were very kind and hospitable. 
After supper we repaired to their little parlor. 
The house was well kept, and proved that the 
mistress of the same knew how to manage a 
home and make it comfortable. There was a 
piano, and I asked the lady, (talking French to 
her), if she would kindly play a little. So she 
asked me if I could sing some French songs ; I 
said a few. She at once repaired to the instru- 
ment, and asked me what will you have. I of 
course called for the Marseillaise, which she per- 
formed to perfection. So she asked me to sing; 
I started the melody of 

Adieu Patrie 

France Cherie 

Ou Chaque jour 

Coulait si pure 

Monhelvretie 

Douce et jolie 

Pays d 'Amour 

Ociel d azure 

Adieu, Adieu! 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 181 

Having finished that stanza I noticed she had 
quit playing and was crying; so I remarked, 
4 'Madam, had I known that my singing would 
have had such an effect I surely would not have 
sung." By way of explanation she remarked 
that her first husband was a composer and that 
the song I sang was his first effort and he 
received a prize on it. Oh those were happy 
days she said ! Her husband talked very kindly 
to her and the general conversation turned on 
Prance and of days gone by. She had lived in 
Paris and knew many business houses that I 
knew and I passed a most pleasant night. The 
following morning I sat down to a substantial 
country breakfast. We had hardly finished when 
the negro servant ran in, saying, " Master the 
Yankees are coming. They are here." Look- 
ing up the road, sure enough, a few hundred 
yards beyond where the road turned, they were 
in view. I at once, on the first impulse, jumped 
into a closet. Hardly was I in, closing the door, 
when I thought of this being the first place they 
would examine. I opened the door, and not 
knowing where to go I went into the back yard, 
between the house and the smoke house. Hardly 
had I done so when a dozen or more Yankees left 
their column entered the house very boister- 
ously. Being dressed somewhat like they were, 



182 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

in blue, lacking but the brass buttons, I entered 
the back door, unconcernedly, mixing among 
them without being detected or noticed. Some 
of the men had placed their guns in the corner 
of the room; when of a sudden my hostess run 
in by the back door, crying, "My God! They 
are taking all of my meat." I don't know what 
impelled me but I seized a gun from the corner, 
ran out of the back door, brought my weapon 
from a trail to a support, and ordered the two 
men to throw back the hams each of them had 
in their grasp, one of which acted at my com- 
mand, and the other said, What in the h 1 

you got to do with it. Before I could reply his 
comrade said to him, "Throw it down, don't 
you see he is a safe guard;" he threw down the 
hams. I took the cue from what the Yankee 
said, although it was the first time I had heard 
of a safe-guard. The door of the dwelling wide 
open, those in the house saw me walk the post 
back and forth, made their exit and left the 
house, and as long as I was guarding, no more 
Yankees tarried on the premises; they came, 
looked about and left the premises as soon as 
they saw me standing guard, until the whole 
column had passed. My host came to me say- 
ing, Well, they are all gone, thank God, I said 
no, the rear guard has not passed. The dwel- 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 183 

ling house was constructed close to the ground, 
leaving only about a foot space in front while 
the rear end was about two and a half feet from 
the ground. I took my gun and crawled under 
the house. Presently there came what I thought 
to be about a regiment, and several stragglers. 
Finally I came from under the house. I gave 
my hostess the gun I'd taken, telling her, If I 
do not call for it it shall be yours. My host took 
my hands, shook them heartily, saying, "You 
are a hero;" I laughed, saying, Well, I saved 
your bacon; Good bye; I am much obliged to 
you for your kind hospitality, and if it had not 
been for those fellows we would have had a good 
time. I started on my philanthropic errand, 
not knowing if I would find the sick men dead 
or alive. I had gone but a few hundred yards 
when I met a Federal soldier marching hastily 
to catch up. He said, Are they far ahead; I 
said, No, about five hundred yards or a quarter 
of a mile. You are going the wrong way, said 
he. I answered, I am not going far, I lost some- 
thing. Further on I met two more, who like the 
first, took me for a Federal. One said, Comrade 
you are going the wrong way. I said, I am not 
going far. How far behind are we I I said, Not 
far, a few hundred yards. And so within about 
one and a half mile I met a dozen stragglers, 



184 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

walking to catch up, all comparatively asking the 
same questions, and to which I replied alike. 
When about four hundred yards in front of me, 
and about alike in the rear of the last straggler 
I saw four horsemen, riding abreast, holding 
their carbines by the barrel and resting the butt 
on their thighs. I recognized them as Confed- 
erates. I walked up to them, asking, What 
troops do you belong to? Harvey's Scouts of 
Porrests' Cavalry, was their reply. Are there 
any others behind? Yes. How fnr? The rear 
of the enemy's column is about two miles ahead 
of you, said I, and there are about a dozen strag- 
glers, some with >guns, and some have none; 
they are separated several hundred yards apart, 
some single and some in pairs ; if you spur up 
you can catch the whole gang; I'll tell those men 
ahead of me to hurry up. Where is Capt. Har- 
vey? You'll find him in the Exchange Hotel, 
in town. They at once put spurs to their horses 
and galloped on, and I followed my course 
towards the city. I met the reinforcements 
some little distance ahead of me, and reported 
what I had seen and told their advance scouts. 
They all went at full speed, and later, I saw the 
whole gang of stragglers brought in. I asked 
Capt. Harvey what had become of the inmates 
at the hospital. He said he did not know for he 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 185 

had just arrived that morning. I went to the 
hospital, found things in rather bad shape and 
the inmates gone. After careful investigation 
I heard that the Ladies Belief Association had 
taken care of the sick and that they were well 
provided for. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Dr. Crawford followed General Hood's army 
and established headquarters at Corinth, Miss. 
I followed at once, as soon as I could locate 
him. I bought what provisions I could along 
the stations. At Columbus, Miss., some Feder- 
als who came there to tear up the track fired in 
the train as we passed; several of the passen- 
gers were wounded but General Forrest 
appeared at that moment on the scene and 
routed the enemy, killing and wounding quite a 
number of them, and thus preventing the 
wreckage of the railroad track. The car I rode 
in was riddled with bullets, but I escaped 
unhurt; several of the passengers had a close 
call. 

While at Corinth I was deputized to carry a 
message to the front, this side of Franklin, Ten- 
nessee. I arrived in time where General Beau- 
ford's men had a brush with the enemy. A stray 
bullet hit me in the thigh, and for a time I 
thought I was seriously hurt. I was close to 
a little stream of water. I had my leg tied above 
the wound with my handkerchief and put it in 
the running stream. A surgeon came to probe 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 187 

my wound, but trembled like a man having the 
palsy, and I told him he must not touch me any 
further; he could hardly put his probe in the 
hole made by the bullet. After a while I was 
picked up and sent to the rear where I was cared 
for by Dr. Crawford, who was very sorry and 
regretted having sent me. My wound was doing 
so well and there was no inflammation taking 
place, and by keeping cold applications on it I 
was able to be about in less than two weeks. Dr. 
Crawford said I did the best thing that could be 
done by keeping inflammation down by putting 
my leg in the stream. The wound did so well 
that he would not bother it to extract the ball, 
and so I still carry it as a memento of the war. 
While at Corinth the ladies of Washington 
county sent me a box. The battle of Franklin 
was fought and a victory dearly bought. Two 
weeks later the battle of Nashville was fought, 
and General Hood's magnificent army nearly 
annihilated. They came through Corinth the 
worst conditioned men I ever laid my eyes upon. 
There I met Lieut. John T. Gross of this County 
and Capt. Joe Polhill of Louisville, Ga., and 
about twenty of their command. They were 
hungry and in rags; I said, ''Boys, you are in a 
bad fix." Capit. Polhill said, "Ike, can you tell 
me where I can get something to eat; I am 



188 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

starved." I said I had just heard that there 
was a box in the depot for me, let us see what is 
in it. I took fthe crowd up to the hospital and all 
got something to eat. The hospital wagon went 
to the depot and got the box. It was a large 
box, and was filled to the top with clothes and 
eatables. Lieut. Gross, who was barefooted, 
I supplied with a pair of broken shoes. Many 
of the provisions were cooked. I took out some 
checked shirts and knit socks and a pair of 
pants and jacket and divided the rest among the 
boys, who were all from Jefferson and Wash- 
ington counties, and even to this day Capt. Pol- 
hill declares I saved his life. He is still one of 
the Vets, and a useful and honored citizen of 
Louisville, Ga. 

Corinth at that time when I saw it, was only 
a railroad station with an improvised station 
house or warehouse. A few chimneys here and 
there indicated where had previously stood 
some houses. It is not far from the Tennessee 
river, about ten miles from Shiloh, where Albert 
Sidney Johnson, from Texas, -was killed and 
General Beauregard saved the day. During 
my convalescence I walked over some of the bat- 
tle ground. Being tired I sat down on a log. 
There were two logs touching each other length- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 189 

ways. They had been large trees, about two and 
a half to three feet in diameter. Playing on the 
ground with my crutch I unearthed a bullet; 
presently I scratched up another. I noted that 
the logs were riddled with bullets. I picked up 
over one hundred pounds of musket balls in a 
space not over twenty-five feet square. How any 
escaped such a shower of lead in such a small 
place can't be possible. Undoubtedly those logs 
had served as a protection behind which those 
brave fellows sent forth in the ranks of their 
adversaries a similar amount of death dealing 
missiles. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

This brings us towards the last part of De- 
cember, 1864. When General Hood planned his 
campaign to the rear of General Sherman, in- 
stead of following General Johnston's tactics 
and thns leaving the balance of the State of 
Georgia to the tender mercies of our adversa- 
ries, who had no mercy or respect for age nor 
sex, but wantonly destroyed by fire and sword 
whatever they could lay their hands on, save the 
booty and relics with which they were loaded. 
Howell's battery, on account of their horses 
being exhausted, could not follow General 
Hood's army into Tennessee, and were ordered 
to Macon to recruit. This Company had seen ar- 
duous service from Chickamauga to Atlanta, in- 
cluding Jonesboro. After the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, one of the hardest contests of the war, 
in which the confederate forces were successful, 
Howell 's battery had the honor to open the bat- 
tle from the extreme right, on the 18th day of 
September, 1863. On the 19th, which was on 
Saturday, the fight was progressing furiously, 
with no results, both armies holding their own, 
but on Sunday morning our forces centered their 
attack on the enemy's center, charged through 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 191 

their lines and rolled them back in complete dis- 
order, and the victory was ours. General Bragg 
rested his forces for a few days and renewed the 
fight around Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain 
and Missionary Ridge. He found the enemy 
well fortified and ready. The battle was a san- 
guinary one; Howell's battery besides losing 
two pieces of artillery, which were recovered in 
the evening and returned to us, lost in wounded, 
Leonidas Hines, Frank Bailey and Corporal 
Braswell, and captured James Mullen, John S. 
Kelley, John Tompkins and John Braswell. 
That night General Bragg withdrew as quietly 
as possible and went into camp at Dalton, where 
we spent in winter quarters. At Macon they did 
provost duty under direction of General Howell 
Cobb. The writer drifted back through Ala- 
bama expecting to rejoin Dr. Crawford as soon 
as he would locate, and being intercepted by 
Federal troops I reported to the nearest Confed- 
erate post, which proved to be General Beau- 
fort from Kentucky, a cavalry officer at Union 
Springs, Alabama. General Abe Beaufort was 
of colossal stature and an able officer, so I re- 
ported to him for duty until I could join my 
proper command. He said, Have you a horse? 
We are cavalry. I said, No, but I expect to get 
one the first fight we get into. He laughed and 



192 MEMOIRS OF A VETEHAST 

said, Well, you can hang around here. I stayed 
at his quarters several days. One day he seemed 
to be worried more than usual; I ventured to 
say, " General, You seem to be worried over 
something." He said, "I have enough to worry 
about; there is General Forrest at Selma;! have 
sent him two couriers and neither of them have 
reported; I don't know what became of them, 
whether they have been captured, killed or run 
away. I want to hear from General Forrest so 
that we can act in concert of action." The Fed- 
erals who held possession of Montgomery under 
General Wilson's corps d'army, who later cap- 
tured President Jefferson Davis in Irwin Coun- 
ty, Ga., during the several days of my hanging 
around at General Beaufort's Headquarters, he 
Disked me how long I had been in the service. I 
said, "I joined the first Company that left my 
county and the first regiment that left my 
State." How long had you been in this coun- 
try before the war broke out 1 I answered that I 
came to Georgia direct from France in the Fall 
of 1859, about sixteen months before I enlisted. 
I found in this country an ideal and harmonious 
people ; they treated me as one of their own ; in 
fact for me, it was the land of Canaan where 
milk and honey flowed. In the discussion of the 
political issues I felt, with those that I was in 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 193 

contact with, that they were grossly imposed 
upon by their Northern brethren and joined my 
friends in their defence, and so here I am, some- 
what worsted, but still in the ring. I said, Gen- 
eral I have an idea; I think I can carry a dis- 
patch that will land. I have in my possession at 
home my French passport. I can write for it 
and use it by going squarely through their lines, 
as being an alien. I can change my clothes for 
some citizens clothes. After a little reflection 
General Beaufort said, "Hermann, you are an 
angel; it's the very idea." So we arranged to 
write at once for my pass. It came in due time. 
The lady of the house where the General kept 
his quarters furnished me with a suit of jeans 
cloth, but begged the General not to send me for 
fear I might meet with reverses. But the Gen- 
eral said, He is all right, he can work the scheme. 
That night I started about ten o'clock, on horse- 
back, with two escorts. It was a starlight night. 
We passed for some distance through a dense 
swamp. The General cautioned me to be careful 
and on the lookout, an admonition I thought en- 
tirely unnecessary. He said the enemy's camp 
was about twelve miles distant, and that they 
had a company of scouts out that night, and so 
had we, but as we journeyed along at a walk the 
lightning bugs were so thick as to blind a fellow 



