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MEMOIRS 



BEAD BEFORE THE 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



1867-8-9. 



VOL. III. 



LONDON: 

rCBLIBHBD FOR TRI AMTHROPOLOOICAL ROCIETT, BT 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 

1870. 



• • • • »9 
• • • 



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uhidor: t. mciubdi, *7, sbsat ^ouk msET, w.o. 



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N 



COUNCIL OF THE 



won 

l^c^^^e^cc -S. ^ ^ m g\ 



JOHN BEDDOE, Esq., M.D., For. Assoc. A.3. Paris, etc. 

HEBMANN BEIGEL, Esq., MJ)., M.B.G.P. 

GAPT. BICHARD F. BUBTON, H.M. Consul, Damascus. 

B. S. CHABNOCE, Esq., PhJ)., F.S.A., For. Assoc. A.S. Paris, etc. 

J. BABNABD DAVIS, Esq.. M.D., F.B.S., F.S.A., For. Assoc A.S. Paris, etc 

CAPTAIN BEDFOBD PIM, B.N., F.B.a.S. 

BEBTUOLD SEE MANN^ Esq., Ph.D., F.L.S. 

9(ttctot* 

T. BENDYSHE, Esq., M.A. 

Stiasfuret* 

Bbv. DUNBAB I. HEATH, M Jk. 

a^tt fiUwittx$i of CotmcQ* 

J. GOULD AVEBY, Esq. 

J. BUBFOHD CARLILL, Esq., M.D. 

S. E. COLLINGWOOD, Esq. 

W. C. DENDY, Esq. 

GEORGE HABBIS, Esq., F.S.A. 

JONATHAN HUTCHINSON. Esq., F.B.C.S. 

W. B. KESTEVEN, Esq., F.RC.S. 

KELBUBNE king. Esq., M.D. 

BICHARD KING, Esq., M.D. 

A. L. LEWIS, Esq. 

ST. GEOBGE J. MIVABT.Esq., F.R.S. 

MAJOB S. B. I. OWEN, F.L.S. 

E. PEACOCK, Esq., F.SjL. 

J. SPENGE BAMSKILL, Esq., M.D. 

G. ROBEBT DES BUFFIERES. Esq., F.G.S. 

JOHN THURNAM, Esq.. M.D. 

W. S. W. VAUX. Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., etc. 

C. S. WAKE, Esq. 

A. WILTSHIRE, Esq., M.D. 

E. VILLIN, Esq. 



£ecretarg ant S^fbranan. 

J. FRED. COLLINGWOOD. Esq.. F.G.S., For. Assoc. A.S. Parisr 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOB 

d of an Australian and an Aino Woman . Frontispiece 

L Houses for the Dead of the Hovas in Madagascar . 17 

*ress of the Hovas . . .17 

Instruments of the Hovas . . .18 

r Amo Man . . « . .21 

ditto . . . . .21 

> British Skulls, from Long Barrows in Wiltshire . 41 

ditto from a Long Barrow in Wiltshire 41 

Skull . ' . . .368 



Scotland, to lUustrato Tables of Stature . 400 

England and Wales, ditto . . 426 



CONTENTS. 



PAOB 



L The Hovas, and other characteristic Tribes of Madagascar. 

By Lieut. S. P. Oliver, RA., RRG.S., F.A.S.L. . 1 

XL Description of the Skeleton of an Amo Woman, and of 
Three Skulls of Men of the same race. By Joseph 
Barnard Davis, M.D., F.RS., F.S.A., V.P.A.S.L., etc. 21 

m. Further Researches and Observations on the Two Principal 
Forms of Ancient British Skulls. By John Thurnam, 
M.D., F.S.A., F.A.S.L. . . .41 

IV. Elasticity of Animal Type. By C. W. Devis, B.A. . 81 

V. Vocal and other Influences upon Mankind, of Pendency of 

the Epiglottis. By Sir George Duncan Gibb, Bart., 
M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., V.P.A.S.L., Member of the 
Royal College of Physicians, Assistant-Physician and 
Lecturer on Forensic Medicine, Westminster Hospital, 
etc. ..... 106 

VI. Note on the Skulls found in the Roimd Barrows of the 

South of England. By C. Carter Blake, Esq. , Doct. Sci. , 
F.G.S., Hon. F.A.S.L., Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy 
and Zoology at Westminster Hospital School of Medicine 114 

VII. On the Gypsies of Bengal. By Babu Rajendrala'la 
MiTRA, Corresponding Member of the Anthropological 
Society of London, Hon. Member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Corresponding 
Member of the German and the American Oriental So- 
cieties, etc. . . . . .120 

viii. The Psychological Unity of Mankind. By C. S. Wake, 

r.A.S.L. ..... io't 



VI CONTENTS. 

IX. The Indians of the Mosquito Territory. By John Collin- 

soN, C.E., F.RG.S., F.A.S.L., etc., etc. . 148 

X. On the Saracens in France, especially in Burgundy and 
Lorraine. By Dr. Gustavb Lagneau. (Translated by 
E. Villin, F.R.S.L., F.A.S.L.) . . .157 

XI. On the Ancient or Fossil Pottery found on the Shores of 

Ecuador. By William Bollabrt, F.RG.S., F.A.S.L. . 163 

XII. Is the Character of the Scotch the Expression of the Soil 

of Scotland] By John Cleghorn, F.A.S.L. . . 167 

xiiL The Bayaderes; or, Dancing Girls of Southern India. 
By John Shortt, M.D., F.L.S., F.A.S.L., M.RC.P.L., 
etc., Surgeon-Greneral Superintendent of Vaccination, 
Madras Presidency . . .182 

XIV. On the Land Dayas of Upper Sarawak, Seutah, Lihoy, 
Letung, and Quoss. By Edward P. Houghton, M.D., 
Loc. Sec. A.S.L., Resident Officer, Sarawak Goyemment 195 

XV. Habits and Manners of Marvar Tribes of India. By John 
Shortt, M.D., F.L.S., M.RC.P.L., F.A.S.L., etc.. 
General Superintendent of Vaccination, Madras . 201 

XV.* Report on Excavations in Caithness Cairns, conducted 
for the Anthropological Society of London by Messrs. J. 
Anderson and R. I. Shearer, in 1866. By Joseph 
Anderson, Loc. Sec. A.S.L. . . . 216 

XVI. Note on a Skull from the Cairn of Get, Caithness, dis- 
covered by Joseph Anderson, Esq., Loc. Sec. AS.L. By 
C. Carter Blake, Doct. ScL, F.G.S., Lecturer on Com- 
parative Anatomy and Zoology, Westminster Hospital 
School of Medicine .... 243 

xvu. The Character of the Voice in the Nations of Asia and 
Africa, contrasted with that of the Nations of Europe. 
By Sir G. Duncan Gibb, Bart., M.A., M.D., LL.D., 
F.G.S., V.RA.S.L. . . . .244 

xviL* The Fishing Indians of Vancouver's Island. By Ed- 
ward B. BoGOE, Esq., RN., Loc. Sec. A.S.L. . 260 

xviii. On the Homed Cairns of Caithness. By Joseph Ander- 
son, Loc. Sec. AS.L. .... 266 



00NTBNT8. vii 

XIX. Anthropological Remariu on the Population of Venezuela. 

By A. Ernst, F.A.S.L. .274 

XX. Examination of Central American Hieroglyphics of 
Yucatan, including the Dresden Codex, the Guat^malien 
of Paris, the Troano of Madrid, the Hieroglyphics of 
Palenque, Copan, Nicaragua, Veraguas, and New 
Granada; by the recently discovered Maya Alphabet. 
By William Bollaebt, F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., Corr. Mem. 
University of Chile, of the Ethnological Societies of 
London and New York, etc. . 288 

XXI. Report on the Researches of Dr. Edouard Dupont in the 
Belgian Bone-Caves on the banks of the river Lesse. By 
C. Carter Blake, Doot. ScL, F.G.S., Hon. F.A.S.L., 
Associ6 Etranger de la Soci6t6 d' Anthropologic de Paris, 
Corresponding Member of the Sociedad Antropoldgica 
Espafiola, and of the Anthropological Section of the 
Soci^t4 des Amis de la Nature de Moscou, Lecturer on 
Comparative Anatomy and Zoology at Westminster 
Hospital School of Medicine .315 

xxu. On Ancient Peruvian Graphic Records. By William 
BoLLABRT, F.RG.S., F.A.S.L., Corr. Mem. Univ. 
Chile, of the Ethnological Societies of London and New 
York, etc. ..... 351 

xxiiL On the Physical Characteristics of the Inhabitants of 
Bretagne. By John Beddoe, B.A., M.D., Pres. A.S.L., 
Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris 359 

XXIV. Account of the Skull of a Ghiliak. Appendix to Article 
II, pp. 21-40, "On the Skeleton and Skulls of Ainos." By 
J. Barnard Davis, M.D., F.R.S., V.P.A.S.L. . 366 

XXV. On the Headform of the Danes. By Dr. Beddoe, Pre- 
sident of the Anthr. Soc. of London . .378 

XXVI. On the Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles. 
By Dr. Beddoe, B.A., M.D., F.S.S., President of the 
Anthr. Soc. of London . 384 



7' 



MEMOIES 



BEAD BSFOBB THB 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



I. — Tlie Hollas, and. other cha/ractervitic Tribes of Mada/jascar, 
By Lieut. S. P. Olivbr, R.A., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L. 

Tt must be always a subject of great interest to anthropologists 
that the great island of Madagascar,* separated from Africa by 
a short distance of four hundred miles only, should present such 
a marked difference to that continent in its organic productions. 
The marked singularity of the mammal fauna, in the absence 
of so many African families and orders, and the existence of 
numerous genera and species peculiar only to the island, are 
well known to all naturalists. Dr. Hartlaub, the ornithologist, 
has found the bird-population in the highest degree peculiar, 
and Mr. Bates, the entomologist, in his analysis of the insect 
fauna, found a still greater proportion of species of insects 
peculiar to this island ; whilst the endemic character of its flora 
has been shown by Petit Thenars, Bojer, and other botanists. 
The conclusion forced upon us by the above facts is that, 
although so near to Africa, Madagascar has never had any 
close connexion with that continent, but that the Mozambique 
channel has existed as a watery barrier for a long geological 

* Madagascar is the name given to the island by foreigners, and is not 
used by the natives, with the exception of those who have learnt the name 
from the Europeans : the Hova authorities, however, have now adopted it as 
the official name. The native name is ** Nosindambo" (island of wild hogs), 
and they sometimes term it ** Ny, anivony ny riaka" (" the, in the midst of 
the flood"). So, also, Malagasy is an adjective applied to the inhabitants and 
language of the country, and only partially used by a few of them on the 
ea^tem coast : Malgache, Madegasse, Malagassi, are synonymous. 

VOL. III. B 



( 



2 OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OP MADAGASCAR. 

period.* Some have supposed that Madagascar and the 
Mascarene islands^ with other numerous atolls and coral reefs^ 
have formed the site of an ancient tract of land in the Indian 
Ocean similar to the great Pacific continent, whose former 
existence and subsequent subsidence were indicated by Darwin 
some time ago. 

How deep an interest is excited when we find Madagascar, 
the third largest island in the world (whose area is inferior 
only to that of Borneo and New Guinea), peopled by races of 
human beings as peculiar to their country as its fauna and 
flora, and in every respect totally dissimilar to those numerous 
tribes inhabiting the immense neighbouring continent of Africa. 
EthnographicaUy speaking, they are Oceanic rather than Afri- 
can. To these races the name of Malagasy has been generally 
applied by foreigners, although they are only known to them- 
selves by the names of the particular tribes to which they 
severally belong. From time immemorial these Malagasy have 
managed to preserve their native independence, owing pro- 
bably to the courage and jealousy of the people, to the im- 
passable forests, bad roads, and not least to the insalubrity of 
the country, especially on the coast, and to other accidents ; 
and although for many years their island has lain in the very 
highway of commercial traffic between England and the Bast 
Indian empire, they have remained until lately cut oflF entirely 
from settled intercourse with Europeans, and unimproved by 
foreign civilisation. 

* Mr. H. W. Bates (the talented entomologist) explains the pecoliar 
organic features of Madagascar by the following ingenious hypothesis, viz. : 
" that the island (whether previously stocked with anti- African forms or 
not) was at one time much more closely connected with Africa than it now 
is, and that the time of connection was anterior to the date when the con- 
tinent became peopled by Simiidse and the bulk of its present mammalia, 
but posterior to the introduction of Lemurs. Subsequently to this epoch 
we may suppose it to have become isolated, as we now find it ; the lapse of 
time since the severance having been sufficient to cause the present diver- 
gence of the faunas — a divergence caused, however, as much by the extinc- 
tion of old forms on the continent, once common to both lands, through the 
introduction or immigration of so many new ones, as by the origination of 
new species and genera in Madagascar allied to prototypes once common to 
island and continent." Proc, Zoo. Soc, 1863, part iii, p. 476. 



OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OF MAOAGASCAB. 3 

It is evident that the Malagasy have never degenerated from 
any original condition of civilisation, for there are no relics of 
primeval civilisation to be met with in the country ; yet the 
Malagasy seem to have considerably advanced themselves in 
the art of building houses and originating elaborate fortifica- 
tions, which they have themselves modified to suit their of- 
fensive and defensive weapons previous to any known inter- 
course with civilised people. They had domesticated oxen* 
and pigs, and made advances in the cultivation of rice, yams, 
etc., but whether by their own unaided intellect or by external 
example we cannot say. Originally they seem to have been 
totally ignorant of any religion ; what they possess now has 
been borrowed from others or invented but lately by them- 
selves for political motives.f Yet their wonderful aptitude 
for religious instruction is shown by the presence of eighteen 
thousand Christians in the province of Ankova alone. With- 
out any written langus^e they appear to have an elaborate 
structure of grammar ; although many words are evidently in- 
troduced from abroad. 

The various nations pr tribes inhabiting Madagascar may be 
considered as forming two distinct races ; one characterised 

* During the laBt century " It is said of Eabiby that whilst he and his 
people were busy planting rice, one of them killed an animal called the 
jamoka (bullock), and ate a part of it. Pleased with his discovery, he con- 
tinued to kill and eat frequently; and in consequence of this became so 
much stouter than the rest of his companions, that he was questioned by 
the inquisitive chieftain as to the cause of his newly-acquired corpulency, 
and after some hesitation confessed the facts of the case. Kabiby, like a 
wise man, preferring experiment to mere information, very naturally wished 
to make trial for himself. Finding the beef as good as had been described 
to him, the chief, far from indulging any jealous wish to keep so important 
a secret, ordered another bullock to be taken and kiUed in order that he 
might feast his companions. He also first ordered fahitra or folds to be 
made for collecting cattle, and was the first also who ate the flesh of the 
wild hog. The fahitras made by him are still preserved at the village called 
after him Amhohidrabiby.*' Ellis, Hist, of Madagascar, vol. ii, p. 118. 

t " Impoina, the father of the first Badama, in consecrating some national 
idols, is said to have acted solely from political motives in the conviction 
that some kind of religious influence was useful in the government of a 
nation." Ellis, History of Madagascar. 

Ba>haniraka, foreign secretary in 1862, remarked to me that religion was 
good for the lower classes, as it made them orderly and quiet citizens. 

b2 



4 OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OP MADAGASCAR. 

by small 'stature and a comparatively fair complexion, and the 
other remarkable for a larger stature and dark coloured skin. 
The sources of their origin must ever be a mystery to us ; but 
still, by the aid of linguistics, we have tolerable grounds for 
assigning to the lighter race some previous connexion with 
western Protonesia, whilst we consider the darker coloured 
natives of the coast as the remains of the primitive aboriginals, 
or perhaps more accurately of an anterior population. Both 
these nations speak the same language, varied only as to dialect, 
but physically they are totally diflferent. Neither of them has 
any resemblance to African types. Even their clothing shows 
that there is small probability of their having at any former 
period sprung from an African colony, for at all times it 
appears that the races inhabiting the adjacent continent have 
universally been clothed with the skins of wild beasts, fur 
karosses, etc.; but although numerous animals exist in the 
island whose skins are most suitable for the purpose, still they 
are never used by the natives, whilst their using so generally 
cloth made from the woven strips of the rofia palm or the 
bark of the hibiscus simply beaten out, after the manner of 
making cloth practised by the South Sea islanders, affords 
additional evidence that these inhabitants of Madagascar have 
a common origin in the Asiatic Archipelago with the races 
now found in the Pacific islands. 

On the other hand, Mr. Crawfurd, who has well studied the 
philology of Madagascar and Malaya, although he finds many 
Malay and Javanese words in the Malagasy language, will not 
admit that any of the Malagasy are of Malay origin, he says, 
" The people of Madagascar are not Malays, nor do they bear 
any resemblance to them ; they are in fact negroes, but 
negroes of a particular description : they are negroes in the 
same sense that Portuguese, Lapps, and Englishmen, Germans, 
and Spaniards are Europeans, and in no other — their facial 
angle is not so acute as that of the ordinary negro.^' . . . "Like 
all other negroes they are ignorant of letters : no negro nation 
has ever invented an alphabet ; the language was totally dis- 
tinct, not only from Malay, but from every other language of 
Africa.^^ " Mr. Crawfurd's hypothesis is ' that a fleet of Malay 



OLIVER ON THE H0VA8 OF MADAGASCAR. 5 

pirates had been tempest-driven from their coast and not 
able to make their way back; that they had been caught in the 
south-east monsoon which blows south of the Equator, and 
had made for the first land that lay in their way, which would 
of course be Madagascar; that in that way they arrived in suf- 
ficient numbers to protect themselves in the first instance 
against the natives, then afterwards imparted to them a certain 
amount of instruction and conveyed to them a knowledge of 
the cultivation and use of vegetable productions, and finally 
became absorbed among them by intermarriage\^' Proceedings 
R. Geo. 8oc., vol. vii. No. 2 (1863), p. 69. 

I now proceed to describe the chief physical and psychical 
peculiarities of these tribes, which constitute the bulk of the 
Malagasy population, but first I will give a table of their approx- 
imate numbers, of which it is almost impossible to obtain accu- 
rate information : — 



1. Malay origin ? 



2. Aboriginal? 



fl. Hovas Fair ... 800,000 

II^S^IX ] Light brown... 1.500.000 

.4. Betsileo Brown ... 1,500,000 

I B^^^o ] Deep brown ... 300.000 

U: f^^J""^ ■"' ! Black ... 1^200^ 

Total ... 5,300,000 



A great extent of country is depopulated, on account of 
long barbarous wars, the practice of infanticide, and the cruel- 
ties of the slave trade, which account for the smallness of the 
population as compared with the area of this fine island, which 
is about 250,000 square miles, or twenty-one people to every 
scjuare mile. The organisation of the Malagasy people, as 1 
have before noticed, is referable to two distinct types. Let us 
first examine the light-coloured tribes, of whom the Hova is 
the true representative type. This group includes the Betaui- 
mena, Betsimasaraka, and Betsileo tribes, all of whom possess 
small stature, with olive complexion of different shades, more 
brown than black ; physiognomy more Mongol than Negro, 
with patent and recognised affinities to the Malay; in numbers 
they are inferior to the black or darker coloured tribes, and they 



b OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OF MADAGASCAB. 

inhabit the Highlands inland and part of the eastern coast of 

Madagascar.* 

The Hovas. 

The first in importance of all the tribes inhabiting Mada- 
gascar is the race of Hovas, who occupy the central province 
of Ankova, a highland territory occupying a plateau some five 
thousand feet above the sea level. In numbers far inferior to any 
of the black tribes of Madagascar, they comprise about one- 
sixth of the whole population of the island, but from their 
superior intelligence and power of military organisation they 
form the dominant race, and rule absolutely over the other 
races, which together are five times their number. 

Physically these Hovas form a fine, noble, well-built race of 
men. Robust and active, nevertheless they are mostly below 
the middle stature, which indeed but few of them ever exceed. 
Their figures are erect, with small but finely-formed limb^ of 
good proportion, whilst their gait and movements are remark- 
ably graceful, free, and agile. Although distinguished by 
their promptitude and activity, their strength and endurance 
is inferior to that of the other neighbouring tribes, and they 
are easily susceptible of fatigue from travelling or labour; 
this, however, I imagine, only proceeds from the fact of the 
Hovas as a rule not being brought up to undergo as much manual 
labour as the slaves under them, who excel in carrying great 
weights for long distances. 

Physiognomically speaking, they are eminently noticeable for 
their well-shaped heads, rather flattened at the back, with high 
foreheads, often of an European cast of countenance (in some 
few instances the distance between the hair and eyebrows is 
comparatively narrow), but generally indicative of considerable 

* The Protonesians are pecaliar in their distribution ; it is rarely that 
they form the exclusive populations of those lands on which they are found. 
On tho contrary, they are found chiefly in the lighter variety ; but they are 
always found in the interior or more impracticable parts, and always as an 
inferior population. The migration of the Eelenonesians took place anterior 
to the spread of the lighter tribes. (Dr. Latham.) 

A parallel case is found in the Feejee islands, where there are two races, 
light and dark, the Amphinesians and £elffinonesians. Mr. Crawfurd says 
that five hundred of this light-haired race are able to turn the scale of 
success against twenty thousand of the darker Fe^'eeans. 



OUVEB ON THE H0VA8 OF MAOAGASCAB. 7 

intellectual capacity as well as moral excellence. Their fea- 
tures are rather delicate than prominent. The nose is small^ 
firm, and well chiselled, never thick and fleshy, and sometimes of 
pure aquiline shape, more frequently straight, now and then 
short and broad, without fullness at the end, the facial angle 
is large; their lips are occasionally thick and slightly projecting, 
seldom round and large, but often thin, and the lower gently 
projecting (this latter from snuff-taking, I believe), as in the 
Caucasian race, with short haughty curling upper lip. Their 
eyes hazel, clear, and lustrous, but small and piercing. Their 
hair is jet black, but soft and fine, straight or curling (Tsotra, 
Tsobolo) ; a few, indeed, have frizzy or crisped bair (Ngita), 
but this evidently does not belong to the true original Hova 
type. They used to plait their hair, but since 1822 have 
usually cut their hair short in European fashion, adjusting it 
with grace. 

The Hova women wear their thick glossy hair elaborately 
dressed, and plaited in extremely fine plaits and braids, tied in 
a number of small knots all over the head, giving a stiff and 
rather formal aspect to the contour of the head and face. 
There are ten or twelve different modes of arranging these 
plaits. The unmarried females allow their locks to flow negli- 
gently over their shoulders. There are few grey-headed 
people to be met with, and they are scrupulously careful to re- 
move their grey hairs, as it is a matter of importance to them 
to avoid as much as possible any symptoms of age, and it is 
always an object of great desire to appear or be thought 
young. Their beards are but weak, and the hairs are plucked 
out when young ; they frequently wear moustachios, generally 
thick and clipped close. 

The colour of their complexion is olive, more or less 
dark, but frequently lighter than that of the inhabitants of 
Southern Europe ; the vigour of health often imparts a ruddy 
tinge to their countenances ; but this, whilst it removes them 
from approximating in complexion to the yellow hue of the 
Malays, does not give them any resemblance to the copper- 
coloured Indians of America. 

The men are better formed than the women, in whom there 



8 



OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OF MADAQASCAB. 



is a tendency to become corpulent. Their hands are not so 
warm to the touch as those of Europeans, and their blood is by 
thermometer colder. They are industrious, intelligent, and to 
a certain degree half civilised. They are most kind and aflTec- 
tionate in their natural relations, cheerful and hospitable, and 
capable of the warmest friendship, but superstitious and men- 
dacious in the extreme. They are quick at learning, and have 
a retentive memory. They are very sensitive, and possess 
great natural dignity, being extremely amenable to law and 
order, and the constituted authorities. 

The Hovas are not the aborigines of this part of Madagas- 
car which they now inhabit, and it is impossible to determine 
with any certainty from what part of the island they came. It 
is, however, their own general belief that they came from 
the south-east of Madagascar, and had advanced inland, gra- 
dually dispossessing the aboriginal inhabitants. At all events, 
the Hovas are a race entirely distinct from all the rest of the 
natives of Madagascar : from wherever they have come, they 
have in every respect the pre-eminence and superiority over 
the other tribes. 

There are several reasons why the Hovas should be fairer 
than their neighbours: they wear more clothing to begin with, 
and expose their bodies less than any of the coast tribes; 
besides, living in a mountainous district at high elevations, 
with a cooler and more salubrious climate, generally conduces 
to fairness of complexion ; whilst vast rivers, alluvial deposits, 
and swampy countries under a tropical sun are found always 
to determine a tendency to the colour of the negro, a 
fact frequently confirmed and fully borne out by the colour 
and country of the black tribes of Madagascar. The As- 
samese are examples of this distinction; they, a mountain 
race, being light in comparison to the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring swamps of Cambodia and Pegu. So in Fer- 
nando Po, an island only twenty miles distant from the main- 
land of Equatorial Africa, but rising 4,000 feet above the sea, 
the Ediya family have much lighter skins and softer hair 
than the African negro. Capt. Beechey remarked that through- 
out the whole of Polynesia the lower coralline islands always 



OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OF MADAGASCAR. 

contained a darker people, whilst the hi^er volcanic islands 
possessed lighter coloured inhabitants. 

The language of Ankova may be considered as the standard 
of the Madagascar dialect. It is the most copious and least 
nasal. 

There seems to be no doubt that the Teninkova, or vernacular 
dialect of the Hovas, from its intimate relationship to the 
original Malayan or Polynesian language, points to the Indian 
Archipelago of which Java is the head- quarters as the ancient 
cradle of the Hova race ; but it is equally uncertain at what 
time, or in what manner, this migration across the Indian 
Ocean could have taken place, nor are there any legends re- 
maining which allude in any way to such a fact. 

Mr. Ellis, on first landing at Tamatave, was surprised at the 
perfect identity of the Malagasy and Eastern Polynesian lan- 
guages in the names of many things common to both, such as 
a cocoa-nut tree, the name of which they pronounced precisely 
as a South- Sea-islander would have done. So also with the 
Pandanus or vacoua tree, one of the most common trees on 
the coast of Madagascar; and in Tahiti also; the words for 
Hower and the names of the parts of the human body. The nu- 
merals also he found, with but slight variation, were identically 
the same ; but he obsen^ed that, although in many respects the 
language retained the same simplicity of structure and arrange- 
ment, it was in some instances more defective, while in others, 
especially in the structure and application of its verbs, it was 
far more extensive and complex than the Polynesian language. 
The Hova language exhibits an instance of a people but half- 
civilised, using a language copious, precise, and philosophical, 
and only oral, having been till within the last forty years an un- 
written language. That they now possess a written language 
is entirely due to the London Missionary Society. It is notice- 
able that the dialects of the tribes on the coast more nearly re- 
semble one another than any one of them can be found to re- 
semble that of the Hovas ; so that we are accordingly led to 
suppose that the Hovas are a people of later introduction to 
the island than the coast tribes, who appear to have been the 
anterior inhabitants of the country. These I will now proceed 
to describe. 



10 olivfib on the hovas of madagascab. 

The Bstsimasabaea and Betanimena. 

These seem to form but one people, and next to the Hovas 
are the fairest race in Madagascar. It is supposed that they 
arise from a blending of the aboriginals of the east coast and the 
Zafindramina, some remnants of an Arab colony. (Members 
of this same colony inhabit the island of St. Mary's, where 
they style themselves Zafihrihama or descendants of Abraham.) 
But there is doubtless a great admixture of Hova blood in 
their veins. They are particularly cleanly in their houses and 
habits, but degraded in morals, and extremely apathetic and 
indolent. Intercourse with Europeans has produced marked 
European features amongst many of them ; generally they have 
larger heads and less marked features than the Hovas. The 
Betsileo (or '' invincible'^) resemble the Hovas also, but are 
much darker; they are more agricultural and less warlike than 
their neighbours the Hovas, and inhabit the high mountainous 
region south of Ankova. They are slender and of low stature, 
of various shades of brown, with long black curling hair; they 
are patriarchal in their mode of life, and have modest and un- 
assuming manners. There is a branch of them called the 
Betsileontanalay a body of whom attended at the capital on the 
coronation of the queen under their female chieftain Jovana. 
Ellis describes her as having a complexion of a mellow brown, 
regular features, open countenance, with dark glossy hair 
bmided : she excelled in oratory, and appears to have been as 
brave in war as wise in council. 

The Sakalavas. 

The second division of the Malagasy population is the dark- 
coloured variety, of which the Sakalavas are the typical repre- 
sentatives. They are distinguished by greater stature, dark 
complexion, and physiognomy as much Negro as Mongol, and 
include the North and South Sakalavas, the Antsianaka, and 
Bezano-zano; they have been an anterior population to the 
Malay Hovas, but are perhaps themselves connected with the 
Kelaiuonesian branch of the Oceanic group, if not true ab- 
originals. The Sakalavas sometimes are divided into North and 
South Sakalavas, but anthropologically 'speaking they may be 
said to include all the black tribes of the western coasts, and 
comprehend the outlying Bezano-zano and the Antsianaka to 



OUYEB ON THE H0VA8 OF MADAQASCAB. 11 

the north of Ankova. Their head-quarters maj be considered 
at Iboina and Menab^^ to the king of which for many years 
the Hovas paid tribute, until Badama I. invaded their country, 
and, forming an alliance with their chief Bamitraha, married 
Basalimo, his daughter, in 1826. (This princess was still alive 
when I visited the capital in 1 862, when she used to appear at 
the court ceremonies.) The Sakalavas are a brave and gener- 
ous people ; physically considered they are the most athletic 
race in Madagascar. Capt. J. C. Wilson, R.N., in his Notes 
on the West Coast, declares '' that tlie Sakalavas are the finest 
race of savages he has ever seen ; that they are far superior to 
the Hovas in strength and appearance, but not nearly so in- 
telligent. They are strongly built, tall, independent fellows, 
with the African cast of countenance, though generally much 
better looking.'^ They are robust, but not corpulent; their 
limbs well formed, muscular, and strong. Their complexion is of 
the deepest hue, much darker than that of the other Malagasy ; 
their hair crisped and curly, but not woolly. Their features 
handsome, regular, and prominent; open and prepossessing 
countenances, with dark eyes and a keen and piercing glance. 
They are indolent when secure at home, but in war they are 
energetic, brave, and resolute. They are much addicted to 
divination, sorcery, and all superstitions. They are generally of 
a friendly disposition towards Europeans. They are exceedingly 
fond of ornaments of silver and ivory, and occasionally wear 
a ring in their nostrils, and a circular ornament of ivory, 
silver, or shell, on the forehead. "They carry flint muskets, 
carefully kept in order, with the stock ornamented with num- 
bers of brass-headed nails and well polished ; as enemies they 
are not to be despised, being capital shots, as the French well 
know from experience on more than one occasion." (Wilson.) 
"They grow large quantities of rice, more particularly about 
the marshy country about the Ozsanga river; but on the 
whole the natives are more pastoral than agricultural in their 
habits. Their houses, like those of the east coast, are beauti- 
fully clean and comfortable, and of the same construction. 
Morality here is at a low standard, virtue being tinknoiun 
among women; though it must be said that when married 



12 OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OP MADAGASCAR. 

tbey are constant to their husbands. It is sad that this de- 
plorable state shonld be so universal throughout this beautiful 
island, and that, though in many respects superior to other 
coloured nations, in this they are so far beneath them.'' (I 
myself doubt whether they are so much below qther savage 
nations in this respect). As I have never been in the Sakalava 
country myself, I have given the above extracts from Captain 
Wilson's notes. 

They are in the habit of making incisions in their faces and 
bodies. They wear their hair plaited in small knots, and 
sometimes wear wigs made often of the skin of the hump of 
the zebu oxen. Whether they have derived the custom of 
cutting their bodies from the Mozambiques or not, is unknown; 
but there is certainly a similarity. So also there ''appears 
to be a resemblance, amounting to identity, between a number 
of words used by the Malagasy and the natives of the Mozam- 
bique coast and of the adjacent interior." " It is impossible 
to look over a map and not perceive the obvious similarity 
between the names of the districts and rivers of these countries 
severally : such, for example, as Masambika = Mozambique ; 
Kilimany = Quilimane ; Sambosy = Zambesi ; Zimba, Inham- 
bany, Manisa ; which have not only a perfect resemblance to 
Malagasy names, but are either Malagasy roots variously com-, 
bined, or actual words in the Malagasy language." (Rev. J. J. 
Freeman.) 

The Sakalavas still carry on a trade in slaves from the east 
coast of Africa : from somewhere about Angora river across to 
Cape St. Andrew's, they are brought in Arab dhows; the 
Sakalavas give four head of cattle for one slave. (Wilson.) 
There is certainly a treaty between the Hovas and English re- 
lative to prohibition of the slave trade ; but though the Hovas 
are nominally recognised as the rulers of the island, they have 
only one military station at Majunga, at the mouth of Bemba- 
tooka bay (into which the important river Betsiboka runs, 
forming the route from the capital), and the Sakalavas are in 
reality perfectly independent. 

The Bezanozano ('' anarchical") and the Antsianaka (" ^not 
a abject to others'') resemble one another very closely, and aro 



OUVEB ON THE HOVAS OF MADAGASCAR. 13 

ontlying brandies of the Western Sakalavas. They are stout, 
not very tall, of black colour, with flat features, short neck ; 
the former are the best coolies for carrying burdens in Mada- 
gascar. From constantly carrying heavy burdens on bamboos 
across their shoulders, they are noticeable for large humps on 
their shoulders, a provision of nature, these humps forming 
natural cushions saving the collar-bone from any concussion. 

The Manendy are another branch of the darker coloured 
Sakalavas : they live between the Betsiboka river and the sea. 
The Hovas say that the Manendy can live on leaves and roots ; 
but Mr. Ha^tie, who visited them, was struck with their supe- 
rior culture of the soil. 

Another branch of the Sakalavas, namely, the Vangiandrano 
tribes from the south of the island, are described by Ellis as a 
striking race of men. They appeared tough and agile. Those 
men were ornamented with bands round their foreheads, to 
which round pieces of polished shells were attached just over 
one temple. 

Raloba, chief of Vangiandrano, is thus described: — "He 
moved about among the crowds a head and shoulders above 
his fellows — above seven feet high ; his figure was thin ; his 
head broad, and rather largo ; his features slightly prominent ; 
his eyes small ; his hair slightly grey ; his limbs bony, but not 
muscular. He wore an open-breasted shirt, and above this a 
large native lamba. His head was covered with a singular 
cap of scarlet cloth, fitting close round the forehead, but 
drawn together in a line about a foot across above the crown. 
From this Une the upper end of the cap, which tapered gra- 
dually to a point, was doubled down behind the extreme end, 
reaching below the waist. The cap itself was ornamented by 
a large solid oval piece of light green glass in front instead of 
a precious stone. The edges were covered with some kind of 
bright yellow bordering extending along the part which hung 
down, and terminating in a large yellow tassel, like the tassel 
of a bell rope.^* .... "These inhabitants of Vangiandrano and 
the country about Faradofay (Fort Dauphin) are famed as 
spearmen throughout the island, and are not allowed to sleep 
in the city: they are said to bo mahay, i. c., to know irhat to do 
with the spear/' 



14 OUVER ON THE HOVAS OF MADAGASCAR. 

They exhibited their manner of fighting with shield and 
spear, thus described : — '' In the war game now exhibited no 
spear was hurled, the fighting was at close quarters, and was 
an exhibition of personal encounter. No shouts or yells were 
uttered; it was silent earnest business. When there was a 
little distance between the combatants, they held the spears 
near the middle of the shaft : but in hand-to-hand encounters 
close to the head of the weapon. The small-sized men were 
selected, and seemed to be the best spearmen ; steadiness of 
eye and agility appeared to be of more importance than great 
stature or strength. One little tough-looking individual elicited 
immense applause. A thrust that it was supposed would have 
told on the person of his antagonist, had the spear not been 
purposely lowered, was followed by throwing up the shield in 
the air and catching it by the handle as it fell with the left 
hand. The shields are circular; not large nor fixed on the 
arm, but held in the hand by a handle left in the wood inside 
the shield." (Ellis, Madagascar Revisited,) 

The Akongbos. 

The Akongros are mentioned by Capt. Rooke, R.A., as a 
tribe independent of the Hovas, whose head-quarters are two 
hundred miles south-west of Mananzari. Their chief town is 
said to be situated on the summit of a steep hill, the sides of 
which they have scarped quite perpendicularly, so as to render 
their stronghold impregnable against an enemy unprovided 
with artillery. It is said to contain 30,000 inhabitants ; and, 
although the Hovas had repeatedly attacked it, they had al- 
ways been repulsed with great loss, the garrison being assisted 
even by the women, who rolled down rocks and logs of wood 
upon their assailants. Capt. Rooke saw about twenty of these 
Akongros who were in Mananzari on a friendly visit. '' They 
were," says Capt. Rooke, '^ rough, powerfully-built, good- 
humoured fellows, wearing conical straw hats, and armed with 
swords and spears." They performed a war-dance, and as- 
sured Capt. Rooke^s party that no harm should befall them if 
they paid a visit to their stronghold, an invitation which, un- 
fortunately, they were unable so accept. 



ouver on the hovas of madagascar. 15 

The Heabianas 

Are another sub-division of the Sakalavas, and occupy a part 
of the country west of the Betsileo and south of Menabe. 
They are taller than the Betsileo and less robust and muscular 
than the Betsimasaraka; their features smaller; colour darker ; 
hair crisp, but not woolly, matted, nor abundant ; they have 
sinewy limbs, with free and agile movements. They are 
probably the result of intermixture of Betsileo and Sakalava 
blood. 

The Vazimba, ob Kimos. 

The Vazimba are supposed to have been the first occupants 
of Ankova ; they are described by Rochon under the name of 
Kimos, as a nation of dwarfs, averaging three feet six inches 
in stature, of a lighter colour than the Negroes, with very long 
arms, short woolly hair. As they were only described by natives 
of the coast, and have never been seen, it is natural to sup- 
pose that these pecuHarities were exaggerated; but it is stated 
that a people of diminutive size still exist on the banks of a 
certain river to the south-west. There are many tumuli* and 
cairns throughout the country held in reverence by the Mala- 
gasy, as the tombs of the Vazimba, which, if opened, might 
throw light on the subject. Some of the Betanimena have 
curious ideas of their ancestors and their origin, believing that 
they sprang from the Babacootes or large Lemurs of the forest. 
Last year only, one of the officers following the queen on her 
visit to the coast, having shot a Babacoote, was degraded to 
the ranks and condemned to carry the Babacoote back to 
Ankova and have it properly interred. So they seem to have 
an idea of the missing link ! ! 

With regard to the native Religion of the Malagasy, they 
can hardly be said to possess any form of faith whatever; their 
creed (if that term may be applied to the few and confused 
notions entertained on the subject) seems to consist of little 

• The barrows of the Vazimba resemble closely the ancient tombs of the 
Indians in the Chontales district of Nicaragua. It would be a difficult task 
to persuade the natives to open them, as they have a superstitious horror of 
desecrating their graves. 



16 OLIVER ON THE HOVAS OP MADAGASCAR. 

more than an heterogeneous compound of superstitious terrors 
and practices. 

Certain barbarous ceremonies and unmeaning usages exist 
which have been handed down from their forefathers; but they 
have a very vague, indefinite notion of a Deity, applying the 
term " Andriamanitra^^ (literally ^' the fragrant prince'') to 
their sovereign, their idols, individually and collectively, their 
dead, to anything supernatural, a phenomenon of nature, and 
to the genius which animates their various charms, divinations, 
ordeals, etc. 

Their ideas on these subjects are evidently borrowed from 
other nations ; thus they practise the rite of circumci^n learnt 
from the Arabs, but as a civil rather than a religious ceremony. 
The Vintana, or fixed immutability of their destiny, answers 
to the doctrine of fate taught in the Koran of the Mahometans. 
The Fandroana, or national new year festival or lustration, 
has an obscure but evident relation to the Jewish Passover. 
Purifying and bathing are universal on the occasion : cattle 
are slain, and their blood is sprinkled on the doorposts of their 
houses, where it is allowed to remain throughout the year. A 
hasty meal is prepared and eaten, and general festivity ensues. 
The ordeal by Tangena (so long practised, but happily now 
rendered obsolete by law), or poison, is slightly analogous to 
the ceremonial of ordeal by bitter waters, practised by the / 
Jews (Numbers, ch. xxxi, verse 11.) The Faditra and Sorona 
have an affinity to the cleanse, sin, and wave ofierings of the 
Pentateuch, and bear some resemblance to the institution of 
the scape-goat. So also the Sampy, or idols, correspond closely 
to the Teraphim of the old testament. Mosavy, or witchcraft, 
is punished by stoning to doath, as in the law of Moses. 
Their Fady is equivalent to the Taboo of Polynesia. Their 
Ody, or charms and amulets, have perhaps a small relation to 
the African Fetish, The Fanandro, or genethlialogy, a peculiar 
casting of nativities, is also derived from ancient eastern na- 
tions. The SMdy, or divination, alone seems peculiar to 
the Malagasy themselves, and is highly original. It is not 
based on astronomy, necromancy, or magic ; but its nature is 
oracular, and calculated from a fixed process of the permuta- 



sr.M:. 



1 



s, or sand, i^larcd 



I, wIh) tirt^ hiirit'd 
ifttM'wards ])Iac('d 
V()0(l(.'n liouscs or 

r-caiu' l)V an in- 
fornicnt a di'ink 
curions wav of 
JC(? it nnd(M* Xhr 
•'s rjuid. ^I'lnn' 

and ('ondncc to 
:'\v is an nnnsnal 
ans are cnmnion. 

iste'' distinction 
(' Zanakandjony. 
vo, and ai'o the 
It town, 'riicir 
t»*rrat trnacitv, 
u' oodics of tlio 

f I'li llniil<l.<l ili( ^ or 

.vorkini^' tor tlio 
ako a sjwidc* l^ut. 
itiun to erect a 
licy lend otliei's 
ont of the sanu^ 
n adlieriMKH' to 
and j)rond, and 



Tlie soveroiLTn 

mail lias more 

ly, two is the 

of rank to have 

lv«^-amv i^" hnn- 



OUTER ON THE UOVAS OP MADAGASCAR. 17 

lions and combinations of certain straws^ beans^ or sand^ placed 
in particular lines and positions. 

Sepulture. 

They have great veneration for their dead, who are buried 
in large solid wooden sarcophagi^ which are afterwards placed 
either in handsome mansoleums or simply in wooden houses or 
under meve sheds {vide the Illustration) . 

The Malagasy press the juice from the sugar-cane by an in- 
genious and simple roller {vide Sketch), and ferment a drink 
called toak% from the liquors. They have a curious way of 
taking tobacco in the shape of snuff, but place it under the 
tongue instead of in the cheek, like a sailor^s quid. They 
also in secret smoke roiigona or hemp. 

The Malagasy habits of life are simple and conduce to 
lonyerity, and throughout the whole island there is an unusual 
amount of vexy aged persons; in fact, centenarians are common. 

Caste. 

There seems to be a solitary instance of " caste" distinction 
among the Hovas, claimed by a clan named the Zanakambony. 
They live about eight miles from Antananarivo, and arc the 
descendants of the original conquerors of that town. Thoir 
peculiar privileges, which they maintain with great tenacity, 
are as follows ; viz. — The right of carrying the bodies of the 
deceased kings and building their tombs and tranomai^ina, or 
houses, over them. They are exempt from working for the 
king except in smiths' works ; so they may make a spade but 
not use it. They look upon it as a degradation to erect a 
fence, to associate with other clans, nor will they lend others 
even a mat or drinking vessel, nor will they eat out of the same 
dish as other people. They are veiy strict in adherence to 
rites and ceremonies, are very poor, indolent, and proud, and 
consequently ignorant. 

Polygamy 

Exists under the sanction of the native laws. The sovereign 
is allowed twelve wives ; but, as a rule, no man litis more 
than three or four, and, still more frequently, two is the 
number. It is considered essential to any one of rank to have 
more than one wife. The native word for polygamy is /)/???- 

VOL. HI. (' 



IH OLIVER ON THE II0VA3 OF MADAGASCAR. 

l/orafesana, " the means of causing enmity". The wives, how- 
ever, keep perfectly separate establishments. Divorces are 
frequent, and widows are not allowed to marry within twelve 
months of their husband's decease. Many of both sexes are 
married at twelve years of age ; they frequently become 
parents shortly after the ages above specified (Ellis, vol.i,p.l63). 

The genealog}' is traced through the female line on the sup- 
position that parentage is more easily identified on the mother's 
side. An unmarried queen is supposed to have the right of 
having a family by whom she may think proper. The child- 
ren are recognised as legitimate by their relation to the mother, 
and no questions made as to the paternity. It was often as- 
serted that !M. Laborde w^as the father of the late king ; but 
with what foundation 1 cannot say. Throughout the island, as 
may be easily imagined, immorality of every description pre- 
vails, and a stranger arriving on the coast certainly sees the 
worst of it. For instance, whenever a vessel arrives at Tama- 
tave or other port on the coast, the ofiicer of customs inquires 
the number of the people on board, and shortly after canoes 
approach the vessel with women corresponding in number to 
those of the ship's ofiicers, crew and passengers, who proceed 
to pass the night on board. Unless intercourse is allowed 
with these women, the ship will not be permitted water, pro- 
visions, or to traffic in bullocks, etc. Our own cruisers have 
been obliged even to submit to this requisite demonstration of 
amity. Inland also the young unmarried women are brought 
to the notice of the passing traveller in dances of a suggestive 
character. 

The Malagasy are very fond of music and singing, and have 
a quick and retentive ear. Their native musical instruments 
consist of wooden drums (fig. 4) ; the lohniga, a stringed in- 
strument with a hollow calabash (fig. 2) ; the raliha, a sort of 
bamboo harp (fig. 3), of a very original character. They also 
blow conches as tnimpets, and clap their hands in unison as a 
chorus. 

In many of the villages the instrument to which they dance 
consists of a large hollow bamboo held at each extremity by a 
little girl, whilst the musicians simply stand in a row and tap 





mcthuiU III' iu- 
(iblo in priviLtu 
Kpt'iirtitl or bc- 

tO tint gilKC* of 

■i of the JaiHi- 

UIlJ tllOtllOtluT 

'iniiiilmjn, siaiu 
eIf-£jos!H.'8sion, 
the 1'Xiu.t sjHjt 
i^iig iiitii hip< 

i'st sifitci', and 

rt' usuully siif- 
iil tlccji, or in 

\n-da iiK !i late 
a! piTsoriHjfc, 
I WHS tlirown 
(I tilt' twist.;il 
■ t.lic jHirpo-io. 

■X-l, till! IlOild 

rcr in put to 
10 miirtlor (an 

• piiiiiKliinriit. 

' punishment 

ptilljr to 



ttf 



1 ]umiHliiiiciit 
olloivs; liiail- 
lotlicr ratlicr 
1 down a hill 
lis Imnil, and 
omctinu's in- 



20 OUVEB ON THB HOVAS OF MADAQASCAR. 

volving the whole family, and confiscation of property are com- 
mon punishments. Pecuniary fines, imprisonment and chains, 
with hard labour, etc. Maiming is sometimes practised. The 
public judges can inflict only punishments not capital^ death 
being exclusively in the hands of the sovereign. If a criminal 
can obtain a sight of the sovereign he is pardoned, or if the 
sovereign accepts a hazina sent to him. So at the coronation 
of the present Queen Basoherina, some of the Menamaso who 
had escaped the massacre of their comrades obtained a com- 
mutation of their sentence (Ellis) . 






SKUJ.L OF AINO Mj\N 






PKUrj, OF AINO -MAN 



21 



II. — Description of the Skeleton of an Aino Womcm, and of 
Three Skulls of Men of the same race. By Joseph Babnabd 
Davis, M.D., P.R.S., P.S.A., V.P.A.S.L., etc. 

Unexfectid circumstances enabled me, some time ago, to ex- 
amine a fine series of bones of the aborigines of tbe Island of 
Yesso, in Japan, of which it appeared in some measure a duty 
to give as accurate an account of such very rare objects as was 
in my power. 

I. (a) The skeleton of an Alno woman. Of skeletons of exotic 
races, those of men almost universally prevail ; those of women 
occur only occasionally, without it be in the rich collection of 
the Gralerie Anthropologique of the Jardin des Plantes of Paris, 
where there is an unusual number of the skeletons of women of 
exotic races. There will be some dijBSculty in finding the 
means of comparison of this AYno example with other skeletons 
of women. With the view of obtaining some aid in our at- 
tempt, we shall refer to — 

{h). The most famous skeleton of an European woman, de- 
rived from the celebrated Von Sommerring's Collection, and 
now contained in the Anatomical Museum at Giessen. It is 
the subject of his beautiful Tabula sceleti feminini,* She was 
a native of Mainz, died at an early age, about twenty years, 
and her skeleton was selected " e sceletis puellarum bellissi- 
marum" of his museum, as approaching closest in form to the 
Venus di Medici. f It would be, in some respects, too severe 
a test to compare this skeleton of a young German woman, of 
unusual elegance of conformation, with that of the Aino wo- 



* TrajecH ad MoBtium, 1797. 

t " Ne autem aliquid deesset, imprimis pulchritudini ossium capitis, com- 
paravi iUa soUicite cum cranio palcherrimo feminse Georgianse in coUectione 
rarissima Blumenbachii, nee sine voluptate animadvorti, puella) mcae bel- 
lissimum caput osseum optime cum illo convenirc/' 



i 



22 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OP 

man ; still, some results in aid of our description may ensue 
from a slight comparison of the two. 

(c). The skeleton of an Australian woman, aged about thirty - 
five years (No. 1261 f of my Collection), from the province of 
South Australia. 

(d) . The description of the skeleton of another Australian 
woman, considered to be above forty years of age, from the 
neighbourhood of the Murray River, in South AustraUa.* 

The two latter skeletons are selected for comparison, be- 
cause (c) is the only other woman's skeleton in my Collection, 
and (d) is the only one I know of in which a number of the 
same measurements are given. That they are of a very dis- 
tinct and different race from the Aino woman, may be favour- 
able to bringing out diversities clearly. 

(a) . The ago of the Aino woman appears to have been about 
twenty -five years. The two upper denies sapientiw are in full 
position and development. The lower ones have not been de- 
veloped at all. The teeth are all beautifully perfect, and rather 
large. The entire length of the skeleton is five feet English, 
or sixty inches, which is 1 522 milUmetres. This gives a sta- 
ture that, as an average, would be considered short, although 
many English women are not taller. The calvarium is of good 
oval form, not at all unlike the western European. The face 
rather prognathous. The nasal bones and the nostrils some- 
what broad. The vault of the calvarium may be considered 
rather flat, and the supraoccipital region full; but the more 
decided feminine charact eristics y — fullness in the lower occipital 
region and delicacy of the mastoid processes, — are distinctly 
present. 

There is a general appearance of robustness in the skeleton, 
indicated in the humeri and the femora, and all the other long 
bones, especially in their articular extremities. The vertebral 
column may be regarded as having six lumbar vertebraa ; the 
first being like a dorsal vertebra, without any articular facet 
for a twelfth rib, yet not possessing the large direct transverse 



* Zur Kenntnitt der Eingd>ornen Sudaustraliens. Von Prof. Alexander 
Ecker. Berichte d. naturf. Gea. z. Freiburg, ii Bd. 



AN AINO WOMAN, ETC. 23 

processes of the other lumbar vertebr89.* There are eleven 
ribs on each side. 

(b) . In turning to Von Sommerring's skeleton of the Ger- 
man woman, it is at once seen that the two crania differ mate- 
rially. That of the latter is characteristic of her race, and 
more pleasing in the eyes of Europeans. The bones of the 
Aino woman are all of a ruder conformation, — more robust. The 
proportionate length of the vertebral column is the same in the 
two skeletons. The humerus is decidedly longer in the German ; 
yet the length of the whole upper extremity in the Aino slightly 
exceeds that of the other skeleton. The femora, again, are 
decidedly longer in Von Sommerring^s skeleton, and the notches 
between the heads of the thigh-bones and the greater troch- 
anters are much deeper. But the most remarkable discrepancy 
is in the length of the bones of the leg. The tibia and fibula 
of the Aino woman are disproportionately short, in a very 
obvious degree. Her feet are also broader. There is a striking 
disagreement between the pelves of the two skeletons. The 
German woman's exceeds the other in its transverse develop- 
ment, the ilia being evased, and the superior opening trans- 
versely oval ; whilst that of the Aino woman is more expanded 
in the conjugate diameter. This feature will be seen in the 
measurements given hereafter. The whole pelvis bears the 
appearance of narrowness, the hips being nearer to each other. 
Such peculiar conformation in the pelvis of the Aino woman 
is quite unfeminine and un-European. The distinguished Pro- 
fessor Cams, in his fine work Froportionslelire, asserts that 
there is such a difference in the form of the pelvis between his 
"day-people^' and his "night-people'', and says that in the 
latter the whole pelvis is longer and narrower. f Von Som- 
mering had already declared the pelvis of the Negro to be 
narrow.} In both, shortness of the leg-bones and narrowness 

• Von Sdmmering alludes to a very different abnormal condition of the 
vertebrae in one of his Negro skeletons. He says, " In einem meiner Ne- 
gerskelete sind sechs Lendenwirbel bey ilbrigens vollzahliger Zahl der andem 
Wirbelbeine, so wie ich dies bey mehreren Europaern gefunden." — Die Kor- 
perliche Verschiedenheit des Negers, § 33. 

t Proportionslehre, § 15. Leipzig, 1854, fol. 

I Op. cit., § 3-1. 



24 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OP 

of the pelvis, the skeleton of the Aino woman approaches to 
that of the male gorilla, yet without giving any countenance 
to the developmental hypothesis. 

(f). The skeleton of the Australian woman (No. 1261 1 of 
my Collection) is 4 feet 10*7 inches, or 58*7 inches long, that 
is, 1491 millimetres. The skull of this Australian woman is 
long, narrow, and low, and exceedingly prognathous. It has 
a broad nose, wide nostrils, and a wide mouth, with unusually 
large teeth. It is full in the supraoccipital region, and rather 
flat on the upper surface, and it is also full in the infraoccipital 
region. The bones of the entire skeleton are very slender. 

{(l). The skeleton of the other Australian woman is 1508 mm. 
in length ; so that the longest skeleton of the series is that of 
the Aino woman (No. I456t), or a, and the shortest that of 
the Australian woman, c. 

But what is the most obvious and striking diflTerence between 
the skeletons of the Aino and of the Australian women, is the de- 
cided robustness of the former, and the remarkable delicacy and 
slendemess of the bones of the latter. This extends from the bones 
of the extremities to the clavicles and ribs. It is difficult to con- 
vey a true idea of this contrast between the two without actual 
inspection. Whilst the former exceeds the mean of European 
women's skeletons in the diameter and stoutness of the bones 
of the limbs ; the latter, in these particulars, comes decidedly 
short of the European female mean. As the best mode of in- 
dicating this diversity of size in the bones, I have taken the 
circumference of the femur of the Australian woman, at the 
most slender part of the middle of the shaft, and find it to be 
2' 7 inches, or 68 mm. ; whilst that of the Aino woman mea- 
sured in the same part, is 3*3 inches, or 83 mm. This is 
a difference between the two of upwards of half an inch. The 
same diflTerence is perceived by taking the diameter of the 
lower extremity of the femur, above the condyles, at its widest 
part. That of the Australian woman gives a diameter of 
2*55 inches, or 66 mm. That of the Aino woman, of 2*9 inches, 
or 73 mm. The patellas are much larger in the latter. All 
the other bones of the limbs keep up the same proportionate 
diversity, so that the hands and feet of the Australian woman 
present a remarkable gracility. 



AN AINO WOMAN, ETC. 25 

Perhaps the delicacy of the frame-work of this Australian 
skeleton is nowhere more obvious than in the structure of the 
pelvis. When compared with other pelves, this may be looked 
upon as a basin made of eggshelUchvna, All the bones are so 
frail and thin and light ; whilst, at the same time, the bones of 
her cranium are so thick and heavy. It is a happy thing that 
the fragile pelvis oi an Australian woman, containing a series 
of organs so essential to life and being, should be hidden in 
soft parts, and further protected by its central position from 
injuries to which it would otherwise be continually liable. Her 
exposed head, on the other hand, is defended by the dense os- 
seous plates of the skull from the effects of the constant and 
severe blows to which it is subjected. The spinous processes 
of the ossa puhes are unusually developed and prominent. 

This remarkable difference between the robustness of the 
skeleton of the Amo woman, the general thickness of its bones, 
and the slendemess of that of the Australian woman, should 
not be passed over without noticing that all voyagers have ob- 
served the strong bodily structure of the Amos. La P^rouse 
remarked it. On the contrary, the Australians, as a people, are 
conspicuous among all races for the thinness of their limbs, 
and the gracility of their bonos. So that, although for illustra- 
tion we have compared the two skeletons, there is no resem- 
blance between them in respect to the development of their 
osseous tissues. 

Recollecting this absolute difference in the circumferential 
development of the long bones in these two skeletons belong- 
ing to different races, we will endeavour to ascertain what are 
their relations in respect of the length of the individual long 
bones, and the dimensions of other parts. For this purpose a 
tabular view will be best. 

Table I. — Measurements, etc., of the Aino, and of Two 
Australian Skeletons {sue next page). 

By this table it appears that the proportions of the A'lno 
woman's skeleton are peculiar. The vertebral column is very 
short, thirty mm. shorter than that of the two Australian 
women. The bones of the arm (humerus, ulna, and radius) 



i 



26 



DATIS ON THE SKELETON OF 



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CO ^ 
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!>• 00 (>^ 






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QkO)-lO rHi-HQi-H^C4iOaO<-HkOCOCdi-l 
i-l N fH r-l fH 1-1 iH W 00 CSI 04 ^ CO "^ 00 CO -^ 00 

So lO 

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»p, ©i^ apeoeo»Hcpcoo>, t^cpo-Hi^^qp 

cbdOQD'*'*' Tf "^Ifi ©» « 6i OD «D CO <b « w I> r^ 

r-l fH 04 .-•.-• ^ CO 



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t>. (M 00 

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fH i-l C4 CO 00 CO fH t^ t^ iH 1-H fH fH 0> 
fH fH fH 00 ©5 04 Oil fH CO "Tf CO 00 04 l> 



• • • 

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91 



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COOOt*'* ■* 



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»H iH 04 iH fH ^ CO 




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c«M (M (*4 ns 
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o o o 



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Idddddddddd o o o p ^ 



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AN Ai'NO WOMAN, ETC. 27 

are short. Whilst the femora of all the three skeletons are as 
nearly as may be of equal length, the tibiae of the AXno wo- 
man are exceedingly shoii), and her whole lower extremity is 
short. At the same time, the bones of this extremity are dis- 
proportionately thick. 

II. In attempting to describe the three Aino skulls of men, 
we are desirous as much as possible to avail ourselves, for a 
perfect comprehension of their peculiarities, of all other infor- 
mation of a comparative nature that we know of. We can only 
hope to attain a moderate degree of success, and even this 
will be dubious and fleeting, unless aided by good artistic 
illustrations. One male Aino skull has already been described 
by an accomplished craniologist, and full measurements of it 
given, by Mr. George Busk, who supplemented these by add- 
ing, side by side, those of an " English cranium of the same 
rather unusual length."* To avail ourselves to the utmost of 
these data, we will measure the present series of skulls accords 
ing to Mr, BusVs method, and arrange the whole in a table, with 
the addition of the reduction of the measurements, as accu- 
rately as possible, from English inches to millimetres. Mr. 
Busk's English skull occupies the first column, his Aino skull 
the second, and the three other Aino skulls follow consecutively. 
It should be noted that the whole are believed to be the skulls 
of men. The internal capacities of the three last crania have 
been added, in cubic inches, as well as cubic centimetres. 

Table II. — Measurements, etc., of an English and Four 

AiNO Crania. 

The internal capacity of the three Aino skulls yields an 
average of 1470 centimetres. By the reduction of this capacity 
to ounces weight of brain, making due allowance for the weight 
of the fluids and the membranes, we acquire a mean weight of 
brain in these Aino crania of 45*90 ounces avoirdupois, or 1301 
grammes. This is a brain-weight considerably exceeding that 
of the aboriginal races of India and Ceylon, that of all the races 
of the plains of India, both Hindoos and Mussulmans ; and is 
only paralleled among the peoples of Asia, by the races of the 

• Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London (New Series) vol. vi. 



28 



DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OF 



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Q 

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12; 
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a M iH iH 1-1 i-l i-l ggg 

S^»HiH fH iH iH iH iH iH 1-4 iH iH W3 00 iH CO 00 00 CO oT 

^**« g : 

i^co'^oot^'* "^ooiot**^"* Ot^t*t^iH . .Noacoo 5oj 

ot^io lo CO ^ ko -Tf ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 00 Q "^ lo : .©i©icoco .0(^ 

B ©I ,H iH rl rl .-• g gj 

;§a5eoS5o>fHCO'^eo^©i<N — oaoo^i^'^©»©i0033g 5^ 

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g,Hi? "* St*oo»oiHcoao o>^co»ooococoooo O"* ip ^o 

o|>iO lO CO "^Ui "^lO -* ■* ■* "^i CO 00 Q ** "* »0 »0 ©1 00 00 "H ^p5 

a N i-« iH fH iH iH Sg5 

figoo»OQ>©iQi>©it^t^©«'*cp^t^Q»ooagoogQ® 

= ,Hi-^r-l ,H r-l iH r-l fH r-l fH iH r-l r-l IO ^ !-• fH fH 00 00 00 CO 

• trtSeo • 

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«t*ibibw'*»b'*«3»bib»b'*'*'*iHib»b'*'*G3eo5N 

S ©i ^ fH ^ ^4 r^ 

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, \ • t^ t> »H 

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ot^ib»b"^'*i6»o»b'*'*»0'*"<ijt'*^»oiOiO»oNeo«N 

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c a 



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CS « *> •> "fH OS Cd ^ ^ S ^ 

"S cjg ».a£-9 8 »^ 8 

sis-^lillaiilJJ si = = =3|||l J 1 



AN AINO WOMAN, ETC. 29 

Himalayas^ the Siamese, the Chinese, and the Bormese. It 
somewhat exceeds the mean brain-weight of Asiatic races in 
general. 

After this table, which gives the whole of the necessary 
measurements of the series of male skulls, we will endeavour 
to indicate with some care those peculiarities observed in each 
individual cranium that may be worth notice. 

No. 1457 : this is the cranium of a man about thirty years 
of age. The cheek depressions are unusually deep, and the 
nasal bones more elevated than common, so as to present an 
aquiline nose. The frontal suture exhibits all its serrations 
perfectly from one end to the other. The right frontal bone 
presents a slight depression just above the edge of the orbit at 
its inner portion, most likely the seat of some early injury. The 
left spheno-parietal suture is occupied by a triangular trique- 
tral bone. There is not one in the right. The teeth are all in 
their places, except two, which have dropped out accidentally, 
and are quite sound. They are scarcely at all worn, and their 
condition proves that the Ainos exercise much more care in 
avoiding the incorporation of sand in their fish, in the process 
of drying, than the aboriginal tribes of North America. 

No. 1458 is a more massive skull than the last. The nose 
is decidedly less prominent, still the nasal orifice is not wide. 
The supraciliary protuberances are marked, and the forehead 
recedent. The teeth are rather small. Although apparently not 
more than from forty to fifty years of age, the sutures are 
much ossified. The course of the sagittal can with difficulty be 
traced at all. All the central portion of the lambdoidal is 
equally obliterated. And the whole of the coronal suture, from 
one alisphenoid to the other, has experienced the influence of 
ossification, although it is not obliterated. The occipital bone 
presents a paramastoid process on each side. 

In No. 1459 the two upper wisdom-teeth, although cut, have 
not come into use. The lower ones have just come into use. 
Yet the spheno-basilary synchondrosis is perfectly ossified. 
The age must be somewhere near twenty years. The narrow 
nasal bones are united by an internasal suture, which is not 
straight, but takes a sigmoid course. The nasal orifice is 



30 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OF 

narrow. The nose rather flat. The calvarium is well filled out 
and smooth. There is some doubt whether this may not be 
the skull of a young woman. 

We have not introduced the cranium of the woman^s skele- 
ton into our table of measurements^ on account of the sex. 
And the only remark that needs to be made upon it is tbat it 
exhibits all the feminine peculiarities in beautiful proportions, 
so that it is scarcely to be distinguished from the fine and deli- 
cate skull of an European woman. 

Having given this brief description of the skeleton and 
skulls, we proceed to say something about the other peculiari- 
ties of the AYnos observed by voyagers, after some mention of 
their funeral customs. 

Many voyagers speak of the mode in which some tribes of 
the people of north-eastern Asiatic countries dispose of their 
dead. When among the Orotchys of the continent. La P^rouse 
found everywhere numerous tombs. He says, that the bodies 
of the poorer people were exposed upon biers in the open air, 
under a sort of canopy supported by posts about four feet 
high. They all had their bows and arrows, their nets, and 
some morsels of stufis placed around their monuments. The 
bodies of persons of more elevated position in the tribe were 
placed in more imposing tombs. In one of the fine plates to 
La Peroxise^s Voyage, the tombs they met with in the Bay of 
Castries are depicted.* And the report of Siebold is to the 
same efiect : — "Bodies of the rich receive honours of a different 
kind ; they are embalmed, filled with odoriferous herbs, and 
dried during a year, then placed in a sepulchre, where they are 
annually visited by their relatives.^f It is well known that 
the Ainos in Yesso entertain great respect for the dead. There 
is every reason to believe that the body of the Amo woman 
had been carefully dried, after being placed in the bent position 
with the knees drawn close to the chin, a funeral dress put on, 
and then it was placed in a sort of basket-work double box or 
case, formed like those of the Japanese, one to slip within the 

• AtUu du Voyage de La Perouse, Planche, No. 53, fol. 1797. 
t Siebold, Maeura et usages dea Ainoa, as quoted in Prichard, Researches 
into the Physical History of Mankind, vol. iv, p. 456. 



AN AINO WOMAN, ETC. 31 

other. The dress was made wholly of the same material, a 
thin, coarse, white cotton cloth, unomamented and one fold in 
thickness. A piece of the web of this cloth, which was abont 
twelve inches wide, was passed across the abdomen and tied 
with a strip round the loins. A chemise open before, and 
reaching to the thighs, with short wide sleeves, was placed on 
the back ; a cap apon the head ; and something like gloves 
(all of the same cotton cloth) upon the arms, tied above the 
elbows, and like stockings upon the legs, tied above the calves. 
The head had been closely shaved. It is said that the Ainos 
in the Island of Yesso have adopted this practice from the 
Japanese. 

The Aiiws, which term means men in their own language, 
are an aboriginal people inhabiting the Island of Yesso, in 
Japan, and the Island of Saghalien to the north of it.* The 
Ainos are also said to inhabit a part of the continent near the 
mouth of the Amur, and likewise the Kurile Isles. It is very 
likely that a better knowledge of these remote people will 
show that the true Ainos are not so extended. La Perouse, in 
his first voyage, sailed from Japan between the continent and 
Saghalien, in the summer of 1787. It might be said that he 
ascertained that Saghalien, or Tchoka, was an island, although 
he did not sail northwards quite through the strait separating 
it from the continent of Asia. In this part the strait is shallow 
and greatly overgrown with fuci. On the 12th of July La 
Perouse had a most interesting communication with the in- 
habitants Qn the west, or Asiatic coast of the strait ; but it was 
not till he had sailed to the southern extremity of Tchoka, or 
Saghalien, at Cape Crillon, that he received the islanders on 
board his ship. They soon became familiar, seated themselves 
on the deck, and smoked their pipes. He describes them as of 
good figure, and with regular traits of countenance. They were 



• Saghalien anga hata, i. c, '* Bock in the mouth of the filack River", the 
Saghalien in Ainor. This is the explanation in the maps of the Jesuit mis- 
gionaries. The island is now called Saghalien by the Russians. La Perouse 
ascertained that its native name was Tchoka. It has also been denominated 
Ohu-Jesao, '* High or North Jesso", as it is only separated from Jesso by the 
Strait of La Perouse ; other names are Kara/to and Tarakai. 



32 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OF 

stoutly built^ and resembled vigorous men. Their beards de- 
scended to their breasts, and their arms, necks, and backs were 
covered with hair. He adds, that he makes this remark be- 
cause it is a general character : " for we easily find in Europe 
many individuals as hairy as these islanders, f La Perouse 
does not give countenance to that excessive hairiness, which is 
attributed to them by the Japanese and some voyagers. 

It will be well to add, that the Russian circumnavigator. 
Von Krusenstem, says positively that the inhabitants of the 
northern end of the island of Yesso, as well as those of the 
southern end of Tchoka, or Saghalien, both name themselves 
Ainos, and in stature, looks, and speech prove themselves to 
be only one people. 

1 . There are certain questions which deserve to be carefully 
examined. The hairiness of the Ainos is one of them. They 
have had conferred upon them the name of " the hairy men of 
Yesso", and both Chinese and Japanese writers allude to this 
peculiarity. The Japanese represent them as barbarians in an 
eminent measure, and call them " Morin", explained by Klap- 
roth as " Hairy bodies". They have also been named " Hairy 
Kuriles". Still, the more instructed Japanese do the Ainos 
greater justice. In a drawing of an Aino man made by Syo-da 
Sabon-ro, English and French interpreter of the Embassy from 
the Tycoon of Japan to Paris, in 1864, he is represented as 
having long, straggling locks falling down on each side of his 
head, and a rough beard of no very unusual length. Captain 
Broughton, whose voyage was from 1 795 to 1 798, reported that 
their bodies were almost covered with long, black hair, and that 
the same was to be seen in some young children. Von Krusen- 
stem testified, from an examination of some Ainos in the north of 
Yesso, that he found them, with the exception of their bushy 
beards and the hair on their faces, as smooth as other people. 
In the great Bay or Gulf of Amiwa, at the south of the Island of 
Saghalien, he induced several to uncover their bodies; and says, 
'' We were convinced to a certainty that the greater part of 
the Ainos have no more hair on their bodies than is to be 



• Voyage, tome iii, p. 86. 



AN A'lNO WOMAN, ETC. 33 

found on those of many Europeans/^ He speaks of '^the 
greater pai-f , because in Mordwinoff Bay he had met with a 
child, only eight years old, with his body entirely covered with 
hair ; although his parents and several other adult persons in 
the same place were not more hairy than Europeans. Hence 
Von Krusenstem declares the extreme hairiness of the Ainos 
to be a fable, or exaggerated.* Such is also the testimony of 
Lieutenant A. W. Habersham, of the U.S. Navy. His account 
is deserving of quotation at length. " The hairy endowments 
of these people are by no means so extensive as some early 
writers lead one to suppose. As a general rule, they shave the 
firont of the head a la Japonnaise, and though the remaining 
hair is undoubtedly very thick and coarse, yet it is also very 
straight, and owes its bushy appearance to the simple fact of 
constant scratching and seldom combing. The remaining hair 
they part in the middle, and allow to grow within an inch of 
the shoulder. Tho prevailing hue is black, but it often possesses 
a brownish cast, and these exceptions cannot be owing to the 
sun, as it is but reasonable to suppose that they suffer a like 
exposure from infancy up. Like the hair, their beard is bushy, 
and from the same causes. It is generally black, but often 
brownish, and seldom exceeds five or six inches in length. I 
only saw one case whore it reached more than half way to the 
waist; and here the owner was evidently proud of its great 
length, as he had it twnsted into innumerable small ringlets, 
well greased, and kept in something like order. His hairy 
however, was as busby as that of any other. As this indi- 
vidual was evidently the most ' hairy Kurile^ of the party, we 
selected him as the one most likely to substantiate the assertion 
of Broughton, in regard to ' their bodies being almost univer- 
sally covered with long, black hair\ He readily bared his 
arms and shoulders for inspection, and (if I except a tuft of 
hair on each shoulder-blade, of the size of one's hand) we found 
his body to be no more hairy than that of several of our own 
men. The existence of these two tufts of hair caused us to 
examine several others, which examination established his as 

f Ritter, s. 477. 
VOL. III. D 



34 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OP 

an isolated case/'*' This fully confirms the statement of Von 
Krusenstem. They wear the hair of their heads and their 
beards^ usually their only covering to this part of their bodies, 
long and flowing, as a defence against the climate in which 
they dwell, which at certain seasons is sufficiently severe ; and 
it is probable that at times they are unusually hairy. 

To return to the account given by La Perouse of his visitors 
in the Bay of Crillon. He says, he believed their stature to 
be the middle height, about an inch less than that of the 
French ; but speaks with some doubt, from the just proportion 
of the parts of their bodies, adding, — their different muscles 
being strongly pronounced made them appear in general form 
fine men. 

2. In this place it may be desirable to determine as far as we 
can the stature of the A'inos, We have seen what La Perouse 
says upon the subject. Von Krusenstein affirms that they are 
of middle, almost equal stature, rising at most to five feet two 
inches. If this were Paris measure, it would be equal to five 
feet six inches, or sixty-six inches English; t.6., 1672 mm. Syo- 
da Saburo, the Japanese interpreter, says, they are in general 
neither very tall nor very little, but of good proportions. 
Lieut. Habersham's testimony is, that "though undoubtedly 
below the middle height as a general rule, I still saw several 
who would be called quite large in any country ; and though 
the average height be not more than ' five feet two or four 
inches', they make up the difference in an abundance of mus- 
cle", f Perhaps we may be able to procure more definite re- 
sults as to the stature of the Amos. The woman's skeleton was, 
as already stated, five feet or sixty inches ; i.e., 1522 mm. in 
height. Two pairs of femora, probably both belonging to 
males, were 16*9 inches in length, another femur 15*8 inches, 
and a sixth was 15'5 inches in length. By applying Dr. Hum- 
phry's rule to the longest femora, we obtain a stature of five 
feet two inches, or sixty-two inches, i.e., 1573 mm.; and to the 
shortest femur, we obtain a stature of only four feet eight and 



• Voti and QliddorCa Indigenous Races of the Earth, 1857, p. 620. 
t Loe. di,, p. 620. 



AN Ai'NO WOMAN, ETC. 35 

three-tenths inches, or 56'3 inches ; i,e., 1428 mm. So that there 
is good reason to regard the Amos of Yesso as a short people, 
probably averaging not more than, if so much as, five feet two 
inches, or 1573 mm., in stature. Whether the disproportionate 
shortness of the leg-bones of our Aino woman's skeleton is a 
race peculiarity, it is not quite possible to decide definitively. 
It does, however, seem to be very likely. Among the other 
tibiae measured, one pair, probably belonging to one of the 
men to whom the longest femora appertained, were 13*3 inches, 
or 337 mm., in length. A single tibia was thirteen inches, or 
829 mm., in length, and a fourth only 12'7 inches, or 319 mm. 
So that there is considerable probability that shortness of the 
leg-bones is a common feature among the Ainos. 

3. La P^rouse says the colour of his A'itio visitors was as 
dark as that of Algerines, or of other people of the coast of 
Barbaiy. Broughton sa;^s, they are of a light copper-colour ; 
but Von Krusenstem asserts that they are almost black. Lieut. 
Habersham speaks more definitely. " We saw several hundred 
men, women, and children, and these were all of a dark 
brownish-blacky with one exception ; which exception was a male 
adult, strongly suspected of being a half-breed.^'* This may 
be considered to be quite confirmatory of Von Krusenstern's 
observation, and conclusive as to their dark colour ; although 
inhabiting a country in which the mountains are covered with 
snow throughout the year. It is believed that the dried body 
of the woman was of a dark-brown colour. 

The Amos are well known to hunt the bear, although their 
food consists principally of fish, salmon especially. Their drink 
is snow-water. They are confidently said to carry away the 
she bear's cubs, and to tame them. There is even authority 
for the assertion that they ride upon these young bears. And 
Von Krusenstem positively affirms that, in every house in the 
south of the Island of Saghalien, was to be observed a young 
bear, which was reared there, and had its place in the comer 
of the hut. He adds, that notwithstanding he was the most 
restless and noisy inniate of the house, yet none of the owners 

• Loc. cit., p. 621. 



38 DAYIS ON THE SKELETON OF 

diflTers not only fix)m the European, but from all other types of 
skull with which I am acquainted in the greatly-advanced 
position of the jugular process of the occipital bone/' The 
measurements we have given show that the zygomatic arches 
are not so widely divergent in our e!samples as in that of Mr. 
Busk, hence the pheno-zygous character is not so apparent, 
unless it be in No. 1459. And the advanced position of the 
jugular processes of the occipital bone is not seen in any of our 
examples, unless in No. 1467. They are not to be taken as 
exactly of the same form as European crania ; but there is no 
striking divergence from Western European types, which is at 
once obvious. Still these skulls of A'inos, as already said, are 
not to be taken as exactly of the same form as the skulls of 
Europeans; although the diflTerences may not be so striking 
and at once obvious. They are certainly much more like the 
skulls of Europeans than those of any other race we know of 
in proximity with the Ai'nos. As before-mentioned, they do 
not present that interjugal breadth, nor that flatness of face 
which belong to those races called Mongolian. They have a 
moderately well-developed and upright forehead (No. 1458 
least so), which is quite European. The chin is prominent and 
weU-rounded. The nasal orifice is rather narrow, especially in 
No. 1459. But there is an appearance about the face, and in 
the long, narrow nasal bones which distinguishes them from 
Europeans. These last are placed upon rather wide nasal pro- 
cesses of the superior maxillaries, and, except in No. 1457, 
make very little prominence. So that, nevertheless, upon the 
whole it may be said that, by minute examination, their diver- 
sity of features from Europeans stands confessed. 

It is not easy to compare these skulls of Ainos with those of 
the races which come into proximity with them. All speci- 
mens of such crania are at present extremely rare. Of skulls 
of Kurile Islanders, or of the tribes about the mouth of the 
Amur none are known. Those of Japanese differ decidedly 
from those of Amos. Von Kotzebue, in 1817, sailed all along 
the eastern shores of the Island of Saghalien, but a want of 
access to his voyage prevents our obtaining any information 
from that source. In the Atlas of Choris there arc two figures 



AN.AINO WOMAN, ETC. 39 

of a cranium of an inhabitant of the Aleutian Islands, which 
are on about the same parallel as Saghalien, only considerably 
to the east, and beyond the southern extremity of Kamschatka. 
This skull is not very accurately depicted, but its form and 
features are quite distinct enough to show that it bears no re- 
semblance whatever to our Amos. It is a very peculiar cranium, 
with an exceedingly recedent forehead, short face, and much 
lateral development of the calvarium — pre-eminently non- 
European. 

2. We next come to the moral deportment of the Amos, of 
which all observers agree in speaking favoilrably. La P^rouse 
did not find the inhabitants of the Bay of Crillon to manifest 
the extraordinary generosity of the Orotchys of the Bay of 
Castries, on the opposite or continental coast of Asia. But, 
he says, "their manners were grave, and their thanks ex- 
pressed by dignified movements." Von Krusenstem says, 
their women obtain by their coal-black hair hanging down 
their necks, the dark colour of their faces, their lips stained 
with blue, tatooed hands and great dirt, a sinister appearance ; 
although their behaviour is very modest, and in every expres- 
sion betrays something dignified. He says, goodness of heart 
is expressed in every portrait of them that the skilful Tilesius 
painted. Instead of the greediness and nipacity, which are 
the general vices of the South Sea Islanders, they present 
much liberality and friendliness. 

They are a mild people, and in this respect they stand in 
much contrast with many of the aboriginal races of the earth. 
It seems probable that the fine development of the brain in 
the Ainos is connected with the display of the virtues of 
humanity. Their respect for the aged, and their treatment of 
women are vastly superior to those of savage nations in gene- 
ral. They avoid in their mamages too near relationship. 
This is often the practical wisdom of aboriginal people. They 
marry one wife, treat her as a helpmeet, not as a drudge, and 
allow her to exercise her own peculiar gentle sway over their 
minds. The testimony of Lieut. Habersham, after he has 
made allowance for some of the failings of the Ainos, is very 
decided. His words are : — " The Ainos are unpleasantly re- 



40 DAVIS ON THE SKELETON OF AN AINO WOMAN, ETC. 

markable as a people in two respects; viz., the primitive nature 
of their costume, and their extreme filthiness of person. I 
doubt if an A'lno ever washes ; hence the existence of vermin 
in everything that pertains to them, as well as a great variety 
of cutaneous diseases, for which they appear to have few or no 
remedies. There is another side to the picture, however, and 
it is a bright one. Their moral and social qualities, as exhi- 
bited both in their intercourse with each other and with 
strangers, are beautiful to behold.^'* 

These rude and simple people, of such great interest in many 
respects in an ethnological point of view, have been known in 
an imperfect manner to western Europeans since the middle of 
the last century. The Chinese and the Japanese geographers 
may for a longer period have been somewhat better acquainted 
with them, although the accounts collected by Ritter from 
these sources are all dated within the last hundred years. Tho 
Japanese geographer Rinsif^e^s discoveries appear to have been 
made only within two years before those of La P^rouse. And 
the notices quoted by Ritter from the great geography of the 
Chinese Empire, are from the edition of 1818. That the Ainos 
have been the subjects of great exaggeration and of fable has 
been rendered quite apparent. Further observation .reduces 
the statements respecting them to their true dimensions, and 
exhibits them as a peculiar people endowed with many good 
qualities. The very rare opportunity which has fallen in our 
way to add to the knowledge of their physical organisation has 
been embraced with pleasure, and it is hoped turned to some 
useful account. 

• Op. ci^., p. 621. 



9kuU (MB), from ■ tAng BUTsir U ViUtuai (Old DllohJ.SoaUi WUtL— (B-I, -W.) 




liM), from ■ lang B«nw il Flglwldfu, SouUi Wlltt.~(B-T, M.) 



il ilMl.tMU > Luuf Bvtow u KonoD Binnt, Sonth WUU.— (B-1, -( 



^jrctK.VT BKTUB.— 




AsciiMT aaiTUH.—rmoM a tOHO bakbow in wiltbhim. 



41 



III. — Further Researclics and Observations on the Two Principal 
Fomis of Ancient British Skulls, By John Thuenam, M.D,, 
F.S.A., F.A.S.L. 

In the first volume of the Memoirs of the Anthropological 
Society,* I have described, at length, two types of skulls from 
the grave-mounds of the ancient Britons, which are strongly 
contrasted the one from the other. The first, and, as I believe, 
the earliest in time, are very remarkable for their ^'long- 
drawn-out" (dolicliocejyhalic) and narrow (stenocephalic) form ; 
and have hitherto been principally found in the long barrows 
of the south-west of England, and especially in those of the 
counties of Wilts and Gloucester. The second are charac- 
terised by their more or less broad and short form, which 
brings them within the brachycephalic and eurycephalic cate- 
gories of technical craniologists ; and are yielded by the cir- 
cular barrows of the pre-Eoman period, which are spread ex- 
tensively over nearly the whole of this island. 