194 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

anJ the swamp so dark that we could only desig- 
nate the road by the distance and open space of 
the tree tops and the stars. We did not how- 
ever, meet any of the scouts. On emerging 
from the swamp I noticed on my right a small 
farm cottage and a dim light through the cracks 
of the door, I dismounted, knocked at the door. 
At first no one answered. I knocked again when 
a lady's feeble voice answered, Who is there? A 
friend, was the reply. Open the door please. The 
door opened and there stood in front of me an 
old lady of about seventy, I judged, nearly 
scared to death, trembling from head to foot. To 
re-assure her I said, Madam, we are Southerners 
flon't be frightened, we won't do you any harm. 
Can you tell me how far it is from here to the 
enemy's camp? She answered very excitedly 
that she had nothing to do with the war, she is 
only a lone woman and we can't cheat her out of 
many years. You all have stolen all my meat 
and did not leave me a mouthful of corn or meat, 
and I am left here to starve to death. I said, 
But we are Confederates; but I noticed the 
woman did not believe me, undoubtedly owing 
to my brogue, as there were thousands of for- 
eigners in the federal army. I lit a match and 
scrutinized the ground and noted the doors of 
the outhouse wide open, houses empty and the 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 195 

ground churned into dust by the horses hoofs. 
Undoubtedly we were not far from the enemy, 
as they were there that day and looted the prem- 
ises. I bid the lady good night and joined my 
escort who waited for me in the road. As I was 
about to mount my horse I perceived ahead of 
me through the limbs of the trees, a bright 
light. The lady was still standing in the door, 
and I asked her what that light was we saw- 
ahead of us. She said they were the negro 
quarters about a quarter of a mile ahead, and I 
thanked her and we moved a little forward and 
held consultation as to what was best to do, 
whether they should return to camp leading my 
horse back and I to take it afoot or whether we 
had better go together to the quarters, probably 
they might get a few potatoes and some butter- 
milk, for be it understood that we belonged to 
the hungry army where rations became very 
scarce, for as a rule the Confederate soldier 
respected private property and often suffered 
hunger rather than appropriate property be- 
longing to others. They concluded they might 
buy something to eat from the darkies. The 
negroes in those days, as before the war, always 
had a surplus of provisions. They were well 
fed, in fact most of them made their own provis- 
ions with the exception of meat, their owner 



196 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

allowing them patches and giving them time to 
cultivate the same for their own use or to sell 
with their master's permission, which was gen- 
erally only a matter of form or respect. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

In keeping my eyes to the front watching the 
light, we came to an open field on the right. On 
the left of the road was a dense forest. I noted 
some one crossing the light and heard some one 
screaming and hollering like negroes carous- 
ing. Presently the same person recrossed and 
I thought there must be some Federals about 
there and we stopped to consult. I conclude 
that I would take it afoot and reconnoiter while 
my escort would enter the woods where we stood 
and wait for me until I returned. I took the 
darker side of the road along the woods until I 
arrived close to the premises, and I circum- 
vented the place. I noted a double pen log house 
with a large chimney at one end and a rousing 
lightwood fire in it. A step over fence about five 
rails high surrounded the yard in which stood 
a very large oak tree, the limbs of which hung 
low, a little above a man's head. To those limbs 
were hitched three splendid horses. In the 
house were three Federals, enjoying their sur- 
roundings. The house had a front and back en- 
trance and the fire in the chimney cast its light 
some distance, front and rear, around the prem- 
ises. I hurried back to my comrades and made 



198 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

my report as above, and I suggested a line of 
action as follows : We will leave our horses on 
the road side, about two hundred yards this 
side the house. One of us will enter the back 
side as I enter the front, and one of you follow 
me ; Are you willing. If you do as I say we will 
capture those fellows without firing a shot. The 
youngest of the escort was a young man of about 
19 years; the other was 21 years old. The 
younger said, General Beauford told us to obey 
your orders, and I am ready to do what you tell 
me to do. I said, Bravo, my boy. The other 
one was silent, I remarked, what do you say? 
He tried to answer but his teeth chattered and 
he was trembling so he could hardly speak. I 
said, What is the matter with you, are you 
scared? He said, No, I am excited. You must 
compose yourself if you follow my advice and 
do exactly what I say and we will capture those 
fellows without firing a gun, but there must be 
no wobble, or they may turn the joke on us. I 
told the youngest to hold his gun ready for use 
and to make a detour around the house and face 
the back entrance, and I would give him time to 
get in position, and as I enter the front door he 
must enter the back door, and we must get the 
drop on them, otherwise they might get it on us. 
I told the other fellow to follow me and do as I 



"WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 199 

do and not to fire unless I do. I carried a couple 
of colts pistols. As we entered the negro women 
and the men were sitting on benches before the 
fire, when I exclaimed, surrender! in the mean- 
time covering them with my pistols and the 
guns of my comrades. They jumped as if 
lightning has struck them. "Unbuckle your 
weapons or you are dead men; be quick about 
it. ' ' My orders were executed with alacrity and 
we marched them out of the house. In the far 
end of the house I spied a plow line hanging 
from a nail in the wall. I appropriated the 
same and we unhitched the horses and walked 
to where ours were. Not a word was spoken 
by either of us. The horses were brought for- 
ward and the prisoners mounted. The plow line 
served to pinion their legs under the animals be- 
low. All this was done as quickly as possible. 
When the prisoners realized that we were but 
three, one of them commenced being obtrusive 
and talking loud and abusive. I cautioned him 
and his comrades that unless they moved along 
quietly and not talk above a whisper we would 
be compelled to leave them by the roadside, for 
some one, unknown to us, to bury them. My 
admonition had a good effect, and our cavalcade 
advanced in a lope, one leading the horses, the 
prisoners were riding by the bridle reins, and 



200 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

I and the other man closing up the rear. I was 
fearful ; of meeting some of their scouting par- 
ties, of which General Beaufort advised me of 
on our departure, but it seemed that they were 
in some other direction from us, for we noted the 
firmament in every direction lit up by an aurora 
borealis from the burning houses those* mis- 
creants set afire. When arriving close to our 
pickets we halted. I sent one of my escort in 
advance to announce our arrival so as not to be 
fired into, as it was only day break and still too 
dark to be recognized. I rode at once to Gen- 
eral Beaufort's headquarters to report. He was 
still in bed ; the guard admitted me. He said, I 
thought you were on your way to Selma. I said, 
General, I met with an accident and came back. 
An accident said he ! So I stated that acciden- 
tally I captured three Federals and got me a 
horse at my first opportunity. He got up and 
dressed, had the prisoners brought before him 
and commenced questioning them but they were 
very reticent and evaded many of his questions. 
General Beaufort was very anxious to find out 
the strength of his adversary in his immediate 
front and their destination. I suggested that I 
change my clothing for the uniform of one of the 
prisoners who was my size, and ride in their 
line. He said, That is a very dangerous busi- 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 201 

ness ; if you are trapped they will hang you. I 
said, I am in for the war; life as it is is not 
worth much, I'll take the chances. So that night 
after midnight I passed again our videttes, in 
company with two escorts who accompanied me 
for company sake for a few miles, when they 
returned to camp and I went it alone. After 
passing the cottage of the old lady where we 
sought information, the previous night, I put 
my horse at full speed and passed the negro 
quarters. No one was astir and I continued my 
course for about three miles when I saw some 
obstruction in the road on the brow of the hill. 
Halt, was the command. I halted, at within 
about seventy-five yards. Who comes. A friend. 
Seeing that I was alone I was asked to advance. 
As I approached I noted that there was a rail 
fence across the road, behind which were two 
sentinels, their muskets pointing at me. I re- 
marked as I crossed the fence, Didn't I have a 
race; those four rebels run me clean to nearly 
where I am. My horse was steaming wet. I 
said, You see that fire yonder; we set the gin 
house afire when the rebels came up and gave 
me a hot chase. The sentinels were all excite- 
ment and kept their eyes to the front. I had 
dismounted and placed myself in line with them. 
I could have killed them both but that was not 



202 MEMORIES OP A VETERAN 

my object. Finally, seeing no one coming, I 
said they must have gone back. I mounted my 
steed and slowly rode up, in a walk, where I 
saw what I thought was the main camp, but it 
was only what was known as the grand guard of 
about a half a regiment of cavalry. Taking in 
the surroundings at a glance I noted the horses 
hitched in the corners of the fence along the 
road and the men some lying, some sitting on 
improvised seats around their camp fire. I at 
once rode to an empty corner in the fence and 
hitched my horse and walked to a fire where 
most of the men were lying down, seemingly 
sleeping. There lay one empty blanket on the 
ground and I laid myself down on it, facing the 
fire, which felt pretty good, for I was chilled, the 
night being cold. As I pretended to take a nap 
some fellow gave me a hunch with his foot, say- 
ing, Hello comrade, you are lying on my blan- 
ket. I grunted a little and turned some further 
when he pulled the blanket from under me. 
This seemingly roused me, and I was wide 
awake. I stretched out my arms as if I were 
yawning, addressing myself to the men next to 
me, "This is a terrible life to lead. Where are 
we going? To Savannah. I heard some say 
Savannah. That is in Georgia, a long ways 
from here ; I am afraid some of us will never get 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 203 

there ; I heard that there is an army of fifteen 
thousand rebels ahead of us within fifteen miles 
of here. ' ' He answered, That would not amount 
to much with what we have. I thought I would 
stretch as far as I could reasonably do so, for 
General Beauford's force was only 1,500 strong. 
You say that would not amount to much with 
what we have to oppose them? He said Wil- 
son's Corps amounts to nearly 25,000. 0, not 
that much. He commenced to enumerate dif- 
ferent regiments, the number of cannon, etc., 
etc. All at once I heard the bugle blast ' ' Call to 
Horse," and everything was active. What's the 
matter I said, seeing everybody catching their 
horses? He answered, Did you not get three 
days rations? I said, Yes. Well we are going 
to advance. I run to my horse and mounted. I 
felt that I had to advise General Beauford of 
this move, and not to pass the picket post that I 
did coming in I took down the railroad track 
which run parallel the wagon road some dis- 
tance, but to my surprise there was a vidette 
post there of two sentinels. They halted me, 
saying, You can't pass. I remarked that they 
will be relieved in a few minutes, that our forces 
are advancing. There being a nice spring of 
water in sight, just to the left of the road I 
wanted to fill my canteen full of water. The road 



204 MEMOIRS OF A VETEBAN 

being very dusty I suggested that I would fill 
theirs if they wished me to in the meantime. 
I'll be back in a few seconds. So they handed 
me their canteens and I put the spurs to my 
horse. Further on I turned to the left into the 
wagon road and post haste and at full gallop 
rode into our camp, which was twelve miles 
ahead of me. The cap which I had borrowed 
from one of our prisoners was a little too big 
for my head and in my haste to reach camp blew 
off. I did not stop to pick it up, but reached 
camp in about three quarters of an hour. It 
still being a little before day a bullet passed me 
in close proximity and I knew that I was close to 
our lines. I stopped and held up both hands. 
The bad marksmanship of the sentinel saved 
me from being shot. I at once rode up to the 
General's quarters, was admitted by the senti- 
nel and made my report. He was still in bed, 
but he got up and ordered two companies of 
Col. Armistead's Regiment to the front and de- 
ployed into a skirmish line. In less than an 
hour we heard the firing. All the forces were 
astir, and we withdrew towards West Point, 
Georgia, thus giving the enemy the right of way. 
The General asked me if I held any commission. 
I said, Yes, high private in the rear ranks. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 205 

Well, I '11 see that you will be promoted when I 
make my report to the war department. I need 
a hundred men just like you. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

That evening I donned my disguise as 
a citizen, and advanced, as before, to go 
through their lines as an alien. I rode as 
before as far as my judgment would permit 
to prevent the capture of my escort, when 
I took it afoot to carry out the program 
first suggested. I walked about four miles and 
day was breaking. As two nights previous, the 
country indicated depredations by fires. When 
I again, as the night before, saw obstructions in 
front of me, I walked within twenty-five or 
thirty paces up to it when I was commanded to 
halt and challenged as to who comes there, 
their muskets pointing at me. I said, "Me no 
speaky English, je parle Francais." Where 
are you going? Me no stand English. They 
made me a sign to sit down by the side of the 
obstructive fence, after having let me cross their 
barricade. About fifteen minutes later an offi- 
cer with the relief guard came up. Who's that 
you got there? How did he get here? They 
answered I walked up. He is a foreigner and 
can 't speak our language. Turning to me he said, 
where are you going? " Je ne comprenspas, je 
parle francais." So he made me signs to fol- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 207 

low him, which I did. He conducted me to a 
large camp fire where I saw several men guard- 
ing others and recognized them to be Confede- 
rates. This was the first time I felt my danger; 
I was afraid that there might be some among 
the prisoners that might have seen me before 
and might recognize me. However my fears 
were without cause as I did not know any of 
them. About eight o'clock a. m., the Provost 
Marshall General came around and addressed 
himself to me. Who are you, said he. As be- 
fore, I said je parle francais. Oh, you are a 
Frenchman. Well, I will get some one that can 
speak to you. He ordered one of the guards to 
go to a Canadian Company and ask the Captain 
to send him a man that could speak French and 
English. Presently a young soldier presented 
himself. The Provost took him aside and I pre- 
tended not to notice them. They stepped to 
within a few paces of me ; when I heard the Pro^ 
vost say to him, Pump him. I thought, He will 
be welcome to all he will get out of me. He 
stepped up to me and talked to me in French. 
I appeared to be so glad to meet one I could talk 
to, that I did not give him an opportunity to 
ask me a single question. I told him how I came 
here in the fall of 1859, pulling out my passport 
which he scrutinized and handed over to the 



208 MEMOIKS OF A VETERAN 

Provost, who in turn looked at the same. I told 
him that I made a mistake coming here, that the 
people made it very unpleasant to me because I 
would not enlist; that I had to leave Georgia, 
and I am now on my way to New Orleans, which 
I heard the port was open so as to see the 
French consul to assist me back to France ; that 
I am tired of this land where people murder 
each other. During all of our conversation the 
Provost said, What does he say. My inter- 
locutor explained and then they all would laugh. 
Finally I said that I was hungry, that I had had 
nothing to eat in 24 hours. So the Provost said, 
Boys, can you fix up something for him among 
you, and they all contributed some from their 
rations and filled my haversack full of substan- 
tial food, and besides contributed $10.00 in 
money. I thanked them and started off, after 
being told that I could go, but as I was appar- 
ently green I asked my questioner how far I 
was from New Orleans 'and if there were any 
more places where I might be delayed, when 
the Provost intervened with his, What did he 
say? Which after being explained to him, he 
said, I had better give him a pass, they might 
take him up on the other end of the line, and so 
he wrote on a slip of paper, "Pass the bearer 
through the line," and signed his name in such 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 209 

ehirography that I could not read it. I arrived 
into Montgomery late that afternoon, and re- 
ported, as per previous arrangement with Col. 
Paul to Judge Pollard, whose daughter he mar- 
ried, and told that family how the boys were 
getting along. Judge Pollard was a stately old 
gentleman of great prominence in that section 
of the country. He received me in his large li- 
brary and we had quite a long conversation 
over the situation. I told him that I was directed 
to him with the understanding that he would 
provide me with a horse so that I might continue 
my journey to Selma. He shook his head and 
said I'll see what can be done, but I don't be- 
lieve there is a horse to be got within ten miles 
of here ; the Yankees stole every horse and mule 
they could lay their hands on, and sure enough 
he was unable to furnish me with an animal, but 
thought I might, by making a long detour be- 
yond the flanks of the enemy's columns, be able 
to proceed. That morning one of the ladies pre- 
sented me with a tobacco bag, made out of a 
piece of pink merino, and the initials of my 
name embroidered on it with yellow silk and 
filled with smoking tobacco, and a shaker pipe 
stuck in it. It was quite a novelty and was 
highly appreciated. After having partaken of 
a substantial breakfast I bid my host and his 



210 MEMORIES OF A VETERAN 

family good bye, visited my friends Faber, 
Lewellen, Coleman and other acquaintances of 
the city, all of which had their tales of woe and 
sufferings to account at the hands of the enemy. 
I departed for Selma on foot. I was weary and 
depressed. I heard that I was again in close 
proximity to the enemy who routed Forrest 
from that city and came within a fraction of 
either killing or capturing him. He was sur- 
rounded by four troopers who demanded his sur- 
render, when he threw his saber, spurred his 
horse and run the gauntlet among a shower of 
bullets. I heard that in the melee he received a 
saber cut in the face. I felt sick at heart and 
physically worn out and took a rest and wended 
my way to Col. Bowen,, who was glad to see me 
and offered me all the comforts to recruit my 
strength. I remained there nearly a week. I 
really did not know where to report to, General 
Beauford being on the retreat before Wilson's 
corps who came from via Pensacola, Florida. 
I was surrounded on every side, so I concluded 
to retrace my way back to Montgomery but when 
a few miles from Greenville as I emerged from 1 
a long lane at the end of which the road turned 
into a forest I noted some Federal soldiers. I 
came within a very short distance of them be- 
fore seeing them; my first impulse was to run 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 211 

back, but I was tired, it being a warm day and 
nothing to protect me from the bullets, having 
an open lane where they might play at my flee- 
ing figure. I concluded to give up on demand, 
but on close approach, seeing that they were 
negro troops I regretted not having taken chan- 
ces, however great, of escape, especially when 
I was asked to surrender my arms, which con- 
sisted of a couple of colts 6 inch pistols, one of 
which I carried in a scabbard buckled around 
me and the other in the belt of my pants, which 
were tucked in my boot legs. In unbuckling my 
belt I contracted my body allowing the one in 
my pants to slide down my leg into my boot and 
thus only surrendered one of them. The other 
I carried on as I marched. The friction of the 
barrel on the ankle of my foot gave me excru- 
tiating pains but I continued on until I could 
feel the blood on the inside of my boot. There 
were other prisoners, among them General Pil- 
low and his son, George. Arriving in Montgom- 
ery we were locked up in the Lehman Brothers 
building which had served as a shoe factory for 
the Confederate Government. I intended to use 
my weapon at the first opportunity I saw to gain 
my liberty. That night I asked for a doc for to 
dress my wounded foot. He came and asked me 
how that happened. My socks adhered to the 



212 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

wounds and the pains it gave me were unbeara- 
ble. I told him I had snagged myself. He 
dressed my wound and I felt relieved to a great 
extent. The next morning I sent word to my 
friend Faber to come to see me and he did so. I 
said to him to see if he could not get me a parole, 
after he had told me that he had had some Yan- 
kee officers quartered at his house, saying that 
they were all Western men and seemed to be 
clever fellows. He promised to use his influence. 
Presently he returned with an officer and I wad 
turned out on parole, but to report every morn- 
ing at nine o'clock. The following morning 1 
reported, when the officer commanded one of the 
men to take charge of me and lock me up. 1 
thought the jig was up, that probably I had been 
reported by some one and that I might fare the 
worst for it. There were fifty prisoners; we 
were all called out to form into line and from 
that into column, and marched up the hill to the 
capitol, where we received some salt pork and 
hard tack to last us three days. We were iii 
formed that we would be sent to Ship Island, a 
country of yellow fever, close to New Orleans in 
retaliation of Andersonville, there to take the 
chances to live or die; undoubtedly they would 
have preferred the latter. About one o'clock p. 
m. a courier rode up to the capitol. followed by 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 213 



another. Presently \ve were in formed thai 
war was over, that General Lee had surrendered 
and that Lincoln was assassinated and instead 
of being sent to Ship Island we were to be pa- 
roled under promise not to take up arms again 
against the United States, until properly ex- 
changed. This brings us up to the early part 
of June 1865, or latter part of May. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Thus it will be noted that while the war was 
over in the East, we of the Western army didn't 
know it and were still fighting, all communica- 
tion between the two armies being cut off. My 
friend Faber, who was one of the most popular 
citizens of Montgomery was afterwards elected 
Mayor of the City. The following morning I 
prepared to wend my way back to Georgia. My 
foot was inflamed and gave me pain, so I said to 
a Yankee Sergeant who was in waiting on some 
of the officers there if he could not manage to 
get me some piece of a horse to ride as I was a 
long ways from home and in a crippled condi- 
tion. He said, Yes, if I would give him my 
watch, which was an open faced, old fashioned 
English lever, generally called bulls-eye. I ac- 
quiesced. We marched down one of the main 
thoroughfares. We halted before an establish- 
ment which was used as a guard house and pre- 
viously had served as a store. In its front on 
the sidewalk was a cellar. The Sergeant asked 
them to bring out that horse, and in the mean- 
time asked me for the watch. Thinking of him 
as a clever, sympathetic soul, owing to his 
prompt offer of assistance, I unhesitatingly 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 215 

handed him my watch. They having entered the 
cellar, they lifted out of its confines a frame of 
horse so poor that six men took him bodily and 
placed him on the sidewalk. He was actually 
nothing but skin and bones; I was astonished 
that life could have existed in such a frame. I 
said, Is this the best you can do for me? He 
said, I promised you a horse for your watch and 
here he is, and he left me. The men were amused 
at my discomfiture. I finally concluded that a 
bad ride is better than a good walk and I made 
the best of a bad bargain. I asked the men if 
they could get me a bridle and saddle. They an- 
swered that they had none, so I made me a hal- 
ter out of the rope around his neck, pulled off 
my coat as padding on either side of his sharp 
backbone so as to serve me as a saddle and asked 
the man next to me to give me a lift, and there 
I was, mounted, representing the picture of Don 
Quixote to perfection. I urged the horse for- 
ward and the men hollered Whoa! which com- 
mand he was only too eager to obey, I eventually 
got away from that place and took the Eufaula 
route homeward. It was four o'clock in the 
afternoon and I was only four miles from my 
starting point. The animal had neither eat nor 
drunk anything while in my possession and from 
his looks probably not in several days previous. 



216 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

I saw as I passed along at a snail gait, a corral 
by the side of the road, with all kinds of con- 
traband. There were negroes, women and chil- 
dren, cattle of all description and a quantity of 
mules and horses, all encircled by a large rope 
and guarded by sentinels. I passed a soldier 
about a half mile from this place. I said to him, 
What troops are those on the right hand side up 
the hill? He said they were cavalry. I con- 
cluded to ride up, that probably I might induce 
the officer to exchange animals with me so as to 
enable me to get along, for I came to the con- 
clusion to abandon my steed and take a bad walk 
in preference to a bad ride. As I approached 
the camp I noticed a man sitting on a camp stool, 
his back towards me, his feet propped up 
against a large tree, reading a newspaper and 
seemingly greatly preoccupied as he did not 
hear my approach. He was in negligee, it being 
a very warm day ; he wore nothing but his pants 
and a spotted white blouse shirt and was bare- 
headed. I left my horse by the side of a stump 
and slid off, approaching within a respectful 
distance in his rear, I said, Good evening. He 
jumped like he had been shot. I said excuse me 
sir, I did not mean to scare you. So he peremp- 
torily said, What will you have? I answered, 
Are you the commander of these troops? He 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 217 

said, Yes ; what will you have? I answered that 
I was a paroled prisoner on my way home ; that 
I was crippled and had a long ways to go. The 
horse I got I bought from one of the Federals 
for a silver watch. It took me a whole day to 
get from the City to where I am; that I had 
noted, coming along, a corral with many loose 
horses and mules and I ventured to see if he 
would not be kind enough to furnish me with a 
better mount than the one I possessed. He re- 
plied, What country are you from! I am from 
France. How long have you been in the army ? 
Ever since the war started. Were you forced 
into the army or did you volunteer? I volun- 
teered sir. And you have been fighting us for 
over four years and now come and ask me for a 
favor I You need not grant it ; good bye. And 
off I hobbled to where I left my horse taking 
him by the mane I led him up to the stump and 
was about to mount when the officer commanded 
me, Come back here, said he, I like your style. 
You are the first one I've met but what was 
forced into the army. Tell the officer in charge 
of the corral to exchange animals with you. I 
remarked, Colonel, a written order from you 
might have a better effect. He laughed, got up 
and walked into his tent and when he returned 
he handed me a slip of paper addressed to Capt. 



218 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

Ledger, and read as follows: Exchange ani- 
mals with the bearer; Col. York, Com'd'g 7, 
Indiana Cavalry. I thanked him, gave the mili- 
tary salute and retraced my steps towards the 
corral. I presented my note to the Capt. in 
charge; he said, Pick out the one you want. 
There were some excellent animals but many 
were galled and not serviceable for any immedi- 
ate use. I spied a medium sized, plump mule. 
She was in excellent order, and as I was short 
in funds I thought I could tether her out to eat 
grass and thus progress without having to buy 
food. So I took the mule. I asked him if he 
would furnish me with a saddle and bridle, and 
he let me have nearly a new Mexican saddle and 
bridle and I was once more in good shape. Capt. 
Ledger asked me where I was going. I said, 
Home, in Georgia. Which way? I am on my 
way to Eufaula. So he said, I believe I'll ride a 
piece of the way with you. He had his horse 
caught, which was a magnificent animal. Riding 
along side by side I remarked, Captain that is 
a splendid horse you are on. He said, Yes, I 
have a pair, you could not tell one from the 
other; they are spirited animals but perfectly 
gentle. Their owner must have prized them 
highly ; some of the men picked them up. That's 
a new name for stealing, said I. He remarked, 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 219- 

I suppose so, but if I could find out their owner 
I am going to return them to him ; I am making; 
some effort towards it. I said, Well sir, it does 
me good to hear you say so, and to know that 
there are some men of feeling, and gentlemen 
among your army. He said, Well, war is war. 
It is true that many acts were committed unnec- 
essarily harsh, but I am glad it is over and I 
hope we will all be friends again. He stopped, 
saying, Well, I have ridden far enough, and I 
am going back. We shook hands, he wished me 
a safe journey and cantered back to his camp. 
It was already late and I proceeded as far as 
Fort Browder and stopped over night with Mr. 
Tom Wells. His wife was also a Georgian and 
a kinswoman of the Braswell family. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

The following morning after bidding my 
host good bye I took the road to Union Springs. 
On my way I caught, up with General Pillow, 
who was riding in a carriage drawn by two fine 
mules, and his son George, who was riding 
horseback. I said, Hello! On your way home? 
He answered, Yes. What route are you going! 
We are trying to make Union Springs for to- 
night ; father is not very well and we are making 
short stations. I remarked, I am surprised 
they left you your horse. He said, They left us 
our side arms and let father have his carriage 
and mules and me my horse. I rode up to the 
carriage, shook hands with the old General, 
whose head was as white as snow, congratu- 
lated him on his good luck of being able to keep 
his outfit. He said, Yes, it was more than I ex- 
pected. We traveled together for several miles 
when we were met by five men, one of which, a 
rather portly fellow, remarked, Boys, if this is 
not Sal, I'll be hanged. And he advanced and 
took my mule by the bridle, saying, This mule 
belongs to me, you will have to get off. I said, I 
reckon not, drawing my pistol. He said, The 
Yankees stole that mule from me. I said, Well, 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 221 