Aechj:ological Inferences. 

The long harrows, in accordance with the geological charac- 
ter of the districts in which they occur, are either simple 
tumuli of earth, chalk, rubble, and flints, as in South Wilts and 
Dorsetshire ; or they contain more or less elaborately built-up 
chambers, galleries, or cists of large stones, as in North Wilts 
and Gloucestershire. Whether, however, they enclose megali- 
thic chambers or not, the sepulchral deposits are almost invari- 
ably found at or near the broad and high end of the tumulus, 
which is generally directed towards the east. In no case have 
the primary interments yielded objects of metal, whether bronze 
or iron ; but, in some instances, implements or weapons of bone 

* " On the Two Principal Forms of Ancient British and Gaulish Skulls." 
(Memoirs Anthrop. Soc, 1865, i, 120-168; i59-5iy. With Appendix of Tables 
and Platei«.) 



42 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

and flint, and especially well-chipped leaf-shaped arrow-heads; 
and also perhaps (as at Uley), axe-heads of flint and green 
stone, both polished, have been found in them.* I therefore 
think we do not err in attributing this form of tumulus, as it 
occurs in this south-west part of England, to the neolithic age, 
and to a period when the burning of the dead, though not un- 
known, was not a received or favourite method of disposing of 
their remains. 

The round barrows, whether simply conoid or bowl-shaped, 
or of the more elaborate bell and disc forms, are very much 
more numerous than the long barrows of the same districts. 
They much more frequently cover interments after cremation 
than by simple inhumation, — in the proportion indeed, of at 
least three of the former to one of the latter. As, however, 
the objects found with the burnt bones and with the entire 
skeletons in this class of barrows do not difier in character, 
but, in addition to implements and weapons of stone, including 
beautifully barbed arrow-heads of flint, not unfrequently com- 
prise weapons and implements of bronze, and the flner and 
more decorated sorts of ancient British Jictilia — the so- 
called ^^ drinking^' and "incense cups" — we may safely con- 
clude that all are of the same bronze age,t during which, in 

* Many of the primary interments in the long barrows have yielded rude 
flakes, knives, and scrapers, as well as large globalar nodules of flint, weigh- 
ing from one to four pounds, which have obviously been utilised. {Archwolo' 
ffia, xxxviii, 416.) In one case, there was a sort of natural bludgeon of flint, 
from one end of which flakes had been detached. (Mem. Anthrop. 8oc., i, 142, 
fig. 7.) In three of the long barrows, one simple and two megalithic, the 
delicate, leaf-shaped arrow-heads referred to in the text have been met with. 
(Proc, Soc. Ant, second series, iii, 168, 1865.) 

t Objects of iron have only in very rare instances (and those reported are 
not always free from doubt), been found in the round barrows ; yet, the peo- 
ple who raised these g^ave-mounds were no doubt really in possession of that 
metal, as weU as bronze. Iron, however, was scarce, and its use probably 
very much restricted. This accords with the statement of Caesar as to the 
Britons of his day,— "ferri exigua est copia; sere utuntur importato." 
(B. Q., V, 12.) The age was strictly one of bronze and iron transition;, 

The archssological details as to the different forms of ancient British 
tumuli in the south-western counties of England, are given in papers, by the 
author of this Memoir, communicated to the Society of Antiquaries of Lon- 
don, in the yeai's 1867 and 1868, for publication in the Archasologia, 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKUI4L8. 43 

this country, cremation, though not the exclusive, was the 
favourite method of disposal of the remains of the dead. 

Anthropological Ineerences. 

• 

The conclusion at which I arrived, in the memoir referred to, 
as to the strongly contrasted head-forms associated with the 
two classes of grave-mounds now briefly described, was that 
they are to be assigned to two distinct peoples. The brachy- 
cephalous skulls, of the round barrows and bronze age, appeared 
to me to be clearly attributable to the Belgic Britons of the 
time of Julius and of the ages immediately antecedent and sub- 
sequent ; who, as we know, migrated to this island from Gaul. 
The dolichocephalous skulls, of the long barrows and stone age, 
I assigned, with at least equal confidence, to the most ancient 
inhabitants, who were conquered and displaced by the Belgic 
invaders, and are described by Caesar, under the name of Inte- 
riores Britanni, as forming the aboriginal population.* We 
are not without historical grounds for regarding this last popu- 
lation as of quite diverse origin from the former, and for re- 
garding it as Iberian, or at least as owning a common parent- 
age with the Iberians. 

The general connexion of the two different skull-forms with 
two differing forms of tumulus, appeared to me sufficiently 
curious to be summed up in a convenient antithetic formula, 
thus : — " Long harrows^ knig skulls ; round harrows, round or 
short skulls," At the same time, I was quite aware of the 
existence of apparent exceptions to this proposition, and was 
fully prepared for greater ones than had then been observed. 



* "BritanniaB pars interior ab iis incolitur, quos natos in insula ipsa 
memoria proditum dicunt. Maritima pars ab iis, qui prsedie ac belli in- 
fercndi causa ex Belgis transierant ; qui omnes fere iis noininibns civitatum 
appeUantur, quibus orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt, et bello illato ibi re- 
manserunt atque agros colere coeperuut. ... Ex his omnibus longe sunt 
hnmanissimi, qui Cantium incolunt, quss regio est maritima omnis, neque 
multum a Gallica difierunt consuetudine. Interiorcs plerique fioimenta non 
serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt, pellibuaque sunt vestiti." (B, G., v, 12, 
It). Whilst it is seen that the Belgic tribes near the coast were compara- 
tively civilised agriculturists, the people of the interior were much less 
cultivated and still in the hunting and f)astoral condition. 



44 THUENAM ON THE FORMS OP 

As to the round barrows, I expressly remarked that it waii 
evident that, unless the earlier race had been suddenly exterminated 
by the succeeding one, a mixture of interments and of tlie two 
types was to be expected.^ 

Objections Met. 

It is only for the first part of my proposition, viz. — Long 
barrows, long shulls, that I lay any special claim as a discoverer 
or original observer. I believe I have established, for this part 
of England, the connexion, apparently uniform, between long 
barrows and dolichocephalic skulls. I have now opened more 
than twenty of those remarkable grave-mounds, and not one of 
them has yet yielded, in the primaiy place of interment, a bra- 
chycephalic skull. As to the second part of the proposition, 
viz. — Raund banvws, round skulls, I claim little more than to 
have formulated, not so much my own original observations, 
which under this head are not very extensive, but rather the 
common experience of all British craniologists ; among whom 
I reckon Prof. D. D. Wilson, the late Mr. Bateman, Mr. G. 
Tate, my friend Mr. Greenwell, and my colleague in the pro- 
duction of Crania BHtannica, Dr. J. Barnard Davis. All of 
these hold that the prevailing ancient British skull-type, and 
consequently that of the round barrows, is brachycephalous. 

Objections to this, the second proposition of my formula, 
have recently been adduced, founded on nine imperfect skulls, 
received from round barrows in Dorsetshire, and presented to 
the Anthropological Society by Mr. Shipp of Blandford.t Even 
if all these skulls were relevant to the question, it may be 
safely asserted that a much larger amount of evidence than 
they comprise would be required to invalidate the proposition 
before us, in the sense in which it is held. I have particularly 
examined and measured these nine skulls, and my measurements 
do not differ materially from those by Mr. C. C. Blake, though I 
obtain from them an average breadth-index of '72, as against 

* Mem. Anihrop. Soc, i, 128. Separate Copy, p. 9. I also referred to the 
probable " production of a hybrid population with a cranial form interme- 
diate to the two others". Ibid., i, 150. Separate Copy, p. 31. 

t Anihro]^. Review, 186G, iv, '6\)S. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 45 

one of '71.* There is, however, no doubt that this small 
series is much more doUchocephalous than any yet published 
»s from round barrows, and that the mean breadth-index ap- 
proximates closely to that of the true long-barrow skulls. The 
two first alone (Nos. 1 and 2), are of the usual round barrow 
type, and have a breadth-index of '81 and '80. The other 
seven vary from '67 to '74 (average *70^), which are doUcho- 
cephalous and long-barrow breadth -indices. 

Upon looking at the history of these skulls, as deducible 
from Mr. Shipp^s memorandum, from a letter with which he 
has favoured me, as well as from the narrative of the opening 
of most of the barrows in which they were found, given in Mr. 
Warners recent work. The Celtic Turmili of Dorset, I see great 
reason to doubt whether, of the entire number, more than one 
was derived from a really primary interrnent in a circular barrow 
of the British period. Four or five are, indeed, avowedly from 
^' superficial'^ or secondary deposits. Another (No. 8), is from 
a cemetery of the Roman period at Spettisbury,t and from no 
round barrow at all. Another (No. 9), is considerably affected 
by posthumous lateral flattening. Two others (Nos. 4 and 5), 
are from an interment, the character of which, as an ancient 
British barrow, may be doubted : consisting as it did of a 
slight ^' swelling of the turf on Kingston Down, barely twelve 
inches above the surrounding surface'', with a layer of flints 
covering seven skeletons lying side by side and east and west, 
in a shallow grave one foot deep.J Both these skulls have a 
quite recent appearance, and retain decided traces of the ani- 

• There are really eleven skulls and calvaria, and ten (excluding "No. 10"), 
capable of being measured. The last, (Nos. 11 and 12 of Mr. Shipp's Me- 
morandum, forming one specimen) has a breadth-index of '73, and its addition 
to the series does not affect the mean hreadih-index, which I stiU make *72. 
The mean height-index of the ten skulls is '74. 

t See Proc, Soc. Antiq., iv, 188. 

X Wame, Celtic Tumuli of Dorset (Part 2) ; Kingston Down Tumulus, 
Twelve, p. 11. In my observations in the text, I assume the genuineness of 
these nine or ten skulls. It must not be forgotten, however, that they bear 
no labels inscribed at the time of their discovery ; and that when presented to 
the Anthropological Society, they had been in Mr. Shipp*8 possession for a 
period of twenty years. The circumstances are not favourable to their cor- 
rect identification ; though this is certainly possible. 



46 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

mal oil of the bones, such as I have never seen in truly ancient 
British skulls. 

As regards skulls from secondary interments, they require 
to be entirely eliminated from the general inquiry, as we can 
seldom say to what period they belong. Many, perhaps the 
majority, are Anglo-Saxon, and some may be of the Roman 
period. On the other hand, it is quite possible that some are 
pre-Roman and ancient British ; but proof of this is certainly 
not afforded in the meagre details we have of their exhumation 
in this instance. 

I am, however, quite prepared for the announcement that, in 
some parts of England, there are round barrows, the primary 
interments in which yield elongate skulls of the long barrow 
type. And, though no series of such skulls has yet been pro- 
duced, I should by no means be surprised to meet with them 
in some of those districts in which, it may be from local causes, 
the immigrant brachycephalous race did not at once extend it- 
self ; though it may have communicated its fashion of erecting 
round rather than long barrows over the dead. Such a district 
may possibly have been Dorsetshire. Wiltshire was an impor- 
tant centre of the Belgae ; but the neighbouring Dorsetshire, 
as I have shown elsewhere, and without reference to the pre- 
sent inquiry, has no claim to be considered as settled by the 
Belgic invaders.* A comparison of the objects found in the 
circular barrows of the two counties conclusively shows that 
the Durotriges were a much poorer and less cultivated people 
than their neighbours the Belgae. It is quite possible, there- 
fore, that they may turn out to have been a tribe of the primi- 
tive dolichocephali, as we may conclude, on historical grounds, 
the Silures and other western tribes were, even in the Roman 
period. 

I here freely admit that Mr. GreenwelPs excavations, during 
the autumns of 1866 and 1867, seem to show that in some of 
the circular barrows of the North and East Ridings of York- 
shire, the primary interments were really those of a dolichoce- 



* Crcmia Britannica (Decade 6). Description of a sknll from Ballard Down, 
Dorset. (PI. 46, xxxni, p. 1, 4.) 



ANCIENT BBITISH SKULLS. 47 

phalic people not distinguishable from those of the long bar- 
rows ; whilst the secondary interments, though evidently 
ancient British, were still more certainly brachycephalic* 
These facts, though for this particular part of England, op- 
posed to the naked proposition, "round barrows, round skulls'*, 
are still in favour of the more important inference as to the pre- 
sence of two altogether distinct races in Britain in pre-Roman 
times; one of whom, the earliest in order of time, was dolicho- 
cephalic, and the other brachycephalic. This very part of 
England, North-East Yorkshire, is indeed one in which it is 
highly probable that the two races were brought into contact 
without at once becoming mixed. The " Wolds'' of the East 
Riding formed almost certainly the boundary between the Pari- 
sii of the southern part of the East Riding and the Brigantes 
of the rest of the present Yorkshire, There are also good grounds 
for believing that the former were a more civilised tribe than 
the latter, and that they were immigrants of Belgic or Gaulish 
origin ; whilst the Brigantes probably belonged to the tribes 
who are caUed aborigines of the interior by Csesar.f 

Further Evidence. 

My present principal object, however, is that of reviewing 
the whole subject, in the light of the additional researches and 
more extended data, acquired since my former papers were 
written. 

Round Skulls from the Round Barrows. 

I will commence with the minor and less important proposi- 
tion of the two ; viz., the connexion of brachycephalous skulls 



* This I take from Mr. Greenwell's report, and from letters with which he 
has favoured me ; not having had an opportunity of carefully examining the 
skulls themselves, the measurements of which have not yet been published. 

t This point was worked out many years ago, quite independently of the 
question now under discussion. See " Inscription of Ancient British Skull 
from Arras E. R. Yorkshire," Cran. Brit., Plates 6 and 7, xii, p. 5, decade 2, 
1857. The skull here figured and described has a breadth-index of *74, and is, 
therefore, not brachyc^halic. It has, however, no relations with the long- 
barrow skulls, as its macrognathic character sufficiently declares. Like one 
or two other skulls in my collection, it is an exceptional and aberrant in- 
stance of the brachycephalous British skull form. 



48 THDRNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

with the circular British barrows; or Round bam'ows, round 
skulls. 

As to this, I relied chiefly on the data brought together in 
the descriptions, plates, and tables of measurements, in Crania 
Britannica, The large Table II of that work, with measure- 
ments of one hundred and eleven ancient British skulls,* about 
half of which may be from round barrows, was not completed 
by my former colleague, when my former memoir was written. 
The data in that table, as in the entire work, were brought to- 
gether by my colleague and myself, without any reference to 
the views to be deduced from them ; but solely on the grounds 
of the due authentication of the skulls, and of their fitness, as 
regards preservation, for being engraved, described, and mea- 
sured. 

In the complete work. Crania Britannica, there are descrip- 
tions and plates of twenty-five skulls from round barrows in 
all parts of Great Britain ;t one only of this number being re- 
garded as the skull of a woman. These twenty-five skulls have 
breadth-indices which range between '74 and '86, and have a 
mean of '80^. 

SKULLS FROM BOUND BABBOWS IN ALL FABTS OF GREAT BRITAIN, ENOBAVED 
AND DESCBIBED IN "CBANIA BRITANNICA." — BREADTH INDEX. 
No. of Skulla. Bange. Meftn. 

^ 26. ... -74 to -86. ... -SO'. 

Nine of the twenty-five have a breadth-index of less than 
•80; four being oval or orthocephalic (•74-' 76), and five sub- 
brachycephalic (•77-*79); sixteen are brachycephalic ('SO-'SG). 
Not one skull is, properly -speaking, dolichocephalic. 

In Table II of Crania Britannica, as already pointed out, the 
measurements of a much larger series of skulls from round 
barrows are to be found. It will be desirable to exclude those 



• Cran. Brit,, Table n, p. 242-24$. 

t Cran, BHt, Table i, p. 240-241. The Table comprises thirty-five skulls; 
bat of these, two are from Ireland, five from long barrows, two from graves 
not covered by barrows, and one is too defective to allow of the breadth- 
index being calculated. Twenty-one of the twenty-five round barrow- 
skulls, from this Table, were given in the second part of Table I of the paper, 
in the Memoirt of the Anthropological Society, \, 162. 



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ANCIENT BKITISH SKULLS. 49 

from other parts of England, as to most of which the exact 
character of the tumulus or grave whence they were derived is 
not known, and to confine ourselves to those, from the circular 
barrows of Derbyshire and StaflFordshire, which are preserved 
in the Bateman collection at Youlgrave. These are forty-one in 
number, of which twenty-eight are supposed to be the skulls 
of men and thirteen those of women.* All the measurements 
of this series, I ought to state, are by Dr. Barnard Davis. The 
results tally remarkably with those obtained for the skulls 
figured and described in Crayiia Britannica. The forty-one 
skulls have breadth-indices which range from '74 to '89, and 
have a mean of '80'^. Not one skull is properly speaking dolU 
chocephalic. 

8KULLB FROM ROUND BABBOW8 IN DEBBY8HIBE AND 8TAPFOBD8HIBE IN 

THE BATSMAN COLLECTION. — BREADTH INDEX. 
No. of Skulls. Range. Mean. 

41. ... -74 to -89. ... -SO* 

1 have made numerous excavations in the round barrows of 
Wiltshire, with the hope of accumulating evidence as to the 
ancient British skull type of the bronze period in this part of 
the island. I have not, however, obtained from the primary 
interments in this class of tumuli, more than nine or ten skulls 
in a condition susceptible of measurement. Two of these are 
engraved and described in Crania Britannica, and are included 
in the above first category of twenty-five skulls. Six other 
skulls and calvaria from barrows near Stonehenge, with a 
seventh obtained by a friend from a barrow at Ulwell, Dorset, 
may be added to our data.f The breadth-index is respectively, 

* I exclude 152 C ($, breadth-index -69) as clearly secondary (Ten Tears' 
Diggings, p. 161). I have compared the measurements in Table II, Cran, 
Brit., with the details in Mr. Bateman's Vestiges, and Ten Years' Diggings, and 
especially with the Descriptive List of Skulls in the Appendix to the latter 
work. 

t The measurements of four of these seven skulls are given in the second 
part of Table I in my former paper« Mem, Anthrop, Soc, v. i, p. 462, Nos. 7, 10, 
19, and 25. They are repeats in Table II, appended hereto. The three not 
in the table are Nos. 186, 265, and 266. The former is from an oval barrow, 
of the round-barrow period. Another skull (No. 254 of my collection), more 
recently obtained from a round barrow near Bratton, Wilts, is a remarkable 

VOL. III. E 



50 THUBNAM ON T&E FORMS OF 

•78, -79, -80, -81, -84, -85, and -87; average, -82. Five of th£ 
seven a/re absolutely brachycephaUc, and the other two are sub^ 
brachycephalicy and closely approa^^h thai form. 

If we combine these three series into one, we obtain seventy 
skulls; fifty-six of which are presumably those of men, and 
fourteen of women. The principal measurements of the whole 
are given in Table II, appended hereto. They constitute the 
most important data yet obtained, or, we may unfortunately 
add, likely to be now obtained,* for determining the breadth- 
index and general cranial type of ancient British skuUs from 
the round barrows. The entire series, in reference to breadth- 
index, may be thus classed : the first column of figures gives 
the actual number, the second the per-centage. 

Male. Female. Both Sexes. 

Ancient BritiBh Bound-BaiTow / * > /- * \ / * » 

Skulls. Nob. Proportions. Nos. Proportions. Nos. Proportions. 

I. DOLICHOOEPHALI. "i (' —'70) 

Sab-dolichocephali. > (*70 — '73) 

II. Obthocbphali. (-74— -76) 11 -lO* 1 -07 12 -17 

Sub-brachycephaU. ) (-77— -79) 10 -18 4 -29 14 -20 






III. Bbachycephali. j (-80— -89)35 •62» 9 -64 44 -63 

56 100 14 100 70 100 



It is seen that these round barrow skulls are essentially 
brachycephalous. Not a single skull is either dolichocephalic 
or sub-dolichocephalic, according to my method of classifying 
skulls by their breadth-index, and which is almost identical 
with that of Professor Welcker.f A few, 17 per cent, only, 

instance of the effect of poethamous distortion^ by which a cranium which 
was clearly sub-brachycephaloas (c. *78) has been converted into a pseudo- 
dolichocephalic one, having a breadth-index of *70. In another specimen of 
a female skull (No. 261), being that from the primary interment in a circular 
barrow on Warminster Down, excavated May 18, 1867, the same strangely 
transforming effect of posthumous distortion is likewise very apparent. This 
skull, however, was by nature less brachyoephalic. 

* The destruction of skulls and other human remains by the generality of 
barrow-diggers, and especially in Wiltshire at the beginning of this century, 
by the elder Cunning^n and Sir B. C. Hoare, can hardly be too much de- 
plored. The loss to anthropological science is irreparable. 

Mr. L. O. Pike's criticism {The English and their Origin, p. 160), is met by the 
publication of Table II, the materials for which were formerly not accessible. 

t Mem. Anihrop. 8oc„ 1865, i, 462, 507, 510. "Two Principal Forma of 
Ancient British and Gaulish Skulls," (separate copy, pp. 52, 97, 100), 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 51 

are ovoid or orthocephalic ; but so are a certain proportion of 
the skulls of the most brachycephalous peoples of modem times. 
. Our round-barrow ancient British skulls are as brachycepha- 
lous as those of modem Germans^ Slavonians and Mongols. 
They occupy, indeed, as regards their mean breadth-index, 
almost exactly the same position as the skulls of those peoples. 
This is well seen, on reference to the extensive measurements 
by Professor Welcker, who gives '79 as the mean breadth-index 
of the skulls of Little Russians and Finns ; '80 as that of the 
South Germans, Great Russians and Magyars ; and '81 as that 
of the Swiss, Slovaks, Calmucks and Tungusians.* 

I here confine myself, as regards the round barrow cranial 
type, to the inferences to be drawn from actual measurements 
of well authenticated skulls. It would be easy to confirm the 
view I have arrived at by the opinions and observations of 
various writers. Mr. Bateman for Derbyshire and Stafibrd- 
shire, Mr. Greenwell and Mr. Tate for the Northumbrian dis- 

Welcker, Archiv fur Anthrop., 1866, i, p. 135. Here is given a most valu- 
able tabular classification of skulls of all peoples, according to their breadth- 
indices, from Prof. Welcker*8 measurements. 

The question discussed in this and in the preceding papers has been ob- 
scured by that unfortunate system of nomenclature and classification, not 
yet obsolete, according to which all skulls, not brachycephalous, are regarded 
as dolichocephalous. Objects which are not short are not therefore of neces- 
sity long ; it being in the very nature of things that there should be inter- 
mediate forms, neither long nor short. Wo regard a skull as brachycephalic 
when it has a breadth-index of '80 and upwards ; but in practice, no one can 
distinguish by the eye a skull with a breadth-index of '79, or even '78, 
from one of '80. The one is, by a slight fraction, only less brachycephalous 
than the other, though in some classifications the one would stand for a do- 
lichocephalic, the other for a brachycephalic skuU. It is scarcely possible to 
exclude from the mind the idea of oval, mesaticcphalic or orthocephalic skuU- 
forms, equally removed from the long and from the short. Nature presents 
to us all three, the one gliding into the other, though within defined limits, 
by scarcely perceptible gradations. The classification of races according to 
the form of the skull, has been laid open to just censure by the continued 
use, notwithstanding the objections of Welcker, Broca and myself, of the 
dichotomous system of Ketzius. '* The very terms," says an acute critic, 
•' in which the cephalic index is described, proclaim it most arbitrary and 
conventional; since a mere ideal line separates the round from the long 
skulls." Crawfrird, Trans. Ethnol. flfoc, vol. vi, p. 129. 

* Archiv far Anthrop., 1866, i, pp. 135, 142, etc. 

e2 



52 THUENAM ON THE FORMS OP 

> 

tricts. Dr. D, Wilson for the Lowlands of Scotland, Mr. J. R. 
Oliver for the Isle of Man,* and Dr. J. Barnard Davis for Bri- 
tain in general, all in one form or other ascribe a brachycephft- 
lous skull type to the ancient Britons of the pre-Roman bronze 
period ; and, consequently, to the people by whom the round 
barrows were erected. 

LONG SKULLS FROM THE LONG BARROWS. 

We may now turn to the primary and more important pro- 
position, namely, the connection of long or dolichocephalic 
skulls with the large barrows of elongate form; or Long barrows, 
long skulls. 

Twelve years ago, when I commenced my researches in the 
long barrows of Gloucester and Wilts, by reopening, in con- 
junction with Mr. E. A. Freeman, that at Uley, in the former 
county, the only authentic skulls from this description of 
tumulus in the south-west of England, were two in the Mu- 
seum of Guy*s Hospital, obtained thirty years previously ai the 
first opening of this remarkable chambered barrow.f Since 
that time, I have lost no opportunity of suggesting and aiding 
in the exploration of this interesting class of tumuli ; and skulls 
have successively been obtained, by myself or friends, from 
those of Littleton Drew, West Kennet, Rodmarton, Nymps- 
field, Charlton Abbots, and Oldbury, all of them situated either 
in North Wiltshire or in Gloucestershire. J The skulls from 

* Since this paper was read, I have been informed by Mr. J. B. Oliver, 
Hon. Sec. of the Manx Society, that he has opened thirteen tumuli of the 
round form, that the crania found in the central chambers were of the brachy- 
cephalic type; and that the skeletons measured 5 feet 10 inches to 6 feet, or 
even more. In the few long barrows he had opened, which contained skele- 
tons, the crania were dolichocephalic. 

1 1 have described both these skulls ; of the one, of which there is a full-sized 
lithographic plate, in Crania BritantUea (pi. 6, xxiv); the other, that of a 
girl of twelve or fourteen (rather than " nine or ten ") in Natural History 
Review, April, 1865, t, 263 " On Synostosis of the Cranial Bones," etc., (se- 
parate copies, p. 24). 

X These chambered tumuli and the skulls derived from them are described 
in CroiHia Britannica, pi. 24, xxv ; pi. 50, xxvi ; pi. 59, xxvii ; and Memoirs 
Anthrop, Soc,, i, 131, 473, 474 ; where references to the more detailed archseo- 
logical memoirs in reg^ard to them will be found. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 53 

these megalithic long barrows aro forty in number, twenty- 
seven being presumably those of men, and thirteen of women. 
The principal measurements of all are given in Table I, appended 
to this paper, from which it appears that not a single skull is 
brachycephalic, and that scarcely any deviate materially from 
the narrow elongate type. The breadth-index of the forty 
skulls ranges from '67 to '75 (in one instance only '77) ; the 
average breadth-index is •7P. 

SKULLS FBOM CHAJIBEBSD LONO BABBOW8 IK OLOUOESTEBSHIRE AND NORTH 
♦ WILTS,— BREADTH-INDEX. 

Mo. of SkullB. Range. Mean. 

40. ... -67 to -77. ... •71». 

In South Wilts, on Salisbury Plain, as on other parts of the 
chalk downs of the south of England, destitute of stone fit for 
the construction of chambers, long baiTows are found similar 
in external form to the chambered ones of North Wilts and 
Gloucestershire. Some of these were explored early in this 
century by Sir R, C. Hoare and Mr. Cunnington, and were 
found to cover interments of entire skeletons under the broad 
and high, generally the east, end of the barrow; but in every 
instance without ornament, weapon, or other object of bronze 
or of any other metal. As, however, none of the skulls had 
been preserved, it was impossible to say what was their type ; 
whether dolichocephalic, like those from the chambered long 
barrows of North Wilts and Gloucestershire ; or brachycephalic, 
like those from the circular barrows so numerous on these downs 
and plains. 

After many unsuccessful attempts at excavating a long bar- 
row having the original interment intact, I succeeded, as nar- 
rated at length in my former paper, in meeting with one such 
at Winterbourne Stoke, and with another containing six skele- 
tons in the same year, 1 863, in the parish of Tilshead (East) . 
In 1364, 1 re-opened the long barrow called Bowlsbury, and 
obtained from it four skulls and calvaria, left in it sixty years 
previously by Mr. Cunnington. In each instance the skulls 
from the primary interments were of the long narrow type, 
similar to those from the chambered barrows of North Wilts 
and Gloucester. None were brachycephalous. At the same 



IW 



54 THUENAM ON THE FORMS OF 

time, skulls obtained by other investigators from long barrows 
in Yorkshire, at Heslerton, Ebberston, and Dinnington, were 
also found to be remarkable for their dolichocephalic form.* 
The constantly recurring long type of skulls in barrows of this 
peculiar elongate type, appeared to me fully to justify the in- 
ference of my first paper of long harrows, long skulls ; whilst 
the still more important conclusion was arrived at and esta- 
blished, that the earliest inhabitants of Britain of whom the «e- 
pulchral monuments remain to us were markedly dolichocephalic. 

These views, however, have had to stand the test of q^ticism, 
and objections to them have been made in certain quarters, 
l^he inference, moreover, was one of so much curiosity and im- 
portance, as to lead me to seek further opportunities for its 
verification or otherwise; and since the publication of my 
former papers I have, with this object, during the years 1865, 
1866, and 1867, opened as many as fifteen other of these large 
grave-mounds; and in seven of the number have been rewarded 
by finding the primary interments. These have yielded seven- 
teen skulls capable of being measured, the number obtained 
from each productive barrow varying from one to nine. All, 
without exception, bear out the views previously adopted. I am 
the more desirous of placing this additional evidence on record, 
as 1 he long barrows within my reach, accessible to excavation, 



* I might also cite the experience of Mr. Bateman for so-caUed cham- 
bered barrows in Staffordshire and Derbyshire ; but the more I consider 
his not very dear descriptions, the more doubt I feel as to their being 
strictly analogous forms of tumuli. They were, however, regarded by him as 
such ; and I at least think it probable that several of them were really the 
tombs of the earlier dolichocephalic people of the stone age, the type of 
whose barrows is clearly not the same in all parts of the British Islands, and 
still less in France and the Channel Isles. In Ireland and in Caithness, the 
chambered barrows, probably nearly coeval with the long chambered barrows 
of Gloucestershire and Wilts, are, generally speaking, circular. It is still 
to be observed, notwithstanding that the Derbyshire chambered barrows 
were generally found to have been rifled, and the primary and secondary 
interments mixed by the riflers, that the mean breadth-index of eight 
skulls from them, measured by Dr. J. B. Davis, does not exceed *72 (see 
Cran, Brit., Table II, pp. 240, 246, and plate 33, xvi, p. 6). I exclude 
141 c, with the extraordinary breadth-index of *92, as being posthumously 
distorted. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 



55 



have now nearly all been explored. Altogether, there are 
twenty-seven skulls and calvaria in my collection from the 
primary interments of the unchambered long barrows of South 
Wiltshire,* which are susceptible of measurement^ twenty-one 
of which are probably those of men, and six those of women. 

BKUI^LS FBOM SIMPLE LONG BABBOWB IK SOUTH WILT8HIBB. 

BREADTH-INDEX. 
No. of 8kuUg. Range. Mean. 

27. ... -63 to -76. ... -69. 

These skulls are even more dolichocephalic than those from 
the more northern megalithic long barrows ; the mean breadth- 
index of the one being '69, and that of the other 'Tl. Geo- 
graphically, the one class of barrows is separated from the other 
by the Vale of Pewsey and the Wansdyke; the boundaries, as may 
be presumed, between the two British tribes of Belgae and Do- 
buni, the former immigrants, the latter, as is thought, primeval. 

In general, there is a great conformity as to the breadtlj- 
index of the skulls from each barrow. Some are orthocepha- 
lous and others sub-dolichocephalous, but the range is of com- 
paratively small extent, and the dolichocephaly of the skulls 
from each grave mound is marked and decisive. The follow- 
ing table shows this : — 



CHAIITBEBED LONG BABROWS OF OLOU- 


UNCHAMBEBED LONG 


B A BBC WE 


1 OF 


CE8TEB & NOBTH WILT8HIBI 


c. 


SOUTH WILTSHIBE. 




No. ol 


Breadth-lDdex. 

f ■ 


X7~ . 


Breadth-Index. 


Skulls 


. Range. 


Mean. 


Skulls. Range. 


Mean. 


Uley, Gloucester. 2 


•71--74 


•72* 


Winterbourne Stoke 1 


•75 


•75 


Littleton-Drew, 






Tilshead (East) ... 5 


•68--74 


•71 » 


N. Wilts. 7 


•68--74 


•71 


Bowls Barrow ... 4 


•65--70 


•67 


West Kennet, „ 4 


•67-73 


•70 


Fyfield ... ... 1 


•69 


•69 


Ny mpsfield, Glouces- 






Tilshead (Lodge) ... 2 


•66-68 


•67 


tershire 2 


•74-75 


•74 


Figheldean ... 1 


•67 


•67 


Kodmarton „ 5 


•71-^74 


•73 


TUshead (Old Ditch) 1 


•68 


•68 


Charlton Abbots „ 17 


•68-^77 


•71 


Netheravon ... 1 


•69 


•69 


Oldbury, N. Wilts. 3 


•68--74 


•71 
•715 


Stonehenge (165) ... 2 
Norton Bavant ... 9 

27 


70»--7l 
•63-73 


•71 


40 


•67-77 


•68* 




•63.-75 








•69 









* All these barrows are on Salisbury Plain, and from an area extending 
about twenty-five miles from east to west, and about fifteen miles from north 
to south. Several of the number are within sight of Stonehenge. In Table I, 



ftm^^ 



56 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

If we combine the skulls from the two classes of long barrows 
into one series, we have altogether sixty-seven skulls, to com- 
pare with the seventy skulls from the round barrows ; and the 
whole, when arranged according to the same principle as that 
adopted for that class of skulls (see p. 50), will stand as follows : — 

Male. Female Both Sexes. 

Ancient British Long-Barrow . • » . • » - — • . 

Skulls. Noe. Proportions. Nos. Propor. Nos. Proportions. 

I. DOLICHOCBPHALI. -J (•63--70) 23 ... -49 9 ... -45 32 ... -48 

Sab-doHchocephali. > (•71--73) 18 ... -88 5 ... -25 23 ... -34 

II. Orthocephali. (•74r--76) 6 ... '13 5 ... -25 11 ... -165 

Sub-brachyoephali. ( (•77--79) 1 ... '05 1 ... 015 

III. Bbachtcephali. ) ('80- ) 

47 100 20 100 67 100 

A comparison of the two tables shows how greatly these 
long-barrow skulls diflfer from those from the round barrows. 
Among the latter is not a single dolichocephalous skull ; among 
these not a single brachycephalous one. Upwards of four- 
fifths (82 per cent.) are, more or less, dolichocephalous ('67- 
•73) j and nearly one-half (48 per cent.), typically, or absolutely 
so ('GS-'TO). A small proportion only (16*5 per cent.), are 
ovoid or orthocephalic ; and only 1*5 per cent., represented 
by a single exceptional skull, is sub-brachycephalous, with a 
broadth-index of 'T?.* The average breadth-index for the 
entire series is '71. 

SECONDARY INTERMENTS. 

That the long barrows, yielding dolichocephalic skulls in 
their primary interments, are earlier in time than the round 

the skulls from these unchambered mounds are distinguished from those 
from the chambered long barrows, by being marked as derived from South 
Wilts. There are some barrows of this class in North Wilts, but they are 
few in number, and have not afforded any crania. 

• Professor Vogt, whilst appearing to accept the main conclusions of my 
former paper, observes, as to Table II, that " among the long-heads, Thur- 
nam himself registers very decided short-heads as coming horn long-barrows.'* 
(Arckivfur Anthropol., i, 38, Anthrop, Rev., v, 347.) Vogt here overlooks my 
note at p. 475 (p. 65, separate copy), which shows that aU the short-heads in 
this table are from secondary interments, that they are marked by letters 
and not figures, and are not included in the averages. I ought to have kept 
the secondary and primary skulls entirely apart,'as in the present memoir. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 57 

barrows, yielding for the most part brachycephalic skulls, is, I 
think, proved by the observations made during the two past 
seasons on the secondary interments in the upper strata of 
several of them. In two or three instances, Mr. Cunnington 
and Sir R. C. Hoare met with skeletons within a foot pr two 
of the summits of long barrows, which, from their extended 
position and the nature of the iron weapons found with 
them, were evidently Anglo-Saxon.* Some of the secondary 
interments are, however, clearly ancient British, of the bronze 
age; and in two instances at least, deposits of burnt bones, 
in one case enclosed in a British cinerary urn, were found 
by Mr. Cunnington and Sir R. C. Hoare near the tops of 
long barrows. t In no case whatever has urn-burial been 
met with at the base of a long barrow. J More important for 
our present purpose has been my discovery in five instances 
near the summits of long barrows of skeletons which were un- 
mistakeably of the ancient British period. These skeletons 
were shown to be British, and not Anglo-Saxon, by their 
crouched or contracted posture, and in three instances by being 
associated with pottery of the character and period of which 
there can be no doubt. One case is that of a food-vase accom- 
panying skeletons, the skulls from which have a breadth-index 
varying from '81 to '87. § In two other instances, viz., in the 

* Ancient Wilts, i, 100 (Sherrington, Comj). Arch., xv, 344, pi. xviii, xix) ; 
1, 87 (Bowls Barrow); i, 72 (Boreham). In the long barrow at Tilshead 
Lodge, reopened by me, I found, within a foot of the summit, a skeleton 
stretched at length, with the iron umbo and other mountings of a shield, 
on the breast, and the remains of a small brass-bound bucket of wood at 
the head, — all objects clearly Anglo-Saxon. The breadth-index of the skull 
(No. 232) is -76. 

t Ancient Wilts, i, 90 (Tilshead, Old Ditch); i, 102 (Corton); comp. i, 66 
(near Battlesbury). 

X Imperfectly burnt bones have, in two or three instances, been found at 
the base of long barrows ; though in one instance (Tilshead, Old Ditch, re- 
opened by me), they accompanied, and did not merely replace, the interment 
of the entire skeleton. They were, perhaps, sacrificial, and the accompany- 
ing skeletons, in the other instance (Bratton Camp long barrow), may have 
been missed. See, also, Hoare, i, 83 (Knook). 

§ See a woodcut of the vase, and lithographic plate of the very brachy- 
cephalic adult skull from the secondary interment in the long barrow of 
Winterboume Stoke.— if e?». Anthro]^. 8oc., i, 141, pi. ii. 



58 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

Wilsford (''170^') and Pigheldean long barrows, the pottery- 
consisted of beantifal "drinking cups'' of the latest highly- 
decorated type, such as are found in the most modem circular 
tumuli. The skulls of the associated skeletons have a breadth- 
index of '84 in the former, and 'TS in the latter instance. 
Altogether, there are in my collection eleven crania from the 
upper level of long barrows, which I attribute to the later 
British period, and which are certainly secondary. A majority 
of these, six of the whole number, differ wholly in their type 
from the skulls of the primary interments at the base of the 
long barrows, and are as brachy cephalic as any of the skulls 
from the circular barrows ('SO-'S?) : one is sub-brachycephalic 
(•78), two are orthocephalic ('TS-'TG), and two sub-dolicho- 
cephalic ('71 -'73). Not one is truly dolichocephalic. One 
of these skulls (No. 257), that of a girl, from the Wils- 
ford long barrow, having a breadth-index of *71^ belongs 
rather to the long, than to the round barrow type ; but it is 
remarkable that no more of this elongate type were found 
among these secondary interments, if, as we may believe was 
the case, the long-headed people continued to survive among 
the round-heads.* 

The evidence derived from these secondary interments ap- 
pears to me very important, if not altogether conclusive ; and 
I, therefore, arrange the skulls, according to their breadth- 
index, as follows : — 

8KULLS FBOM SECOND ABT INTBBMBliTS IN THE SIMPLE LONG BASS0W8 OF 

SOUTH WILTS. 



I. DOLICHOOBPHALI. \ ( — '70) 

Sub-doHchocephaU. | l'7l''73) 

II. Obthocbphali. (•74-'76) 
Sab-brachycepbali. ) (•77-*79) 

III. Bbachycbphali. / (•80.-87) 



Nob. Proportions. 



1 
2 
2 
6 



•09 
•18 
•18 
•55 



11 1-00 



* Signer de Bossi has lately described an ancient tomb near Borne, in 
which were skeletons with skulls of the long type in the lower, and of the 
round typo in the upper, stratum. — "D6couvertes d'Antiquit^s Prehisto- 
riques dans la Campagne Bomaine." Kevue Archiologiffvs, JviUet 1867, 
p. 52. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 59 

COMPARISON OP ANCIENT BRITISH DOLICHOCEPHALOUS AND BRACHT- 
CBPHALOUS SKULLS WITH THOSE OF OTHER PEOPLES, 

To return from this digression, to the long-barrow skuD* of 
the primaiy interments, the measurements of all of which are 
given, in the order of their breadth-index, in Table I. 

The most important observation in regard to these skulls 
seems to be that, when compared with those of all peoples, they 
occupy a remarkable situation in respect of their low hrecMh^ 
index. There is no people in Europe at the present day with 
skulls so dolichocephalous.* Their place is, indeed, almost at 
the top of the scale of dolichocephaly and brachycephaly, and 
alongside that of the skulls of Negroes, Hindoos, and New 
Caledonians. t Our 67 long barrow skulls have, indeed, about 
the same average breadth-index as is found in 66 African 
Negroes and 15 Australians, measured by Welcker ; and, if 
arranged according to the Grerman professor's method (Taf. II, 
fig. 6), the resulting figure would be almost identical with that 
shown by him for the Negroes. The 27 more elongate and 
narrower skulls from the simple long barrows of South Wilts, 
if separated from their congeners of the chambered long bar- 
rows, occupy even a higher place on the scale, near the Hot- 
tentots and Caroline islanders or '^Olias.'* These crania of 
primeval Britons are, indeed, among the most dolichocephalous 
known. They are remarkable, not merely for length but for 
narrowness, and come strictly within the definition of steno- 
a'phali, to adopt the term introduced by Professor Lucae, and 
sanctioned by the use of Barnard Davis and Professor Welcker. J 

Dr. Davis has shown that the skulls of many Polynesians, 

* Four of the more recently discovered long barrow skulls (Nos. 224, 233, 
235, and 251) were exhibited at a meeting of the Anthropological Society of 
Paris, June 6, 1867. MM. Broca and Bertillon reported their measurements 
as yielding a mean breadth index of '664, and observe, " II resulto que 
I'indice cephalique de ces crdnes indique un degr6 de dolichoc^phalie extra- 
ordinaire qui ne se trouve jamais chez les Europeens." — Bull, de la Soe. 
d*Anthrop., s. s. t. ii, p. 357 ; comp. p. 676. — Through the kindness of the 
Committee of the Paris Society, we are enabled to reproduce, from the Bulle- 
tins, woodcuts of three of these skulls. 

t See Professor Welcker's very valuable tables, Archiv fiir Anthrop., i, 
135, 138, 154, 157, Tab. i, ii, vi, vii. 

X Anthrop. Review, 1866, iv, 54; Archiv fiir Anthrop., 1866, i, 152. 



GO THURNAM ON THE FORMS OP 

viz., the Melanesians of New Caledonia and of the New Hebrides, 
and also Caroline Islanders, are distinguished not only by great 
length and narrowness, but also by great proportionate height 
and by a ridge-like elevation of the vertex, in the lilie of the 
great longitudinal sutures. These characters, as Dr. Davis 
points out, are so marked as to justify our regarding these 
peoples as approximating in their skull-form to that of the 
synostotic scaphocephali ; and, as he says, '^ they may with 
propriety be designated ' natural scaphocephali.^ "^ This term, 
natural scaphocephali, appears to me to be almost equally appli- 
cable to a large proportion of our long-barrow skulls, t in which 
these characters, of length, narrowness and carinated vertex, are 
present in a remarkable degree. As regards elevation, though 
a great majority of the skulls of men are high skulls, they are 
not, as a rule, by any means so high as the Polynesian skulls 
here referred to. As Table I shows, their height-index ex- 
ceeds their breadth-index by the figure 2 (A '70 to B '72); J 
whereas in the 7 Caroline Islander skulls, measured by Pro- 
fessor Welcker, the excess is represented by the figure 6 
(A '68 to B '74). § On the other hand, we learn from Professor 
Van der Hoeven, that one of these Caroline Islanders' crania (No. 

* BarDard Davis, M.D., On Synostotic Crania among Aboriginal Eaces, 1865, 
p. 31 ; Deformatiovs of the Skull; Proceedings of Scandinavian Naturalists, 
1865, p. 5; Anthrop. Review, 1866, iv, 54; Thesaurus Craniorum, No. 817, 
p. 311. 

t Already designated Kumhecephali by Prof. Dr. D. Wilson. Prehistoric 
Annals of Scotland, p. 166, 169, 180. Blomenbach had long ago written of 
*' the narrow, and as it were, keeled bead of the Ethiopian." 

X In my former tables, I and II (Mem, Anthrop. Soc, i), the height-index 
of the long-barrow sknlls was shown to exceed this breadth-index by the 
figure 3 (A -70 and -71 to B -73 and -74). This is caused by the Yorkshire 
long-barrow skulls from Dinnington being included in those tables. The 
difference, on the large scale, is possibly more truly represented by 3, than 
by 2. 

§ The six Isle of Pines (New Caledonian) skulls in the Museum of the 
College of Surgeons (5402 A.-F.), presented by Capt. Sir Eyerard Home, at- 
tracted my attention, several years since, by their long and narrow form ; 
and I measured and took notes of them, at that time, for comparison with 
those from the long barrows. They have a mean breadth-index of '70^, and 
a height-index of '78. They are consequently much higher than our British 
hypsistenocephali, which, as a rule, are not typically such. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 61 

VII), has a height-index which only exceeds the breadth-index 
by 2 (A '72 to B •74). Again, in a few instances, the long 
barrow British skulls have a preponderance of the height-index 
which more than exceeds the average of the diflference in the 
GaroUne Islanders, and is represented by figures as high as 6, 
7, 8, and 10. Altogether, notwithstanding the varieties in the 
relations of the two indices revealed by Table I, many of them 
seem to fall into the class of hyp^i-stenocephali, the designation 
introduced by Dr. Barnard Davis for high narrow skulls, and 
which has received the sanction of Professor Welcker.* 

Professor Welcker, from an immense number of measure- 
ments, has ascertained that the average height-index of dolicho- 
cephalous skulls of all peoples is '74, and that of brachycephal- 
ous skulls •76.t It is interesting to observe that these figures 
nearly correspond with those which I obtain for our ancient 
British dolichocephali and brachycephali, and which are '73 and 
'77 respectively. But it does not hence follow that though the 
dolichocephali are absolutely lower, they are therefore truly 
low, and the brachycephali truly high skulls. On the contrary, 
Welcker shows very clearly that a skull is to be regarded 
as ^^ high when the height-diameter, ^a^ when the breadth- 
diameter, is next to the longitudinal diameter, the chief measure 
of the skull.^^ According to this view, it is height in its rela- 
tion to the breadth, not absolute height, which determines the 
claim of any series of skulls to be regarded as high or as flat. J 

* See " Skoll-heights in their relation to the breadth of skulls'*, being 
section vi of Professor Welcker's recent memoir, " Eraniologische Mittheil- 
ungen," in the Arckiv fur Anthropol., i, 152. Welcker considers that all 
skulls may be classed according to a quinary system, either as — 1 . high and 
narrow, Hypsistenocephali ; 2. high and broad, Hypaibrachycephali ; 3. middle 
high and middle broad, Orthoeephali; 4. flat and narrow, Plaiyatenocephali ; and 
6. flat and broad, Platyhrcichycephali : of these, he regards the first, middle, 
and last as typical ; the two others as exceptional forms. 

t Welcker, loc. cit., p. 153. 

X Hitherto, with Ketzius, it has been customary to judge of the height 
of skulls according to the length-height index, and not according to the 
breadth-height index, as Welcker now suggests : " Chez les dolichoccphales 
la hauteur du cr&ne ordinairemont base ; . . . chez les brachycephales la 
hauteur du cr4ne, compar^e avec la longeur, considerable" {Sekrtften, 118, 
121). I was myself in the habit of regarding platycephaly as complementary 



64 



THURNAM ON THE FORMS OP 



of our long-barrow folk far away in Africa, India, Australia, 
the Melanesian Islands, and among the Esquimaux. In the 
following comparison, most of the measurements are taken 
from the tables in Professor Welcker's late memoir ; they are 
all in millimetres : — 









Meftsorements. 




Index. 




No. of 














Skulls. 


L. 


B. 


H. 


B. 


H. 


Ancient British Long 














Barrow Skulls of Males 


48 


195 


. • • ±Ou ... 


143 


•71 ... 


•73 


CaroHne Islanders (Olias) 


7 


187 


... 128 ... 


139 


•68 ... 


. ^74 


New Caledonians - ) 
„ (Isle of Pines*) 


2 




— 


—. 


•69 ... 


. ^76 


6 


182 


... 128 ... 


142 


•70 ... 


•78 


Australians . . . 


15 


180 


... 126 ... 


135 


•70 ... 


•76 


Kaffirs . . . - 


20 




«.. — - ... 


— 


•69 ... 


•74 


Negroes . . - - 


66 


181 


... 126 ... 


132 


•70 ... 


•73 


Hindoos .... 


18 


— 


— 


— . 


•70 ... 


•75 


Esquimaux 


18 


186 


... 131 ... 


138 


•70 ... 


•74 



The following is a similar comparison for the round-barrow 
skulls : — 





No. of 
Skulls. 


Measurements. 


Index. 


r^ B. 


H. 


B. H. 


Ancient British Bound 
Barrow Skulls of Males 


56 


186 ... 149 ... 


142 


•81 ... -77 


Czechs . . . - 
Slovaks . . . . 
South Oermans 
Finns - - - . 


27 

6 

80 

11 


177 ... 145 ... 
176 ... 143 ... 
182 ... 146 ... 
179 ... 141 ... 


134 
134 
134 
134 


•82 ... ^76 
•81 ... -76 
•80 ... -74 
•79 ... -75 



It is remarkable, as regards these ancient British skulls, both 
dolichocephali and brachycephali, that though the relation of 
the breadth-index and the height-index corresponds very much 
with that in certain modem peoples (the former with uncivi- 
lised and the latter with civilised), yet the actual measurements 
are so much in favour of these early inhabitants of Britain. 
The cranial capacity, and consequently the brain-weight, of both 
peoples has been very decidedly high. ^ 

Although the long barrow skulls are for the most part high 
(hypsicephalous), yet in a certain proportion, or one-sixth of 

* The six New Caledonian skulls from the Isle of Pines, are those in the 
College of Surg^ns' Museum, referred to in a former note ; the measure- 
ments of which are my own. 



Tablb 




ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 65 

those of men (8 out of 48), the height-index falls short of the 
breadth-index. The tendency to platycephaly is both much 
more frequent and much more marked in the skulls regarded 
as female; and in more than one-third (7 out of the 19), this 
relation is observed. Indeed, the average breadth-index and 
height-index is represented by the same figure, '71 ; so that 
the female skulls cannot be called hypsicephalic at all, but are 
orthocephalic. Such exceptions to general rules, as regards 
the relative proportions of breadth and height-index, probably 
occur among the skulls of all peoples. If we may trust the 
late Professor Vrolik's measurements, opposed as they are in 
this instance to those of Professor V. der Hoeven, one of the 
female Oliaor Caroline Islander skulls (that of Nahioli) differs 
from all the rest in being platycephalic, and has a height-index 
of only •72,as opposed to a breadth-index of '73. One skull (No. 
15$, Table I) from Tilshead East, engraved and fully described 
in my former paper,* has the height- index as low as '65 ; and 
has been adduced by Professor Ecker as particularly illustra- 
tive of the flattening of the vertex shown by him to be charac- 
teristic of many female skulls. f Another female skull, also 
very remarkable for its flat vertex (H-I. *(SQ, No. 3$, Table I.), 
from Tilshead, Old Ditch, has since been added to the series in 
my collection. It is represented in Fig. I. of the woodcuts. 
Such skulls range themselves as to their form, with those of 
Hottentots and Bosjesmen,} and are Platystenocephali. 

Among the brachycephalous skulls from the round barrows, 
the general rule of the height-index being represented by a 
minus figure as compared with the breadth-index, meets with 
very few exceptions. No more than 7 of the 56 male skulls, 
and not one of the 14 female skulls deviate from this rule ; 
though the two most dolichoccphalous of the male series have the 
height-index so high (B-I. '74, H-I. '80), as to be hypsicephalic. 
The observation as to the exceptional forms of individual ex- 
amples in these two classes of ancient British skulls, is seen to 

• Mem. Anthrop. Soc, i, I'tS, PI. iii. 
t Archiv far Anthrop., i, SO. 

X The Bosjesman skull. No 5357, $, in the Royal College of Siirffoons' Mu- 
seum, has, I find, a breadth- index of '76, and a height-index of 72. 

VOL. III. F 



66 THUENAM ON THE POEMS OP 

accord with Welcker's remark on the skull-forms of diflTerent 
peoples, that '' there are, although isolated, even flat dolicho- 
cephali and high brachycephali ;" and likewise that " the 
greatest deviations of the height-index are found in the middle 
of the scale, in the orthocephali" (B -73-- 77).* 

COMPAEISON OP ANCIENT BBITISH DOLICHOCEPHALOUS SKULLS WITH 

THOSE OF MODEEN BASQUES. 

The sixty Spanish Basque skulls, from the province of Gui- 
puscoa, in the Collection of the Anthropological Society of 
Paris, were, in my former paper, compared with the long-bar- 
row skulls, t After that memoir was written, viz. in the sum- 
mer of 1864, 1 had the opportunity of again examining them, 
and on that occasion took the principal measurements of all of 
them. As M. Broca has only given us a summary, though a 
most valuable one, of the results obtained by him, it appears 
desirable to print my detailed measurements of these Basque 
skulls, which I have therefore arranged, according to their 
probable sex, and in the ascending order of their breadth- 
index, in Table III. I have not excluded the three skulls of 
children, that not having been done by M, Broca, and as it is 
obvious that their retention will not appreciably aflfect the aver- 
ages. The internal capacity given for each skull, is that 
obtained by M. Broca, and inscribed by him in cubic centi- 
metres, on each cranium. M. Broca gives '77* as the average 
breadth-index of the entire series, whilst I make it no more 
than '76. I was informed, when in Paris, that these skulls 
when exhumed, were for security deposited, for several hours, 
in a tank of water. It is hence probable that they were still 
somewhat damp, when measured by M. Broca, shortly after 
their arrival in Paris ; and that they were thoroughly dry when 
submitted to my callipers, nearly two years later. When skulls 

* Archiv fur Anthrop., i, 155, Prof. Welcker shows the reason of this ap- 
parent irregularity, when he observes that it is " in this region the two op- 
posite forms, typical dolichocephalic with their broader extreme instances^ 
consequently hypsicephali (in our Table I), and typical brachycephali, with 
their narrower offshoots, thus platycephali (in our Table II), radiate and 
mix with each other" (as to form). 

t Mem. ArUhrop. Soc, vol. i, p. 130, 160; separate copies, p. 11, 41, 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 67 

are wefc, they have a greater breadth-index than when dry; for, 
as Professor Welcker has shown, " The recent skull in drying, 
changes its form a little in a dolichocephalic direction/'* 

In the year 1866, a second series of Spanish Basque skulls, 
nineteen in number, from the same Guipuscoan cemetery, was 
added to the collection in Paris ; of which skulls, through the 
kindness of M. Broca, I was likewise enabled, in the summer 
of 1867, to take the chief measurements. I have added these 
measurements to the Table ; but, as two skulls only (Nos. 1 
and 7), seem to be those of women, I have not separated them 
according to the sexes. My measurements agree as closely 
with the average results of M. Broca, as those by two manipu- 
lators can be expected to do. The breadth-index for this series, 
according to both, is '76. This conformity gives me confidence, 
as regards the other series of sixty skulls, that my measure- 
ments are likewise correct, and that the discrepancy which has 
been pointed out is to be attributed to the different hygro- 
metric condition of the crania at the time of the two sets of 
measurements being taken. 

Taking the whole of these Basque crania, their mean breadth- 
index of "76 is one equally removed from that of typical doli- 
chocephalic and brachycephalic skull-forms ; of the former of 
which our long barrow skulls are an excellent instance, as the 
round barrow skulls are of the latter. For the former, as we 
have seen, the mean breadth-index is '71 ; for the latter, '81. 
The preponderating ovoid or orthocephalic type of the Basque 
skulls is perhaps still better brought out, on distributing them, 
according to the convenient quinary classification previously 
adopted, as follows : — 

Male. Female. Both Sexes. 

Spanish Basque Skulla. t • ^ /^— — -^ n , * ^ 

Nos. Proportions. Nos. Proportions. Nos. Proportions. 

I. DOLICHOCEPHALI. ». ( — '70) 

Subdolichocephali. ) (-71— -73) 6 ... 10*5 6 ... 22-8 11 13-8 
II. Orthocephali. (-74— -76) 24 ... 421 9 ... 409 33 418 

SubbrachycephaU. ) (-77— -79) 23 ... 40-4 7 ... 318 30 38- 



) (-77— • 
)(-80-- 



in. Brachtcephali. )(-80--83) 4 ... 7- 1 ... 4-5 5 6*4 

57 100- 22 100- 79 100 

* Wachsihum und Bau, p, 139. 

+ Bull, de la Soc. d*Anthrop., second series, t. i, p. 470; t. ii, p. 10.30. 

p2 



68 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

This table stould be compared with that at page 50, for the 
round-barrow skulls, and that at page 56, for the long«barrow 
ones. An examination of the three shows how remarkably 
they differ ; the long and round-barrow skulls crowding around 
the high and the low figures respectively, while the Basques 
gravitate almosf entirely to the intermediate and central figures. 
But, though not typically dolichocephalic, the Basque crania, 
as compared with those of Europe generally, and especially 
with those of France, are relatively dolichocephahc ; and no- 
thing is more striking than the very small proportion of 
brachycephalous skuUs which are found in the series. Accord- 
ing to the high authority of Professor Virchow, two at least of 
the brachycephalous skulls of the series owe their brachy- 
cephaly to synostosis of the transverse sutures.* They are 
probably the skulls of a decidedly mixed, though originally 
dolichocephalic, people ; the original type having been modified 
by a moderate brachycephalous infusion, continued through 
many generations. 

It has already been shown from my measurements, {ante 
p. 63), that, as in other modem Europeans, the mean vertical 
diameter of these Basque skuUs falls decidedly below the trans- 
verse. The reverse, as I have shown, is the case in the long- 
barrow dolichocephali.* 

I still adhere to the opinion that the tendency to a dolicepha- 
lous type in the Basques is derived from the ancient Iberians ; 
and that the brachycephalous admixture is GauUsh. More 
evidence as to this, it is to be hoped, may be derived from 



* " Two of the Basque skulls belonging to the Anthropological Society of 
Paris, have been described as unusually brachycephalic ; but it will be found 
that they both exhibit a premature ossification of the transverse sutures. 
The Basque skull is eminently dolichocephalic, and in this respect it re- 
sembles the ancient crania which are found in the oldest tumuli of North- 
eastern Germany." — Prof. Virchow, at " The Anthropological Congress of 
Paris of 1867," Med. Times and Gazette, 7th March, 1868. 

t M. Broca's vertical diameter is a hasilo-hregmatic one, and differs entirely 
from that generally employed by cianioscopists. My " greatest-height" is 
taken, as usual, between the plain of the foramen magnum and the bregma, 
or vertex, of the skull, a little behind the point of junction between the 
sagittal and coronal sutures. 



ANCIENT BEITISH SKULLS. 69 

researches conducted by the members of the Anthropological 
Society of Madrid ; from whom no contributions would be 
more acceptable than such as might clearly reveal to us the 
ancient and modern cranial types, for diiferent parts of the 
Iberian Peninsula. 

Our views as to the Spanish Basque skulls, derive much sup- 
port from all I have yet been able to learn, respecting the 
series of 57 French Basque skulls, from St. Jeande Luz, added 
during the past autumn, 1 867, to the collection of the Anthro- 
pological Society of Paris, through the enterprise of M. Broca. 
These crania, it is stated, show a very much greater tendency 
to the brachycephalous typo, than do those of the Spanish 
Basques. This, if the views here advocated bo coiTOct, was to 
have been expected in the descendants of an Iberian people, 
settled in a Transpyrennean country, in the midst of, and sur- 
rounded by, Gaulish tribes. f 

Different Characters of the Pace in the Ancient 
British Dolichocephali and Brachtcephau. 

It is unnecessary to repeat here, what I have before said as 
to the contrasted characters of the face, in the two classes of 
ancient British skulls.* I must, however, point out, that 
though in our dolichocephaH of the long barrows the cranium 
proper corresponds so much in form with that of the Negroes, 
and Melanesian Islanders, the face-cranium is remarkably and 
altogether different, and so proves the absence of any genetic 
relationship. There is in particular none of the prognathism, 
exaggerated malar breadth, or great width of the nasal open- 
ings, which give an air of savageness and ferocity to the skulls 
of the New Caledonians and Carohne Islanders ; but the very 
reverse of all these. They are, indeed, more orthognathic 
even than many modern Europeans, and the facial characters 
generally are mild, and without exaggerated development in 
any one direction. The contrary is the case in the brachy- 
cephalous skulls from the round barrows, to which the very 
large and prominent facial bones give a claim to be regarded 

• Mem. Anthrop. Soc, i, 150-154. 

t Since the above wa3 written, an elaborate description of these French 
Basque skulls has been given by M. Broca.— J5uil. de la Soc. d*Anihrop., s. s. 
t. iii, p. 43-101. 



70 THURNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

as more or less prognathic^ and preeminently macrognathic. 
The face in the dolichocephalic races of Europe is defined, by 
M. Pruner Bey, as oval, and in the brachycephalic, as angula/r 
or lozenge-shaped. These definitions may be accepted as 
also applicable to our ancient British long-heads and round- 
heads ; though they scarcely succeed in expressing the more 
striking facial characteristics of these crania. 

Premature Obliteration of the Sutures in the Ancient 

British Dolichocephalic Skulls. 

The great tendency to obliteration of the sutures, before 
observed in the long barrow skulls,t is fully confirmed by ob- 
servation on the additional examples obtained in the excava- 
tions of the two past years. The sutures are seen to be oblite- 
rated disproportionately to the apparent age, as judged of by 
the degree of dental attrition and other circumstances. The 
sagittal suture especially is often efiaced, sometimes, as would 
appear, by infantile, at others by premature senile, obliteration. 
At times, the sagittal suture is almost entirely obliterated, whilst 
the coronal and lambdoid are open ; but, in an equal number of 
instances, the sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid are all equally 
efiaced. The dolichocephaly, therefore, of these skulls can- 
not be regarded as the efiect of synostosis; but, on the 
contrary, the dolichocephaly and tendency to synostosis of the 
parietals are both race-characters ; and the latter is more pro- 
bably an efiect of dolichocephaly than its cause. As I have 
previously shown, " it is not improbable that in dolichocephal- 
ous peoples the great longitudinal sagittal suture (in the same 
way, though in a much less degree than the frontal), may be 
more prone to obliteration than the transverse sutures, in con- 
sequence of the suture margins being more early brought into 
apposition, from the growth of the brain being more active in 
the longitudinal direction than in the transverse.^^* 

Not only have no facts adverse to this view been brought to 

• Mem. Anthrop. Soc , i, 154-155. " On Synostosis of the Cranial Bones, 
especially the Parietals, in one class of Ancient British and A^frican Skulls." 
—Nalural History Review, No. 18, 1865, p. 242. 

t Nat, Hist, Rev., I, c, p. 246 (separate copies, p. 5). • 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 71 

lights but one recently acquired skuU is particularly valuable^ 
as affording strong additional proof of its accuracy. It is that 
of a young woman, of perhaps eighteen years of age, and was 
obtained from the long barrow of Norton Bavant. The spheno- 
basilar symphysis is still open. The skull (No. 251 of my Col- 
lection), is of markedly sub-scaphocephalic form, and presents 
likewise a slight grade of klinocephaly. The breadth-index is 
not more than '64, and it is, with one exception, the narrowest 
or most dolichocephalic skull I have yet obtained from the 
long barrows. It is not possible, in this instance, for any one to 
attribute the dolichocephaly to synostosis. Every suture, lon-gi^ 
tvdinal as well as tranverse, is seen to he open, both on the inner 
and outer surface of the skull. In regard to the question be- 
fore us, this cranium constitutes a crucial instance, entirely 
opposed to the view of the dolichocephaly of these skulls being 
caused by synostosis. Had the individual lived to the period 
of middle age, it is very possible, nay probable, that premature 
senile obliteration of the sutures might have taken place ; but 
if so, it is clear that this would have been an effect of doli- 
chocephaly, and in no degree whatever its cause. It is just 
such immature skulls as that before us, and as that previously 
referred to from the chambered long barrow at Uley,* which 
are so extremely valuable, as enabling us to form a just estimate 
of the probable influence of synostosis in modifying the form 
of the skull. 

Difference of Stature in the Ancient British Dolicho- 

CEPHALI AND BrACHYCEPHALI. 

In the former paper, f I deduced the stature of the two 
peoples whose cranial remains have now been compared, from 
ten femora of men from long barrows, and from ten others from 
round barrows ; and I there showed that the probable mean 



* Ihid.t p. 263 (p. 24). The skull, No. 251, described in the text, and a wood- 
cut of which is also given (see fig. 3), though much more dolichocephalic, is very 
similar, in form and proportions, to the remarkable cranium, perhaps of a 
New Caledonian, described and figured by Professor Huxley, and in which, 
with a breadth-index of '73 (" '729"), the sagittal and other sutures are dis- 
tinctly open. See Journal of Physiolo^, vol. i, p. 60, Nov. 1866. 

t Mem. Anihrop. Soc, i, 159. 



72 THURNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

height, as calculated from the length of the thigh bones, was 
5 feet 5 inches for the dolichocephalous Britons of the stone 
age; and 5 feet 9 inches for the brachycephalous Britons of the 
bronze age ; being a difference of no less than 4 inches, or 
10*16 centimetres. Since that time, I have collected many 
additional observations of the length of the thigh bones from 
primary interments in long barrows. I have now altogether 
twenty-five measurements, all taken by myself, representing 
an equal number of separate male skeletons, fourteen being 
from the chambered, and eleven from the simple or unchambered, 
barrows.* In Tables I and II of Crania Britannicayf there are 
twenty-seven measurements of thigh bones from the round 
barrows, twelve being of skeletons, the skulls of which are 
engraved and described in that work. Of these twelve, five 
were measured by myself, and seven by Dr. J. Barnard Davis. 
The other fifteen measurements are of femora, from the round 
barrows of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, still preserved in the 
Bateman Collection, and were taken either by Mr. Bateroan 
or by Dr. Davis. On calculating the mean length of the 
twenty-five femora from the long barrows, I find this to be 
exactly 18 inches, or 45*7 centimetre8,t and that of the twenty- 
seven femora from the round barrows to be 18'8 inches, or 
47*75 centimetres. t 

If, with these data, we accept Professor Humphry's probable 
estimate, that the average length of the thigh bone is as 27*5 
to the stature represented by 100, we shall find that the mean 
stature of the dolichocephalic men of the long barrows was 

* The fourteen femora, from the chambered long barrows of Gloucester- 
shire and North Wilts, average 17*9, the eleven from the simple long 
barrows of South Wilts, 18*2 inches ; the difference being no more than 0*3 
inch, or 7*4 millimetres. Nothing can be inferred from so slight a dis- 
crepancy. 

t Crania Britaunica, p. 240*245. 

X The twelve femora, from the round barrows of England, measurements 
of which are given, Cran. Brit., Table I, have an average length of 19*18 in.; 
and the fifteen, from the round barrows of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, in 
Cran. Brit., Table II, an average of 18*56 inches, or more than half an inch 
(•57 in.) less. The first series may be regarded as consisting of picked in- 
stances, and may have included the remains of a greater number of chieftains 
remarkable for their stature. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 73 

5 feet 5*4 inches, or 1.661 metre, and that of the brachycephal- 
ous men of the round barrows 5 feet 8*4 inches, or 1*737 metre. 
The excess of stature, in favour of the brachycephalous Britons, 
is thus found to amount to 3 inches, or 7*6 centimetres. The 
diflTerence is not quite so great as that formerly deduced from 
more limited data, but is amply sufficient to support the in- 
ference of a difference of race being implied by so considerable 
a difference in stature. 

Anchylosis op Cervical and Dorsal Vertebre in Ancient 

British Douchocephali. 

A peculiarity, which I have frequently noticed in the human 
remains from the long barrows, may be briefly referred to. 
This consists in an a];ichylo8ed condition of two or more of the 
cervical, or upper dorsal, vertebrae. " Two dorsal vertebrse, 
feebly united by anchylosis," were obtained from the chambered 
long barrow at Uley, and are preserved in the Museum at 
Guy^s Hospital ;* and when this tumulus was re-opened in 1854, 
I found, in searching among the debris of human remains, in 
the chambers, two other upper dorsal vertebrae united in the 
same way. The same condition was observed in the remains 
sent to me from the neighbouring chambered tumulus at 
Nympsfield ; and in those likewise from Charlton Abbots ; in 
the last of which, two of the lower cervical vertebrae were found 
anchylosed. Again, when the Rodmarton chambered barrow 
was opened, three, if not four, cervical vertebrae, firmly soldered 
together into one piece, were picked out of the remains. I 
have found the same thing in the un chambered long barrows 
of South Wilts; and have one remarkable specimen from that 
at Fyfield, in which the vertebra dentata and the third vertebra 
of the neck are fused together into a single bone.f 

I would not assert that this morbid condition is confined to 
remains from the long barrows. It is, however, certainly not 
of rare occurrence; whilst it is very uncommon and almost 
unknown, so far as my experience extends, in the round bar- 
rows. It hence seems to be indicative of some peculiarity in 

* Catalogue, No. 3202. 

t Cran, Brit., PL 5, xxiv, p. 3. PL 59, xxvii, p. 3. Mem. Anthrop. Soc, i, 476. 



74 THUBKAM ON THE FOBMS OF 

the mode of life of the people in whose remains it is observed. 
That many of the peoples of Northern Europe were at one time 
partially i/roglodytic, and occupied subterranean cave-dwel- 
lings, at least during the winter, we have abundant testimony. 
Diodorus tells us that the Britons had subterranean reposi- 
tories for their com.* Tacitus says the same of the ancient 
Germans; and adds that they took up their abode in them 
during the cold of winter :t the same may have been true of 
the Britons. It is certain that if the entrances to these dwel- 
lings of the living were as narrow and contracted as in those 
which remain to us of the dead, they could only have been 
entered on all-fours, and that not without risk of injury. Of 
the subterranean dwellings and granaries of some of the British 
tribes, we have the probable remains in» the weems and Picts- 
liouses of Scotland, and in more or less analogous structures 
found both in Cornwall and Ireland. The entrances to the 
Scotch weems and earth houses is generally by a long passage, 
which is often less than two feet wide and three feet high.f 
It is clear that in the entrance to, and exit from, dwellings thus 
constructed, the head and neck would be very much exposed 
to violent concussions against the sides and roofs of these narrow 
passages and doorways ; and it is not, perhaps, improbable that 
anchylosis of the vertebrae may have resulted from such violence. 
It would be desirable to ascertain whether our mining popula- 
tion, whose labours are carried on in low, narrow, and dark 
galleries and chambers, are not liable to injuries of the neck, 
resulting in vertebral anchylosis such as that of these ancient 
Britons. 



• Diod. Sic, V, 21. 

t Tacitus, Qermania, 16, " Subterranei epecus, suffugium hiemi." See, 
also, what Virgil says of other northern nations, Oeorgic, iii, 376. The his- 
torical notices of subterranean dwellings in Britain and in the rest of Eu- 
rope, of necessity refer to the bronze, if not even to the iron, period. The 
discoveries, however, in the cave-dwellings of central France, and the com- 
parison of the probable habits of the people by whom they were inhabited, 
with those of the Esquimaux, show that such dwellings and such a mode of 
life were, in all likelihood, much more common in the stone period than in 
the succeeding ones. 

X Archasologia, xxxiv, 127. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 75 

SuMMAEY OP Inferences. 

It will be convenient to conclude this paper witt a summary, 
in wliicli may be arranged the principal inferences and conclu- 
sions to be deduced from it, and from my preceding memoir, 
under fourteen different heads. 

I. The skulls from the primary interments in the long ha/r- 
rotes of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, and, it is believed, ot 
South Britain in general, are of a strongly-marked dolicho- 
cephalic type, having a mean breadth-index of "71; which is 
much lower than that of any modem European people. No 
brachycephalic skull, with a breadth-index of '80, or upwards, 
has been obtained from the primary interments in these bar- 
rows. No objects of metal or of decorated pottery are known 
to have been found with these interments, but only those of 
stone, bone, or horn. We refer, therefore, these long barrows 
to the stone period, 

II. The skulls from the primary interments in the round 
harrows of the same districts, and, it is believed, of South 
Britain in general, are of more or less brachycephalous pro- 
portions, having a mean breadth-index of '81; much higher 
than that now found in the population of any part of England and 
Wales.* Objects of bronze, and, very rarely of iron, and richly- 
decorated pottery are found in them, with or without objects of 
stone. These round barrows, therefore, we refer to the bronze 
period, and to that of bronze and iron transition. 

III. The skulls from secondary interments in the upper 
strata of the long barrows are, in most cases, of similar brachy- 
cephalous proportions with those from the primary interments 
in the round barrows. They have, in a few instances, been 
found in connection with decorated British pottery, altogether 
identical with that of the round barrows. They are doubtless 
the remains of the same people as that by whom the circular 
barrows were erected; and for all intents and purposes they 
may be regarded as round-barrow skulls. 

IV. It has never been pretended that there is any necessary 

* See table by Dr. Beddoe, Mem. Anlhrop. Soc, ii, 350. 



76 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OP 

connection between long skulls and long barrows, or round 
skulls and round barrows; and the dolichocephalic people, 
who, in this part of England, buried in long barrows, may else- 
where have erected circular tumuli over their dead. The im- 
portant question does not regard the form of their tombs, so 
much as the sequence of the two peoples in the order of time 
and civilization. As to this, it is contended that the long-heads 
were the true primeval race ; and that they were succeeded by 
a taller, more powerful, and more civilised people, who gra- 
dually extended themselves and became dominant, through a 
groat part, perhaps nearly the whole, of the island. 

V. These British dolichocephali, or long-heads, are the 
earliest people whose sepulchral monuments can be shown to 
remain to us. The exploration of their tombs— the long bar- 
rows — shows that they buried their dead entire, and almost 
always without cremation ; that they possessed herds of small, 
short-horned oxen, the Bos longifrons or Bos brachyceros, and 
that they subsisted largely on the chase of the red deer, and 
wild boar ; that some of their customs were barbarous in the 
extreme; and in particular that, if not addicted to anthro- 
pophagism, they, at least, sacrificed many human victims, whose 
cleft skulls and half-charred bones are found in their tombs. 

VI. The brachycephalous people, or round -heads, who 
buried in the round barrows, were more civilized than the 
dolichocephali, and may be inferred to have brought with them 
the more common use, if not the first knowledge, of bronze. 
The exploration of their tombs shows that burning the dead 
was with them the prevailing and fashionable, though not ex- 
clusive, mode of burial ; and the appearances are consistent 
with what we are told of the funerals of the Gauls (their sup- 
posed congeners) by Caesar and Pomponius Mela. From the 
same source, or the appearances in their tombs, we should 
infer that they had advanced from the nomadic, pastoral, and 
hunting condition, to a more settled agricultural stage of cul- 
ture ; and that, if they had not altogether abandoned the more 
barbarous customs of their ancestors, and in particular that of 
human sacrifice (which all history tells us was, at one time, 
everywhere prevalent), they had, at least, restricted them within 
narrow limits. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 77 

VII. There is no proof, nor is it in the least probable, that 
the brachycephalic extirpated the earlier dolichocephalic people. 
It is far more likely that they reduced them to slavery, or 
drove them, in part, into the interior and western parts of the 
island. When once snbdued to obedience, they may have lived 
with them on friendly terms, and even mingled with them in 
domestic relations. In some districts, the brachycephali would 
probably entirely replace the earlier race ; whilst in others, the 
dolichocephaU would live on under the supremacy of their more 
powerfiil neighbours. A mingling of the remains of the two 
peoples in their later tombs must almost certainly have ensued. 

VIII. The two races, the existence of which is made known 
to us by researches in the tumuli, are most naturally iden- 
tified with the two peoples, strongly contrasted in their man- 
ners, whom Cassar describes in well known passages of the 
12th and 14th chapters of the 5th book of his Commentaries.* 
According to this, the short or round-heads of the bronze 
period are the same as the agricultural people of the maritime 
districts, who are said by Caesar to have migrated from Belgic 
Gaul ; and the long-headed people of the stone period are the 
pastoral and less-civilized people of the interior, reputed abori- 
ginal, and who, prior to the coming of the others — as to which 
event there is no certain note of time — must have occupied, and 
been dominant in, the maritime parts, as well as in the interior 
of the island. 

IX. The origin and ethnic aflBnities of these two peoples can 
only be discussed conjecturally and tentatively in the present 
state of science. An often-quoted passage in the Agricola of 
Tacitus, seems, however, to indicate part of the probable 
solution. t The great Roman historian points out, first, the 
dark complexion and curly hair of the western tribe of the 
Silures ; and secondly, the similarity of the appearance of the 



* Qaoted antea, p. 43, note. 

t Tacitus, Agric.y xi. " Silurum colorati vultus, torti plerumquo crines 
[Jomandes adds 'et nigri'], et posita contra Hispania. Iberos veteres tra- 
jecisse easqne sedes occupasse, fidem faciunt. Proximi Gallis et similes 
sunt • • ♦ * In universum tamen lostimanti Gallos vicinum solum occu- 
passe credibile est." 



78 THUBNAM ON THE FORMS OF 

Southern Britons to their neighbours in Gaul. And he adduces 
the very obvious argument from these diflferences of physio- 
gnomy and appearance, that the Silures were descended from 
the Iberians of Spain, whilst the Southern and South-eastern 
Britons were derived from the people of the opposite coast of 
Gaul. As evidence of this last position, Tacitus refers to the 
similarity of the religion, language, and moral and mental 
temperament of the Britons and Gauls. It is not improbable 
that in this passage the Silures are named Kai^ ^^oyrjv, as a 
principal tribe, and as representative of others not, like them- 
selves, confined to the extreme west of the island. By Caesar, 
however, who knew nothing of the west of Britain, the Silures 
would be regarded as interiores, just as the regions producing 
tin were, and termed by him mediterranei. The proximi Oallis 
of Tacitus are clearly the same people as those of the maritima 
pars of Caesar. 

X. The geographer, Strabo, is another important witness 
for a great diflference in the features and personal character- 
istics of the Iberians and GbuIs. In the course of his fourth 
book, he twice tells us that the Iberians diflTered entirely in 
their bodily conformation from the Guuls, of both " Celtica^' 
and '^Belgica,'^ who, he expressly says, participated in the 
common Gaulish physiognomy.* It is evident that, if we in- 
terpret this observation of Strabo^s by the light of that just 
quoted from Tacitus, we must picture the Iberians as a swarthy 
or melanous people, with dark complexion and curly dark hair. 
They would thus be strongly contrasted with the GbuIs, who, 
by the classical writers, are uniformly represented as fair, or 
xanthoxia, and, moreover, as of tall stature. Compared with 
the Gauls, the Iberians, like other southern Europeans, were 
probably a people of short stature. We derive no light from 
the remains in the barrows as to the colour of the hair and the 
complexion of those buried in them ; but they do enable us 
to ascertain a diflference of height. The measurement of the 
skeletons, and especially of the thigh-bones, from the long 
barrows and the round barrows respectively, clearly demonstrate 

• Strabo, iv, 1, § i; iv, 2, § i. 



ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 79 

that the dolichocephali of the former^ as compared with the bra- 
chycephali of the latter, were a people of short stature. The 
mean height, as calcalated from the measurement of 52 male 
skeletons or femora, was about five feet six inches in the one, 
and five feet nine inches in the other ; the average difference 
being no less than three inches. 

XI. The cranial type of the ancient Iberians has not yet 
been so conclusively ascertained as is to be desired. But the 
examination of the large series of skulls of modern Spanish 
Basques at Paris, as well as of such Spanish and Portuguese 
skulls as exist in English and Dutch collections, altogether 
justifies the presumption that the Iberians of antiquity were a 
decidedly dolichocephalous people. 

XII. The British brachycephali of the bronze period are to 
be regarded as an offshoot, through the Belgic Gauls, from 
the great brachycephalous stock of Central and North-eastern 
Europe and Asia; in all the countries of which — France, Switzer- 
land, South Germany, Bohemia, Poland, Russia, and Finland — 
the broad and short cranial type is still the prevailing one. 

The earlier British dolichocephali of the stone period were, 
we think, either derived from the ancient Iberians, or from a 
common source with that people. Not only was Spain peopled 
by the Iberian race, but even, in historical times, a considerable 
part of Gaul ; and there is no improbability in the conclusion 
of its having occupied the British Islands likewise. 

XTII. As to the origin of the Iberians themselves, it is better to 
confess our ignorance than to indulge in premature speculations. 
Some, as Professor Vogt, would bring them from America by 
way of a lost Atlantis, or '^ connecting land between Florida 
and our own continent, which, in the middle tertiary (miocene) 
period, was still above the water.^' Others, as M. Broca, search 
for them in Northern Africa ; others, in the more or less far 
East ; whilst Professor Huxley finds in their crania, as in those 
of the other dolichocephali of Western Europe, Australian 
afiinities, though without deciding on ^^ the ethnological value 
of the osteological resemblance." 

XIV. In conclusion, — I am content with having established, 
from archaeological and osteological data, at least to my own sa- 



80 THUBNAM ON ANCIENT BRITISH SKULLS. 

tisfaction, the existence, in this Island of the West, of two dis- 
tinct races in pre-Roman times. One of these, I may repeat, 
which had lost its supremacy, at least in the south of the island, 
being the earUer and dolichocephalic, was probably Iberic ; the 
other, being the later and brachycephalic, was probably Gaulish 
or, in other words, Belgic. 



81 



rV. — Elasticity of Animal Type, By C. W. Dbvis, B.A., 

F.A.S.L. 