I got her from the Yankees, but she cost me a 
watch worth about thirty dollars. I stated facts 
as they were, saying, I am on my way to Eu- 
faula and I am crippled and can't walk, and I 
shall ride there if it costs me my life. So Gen- 
eral Pillow interfered, saying, Gentlemen, this 
is a Confederate soldier on his way home ; he is 
crippled and can't walk. I will pay you for the 
mule to end the matter. What kind of money? 
Confederate, of course, I have no other. Well,, 
that is not worth a curse. That is all I've got. 
The men were still standing in front of me and 
occasionally touched the reins, when I cocked 
my pistol, saying, Turn that bridle loose, I am 
going to Eufaula on this mule. After that I do 
not care what becomes of it ; I expect to take the 
boat there for Columbus. He answered, I tell 
you what I '11 do ; here is a gold chain ; I suppose 
it is worth as much as your watch. I will give 
you that chain and you'll leave the mule with the 
hotel man and I'll get her there. So I said all 
right, when General Pillow remarked, Gentle- 
men, undoubtedly you are in search of stock; 
suppose you were to find any that belongs to 
somebody else, which it would be pretty apt to 
be, and the owner would come and claim it; 
would you turn it over to him ? The spokesman 
hesitated, then said, I don't know if I would or 



222 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

not. I said, well, our arrangement suits me; 
what is the hotel keeper's name! He told me 
but I have forgotten it. So we arrived at our 
destination about one hour by sun and stopped 
all night at the house of Major Pempertou, a 
friend of General Pillow's. George and I oc- 
cupied the same bed. He proved to be an ex- 
cellent companion and we recounted many in- 
cidents to one another. After breakfast we 
parted company. I took the route to Eufaula, 
Ala., by myself, leaving General Pillow and his 
son with our host, with whom they proposed to 
stay for a few days, before continuing their 
homeward journey, which was near Franklin, 
Tenn. I arrived at Eufaula at about three 
o'clock p. m. and inquired for the hotel, whose 
proprietor I found sitting in a chair in front. 
Is this the hotel? Yes sir. A soldier on his way 
home ? Yes sir. This is a good mule you have 
got; will you sell her? I said, How much will 
you give me for it? He remarked, I have only 
Thirty- Five Dollars, in Mexican silver and some 
Confederate money that nobody takes about 
here. I'll give you the Mexican dollars for the 
outfit. You will also give me my dinner and fill 
my haversack with provisions to last me home? 
Yes, I'll do that too. What time will the boat 
leave for Columbus? At four o'clock. Well, I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 223 

have time to take dinner. I turned the mule 
over to him, he had me served something to eat 
and paid me thirty-five Mexican silver dollars. 
I took the chain, which was not gold but galva- 
nized brass, and said, I am glad I have made 
connection with the boat, I will get home sooner. 
Handing the proprietor the chain, I said, There 
is a gentleman who may call for me; you tell 
him I made connection and went on. This chain 
belongs to him and I want him to have it. All 
right, said he. The boat, according to schedule, 
left for Columbus with me aboard. In Colum- 
bus I met Dr. Mullin, a friend of Dr. Crawford's, 
but could get no information as to his where- 
abouts. From Columbus I traveled to Atlanta. 
The sight that met my view was sickening. In- 
stead of a nice little city, for it must be remem- 
bered that Atlanta at that time was not the cos- 
mopolitan of this day, it could not have had 
over seven or eight thousand inhabitants; there 
it lay in ashes, the work of vandalism. The 
brick chimneys marked the places where com- 
fortable shelters used to stand. Its inhabitants 
fled from the approaching foe, fearing even a 
worse fate at the hands of such unscrupulous 
barbarians. From Atlanta I followed in the 
wake of Sherman's army towards Macon, and 
had it not been for my trade with the hotel 



224 MEMOIRS OF A VETEEAN 

keeper of Eufaula to have my haversack filled, 
I could not have existed to the end of my jour- 
ney. As already stated, the Country for miles 
in every direction was sacked and burned. I 
say this much for the New England civilization, 
of these days, that in no country, civilized or un- 
civilized, could such barbarism have excelled 
such diabolical manifestation. I arrived in 
Macon at dusk, intending to pass the night at 
my cousin's. In front of the Brown House 
came an ambulance, said to contain President 
Jefferson Davis. They traveled at a good trot, 
surrounded by a body of cavalry which I was in- 
formed were Wilson's men, Macon being in the 
hands of that General to whom General Howell 
Cobb surrendered that city. I was sick at heart 
at our entire helplessness and complete prostra- 
tion. I called on my relatives who were glad to 
see me again among the living. They were much 
depressed at the condition of things, hoping for 
the best, but expecting the worst. I met Mr. 
Kaufman, General Cobb's orderly, as I was 
about to leave for what I called home. I stated 
that if there was a chance for me to get some- 
thing to ride it would greatly facilitate my loco- 
motion. My ankle, although still sore was heal- 
ing nicely. Mr. Kaufman said, I will sell you 
my horse, I have got nothing to feed him on. I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 225 

said, I will give you all the money I got for the 
mule, having given them already the history of 
my itinerary from Montgomery to Macon. He 
accepted my offer and I was again in a traveling 
condition. All along my route devastation met 
my view. I could not find sufficient corn to give 
my horse a square meal. Wherever I found a 
green spot I dismounted to let my horse eat 
grass. I traveled at night as well as in the day 
time and arrived at my destination about 10 
o'clock a. m. the next day. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Conditions there were not as bad as I 
had seen along the line of march, although 
they were bad enough. Mr. and Mrs. Bras- 
well received me as if I had been one of 
their own family. I found the premises badly 
dilapidated, fences down everywhere and every- 
thing in disorder, the negro men gone, following 
the yankee army, the negro women and children 
were still left to be taken care of by their Mas- 
ter and Mistress. Before leaving the Yankees 
started to set the premises on fire but the ser- 
vant intervened and begged for their good mas- 
ter and mistress and they desisted in their in- 
tentions. I asked if old Sal lie could wash my 
clothes I had on, and if I could borrow some- 
thing to put on while mine was in process of 
cleaning, for the enemy had stolen my trunk and 
its contents and I had no change of garments. 
Mr. Braswell was of very corpulent stature, 
fully six feet high, weighing about 250 pound?, 
while I, in my emaciated condition only weighed 
135. One of his garments would have wrapped 
twice around me. At 12 o'clock dinner was an- 
nounced, and I was surprised at the good and 
substantial meal that was served. The menu 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 227 

consisted of fried ham and eggs, corn bread, bis- 
cuits, butter and honey. I said, " folks, you 
ought not to complain ; if you had gone through 
where I have and seen what I have seen you 
would feel like you live like royalty, for I have 
seen women and children scratch in the ground 
for a few grains of corn for sustenance where 
the enemy's horses were camped and fed." Mr. 
Bra swell then explained how he managed when 
he heard of the enemy's approach. He took his 
cattle, horses and mules and everything he 
could move, deep in the Ogeechee swamp, leav- 
ing only a few broke down around his premises 
which the enemy, General Kilpatricks cavalry, 
shot down and left for the buzzards. Mrs. Bras- 
well asked me what I was going to do. I said I 
did not know ; I was in hope to meet Cousin Abe 
Hermann, but you say he was taken prisoner. 
Do you know where they carried him to! They 
answered, No, that Cousin Abe was drafted and 
went, as a sutler in General Rube Carswell's 
regiment and was captured by the enemy and 
that they had heard nothing from him, direct. 
Then Mr. Braswell said, As long as I've got a 
mouthful I will divide with you. We are poor 
and I don't know how to begin with the new or- 
der of things, all the hands having left me. 
After telling Mrs. Braswell about her kindred 



228 MEMOIRS OP A VETERAN 

in Alabama and of my ups and downs during 
that afternoon, I spent a sleepless night, rumi- 
nating in my mind as to what to do. The future 
looked dark, the country was ruined. Wherever 
I cast my eyes, conditions looked the same. The 
following morning after breakfast I approached 
Mr. Bras well, saying, My friend, I can't accept 
your proposition to be an extra burden to you in 
your already impoverished condition. He said, 
What are you going to do? I said, The next 
time you hear from me I will be in a position to 
make a support, or I will be a dead cock in the 
pit. I am going to leave this morning. I left 
for Sandersville, where I met many friends. 
While there I heard of some of the boys having 
picked up an abandoned Confederate wagon. 
There were about fifteen that claimed a share in 
it. The next day I went to Milledgeville and 
stopped this side at Mr. Stroters, who had run a 
distillery during the war. I said, Mr. Stroter 
have you any whiskey on hand? He said, Yes, 
one barrel, I had it buried. Can I get about five 
gallons f He said, Yes. What will you take for 
it? Five dollars a gallon, in Yankee money, the 
Confederate money is no good now. I said, I'll 
take five gallons if you have a keg to put it in. I 
have no money of the description you want, 
but I will leave you my horse in bond. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 229 

Early in the morning I proceeded on my way 
to Macon, carrying the five gallon keg of whis- 
key on my shoulder. The journey was a long 
one, thirty-two miles, with a burden and it 
being summer time was no small undertaking. 
I arrived however, in East Macon the following 
day. I entered the woods in search of a clay 
root where I could hide away my burden. I 
found a large tree that was blown down, leaving 
a big hole, where I placed my keg and covered it 
with leaves. I marked the place so as to find it 
when wanted. I also carried a canteen full of 
liquor under my coat, and walked towards Ma- 
con. On the way I met a Federal in deep study. I 
passed him a step or two, then stopped and said, 
Say! He turned, saying, you speak to me? I 
said, Yes, would you like to have a drink? He 
said, Yes, the best in the world. I tell you how 
you can get this canteen full. If you bring me 
out a mule this side the sentinel I will give you 
this canteen full. He remarked, You'll wait 
yonder until I return. I waited over an hour, 
when I saw him come on a small mule. The ex- 
change was quickly effected, and I rode back to 
Milledgeville and left the mule at Stroters. Af- 
ter eating a hearty meal I returned on foot to 
Macon, I repeated the same tactics, brought 
back three mules and sold over one hundred 



230 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

drinks at $1.00 a drink, paid Stroter my debt 
and returned to Washington County, left ray 
stock with my friend B. S. Jordan to tend his 
crop, who at that time had a negro plowing an 
old steer. I said, Ben, Work your crop, for I 
do not know how long you can keep them. I re- 
turned to Sandersville in quest of the boys who 
claimed the captured Confederate wagon, and 
to purchase it. They agreed if I would bring 
each a wool hat from Savannah on my return I 
could have the wagon, which I agreed to. Major 
Irwin gave me an old set of gears and I was 
ready to carry freight from Sandersville and 
Washington County to Savannah for a living, 
for let it be known that Sherman in his vandal- 
ism tore up the Central railroad all the way 
from Macon to Savannah, Ga., and for eight 
months after the surrender I continued wagon- 
ing hauling freight back and forth, taking the 
weather as it came, rain or shine, cold or warm. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

My first journey as wagoner to Savannah was a 
successful one. There was still some cotton 
through the country that escaped the Sherman 
depredators. Mr. W. Gr. Brown let me have two 
bales. Mr. Pinkus Happ let me have one. My 
tariff was $5.00 per 100 pounds, and the same 
returning. I took the Davisboro road from San- 
dersville, having only two mules hitched to the 
wagon. I had sent word to Mr. Jordan to meet 
me with my horse and mule still in his posses- 
sion. The road was heavy for it was a rainy 
season and to make it lighter pulling I con- 
cluded to have a four mule team. So we put the 
harness on the horse and mule and hitched them 
in the lead. About that time a negro I knew, 
named Perry, came up and made himself useful. 
I said, Perry, what are you doing? Nothing, 
Marse Ike. How would you like to wagon for me 
at $15.00 a month and rations? Very well, said 
he. Well, jump in the saddle, I am on my way 
to Savannah. It was about four o'clock p. m. 
Perry took hold of the line and cracked his whip, 
when the horse, whose other qualities, except a 
saddle horse I did not know, commenced to kick 
in a spirited manner, so as to skin his legs with 



232 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

the trace chains in which he became entangled, I 
had to unhitch him. Mr. John Salter was pres- 
ent and saw the whole proceeding. I remarked, 
Well. I am sorry for that for I had expected to 
have a four horse team, and now can have only 
a spike team. Salter said, Hermann, what will 
you take for this horse? You say he is a good 
saddle horse? I never straddled a better one. 
What will you give me? He said he had no 
money but had two bales of cotton under his gin 
house and I could have it for the horse. How 
far do you live from here? Two miles only. 
All right, the horse is yours. Perry, let us go and 
get the cotton. Mr. Salter led the way where 
the cotton was. We loaded the same and drove 
that night to the Fleming place and camped. 
The trip was uneventful. We made the journey 
to Savannah in four days. There was a firm of 
cotton factors named Bothwell and Whitehead 
doing business in the City, and they were my ob- 
jective point. However, before arriving into 
the city, about thirty miles this side, I met men 
wanting to buy my cotton. They offered me 
from fifteen to fifty cents per pound. I did not 
know what the value was ; I knew that before the 
war started it brought about eight cents. How- 
ever, I drove up to the firms office on Bay street. 
I saw Mr. Bothwell ; after the usual greeting I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 233 

said, What is cotton selling at? It brought 
*62y 2 this a. m., but I think I can get more than 
that if it is good cotton. To make matters short 
I got .65 per pound and the two bales Salter let 
me have for my horse weighed 600 pounds a 
bale, netting me $720.00. I bought me another 
mule and now I was again fully equipped and 
made the voyage regularly every week. I took a 
partner, as the business was more than I could 
attend to by myself; his name was Solomon 
Witz. He would engage freight during my ab- 
sence, and we sometimes made the trip together. 
The country was forever in a state of excite- 
ment. New edicts appeared from time to time 
from Washington, D. C., Congress promulgated 
laws to suit their motives, and notwithstanding 
the agreement between General Lee and General 
Grant at Appomattox that the men should re- 
turn, build up their waste places and not again 
to take up arms until properly exchanged and 
they should not be molested as long as they 
should attend to their daily avocations, Con- 
gress established what was then known as the 
Freedmen's Bureau, seemingly for the protec- 
tion 'of the negroes, as if they needed any, as 
their devotion to their master and their behavior 
at home while every white man able to bear 
arms was at the front fighting for their homes 