There are salient facts in the Natural History of Man which, 
to most observers, seem to belong to man^s nature alone ; or, 
at least, to be there comprehended in a measure so superlative, 
as to confer upon them the rank of human peculiarities. Man, 
it is said, is especially characterised by these, among his other 
faculties — a power of perfect adaptation to climatic changes, 
and, therefore, of unlimited expansibility over the earth's sur- 
face, and, as a sequent of both, corresponding inconstancy of 
form, physical and mental ; further, by a normal tendency 
to find his highest level under artificial conditions of life. 
Though it is pretty certain that more than one of these so- 
called characteristics have been greatly exaggerated by con- 
troversialists, still there is little doubt that they are possessed 
by man in no little strength. There is, indeed, reason to think 
that the undeniable existence of these faculties has exercised 
more than its due influence over the formation of even scientific 
opinion as to man's zoological status. In the early modem 
period of physiological study, research was almost exclusively 
confined to the human frame ; and its deductions were unaided 
by a knowledge of the range and convertibility of the physical 
forces. To this era is to be attributed the origin of a hypo- 
thesis of life which clings tenaciously to the minds of the 
passing generation, especially to those of a metaphysical com- 
plexion. In accordance with the mental custom of exalting all 
unknown causes to supernatural dignity, one of the first results 
of observation upon organic operations, was the invention of a 
special commissioner, a deus in machind, charged by the First 
Cause with the general superintendence of the body — elabo- 
rating its structures, energising its organs^ repairing its in- 
juries, resisting its proneness to decomposition, and acting 
throughout, not merely irrespective of, but in direct antagonism 

VOL. III. G 



82 DEVJS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 

to the forces whicli regulate inorganic phenomena. For this 
hypothetical creation various names have been devised by the 
fancy and requirements of believers, from the " animating 
principle '^ (one to each animal form) of Aristotle, reproduced 
in the " vital forms'' of the present Scotch school, to the " or- 
ganic principle,'' '^ nisus formativus," '' vis medicatrix naturaB," 
of latter-day observers, and the '^ vital spark" and "living 
soul" of the rhapsodist. The presence of such a delegate being 
assumed, it was easy, perhaps necessary, to suppose that any 
constitutional peculiarities observable amongst animals must 
be due to the inherent capacities of their " living principles." 
The obvious existence of a natural scale of organisation seems 
to have suggested the idea that the gradual complication and 
intensification of the bodily functions indicate a corresponding 
exaltation of the immaterial " principle," to which they are sub- 
servient. But as these manifestations of organic activity show 
that the whole animal becomes more thoroughly independent 
of external conditions, and, consequently, more at liberty to 
amplify the special characters of its organism, it was concluded 
that in an inferior susceptibility in the individual to injury from 
change of circumstances, and greater capacity in the species to 
spread out in form or locality, we have evidence of " vital prin- 
ciples" of a superior nature. Let us further assume that the 
human group of animals exhibits in these respects, that is, in 
its tolerance of physical change, and in the great variety of 
form which it presents, a positive and inexplicable contrast to 
the absence of similar characteristics elsewhere; and let us 
attribute the supposed fact without reserve to the pre-eminence 
in man of the " psychovital element," and we are once more led 
to that impassable gulf between man and beast in which so 
many have lost their tempers. If, however, it should be found, 
on examination, that these, together with depending characters, 
are so far from being peculiar to man, that they exist in a high 
degree of perfection among lower animals, we shall rather be 
disposed to refer them to some intelligible law of organisation 
affecting animals of very different grades alike. Whatever the 
nature of the organising force, whether autocratic, or merely 
one of the modifications of the general motor, its most per- 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 83 

ceptible result is diflferentiation of form and constitution : in 
view of the correlation of animal life with its means of susten- 
tation, perhaps we may say it is the most inevitable result. 
Among the invertebrates dissimilarity of form is chiefly specific. 
We are overwhelmed by the almost incalculable multitude of 
species ; we find it diflScult, for the most part, to distinguish 
between individuals. In the higher classes, especially the 
Haematotherma, the species are comparatively few ; individual 
differences are much more remarkable. Taking the mammalia 
as a class, it is easily observable that individual dissimilarity is 
by no means constant in its value ; that in some orders and 
families it is much more obvious than in others; and that^ 
while this is true of«animals in their natural state, the tendency 
to differentiation is increased under artificial influences, a horse 
or a dog being scarcely less individualised than a member of 
the human group. In the case of man, this diversity, which 
so peremptorily arrests the attention, has been referred to 
many causes, reasonable or amusing, as authorities varied. 
Among the agencies producing variation, a prominent place 
has justly been assigned by Gliddon and others to hybridisation ; 
and there are considerations suggested by this faculty which 
may justify us in making it a centre-point round which to group 
the other characters which await review. 

Although there are, probably, few men of science with whom 
the idea lingers that fertile interbreeding demonstrates identity 
of species, it is, notwithstanding, felt by many that the great 
power of interproduction probably possessed by many forms of 
mankind, obstructs the reception of the theory of multiple 
species ; and, though the plurality of human origin, towards 
which so many lines of proof converge, neither affirms nor 
denies the doctrine of specific unity, the opponents of the 
former lean with misplaced confidence upon hybridity as a test 
of the latter. As a natural consequence, human hybridibility 
has been alternately vaunted and depreciated by conflicting 
expositors of man's origin and specific value. Disputants have 
made frequent appeals to zoology, without, however, eliciting 
any very satisfactory results ; perhaps because the facts ad- 
duced have been chiefly derived from instances of intermixture 

g2 



84 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

afforded by a few of the domesticated animals. Not impro- 
bably, a wider survey and stricter analysis of the phenomena 
of hybridisation may eventually result in the discovery that 
some general relation in respect to it exists between various 
groups of animals ; and further, that such a relation may dis- 
tinctly include man within its terms. It is very frequently 
supposed, either that animals in their natural state afford no 
indications whatever of hybridising propensities, these being 
assumed to be the abnormal effects of the artificial conditions 
to which they are subjected by their association with man, or 
that the inclination and the power subsist at a low and dead 
level. It is true that the greater number of observed instances 
of fertile intermixture happen in domesticalrion, and necessarily 
so ; but we are by no means without evidence that the arrange- 
ments of the experimentalist, though favourable, are not 
essential to hybriSity. Intermixture, again, does undoubtedly 
takes place more or less completely in a great variety of 
animals ; moderate inquiry, however, will convince the zoologist 
that it occurs in much greater proportion and strength in some 
groups than in others. As this fact forms the pivot on which 
the present inquiry turns, it will be necessary to substantiate 
it by a detailed arrangement of the instances of hybridisation 
commonly known. 

In all discussions of this question, it is necessary to bear in 
mind that hybridity, taken as an index of specific value, is, in 
every case, a varying quantity, depending partly on the degree 
of affinity, whether proximate, or more remote of the species in 
question, and partly on the degree of hybridibility mutually 
possessed by them. This may rise to its perfection in the 
capacity to produce offspring indefinitely fruitful among them- 
selves, sink to its zero in the mere impulse to coition, or exist 
in intermediate grades. The offspring may bo fertile only with 
the parent stocks ; or two species not known to hybridise infer 
8Py may do so by the medium of a third, whose product from 
each of the others, propagate between themselves ; or the off- 
spring of two species may be fertile with a third ; or finally, 
they may be altogether infertile. Although our interest is 
especially excited by examples of the higher grades, even the 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 



85 



lowest of them is of considerable value ; for if largely yielded 
by many different species of a family, it gives an important in- 
dication of the existence of a natural disposition to intermixture, 
and suggests an investigation into the causes which may have 
led to an arrest of hybridibility at this stage. 

Confining our attention to the division of animals with which 
man is more immediately associated, the warm-blooded verte- 
brates, and glancing over these forms of life from the lowest of 
them upwards, the group which first comes under notice is that 
of the anserine birds. Until we arrive at the geese and ducks, 
no evidence of prevalent hybridisation occurs in any aggregate 
of species; in this, the indications are unmistakeable. The 
following list, capable, no doubt, of being increased by many 
readers, shows the extent to which this family of birds is known 
to interbreed : — 



The common goose breeds with the 



** »> 


» 


)» 


»» »f 


»> 


f* 


»» »» 


>» 


» 


>» >» 


f* 


9t 


9» »f 


9> 


» 


» »> 


9> 


>» 


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it 


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The Egyptian goose 


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The Canada goose 


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The Bean goose 


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39 


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The Bernicle goose 


99 


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Mule from Egyptian & Canada Geese, do. 
The Common duck breeds with the 





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99 




»* 




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99 i 




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99 




9f i 




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Hoopet swan. 
Chinese goose. 
Canada goose. 
Bernicle goose. 
White-fronted goose. 
Bean goose. 
Wild grey lag goose. 
Knobbed goose. 
Chinese goose. 
Spur-winged goose. 
Common duck. 
Common goose. 
Chinese goose. 
Bernicle goose. 
Pink-footed goose. 
Common goose. 
Common goose. 
Canada goose. 
White-fronted goose. 
Pintail duck. 
Common duck. 
Muscovy duck. 
Sheldrake. 
Pintail. 
Widgeon. 
Teal. 

Indian black duck. 
Egyptian goose. 



86 



DEYIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 



The Pintail Duck breeds with the 



>» 



»» 



»$ 



»$ 



»» 



» 



The Shoveller Duck 
The Scaup Duck 

>9 99 

The Ferruginous Duck 

»» 99 

The Common Swan 



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99 



9* 



ff 



4f 



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99 



99 



99 



9» 



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» 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



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99 



f> 



f> 



99 



99 



Common duck. 
Widgeon. 
Scaup. 

Bemide goose. 
Garganey teal. 
Pochard. 
Pintail. 
Pochard. 
Tufted duck. 
Polish swan. 
Black swan. 
Common goose. 



An analysis of this list shows that of the comparatively few 
species which ordinarily come under observation, no fewer than 
28 breed together to an extent varying from one to sevren 
species ; and that the intermixture is not confined within 
generic limits, but is exemplified between swans and geese, 
geese and ducks. Passing on, no example of hybridity causes 
us to halt before we reach the rasorial tribes. Among these, 
a large group, containing the pheasants, partridges, fowls, and 
grouse, give unequivocal evidence that they are naturally dis- 
posed to intermixture. We find that, — 

The Common Pheasant breeds with the King-necked pheasant. 



>t 



*> 



» 



99 



99 



» 



>f 



99 



99 



f> 



99 



39 



93 >t 

The Black Grouse 

93 *> 

The Common Fowl 



>* 



33 



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99 



» 



99 



33 



33 



33 



f» 



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» 



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f> 



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33 



33 



Qolden pheasant. 

Silver pheasant. 

Black grouse. 

Guinea-fowl. 

Turkey. 

Fowls of various kinds. 

Pheasant. 

Capercailzee. 

Pheasant. 

Capercailzee. 

Partridge. 



Fowls of all species breed one with another. The ten species 
here named are, therefore, exclusive of the several distinct 
species of fowls, whose capacity for prolific interbreeding has 
stocked our poultry-yards with mongrels innumerable ; were 
these enumerated, the number would be raised to about 
eighteen. As the list includes by far the greater number of 
the species of this family familiarly known to us, it is clear that 
a strong, and in many instances, an effectual tendency to com- 

ixture must be attributed to the group. 



DEVI8 ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 87 

After a wide interval we meet with a similar disposition dis- 
played in a family of the insessorial birds, the finches. Taking 
ike canary as a centre, and Bechstein as an authority, confirmed, 
however, by the experience of breeders, we find this bird com- 
monly hybridising with its kindred, the goldfinch, greenfinch, sis- 
kin, linnet, sparrow, bullfinch, &c. Whether the mules from the 
last-aamed finch are prolific intei' se, is yet undecided ; with re- 
spect to the rest such appears to be the case to a greater or less 
extent, and there is reason to believe that the prolificacy is pro- 
portionate to the aflSnity of the species associated, and obtains 
both between the progeny of several stocks and that of any one 
stock with the canary. Not only, then, do these finches hybridise 
with tke canary, but, through the ofispring so obtained, with 
each other. Their direct hybridibility is instanced in the case 
of an intermixture of the wild goldfinch and greenfinch. Al- 
though a few remarkable instances of natural hybridisation 
have been observed to take place between birds belonging to 
other groups, the song-thrush having been known to breed, in 
three instances, with the blackbird, and in one of them for 
successive years, and the hooded and common crow being fre- 
quently thus associated, there does not appear to be another 
example of an inclination to or capacity for intermixture running 
throughout a family. 

In the mammalia we find that the groups conspicuous for 
their facility of interbreeding are much more numerous. The 
first presents itself in that great section of the hollow-horned 
ruminants which includes the goats, sheep, and oxen ; the 
illustrations being most frequent among the former two. Not 
only are all forms of the domestic goat, whether of our own or 
of ftreign stocks, intermiscible, but they are capable of pro- 
ducing with various wild species. Bell, in his British Quad- 
nip.'ds, is of opinion that " the large goats which are reported 
to lave been brought from the Alps and the Pyrenees to the 
Gaiden of Plants at Paris, and which were stated to have been 
wild, were probably the progeny of the Ibex with the common 
goat." These hybrids were found to be capable of interbreed- 
ing, but to what extent is not recorded. Hodgson tells us 



88 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 

that the wild Jh&ral of Nepaul also breeds with the domestic 
goat. The hybridibility of the Cashmere goat is shown by the 
permanence of a Tartar half-breed of that species, and the fact 
that both species of Ibex, the common and the Caucasian, bre^d 
readily with the reclaimed species was well known to Cuvier. 
The mouflSon is known to breed with the common ewe, but the 
hybridibility of the various species of sheep does not seen to 
have excited much experimental attention ; their fertility with 
each other may, however, reasonably be taken for granted, as 
we find that the faculty overpasses the somewhat indi3tinct 
line separating the two genera Ovis and Capra. There :s suf- 
ficient evidence that the domestic goat will breed successfully 
with the sheep. P. Cuvier states that the mules are fmitful, 
but reproduce with some difficulty. Chevreul, however, speaks 
of the practice in Chili of crossing sheep with goats in order to 
modify the fleece ; a process which would seem to require con- 
tinuous production. Cretzschmar obtained a cross between the 
Cashmere goat and the Saxon merino, while Cuvier siys of the 
relation between sheep and goats that " they so littfe merit to 
be generically separated from each other that they produce by 
intermixture fertile ofi'spring." This, it must be observed, 
was written under the impression then commonly feli that non- 
hybridity is the test of distinctiveness ; a proof liab.e to result 
in a redudio ad absurdum, for in these animals hybricity ranges 
even into a distinct family. Hellenius (Gliddon, Tyjjes) has 
recorded in the memoirs of the Royal Swedish Academy of 
Stockholm the details of a fertile intermixture of the ram with 
the female roe. He was successful in procuring two genera- 
tions of hybrids inter se, besides other mixtures of the mules 
with the parent stocks. As to the oxen, direct evidence is 
more scanty, yet there is enough to show that a similar dis- 
position prevails amongst them. Instances of hybridity be- 
tween the zebu and gayal of India have been observed, and 
even the American bison is known to reproduce with the com- 
mon cow ; but it is said that their ofispring are infertile. In- 
deed, the hybridibility of the ox tribe does not at first s^ht 
seem to be equal to that of the sheep and goats. This, low- 
ever, depends upon a hypothesis, of which there is no proof. 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 89 

that all forms of domestic cattle are derived from a single source. 
If we owe them, as we certainly do other domestic animals, to 
two or more distinct stocks, their interprolificacy is ij^so facto 
established. The next well-marked instance occurs in the hog 
family. The genus Bus has been reclaimed from Britain to 
China, and the variations produced by intermixture are in- 
numerable. The Chinese pig, a distinct species, breeds un- 
hesitatingly with the western hogs. Science, however, awaits 
information respecting the hybridibility of some outlying forms, 
as the, Papuan and Japan species ; and that of the Wart hog, or 
the Peccaries, with the true pigs. In the horses, again, the 
indications of a general tendency to hybridization are too strong 
to be overlooked. Not to venture upon the harried ground of 
origin, we may, at least, aflSrm that many well-defined forms of 
horse have retained their peculiar characters from pre-historic 
eras ; and, by virtue of permanence of type, must be held to be 
distinct species. It is scarcely necessary to add that all these, 
from the British pony noticed by Caesar to the giant Belgian 
and the graceful Arab, hybridize, without exception, in the 
highest degree. Even the cognate genera are very prone to 
intermixture. The ass, the zebra, and the quagga readily 
breed with every species of horse. The general infecundity of 
the mules, arising from the first of these associations, is not 
surprising, considering the distance which separates the ass 
from the horse. A much more promising field of experiment 
would bo found in the zebra. It is scarcely doubtful that they 
would prove to be interprolific. In the digitigrade division of 
the Caruivora there is a group, the Miistelidm, which affords 
indications of hybridibility, at first sight unimportant, but 
valuable when taken in connection with characters to be 
subsequently considered. It is difficult to see on what grounds 
the specific distinction of the polecat from the ferret is ignored 
by some naturalists, when it is established by every necessary 
character, and contradicted by none except albinism. These 
animals breed together with facility, and the cross is readily 
and frequently perpetuated for the purposes of the gamekeeper 
and others. In the absence of systematic experiment, our 
knowledge of the miscibility of the larger felines is very limited. 



90 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

The lion and the tiger often hybridise in confinement; the 
young have been reared to maturity, but there seems to be as 
yet no observation as to their fertility. The opinion is now 
prevalent that it is to a mixture of several distinct species of 
the smaller cats that we owe the origin of the domestic hybrid ; 
if this be correct, and the sole original of our familiar has never 
yet been produced, it follows that several species of the genus 
interbreed with the production of a perfectly fertile offspring. 
But of all others, the most important group of animals in re- 
ference to hybridibility is certainly that of the canine digiti- 
grades. In this family we have a grading series of wolves, 
dogs, agilaras, jackalls, and foxes ; in all these the susceptibility 
of hybridisation crops out more or less conspicuously. We do 
not require isolated experiments to assure us of its presence in 
the wolves. It is sufficient to refer to the well-known fact that 
their reclaimed forma in the huts of the North Americans have 
produced among themselves several races of hybrids, known as 
dogs, retaining more or less of the lupine aspect, and some- 
times bearing mai'ks of vulpine admixture. It is almost super- 
fluous to say that the true dogs interbreed most perfectly, both 
the specific forms whose permanence of type is vindicated by 
the records of five thousand years and the mongrels rising be- 
fore our own eyes. The wolves breed with the dogs, not only 
intermediately through the domesticated American wolves, but 
directly one with another. Pallas, indeed, affirms that the 
wolf-dog of Europe (C. Pameranius) is a hybrid race, derived 
on the one side from the black wolf {C. Lycaon), The agiiaras 
of South America and the West Indies, a genus Da^icyon, 
nearly midway between dogs and foxes, produce with the for- 
mer an offspring perfectly fertile ; though it is said that the 
union takes place with less facility than amongst the dogs 
themselves. The dogs and foxes, again, breed together, as is 
proved, not merqly by occasional instances within our own 
experience, but from the fact that the Spartans cultivated a 
race of fox-dogs {AlopeJcides) which must certainly have been 
prolific, otherwise they would have been under the necessity of 
constantly procuring wild foxes to keep up the breed. The 
dog and jackal also interbreed ; but, though the fact is ascer- 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP AKIMAL TYPE. 91 

tained^ tihie degree of whicli the intermixture is capable has not 
been determined. It is impossible to do more in a few sen- 
tences than summarise the multitade of observations on record 
respecting hybridity amongst the members of the dog family ; 
enough perhaps has been said to show that the faculty of inter- 
breeding exists in it to an extent which seems scarcely capable of 
limitation. One other group now remains, that of the monkeys. 
The monkeys proper, and especially the simian division of 
them, occupy a conspicuous position in the lowest degree of 
the scale of hybridity, but occasionally they rise above it. It 
is a matter of ordinary observation that these more anthropoid 
forms exhibit in confinement a laxity in their reproductive in- 
clinations, which not only renders them irrespective of seasons, 
conformable therein to man, but allows their procUvities to be 
displayed to the utmost stretch of communism ; and by many 
of them even towards the human female. The mandrils, for 
example, manifest so strong a disposition in the latter direction, 
that travellers' tales about ourangs and native women are per- 
haps worthy of more credence than is generally allowed to 
them. In our latitudes, and in the cages of our menageries, 
it is probable that the facilities for interbreeding aflforded by 
the association of species, are counteracted by climatic and 
other negations; and it is also possible that many cases of 
hybridity amongst them are lost to science. Two instances of 
it between animals of differeut genera have fallen under the 
writer's observation ; still, it is pretty certain that in confine- 
ment the monkeys do not effectually hybridise to any great 
extent, notwithstanding the strong disposition thereto con- 
stantly exhibited by them. 

From the facts adduced, incomplete as the collection neces- 
sarily is, it may have become evident that we have no reason to 
regard hybridisation as on the one hand an unnatural, or on 
the other a common diversion of generative methods. What- 
ever tendency there may possibly be to the obUteration or modi- 
fication of specific forms from this cause, it is certainly not equally 
obvious in all vertebrate groups. Many, most, perhaps, give no 
recognisable indications of it at all ; in many other instances, 
they are unfrequent and widely isolated; while in the families 



92 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

referred to, the ducks, fowls, finches, sheep, goats, oxeu, 
horses, cats, dogs, and monkeys, we have found the hybridising 
impulse more or less active and universal. To popular appre- 
hension, cases of hybridity are simply matters of curiosity, 
meaning little or nothing ; and were they irrelative facts, mere 
eccentricities, even the zoologist might be excused if he passed 
them by as well-nigh valueless to science. This, however, is far 
from being the case, for, on examining further the natural history 
of the families in question, we discover that the tendency to 
hybridisation is constantly associated with a series of other 
characteristics, predicable of them only, or at least possessed 
by them to a far greater extent than by others. A review of 
these characters may possibly enable us to decipher the prin- 
ciple which renders them mutually dependent. 

The family of the geese and ducks comprises a large number 
of species, many of them of very close affinity. It possesses a 
vast geographical range, not confined to a single zone, but ex- 
tending to very varied climates, and therefore subjecting them 
to the utmost diversity in physical conditions. The readiness 
with which nearly all the species which have been tried submit 
to domestication is a matter of ordinary experience, and in this 
state they flourish in whatever localities they may be placed. 
The variations developed in the domestic stocks are extremely 
numerous ; although, we may observe in passing, the mallard, 
from which its origin is commonly deduced, does not seem to 
break into varieties when kept isolated for a long period. In 
the rasorial group we meet with the same set of characters. 
The typical poultry, indeed, so perfect in their hybridibility, 
are restricted, in their natural range, to Eastern Asia ; but, on 
the other hand, no animals show greater submission to change 
of circumstances wherever, within moderate temperatures, they 
may be transported; and there is amongst them very close 
specific alliances. Of the feathered hosts peopUng the woods, 
no group can exhibit a greater number, or closer approximation 
of species, or wider extent of distribution, than the finches. 
None supplies so many songsters and pets to our cages. The 
sparrow on the house-top proves that in one case, at least, 
domesticity is a natural inclination ; the canary evidences the 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE, 93 

proneness of domesticated species of the family to sport into 
Tarieties. In the ruminants, to which reference has been made^ 
the same series of facts appears in high relief ; — a large number 
of intimate species, extensive range, easy reclamation, and 
abundant variability, '' No animal,^' says Pennant, '' seems so 
subject to variation (the dog excepted) as the goat, nor did its 
multitudinous transformations escape Pliny (lib. 8, c. 53)/' 
Cuvier observes that the domestic goat varies infinitely in 
stature, colour, length and fineness of hair, and in the size and 
number of its horns. The family is spread over Europe, Asia, 
and North Africa, and, in osculant forms. North America. The 
near affinity of several of the species, proves a great stumbling- 
block to the systematist. The same observations would have 
to be repeated, if necessary, in the cases of the sheep and oxen. 
If, again, we turned to the horses and the hogs, we should find 
that the characters enumerated are exhibited by those families 
in a much greater degree than in any other group belonging to 
the pachydermatous order. But nowhere is their concurrence 
BO remarkable as amongst the dogs. The typical dogs are now 
cosmopolitan ; the wolves and foxes nearly so ; the jackalls are 
widely spread over Africa and Asia, and whilom Southern 
Europe ; the aguaras alone, a small and transitional genus, are 
comparatively restricted. Of the near affinity of the dogs one 
to another it is superfluous to say a word : that of the wolves 
is best seen in the difficulties experienced in separating the 
species of America from those of Europe, those of either con- 
tinent from each other, and varieties from species throughout. 
To a smaller extent, the foxes and the other genera of the 
family, present like obstacles to an exact registration. The 
North American tribes have habitually taken advantage of the 
readiness of the wolves to submit to domestication. The eight 
varieties of the black wolf and the five varieties of the grey, 
testify to their tendency to originate forms, apparently new, 
even in the wild state. A domestic disposition cannot, perhaps, 
be attributed to the foxes and jackals, but the ag6aras were 
found by Columbus in a reclaimed condition. The high degree 
of perfection to which these characters of geographical ex- 
pansion, multiplicity of species, variability, and domesticity. 



94 DEVI8 ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

attain in the true dogs, is apt to divert our attention from their 
congeners. It is, however, diflScult to study the whole family 
with much care, and resist the conviction that it exemplifies in 
a pre-eminent degree the natural association of characters which 
we have been led to recognize in other groups. A further 
illustration, of limited extent, occurs in the weasel tribe. The 
intermixture of the polecat and ferret has been mentioned. 
The numerous species into which this family ramifies are so 
intimately connected, that the latest efibrt made to distinguish 
between them, is, in many points, very ud satisfactory ; and 
much remains to be done before their difierentiations and 
specific values can be regarded as established. In many of 
these animals we are perplexed with a large amount of varia- 
bility ; some of them, the martens notably, enjoy a very ex- 
tensive geographical range. The same remarks will apply to 
the smaller cats, with the addition that these animals seem to 
be naturally inclined to associate with man. In the monkeys, 
we are once more able to define the same series of characters, 
though in some respects they are modified. The monkeys are 
known to us in a large number of specific forms, whose bound- 
aries are frequently indistinct; the uncertainty arising from 
close relationship being increased by the frequent occurrence 
of apparent varieties. The group possesses a wide longitudinal 
extension in Asia, Africa, and America, but its latitudes are 
almost restricted to tropical and sub-tropical zones. Young 
cheiropoda are nearly always susceptible of human attachment 
and discipline ; the higher forms, as the chimpanzee, seem to 
acquire human habits spontaneously. It is diflScult to form an 
accurate estimate of the domestic disposition of the whole 
family, but probably it is not strong ; and weakness in this 
character is accompanied, as we have seen, by limitations in 
superficial range, and a comparatively low degree of hybridi- 
bihty. 

The intensity which characterises the possession of these 
faculties by the canidaB, is paralleled in one other group only, 
that of man, whose diflfusion, adaptation to varied conditions of 
existence, number and aflSnity of forms, and tendency to an 
artificial life and hybridibility, place him in the same category. 



DBVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 95 

It is not within the present scope of the writer to discnss the 
measure in which these faculties are possessed by mankind^ or 
the circumstances by which they are favourably or adversely 
affected. The usual account given of them is assumed to be 
correct. 

The facts adduced, subject, here and there, to slight modifi- 
cations, will, perhaps, justify the conclusion, that in the birds and 
mammals a certain set of idiosyncracies are, generally speaking, 
associated together, and mutually dependent, and that they are 
not of uniform occurrence throughout each class, but are, as it 
were, concentrated in particular groups, which have no other 
connection with each other than the possession of these pecu- 
liarities. 

All this seems to imply, that in such groups there is an in- 
herent flexibility of constitution, permitting the individual to 
endure a certain degree of modification in two different 
directions ; in the one rendering it possible for it to yield to 
the effects of changes, whether of climate or habit, in the other 
allowing a greater or less license in the working of the strict 
rule of specific generation; a relaxation which results, not 
merely in the grosser production of intermediate forms by 
intermixture, but in a tendency to produce variation within the 
proper limits of the species. 

However sufficient may bo the facts whereon our argument 
is based, a strong confirmation of its general truth is afforded 
by the negative evidence of several cases in which the characters 
under consideration are almost or entirely deficient. The 
camels, whose whole genus consists of two species, widely sepa- 
rated as to structural characters from their nearest kindred, the 
llamas, their range confined of old to the sandy plains of Asia, 
and extended in comparatively modern times to those of Africa, 
have been reclaimed and assiduously cultivated from ante-histo- 
rical ages, yet we see no hybrid races resulting from inter- 
mixture of the species, and no acquired variability compensating 
for natural uniformity. The swift dromedary of the Arabs 
differs from its companions only in its lighter frame. The 
Asiatic elephant again, one of two species, constituting an iso- 
lated group without natural varieties, and restricted to the 



96 DEVI8 ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE, 

African and Asiatic tropics, though bred in domestication from 
a very remote period, has not sported into new forms. Cer- 
tain elephants are appropriated to certain uses, for which their 
individual shape and disposition may be fitted, but permanent 
varieties in any way corresponding with those of horses or dogs 
have never been established. So it is with the reindeer, the 
instrument of man from post-glacial times, and the only species 
of its genus. Two or three nominal varieties of caribou are 
nominally and vaguely distinguished, but the intense domesti- 
cation to which the animal has been subjected for thousands of 
generations has failed to produce anything analogous to the 
variations exhibited by animals familiar to ourselves. In all 
these instances, and we may add to them the llamas of South 
America, fewness of species preventing the interfusion of many 
bloods, and a low capacity for variation, natural or acquired, 
are accompanied not merely by a very limited geographical 
range possessed by the animals at the presept time, but by 
evidences of a want of adaptive power which renders their sub- 
servience to altered conditions almost nil. The reindeer has 
been gradually driven back by geological changes from latitudes 
now temperate to those still arctic. The elephants have, in a 
similar manner, retired to the tropics of the Eastern hemisphere, 
and died out completely, in the West ; experience showing 
that they are now incapable of propagating far from the equator. 
The introduction of the camel into the West is a failure ; its 
permanent acclimatisation in Australia, though possessing, 
perhaps, more of the elements of success, is still a problem : 
that of the llama into the same country is already found to be 
surrounded by apparently insupei*able difficulties. 

The mutual dependence of the characters under notice is 
placed in a strong light by the cases now cited. They show 
how httle variabihty is efiected by domestication or change of 
circumstances merely; how much it depends upon the con- 
currence of several constitutional prerogatives of the family 
rather than of the individual. Whether domestication combined 
with change of habitat would, in such a case, e.^., that of the 
reindeer, be more eflFectual, cannot be experimentally proved, 
as the experiment would be precluded by the want of adapta- 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 97 

tion. It is observable that among domesticated animals the 
least variation takes place in those whereof bat one species has 
been reclaimed. The guinea pig, for example, sports only into 
parti-colours ; so with the pintado and the turkey. The ass, 
again, preserves, even in its most cultivated breeds, a surprising 
uniformity. We have here presumptive evidence that variation 
results rather from a contact of species than from the accidents 
of individual circumstance. 

The existence of natural hybridisation, observed, indeed, com- 
paratively rarely, but occurring unobserved we know not how 
often, is a very suggestive fact. It not only loosens our ideas 
of specific exclusiveness of generation, previously undermined 
by experiment ; but it leads us to ask, whether it be not a 
natural process in force beyond what we at present imagine, 
and whether the fine gradations between species which so often 
puzzle the naturalist, more especially the ornithologist and 
entomologist, be not in part due to this agency. At least it 
shines through, if not dispels, another portion of the theocra- 
tical mist wherein the early cultivators of zoology worked ; we 
can scarcely echo Blumenbach's sentiment that specific genera- 
tion is an arrangement of providence for the conservation of 
species, except on the inadmissible supposition that providence 
can countermand itself. 

The characters which we have been led to associate together 
in reference to the life groups brought under consideration, 
appear to consolidate themselves into two propositions pre- 
dicable of those groups. A great extent of geographical range, 
combined with an adaptability to a variety of natural condi- 
tions, and a proneness to domestication, seem to indicate a 
general submissiveness to external agencies. A large number 
and close relationship of specific forms, a disposition to hybrid- 
ibility, and a facility in sporting into varieties, may together 
be considered as indicating an expansion of the modes of 
specific production ordinarily recognised. A step further may 
safely be taken. We may infer from the data before us that 
the groups in question, and any others to which the same series 
of characters may be found to belong, possess them in order to 
enable them by their mutual reactions to occupy the widest 

VOL. III. H 



98 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 

extent of surface by the greatest multiplicity of forms in the 
most vigorous life whereof their present constitution is capable; 
and it is scarcely venturing into the realms of speculation to 
say^ that an expansive constitution like this must be the seat 
and instrument of the greatest amount of the vitaUsing re- 
actions. 

If this be a correct statement of facts observable in nature^ 
it only remains for us to search for the cause to which the 
effects may reasonably be attributed. What^ then^ is the 
principle regulating the possession of such a constitution ? The 
clue to it appears to be afforded by one of the animals whose 
cases have been cited as confirmatory evidence^ — the elephant, 
— but it is a clue which must be traced backwards into the 
byegone history of animal life. The study of organic life leaves 
no room for doubt that the existence of every group of animals, 
whether coterminous with the great divisions of vertebrates 
and invertebrates, or with the gradually subordinated sections 
into which they arrange themselves, has a definite duration in 
time. At a superficial glance it might, indeed, appear that the 
greater divisions, especially that of the invertebrate animals, 
have preserved a continuous existence from their first appear- 
ance, as the whole number of forms comprised in them does 
not seem to have been greater at any former time than at the 
present day ; but we are quickly assured that though they con- 
tinue, they continue by virtue of frequent changes effected in 
their composition ; the inconstancy being, perhaps, greater as 
the animalisation becomes more highly elaborated, and its 
effects being clearly perceptible, whether we compare the two 
sub-kingdoms, or the higher and lower members of each, with 
one another. It is not necessary here to discuss by what 
mode the changes have been effected, or whether they have or 
have not, on the whole, tended to render the sum of animal 
life more perfect ; it is sufficient for our present purpose to 
accept the truth that such changes have taken place from the 
beginning, and from the constancy of natural operations to de- 
duce the reasonableness of the belief that they are still taking 
place. The changes have never been complete ; that is, affect- 
ing every portion of a group at the same time ; but partial, and. 



DBVI8 ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 99 

80 to speak^ fitful^ reminding us of waves rising and falling 
upon the surface of the advancing tide. As we examine the 
strata, we encounter at every step forms of life starting into 
existence in various directions, rising to their respective sum- 
mits, and subsiding as they approach higher levels of time. 
The Pterodactyls^ Enaliosaurs, Dinosaurs, Ammonites, and IW- 
lobites are among the well-known instances of large groups, 
whose history belongs entirely to geology. A list of the 
smaller groups, known as genera and species, whose birth and 
death are registered in the rocks, would be simply wearisome. 
We need but to reflect that, even among the lower and more 
permanent classes, the cases of identity between past and pre- 
sent forms are but rare, and growing rarer under investigation, 
and we shall be assured that every type of animal has a life 
time ; subject, no doubt, to premature interruption, but, gene- 
rally speaking, running its due course. It is an ordinary ex- 
pression that a certain group flourished at a certain time. 
What criteria lead us to this conclusion, or enable us to de- 
nominate a given era according to its prevalent types, as the 
age of reptiles ? briefly these, a culmination in the number and 
variety and, oftentimes, magnitude, of the forms presented by 
the type, preceded by an increase and followed by a decrease 
of those characters, accompanied, moreover, by an expansion 
and subsequent contraction of the space of land or water occu- 
pied by them. By the application of the same criteria to 
groups at present existing, we are justified in asserting posi- 
tively that they are of very various ages. Many of them com- 
menced their life at remote periods, and at after epochs stored 
the rocks with remains of species and genera vastly outnumber- 
ing their existing forms, and that frequently in latitudes which 
would be fatal to their remnants. Such were the marsupials, eden- 
tates, and pachyderms of the mammalian class; it is therefore no 
metaphor to say that such groups as these and the struthious 
birds, the lacertian lizards, the armour-plated fish, the brachio- 
pods, echinoderms, and crinoids, are dying of sheer old age — 
once potent in all respects, their numbers, diversity, physique, 
and expansiveness, have gradually dwindled ; they now linger 
in decrepitude, shadows of their former selves — their decease, 

h2 



100 DAVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

sometimes hastened^ sometimes hindered^ by human agency^ 
cannot be very far distant. 

We discover in this manner that homological investigation is 
as applicable to the vital as to the structoral characters of 
animal groups. The regular progression and duration of life 
proper to the individual of a species are, with necessary modi- 
fications, exhibited by that and every natural aggregate ; birth, 
youth, maturity, decay succeed each other ; the dead do not 
rise again, and adolescence is characterised, as we have seen, 
by those vital manifestations which are familiar to our own ex- 
perience, — the restless diffusive temper, the keen impulse to 
propagation overstepping the limits of ordinary associations, 
the consequent differentiation of features, the facility of pre- 
serving and even of enjoying life under circumstances before 
which the stiffness of age would quail and succumb. This 
pliability of temperament, this power of yielding to tension put 
upon the physical structure, this readiness wherewith the 
functional organs modify their tone in accord with the exigencies 
of the new situation, may be termed elasticity of the animal type, 
for in whatever degree or direction the changes may be traced, 
whether in the rise of new features harmonised to climatic 
variations, or of forms altered by the contact of different species, 
or elsewise, the normal characters though strained are not 
destroyed, and the adaptive nature of the changes is shewn by 
the tendency of the type to return to its simpler forms when 
the conditions are simplified or the energies reduced. We may 
here remark that the term elasticity, in the sense proposed, 
is consonant to, and indeed required by, well-known facts; 
fletihility of type, implying a permanent alteration, is known 
only to theory. 

So far the whole result attained is that the presence or ab- 
sence of numerous, varied, and vigorous forms, extensively 
diffused, inclined to acquired habits and hybridisation, is due 
in any group to the time of life to which it has reached, — in 
other words, to the principle of maturation, the law or laws 
which regulate life processes in the several stages from germi- 
nation to death. 

If we are correct in attributing the phenomena associated 



DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 101 

under the term elasticity to the degree of maturation, it is clear 
that the history of man ought to supply facts in confirmation ; 
the description should be equally true in the case of man as in 
that of the lower animals ; for, whatever our opinions are as to 
his supra-material nature, the characters whereon depend his 
occupation of the earth are fundamentally physical, and in his 
physical properties he is altogether an animal. The main facts 
at present ascertained in respect to the past life of mankind as 
a whole strongly illustrate our proposition. Nothing appears 
more certain than that mankind has passed through late geo- 
logical time in a very low phase of existence ; that we are not 
yet acquainted with his primary state no unprejudiced inquirer 
will see reason to deny. The general similarity, almost identity, 
of the earliest industrial remains of man, wherever discovered, 
has excited no. little attention ; its most natural explanation is 
found in the uniformity of wants and capabilities characteristic 
of the infant state; traced upwards in archaic history, the 
development of mental power is best seen in the diversity of 
character which has left its impress on human works. Whether 
this was accompanied by corresponding variation of form cannot 
be affirmed until the comparative osteology of the earliest, and 
of subsequent, races has accumulated materials for judgment. 
During historic times the group has been composed of a num- 
ber of distinct races, far greater than the earth could have scon 
at the origin of the type ; in its present stage the typical cha- 
racters, intellectual and physical, are at an altitude previously 
unattained, but we have no reason to think that the group as 
a whole is at or near its zenith. 

In following downwards the traces of this principle, from the 
whole group to its subordinate sections, it is necessary to bear 
in mind the mode wherein it affects similar subdivisions of the 
lower animals. Groups of like artificial value, as families or 
orders, differ, as we have seen, among themselves in their in- 
dications of Hfe development ; and as such groups are but the 
individuals of higher aggregates, so their own subdivisions 
present similar diversities. At every period of its lifetime, a 
family, for example, may and does comprise genera and a genus 
species, in various phases of the type growth of the aggregate 



102 DEYIB ON BLA8TICITY OF ANIMAL TYPE. 

of next greater valae — the oldest of these^ that which possesses 
the greatest typical capacity, may or may not be the youngest 
in point of time ; the youngest, sometimes so immature as to 
render its real type doubtful, may be amongst the oldest mem- 
bers of the family. This is, indeed, in accordance with the 
observation that the lower the standard of possible attainment, 
the sooner it is reached and the longer it is preserved unim- 
paired. The history of a natural family, though on the whole 
clearly showing progress upwards, by no means presents us 
with a consecutive series of genera arising one from another, 
and each exhibiting a measure of improvement upon its an- 
cestor; much lesd does it teach us that each genus can, and 
therefore does, develope within itself the highest characters of 
its type ; we observe, moreover, that each group having com- 
pleted the cycle of development proper to it, necessarily perishes 
and its place in nature is supplied, generally speaking, by some- 
thing better. Human developments form no exception to the 
order observed elsewhere in nature, and we have abundant 
evidence in the history of races that the laws of maturation are, 
and have been, constantly influencing their rise and fall. Some 
still existing are perpetuations of the infancy of humanity, and 
perishing therein as still less mature, man, on whose ground 
they tread, has perished before them ; some are, or have been, 
characterised by the graces, inquisitiveness, and credulity of 
childhood ; a stage whereof the ancient Greek perhaps afibrded 
the full type. Others we see in their incipient maturity, a grade 
of development not exemplified in the previous history of man, 
vigorous, domineering, propagative, outspreading, adapting 
themselves readily to unwonted circumstances, mixing their 
blood with that of every race in contact with them, even while 
they crush them out of existence, varying infinitely among 
themselves in feature and temperament, holding themselves 
loose from those ties which so strongly bind down other more 
immature types to their soil and customs. In short, it is in 
these especially that we recognise a degree of elasticity of type, 
for it is in these that the characters leading to its recognition 
exist in the greatest force yet known. 

The most general and most fatal hindrance to the elevation 



DKYI8 ON ELASTICITY OF ANIMAL TTPE. 103 

of a race above its natural level is want of adaptability. Im- 
maturity in this respect not only renders tbe physical powers 
more susceptible of injury^ but prevents the intellectual from 
obtaining that mastery over external conditions which brings 
them within the limits of endurance. Among such races medical 
practice, sanitary provision, engineering, and even domestic 
arts, are but imperfectly comprehended and rudely exercised. 
One of the irrepressible outcomes of propagative expansiveness, 
whether in human or other races, is colonisation, at once the 
index and the means of increased development. This, which 
must not be confused with migration, is exemplified in races 
such as the old Roman and modern European in a degree un* 
approached elsewhere ; in other races fixity is associated with 
exclusiveness, and exclusiveness is but another word for stag- 
nation. 

If the several grades of development be the products of a 
natural: law such as that which I have endeavoured to point out, 
it follows that in any type or race the proportions wherein the 
characteristics are inherent cannot be materially and perma« 
nently altered ; and as this deduction is confirmed by experi- 
ence, we are compelled to refuse assent to the hypothesis that 
every individual, and, collectively, every race, is capable of in- 
definite improvement.' This supposition implies that every 
race possesses the elements and potentiality of human develop- 
ment in full perfection, and merely requires impulse and oppor- 
tunity to vindicate its typical equality. If so it is impossible 
to account for the indisputable fact that some races make the 
opportunity under their own impulse, while others exist for an 
indefinite period under the most favourable circumstances and 
fail to do so. To say that all can be brought up to the same 
level by education, and are therefore essentially equal in capacity 
is to pile hypothesis upon hypothesis, it is analogous to saying 
that every variety of iron may be rendered equally magnetic, 
and therefore possesses the natural properties of a magnet. It 
ought not be objected to the principle of life stages, that in 
practice it would render our conduct towards more immature 
races fatalistic, prevent all efroi*t tending to their cultivation, 
from a conviction that such endeavours must necessarily be 



104 DEVIS ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 

futile, Edacation^ the communication of experience from the 
elder to the younger, notwithstanding the imposing titles given 
to it by doctrinaires, is simply a natural impulse known to be 
obeyed by other animals than man ; and since we are educators 
by nature, the effect of education, experience communicated, is 
a natural sequence ; farther, since the limit of possible education 
is determined by the degree of maturation, we have sufficient 
reason to attempt the improvement of a race in the hope of 
thereby ascertaining its maturity where unknown. Benevolence 
frequently wonders why so little fruit springs from its golden 
seed scattered broadcast among the '' poor heathen,^' and com- 
placency is content to ascribe the fact to original sin, or de- 
moniacal agency, both particularly rife among savages. Were 
a competent acquaintance with the human constitution one of 
the accomplishments of the world's civilizers, they would under- 
stand that the rational habits of thought and speech of adult 
mankind are utterly unsuited to childish races ; that the differ- 
ential calculus cannot well be understood before the multipli- 
cation table ; and they might be led to suspect that elementary 
treatment would produce reports perhaps less glowing, but 
results more substantial. The fallacy of the present system lies 
in its theory of the fundamental equality of all men. If, how- 
ever history and experience testify to one thing more strongly 
than to another it is this, that every race is not capable of 
attaining the higher phases of humanity. The past presents 
us with no example of a race pure, exclusive, inelastic in its 
idiosyncracies, and concomitantly deficient in brain force, 
developing itself out of itself, or even being capable of education 
from the savage into the highly civiUsed condition. This con- 
tinuous progress takes place in humanity as a whole, not in all 
its component parts. Be this as it may, that elasticity of con- 
stitution which we have traced in various groups of animals, 
including that of man, and which is itself probably the effect of 
energetic chemico-vital reactions, is a sufficient explanation of 
any difficulties attendant upon hybridibility or climatic adapta- 
tion, and may perhaps eventually throw light upon the mode of 
production of those intermediate forms which so often confound 
specific distinctions, while, at the same time, they cannot be 



DEVI8 ON ELASTICITY OP ANIMAL TYPE. 105 

satisfactorily traced to actual intermixture. The danger of 
confining the attention to man alone while studying his natural 
character^ and of being thereby led to view him as a kind of 
pseudo-animal^ is strongly illustrated in the case before us; 
Cew physical characters pertaining to man have been more fre- 
quently quoted as peculiarly human attributes^ than the faculties 
of adaptation and of interbreeding ; yet, in these respects, man 
is at least equalled by the dogs, and the powers themselves are 
possessed by virtue of a law whose operation is plainly dis- 
cernible in several other groups of animals. Whatever other 
foundation they may have, it is clear that neither the doctrine 
of unique origin on the one hand, nor that of supernatural pro- 
prietorship of the earth on the other, can be based upon 
qualities participated in by other animals. 



106 



V. — Vocal and other Influences upon Mankind, of Pendency of 
the Epiglottis. By Sib George Duncan Qibb, Bart., M.A,, 
M.D., LL.D., P.G.S., V..P.A.S.L., Member of the Royal 
College of Physicians, Assistant-Physician and Lecturer on 
Forensic Medicine, Westminster Hospital, etc. 

1. In a continued series of experimental inquiries with the 
laryngoscope, which I have carried on during the last six years, 
in healthy persons of both sexes, different ages, and varying 
position in life, some important discoveries were made relating 
to the position of that remarkable cartilage known as the 
epiglottis. From time to time I have drawn the attention of 
scientific men to this subject, both in my writings and before 
societies, but more particularly before the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science at the Cambridge Meeting in 
1862 and at that at Newcastle in 1863, when the normal position 
of the epiglottis, as described by all anatomists and physiolo- 
gists before my time, was especially considered. 

Up to the period of the Newcastle Meeting in 1863 I had 
examined 680 healthy persons, and the phenomena observed in 
them relatively to the position, form, and appearance of the 
epiglottis formed the subject of my paper. Four years had 
elapsed since then, and again I ventured to bring the subject 
before the British Association at its late meeting at Dundee, 
with an increased experience, founded on an examination of 
4600 healthy persons up to the month of September 1867. 
No excuse is needed for submitting my paper to the considera- 
tion of the Fellows of the Anthropological Society, as the sub- 
ject is one that bears upon mankind in general, and the European 
races in particular. As my observations will have reference 
chiefly, indeed almost entirely, to the position occupied by the 
epiglottis, whether vertical and perpendicular or pendent in an 
oblique or horizontal direction, and the influence which the 
latter exerts upon mankind at large, I shall endeavour to ex- 
plain briefly the relative situation of the parts around the 



aiBB ON PENDENCT OF TBE EFIOLOTTIS. 107 

epiglottis, so that every one who is not acquainted with the 
anatomy of this part of the body, may understand what is meant 
by pendency of L epiglottis. 

2. At the root of the tongue, behind its base, is seen a tri- 
angolar or oval-shaped cartilage, compared to a cordate leaf, 
with its edges curved or curled forwards, standing in an erect or 
perpendictdar position. It is of a pale yellow or buff colour, notun- 
like the crust of a loaf of bread, and it plays a most important part 
in relation to theactof swallowing; from its situation it lies above 
and in front of the upper part of the larynx, a cartilaginous box 
existing on the top of the windpipe and readily felt in the neck. 
As the epiglottis is extremely flexible and elastic it is depressed 
in the act of swallowing, covers the larynx, allows the food to pass 
over it, and rapidly elevates itself into its erect position ; by this 
means neither food nor any other substance can gain entrance 
to the windpipe. During the act of swallowing the tongue is 
drawn backwards and the larynx raised forwards, the glottis 
immediately closes, with its regulators, the epiglottis becomes 
pendent or depressed, and the contents of the mouth pass over 
it into the pharynx, or pouch at the back of the throat, leading 
to the gullet or oesophagus. The epiglottis is attached by 
means of a pedicle to the inside of the Pomum Adami, or Adam^s 
apple, felt in the neck, and is likewise attached to the base of the 
tongue, the os hyoides or tongue bone, and the larynx, by 
means of folds of mucous membrane, receiving various names 
from the parts they serve to connect. Only one half of the 
cartilage is free, and for convenience I would compare it to a 
little tongue situated behind the larger tongue, but pointing 
upwards instead of forwards. 

As described, it will be understood that the epiglottis should 
be quite erect or vertical, which moreover allows the top of the 
windpipe to be freely open for the purposes of comfortable 
breathing. All the older anatomists were correct in describing 
the cartilage as vertical, and I am quite willing to admit that 
that is its natural and proper position. 

3. Having said thus much we are now prepared to imderstand 
what is meant by pendency of the cartilage, and I will explain 
what that is, how it was discovered, and the influence it exerts 



108 GIBB ON PENDENCY OF THE EPIGLOTTIS. 

upon all classes of mankind. At the commencement of my in- 
vestigations I was struck very forcibly by the circumstance of 
finding in a great many healthy people, that the cartilage, in- 
stead of being erect as just described, was pendent, had fallen 
downwards and backwards over the top of the glottis, or wind- 
pipe, like a drooping leaf. In many, again, there was a dis- 
position to it, but such cases have not been included in my 
statistics. The pendency was more or less complete, and when 
it was so nature compensated for this by allowing the cartilage 
to have a dome or arched shape to allow of the entrance of air 
with freedom. In a good many this shape was not seen, but 
the cartilage lay quite flat and sloping backwards. (The vari- 
ous forms presented by the pendent condition were illustrated 
by diagrams, and a comparison made between them and the 
erect or vertical position, formed a contrast that could not be 
misunderstood.) * 

4. The examination was made, as stated before, in per- 
sons of apparently good health, of both sexes and at all ages, 
from the infant in arms to that of extreme old age, verging 
upon one hundred years ; children, young people, persons in 
the prime of life, elderly and very old persons, were all alike 
submitted to examination. The social relationship extended to 
entire families, from the grandparent to the grandchildren, and 
even to the great grandchildren. In this way only could I 
obtain valuable information regarding the congenital or here- 
ditary character of pendency of the epiglottis. In some in- 
stances parents and their children possessed it, and it seemed 
an hereditary peculiarity ; in others, again, it was acquired ; 
thus three or four children would have an erect epiglottis and 
a fifth a pendent one ; in some instances one or two children 
would be bom with it, whilst their brothers and sisters had it 
not, nor did the parents possess it. In some persons again it 
was acquired by residence and exposure in hot climates ; it is 
not necessarily a concomitant of the aged, and I believe, as a 



* The descriptive portion of this paper has been rendered in ordinary 
language, devoid of technicality as much as possible, so as to be readily un- 
derstood by non-professional readers. 



GIBB ON PENDENCY OP THE EPIGLOTTIS. 109 

rale^ that most old people do not possess it^ in Europe at leasts 
and old age ceteris paribus is more within the reach of those 
whose epiglottis is vertical or erect, than in those again in 
whom it is pendent. 

5. The great majority of those I examined were natives of 
Great Britain and Ireland ; but the number included residents 
of other European nations, whilst a certain proportion of the 
African race, and an equal number of the Asiatic, chiefly Chinese, 
are separately given. Enough, however, was determined to 
permit of my forming some general conclusions in regard to all 
classes of people amongst the various races of mankind, in hot, 
temperate and cold climates, in all parts of the universe. 

6. To come now to my statistics. As time and opportunity 
would permit, parties of individuals, varying from three or four 
to fifty, were examined by introducing the laryngoscope, a small 
mirror previously warmed, into the back of the mouth. Many 
of these inspections were made at my own house, or at the 
houses of friends ; a good many at Westminster Hospital, and 
some at other public institutions, such as, amongst others, the 
Home for Asiatics at Poplar and the Seaman^s Hospital Ship 
'* Dreadnought.^' The results were always noted at the time, and 
the general health of all was good ; at Westminster the persons 
were healthy so far as the throat was concerned. On calculating 
the general result, it yielded the large number of 4600 in- 
dividuals, extending over a period of between six and seven 
years. This is exclusive of 280 natives of Asia and Africa. 

7. The number of the pendencies of the epiglottis was found 
to be 513 in the 4600 persons, which is equivalent to eleven 
per cent, and a fraction. This means that eleven out of every 
hundred healthy persons possess a pendent epiglottis ; reckon- 
ing my hearers at 200 at the late meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation at Dundee, eleven per cent, gave twenty-two persons 
who were present when I read my paper whose epiglottis was 
pendent. Curiously enough this per centage agrees with that 
brought before the Association at Newcastle in 186-i, and I 
believe it holds good in the natives of Europe and of cold 
countries. It is increased in hot climates, as great heat would 
seem to exert a more perniciously relaxing efiect on the cartilage 
than extreme moisture or varying degrees of cold. 



110 OIBB ON PENDENCY OF THE EPIGLOTTIS. 

8. Applying the calculation of this per centage to the popu- 
lation of Great Britain^ which, by the last census, was deter- 
mined to be 28,887,519, eleven per cent, gives the number of 
3,177,627 persons who have not a vertical or erect epiglottis. 
Or, if the population of Europe be taken, which is estimated at 
272,000,000, eleven per cent, gives the number of pendencies 
as 24,727,273. I think I am safe in saying that other Euro- 
pean nations would resemble our own in the comparative 
frequency of pendency. But if the test is appUed to the natives 
of Asia and Africa, the results are startling. 

9. I have submitted some 280 natives of India and China 
and various parts of Africa, with the adjacent islands, to ex- 
amination, and what does the reader suppose was discovered ? 
It was this : — every single person, of both sexes — I may say 
without any real exception — had the epiglottis pendent. This 
startled me at first ; but to test the matter fairly, through the 
kindness of my friend Mr. F. M. Corner, surgeon to the Insti- 
tution, I was permitted to examine all the inmates of the 
Home for Asiatics at Poplar, as late as the 25th of July last, 
and without any single exception, the epiglottis was found 
completely pendent in all. There were several fine, young, and 
lively negroes from the River Congo in Africa, in whom we 
might have expected to find the cartilage in a vertical position. 
But no ; it was completely pendent. Finding, therefore, that 
in the 280 natives of hot climates, such as exist in Asia and 
Africa, the epiglottis was pendent in all, or nearly all, we are 
driven to the conclusion that it must be a common peculiarity 
to the races of those great continents. There is this to be said, 
however, regarding these pendencies: the examination was 
made exclusively in this country, and it is just possible that 
the cartilage may have become pendent in a tolerable number 
on their change from a hot climate to our more temperate one. 
Nevertheless, I am not disposed to attach too much importance 
to this, because I have been satisfied on several occasions of 
the fact, that Europeans acquire pendency by a lengthened 
stay in hot climates. The estimated population of Asia is 
750,000,000, and of Africa, 200,000,000 ; whilst Oceana is set 
down at 2,000,000. All these together amount to 1,150,000,000 



GIBB ON PENDENCY OF THE EPI0L0TTI8. Ill 

of persons^ of whom it would be rash in the highest degree to 
say more than that a large proportion^ much greater^ indeed^ 
than amongst Europeans^ possess pendency of the cartilage. 
Can it be wondered at that we should find a number of cir- 
cumstances result from a condition which impedes free breathing 
and renders a proneness to disease in some shape ? 

10. The influence of pendency of the epiglottis upon all 
classes of mankind^ but especially on Europeans^ may be 
described as follows : — 

It will be remembered that the great aperture or entrance- 
door of the windpipe is closed three-fourths — I might say seven- 
eights ; therefore^ the air for the purposes of breathing has to 
enter by means of a narrow opening, which, however, after 
being respired, passes out again with greater facility than it 
entered. The first effect of this condition is a modification or 
alteration of the natural voice ; the voice, as a rule, has a ten- 
dency towards a bass tone in adult males, for the pendent epi- 
glottis acts the part of the Ud of an organ pipe. The singing 
voice is materially altered ; and in the female sex the higher 
notes cannot be produced at all in some persons, whilst in 
others the vocal power and compass are weakened, and pen- 
dency is inimical to anything like prolonged singing, I have 
never known a single instance of one of the great female 
singers of the day — and I have had several of them under my 
care from time to time — to possess a pendent epiglottis ; there 
may have been a disposition to a little pendency from relaxation, 
the result of cold or an over exertion of the singing voice, but 
that condition was always temporary. In singing the higher 
notes, as witnessed in the contralto and soprano voices, the 
opening into the larynx or top of the windpipe must be per- 
fectly free and the epiglottis quite erect, so that the direction 
of the sound shall be towards the roof of the mouth, entirely in 
front of the soft palate. In pendency of the epiglottis, on the 
other hand, the voice strikes the back of the throat behind, in- 
stead of in front, of the soft palate. In some persons, the pen- 
dency is so complete, that a mere semicircular chink exists for 
the air to enter, and the inconvenience in singing is greater. 
Yet that very circumstance gives to a few of the male sex a 



112 OIBB ON PENDENCY OP THE EPIGLOTTIS. 

voice for declamatory reading which is remarkably powerful 
and beautiAil ; nevertheless^ such persons are liable at all times 
to colds^ from the necessarily impaired power of breathing. 
Young girls with this condition can never expect to become 
singers of any importance unless it is remedied ; and in them, 
and in boys too, but especially in girls, the voice, in speaking, 
is not clear and silvery as it ought to be. In young people the 
tonsils are often enlarged when the epiglottis is pendent, for 
the natural circulation is not free and easy through the blood 
vessels of the throat. 

11. Although the general health is apparently good, in a 
certain number of persons there is a disposition to sluggishness 
of body and general languor, the result of impeded respiration. 
In certain states of the atmosphere this renders them liable to 
attacks of disease to which they may be constitutionally pre- 
disposed. 

12. During the prevalence of the ordinary exanthemata, such 
as scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, and diphtheria, or of 
epidemics of throat and chest aflTections, persons with a pendent 
epiglottis, particularly children and young people, are more 
liable to become aflTected than others whose windpipe door, as I 
may call it, is wide open, and this for the reasons already given. 

13. I am not going too far in saying, that in grown-up per- 
sons with a pendent epiglottis there is a greater risk towards 
the contraction of prevailing epidemic diseases than in those 
otherwise circumstanced ; and perhaps it may help to explain 
why, sometimes, comparatively healthy persons are struck 
down, while others, seemingly more delicate, escape. For it 
must be remembered, that when the breathing is not free, the 
general health indirectly suffers, through deficient arteriali- 
sation of the blood, and its effects upon the entire system. A 
great many grown up persons breathe with discomfort in their 
beds with a pendent epiglottis ; and not a few become asthmatic 
and subject to chronic bronchitis as they advance in life. I am 
satisfied that few, very few, or perhaps none, in this country, 
at least, ever reach extreme old age with a pendent epiglottis. 

14. Heretofore no person, with the exception of myself, has 
dwelt upon the importance of such a peculiarity as that I have 



OIBB ON PENDENCT OF THE EPIQLOTTIS. 113 

described^ or upon its general effects; and I would again 
remind the reader that there are 3,177,627 persons the subject 
of it in Great Britain alone. Its great frequency, especially in 
hot climates, might lead many persons to say, it is a natural 
condition ; indeed, I thought so myself at first, but now feel 
satisfied iJiat it is not. In conclusion, the reader would natu- 
rally ask me, what are the means proposed to remedy pen- 
dency of the epiglottis ? They are these :-— 

15. Let him request his medical attendant to examine him 
with the laryngeal mirror, and if he finds the epiglottis droop- 
ing, or in a pendent position, more or less complete, it wiU be 
prudent for the reader to notQ it, have it attended to, and in a 
large majority of persons, the young especiaUy, it can be recti- 
fied and elevated. 

On the whole, however, I think it has been shown that the 
influence of pendency of the epiglottis upon mankind generally 
is prejudicial and pernicious, and therefore well worthy the 
attention of philanthropists and anthropologists. 

I have elsewhere termed the process of examination, Epu 
glottisation, which possesses a meaning somewhat analogous to 
va4xination. 



VOL. HI. 



114 



VI. — Note on the ShulU fowad in the Round Ba/rrows of the 
SotUh of England. By C. Cartbb Bulke, Esq., F.Gr.S., 
Hon. F.A.S.Lyi Lecturer on Compaarative Anatomy and 
Zoology f^t Westminster Hospital. 

During the late visit of the President x)f the Anthropologioal 
Society to Dorsetshire, he was enabled to obtain from Mr. 
Shipp, of Blandford, twelve skulls and fragments of skulls from 
the round barrows of the district near Blandford. I have been 
led to give the following slight note on these skulls, as they 
exhibit some remarkable characters, and their examination may 
confirm or invalidate the theories which have recently been 
promulgated respecting the typical character afforded by the 
skulls found iu the round barrows of the South of England. 

Dr. Thumam,in his paperon the two principal forms of English 
and Gaulish skulls {Mem. Anthrop. Soc. Lond., vol. i), gives a 
table which contains the measurements of twenty-five skulls 
from the English round barrows. The longest of these exhibits 
a cephalic index of '74, the shortest a measurement of '87 : the 
average cephalic index being 'SI . He has been led to conclude, 
therefore, that the typical character of the skulls found in round 
barrows is that which presents the brachycephalous type. The 
following are the words in which Dr. Thumam states his 
theory : — 

" The form of skull, from the bowl-shaped, bell-shaped, an.d 
other circular barrows of pre-Roman Britain, scarcely requires 
extensive illustration; being on all hands admitted to be 
brachycephalous.'^ — (P. 149.) 

'^ The skulls from the circular barrows of England of the 
pre-Roman period are mostly of brachycephalic or sub-brachy- 
cephalic type; this short and broad, or round, cranial form 
being found in tumuli evidently of the same epoch, though 
some of them contain implements and weapons of both bronze 
and stone, others of stone only.'' — (P. 120.) 

'^ Whilst the dolichocephalic skulls from the long barrows 
group themselves around the number 70, as regards the 



BLAKS ON SKULLS FBOM BOUND BARROWS. 115 

proportion of the breadth to the length taken as 100 ; the 
brachycephalic ones from the round barrows are mostly repre- 
sented by the number 80 and upwards/^ — (P. 150.) 

'' To sum up the conclusions as to the forms of skull from the 
tumuli of the pre-Boman period in this country^ a sort of axiom 
has^ I think^ now been established to this effect : — ^Long bar- 
rows, long skulls ; round barrows, round or short skulls ; doli- 
chotaphic barrows, dolichocephalic crania ; brachytaphic bar- 
rows, brachycephalic crania.*' — (P. 158.) 

I shall now give the description of the remains in the words 
of Mr. W. Shipp. 

SKULLS FOUND IN TUMULI IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF 

BLANDFORD. 

No. 1 . — " From a barrow in the parish of Whitechurch. The 
skeleton, with that of a child, was lying about two feet below 
the vegetable covering, and evidently of a later date than the 
construction of the barrow itself.'* 

No. 2. — ''Prom a barrow at Winterbome, Kingston. At 
its feet was a coarse British urn fillod with burnt bones. On 
the floor, on a cist, was another skeleton (No. 3), with a large 
deposit of burnt bones by its right side." 

No. 4 and 5. — " From a barrow on Kingston Down, in which 
were seven skeletons lying side by side ; but no um, or any 
trace of cremation.'^ 

No. 6 and 7. — " From a barrow in the vicinity of a British 
camp at Burbury, containing two rude urns and several deposits 
of burnt bones." 

No. 8. — " This skull was found, with upwards of one hundred 
others, on the east side of a British camp at Spetisbury — cut 
through for the Blandford and Wimbome Railway. With 
these were several iron swords, bronze fibuleD, rings, bono 
combs, and other articles of Soman manufacture.'^ 

No. 9. — " From a barrow on Boke Down, in which were 
three skeletons, four urns, and several deposits of burnt 
bones." 

No. 10 and 11. — ''From a barrow on Bloxworth Down, in 
which wore six skeletons, placed in a sitting posture on the 

i2 



116 



BLAKE ON SKULLS FfiOM BOUND BABBOWS. 



floor, with three ums contaming several becids, bone needles, 
etc., etc."* 

No. 12. — "From a barrow on Abbey Croft Down, in a cist, 
on the floor, with a rude British urn at its head.'' 

I now proceed to give the measurements of these skulls : — 

MEASUBBMBHTS OF SKULLS FROM BLANDFO&D BOUND BABBOWS, ABBANOBD 

IN OBDBB OF BBLATIYB BBBADTH. 



Mecisto- 
cephali. 



Meco- 

cephali. 

Subbrachy- ) 

cephali. j 

Eury- ^ 
cephali. ) 



No. 



8 

4 

5 
9 
7 
6 

3 
2 



10 
11 
12 



Localities. 



Spitsbory British Camp, with Bo- 
man remains 
Kingston Down Barrow 



»» ft f» 

Bokedown Barrow ., 



Burbury 



»$ 
»» »» 

Winterbome 



» 



»» 



»» 



Whitchurch „ secondary inter- 
ment; ... ... ... ... 

Bloxworth Down Barrow ') 

„ „ „ > fractured 

Abbey Croft Down „ ) 



Average Cephalic Index 



• 

5 


J 


s. 


•J 


1 


Cepha 
Inde: 


204 


136 


•66 


194 


131 


•67 


194 


133 


•68 


192 


132 


•68 


196 


136 


•69 


192 


135 


•70 


182 


132 


•72 


178 


142 


•79 


174 


141 


•81 


• • • 


• • • 


•73 



When these skulls are carefully measured, it appears that 
the ratio of breadth is much smaller than in the average skulls 
measured by Dr. Thurnam. Where his lowest breadth is "74, 
the lowest breadth of the Blandford skull is '66, Where his 
highest breadth is '87, the highest breadth of the Blandford 
skulls is '81 ; the average being in each case respectively '81 
and -73. 

If the Blandford skulls (nine in number) are added to Dr. 
Thumam^s table of twenty -five skulls, the average of the whole 
thirty-four will be found to be '77. It will be bomo in mind that 
the average he gives for his skulls from long barrows is '71. 



* There is some obvious mistake or transposition of numbers here, inas- 
much as the frontal bone, marked 12, has undoubtedly appertained to the 
same individual as the posterior part of cranium marked 11. 



BLAKE ON SKULLS FROM BOUND BARROWS. 117 

The distinction between an average of *81 and '77 must strike 
all observers : and many may consider that this deduction of 
4 per cent, may invalidate much of the general conclusions 
arrived at by Dr. Thumam. 

According to the theoretical assumption conveyed in Dr. 
Thomam^s statistics^ the average cephalic index of nine skulls 
from the round barrows ought to have been about '80. The 
precise proportion given is 'SI. But the fact negatives this 
a priori conception^ as we have an average of '73. Furthermore, 
six out of the nine skulls appertain to that group of skulls 
which present a cephalic index of below "71, and which Pro- 
fessor Huxley has termed mecistocephalic, a term highly con* 
venient, and which I am very glad to adopt. This fact is very 
surprising, as it shows that even in the district of the Dobuni, 
where long-headed individuals have been discovered and de- 
scribed in Davis and Thumam's Crania Britannica, we have an 
extremely long-headed population whose remains are found 
in the short barrows. Furthermore, while the longest skull 
given by Dr. Thumam from his long barrows (West Kennet, 
pi. 50, Cran. Brit) has a cephalic index of *67, this index is 
equalled by the skull from the Kingston Down short barrow, 
also affording an index of '67. 

The skull No. 8 from the British camp at Spitsbury, asso- 
ciated with iron remains and articles of Boman manufacture, 
although not found in a barrow, must be included in the pre- 
sent comparison. If its measurements are carefully compared 
with those of the two skulls from Kingston Down, no person 
will be able to doubt that they appertained to the same race. 

I have also included the skull 1 in the present comparison. 
It is probably of later date than the barrow itself : being brachy- 
cephaUc, or, more strictly speaking, " eurycephalic *' (Huxley) . 
A strict logical necessity may, however, lead to the exclusion 
of this skull from the average. 

Let us, therefore, exclude the skulls Nos. 1 and 8 from the 
comparison. The following will be the results, and they are 
very startling : — 

That the seven skulls from the Blandford round barrows 
afford a lower cephahc index than the twenty-five skulls mea- 



118 BLAKE ON SKULLS FROM BOUND BABBOWS. 

sured by Dr. Thumam from his dolichocephalic ban'ows, the 
figures being '70 and '71 respectively. 

If I were inclined to base any conclusion on these figures, 
we might reverse Dr. Thumam^s '' axiom/^ and say, " long 
barrows, long skulls; round barrows, long skulls too, and 
sometimes longer,'' 

The researches of Dr. Beddoe on the head-forms of the West 
of England have led him to conclude that the skulls of the 
people of the West of England are decidedly dolichocephalic. 
His lowest index given was '76, and this was derived from the 
observations derived from the inspection of forty natives of 
north-western Wiltshire. But the natives of Dorsetshire at 
the time of the erection of the round barrows, appear to have 
been far more dolichocephalic. The type of Irish skull is also 
stated to be long. Dr. Beddoe gives it in Munster as '76. 
Dr. Barnard Davis gives it in Kerry as '77. Professor Huxley 
states that ^' the ancient Irish skuU was predominantly dolicho- 
cephalic, more so than even the ancient Scotch skull -/' giving 
as examples, the Blackwater skuU (c. i. *79) and the Borris 
skull (c. i, *737). Dr. Beddoe states that ^^the ancient Irish 
skulls, as well as the mediaeval and modem ones, are long ; the 
four in the catalogue in the Crania Britannica average '762, 
and the two in the Museum at Kilkenny the same modulus to 
a fraction.^' But the skulls from Blandford are, indeed, ipsis 
Hibeniiis Hibemior, as they afford a less cranial index than any 
of the above cited crania. However, it cannot be denied that 
the resemblance between the skulls from the long barrows, as 
well as those from the round barrows now before us, and the 
." River-bed skulls " of Professor Huxley, is very great. He 
was led to conclude : — 

" As the evidence stands at present, I am fuUy disposed to 
identify the ancient population of Ireland with the long barrow 
and ' river-bed ' elements of the population of England, and 
with the long-headed, or ' cumbecephalic,' inhabitants of Scot- 
land j and to believe that the round barrow, or ' Belgic,^ ele- 
ment of the Britannic people never colonised Ireland in suffi- 
cient numbers to make its presence ethnically felt.'* 

The description of these skulls may follow at another time. 



BLA.KE ON SKULLS FBOM BOUND BABBOWS. 119 

I have only now to deal with their moduli. I may notice that 
in the general contour they agree closely with the long-headed 
type of skull termed " Apostle skuU/^ by Professor Carl Vogt. 
One of these^ found at Biel^ is in the Museum at Berne. Its 
cephalic index is '70. They also agree with the Hohberg- 
types of Messrs. Butimeyer and His^ especially with such a 
skull as that figured c. u from Hohberg^ whose index is *69. 
The average breadth of skulls in the Hohberg type my readers 
will recollect to be '707. 

The conclusions I would desire at present to draw are the 
following : — 

1. That the state of materials at our disposal precludes any 
generalisation as to the prevalence of a brachycephalic type of 
skull in the round barrows of the South of England. 

2. That a much larger series of skulls from the rounds as 
well as from the long barrows^ must be measured before we 
can arrive at any conclusion as to the cranial modulus. 



120 



VII. — On the Gypsies of Bengal. By Babu Rajenprala^la 
MiTRA, Corresponding Member of the Anthropological 
Society of London^ Hon, Member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Gh-eat Britain and Ireland, Corresponding 
Member of the German and the American Oriental So- 
cieties, etc. 

The belief in Europe is general that the gypsies are of Asiatic 
origin. GTrellmann, in his Dissertation on tlie Gypsies of Europe, 
supposed India to be the birthplace of that wandering race, 
and Hoyland's Historical Survey of the Gypsies fully supports 
that opinion. Borrow, in his Gypsies in Spain, adopts the 
opinion of Grellmann, and he has been most ably seconded by 
Colonel Hariot in his Observations on the Oriental Origin of the 
Romnichal Tribe. Owing, however, to their vagrancy and ex- 
treme reluctance to mix with the settled inhabitants of any 
country, the history of the gypsies has been most imperfectly 
studied ; and there is no work that we know of in which their 
origin has been indisputably traced to any particular locality, 
or any satisfactory account of the when and how they dis- 
persed from the scene of their original habitation. An idea 
was once prevalent that the atrocities of Timur's invasion of 
India drove out large bodies of the people over different coun- 
tries, and that they constituted the patriarchs of the gypsy race. 
But Arab Shah, in his biography of Timur, has shown that 
gjrpsies lived in Samarcand long before Timur's invasion, and 
that they were at one time massacred to the extent of several 
thousands to relieve that tyrant of internecine disturbances, 
and several centuries before that Ferdusi sang of a band of 
gypsies who had come to Persia at the request of Behram 
Gur to entertain his people with the music of the lute. The 
men were called " luri," and the gypsies in that country are to 
this day known by that name. Foroliviensis observes that, on 
the 4th August, 1422, two hundred of the Cingari came to his 
native town, on their way to Rome, and some of them said 



HITRA ON THE OTPSIES OF BENGAL. 121 

that they were from India: " et ut audire alique dicebant, quod 
erant in India/' Munster corroborates this account from the 
information he gathered of one of the Cingari in a.d. 1524^ 
" when^ also^ an impression existed among them of their hav- 
ing come from that country/' These evidences do not, how- 
ever, go far enough ; and the proofs regarding the original 
dispersion of the gypsies from India, and their existence in 
this country in the present day, must depend exclusively upon 
the peculiarities of their language, customs, habits, and phy- 
sical characters, — data which, owing to climatic and other in- 
fluences, must always be to some extent inconclusive. 

The name by which the gypsies proclaim themselves is 
Ttommichalf or, '' wandering man'', but the word is used by 
themselves only, and is unknown to the people among whom 
they live. The word '' gypsy" is a corruption of Egyptian, 
and is not known beyond the local limits of England. In 
Scotland they are called "tinklers". In France, they are 
known as " Bohemians", from the circumstance of their having 
come there on their expulsion from Bohemia, and consequently 
it is not to be met with elsewhere. The Spanish name gitana^ 
which was used to indicate the crafty character of the people, 
and the Italian, Wallachian, are also local. The Bohemian 
name zingaro, and its German congener zigeumer^ with its 
Portuguese corruption, cigano, appear among the Turks as 
zingariy zigani, zingani, and chinganeh. From Turkey the 
word has been traced to Persia, and thence to the mouth of 
the Indus, in Beloochistan, where Pottinger noticed a tribe 
named Tchingani, who bear a strong resemblance to the gyp- 
sies in many of their peculiar customs. It is said that when 
Sultan Selim conquered Egypt, the inhabitants rose against 
him under the leadership of one Zinganeus; but being de- 
feated and banished the kingdom, they dispersed, in numerous 
small parties, over difierent countries, where they became 
known by the name of their leader. This opinion, however, 
involves an anachronism of more than a hundred years ; foi' 
while Sultan Selim's conquest is dated 1517, there is undoubted 
evidence to show that the Zingaris appeared in Europe in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. Sir Thomas Browne fixed 



122 MITBA. ON THB GYPSIES OF BENQAX. 

the date of their appearance in Germany at a.d. 1400, but 
Munster and Spilman changed it to 1417. In Switzerland and 
Italy they were noticed in 1422, and in France in 1427. 

In India, the word Zmga/ro does nowhere occur ; but it is 
curious to observe that, in Sweden, the gypsies were once 
known by the name of tottors, and in the duchy of Holstein 
they are to this day called either zihhoinera or tottors, while in 
different parts of Denmark their usual name is totters. Now, 
these Tarters, Tatters, or Taters (AnglioS, Tartars), or some of 
them were, before the time of Zinghis E[han, known by the 
name of " bede^^, a word which, in India, is with slight dia- 
lectic yariations, applied to a race of vagrants whose habits 
and customs, as far as known, point to their having proceeded 
from the same stock to which the gypsies owe their origin. 
Bishop Heber noticed these people on the banks of the 
Ganges and in Ceylon, and believed them to have a close re- 
semblance to the zingaroes of Persia and Europe. Abb^ Du- 
bois observed them in Southern India, where they are known 
under the names of weddahs, nuts, ruraver, sdmbddi, ruruneru, 
and sikdter. The Bunjaras of Central India have been sup- 
posed by some to be a race of gypsies. So are the Konjis 
and Dombarus ; and Mr. Stevenson describes a people in Dek- 
han who bear a strong likeness to the vagrants of Europe. 
He says, " the shadgdrshids (for that is the name by which 
those people are known) are a tribe of jugglers and fortune- 
tellers who wander about the Dekhan, and probably other 
parts of the country, where, however, they are not known by 
name, but generally, we believe, by that of "gorode^' 
(juggler), which is the denomination of the caste in the 
Vijndneswara Sdstra. The Kam&taka term of *' shudg&rshid^' 
is derived from shudgdr (a burning or burial ground), and shid 
(proficient, ready), it being their habit to prowl about these 
places to collect certain pieces of human bone with which they 
are supposed to work charms and incantations. The tribe is 
looked upon with much awe and detestation ; and the fear of 
exciting the wrath of any of its members, generally secures a 
ready compliance with their demands for charity. On this, 
however, they do not place their only reliance ; they are no- 



MITRA ON THS OTPSIES OF BENGAL. 128 

torioos for kidnapping children, and also for an abominable 
traffic, consisting in the sale of sinews extracted from the 
breasts, the wrists, and the ankles of females. These are sup- 
posed to be preservative charms from all evils ; bat in order 
that they may possess this virtue to the full extent, they must 
be taken from the person of a woman who has been very lately 
delivered. The caste of Shudgdrshid is said to have sprung 
from the union of a woman of the Patr&wat (stone-cutter) 
tribe and of a Kida or Kaber (boatman). Kabir Rishi, the 
author or compiler of one of the Velas, taught the art of magic 
to some of the first of this race, who have now lost the greater 
part of their original skill. The deity, which they conceive 
chiefly entitled to their worship, is the goddess Chowdhi 
(Chandi ?), whose principal shrine is in Malabar, where, we 
understcuad, the caste is most numerous. North of the Krishna 
they worship Rdm&stick, a goddess whose chief pagoda is in 
£und£hdr.^^ The fondness for extracting sinews frx)m dead 
bodies is evidently a local peculiarity, and has not been found 
in any other branch of the gypsy race. Mr. Stevenson does 
not notice the Weddahs ; but his description leaves no doubt 
that his Shidg&rshids are a detachment of that tribe. 

The Weddahs are represented in Ceylon by a race called 
Veddahs. Bishop Heber, as has been before said, called them 
a tribe of gypsies j but in the detailed account of Sir Emerson 
Tennent, there is nothing to waiTant this belief. He says they 
are the remnants of the aborigines, but characterised by no- 
thing of vagrancy, fortune-telling, and other peculiarities of 
the gypsies. 

In Bengal, the counterpart of the Weddahs are met in a 
tribe of men called Bediyds. Their physical characters are not 
much difierent from the people among whom they live, and yet 
there are certain peculiarities in their make which show them 
to be distinct from the Bengalies. Whether it be owing to 
the wandering life they lead, or the ethnic peculiarity of their 
race, we do not know ; but the fact is certain that the Bediy&s 
show no tendency to obesity, and are noted for a light, elastic, 
wiry make, very uncommon in the people of this country. In 
agility and hardihood they stand unrivalled. The men are of 



124 MITRA ON THE OTPSIES OF BENOAL. 

a brownish colour, like the bulk of Bengalies, but never black. 
The women are of a lighter complexion, and generally well 
formed, — some of them have considerable claims to beauty; and 
for a race so rude and primitive in their habits as the Bediy&s 
are, there is a sharpness in the features of their women, which 
we see in no other aboriginal race in India. Like the gypsies 
of Europe, they are noted for the symmetry of their limbs ; 
but their offensive habits, dirty clothing, and filthy professions, 
give them a repulsive appearance, which is heightened by the 
reputation they have of kidnapping children, and frequenting 
burial grounds and places of cremation. Their eyes and hair 
are always black, but their stature varies very much in different 
individuals. But as there are now many men in Bengal who 
have been driven by poverty to take to the professions of 
the Bediy&s, without being of that caste, it is unsafe to draw 
any deduction from limited experience; a great number of 
men who profess to be Bediy&s, but who turn out, on cross ex- 
amination, to be either outcasts, or descendants of outcasts, 
who, for want of better, have adopted the profession of the 
Bediyds. Some of them called themselves Mdls, and live by 
snake-catching and sale of herbs. These, as well as other 
pseudo-Bediyds, have none of the physical peculiarities of their 
namesake, and are generally of a black complexion. Though 
popularly known as Bediyds, they keep distinct, and are never 
allowed to mix and intermarry with the true Bediyd. In this 
they differ from the European gypsies who, according to Sir 
Walter Scott, have mixed largely with vagrants of European 
descent. 

The true Bediyd does not often build a permanent house, 
and seldom takes to agriculture. Like the gypsy, he leads 
a roaming life, and is content with whatever accommodation 
he can get. When travelling in bodies, the Bediyds carry 
with them a few beasts of burthen, generally country tatoos 
or bullocks, frequently the former, but never or seldom don- 
keys. The place of their encampment is the outskirts of a 
village, and there they put up, with the mats and sticks, a 
few miserable little wigwams, in which men, women, and 
children huddle together, with little attention to ease or con- 



MIT&A ON THE OTPSIES OP BENGAL. 125 

yenience. In some parts of the Burdwan and Baraset districts 
in Bengal^ the Bediyds have permanent hnts^ like those of the 
native peasantry. They are frequently forsaken^ and are put 
up only to evade the persecution of poUce officers. In Baraset^ 
some few take land^ ostensibly for agricultural purposes^ but 
really to represent to police authorities that they are fixed in- 
habitants of a place^ usefully employed^ and not hable to be 
taken up as vagrants. The land in question is tilled by hired 
labour, and bears no proportion to the number of people for 
whose benefit it is sown. It is generally situated at a great 
distance from the fields of the Bengali ryot. 

The dress of the Bediy&s assimilates generally with that of 
the people among whom they live. The Nuts have party- 
coloured cloths hanging from different parts of their body, and 
jugglers sometimes put on some outlandish garment or other ; 
but the great bulk dress very much in the same way as the 
natives of the country. This adaptation of the dress to the 
customs of a country, is the characteristic of the gypsy eveiy- 
where. 

One marked peculiarity of the European gypsy is his cook- 
ing-pot, which is invariably made of iron, and hung from three 
posts, with a fire underneath. The Bediyd has no such utensil ; 
his pipkin is the common kidgree-pot of the country, used over 
three bricks or clods of earth, and sometimes over a native 
hearth, or chuhi. The cooking, however, is made in common, 
and men, women, and children all eat together promiscuously, 
except when placed among Bengalis, when the women eat 
separately. 

The gypsies are not noted for the choice of their fare ; the 
the Bediyas are even less so. More omnivorous than crows, 
they eat whatever they can get, and nothing comes amiss to 
them, whether it be a rotten jackal or a piece of veal, beef, or 
mutton. Familiar with the use of bow and aiTOWS, and great 
adepts in laying snares and traps, they are seldom without 
large supplies of game, and the flesh of wild animals of all 
kinds. A variety of birds they keep dried for medicinal pur- 
poses ; and mongooses, squirrels, and flying foxes, they seek 
with avidity, as articles of luxury. Spirituous liquors and in- 



126 MITBA ON THE QTPSIES OF BENGAL. 

toxicating drags are indulged in to a large extent ; and chiefs 
of clans assume the title of bhang y, or '^ drinkers of bhang'' 
(Indian hemp), pa/r excellence, as a mark of honour. 

In Spain, and also in Hungary and Transylvania, some 
gypsies follow trades, and become innkeepers, farriers, and 
dealers in horses, smiths, nail-makers, tinkers, and menders of 
old pots and kettles, while some have become soldiers and 
sailors; but those are not their national professions. The 
great bulk of the gypsies in Europe are jugglers, tumblers, 
thieves, hunters, weavers of wicker baskets, makers of wooden 
platters and spoons, and vagabonds of all work ; the women 
being employed in early life in rope-dancing and legerdemain, 
and subsequently in fortune-telling and chiromancy, in inter- 
preting dreams, selling herbs and charms, and pilfering what- 
ever comes in the way. The Bediyd in Bengal is ignorant of 
none of these professions. In lying, thieving, and knavery he 
is not a whit inferior to his brother of Europe, and he prac- 
tises everything that enables him to pass an easy idle life, 
without submitting to any law of civilised government, or the 
amenities of social life. Hence the Bengal proverb, Bede 
rujdrd rdyot nahi sddhuro khdtak nahi, *' The BediyA is neither 
the subject of a king, nor the debtor of a capitalist.'' 

When in the neighbourhood of towns or villages, the BediyA 
earns his livelihood by thieving, exposing dancing-monkeys, 
bears, and serpents, retailing herbs, weaving baskets, and sell- 
ing birds, squirrels, sheep, goats, and mungooses. When 
away from the habitation of civilised man, he is a hunter of 
jackals and foxes, a bird-catcher, a collector of herbs and 
simples. The Luri of Persia and the Multani of Cabul keep 
bears and monkeys, and all three are attended by wild, half- 
savage dogs, as are the Bnnj&ras of central India and the 
gypsies of Europe. 

The female Bediyd or Bediy&ni is the very counterpart of 
her European sister. She roams about in towns and villages, 
with a small bundle on her head, which contains an unfailing 
charm for every complaint of the body or the mind, for which 
she may be consulted. Is a child ill of infantile convulsions ? 
the cause is the devil, and none can oxorcise better than a 



MIT&A ON THE QTPSIES OF BENGAL. 127 

Bediydni. If a villag0*girl has found her lover or husband 
untrue^ none can give a more potent philter to restore lost 
afifection than the woman with her bundle of simples. To cal- 
culate the return of absent lovers, or ascertain the sex of in- 
cipient pledges of love, she goes a-head of the professed 
astrologer. Palmistry is her special vocation; and cupping 
with buffalo-homs, and administering moxas and drugs for 
spleen and rheumatism, take a great portion of her time. She 
has a peculiar charm for extracting maggots from the root of 
carious teeth. When a boy, the writer of this note was sub- 
ject to irritation and swelling of the gums from carious teeth, 
and for it the affection of a fond mother, and the general 
ignorance of the healing art at that time, suggested no better 
remedy than the mantra of the village Bediy^. On three 
different occasions we had to submit to her, and thrice she 
charmed out small communities of little maggots by dint of 
repeating a variety of most indecent verses. She used to 
apply a tube of straw to the root of the carious tooth, and 
every now and then bring out a maggot in its barrel. Once 
spun cotton was used instead of straw, but with no diminution 
of success. The operation was, no doubt, a deception, but 
the relief felt was unmistakable and permanent. 

The feeling of admiration for little black moles on a fair face 
is an oriental peculiarity. In India, it is as strong as it was in 
Hafiz, who offered to give away both Samarcand and Bokhara 
for a single mole on the face of his beloved. The usual mode 
of producing it is by tattooing, — an art unknown to all in 
Bengal, except the Bediydnis. For this purpose they roam 
about in villages, during the cold weather, proclaiming their 
profession and inviting customers. Young girls are their 
principal patrons, and they generally get themselves tattooed 
between the eyebrows or below the under lip. Sometimes the 
breasts and the forearms are also subjected to the operation, 
which consists in introducing under the epidermis, with the 
point of a needle, the juice of a plant, which soon dries into 
an indelible black spot. An imitation is sometimes produced 
by unprofessional village boys by the use of writing ink ; but 
the marks in such cases are badly formed, and soon change to 



128 MITRA ON THE 0TPSIE8 OF BENGAL, 

a pale blue of no beauty. The process is called ulH or goddni 
in Bengal. At home^ the occupation of the Bediy&nl is weav- 
ing mats of palm-leaves^ cooking being the exclusive duty of 
her lord. 

In Europe and Persia^ the gypsies are noted for some talent 
in music^ but we are aware of no such trait in the Bediy& of 
this country ; and although the Spanish zincali is an accom- 
plished danseuse, her Bengali sister has no other claims in that 
respect than what can be assumed by her performances on the 
tight and the slack rope. Capt. Richardson's notice of the 
Nuts of Bengal contradicts our experience in this matter. Ac- 
cording to it the Nuts^ who are only a division of the Bediy&s^ 
are great proficients both in music and dancing. The Bunj&r&s 
are fond of music. Ferdusi makes that accomplishment the 
cause of their exodus to Persia ; and Jaye Sing^ of Canouge^ 
sings of the Bardins^ (female gypsies) perfection in the arts of 
singing and dancing. 

Female gypsies are obliged, by the nature of their profes- 
sion, constantly to expose their persons to public gaze in the 
prime of their youth, and to habituate themselves to a great 
deal of indecency and intercourse with men; still they are 
noted for their fidelity to their lords. The BediyA woman is, 
perhaps, even more circumspect in this respect than her Euro- 
pean representative. She is expected to return home, after her 
day^s peregrinations, before the jackaPs cry is heard in the 
evening, and in defaidt is subjected to severe punishment. It 
is said that a fattx pas among her own clansmen is not held 
reprehensible, but we have no means of giving any authorita- 
tive opinion on the subject ; certain it is that no Bediy&ni has 
ever been known to be at fault with anyone not of her own 
caste. 

Marked morql traits are not to be expected in a race of pro- 
fessed thieves ; and yet the Bediy&s are fond husbands, kind 
parents, affectionate children, and unswerving friends. At- 
tachment to their nationahty is extreme, and no Bediy& has 
ever been known to denounce his race. Whenever a Bediyd 
is apprehended by the police, his clansmen do their best to 
release him, and if condemned to imprisonment or death, they 
invariably support his family. 



MITEA ON THE GYPSIES OP BENGAL. 129 

Of religious ties the gypsy has few, and the Bediyd is noted 
for want of fixed opinions on that subject. The former pro- 
fesses to be a Christian whenever it suits his convenience ; and 
the latter is by turns a Hindu or a Mussulman, according as 
he is in the midst of a Hindu or a Mohammedan population. 
Some are deists ; some are Kalier panthis, or Sikhs ; and others 
assume various disguises, as Fakeers, Jogees, Durvishes, San- 
tons, etc. Hence, the Bediya has earned the title of Panchpiri 
or " followers of many (lit. fine) pirs, or saints.'^ He does not, 
however, subject himself to any of the rites of the religion he 
professes. His dead are generally buried ; and his marriage 
contract is solemnised over country arrack, without the inter- 
vention of priests, the only essential being the consent of the 
heads of his clan. Marriage is restricted to his own caste; 
but kidnapped children, brought up in his camp, are not pro- 
hibited. The Bediy^ is even more sparing of ceremony. In 
reply to the exhortation of the bride's relatives to treat 
her kindly, he simply declares ''this woman is my wedded 
wife/' marking her head at the same time with red lead. The 
bride responds, by saying, " this man is my husband,^' and 
returns the mark on his forehead. The red lead is, in 
Europe, replaced by a ring, both evidently proceeding from 
local customs unconnected with gypsy peculiarity. In central 
India, the Benjares are strictly forbidden to intermarry in 
their own clans; but the prohibition does not extend to the 
Bediyds of Bengal, among whom incestuous marriages are 
suspected to be common. 

It is said that all Bediyds, whether professing Hinduism or 
Mohammedanism, worship the goddess Kill. This is, no doubt, 
a peculiarity borrowed from the Thugs, by whom that goddess 
is supposed to be the patroness of rogues and thieves. 

The Bediyds never appear before a court as complainants, 
nor do the gypsies. They are both under the control of chiefs 
who, in Europe, have the title of "kings", and in India, 
" Sirdars'\ These chiefs are invested with supremo power, 
and with the aid of councils, or " panchdyets^', they administer 
justice, and manage the afiairs of the difierent clans. Their 
decrees are final; and no member of their community ever 

VOL. III. K 




130 MITRA ON THE GYPSIES OP BENGAL. 

dreams of appealing to any higher authority. Even in cases 
of excommunication, the regard to the interest of the commu- 
nity is suflBciently strong to prevent any appeal to the law 
courts of the country. The punishments inflicted by the pan- 
chdyets are confined to fines, and stripes with a shoe : but in 
extreme cases, expulsion from caste is had recourse to. The 
proceeds of the fines are devoted to the entertainment of the 
commimity with spirituous drinks, a small percentage being 
paid to the chief for the support of his rank and consequence. 
His rank is generally hereditary ; and he is invested with au- 
thority over his clansmen wherever they may be located. The 
exercise of this authority is seldom found to be impracticable, 
inasmuch as the Bediyd, though habitually a vagrant, still has 
considerable attachment for the district of his birth, and re- 
turns there often in course of his ramblings. Subordinate 
to the chief, there are a number of leaders to whom he dele- 
gates his authority, for the government of his subjects at a 
distance from his head-quarters. The chiefs of the Bunjaras 
attained to great distinction during the reign of Aurungzebe 
and his successors, who honoured them with firmans and flags 
in token of their services as carriers of commissariat supply. 
Bhikhd was the first who distinguished himself in this way ; 
and one of his descendants, Sarun Bhungy, established rules 
for the government of the race, which are held in the highest 
veneration to this day. We know of no such code among the 
Bediyds, nor have they ever made themselves in any way use- 
ful to civilised man. 

As a nation of thieves, the Bediy&s are everywhere perse- 
cuted, and obliged to resort to the most tortuous means to 
preserve themselves from utter extermination. In all cases of 
dacoity, they are the first to be seized, and their name alone 
suffices to ensure their conviction in most instances. Occasion- 
ally, an active magistrate, or darogah, causes their expulsion 
from one district to another, and frequently they are put to 
great annoyances and trouble. Seven years ago, a magistrate 
of Baraset proposed to place guards over a whole community 
of Bediyfis, with a view not to allow them to stir out of their 
homes at night, and to keep them under sitrveillance during 



MITBA ON THE GYPSIES OP BENGAL. 131 

the day. A few years before that, an officer m Jessore ex- 
pelled a large body of Bediyds from that district. A police- 
officer of some experience once assured us that — out of a com- 
munity, it is supposed, of about 5,000 — at least 500 Bediy&s 
are annually convicted of theft, house-breaking, and dacoity, 
in three or four districts of Bengal. This would imply either 
extreme persecution, or an inordinate devotion to thieving, — 
perhaps both. In Europe,, the gypsies do not at all differ from 
the Bediy&s in this respect. Since their entrance into that 
quarter of the globe, they have been marked out for general 
persecution everywhere. From Bohemia they were expelled 
soon after their arrival in that country, and from France in 
1 560. In Spain, they proved a perfect nuisance by their con- 
stant pilferings, and were ordered to leave the country in 1591 . 
In England, they fared no better. Act 22 Hen. VIII, c. x, 
describes them as '^ an outlandish people, using no craft or 
feat of merchandise, and living by thefts or robbories.^^ They 
are accordingly directed to leave the country, under pain of 
imprisonment and forfeiture of property ; and in trials of felony 
declared not entitled to a jury de mediefate linguce. Subse- 
quently, in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth, the rigors of 
these restrictions were greatly increased ; and residence for a 
month in England by a gypsy, or others in the guise of gypsies, 
was declared felony, without benefit of clergy. These laws 
were carried out with great severity, and yet they seem to 
have produced little eflTect ; and the gypsies lived on, and to 
this day live as do the BediyAs, in the practice of their nefarious 
callings, without any perceptible diminution of their number. 

The language of the gypsy has been proved to be the Hin- 
dustani, with a mixture of vocables borrowed from the people 
among whom they happen to live, and partly from the German 
and the Russian. In Bengal, the foreign elements are replaced 
by Bengali and Sanskrit, but the language is not used in the 
way the gypsies use it. Hindustani would ill serve the pur- 
poses of a secret means of intercommunication in the midst of 
an Indian population. The Bediyds, therefore, have transposed 
the syllables of their words, and prepared a kind of backslang, 
which, without much changing the words, renders them per- 

k2 



132 



MITRA ON THE GYPSIES OP BENGAL. 



fectly unintelligible to the unitiated. In England, the back- 
slang of the costermongers offers an apt parallel to this. The 
main principle of their language, as that of the Bediy&, is to 
spell their words backwards, or rather, pronounce them rudely 
backwards, with occasional alterations, additions, and subtrac- 
tions of particles and syllables for the sake of euphony, and 
perhaps, also, with a view to add to their mystery. In this 
way the costermongers make dlog for '^ gold" ; doog for 
*' good " ; edgabac for '' cabbage", earth si'th no um for ^' three 
months'% etc. ; and the Bediy&s have their ga for ag, '' fire" ; 
ragha for ghar, ''house"; onk for Icon ''who"; hdlam for 
lamhdy "long^'; noso for sona, "gold"; lash tu for tdldsh, 
" search", etc. Besides these, they have a great number of 
words formed by modifying vernacular terms without reference 
to any fixed rules. These they make use of sometimes alone, 
and sometimes mixed with the backslang, in their intercourse 
with their own people ; but they are particularly careful not to 
let out their knowledge to strangers. 

The grammatical construction of the Bediyd language is the 
same as that of the Bengali. In a like manner, the gypsy 
language in Spain is governed by the rules of the Spanish 
grammar, and in England by those of the English. For in- 
tercourse with their neighbours, the Bediyks study the verna- 
culars of the country, and sometimes acquire considerable 
talent in reading and writing. 



Englbb. 

Twilight 

TobcLCCO 

Shoe 

Fish 

Cloth 

House of brick 

Fire 

Come 

Sit 

Go 

Gone 

Taken 

Done 

Relation 

Police 
Sleep 



BEDIYA VOCABULAEY. 

Bediy&. 

Bibit 

M&kta 

T^u 

Si-m-ti 

Chip r& 

Jhot& 

Eaff or Ga 

A'^ 

B& 

Ja' 

Ga 

Li 

Ki 

Bba-o 

K\Uak ko kar& 
Sui 



Hindustani, Bengali, etc. 

Sh&m, H. 
Tdzm&k, B. 
Jut&, B., H. 

Matsya, b., Machobhi, h. 
Eapr&, H., Eapa ra, b. 
KoiightLTf B. 
Ag, H., Agan, B. 
Ao, H., Aiso, B. 
Baitbo, H., Balsa, b. 
Jao, H., B. 

Geva, H., Giy&che, b. 
Lia, H., Li^chhe, b. 
Ki&, H., Kariachbe, b. 
Bb&i, B., Bbaia, h., (for 
brotber) 

Sona, u., Supta, s. 



HITRA ON THE OTPSIES OF BENOAL. 



133 



Engliali. 


B«diy&. 


Water 


Pani 


Ooat 


Bko, kekkd 


Eight anna piece 


Eudnii 


Father 


Baro 


Light 


A lo ha ti re 


Cloud 


Me &'gh& 


ViUage 


Datto 


Earthen tobacco-cup 


Dhalki 


Darknesa 


Panda 


Moonlight 


Dhala 


Daylight 


Bama 


Puddle or clay 


Khira 



To eat and drink (carouse) Fetan 

Wine or epitituoue liquora Nepho 

Crowbar (for breaking Chiti 

throagh a wall) 

Oa Sadar 

Torch Pol 



Rire 




Demon 


DoU, vetches 


* 


H4li 


Flesh 




Guli 


Rupee 




Falki 


Ornaments 




Xhila 


Woman 




BakH 


Man 




Bakra 


Knife 




Pandi 


To lun away 




Geme 


BattU 




Dhot 


Dog 




Nelya 


Thatched house 




Khola 


Chowkidar 




Kokon 


To cease and carry away 


*San^i 


To go away to 


a foreign 


Chati 


counti-y 






Nikaform of marriage 


Kali 



HindosUni, Bengali, etc. 

Pani, H. 

Chh&gal, B,, Bakr&t h. 

Adali, B. 

Bap, B. 

A-lo, B. 

Megha, B. 

Ealika, B., Ealki, h. 
Andhera, h., Andha 

kara, b. 
Dhala, b., dust-light (as 

in a dust-storm) 
Basno, b., (for colour, 

implying brightness) 
Khira, b., (a cast^rd, or 

thickened milk) 
Kh4o4 d4o&, b. 
Sarab, b., h. 
Sindh kati, B. 

Yel, B., H. 

Mosala, b., Ful, b., u. 

(flowers) 
Bhat, B., H. 
D&l, B., H. 
Mas, B. 
xaKa, B«, H* 
Gahana, b., h. 
Stri, B., H., Bateri, h., 

(she-goat) 
Bakra, h. (goat) 
Cbhuri, b., h. 
Goma (Sanskrit, to go) 
Goru, b. 
Kukar, b. 

Kholarprhar,B. (tiled hut) 
Chowkid6r, h. 
Sange, b. (in company) 
Chati, b. (carayansai'y) 

Nika (Persian) 



134 



VIII. — The Psyclioloijical Unity of Mankind. By C. S. 

Wake, F.A.S.L. 

Whateveb decision may ultimately be arrived at as to the 
actual origin of man, the unity of the human race is evident 
from a fact which has hitherto attracted little attention. It is 
a familiar idea, and one which appears to be now accepted as a 
truth, that " mankind'^ (a term which, in this relation, has pro- 
bably been used as synonymous with the Caucasian, or Indo- 
European, race) resembles in its totality an individual man, 
having, like him, an infancy, a childhood, youth, and manhood. 
In the early ages of the world man was in his infancy ; and 
from that stage he has progressed, by gradual steps, until now 
he may be said to have attained — at letist in peoples of the 
European stock — to a vigorous manhood. That such a devel- 
opment must have taken place, is evident from the considera- 
tion that, when we speak of mankind at large, we can only 
refer to the whole sum of individuals of which it is composed, 
whose progressive improvement, from generation to generation, 
constitutes the development of human civilisation. The fact, 
which appears to have hitherto almost escaped attention, is 
the present existence of various families of mankind, exhibit- 
ing every stage of the supposed development. Tt is evident 
that if this can be established, it will furnish an important ar- 
gument in favour of the unity of mankind. 

That a comparison may be made between the intellectual 
phenomena presented by the several great divisions of the 
human race, and those exhibited by man in the gradual evolu- 
tion of his mental faculties, it will be advisable to sketch shortly 
the several stages in the individual man's intellectual progress. 
The child, for some time after birth, is simply instinctive in its 
actions, all of which are directed towards the satisfaction of its 
own physical wants. With the accumulation of experience, 
there is the substitution of imitative action for that of instinct; 
the former, however, . although it is necessarily accompanied 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 135 

by a certain amount of observation having relation wholly to 
self. The exercise of attention is accompanied by that of the 
will, which is the expression of the activity of the mind in re- 
lation to external objects. Intimately connected with this 
faculty is the cruelty so noticeable among children^ and which 
may be described as one of the most distinguishing traits of 
boyhood. Up to this point, the distinction which is generally 
made between the intellectual and the emotional faculties can 
hardly be said to have shown itself; as all the actions of the 
child-life are referable to the instinctive principle in different 
external relations. If either can be said to have priority, it 
must be asserted that the intellectual part of man's nature is 
the first to be developed, aroused by the observation of external 
objects. After the age of puberty, however, the emotional 
nature becomes more active ; and we see the result in the pas- 
sionate life which marks the youthful period of man's existence. 
Nevertheless, during this activity of the passions, the intellect 
is not dormant. Its powers are gradually unfolding ; and its 
activity is exhibited in that simple phase of the imaginative 
faculty which may be described as the empirical. This is the 
phase which the mind exhibits during early manhood. As the 
sphere of its activity is enlarged, however, imagination comes 
to be controlled by the reflective or regulative faculty ; and 
when reason has established its influence, man may be said to 
have attained his actual manhood. 

From this sketch of man's mental development, it is seen 
that it has five chief stages, which may be described as the 
selfish, the wilful, the emotional, the empirical, and the rational; 
these several phases will be found to have their counterparts 
in the mental condition of the several great races of mankind. 
The two first of these stages have much in common. This is 
necessarily so, as they display but little mental activity, the 
difference between them being one of strength of will, rather 
than of the inner qualities which reveal themselves through 
external action. We shall be prepared, therefore, to find that 
those peoples who are in the first and second stages of develop- 
ment exhibit much sameness of phenomena. The race which 
answers to the lowest stage of man's intellectual progress, is 



136 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 

that which it can hardly be donbted is the oldest as well as the 
most uncivilised of the races of mankind. It is possible that 
the aborigines of the Australian continent are not so thoroughly 
degraded as is generally supposed ; but it cannot be doubted 
that their mental condition is at a lower level than that of any 
other widespread race. The Australian native certainly dis- 
plays considerable ingenuity and cunnings and no small degree 
of skill and activity in war and the chase. A late writer (Mr. 
Lang) states, that '' everything they have to do, they do in the 
very best manner ; and I have observed, that for every con- 
tingency that arises they have some simple remedy.'^* He 
says further, that " they appear to have discovered the pro- 
perties of every article fit for food within their reach; and 
have the power of distinguishing between the useful and de- 
trimental portions of each.'' One of the most curious facts 
connected with this peculiar people is, that ''every native 
knows every other native, with whom he has ever come in con- 
tact, by the mark of his foot, as surely and conclusively as the 
detective officer knows every thief, of his acquaintance, by his 
face.'' Mr. Lang states, moreover, that the Australian abori- 
gines have a considerable knowledge of astronomy, which ex- 
tends so far as the dividing '' the heavens into constellations, 
almost identical with those of our own astronomers, and named 
after various animals."t According to the same writer, '' the 
highest form of their intelligence is exhibited in their poetry 
and corroborees, — regularly composed operas, accompanied by 
characteristic music." Notwithstanding these symptoms of 
intelligence, the whole mental activity of the Australian native 
may be said to be of a very simple — almost instinctive — kind ; 
and it is combined with moral qualities — or it may rather be 
^xiAt^ M^'xth an absence of them — which leaves no doubt as to the 
place they hp\d in the scale of humanity. The writer just re- 
ft'rred to, wlio is far from being prejudiced against them, says, 
'' After a Ifcng and careful study of the aborigines, I cannot 
desci-ibe itfas anything more or less than that of bloodthirsty 
savages, f go far as the men are concerned, at all events, I 



• The AbLngines of Australia, by Gideon D. Lang. p. 30. f /Wt7., p. 21. 






THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OF MANKIND. 137 

cannot remember any occasion on which they displayed the 
faintest spark of gratitude or generosity. In short, their dis- 
position is one of unmitigated selfishness.^'* Pure selfishness j 
then, governed by no idea of " morality^', is the ruling prin- 
ciple of the lives of the Australian aborigines ; and we see in 
them the '' oldest'^ of the great families of mankind. 

The second stage of mental progress is the wilful, and of 
this the aborigines of the American continent furnish the 
racial example. A writer in the Encyclopcedia Britannica thus 
describes the mental characteristics of this people : '^ The in- 
tellectual faculties of this great family appear to be decidedly 
inferior, when compared with those of the Caucasian or Mon- 
golian race. The Americans are not only averse to the re- 
straints of education, but are, for the most part, incapable of 
a continued process of reasoning on abstract subjects. Their 
minds seize with avidity on simple truths, but reject whatever 
requires investigation or analysis. Their proximity, for two 
centuries, to European institutions, has made scarcely any per- 
ceptible change in their mode of thinking or their manner of 
life ; and as to their own social condition, they are probably in 
most respects exactly as they were at the earliest period of 
their national existence. They have made few or no improve- 
ments in constructing their houses or their boats ; their in- 
ventive and imitative faculties appear to be of very humble 
capacity, nor have they the smallest taste for the arts and 
sciences.^' To this the writer adds, when speaking of the 
Alleghany Indians, that they have furnished examples of '^ a 
high sense of honour, according to their perceptions of duty ; 
mutual fidelity among individuals ; a fortitude that mocks at 
the most cruel torments ; and a devotion to their tribe which 
makes self-immolation in its defence easy. On the other hand, 
they treat their wives cruelly, and their children with indiflTer- 
ence. The apathy, under the good and ill of life, which the 
stoic affected, is the grand element of the Indian's character. 
Gloomy, stem, and severe, he is a stranger to mirth and 
laughter. All outward expression of pleasure or pain he re- 



• The Aborigines oj Aualralia, p. 32. 



138 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 

gards aa a weakness ; and the only feeling to which he ever 
yields, is the boisterous joy which he manifests in the moment of 
victory, or under the excitement of intoxication. He is ca- 
pable of great exertions in war or the chase, but has an un- 
conquerable aversion to regular labour." There is much truth 
in this estimate of the Indian character ; but no one can read 
Mr. Catlings graphic description of North American Indian life 
without seeing that some modification of that estimate is ne- 
cessary. This traveller declares the current idea that " the 
Indian is a sour, morose, reserved, and taciturn man,'' to be 
entirely erroneous. He says that, on the contrary, he belongs 
to ^^a far more talkative and conversational race than can 
easily be seen in the civilised world. . . . No one can look 
into the wigwams of these people, or into any little momentary 
group of them, without being at once struck with the convic- 
tion that small-talk, gossip, garrulity, and story-telling, are 
the leading passions with them."* Mr. Catlin adds, that ^^ they 
are fond of fun and good cheer, and can laugh easily and 
heartily at a small joke, — of which their peculiar modes of life 
furnish them with an inexhaustible fund, and enable them to 
cheer their little circle about the wigwam fireside with endless 
laughter and garrulity." f This childish mirth is, indeed, quite 
consistent with the intellectual state of Mr. Catlings proteges. 
Although ingenious and talented, he admits, nevertheless, that 
" in mechanic arts they have advanced but little," and '^ in the 
fine arts they are, perhaps, still more rude, and their produc- 
tions are few." When to this is added, that 'Hhe North 
American Indian is everywhere, in his native state, a highly 
moral and religious being," f and that he is " by nature decent 
and modest, unassuming, and inoffensive ;" we must recognise 
the conclusion, drawn by Mr. Catlin from these premises, that 
" the Indian's mind is a beautiful blank on which anything 
might be written," § as a fair one. This character may be 
thought to be rather too highly coloured ; but it has its dark 
side in the cruelty which Mr. Catlin admits to be one of its 



• Catlin's North American Indians, vol. i, p. 84. f Ibid,, p. 85. 

X Ibid,, vol. ii, p. 243. § IHd., p. 245. 



THB PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OF MANKIND. 139 

leading traits. This is seen more especially in the treatment 
of prisoners of war, and in connexion with certain religious 
ceremonies. This trait is, however, only incidental to the 
more general characteristic of strength of vnll, which the 
North American Indian so peculiarly exhibits. This is seen in 
his endurance under hardship and suffering, in the incidents 
connected with his mode of warfare, and even in his political 
independence, which is almost absolute. 

Now, much of Mr. Catlings description of the character of 
the North American Indian is, allowing for the diflference in 
the conditions of their existence, perfectly applicable to the 
character of the civilised man in the boyish stage, when his 
passions are not yet fully developed. At this stage the will 
— guided in its operation by the mind, becomes active, within a 
limited range, in relation to external objects, as distinguished 
from the mere selfishness of the child — has the chief sway 
over man's conduct. This phase of mental activity has, how- 
ever, much in common with that which precedes it. The sel- 
fish nature is predominant in both of them j but in the one 
case its action is almost purely instinctive ; whilst in the other, 
it is accompanied by a certain mental activity in relation to 
external nature, which gives intensity to the will, without alter- 
ing the end, towards the attainment of which its operation is 
directed. A natural result of this strength of will, guided as 
it is by contracted thought, is the cruelty which is a distin- 
guishing trait, as well of the childish mind as of the lower 
races of mankind. So characteristic is this trait, that it might 
almost be said that the human mind passes through a " cruoP' 
phase. It is, however, simply the thoughtless activity of the 
wilful " self,'' and its continuance is usually coextensive only 
with that of the thoughtlessness which gives to selfish action 
its abhorrent character, — a thoughtlessness which exhibits it- 
self, moreover, in the buoyant mirth which is a not less dis- 
tinguishing mark of early boyhood than it is, according to Mr. 
Catlin, of the North American Indian in his natural state. 

The third stage of mental development through which the 
human being passes is the emotional, aud we see its closest 
counteipart in the mental condition of the Negro race. The 



140 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OF MANKIND. 

emotional nature of the Negro is now so well known, that little 
proof of this analogy is necessary. Sufficient evidence of this 
is furnished by Dr. Hunt, in his pamphlet entitled The Negroes 
Place in Nature. Dr. Hunt cites Dr. Pruner-Bey, as saying, 
^^ The capacity of the Negro is limited to imitation. The pre- 
vailing impulse is for sensuality and rest. No sooner are the 
physical wants satisfied, all psychical effort ceases, and the 
body abandons itself to sexual gratification and rest. The 
family relations are weak ; the husband or father is quite care- 
less. Jealousy has only carnal motives; and the fidelity of 
the female is secured by mechanical contrivances. Drunken- 
ness, gambling, sexual gratification, and ornamentation of the 
body, are the most powerful levers in the life of the Negro." 
Although this cannot be accepted as a fair description of the 
character of all the African peoples, and although it requires 
to be somewhat qualified even in relation to the Negro ; yet 
as to the latter, it must be taken as being generally true. In 
comparing this stage of human progress with that of the in- 
dividual man, it must not be supposed that the description just 
given expresses the true phenomena of the youthful life. It 
cannot be denied, however, that youth is the period when the 
emotional nature is predominant, and when the passions are 
most active. The influences of race and of individual educa- 
tion in great measure control the operation of the passions 
among civilised peoples ; but subjectively, the youthful phase 
of the civilised mind is exactly similar to that which is observed 
among the Negroes as a race. There is one characteristic of 
the African mind which deserves notice, as showing that the 
Negro is, nevertheless, not purely an emotional being. Cap- 
tain Burton declares that ^' exaggeration is the characteristic 
of the mind of both the East and West African." He says, 
when speaking of the coast-clans of eastern Africa, ^^ Super- 
subtle and systematic liars, they deceive where duller men 
would tell the truth ; the lie direct is no insult ; and the ofien- 
sive word muongo (liar) enters largely into every dialogue. 
They lie like Africans, objectlessly, needlessly, when sure of 
speedy detection, when fact would be more profitable than 
falsehood ; they have not discovered, with the civilised knave, 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 141 

that ' honesty is the best policy' ; they lie till their fiction be- 
comes^ subjectively, fact. With them the lie is no mental 
exertion, no exercise of ingenuity, no concealment, nor mere 
perversion of the truth : it is apparently a local instinctive 
peculiarity in the complicated madness of poor human nature." 
This curious phase of the uncivilised mind is due to the ab- 
sence or, at least, the weakness of the moral sense ; and 
although, as Captain Burton asserts, it requires no mental 
exertion, it is, nevertheless, proof of a certain degree of mental 
(ictivity; and it serves as a connecting link between the Negro 
and the race next above him in the progressive development of 
mankind. It may be added, as forming another such link, 
that, however, careless the African peoples may be of human 
life, they are not, except, perhaps, among some of the lowest 
tribes, naturally crii^l; superstitious fears and observances 
often make them so ; but their ordinary nature is rather mild 
than the reverse. 

Analogy has thus been traced between the selfish, the wilful, 
and the emotional phases of the human mind, and the charac- 
teristics of certain races of mankind. These several phases 
may be all classed together, as being gradual development of 
man's sensuous nature. In each, however, there is necessarily 
a certain admixture of ^^ intellectual" activity ; and we have 
now to consider the empirical phase which distinguishes the 
mind of the European in the stage of early manhood. At this 
stage the mind has attained to considerable activity ; but the 
regulative or rational faculty not being yet fully developed, its 
operations are empirical in their result, as being guided only 
by the simple teachings of experience. The g^eat division of 
mankind which — the most perfectly — exhibits this mental 
phase, is the Asiatic or Turanian. M. Guyot, in describing the 
mental characteristics of this race, says, " With it the melan- 
choUc temperament seems to prevail ; the intellect, moderate in 
range, exercises itself upon the details, but never rises to the 
general ideas, or high speculations of science and philosophy. 
Ingenious, inventive, full of sagacity for the useful arts and the 
conveniencies of life, the Mongolian, nevertheless, is incom- 
petent to generalise their application. Wholly turned to the 



142 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OF MANKIND. 

things of earth, the world of ideas, the spiritual world seems 
closed against him. His whole philosophy and religion are 
reduced to a code of social morals, limited to the expression of 
those principles of human conscience, without the observance 
of which society is impossible."* We have here the descrip- 
tion of a people whose mind has become extremely active in 
relation to the simple phenomena of external nature, and the 
knowledge thus gained to the satisfaction of the physical wants 
of life. The observation of the facts on which science is founded, 
and the great advance made by the Chinese, for example, in 
the useful arts, prove that the intellect has, with them, attained 
to a considerable degree of activity. The inability, however, 
of the unassisted Asiatic mind to form an absolute science, is 
evidence that the mental development exhibited is still im- 
perfect. This phase of intelligence is, indeed, that which Mr. 
Mill affirms the great mass of civilised mankind to exhibit 
throughout life, — the reasoning from particular to particular 
without the intervention of general ideas. The absence of 
science is simply owing to the inability to recognise general 
truths, which is a characteristic of the Asiatic mind. The want 
of the regulative or rational faculty is, however, attended by 
curious results. The mental activity not being controlled by 
the reason, imagination exerts more than its legitimate influ- 
ence ; the greatest exaggerations are indulged in ; thus making 
unreliable so much of oriental history. Deceit, which with the 
Negro is the result of mere caprice, becomes with the Asiatic, 
oblivious as he is of the requirements of morality, a legitimate 
exercise of the intellect. We see, without doubt, in the oriental 
mind, the empirical stage of the human mind, — that phase in 
which the actions of life are the result of the application, not 
of the generalisations of moral or scientific truth, but of the 
particular teachings of experience without the intervention of 
any process of strict scientific induction. It would seem, in- 
deed, as though the Asiatic mind were incapable of originating 
any further advance in civilisation. M. Guyot says of the 
Hindoos and Chinese, that ^^ these nations ofier us the astonishing 

• Physical Geography (1860), p. 179. 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 143 

spectacle of civilised communities remaining perfectly sta- 
tionary. Three thousand years of existence have made no 
essential change in their condition, — have taught them no- 
thing, — ^have brought about no real progress, — have developed 
none of those great ideas which effect, in the life of nations, a 
complete transformation : they are^ as it were, stereotyped/^* 
In the intellectual phase exhibited by the Hindoos, there is, 
nevertheless, a great contrast to that of the Chinese, notwith- 
standing they have much special resemblance. The writer just 
referred to asserts that, ** endowed with a higher intelligence, 
with a power of generalisation, with a profound religious sen- 
timent, the Hindoo is the opposite of the Chinese ; for him 
the invisible world, unknown to the Chinese, seems alone to 
exist. But the influence of the climate of the tropics gives to 
the intuitive faculties an exaggerated preponderance over the 
active faculties. The real, positive world disappears from his 
eyes. Thus, in his literature, so redundant in works of philo- 
sophy, of poetry and religion, we seek in vain for the annals 
of his history, or any treatise on science, any of those collec- 
tions of observations so numerous among the Chinese. In 
spite of these defects, the Hindoo civilisation, compared to 
that of China, bears a character of superiority which betrays 
its noble origin : it is the civilisation of the western i-aces 
transported and placed under the influence of the east.^'t 
This influence shows itself in a faculty of exaggeration and a 
practice of deceit, similar to those exhibited by the Chinese. 
The Hindoo intellect may, indeed, be said to difier from that 
of the Chinese rather in the objects of its thought than in the 
faculties which show their activity. Empirical thought is that 
which governs the civilisations of both these peoples ; but 
whilst in the one C€ise it has for its object the simple expe- 
riences of life ; in the other, it almost overlooks the mere facts 
of science, and becomes active about the first principles of 
nature itself. The Chinese mind deals with the phenomena 
from which the inductions of science are to be made, stopping 
short, however, of such inductions ; whilst the Hindoo intel- 

• Physical Geography (1850), p. 181. f lUd., p. 180. 



144 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 

lect constructs its systems, without any reference to the pheno- 
mena from which alone can be educed the generalisations of 
true science. 

We see in the Hindoo intellectual phase the foreshadowing 
of the fifth and, it may be, the final stage of human mental 
progress. With this intermediate type, the rational faculty 
has begun to assert its supremo authority ; but having no suf- 
ficient data* for its exercise, its conclusions partake of the im- 
perfection of the premises from which they are drawn. In the 
European intellect we see exhibited all the phenomena which 
distinguish the rational stage of man^s mental development. 
It may be thought unnecessary to give proofs of a fact so in- 
disputable ; but the language of M. Guyot on this point is so 
just that it cannot be omitted. He says : ^' Christian Europe 
beholds poetry, the arts, and the sublimest sciences, succes- 
sively flourish, as in the bright ages of Pagan Greece ; but, 
enriched already with the spoils of the past, culture is far more 
comprehensive, more varied, more profound ; for it is not only 
affluent with the wealth of the days gone by, but Christianity 
has placed it on the soKd foundation of truth. The spirit of 
investigation ranges in all directions ; it adds to this brilliant 
crown a new gem, the science of nature, which grows with a 
speed of which the ancient world had not even a forecast. 
Unriddled by the spirit of man. Nature has yielded up to him 
her secrets ; her untiring forces are enlisted in the service of 
intellect, which knows how to guide their action for its own 
purposes."* Whether the full development of the European 
intellect is due to the influence of Christianity, as M. Guyot 
supposes, or whether Christianity itself is part of the great in- 
tellectual progress exhibited by the Caucasian race, is of little 
moment to the present argument. The fact cannot be denied, 
that the full manhood of humanity expresses itself only in this 
the youngest and most perfect of the races of mankind. 

The progress of man has thus been traced through his various 
race-developments ; and it has been shown that representatives 
of the several stages still linger on the earth. If this be so, 

• Physical Geography (1850), p. 201. 



THE PSYCnOLOOICAL UNITY OF MANKIND, 145 

several important inferences may thence be drawn. In the 
first place, if it be true that the European or Caucasian race 
exhibits a phase of mental development, the progressive stages 
towards which are exhibited by other races of mankind, we are 
justified in believing that, before the former could have reached 
its perfect stage, it must have passed through all the inter- 
mediate ones. We may therefore suppose that the past phases 
of development of the European race, can be reproduced by 
observation of the present condition of the less perfect races 
of man. According to this view, in the Australian aborigines 
we have examples of the primitive state, not only of the Euro- 
pean, but of all other races. This is, however, subject to great 
qualification, seeing that the very fact of superior races having 
made so much further advance in civilisation than those below 
them, proves that the peculiarities of inferior peoples, which 
constitute their race-characters, can never have been so strongly 
marked in those above them. This consideration leads to the 
further conclusion, that the present imperfection of inferior 
peoples is not necessarily introductory to the more perfect de- 
velopment exhibited by the European. In a former paper, I 
endeavoured to show that the source of the inferiority of the 
lower races of mankind is to be sought in the long-continued 
persistence of conditions of nature unfavourable to the per- 
fect development of the physical and mental organisms, which 
has finally resulted in a state of arrested growth, such as those 
races exhibit. 

Wo have in this a reason why the inferior races should not 
be able to attain to the perfection of development of the Eu- 
ropean, — an inability which must be the most apparent in the 
lowest variety of mankind, seeing that the longer any physical 
or mental state continues, the more habitual or fixed does it 
become. Probably, in the case of the Australian and American 
aborigines, and also of those races, remnants of which aro 
found in the Hottentots and Eskimos, these states have become 
so fixed that they cannot be altered. The Negro and the 
Asiatic forms appear to be less fixed ; and yet they are ap- 
parently incapable of making any further progress /rowi within. 
If this is to take place, it must have its origin from ivithont ; 

VOL. HI. L 



146 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OF MANKIND. 

and it is reserved for the European race, not only to exhibit 
the most perfect phase of human civilisation, but to impress 
that civilisation on the older races of mankind. 

If the view of the progress of mankind here insisted on be 
correct, and if there be a correlation of the physical structure 
of a people and of the mental peculiarities they exhibit, race- 
characters* must originally have been of merely secondary im- 
portance ; and they can have become of primary importance 
only when fixed, as the result of persistence of certain external 
conditions through a long period of time. No doubt it is 
owing to this persistence that certain characters are now so 
marked as to be strictly racial. It may, certainly, be objected 
that even supposing the primitive equality of all the races into 
which mankind is now divided, it does not necessarily follow 
that they must have had a common origin. There is appa- 
rently no reason why mankind should not have descended fi*ora 
one hundred ancestors instead of from one only. If, however, 
the idea of the plurality of races be got rid of, as it must be, 
if the ancestors of all races were originally on an equality, the 
reason for requiring a plurality of origins must go with it. 
The more so, as the lapse of time is as competent to account 
for the universal spread of man over the globe, as the forma- 
tion of the races into which mankind is now divided. It is 
undoubted that a very long period has been required for the 
latter process ; and as, on the supposition of man's primitive 
equality, all races must have had an equally distant origin in 
time, there is nothing to render it unlikely that, as those races 
are traced back to their common type, they are also being 
traced up to a common source. 

It is objected, however, that we have no evidence in history 
of the origin of races ; and that we must, therefore, suppose 
them to have always existed as such, and mankind, conse- 
quently, to have had several centres of origin. This argument 
in favour of original plurality of race, however plausible, is of 
little value, seeing that it is purely negative. The fact of his- 
tory being silent on the subject, is no proof that races have 
not been actually formed ; it may have been, and doubtless 
was, throughout a period long antecedent to that which even 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL UNITY OP MANKIND. 147 

the oldest tradition can reach. There are, moreover, two diflS- 
culties connected with the idea of an original plurality of races, 
which render its truth highly improbable. The legitimate 
conclusion to which it leads is, that every country has had its 
own autochthones ; and that man, therefore, is sprung from not 
one, or three, but from hundreds of ape progenitors ! For the 
ape origin of man would seem to be essential to the scientific 
belief in the original plurality of race. This conclusion is un- 
satisfactory enough ; but is hardly more so than — supposing 
the ape origin of man — to assert that the Caucasian race has 
not sprung from the Mongolian or from the Negro stock, but 
from an ape ; seeing that while the latter differs from man so 
much more than it resembles him, — the European and the 
Negro, even, resemble each other so much more than they 
differ ; — ^it is vastly more probable that the superior has been 
derived from an inferior human type than that it has been de- 
rived from an ape. It is probable, however, that the Cauca- 
sian race has not sprung from any other of the existing human 
races, but that it has been derived from some older race, of which 
each of the existing families of mankind represents some spe- 
cial phases fully developed. All the branches must, however, 
meet in the primitive stock before the common ancestor is 
reached, if they are traced down low enough ; and it is more 
reasonable to suppose that the Caucasian race has sprung from 
even the lowest or earliest type of humanity; — even though Us 
immediate progenitor were an ape, — than that the former had 
an independent ape origin. 



l2 



148 



IX. — Tlie Indians of the Mosquito Ten'itory, By John 
CoLLiNSON, C.B., F.E.G.S., F.A.S.L., etc., etc. 

In 1863, I read before the British Association Meeting, held 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, an account of my explorations and 
survey, during the same year, in the Mosquito territory of 
Central America. Since then I have, besides traversing Nica- 
ragua from lake to ocean, repeated my visit to the Mosquito 
country, and spent considerable time in exploring its rivers, 
lagoons, and impenetrable forests. The present brief paper 
has in view the communication of some interesting facts picked 
up at odd times during these two expeditions, relative to the 
manners, customs, and languages of three out of the seven 
aboriginal tribes who people its shores and vast forests. 

The Mosquito Indians consist of seven distinct tribes ; viz., 
Mosquitos, Woolwas, Bamas, Valientes, Cookwras, Tongas, 
and Poyas ; but as my dealings were almost exclusively con- 
fined to the three first mentioned, the information I now com- 
municate will relate to them alone. Commencing with a brief 
outline of their respective physical traits, I shall deal with the 
Mosquito tribe first. 

These Indians are by far the most intelligent and enlightened 
of all the tribes, — a result attained by the indefatigable efforts 
of the Moravian missionaries, who have established several of 
their stations along the coast ; and from the greater accessibility 
of the Mosquitos have more especially directed their efforts, in 
the first instance, to their civilisation and the abolition of the 
barbarous ceremonies so common among them. The personal 
appearance of the members of this tribe is decidedly good, 
when uncontaminated by the diseases introduced among them 
by traders, etc., from the civilised Old World. Though their 
stature is short, rarely if ever exceeding five feet eight inches, 
they are strongly made, and can endure a continuance of fa- 
tigue much better than their larger neighbours, the Woolwas. 
Iliis I attribute to their more decent mode of living, induced 



THE INDIANS OF THE MOSQUITO TERRITORY. 149 

by the missionaries^ which has caused the traders of the coast 
to seek for more congenial boon companions for their sensual 
revels among the less enlightened tribes. The complexion of 
these people is very dark^ with finely cut features^ noses small 
and straight^ cheekbones high^ and hair long^ coarse^ and thick^ 
falling from the crown equally over head and face^ no attempt 
being made to keep it off the latter. For clothes^ the more 
civilised wear any article of European clothing they can pick 
up ; while the others content themselves with a piece of native 
cloth round their loins, called '' toonu". 

The king of the entire territory is an hereditary chief, and 
is obliged by law to be a pure Mosquito, the title descending 
regularly from father to son, or in failure of direct issue to 
the nearest relative, who is a member of the royal tribe. The 
last king, my companion for some time, while exploring the 
country, was a good specimen of what an enlightened Indian 
can become. His education, received at Jamaica, was quite 
equal to that of an ordinary English gentleman. With it he 
had acquired a refined taste, hardly to have been expected; 
he was never without one or two volumes of our best English 
poets in his pocket, and availed himself of every unoccupied 
moment to peruse them. But I do not want it to be supposed 
that civilisation had made him effeminate in the slightest de- 
gree ; on the contrary, he was the best shot, and cancels man 
in the whole country ; and though regarded by his people with 
the afiection of children for their father, his slightest word or 
look was law, and woe to him who disobeyed either. I am 
sorry to say that this exemplary monarch is no more. 

The Woolwas, who come next, are, in my opinion, the most 
interesting of all the tribes, they are still almost in their pris- 
tine state of barbarity ; some of their number, who were 
working for me in the bush, had actually never before seen a 
white man. 

These people follow the curious custom of flattening the 
heads of their children in infancy, practised also in some parts 
of North America : and as they wear the same long hair as the 
Mosquitos, but instead of allowing it to cover the face, have it 
cut in a straight line juat above the eyes, and as fur back as 



160 THE INDIANS OP TUB MOSQUITO TEBEITOBY. 

the temples, their countenances have a peculiar appearance^ 
more as if cut out of a block of wood, than created of natural 
flesh and blood. Their cheek bones are very high, eyes black 
and glittering, like most Indians, and complexions swarthy. 
Their other features are, of course, completely spoilt and altered 
from their original form, by the compression process. Both 
these tribes are dreadfully subject to cutaneous aflfections, and 
especially leprosy ; with the exception of the king, I never saw 
a perfectly clean skinned man among them. 

The sole garment indulged in, by both men and women alike, 
is the " tas," a cloth made out of the bark of the India rubber 
tree [Castilloa elastica), similar to the " toonu" of the Mosquito 
men, only much wider. It is twisted round the loins, and, 
after fastening in front in some wonderful manner, both ends 
are allowed to fall down and form a broad flap. They are very 
fond of painting their faces with a beautiful carmine, extracted 
from a shrub called "arter" (Bignatiia chic a). On festal occa- 
sions wonderful figures are drawn on their countenances with 
this colour. 

We now come to the Kamas, a very fine race of men, some 
indeed of Herculean stature and strength, and dreaded alike by 
both Mosquitos and Woolwas. From the specimens I saw, a 
stature of six feet does not seem to be at all uncommon among 
them. The remnants, however, of this once powerful and 
numerous race, which formerly peopled tlie San Juan, Rama, 
and Frio rivers, besides many smaller intervening ones, and 
struck terror into the minds both of the Spanish conquerors 
and the other Indians by their ferocious character and reputa- 
tion as cannibals — have, I suspect, a strong admixture of negro 
blood in their veins, as, hke the Caribs, they often have mous- 
taches, which seem to arise among the denizens of tropical 
America only after the intermixture of difierent races. These 
men, though reputed so fierce, are yet intelligent above ordinary 
wild tribes, most of them speaking English well. Their coun- 
tenances are serious and stern, and give one the impression of 
much thought devoted to brooding over their country^s wrongs. 
The dress worn by them is very similar to the Mosquito cos- 
tume, viz. the inevitable " toonu,'^ accompanied by any European 



THE INDIANS OF THE MOSQUITO TERBITOBT. 151 

garments attainable, without much regard to their proper 
position on the human form as regulated by fashionable tailors. 

A general description of the characteristic traits and appear- 
ance of these tribes having been given, I shall now detail a few 
of the most interesting ceremonies and customs, originally 
practised by all alike, but now fast falling into disuse among 
the Mosquitos. 

Their religious observances seem to be confined to invoca- 
tions, interrogations, and propitiations of devils and evil spirits; 
that good spirits or gods exist is their belief, but they con« 
sider the evil ones to be much their superiors, and in all cases 
of difficulty they fly to supplicate the latter and not the former. 
A belief in a future existence is entertained among them, and 
after a death the canoe of the departed is cut across in the 
middle, the corpse placed in it so that he may have no difficulty 
in getting out at one end, and then buried under his house, in 
which are deposited plantains, bananas, and com, and a porous 
jar filled with water. The provisions are for the spirit on its 
way to the happy hunting grounds, and the token of departure 
is the disappearance of the water from the jar. 

The most important and barbarous of their ceremonies is a 
religious drinking orgie (very similar to the feasts of the Jurias 
of South America, described by Humboldt) celebrated in the 
following manner. Invitations are sent out in great numbers, 
but always to members of the same tribe, to take part in the 
proceedings. At the stated time, those invited, accompanied by 
their wives, assemble, decked out with feathers and beads, and 
smeared over with paint, so as to become perfectly unrecognis- 
able. They then paddle in their canoes to some out-of-the-way 
spot, chosen for its solitude and the improbability of intrusion. 
There, huts of branches and palm-leaves are hastily erected, and 
the women set to work in them, to prepare a filthy and highly 
intoxicating drink, called *' mishla,'^ made as follows : — large 
supplies of ripe plaintains, cocoa nuts, cassava, and pine apples 
are provided, which are first chewed by the women, and then 
spit into troughs dug out of logs. The saliva, conjoined wi^h 
the influence of a tropical sun, speedily produces fermentation, 
when the dif^gusting mes^s is ready for consumption. The men, 



152 THE INDIANS OP THE MOSQUITO TERRITORY. 

meanwhile^ have removed themselves about a quarter of a mile 
from the women's huts, and cleared out a space of ground. 
Each man then carved for himself a small pipe (burnt on con- 
clusion of the ceremonies, as too sacred to be beheld by profane 
eyes) on which they play, accompanying themselves by dancing 
and singing, which grow more boisterous and rapid as the ex- 
citement caused by the exercise arouses them. This is their 
invocation to the Devil, with whom they pretend to hold con- 
verse, and receive information relative to present and future 
events. Each individual keeps this up until he falls to the 
ground from utter exhaustion, when he crawls to the women's 
camp, drinks as much " mishla'' as he can swallow, then re- 
turns and rejoins the other revellers. This goes on, without ces- 
sation, for three or four days, when all return home to sleep off 
the baneful eflFects of their dissipation, which not unusually 
produces a state of temporary insanity. No woman is allowed 
to see anything of what is going on, under a penalty, rigidly 
enforced, of immediate death. 

Another very common and favourite method of unravelling 
the unknown, is an incantation, by a " sookia'' man, (who pos- 
sesses a reputation as Doctor of Medicine, as well as diviner.) 
He commences operations by cutting a small wand, peeling it, 
and tying a short string to its top. He then strokes it repeat- 
edly, muttering in an undertone words supposed to form an 
incantation ; after this has been done for some time, one end 
of the stick is placed in the left elbow, and the right arm is 
stretched out to the string end; if it exactly reaches this when 
extended to its full length the wand will reveal the truth, if not 
the string must be altered and the process repeated until it is 
in its right position. Questions, relating to the present and 
future, will then be answered the ^' sookia'' man, correctly as 
he states, though I must confess that the queries I propounded 
were never replied to very successfully, but I was an unbeliever, 
and it is a notorious fact that spirits are put out of their calcu- 
lations by the incredulous. 

.A foolish custom, still very generally prevalent among the 
people, is the marriage ordeal, to which every youth must sub- 
mit when he aspires to the dignified position of a married 
man. 



THE INDIANS OF THE MOSQUITO TEBBITOBT. 153 

Notice having beea given of the youth's desires^ a day is 
fixed, and all the married men of the tribe assemble, when the 
luckless aspirant stands in the midst, bending down his bare 
back, and submits to the ordeal, which consists of a dreadful 
beating, administered by each beholder in turn, with his elbow, 
a formidable instrument in the power of a heavy man, the use 
of the fists being entirely unknown. 

Should the suflFerer be unpopular he is very lucky if he es- 
capes with his life, and, indeed, I have been credibly informed 
that many fatal cases have arisen from this inhuman practice. 
The ordeal undergone, liberty is vouchsafed to marry as soon 
as he has sufficiently recovered from its effects. 

To counterbalance this rite a man has great power over his 
wife after marriage. Should he return home after a journey 
and suspect her of faithlessness, he binds her by her hands and 
feet to a tree, beats her with a club, and even gashes her with 
a knife, until she accuses some man of being her lover. She 
is then released, and the husband proceeds to the accused's 
residence, and gets damages out of him by driving away and 
taking possession of any cattle he may possess. 

This law is without appeal, and, as may be supposed, leads to 
frightful abuses; the woman's word after submitting to the 
torture cannot be gainsaid, and ill-will, or the desire for some 
coveted possession, is quite sufficient for calling it into action. 

I must not omit mention of a superstition founded on the 
supposed existence of a gigantic species of serpent. These 
mythical reptiles are called *^ Wowlvahs," and are believed by 
the natives to inhabit certain out-of-the-way swampy pools and 
marshes, where they grow to an enormous size, live for ever, 
and have the capability of swallowing a canoe full of men at a 
time. No Indian will stop near their supposed abode for fear 
of arousing their anger, and so compassing his own destruction. 

The '^ sookia" men above mentioned, conjoined with the ex- 
ercise of a certain amount of practical knowledge of doctoring, 
make use of charms and incantations against sickness, painting 
a lot of devils on sticks, with which they assume they can, by 
fencing round the sufferer, keep off the aggressive devils who 
are assailing hiui. They also tie charmed sticks on their cacao 



154 THE INDIANS OP THE MOSQUITO TBBBITOBY. 

and other trees^ to keep birds, animals, and even men, from 
plundering them. 

Where all these inhabitants of Mosquito originally came 
from is difficult to say ; but that they were at any former time 
one people is exceedingly improbable, and could be disproved 
by the fact alone of their speaking such utterly distinct and 
diflferent languages. Since we can obtain any records of them, 
they have ever been a fierce and marauding race, resisting 
subjugation successfully, with every man's hand turned against 
his neighbour's. My impression is, not that they originally 
peopled their present strip of territory, which, had such been 
the case, must necessarily show — as it does not — some remains 
and proof of their ancestors' existence; but that each tribe 
came severally, and at different times, from various parts of 
the continent, north and south. Races like the North American 
Indians of to-day, to whom civilisation is impossible, and gra- 
dually driven back by the fruitfulness and increasing numbers 
of the more adaptable and improving races, sought refuge in 
the fastnesses and pathless forests of the Mosquito country. 
To support my theory, the Caribs, expelled* of recent years 
from the gulf islands where they formerly dwelt, have come in 
this manner to the Mosquito coast; and though preserving, 
like the other tribes, their mother tongue intact, are yet 
settling down as another race and tribe, to add to the number 
of the Mosquitos. 

I have appended to this paper two vocabularies, — one of the 
Mosquito, and one of the Woolwa tongue ; some of the words 
in the former have, I believe, been pubUshed before ; but, I 
think, I am correct in stating that the present one is the only 
Woolwa vocabulary yet known in Europe. 

* Caribs depi^rted from St. 'Vincent to Roatan, in bay of Honduras, by tbo 
English, in number six thousand, a.d. 1796. 



THE INDIANS OF THE MOSQUITO TERRITOKT. 



155 



WOOLWA VOCABULARY. 



Libra, Woolwa people, 

Wahi, brother, 

Al, man, 

Yel, woman, 

Siroa backar, girl, 

Al backar, boy, 

Yalki, wife, 

Alkimuk, husband, 

Aslar, one, 

Bon, iwo, 

Bas, three. 

Aroonca, four, 

Seenca, five. 

Deecca, six. 

Yecca, seven, 

Bachca, eight, 

Tingpiicasla, nine, 

Tingniskoobou, ten, 

Pamki, tapir, 

Nowar powka, red tiger, 

Nowar, tiger, 

Powka, red, 

Nowar bolka, spotted tiger, 

Burruska, black, 

Pichca, white, 

Simna, deer, 

Sowie, wari, 

Cassi, to eat. 

Caskouting, eating, 

Deekoting, drinking. 

Soopokotmg, sucking, 

Deeko, to drink. 

Yappoo, alligator, 

Kabama, iguana. 

Was, water. 

I warra, come here. 

Baina warra, come hci'e qtiick. 

Yowanakou, let us go. 

Koorring, canoe. 

Waliinah, paddle, 

Eoobil, knife. 

Seeban, bow and ai'rows, 

Keeddak, cuee. 

Oorrus, monkey. 

Wummi, Curassow (turkey). 

Wunkuruman, guan (small turkey). 

Woomalo, partridge, 

Moolakoos, peccari, 

Yaoika, good. 

Dootka, bad. 

Awai, yes. 

Eessou, no, 

Aissou, none, 

Ahmakouting, sleejting. 

Meouhka ahmakouting, to sleep. 

Toonik, head. 



Tas, cloth worn round loins, 

Kalki, foot, 

Einki, hand, 

Wakki, plantains, 

Inkkini, bananas, 

Um, com, 

SuBsunka, beads, 

Simming, fish-hook. 

Sooksuwookka^ cord, 

Asnar, cloth, 

Soobba, pot, 

Watikah, banana bird, 

Vecah, hare, 

Kee, rock. 

Sou, ground. 

Son assnng, world, 

Nowal, devil, 

Waikou, God, 

Mah, sun, 

Waikoo, moon. 

Mahbruska, sky. 

WaaLouti, rain. 

Ewi, to die, 

Yowahkooting, to walk, 

Yoolbntiang, to talk, 

Mahdi, to-day. 

Yun, to-morrow. 

Dummi, yesterday, 

Koo, fire. 

Eoolaka, firewood. 

Pun, wood. 

Quassika, hammock, 

Keettung, waterfall, 

Tookwunnah, big. 

Ki, mine. 

Yungdeeki, yours. 

Washbiloo, mishla (intoxicating drink), 

Moohiwah deekaTia, his. 

Amisceka, sister. 

Passingka, father. 

Mamaka, mother. 

Eahaloo, shirt. 

Eahaaong, trousers, 

Coocoo, cocoa,-nut. 

Almuk, male. 

Tooroo,* cattle, 

Pamka, horse. 

Boorroo,* donkey. 

Mnlah,* mule. 

Malakah, Indian rahbit, 

Kookmik, armadillo, 

Hoombooka, bird. 

Ooli, turtle. 

Taspool, Indiarubber. 

Deehlatookuting, cooking. 

Pun, tree. 



Evidently corniptions from Ihc Spanish. 



156 



THE INDIANS OF THE MOSQUITO TEBBJTOBT« 



Wayahal, Mosquito man, 
Waya yel. Mosquito woman, 
Sooktuk, calabash. 
Mahboutoring, fighting. 
Was, river, 
Tooki, mouth. 
Meekduka, eyes, 
Anaki, teeth. 



Tapabki, ears. 
Baa, hair. 
Koomah, salt. 
Koomhoo, rabbit. 
Backar kee, children, 
Oo, house. 
Assun, hiU, 



MOSQUITO VOCABULAEY. 



Narra bal, come here, 
Eine, make haste. 
Kaiser, let us go. 
Douce, stick, 
Yerri, long, 
Kumi, one, 
Wal, two. 
Yumpa, three. 
Walwalun, four, 
Matasip, five. 
Mata walkaby, six, 
Mata walkaby kami, seven, 
Matawal wal, eight, 
Matawal yampa, nine. 
Matawal sip, ten. 
Youan eiske, twenty, 
Youan eiske wal,/or*y. 
Clucki, cut. 
Brebal, bring here, 
Yany, mine. 
MaD, your. 
Eisiken, father, 
Yapti, mother. 
Mooine, eldest brother. 
Deevra, youngest brother, 
Lakreka, sister, 
Tahte, uncle. 



Yapti deevra, aunt. 
Darner, grandfather. 
Kookah, grandmother, 
Pearker, tcidoto. 
Mair, w\fe. 

Mair waikna, husbands 
Mairen, woman. 
Waikna, man, 
Lilla, mistress, 
Almuks, old man, 
Hupla, people, 
Mebi, friends. 
Pies, eai. 
Ploom, victuals. 
Dies, drink, 
Lia, water, 

Lia kowta, cold water, 
Wano, come along, 
Apia, no, 
Aoa, yes. 
Yabra, north. 
Blanco, south. 
N'emopera, go this side. 
Passer, wind 
Keero, knife, 
Kakboos, gun. 



List of Articles exhibited on the Table, — Sookia — used to protect cacao-trees. 
Bjws— one of " soapa" palm, one of "ooka". Fighting Arrows — sagar-cane 
blossom tipped with " sonpa" and iron points. Wari Arrow— ditto, ditto, 
ditto. Fish Arrows— ditto, ditto, with iron points. Silak— turtle har- 
poon, shaft of "soupa". Line for ditto— silk-grass. Turtle Harpoons. 
Fish Harpoons. Turtle Shell — turtle of commerce (hawkbiU). Scales of ditto. 
Machete — cutlass. Stone Candlestick. Sheet of indiarubber. Lances — used 
for fighting and killing large game. Toonu — native cloth made from india- 
rubber tree bark worn round the loins. Flutes. Pnack — bead necklace. 
Soumis — native clay-pots for cooking. Dress teeth. Eukwasbara— used for 
calling animals. Pitpan — canoe. Busbara — pot-spoon. Shukkah. Yul- 
sirpi. Mawa Ulbika — used to paint the face with. 



157 



X. — On the Saracens in France, especially in Burgundy and 
Lorraine, By Dr. Gustavb Lagxbau. (Translated by 
E. VilHn, F.R.S.L., F.A.S.L.) 



Thb Saracens came out from Arabia, and after having success- 
fully subdued the nations of Northern Africa and Spain, began 
their incursions beyond thePyrennees asearlyas a.d. 715.* Their 
armies were composed, not of Arabs only, but also of Moors, 
Kabils, or African Berbers, and Jews, at that time numerous in 
Spain, t In an anthropological point of view, these diverse races 
vastly differed in characters ; for even now the Arab and the 
Kabil, living in Algeria, vary very sensibly. " The Berber,'' says 
M. Pruner-Bey,J "is generally distinguished from the Arab 
by a higher stature, by a cerebral and facial cranium broader 
in its transverse diameter; his forehead is more vertical, 
well developed in every direction, and little produced; his 
eyebrows are less arched, and are sometimes nearly united 
together. The jaws are entirely orthognathous. The Berber 
has less delicate features than the Arab. The craniometrical 
mensurations, taken by one of our colleagues § on eleven Ara- 
bian heads and fourteen Kabil heads, fully confirm these dif- 
ferences.'* 

Up to A.D. 759, when the Frank King P^pin took Narbonne, the 
Saracens occupied Septimania, overran the Albigeois, Ruergue, 

* Beinaud, Invdsiona of the Saracens into France and into Savoy, Piedmont, 
and Switzerland, 1836, Paris. 

t Ihid., pp. 7 and 240. Depping, The Jews in the Middle Ages, 1834, p. 31. 

J Memoirs de la Soci^t^ Anthropologique de Paris, vol. i, pp. 413, 414. 

§ " Besults of Craniometry," M6moires de la 8oc, d*Anthrop,, y, 11, p. 432. 





Antfro-pos- 

t4;riur dia* 

metor. 


Biparietal 
diameter. 

138 


Horizontal 

circumfer- 

enoe. 


Relation of Lon- 
gitudinal & traus- 
Terse diameters. 


Berbers, 


Kabils, and Moors 


184 


526 


1000 : 760 


Arabs 


. 


178 


135 


505 


1000 ; 759 


Jews 


• * • * 


175 


131 


486 


1000 : 750 



158 LAGNEAU ON THE SARACENS IN FRANCE, ETC. 

Gevaudan, and Velay provinces, and advanced northwards, 
both into Burgundy and beyond Poictiors. 

The small peninsula, Le Veron, at the confluence of the 
Vienne river into the Loire, is, to all appearances, still inhabited 
by the descendants of some Saracens who escaped death at the 
battle fought between Charles Martel and Abd-erah-mam, near 
Poictiers, They are still remarkable for their dark complexion, 
elongated faces, very black hair, and melancholy.* 

The M^doc ^'Landes" were likewise a district of refuge for 
the vanquished dispersed after this long battle by " Eudes,'* 
duke of Aquitaine, and, according to tradition, they built 
the village of Vendays, the inhabitants of which are still at 
present distinguished by features very typical of the east. 
Their women are remarkably beautiful. Even their horses are 
still considered of Arabian race.f 

Doctors Russicre and Vincent J have equally noticed in the 
'' Creuse'* department, near ChAtillon, in the neighbourhood of 
Montmaury (or Mountain of the Moors) inhabitants of a high 
size, light frame, dark brown skin, nervous temperament, Uvely 
imagination, and apparently descended also from Arabian fugi- 
tives, some of whom had introduced carpet making at Au- 
busson. 

When the Mussulman armies were obliged to recross the 
Pyrenees, numbers of Saracens remained in France. Charle- 
magne gave, to those Saracens who became Christians, lands in 
the vicinity of Narbonne. Some ancient families of Languedoc 
consider themselves of that origin. § 

At a later period, these Saracens, after having occupied Ca- 
margue, settled in a.d. 889 at the Castle of Fraxinet (now the vil- 
lage of La Garde Frainet) in the Gulf of Tropez, near mountains 
there again called Mountains of the Moors. In the same manner 
in the Maritime Alps, Esa built in terraces on a steep rock || the 

• Fod^r6, Vayages aux Alpea Maritimea, p. 68, Paris, 1821. 

t "Le Littoi-al de la France"; "Eiis6e Beclos"; Revrie des Deux Mondes, 
Aoftt, 1863. 

X F. Vincent, " Etudes d'Anthropol. sur le D^partement de la Creuse", 
Bulletin de la 8oc, det Sciences Naturellea d'Anthrop. de la Crease, vol. iv, p. 50, 
1865. 

§ Reinaud, vol. i, p. 1)7, etc. || Ma^<isxn Pittorcsque, p. lis, 1861. 



LAQNBAU ON THE SARACENS IN PRANCE, ETC. 159 

St. Hospice Peninsula; Bordigher,* where palm trees are 
^rown,and some other districts of the Littoral, became stations of 
Saracens. In a.d. 941 Hugues, king of Italy and Provence, made 
over to them lands in the Hills of Maurian, of Tarantaise, and 
Faucigny.t From their mountains they spread into the plains 
of the south-east of France. Being driven from the environs of 
Grenoble, about a.d. 965, Guillaurae, count of Provence, caused 
them the loss of the Castle of Fraxinet ; J but they were ex- 
pelled from the Savoy Mountains only in the eleventh century. § 
At the present time there still exist descendants of those 
Saracens between Annecy and Chamb^ry in the plain of 
Bauges. || 

According to Fodere,1[ the elephantiasis of the Arabs, ob- 
served in Provence and in Liguria, is the sad inheritance of 
these easterns. 

As to the Saracens of Burgundy, they appear to have in- 
vaded that region during the eighth century, after having mas- 
sacred, in the Velay in a.d. 729, St. Theofrede, abbot of Amnoric, 
now "monastier;*'** whilst, in the meanwhile, the Alp Saracens 
made frequent irruptions into the plains of the east of France. 
Dom Mabellon records that they destroyed, in a.d. 782, the Con- 
vent of He Barbe at Lyons (" Apud Lugdunum Insulaj-Barbaras 
Monasterium'^) .ft 

Lately Dr. Perier found at Chazay d'Azergues,JJ in the 
Rhone Department, near the cave still called the " Sarraziniere,*' 
a skull which, after its conformation, appeared to him as coming 



• Gillebert d'Hericourt, Gazette MMcale de Lyons, pp. 98 and 153, 1862. 

t Pod^r^*, vol. i, p. 45. 

X Reinaud, pp. 205-209, etc. 

§ Hadry-Menos, *' La Savoio depuis rAnnexation", Bevae des Deux Mondes, 
Nov. 15, 1862. 

I! Gosse, Bull, de la Soc. d*Anthrop., vol. ii, 1861. Caffe, Journal dcs Con- 
naissances J\Udicale8, p. 159, April 10, 1862. 

% Foder6, vol. i, p. 69 ; and vol. iv, du Journal Complementaire du Diction- 
noire des Sciences MiUlicales. 

•* Congris Scientifique de France, 22nd session, 1855, vol. i, p. 612 ; vol. ii, 
p. 482, communication of Messrs. Carmue and Aymard. 

ft Dom. Johan. Mabillon, Annates Ordinis Benedicti, vol. ii, p. 89. 

XX Bull, de la Soc. d^Anthrop. de Pan^, vol. vi, p. 22-i. 



IGO LAONEAU ON THE SARACENS IN PRANCE, ETC. 

from those Saracens who built forts, now in ruins, at Ghftteaa- 
Gaillard and at La Motte-Saracen between Ambronay and 
Varambron, in the " Ain'' Department.* 

North of Macon and south of Tournus, on both banks of the 
Saone, there are, on one side, the villages of Boz, Ozan, Arbigny, 
and Sermoyer, whose inhabitants call themselves Burkins; and 
on the other, the village of Uchizy, whose inhabitants go by 
the name of Chizerots, In contradiction to M. Reboud, M. 
Reinaudf seems to doubt their Saracen origin. In 1862 I 
went to Uchizy and Arbigny ; several persons there told me 
themselves that they were of Arabian or Saracenic origin. In 
the midst of numerous individuals, having apparently no very 
distinct anthropological characters, some very black haired 
women diflFered from the inhabitants of the neighbourhood by 
their tall and slender figure; their elongated faces, without 
malar prominences, by their uniform and dark complexion, by 
their large eyes, long eye-lashes, black, thick and arched eye- 
brows, by their physiognomy, melancholy, yet regular and 
beautiful ; for one of these young Chizerotes, when the French 
empress passed through Macon, had been appointed, as the most 
beautiful girl of the whole district, to offer a bouquet to her 
sovereign. That type seems more Arabian than Berberic. 

Those Saracens, whose descendants are found on the banks 
of the Saone, according to Dom Jean Mabillon, destroyed 
Autun (AugiLstodunum) , pulled down the abbey of Beze (wo- 
nasterium Besuense) near Dijon (Divis), attacked Sens {Sernonea) 
whence they were repulsed by Ebbon in a.d. 732, and lastly mas- 
sacred St. Mellin and his monks in the monastery of Luxeuil : 
Nee hvjus cladis expcrs ])a^a8 Vesontionensis, ubi monasterio 
Luxioviotum proserat ahbas Mellinus numeroso ccetui monacho^ 
rum, qui una cum abhafe ccen^i sunt,% 

Saracens, who devastated our provinces of the east, are also 
mentioned in Li lloinans dl Oarin le Loherain. Not only is it 

* Bibaad, " Sur VOrigrine, les Moeurs, et les Usages de quelques com- 
ninnes da Departement de TAin, voisines de la Sadne»" Mimoire de VAcad. 
Celtique, vol. v, p. 6, etc., 1810. 

t Ibid., p. 802. 

X Vol. ii, pp. 88, 89, etc. 



LAON£An ON THE SARACENS IN FRANCE, ETC. 161 

therein alluded to diverse engage m en ts fought by Charles 
Martel, after which the pagans, expelled from Sens, fled as far 
as Troyes : — 

" Vont s'eu fuiant Paten & Sajrrasin, 
Qui eechappa mont se tint k gaxi 
Deci k Troies ne prenent oncqnes fin."* 

But we read also of Hervis, duke of Metz, begging for pro- 
tection from king P^pin in vain, against the Saracens besieging 
his fief and laying waste the valley of Metz : 

" Qa'en vostre fief m'ont Sarrasins asais, 
Le Yal de Mez pechoie et mal mis.f 

These easterns would appear to have dwelt some years in 
that region, for the slaughter of the monks of Luxeuil goes as 
far back as a.d. 732, according to Mabillon, and P^pin, who was 
petitioned by this duke of Metz, succeeded Charles Martel in 
A.D. 741 only. 

M. de Saulcy, in his excavations at Crainvilliers, near Con- 
trexeviUe, has found, in the midst of skulls and bones since 
forwarded to the Anthropological Gallery of the Paris Museum, 
a plate covered with Arabic characters (letters) upon which the 
name of Ali can be seen twice. These bones and this archado- 
logical specimen are in all likelihood the vestiges (signs) of a 
fight with these Saracens. J 

Moreover, in the tenth century, long after the Saracens' re- 
treat, towards the south, the inhabitants of Verdun were still 
carrying on with them a strange commerce. The bishop of 
Cr^mone, Liutprand, being sent in a.d. 948 by the king of Italy, 
B^ranger II, to the emperor of the East, Constantine VIII, has 
left records that amongst other presents which he was to offer, 
there were four carsamatia, or eunuchs, of whom the Verdun 
merchants were making a very lucrative trade with Spain. 

" Obtuli autem loricas optimaa ix, , . , mancepia, quatuor 
carsamatia imperatari 'nominates omnibus preciosora, Carsa^ 
matnm autem Groeci vocant amputatis virilibus et virga puerum 



* Li Romans di Qarin le Loherain, vol. i. Song i, § xiii, Paris, 1833. 
t Ibid., § xvii, p. 52. 

♦ Revue Arch^ologique, nouvellc 8^'rie, vol. viii, p. 351, Sept. 1863. 

VOL. III. M 



162 LAONEAU ON THE SARACENS IN FRANCE, ETC. 

cumichum; qnos Verdunenses mercatores oh immensum lucrum 
facere solent, et in Hispaniam dncereJ'* 

As regards the Saracens of our east provinces, it is well to 
remark with Dom Mabillon,t Charles Lecointe,J and M. 
Reinaud,§ that the ancient historians and " romancers,^' have 
often confounded them with the Vandals. This confusion, 
doubtless, comes from the sojourn of these latter in Africa, 
whence, at a later period, the Saracens issued to pass into Spain 
and invaded our country. In the Ramans di Garin le Loherain 
the Saracens are sometimes spoken of under the name 
"Wandres."|| Sometimes also the name of ^'Hongres'^ is 
given to them.^f The " Hongres" were a diflferent people, but 
pagans equally, who had, however, in the eyes of the Franks, 
adopted Christianity. They were doubtless the descendants of 
the '' Huns,'' a colony of which had been established between 
La Nahe, the Rhine, and the Moselle, in a district called then 
'' tractus Hunnorum,'' and now '' Hundsruck''** ; or from the 
Hungarians, issued from a mixture of Hungarees, Slavonians, 
and Magyars, which at a later period, from the beginning of 
the tenth century, invaded France several times, ft and en- 
countered there the Saracens, J J then masters of the Alps and 
the adjacent countries. 



* Liatprandi, Historia, toI. ii, cap. iii, 1723. f Loc, cU,, p. 88. 

X CaroIuB Leoointe, Annales Ecclesicutici Francorum, vol. W, p. 728, 1670. 

§ Loc. cit.. Introduction, pp. 34 to 38, and p. 3l» notes, 

II Ibid,, § i, p. 1 ; and § ix, p. 22. % Ibid., § xvii, p. 51. 

** BooiUet, Diet. Hist, et 04og., Handsmck. 

ft Le Dussieux, Essai Hist, sur les Invunans des Hongrois, 1834. 

Xt Beinaud, loe. cit., p. 183. 



1(3:3 



XI. — On tlie Ancient or FosM Pottery found on the Shores of 
Ecuador, By William Bollaert, F.R.G.S. 

I HAYS lately received a collection of very ancient and in- 
teresting Indian pottery from the north coasts of Ecuador. 
These specimens have been sent to me by my friend, James S. 
Wilson, Esq., an old Australian explorer, but now the Super- 
intendent of the Ecuador Land Company^s Settlement at Pai- 
lon of San Pedro, in Ecuador. I think these remains worthy 
of scientific notice, in consequence of their being the first spe- 
cimens brought to Europe. They will give a good idea of the 
knowledge of the plastic art in that portion of the New World, 
long before its discovery by the Spaniards. I will now give 
extracts from Mr. Wilson's letters to me. 

'' San Lorenzo, De^, 23, 1860. 

''At various points of the coast of Esmeraldas may be 
observed banks of alluvial clay, standing six or eight feet 
above tide-level in the rivers and estuaries. While I was ex- 
amining the Island of Santa Rosa, I visited a spot where In- 
dian remains were said to exist. I found a quantity of broken 
pottery, of vessels, images, and other objects ; and I was told 
that women frequented the place to wash for gold. I found 
the pottery in a stratum, one foot thick, of black vegetable 
mould, which was covered by a bed of yellowish clay six feet 
thick. On one of the islands of the Tola {V 75' N.) similar 
remains are found, in a like position. I have collected some 
of the figures for you. I suspected that the gold found there 
was wrought gold ; and on inquiry was told that it was partly 
in scales, like spangles, with holes through them, so as to 
stitch the same to cloth. 

" The place is a geological curiosity, the sea having risen 
slowly until it attained six feet above the surface, where these 
people had evidently lived for centuries; that the sea had 
again retreated, until the stratum had again nearly attained its 
former altitude. The sea is again encroaching slowly all along 
the coast." 

M 2 



164 BOLLAJSET ON ANCIENT FOSSIL POTTERY. 

Under date, Campana, July 25tli, 1861, Mr. Wilson writes 
to me : " The pottery antiquities are sent to you. ... I have 
purchased for the Ecuador Land Company a few small gold 
articles, found in one of those islands, called Tolitas {tola means 
a tomb) ; they are found in a stratum of ancient surface-earth, 
amongst broken pottery, and covered with an alluvial deposit, 
often six feet thick.*' 

At the Great Exhibition of 1 862, among other objects from 
Ecuador was the ancient pottery in question. The following 
is from a Report : '^ In the centre of the court is a case con- 
taining Indian antiquities, including an Inca sceptre, and the 
dried head of an Indian of the Jivaro tribe.* In the same 
case are gold ornaments from Molletura and Pailon. A few 
specimens of very rude ancient Indian pottery from Pailon .*' 
This is what I have called Fossil Pottery, sent to me by 
Mr. Wilson, and which I have deposited in the British Museum. 

Description of the Pottei'y, — It appears to have been buried 
under the sea, then raised, probably by earthquake movements. 

1. Large bead and portion of bast, which may represent one of the monkey 

tribe, probably the Horro, said by the historian, Velasco, to be very 
large. (Mr. BoUaert has now a cranium of this animal in his possession.) 
This specimen, as well as the rest, is moulded of a sandy marl, and 
only sun-dried. 

2. Portion of a human £EU3e, ear bored. 

8. Small head, hollow, — a good specimen of art. 
4. Small head of old man. 

6, 6. Two other heads. 

7. A small mask. 

8. A grotesque head. 

9, 10. Heads of animals, may be of the peccary. 
11, 12. Sitting figures. 

13, 14. Two fiat pieces of pottery, studded on one side with small chips of 
siliceous crystals,* — used as a rasp or grater. 

15. A foot. 

16, 17. Two small vessels. 

18 to 20. Portions of figures. 