234 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

and firesides, leaving their families in the hands 
of their slaves whose devotion was exemplary, 
was not that a sufficient guarantee of the rela- 
tionship between slaves and masters? The at- 
tachment was of the tenderest kind and a white 
man would have freely offered his life for the 
protection of his servants ; but that condition did 
not suit our adversaries. Although we thought 
the war was over, it was not over and more ter- 
rible things awaited the Southern people. Em- 
issaries of every description, like vultures, sui- 
named carpetbaggers, for all they possessed 
could be enclosed into a hand bag, overran this 
country to fatten on the remnants left. School 
mams of the far East, of very questionable rep- 
utation, opened what were called schools, pre- 
sumably to teach the negroes how to read and 
write, but rather to inculcate into their minds 
all sorts of deviltry, embittering their feelings 
against their former owners and life long 
friends, urging them to migrate for unless they 
did they would still be considered as bondsmen 
and bondswomen, thus breaking up the kind re- 
lation existing between the white man and the 
negro. And all this under the protection of the 
Preedmen's Bureau backed up by a garrison of 
Federals stationed in every town and city 
throughout the Southern States. In fact the 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 235 

South was made to feel the heels of the despots. 
Military Governors were appointed. All those 
who bore arms or aided or abetted in the cause 
of the South were disfranchised, the negro was 
enfranchised and allowed the ballot, with a mili- 
tary despot at the helm and negroes and carpet 
baggers, and a few renegades such as can be 
found in any country, as legislators. The ship 
of state soon run into shallow waters and was 
pounded to pieces on the reeves of bankruptcy. 
Taxes were such that property owners could not 
meet them and they had the misfortune to see 
their lifelong earnings sacrificed under so called 
legal process, of the hammer, for a mere 
song. These were the actual conditions in the 
days of the so called reconstruction. Bottom 
rail on top, was the slogan of those savage 
hordes. Forty acres and a mule, and to every 
freedman, Government rations, was the prelude 
of legislation. Men who took up arms in defense 
of their sacred rights could not be expected to 
endure such a state of affairs forever, the 
'women and children must be protected. The 
garrisons were gradually withdrawn; the car- 
pet baggers remained and ruled; negroes 
formed themselves into clubs and organizations 
under their leadership, when as an avalanche all 
-over the Southern states appeared the K. K. 



236 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

K. *s, called the Ku Klux Klan, or the Boys Who 
Had Died at Manassas, who have come back to 
regulate matters. Terror struck into the ranks 
of the guilty and of the would be organizers and 
the country soon resumed its normal state, 
Governors fled and Legislators took to the bush. 
But I am deviating from my subject. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

On the following trip to Savannah I met G. 
"W. Kelley and Dr. G. L. Mason, on the same 
errand, viz. hauling cotton to market. After 
having disposed of the same we reloaded our 
teams in merchandise, which was easily dis- 
posed of, as the country was in need of every- 
thing that could add to the comfort or even ne- 
cessities of the people. The country being in 
the condition it was, we were glad to travel to- 
gether for company's sake. So in the evening 
we left and camped about twelve miles out of 
the city. As a rule one of the party ought to 
have been on guard, but such was not the case 
that night. About midnight I awoke and found 
two of my mules gone. I noted also that the 
line with which they were attached had been cut 
with a sharp knife. Following the tracks they 
led back into the city. So I left my partner at 
Savannah on the lookout while I went my way 
back to Sandersville, minus two mules. I man- 
aged to buy two more mules to fill out my team. 
I had to take what was offered to me, at any 
price, my partner, after remaining several days 
at Savannah, recognized one of the mules in 
charge of a negro. He called for the police and 



238 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

had the negro arrested. There being no legal 
judge, the case was carried before a captain of 
one of the military companies stationed there. 
The negro proved by a confederate that this 
mule was in his possession long before my part- 
ner claimed it was stolen, thus setting up an 
alibi, without proving as to where he got her 
from. My partner failed to get the mule and 
had to pay about $8.00 costs for his trouble, 
which was all the cash he had with him. Later 
the firm received a bill for $5.00 more cost but I 
paid no attention to it and never heard of it any 
more. 

Under the advice of their instructors, the 
blacks were going and coming. The road to 
Savannah was traveled by them at night as well 
as by day. Most of them were making for the 
cities. Savannah was the goal for those in this 
section. One evening on my way I stopped my 
team within eighteen miles this side of the City. 
Mr. Guerry, who was a fairly well to do farmer 
for those days and conditions, near to whose 
domicile I camped, buying some corn and fod- 
der from him to feed my team, also such provis- 
ions for myself as he had for sale. At break 
of day we had left on our weary journey ; on my 
return a day or so afterwards I passed his 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 239 

premises and to keep from walking I had bought 
me an extra mule. As I rode up I noticed Mr. 
Guerry and three of his sons in a pen, ready to 
kill hogs. It was on a Friday, in the month of 
December, 1865. It was a clear, beautiful, cold 
day. I greeted them, Good morning, gentlemen, 
this is a beautiful day to kill hogs. Without 
noticing my greeting, one of them said, "This is 
the fellow," when the old fellow picked up his 
gun from the fence corner and raising the same 

exclaimed, "You are the d d fellow that took 

off our cook." I was completely taken by sur- 
prise, and the first word I spoke I said, "You 
lie", and I jumped off my mule and drew my 
pistol. My neighbors say they saw her follow 
your wagon the day after you camped here the 
night before. I said, In fact we caught up with 
a negro woman about two miles from here car- 
rying a large bundle on her head, and she asked 
my driver if she could put her incumbrance on 
the wagon. I said, No, my mules have all they 
can pull, and are jaded already. In fact that 
was all the words that passed between her and 
me and up to about 10 o'clock a. m. she was 
either walking in front or behind the team, car- 
rying her luggage. I did not know where she 
came from nor where she was going. I sup- 
posed she was on her way to Savannah, like the 



240 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

rest of them. I guess you see them pass here 
daily. He said, some of my neighbors told me 
they saw her behind your wagon. Just at that 
moment Messrs. L. D. Newsome and Seaborn 
Newsome and Alex Brown drove up, hauling 
cotton to Savannah. I was glad to see them. 
Hello boys, you of Washington County come in 
good time. Here are some fellows accusing me 
of stealing their negro cook. They said at once, 
Oh, no ! You got hold of the wrong fellow. We 
know him, he comes from our county and would 
not do such a thing. He is a Confederate soldier 
and fought all through the war. Then I saia, 
Mr. Guerry, let us reason together. You have 
always treated me clever when I passed here. 
I have never entered your yard. I always paid 
you for what you sold to me. The negroes are 
free and they are thought to migrate. I had no 
rights to stop the woman on her journey, but 
had I known that she was your servant I would 
have talked to her and advised her to go back 
where she belongs. Mr. Guerry seemed to re- 
gret his hasty words and begged my pardon, 
and insisted on all of us, to go into the house for 
refreshments. We finally shook hands and 
parted good friends. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

A rainy season soon set in; the streams were 
overflowing, and the road became bad and hard, 
to travel. On arriving at the Ogeechee river at 
Summertown I found that it had deborted its 
banks and was at least a quarter of a mile wide. 
I struck camp, waiting for the water to recede. 
The following day Geo. W. Kelley drove in 
sight. He also had a load of five bales of cotton 
and he struck camp. But it continued to rain 
and the river instead of receding became wider 
and deeper. The cotton market was declining 
rapidly and we were anxious to reach the mar- 
ket. I suggested to Mr. Kelley that I would 
take the tallest of the mules and sound the width 
of the current. The mule walked in the water 
up to the banks, neck deep, when he began to 
swim, I guided him when again he struck foot- 
hold. I rode to the end of the water, in parts 
only breast deep. I retraced my steps and re- 
ported my investigation. We held counsel to- 
gether and concluded that by using prolongs we 
could hitch the eight mules to one wagon and 
while the rear mules would be in mid stream the 
front ones would be on terra firma and pull the 
team across. We sent to Mr. Coleman who lived 



242 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

close by, for ropes. We cut saplings, laid them 
on top of each wagon fastened the ends tight 
to the wagon body so as to prevent the 
current from washing off any of the cotton 
while the wagon would be submerged in mid- 
stream during the crossing. Our plan proved 
to be a successful one, and thus we forded the 
Ogeechee river without the least accident. We 
repeated the same tactics for the remaining 
wagon. We reached Savannah in due time, sold 
the cotton and bought merchandise for other 
parties, and I received pay going and coming. 
On returning I concluded to cross the river by 
the upper route, at Jenkins Perry, to avoid re- 
crossing the river as per previous method. We 
struck camp at dark close to the river bank. I 
told Perry to feed and water the team while I 
would examine the ferry flat. Presently Mr. 
Stetson from Milledgeville, drove up and also 
struck camp. I considered the flat a very shabby 
and a dangerous affair to cross on with a heavy 
load and so reported, but Mr. Stetson thought it 
all right. The following morning at break of 
day the ferryman was on hand as per arrange- 
ments that evening. Stetson and his men hur- 
ried up so as to get across first and thus gain 
time. My man Perry also hurried faster than 
was his wont to do, for he was usually slow in 



WAE BETWEEN THE STATES 243 

his movements, when I cautioned him to take 
his time and go slow and let the other wagon 
cross first. It was well that I did so, for the 
flat went down nearly midstream, and if the 
front mules had not had foot hold in time the 
whole business would have drowned. Stetson's 
damage in merchandise was considerable. He 
was loaded with salt, cutlery and general mer- 
chandise. When I saw that no personal damage 
was done I bid them good bye to take another 
route by a twenty mile detour, via. Louisville^ 
and crossed the river at Fenn's Bridge. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

The Central road was being rebuilt from Sa- 
vannah and we met the trains at its terminals, 
thus shortening the distance of our journeys. 
The train had reached Guyton, thirty miles this 
side of Savannah and was advancing daily until 
completed to Macon. It was early in the spring 
when I met the train at station No. 6, a flat coun- 
try. It had rained nearly daily for a week ; the 
roads were slushy, I had on a heavy load; we 
had traveled the whole day long until dark. It 
was hard to find a dry knob to camp on, until fi- 
nally we came to a little elevation. I said Perry 
we are going to stop here. He guided the team 
into the woods a few paces and unhitched, while 
I was looking for a few lightwood knots to build 
up a fire. Everything was wet and it was hard 
to kindle up a blaze. When suddenly there ar- 
rived on the scene an ambulance pulled by a 
team of four splendid mules and thirteen Fed- 
eral soldiers alighted. They took the grounds 
on the opposite side of the road. I thought to 
myself, Now I am into it. Perry was on his 
knees, fanning up the damp pine straw, when 
one of those fellows called, Heigho, you black 
fellow, come here. I said to Perry in an under- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATE& 245 

tone, Attend to your business. When the same 
fellow called again, Hello you negro, I told you 
, to come here, did you hear me?' accompanying 
his remarks with the coarsest words. Perry an- 
swered, My boss told me to tend to my business. 

D n you and your boss, too, was his reply. 

As he had completed the sentence, I being close 
by the side of my wagon, reached up and took 
my Spencer in hand, bringing it from a trail to 
a support. I stepped to the center of the road, 

saying, D n you some too. This is not the 

first time I have met some of you at odds, and I 
am ready for the fray, if it has to be. Every- 
thing was quiet, not a word was uttered. I still 
remained standing in the road, watching any 
move they might make, when one of them spoke, 
saying, Will you let me come to you? He spoke 
in a very conciliatory tone. I said, Yes, one 
at a time. He came to me unarmed, and said, 
Let us have no trouble; don't pay any attention 
to that fellow, he is drinking. There is plenty 
of room here for all of us, without any friction. 
I said, Well, if your friend is drunk, take care 
of him. I am able to take care of myself. He 
returned to his camp and I to mine. I heard 
him say to his comrades, That fellow won't do 
to fool with. By that time Perry had succeeded 
in having a rousing fire and we went to work on 



246 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

the culinary department. Our meals were sim- 
ple, a little fried meat and corn bread and water 
from out of a ditch. Presently one of the Fed- 
erals hollered over, "Say, Johnnie, don't you 
want some coffee?" I answered, "No, it has 
been so long since I tasted any I have forgotten 
how it tastes. ' ' He said, We have a plenty and 
you are welcome to it if you will have it. I said 
I have no way to make coffee if I had any. So 
one of them came over with some parched coffee 
and offered it to me. I declined it, for I had no 
mill to grind it, nor any vessel to stew it in. 
They insisted, bringing over all of the parapher- 
nelia for the brewing of coffee and I must admit 
that it was enjoyed by Perry, as well as myself, 
it being the first that had pssed my lips in four 

i years. After our meal was completed they came 
over, one after another and sat around the fire. 