• See Trans, Ethnol. Boe. for description of, 1863, by W. Bollaert ; also 
an account of a drawing in Intellectual Observer, March 1862. There is a 
specimen of a similar head now in the British Museum, and photographs at 
the Anthropological Society. 

t See Markham " On Quartz-Cutting Implements of the Ancient Inhabit- 
ants of Cbanduy, near Guayaquil," Journal of the Anthropological Society 
vol. ii, p. Ivii, 1864. 



BOLLAERT OX iiNCIENT FOSSIL POTTERY. 165 

On some of the pottery, shells are seen firmly attached, 
probably of the Ostrea family; also others. Specimens of 
these were sent to Sir B. Murchison in 1866. 

In June 1862, in Proceedings of the Geographical Society, 
Sir Roderick Murchison gave Mr. Wilson's letter to him of 
25th April, 1862, on the subject of this ancient pottery and its 
geological position, when Sir Roderick made the following 
remarks : — *' The discoveries he (Mr. Wilson) has made of the 
existence of the works of man, in a stratum of mould beneath 
the sea-level, and covered by several feet of clay, — the pheno- 
menon being persistent for sixty miles, — are of the highest in- 
terest to physical geographers and geologists. These facts 
seem to demonstrate that, within the human period, the lands 
on the west coast of Equatorial America were depressed and sub- 
merged; and that after the accumulation of marine clays 
above the terrestrial relics, the whole coast was elevated to its 
present position.^' 

Extract of letter, Quito, Jan. 3, 1865, from J. S. Wilson to 
W. BoUaert : — '' I am anxious to perform another journey to 
the coast, that I may have an opportunity of making further 
observations on the strata containing relics of human art. . . . 
This extensive coast and river formation has afforded me 
grounds for much speculation, even before the discovery of 
those ancient relics, in France and elsewhere, was published 
by Sir C. Lyell. It is as old, geologically, as the drift strata 
of Europe in which those relics were found; and I believe it 
to be identical with that of Guayaquil, in which the bones of 
Mastodon are met with, and from this circumstance named 
"The Field of Giants.'' Under such considerations, we find 
the people of South America (or more properly Tropical Ame- 
rica) more advanced in civilisation, during the Mastodon period, 
than those of Europe, indicated by those relics of pottery and 
wrought gold, — in the manufacture of the former they excelled 
the people of Ecuador of the present day, whether of American 
or European origin. What now becomes of the theories which, 
represent America peopled from China, when at this period we 
find America possessed of a somewhat civilised people before 
China became a nation ? indeed, I could produce arguments to 



166 BOLLAEBT ON ANCIENT FOSSIL POTTERY. 

prove that the tide of migration flowed in the opposite direc- 
tion/' 

In 1 866, there was read at the Geological Society, '' Geological 
Notes of the Pacific Coast of Ecuador, and on some Evidences 
of the Antiquity of Man in that region/' by Mr. Wilson, ab- 
stract of which, with a section, is given in the November num- 
ber of the Proceedings of the Society.* 

* In the Qeologieal and Natural History Repertory, vol. i ( 1865-7), p. 345, 
will be found Mr. Wilson's paper in full, with sections at the town of Esme- 
raldas, and of the point of Ohancama. 



1G7 



XII. — Is the Character of the Scotch the Expression of the Soil 
of Scotland? By John Cleghoen, F.A.S.L. 

Before I attempt to answer this question I shall explain how I 
have had my attention called to the subject^ show you the steps 
through which I have been led to give my answer^ and thus 
induce yon, perhaps, to acquiesce in my conclusions. 

About fifteen years ago I gave a lecture in Wick, " On the 
Surface Geology of Caithness,^' and in that lecture I said that 
our best cereals, our best cattle, and our best men and women, 
were raised on the boulder clay ; and that where it was awant- 
ing, as on the top levels, there crops were scanty, the cattle 
poor, and the men and women miserable. Intelligent farmers 
who heard me, and who knew the county well, saw that what 
I said was true, and now, with us, good men and women are 
looked for on the boulder clay only. You may be very sure 
that since then I must often have turned the matter over in my 
mind, looking for " the reason why'^ ; but I never was induced 
to give the subject much thought till about a year ago, when 
my friend. Dr. Arthur Mitchell, came to Wick. In a conver- 
sation I had with him, I said, " There surely must be a great 
difference between the east and west country Scotch" ; but on his 
asking me why there must be this difference I found the answer 
I should give did not satisfy myself, and I was sure it would not 
satisfy so precise and correct a thinker as Dr. Mitchell. I there- 
fore held my tongue, but ever since his question has haunted 
me. At that time I -had a vague notion that the depressing 
east wind on the one side, and the soft western breezes on the 
other, might be agents sufficient to give distinctive features to 
those constantly subject to their influence ; but a little reflection 
let me see that in Caithness the inhabitants of each of its 
parishes have distinctive features, and a distinctive dialect, as 
well as a parochial idiosyncrasy ; that on the east coast of Scot- 
land each county had its own dialect and type face ; and that the 
same was true of the west coast popubitions, which would nob 



168 CLEOHOBN ON THE CHARACTEB OF THE SCOTCH. 

have been the case were the east and west winds the agents at 
work in producing these characteristics ; in shorty I found I was 
quite at sea on the subject. 

T]i4^ climate of the east and west coasts. — After Dr. Mitchell 
had left us I began to try and solve his question. I first 
ascertained what is known of the character of the east and west 
winds on both sides of the island. As to the east wind Dr. 
Mitchell pointed out to me that, being a cold and dry wind, it 
had great capacity for absorbing and retaining moisture, and 
that in its passage across the German ocean to us, it reached 
us not only dry, but a drying wind, therefore in its land journey 
westward it retained its character of dryness and coldness, and 
was there as much complained of as with us on the east 
coast. 

Eegarding the west wind, I found Ray, in his work The 
Wisdom of God in the Creation, quoted Gsdsar as saying of the 
west wind, '' Magnam partem omnis temporis in his locis flare 
consuevif' ; it is wont to blow in these quarters a great part 
of the whole year, '' which observation", says Ray, " holds true 
to this day, the wind lying in that quarter at least three-quarters 
of the whole year.*' And he says this appears from the trees, 
which grow on and near the sea shores all along the western 
coast of England, whose heads and boughs I have observed to 
run far to landward, but toward the sea to be snubbed by the 
winds, as if their boughs and leaves had been pared off on that 
side. Now I observe this snubbing off of the boughs of trees 
on their west sides, is as true at Wick as on the west coast of 
England. I saw, moreover, that the feal-dykes in the county 
had their south-west sides bare of vegetation compared to their 
north and east sides ; and that all our old castles are in a more 
dilapidated state on their south and west than on their north 
and east sides. The trees, the feal-dykes, and the old castles 
of Caithness, seemed to me to proclaim that the west wind, soft 
although it be, yet from its constancy and its wetness is a more 
potent agent of change in the physical world than the east with 
all its bad name ; and this character of it is borne out by what 
Dr. Mitchell says, viz., " We have in Scotland thrice as much 
>viiid from the south-west as we have from the north-cast, and 



CLBOHOBN ON THE CHARACTEB OF THE fiCOTCH. 169 

it comes to us charged with moisture^ which it readily parts 
with^ so that it is a rainy wind. As to the temperature of the 
two sides the difference is not greater than that between two 
districts in several of the east counties ; and the same is true 
of the rainfall on the two sides. I therefore concluded that the 
climatic condition of the east and west coasts are nearly one^ or 
so alike as not to cause any great difference between the east 
and west country populations. 

The Area of the Boulder-Clay. — So far as we Scotch were 
concerned^ then, I gave up climate as a race producer. At this 
stage of my investigations what I had said fifteen years before, 
of the relation between the boulder clay and the organisms on 
it, recurred to me, and I asked myself did the same relations 
hold true over wider areas than I had yet examined, and this 
is what I found. " The distribution of these drift deposits in 
Scotland,'^ says Professor Nicol, speaking of the boulder clay, 
" is very distinct. It divides the country into two strongly 
contrasted regions — an eastern and a western. Their boundary 
is marked generally by a line which, beginning on the Clyde 
near Dumbarton, runs north-east by Callander and Crieff and 
thence round by the head waters of the Dee and Spey, along 
Monag-Leadh mountains to near Inverness. Thence it passes 
round the Beauly, Cromarty, and Dornoch firths, by the western 
declivities of Ben-Wyvis and the foot of Loch Shin, onwards to 
the north coast. Each of the great regions separated by this 
line has its own marked and peculiar character. The eastern 
all over the low grounds and high up over the mountains, is 
covered with a thick mass of boulder clay and upper stratified 
drift. In the western the boulder clay is scarcely known ; the 
rocks are bare and exposed, or in the valleys covered with a 
thin coat of local detritus, chiefly water- worn sands, or gravels. 
The east is a land of enormous depositions, the west one of 
equal waste and transport/^ 

Dr. Samuel Johnson said of the west highlands : " Your 
country consists of two things, stone and water. There is, 
indeed, a little earth above the stone in some places, but very 
little ; and the stone is always appearing ; it is like a man in 
rags — the naked skin is still peeping out/' Having thus found 



170 CLEQHOBN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 

the area of the boalder clay iu Scotlaud we shall now consider 
the organisms ou it and off it. 

The Organisms on and off the Boulder Clay. — " The west," 
says Professor Nicol, '^ is a land of naked rocks, lochs, and 
black moors. The east is a land of noble trees and fertile fields, 
of carses waving with crops of golden com." Is this descrip- 
tion borne oat by the retams of the crops, &c., &c., on the two 
sides ? I think it is. I have taken the Board of Trade retams 
for 1866, relating to the popalation, area, acreage of crops, corn 
crops, aud the namber of cattle and sheep in the following 
coanties on the east and west of Scotland, dividing the coantry 
as near as I can to harmonise with the line indicated by Pro- 
fessor Nicol. The counties on the east are Aberdeen, Banff, 
Berwick, Caithness, Clackmannan, Edinburgh, Elgin or Moray, 
Fife, Forfar, Haddington, Kincardine, Kinross, Linlithgow, 
Nairn, Peebles, Perth, and Selkirk. On the west — Argyle, 
Ayr, Bute, Dumbarton, Inverness, Lanark, Renfrew, Ross and 
Cromarty, Stirling, and Sutherland. 

East — ^population, 1,330,989; area, 6,868,348 ; under crop, 
2,328,212; under com, 872,141; number of cattle, 440,476; 
number of sheep, 1,802,248. West — population, 1,448,653; 
area, 10,102,637; under crop, 1,038,636; under com, 284,260; 
number of cattle, 353,253 ; number of sheep, 2,304,046. 

Of th6 comparative value of the com, the cattle, and the 
sheep of the two sides these returns tell us nothing; but 
knowing that the western slopes of boulder clay districts in 
Caithness afford inferior corn to north and east exposures, and 
that farm servants in Ross-shire often bargain to be supplied 
with Caithness grown oatmeal, rather than that grown in their 
own county, I judge that west country com must indeed be 
poor stuff. The cattle, too, of the west are, I believe, unfit for 
the table till fattened on eastern pastures ; and the sheep are, 
I fancy, like the cattle in this respect, for a Caithness flock- 
master tells me that he has two hirsels, one on the south-west 
and the other on the north and east of a mountain range in 
Caithness, and that he can command two shillings ahead more 
for the sheep reared on the north and east than he can get for 
those on the south-wost of his ground. The difference in value 



CLEGHOBl^ ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 171 

between east and west coantry Scotch sheep must surely be 
very striking. But when we know that Aberdeenshire sends 
more beef and mutton to the London market than all Scotland^ 
we must infer not only that Aberdeenshire must be a very re- 
markable county^ but that the difference in value in the cattle 
and sheep of the east and west must be great indeed^ seeing 
the west sends none there. 

Let us now look at the men of the east and west. — On the 
western side of the boundary line of these strongly con- 
trasted regions the Gaelic is the prevailing language ; on the 
other side it is the Saxon. Out of the eastern counties our most 
distinguished scholars have arisen. Aberdeenshire alone has 
produced a greater number of senior wranglers than all the west 
of Scotland. On the east we have three universities, our re- 
ligious revolutions have had their rise there ; and there is an 
individualism in the east countryman that seems wanting in him 
of the west. The west men move in masses; ^^ shoulder to 
shoulder*' is their motto. At the period of the Reformation, in 
the choice they made, they seem to have been governed by the 
leanings of their chief, and at the disruption they moved with the 
minister. The clashing of minds on religion is little heard on 
the west. The religion of the west may be shortly characterised 
as priest-worship; that of the east as self-worship. On the 
west there is one university ; on the west the men are more 
remarkable as warriors than scholars. As evincing that the 
reasoning faculties are less in use on the west than on the east 
coast a Uttle attention to the Registrar General's returns of 
births and marriages will, I think, demonstrate. I have taken 
the return for the year 1864, and divided the country as before, 
and found the births, the illegitimate births, and marriages 
(the illegitimate percentage given is the mean for the ten years 
1855-1864), and this is what is found : — 

„. ... 111. per cent Mar- n^»h, R««pinitory Zymotic 

Birthfl. foy ^ ye^ riageii. ^^'**"- D^Uis. Deaths. 

East 47,331 ... 10 per cent. ... 9,767 ... 30,360 ... 3,749 ... 7,749 
West 66,517 .,. 6 per cent. ...11,388 ... 39,055 ... 5,746 ... 10,508 

The birthrate of the west is greatly in excess of the east rate, 
through the operation of this law, made known by Doubleday : 
" Nature only causes an increased productiveness when species 



172 CLBGHOBN ON THE CHABACTEB OF THE UCOTCH. 

is put in danger^ and in the ratio of the danger/' " This law," 
says Doubleday, ^' runs through the vegetable and animal crea- 
tion. The plant or animal that is starved as to natural aUment, 
is prolific in proportion. Hence all rich aristocracies decrease, 
all poor communities increase. Nature, by this beneficent law, 
causes luxury to be barren, to stop the progress of disease, 
and poverty to be prolific, to save the species from extinction.'* 
In a comparison of the English and Scotch birthrates, we see 
the same truths taught. There can be no doubt that the English 
dietary is, in quantity and quality, far higher than the Scotch; 
and the Registrar-General tells us that in Scotland 348 wives 
gave birth to 100 children, while it requires 386 wives in Eng- 
land to produce 100 children in the year. The low illegitimate 
rate of the west, apparently so indicative of thought, may be 
thus explained. The dissuasives from illegitimacy are the same 
on the east that they are on the west ; it follows, then, that on 
the east the promptings must be stronger than the dissuasives, 
while on the west the dissuasives must outweigh the prompt- 
ings ; therefore, the vw vitce must be less energetic on the west 
than it is on the east. That this must be the cause of the low 
illegitimate rate of the west is what the table, showing the 
produce of the west, would imply ; but it is put beyond a doubt 
by these facts, that the bastardy rate of the east is highest in 
the counties where the cereals and cattle are in the highest 
perfection, and the higher faculties of man best developed. 
The highest illegitimate rate on the east, then, evinces in its 
population geii&i'ally an amount of restraint so great as can 
only exist among men and women of a high order. This sen- 
timent is well expressed by Hume when portraying Queen 
Elizabeth's character. He says : '' In her family, in her court, 
in her kingdom, she remained equally mistress. The force of 
the tender passion was great over her, but the force of her 
mind was still superior; and the combat which her victory 
cost her serves only to display the visible firmness of her resolu- 
tion and the loftiness of her ambitious sentiments." The evils of 
low nutrition, or in other words, the want of soil, is further 
shown in the high marriage rate of the west. Notwithstand- 
ing their want of soil, their low dietary, and the consequent 



CLEGflORN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 173 

apathy there must be in their men and women^ their slight 
promptings to marriage are at once gratified, heedless of all 
the evils improvident marriages necessarily entail. Bat the 
chronic starvation of the west is put beyond doubt by the high 
deathrate of the west. Had the west rate been that of the 
east, the deaths would have been 34,133, and not 39,055, as we 
find they are ; thus, nearly five thousand fall a prey to destitu- 
tion annually. That the excess, at least, arises from want of 
nutriment, appears from these facts : That the deaths of the 
west from affections of the respiratory organs were nearly 1,000 
in excess of the east rate, and of children more than 2,000 died 
in excess of the east from zymotic diseases. '' Consumption," 
says Dr. Hewitt, " in its many forms and disguises, appears to 
be essentially connected with want of food.'' 

We see that this diversity cannot be attributed to climate, 
nor can we, with more probability, impute it to the boulder 
clay, for the boulder clay is seldom that in which the plough 
works, — ^is not that which affords us food, at least in Caithness. 
I judge then that the boulder clay cannot affect the condition 
of the plants or animals on it. But to what cause are we to 
attribute the strongly contrasted regions pointed out by Pro- 
fessor Nicol ? How came it that the boulder clay fills all the 
valleys on the eastern, and is awanting on the western water- 
shed ? By finding that we may find a way out of the difficulties 
that meet us when we would investigate the distinctions in the 
form and in the customs that pervade the inhabitants. To 
what agent are we to attribute '^ the upper stratified drift'' that 
covers the boulder clay, and what is its character ? These are 
questions we shall now try to answer, and having done that we 
shall look at man's relation to the soil. 

Since the above was written I learn from an intelligent pro- 
vision merchant in Wick, that no two parishes in Caithness 
afford eggH of similar quality ; that he can tell from the taste 
of the egg the district it was raised on ; that the same is true of 
the fowls, and more decidedly so of the pork and the butter ; 
and that the meal of some farms had in it all those qualities 
that allayed hunger, that built up the eater, in greater propor- 
tion than the meal of other farms. We have what is called 



174 CLEOHOEN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 

weak meal and strong meal. This variety, 1 judge, must be 
owing to their chemical constituents being different, and that 
this variation must be owing to variety in the soils on which 
they were raised. 

If this be true of the food out of which man is elaborated, 
then the varieties of the men in Caithness are, I fancy, to some 
extent explained. I was strengthened in this opinion on learn- 
ing the general belief, that a boll of Murkle oatmeal is held to 
be worth a boll and a half of any other meal raised in the 
county. Overlooking the virtues of their meal, Murkle masons 
will persist in making Murkle doors no wider than doors are 
generally, forgetting that Murkle men and women are of a very 
different build, have a breadth far from common, and often 
stick in their doors; hence the phrase, 'Hhe stick-doors of 
Murkle.'^ Murkle is in the parish of Olrig ; but Dunnet, its 
neighbour, is also famous for good meal, good potatoes, butter, 
pork, and other good things. Dunnet, perhaps, does not turn 
out such bulky men and women as Olrig ; but I know it turns 
out intelligent and much-prized maidservants, a greater num- 
ber of ship-captains, and more master masons than any other 
parish in the county ; and in its parish minister — a Dunnet 
man — ^it has the most popular parish minister in the county. 

On the right track. — From what has thus far been made ap- 
parent, a further pursuit of our inquiry, on the same track we 
have marked out, seems to me to be fraught with important 
results. That this course has not hitherto been pursued is, 
perhaps, the true cause that anthropology is so chaotic. The 
error hitherto appears to me to be that which stood in the path 
of geological progress ; viz., a prevailing persuasion that the 
ancient and existing causes of change were different, both as 
regards their nature and energy. Sir Charles Lyell says, " The 
first observers conceived the monuments, which the geologist 
endeavours to decipher, to relate to an original state of the 
earth ; or to a period when there were causes in activity dis- 
tinct in kind and degree from those now constituting the 
economy of nature. These views were gradually modified, and 
some of them entirely abandoned, in proportion as observations 
were multiplied, and the signs of former mutations more skil- 



CLBQHORN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 175 

folly interpreted. Many appearances — which had for a long 
time been regarded as indicating mysterions and extraordinary 
agency — were finally recognised as the necessary result of the 
laws now governing the material world ; and the discovery of 
this nnlooked-for conformity has at length induced some philo- 
sophers to infer that^ during the ages contemplated in geology^ 
tiiere has never been any interruption to the agency of the 
same uniform laws of change. The same assemblage of general 
causes^ they conceive, may have been sufficient to produce, by 
iheir various combinations, the endless diversity of effects of 
which the shell of the earth has preserved the memorials ; and 
consistently with these principles, the recurrence of analogous 
changes is expected by them in time to come.'' 

This extract, to my mind, strikingly depicts the state we are 
now in, and the course we must follow, if we would read man 
aright. We have viewed man through a wrong medium. Let 
us, therefore, forget for a little all we have heard of the history 
of the men of the two sides ; look at them as they are, and 
some of the agents of change now at work, and see if they 
explain each other. 

So far as we have got, it appears that no two districts can 
be more diverse in soils than our eastern and western water- 
sheds ; while as regards climate, no two can be more alike. On 
the west, the grass is scant, and the cattle stunted ; and being 
without soil fitted to grow com, man's higher faculties seem to 
me as in abeyance, or dwarfed by penury. 

" His knowledge measar'd to his state and place." 

Is diversity in the physical and social features of man ne- 
cessary to the health of the Order Bimana? and is diversity of 
soil the means for its attainment ? It looks very like it. If 
diversity of character in man be for the health of the Order, 
then there must be a natural law determining this diversity ; 
and as I have found a law determining diversity in soil, I shall 
show you that there is a harmony between man and the soil 
so intimate that, having found the soil, you can tell the type 
of man it carries. I shall now, therefore, point out this law, 
how it now works, and how we have evidence that it has 
worked in the past as it does at present. 



176 CLEGHORN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 

In the North British Review for February 1852, there is a 
paper on the '^ Geology of the Surface and Agriculture/' where, 
I believe, for the first time, public attention was called to the 
fact that the superficial deposits were excluded from geological 
maps ; and that it was the fashion among those who under- 
took to teach geology, in its application to agriculture, to tell 
the farmers that the nature of the soil being given on one part 
of a geologiceJ formation, it is known for the whole ; that the 
rock below them, which is nearest the surface, should be as- 
sumed as the surface. This geological fiction has still a strong 
hold on the public mind; but the intelligent farmer knows 
that this is either not true, or a very rude approximation to 
the truth ; and that within very small areas, on the same field, 
many varieties of soil occur of very diflTerent values, without 
any corresponding variation in the mineral character of the 
rock on which they rest. 

The law that has determined this variety of soil, I think^ 
I discovered in 1857; and at the anniversary meeting of the 
Royal Geographical Society of that year. Sir R. I. Murchison 
made this law known to geographers. The law is this, — the 
prevailing wind here and over the northern hemisphere, the 
south-west, wears the headlands into precipices, which sends 
back the debris by a counter or reflux current, which neces- 
sarily tends to shoal up the opposite side of the bay, firth, 
or sea. This law, so simple and so universal, has been re- 
cognised as true by eminent geologists and geographers, and 
by marine engineers of the highest standing. The wonder is 
it should till now have escaped detection. This law works in 
China and Japan as it does in Wick bay; the law of forces 
here is the law there. The waves lay down the materials com- 
mitted to them, by dynamic law, with a discrimination above 
all human nicety of manipulation ; every particle is scrutinised, 
and has its fixed place in our bays, firths, and seas, — the mud, 
the sand, and the gravel, — and these mechanically and che- 
mically diversified in endless variety. The natural laws are 
universal, invariable, and unbending. That we may have a 
proper appreciation of the majesty of this law, and the mag- 
nificence of its operations, let us look for a little at its work- 
ing on the east and west coasts of Britain. 



CLSGHORN ON THE CHARACTER OP THE SCOTCH. 177 

'• The east and west coasts of Britain have/' says Professor 
Nicol, '* features very distinct. On the east, long lines of rug- 
ged cliffs, with scarce a break or a bay in which the smallest 
yessel can seek shelter from the north-east storms. On the west, 
innumerable sea-lochs running far up among their guardian 
mountains, with deep water to their extremities. Even the 
wreck-chart tells the same story; so free of shipwrecks on the 
west, — so bleak, with signs of disaster, on the east, where, 
from the Orkneys to the Tweed or Thames, no shelter opens 
to the storm-tost sailor, save the Moray Firth or the neigh- 
bouring Forth. But the distinction ends not on the shore. 
Beyond it there are, on the west, islands numberless. 

•' On the iron-bound eastern coast our progress is arrestfed by 
no Islay or Jura, no Mull or Skye, where nature has built 
shrines which man has yet failed to desecrate and destroy. 
There, from St. Abb's Head to John O'Groats, where we pass 
the Bass Kock and the May, no rock or islet meets our view ; 
and even below the water the same difference prevails. From 
the Moray Firth across to Norway and south of the English Chan- 
nel, the North Sea has no soundings deeper than Loch Ness. 
Every where mud banks and shoals, so shallow, that on the Ger- 
man side the sailor fears his ship may ground in the mud before 
becomes in sight of land. How different on the west coast. There 
you may leap from land into twenty fathoms of water ; even 
within the islands one hundred to one hundred and twenty 
fathoms are common ; and only a few miles out the sounding 
line passes first the one hundred fathom then the two hundred 
fathom line, beyond which to the American shores the water is 
measured not by hundreds but by thousands of feet." This is 
Professor NicoPs portraiture of our east and west coasts, and 
very true and very graphic it is ; but the learned Professor, 
when he essays to explain the agency that effected the diversity 
of contour in the two sides, has been any thing but fortunate. 
" Physical diversities so great,^' says the Professor, ^^ imply a 
very diverse physical history. The one region, the west, is 
evidently a half-submerged mountain-land ; the other, the east, 
an emerged sea-bottom. Anciently, for a long period, the west 
has been a broad, lofty mountain chain ; the east, on the other 

VOL. III. N 



178 CLBOHOBN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCBT. 

hand, a wide, mud-filled sea-bottom, with shipwrecks floating 
and straining in its shallow waters, — the one side of the island 
has arisen, the other has gone down/' Such a jump out of 
the diflSculty, I respectfully submit, cannot be accepted. 
The professor cuts, not patiently unties, the knot, as is re- 
quired. He runs counter to the teachings of modem geology, 
which has discarded violence, fictions, and miracles to help us 
out of our difficulties. The professor must be told that the 
east and west coasts of our island have their type in every bay 
and firth on the coast, — on the coasts of every island and con- 
tinent, and that it never will do to bring an earthquake to deepen 
the west and raise the east sides of all of them. The professor 
did not know that the prevalent wave-producing wind wears 
the headlands into precipices, which send back the debris by a 
counter or reflux current, which necessarily tends to shoal up 
the opposite side of the bay, firth, or sea. Had he known this 
law, we would not have been told that " the one side of our 
island has arisen, and the other gone down." 

Our prevalent wave-producing wind, the south-west, is pull- 
ing to pieces the western shores of continental Europe, and 
laying the d/bris down on our eastern shores. On our eastern 
shores, our law is a builder ; on the west it is an excavator. 
Through the operation of our law, Heligoland is melting away, 
and the Dutch with difficulty retain Holland. The western 
side of Britain, like that of western Europe, is the losing side. 
Take the map, and see the soft and swelling outline of our 
eastern shore, — ^youth is in every lineament; while the west 
coast has every mark of age and decay imprinted on it, — it is 
angular, wrinkled, and furrowed. This growing on the east 
side, and the decay and transport that is going on on the other, 
is strikingly shown in the engineering difficulties experienced 
to keep the Tyne open and deepened ; while on the Clyde and 
the Mersey the same ends have been gained with an ease which 
our law, and no other, can satisfactorily explain. 

We can see now why the boulder-clay fills all the valleys on 
the east side, and is wanting on the west side, — how it comes 
about that we have on the east " an upper stratified drift," the 
soil that gives us food ; and why it is wanting on the west, and 



CLEGHOBN ON THE CHARACTER OF THE SCOTCH. 179 

there only, as Professor Nicol says, " a thin coat of local de- 
tritus, chiefly water-worn gravels," or, as Dr. Johnson said, 
" stone and water, with a little earth above the stones in some 
places." We see, too, why the west is a land of waste and 
transport ; and now we have seen on the wide area — the east 
and west of Scotland — the same correspondence between the 
fioil and man, that I saw on the narrow area of Caithness. 

Oar law has left its trail on the surface of this country, and 
of all others, in a way we have not yet looked at. The north- 
east side of the floor of all our valleys is the low side, for to 
that side all our rivers tend; they hug their north-eastern 
banks. The north side of all our valleys, too, is, in an agricul- 
tural point of view, of inferior value to the opposite side, from 
the continuance, during a very long period, of the same hydro- 
dynamic force that broke down and deepened the north-east 
sides of our bays and firths. The north and south sides of the 
Moray firth, and the Firth of Forth, and of all bays and seas, 
tell this story ; while the diversity of soil within small areas, 
on the same farm and on the same field, point out our law as 
the agent that effected the diversity. 

Epitome and Conclusion. — We have found a diversity in the 
men of the two sides of Scotland, and that this diversity cor- 
responds with the diverse character in the soils of the east and 
the west sides. Wo have found, too, a natural law that deter- 
mines diversity in soils, and diversity in the properties of the 
food the soils afibrd. I am surely, then, justified in inferring 
that the east and west countrymen are the expression of the 
soil, in the same sense that the flora and the fauna of the two 
sides are its expression. 

Surely, then, it must be conceded that the character of the 
Scotch is the expression of the soil of Scotland. If this be 
granted, then it follows that his language is of the soil ; and 
so must his religion be. Gaelic, surely, is of the soil ; for 
I see it is confined to the sterile districts, and seems to be' re- 
tained there, because the condition of the poor districts, as 
food producers, remains unaltered. In Caithness,, we have 
five parishes wholly English speaking, — Wick, Canisbay, Dun- 
net, Olrig, and Bower, and these on the east and north of the 

n2 



180 TLEOHORN ON THE CHABACTEB OF THE SCOTCH. 

county; the other five are semi-Gaelic. To account for this 
difference^ the commonly assigned cause is, that the English 
speaking parishes were colonised by Scandinavians. But the 
same people conquered and colonised the wiBst country as well 
as the east ; while their descendants speak Graelic on the west 
and English on the east, — ^languages not spoken by the in- 
vaders. In the north, the Gaelic begins where the corn-bear- 
ing soil ends; and on the south-west, the same holds true. 
This linguistic difference in the two sides is not more diverse 
than their food-giving capacity ; and seeing we have in Caith- 
ness — in the English speaking parishes — dialectic varieties, 
and that on soil so nearly homogeneous as ours is, we surely 
ought to infer that where the greatest diversity exists in soils, 
there we ought to find the greatest diversity in language. 

I have said that the religion of the west may be characterised 
as priest-worship ; that of the east, as self-worship. The want 
of com on the west, " that strengtheneth man's heart," en- 
genders the massing propensity, — the shoulder to shoulder 
principle ; paucity of food, low diet, weakens the whole man j 
all his faculties are absorbed in food-getting ; the struggle for 
existence being great, he depends on the priest for his religion, 
leaves that to him, takes what he has to give, and asks no 
questions. The east man, having the com and something 
more, is filled and is strong ; and he says to the priest, stand 
aside, I can do your work myself, — I do not require your aid. 
The west man's religion, although called Protestant, is essen- 
tially Popish, and Popery is the religion of the poorer countries 
of Europe, — poor in soil, I mean, and in the Murkle sense of 
poor soil. 

It seems a just inference, from the working of our law of 
winds and currents, that Ireland must be an exaggeration of 
our western watershed ; and that most of her ills must be attri- 
buted to Irishmen's ignorance of our law. Had they known the 
poverty of their soil they would, as George Combe would have 
told them, have been able to ascertain the extent to which it is 
possible for man to place himself, in accordance with the phy- 
sical law that produced the sterility, so as to reap advantage 
from it ; and also to determine how far the sufferings which he 



195 



XIV. — On the Land Dayns of Upper Sarawak, Seidah, Lihoy, 
Letung, and Qmoss. By Edward P. Houghton, M.D., 
P.A.S.L., Resident Officer, Sarawak Government. 

The average height of the people is 5 ft. 2 in., 4 ft. 6 in. 
being considered short, and 5 ft. 6 in. tall. The complexion is 
yellowish brown, the eyes and hair black ; the latter is coarse, 
and is generally worn long — in some few cases it is inclined to 
curl. The shape of the head is round, a little elongated on the 
top ; the face is broad ; the eyes large ; the nose a little pressed 
in on the bridge and wide at the bottom ; the nostrils are large, 
the lips thick, and the teeth rather projecting. Puberty takes 
place, as far as I have been able to ascertain, at the age of 
from twelve to fourteen years, though the people do not marry 
young. Births of more than one child are not common. In 
general there are more than two children in a family ; on an 
average there are four, very seldom only one child. There are 
more males than females among adults, but in general the pro- 
portion is about equal. There are families with two, three, four 
boys, but also others with the same number of girls, or mixed. 
Women continue to boar children to about the age of forty. 
This is, however, a matter not very easy to determine with 
certainty, as before the Europeans arrived in the country the 
people had no mode of calculating their years. Even now 
most of them do not know their ages, but guess only, and 
sometimes quite at random. You might hear people answer 
the question. How old they are ? with eighty, one hundred, or 
two hundred, who perhaps are not yet half that time. Another 
reason for dividing their answers, with respect to age, by two, 
is that they count a year only six months — i.e., from one rice 
harvest to the other. The people in general attain a pretty 
good age, the greater part up to sixty or seventy. The oldest 
man here, and, in fact, of the whole Scutah tribe, is a 
(formerly heathen) priest or menang, about ninety-five to one 
hundred years of age, with grey hair. He has 'lately become a 

o2 



196 OlSl THE LAND DAYAKS OF UPPER SARAWAK. 

Christian. He has a large family, all sons, some of whom are 
also Christians. His first wife, about seventy years old, is still 
alive. Both are still able to move about, talk cheerfully, and 
enjoy their food. The old man is suffering from loss of sight. 
Mothers suckle their children very long. There are cases 
where children suck till they are three to five years of age. 
The women have in general an abundance of milk, and are very 
strong. The menstrual period lasts about four days. The 
time of uterogestation is the same as with Europeans. Mis- 
carriages and premature delivery are not rare occurrences. The 
prevailing forms of disease are — intermittent fever, otitis, 
ichthyosis, scrofula, catarrhal opthalmia, diarrhoea, elephanti- 
asis, leprosy, ferunculi and anthrax, enlarged spleen with 
ascites, cholera and smallpox, indolent ulcers. The people also 
suffer very much from entozoa, the lumbrici generally, very 
seldom thread-worms. Syphilis and gonorrhoea are never 
known. Among those Day as who do not come in contact with 
Malays, the treatment of the sick is entirely in the hands of the 
manangs. Those who have had intercourse with Malays often 
try their remedies, after the attempts of their own priests have 
failed to produce a cure. All remedies are external, either 
rubbing, or washing, or sprinkling. I have never seen or 
known of a Daya doctor giving a drug or any internal medicine, 
or interfering with the diet. If one excepts, therefore, such 
few cases where rubbing or washing would rationally be of any 
use, the whole medical treatment of the Dayas rests on their 
heathen system of superstition, in some cases perhaps approach- 
ing sympathetic cures, professing to transplant sickness. They 
believe that in sickness the human soul goes out of its body, is 
perhaps carried away by evil spirits, and has to be brought 
back again to its proper dwelling-place. This is done accord- 
ing to certain established rules and ceremonies. In all of 
these the blood of animals, either pigs or fowls, is used as a 
kind of sacrificial atonement or purification. They have a 
number of fetiches^ magic stones, which are said to possess 
supernatural powers. They relate that such stones are given 
by spirits to the priests, their places indicated in dreams, or 
they have fallen from heaven in former times. They have 



THE LAND DAYAKS OF UPPER SARAWAK, ETC. 197 

several large ones with distinct names, '' Le Bandos, '' Le 
Ganas,'' '' Le Ruyare,'' &c., at different Daya villages. On 
certain days they are carried about in procession, and festivals 
are held at their places. Such stones — '' guna,'' as they are 
called — ^have particular houses built, and a Daya, who is paid 
by the village, is appointed to watch over them. In cases of 
sickness a certain kind of altar is erected near the sick person^s 
head, offerings are put on it, and a single gong beaten all the 
while. Then the priests sprinkle the sick man with blood, and 
make certain marks on him, as well as on his relations. No 
inmate of the house is allowed to leave it for two or three days ; 
no stranger may enter. They also bathe the sick with cocoa-nut 
water mixed with ginger and a yellow root. Often also they 
use spittle (saliva mixed in their mouths with red sirih), and 
spit on his face, neck, and other parts of his body. Then 
there are three or four men and women appointed to go by 
night with torches and gongs beating in the jungle, canying 
with them rings of beads washed in the blood, and magic 
stones, in order to seek for the place where the departed soul 
of the sick may have run to, and bring it back to him, after 
which crowning feat he is said to recover. Soon after the 
birth of a child they have a similar ceremony of, so to say, 
initiation, or bringing the new child under the dominion of 
their gods, by washing and sprinkling child and parents with 
blood and cocoa-nut water, to drive away the evil spirits, and 
to secure to the new-comer the influence of their magic incan- 
tations. 

If I may be allowed to infer one remark from these short 
statements, it is this : You see here, in the simple Land Dayas 
of Borneo, another most striking proof we, in the full light 
and benefit of Christian civilization, are often apt to forget^ 
that fallen human nature, lying under the fear of a supernatural 
world unknown, seeks for ways and means to bring about a 
reconciliation with a high and pure Being, and to draw down 
blessings upon the dark state of misery and trouble. 

The prevailing food is rice, boiled in bamboos, with vege- 
tables, cribung, yams, cucumbers, lotus, etc. They are fond of 
pork and fowls. Often they catch in traps in the jungle wild 



198 TH£ LAND DA\AK8 OF UPr£K SARAWAK^ ETC. 

pigs and wild deer, wliich they salt and keep in jars. They 
also catch fish now and then, but in general eat salt fish as the 
cheapest and most easily-procurable condiments with their rice. 
Their cooking utensils are bamboos, which they find in abun- 
dance in the jungle, use two or three times, and then throw 
away. Besides these they use iron saucepans and pots to cook 
rice, vegetables, meat, etc. The bamboos are also used to fetch 
water. Other articles of food are snails, prawns, birds (if they 
can be got), and certain kinds of monkey. It is said that some 
of the natives also eat snakes, but this is a matter I will not 
vouch for. The Dayas make three chief meals a day, at seven 
or eight in the morning, at twelve, and at five or six in the 
evening. This they do when they are' at home during their 
rest time. When they work hard in their farms they often 
dispense with one or two of these meals, also when travelling. 
They are very strong and robust people, and able to bear along 
abstinence (some two or three days) . Their life is a very hard- 
working one. Several months in the year they live entirely 
away from the village in houses built on the farms in the jungle, 
preparing the ground, sowing, weeding, and harvesting. They 
are able to carry very heavy loads on their backs. Men, 
women, and children work on the farms. The women are not 
treated with any distinction with regard to the farm-work. 

The dressing of children, as well as of grown-up people, is 
very plain. A cloth round the waist in the case of the males, 
and a short petticoat in the case of the females, is all their dress. 
If it is very wet and cool weather, they use the rind of a tree as 
a kind of blanket in which to wrap children. The cradle con- 
sists of the hollowed trunk of a tree, suspended by strings from 
the ceiling. There are no circumstances connected with the 
dressing or cradling of children tending in any way to modify 
the shape of the body. Besides the short petticoat mentioned 
above, which is fastened round the loins by a brass wire girdle, 
the females wear a number of brass rings ; on their wrists and 
upper part of the arms a white porcelain ring as ornament. In 
their ears they have ear-rings, or, if too poor, flowers and leaves 
of certain trees. The flowers are also worn in the hair. At 
festivals other and better petticoats, with Uttle bolls fastened 



THE LAND DATAKS OF UPPER SARAWAK^ ETC. 199 

on them^ are used ; also a kind of head-dress^ something like a 
sugar-loaf^ and red jackets. A most necessary implement and 
companion of each Dayais his sirih-case^ with leaves^ chalk and 
tobacco^ and gambir^ as also his large knife. 

The houses are built very plainly, part of bilion or ironwood, 
a raised platform of bamboos crossed, walls and roof of leaves 
of the sago palm, very durable and water-tight. Each family 
occupies one large room with a verandah. At the entrance of 
the room there is a hearth, made of earth and stones : on this 
they cook. Of course, the whole room looks black from smoke, 
which has no other escape than the door and one large window. 
This latter is merely a large hole left in the roof, and in rain 
must be shut with a shutter made of palm-leaves. The room 
is lighted by the fire from the hearth, and by a little torch made 
from the gum of a tree, put into bamboos, and used as oil. The 
sleeping-place is before the fire, on mats spread out at night ; 
pillows stuffed with grass, etc., are made use of, and coverings 
made of the rinds of certain trees. 

There are no monuments in the shape of buildings, but in 
language they have some remnants of old songs and stories, 
which have been handed down by oral tradition. Other tribes 
of Dayas more inland are said to possess very old valuable 
jars ; but in the parts of the country I am acquainted with, I 
have not heard of the existence of any antiquities, unless the 
big guna, a stone of man's length (most likely an aerolith), 
called Le Kuyan, which is kept in a house at Seun, be con- 
sidered as such. 

The dead are buried here in a hill outside the village. In 
the other villages they are burnt in the jungle ; and this custom, 
as well as a certain Tinasti the people invoke in all the cere- 
monies, leads to the conclusion that an emigration of later date 
has supplanted partly the old Daya fetishism. With the dead 
offerings are made and animals burnt, — pigs in the case of the 
richer people, and fowls, or a part of a fowl only, in that of the 
poorer. 

The Dayas believe very dimly in a future life. They say the 
soul is changed into a spirit, which hovers about the hills and 
places in the jungle. These spirits, which are called " Minos,'' 



200 THE LAND DATAES OF UPPER SABAWAK^ ETC. 

are objects of fear and superstition. Customs are observed on 
account of them. 

There are no particular ceremonies at marriages. The rela- 
tives (or parents, if alive) of bride and bridegroom form certain 
agreements with each other about settling property, etc., which 
chiefly consists in jars and gongs — clothes and gold, if rich. 
The bride follows the bridegroom to his house or his parents', 
and is considered a member of his family. Polygamy is not 
practised by the Land Dayas here. Divorce is very frequent, 
owing to the great extent of adultery, and thus a criminal 
practice of intermarrying exists, which contributes very much 
to the debilitating of the tribes. Widows are in general treated 
very well, as also the sick and aged. 

The domestic animals are pigs, fowls, cats (short-tailed), and 
dogs. They are of the common kinds, indigenous here. 

Each village has at its head a man appointed by the Govern- 
ment of the Rajah of Sar&wak, chosen by the people, called 
" Ovay Kaya.^' If a village has less than one hundred and fifty 
inhabitants it has only a " Penyara.'' He, with a number of 
old people elected by the community, called elders, directs and 
governs all the affairs of the village, under sanction of the Go- 
vernment. All the bachelors of a village, from the age of 
twelve upwards, live together in a round house built sepa- 
rately from the other houses. In this house also the heads of 
enemies taken formerly in war are preserved. Head-hunting 
is, however, now forbidden, thanks to the Rajah's Government, 
and head-festivals are therefore out of use. 



201 



XV. — Habits and Manners of Marvar Tribes of India. By 
John Shobtt, M.D., M.R.C.P.L., F.A.S.L., F.L.S., etc.. 
General Superintendent of Vaccination, Madras. 

In the district of Madura there are two large zemindaries, and 
these were at one time united, and under the government of 
one Kelaven Saithoo Pathier. The legend as regards these 
estates runs as follows : — 

About one hundred and forty years ago, a few miles from the 
present Zemindary (Shevagunga) there existed a village named 
Nalcottai, subject to the control of one Shasivama Taver, a 
Polgar, who was married to an illegitimate daughter of Kelaven 
Saithoo Fathier, and whose name was Akilanda Espari 
Natchiar, On the death of Kelaven Saithoo Pathier, of 
Bamnad, the succession was disputed between his illegitimate 
son and son-in-law, but the latter obtaining the assistance of 
the Rajah of Tanjore, usurped the kingdom of Ramnad ; the 
illegitimate son consequently sought the shelter of the Nal- 
cottai Polgar for some length of time ; but when Kelaven 
Sathoo Pathier's son-in-law, the usurper, heard of the protec- 
tion that had been given his brother-in-law by the Polgar of 
Nalcottai, he sent a small force, and drove him out of his 
estates, and destroyed his villages ; in consequence of which 
Shasivama Taver and the illegitimate son of Kelaven Saithoo 
Pathier sought shelter at Tanjore, and there led a Hfe of 
poverty, until an opportunity offered itself, when Shasivama 
Taver distinguished himself in a personal combat with a royal 
tiger, for which he obtained the favour of the Rajah of that 
district, who on inquiry learned his history and subsequent 
troubles, upon which he gave him an armed force to retake his 
possessions, Shasivama himself leading the force on to Ram- 
nad. He stormed the place, killed the usurper, and placed his 
friend, the illegitimate son-in-law of Kelaven Saithoo Pathier 
on the throne. In consideration of these services, the Saithoo 
Pathier (the title is in use among the Rajahs of Ramnad, and 



202 SHORTT ON MABYAB TRIBES OF INDIA. 

means Lord of the Causeway) directed his kingdom to be 
divided into five portions, three of which he retained himself^ 
and which at present form the zemindaree of Bamnad, and the 
remaining two divisions he bestowed on Shasivama Taver, 
the Polgar of Nalcottai, The subsequent Rajahs and Ranees 
of Shevagunga are the descendants of the said Shasivama 
Taver, the Polgar of Nalcottai. Owing to the division of the 
zemindaree into two portions, Ramnad was called Pareeyavadi, 
and Shevagunga Sheenavadi. 

It is said that whilst the country was being divided, Shasi- 
vama bribed the accountants and others, and selected for him- 
self the best portion, more especially that part watered by the 
river Vigay. 

The following fable is connected with the origin of the town 
of Shevagunga itself, which is situated in lat. 9^ 51', long. 
78^ 33', and is twenty-six miles distant from Madura, east by 
south. It would appear that when Shasivama Taver was simply 
the Polgar of Nalcottai, and was out on a hunting excursion^ 
and being overcome with thirst, ho, after some search, came 
upon a small spring of water. Here he met a rishi (Hindoo 
monk), who foretold that he would become the possessor of that 
territory. Shasivama Taver, in return, promised that, should 
the rishi^s prediction be fulfilled, he would convert the spring 
into a large tank, and call its waters the Gunga, or River of 
Sheva, and raise a town around it. Subsequent events having 
fulfilled the prophecy, Shasivama Taver, with rigid punctuality, 
carried out his promise in constructing a large theppa colum, or 
square stone-faced tank, leading by steps to the water, on four 
sides, and here he constructed also the town, and made it his 
capital, calling it Shevagunga ; and for upwards of a century 
this place has been the residence of the ruling Zemindars, 
Shasivama Taver being the first Zemindar, 

The estate of Shevagunga comprises about 1,000 square 
miles in extent, with upwards of 1,000 villages and hamlets. 
The population is said to comprise 396,116 individuals. 

The revenue realised by this estate is estimated at between 
six and seven lacs of rupees per annum, and the Government 
pciscush (tribute), which amounts to about 222,000 rupees, is 
paid out of the above revenue. 



8H0RTT ON MABYAB TRIBES OF INDIA. 203 

This zemindaree continued in regular hereditary succession 
down to Veloo Natchiar, during whose government her Prime 
Minister^ the famous Panyamaruthoo^ and his brother Chima- 
maruthoo, Servacarus (warriors) by caste^ usurped her autho- 
rity, and ruled the country, in their own persons, in reality. 
Ulieir rule, although despotic, did a vast deal of good to the 
zemindaree itself ; and their efforts to extinguish the heredi- 
tary succession were ceaseless, and with this object they mur- 
dered all the members of the Shasivama Taver family, with 
the exception of two brothers, who fled into the country. 
They were named Gowry Oyya or Woodia Taver, the eldest, 
and Gowry Vailaba Taver, the youngest. The latter, however, 
was captured and put in chains, and kept in the jungles of 
Kaliar* Kovilt> from whence he made his escape to Arthangee, 
a village in the kingdom of Tanjore, with the connivance and 
assistance of a servant-girl of the Kuliar caste, employed in 
the Shcvagunga palace. He nevertheless underwent great 
hardships, being constantly persecuted by the brothers Mura- 
doo, and several times narrowly escaped being murdered. 

About this time the famous Oomien,* Polgar of Pongallum 
Covelly, rebelled against the late East India Company, and he 
was assisted with arms and ammunition by the two brothers, 
Chinna and Parria Murathoo. Finally they themselves raised 
the standard of rebellion. The Mahratta invasion in Southern 
India against the Mahommedans having taken place about this 
time, encouraged the Maravars (brothers Murathoo) to continue 
their rebellion, and which gave rise to the Polgar war. Prior 
to this, and while the Mussulmen were in power, the revenues 
due to the Nabobs of the Camatic by the Maravars had to be 
collected by an armed force ; but in consequence of subsequent 
troubles the Nabob of the Camatic had to apply to the English 
for assistance in this matter. The required assistance was 
given by the despatch of an English detachment, under the 
command of a field-officer, to Shevagunga, and resulted in the 
brothers Murathoo being driven from place to place, taking 
their final stand in the jungles of Kuliar Kovil, where was 

* The name of a low-caste tribe. f Name of a temple. 

X Dummy, dumb man. 



204 SHORTT ON MABVAR TRIBES OP INDIA. 

fought the famous battle of that name. The Maravars were 
defeated^ and the Murathoos taken and hanged. In Tripatore 
there is still to be seen a ruined bastion^ on the top of which 
is stuck a pole^ marking the spot where this famous chieftain 
was hung. Tranquillity was soon restored. 

In 1802 Lord Clive issued a proclamation^ calUng upon the 
members of the Shevagunga family to attend at the village of 
Sholaporam, With the object of conciliating the people, the 
Government was anxious to re-establish the old Nalcottai 
family, when the elder brother of the two who fled to Tan- 
jore, to escape the persecution of the brothers Murathoos, 
came forward, and abdicated his right to his younger brother, 
whereupon the Government publicly installed him at Shola- 
poram as Zemindar of Shevagunga. In consideration of the 
elder brother having abdicated his right, a few large villages, 
which were formed into Paliapett of Pudonaton, were given to 
him, and which is still enjoyed by his descendants. 

About this time the permanent settlement was introduced, 
and Istimarar Sunnud* was issued to Gowry Vullaba Taver ; 
hence he is known as the Istimarar Zemindar. He ruled for 
about thirty years, and on his death the zemindaree was usurped 
by his nephew, the son of the Polgar of Padamatoor, who ruled 
for two years and died. On his death his son Bodagooroo 
succeeded ; but soon after the estate was involved in dispute, 
and Utigation has been carried on for the last thirty years. 

After various decrees in this country, an appeal was made to 
Her Majesty's Privy Council on behalf of the widow, the pre- 
sent Ranee, Kothama, alias Kolundapauny NaMiiar, the whole 
of whose family were driven out of the country. She sought 
protection in Bamnad for some time; and finally, in 1856, 
found her way to G. T. Fischer, Esq., at Salem, and through 
whose persevering exeHion on her behalf she eventually ob- 
tained possession of her fatherland and home. The trials and 
hardships she underwent are painful to relate. She seemed 
indifferent as to the result of her appeal to the Queen, and 
when she received intelligence of the success of her appeal, 
she did not exhibit emotion of any kind. 

* Permanent order, or warrant, to hold land. 



SHORTT ON MARVAR TRIBES OF INDIA. 205 

The Ranee is the mother of several children, three of whom 
are now alive — one boy and two girls. Her age is about forty- 
five years ; height, about 5 ft. 2 in. Her character is combined 
with simplicity and goodness, and her faith superstitions. 

She rises at seven a.m., and visits her daughters at eight 
o'clock. She goes to the pagoda, where she bathes her body, 
casts off her white clothes, and decks herself with red silk 
cloths ; goes through various unmeaning ceremonies ; puts 
her shrine-marks, which consist of holy ashes; and then 
goes into another room, changes her silk for her usual white 
cloth, and proceeds to her audience chamber, where her 
Buperintendent or carhar meets her, and informs her of 
all that is going on in the estate, etc., when she issues such 
orders as may be required, and returns to her palace to 
partake of her morning meal, about eleven or twelve o'clock. 
Her food is partaken off a plantain leaf or a golden plate. 
The meal consists chiefly of curry and rice, with milk, plan- 
tains, fruits, and sweets, etc. The curry consists chiefly of 
vegetables, prepared in various ways. After her meal she 
chews her betel and nut, and then goes to her other apart- 
ments, where she listens to stories or any other information 
she can get from her women, and in a few minutes she falls 
asleep. She awakes again at about two or three o'clock in the 
afternoon, when she again visits her daughters in their own 
apartments in the palace, which adjoin each other. Her move- 
ments are very slow, and she is followed by a number of women. 
On her return she calls for her daughters and all her women, 
and gets them to join her in prayers and singing songs in the 
enclosure in front of her palace, whilst herself and daughters 
look on with amusement. The goddess she offers poojah to she 
calls "Eoyar* Royar Es])erro"\ Whenever the Ranee enters the 
pagoda tom-toms are beaten, and, as a rule, this occurs every 
morning and evening. She returns from her pagoda about 
eight or nine o'clock in the evening, takes her supper, and re- 
tires for the night. 

The population chiefly comprises Marawars, a tribe of a low 

* King, or Emperor. f A term applied to the wives of Vishna. 



206 8H0RTT ON MARVAR TRIBES OF INDIA. 

caste^ warriors at one time. They are supposed to have been 
thieves. There are several peculiarities in these people^ the 
chief of which is the mode of dress of the women, their love 
of ornaments, and the system of piercing the ear-lobes, so dis- 
tending them as to touch or reach the shoulders. I will now 
briefly describe each. 

The boring of the ear is invariably performed by men of the 
Corava caste, and the operation is generally carried out during 
infancy, when the child is a month old. The operation consists 
first in piercing the lobe of the ears with a stout needle, and a 
cotton ligature is passed through the orifice and the ends se- 
cured by a knot. To this salt and water is applied, which is 
continued for a day or two, when the ligature is taken out, and 
a piece of broomstick is now forced into the ear, which is re- 
newed for a stouter stick every three or four days, when a piece 
of dry pith is substituted. The pith is previously moistened 
with water, which causes it to swell and distend the opening. 
This is also renewed by a stouter piece of pith every other day ; 
and in the course of a fortnight or so pieces of cloth, steeped at 
first in salt and water, afterwards in castor-oil, are substituted ; 
and in about a month or so leaden or brass weights are fixed to 
the lobe of the ear, the weight of which is gradually increased 
till the bottom of both ears meet across the root of the nose 
in one direction, and touch the shoulders in another, when 
the process is considered complete and satisfactory. 

I took off leaden weights from several children under a year 
old, each weighing one ounce. The weights are continued for 
some years, to prevent the lobes shrinking up again. Under 
this system the part gains vigour ; but if at any time there are 
indications of the ear-lobes being likely to give way under 
the strain of the weights, they are either removed or lightened 
for a time. As the young lady approaches puberty, massive 
golden ear-rings take the place of lead, while in the poor it is 
changed to brass. The dangling of the ear-lobes on the 
shoulder is considered very ornamental. This is not the only 
opening made in the ear : the helix along its upper part is also 
pierced in three places, and decked with jewels. Each jewel 
is of a peculiar shape and design. The uppermost jewel worn in 



SHOBTT ON MABVAR TRIBES OP INDIA. 207 

tbe ear is callod a kuppa, and generally consists of two pieces 
connected with each other by a rod and a screw^ the latter 
being screwed into the rod when it is inserted into the ear. 
The lower part of the ornament frequently has a cluster of 
pearls or precious stones hanging from it amongst the rich ; 
but the poor firequently substitute for them coloured pieces of 
glass. 

The next ornament is termed vesary moorgo. It consists of 
a pendant merely^ and is generally studded with precious 
stones. 

The third jewel is called orenapu. It has a roundish form, 
and may also be studded with jewels ; and the fourth, which 
generally consists of one or more massive pieces of gold, fila- 
greed, of various forms, but most frequently of the form of a 
signet-ring, dangles on the shoulder. 

The practice of piercing the lobules of the ear does not ap- 
pear to be restricted to the Maravars only ; but in the south 
other castes, such as the Vellalver, Agembadier, KuHsr, Cow- 
herds^ Vaniers, GhetlieSy and others, resort to the same practice, 
and when the operation is perfect it is termed Thola Oathoo, 
The only exceptions seem to be amongst the Brahmins and 
Gentoos. The opening thus formed in the lobule of the ear 
frequently gives rise to accidents by getting torn through. At 
Chengleputt, where the opening in the lobule of the ear is 
about one twelfth the size of what it is further south, is con- 
stantly being torn through, from accidents arising from the 
occupations of native women in gathering sticks, and attending 
to other household work ; and during quarrels or fights with 
each other it is also frequently torn through; and on an 
average I used to have from ten to fifteen cases annually of 
torn ear coming for treatment to the dispensary. From the 
greater size of the opening in the ears of women in the Ma- 
dura district, accidents of this kind, I should think, must be 
much more frequent. Perhaps there is no accident that can 
happen to a native female, no matter of what caste, that causes 
so much anxiety to the patient and her friends as that of a torn 
ear, which is termed Moohe Cauthoo,* and is considered a great 

* Moolee cauthoo, defective ear. 



208 SHORTT ON MABVAR TRIBES OP INDIA. 

disgrace, on which account they are particularly anxious to 
have the injury as soon and as quietly as possible repaired ; 
and they submit patiently to have the edges pared afresh when 
necessary, and the ends brought together by a silver wire 
suture. Even girls of six and seven years of age will sit like 
blocks of wood, to have the operation of mending carried 
out ; and in these cases, if care be taken to bring the raw 
surfaces evenly together, the parts unite rapidly in the course 
of some three or four days, and in about three weeks or a 
month after they are able to put on their ear-rings as if nothing 
had happened. 

The style of dress of the Maravar women diflFers from 
other castes, except that of the Agumbadiers, It consists, hke 
that in use among other native women, of one entire piece, 
varying in length from thirty to fifty cubits, and from three to 
five feet in breadth. It frequently has a coloured border on 
either side, more especially when white ; the outer end is also 
covered. This portion is frequently embroidered in silver or 
gold amongst the rich, and simply coloured by the poor, and is 
called moonthannee * by name. 

In tying on the cloth, the plain end is gathered into folds 
to the extent of some fifteen or twenty cubits, held in the hand 
and placed behind at the waist, while the other portion is 
moved round the body, and the portion gathered is allowed to 
fall over to the depth of from twelve to eighteen inches. This 
is termed the hosavum (folds), and is allowed to fall over in 
graceful folds, forming a kind of upper skirt, and gives the 
woman a full appearance about the hips, as the folds encircle 
throe parts of the person from behind. This is practised 
among all castes of women, who use the native cloth or saree, 
but the kosavum, as it is termed, is not so extensive, and is 
only confined to the right side by a small fold or gathering, 
which is scarcely visible. The ornamental end of the cloth is 
now ca,rried across the back and over the left shoulder, and the 
embroidered part itself opened out in front. Widows wear 
white clothes only, but married women can use coloured 
cloths. 

* Moonthannee^ or front piece. 



8H0RTT ON MARVAB TRIBES OF INDIA. 209 

Hair. — Among Maravar women the hair is put up differently 
to what natives in general do. The hair is set on the top of 
the head in such a manner as to give the wearer a tallish ap- 
pearance. It is parted along the centre into two divisions, that 
of either side is crossed over and tucked inwards from the 
front, whilst the ends are left peeping out and playing with the 
breeze. 

The men are much better looking than the women. They 
are tall, have a fine intelligent appearance, a robust form of 
body, and somewhat martial appearance. Their heads are 
well formed, with a raised expansive brow, large and intelli- 
gent eyes. I regret that I had not the means at command of 
taking their measurements and weights. 

I shall now conclude this paper with the ceremony connected 
with the installation of the present Ranee in her rightful place, 
after a dispute of some thirty-five years. 

The installation is termed the Puttumj or Assumption of 
Dignity, and was carried out on the 10th of October, 1863, to 
witness which the whole of the Shevagunga zemindary popu- 
lation was invited, and to attend at the general merrymaking. 
This was fully taken advantage of; but at the same time the 
more sensible people evinced much sympathy for the Ranee 
herself, whose family had for the last thirty-five years been de- 
prived of their patrimonial rights. 

On th<| conclusion of the Diisserah* festival, it is usual 
among Indian princes, on attaining permanent command, to 
carry out the ceremony of shooting the arrow. The day is 
universally celebrated by the Hindoos, in all parts of India, in 
token of the destruction of the giant king, Mahishuren. 

At mid-day, and about a mile from the palace of Shevagunga, 
was selected a spot for the carrying out of the ceremony. 
State preparations had been going on in the palace from day- 
light. The flags of Hanooman (Monkey God) and Gerooda 
(Brahmin kite) were seen to float over the palace. Tom-toms, 
cannon, and other noises kept concerting. The Ranee, after 
her usual ablutions and poojahs, was presented with the usual 
prasathun (holy food) by the parobuthan, or family priest. This 

* A ten-day Hindoo feast in honour of the g^oddess Kali. 
VOL. III. r 



210 SHORTT ON MABYAB TBIBBIS OF INDIA. 

prasatham comprises plantains^ cocoa-nuts^ betel^ flowers^ 
sandal-wood, and tirunoor, or holy ashes. The priest then 
requested permission to commence the ceremony of installing 
her into the seat and honours of her forefathers. Having ob- 
tained the necessary permission, he departed to the palace 
pagoda, where some hundreds of Brahmins, Priests, Grurus, 
Josiers, and Shastrias had assembled to assist on the occasion. 
At the auspicious hour the parohithan commenced the ceremony 
of Poonihaha* Vacchanum, to purify the palace, and with that 
view spread some raw rice on the granite floor of the temple 
near the doorway of the pagoda. On it he placed a brass pot 
filled with water, the mouth of which was covered with mango 
leaves. After some unmeaning ceremonies and muntras were 
repeated in honour of Varuna^ the God of Waters, the mango 
leaves were removed from the mouth of the pot, dipped into 
the fluid, and the place sprinkled with the water. 

Next followed the invocation of Vignaspereriy who was repre- 
sented by a conical mass of ground turmeric, and which was 
placed next to the brass pot. The purohithan then, with a tray 
full of rupees, rose and addressed the assembled Brahmins in 
Sanskrit, in honour of the occasion ; and after having requested 
their prayers for the prosperity of the Ranee, the distribution 
of the rupees followed. After this commenced the Jepums, or 
prayers of the Brahmins, their hearts having been previously 
gladdened by the rupees, and they began the ceremony of the 
Navadanim, by the spreading of nine different kinds of grain, 
each separately covered by plantain leaves, forming tiers one 
over another. These were surmounted by thirty-five brass pots, 
of sizes, filled with water from the tank in front of the palace. 
These vessels had their mouths covered with leaves, flowers, 
fruits, cloth, sandal- wood, and money, and the chiLckrum, or as- 
trological symbol, was also deposited by them. The Brahmins, 
during their recitations of prayers, threw rice mixed with saf- 
fron (or turmeric) against the vessels of water. At the same 
time camphor and incense were ignited and cocoa-nuts broken. 
Betel loaves and flowers were again deposited opposite each 

• Purification. 



SHOBTT ON MAEVAB TRIBES OP INDIA. 211 

pot, after which a crown, of the form of a dacal coronet, 
studded with gems, and said to have cost fifteen thousand 
rupees, was brought forward by Mr. Fisher, the agent, and 
handed to the purohithan to be consecrated. This was done 
by placing it at the feet of Vignasjyeren, and holy water made 
ready (i. e., water from the rivers Oanges, Cauvery, Vigay, 
Mamiserum, Tripaty, Palany, and others) . The Banee having 
finished her devotions, came forth at the auspicious hour of 
eleven a.m., conducted by her female relatives, when she was 
led to the Kurruneul* Ghawkai, or Installation Place, in use in 
the Zemindary, which is an open, court-like building, of a 
square form, and constructed of granite, having in the centre a 
raised platform twelve feet square and three feet high, with 
steps on the east and west sides, the roof being flat and square, 
supported by marble pillars ; and within this building is placed 
tt platform formed of a marble slab, nine feet by five, and two 
inches thick, supported by eight crouching lions about two feet 
from the ground. 

On this platform the Ranee, now decked in coloured silks, 
seated herself, surrounded by her family and relatives. The 
ofiiciating priest and his assistants then repeated their mwn- 
tra^, and held over the head of the Ranee a silver strainer, into 
which the holy water was poured, and the spray from the 
thousand perforations broke over her person, after which water 
from the different conseci*atod vessels was collected and poured 
through the strainer (called the Sashasra dahara Kamahum,* 
and is believed to contain exactly a thousand perforations) ; 
after which the coronet was placed on the Ranee's head by Mr. 
Fisher, the agent, while the Brahmins invoked unnumbered 
blessings for the prosperity and happiness of the family of the 
Ranee and the Ranee herself. Thus was completed the Putta- 
bee Shagum, or Installation of the Ranee. The usual din and 
uproar from tom-toms and congratulations made the place 
resound again. 

The Ranee, dripping in holy water, was now conducted to her 
private temple, where she changed her wet apparel for a spot- 
less white muslin ; and having ornamented her person with 

• Granite seat. f Veesel with a thousand perforations. 

p2 



212 SHORTT ON MABVAK TRIBES OP INDIA. 

jewellery and abundance of marks of sacred ashes^ she retired 
with her female relatives to the palace pagoda^ there to return 
her own thanks to her God, and which she carried out by pros- 
trating herself before a lamp that was burning at the foot of 
one of the idols in the covil, or pagoda. She then returned to 
the Ghowkaiy and commenced the distribution of gifts, the chief 
of which consisted of ghee, or clarified butter, and Gingely oil. 
A cup of ghee was now offered to the Eanee, in which she was 
to behold her reflection ; and to avoid looking at the presentee's 
countenance, a looking-glass was given her to admire her own 
reflection. A similar ceremony was gone through with the 
Gingely oil, and after which distributions of presents of money 
took place, and the people dispersed. 

Now followed the Wesa Danum, or ten gifts prescribed by 
the Shastries for the absolution and remission of sins. These 
comprised land, cows, gold, silver, cloth, ghee, grain, sugar, 
salt, etc., followed by a tray containing saffron, coloured rice, 
cocoa-nuts, plantaihs, sandal-wood, and tirunnor (holy or sacred 
ashes), collected by the several oflSciating Brahmins during the 
different ceremonies. These were offered to the Eanee, and 
with the pronunciation of different muntras (prayers) the rice 
was thrown at her ; and at the conclusion a few gains were 
placed on the crown of her head, and her forehead smeared 
with holy ashes, upon which the collected Brahmins, having 
invoked endless blessings, departed. 

The ceremony of shooting the arrow was now commenced ; 
and, in the instance of males, the ruhng Zemindar himself 
should conduct the ceremony by his presence; but as the 
Eanee could not appear in public, she sent her son to represent 
her on the occasion, who prepared himself by prostration before 
the temple deities. He then received from his mother the five 
arrows that were to be shot. These he delivered to the oflSciat- 
ing Brahmin who had hitherto conducted the Diwserah, or ten 
days' festival, and then proceeded in procession to mount his 
elephant, which, in gay trappings, awaited his pleasure at the 
gateway. 

The animal employed on such occasions is usually white, but 
there being none, the usual elephant was painted white for the 



SHORTT ON MARVAR TRIBES OF INDIA. 213 

occasion. Having mounted ^he elephant, in company with two 
of his uncles, he proceeded to the spot where the ceremony 
was to take place. The image of Vignasperen in his vehicle, 
the bandycoote mounted on a car drawn with drag-ropes pre- 
ceding him. Next followed the master of ceremonies, the 
Brahmins with the arrows, mounted on an elephant; after 
which came the white elephant with the Ranee's son and 
brothers-in-law, accompanied by dancing-girls and a large 
crowd of spectators. The place selected for the purpose had 
a pandall erected thereon, giving cover to a space of twenty 
feet square, the sides enclosed, leaving only an archway open- 
ing leading into the interior, in the centre of which was what 
is termed the '^Vunnee Marum'' (Prosopis Spicigera). Tho 
procession then went round the shed twice ; and on the third 
time, while the elephant faced the east, the master of cere- 
monies shot an arrow in the air in that direction, then turned 
round, and did the same to the other cardinal points, a sheep 
being sacrificed at the different localities on which the arrows 
descended. The fifth arrow was then shot at the Vunnee 
Marum, and the ceremony concluded. The procession then 
returned home. 

This ceremony of Vmmee Marum shooting occurs in most 
parts of India, at the termination of the Dusserah, and is 
carried out in commemoration of the great battle between 
Mashihasooreti, the King of Giants, and Doorga. The fable 
runs thus : That in consequence of the tyranny of Mashiha- 
sooren, on the representation of Indra, the King of the Gods, 
to Vishnu, his anger at the relation of the atrocities of Mashi- 
hasooren was so great that the earth shook like a leaf, and he 
produced the Female Deity known as Muhamyay or Doorga, the 
passive principle of nature, and who undertook tho destruction 
of the Giant King, and the battle that ensued lasted some ten 
days, terminating in favour of Doorga and the death of Mashi- 
hashooren. For this success the Gods returned thanks to the 
victorious Doorga for having delivered them from so great an 
enemy. It appears that whilst perambulating in her chariot in 
pride, she shot out four of the five arrows she carried at the 
four cardinal points, whilst the fifth was the one that destroyed 



214 SHORTT ON MABVAB TRIBES OF INDIA. 

the giant, and is considered emblematical of her having con- 
quered three worlds; and promising succour to those who 
sought her, she vanished. 

On the return of the young Zemindar to the palace, his 
mother, the Ranee, awaited him at the Installation Room ; and 
on his making his appearance there seven Brahmin virgins, the 
eldest carrying a brass dish containing saffron-water*, pre- 
sented themselves. The dish of saffron was encircled around 
the heads of the Ranee and her son seven times, for the pur- 
pose of averting the evil eye ; and after having received pre- 
sents of cloths, they were dismissed. The Ranee then 
proceeded to the " kaliana mahal," or marriage-hall, where 
her children, relatives, and female servants came and prostrated 
themselves before her, in token of allegiance. 

In the evening the young Zemindar, the Ranee's son, held a 
Durbar, in lieu of his mother, to receive obeisance and respect 
from the several Devastarums, the heads of the Nats, or feudal 
divisions of the zemindary, and the chief Brahmins, the Stani^ 
yalsy or trustees of the various pagodas, took precedence. The 
chief Stanigal sat down before him, and offered him two brass 
or clay chatties, containing parasathum, or holy food. This 
the Ranee's son accepted by touching them, while an attendant 
emptied the contents and returned the chatties. Then the 
Stanigal rose, and touched the young gentleman's brow with 
holy ashes, and retired. The heads of the different pagodas 
went through a similar ceremony. Then the heads of the Nats 
advanced with offerings of sheep. They prostrated themselves 
before him, and craved his protection to their rights and privi- 
leges according to mamool (custom). These were followed by 
the Dowmasavum Brahmins, who numbered five hundred. 
These sat down and offered their blessings in Sanskrit, each 
one presenting a cocoa-nut smeared with saffron. At the 
same time about two thousand rupees were being distributed 
to begging Brahmins at the palace gateway. 

Then followed a nautch, with dancing-girls, of whom there 



* Saffron-water mixed with liino, chunaan, is in common use for destroying 
the " evil-eye". The dish containing it is encircled around the person. 



8H0RTT ON MARVAR TRIBES OF INDIA. 215 

were twenty-four sets. Sandal-wood, betel, nut, and garlands 
of flowers were profusely distributed, and the Tamasha kept up 
till daylight. 

Thus terminated the installation of Streemathoo Moothoo 
Yigia Bagoonadha Banee Kuthama, alias Kolundapoony 
Natchiar. 

For much of the information connected with the habits and 
manners of the Ranee I am indebted to Miss Fischer, whose 
intimacy with that personage has enabled her to furnish me 
with the necessary information. I am likewise indebted to R. 
Fischer, Esq., B.L., for much information on various points, 
and as to the installation ceremony and the shooting of the 
arrow. 

I have chiefly abridged these from a paper furnished by Mr. 
Fischer to one of the daily newspapers, a copy of which Mr. 
Fischer kindly placed at my disposal. To Miss Fischer I am 
likewise indebted for the photographs which I have the plea- 
sure to submit with this paper. 



21G 



XV. — Report on Excavations in Caithness Cairns, conducted for 
the Anthropological Society of London by Messrs. J. Anderson 
and B, I. Shearer, in 1866. By Joseph Andeeson, Loc. 
Sec. A.S.L. 

In a previous report I have detailed the results of our explora- 
tions in the chambered sepulchral cairns of Thrum ster, Ulbster, 
and Camster, Caithness. In the course of our investigations 
into the structural characteristics of these interesting cairns^ 
we were fortunate enough to succeed in elucidating completely 
the hitherto unknown structural character of the long cairns 
with expanding crescentic ends, whose peculiar features are in 
that report for the first time described. We were also fortu- 
nate enough to fall in with an entirely new type of cairn struc- 
ture, uniting the characteristics of the previously mentioned 
long or '^ homed *' cairns with those of the common or round 
cairn, whose exterior form is defined by a circular enclosing 
wall, and containing a central tri-cameral chamber. As we 
had then examined only two examples of the long cairn with 
" horns '^ or crescentic ends, and had found but one of the 
short kind with horns, our attention was primarily directed to 
ascertain if there were more examples of either type among 
the few sepulchral cairns in the district which still remained 
unexamined. We have again been so fortunate as to find an 
additional example of each of these kinds, both being exteriorly 
almost the exact counterpart of those previously described, but 
presenting considerable diflTerence in the arrangement of the 
internal chamber. 

The Caien op Get. Shoet Caien with Hoens. 
The cairn of Get, as it is locally termed, is situated in a 
hollow at the south-east end of the hill fort of Garrywhin. 
From an examination of its exterior we had judged it to be of 
the same type as the homed cairn at Ormiegill, previously de- 
scribed. It had been partially disturbed and the apex removed 
during the construction of a dam close by ; but we soon satis- 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 217 

fied ourselves that neither its chambers nor passage had been 
laid open, and its external enclosing walls had not been laid 
bare. On digging down into the chamber, we found the walls 
unbroken all round to the height of from five feet at the lowest 
to between eight and nine feet at the highest part, and showing 
a very distinct convergence for the roof at the height of six to 
seven feet above the floor. The passage walls were also con- 
tinuous and unbroken, but the lintelling was gone. The whole 
chamber and passage was filled with a confused mass of stones, 
which being entirely cleared out, the floor was found to be 
perfectly undisturbed, and the rubbish over the floor of the 
passage seemed equally undisturbed. In fact, although the 
apex had been taken off the cairn, and some of the lintels 
taken off the passage, in the search for large stones for the 
dam, it was perfectly clear that the workmen had not gone 
deeper than to try the cairn for big stones ; and finding none 
suitable that were easily got at, they had abandoned the search, 
and gone for what they wanted to the walls of the hill fort 
close by. 

When thoroughly cleared out, the chamber in this cairn, in- 
stead of being tri-caraerated, as we had heretofore found them, 
was bi-cameral. The first compartment, as usual, was small and 
rectangular. It was separated from the other and main com- 
partment by two largo and heavy flags set across the floor, and 
leaving a passage between their opposing edges. But the re- 
mainder of the chamber was not subdivided again by the forma- 
tion of a small compartment as usual at the back. It was thus 
the roomiest chamber we had met with, and was much more 
nearly circular in its outline than any of the rest. The two 
large slabs that would have formed the division between the 
second and third compartments were not wanting, but they 
were set with their faces in the wall instead of across the cham- 
ber. The customary large slab at the back of the chamber 
facing the passage was also in its place as usual. 

The entrance-passage opens to the S.S.W. It is eleven feet 
in length and two feet six inches wide at the outside entrance, 
widening gradually till it enters the chamber, where it is fully 
three feet wide. The lintels being gone, the height of the 



218 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIBKS^ CAITHNESS. 

passage could not be ascertained, but it could not have been 
over three feet at the outside, where the slope of the cairn 
would bring it down to something like that height. 

Measuring across the centre of the floor from sidewaU to 
sidewall, and from front to back between the divisional dtones 
and the upright slabs forming the jambs in the entrance from 
the passage, the first compartment of the chamber is only six 
feet by four and a half. 

The second or principal compartment, approximately circular 
in form, encloses an area which measures eleven feet from side- 
wall to sidewall, and ten feet from front to back. Owing to 
the walls being built along with and over the top of the great 
slabs set into them, as previously described, the circular form 
of this compartment is more nearly that of an irregular octagon 
on the ground plan. The slab which partly forms the back of 
the chamber is five feet across the face, and rises four feet in 
the wall, while those on either side are each four feet four 
inches across the face, and rise to about the same height in the 
walls. Above that height the building is gradually brought to 
a more circular form ; and as the slabs and the lower part of 
the walls incline slightly outwards, this is corrected by the 
masonry over these being brought gradually forward, till at the 
height of seven feet the overlapping and rapid convergence for 
the roof begins. The contour of the chamber would thus be 
something like a barrel set on end. 

The external structure of the cairn forming the horns is the 
same here as in the Ormiegill case. A double wall, or rather a 
wall built parallel to and leaning against another, runs all the 
way round the outside of the cairn, so as to give it the peculiar 
outline shown in the Plan No. 1 . Both walls are faced to the 
outside only. The distance from the face of the outside wall 
to the face of the one behind it varies slightly in different parts, 
ranging from two and a half to three feet. The horns are 
slightly convex at the tips, which are four feet across. They 
project in front of the body of the cairn twenty-two feet, and 
backwards behind the body of the cairn fifteen feet. The front 
horns are forty-eight feet apart at the tips, and the hinder ones 
the same. The extreme length of the structure, from the tip 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS^ CAITHNESS. 219 

of the front horn to that of the hind horn on either side is 
eighty feet : and the extreme width from point to point, both 
before and behind, is fifty-six feet ; the width of the body of 
the cairn across the centre being forty-six feet. 

The contents of the chamber yielded some very interesting 
results. In the first compartment we found the only collection 
of skulls in a sufficient state of entirety to admit of removal 
and preservation, that has been obtained from the Caithness 
chambered cairns. 

In the first compartment lay a number of skeletons, the 
heads having been all placed to the right side of the entrance, 
as if the bodies had been laid athwart the doorway. The 
entrance passage opens to the S.S.W. by compass, so that the 
bodies would be laid with the heads to E.S.E., and the feefc to 
W.N.W. From the fragmentary condition of several of the 
skulls and the decayed state of the other bones, the exact 
number of skeletons could not be ascertained, but we judged 
that there could not have been fewer than seven or eight. 
The skulls of more than half of these were pretty entire and in 
good preservation, considering the quantity of stones and 
rubbish that lay above them. The other portions of the skele- 
tons were very much decayed, the middle of the floor being a 
little lower and wetter than where the skulls lay. From the 
number of individuals crowded into the small area (six feet by 
four and a half), there was no possibility of determining to 
which particular skull any of the other bones belonged. 
Neither could we ascertain with certainty whether the bodies 
had been deposited at full length or doubled up, though from 
the fragments being found all over the floor, I incline to the 
belief that they may have been laid at full length. On the 
character of these skulls I shall venture no opinion further than 
to state that they appear to me to be remarkably well formed, 
and that heads of a much more degraded type may easily be 
found on the shoulders of many men of the present day. 

On the floor of the main compartment of the chamber there 
was the largest accumulation of ashes, mixed with bones, burnt 
and unbumt, and pottery, that we have found in any of the 
cairns. In the centre it formed a compact mass of about 



220 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

eighteen inches in thickness. We examined it most carefully 
as it was lifted, and found it plentifully mixed with wood ashes 
and charcoal, many of the fragments indicating pieces of wood 
of very considerable thickness. It would be very difficult now- 
a-days, in a treeless country like Caithness, to obtain as many 
sticks as would make a fire within a circuit of many miles ; 
but the people who kindled these great and long-continued 
fires in the cairns appear to have had no difficulty in obtaining 
wood for fuel. Wo found no piece of wood unbumt, though 
bones unburnt at one end and completely charred at the other 
were of frequent occurrence. 

The quantity of burnt and splintered bones intermixed with 
this layer of ashes was very great. The bones got on the sur- 
face of the floor were unburnt. Human bones were mixed up 
with those of the horse, dog (?), deer, ox, and swine, in 
indiscriminate confusion ; and both the human and animal 
bones bore the same unequivocal evidence of being wholly 
burnt in some instances, and only partially placed in the fire in 
others. The human bones were those of very young children 
as well as of adults. In this compartment the skulls occurred 
only in small fragments, and in several instances nothing re- 
mained of them but the teeth. 

Scattered through the mass of ashes and bones were chips 
and flakes of flint in great abundance, some completely burnt, 
and others quite free from the action of fire. A few of these 
Hakes are chipped to shape as if intended for arrow-heads ; 
and one beautifully finished arrow-head, an inch in length and 
fully half an inch broad, was found imbedded in the mass. It 
is more leaf-shaped than heart-shaped, and chipped all over the 
side as well as on the edges, being brought to an extremely fine 
sharp point. 

Fragments of pottery were also abundant. They were of the 
usual kind, and, with one or two exceptions, unomamented. 
The single pattern of ornamentation which occurred in this 
cairn was that formed by indenting the clay with the finger- 
nail — a style of ornamentation abundantly found in the round 
cairns, but of which the one or two pieces found hero are the 
only examples met with in the horned cairns. 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 221 

LoNO Caien, Camstee, with Horns. 

This long cairn, the external appearance of which is figured 
from a photograph in my previous report (Mem. Antli. Soc, 
vol. ii), was such a formidable undertaking that we had con- 
siderable hesitation about commencing it. Prom the appear- 
ance externally of its eastern end we had reason to believe that 
we should find the chamber entire, with the roof on it. And 
so, indeed, it proved, although all our previous knowledge of 
the other homed cairns and our conclusions from analogy re- 
garding its internal arrangements were quite at fault. Al- 
though this extraordinary and extensive cairn yielded us abso- 
lutely nothing in the shape of contained relics, we succeeded 
in elucidating its structural characteristics and the internal 
arrangements of its contained chambers, which were quite 
peculiar. 

The entire length of the cairn, measuring from the Hues 
across the tips of the horns at either end, was 195 feet. Its 
width, at the highest or eastern end between the tips of the 
horns, was 64 feet, and at the western end 32 feet. The 
central line of the cairn ran along the ridge of a hill which 
gave it an appearance of greater elevation than it really had. 
Its bearing by compass was north-east and south-west, and, 
like all the long cairns, the end looking to the eastward was 
the highest, reaching in this case an elevation of about 1 5 feet. 
Looking at the cairn sideways, it had the appearance of a 
number of hummocks of stones joined on to each other along 
the ridge. This turned out to be the key to the interior ar- 
rangement, but having in former instances found the chamber 
opening midway between the horns at the highest end of the 
cairn, we set to work there in the belief that there the entrance 
passage must be found. We were also the more induced to 
persevere in trying to find the passage there, as we believed 
that when we got into the chamber we should find the roof 
standing, and, though we might easily have forced an entrance 
into the chamber by removing the apex of the cairn, we wished 
to preserve the roof entire. After having driven an opening 
on the level of the ground a considerable way into the mass of 



222 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS^ CAITHNESS. 

the cairn, directly in the centre between the two horns, we 
came upon the outer wall, which defines the crescentic ends of 
all the homed cairns. But here, to our disappointment and 
perplexity, there was no opening. The wall was well-built, 
and about five or six feet of its height remained standing, but 
where the passage ought, from the analogy of the other long 
cairns, to have opened through the wall, there was neither 
break nor opening to be seen. It then occurred to us that if 
the crescentic structure forming the horns had been added after 
the rest of the cairn was completed, the wall might have been 
built across the doorway of the chamber so as to shut it up. 
Accordingly, we broke through the outer wall and found the 
usual second wall of the outer structure running parallel with 
it at a distance of three feet and a-half behind it. Behind this 
second wall the mass of the cairn for several feet inwards 
showed no signs of a passage. Thus baffled, we had no resource 
but to force an entrance directly into the chamber from the top. 
"While this was being done it was found, by clearing away the 
mass of the side of the cairn, along the south-east side, so as 
to expose the retaining wall on that side, that the passage 
opened there instead of in the usual way, between the horns at 
the end. The mouth of the passage was thirty feet back from 
the extremity of the cairn, and ran out at the side just under 
the apex of the first and largest hummock. Following up the 
clue thus obtained, another passage was found running out 
from under the apex of the second hummock fifty feet further 
along. The great height of the cairn and the enormous labour 
of clearing out the chambers from the top, together with the 
distance (fifteen miles from Wick by the road) obliged us to 
content ourselves with the exploration of these two chambers, 
and, as we were not stimulated to further examination by 
finding a single relic in either, we did not try the lower part of 
the cairn, in which it is probable that there may be two or 
three more chambers still unexplored. 

The first passage, entering thirty feet from the north-east 
end of the cairn, is very low, scarcely exceeding two feet in 
height at the entrance. It goes in straight across the cairn 
for seventeen feet, where by a flat stone set up on either side 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 223 

at a considerable angle, the direction of the passage is changed 
fifty degrees towards the north-east end of the cairn. It then 
runs irregularly winding for seven feet further, when it ter- 
minates in a low bee-hive shaped cell, instead of the usual tri- 
camerated chamber. The first seventeen feet of the passage 
had large and strong covering lintels, the rest was unlintelled 
and much broken down. 

This curious cell is formed on the ground-plan by five slabs 
set on edge, giving its floor an irregularly pentagonal form. 
Over these and between their interstices the walls are formed 
of small flattish stones, and carried up in an approximately 
circular form. At about four feet above the floor the courses 
of flattish stones project slightly inwards each over that beneath 
it until they almost meet at the top, and the dome is closed in 
at a height of six feet and a-half by a single flat stone about nine 
inches square. The stones of which the walls are built are 
very well and closely fitted without jointing and without much 
regularity of face. The floor was paved with two large and 
heavy slabs which did not exactly fit the area, and they conse- 
quently overlapped each other in the middle. There were no 
side jambs to the doorway in the wall of the cell, and, as the 
whole building between the cell and the bend in the passage 
had slid very considerably, it was doubtful whether the stones 
that closed the entrance to the cell had been built in or not. 
So great had been the slide in the mass of the cairn on this 
side of the cell that even the passage walls were not distinctly 
made out. 

This little cell, when cleared of rubbish, was only high 
enough in the centre to admit of a man standing upright. The 
five stones formiug the periphery of its internal area measured 
along the floor two feet, three feet, four feet, three feet, and 
four feet and a-half respectively. Including the doorway, which 
was about eighteen inches wide, the circumference of the room 
was thus only eighteen feet. A single fragment of bone was 
all that was found in it. We lifted the heavy slabs which 
formed the floor, and, on digging below, found that the clay 
was the undisturbed clay of the ridge on which the cairn was 
built. 



221 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS^ CAITHNESS. 

The second passage, fifty feet further along towards the small 
end of the cairn, also ran directly across to the centre of the 
cairn, whore it led to a fine large chamber of the usual tri- 
camerated arrangement. This passage was diSerent from any 
we had yet seen as, instead of being low at the outward en- 
trance, it was higher there than further in, and the first five 
feet wore roofed by a horizontal arch instead of being lintelled 
with flat slabs. At the outer entrance, and for five feet in- 
wards, whore it was arched over by small flat stones overlapping 
each other inwards till they nearly met, the width of the pas- 
sage was only eighteen inches. Where the passage was 
spanned by large and heavy lintels it widened considerably, 
and each succeeding lintel was placed higher than the last. 
Thus the roof of the inner part of the passage rose as it went 
inwards like the under side of the steps of a stair until where 
it entered the first compartment of the chamber, the roof of 
the passage was continued, as it were, over a portion of this 
compartment. Usually the first compartment of the chamber 
is flat-roofed as well as the passage. 

On the second and third compartments the roof was wanting. 
The divisional stones separating the first from the second were 
seven feet high, and a lintel supported on two side props stood 
between them, the second pair of divisional stones were only 
five feet high. As usual, a very large slab formed the lower 
part of the back wall of the chamber facing the entrance and 
sloping very considerably outwards. 

The first compartment is entered from the passage by a 
doorway two feet wide, between a pair of jambs two feet high, 
which, contrary to the usual arrangement, do not reach to the roof 
on account of the rising of the roof of the passage. The whole 
height of the doorway is four feet four inches, there being a 
space between the top of the entrance jambs and the lintelUng 
of the roof of two feet four inches. The side walls are slightly 
curved, and the distance between them across the centre of the 
floor is four feet eight inches. The divisional stones not being 
set fair across the floor the one side is a few inches shorter 
than the other, but the form of the compartment is pretty 
nearly square, the door-jambs being four feet seven inches. 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIBNS^ CAITHNESS. 225 

and four feet two inches respectively, from the divisional stones. 
Roughly, this antechamber may be set down as about four feet 
and a half square, about the same height at the outer end, and 
rising to six feet and a half at the entrance to the second 
compartment. 

The second compartment is much larger and wider. The 
side walls are also slightly curved, and are distant from each 
other, across the centre of the floor, seven feet ten inches, the 
distance between the ends of the divisional stones from front 
to back, at their insertion in the wall, being on the one side 
five feet, and on the other, five feet six inches. The width of 
the entrance between the first pair of divisional stones is two 
feet and a half. The third compartment is entered by an aper- 
ture between the divisional stones, of two feet eight inches wide. 
This compartment is narrower than usual ; but the large slab 
at the back, leaning outwards at a very sharp angle, makes it 
more roomy above than it shows on the ground plan. Measured 
on the floor, it is only four feet four inches from sidewall to 
sidewall, and two feet and a half from the divisional stones to 
the back slab. 

The floor of this chamber was much harder and more com- 
pact than usual ; and the admixture of ashes and broken and 
charred bones, was much more sparingly present than in any 
other chambered cairn we had seen. Some fragments of hu- 
man skulls, and a few broken animal bones, with traces of 
wood, charcoal, and spots of ashes, were all the relics it yielded 
to a diligent search. Not a vestige of any manufactured ob- 
ject was found in either of the chambers ; and the absence of 
these, and especially of pottery, was the more remarkable, that 
the largo round cairn a hundred yards distant {Metn. 8oc, An» 
ihrojp.y vol. ii) had yielded us so many. 

Kenney's Caien, Round and Chambered. 

Kenney^s cairn stands on the top of the hill above Bruan, 
and about a quarter of a mile from the cairn of Get, previously 
described. It is externally about forty yards in circumference, 
and, on being excavated, it turned out to be one of the ordinary 
round cairns, with a passage leading to a central chamber. 

VOL. III. Q 



226 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

Its internal arrangement diflTers, however, from any of the 
round ones previously excavated. Although it has the usual 
division,, of the internal chamber, into three compartments, the 
third, instead of being at the further extremity of the chamber, 
is curiously formed in the left hand side of the main compart- 
ment, immediately behind the first divisional stone. The 
main compartment in this cairn is much larger and loftier than 
in most of the others. 

The passage, which is ten feet long, is also higher and wider 
than usual. At the exterior entrance it is two feet nine inches 
wide, and expands to a width of four feet and a half, where it 
passes into the first compartment, the aperture of which, how- 
ever, is narrowed to three feet by the projecting jambs. The 
lintels remain over the passage throughout its entire length, 
and are large and thick slabs. The height at the entrance is 
almost three feet, rising to about four at the entrance into the 
chamber. 

The first compartment measures eight feet across the floor, 
from sidewall to sidewall, with a breadth of four feet between 
the jambs, at the end of the passage, and the divisional stones 
between the first and second compartments. The divisional 
stones project each about three feet across the floor, leaving an 
aperture between their edges, leading into the second or main 
compartment, of three feet and a half. These divisional 
stones did not rise to the roof; and instead of the first com- 
partment having been lintelled over, like the passage, — as is 
usual in the round cairns, — its roof was formed in the same 
way as that of the main compartment, and must have formed 
part of it. About four feet of the convergence of the walls 
remain on this compartment, the walls beginning to be brought 
inwards, by the overlapping of their courses, at a height of 
five feet above the floor. The main compartment is of a 
squarish form, with rounded corners on the ground plan, but 
gradually drawing to an outline approximately circular, as the 
walls rise over the tops of the three great slabs set in them, 
having their faces flush with the lower face of the wall. These 
slabs being inclined outwards, and the walls beginning to 
come forward at about five feet up, the circularity of the cham- 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 227 

ber and the concavity of the walls, give it something of the 
shape of a huge kettle. Little of the convergence for the roof 
remains on the larger compartment however, but enough to 
show that it must have had a higher and more spacious dome 
than any we have yet seen. The extreme height of the highest 
part of the chamber wall remaining is nine feet. The little 
recess off the main chamber, on the left side, is formed on two 
sides by a couple of walls springing from behind the divisional 
stone of the chamber, and the large slab faced into the wall, 
respectively. These walls form the ends of the recess, the 
back of which is formed by a single large slab set in the 
ground and inclined outwards. The one end is three feet and 
a half, and the other two feet and a half, while the back is 
four feet ; so that the extent of the floor is four feet by three. 
A single stone forms the roof; and to narrow the opening, a 
long slab twenty inches wide is set up, with the one end in the 
ground, and the other abutting on the covering stone. The 
height of the recess inside was only three feet and a half. Its 
floor was flagged with a single large stone, which lay on the 
top of another, and beneath both there was a layer of clay, three 
or four inches thick, plentifully mixed with charcoal and ashes, 
and under that again a third large flag, beneath which was the 
undisturbed subsoil of the hill. 

The contents of this cairn differed from those of the cairns 
previously explored, in the great abundance of fragments of 
pottery, which were so plentifully mixed with the ashes on the 
floor as to suggest the idea, that there must have been either 
a long course of time during which broken pottery became 
mixed with the stratum of ashes ; or that an immense number 
of vessels of clay must have been deposited at one time, and 
their broken fragments subsequently mixed with the ashes. 
They were almost equally abundant in all parts of the floor, 
and at all depths in the layer of ashes and calcined and broken 
bones, which was fully a foot thick. The clay below this layer 
of ashes was scooped, in pits in some parts, in the centre, and 
at these places, of course, the ashes were deeper. All over the 
undisturbed natural clay, the fragments of pottery were very 
thickly strewn, and in many instances pressed into the clay 

q2 



228 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

floor, as if they had been trodden into it previous to the accu- 
mulation of ashes over them. When cleaned and sorted, the 
different varieties of pottery in this caim were found to be seven, 
differing in ornamentation, shape, and degree of fineness. The 
most comman pattern was that having the single or double im- 
pression of a thumb-nail. The twisted thong-pattern, and one 
made of rows of scorings or scoopings with the sharp end of 
a pointed instrument, were also found. We got no flint weapons 
in this caim, and only a few chips of flint. The human and 
animal remains were neither so abundant nor so well preserved 
as in the caim of Get. A few small fragments of skulls, a 
number of teeth in the corners of the chamber behind the di- 
visional stones, and some bones, human and animal, scattered 
over the area of the floor, and imbedded in the layer of ashes 
that covered it, were mostly too fragmentary for preservation. 
The animals, as indicated by their teeth, seemed to be those 
usually found in the other cairns, — the horse, the ox, the deer, 
and swine, with the dog or fox. In the passage leading into 
the chamber were found one of those oblong rounded stones, 
about five inches in length, with the ends rubbed flat, and 
bearing marks of rubbing all along its sides ; and also a flat 
piece of bone, about five inches long and two broad, having 
one end ground smooth on both sides, to resemble the cutting 
end of a flat chisel. These two objects have no counterparts 
among the articles hitherto found in chambered cairns, but 
they closely resemble others found very frequently in brochs. 

The Bboch op Yabhouse. 

From the time that we commenced our excavations three 
years ago, our attention had been attracted to a very large 
grass-grown caim, situated in the south end of the loch of 
Yarhouse, scarcely a quarter of a mile below the two long 
cairns, with horns, on the top of the hill adjoining. Having 
now exhausted the district of the sepulchral chambered and 
cistcd cairns, so far as we are aware, we resolved to open this 
one in order, if possible, to ascertain whether it might afibrd 
us any clue to the relation of the brochs and chambered cairns 
to each other in time. 



EXCAVATIONS IK CAIBNS^ CAITHNESS. 229 

This great green caim stands on a small island, ent oflF from 
connection with the land by an artificial fosse, now silted np. 
The caim was upwards of two hundred paces in circumference, 
around the base, and about twenty feet in perpendicular height 
above the shore of the loch, in the centre ; and on the removal 
of the apex of the cairn, we found it to be a ruined broch, the 
main building of which was in excellent preservation, and the 
wall still standing to the height of twelve to fifteen feet round 
the greater part of the enclosure. 

In two places, while removing the top of the caim, which 
was composed of the ruins of the circular wall of the broch, 
which had fallen inwards, and filled up the central area to the 
height above mentioned, we found human remains among 
the rubbish. They were about two feet and a half to three 
feet under the green turf, with which the whole caim was over- 
grown. In the one case, a considerable portion of the skeleton 
remained in wasted fragments ; but of the skull the frontal and 
facial bones alone remained, and these were not entire. In 
the other case, which occurred at the opposite side of the top 
of the caim, only the fragments of a skull, without any trace 
of any of the other bones, remained. In the passage leading 
to the doorway of the broch, and down at the base of the cairn, 
the wasted fragments of a third skeleton were found. In all 
the three cases, the bones seemed naturally decayed. In the 
third case, there was an appearance as of a kist, there being 
two flat stones, on edge, on either side of the bones, but the 
ends were not well fitted, and may have been simply the stones 
that had not been disturbed in the debris of the ruin. It 
seemed as if the two side stones alone had been set up, and 
the covering stone was simply a rough, flattish, and thick 
stone, not a slab. The length of the cavity corresponded with 
the usual dimensions of the short kists we have found in the 
hills about Kenney^s caim and the caim of Get. The appear- 
ances seemed to favour the supposition, that there had been a 
burial in a short kist on the mound, after the original structure 
of the broch had become a ruin ; and the fact, that the other 
two had been found at about the same depth under the turf, 
appeared to favour the supposition that they too had been bu- 



230 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

ried there on the mound, by simple interment, in shallow graves, 
without any kist. Instances of these green cairns being used 
as burying places, are still to be found ; and there is no doubt 
but that the practice of burying in these and similar mounds is 
itself of ancient origin. The Rev. Mr. Thomson, in the sta- 
tistical account of Scotland (parish of Wick, Caithness), records 
the finding of the skeleton of a very tall man, in a grave formed 
of flagstones, set in the earth which covered the mound, formed 
by the ruin of a large broch at Thrumster, which is close by. 
Mr. John Henderson, of Thurso, informed me that a kist, with 
a skeleton in it, was similarly found at Dunbeath. Dr. Sinclair 
showed me a skull which came out of ^' a stone coffin" in a 
similar mound, at Latheron wheel. At Camster, there is a mo- 
dern graveyard in which interments are yet made, the graves 
being dug in the face of a green mound, which has every ap- 
pearance of being the ruin of some ancient structure. Mr. 
Petrie records the occurrence of short kists containing bronze 
oraaments, on the top of a mound, which, when excavated, 
proved to conceal the ruins of a broch. Mr. Farrer, also, de- 
scribes a broch which had been turned into an ancient burying- 
place. It is thus perfectly possible that future explorers, dig- 
ging in some of these ancient mounds, may find stone weapons 
and implements, bronze ornaments and weapons, stone cists, 
long and short, urns, and remains of burnt bodies, and full 
length graves, with modem coffin-plates, relegating the inter- 
ment to the present century, and all intermingled in perplexing 
confusion. But, rightly interpreted, each series of facts will 
tell its own tale. 

The removal of the apex of the mound disclosed a building 
in the centre, having all the characteristics of the brochs, 
borgs, or broughs, of Shetland, Orkney, and Suthcrlandshire. 
In Caithness, hitherto, none of these buildings have been ex- 
plored which have shown so much of the original plan of the 
structure as to enable them to be pronounced indubitable 
"brochs^^; and so little knowledge has been gained from the 
opening of innumerable mounds for agricultural purposes, that 
it has been questioned whether anything similar to the brochs 
of the three counties mentioned had ever existed in Caithness. 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIBNS, CAITHNESS. 231 

That there were many such structures in this county, — in fact, 
that the face of the country was, at one time, completely studded 
with them, cannot now be doubted by any candid observer who 
knows what a " broch^^ is. 

The broch of Yarhouse, as originally constructed, was a 
building formed of a single circular wall, averaging a little 
over twelve feet thick, and having chambers constructed in the 
thickness of the wall, which could be entered from the interior 
court enclosed by the wall, and to which there was only one 
entrance from the outside. The area enclosed by the wall is 
not a perfect circle, but very nearly so ; the interior diameters, 
taken at right angles across the floor of the court, being re- 
spectively twenty-nine feet, and twenty-nine feet ten inches. 
The interior diameter originally has been about thirty-three 
feet, but a wall, two feet four inches thick, has been built 
against the main wall all round the inside, to the height of 
about eight feet, where it forms a scarsement, or ledge, sur- 
rounding the court. This broch differs from most others in 
having two entrance passives ; but it seems to me that one of 
these belongs to the later adaptation of the building, when the 
lower, and in all probability the older, of the two entrance pas- 
sages, was converted into a communication between the court 
and the cells outside the wall of the broch, which are quite 
evidently of later construction, being built upon the ruins of 
the original structure. Or if the present entrance was the 
original passage-way into the court, the other, which led from 
the court to the foot of the stair and the adjoining chamber, was 
converted into a communication with the later cells outside by 
simply breaking through the two feet of wall which intervened, 
and erecting a covered passage along the outside wall of the 
broch to the nearest cell. 

The main, or present entrance to the court is on the side 
of the broch, away from the land, and is approached by an 
avenue, or covered way, not roofed over, but protected by 
walls on either side, which do not run straight out from the 
doorway, but take a considerable bend twice towards the land. 
Where they abut upon the outer wall of the broch, these walls 
are about five feet high, but at the outer extremity not more 



232 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS^ CAITHNESS. 

than two feet of their height remains standing. They are 
irregularly built, and seem to consist of parts pieced together 
at intervals, the courses being broken by long, flat, and nar- 
row slabs, set upright on their ends across the thickness of 
the wall, like false jambs ; and two or three times they are ac- 
companied by similar stones set on edge across the floor of 
the passage, as if marking the threshold of a door. At ir- 
regular intervals, similar long flat stones stand in the face of 
the walls, and not across them. This passage-way extends out- 
wards from the entrance of the broch to a distance of forty-five 
feet, and is very irregular in width. At the broch entrance 
it is four feet wide. At the first cross-stone, or threshold, on 
the floor, it has narrowed to two feet and half. It then 
widens to five feet, and is again contracted towards the 
second cross-stone in the floor, where it is only three feet 
and a half wide. Immediately behind, or to the outside of 
this second threshold, it again widens to four feet four inches, 
and further on, to six feet, when it again contracts to four 
feet and a half, and at the outer entrance it is not more than 
three feet wide. 

The broch entrance, leading through the circular wall into 
the court, faces, by compass, to B.S.B. It is five feet four 
inches high, thirty-two inches wide at the outside of the wall, 
and twenty-seven inches wide at the inside, its length through 
the thickness of the wall being eleven feet. It is roofed by 
seven stones, four of which are laid with their flat sides down, 
and three set on edge. Both sides of the entrance-way are 
finely built with flat stones, some of which are of great length, 
three of the largest of them measuring respectively nine feet 
long and four inches thick ; seven feet long and six inches thick; 
and six feet six inches long and five inches thick. It is paved 
by fourteen slabs, laid crosswise, their ends passing under the 
walls on either side. A stone on edge, about nine inches high, 
ran across the inner threshold, and two flat stones stood on 
either side, like jambs. 

Entering the court and turning to the left, at a distance of 
fifteen feet from the entrance passage, measured round the 
inner wall of the court, an opening in the wall gives access 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIBNS^ CAITHNESS. 233 

from the court to the stair^ and a large oblong chamber at the 
foot of the stair. This openings as formerly stated^ passing 
between the foot of the stair and the entrance to the chamber^ 
now passes completely through the wall^ and forms a commu- 
nication with two cells of later construction outside. After 
passing through the wall^ it enters a narrow and somewhat 
tortuous passage^ in some parts not over eighteen inches wide 
and thirty inches high, which leads first to an irregularly built 
cell of squarish form, with rounded comers, and about nine 
feet in diameter, — ^an opening in the wall of this cell, leading 
into the next, which is about double the size. 

The chamber in the thickness of the wall of the broch, at 
the foot of the stair, is about three feet wide throughout its 
length of thirteen feet, terminating with a rounded, somewhat 
arched extremity, coming up from about three feet above the 
floor to meet the roof, which is flat, and formed of large lintels 
laid across at the height of six feet above the floor. These 
lintels, instead of beiug laid on their flat sides, are set on their 
edges, so as to resist the pressure of the superincumbent mass 
of building better. The stair, which is three feet wide, ex- 
tends upwards for twenty-one feet of sloping height. It is 
formed of rough flagstones, the steps being under six inches in 
height, and so very narrow that they scarcely afibrd a foot- 
hold. Sixteen steps up there is a landing, or platform, about 
five feet long, opening from which an aperture, like a small 
window, looks into the court : above this landing there are 
only five steps remaining. 

On the opposite side of the court from the last-mentioned 
entrance, and twenty-seven feet round from it, another passage, 
four feet and a half wide, and running for six feet into the 
thickness of the wall, gives access to other two chambers on 
either side, also built in the thickness of the wall. The one 
to the left is similar in form to the one at the foot of the 
stair, being four feet wide, ten feet eight inches long, and six 
feet high ; roofed, also, with a rounded, sh'ghtly arched end, 
and lintelled over, throaghout its lengtji> with long narrow 
blocks set on edge. To the right of the entrance, a passage 
— of which the one side has fallen in, and which seems to have 



234 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

been about four feet wide and six feet long, and two feet and 
a half high — ^leads to a sub-rectangular chamber, nine feet 
long, five and a half feet wide at the one end, and three and a 
half at the other. The roof of this chamber was gone, and it 
was impossible to tell whether it had been vaulted or roofed 
with flat stones laid over the slightly convergent walls. 

The whole interior wall of the court bore the appearance of 
having been subjected to strong and long continued heat, the 
stones of the wall being often burned to the very centre, and 
split and cracked in all directions. The same thing was ob- 
served in the case of the old Strikoke broch, described in a 
previous report, and the whole of the rubbish which filled the 
court was mingled with ashes, bones, and fragments of pottery, 
to a height of seven or eight feet above the floor. This may 
be accounted for on the supposition that the court was used 
long after the broch was partially in ruins, and several feet of 
rubbish covering the original floor. Even so high as the top 
of the scarsement, some eight or nine feet above the floor of 
the passages, we found evidence of this later occupation and 
adaptation of the original building to subsequent purposes in 
the remains of two walls cutting ofi" a portion of the area, and 
abutting on the inner wall of the broch so as to form cells at 
difierent levels ; the one having seven or eight feet, and the 
other ten or eleven feet, of the d/bris formed by the ruin of 
the broch under their respective foundations. The stair, also, 
was filled with ashes up to the landing ; and the marks of the 
fire on its side walls showed very distinctly that three or four 
feet of the lower parts of the walls had been protected from 
the effects of the fire, which had burnt and split the stones of 
the walls on either side above that level. 

The secondary structure in the interior area of the broch, 
consisting of the wall built round the inner face of the broch 
wall, and which, for the sake of brevity, I have called the 
scarsement, appears to form part of one structural plan, with 
the divisional walls running across the court. These divisional 
walls are partly buili^, and partly formed of slabs set on edge. 
They run from either side of the entrance passage out into the 
centre of the court, thus prolonging the passage way for six- 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 235 

teen feet and a half into the interior area. Then they are met 
by two walls formed in the same manner, and running nearly 
at right angles across the court, thus dividing the inner area 
into three enclosures. It is noticeable that although only 
about four feet of the height of these partition walls remained 
standing, the height of the narrow slabs, set on end at inter- 
vals across the structure of the partitions to strengthen them, 
corresponds with the height of the scarsement, the only one 
remaining unbroken rising to the height of seven feet nine 
inches above the foundation of the wall. It seems thus a rea- 
sonable inference, that the partition walls and the scarsement 
were not only later than the broch itself, but were originally 
part of one design, the object being to obtain support for a 
roof of some kind, over the whole court, at a height of about 
eight feet above the floor. That the scarsement and the par- 
tition walls were later than the original structure, is evident 
from the fact that the foundations of both are considerably 
above the level of the foundation of the original building; and 
below the whole extent of the partitions, fully a foot of ashes 
lies underneath their foundations. Among the ashes on the 
floor of the court, an oblong, boat-shaped, granite boulder was 
found, having a smoothly ground level face, polished by use, 
and about eighteen inches long by seven or eight in greatest 
breadth. Another, exactly similar in form and nearly similar 
in size, was found built into, and forming part of, the scarse- 
ment ; possibly, the two together may have formed a rude kind 
of mill for grinding, by working the flat face of the one on the 
flat face of the other. 

The clearing out of the inner area, with the passages and 
chambers, proved a work of much greater magnitude and ex- 
pense than we had anticipated, involving the lifting of a mass 
of rubbish and stones thirty feet in diameter, and nearly fifteen 
feet deep, over the lowest part of the wall of the broch, and de- 
positing it clear of the exterior of the caim. It happened, too, 
that the circumstances were singularly unfavourable for the 
preservation of relics, as well as their detection in the rubbish. 
When we came near the bottom, we discovered that the water 
of the loch rose in the interior of the broch to the height of 



236 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

three feet above the floor. In fact, it rose with the antumn 
rains so much that the workmen were unable to complete the 
excavation till the loch had again resumed its summer level. 
This was due to the fact that the level of the loch had been 
raised, many years ago, to supply the neighbouring mill ; and 
thus, for about twenty years, the water has stood three feet 
high in the interior of the broch throughout the winter. This 
may explain why the quantity of bones and bone implements 
found in this instance has been so small, as compared with 
other brochs. The annual saturation must have completely 
destroyed any bone relics that remained on the floor. 

The relics found in the interior of the broch were of the 
same character as those from the brochs of Old Stirkoke and 
Bowermadden, described in my previous report, and now in 
the society's museum. They consist of a curiously shaped 
stone implement, formed from a piece of flat clay-slate into an 
almost exact resemblance to the ace of spades. An immense 
number of " pestles'' or " crushers", as they have been called, 
— oblong pebbles, varying from ten to three inches in length, 
and generally of such a diameter as to be easily grasped in the 
hand. Some of these are abraded on the ends by rubbing, 
and others by striking some substance as hard as themselves ; 
and some are polished on the sides and furrowed by use^ as if 
some smooth or sharp-edged object had been rubbed obliquely 
against them. A piece of polished stone, shaped like the mo- 
dem " sharping-stone" used for reaping-hooks. A large number 
of flat, circular stone discs, chipped round, and varying from a 
foot in diameter, and an inch to an inch and a half in thickness 
to throe inches in diameter, and less than a quarter of an inch 
thick. A number of stone bullets from three to five inches in 
diameter, some of them having flat faces worn on them, exactly 
resembling those from Bowermadden. A fragment of a flat 
circular stone, throe inches thick, apparently part of a quern ; 
and a rudely fashioned mortar, hollowed out of an unshaped 
block of red sandstone, about nine inches square. An immense 
quantity of broken pottery, most of it plain and badly burned, 
the clay being mixed with small stones, and the shaping of the 
vessels rudely done by hand. None of it was wheel-made. 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 237 

though a few pieces^ ornamented with the finger-point pattern, 
so common in the neighbouring sepulchral chambered cairns, 
occurred. This, with the occurrence of a flint object, about an 
inch in length and half an inch in diameter at the base, formed 
into the frustrum of a cone by a g^eat number of narrow facets 
struck off its circumference longitudinally, and thus, exactly 
similar in character to a much smaller one found in the cham- 
bered long cairn on the top of the hill, suggests a connexion 
between the two classes of structures ; but we are yet without 
any distinct evidence on that point. A number of tines of 
deer's horns, sawn off, and sawn portions of antlers also oc- 
curred; but no finished bone implements, and no traces of 
metal, were found in the interior of the structure. Several 
spindle-whorls of polished stone, similar to those from the 
other brochs, were also found. 

The animal remains that were plentifully intermixed with 
the ashes and rubbish of the interior were, so far as we could 
recognise them from the teeth, the common animals of the 
cairns, viz., the ox, deer, swine, horse, and sheep or goat, with 
one or two species of fowls. A considerable quantity of the 
shells of the common whelk, periwinkle, limpet, trochus, and 
cockle, were also mixed with the bones and refuse. The bones 
were all splintered and broken, and frequently charred. No 
human bones were observed, with the exception of those found 
as formerly mentioned, about two feet and a half to three feet 
under the green turf that covered the surface of the cairn, and 
which are conjecturally referred to burials in the mound long 
after the whole structure had become a shapeless ruin. 

Outside the broch, and between it and the ditch all around, 
a number of cells, built on the rubbish, and belonging to a 
later period, were afterwards explored by the aid of the Bhind 
bequest for the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. The con- 
tents of these cells were, in the main, similar to those of the 
broch itself; but iron knives were found in two of them, and a 
bronze brooch, with an inscription, referrible, from the letter- 
ing, to a period not later than the twelfth century, was found 
in the upper portion of the cell nearest to the outside wall of 
the broch, and not more than about three feet under the general 



238 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIENS, CAITHNESS. 

surface of the green turf which covered the cairn. It lay in 
close proximity to the fragments of a human skull, and was 
presumably a burial deposit made after the caim was a ruin. 

The Beoch of Dunbeath. 
I have been favoured with the following account of the open- 
ing of a very interesting broch at Dunbeath, by W. S. T. 
Sinclair, Esq., jun., of Dunbeath : — 

" Bunheath Castle, Oct, 20th. 

^^Dear Sir, — Having observed the success which has, in 
many instances, attended the researches of others with respect 
to those structures of the primeval age, with which this county 
abounds, I resolved to make an experiment upon one of them 
myself. Accordingly I commenced operations upon a green 
knowe, surmounting a point on the bank of the Dunbeath 
river, where it is joined by the Houstry burn, and about half 
a mile above the village bridge. At a distance, this mound 
was distinguished from the surrounding peaks and promonto- 
ries by its covering of vivid green sward. On closer scrutiny, 
however, traces of building were observable on the north and 
east ; and on the south side was a structure, in form resembling 
a well, about four or five feet in diameter, which was filled and 
surrounded by a growth of sturdy nettles. 

" Popular tradition of the former existence of ^ a castle^ on 
this spot, gave colour to the assumption that the rich turf 
covered something more than a heap of stones, and this the 
first day's work showed. Beginning on the south side, and 
clearing away the earth and loose stones, we found an oval 
chamber, with a portion of the converging roof, or dome, re- 
maining, twelve feet six inches long, six feet six inches wide, 
and about thirteen feet to the highest part of the converging 
sides. In this preliminary experiment, I obtained the bones 
of various animals, among which are horns of the deer, bones 
of a bird, and of the cod and haddock ; fragments of various 
kinds of jaws, the enamel of the teeth retaining its pristine 
freshness, although the bone bears evidence to the lengthened 
period of its inhumation. Along with these, the homy portion 
of two right hoofs of a deer, pared down upon the upper edge ; 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 239 

a section of an antler an inch long, chipped and ground at both 
ends ; a rib reduced by grinding to an edge ; and Several bones 
sawn across, or fractured by a blow, are indisputable traces of 
its former occupation by man ; while at the further end, a shell 
heap of whelks and limpets adjoined a few small pieces of wood 
charcoal, above which the marks of fire were plainly visible. 

" The subsequent and final excavation confirmed my opinion, 
that the oval chamber formed part of a ' borg^, or * dun', whose 
wall is highest towards the north, the rest having fallen a prey 
to time and Gothic hands. It is circular in plan j consisting 
of two concentric walls, between which it has apparently con- 
tained four or more chambers, two only of which remain toler- 
ably perfect. One on the north is built square, with recesses 
on throe sides, but has the usual dome-shaped roof, terminated 
by a flat slab. The other is the before-mentioned oval chamber, 
which is on the east of the principal entry, — an opening three 
feet wide. 

" The further search for vestiges of man's handicraft did not 
yield the find of implements, etc., which I had expected on 
first breaking open the cairn ; but, on the other hand, a varied 
collection of bones of carnivora and herbivora. There appears 
to bo but one trace of the human form divine, — a single ver- 
tebra of an adult, while jaws and teeth of many of the lower 
animals abound. Among these, there appear to me to be 
teeth of the ox, deer, wolf (?), boar, and stoat, with fragments 
of fishbones. Among this second lot was a piece of freestone, 
covered with numerous indentations, all nearly of the same 
size. One of these passes right through the stone ; possibly 
it was used for grinding some kind of weapon. In the very 
centre of the enclosure, and lying on the hard clay bottom, 
was a small spheroidal stone, very similar to a common shore 
pebble, an inch in diameter. As it is netther perforated nor 
marked in any particular manner, I was at first inclined to pass 
it over ; but I observed that it exhibits a great amount of 
polish. The effect of intense heat is discernible on the east 
side of the inclosure, in the reddened and disintegrated stones 
on that part of the wall. This appears to have been occasioned 
by a smelting fire, employed for the reduction of iron ore, se- 



2iO EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS^ GAITHNJBBB. 

vcral nodnlos of which were mixed up with the animal remains, 
and as if in proof of the sapposition, an iron spearhead, five 
inches long, lay beside the lumps of reduced iron in that place. 
Further evidence of the occupation by man is adduced by the 
discovery of burnt grain, here, and oats, of which I obtained a 
handful close to the wall, and next to the clay bottom. 

^' That the site of this cairn has been a favoured spot from 
time immemorial, may be adduced from the fact that the title 
of the ' tuUoch' (green cairn), as it is locally termed, Dun-bheh, 
is given to the whole estate in the Anglicised form of Dnnbeath. 
The etymology of the first part of this word clearly points to 
the nature of the building; while the latter applies to the 
brushwood which clothes the banks of the streams, at whose 
junction it is situated/' 

Small Burial Caibns. 

A few yards from the cairn of Get, was a group of short 
cists set in the ground, which we examined without finding 
traces of either urns or bones. Close by was a small cairn, 
about three feet high in the centre, and eighteen feet in dia- 
meter. It was covered by about a foot of peat which had 
grown over it, so that none of the stones of which it was com- 
posed were visible. On opening it, we found the stones laid 
on their flat sides, and sloping outwards from the centre of the 
cairn. Eound the circular base a kind of wall, about a foot 
high, appeared, which was met by another wall of about the 
same height, running from the centre of the cairn in the form 
of a segment of a circle. The junction of the walls presented 
an appearance exactly similar to that described by Dr. Hunt, 
as occurring in a cairn which he opened in Shetland, and which 
his workmen declared was a chimney. At the end of this seg- 
ment of a circle, which terminated near the centre of the cairn, 
there was a flat stone, about two feet long by nine inches in 
breadth. On this flat stone, and covered simply by the stones 
of the cairn supei^posed, without any cell being built or cist 
formed, there lay a human skeleton, or rather, the remains of 
a complete skeleton. The skull was pretty entire, thoucrh 
much decayed on the side next the stone. It lay on tho loft 



EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 241 

side. The long bones were decayed at the ends ; but the ar- 
rangement of these and the ribs showed that the legs had been 
drawn up, so that the leg and arm bones lay all parallel to each 
other in front of the ribs. The sternum and lower side of the 
pelvis were decayed, and of the vertebrae, only a few fragments 
remained. The head lay towards the N.E. On the top of the 
skull there was a round hole, about an inch and a quarter in 
diameter. We conjectured, however, that it might have been 
simply the result of decay, arising from an angle of the stone 
above it pressing on that point. Beneath the foundation of 
the cairn, the soil showed signs of having been disturbed, and 
some small fragments of pottery and wood charcoal were found 
beneath. 

Concluding Eemabks. 

Of the characters of the human remains, found in the cairns 
now described, I do not feel myself qualified to speak > but I 
hope they will be described by some one able to speak with 
authority on these matters. Those now obtained are the only 
skulls which the chambered sepulchral cairns of Caithness have 
yielded in a state of entirety and preservation, sufficient to ad- 
mit of description. They are the first and only skulls obtained 
from ''horned^' cairns, of which we have now explored five, 
and which are as yet unknown anywhere, except in Caithness. 
As the sepulchral cairns of this district have now, so far as 
known, been all opened at some time or other, it is scarcely 
likely that any more skulls may be found. 

In regard to the two classes of homed cairns, it is worthy of 
notice, that in both cases the short cairns should have yielded 
a larger collection both of human remains and manufactured 
objects than any others. While the long cairns — ^which are 
so very similar to the short ones in external form, and present 
a general resemblance in their internal arrangement — have been 
found to be almost barren of relics in the whole three instances 
examined ; the two short cairns have been most prolific. 

If we suppose, as is suggested by the appearance of the 
building, by the fact that a short kist containing an urn and 
beads of lignite was found on the floor of one of the long 
cairns, with presumptive evidence of its being a secondary 

VOL. III. R 



242 EXCAVATIONS IN CAIRNS, CAITHNESS. 

construction not contemplated in the structural arrangement of 
the chamber, by the more solid consistency of the floors, by 
the more decayed condition of the bones, by the total absence 
of ornamented pottery, and the almost total absence of pottery 
of any kind, — if wo suppose from these indications that the 
long cairns are the more ancient of the two classes of homed 
cairns, and the most ancient, for the same reason, of any of the 
chambered cairns, we are puzzled to account for the complete 
identity of type as regards external form presented by the long 
and the short cairns ; and puzzled, also, by the fact, that in 
both the evidences of cremation are in and underneath the 
floors, while the unbumt burials are over the burnt ones, and 
therefore of a subsequent period. 

Again, if we suppose the brochs to have been the dwelling- 
places, and these chambered cairns the tombs, of the same 
race, we are even more hopelessly puzzled by the dissimilarity 
of type and similarity of contents presented by the two classes 
of structures. The trodden floor of ashes mixed with burnt 
and splintered bones of the chambered cairns, is so like the 
ash-covered floor of the brochs in the general, that were it not 
that the human bones are as many, and as much broken and 
burned in the chambered cairns as the animal bones, while in 
the brochs human bones are exceptional ; and were it not that 
while the chambered cairns yield only weapons of war and 
personal ornaments, the brochs yield only domestic implements 
and utensils, one would be tempted to class their contents in 
the same category on a hasty generalisation. We have already 
a few slight indications which point to a possible connexion 
between the brochs and the chambered cairns ; but the whole 
subject is yet very obscure. These, therefore, and many other 
questions of a kindred nature, must be left for future discus- 
sion, as we have not yet obtained data sufficient for determining 
the relations in time among the several classes of sepulchral 
cairns themselves, or for the elucidation of the meaning and 
intention of their singularly peculiar structural characteristics. 



213 



XVI. — Note on a Skull from the Cairn of Get, Caithness, dif- 
covered by Joseph Anderson, Esq., Loc, Sec. A.S.L. By 
C. Carter Blake, Doct. Sci., F.G.S., Lecturer on Com- 
parative Anatomy and Zoology, Westminster Hospital. 

The skull is of great size and weight, the osseous structure 
being very dense. All of the teeth were in place at the time 
of death, and show signs of being much worn. The age of 
the individual was probably about fifty, and the sex, male. The 
orbits are large, and the nasal bones forwardly produced. 
The forehead is large and capacious, and the parietal tubers 
broad and prominent. The coronal suture is partially obliterated, 
and the sagittal suture entirely so, — a rainure (Pruner-Bey), 
or depression extending throughout its posterior two-thirds, 
and forming slight supra-lambdoid flattening. The upper part 
of the supra-occipital bone is well produced, and the semicir- 
cular line is prominent. The mastoids are small ; and on the 
right side, a small paroccipital has been developed from the 
jugular eminence. The foramen magnum is rounded in form, 
and the pharyngeal tubercle is much towards the left side. The 
impressions for the insertion of the masseter muscle are large. 
The supraorbital ridges are not developed. The inferior maxilla 
is very large and massive, the chin being excessively promi- 
nent ; the inferior border is very thick and rounded, the pos- 
terior angle of the ascending ramus being rather obtuse. The 
sigmoid notch is not shallow. The malar bones are thick, but 
not forwardly prominent, and the canine fossae are remarkably 
shallow. 

Greatest length 183 millimHres 

Greatest breadth 140 „ 

Cephalic index '76 

Facial angle 80^ 



K 2 



244 



XVII. — The Character of the Voice in the Nations of Asia and 
Africa^ contrasted with that of the Nations of Europe. By 
Sir G. Duncan Gibb, Bart., M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., 
V..P.A.S.L. 

A CONTRAST of the character of the voice in the various nations 
of the world has never been attempted; and no traveller or 
resident in any particular country, whether at home or abroad, 
has devoted himself to the consideration of such a subject. 
Travellers, now and then, in their description of certain na- 
tions and tribes, speak of their loud, their shrill, their powerfal, 
or their weak voices. Beyond the mere mention of the sound 
of the voice as they find it, no special desire has been evinced 
to dwell upon it at large. Any attempt, therefore, on my part, 
to describe the character of the voice in the peoples inhabiting 
the vast continents of Asia and Africa, and to contrast it with 
that of the nations of Europe might, indeed, seem to be Uto- 
pian, with apparently no facts to fall back upon, or to bring 
forward, in support of any views that might be propounded. 
Nevertheless, the task, difficult though it seems to be, I have 
endeavoured to work out with all the energy and effort that 
could be devoted to its study and elucidation, to be further 
aided, it is to be hoped, by such remarks as those may make 
upon it who desire to take part in the discussion of the subject. 

I may state, however, that I think I possess some facts, 
although not numerous nor abundant, that will lend their aid 
in the consideration of this question. These, with such in- 
formation, meagre as it is, which I have endeavoured to cull 
from travellers, who have referred to the voices of the nations 
of Asia and Africa, shall be made to bear their just weight in 
the course of my remarks. After generalising and reasoning 
upon these, they shall be contrasted with the voice of Euro- 
peans, such as we commonly know it. 

The general subject of the paper is of more interest than at 
first sight might appear, and unquestionably has something to 



GIBB ON THE CHARACTER OP THE VOICE. 245 

do with the superiority of the European over the Asiatic and 
African races. For convenience, the nations of Asia may be 
comprised under three great divisions : — 

1. The natives of China and Japan. 

2. The inhabitants of Tartary, Thibet, and Mongolia. 

3. The natives of India and Birmah. 

This division, although arbitrary, takes in the chief races of 
Asia, and is sufficient for the purpose of the general illustra- 
tion of the voice in the natives of that continent. There are, 
probably, inhabitants of some of the smaller kingdoms on the 
southern seaboard and peninsula, such as Laos, Siam, and 
Anam, taking in Gochin-China and Cambodia, and even else- 
where, where the character of the voice might possibly vary 
considerably from that of the other nations ; but on the whole 
I do not think that will materially interfere with the general 
conclusion. Siberia is necessarily excluded. 

The Chinese and the Koreans, and the Japanese, according 
to Dr. Prichard (p. 230), belong to the same type of the human 
species as the natives of High Asia ; but it seems, he says, 
among them, to have become softened and mitigated, and to 
display frequent deviation from that character which travellers 
assert is almost uniform among the Mongols. 

Although I have not been either in China or Japan, my in- 
tercourse with natives of those countries abroad, together with 
the information I have derived from persons who have had 
communication with them in their native land, leads me to say 
that the voice, in both races, is one of a low power and feeble 
compass. In tone, it seldom reaches very high ; and if I might 
compare it to any one thing more than another, I should say 
it was a whining voice. This, I feel persuaded, will strike 
those who have had much personal communication with the 
Chinese and Japanese. Their soft and quiet manner of speak- 
ing, which at times possesses a sort of metallic twang, not un- 
like that of their Mongol progenitors, may be due to the pecu- 
liar guttural character of their language, in which vowel sounds 
appear so largely to predominate. Or, again, it may depend 
upon a shallow formation of the larynx, approaching to that 
in the female sex, wherein its depth, or profundity — starting 



246 GIBB ON THE CHARACTER OF THE VOICE 

from the point of the pomum Adami^ backwards to the thick 
portion of the ring of the cricoid cartilage — is less than is met 
with in the Tartar tribes or in Europeans. Or, thirdly, it may 
depend upon habitual pendency of the epiglottis or cartilage, 
that forms the protector of the larynx in the act of swallowing. 
Upon a very careful consideration of the subject, together with 
personal observation, it seems to me that in both the Chinese 
and Japanese, but especially in the former, all three causes ex- 
ert a more or less modifying effect, but that producing the 
greatest influence is the last, — pendency of the epiglottis. 

No doubt, many of the Chinese and Japanese will be found 
to possess as good and powerful voices as are to be heard any- 
where; yet very few will be devoid of the metallic twang, 
which gives to it a muffled character. Yet, as the vocal cords 
are necessarily short, intensity and loudness of sound will be 
replaced by quality, in which the tenor variety may predomi- 
nate. Although I have examined fewer of the Japanese than 
their co-religionists (in part at any rate) and neighbours, the 
Chinese, I think the voice is clearer and stronger in them, and 
the epiglottis wiU not be found so generally pendent. Although, 
likewise, both nations are an industrious race, neither possesses 
the extreme activity or energy of their progenitors, the Tar- 
tars and Mongols, now to be considered. This is not a con- 
sequence, but an accompaniment of their peculiar voice, which 
is a manifestation of physical weakness pervading nearly the 
entire race. Nevertheless, strongly made Chinamen, with sound- 
ing voices and quick movements, are mentioned by Hue (vol. 
ii, p. 242). 

Central Asia, comprising the great kingdoms of Tartary, 
Thibet, and Mongolia, — far away from the intercourse of civi- 
lised nations, and therefore not in common communication with 
them, like the Chinese and Japanese, — would prove a sealed 
book to the scientific investigator, were it not for the glimpses 
of information furnished by travellers, like Messrs. Hue and 
Gabet. The character of the voice was the last thing to enter 
the mind of either ; yet, in their description of the natives of 
the three kingdoms mentioned, they do not seem to have over- 
looked facts and incidents apparently invested with the most 



IN THE NATIONS OF ASIA AND AFRICA. 247 

trivial importance, although oftentimes related on the score of 
anecdote. In this manner have I been furnished with some 
information, not only interesting, but of real importance and 
value. If the Chinese and Japanese are comparatively mild 
and feeble speakers from the causes mentioned, it is not so 
with the Tartars. In them the voice is decidedly stronger, 
louder, and more powerful, yet still partaking of the laryngeal 
or metallic twang. My authority for this is Hue, who states 
in his Travels in Tartary, " The manners and movements of 
these inhabitants of the desert are abrupt and jerking ; their 
speech brief and energetic. The tones of their voice have 
something about them metallic and deafening. Many of them 
are wealthy ; and with these display consists in decorating the 
sheath of the sword with precious stones, and their own robes 
with borders of tigerskin. The horses which they bring to 
Tang-Keou-Eul are remarkably beautiful, vigorous, well-made, 
and of great grandeur in the step, — in all respects far superior 
to those of Tartary, and fully justifying the Chinese phrase, 
' Sima Toung-mieou' (western horses, eastern oxen),^' p. 23, 
vol. ii. 

I have preferred giving this extract in full, because it ex- 
presses so much, in a few words, relating to the character of 
the people, in which energy, activity, and determination play 
an important part. No wonder need be expressed in the power 
of the voice, which is rendered metallic and deafening from 
causes which shall be presently explained. A good instance 
of vocal character and power in the Tartar is furnished by the 
following extract : — 

" On the day of our arrival at Tang-Keou-Eul, a few minutes 
before we entered the town, we met a long hair, who had been 
giving his horse drink in the river Keou-Ho. Samdadchiemba 
(Hue's servant), who was always attracted by anything having 
an eccentric air, cautiously approached the man, and saluted 
him in the Tartar fashion, saying, ^ Brother, art thou at peace?' 
The Houng-Mao-Eul turned fiercely towards him ; ^^ What bu- 
siness of thine is it, tortoise-egg !" cried he, with the voice of 
a stentor, ' whether I am at peace or at war ? And what right 
hast thou to address, as thy brother, a man who knows nothing 



218 QIBB ON THE CHAEACTEE OP THE VOICE 

about thee?' Poor Samdadchiemba was taken all aback at 
this reception ; yet he could not help admiring, as something 
very fine, this haughty insolence of the long-hair*' (vol. ii, p. 24). 

Samdadchiemba, who was the cameleer of Messrs. Hue and 
Gabet, was a young man, who was neither a Chinese, a Tartar, 
nor Thibetian, but one whose features partook of the Mongol 
race. Hue describes his face as " having no decisive character ; 
it exhibited neither the mischievous knavery of the Chinese, 
nor the frank, goodnature of the Tartar, nor the courageous 
energy of the Thibetian; but was made up of a mixture 
of all three" (vol. i, p. 20) . The character of his voice is not 
given ; but " an exertion of his strong lungs'' induced Tartars 
in the distance to turn in their saddles, and come up to him (p. 
29). At night, it appears, he snored with all the might of his 
lungs until daybreak (p. 31). This last is significant of some 
pendency of the epiglottis, probably to the extent of one-half. 
His voice I infer to have been moderate in power ; and his sur- 
prise at the reception he met with from the Tartar need not bo 
wondered at, for in fact he had ^^ caught a Tartar." 

On one occasion, three horsemen overtook them ; one of 
whom, whose costume bespoke him a Tartar Mandarin, ad- 
dressed them with a loud voice : ^' Sirs, where is your country?" 
" We came from the west." " Through what districts has 
your beneficial shadow passed ?" " We have last come from 
Tolon-Noor." "Has peace accompanied your progress?" 
" Hitherto we have journeyed in all tranquilUty. And you, 
are you at peace ? And what is your country ?" " We are 
Khalkas, of the kingdom of Mourguevan," etc. (p. 39, vol. i) . 
The l(nid voice uttered by these Tartars is so striking and im- 
pressive, that Hue seldom let an opportunity pass of referring 
to it. On visiting the caves of the Ortous, in Tartary, Hue 
relates : — 

" Wo directed our steps to the opening of the cavern, and 
on reaching the threshold of the door, perceived within a large 
fire of hemp-stems, whose undulating fiame reached the ceil- 
ing, so that the place looked Hko an oven. On further inves- 
tigation, we observed a human form moving amidst the thick 
smoke; we soon hoard the Tartar salute, "Mendou!" uttered 
by a sonorous voice, " Come and sit beside this fire." We did 



IN THE NATIONS OF ASIA AND AFRICA. 249 

not like to advance. This cave of Cacus, that loud voice pre- 
sented to our minds something fantastic. Finding that we 
remained silent and motionless^ the inhabitant of this sort of 
vent-hole of Erebus rose, and came to the threshold. He was 
neither a devil nor a ghost, but simply a Mongol Tartar, who, 
the night before, having been surprised by the storm, had fled 
to this cave, where he had passed the night'' (vol. i, p. 181). 

In Tartary, the women lead a very independent life, riding 
out on horseback at pleasure, and visiting each other from tent 
to tent. Differing from the " soft languishing physiognomy of 
the Chinese women, the Tartar woman presents in her bearing 
and manners a power and force well in accordance with her 
active life and nomad habits, and her attire augments the 
effect of her masculine, haughty mien'' (vol. i, p. 187). 

The voice of the Tartar woman is not inferior to that of the 
men, in power, at any rate, if we may judge from the behaviour 
of an innkeeper's wife, who for her obstinacy received a for- 
midable box on the ear from her husband, which sent her into 
a corner, screaming at the pitch of her voice (p. 291, vol. i). 

The following picture of the Mongols, as distinguished from 
the Tartars, in the words of M. Hue, cannot but be interesting 
here : — " The Mongol has a flat face, with prominent cheek- 
bones, the chin short and retiring, the forehead sunken ; the 
eyes small and oblique, of a yellow tint, as though fiill of bile ; 
the hair black and rugged, the beard scanty; the skin of a 
deep brown, and extremely coarse. The Mongol is of middle 
height j but his great leathern boots and large sheep-skin robe, 
seem to take away from his height, and make him appear di- 
minutive and stumpy. To complete this portrait, we must 
add a heavy and ponderous gait, and a harsh, shrill, discordant 
language, full of frightful aspirates. Notwithstanding this 
rough and unprepossessing exterior, the disposition of the 
Mongol is full of gentleness and good-nature : he passes sud- 
denly from the most rollicking and extravagant gaiety to a 
state of melancholy, which is by no means disagreeable" (vol. 
i, p. 257). I would draw particular attention to the "harsh, 
shrill, discordant language, full of frightful aspirates." 

The Lamas of Thibet are not inferior to their brethren, the 



250 aiBB ON THE CHARACTER OF THE VOICE 

Mongols and Tartars, in vocal power, which is manifested on 
the occasion of exorcising the demon of sickness. The follow- 
ing description by Hue has reference to prayers recited by the 
Lamas for the recovery of a person ill with intennittent fever. 
" Upon a given signal, the clerical orchestra executed an over- 
ture, harsh enough to frighten Satan himself, the lay congrega- 
tion beating time with their hands to the charivari of clanging 
instruments and ear-splitting voices. The diabolical concert 
over, the Grand Lama opened the Book of Exorcisms, which 
he rested on his knees. As he chanted one of the forms, he 
took from the basin, from time to time, a handful of millet, 
which he threw east, west, north, and south, according to the 
rubric. The tones of his voice, as he prayed, were sometimes 
mournful and suppressed ; sometimes vehemently loud and 
energetic. All of a sudden, he would quit the regular cadence 
of prayer, and have an outburst of apparently indomitable rage, 
abusing the herb-puppet with fierce invectives and furious 
gestures. The exorcism terminated, he gave a signal by 
stretching out his arms, right and left, and the other Lamas 
struck up a tremendously noisy chorus in hurried, dashing 
tones; all the instruments were set to work; and meantime 
the lay congregation, having started up with one accord, ran 
out of the tent, one after the other, and tearing round it Uke 
mad people, beat it at their hardest with sticks, yelling all the 
while at the pitch of their voices, in a manner to make ordinary 
hair stand on end" (vol. i, pp. 66, 67). 

The same sort of vocal chaos, so to speak, is exhibited when 
a Lama Bokte manifests his power of killing himself, yet not 
dying. " At his feet, numerous Lamas, ranged in a circle, 
commence the terrible invocations of this frightful ceremony. 
As the recitations of the prayers proceeds, you see the Bokte 
trembling in every limb, and gradually working himself up 
into phrenetic convulsions. The Lamas themselves become 
excited : their voices are raised ; their song observes no order, 
and at last becomes a mere confusion of yelling and outcry. 
Then the Bokte suddenly throws aside the scarf which envelopes 
him, unfastens his girdle, and, seizing the sacred knife, slits 
open his stomach in one long cut" (vol. i, p. 191). 



IN THE NATIONS OF ASIA AND AFRICA. 251 

During the festival of the new year at Lha-Ssa^ the town is 
invaded by innumerable bands of Lamas^ who run through the 
streets in disorderly bands, uttering frightful cries, chanting 
prayers, and fiercely quarrelling with their fists (ii, p. 218). 
This behaviour of the Lamas is in vivid contrast to their usual 
quiet behaviour, modest mien, and low and grave tone of their 
voices (vol. ii, p. 32). 

The extracts which have been given, so clearly and yet so 
accurately, represent the general character of the voice amongst 
the races of people inhabiting Tartary, Thibet, and Mongolia, 
that I must be pardoned for not altering their phraseology, nor 
condensing them more than was absolutely necessary. The 
metallic and deafening tones of the voice well explain the cha- 
racter of the latter, as might be common to a race of people 
who almost habitually live in the saddle, and whose incessant 
activity and constant travelling contribute to render them very 
vigorous, and capable of supporting the most terrible cold with- 
out appearing in the least afiected by it (i, p. 68). If the 
Tartars utter deafening cries and shouts (i, p. 110), and dis- 
pute by turns furiously and argumentatively (i, p. 120), they 
possess at the same time much fluency of tongue (i, p. 120). 
There cannot be much difiBculty in arriving at a tolerably cor- 
rect estimate of the condition of the Tartar's larynx from the 
faithful description given by Hue and Gabet of these races of 
people. In them all, but more especially in the Tartar tribes, 
the larynx is well developed, and is very prominent in the 
neck, the pomum Adami being a conspicuous feature. The 
vocal cords, consequently, are long and powerful, surmounted 
most probably by capacious ventricles. The metallic and deaf- 
ening tone of the voice has been partly acquired by habit, 
and by partial pendency of the epiglottis, to the extent, most 
likely, of more or less of three-fourths. The Tartar voice, 
screechy and noisy, painfully affecting the ear of those unac- 
customed to it, is inferior to the sonorous voice of the Euro- 
pean ; yet possessing more power and, on the whole, approaches 
nearer to it than that of many other nations. The extreme 
cold and rigour of the climate of Tartary, I think is favourable 
to the immunity from complete pendency of the epiglottis. 



252 GIBB ON THE CHARACTER OF THE VOICE 

although^ no doabt^ many such examples may still exist) among 
the Tartars and Mongols. 

From these various accounts it is fair to argue that^ in ac- 
cordance with the character of their voice, the Tartars are a 
strong, vigorous, active, energetic, and powerful race, the 
worthy descendants of the great Genghis Khan, whose con- 
quests in the thirteenth century struck terror into the sur- 
rounding nations, and which showed, moreover, what such a 
race of people were capable of executing. In the study of 
this interesting subject, nothing has commanded my admiration 
more than the character possessed by some of these noble Tar- 
tars, whose commanding voices were a part of their true 
nature. 

Before proceeding to the next great kingdom, I would here 
I'emind the reader of Defoe's account of the Cochin-Chinese in 
the great bay of Tonquin, in Robinson Crusoe, Boiling hot 
tar was freely ladled over their naked bodies when attacking 
the ship undergoing repairs, which caused them to roar out like 
bulls. They made such a fearful howling and crying, that 
Crusoe compared it to the howling of wolves, for he never 
heard anything more nearly approach to it (pp. 384, 386, 386, 
of Robinson Crusoe), 

So much space has been devoted to the two other divisions 
of the Asiatic nations, that I am compelled to limit my ob- 
servations relatively to the inhabitants of India and Birmah. I 
am not going to enter into a consideration of the vocal character 
of the numerous tribes of India and Birmah, that would be a 
task in itself alone of great labour. The subject shall be 
noticed in reference to the inhabitants of India generally ; I 
am indebted for some of my information to my friend Lieut. 
Cecil P. Stone, of H.M. 77th Regt., who has been many years 
in India, and who is moreover a great observer of Indian 
character. He replied to a series of interrogations of mine. 

The chief characteristics of the voice of the natives are the 
following : — It is generally soft and plaintive, and very 
feminine. It is not so very powerful as shrill, the natives 
always sing in falsetto, but they can be heard at a great dis- 
tance. The natives of the hills have a more robust voice than 



IN THE NATIONS OP ASU AND AFRICA. 253 

those of the plains, and, from the habit of always calling to 
each other from hill to hill, have contracted a habit of loud 
speaking. 

The hill tribes possess somewhat of a metallic twang in their 
voices, but those of the plains are plaintive and whining. 

The natives do not possess a good speaking voice, as a 
general rule they do not possess voices well-calculated for 
oratory. They are not resonant, and never speak ore rotunda. 
As a general rule, the males possess a prominent thyroid 
cartilage. 

There is much difference of voice in the various races of 
India ; it may be predicated, as the variety of race, so variety 
of voice. 

Lieut. Stone never heard a bass singer during the whole of 
his sojourn in India, nor even a barytone ; the natives always 
sing falsetto. The compass of the voice is small, hardly above 
the octave. 

In the main my observations of Indian character lead me to 
concur with my friend ; nevertheless, I have heard good clear 
audible voices amongst the natives of Bengal, not unlike Euro- 
peans, more especially when they have much mixed with them. 
This has been observed also in the women. The slightly 
metallic twang varies a good deal, being sometimes almost alto- 
gether unobservable ; but, as a rule, it is distinctly character- 
istic. In the males the thyroid cartilage is prominent, large, 
and deep, with fairly long vocal cords, the larynx being formed 
as in Europeans, but with this peculiarity, that in nearly all the 
natives of both sexes, particularly those I have examined in 
this country, the epiglottis is completely pendant, and curled 
under in variable proportions. I have scarcely seen a single 
instance of the pretty, oval, leaf-shaped epiglottis, such as we 
are in the habit of seeing it amongst Europeans. This pendant 
peculiarity must necessarily impart twang and metallic tone to 
some extent; and points to loss, or rather absence, of physical 
power and strength in the entire inhabitants of the plains. It 
may vary in the hill and mountain tribes, especially as they 
extend northwards, towards a more bracing and invigorating 
atmosphere on elevated lands. The natives of India are pretty 



254 GIBB ON THE CHARACTER OP THE VOICE 

nearly on a par with the Chinese and Japanese in vocal power 
and compass, but they are decidedly inferior to the Tartars and 
Mongols. 

In dwelling upon the character of the voice in the various 
races that inhabit the African continent, necessity compels me 
to confine my remarks wholly and simply to the Negro, as we 
understand by that term the various black races found in the 
interior and on some of the coasts, especially the western. 
This will permit me to take in the slaves which have been ex- 
ported to the American continent and elsewhere. 

Of slaves and free blacks in North America I have had many, 
indeed I may say abundant opportunities in the earlier part of 
my life of studying their peculiarities in regard to voice and 
speech, and their new home, so to call it, has not altered what 
is common to them as a race. My inspection of the interior of 
the living larynx, however, in the Negro, has been made in 
this country. 

The larynx of the Negro contains all the various parts com- 
mon to other races of mankind ; nevertheless, as I have shown 
in a memoir upon the subject published in the second volume 
of the Memoirs of the Anthropological Society,* there are 
essential differences in the larynx of the black and white races, 
which necessarily exert their influence in modifying the 
character of the Negro voice. The Negro larynx is fairly de- 
veloped, not unusually prominent in the neck, and the vocal 
cords are not, perhaps, of the full length of those in the Euro- 
pean races, nor of the Tartars. Nor are they again as short 
as in the Chinese and Japanese. They are, probably, of inter- 
mediate proportions between the Chinese and Tartars. They 
differ, however, from all other races of mankind, which I 
have had the opportunity of examining, in these particulars : 
the plane of the superior surfaces of the vocal cords, instead of 
being horizontal, slopes from within outwards and downwards ; 
this permits a view of the fundus and entire cavity of the 
ventricles of the larynx which, in their situation and position. 



* Essential points of difference between the larynx of the Negpro and that 
of the white man. 



IN THE NATIONS OF ASIA AND AFRICA. 255 

may be compared to the saddlebags placed upon the back of a 
mule. In the white and other races we cannot see the interior 
of the ventricles, because their direction is outwards, and their 
situation either on a level or above the plane or horizontal sur- 
face of the vocal cords. Besides these, the Negro possesses 
very large and prominent Wrisbergian cartilages, — little bodies, 
like small round peas, at the top of the back of the larynx^ not 
commonly seen in other races of mankind. , 

Then, as a rule in the Negro, the epiglottis is, for the most 
part, pendant and curled under laterally ; a condition which I 
have even seen in a lot of healthy young Uvely and laughing 
Negroes from the river Congo. 

All these peculiarities, I think, incontestably point to the 
want of great vocal power, such, for example, as a loud and 
commanding voice. On the other hand, they possess the 
elements of a bellowing or roaring voice, a deafening noisy 
sound, without anything musical or distinctive about it, beyond 
mere noise. Their speaking voice varies ; it is either smooth 
and harmonious in tone, slightly guttural, or it is rough and 
husky. The former predominates, and is, on the whole, agree- 
able and pleasing, and where it does, the Negro is a laughing 
low-musical and singing person. Negroes are always more 
disposed to be merry and laugh than to be sad and gloomy. 
Dull care they drive away, unless their grievances are strong 
and bitter. Possessing strong powers of imitation, they are in 
the habit of taking oflF other speakers, winding it up with a 
chuckle. Dr. James Hunt, in his essay On the Negro's place in 
Nature, says : — " There is a peculiarity in the Negroes voice 
by which he can always be distinguished. This peculiarity is 
so great that we can frequently discover traces of Negro blood 
when the eye is unable to detect it. No amount of education or 
time is likely ever to enable the Negro to speak the English 
language without this twang. Even his great faculty of imita- 
tion will not enable him to do this'' (p. 22). 

This twang is slightly nasal, but I do not think it general to 
the Negro as he exists in Africa. In America it has been de- 
rived by imitation from his master. In the elderly Negress 
the voice becomes acute and shrieking or shrill, but it is not so 



256 GIBB ON THE CHARACTEE OP THE VOICE 

in the young. Livingstone, in his work on the Zambesi (p. 
551), refers to the " shrill calls of women watching their com,*' 
and the '^ shrill wail of the women, O Mae" (p. 553). 

And I agree with the following observation of Dr. B. Clarke 
to some extent :—'' A pleasing manner, soft and winning ways, 
with a low and musical laugh, may in strict truth be declared 
to be the heritage of most of the Negro women'' (Dr. Hunt's 
Essay, p. 22). 

Livingstone says : — '^ The laugh of the women is brimful of 
mirth. It is no simpering smile, nor senseless loud gaffaw ; bat 
a merry ringing laugh, the sound of which does one's heart 
good. One begins with Hft, H^e, then comes the chorus, in 
which all join, 1EL^666 ! and they end by slapping their hands 
together, giving the spectator the idea of great heartiness" (p. 
503). " The cries of children, in their infant sorrows, are the 
same in tone, at different ages, there as all over the world" 
fldeni, p. 503). 

^' On passing a beautiful village, called Bangwe, surrounded 
by shady trees, and placed in a valley among mountains, we 
were admiring the beauty of the situation (writes Livingstone), 
when some of the much-dreaded Mazitu, with their shields, ran 
out of the hamlet, from which we were a mile distant. They 
began to scream to their companions to give us chase." " The 
first intimation we had of the approaching Mazitu was given 
by the Johanna man, Zachariah, who always lagged behind, 
running up, screaming as if for his life" (p. 551-2) . The scream 
here mentioned was most probably a sort of a roar or bellow, 
and not a shrill sound. 

I never heard a fine loud sonorous voice by a Negro, although 
they have the power of uttering bass notes in a low and grave 
tone, from the peculiarities of their larynx, notably pendency 
of the epiglottis. The position of the ventricles of the larynx 
is unfavourable to intensity and gravity of sound, and to power 
and compass, as met with in Europeans. A barytone voice is 
not uncommon amongst Negro singers, and now and then 
falsetto voices in females, although I have recently heard of a 
Negro prima donna, whose voice is said to be a fine soprano. 
So much for the Negro voice. 




IN THE NATIONS OF ASIA AND AFRICA. 257 

It now remains for me to consider the vocal character of 
Europeans, and to contrast it with what has been stated con- 
cerning that of Asiatics and Africans. 

Speaking generally, the natives of France and England, 
Germany, Russia, Italy, and other countries of Europe, possess 
strong, powerful, sonorous, and clear voices. There may be 
slight variations as to character and tone ; but, as a rule, they 
all agree in possessing power, full compass, range, clearness, 
and loudness of sound. Take the Frenchman, for example, 
with his oratorical powers, distinctness of utterance, sonorous 
vibration, and audible voice, free from twang. The Italian is 
not inferior to the Frenchman in any respect. The English- 
man, although a slower speaker, and perhaps with less fluency 
of language, is behind no other European nation in vocal capa- 
city, and his voice has been heard above all others on the try- 
ing occasion of the din of battle, in commanding his fellow 
man ; or in the senate, where his oratory, uttered in notes of 
distinctness and vocal power, attracts the attention of his 
hearers. The Russian, not unlike the Englishman in many re- 
spects, although, perhaps, with somewhat feebler vital capa- 
city, has a voice of energy and power distinctly heard in the 
open air, and, in some of the districts of Russia, possessing 
very great power and intensity of sound. The hurrah of the 
Russian and the huzza of the Englishman, have been con- 
sidered not unlike one another in vocal power and character. 
But of all the nations of Europe, there is one that carries oflF 
the palm both in power and intensity of sound, and in noisy 
utterance. If the metallic sound of the Tartar's voice deafens 
one, the continuously sonorous vibration of the running speech 
of the German stuns one. Whether this be owing to the pecu- 
liar guttural language, the vital capacity, or the desire to be 
heard above his fellow-man, I will not undertake to say ; but 
the German has the most powerful voice in Europe. In a 
mixed assembly of speakers, e. g., International Congress of 
Archaic Anthropology, the question is asked, Who is that loud 
speaker addressing the chair, the tones of whose voice pain- 
fully tickle the ear ? Oh ! the reply is made, that is Professor 
Sticken Mudden, of Chairhausen, a great authority on tooth- 

VOL. III. 8 



258 GIBB ON THE CHARACTER OP THE VOICE 

less skulls. To the German race must be accorded the proud 
pre-eminence of possessing the most powerful voices amongst 
the various nations of Europe, and, perhaps, the French come 
next, although I am not disposed to acknowledge that vocal 
capacity and power in the Englishman is inferior to the French ; 
this is owing, perhaps, to our climate as much as anything 
else, which is favourable to physical endurance, and increased 
vital capacity. The larynx is well developed in the nations of 
Europe, of full depth from before backwards, and good length 
of vibrating vocal cords. There is an essential absence of 
twang and metallic sound, which is, for the most part, due to 
the comparative infrequency of pendency of the epiglottis when 
contrasted with the natives of Asia and Africa. Amongst 
Englishmen, 11 per cent, is the amount of it, as given in 4,600 
healthy people examined by myself;* and I do not think that 
the percentage in other European nations will exceed that ; it 
may slightly do so, but future observation by other workers 
must determine the question. Nothing points more to the su- 
periority of vocal character than the singing powers of a na- 
tion; and in this respect many of the European countries 
excel, Europe is the cradle of song, although a large cradle, 
if you like, but it points to superiority of voice in strength, 
power, compass, and sound. The details of all this the limits 
and nature of this paper prevent my going into. From these 
and other causes, therefore, — to speak in general terms, — the 
character of the voice is superior in the European to the Asiatic 
and African. He, perhaps, cannot bellow as loud as the Negro, 
nor can he screech as loud as the Tartar; nevertheless, his 
vocal character is superior to both. But in strength of voice 
he must yield to the Tartar, who, without exception, has the 
most powerful voice in the world. Consequently, the Tartar 
is physically superior to any other nation ; but the various na- 
tions of Europe come next to him, even if some do not equal 
him, and possibly, indeed, may excel him. The Germans rank 
next to the Tartars, And amongst ourselves, I am disposed 



• Sec my paper on " Vocal and other Influences upon Mankind from Pen- 
dency of the Epiglottis," p. 10(>. 



IN THE NATIONS OP ASIA AND AFRICA. 259 

to believe that a considerable proportion of the Irish have 
more powerful voices than their fellow subjects the Scotch or 
English. However, opinions may vary upon this point; for 
amongst the Celtic spoken of the Scotch and Irish, there is a 
similarity in this respect : their vocal power is considerable, 
and not unequal, which may be due to their peculiar language. 
As the subject is a new one, and the field untrodden, I trust 
that the necessary short-comings in the treatment of it in this 
paper will be charitably overlooked, and harsh criticism dis- 
armed. 



s2 



2C0 



XVII. — Tlie Fishing Indians of Vancouver's Island, By 
— BoGG, Esq. 

The Sougish tribe is at once the smallest and the most de- 
graded of all the tribes in Vancouver Island. They dwell in 
and around Victoria, the capital of Vancouver Island, and their 
village is opposite that city, on the other side of the harbour. 
This village, like those of all the other tribes I have visited, is 
composed of long, low, shed-like buildings, with the front 
higher than the back, so as to give the roof a good pitch. The 
uprights of these huts are posts, firmly driven into the ground, 
often rudely decorated, or carved into the uncouth likeness of 
a gigantic human form. These posts are never taken away; 
but the rough-hewn planks, which form the sides and roof of 
the dwelling, and which are fastened to the posts by ropes of 
seaweed, are always carried about, by the owners, in their mi- 
grations. When the fishing season comes on, then the Indian 
takes down the planks, places them in his canoe, puts in, also, 
his baskets full of birch and bark, his collection of dried sal- 
mon-roe, and some bladders of fish-oil, and departs with his 
wife and family to the fishing grounds of the tribe. Adjacent 
to these fishing grounds is the site of the summer village of 
the tribe, which, for six months out of the year, is only in- 
dicated by the posts I have already alluded to. But when 
spring comes, with it come the fish, the salmon, the rock-cod, 
the skate, and shoals of herring and whiting. Then the In- 
dians come to the village, unload their canoes, tie their planks 
together, fasten them to the posts, put up bunks round the 
sides to form their sleeping places, clear away the enormous 
nettle-beds, which are the constant accompaniment and sure 
sign of an Indian encampment ; and then they settle down to 
the most important business of their lives, viz., to catch fish 
enough to last them for food till spring comes again. 

It is, perhaps, in this matter of fishing that their greatest 
ingenuity is shown, in the numerous contrivances adopted to 



THE FISHING INDIANS OF VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 261 

obtain the end in view, and in the untiring skill which they 
exhibit. And here I must premise that, with regard to fish- 
ing, all the tribes are alike in the instruments they use, and 
the skill they exhibit. I shall, therefore, only notice other 
tribes when I have different customs to speak of. 

When the salmon comes in season, the men of the party 
go out trolling in a very fast canoe, which they paddle with 
great rapidity. They tow a long line astern made of seaweed, 
very tough and strong, and to this is attached, by slips of 
deer-hide, an oval piece of granite, perfectly smooth, and the 
size and shape of a goose-egg. This piece of granite acts as 
a sinker, and it spins the bait. The salmon-hook is a piece of 
sti-ong whalebone, at one end of which is a loop, and at the other, 
a piece of very hard wood, which is pointed, and lashed on to 
the whalebone at an acute angle. These hooks are very strong, 
and will hold the largest salmon. The bait is very often a red 
berry, of which the salmon are very fond, but at other times 
it is a bit of dried salmon-roe. 

The cod-hook is very much more ingenious, and is made of 
wood, and resembles somewhat in shape an old English fy, the 
upper part of the body of the letter being the hook, which, 
when not in use, is always kept attached to the perpendicular 
portion by means of twine made of fishgut, in order that it 
may preserve its elasticity. When the Indian goes after the 
cod, he takes this hook, and unwinds the twine which has kept 
it curved. But even when he has taken it off, the curve is still 
retained for a time ; the bait is put on, and away he goes to 
the neighbourhood of some rocky islets, where the rock-cod is 
sure to hook ; the hook dropped over the side, there this man 
will remain for hours, until at last he gets a bite. Then we 
see why the hook is elastic. As the fish tugs, he only pulls 
the hook out of its curve, and into a straight line ; but the 
great force required to overcome the elasticity exhausts the 
fish, and makes him an easy prey to his captor. Another 
reason for the form of the hook, is that its breadth prevents 
the fish from swallowing the hook sufficiently to get at the hue 
and bite it. 

Herrings and whiting are caught in a very peculiar manner 



262 THE FISHINa INDIANS OF VANCOUVER'S ISLAND^ 

indeed. A piece of pine, about fourteen feet long, three inches 
broad, and three-eighths of an inch in thickness, has one of 
its edges studded with very sharp spikes, made of hard wood, 
and about two inches long. This rake is used in the following 
manner. When a shoal of herrings is seen, the Indian paddles 
quickly up to them, drops his paddle, picks up the rake, and 
then, while his canoe is shooting a-head over the shoal, he 
makes a sweep through the shoal with his rake, his hands 
being the centre of the semicircle which the extremity of the 
rake describes in the water. He generally impales five or six 
fish on the spikes, which he throws into the bottom of the 
canoe, by striking the rake forcibly on the gunwale of the 
canoe. 

While the men are out fishing, the squaws are employed in 
splitting and drying the fish, boiling down the cods' livers for 
the oil, drying the salmon-roe, etc. When all this work is 
over, and the fish are getting scarce and unfit for food, the 
Indian takes down his planks, stows all his gear, and departs 
to his winter village, where he vegetates till the returning 
spring rouses him again to activity. 

The Cape Flattery, or Tahtoosh Indians, also pursue and 
capture the whale. They have a number of sealskins, which 
they turn inside out, and use as bladders (these, from their size, 
are very buoyant). They also use a large number of harpoon 
heads, all of which fit into one shaft. These harpoon heads 
are very sharp indeed, being made of old files, etc., ground 
down, and they are dipped in resin to prevent rust and pre- 
serve the edge. When a whale is to be caught, the canoes 
follow about until a harpoon can be driven into it. As soon as 
the whale feels the harpoon, it dives, and when it dives, the 
harpoon-shaft floats up to the surface and is picked up ; but 
the head of the weapon is deeply imbedded in the whale's 
flesh, and attached to it is one of these large skins, or bladders, 
full of air. Every time the whale comes up to breathe, fresh 
harpoons are thrust into it, with other bladders attached, until 
at length the number and buoyancy of these air-vessels offers 
such a resistance to any attempt at diving, that the whale is 
soon wearied out, is killed, and then towed to the village by 



THE PISHING INDIANS OF VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 263 

the canoes. The flesh is eaten by the Indians^ and the oil is 
used to anoint their bodies. At the principal village of the 
Cape Flattery tribe, the uprights of the chiePs house were 
carved into the representation of men with their mouths open ; 
and I saw a piece of whale's flesh nailed into the mouth of 
each figure. 

The Ahousad tribe adopt another labour-saving method of 
catching salmon. They use a long spear, the head of which is 
loose, and attached by a thong to the centre of the spear-shaft. 
When the fish is speared, therefore, the shaft comes out of the 
socket in the head, and floats up to the surface, being still, 
however, attached to the head by the thong. Away goes the 
fish as fast as ever it can, dragging this fourteen feet shaft ho- 
rizontally after it ; but its power is soon exhausted, the resist- 
ance being so great; and the Indian, who has been quietly 
awaiting the result, paddles up, and takes possession of his 
victim. 

These, then, are the methods by which the Indian takes his 
daily food out of the sea. Now, let us look, for a few moments, 
at some other of his customs. I need hardly describe the pro- 
cess for flattening the head, which all these tribes undergo ; it 
has been so often and so well described, that it is perfectly 
familiar to all of us. 

Reclined in this wind-rocked cradle, his body and limbs 
swathed with birch-bark bandages, the Indian child passes the 
first two or three years of his existence ; and, perhaps, it may 
be a wonder to some people, but when the child is taken out 
of its bandages, it has the most perfect control over, and the 
freest use of its limbs. An Indian child is never deformed, 
never idiotic. The language of these tribes is most extraor- 
dinary, being, apparently, a collection of 1(^8 and q'a gurgled 
in the throat, in a manner that would lead any uninitiated per- 
son to believe that the speaker was about to vomit. Yet to 
this peculiar language they can give so peculiar an utterance, 
that they can be heard for many miles through the silent 
forests. And at the time that H.M.S. Devastation went to the 
west coast of Vancouver's Island to seize some of the Indians 
who had murdered the Indian agent there, we subsequently 



264 THE FISHING INDIANS OF VANCOUVEE'S ISLAND. 

found that the exact hour of our departure from Victoria, and 
our destination, were known to all the west coast tribes within 
four hours of the time when we weighed. These things had 
been communicated through the forest, from one tribe to an- 
other, the distance being very much too great for any other 
method to have been adopted. 

The Indians have several amusements. They are very fond 
of dancing. We had Cedar Kanim (the chief of the friendly 
Clayogusts) and a band of his warriors on board for some time, 
and one night they gave us a specimen of their dances. The 
old chief was in the centre of his band, holding a very formid- 
able spear which was made of the tusk of a narwhal, and 
decorated with many scalps. Around him were the warriors, 
squatting on their haunches. One of them began beating a 
rude tambourine, and then all the old men began a wild mono- 
tonous chant, clapping their hands, and rocking themselves to 
and fro. Suddenly, with tremendous bounds, never once rising 
to bend their knees, but bounding in that squatting posture, 
the young men left the circle. A coil of rope, a fife-rail, or a 
hand-spike, became their enemies for the nonce, and, with 
stealthy bounds, and much turniug and twisting, each enemy 
was pounced upon and scalped. Then returning to the circle 
they all joined in the chant, which was intended to describe the 
prowess of each individual, for as each was named in succession, 
he had to bound round the circle and back again into his place. 
The dance ended with them all hopping round the deck. Beside 
dancing, the Indians are very fond of gambling. Their game of 
chance is of " odd or even,^' and is played as follows : — They 
have a number of discs of wood, the size and shape of draughts. 
They also prepare a kind of fine bow from the inner fibre of the 
birch bark. When they are going to play they squat down at 
one end of a long piece of matting, one of the players takes an 
uneven number of these discs, rolls them in some of the tow, 
until it is like a great ball, and then suddenly divides it into two 
parts : the adversary has then to say which of these two parts 
contains the odd number. When the part is thus indicated, 
the player puts down the other portion, unwraps the tow and 
rolls the discs along the matting, the adversary counting them 
aloud. They will play at this simple game for days together. 



THE FISHING INDIANS OF VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 265 

They often play high, their money consisting of the Wampum 
beads^ each of which is valued as a shilling. 

When an Indian is ill the medicine man (Ooshtukl) is sent 
for, and as his professional education is rather different from 
our own, it may be as well to say in what it consists. 