,The conversation became general and I found 
them to be very congenial company. One brought 
me a whole haversack full of green coffee, say- 
ing, Have it, we have a sack of over a hundred 
pounds. I thanked them saying, This is quite a 
treat. And what seemed to be a disagreeable 
affair in its incipiency terminated most agree- 
ably. It having become late I suggested that we 
take a night cap and retire. I passed around 
the jug and each returned to his respective 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 247 

quarters. However I slept, as the saying is, 
with one eye open. Early in the morning we 
fed the mules, rekindled the fire, drank a warm 
cup of coffee and ate a bite or so. We harnessed 
two of our mules, two of which in the lead were 
of small size, when one of the Federals proposed 
to swap mules. I said, Your mules are worth 
a great deal more than mine, and I have no 
money to pay boot. We don't want any money 
said another, we want you to have the best team 
on the road, by swapping your two lead mules 
for those tall black ones of ours you will have 
a real fine team. They then said they were on 
their way to Augusta to report to the quarter- 
master there, that they had receipted for four 
mules and a sack of coffee to be delivered to the 
quartermaster in Augusta. The mules in their 
possession were not branded as government 
mules but were picked up and a mule is a mule, 
so we deliver the number of heads is all that is 
required. To tell the truth I feared a trap, but 
while I was talking with one of them the others 
changed the lead mules for two of theirs and off 
they drove in a lope, singing, Old John Brown 
Lies Buried in the Ground, etc. We trudged 
along, Perry and I elated over our good luck, 
when Perry said, Well Marse Ike, your stand- 
ing up to them made them your friends. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

I had rented the store house from Mr. Billy 
Smith where he and Slade had done business be- 
fore the war, in Sandersville, and opened up 
business in heavy and family groceries. In the- 
meantime my team was making the trip be- 
tween Sandersville and the Central terminal, 
which had not considerably advanced, owing to 
the demoralized condition of labor. So I con- 
cluded at this particular time it would accelerate 
matters by hauling a load of merchandise with 
my team ; hence I drove through all the way to 
Savannah. While there, on passing Congress 
street, I met an old friend named Abe Einstein, 
of the firm of Einstein and Erkman, wholesale 
drygoods merchants. He was speaking to one- 
Mr. Cohen from New York, who had just ar- 
rived by steamer with a cargo of drygoods. He 
wanted to locate in Augusta, but owing to the 
Federals having torn up that branch of the rail- 
road at Millen the Augusta trains run no fur- 
ther than Waynesboro. Hence he was trying to 
fill in the gap with teams. Mr. Einstein told 
him that I had a splendid team and that I would 
be a good man for him to employ. So he asked 
me if I would haul a load for him. I replied I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 249 

would if he would pay me enough for it. He 
said, How much can you pull at a load? I said, 
My mules can pull all that the wagon can hold 
up. What do you ask? Pour hundred dollars. 
Whiz, I did not want to buy your team, I only 
wanted to hire it. I said to him, Well, that is my 
price. I said, You fellows up North tore up the * 
road, you ought to be able to pay for such accom- 
modations as you can get. He studied over the 
situation a little. Turning to Mr. Einstein, Do 
you know this man ; can I rely on him? Mr. Ein- 
stein replied, Perfectly reliable, I stand spon- 
sor. He said, I tell you what I'll do, I'll pay 
you down $200.00 and Mr. Einstein will pay you 
$200.00 when you return. Mr. Einstein agreed 
to it, so I said, That is satisfactory, I shall de- 
liver so many boxes as you put on to the agent, 
take his receipt for the same and Mr. Einstein 
will pay me $200.00 due. I had, to my regret, 
had to discharge my teamster Perry, owing to 
the neglect of duty, and engaged another named 
Bill Flagg. He was an old conscientious negro, 
very religiously inclined. We loaded our team 
and followed instructions. On arrival at 
Waynesboro, I never had been there before, so I 
inquired for the depot and found an improvised 
little house beside the railroad track and a man 
claiming to be the railroad agent. I have a load 



250 MEMOIRS OP A VETERAN 

of goods here for Augusta. Put them in the car 
said he. I said, count the boxes and make me 
out a receipt. He said all right. After my bus- 
iness with the agent was concluded, I asked him 
to show me the Louisville route, which he 
pointed out to me, with several explanations as 
to the right and left intervening roads. Waynes- 
boro was at that time, as it is now, the county 
site of Burke county, a town of about 1000 in- 
habitants. It has greatly improved since and is 
quite a prosperous city of some importance now. 

Before we got out of the incorporation a de- 
tachment of Federal troops surrounded my 
team and ordered my driver to dismount. I was 
a few paces behind my wagon and I hurried to 
the front. One of the soldiers had hold of my 
mules' bridle and ordered my driver to dis- 
mount. I said to my man, If you dismount I will 
kill you ; you sit where you are, you are under 
my orders. I ordered the trooper to let go my 
mule. He turned loose the bridle, but held his 
position with others in front of the team. The 
commotion brought together the balance of the 
garrison and some citizens. I remarked right 
here, I'll sell out; you shall not deprive me of 
the means to make an honest living. So the 
Captain remarked, We are ordered to take up 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 251 

all Confederate property. I said, I have no ob- 
jection for you to take up Confederate property, 
but this is my individual property and your ac- 
tion is highway robbery, which I do not propose 
to submit to. There is a way to prove those 
things ; I am a citizen of Sandersville and have 
been wagoning for a living. There is a garrison 
of troops in my town and if this is Confederate 
property they have had a chance to confiscate it 
long ago. He said, What is your name 1 ? I an- 
swered, I. Hermann, Sandersville, Washington 
County, is my home. He pretended to make a 
note of it and told me to drive on. I was glad to 
have gotten out of that scrape. On reaching 
home Flagg came to me, saying, Boss, I have to 
quit you. What is the matter, Bill? said I, have 
I not always treated you right. Oh yes, but I am 
afraid of you. How so Bill ? I am afraid some 
day you might get mad with me and kill me: 
Any man that can stand before a whole company 
of Yankees like you and keep them from taking 
his team, is a dangerous man. You must get 
you another man. I sai'd, all right, Bill. When 
Perry heard that Bill Flagg had left my em- 
ployment he came to me, asking to be re-instated 
and promising to be more attentive to his duties. 
So I took him back and he remained with me 
for several years. 



CHAPTER XXXVHL 

The railroad track had advanced consider- 
ably, and in the Fall of the year, 1866, had 
reached Bartow, No. 11. My partner for some 
time had taken charge of the team while I at- 
tended to the store. Once he came home badly 
bunged up and a knife cut on his cheek. I said r 
What has happened? He said he had some diffi- 
culty with the Agent and they double teamed on 
him. So I remarked, Well, you can send Perry 
without you going. I wrote to the agent asking 
him to deliver to the bearer, Perry, a load of 
my merchandise then in his possession, to check 
off the same and send me a list. We had at that 
time two car loads on the track for the firm. 
When Perry returned he failed to bring the list, 
his wagon being loaded with corn and every 
sack ripped more or less. I said, How come 
you to accept merchandise in that condition. He 
answered, the sacks were allright when I took 
them out of the car, it was after they were 
loaded one of them fellows, a white man named 
Smith, run around the wagon and cut the sacks 
and I spilled lots of corn. I picked up some of 
it and put in that sack, indicating a sack % fulL 
I said, Do you know the man ; would you recog- 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 253 

nize him again if you were to meet him? Oh 
yes, Marse Ike. Saturday morning I took charge 
of the team and my partner remained at the 
store. I took dinner and fed my mules at my 
friends' Mr. B. G. Smith, to whom I stated the 
facts as told to me. He said, be careful, don't 
be too hasty. I said, Bight is right and I dont 
want anything but my rights, and those I am 
going to have before I return. 

We arrived at our destination about four 
o'clock p. m. The Sherman contingency had 
burned the warehouse as they did all the others 
along their march. Consequently the railroad 
Company used passenger cars on the side track 
to transact their office work, while freight cars 
served as a warehouse until discharged of their 
contents. As I entered the office car a young 
man met me. I remarked, Are you the agent! 
He said, No, Mr. Mims is at Parson Johnson's 
house. What is your name? My name is 
Smith. Then you are the scoundrel that muti- 
lated my goods, and I advanced. He run out of 
the door and slammed it to with such force that 
he shattered the glass panel into fragments. 
When I came out to where Perry was, he said, 
That's the fellow that cut the sacks, there he 
goes. Well Perry \uild a little fire by the side 



254 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

of this car for here we will camp until some one 
returns to deliver us the freight. The sun had 
set below the horizon and it had begun to get 
night, when Mr. Tom Wells, an acquaintance of 
mine, approached me. He was an employee of 
the railroad company also. Well Ike, old fel- 
low, how are you getting along? All right Tom, 
how are you? I am all right. What brought 
you here, said he? I said business, I have goods 
here if I can find an agent to deliver them. I 
heard you came here for a difficulty, said he. I 
remarked, It seems I am already in a difficulty, I 
can't get any one to deliver me my goods. Well, 
I will tell you, Mr. Mims is a perfect gentleman. 
I am glad to hear it. Do you know him? No, 
I have never seen him, but up to now I can't have 
the same opinion of him that you have. I have 
not been treated right and I came here for jus- 
tice. He said, Well, let me tell you ; there are 
about forty employees here, hands and all, and 
they will all stick to him, wright or wrong. I 
said, I came here to see Mr. Mims and I intend 
to stay here until I do see him, if it takes me a 
week. Well Ike, if you promise me that you will 
not raise a difficulty I will go after him and in- 
troduce you to each other. I said, Tom, there 
are other ways to settle a difficulty without fight- 
ing if men want to do right. Well I will go for 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 255 

him; I know Mr. Mims is going to do what is 
right, and you too. Mr. Mims came presently, 
and a whole gang following him. I said, Mr. 
Mims, it seems you and my partner had a diffi- 
culty. I do not know the cause and I do not 
care to know. He said you fellows double 
teamed on him and he got worsted in the fight. 
To avoid a recurrence of the difficulty I sent my 
driver to you and a note. You ignored my note 
and sent me a load of corn with all the sacks 
ripped open, more or less, with a knife in the 
hands of one of your employees. I berated my 
man for accepting goods in that condition and 
he stated to me how all of it was done. I am 
now here to see what can be done about it. I 
have never done you any injury to be treated in 
that manner. He said, Mr. Hermann, I am sorry 
it happened. I will see that it will not be done 
again. I said, Have you discharged the fellow 
who did it ? He answered, No, not yet. I said, 
Well, I demand that it be done now. And what 
about the damage I sustained. He remarked 
that the road would run to Tennille by next 
Wednesday, a distance of 25 miles, and he woulcl 
forward my two car loads of freight free of 
charge from Bartow to Tennille. I said that 
was satisfactory. I wanted to load my wagon ; 
he said, we do not deliver goods at night. I an- 



256 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

swered that if he had been at his post of duty on 
my arrival I would have had plenty of time to 
load and be on my way back, and I wished to 
load up at once for the morrow being Sunday I 
did not want -to be on the road. He delivered 
the merchandise and Perry and I passed Sun- 
day with my friend B. Gr. Smith, who was glad 
matters passed off as they did. Monday morn- 
ing we took an early start and by twelve o 'clock 
I was at home. That was my last trip as a wag- 
oner, but not as a soldier, as the sequel will 
show. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

When the commanding officers of the Confed- 
erate army surrendered and stacked arms the 
rank and file expected that the terms of the car- 
tel promulgated and agreed upon would be car- 
ried out to the letter. The men laid down their 
arms in good faith, feeling as General E. E. 
Lee remarked in his farewell address to them, 
that under present unequal condition it would 
only be a waste of precious lives to continue the 
struggle. The following were the terms of the 
agreement entered into between General Grant 
and General Lee: The officers and men to re- 
turn to their homes and remain there until ex- 
changed and not to be disturbed by the United 
States authorities so long as they observe their 
paroles and the laws in force in their respective 
states. 

But the fellows who directed the ship of 
state and who were invisible on the firing line 
became invincible, when the South lay pros- 
trated. The first order was from Secretary 
Staunton, for the arrest of our commanding of- 
ficers. This order, however, was resented by 
General Grant as contrary to the cartel and 



258 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

should not be executed. This caused a rupture 
between the two and the order was finally re- 
scinded. The next step was to disperse all State 
authority and appoint a military Governor. 
General Wilson acted in that capacity in Geor- 
gia. The same year, 1865, negroes were pro- 
claimed free and military garrisons established 
in every town, city or village throughout the 
South. Under the superintendence of those 
militaries the Freedmen's Bureau was estab- 
lished, forcing negroes to migrate from one 
place to another, thus breaking up the good re- 
lationship still existing between Masters and 
servants. The bureau was seemingly gotten up 
for the protection of the blacks, as if they needed 
any protection, they to whom we owed so much 
for their good behavior during the time when 
every available man able to bear arms was at 
the front, leaving their families in charge of the 
negroes. The gratitude of our people was or 
ought to have been sufficient guarantee in that 
line. Such harmonious condition did not suit 
the powers that be, there was venom in their 
heart for revenge, and punitive measures were 
concocted. Never were captives bound tighter 
than the people of the South. Is it a wonder 
that the men of the South became desperate and 
used desperate remedies to oust more desperate 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 259 

diseases? The carpet baggers made their exit. 
The negroes' mind had been prejudiced under 
the auspices of those vultures. They were forced 
into societies, one of which was the Rising Sun. 
Some called it The Rising Sons. God only 
knows what ultimate result they expected to ob- 
tain. Drums and fifes were heard in every di- 
rection at night times. The woods were full of 
rumors that the negroes are rising. Men in 
towns made ready for emergencies, every one on 
his own hook; no organization for defense, in 
case harsher measures should be needed. When 
the author of this sketch took up the idea of a re- 
union of his comrades and inserted a call in the 
county's weekly, calling on the members of 
Ho well's Battery for a social reunion, their 
wives and children, when other veterans sug- 
gested why not make it a reunion for all the vet- 
erans of the County. I was only too glad for 
the suggestion and changed the call to include 
all veterans of the county, and on the day speci- 
fied there was the greatest reunion Washington 
County ever had. It was estimated that eight 
thousand people participated. There were over 
one hundred carcasses besides thousands of bas- 
kets filled to overflow with eatables and delica- 
cies. The object of the meeting was stated to 
form an artillery company as a nucleus or ral- 



260 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

lying head and to meet organization with organ- 
ization not as a measure of aggression but as 
a protection. The author was elected Captain. 
Under his supervision he built an armory and 
eventually the State furnished him with two 
pieces of artillery. The day he received the 
guns he had a salute fired. The boys in the rural 
districts had not forgotten the sound of artillery 
and the town was filled with enthusiasm. Some 
of the negro leaders called on me to know what 
all that means, I told them it was to teach their 
misguided people that we can play at the same 
game and if they don 't stop beating their drums 
and blowing fifes in the night time when honest 
people are at rest I would shell the woods. This 
admonition had a splendid effect and the people 
of Washington have lived in peace ever since. 
The author resigned his commission in the year 
1881, when Honorable Alex Stephens was Gov- 
ernor of Georgia. And Washington County has 
the honor of having inaugurated the first re- 
union of Confederate veterans. The citizens of 
Washington County and Howell's Battery pre- 
sented the author with a gold headed ebony 
cane, beautifully carved, as a memorial and 
their regard for him as a citizen as a soldier. 
Being taken by surprise I had to submit to the 
caning. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 261 

The South passed seemingly through the 
chamber of horrors of the Spanish Inquisition 
and punishments administered by degrees. 
First robbing the owners of their slaves, of their 
justly acquired property, after they, (the 
North), received from the Southern farmer its 
full equivalent in U. S. money. Second, in the 
promulgation of the Civil Rights Bill, in April, 
1866. Third, in forcing the Southern people to 
accept the 14th and 15th amendment to the Fed- 
eral Constitution, not as a war measure, as. 
Abraham Lincoln claimed, when issuing his 
proclamation to free the negroes, but as politi- 
cal measures >to perpetuate themselves in power. 

Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, 
South Carolina and North Carolina refused to 
accept those conditions and in consequence were 
not admitted into the Union until 1868, although 
paying enormous taxes without representation, 
and finally had to submit in self defence. Vir- 
ginia, Texas and Mississippi held out until 1870 
before they succumbed to the thumb screw. 



CHAPTER XXXX. 

In writing the foregoing reminiscences I 
came near omitting an incident that unless in- 
serted would make them incomplete. In 1868 I 
went to New York, via. Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina. It was a long journey by rail, on account 
of many disconnections and lay overs. On ar- 
riving at Greenville the South Carolina Legisla- 
tors had adjourned in Columbia and boarded the 
train enroute for Washington, D. C. to see Gen- 
eral Grant inaugurated as President of the U. 
S. The body at that time was composed of a 
mongrel set of coal black negroes, mulattoes and 
carpet baggers. Cartoosa, a mulatto, was then 
Treasurer of the State. A negro named Miller 
was General in chief of the S. C. militia of State 
troops. They came prepared to have a regular 
holiday.' They carried large willow baskets full 
of the best provisions and champagne by the 
quantity, all at the expense of the State of South 
Carolina. On arriving at Aqua Creek, which 
was about 5 o'clock p. m., we took the boat up 
the Potomac and were furnished with dinner. 
When the bell rang, one of the South Carolina 
Legislators, a coal black negro, took his seat at 
the table when one of the waiters, also a negro, 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 263 

whispered in his ear. He replied in a very bois- 
terous manner that his money was as good as 
any white man's. The waiter reported to the 
Purser, who took the would be gentleman by 
putting two fingers in his collar, lifted him up 
and gave him a kick that sent him reeling into 
the engine room. The white carpet baggers 
seemed not to have noticed this little side show. 
However the black brute continued his boister- 
ous remarks and abusing the white race, and 
that he, a South Carolina representative had his 
dignity grossly insulted and that he was going 
to report the incident to General Grant on arri- 
val. When an old gentleman who must have 
been between 65 and 70 years of age could not 
stand his abuse any longer, although the balance 
of the passengers were amused at his discom- 
fiture took a pistol from his coat side pocket, 
shoved it near the negro's face and remarked, 
I stood that abuse as long as I intend to; one 
more word and I'll send you to hell where you 
belong, you black brute. The representative, 
seeing that this man meant what he said, kept 
mum. The South Carolina delegation undoubt- 
edly made a report at headquarters of the above 
incident, for in the winding up of President 
Grant's inaugural address he expressed the fol- 
lowing sentiments: That he hoped that white 



264 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

and black races would conform to the situation 
and that by mutual good conduct would main- 
tain the peace and harmony so necessary for 
both races, or words to that effect. 

Arriving in New York I took in the City. It 
was my first trip there since I had landed at 
Castle Garden from the four masted schooner, 
The Geneese, nearly ten years previous. I vis- 
ited the large firm and emporium of H. B. Claf- 
lin & Company and spoke to Mr. Bancroft. I 
gave him a statement of my commercial stand- 
ing, such as it was, and asked for his advice, as 
it was my first attempt as a dry goods mer- 
chant. My means being very limited I wanted 
to make them reach as far as possible. He 
treated me very courteously and furnished me 
with a salesman, whom he introduced as Mr. 
McClucklan. On our way to the basement he 

asked me, What State? I said Georgia. D n 

Georgia. I stopped at once, looking him 
squarely in the face I said, You can't sell me any 
goods, I am going for some one not prejudiced 
against my State, and started back, when he ex- 
claimed, Hold on, you misconstrue me; I have 
been a prisoner at Andersonville and I hate the 
name of Georgia. I do not mean to say that 
there are no good people in Georgia, like every- 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 265 

where else. Noting a keystone that I wore on 
my watch chain he said, I see you are a Mason 1 
So am I, displaying a square and compass 
pinned on the lapel of his coat. We can talk 
together said he. If it had not been for a brother 
Mason I don't think I'd be here today, I think 
I would have died of starvation. He told me of 
his transit from Andersonville to the Coast. 
When the train stopped at a country station, the 
name of which he did not know but he knew if 
was on the Central railroad, he gave the words 
of distress. It was a dark night, he could hardly 
have expected anybody to answer it, but some- 
one did and before the train left some one 
brought him enough fried ham and biscuit to 
last him several days. So I said, It was wrap- 
ped in a home made napkin with blue borders. 
He looked at me with astonishment, saying, So 
it was; what do you know about it. I said, 
I am the fellow, and told him what I did and 
that Mrs. Hardwick commended me for it and 
would not take any pay and that the station was 
Davisboro. The man was beside himself. He 
hugged me, tears ran down his cheeks ; he acted 
like a crazy fellow. He said, You can't buy any 
goods today, you are my guest. He ran to Mr. 
Bancroft to get excused, saying that I was an 
old friend and that he wanted to get off that 



266 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

day. He hired an open carriage and we drove 
over the whole city, showing me everything 
worth seeing. He carried me around to a fine 
restaurant and ordered an elaborate dinner, 
spent his money with the most lavish hand, re- 
gardless of my protestations, for he would not 
let me spend a copper. The following day I 
made my purchases. It is useless to say that he 
dealt squarely with me and with his advice and 
experience I made what small capital I had pur- 
chase me a very decent stock of merchandise. 



CHAPTER XXXXI. 

Again when President Lincoln in 1863 issued 
his edict to the Commanding Generals in their- 
respective territory to proclaim all the negroes 
free, as a war measure, as he claimed, he at- 
tempted on a large scale what John Brown 
failed to make a success of on a small scale, 
namely to create a servile insurrection, and thus 
exposing the helpless and defenceless to the ra- 
pacity of semi-savage hordes. But it failed, as 
all other attempts in that line have failed, thus 
again proving the good relationship existing be- 
tween the masters and their servants. Compare 
the situation now with that of the anti-bel- 
lum days. When a white emissary from the 
North hired a horse and buggy from the propri- 
etor of the hotel in Sandersville, Washington 
County, Georgia, and left with the same for 
parts unknown, he was finally located in Flor- 
ida and captured and brought back and put in 
jail. The lock of the jail was so rusted for the 
want of use that it took the assistance of a lock- 
smith to open the door to let him in. How is 
it now? A commodious building has had to be 
erected to accommodate the masses who trample 
under foot the laws of their country; the jails. 



268 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

and chaingangs are full to overflowing, with the 
perpetrators of crimes. Those are the results 
of the so called reconstructionists. Lynching 
was an unknown quantity in those days; there 
was no necessity for it. The laws of the country 
were administered, justly and loyally. Courts 
met at regular periods and often adjourned the 
same day for the want of patronage. Some say 
we are progressing. That is true, but in the 
wrong direction. Retrogressing is the proper 
word to apply, especially in morality. 



CHAPTER XXXXII. 

Another illustration worthy of mention in 
connection with the others is related here. A 
friend of mine named John J. Jordan, wounded 
at Vicksburg, Miss., one of the cleverest and 
inoffensive beings, owned several slaves by her- 
itage. Among them was one John Foster, a mu- 
latto. He was an accomplished carpenter and 
very active. His master gave him his own time 
and he was comparatively free all his life, he 
was devoted to the Jordan family and was a 
very responsible negro, however, his newly 
made friends the carpet baggers filled his brains 
with such illusions that he became a leader 
among the negroes, making speeches and made 
himself very obnoxious to those who were his 
friends from infancy. All at once Foster disap- 
peared. He was gone a couple of years when 
his former master received a letter from him, 
dated New York, begging assistance to enable 
him to return to Washington County. Not- 
withstanding his master's impoverished "condi- 
tion, the money was sent him and Foster came 
back entirely reformed. He had no more use 
for the Yankees, his short stay among them 
cured him. What a pity the authoress of Un- 



270 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

cle Tom's Cabin did not take John Foster under 
her protecting wings. What a lost opportunity ! 
What a fine additional illustration that picture 
would have made to her already fertile imagi- 
nation as the sequel will show. 

One day John Foster came to my house to 
see me. Good day, Marse Ike, said he, I 
thought I'll come to see you it has been a long 
time since I sawn you, and the following conver- 
sation took place : Where have you been John f 
I've been to New York. How do you like New 
York? I don't like it at all, let me tell you Mass 
Ike, those Yankees are no friends of the negroes. 
Well John I could have told you so before you 
went. Mass Ike, let me tell you what they've 
done. They told me I could make a fortune in 
the North, that I could get four and five dollars 
& day by my trade as a carpenter. Who told 
you so? Why John E. Bryant and his like of 
carpet baggers. Well did you not get it? I got 
it in the neck, I tell you what they did. I left 
here with right smart money, Marse John let 
me pay him for my time and got nearly three 
hundred dollars that I saved. I went to New 
York, and after looking around the city for a 
few days I couimenced hunting work, but where- 
ever I went they shook their heads, for no. I 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 271 

spent the whole winter there without striking a 
lick until I spent all my money. I finally applied 
at a shop where a dutchman was foreman, I was 
willing to work at any price for I had to live but 
do you know what they did? No John, I don't. 
Well they every one of them, and they worked 
twenty-five hands, laid down their tools and 
walked out of the shop declaring that they 
would not work by the side of any damned ne- 
gro, and the boss had to discharge me. No, 
Marse Ike, the Yankees are no friends to we 
colored people, only for what they can cheat us 
out of. I worked all my life among white folks 
here at home and it made no difference, I tell 
you Marse Ike, the people of the South are the 
negroes friends. Well John, you did not say so 
before you left here. No, I did not appreciate 
what the people here done for me until I went 
North. Well, John, you ought to go among your 
people and disabuse their minds and tell them 
what you know from personal experience. I 
am doing that Marse Ike every day. I have not 
long to stay here below, I have contracted con- 
sumption from exposure and am hardly able to 
do a day's work. I am taking little jobs now and 
then. Well John, if you stand in need of any- 



272 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

thing come to see me. You will always find 
something to eat here and some clothes to wear~ 
John died six months later. 



CHAPTER XXXXIII. 

Before concluding these reminiscences I take 
pleasure however in stating that Capt. Howell 
and myself met after the surrender and after a 
thorough understanding agreed that honors 
were easy and by mutual consent to bury the 
hatchet and eventually became warm friends. A 
little incident, however, is worth relating here. 
I was a delegate to a Governatorial Convention 
from Washington County. Capt. Howell also 
was a delegate from Fulton County, the vote 
was very close. We were each for the opposing 
candidate, the convention lasted for several days 
and could not agree. Capt. Howell came to see 
me, stating that he was a committee of one ap- 
pointed by the caucus to come to see me and in- 
fluence me to change my vote and vote for their 
candidate. I said "Capt. what did you tell 
them"? He said, "I said I doubt very much 
that my influence would have any effect, darn 
him I could not do anything with him when I 
had the power to control him and I am satisfied 
that my mission will be in vain." I said, "you 
spoke well, Captain, go back and report failure. 



274 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

CONCLUSION. 