First, then, his mother must dream that she will give birth to 
a frog ; and this fact is so essential that the '' Doctor's '' pipe 
and all his insignia of office must give representations of this 
event. 

The incipient medicine man has, like those in this country, 
to pass a preliminary examination, only of rather a different 
kind, for he has to eat a live dog in the presence of the assem- 
bled tribe. This ceremony over, he retires to the woods, where 
he passes several days, communing with Nature, and digesting 
the dog. After this enforced absence, he returns to the village 
at noon on a certain day appointed beforehand, and the war- 
riors arm themselves for the occasion. At noon he appears, 
running full speed, and his object is to bound on one of the 
warriors, and bite a piece out of his left breast. If he fail in 
his object he is slain by the warrior, if he succeed he at once 
rises to the dignity of a medicine man. Then he robes himself 
in a wolf-skin, making the head of the beast into a cap, takes 
his tambourine, and stalks grisly and grim to the side of his 
patient. There he sits, and beats the tambourine, and sings a 
minor chant, for days together, till his patient gets well, or 
dies. When an Indian dies his skull is kept by the tribe, but 
his body is placed in a box, together with a pipe, tobacco, 
(made of willow leaves), same dried fish, some fish hooks, and 
some money. Then the lid is tied on the box, and the box is 
then carried up some lofty Douglas pine, and tied on to some 
branches, a hundred feet or more above the ground. And 
there, above his forest home, above the haunts of the bear, the 
gaunt wolf, the stately elk, the timid deer, the aerial coffin is 
suspended ; and oftentimes in places where Indian villages once 
were, but have long ceased to exist, in places where no sound 
breaks the gloom of the forest, where no living thing exists to 
lessen the awful solitude, looking upwards you may see these 
strange graves, may see how the Red men are placed in their 
last homes to await the call to the ^' happy hunting grounds." 



266 



XVIII. — On the Horned Cairns of Caithness, By Joseph 

Andersox, Loc. Sec. A.S.L, 

A SERIES of excavations amongst the chambered cairns of the 
east coast of Caithness^ undertaken for the Anthropological 
Society of London, and jointly carried on by the writer and 
Mr. R. I, Shearer, has led to the discovery of an entirely new 
type of cairn structure, and yielded the only collection of skulls 
hitherto obtained from these ancient places of sepulture. In 
this paper, I propose briefly to describe the peculiar structural 
characteristics of the horned cairns, and to detail the results 
of the examination of their chambers. 

The homed cairns, so called from the peculiar expansion of 
their crescentic ends into horns, or alate projections from the 
body of the cairn, are of two forms externally, diflTering only 
on account of the cairn-structure being, in the one class, about 
three times the length of the other class. Like the common, 
round, and chambered cairns with which they are associated, 
their internal structure consists of a chamber, generally divided 
into three compartments by monoliths, set on end in the floor, 
and passing through the side walls and across the area, so as 
to leave a passage from one compartment into the next, of 
about eighteen inches wide; but in their external form and 
structure, they differ widely from any sepulchral or chambered 
cairns hitherto known. The peculiar configuration of the two 
classes will be discerned at a glance from the accompanying dia- 
grams (see Mem, Soc. AidhroiJ., vol. ii, p. 226). In the typical 
example, a double wall, or rather, a wall built against and in front 
of another wall, runs entirely round the whole mass of the 
cairn, giving it a form not unlike that of a star-fish with four 
rays ; while in the long cairns, the outline is the same, but 
triply elongated in the centre part. Within this double wall, 
a circular wall encloses the chamber. Of these homed cairns, 
we have explored five examples, all in the parish of Wick. 

Three of them are long cairns. No. 1 is 240 feet in length. 



THE HOBNED CAIENS OF CAITHNESS. 267 

the breadth of the base of the body of the cairn, at the wide 
end, being 66 feet, and at the narrow end, 36 feet ; the expan- 
sion of the horns, in the wide end, being 92 feet from tip to 
tip, and at the narrow end 53 feet. 

No. 2 is 195 feet long. Its horns are shorter, but well de- 
fined ; and the expansion across the tips, at the wider end, is 64 
feet, and across the smaller end, 32 feet. 

No. 3 is 190 feet long, the base of the body of the cairn 
being 43 feet wide at the broad end, and 26 feet at the narrow 
end ; and the expansion of the horns 62 feet at the wide end, 
and 34 feet at the other. 

These three long cairns all have their highest and widest 
ends facing eastwards. No. 1 looking E. by S. by compass. 
No. 2, N.E. ; and No. 3, E.S.E. In this feature, these long 
cairns resemble the " long barrows^^ of the south of England ; 
and some of the Yorkshire long barrows, also, appear to have 
had a "retaining walP^ exterior to the mass of the cairn, 
though in their horned structure the Caithness long cairns 
stand alone. 

In two of the long cairns, the chamber is situated in the 
east, or highest end, the rest of the cairn being simply a mass 
of rubble. The passage, in these two instances, opens in the 
middle of the curvature between the horns. In the third case, 
the chamber opens to the side of the cairn, and there is no 
passage opening between the curvature of the horns. 

The horns of No. 1, taper from a breadth of about twenty 
feet, where they spring from the front of the cairn, to nine 
feet at the tips ; and the curvature — from the entrance passage 
in the centre to the tip of the horn — is fifty-four feet. In No. 
2, the horns do not project more than five feet, and they are 
only six feet broad at the tips. In No. 3, the line of the curv- 
ature, from the opening of the passage in the centre to the 
tips of the horns, is thirty feet, and they are ten feet wide at the 
tips. These singular prolongations of the structure contain 
neither chambers nor cists, and are built upon undisturbed 
clay. Their height varied according to the preservation of the 
cairn. In No. 1, one horn was imperfect. In No. 2, all four 
are perfect on the foundation, the tips being about a foot high 



268 THE HORNED CAIRNS OP CAITHNESS. 

abq^e the surface of the moor, and the double wall rising from 
thence to a height of about seven feet in the centre of the 
curvature. In No. 3, the highest part of the double wall, in 
the centre of the curvature, is five feet. 

The chamber in No. 1 is entered by a passage ten feet long 
and about two feet wide. The chamber itself is about twelve 
feet by six, and of the height of the walls about six feet re- 
main, with signs of convergence by overlapping stones, at 
that height, to form a flattish dome-like roof. It is divided 
into three compartments; the divisional stones, single slabs, 
standing about seven feet high between the first and second 
compartments. The third compartment is a recess in the end, 
with a doorway two feet four inches high, and twenty inches 
wide. The whole recess is roofed by one enormous block of 
stone, supported in front on the two divisional slabs. The 
area of its floor is only four feet eight inches by two feet four 
inches, and the interior height two feet and a half. 

In the long cairn. No. 2, we found two chambers, with indi- 
cations of others, opening to the south-east side of the cairn 
instead of to the end, as in the others. One of these cham- 
bers was of the usual tricamerated kind, and the passage lead- 
ing into it was partly vaulted by overlapping stones, and partly 
lintelled with large flat blocks. The other chamber was a 
simple beehive-shaped cell, about four feet by five, and six feet 
and a half high in the centre, the walls converging from the 
height of four feet. It was reached by a winding passage 
twenty-three feet long, and not over two feet and a half high. 

In No. 3, the chamber was in the eastern end, and was large 
and roomy. Instead of having a small compartment at the 
back, the third division of the chamber expanded into a semi- 
circular area, making the whole chamber eighteen feet in its 
greatest length, and eight feet in its greatest breadth. 

The two short cairns are pretty nearly of a size ; the body 
of the cairn, in each case, measuring about forty feet by fifty, 
and the extreme length of the structure, including the horns, 
being in the one case eighty feet, and in the other, sixty-six. 
In the one. No. 4, the horns extend forward about twenty 
feet, and backward about sixteen feet from the body of the 



THE HORNED CAIRNS OF CAITHNESS. 269 

cairn^ and they taper from about eighteen feet at the widest, 
to about six feet at the tips. In the other. No. 5, they extend 
forward about twenty feet, and backward about fifteen feet, 
tapering to a breadth of eight feet in the front tips, and nine 
feet in those behind. In No. 5, the best preserved of the two, 
the double wall forming the outhne of the body of the cairn 
and horns, is nowhere less than two feet high. The circular 
wall surrounding the chamber is about four feet high. How 
much higher these walls may have been, there is nothing to 
show. 

The chamber floors in both the long and the short cairns 
yielded abundant evidences of cremation, as well as of the deposit 
of unburned bodies; but while the quantity of the remains 
found in the long cairns was scanty, in the short cairns it was 
very large. Manufactured relics were also much more plenti- 
fully found in the short than in the long cairns. In both the 
long and the short cairns, the occurrence of unbumt bones in 
greater or less abundance on the surface of the floor ; while 
the floor itself was composed of a bed of ashes mixed with burnt 
bones of human beings, and half-burned, broken, and splint- 
ered bones of animals, suggests the idea that cremation was 
the earlier mode of sepulture in these cairns. In one instance, 
however, in the long cairn No. 3, a cist of the short kind was 
found set on the floor, evidently a secondary sepulture to the 
cairn chamber, and in the cist were an urn, ornamented with 
the twisted thong, and scattered about it seventy beads of lig- 
nite, formed like vertical sections of the shank of a tobacco- 
pipe, varying from an eighth to nearly a quarter of an inch in 
length. On the same floor with the cist were a quantity of 
human bones, unbumt. While the floors of the chambers in 
the long cairns were a mixture of clay, ashes, and bone frag- 
ments, the floors of the short cairns were almost entirely ashes 
and bones, forming a layer from a foot to a foot and a half 
thick. 

No. 1 of the long cairns yielded, to a minute search of the 
substance of the chamber floor, a few flint chips, and a pecu- 
liarly shaped flint like a flat truncated cone, the sides of which 
were formed by a number of narrow facets struck off'longitudi- 



270 THE HORNED CAIRNS OP CAITHNESS. 

nally. The length did not exceed half an inch and the diameter 
of the base considerably less. An almost exactly similar worked 
flint was found in excavating a broch close by. The bones in 
this caim were extremely comminuted, being broken into 
splinters the largest of which was not above an inch in length. 
Two fragments of pottery, well burnt and plain, completed the 
list of objects found in No. 1 . 

No. 2 of the long cairns yielded even less. A single flint 
chip, and a few bones human and animal, were all the relics 
found in the floors of the two chambers. 

No. 3, besides the cist already mentioned as set on the floor, 
and containing an urn and heads of lignite, yielded a consider- 
able quantity of human bones, burnt when found imbedded in 
the floor and unbumt on the surface of the floor. Mixed with 
the human bones were a quantity of animal bones broken and 
splintered. 

The short cairn (No. 5) at Oimiegill yielded an immense 
quantity of broken and burnt bones human and animal^ the 
animal bones being those of the horse, ox, deer, dog, and sheep 
or goat. In many instances the human bones were burnt to 
charcoal, and the animal bones were all splintered. From the 
quantity of fragments of human skulls a number of all ages 
must have been deposited in the chamber. 

In one compartment we found a beautifully polished hammer 
of grey granite, perforated for the handle, a triangular flint 
arrowhead, and a broken knife of flint beautifully worked and 
ground sharp along the cutting edge. A large quantity of 
flint chips, some of which had been worked for arrow heads 
but left unfinished, were found and also a disc of flint about an 
inch across with facets taken out of its edges all round so as 
to make it a section of a cone parallel to the base. In the first 
compartment another triangular arrow-head was found. A 
large quantity of fragments of pottery was picked out of the 
debris of the floor. Some of it was thin and well made, but 
none wheel-made. The pottery though all plain was of three 
or four different patterns, distinguishable by variety in the lip 
or the thickness of the fabric. 



THE HORNED CAIRNS OF CAITHNESS. 271 

The other short cairn (No. 4) called the cairn of Get yielded 
a series of six or seven skulls, of which three or four were pretty 
entire. They lay in the first compartment, on the right side of 
the entrance, and the bodies appeared to have been laid across 
the doorway with the heads all to the E.S.B. The quantity of 
bones in the floor of this chamber was something surprising, 
and while those imbedded in the floor both human and animal 
were generally burnt, some being burnt only at one end, 
none of the human bones lying on the surface of the floor were 
burnt. 

The layer of ashes and burnt bones forming the substance of 
the floor was in this cairn fully eighteen inches thick. Scattered 
through it were a great quantity of flint-chips, some burnt 
white, others untouched by fire. One very neatly shaped 
arrow head like a small rose leaf was picked up in the principal 
compartment. The pottery of this cairn presented a greater 
variety of ornament than in any of the other homed cairns. The 
pattern found in the common round cairns ornamented by 
indenting the wet clay with the finger nail occurred in this 
cairn. The same pattern has been found in the broch. 

Whether the reason or object of the tri-camerated arrange- 
ment of the chambered cairns be symbolic or simply construc- 
tive is not apparent either from their structure or contents. 
Still less apparent is the reason or purpose of the peculiar 
design exhibited in the external configuration of the structure 
of these horned cairns. It is as yet an open question upon 
which no evidence is attainable whether these peculiarities of 
external structure, the horned outline and double wall giving 
each of the four sides a kind of crescentic form are part of the 
cairn as originally constructed, or later additions ; but from the 
analogy of the round cairns, which are encircled externally by 
a double wall, it seems probable that the crescentic outlines, 
formed by the double wall of the homed cairns, is the original 
design of the caim form. 

That they were used for two different modes of sepulture at 
different periods, and possibly by different races, seems plain 
from the abounding evidences of cremation in the floor, and 
the occurrence of unbnmed skeletons at full length (so far as we 



_ ...v»e iiu (iistnic't cvKlence c 
Difiicult ns it is iiow-a-diivs to realise air 
iniiiit'iise aiJiuunt of labour implied in g 
such an enormous mass of stones as that o 
240 feet in length by forty-five of avera 
rently six to eight feet of average height 
wards of one thousand cubic yards of stc 
difficult to conceive all this labour exp 
chamber less than twenty feet long if the 
dweUing for shelter or defence— an objeci 
been better attained with one-hundredth ps 
relics are mortuary and not domestic, am 
honour and perpetuate the memory of the m 
the only motive which will satisfactorily ac 
amoimt of laborious efibrt implied in their cc 
It has been suggested that while the broch 
tions the chambered cairns were the tomb 
were the rearers of both these classes of ancii 
so, there must be supposed a reason for the i 
structure between the habitations and the t< 
nothing better can be said in support of th 
that the design of the habitation was forced 
perience as the fittest for defence ; while 1 
like the primeval idea of all tombs, as s< 
have been copied from a more ancient stx 
may have bp^r» ^ — ^ 



k-'^ r r. 



THE HORNED CAIRNS OF CAITHNESS. 



273 



ends looking eastward, and the chamber constructed in the 
eastern end, and both having a retaining external wall, although 
this has been noticed only along the side of some of those in 
England, seems to point to a community of origin, while the 
general affinity of the chambered caims of Caithness with those 
of Ireland is equally suggestive. But until a better and more 
extensive series of crania from these sepulchral monuments has 
been obtained for comparison, the question of race must remain 
in abeyance. 



VOL. III. 



274 



XIX. — Anthropological Remarks on the Pojnilation of Venezuela. 

By A. Eenbt, of Cardcas^ F.A.S.L. 

I. — Statistical Inquikibs. 

It is entirely impossible to say what is the exact number of 
inhabitants in Venezuela. The dates contained in geographical 
works are merely founded on general calculations^ and are not 
the results of careful numbering. A trustworthy census has 
never been made^ and is altogether an impossibility^ much 
people Uving far from villages or other communities ; and even 
in these^ a considerable number of inhabitants would abscond^ 
because they consider a census identical with researches after 
people for military service. 

But there exist official statistical evaluations of the number 
of inhabitants. They are made from time to time to regulate 
the elections for the Congress ; but their results are very sus- 
picious. The persons who have to number receive, for each 
hundred of inhabitants, a certain remuneration, and it is there- 
fore their interest to get a final number as high as possible. 
Nothing at all can be stated with respect to the indepeudent 
Indian tribes. Humboldt calculated, at the beginning of this 
century, 800,000 inhabitants, fifteen per cent, of which were 
pure Indians, eight per cent. Negro slaves, twenty-five per 
cent. Hispano-Americans, one per cent. Europeans, and fifty- 
one mixed races. A. Codazzi {Resurnen de la Geografia de Fe- 
nezuela, Paris, 1841) gives, for 1825, 701,633 inhabitants. The 
decrease may be accounted for by considering the long war of 
independence, and the most cruel manner of warfare on both 
sides, the dreadful earthquake of 1812, and the epidemics in 
1818 and 1825. 

In 1839, according to the same author, the population was 
945,348, represented as follows : — 

Independent Indians 52,415 

Half-civilised Indians 14,000 

Completely civilised Indians 155,000 

White Hispano-Americans and Europeans 260,000 

Mixed races 414,151 

Slaves 49,151 

Total 945,348 



BBMABKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 275 

This number would give a yearly increase of more than two 

per cent, for the fourteen years from 1825 to 1839; whilst 

even the United States, for the ten years from 1850 to 1860, 

show but a yearly increase of 1*8 per cent. (KVoien, Erdkunde, 

iii, 731), and England and Wales, for the twenty years from 

1831 to 1851, nearly 1*3 per cent. (Kloden, he. cit. ii, 539). 

It may be stated here that the work of Codazzi is not at all 

very exact and sincere in its statistical part. The author had 

a purpose very different from what the book pretended to be 

written for, " to draw, with the hand of an apparently learned 

man, a veil over the true situation of the policy and economy 

of Venezuela, covering over all what was foul, and representing 

things neither as they were then, nor are to-day. It was not 

convenient to say that poor Venezuela had already made a 

powerful beginning in the abominable corruption, which, at 

last, led to scandal and ruin^^ (William Iribarren, in a letter, 

dated Bogota, 21st Nov. 1847, communicated in M. de Briceno, 

'' La Gran Question fiscal de Venezuela, Caracas,'^ 1864). 

The following census of 1844 gives the following results : — 

Free Inhabitants 1,173,674 

Manumisos* 23,514 

Slaves 21,628 

Total 1,218,716 

This is the most trustworthy census made in Venezuela. Dr. 
M. de Briceno, in the very able paper mentioned before, starts, 
therefore, in his calculations of the population from this num- 
ber, by adding, from year to year, the excess of the births 
over the deaths, and arrives, for 1863, to 1,700,000 inhabit- 
ants, which gives 1*7 per cent, increase per annum. But this 
excess is not known with full security. It was in 1 843 (" Me- 
moria de lo Interior y Justicia,^^ Caracas, 1844), 28,223, the 
number of births being 50,121 ; the number of deaths, 21,898 ; 
so that there was one birth for 24*6 inhabitants, and one death 
for 43*2 inhabitants (Peuchet gives for France, on 28*3 inha- 
bitants, one birth, and on 30*9, one death). The number of 
deaths, nevertheless, was certainly greater. We must con- 

* These Manumisos were in a transitory state from slavery to emanci- 
pation. 



276 BBMARK8 ON THE POPULATION OP VENBZUBLA. 

sider that in such a country as Venezuela^ many persons die 
without being noticed by anyone, even in Caracas. More, the 
number of dead-bom children is contained in the number of 
births, but not in that of the deaths, so that the excess will 
be considerably reduced. 

In Caracas, with 50,000 inhabitants, was the average number 
of deaths per week in 1864, 25, or nearly 2*5 per cent, per 
annum. Caracas is certainly, generally spoken, a healthy 
place, and in case of sickness, medical assistance can be pro- 
cured immediately. This is not so in most parts of the country; 
and it will not be too far from truth when 2*5 per cent, are 
taken for the whole country, which gives one death for forty 
inhabitants. 

Considering, finally, the repeated civil wars of this country, 
the epidemics, the notorious unhealthy condition of many parts, 
and some reasons I shall expose hereafter, I think one per 
cent, might be the maximum of the yearly increase, so that, 
adopting the result of the census of 1844, we get nearly 
1,500,000 inhabitants for 1864. This per centage of but one 
per cent, is, in contradiction to a statement made by Humboldt 
{Essai pol, 8ur le royaume d, I, Nouv. Esp. ed. in 8., i, 337), 
'^ On observe partout sur le globe que la population augmente 
avec uno prodigieuse rapidity dans des pays qui sont encore 
pen habitus, sur un sol ^minemment fertile, sous ^influence 
d'un climat doux et d'une temperature ^gale, et surtout dans 
une race d'hommes robustes et que la nature appelle tres-jeunes 
au manage." 

Venezuela certainly has a great number of the conditions 
mentioned in these lines, and Humboldt is right in saying that 
there exists precocity in both sexes ; he might even have added, 
that a birfch comes very often before the marriage. There are 
families with a great many children ; I know a man who has 
nineteen from the same mother. But these are exceptions, and 
the progression comes very soon to a standstill. Amongst the 
aristocratic classes of the white Creoles, the young men ruin 
themselves by sexual dissipations, and become old before the 
time. The daughters — and thiere arc generally more daughters 
than sons — remain very often unmanned (" quedarse por tia". 



REMARKS ON THE POPULATION OK VENEZUELA. 277 

remain as an aunt^ say the Spaniards) ; and even in case of 
a marriage^ they do not become mothers of a numerous and 
healthy family. In all classes, boys and girls are infested with 
the vice of onanism. They learn it already, in the very begin- 
ning of life, from their wet nurses, generally low mulatto- 
women, and many other reasons help to foster the vice; so 
the young people grow, by and by, to everything but " une 
race d'hommes robustes,^^ and miscarriages and dead-bom 
children are very numerous. Amongst the lower classes, many 
children die for want of assistance ; nay, a considerable num- 
ber are directly killed. The law is blind and deaf; the little 
creatures become angels, '^ angelitos,'^ and the unnatural mother 
gets very easily the ^' ego to absolve*' of a priest, when she 
confesses her deed. It is almost incredible what a corruption 
reigns amongst this part of the population. The interior of 
the country is, of course, still worse than Caracas; idleness, 
drinking, and prostitution is all what fills their miserable ex- 
istence. In the beautiful and rich valley of Aragua, I have 
seen mothers who offered their own daughters, girls of ten or 
eleven years, in the most shameless manner, for a couple of 
glasses of gin ! Amongst eight hundred and eighty-six sick 
persons, who entered, in 1864, in the hospital '^ mihtar,*' were 
one hundred and sixty-five, or nearly nineteen per cent., sy- 
philitic; and the druggists sell large quantities of all kinds 
of remedies, recommended as ^^ especifics'* against this sick- 
ness. Under such circumstances, a considerable increase of 
the population is impossible, and one per cent, will, perhaps, 
be too high a rate, but certainly not too low. 

We are inclined to overvalue the population of American coun- 
tries before the time of the conquest ; nevertheless, in Venezuela, 
I believe it to have been greater than to-day. Caulin {Historia de 
la NuevaAndalucia) mentions thirty-nine missions, with 30,000 
Indians ("Indies reducidos'*), and says that more than ten 
times as many were not yet established in villages. Supposing, 
therefore, only 300,000 inhabitants for the territory called then 
Nueva Andalucia, we would have, in the whole country, from 
two to three millions. 

The 50,121 births of the year 1843, were 25,520 males and 



278 UEMABKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 

24^601 females. This result is exceptional^ as generally there 
are more women than men. This total population contained 
599,647 of the latter, and 619,469 of the former, showing the 
proportion of 100 : 103'3. The two provinces, Apure and Ma- 
racaybo, nevertheless, make an exception ; the proportion of 
the males to the females, in the first part, was 100 : 87 ; in the 
second, 100 : 83. The maximum was in Coro, 100 : 112*1, and 
in Guyana, 100 : 113-4. 

A memoir of the " Comision de Instruccion pdblica,^^ 1844, 
gives the number of children, of five to fourteen years, 262,622, 
corresponding to a population of 1,083,239 (two provinces were 
not included), or 24*2 per cent. 

II. — Different Eaces. 

The constitutive elements of the population of Venezuela 
are foreigners, white Creoles, mixed races, Indian tribes. I 
omit the Negroes. In 1845, Venezuela had but 21,000 slaves, 
and we may suppose 10 per cent, were pure Africans, as the 
importation of Negroes was already prohibited in the first con- 
stitution of the Republic. It is obvious that to-day their num- 
ber must be reduced that it may be allowed to neglect them 
completely. Venezuela had never many Negroes. They formed 
in 1839 only five per cent, of the total population (Cuba, in 1846, 
36 per cent. ; Dutch Guyana, 1858, 71 per cent., Kloden, ErcU 
kunde, iii, 663, 654) . Slaves were principally kept in the agri- 
cultural districts near the coast, in the valleys of Tuy and 
Aragua, and in the province of Carabobo. In the other parts, 
there were scarcely any (Apure, 1844, seventy-seven slaves; 
Guyana, 1844, one hundred and forty-four slaves), and even 
Mulattoes are very rare. 

Amongst the foreigners are the Islenos, from the Canary 
Islands, the most numerous. This immigration brought from 
1832 to 1844, 11,687 inhabitants; to-day we may suppose 
three times as many. These Islenos are very industrious and 
active. An Isleno begins generally his career by selling '' ma- 
lojo^^ (zea mais L., the green plants of which are cut when in 
bloom, and used as fodder for horses and other animals) . By 
this lucrative business and his extraordinary, even stingy, eco- 



REMARKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 279 

nomy, he gathers money, and by and by sets up a ^^ puelperia^', 
a small shop containing whatever belongs to the daily neces- 
sities of common people. Many of them have become very 
wealthy ; and some are now at the head of large commercial 
establishments, although they are scarcely able to write their 
names. 

The second in number are the Germaas. It is a well-known 
fact that the commerce of Venezuela is principally done by 
German houses. The most important places are Laguayra, 
Caracas, Porto Cabello, Maracaybo, and Ciudad Bolivar; but 
none of them is a first-rate market, so that commercial houses 
that are only in relations with one country, cannot do much. 
A Venezuelan house must therefore work with many different 
countries ; it must have export and import together, and this 
kind of business is, for instance, not for an Englishman. He 
will do excellent business where he has to deal only in English 
articles; in Venezuela, the English houses do not prosper. 
The Germans have a kind of universality, and they thrive, 
therefore, here very well. The German colony Tovar, however, 
is a complete failure. France is represented by several hundred 
of her children, many of them are merchants, or, as in Caracas 
generally, bakers, tailors, and shoemakers. Next to them 
come the sons of the old Roma. The greatest number occupy 
themselves in mending tin- ware, going from house to house 
with their particular " nada di componer V (nothing to mend ?). 
Venezuela has but few North Americans, although there is 
much commerce with Philadelphia. Still less is the number 
of Englishmen ; but there exist other relations between Eng- 
land and Venezuela, and Messrs. Baring Brothers can tell more 
about it. 

There ai*e not 1,000 families of pure white Creoles in the 
country^ They belong generally to the actually vanquished 
aristocratic party, styled by the people ^' Godos'^, with refer- 
ence to their Spanish origin ; or, '^ Mantuanos", because they 
only had formerly the permission to go to church dressed in a 
long cloak, or " manto'\ I may be dispensed with charac- 
terising them by referring to Tschudi^s excellent description of 
the white Creoles in Lima, {Travels in Peru^ American edit., p. 
65). C^est tout comme chez nous. 



280 BEMABKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 

The census of Venezuela gives no information at all con- 
cerning the number of inhabitants belonging to the mixed 
races. All are " ciudadanos", and a difference of races does 
not exist before the law; it would even be dangerous to 
speak about it in the public papers^ and much more so 
to-day. But this difference does exist in society, and wiU, 
perhaps, never disappear completely. We have all the nuances 
from the deepest black to the almost perfect white, so that the 
colour is no good criterion. More security is in the hair, the 
colour of the nails, which are always much darker than their 
bluish-white lunula, and the dark colour of the sexual organs 
in coloured men. 

The son of a white father and a negro mother is called " Mu- 
latto'^; the son of a white father and an Indian mother "Zambo''. 
When a man of mixed blood marries a woman darker than 
himself, and his children thereby become further removed from 
the white tint, it is said to be '^ un salto atras^' (a leap back- 
wards) . 

The mixed races are actually the ruling part of the popula- 
tion, and will be for a long time. Their intellectual and moral 
abiUties and disabilities will form the object of another commu- 
nication, which I shall have the honour to lay before the So- 
ciety, as soon as I find leisure to write it. 

Anthropological Communications from Caracas, 
III. — ^The Mixed Races. 

There has been said already so much about the intellectual 
and moral disabilities or abilities of mixed races, that it is per- 
haps quite impossible to bring forward anything new. Never- 
theless, I cannot help thinking that contributions towards the 
final settlement of this question, from whatever quarter they 
may come, are not entirely superfluous ; for here, as in natural 
history in general, the ruUng laws can only be discovered by 
a careful gathering and critical study of a vast number of 
facts. 

The name " gente de color " or " cafS con leche '' is in Vene- 
zuela only given to the Mulattoes and Zambas. The offspring 
of the white and Indian races, the mestizo, " is even in social 



BEMABES ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 281 

life considered as a pure white man. And very little he differs 
from the white European, as for more than a century back the 
greatest number of mestizo-families had no opportunity to mix 
with individuals belonging to the pure Indian tribes. 

The mixed races in Venezuela are of very different character 
in the larger towns and in the country, and it is therefore 
absolutely necessary to distinguish two classes with regard to 
intellectual or moral conditions. There are two causes in towns 
which have a raising influence on the lower mixed classes ; the 
more or less greater difficulty of earning the daily bread, and 
the surrounding atmosphere of business and industry. In the 
country the poorest man may satisfy his hunger very easily ; 
nature furnishes a large number of edible fruits, growing almost 
without any care whatever, and considered as every one's 
property ; the mildness of the climate reduces the articles of 
dress to a minimum, and an habitation is very easily procured, 
when after all wanted. The town people are not so favoured, 
or, I should like to say, they are indeed more favoured, being 
obliged to work at least something, in order to meet the neces- 
sities of their existence. It is natural that the quantity of 
work they do, falls short when compared with the work of an 
English or German journeyman ; but they do generally more 
than the individuals of the pure white race, foreigners excepted. 
There is a good portion of laziness in their character, but they 
cannot keep back entirely in the industrial movement which 
surrounds them. People of mixed blood are, therefore, met with 
in all the different classes of our metropolitan society. In mili- 
tary and bureaucratical circles they are actually in the majority. 
It is well known that Venezuela, or as the country in official 
papers is called " Lcs Estados Unidos de la Federacion Vene- 
zolana,'' enjoys now an entirely and thoroughly democratic 
government, but^the " demos'' in this country is of mixed blood. 
Military and civil service, too, are not very troublesome with 
us ; a considerable stock of knowledge is not wanted, the duties 
of service leave a good many hours for smoking paper-segars 
or loitering about the streets, and for all this hard work a com- 
paratively high salary is paid. Memoria de Ouerra y Marina, 
for 1865, a kind of blue-book, mentions, "27 generaJes en jefe^ 



282 BEMABKS ON THE POPQLATION OF VENEZUELA. 

42 generales de divisios, 75 generales de brigada^ 89 coroneles^ 
53 primeros comandantes^ 34 BOgundos comandantes^ 67 capi- 
tanes^ 35 tenientes/' and a few more simple soldiers^ who 
receive together nearly £100,000 pension a year; and the 
number of generals, colonels, and commanders in service is 
nearly as large. I do not think that France and England 
together have to provide for so many generals and high 
officers. 

In the time of the Spanish government the priests belonged 
all to the principal families of the country, and it was quite 
sufficient to distinguish a family by saying that one of its 
members was a man in holy orders. This is now-a-days very 
diflTerent. The clergy is, generally spoken, far from being a 
worthy community, recruiting itself from the very scum and 
rubbish of the people, so that the limited number of excellent 
and truly venerable priests — I mention first of all the present 
Archbishop Silvester — is diminishing very rapidly. 

There are many lawyers and physicians belonging to the 
mixed races. One of the first, a Zambo, is a man of really 
eminent talent, who conducted for several years in a most dis- 
tinguished manner the financial afiairs of his country. 

The greatest number of the smaller shop-keepers, tradesmen, 
masons, carpenters, barbers, sailors, are mulattoes or zambos ; 
and servants, nearly without any exception, belong to the same 
classes. 

So it might seem that the mixing of races did not produce a 
depravation of the intellectual faculties. Nevertheless, observed 
more closely, it will be discovered that this apparent progress 
is but an exterior varnish, the result of the remarkably high 
imitative faculties of races mixed with African blood. They 
have a certain amount of skill in reproducing whatever they 
see ; but are, generally speaking, neither able nor fond of find- 
ing out something new. It is, for instance, exceedingly diffi- 
cult to persuade a workman to change a little his routine ; he 
cannot accommodate his work to the peculiar conditions of a given 
case. A mason begins a building without making any plan, or 
calculation, and often he makes first the wall and breaks out 
afterwards the windows. The great musical talent of the 



BBMABKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 283 

people is another proof of their imitativeness ; I know a mnlatto 
who acts^ sings, and whistles a whole opera^ after haying heard 
it three or four times^ and there are many instances of men and 
women who play pretty well on a piano without having got any 
musical instruction. But here the matter stops. We have no 
original musical inventions^ except some trifling dances^ not 
even a refined taste for music. 

It is not better in the scientific studies. When I came first 
in this country^ and began my practical work as a teacher^ I was 
astonished with what I saw of the methods of teaching in difier- 
ent colleges. A text book is adopted^ without much care in 
the choice^ and very often a choice is impossible^ as some text- 
books are unique ; this book is simply learned by hearty very 
often without any explanation. And hard things have the poor 
boys to get into their heads^ as a great many Spanish school- 
books are written in the most confused and unintelligible 
manner ; I have seen young men who had passed in this way 
through a dozen of volumes on mathematics and physics^ being 
not very little proud of their studies^ and who were nevertheless 
utterly unable to calculate a simple equation of the first degree^ 
or to say where the centre of gravity is in a simple pair of 
scales : " These things had not been in the book ! '' but they 
were immediately ready to define what is universe, ^' la sfntesis 
de la voluntad de Dios*^ (the synthesis of the will of God).* I 
tried to give my lessons in a more rational method, and, 
although the number of my coloured pupils is very limited (a 
school establishment would not prosper when admitting pupils 
de color), I must say that I did not succeed in the abstract ob- 
jects of instruction, and I feel sometimes very disappointed 
when I remember my pedagogical experiences in my own 
country. I always obtained more satisfactory results in lan- 
guages, writing, drawing — in short, in those branches where 
imitation prevails. It is therefore for me an unquestionable 
fact that the mixed races, in their intellectual condition, are cha^ 



* Ibarra, Alej., Manual de Firica, Caracas. The quoted definition is at 
the beginning of the introduction. The author is professor of physics in 
the university. 



28 i* BEMABKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 

racterised by a considerable degree of receptivity ^ whilst their free 
creating faculties are much less developed. Par more so is this 
the case with country people ; they are neither instigated by 
necessity^ nor pushed on by a surrounding industry^ and as 
they never put their intellect in action^ unless for some naughty 
deeds, they lose it by and by entirely. It is true nothing is 
done for their education, but, I am sure, even in the case that 
they had the opportunity to instruct themselves, they would 
not do it. Their head is full of the absurdest superstition, so 
much more as their priests generally are just as civilised as the 
flock is. A sketch of the moral conditions of our mixed races 
will also have very deep shadows ; sensuality, luxury, and idle- 
ness, are the sources of all domestic and public misery in this 
country. The mulatto is much less fond of drinking than many 
northern nations are; but his sexual dissipations come very 
near to brutality. Onanism and prostitution are things most 
common ; venereal diseases of all kinds and forms are met with 
throughout the whole country, and in all classes of society; 
their consequences being so much more fatal as generally but 
little care is taken in curing them. 

The great inclination for luxury leads very naturally to many 
dishonest manners for gaining the means of procuring it. 
Gambling is one of the most common vices ; even boys play in 
the streets ^' cara y sello ^' (head or tail) with copper cents ; 
this vice found fresh nourishment in the newly established 
weekly lotteries, which in one year, in Caracas alone, repre- 
sented a sum upwards of £150,000 ; a single number is divided 
in fifths, and costs two shillings, so that the seduction is calcu- 
lated even for the poorest classes. The actual government has 
given the very interesting declaration that, " lotteries are an 
industry as anything else,^' which will be a startling discovery 
to students of political economy. 

There will be a long discussion about the last horrible 
events in Jamaica. Enthusiastic '^ know-nothings" will cer- 
tainly represent the ^^ poor black brethren" as sufferers and 
martyrs; there may be some injustice, the world is nowhere 
perfect ; but should Venezuela one day be in a similar case as 
Jamaica to-day (Heaven forbid!), it would be utterly impossible 



RBMABKS ON THE POPULATION OP VENEZUELA. 285 

to say one word in favour of the black or coloured people. 
There is plenty of work and very high wages are paid ; even in 
the very neighbourhood of the towns hands are wanted, not 
only in the time of the crop, but throughout the whole year. 
Near Caracas two shillings and six pence and three shillings 
are the general term of daily wages ; a friend of mine paid even 
six and seven shillings during the sugar crop, and he could 
scarcely find people. A field-labourer, or ^^ peon," leaves very 
often the estate where he lives under the most ridiculous pre- 
text, and the owner is in a very disagreeable dependency from 
his people. The domestic service is so bad that it is nearly in- 
tolerable. The ideas of independence and sovereign citizenship 
produce an impudence and laziness unknown amongst the 
serving class in Europe, and there is no law to regulate these 
matters. Here is a nice problem for Mr. Buskin ! Venezuela 
is very thinly populated. There is in Codazzi's excellent Atlas 
of Venezuela a map, where the most cultivated parts of the 
country are marked with red colour ; but these are disappearing 
small spots in the vast extent of the republic. So Indian com, 
our principal bread fruit, is not cultivated sufficiently so as t'O meet 
the home consume, and large quantities must be imported from 
the United States. It is therefore not the want of labour that 
makes our labouring classes miserable ; it is the want of ac- 
tivity and industry. 

And what means religion with this people ? They are just as 
superstitious as the fetish-adorers in Africa ; the only difierence 
is that they have not the same fetishes. Fear only instigates 
them to perform religious ceremonies, not thankfulness ; when 
a week since Caracas was threatened by a repetition of the awful 
catastrophe of 1812, a great many people ran to get married 
after having cohabited with each other for many years. Their 
religious feasts are disgusting comedies. After a very moderate 
computation it is supposed that in Caracas nearly £4000 are 
spent every year for rockets, which form the most important 
part of those festivities. '^ In ordinary years the value of the 
fireworks purchased by, and for the public amounts to from 
£15,000 to £20,000, which rises to £25,000 in a coronation 
year'' {Chemical Technology, by Th. Richardson and H, Wa.it%^ 



286 REMARKS ON THE POPUJATION OF VENEZUELA. 

reader, 6 May, 1865, p. 510) ; this is in England, with a 
population of nearly thirty millions; so that Caracas (fifty 
thousand inhabitants) spends one hundred and fifty times as 
much in this respect. 

The statistical documents, pubhshed by the ministry of 
justice every year, contain some dates referring to the number 
of crimes ; but they say nothing about the difierent races. A 
very large portion of the population having mixed blood, we 
shall not be very far from truth by taking the given numbers 
as characteristic for the state of legal morality amongst the 
mixed classes. The year 1844 was a very peaceful one, and 
President Soublette was desirous to maintain all in the best 
order ; we may, therefore, suppose that no extraordinary crimes 
were committed, and that justice had full opportunity to lay 
hands on the perpetrators. 1451 persons were put to trial, 
1350 men and 101 women, which gives 1 for 675 inhabitants ; 
662 men and 29 women were sentenced. Amongst the re- 
markable crimes I mention — 484 cases for inflicting wounds, 
82 cases of murder, 278 cases of theft and robbery, 11 cases of 
incest (six men and five women, four of these from the province 
of M^rida), etc. 518 individuals were field-labourers, 374 
journeymen, 77 tradesmen; 1051 (76 per cent.) had no in- 
struction whatever, 306 could read and write, and but 34 had 
a more advanced instruction. The province of Maracaibo has 
the maximum (1*319), that of Caracas the minimum (1'1142). 

In 1856, 1529 persons were brought before the tribunals for 
crimes, 1437 (94 per cent.) men and 92 (6 per cent.) women ; 
689 were sentenced (664 men, 25 women) ; 425 were field- 
labourers, 520 journeymen; 1149 (78 per cent.) were totally 
uneducated, 316 could read and write, 18 had a somewhat 
higher education. The province of Maracaibo had again the 
maximum (1*374), the island of Margarita the minimum 
(1*1340). Nineteen of the ninety-two accused women were 
from Merida; general proportion 1*797. 

These numbers are too low, and the reason is simple : justice 
is here, more than elsewhere, a blind goddess, and the public 
conscience is far from being very delicate. So it is in private 
life ; but the same observation holds good in the public afiairs 
of this country, I will not give any proofs of my own, but 



RSMAfiKS ON THE POPULATION OF VENEZUELA. 287 

transcribe two passages of the " Prockmas de Simon Bolivar, 
libertador de Colombia," New York, 1853, which I hope will 
be a qaite sufficient illustration : — 

" There is no faith in America, neither between individuals 
nor between nations. Treaties are papers, constitutions books, 
elections combats, freedom is anarchy, and life a torment. This 
is, Americans, our deplorable situation ; if we do not change it 
it would be better to die !" — (From a paper published in Cuenca, 
under the title '^ Una mirada hacia la America espafiola" (a 
glimpse on Spanish America) 1828. 

And on the 9th of November, 1830, thirty-eight days before 
his death, the same remarkable man spoke the following pro- 
phetic words :— 

''America is not to govern. Those who have served the 
revolution have ploughed the sea. The only thing which can 
be done in America is to emigrate ; these countries will fall, 
without fail, into the hands of the unbridled multitude, and pass 
then into those of petty tyrants, almost imperceptibly, of all 
colours and races, raising themselves by crimes and extinguished 
by ferocity. The Europeans, perhaps, will not deign themselves 
to conquer them. If it were possible that a part of the world 
could fall back into the primitive chaos, such would be America's 
last period." 

Here is the original Spanish text of these two interesting 
quotations : — 

1. ''No hay buena U en America, ni entre los hombres, ni 
entre las naciones. Los tratados son papeles, las constituciones 
libros, las elecciones combates, la libertad anarquia y la vida un 
tormento. Esta es, Americanos, n nostra deplorable situacion ; 
si no la variamos, mijor es la muerte." 

2. "La America es ingobernable. Los que han servido &]a 
revolucion han arado en el mar. La unica cosa que se puede 
haver en America es emigrar. Estos paises caerin infallible- 
mente en manos de la multitud desenfrenade, para despues 
pasar h las de tiranuelos, casi imperceptibles, de todos colores 
y rajas, devorados por todos los crimenes y estringuidos por la 
ferocidad. Los Europeos, tal vez, no se dignardn conquistarlos. 
Si fuera posible que una parte del mundo volviera al cdos pri- 
mitive, est seria el dltimo periodor de la ATCv4T\e«i?^ 



288 




XX. — Examinatwn of Central American Hieroglyph's : Of 
Yucatan — ivHuding the Dresden Codex, the Oiiatemalien of 
Paris, and the Troano of Madrid; the Hieroglyphs of Pa^ 
Unque, Copan, Nicaragua, Vcraguas, and New OranaAa; 
by the recently discovered Maya Alphabet. By Williak 
BoLLAERT, F.A.S.L., F.R.G.S., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., Coir. 
Mem. University of Chile, of the Ethnological Societies 
of London and Now York, etc. 

In the second volume of the Memoirs of the Anthropological 
Society of London, 1865-6, will be found my paper on the re- 
cently-discovered Maya alphabet of Yucatan, by B. do Bour- 
bourg. 

Repeating, with Humboldt, that an alphabet is one of the 
most interesting and beautiful inventions ; what ages must have 
elapsed before the red men of the New World could have raised 
themselves to decompose words, the analysis of sounds — the 
invention of an alphabet. 

I was anxious this discovery should have immediate publicity 
in this country, and the Council of the Anthropological Society 
permitted my paper to be printed in anticipation of the publi- 
cation of the second volume of Memoirs, for distribution at the 
Birmingham Meeting of the British Association. 

The first region referred to is the Peninsula of Yucatan, be- 
tween 18*^ and 2V N. and 87° and 91^ W., with its wonderful 
stone ruins, of pyramids with temples on their summits, 
palaces, and other large buildings. To the south-west, in the 
State of Chiapa, are the beautiful Palenque monuments. Gua- 
temala is covered with undescribed ruins. We then arrive at 
Honduras, in which, with other remains, are the statuary and 
hieroglyphic monoliths of Copan ; lastly to Nicaragua, Veraguas, 
and Now Granada. 

It is still a question whether the civilisation of Central 
America came from Mexico, or that, long before the times of the 
Montezumas, Mexico may not have been beholden to Central 



BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 289 

America. But as facts are steadily brought together in con- 
nection with those countries^ the time may not be far distant 
when we may be enabled to decide whether the Toltecs, or even 
an earlier people of the red man in Mexican history took a 
civilisation into Central America^ or that the latter region had 
had its own for ages. 

In the northern portion of Yucatan, at an early date, existed 
the kingdom of Mayapan in particular; and in what may be called 
the Maya region there is evidence by ruins of the existence of 
numerous cities built at various periods, including Mayapan, 
the Memphis of Central America ; then follow Uxmal, Kabah, 
Chichen, Izmal, and many others. There is the enigmatic 
empire of Xibalba, which appears to have included that large 
tract stretching from Tobasco on the Gulf of Mexico to the 
Gulf of Honduras, taking in a portion of what we now know as 
Guatemala. Palenqu^, the Thebes of America, may have been 
the capital of Xibalba ; there was also the considerable Quiche 
kingdom in Guatemala, which had Utitlan as its capital. Then 
followed the powerful states of Copan, in the proximity of Hon- 
duras, the countries of Nicaragua, and Veraguas. 

The style of building, modes of ornamentation, and the other 
matters connected with the regions adverted to, are most 
peculiar, and cannot to my mind be classed with any of the 
architecture or modes of thought of what we call the old world. 

Seeing that there was an empire, kingdoms, and independent 
states in Central America, ages must have passed before the red 
man had so far elevated himself to build extensive cities of 
hewn stone, profusely ornament his temples and palaces, invent 
pictorial, symbolic, and phonetic signs, hieroglyphs, and then 
that key-stone of intellectuality, an alphabet (the Maya alpha- 
bet) to record the history of his doings, as we see he did iu 
Yucatan. In all probability alphabets of the Maya character 
were known throughout Central America. 

With the conquest of the New World by the Spaniards, they 
divided it into despotic viceroyalties, which system lasted to 
within our own times, when the descendants of the Conquista- 
dores and mixed breeds rebelled against their masters, driving 
them back to Europe ; so, excepting the Portuguese empire of 

VOL. III. u 



290 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 

Brazil, and the interior wildernesses, Spanish America became 
divided into a number of military republics, very difficult indeed 
to settle down. When the late civil war broke out in the 
United States Napoleon III considered it probable that the 
Southern States would have been able to hold their own, and 
with the wish of a party in Mexibo, induced the Austrian prince 
Maximilian to become the emperor of that country. The South- 
ern States failed, the republicans in Mexico took fresh courage, 
assailed the empire, which ended on the 19th of June, 1867, by 
the shooting of Maximilian. Yucatan and Chiapa are now 
frontier Mexican states ; Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica have been turbulent republics; 
Belize, the settlement of the British log-wood cutters, is tran- 
quil. 

Before comparing the hieroglyphs of Central America by the 
Maya alphabet, hieroglyphs of months and symbols of days, I 
will give the result of my analysis of these arrangements.* 

The alphabet is composed of twenty-seven characters, seven 
of which may be called simple forms ; ten semi-compound and 
ten compound. The six additional characters are composed of 
a and h, the signs ma (no), and ti (of), and the " sign of aspi- 
ration," probably meant for a stop. 

Doubtless the commencement of the Maya writing was purely 
figurative. For ideas came characters or symbols, some 
phonetic, out of which arose the alphabet. We see there were 
seven simple alphabetic characters; may we not suppose, if time 
had been given to the Mayas, they would have arrived at an 
alphabet entirely of simple forms, like unto other nations ? 

The conquest of the country by the Spaniards, and the almost 
annihilation of the natives, have thrown a dense veil over the 
peculiar advance from the savage life of Central America, as 
well as over that of other portions of America. 

There are eighteen compound characters for the months, 
which have seemingly little or no connection with the alphabet; 
but they contain portions of the symbols of the days. The 




• See vol. ii. Memoirs of the Anthropological Society, 1865-6. for plates of 
the alphabet, &c. 



BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 291 

symbols of the twenty days of the month aro each contained 
in a circle, and have but slight portions of the alphabet. 

C. R. Lepsius, in his Standard Alphabet, divides all languages 
into literate and illiterate, the former commencing with the 
Sanscrit and ending with that of Madagascar. The illiterate, 
with no alphabets, beginning with the Australian ending with 
the American, in the last appears the Maya. Naw the Maya has 
its alphabet. The Spaniards taught the Mayas the use of the 
Spanish letters, by which the former learnt the Indian language; 
vocabularies were produced, then a grammar, showing the 
Maya to be a gender and literate language; and Padre Beltran, 
in his grammar of 1 742, says, the Maya is polite in its diction, 
elegant in its periods, and concise in style, capable ofttimes of 
expressing, in a few words and syllables, the meaning of many 
phrases. 

It is generally stated that the Maya appears to be the mother 
of the greater portion of the Central American languages ; but 
B. de Bourbourg asks, is the Maya the mother language of the 
Central American group, or is it only a sister to them ? 

As Humboldt found no alphabetic characters in Mexico, he 
was led to suppose that the progressive perfection of symbolic 
signs, and the facility with which objects are painted, had pre- 
vented the introduction of letters ; so he concluded that there 
existed no certain proofs of a knowledge of an alphabet by the 
Americans.* 

Yucatan. 

Traditions allude to a period when the plains of the interior 
were covered with water, and when isolated groups of families 



• In May, 1868, B. de Bourbourg published his Quatre Leftrea sur le 
Mejciquet &c. (Triibner), in which he, as a monogenist and from recent 
studies of Mexican and Central American MSS., has come to the startling 
conclusion, that man and his civilisation came from the West, rather than 
from the EcuL A great cataclysm of fire and water was the prime mover 
some six or seven thousand years since. After twenty-five years of research 
he was certainly rewarded by finding Landa's Maya alphabet, by which he 
examined Mexican and Central American hieroglyphs, and after six months' 
work he exclaimed, " Eureka." As a polygenist I fail to see the matters 
under consideration as he puts them. 

02 



292 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 

lived on the more elevated portions ; * that people came from 
the west under a mythic personage, Votan, and settled, where 
Palenqu^ was subsequently founded. A portion of Votan's 
people, under a great priest chief, Tzamn&, Zamn&, Kukulcan, 
or Kinch-ahau, king or magician, went by the coast of the 
Gulf of Mexico, and took possession of Yucatan, then called 
Maahya, land without water, by the original savage inhabitants, 
who supplied themselves with rain water from natural wells. 

The first place supposed to have been built by Zamnd was 
Mayapan, some accounts say as late as 200 a.d. ; I, however, 
think if Zamn& built Mayapan a very much earlier date must 
be assigned. The temples and dwellings of Zamn&, and those 
of the priests were within a precinct ; outside lived the chiefs, 
and, farther off, the people. Zamnd became engaged in various 
and distant conquests ; those of his race were called listeners or 
believers, and they governed the conquered countries. Zamnd, 
having attained a great age, saw the progress of a civilisation 
he had founded in Yucatan, including the invention of a calendar 
and figures and characters wliich served for letters; he went to 
Itzmal, when he died. According to Lizana, altars were erected 
to the oracle Zamn& after his death, and roads of stone made 
to Tobasco, Chiapa, and G uatemala, for the pilgrims who flocked 
to his shrines. 

After the death of Zamn&, the chiefs chose their rulers from 
the family of Cocomes, and the reigning king was called the 
Cocom. The post of high priest was hereditary in a certain 
family. The priests instructed the people, particularly in read- 
ing and writing ; their books, or analtcs, written in human and 
other figures and characters, on a strip of material made of the 
bark of trees, the pages doubled backwards and forwards, and 
enclosed in ornamental covers. 

The kingdom of Mayapan, after years of prosperity, appears 
to have been invaded by Toltec hordes, which may have left 



N 



* Yucatan, according to B. de Bourbourg, seems to be a vast calcareous 
formation, composed of fossil shells, and in the appearance of the immense 
plains, so singularly undulating, thinks he sees the result of volcanic power, 
which has lifted the surface up, when in a boiling stat«, giving it the appear- 
ance of sea wavos. 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEKOOLYPHS. 293 

Tula in Mexico about 150 a.d., led by a chief or chiefs called 
Tutul-Xuis, who settled after a time, some say about 400 a.d., 
not far from the city of Mayapan, and were friendly with the 
Mayas. 

The Cocomes t3n:annised over their people and called upon 
the Aztecs of Mexico for assistance. The majority of Maya 
chiefs rose against the Cocom of the day, who was killed with 
all his race, except one Achel who was absent, and Mayapan 
was ruined about 1446 a.d. Achel who had married a daughter 
of one of the priests of Mayapan, established himself at Tekax, 
and with him originated the great family of the Cheles (holy), 
who soon governed a large tract of country, even to Itzmal. 

When the Spaniards discovered the land, there were three 
reigning families, the Cocomes, the Xius or Strangers, and the 
Cheles, the latter now a sacerdotal class ; but in consequence 
of rivalries between them, their conquest by the Spaniards 
was easily accomplished. 

Ti-hoo, the principal city of the Cocomes, became the 
Spanish capital of Yucatan under the name of Merida. 
Chichen-Itza was only conquered by the Spaniards in 1697. 
Those natives who submitted to the Spanish yoke were 
denominated Indws hidalgos ; those who would not submit, 
Indios bravos ; and many have so continued to the present time.* 

CogoUudo observes as to the belief of the Mayas, that it was 
one sole Deity, /ormle88,f and incapable of being represented, 
it bore the name of Hunab-Ku, from whom proceeded all 
things, and not being corporate, was adored in no imaged 
shape. Xibalba was the devil, who suddenly appears and 
vanishes. Their sacrifices were men, women, and animals. 

In-acal-Voh, a powerful goddess, was the mother of Zamnd. 
The goddess Yxchebelyax invented painting. Xocbitum the 

* A curiooB resum^ of Yucatan history, collected by Pio Perez from a 
Maya MS. written in SpaniBh letters, will be found in vol. ii, Stephens' 
InddenU of Travel in Yucatan, in Spanish and English ; also in B. de Bour- 
bourgfs Landa'B Co»as de Yucatan in Maya and French. 

t This same formlese character of the Deity is noticed among the 
Quich^ of Guatemala ; and in a drawing preserved in a Quichua MS. of 
Peru, the same formless character wa9 given to the Deity in the Temple of 
the Sun ut Cuzco. 



.•3 .—__-. 



•j-^TJWPWBMWaW iS*i<*"^m**"iW» m ( • STx i 



294 BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HlBBOOIiYPHS. 

god of poetry. Ah-Kin-Xooc the god of music; of war 
Ku Kulcan. Bacab wore the Atlantoan gods and prototypes 
of Eolus and liis fellows. Chac, a giant^ was the inyentor of 
agriculture and the ruler of lightning and thunder. The idol 
Kinich Kakuo was fashioned like a sun with the beak of a 
bird^ and descended to bum the offered sacrifice at mid-day. 
At Campechy was a god of cruelty Kinchahan-haban ; at 
Tihoo his name was Achun Cam. The list closes with the 
deification of those women who had remained virgins, and were 
called Zunliy Kak^ or virgin fire.* 

I now proceed to make the necessary extracts and comparef 
the hieroglyphs of Yucatan with the Maya alphabet, commenc- 
ing with what is found in vol. ii, Stephens' Cetitral America-^ 
Chiapas and Yucatan (I also occasionally follow Landa, and B. 
de Bourbourg) . Uxmal, page 413. The elaborate ornaments of 
Yucatan bear no resemblance to those of Palenqu^ or Copan. 
Page 432. There are no idols with hieroglyphs as at Copan, 
no stuccoed figures or carved tablets as at Palenqu^; but 
Stephens saw a beam of wood ten feet long, on the face was a 
line of cliaractcrs carved or stamped with hieroglyphs almost 
obliterated. He had to leave Uxmal in haste on account of 
illness, and deplores he did not obtain this sculptured beam. 
He observes by what feeble light are the pages of American 
history written. Except this beam of hieroglyphs, though 
searching earnestly he did not discover any points of resem- 
blance, and the wanton machete (chopper-knife) of the Indian 
may destroy the only link that can connect Yucatan, Copan, 
and Palenque together. 

Page 434. On one side of the house of the Governor, is a 
large greque, maybe pai't of the symbol uo, " frog.'' The faces 



* Waldeck, Antiq. Yucatan et Palenquc^, contains on interesting Maya poem, 
ti-nuslated into Spanish, then into French. The love of the Vestal Pizan 
(soul or ppirit), for the hunter Concoh (the Puma), and the enmity of the 
Uijrh Priest Patzin-Can. 

t For these compaiisons I have had recourse to the Maya alphabet accord- 
ing to Landa in his Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan, in which is grammar 
and dictionary in Maya and French by B. do Bourbourg, Padre Beltran's 
Maya and Spanish grammar and diolionary, 1742. Maya and English voca- 
biliary in Norman's Kamhlcs in YfCiitan, 1S33. 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 295 

with figares more naturally drawn than in the profiles in the 
Dresden, Troano, and Paris codices. 

Page 442. There is no resemblance in these remains, in- 
cluding those of Copan and Palenqu^, to those of Egypt ; 
thej stand alone. Stephens says : " I cannot help believing 
that the tablets with hieroglyphs will yet be read. . . I 
feel persuaded that a key surer than that of the Bosetta stone 
will be discovered." The Maya alphabet preserved by Landa 
and recently found by B. de Bourbourg in Madrid looks very 
much like a key. 

Matapan. I now follow Bishop Landa. In the principal 
square were seven or eight stones, eight feet in length with 
inscriptions, but so injured by rains that they could not be 
made out. It was thought that on these stones had been 
written an account of the foundation of this capital. It was 
the custom to erect a stone at the end of an epoch of twenty 
years, which accords with the computation of the cycles. Ac- 
cording to Cogolludo, these four periods of five years, making 
twenty, having arrived, they called it E[atun-Kat, " to ask ;" 
Tun, " stone ;'' or the stone that was to be interrogated, and 
placed one graved stone upon another, set in with mortar in a 
wall in the temples and dwellings of the priests, as we see 
them at this day. . . When Mayapan was abandoned by its 
lords (1446), retiring to their domains, the priests in particular 
took the books of their sciences.* 



* After this paper was written, the Archives de la Commission Scientifiqtie du 
Mexique was issued, from torn, ii, livraison iii, p. 234. I translate the fol- 
lowing by B. de Bourbourg :— Whilst the Indians were clearing away plants 
and trees of the locality designated by Landa, a flat stone, rounded at one 
end and broken at the other, was found on the ground. The characters of 
the inscription were effaced, excepting one, which I identified by the Maya 
alphabet. The form of each small square was similar to the cartouches of 
Palenqu^. At ten paces another stone and in better preservation was found, 
but the inscription was obliterated by time and the action of water (a 
drawing is g^ven in the work). It is a true st^le. The lower portion broken 
off, but in its present condition 1 metre 75 ; width m^tre 50 ; and mean 
thickness of m^tre 20. The profiles are similar to those in the Codex 
Mexieanus No. 2 In the Bib. Imp., Paris, and that of Dresden in the Kings- 
borough collection. I am persuaded, had I been allowed by Senor Salazar 
to make the necessary researches in the vicinity of the pyramid of Mayapan, 



296 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 

I now refer to Stepheus^s Lwidents of Travel in Yucatan, 
vol. 1, p. 78. Tihoo became the Spanish city of Merida, 6th 
January, 1542. On a pyramid was the Yahau-Kiina, or 
principal temple ; here the Spaniards built a convent^ also an- 
other on the pyramid of Ahchun-Caan. (Norman, in his 
Rumbles in Yticatan, mentions, that the front of Dr. Simon 
Peon's house is ornamented with a relic, a huge doorway, 
elaborately carved with figures and lines.) 

Mayapan, These ruins are like those of Uxmal. There are 
besides representations of human figures, animals, and other 
objects. A male figure with a shield, on which seems to be 
the symbol muluc^ " to unite''; and on the head another symbol, 
probably the name of the individual. There are also mark- 
ings indicating, probably, uo, '' frog*'; and the word muan, 
" strength". 

Uxnial. The names given to the various ruins aflFord some 
idea of their character; they are the houses of the vestals, 
dwarf, magician, doves, turtles, and of the old woman. 

Page 1 68. There is a well-defined symbol with dots, which 
1 call the curved symbol, and may mean " moon" or '' month". 

Page 171. On the ornament of the house of the governor 
are two symbols, partaking of the word lamat, " governor or 
heritage." 

Page 175. The character of the faces on the Ticul vase, are 
something like those in the Dresden Codex. 

Page 802. On a portion of the western building of the 
vestals are two large greques, which may be connected with 
the words t/o, " frog", and mulm, " to unite." 

Pago 307. On the south-east angle of the house of the 
vestals, I trace muluc, " to unite ; lamat, " governor ' ; which 
last symbol is often seen in the Dresden Codex; and eznab, 



J shonld have come npon entire sUiles, bearing inscriptions I coald have 
read. Description of the stdle by W. B. In the npper portion are the 
places of six lines of six cartoaches=36. No hieroglyphs can be traced, 
where once was written the doings of these figures underneath. Then 
follow four lines of ornamentation of angtilar, circular, and castellated forms 
which may have a meaning. Then follow the profiles of two human figures, 
tiiu larger may be that of a king. 



BOLLAEBT OK AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 297 



€i 



magician or prophet". Norman, p. 102, gives two objects ; 
one a well-defined symbol, containing a double triangle ; also, 
a stone eight inches by six, with numerative characters.* 

Kahdhy p. 388. Here is a large stone, with a continuous 
line of hieroglyphs j also, traces of the curved symbol, and re- 
petitions of something like eznab, '^ magician". 

Page 405. Carved beam of sapote wood, apparently repre- 
senting a female figure. The only indications I make out are 
repetitions of chiccan, " little maize". Can this be the goddess 
of maize? The elaborate carving here seems to have been 
done by copper, bronze, obsidian, or flint tools. Norman says 
the rock of Uxmal is calcareous with flint. 

Page 412. Two sculptured human figures on jamb of door- 
way, I think I can make out muluc, " to unite ;" and lamat, 
*' governor." 

Prom ii vol. Stephens Travels in Yucutan : — 

Zayi, page 21. A bold figure of a water animal or serpent ; 
its symbol or name has a portion of muluc, " to unite." 

Labna, page 56. Here are indications of uo, ''frog;" 
muhic, '' to unite ;" also, a large symbol of double greques and 
lines. 

KeivicJe, page 73. Bright red and green predominate in 
the paintings. A human figure surrounded by hieroglyphs, 
which doubtless contain its history. I make out cimij '^ to 
die ;" na, *^ house or mother ;" oc, " handful." 

Sctcbey, page 122. Symbols very indistinct. Here is a road- 
way of stone eight feet wide and eight to ten inches high and 
covered with a cement. It is called Zac-he-zac, " white ;" he, 
" road." 

Labphak " means ruins or old walls.*' Pag© 164. Here are 
carved tablets set in walls as at Palenqu^, and according 
to Stephens have something of the character of the figures 
there. 

Mani, page 257. Piles of Indian books were burnt here by 
the Spaniards as well as paintings I In the library of the Casa 
Real there is a MS. of 157 pages written in the Maya language, 

* B. de Bourbourg thinks he can discoTer representations of the Phallus 
here. 



298 BOLLA.BBT ON AMERICAN HIEBOGLTPHS. 

records of events after the arrival of the Spaniards. The 
Tutul-Xuis sojourned here for a time. 

Chichen-Itza, page 285 ; chi, " mouth ;" chen, " well.'* 
Here are extensive ruins^ including one^ the Akatzeeb^ or the 
building with the writing in the dark. 

Page 292. Sculptured figure with hieroglyphs on the upper 
part of the door called Akatzeeb. It was here Stephens first 
found hieroglyphs sculptured on stone. The sitting figure 
seems to be performing an act of incantation^ or religious rite, 
which the writing in the dark may explain. Stephens ob- 
serves : — " Physical force may raze these buildings, and lay 
bare all the secrets they contain, but physical force can never 
unravel the mystery that involves this sculptured tablet." 
The figure (male) is nude ; the cap is like those on the figures 
at Kabah and has an ornament round the neck ; the large 
cruciblo-form before him contains fire, in which some small 
animal is being burnt or sacrificed. Comparing the hieroglyphs 
on either side of the figure with the Maya key, I get the 
following words — Ahau, ''king;" oc, ^Meg;" miiluc, ''to 
unite ;" tfe, " courage ;" cib, copal ; eznab, '' magician ;** uo, 
'' frog ;" which may mean that the magician has in the crucible 
a frog to be sacrificed, in which copal as incense is used. 
The two lines of hieroglyphs give something like the follow- 
ing : — Kings must die — they have courage, and after death are 
united to those who went before them. The king is with his 
fathers, the chief and his family, bum copal and mourn for his 
death. 

Page 293. On the beautiful ornamented house of the vestals, 
there are among other symbols those of king and chief. 

Page 294. On same building a X figure is seen. This form 
is also found at Palenqu^. In the Maya symbol maniJc, " feast,'* 
there is a _L reversed. 

Page 296. An apartment once ornamented with paintings in 
colours. There are portions of human figures very well drawn, 
the heads adorned with feathers, and in the hands shields and 
spears. 

Page 300. The Chichanchob or Red house. Along the top 
of the back wall is a stone tablet, with a row of hieroglyphs. 



BOLLAEBT ON AMEfilCAN HIEBOOLTPHS. 299 

I get out as follows — king, to die, to unite, "P> water, staff of 
office, steps, courage, to talk, breast, feast ? little or little maize. 

Page 308. In the lower part of the building of the Pumas, 
one of the walls of a chamber is covered with elaborately sculp- 
tured male figures in bas-relief dancing. This chamber is 
called stohl, and this word means an ancient dance. The out- 
lines are well drawn. Each has a symbol or name before him» 

Page 310. In the upper building, Stephens says, is pre- 
sented a casket, the greatest gem of aboriginal art. The 
sculptural figures have rich headdresses. . . The walls and 
ceilings are covered with designs in painting, representing, in 
vivid colours, human figures, battles, houses, trees, and scenes 
of domestic life ; conspicuous is a large canoe. They exhibit 
a freedom of touch which could only be the result of discipline 
and training under masters. The author of this paper con- 
siders the profiles in the Dresden Codex good in design^ but 
these are superior in every way. 

Page 341. Large carved and highly ornamented figure in 
sapote wood, the face may have been a portrait. Tuloom on 
the east coast and near the island of Cozumel (Ahcuzamel, or 
that of the swallows, or that a deity was worshipped here 
having feet like the swallow). Here is a symbol repeated, 
like one at Palenqu^, but only of four castellated niches. 

Itzmaly 'p&gQ 434. There was an idol here erected to Zamn&, 
who when asked about himself, replied, '' I am the dew of the 
morning, or the substance of the clouds,** or that he was of 
supernatural origin. 

The conclusion I have come to after comparing the Yucatan 
hieroglyphs with the Maya alphabet, seeing that I am able to 
read so few, is, that they may be of older date than the 
alphabet, but that the symbols of the days of the month are 
nearer the date of the hieroglyphs.- The painted profiles at 
Chichen are more artistic than the profiles in the Dresden, 
Paris, or Madrid Codices. 

The occasional appearance of the T figure at Chichen, but 
in greater number at Palenque, would tend to show, that there 
had been connection between the two places. 



300 bollaert on american hieroglyphs. 

Palenque. 

Tradition leads to the idea that, between Yucatan and the 
coast of the Pacific, existed the very ancient empire of Xibalba, 
also known as Ah-tza, or Itza, and it may be that Palenqu^ 
was the capital. Del Bio and Dupaix christened the spot with 
the name of Ototfum. Stephens calls the river near the ruins 
Otulo. Tulum, in Maya, means '' a fortification'^, or " stone 
edifice/* Aguilar calls the place Palemqu^, probably a Tzendal 
word. In a Tzendal MS. Palenqu^ is called Ghochan. Brasseur 
de Bourbourg thinks that Palenque may be identified with the 
Colhuacan, or Colhua, of Xibalba, the capital of the Colhuas, 
or Chanes, an ancient Mexican nation. Ordonez says, Chan, 
or serpent, was another name for Colhua, ; and that the capital 
(Palenqu^) of Xibalba is identified with Na-chan, the city of 
serpents. Galindo observes that the place was abandoned, and 
the memory of its existence lost, long before the coming of the 
Spaniards. 

The wonderful ruins of Palenqu^ are in about 17®N. and 
94° W. They were accidentally discovered by the Cura of 
Tumbala, SoUs, in 1746. In 1773, the place was visited by 
Spaniards named Torres, Ordonez, and others. In 1 784, Lieut. 
Calderon went ofiScially and reported on the ruins ; he called it 
a great city, and gave a list of fifty-six separate ruins ; and it 
appeared to him to have been abandoned some three to four 
hundred years. In 1785, Bernasconi, an Italian architect, ex- 
amined and made plans of the ruins, which Dupaix and others 
most probably had means of referring to. In 1787, Del Rio 
was sent there officially. His report and drawings remained 
shut up in the archives of Guatemala, but copies were made of 
them ; however, the original MiS. came into the hands of an 
English gentleman, who gave publicity to them in London in 
1822. i 

Whilst the report and drawings of Del Rio slept in the ar- 
chives of Guatemala, Dupaix, an! Austrian officer, accompanied 
by a Spaniard, Castaneda, were jsent, by Charles IV of Spain, 
to that country, where they remained from 1805 to about 1808. 
The Dupaix MSS. were forwardeld to Madrid, then occupied by 
the Fi*ench. In 1828 they werA brought to light. In 1834, 
Lord Kingsborough published, i n his large work on Mexican 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 301 

Antiquities, Dupaix^s drawings and researches. In 1831, the 
Literary Oazette announced Palenqu^ as a new discovery by 
Colonel Galindo, who sent his observations to the Geogra- 
phical Society of Paris. Waldeck passed some years at Pa- 
lenqu^, and made elaborate drawings, which were published by 
the French government in 1865-6, with letter-press by the 
Abb^ B. de Bourbourg. After Waldeck, an Austrian officer, 
Fredricksthal, explored the ruins. 

I now allude to the masterly investigations of Stephens in 
1839, and the accurate drawings by his companion Catherwood. 
I compare the hieroglyphs of Palenqu^ in vol. ii of Stephens's 
Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, by the Maya alphabet. 

Page 315. On one of the figures I trace something like the 
Maya month Pojpy ''mat of reeds'\ Page 316. On a bas- 
relief is the symbol of ahau, " king*', reversed, or, probably, 
that the king is dead. We find the T figure like that de- 
scribed at Chichen, in Yucatan; also, an approach to zeb, 
" rapid'' or " prompt". Page 342. Outside corridor. No. 1 
casa. The right hand tablet has twelve lines of twenty-four 
cartouches in each line. In the first column, I make out part 
of zip, " tree". Fourth column, ahau, '' king", and a form of 
lamat, " chief". Page 344. Tablet of the Cross. In one of 
the squares I trace eznah, " magician" ; a hand, or dz, is seen ; 
also, the Maya " aspiration sound" \J ; a part of zip, '' tree". 
The principal figures here are a male and female ; the former 
presenting a child to the sacred bird. Amongst the hiero- 
glyphs I only trace ahau, " king", a form of zip, '' tree", aJcbal, 
" a plant", pax, " a musical instrument". Surely these Palen- 
qu^ people must have had some form of alphabet to have com- 
posed such records. 

The frontispiece to vol. ii has a perfect tablet at the back of 
Casa No. 3. The male and female figures presenting young 
children to the emblem of the sun. In the smaller tablet, 
ahau's, or kings, are traced, and perhaps db, ''copal". In 
the tablet on the left, I find parts of maniJc, " feast", zip, " tree", 
and lamat, " chief" or " governor". Page 349. Only one statue 
has been found at Palenqu^; it has all the severity of the 
Egyptian style, and nothing like the bas-reliefs. It holds in 



302 BOLLAEUT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 

its right hand^ which is on the breast, a castellated symbol 
(like that described at Tuloom, in Yucatan) ; from the left 
hand is suspended an elaborate symbol, telling, doubtless, of 
his oflBce. The cartouche at the extremity seems to represent 
a tortoise, and numerical dots are seen. 

Page 352. Bas-relief, on side door of altar, is a male figure; 
and on what may be called the front and back tail are forms 
like capital C^s, with dots and lines. The figure is blowing 
fire out of his mouth through a tube; he is probably a magi- 
cian. The figure has cartouches in front and above, in which 
I trace kings and trees. All I can make out is, that the rela^ 
tionship of the hieroglyphs between Palenqu^ and Yucatan is 
trifling. The existence of the few T figures at Chichen, in 
Yucatan, compared with the larger number at Palenqu^, may^ 
however, show connexion at one time or other. 

Guatemala. 

I have already alluded to the empire of Xibalba, and amongst 
other states to that of Quich^ in this region. It would appear 
that hordes of Nahuas, or Toltecs, came from Mexico, and got 
footing in the country, expanding themselves into Yucatan, 
Nicaragua, and perhaps further south. For recent researches 
into the history of this portion of America, I refer to B. 
de Bourbourg's interesting work, portions of which I have 
brought before the Royal Society of Literature, in papers en- 
titled Popul Vuh : or, tlie Ancient History of Guatemala, vol. 
vii, part ii; and the Babinal Achi, a drama, read March, 1862. 

If, as it is sometimes asserted, that the Popul Vuh of the 
Quiches was the foundation of the Teo^Amoxtli, or sacred books 
of the Toltecs, surely there must have been very early writings 
in Guatemala. Las Casas frequently alludes to the sculptured 
stones and writings of the Quiches ; and ho is accused of burn- 
ing all the MSS. he could lay hands on in this country, as 
Landa did in Yucatan and Zumarraga, in Mexico, ''because 
they were the works of the devil !'' I know not of one ex- 
ample of an ancient MS. from Guatemala. The Codex Mexi- 
canus. No. 2, in the Imperial Library at Paris, is sometimes 
called the " Guat^malien.'' I have examined and compared it 
with the Dresden Codex and the Maya alphabet, and find both 



BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 303 

Codices identical ; the Paris one looks of older date. It is pro- 
bable there are Quiche MSS. in some of the convents of the 
country, in Spain, and Rome. Santa Lucia Cozumaluapan, in 
Guatemala, is remarkable for fine sculptured monoliths, twenty 
feet in height, which have not been drawn or described. The 
whole country is strewed with ruins of pyramids, tumuli, 
temples, statues, etc. 

COPAN. 

The ruins known as those of Copan, in Honduras, are in 
about 14^ 15' N. and 89^ W., in the old district of Chiquimula. 
In 1530, the natives revolted, and attempted, but without 
success, to throw off the Spanish yoke, the then chief of the 
country being Cop&n-Calel. Chiquimula has been called the 
Kingdom of Payaqui, meaning, between the Toltecs and Na- 
huas, and that the capital was Cop£n. It has been a question 
whether the locality of the ruins was the place defended by 
Copan-Calel against the Spaniards. We may now, I think, 
decide in the negative, since Mr. Squier has published Palacio's 
letter to the King of Spain, dated 1576, which contains the 
earliest account of the ruins by Palacio, who visited them with- 
in forty years after the conquest, and found them nearly in 
their present condition. He says, speaking of this district, 
" they have no books now relating to their antiquities ; nor do 
I believe there is more than one book, which I possess.'* We 
have no account of where this one book may be. 

Puentes wrote about Copan in 1689, and from his MS. Ju- 
arros mentioned the place in 1809. In 1835, Colonel Galindo 
sent a description to the American Society of Antiquaries, and 
Geographical Society of Paris. Stephens explored here in 
1841. Photographs were taken by Mr. Salvin in 1862, and 
by Dr. Ellery in 1 865, who informs me that the rock of the 
country is porphyry. Stephens says that the quarries of Copan 
are of soft grit; that the sculpture was performed by tools 
made of the Chaya stone. Stephens held out hopes of a clue to 
the deciphering of the hieroglyphs being obtained from the in- 
dependent Indians, living styinewli&i'e on the banks of the river 
Usamacinta, deriving that hope from an account given him by 



304 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEB0GLTPH8. 

a priest at Quich^^ of an Aztec (?) city^ lie said he had seen 
from the top of a mountain^ near to the village of ChajuL* 

Examination of the Copan hieroglyphs in Stephens's Oentral 
America^ Chiapos, and Yucatan, vol. i ; also, Salvin's photo- 

graphs.t 

Page 136, — Stephens. A column, or idol, which give the 
peculiar character to the monuments at Copdn, is H. 14 of 
Salvin. H. 15 is a portion of the carving of this idol of two 
parrots' heads, having dots in the eyes and on the head, which, 
with the horizontal bars, may have to do with numeration. 

Page 140 is J. 18. A female figure. In the lower portion 
I find what may be the Maya laniat, " governor". Page 141. 
The top of an altar. Of this Dr. Ellery has given me the pho- 
tograph. It is six feet square and four feet in height; the top 
divided into thirty-six tablets of hieroglyphs; it may be a 
ritual. In second line, second figure, are some modem marks. 
Second figure, in third line, may be aAa?t, " king*'. Third 
figure like yasrhin, '' beginning of summer'*. Fifth line, fifth 
figure, may be chlccan, " little maize seeds". Sixth line, third, 
fifth, and sixth figures seem to have been placed by a modem 
hand. Page 142 and B. 23. On one side of the altar, ahau, 
'' king", appears. On another side there is an approach to Jfe, 
'' courage". 

Pago 151 and C. 16, the back C. 15. There is a gfroup of 
hieroglyphs. Stephens says, " We considered that in its me- 



• See " Notice of Aztec Bace" (?) by Mr. Cull and Profeseor Owen, in 
Journal of the EthnoL. 8oc., 1856. The two children were then in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Morris. I saw them exhibited, by the same person, in 1864, as 
Aztecs. They had gprown considerably ; and the boy appeared to be more 
idiotic than the girl. In JHe. Univ., Paris, 1857, vol. ii, art. " Azt^ques/' M. 
Boursier, late French Consul in Quito, communicated a letter from General 
Various, formerly Governor of 3. Miguel, in the Republic of San Salvador, 
in which it is stated that the children were taken away from Jacotal to New 
York for exhibition, by a Yankee ; that they are brother and sister ; that the 
mother and father are Mulattos ; and that they were known in the country 
as the monitos, " little monkeys". In the Daily Teleffraph of January 8, 1 867, 
is an account of the marriage! of the said- to-be- Aztecs, Maximo Valdoz 
Nuiies and Bartola Velasquez (see No. xwi, Anthro])ological Review, April, 
1867, for details.) 

t Published by Smith, Beck, and Beck, Cornhiil, 48 photographic views. 



BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 305 

dalHon tablets, the people who reared it had published a 
record of themselves, through which we might one day hold 
conference with a perished race, and unveil the mystery that 
hung over the city." 

Page 153 and F 12. Third figure from the top is a bird's 
beak in the mouth of an ahau, or king. A drawing similar to 
this is in the Dresden Codex ; there is also a portion of a cauac, 
or cavac, staff of oflBce. 

Page 156 and D 8. One of the two principal cartouches, 
is an approach to hc^en, to expend with economy ; there is also 
a part of E, them ; a pgrt of ahau, king, or ahaue, queen. 

Page 158 and A 2. Some ahaus^ kings. 

Stephens observes : " Copan may have been a holy city, the 
Mecca or Jerusalem of an unknown people ; I believe that its 
history is engraven on its monuments '/' and he infers that the 
Mexicans had the same written language with the people of 
Copan and Palenqu^. I do not coincide with this view, but 
rather that the people of Copan and Palenqud had each their 
own graphic arrangement. In regard to the people of Yucatan 
we have had lately brought to light their Maya alphabet. As 
yet no alphabetic arrangement has been discovered in Mexico. 

Having examined the hieroglyphs of Yucatan and compared 
them with the alphabet, they seem to me to be more ancient than 
the alphabet. In regard to the hieroglyphs of Palenqu^, I am led 
to believe that there is more similarity between them and those 
of Yucatan than with those of Copan. As to the hieroglyphs 
of Copan, they stand rather alone, but if any thing, approach 
slightly to those of Palenqu^ ; as Copan and Palenqu^ have 
more of the figurative character. 

British Honduras. 

For years past indications of ancient ruins have been mot 
with of Yucatan character. At present there is an expedition 
exploring the river Mopan, or Belize, under Dr. Berendt, who 
has the intention of going as far as Lake Peten. Seven fine 
palaces are said to have been fallen in with already, larger than 
the monuments of Palenque, among the ruins of a vast city.* 

* June 16, 1868, Mr. presented stono head of idol, from this district, 

to the Anthropolo^col Society; looks like a volcanic stone; also, some 
crania. 

VOL. III. X 



306 bollaert on amekican hiebogltphs. 

Dresden Codex. 

With B. de Bourbonrg^s intimation that the Dresden Codex, 
and the Codex Mexicanus, No. 2, were in identical characters, 
I proceeded to examine the facsimile of the Dresden in the 
Kingsborough collection, and compared page 23 with a pho- 
tograph from the original, kindly sent to me by Dr. Forstermann, 
the royal librarian at Dresden. In this communication I can 
only give a few results, reserving for another opportunity the 
readings I may obtain from the three Maya codices. 

According to Humboldt, the Dresden Codex was purchased 
in Vienna, in 1739. It is of a material made of the agave, and 
in form like those of Mexico, that is, a tahella plicatiles, nearly 
twenty feet in length, containing forty leaves, covered with 
paintings. Each page is seven inches and three lines in length, 
and three inches two lines wide. The form, analogous to the 
ancient diptychs, distinguishes the MS. at Dresden from those 
at Vienna and the Vatican ; but what renders it remarkable is 
the disposition of the simple hieroglyphs, many of which are 
arranged in lines as a real symbolic writing. He also calls this 
a calcuUforme system of writing, which term, I suppose, indi- 
cates the recurrence of the red and black dots and the red and 
black lines, of which I am ^ot as yet able to offer decided ex- 
planation, but they may indicate numerical value, particularly 
in connection with periods of time. The Mayas counted as 
follows: four 5=20, five 20=100, four 100=400, twenty 
400=8000, twenty 8000=160,000, and even further. 