I would be derelict in my duty and the gratitude 
I feel towards the noble women of the South 
who shared the brunt of misery while their loved 
ones were at the front suffering the hardship 
and rigors of camp life, and were fighting the 
battles for what they deemed their most sacred 
duty. With aching heart and burning tears she 
bade her dear ones God speed and a safe return, 
shouldering all the responsibilities of providing 
for those who were left behind 'and not able 
to provide for themselves. Did they stop at 
that f Many delicacies and garments were sent 
to the front by them to cheer those in the field. 
They organized wayside homes for those sol- 
diers who were in transit. They visited the 
hospitals and administered to the sick and 
wounded. They organized the ladies relief as- 
sociation and in every way imaginable added to 
the comfort of those who shared the brunt of 
battle. The Confederate veterans felt grateful 
to their wives, daughters and kinswomen who 
banded themselves together under the name of 
U. D. C. They have proclaimed in songs and 
stories the righteousness of the Confederate 
cause and even at late date forced our adversa- 
ries to admit that the cause we fought for was 



WAS BETWEEN THE STATES 275 

right and the Courts so hold it. Would it be 
too much to ask the United Confederate Veter- 
ans to see that enduring monuments of imper- 
ishable material be erected in the capital of ev- 
ery Southern State to perpetuate the memory 
and the fidelity of those noble heroines ? 

Sparta heroism was tame indeed in compar- 
ison with that of Southern women, especially 
those who were left in the wake of the invading 
armies amidst the ruins of a once happy home. 
It is a half a century that has elapsed since the 
thunder of Fort Sumter shook this hemisphere. 
New generations have appeared on the scene, 
fraternization is progressing slowly, but surely, 
the past is relegated gradually to the rear and 
the States again assert their rights, as they see 
it. Therefore it behooves the National admin- 
istration to see to it that equal rights to all and 
special privileges to none, is its duty to enforce 
so as to maintain this nation the greatest nation 
on the globe. The sections must get together 
and look to the wants and needs of their asso- 
ciates and as far as lies in their power assist in 
bringing relief. Thus past differences will van- 
ish and brotherly love will again prevail and this 
United States of America will forever be united 
to stand in bold relief the model government 
in the world. 



APPENDIX A. 

LIST OF OFFICERS OF THE WASHINGTON RIFLES. 

Capt., S. A. H. Jones. 
1st Lt., J. W. Budisill. 
2nd Lt., B. D. Evans. 
3rd Lt., W. W. Carter. 
Ensign, C. M. Jones. 
1st Sergt., E. P. Howell. 
2nd Sergt., G. W. Warthen. 
3rd Sergt., J. M. G. Medlock. 
4th Sergt., A. D. Jernigan. 
5th Sergt., P. E. Taliaferro. 
1st Corpl., W. J. Gray. 
2nd Corpl., A. T. Sessions. 
3rd Corpl., W. H. Eenfroe. 
4th Corpl., John K. Wicker. 
Color Bearer, J. T. Youngblood. 
Surgeon, B. F. Rudisill. 

LIST OF PEIVATES. 

Allen, G. E. Arnaw, James 

Bailey, J. W. Boatright, B. S. 

Barnes, A. S. Barnes, M. A. 

Barwick, W. B. Brantley, J. E. 



WAS BETWEEN THE STATES 



277 



Brown, Jos. M. 
Curry, David 
Curry, J. S. 
Cullen, S. E. 
Cullen,, E. W. 
Clay, W. S. 
Cason, W. 
Dudley, J. A. Q. 
Durden, M. 
Fulford, T. B. 
Flucker, M. B. 
Grimes, W. B. 
Gilmore, T. J. 
Gilmore, E. 
Gaskin, J. 
Haines, C. E. 
Hines, W. H. 
Bines, S. 
Hicklin, A. F. 
Hermann, I. 
Jordan, N. J. 
Jordan, J. J. 
Jones, S. B. 
King, Jas. R. 
Knight, W. G. 
Knight, W. K. 
Lay ton, J. H. 
Lewis, W. H. 
McCroon, J. J. 
Morgan, John H. 
Matthews, W. C. 
McDonal, J. J. 



Collier, Ed. 
Curry, S. K. 
Curry, J. H. 
Cullen, W. A. 
Commings, G. E. 
Cason, G. 
Cook, A. T. 
Dudley, W. H. 
Fulghum, J. H. 
Fulford, S. 
Gray, W. B. 
Gilmore, J. N. 
Gilmore, S. M. 
Godown, James 
Haines, S. S. 
Haynes, T. H. 
Hines, A. C. 
Hines, B. 
Hicklin, W. P. 
Honard, W. 
Jordan, J. T ; . 
Jones, W. H. 
Kinman, W. H. 
Kitrell, G. 
Kelley, G. W. 
Lamb, I. 
Lawson, W. H. 
Lewis, "W. B. 
Medlock, E. 
Mason, G. L. 
Massey, S. N. 
McDonald, A. 



278 



MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 



Newsome, J. J. 
Orr, T. A. 
Parnell, B. J. 
Roberts, J. B. 
Roberson, W. G-. 
Robison, R. T. 
Rodgers, L. 
Rawlings, C. 
Renfroe, J. 
Scarboro, A. M. 
Smith, J. C. 
Smith, J. H. 
Smith, John H. 
Solomon, H. 
Spillars, J. 
Trawick, A. J. 
Tyson, T. L. 
Tax-button, G. A. 
Veal, R. H. 
Whiddon, B. 
Warthen, T. J. W. 
Wall, W. A. 
Wagoner, W. H. 
Wicker, T. 0. 



Newsome, J. K. 
Peacock, Gr. W. 
Pittman, W. H. 
Parker, W. J. 
Roberson, J. A. 
Robison, W. R. 
Riddle, A. M. 
Rawlings, W. H. 
Stanley, J. S. 
Stubbs, J. N. 
Smith, J. P. 
Smith, W. H. 
Slate, S. L. 
Sheppard, J. J. 
Tarver, F. R. 
Trawick, J. T. 
Tookes, C. C. 
Turner, N. H. 
Whitaker, G. W. II. 
Whiddon, M. M. 
Wall, C. A. 
Waitzfelder, E. 
Wessolonsky, A. 
Watkins, W. E. 



APPENDIX B. 

The Newnan Guards, A. Capt. Geo. M. 
Harvey. 

The Columbus Guards, B. Capt. F. G. 
Wilkins. 

The Southern Eights Guards, C. Capt. J. 
A. Hauser. 

The Oglethorpe Light Infantry, D. Capt. J. 
O. Clark. 

The Washington Rifles, E. Capt. S. A. H. 
Jones. 

The Gate City Guards, F. Capt. W. F. Ez~ 
zard. 

The Bainbridge Independents, G. Capt. J. 
W. Evans. 

The Dahlonega Vols., H. Capt. Alfred Har- 
ris. 

The Walker Light Infantry, I. Capt. S. H. 
Crump. 

The Quitman Guards, J. Capt. Jas. S. 
Pinkard. 

J. N. Ramsey of Columbus, Ga., was elected 
Colonel. 



APPENDIX C. 

1st. Lt. John W. Rudisill became Capt. of 
Compy. C. 12 Ga. Battalion. 

2nd. Lt. Beverly D. Evans became Col. 2nd. 
Ga. State troops. 

3rd. Lt. W. W. Carter became Capt. Compy. 
G. 49 Ga. regiment. 

Ensign C. M. Jones became Capt. Compy. 
H. 49 Ga. Eegiment. 

1st. Sergt. E. P. Howell became Capt. of 
Martins Battery. 

4th. Sergt. A. D. Jernigan became Capt. 
Compy. H. 49 Ga. Regiment. 

5th. Sergt. P. R. Taliaferro became Capt, 
Compy. E. 32nd. Ga. Regiment. 

1st. Corporal W. J. Gray became 1st. Lieut. 
Sandersville Artillery. 

2nd. Corp. A. T. Sessions became Lieut. 
Compy. B. 12 Ga. Batalion. 

3rd. Corp. W. H. Renfroe became Lieut. 

4th. Corp. J. R. Wicker became Lt. 32 Ga. 

Private G. R. Allen became Lt. 57 Ga. 

Private James Arnau became Lt. 49th Geor- 
gia. 



WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 281 

Private B. S. Boatright became Lt. 12th 
Georgia Bat. 

Private James M. Brown became Lt. 5th 
Georgia Eeserve. 

Private M. R. Flucker became Orderly 
Sergt. 12th Georgia. 

Private T. J. Gilmore became Lieut. Mar- 
tins Battery. 

Private Wesley Howard became Corp. Mar- 
tins Battery. 

Private J. T. Jordan became Col. 49th Geor- 
gia Eegiment. 

Private W. H. Jones became Lt. 32nd Geor- 
gia Regiment. 

Private S. B. Jones became Capt. 8th Geor- 
gia Cavalry. 

Private James B. Kinman became Lieut. 
Company B. 12th Georgia Bat. 

Private W. G. Knight became Sergt. Com- 
pany B. 12th Georgia Bat. 

Private Isaac Lamb became Lt. 53rd Geor- 
gia. 

Private W. H. Lawson became Capt. 5th 
Georgia Reserve. 

Private W. C. Matthews became Capt. 38th 
Georgia Regiment. 

Private J. J. Newsome became Capt. Com- 
pany E. 12th Georgia Bat. 



282 MEMOIRS OF A VETERAN 

Private Geo. W. Peacock became Lt. 12th 
Georgia Bat. 

Private J. B. Roberts became Capt. Com- 
pany D. 49th Ga. Regiment. 

Private W. J. Parker became Capt. Cobbs 
Legiose. 

Private W. G. Robson became Lt. Martins 
Battery. 

Private J. A. Robson became Sergt. Com- 
pany B. 12th Ga. Bat. 

Private H. T. Robson became Sergt. 12th 
Georgia Bat. 

Private J. N. Stubbs became Sergt. 12th 
Georgia Bat. 

Private J. C. Smith became Lt. 12th Geor- 
gia Bat. 

Private H. Soloman became Capt. 14th 
Georgia Regiment. 

Private G. A. Tarbutton became Capt. Hil- 
lards Legion. 

Private G. W. H. Whitaker became Capt. 
12th Ga. Batt. 

Private Benj. Whiddon became Capt. 5th 
Georgia Reserve. 

Private T. 0. Wicker became Adgt. 28th 
Georgia Regiment. 

Private W. E. Watkins became Sergt. Com- 
pany B. 12th Georgia Bat. 



APPENDIX D. 



Robert Martin, known as Bob Martin, from 
Barnwell, S. C., was elected Captain. 

Evan P. Howell, 1st Lt. 
W. G. Eobson, 2nd Lt. 
Reuben A. Bland, 3rd Lt. 
H. K. Newsome, 1st Sergt. 
S. J. Fulfonn, 2nd Sergt. 
W. H. Hines, 3rd Sergt. 
J. B. Warthen, 4th Sergt. 
W. H. Dudley, 5th Sergt. 
W. M. Cox, 6th Sergt. 
Haywood Ainsworth, 7th Sergt. 
W. B. Hall, 1st Corp. 
W. B. O'Quinn, 2nd Corp. 
W. F. Webster, 3rd Corp. 
J. E. Cullin, 4th Corp. 

! 

PRIVATES. 

r 

H. Allen A. C. Hines 

J. F. Bailey J. D. Hardy 

J. F. Brooks Gabe Kittrell 

W. A. Brown J. E. Johnson 

B. L. Bynum A. R. Lord 



284 



MEMOIBS OF A VETERAN 



W. T. C. Barnwell 
M. B. Cox 
E. W. Cullen 
J. Curry 
R. Dixon 
E. E. Caudell 
W. E. Doolittle 
J. E. Ellis 
Geo. T. Franklin 
E. T. Ford 
S. M. Gilmore 
J. A. Godown 
W. N. Harmon 
Gabrill S. Hooks 
V. A. Horton 
C. Howell 
J. J. Hadden 
Ben Jones 

E. E. Jackson 
T. M. Lord 

J. E. Mnllen 
H. C. Lord 
J. W. Massey 
J. J. O'Qninn 
S. B. Pool 
N. Eaifield 
Wm. F. Sheppard 
W. L. Stephens 
G. W. Thomas 
W. H. Toulson 

F. A. McCary 
J. C. Waller 



D. G. McCoy 
F. M. Loden 
J. B. Oxford 
J. H. Pittman 
H. L. Skelley 
J. F. Salter 
W. A. Smith 
J. P. Thomas 

E. Tompkins 

D. B. Tanner 
J. H. Veal 

J. J. Waller 
T. Webster 
Simeon Bland 
J. Armstrong 
Henry Achord 
C. Blizzard 
T. J. Brooks 
J. J. Braswell 
T. M. Barnwell 
W. B. Barwick 
H. L. Cox 
T. C. Cullen 

A. Dixon 

E. L. Campbell 
E. D. Chaplen 
J. C. Durham 

B. 0. Franklin 
H. Ford 

W. E. Gilmore 
T. J. Gilmore 
W. A. Grimes 



WAB BETWEEN THE STATES 



285 



G. W. Webster 
Geo. D. War then 
Lawson Taylor 
All Armstrong 
W. D. Bodiford 
W. J. Brooks 
B. S. Braswell 
W. J. Bell 
J. N. Bentley 
S. B. Cox 
E. W. Cullen 
T. A. Curry 
J. H. Coleman 

D. F. Chambers 
T. C. Doolittle 

A. E. Erwin 
H. Fields 

B. Garner 

E. T. Gilmore 
R. A. Godown 
Isaac Herman 
H. J. Hodges 
R. H. Hales 
A. P. Heath 



T. J. Hamilton 
W. H. Horton 
W. C. Howard 
L. W. Hines 
Red Jones 
J. Jackson 
F. A. Lockman 
John L. Laymade 
N. A. Lord 
W. J. Mass:ey 
W. Oxford 

F. Posey 

G. B. Rogers 

J. F. Sheppard 
J. P. Smith 
W. C. Thomas 
J. F. Tompkins 
H. T. Thompson 
W. Waller 
T. C. Warthen 
J. Wood 
T. R. Gibson 



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