The Dresden Codex contains records of the mythic, historic, 
and ritualistic character ; and, like the other two, made up of 
profiles and writings, or that by the side of the profiles, which 
express symbolically the facts, are found the explanation in 
phonetic characters. 

The photograph of page 23. I have read from the bottom 
upwards, and from right to left.* The first group is apparently 
a mother holding a young girl before her, and a younger one is 
carried at her back. The mother's name or rank is designated 



• In B. de Bonrbourg's " Quatre Lettres," etc., he saye the MSS. are to be 
read from right to left ; then one side, and then the other of the page. 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 307 

loj a symbol on the head. The reading of the hieroglyphs about 
"the group seems to be as follows : We come to thy presence to 
implore. The second group, — a female with a deity or magician : 
The young female implores before the Deity, she weeps hut has 
courage. The third group probably represents a king and a 
young female : She has made a vow about the king to tJie magi^ 
dan . . . the Icing is happy . . . 

The second compartment contains a sitting female figure, 
who makes ofiering of a tortoise. Here are symbols of chief, 
magician, queen, to unite ; may mean — tJiat after her marriage 
to the king she presents an offering of a tortoise. 

There are now four lines of hieroglyphs, of which the follow- 
ing may be the meaning : Tlie sacred bird chel is sacrificed, there 
is weeping; the bride weeps for the bird, she makes a vow or prays 
for the hing, she offers a tortoise, a great feast is given. 

The third compartment. Here is portion of a female figure, 
holding a symbol like part of ik, courage ; and. Thou, king, 
hast given us the fi^sh feast ; we have cried for joy. 

I can only here ofier a very brief summary of the principal 
subjects contained in the Dresden Codex. 

1st section, pages 74 to 70. Mythic personages, man and 
woman, who have come to Yucatan ; they have procured water for 
the aborigines. The symbols generally seem to have reference 
to periods of time ; the hieroglyphs to the historical portions. 

2nd section, pages 69 to 60. The mythic personages are 
deified ; something like union of the sexes ; warriors appear ; 
canoes seen; fishing; priests; diviners, or magicians; sacri- 
fices ; a chief taken prisoner and brought before a king. 

3rd section, pages 59 to 51. Symbols and hieroglyphs, pro- 
bably detailing the circumstances of section 2. At page 53, a 
woman is seen hanging, and as if dead. 

4th section, pages 50 to 46. Well drawn and finely coloured. 
50 is a man with a book trembling before a priest, or king ; re- 
presentation of combats, in which warriors, priests, magicians, 
deities, and animals are depicted. 

5th section, pages 45 to 29. Domestic scenes, people weep- 
ing ; the sun ; warriors with tomahawks ; men in canoes ; war- 
riors killing a chief or king ; animal with lighted torch ; nn 

x2 



308 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 

rapto. Drunken man on the head of tapir ; woman with water ; 
young woman in canoe with an old man ; an apartment, with 
emblems before a king; another apartment^ man playing a 
pipe, another beating a drum ; a ladder ; man with tomahawks ; 
men in canoes ; authority, with staflF of office ; magician, holding 
an animal by the tail which is vomiting water ; man paddling 
canoe. 

6th section, pages 28 to 25. Figures well drawn and coloured, 
bold and expressive; deities, with heads of animals; authorities, 
with staff of office; kings, magicians, priests or sacrificers. 
This section comprises religious doings. 

7th section, pages 23 to 16. Page 23 already alluded to. 
Priests, women, and children ; women and children imploring 
deities ; women weeping, and apparently dead children ; old 
man weeping ; many women. 

8th section, pages 15 to 1. Deities, men and women; men 
and women making offerings of fruit and flowers to deities con- 
nected with the dead ; old and young men, some weeping ; men 
in the act of carving symbols on stones, and by twirling an in- 
strument in the hands. 3. This is a curious compartment. The 
principal figure is a nude dead man, and the symbol of ahau, or 
king, is observed. From the centre of the body rises a figure, 
with a hawk's head and has four wings, having in its beak what 
may be meant for one end of the entrails. Four groups of 
figures surround the corpse. This may be emblematical of the 
soul or life going to another world. 2. Magician and another 
person performing an incantation over fire; male figures; a man 
with another on his back. 

The pages are mostly in three horizontal compartments, and 
these divided into three perpendicular ones. All the pages 
have symbols and hieroglyphs, the reading of which is now oc- 
cupying my attention. This Codex may have come from 
Mayapan. 

Codex Mexicanus, No. 2 of Paris. 

I examined this Codex in Paris, of which there is no account 
of how obtained. It is not in a good state of preservation. It 
is composed of twenty-two pages, bent backwards and forwards, 
rather larger than in the Dresden, being about nine and a half 



BOLIAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLYPHS. 309 

inches in length by five wide ; the page generally divided into 
three compartments. The colouring is much less varied than 
in the Dresden, only green with brown outline on a white 
ground. My brief examination is from the photographs.* 

No. 1, recto, first or front page. — Illegible. No. 2, verso, 
or back of first page, I find — part of well or water ; wind ; king 
(reversed) ; part of staff of oflSce ; chief; to talk ; dots and lines 
in all the pages, as seen in the Dresden. No. 3, recto, — Parts 
of well or water; moon or month; part of summer; profiles 
less artistic th^n in the Dresden. No. 4, verso, — Kings ; to die ; 
tell ; him ; no ; male figure with hawk^s head, apparently before 
a deity. No. 5, recto, — May be two kings; male figure and 
bird ; wind ; of him ; to die ; them ; to go. No. 6, verso, — 
Human figure with head of animal, under a canopy ; them ; to 
go; wind; part of summer; another seated figure; water; 
courage; two indistinct figures; king (reversed). No. 7, recto, — 
Male figure; to talk; foot; male figure on a fish; offerings 
of heads of fish ; kings ; figure under canopy. No. 8, verso, — 
two figures seated on hieroglyph form of the word king ; king ; 
male figure making offering to a king ; to die ; water. No. 9, 
recto, — Two figures seated on symbol of kings, one has part of 
to die as an eye ; two kings ; water ; to talk ; staff of oflBce ; 
courage; human figure with hawk's head. No. 10, verso, — 
Down the centre nine well marked symbols of Be-en, probably 
to expend with economy; nude figure as if in water. No. 11, 
recto, — Ten large symbols like Zee, to talk, on right male figure; 
left male figure under a canopy, on symbol of kings ; a figure 
painted black (a priest) with staff. No. 12, verso, — Two male 
figures seated on symbols of kings; two kings; symbol of 
summer ; to die ; staff of oflSce ; figure painted black with staff. 
No. 13, recto, — Two male figures seated on symbols of kings; 
centre, an old man ; unknown symbols ; king ; old man before 
a king or deity; to die. No. 14, verso, — Several indistinct 
figures; water; summer; symbols like those at page 74 of 
Dresden Codex ; six series of symbols, among which I trace, 
breast, water, to unite, staff of oflSce, wind, magician, kings 

* A set is, I believe, now in the British Museum, presented by the French 
Government. 



310 BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEBOOLYPH8. 

(reversed)^ and steps. No. 15^ recto, about the best presenred 
page. — ^There are two horizontal lines of hieroglyphs ; then a 
square of twisted rope, inside of which are two nude figures. 
On the left is an old man, on the right a young one ; beloWj 
the body of a serpent covered with hieroglyphs, on the head of 
which are symbols of water, summer, trees. Underneath, figures 
of a young man and young woman each sitting on the tail of a 
serpent ; this may be the son of a king about to be married. 
No. 16, verso, — Female seated on symbol of kings; two kings; 
a rabbit on symbol of kings ; male figure ofiering to a deity ; 
staflf of oflSce; bird sacrificed ; king (reversed). No. 17, recto, — 
Figure on symbol of kings ; figure on a skull ; two kings ; large 
central figure and animal with bird's head; king or deity; 
kings; to die; wind; summer. No. 18, vcr^o. — To die; king 
(reversed) ; staff" of oflSce; summer; grotesque animals; four 
columns of symbols, apparently meaning moons or months; 
king; steps; may be the sign 4 can in the ahau katun, oi 
century of the Mayas. No. 19, recto, — Wind; breast; sum- 
mer; steps; king; copal. No. 20, verso, — Three figures seated on 
symbols of kings ; two kings ; to die ; wind ; kings ; water or 
wells ; kings (reversed). No. 21, racto. — Two figures seated on 
symbols of kings ; two kings ; to die ; figure in centre. No. 
22, verso. — Apparently plain. 

This appears to be of the ritual, historical, and domestic 
character, and may have had its origin about Kabah. 

Codex Teoano op Madrid. 
When in Paris, in October 1866, the Abb^ B. de Bourbourg 
informed me that in the February preceding, being in Madrid, 
he met with this the third known Yucatan Codex in the hands 
of Don Juan de Tro y Ortolano,* a descendant of Cortez, who 
allowed the Abb<$ to bring it to Paris, when the government 
ordered it to be chromo-lithographed, under his and M. L^once 
An grand's superintendence. On examination, I found this 
codex, like the other two, composed of similar material, a paper 
of the agave and white coating, and painted on both sides. It 
is pretty perfect, has thirty-five leaves, or seventy pages. 



* FrofesBor at the School of Charts, Madrid. 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEBOQLTPHB. 811 

Length of page nine inches and an eighth by nearly three 
inches. Like the other two^ the pages are divided generally 
into three eqaal parts, horizontally. The style of drawing and 
finish is like that in the Bib. Imp., but better coloured. The 
pages are made up of profiles, symbols, hieroglyphs, and red 
and black dots and lines. 

The Abb^ gives me the following : — '' I cannot as yet tell 
you exactly what kind of document it is ; but I suspect it is 
written in one of the Maya-Quich^ dialects, and incline to 
think it may be a calendar used by the priests and land-holders. 
You have seen that it treats much of beehives. The scenes 
for making wooden idols are observed in this MS. The opos- 
sum is often represented. We know by the Popul Vuh, or 
sacred books of the Quiches, that the opossum opening his 
legs alludes to earthquakes ; and in the Quich^ language at 
Babinal, there is a proverb in which the opossum has to do 
with the rising sun after an earthquake. In the Codex Troano, 
we often see the opossum chained and surrounded by water, 
excepting on one side. * 

Resume, — In my communications, particularly to the Anthro- 
pological Society, regarding the Eed man of the New World, 
and his doings, I have considered him to be a distinct species, 
when even briefly examined by brain, crania, skeleton, physio- 
logy, etc. ; if, then, he be distinct in physical points, is it to 
be wondered that what has emanated from him is peculiar to 
himself, and which, to my mind, has no connexion with the 
doings of other species of mankind. The last proof we have 
for this view of the subject is the recently discovered peculiar 
Maya alphabet of Yucatan, by which the Mayas have written 
their ancient history, its rituals, calendars, and other matters. 
By this alphabet I have been enabled to read portions of 
sculptured hieroglyphs and codices of Yucatan, and a few of 
the hieroglyphs of Palenqu^ and Copan. 

That patriarch of travellers, F. de Waldeck, said to be over 



• In B. de Bourbourg's " Quatre Lettres," etc., he offers for the age of this 
MS. one thousand years before our era ; and that the Mayas preserved their 
books by washing thorn with an acetate of copper. 



812 BOLLAERT ON AMERICAN HIEROGLTPHS. 

one hundred years of age, lias issued a prospectus of his Ar^ 
chcKological Encyclopaedia, to contain more than two thousand 
subjects of antiquities from Mexico, Central America, and Pern. 
He alludes to the probable origin of the Red man and his 
works, being '' either due to the Old World, or the Hindoo 
continent/' With the monogenists he will be the last favourite; 
but with those of the polygenistic school I have embraced, we 
are at least thankful to him for his elaborate drawings ; as we 
are to Lord Kingsborough for those in his work on the Anti- 
qnities of Mexico, by which he sought to prove the Jewish ori- 
gin of the Red man ! Fictitious wHtings, Waldock, in his Voy, 
Pitt, to Yucatan, p. 47, gives drawings of twenty -eight alpha- 
betic characters, engraved on a silver collar, reported to haye 
been found at Chichen, in 1778, round the neck of an ancient 
skeleton ! The letters are of Greek, Hebrew, Phoenician, etc., 
probably the joke of some lively young monk. At p. 64, 
Waldeck gives a drawing of what he calls an aboriginal saw, — 
the rostrum of the sawfish, used as a weapon of war, said to 
have been brought by a Frenchman from the interior of Yu- 
catan. On this is a regular elongated Egyptian cartouche, with 
five symbols, which do not appear to me to have any relation 
with New- World-glyphs ; this I look upon as spurious. 

Nicaragua. 

For this country, I have recourse to Squier^s Travels in 
Central America and Nicaragua. Squier thinks the ancient 
inhabitants of Nicaragua may have been of Toltec stock. 
'^ That the monoliths of Subtiaba resemble those of Copan ;'' 
but I may observe, there is nothing of the Copan character of 
hieroglyph on them. Page 327. On idol No. 1 is a symbol 
approaching the Maya eznal, " magician^*. Page 408. Here 
are figures approaching some seen in Mexican rituals. Vol. ii. 
Lines and dots are observed, probably intended for numerals. 
Outlines of figures, generally more like those of Chiriqu^ than 
of Copan, and not very ancient. Figures of circles predo- 
minate. Squier supposes that the Nicaragua monuments were 
erected by a people the Spaniards found there, and their lan- 
guage, the Niquiran, brought in by a colony from Mexico. 

Page 347. The aborigines of Nicaragua had MSS. which the 



BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEBOOLYPHS. 313 

Spaniards called books^ painted in black and red on deer-skins; 
they were a hand^s breadth or more in width, ten to twelve 
yards long, and folded like a screen. Oviedo observes, " though 
these were neither letters nor figures (Spanish), they were not 
without their meaning." 

Chiriqui in Vebaguas. 
I refer, for accounts of antiquities connected with the pre- 
sent subject, to Dr. Seemann's Voyage of the If eraZd, 1848, Trans, 
Amer. Ethno, Soc, 1853, to my Ethnological, etc,, Researclies in 
South America (Triibner, 1860), and to a paper of mine on 
Chiriqui, Trans, Ethno, 8oc., London, 1863. It would seem 
that the tribes of Veraguas have some connexion with those 
of Nicaragua. At page 30, of my South American Antiquities, 
I give details and plate of the Piedra Pintada, or engraved 
rock of Caldera in West Veraguas. Every part is covered with 
figures representing the sun, a series of heads, scorpions, and 
several symbols. At p. 155, same work, I allude to examples 
of symbols on ancient vases ; but there is nothing approximat- 
ing to the Maya. South of Chiriquf, and having crossed the 
river Atrato, old Spanish writers state that the people of Zenu 
had books with writing. I know of no example. 

New Granada. 
At p. 34 of my South American Antiquities, I allude to very 
ancient carvings on stone, at Timan& ; some are of animals, 
and may have had to do with a calendar. At p. 40, I state 
that about Nieva, according to Velasco, there existed stones, 
on which were cut in relief strange characters at various angles, 
.figures of animals, flowers, and figures that looked like numerals, 
these I call pre-Chibcha. Not very far south is the country 
of the Panos, who had their MS. books, details of which will be 
given when treating (in another paper) on the ancient writings 
of Peru. At p. 32 of my same work, I give details of the later 
Chibcha, or Muizca period, of N. Granada, and of their calen- 
dars, with symbols of frogs, notched sticks serving as numerals, 
snakes, circles, gnomons, human figures, heads, fish, insects, 
bows and arrows, etc. However, all that has been preserved 
of the Muizca wnting are the representations of the numei'als 



314 BOLLAEBT ON AMERICAN HIEBOaLTPHS. 

1 to 10 and 20^ which are of merely figurative origin^ and have 
no connexion with the Maya. 

Conclusion, — Comparing the Maya, Palenqa^, and Copan 
hieroglyphs with those of Nicaragua, I find no connexion with 
the latter; what there is in Nicaragua, may be some early 
Toltec engrafted on aboriginal glyphs, of purely figurative 
character. The more ancient glyphs of Chiriqul, as well as 
later ones, are peculiar to that region. With regard to New 
Granada, there was a pre-Chibcha period, of which there are 
graphic records. In later times, there was a system of figura- 
tive symbols, particularly for the working of the lunar calendar, 
numeration, and other purposes. At no distant date, I hope 
to lay before the Anthropological Society a detailed examina- 
tion, by the Maya alphabet, of the Dresden, Paris, and Madrid 
Yucatan Codices. 



315 



XXI. — Report an the Researches of Dr. Edouard Dupont in the 
Belgian Bone-Caves on the banks of the river Lesse, By 
C. Caetbr Blake, F.G.S., Hon. F.A.S.L., Associ^ Stranger 
de la Soci^t^ d'Anthropologie de Paris, Corresponding 
Member of the Sociedad Antropol6gica Espanola, and of 
the Anthropological Section of the Soci^t^ des Amis de 
de la Nature de Moscoa, Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy 
at Westminster Hospital. 

It will be in the knowledge of many anthropologists that ex- 
cavations have been carried on for the last two years in the 
province of Namur, and that M. Dupont has been commissioned 
by the Belgian government to superintend work which has 
been defrayed at their expense. Several writers have pub- 
lished accounts of these discoveries, and some of these ac- 
counts have been without the sanction of the gentlemen to 
whose labours all the value of the present facts is due. 

It has been known for a long while that remains of man 
and of extinct animals have been discovered in the caves 
in the neighbourhood of the village of Furfooz, near Dinant. 
These discoveries have been more or less communicated to 
English readers, by several notices which have appeared in the 
weekly press. It was therefore thought necessary by the An- 
thropological Society of London to adopt the suggestion made 
to them by their active local secretary at Brussels, Mr. John 
Jones, and to send a delegate to the Wallon caves, for the 
purpose of making a detailed report in conjunction with 
M, Dupont. That pleasurable duty devolved on me ; and on 
the 5th of July, 1866, 1 left London for this purpose, and after 
consultation with our representatives at Brussels, arrived at 
Dinant on the evening of the 9th July. M. Dupont, who had 
been made aware of the purport of my visit, received me with 
the utmost cordiality, and placed that information at my hands 
of which it will now be my duty to inform you. 

Prolonged and numerous visits were made by me to the 



31 G REPORT OK THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

various bone-cavos in the Lcsse valley, and I examined the 
whole neighbourhood with M. Dupont. During a part of my 
investigations, I was accompanied by our Vice-President, Dr. 
B. S. Chamock. The following are the names of the caverns 
on the banks of the Lesse. The Trou do Pont-^-Lesse ; T. 
Magrite ; T. de la roche-tl-Penne ; T. de la Loutre ; Des Blaire- 
aux ; T. de Fours ; T. de la Naulette ; T. de FHyene ; T. de 
Chaleux ; two other caverns at Chaleux ; T. des Nutons ; T. de 
Frontal ; T. Rosette ; T. qui Igne (qui fume) ; T. Beuviau ; T. 
St. Barth^lemy; T. des AUemands; T. de Praules; and T. 
de Gendron (the latter belonging to the age of polished stone). 
In order that my readers may receive a clear knowledge of the 
principal features of the district, and attain definite ideas as to 
the evidence of human occupation of the caves, I shall here 
quote from Dr. Dupont's first report to the Belgian Minister 
of the Interior. Herein will be found the leading facts with 
regard to the Trou de Nutons, and that of the Frontal, near 
Furfooz. 

From the Moniteur Beige, Jan. 24, 1865. 

Report addressed to the Minister of the Interior on the sci- 
entific excavations made in the Province of Namur during the 
year 1864. 

Monsieur le Ministre. — I have the honour to render you an 
account of the results of the scientific excavations which you 
have charged me, at the request of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences, to execute in the caverns of the province of Namur. 
I have commenced operations by the exploration of some caverns 
on the banks of the Lesse, in the neighbourhood of Dinant. 
This river flows through a narrow and deep fissure. Its pre- 
cipitous banks still present, at many points, traces of pri- 
mitive nature, such as we like to imagine as existing at the 
period when man, retired in caves of the rocks, lived on the 
products of hunting and fishing, in a state of barbarism, which 
recalls that of the least civilised tribes of America and the 
Indian Ocean. 

The Lesse filrst traveraes, not far from its source, the cele- 
brated grotto of Han, which yearly attracts so many visitors. 
It soon enters amongst the schistose and quartzosc rocks 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 317 

(known in the country under the name of agauches), the bar- 
renness of which, so energetically encountered elsewhere by 
the inhabitants, ranks this country amongst the Ardennes re- 
gions. The river advancing forms numerous and elegant wind- 
ings between two encampments, covered with thick woods, in 
which are still living wolves, wild boars, and stags ; it traverses 
the royal domains of Ciergnon and of Ardenne, and subse- 
quently again encounters the calcareous rocks on the limits of 
the commune of Furfooz. 

The aspect of the valley then becomes magnificent; the 
rocks, rising vertically, showing their greyish masses covered 
with parasitic plants amidst a vegetation of birch, oak, hazel, 
and eglantine ; at intervals, sometimes on one bank, sometimes 
upon the other, fair meadows extend themselves between the 
inaccessible walls of marble and the limpid river, which forces 
the rocks to yield to its caprices. 

It is at this spot where nature has displayed her luxuriant 
beauties, that in old time and at difierent intervals man esta- 
blished his habitation, — it is there, in fact, that the conquering 
Romans constructed a formidable fortress, which was utterly 
overturned by the invaders of the old empire of the world ; 
and there, too, that the aboriginal tribes fixed their abode pre- 
vious to their destruction, not by man, but by one of the most 
terrible of natural elements, — ^by water torrents. 

The Roman fortress of Hauteraiscenne is built upon a table- 
land of small extent, and almost inaccessible. On the south, 
abrupt rocks, more than a hundred metres high, rise perpen- 
dicularly, and the Lesse flows at their feet. A very deep ravine 
separates it completely, on the north, from the neighbouring 
plateaux. This ravine is scarcely a hundred metres* distant 
from the river ; and these rocks rising in the peaks of twenty 
metres above the narrow ridge which unites them to the moun- 
tain, isolate the camp to the east. The legionaries, doubtless, 
did not consider themselves sufficiently secured by this natural 
obstacle ; they constructed there a redoubt, which may still be 
clearly traced, and hollowed in the rock a deep fosse, to add to 
the natural difficulties of the places. 

• The metre = 1 093633 yard. 



318 REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

It is especially upon the west side of the camp that they 
accumulated defences. Prom the redoubt in question, the 
plateau slopes gently towards the Lesse, so that in a space of 
from seven to eight hundred metres it descends insensibly to 
the level of the river ; in one certain point only it presents an 
elevation {mamelon), with an abrupt edge. This surface was 
too large for a post of this importance ; therefore, the defences 
were circumscribed within a space of forty to fifty ares.* The 
Eomans chose for this purpose a place where the encampment 
of the Lesse and that of the ravine are separated by a length 
of but fifteen metres at the most, and they constructed there 
four walls in masonry, cased internally and externally with 
rudely dressed stones. Two of these walls are yet visible. 

In addition, vestiges of advanced fortifications may be seen 
upon the greater part of the plateau. A trench with an earthen 
rampart, cut across its entire width, formed an outer camp, in- 
tended, according to M. Hauzeur, to protect from surprise the 
camp followers and the herds when they were not pressed by 
the enemy. It has yet to be learnt at what period of the Roman 
occupation this formidable fortress was established. 

M. Nicolas Hauzeur, who has unravelled with so much talent 
the history of this period, so unfortunate for our countries, has 
arrived, with regard to the position of Hauteraisccnne, and of 
all the Roman establishments of the province of Namur in 
general, at the most satisfactory conclusions, and as he has 
permitted me to make them known, I am going to endeavour^ 
M. le Ministre, to sum them up here. 

When the legions led by CcBsar subjugated our countries, 
this land was held by a system of occupation analogous to that 
which the French at present employ in Algiers to secure the 
subjection of the people whom they have conquered. Around 
central points they established, at short distances from each 
other, a number of small posts of observation, which, in the 
event of the rising of such or such subdued people, fell back 
rapidly, and gave in a short time the alarm to the points most 
strongly occupied. These secondary posts have been recognised 



* The are = 3-95 English poles. 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 319 

by coins, broken pottery, arms, &c., which cover the soil of their 
sites, and they were so numerous that in the district of Ciney 
alone, a place which appears to have been a central point, M. 
Hauzeur has found, in not less than forty different localities, 
Boman antiquities of the two first centuries of the Christian 
era. 

Towards the commencement of the third century all this 
country was ravaged ; the towns and other positions burnt and 
razed. This was the result of a first irruption of barbarians 
fi*om beyond the Rhine. Amidst the ruins of these habitations, 
in fact, only coins earlier than the reign of Galienus are found. 
A certain space of time afterwards elapsed previous to the re- 
turn of the Romans to these localities ; for few coins are found 
of the middle of this century, but a great number belonging to 
the end of the third and commencement of the fourth ; a fact 
which shows that the legions returned only towards the close 
of the upper empire. But times were then changed ; always 
kept on the alert by the barbarians, who were continually en- 
deavouring to pass the Rhine, they had to employ the most 
available means to resist them energetically. It is no longer, 
therefore, in the positions most favourable for the establishment 
of their habitations, that M. Hauzour finds the remains of this 
period. 

They constructed their fortresses in inaccessible places, where 
they could only with difficulty procure the necessaries of life. 
Their constructions no longer exhibit much of their former 
splendour; they serve only for defence; no more vestiges of 
that celebrated symmetry in the arrangement of their camps ; 
the difficulties created by art are added to natural obstacles to 
render these fortresses impregnable positions. The fortress of 
Hauteraiscenne is one of this kind ; I am about to describe its 
situation, and to show how this position, with the artificial 
obstructions which are accumulated there, was fitted for a 
vigorous defence. Like all the other positions of the Romans 
in this countiy it gave way before the torrent ; this laid waste 
all and the Franks came to settle amongst ruins. The camp of 
Hauteraiscenne has not yet been regularly explored; some 
medals of the era of the Constantines and some pottery, are 



320 REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

almost the only things collected up to the present time. The 
flanks of the escarpment, upon which it is constructed, have no 
less than fifteen caverns, more or less deep, and in these I have 
commenced the scientific excavations which you have entrusted 
to me. Two only in the country bear names which seem to 
relate to the fortress ; it is that of the gatte d'or^ (golden goat), 
a name which is given to all places where vestiges of ancient 
buildings are found. It is especially difiused in the neighbourhood 
of the ruins of feudal castles, and it is established in the belief 
that, at the moment of the taking of the castle, the besieged hid 
their treasures in the most secret places. The defenders of the 
camp of Hauteraiscenne, according to the legend, would have 
deposited theirs in the grotto of the gatte d'or. Another grotto 
which, M. le Ministre, I shall shortly have to notice from another 
point of view, is that which is called in the country the Trou dns 
Nutons. A great number of caverns in the country are so 
named, and a legend respecting them is preserved amongst the 
people. 

The Nutons would appear to be little men, able to work in 
metals, to shoe horses, or to make baskets ; they inhabited caves 
and left them only during the night. The inhabitants brought 
to the entrance of their subterranean habitation their imple- 
ments which required repair, and deposited as payment some 
bread, of which these mysterious beings were particularly fond; 
but one day, says the legend, they mingled ashes with the 
dough, and the Nutons, in their indignation, quitted the country 
for ever. This legend occurs again in Hainan t, in the province 
of Liege, and even in Scotland, if one be willing to see in the 
romance of Kenilworth, by Sir Walter Scott, the history of a 
Nuton adapted to the requirements of a romance writer. It 
would not be impossible, moreover, according to one of my 
friends, M. de Reul, to trace this same legend into Norway, 
Germany, and Italy. It appears to me -that all to be learnt 
from these details, is, that the Nutons are the remnant of a 
proscribed race, who may have taken refuge in the safest places, 
and who endeavoured to live there by skill in arts unknown to 



* Anglo-Saxon, gat, gaet, a goat. 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 321 

the inhabitants of the country. Are the heroes of the legend 
diffused through such different and distant countries of the 
same race ? This is a subject which must be left to the his- 
torian. 

As regards the Nutons, who inhabited Belgium, M. Grand- 
gagnage is inclined to believe them to be the first missionaries 
of the country. Might they not, with greater probability, be 
considered to be Gallo-Romans who had escaped massacre^ 
taking refuge in caverns ; seeking to procure food without en- 
dangering their safety, by impressing the superstitious spirit 
of the barbarous populations ; by employing their industry in 
mysterious ways ; and forced to quit the country by vexations 
of all kinds. Or, again, might they not have been some re- 
presentatives of that race of Indian origin wandering about 
the world for some thousands of years ; establishing themselves 
in rock-excavations ; procuring the most necessary articles by 
selling baskets, tinning household utensils, shoeing horses, 
telling fortunes, and even now the object of the contempt and 
animadversion of our race : in other terms, might they not 
have been the gipsies, or Bohemians, when they made their 
first appearance in our country ? This opinion, suggested by 
M. de Reul, is certainly that which best accounts for circum- 
stances, and, for my part, I avow that I do not see any very 
serious objections to it. 

The first grotto in which I have searched for the remains of 
the animals which peopled our country in the latest geological 
times, is precisely this Trou des Nutans, at Furfooz. It is 
hollowed in the flanks of the escarpment upon which the Ro- 
man fortress is built ; turned towards the south, it opens oppo- 
site the Lesse, which flows at its feet, in the midst of one of 
the most charming landscapes in the country. 

It is a long passage, wide open, in which rocks, and not sta- 
lactites, form figures and veritable draperies, covered in many 
places with delicate green mould. The ceiHng shows two vast 
domes aux contours singuliers ; the sidewalls, elegantly scooped 
into large receding masses, make of this cavern one of those 
works where nature displays the plenitude of her inimitable 
caprices. It is bare rock ; the stalactite, which is of daily 
VOL. ni. Y 



322 REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

formation in most caves, and which, as so well known to the 
visitors of the Grotte do Han, no longer oozes from its walls. 
The marble, with its severe tones, — the protococcus, with its 
green tints, — the yellow colour of the clay in the portions 
worked, — the strong and hard lines of the fractured rocks, — 
the clear and sharp shadows of their figures, — the movement 
and animation which this cavern, so long abandoned by man^ 
presents to-day under active examination, — the interest, the 
emotion, the continual expectation of some antediluvian objects 
carrying us back to the first ages of humanity, and even to 
far earlier times, — ^besides the legend of the mysterious in- 
habitants of the grot which recurs to the mind, — such are 
the objects and sentiments which impress the visitors of the 
Trou des Nutons. 

I first caused to be removed the superficial layer of the 
cavern ; it was of black colour, and contained mixtures of 
objects of human industry of an antiquity more or less remote. 
M. Hauzeur recognised amongst them money and glazed pot- 
tery of the last century ; some pieces of vases of the middle 
ages; some objects referrible to the Frankish period; frag- 
ments of arms, phials in glass, and pottery; a belt-buckle, per- 
fectly well made, etc. ; some medals of Domitian and Anto- 
ninus ; fragments of vases and Roman tiles ; some objects in 
bronze ; the end of a bow ; a spoon ; the clasp of a toga ; a 
pin, etc.; some horses' bits, and different utensils in iron; 
finally, a bead in pottery, which M, Hauzeur refers to an age 
prior to the Roman occupation. I subsequently cut into the 
subjacent layers ; a bed, of two metres in thickness, composed 
of red argillaceous earths, covered the whole grot. It con- 
tained an enormous quantity of large limestone blocks, dis- 
persed through the whole earthy mass, and mingled in a state 
of confusion scarcely credible, with a great number of bones 
and objects of human industry. M. Van Beneden, member of 
the Royal Academy of Sciences, has been kind enough to de- 
termine the species whose bones I have collected, and it is 
under the high guarantee of so illustrious a savant that I name 
the fauna of our country at a period so remote. 

The rehidf^er, represented, besides the different pieces of 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 323 

the skeleton, by more than one hundred and fifty horns ; the 
greater part have been broken by the violence of the water 
which carried the earth and blocks of stone into the cavern; 
I have, nevertheless, received several well-preserved specimens. 
The glutton, an animal allied to the bear, now only found in 
the coldest regions of the two continents. The bear, which, 
after the fullest examination, appears to be the brown bear 
at present found only in the Pyrenees, the Alps, Sweden, and 
Siberia. The chamois, the agile inhabitant of the snowy crests 
of the Alps, is represented by several fine relics. The elk, 
whose habitat is restricted to the Arctic regions. The stag, 
which still lives in our woods of the Ardennes, is very rare. 
The fox appears to ofier two varieties, judging from size and 
other characters. The tvolf, which ranges from Egypt to Lap- 
land. The horse. The ox {Bos primigenius), or the JJrus of 
Caesar ; it has, it seems, entirely disappeared. The wild goat, 
which inhabits the most elevated summits of the mountains of 
Europe. The amphibious and common campagnols. The grouse 
(Coq de hruyeres), which, like the stag, has remained in the 
Ardennes, but whose principal habitat is also in the north. 
Fifteen other species, at least, the enumeration of which would 
be less interesting, were found also entombed in this argilla- 
ceous earth. 

A great number of relics of human industry have been ex- 
humed from amidst this ancient fauna, so strange to our 
coimtry ; they consist of cut flints. These are flakes, flat on 
one side, and with three faces on the other, split by a very 
adroit blow from silicious masses found in our locaUties, where 
they are known under the name of ^^ clavias'\ These instru- 
ments present two types; the one, and that which is most 
commonly met with, is a flake from four to ten centimetres 
long, and one and a half to two centimetres wide, very sharp 
at the edges ; I have not collected less than two hundred and 
fifty of them from the Trou des Nutons alone. The other 
type is rudely squared, of two centimetres on a side. Lastly, 
I have found a great many of the spoils of the manufacture of 
these instruments. The first type is known under the name of 
knives ; they are found in the whole of western Europe as 

Y 2 



324 BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

evidences of the first industry of man upon this part of our 
continent^ at an epoch when the climate and the fauna differed 
remarkably from those of our days. I have, besides, found 
some wrought bones. The first is the tibia of a goat. This 
bone of the leg has been broken at one end, and cut as a flute 
at the other ; it is a whistle, from which sharp sounds can still 
be drawn. Afterwards, two small bones of the goat (astragali) 
polished on two of their surfaces, and entirely identical with 
those which children still use in their play. It is, then, to the 
antediluvian people that we owe the discovery of this toy, the 
truly primitive simplicity of which is in due relation to the 
slightly advanced civilisation of our aborigines. I have also 
collected there needles, daggers, arrowheads, etc., evidencing 
a quite primitive degree of art ; fragments of vases in pottery 
made by hand, and of manufacture so rude that an idea can 
scarcely be formed of it; the remains of fires at which the 
primitive inhabitants of the Trou des Nutons cooked their re- 
pasts ; finally, a great number of bones of the limbs of the 
horse, ox, reindeer, etc., all broken longitudinally for the ex- 
traction of the marrow. 

Such is the very remarkable ossiferous layer which I have 
explored in the Trou des Nutons, at Furfooz. It rested upon 
a bed of stalagmite, admirably homogeneous, more than a foot 
thick, which uniformly covered the grotto over three-fourths 
of its extent. Under this stalagmite lies a great deposit of 
sand and clay, well stratified, not containing bones, so far as 
known ; it is more than six metres thick ; I am at present oc- 
cupied in working it, and I shall have the honour, M. le Mi- 
nistre, soon to render you an account of the result of my re- 
searches. 

At about two hundred metres below the Trou des Nutons, 
the escarpment which borders the Lesse affords a new grotto. 
It is Hke its neighbour, wide at the opening ; its entrance is 
likewise surmounted by eroded {decoiipes) rocks; but it is a 
great deal smaller. It is divided into two chambers ; the ex- 
terior hardly six metres in depth ; the other, which opens at 
the bottom of the last, is a small deep passage, three metres 
wide and two metres high. This cavern contained a rich de- 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 325 

posit of human bones^ which take thoir place^ I think^ amongst 
the most interesting palaeontological discoveries made in Bel- 
gium up to the present time. 

On the 22nd of November last, profiting by a moment when 
I could not employ all our workmen at the Trou des Nutons, 
and when my presence there was not necessary, I visited, with 
two of them, this small cave. The passage at the bottom was 
completely obstructed by large stones, which choked the en- 
trance. I confined my operations, therefore, to the outer cham- 
ber. Its floor was covered with fragments of rock, to the 
thickness of more than two metres. I had it dug into, and at 
the depth of thirty centimetres, we found all the vertebrao, with 
the ribs, sternum, and pelvis of a bear ; then some pieces of 
the skeleton of a goat. It was just when night was compelling 
us to quit the grotto, that I found amongst the stones a human 
frontal bone, well preserved, belonging to an individual of 
fifteen or sixteen years old. The cavern took its name from 
the circumstance. Some days afterwards, M. Van Beneden 
visited these places at my invitation ; some human limb-bones, 
and a great number of animal bones, were the fruits of a brief 
exploration. 

As I desired that these discoveries should have all possible 
authentication, I requested M. Van Beneden to return at his 
earliest leisure, engaging not to continue the diggings until 
several savants could be present. On the 10th of December, 
four of us were at the cavern, Messrs. Van Beneden, Hauzeur, 
De Eeul, and myself. I caused the small gallery at the end of 
the excavation to be opened ; a man, lying flat, squeezed him- 
self in, and found there a jaw, and other human bones. The 
aperture was enlarged, and we could judge of the importance 
of the ossuary which revealed itself to us. An enormous 
number of bones of our species, in a state of incredible con- 
fusion, were driven between large stones, and surrounded by 
earth ; it became evident to all that a violent cause only could 
have placed these bones amongst them. 

We removed, ourselves, the earth and stones with the great- 
est precaution, and very soon a sight, still more unexpected, 
presented itself. Upon a space of about half a metre square, 



326 REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

were found exposed two entire skulls, well preserved, and 
bones of every kind, — shoulder-blades, ribs, vertebwe, limb- 
bones, etc., the whole belonging to beings of our species, 
disposed in inexpressible disorder. The quantity of bones we 
found that day was so great that two men could hardly trans- 
port them to Dinant. The next week nine members of the 
Archaeological Society of Naraur came to verify the facts re- 
lating to the position of these bones, and M. Van Beneden in- 
vited, in my name, the Academy of Sciences to assist at the 
exhumation of these remains. 

On the 26th Dec, six savants were present. A considerable 
number of bones were again taken out of the cavern, and 
each could theorise for himself upon their high antiquity, and 
the cause which had thrown them into this state of disorder. 
It was, in fact, unanimously admitted that these skeletons might 
be referred to the age when man, ignorant of the working of 
metals, only used instruments of stone, and that they had 
been mingled with stones and earth by a great inundation. 
The human bones found in the Trou du Frontal belong to not 
less than thirteen individuals of all ages ; there are some be- 
longing to infants of scarcely a year old. A considerable num- 
ber of flint instruments were accumulated, as well as instru- 
ments in bone, a needle, tips of arrows, etc. I recognised 
there a whistle, quite different from that of the Trou des Nu- 
tons, which I previously mentioned. It is a phalanx of the 
reindeer (which bone of the foot is hollow, as is well known, 
in some ruminating animals). A small hole had been pierced 
in the midst in such a manner that, upon applying the arti- 
cular surfaces to the lips, a sharp sound could be produced. 
This discovery has some importance, because the French savants 
have collected identical specimens in the human bone caverns 
of the Pyrenees; and when we recollect likewise that the 
flint instruments present the same form in the two countries, 
we are brought to admit that, in that remote period, there 
existed a great similitude of manners between peoples so dis- 
tant one from the other. 

Another discovery, which tends to throw some light upon 
the manners of these ancient inhabitants of our country, was 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 327 

that of several objects which we are brought to consider as 
amulets. In the first place, there is a fossil shell, longitudin- 
ally spiral, which conies from the French secondary formations, 
distant at least fifty kilometres. A hole is bored through it 
by artificial means, through which a cord may be passed to 
suspend the object. Then a fine piece of a transparent violet- 
coloured material, called in mineralogy fluorhie, and cut very 
regularly, is found mingled with the human bones, and, like the 
other object, appears to me to have come from France, but 
only from a point about fifteen kilometres distant. The num- 
ber of remains belonging to animals is also very great, and all 
seemed to indicate that they are the remains of the repasts of 
the aborigines. M. Van Beneden has recognised amongst them 
the reindeer, the horse, the ox, the bear, the wild boar, the 
grouse, etc. 

I am not yet in a position, M. le Ministre, to give you pre- 
cise information upon the races to which the men buried in the 
Trou du Frontal belong. I hope, however, that this question, 
so full of interest, will be elucidated within a short time ; I 
shall then have the honour to let you know the opinion of the 
very competent men to whom it will be submitted. , 

Another question afterwards arises. How came human ske- 
letons in the cavern of Frontal, just when the waters preci- 
pitated themselves there and mixed up the bones, the earth, 
and the stones. With regard to the solution of this delicate 
problem, we have to felicitate ourselves that the explorations 
have taken place before a number of highly competent wit- 
nesses. As several savants, amongst whom I will mention 
Messieurs Van Beneden and Hauzeur, have adopted the expla- 
nation which I have proposed, I shall endeavour briefly to 
state it. 

We believe that the inner gallery served as a burial-place to 
the population of this country, at a time when the reindeer 
lived in our forests, and our people were still in a state of the 
greatest barbarism. They have placed there, either at the 
same time or in succession, at least thirteen corpses, and have 
closed the entrance of the cavern with a large slab, which I 
have found below the opening, which it fitted perfectly, so 



328 BEPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

that the corpses were protected from the voracity of wild 
beasts. 

An analogous burial-place was noticed in the south of France 
four years ago, by a celebrated French anatomist, M. Lartet. 
Seventeen skeletons were discovered there, unexpectedly, by 
a curious working man, and had been knocked to pieces by 
an ignorant population. M. Lartet, when he visited the spot 
eight years later, could only verify the different circumstances 
connected with the period of the inhumation, and the circum- 
stances which accompanied it. He concluded that a great 
funeral repast had taken place before the sepulchre, made by a 
people who used only stone utensils, and who existed at an 
epoch when the country was inhabited by animals quite dif- 
ferent from those now existing. Ought we to apply to the 
burial-place of Furfooz this opinion of the French savant, to 
explain the remains of feasts in the exterior chamber of the 
cavern ? It is at least seductive. If now we seek to make a 
history of the phenomena, of which the two caverns of Fur- 
fooz and the surrounding country have been witnesses during 
this remote period, we shall arrive at some interesting con- 
clusions as to the antediluvian history of our country, — ^a his- 
tory still involved in the most profound mystery. 

I like to imagine to myself our mountainous regions of that 
epoch, with their hoar-frosts, their forests, their inhabitants^ 
BO different from those now existing. The fine rivers furrowing 
our hilly countries were covered with ice during several months 
of the year ; the oak, the birch, the pine, and the hazel, adorned 
with their sombre verdure the rugged escarpments and were 
laden with snow and hoar-frost during a long season; the 
reindeer united in great herds ; the elk, with wide-spreading 
and branching horns, filled the forests ; the horse and the ox 
grazed the tufted herbage never harvested by man ; the chamois 
bounded from rock to rock ; the bear, in its squat forms, nour- 
ished itself in summer on succulent roots and the young shoots 
of trees, and passed the winter in lethargy ; the glutton with 
its rapacious instincts, wolves and foxes innumerable, brought 
scenes of carnage amongst these gentle and peaceable inhabi- 
tants of our forests. And, in the midst of this natural scenery. 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 229 

partaking at the same time of the character of the Alps and of 
the Sweden of oar days^ appeared man^ not endowed with those 
magnificent attributes of civilisation which render him^ to some 
extent^ master of all the elements^ but in a state of the most 
complete barbarism. 

The rocks furnished him with shelter in their sombre cavities; 
the skins of animals served to clothe him ; unceasingly in quest 
of food^ he passed the day in the rime-clad forests^ chasing wild 
beasts. His industrial productions indicate a quite rudimentary 
civiHsation ; neither copper, iron, nor any of the metals which 
constitute the power of existing society were known to him ; 
flints rudely worked, and bones cut to points formed both his 
arms and his domestic utensils. 

All seems to indicate that his manners assimilated much to 
those of the Esquimaux ; the long bones of ruminants are split 
longitudinally, and show that, like the Arctic people, fresh 
marrow formed their feasts ; they have still this trait, in com- 
mon with them, that they lived in the most filthy state, allowing 
to accumulate in their habitations the greater part of the re- 
mains of their repasts. All animals furnished them with food, 
but the reindeer, if we may judge from the enormous quantity 
of remains found in these caverns, was particularly esteemed. 
They have eaten indifferently a great many wild boars, 
horses, grouse, pike, trout, etc. Fire was known to them, as 
proved by the traces of fires and the remains of burnt bones 
collected by me. And how could it be otherwise ? There was 
a time, certainly, when man was unacquainted with fire ; Hght- 
ning and volcanoes, doubtless, revealed it to him. We ought 
probably, as a celebrated Swiss archaeologist has remarked, to 
see in the perpetual fire so religiously preserved in ancient 
times, a proof of the difiiculties which the first people experi- 
enced in obtaining it, and how much they appreciated the im- 
portance of this element. 

It is probable that, only after this progression, the true point 
of departure of all civilisation, man was able to inhabit cold 
countries. It is, then, during the lapse of this second period 
of human industry that ho settled in our regions, and to it we 
must refer the remains which he has left us in the caves of 
Furfooz. But very soon a great disaster terminated these first 



330 REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

ages of our species. A frightful inundation entirely covered 
the country ; all was ruined ; the forests were destroyed, animals 
and men alike annihilated. The force of the current was such 
that rock masses, which a man can hardly move, were trans- 
ported to a distance ; the waters, forcibly entering the Trou des 
NutotiSy produced by their colHsion the fall of the way to the 
entrance of the cavern. The masses of stone produced by this 
colossal disruption were mingled with the mud deposited by the 
waters, and with the large quantity of bones forming the re- 
mains of the repasts of the inhabitants of the caves. The same 
thing has taken place in the cavern which served them for 
sepulture, and the great scattering of human bones amongst 
the rock fragments is the result of the violence of the current. 
At the same time the water rats, driven by this mighty flood, 
sought in vain a refuge in the fissures; several hundreds perished 
in the grots of Furfooz, and their bones were scattered in the 
mass of earthy deposit. The number of their remains is so 
prodigious that they form one of the most characteristic traits 
of this yellowish-red clay bed, covering the surface of all the 
caverns where I have made borings. 

The indescribable confusion which prevails in these deposits, 
it is evident, can only be explained by causes analogous to those 
now operating in nature. The elevation of the Trou des Nutoiis 
above the Beliage de la Lesse, which is thirty-three metres, may 
be nearly two hundred metres above the present sea level, and 
that of the Trou du Fro^ital, which is eighteen metres, puts 
tbcm, in fact, completely out of the reach of the highest floods 
of this river. Do we see there the traces of that terrible phe- 
nomenon of which all races have preserved the remembrance ? 
All I can say in this I'espect is, that the inundation of which I 
endeavour to describe the disastrous effects, is the last which 
reached the summits of our table-land. All was subsequently 
restored to order; the soil was covered anew with a vigorous 
vegetation ; animals and man reappeared. The climate, mean- 
while, was very different from what it had been ; many animals 
which formerly inhabited our regions were banished, some to 
the heights of the Alps and Pyrenees, some towards the Polar 
regions. The stag, the roebuck, and the fallow deer replaced 
the reindeer, the elk, and the chamois ; man still made use for 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 331 

some time of flint for his instimments^ but he polished it and 
made it into more useful utensils. Belgium had subsequently^ 
like Switzerland and Denmark, its age of bronze, as proved by 
the intelligent researches of the Archaeological Society of Namur. 
Iron was at length introduced and civilisation could take its 
full flight. 

Such are up to the present day, M. le Ministre, the results 
of the mission which you have deigned to confide to me. The 
national protection which is given to these scientific operations, 
and the grand thought which has suggested it, enables us con- 
fidently to predicate the crowning of the work. 

Edouard Dupont, 

Dinant, Jan. 12, 1865. Doctor of Natural Sciences. 

I next shall quote from Dr. Dupont^s description of another 
typical cave, the '^ Trou Rosette" : 

'^ At the summit of the escarpment, where the ancient people 
of Furfooz fixed their habitation, and immediately above the 
Trou du Frontal, which served as a burying-place, is a cavern 
called the Trou Rosette. It is divided into two small galleries, 
about five metres in length and two in width, running parallel, 
and communicating by a large and nearly circular opening. 
The total height is about four metres, and it was filled to a 
depth of three metres with yellow earth and stones. Only one 
of the openings was sufficiently large to admit of an entrance, 
and neither bones nor worked flints were visible. When, how- 
ever, the workmen had excavated as far as the opening into 
the other gallery, these objects were discovered in abundance. 
Bones of animals were found mingled with those of man, and a 
careful exploration brought to light a human skull, crushed 
between two blocks of stone, and a number of bones and flints 
embedded in the yellow clay. It was, in some respects, a re- 
petition of the spectacle of the 10th of December last. My first 
care was to stop the work, and to invite M. Van Beneden, and 
other scientific men, to corroborate the authenticity of this 
new discovery. M. Van Beneden at once recognised the re- 
mains of the reindeer, beaver, and other animals, associated 
with human bones, which were those of three individuals, one 
apparently an infant, and another perhaps about twenty years 



332 BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

of age. Industrial objects were rare in this new cavern ; I only 
found some pottery, but no flints or cut bones. The pottery 
was similar to that discovered in the Trou des Nutons and in 
the Trou du Frontal. It was of black clay, containing cal- 
careous grains. It was of hand manufacture, and was, in 
some cases, marked with coarse furrows. It had only been 
partially hardened in the fire. The men of the Trou Rosette 
were therefore nearly contemporaneous with those of the 
Trou du Frontal. They lived principally on the flesh of the 
reindeer; their tools were flakes of flint and cut bones, and 
their utensils were of unbaked clay. Their dead were deposited 
in rock cavities, closed with a flat stone ; and they were de- 
stroyed by the inundation, of which the clay of our fields fur- 
nishes such indisputable evidence. 

'^ It may be asked whether the Trou Rosette served as a place 
of sepulture, as was the case with the Trou du Frontal. I do 
not think so. These human bones were collected together in 
one comer of the cavern, crushed by large stones, and were 
not in that state which would lead us to suppose that the 
skeletons were there when the waters burst in. I believe, on 
the contrary, that the bones were still clothed with flesh ; that 
the corpses were, so to speak, pounded by the enormous 
masses of rock, transported or dislodged by the current. The 
absence of flint weapons and objects which we must look upon 
as amulets, corroborates this view of the matter, as does the 
absence of the stone slab, which would preserve the corpses 
from the attacks of wild beasts. Were I compelled to give an 
opinion on these human debris, I should be inclined to recognise 
in them the results of one act of the terrible drama of which 
our country was a witness, when every living thing in those 
regions perished by the waters. 

'^ It is unnecessary for me to enlarge upon the grandeur of this 
catastrophe, or upon the facts by which its occurrence is proved. 
An inundation which covered the summits of our plateaux, more 
than two hundred metres above the level of the sea, and de- 
posited upon them a thick layer of yellow sediment, is an event 
of which we must be prepared to find traces whenever we study 
these remote epochs. We have already seen how it scattered 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 333 

the hmnan dihris in the other caverns in the neighbourhood of 
Furfooz. The Trou Rosette, in my opinion, shows us how 
the wretched inhabitants, to escape the danger, sought refuge 
on the plateaux. In their terror they imagined that shelter 
might be found in the gloomy cavern, where, however, they 
met their death in the midst of the waters/' 

The quaternary stratigraphical series is composed, in the pro- 
vince of Namur, of two pebble beds, each of which is capped 
by a deposit of mud. 

The lower pebhle bed is formed of stratified rolled pebbles, 
derived from the rocks situated in Amont ; and is associated 
with sand and gravel. It is surmounted with sand and clay, 
commonly alternating in thin layers with irregularly disposed 
veins of rolled pebbles and of sand. These veins are often re- 
placed in the caverns by beds of stalagmite. The name of lehm 
has been given to this deposit of mud. 

The upper pebble bed is composed of angular pebbles, dis- 
posed pell-mell in a sandy paste, and derived from the immedi- 
ately neighbouring or subjacent earth. This deposit has much 
raised the lower beds ; it is usually covered by a siliceous mud 
(ninety per cent, at least of silica) of a fine substance, and 
unstititified. This is the brick earth, or loess, properly so 
called. 

The angular pebbles and the loess do not show any relation 
with the orographical conditions of the country. They cover it 
over its entire contour. 

The rolled pebbles and the lehm are, on the other hand, in 
intimate relation with the hollowing-out of the valleys of which 
they are the consequence. 

A section, taken on a natural terrace on the banks of the 
Meuse at Agimont, near Givet, and at a height of thirty-five 
metres above the river, indicates these deposits with their 
principal characters and accidents. 

To the end that I may give, before the more detailed exami- 
nation of the principal caverns excavated by M. Dupont, a more 
clear idea of the composition of the ground in which, at the 
first glance, so much mystery appears to prevail, I shall here 
point out that the composition of the quaternary soil in the 



334 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 



caverns of the province of Namur is the same as externally. 
Every deposit is identical, but these caverns, having commonly 
narrow openings, the aqueous phenomena which have given 
birth to these deposits, have not always those evidences inside 
which on the outside are presented. The section of the Trou 
de Frontal at Furfooz is complete, with the exception of the 
loess, which is therein badly developed. 

As the quaternary beds are generally ossiferous in the caverns, 
it is therein that the palasontological character of the beds 
should be examined. The caverns have served as lairs to 
hyaenas, foxes, bears, badges, or even have been the habitation 
of man. The external part rarely contains bones. 

The rolled pebbles have only as yet exhibited in the province 
of Namur some remains of Elephas primigenius, Ursus spelaeus, 
horse, and beaver. But the mud which lies below these con- 
tains a rich fauna, whose characters agree entirely with that of 
the fauna of the rolled pebble beds ; which demonstrates, as 
well as the strati graphical evidence, that these two beds are 
intimately connected. 

The fauna of the lehm is composed as follows : 



Extinct species. 

Hyaena spelaa 
UrsuB spelaBus 
Elephas primi- 
genius 
Bhinocertis ticho- 
rinus. 



Emigrated species. 

Cervns tarandus 
Equus cabaUos* 
Marmot 
Chamois 



Species destroyed 
by num. 

Ursus arctos 
Two large species 
of Bos 



Species now existing 
in the oountiy. 

Canis yulpes 
Canis lupus 
Meles taxus 
Arvicola amphi- 
bia 
Bat 

Sus scrofa 
Cervus elaphus 



Man inhabited the banks of the Lesse at this epoch. 

Thirteen caverns amongst the twenty-four which have been 
examined up to the present day, have furnished the fauna called 
that of the reindeer, always at the base of the deposit of angular 
pebbles. 

The following is the fauna : 



* M. Dupont thinks that the horae disappeared from the country at the 
same time as the reindeer, and that it was not again introduced till the 
bronze period, when it was domestic. 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 



335 



Emigrated species. 

CervTis tarandos 
Oervus alas 
Oapra segagrus 
Antilope rupicapra 
Eqnus caballus 
Gulo loscuB 
Antilope saiga 



Species destroyed by man. 

Castor Europaea 
Ursus arctos 
Bos taurus 



Species existing in the 
country. 

CeryoB elephas 
Oanis vulpes 
Oanis lapos 
Meles tarns 
Arvioola amphibia 
Vespertilio 
Sus scrofa 
Capra hircus 
Tetrao tetrix 



The Loess has not yet furnished any bones. 

The caverns which contain bones above these beds produce 
a fauna entirely composed of existing species, and of some which 
have been destroyed by man. The following is the fauna col- 
lected in a cavern in the middle of debris of industry of the 
poKshed stone age : Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra hircus, 
Arvicola amphibia, Tetrao tetrix. Bos taurus. When examined 
in a general manner, the quaternary beds of the province of Namur 
are formed of two series of deposits, which each indicate a sepa- 
rate epoch and distinct phenomena. 

The first series is composed of rolled pebbles and of strati- 
fied mud, or lehm, which are fluviatile sediments deposited 
during the hollowing out of the valley. M. Dupont considers 
that the doctrine of Mr. Prestwich on this subject is entirely 
correct with regard to the Belgian beds. 

This first epoch is then characterised by great fluviatile phe- 
nomena, which, according to their extent, sometimes hollowed 
out the earth, and sometimes deposited thereon rolled pebbles 
or mud. The fauna of this epoch includes extinct species, as- 
sociated with species which have now emigrated to colder 
climates than our own. 

The second scries of quaternary sediments formed of angular 
blocks and of loess, is completely independent of the first, by 
its fauna, by its composition, by its geographical distribution, 
and by the phenomena which it presents. In fact, the fauna 
only presents the species emigrated from the previous fauna 
and the species now existing, to the exclusion of all extinct 
species. 

Nothing indicates for the pebbly deposit a tmnsport by water. 




336 BSFOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

and it thus forms a great contrast with the lower pebble-beds. 
It extends^ with the loess which caps it on the plateaux, over 
all the country ; it was a great mantle of mud which extended 
over all the country ; nevertheless it is evidently and entirely 
posterior to the first series of deposits^ as the reindeer fauna is 
presented in its lower portion at every height. 

Distribution of the principal Mammalia in the quaternary 
beds of the province of Namur. 

Boiled pebbles AngnlAr pebbles Becent 

and lehm. and loess. period. 

Elephas primigenius 

BhinoceroB tichorhinus 

Sua scrofa 

UrsuB spelffia 

arctoe 

Hyrona spelsBa 

Oeryus tarandoB 

elaphns 

Antilope rapioapra 

Canis vulpes 

EquuB caballas _? 



It appears that the brown bear yet lived in Belgium in the 
tenth century. M. Dupont is led to believe that the horse dis- 
appeared from the country at the same time as the reindeer, 
and that it was reintroduced in the domestic state during the 
bronze period ; according to this view the horse itself will be 
an emigrated species. 

In the open country, the succession of beds is essentially the 
same as in the caves. The following series can be recognised 
from above to below. 

1. Made earth, with various objects, dating from the historic 
period. 

2. Yellow clay, containing numerous angular fragments of 
limestone spread throughout the mass. It is in this bed that 
M. Dupont has found the greatest part of the bones, and the 
objects of human industry made in flint and in bone. The 
skeletons of man, reindeer, glutton, elk, bear, chamois, ibex, 
and beaver, are common herein* The remains of human in- 
dustry are composed of flint knives, worked bones, fragments 
of coarse pottery, traces of hearths, etc. (chief remains from 
Trous de Frontal, des Nutons, and de Chaleux). 



BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 337 

3. Bed of stalagmite. 

4. Sandy, stratified clay-deposit (lehm), stratified and withont 
pebbles or angular blocks; osseous remains rare; elephant, 
hyaena, and rhinoceros, have herein been found, as well as cal- 
careous concretions. (Jaw from Trou de la Naulette.) 

5. Beds of rolled pebbles, derived, as M. Dupont has pointed 
out, from the Ardennes. He found, also, a tooth of Ursus spe- 
Iceua, and some remains of a horse. 

6. Glauconiferous gravels, with traces of peaty matter, re- 
mains of beaver and other animals. No human remains. 

All these beds cannot be recognised in each cavern ; but can 
be found in the greater number of sections, as well in the 
caverns as in the open country. In this latter, the deposit 
{argile jamie avec cailhux anguletix) extends over the plateaux, 
where it is capped by loess, or upland brick earth. The occur- 
rence of the angular pebble-bed below the loess, and its wide 
distribution, is a fact which is of great interest to geologists, 
as it points to the more or less violent action of some physical 
cause, since the men and reindeer, who were contemporaries, 
dwelt in the caves of Furfooz. The angular pebble bed is 
found both in the caves and in the open country. The super- 
position of this angular pebble bed over the clay, or lehm, 
which is immediately subjacent, is also a fact, which can be 
verified beautifully in the Trous des Nutons and de Frontal. 

The stratification of the lehm deposit is again a fact, which 
can be excellently proved by examination of the Trou de la 
Naulette. In a letter which I have received irom an eminent 
English geologist, some doubt is thrown on this fact, and it is 
suggested that the leh7n is merely horizontally bedded. The 
examination of the deposit, which I have made with the greatest 
care, compels me to reject this exegesis. The layers of strati- 
fication in the Trou de la Naulette alternate with beds of sta- 
lagmite ; and no geologist, who has seen this cavern, could for 
one moment attribute the formation of the lehm deposit to any 
other source than that of the slow deposition of river mud, 
such mud being, probably, deposited by the Lesse. The mi- 
neral condition of the remains of rhinoceros, hya3na, and ele- 
phant, perfectly agrees with that of the human remains. 

VOL. III. z 



338 REPORT ON THK BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

The distinction between the remains found in the Trou de 
la Naulette and those found in the Trou de Frontal^ and other 
Furfooz caves, rests especially on the fact that, in the latter 
cases, we have the human remains from the reindeer beds 
*' containing the angular pebbles ; in the former, the remains 
are beneath the deposit of cailloux anguleux, in deposits con- 
taining elephant, rhinoceros, and hyaena. Considerations, 
which M. Dupont has urged elsewhere, have led him to the 
conclusion that the cailloux anguleux bed was formed by some 
more violent and rapid action than that which produced the 
lehm. Into this theoretical consideration I will not now enter; 
suflSce it to say, that visual inspection of the beds must con- 
vince the most sceptical of the slow and gradual deposition of 
the lehm. 

In the Trou de Chaleux the traces of man exist in a bed of 
about 0'30 metres in thickness, formed of sand, dust, and 
earth, perfectly limited above and below and extending from 
the base of the escarpment to and over the greatest part of 
the cavern, as indicated in the figure at the level of the prin- 
cipal chamber and in the gallery situated at the extremity of 
the burrow ; the bones and other objects left by man are mixed 
with yellow mud, because they were not protected by the 
fallen stones. This mixture is the general case at Furfooz for 
the same reason. 

The remains lefb by man at this level are as various as 
numerous. They are the remains of animals who served as 
repast for man ; several human bones ; worked bones ; various 
objects wrought by man ; more than 30,000 flints, knives, 
splinters, nuclei, &c. ; ashes from hearths ; numerous frag- 
ments of sandstone, psammites, and schists. These objects 
were found on a surface of 75 square metres and in a very thin 
bed. They were covered by a thick mass of stones derived as 
was the greater mass from the fall of a part of the roof of the 
cavern ; but this fall was much more considerable than the 
first one. In certain places it is three metres in height, and it ex- 
tends with continuity to the Lesse. All is covered by the 
ordinary yellow clay. This contains several teeth and bones 
of horses and more than fifty flint knives, which can be easily 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 339 

distinguished by the absence of the patina which is present in 
the worked flints of the bed interposed between the two fallen 
masses. The yellow clay has here, especially at the opening, 
a tint which is a little more reddish than in the other localities ; 
I attribute this to alteration by springs from the stratified 
deposit which is found at the bottom of the cavern. It is sur- 
mounted by a greyish yellow sandy clay which is analogous to 
the loess. They both contain angular fragments of the lime- 
stone. Some modem insignificant objects have been collected 
on the floor of the cavern. The importance of the mass of 
stones which covered the ancient floor inhabited by the ^' flint- 
folk'^ can be easily conceived. While at Purfooz the remains 
of the human habitation had been mixed with yellow clay 
and mixed together violently by water, the soil of the cavern 
of Chaleux was yet found, when I examined it, in the condi- 
tion in which it was left by the man of the reindeer period ; 
because a mass of stones of three metres in thickness covered 
this soil immediately after its abandonment, and it had been 
thus protected for a long period against all disturbance. 

From this consideration, it is evident that the objects whose 
origin was external to the cavern had been brought there by 
man before the ehouhment had taken place. But in a science 
where all conclusions are generally received with scepticism, 
too many proofs cannot be accumulated. I shall, therefore, 
rapidly examine the bedding of the principal objects, and the 
manner in which they have been introduced in the cave. This 
examination does not leave any doubt of their introduction by 
man. 

M. Van Beneden has up to the present time recognised 
eleven species of mammalia amongst the bones. These are, 
the reindeer, the goat, ox, horse, wild boar, brown bear, fox, 
badger, polecat, hare, and water rat. 

The majority of these animals have evidently served to 
nourish man, and the bones collected in these caverns are 
nothing else but the debris of human repasts. The horse was the 
principal nourishment of these antique populations, as M.Dupont 
has been able to count 937 molar teeth which were left in the ha- 
bitation of Chaleux. He only possesses from the cave one single 

7 ^ 



340 BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

complete limb-bone^ i.e., the tibia of a young horse. All the 
others have been completely broken. I do not think that I 
exaggerate when I say that there are more than a cubic metre 
of fragments of bone, many of which, according to M. Van 
Beneden, bear distinctly the traces of cuts made with flint. 

The Arvicola amphibia has left very abundant traces ; they 
are found especially near the hearth, and it may here be the 
place to inquire whether these rodents did not form part of 
the human food. Several human bones have been also dis- 
covered, of which M. VanBeneden has given the following list: — 
" Separate teeth of which the curve is worn down to the cin- 
gulum, three scapulsa, two radii, a tibia, two fibulaa, an axis, 
rather strong lumbar vertebrae, two other vertebrae of a younger 
individual, fragments of ribs, and some digital phalanges. 
Since then I have found a fragment of the parietal, a cervical 
vertebra, and several other bones. All these bones are far 
from constituting, as may be seen, an entire skeleton. M. V. 
Benedenhas also noticed that these bones are very tender, and 
that the scattered teeth clearly indicate that the bones of the 
head were completely decomposed on the spot. 

It is in all these cases very difficult to explain the presence of 
these human bones. To apply to them the interpretation 
which M. Spring has given for the human remains of the age 
of polished stone found by him at Chauvaux would be unsatis- 
factory. None of them have been discovered in the neighbour- 
hood of the hearth. The majority were found in a lateral de- 
pression of the cavern, mixed with bones of horses and foxes, 
who were the remains of these men's food. The fragment of 
parietal bone and of a cervical vertebra were found on the 
floor of the cavern under the same conditions. Besides these, the 
long bones, of which there are five, were entire. But as I 
have said above, all the marrow bones of animals of a certain 
size were fractured by man, one solitary tibia of horse being 
the exception. These human limb bones agree in all the 
other conditions with those discovered at Chauvaux by M. 
Spring ; so that it seems to be very difficult to see in these in- 
complete remains of human skeletons evidence of the canni- 
balism of this ancient population. 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 341 

Towards the middle of the cavern, on the inside of the parapet 
entered by the fallen stones, was a hearth which occupied a 
surface of not less than a metre and a half. This is proved 
by the charcoal, ashes, and burnt earth, and is the strongest 
proof of the habitation of this cavern by man at this epoch. 

In the middle of this, cinders and charcoal, numerous burnt 
and unbumt bones, rolled pebbles, plates of sandstone, psam- 
mites, and schists have been discovered. These plates are 
abundant in all the caverns inhabited by the reindeer man as 
well in France as in Belgium. It was also in the neighbour- 
hood of the hearth that the flints were most abundant. A 
fragment of earth about as large as half the hand has been 
preserved and it does not contain less than fourteen knives or 
chips of flint. 

Some of these worked flints are in phtanite, principally in 
phtanite calcarifere of the bed V of the Dinant limestone. All 
the others are of foreign origin, and if it cannot be directly 
proved that the majority of them came from Champagne, at 
least this assertion is extremely probable. 

There were also procured fifty-four marine tertiary shells, 
which have been identified by M. Nyst. All these have been 
derived from Champagne. Their introduction by man into the 
cavern cannot be doubted. Twenty-five of them are perforated 
near the mouth, either by friction as especially efiected by 
Naticce and Pectunculi, or by means of a pointed instrument. 
It is then evident that they had relations with Champagne, 
while every proof of their relation with Hainault or with the 
province of Liege, which might also have afforded them flint, 
has been up to the present day lacking. 

It is a most important and unexpected fact that it is towards 
the south that their external relations seem to lead. 

I was struck, this summer, with the analogy which the sub- 
stance of several ^chips of flint for the cave of Chaleux bore to 
that of the flints from Pressigny-le-Grand (Indre-et-Loire). 
This flint has no analogue, it appears, in the cretaceous beds 
of Western Europe. M. Gabriel de Mortillet has said " the 
flints which you have shown me are very interesting. They 
are unquestionably derived from Grand-Pressigny. The 



342 BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

specimen has the reddish yellow aspect of virgin wax, the 
speckling and slight marbling, the slightly homogeneous 
aspect which characterises the flints of this locality/' The 
men of the reindeer period carried, then, their relations to the 
banks of the Loire. 

On the 26th May, 1865, the workmen extracted from the 
objects in the ashes of the hearth the forearm of an elephant. 
It was in an extremely friable state, which contrasted exceed- 
ingly with the state of preservation of all the other bones 
of the cavern ; it reposed on a plate of psammite on the right 
hand of the hearth (from the side of the opening). My opinion 
is that these men found it in a fossil state and that they 
brought it into their cave either as a fetish, or as an object of 
curiosity. 

The quantity of diverse substances which they procured is 
in fact scarcely credible ; and could only be used either as 
ornaments, objects of curiosity or as fetishes. I have thus dis- 
covered a fragment of large ammonito, derived from the psam- 
mite of Condroz ; two lumps of martial pyrites; much oolitic 
oligiste like that which is found to the north of the primary 
basin at the base of the schists of Famenne ; nearly half a 
kilogramme of fluvine derived from the Devonian limestone ; 
nephrite; fragments of the laminae of elephants' teeth, of 
which they fabricated their elegant needles ; of the slate of 
Fumay which they cut into various shapes, three fossil shark's 
teeth, a vertebra equally fossil of the genus Garcharias, and 
the fifty-four eocene shells mentioned above ; numerous plates 
of sandstone, psammites, and micaschist. They especially 
brought the carved psammites which formed the summits of the 
anticlinal and synclinal folds of these ancient webs and which 
have thus a tile shaped form. 

They also traced on many plates of psammite lines probably 
with flint. Worked bones are equally abundant. They are, 
except the needles, all fabricated of reindeer antlers. 

Finally, amongst the 30,000 worked flints discovered in the 
cavern of Chaleux under this mass of stone, and amongst the 
1,200 derived from the beds with reindeer bones in the Fur- 
fooz caves, none show any trace of polishing ; which from this 



BEPOKT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVEB. 343 

point of view, appears to demonstrate the non-contemporaneity 
of these men with those who made in this country so many 
polished instruments. 

It results clearly from this summary examination, that all 
these objects of diverse nature were introduced in the cavern 
of Ghaleux by the man who made his habitation therein at an 
epoch of which the date is exactly determined by the fall of the 
roof and by the deposit of the yellow clay and of the loess. 

To conclude ; the following are the succession of events which 
have taken place in this grotto : — 

1. Deposit of stratified red clay, sand, &c. 

2. First habitation of this cavern by man. This epoch of 
habitation can be fixed by means of the little pebble bed, and 
thus correlated with the precise section of the quaternary strata. 

3. Deposit of clay-sand in which a head of Ursus sjpelcevs and 
other bones have been discovered. 

4. Fall of a part of the roof at the entry of the cavern. 

5. Principal epoch of habitation of the cavern by the man 
contemporary with the reindeer fauna. 

6. Fall of a part of the roof on nearly the whole extent of 
the cavern. 

7. Third inhabitation of the cavern by man. He has left few 
remains, but he was yet contemporary with the reindeer fauna. 

8. Deposit of yellow clay and of loess. 

The level of this cavern is situated only 1 7 metres above the 
level of the river. (See Table, next page.) 

The four caverns of the escarpment of Furfooz, situated at 
a maximum height of 40 metres above the level of the Lesse, 
only contain the horizon of yellow clay with angular fragments 
which commonly becomes grey and sandy in its upper part. 
Two of the caverns have not furnished human remains, viz., the 
Troti qui igne and the Trou St. Barthelemy. 

The Trou Rosette, on the other hand, has furnished many 
human remains and animal bones in the middle of the deposit 
of yellow clay and fragments of limestone. It had at the base 
some rolled pebbles which may be considered to be from the 
Ardennes. 

According to M. Dupont, the following table comprises the 



344 



BBPOBT ON THB BELQIAN BONE CAVES. 



series of sedimentary strata which have been recognised in 
fourteen of the caverns. 






I 



I 

I 



? 

I 

i 



OQ 

S 

i 
I 



I- 



I 



Qrand troa de Chaleoz 
2e Cayeme of Chaleuz 

3e Cayeme of ChaJenx • • • 

Trou de Frontal ... • • • • • 

Troa de Nutons • • • • 

Trou de la Gatte d'or • • • • 

Troa Eosette • « P 

Trou qai Ig^e 
Troa Benyiau 
Trou St. Barthelemy 
Cayeme de Montfort 
Trou Magrite 

le Cayeme de Pont-^-Lesse 
2e Cayeme de Pont-it-Lesse 
le Cayeme des fonds de Leffe 
2e Cayeme des fonds de Leffe 
Trou des Blaireaux 
Trou de la roche-ii-Penne 
Trou de I'Ours ... 
Trou de la Xaulette 
Trou de I'Hy^ne ... 
Trou de Praule ... 
Trou des Allemands 
Trou de Gendron 

The Trou Benviau contains the same yellow clay and the 
reindeer fauna. 

The Trou de la Gatte d'or, of which the height above the 
Lesse is only 30 metres^ contains the same groups of beds as 
tie Trou des Niitons, 



BEPOBT ON THE BELOIAN BONE CAVES. 845 

The Trou Magrite at Pont h. Lesse is a large cavern analogous 
to the largest one of Chaleux. The earth was extracted there- 
from thirty years ago ; but the rocky soil has not yet been 
reached. The earth removed thence is composed solely of 
yellow clay with angular fragments of limestone which were 
probably surmounted by loess. M. Dupont has as yet been 
able to collect more than fifty worked flints^ an eocene shelly 
some broken marrow-bones, a molar of horse, &c. At the 
time of my visit (July, 1866) a further exploration of this cavern 
was contemplated by M. Dupont, which doubtless will yield 
new and interesting materials. {See Journal A,8Jj., vol. ii, p. Ix.) 

The cavern at Montfort, at Dinant, furnishes the remains of 
rhinoceros, Ursus spelaeus, &c., with those of reindeer and of 
other species. These bones were collected at the base of the 
deposit of yellow clay with angular fragments of limestone 
measuring in all 4 metres of thickness. In some parts of the 
cavern the limestone was covered with pebbles, of which the 
greater number were of the size of a pea ; they were cemented 
together, like the pebble bed of the stratified sandy clay 
deposit of the caverns of Chaleux and Furfooz, by a brownish 
clay, and M. Dupont is inclined to refer them to this deposit. 

The two caverns of Fonds de Leffe, near Dinant, only con- 
tain the deposit of yellow clay witli its angular contents, which 
has often become greyish yellow in the upper part. It does 
not contain bones nor remains of human industry. 

To summarise the chief palasontological products of these 
various beds : — 

M. Dupont has only observed the red clay on the Lesse; 
but as it is there alone that he has made important excavations, 
no general law can be deduced from its distribution. It only 
exists at Furfooz in the caverns which are situated at less than 
35 metres above the level of the Lesse, but it rises to 40 
metres at Chaleux. In all cases it is possible to discover its 
origin. The first cavern where it was observed was the Trou 
des Nutons. Its great purity and its red brick colour led M. 
Dupont to suspect that it was the product of a special descrip- 
tion of those filons d'argile which have been studied by M. 
d'Omalius d^Halloy since 1833. This view was entirely con- 



w^^timi^mtmmimmi^mmmtUaOiii^iaa§ 



346 REPORT ON THS BIIiQIAN BOHS GATIS. 

firmed by the excavations of the Troa de Frontal, where these 
clays are in Jilons, and the qaestion takes here a new aapeot, as 
it is evident that they are anterior to the deposit of sand and 
turbary^ and to the deposit of rolled Ardennais pebbles. M. 
Dupont has observed^ near the village of CeUes, situated at three 
kilometres to the east of these caverns, Jilons meubles formed 
of this same lustrous pure clay ; these filons exist principally 
at Noisy in the foundations, and near the month of the rivulet 
of Cellis, in the Lesse, in the middle of the limestone. 

The level of the rolled pebbles is only marked in an incon- 
testable manner in the Trou de Frontal. Some indices lead 
me to believe that there exist traces in the Trou Bosette. 

The sandy clay deposit with calcareous nodules has a more 
constant distribution and in the Trou de Ghaleux it was par- 
tially posterior to the habitation of the country by man. This 
deposit contains the Ursus spelceus. It is besides characterised 
by a deposit of pebbles of which I have found the analogue in 
the external quaternary strata. It was after this deposit that 
the fauna of the reindeer was spread over western Europe as 
far as the Pyrenees, and that man developed himself over the 
country. The waters which had deposited the sandy clays with 
calcareous nodules had retired into their bed, which nearly, if 
not quite, coincided with the present bed of the river. 

Man probably inhabited the Trou de Chaleux for a long time, 
to judge by the enormous number of tUbris wliich he left there, 
and ho was probably driven thence by the fall of a large part 
of the roof. The great mass of stones which thus covered the 
soil abandoned by man, removes these numerous and interest- 
ing iUhris from all suspicion of being disordered by any cause, 
until the time when the excavations of M. Dupont exposed 
them. 

The man of the reindeer period inhabited a short time the 
Trou des Nutons at Furfooz, if we can deduce this from the 
small relative number of objects which he left behind him. 
This opinion was put forward by the late Henry Christy, and 
by M. Laganne, who for many years has excavatod the numer- 
ous caverns of the south of France. M. Dupont has deduced 
the short time during which man has inhabited this cavern 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 847 

from the coating of stalagmite which covers the sasdy clay 
deposit of the cave ; it is in fact evident^ that if man had in- 
habited this cave before the formation of the coat of stalagmite, 
this calcareous deposit would have contained traces of some 
kind of this habitation ; it is, on the contrary, of a remarkable 
purity and homogeneity, and contains neither earth, nor 
bones, nor remains of human industry. 

The Trou de Frontal has served as sepulchre to these men 
who buried thirteen bodies in this natural dolmen, of which 
the entry was closed by a large dolomitic partition {dalle), 
Man has left remains of his meals and of his industry in the 
external chamber of the cavern, and the observation, with 
regard to the number of these remains which we have made 
with regard to the Trou des Nutons, is equally apphcable to 
this cavern. 

The Trou Rosette also contained remains of many human 
skeletons, but it affords a less easy explanation. Examination 
of the other phenomena which have been observed in the pro- 
vince, and especially of the phenomena found in the open 
country, may at a future time, in the hands of Dr. Dupont, 
throw light upon the conditions under which human existence 
in this cave has been possible. 

The deposit of yellow clay with fragments of rocks, has 
taken place solely after the man of the reindeer period inha- 
bited the caverns of the country. Everyone must be struck, 
in throwing his eyes over the table of the general repartition 
of the beds of these fourteen caverns, with the constancy of the 
geological horizon which is everywhere encountered with the 
same characters ; yellow clay at the base, greyish yellow sandy 
elements at the upper part, and numerous angular fragments 
in all the mass, and principally at its base. 

After these deposits, man only inhabited these caverns 
accidentally. Nothing is found above these sediments, but 
several, more or less modem, objects, which prove by their 
small number a habitation of very short duration, if ever there 
was an habitation. The cavern which has shown most of these 
remains is the Trou des Nutons j it has furnished remains of 
all ages : two splinters of polished stone and a little point of a 
flint arrowhead; a fragment of ring m ^o^X^^t^^ ^V\Oa. ^s^V^'w^c^ 



348 



REPORT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 



to be pre-Roman ; a certain quantity of pottery, many medals 
and some Boman ironwork (we have seen that a Roman 
fortress existed on the summit of this escarpment), and several 
Frankish remains of middle age, and of modem times. 

At Chaleux the objects found at the surface are much more 
modem ; none of these date even from mediaBval times. This 
proves that the really troglodytic race of this country was the 
man of the reindeer period, who had not the art of poUshing flint, 
as is shown by all the sphnter, which amount to more than 
32,000, collected up to the present time in the caverns of 
the Lesse valley. 

The most important generalisation to which the learned 
author arrives is that in which he attempts to correlate the 
quaternary series of the valleys of the Seine and of the Somme 



Valleys of the Meiue and 
of the Lesse. 

r Loess, or brick earth, ex- 
isting in the plateaux and 
in the valleys. 

Yellow day, with bloeatuB 
Cenms iaran- i of ancient rocks covering 



Upper stage. 



dU8. 



the plateaux and the val- 
leys. Beindeer fauna in 
the caverns. 



Valleys of the Seine and of 
the Somme. 

Loes8> or brick earth. 



Sandy red clay, with bro- 
ken and angular flints, co- 
vering the plateaux and 
the valleys, and ravining 
and lower beds. 

Diluvium roug^, propre" 
mentdii. 



& 



1 



" Stratified sandy day de- Sandy and marly day," 

posit, with sheUs, prind- with shells, principally ter- 

pally terrestrial, and with restrial, and with calca- 

calcareous concretions. reous concretions. 

Ursiu speloBUS, EUphtu 
primigenius, etc., in the 
caverns. Lehm. 



Lower stage. 

ElephcLS pri"t 

migenitu. 



Quartzose sand, with 
shells, principally fluvia* 
tile (accidental). 

Boiled boulders of Ar- 
dennais rocks, etc., and 
large unrolled blocks com- 
ing from afar. Tusk of 
EUphas primigenius. 



Quartzose sand, with 
shells, principally fluvia- 
tile (accidental). 

Boiled flints, etc., and 
large unrolled blocks com- 
ing from afar. Bones of 
ElephcLs primigenius. 



i 



Quartzose sand (very Quartzose sand (very 
accidental) . accidental ) . 



Primary rocks. 



Secondary and tertiary 
beds. 



BEFOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 349 

with those of the Mense and of the Lesse. On comparing, e.g,j 
such beds as those of Agimont and other localities with the 
sections presented by the quames of Abbeville and Amiens, 
the following succession can be traced out. Like conditions 
occur in each. 

The occurrence, in the various caves, of beds of stalagmite 
above various layers of the beds here shown, complicates the 
stratigraphy slightly; at the same time that it measures 
roughly the time which may be supposed to have elapsed 
between and the position of each of these layers. 

For valuable assistance and hospitality during my stay at 
Dinant, it is impossible for me to thank too cordially Dr. 
Edouard Dupont, Corr. Mem. A.S.L. Those persons alone 
who have themselves visited all the caves, can appreciate the 
amount of physical labour which it is necessary to undergo, 
and which Dr. Dupont has endured throughout the hard 
frosts of the winter of 1865, and the great heats of the 
summer of 1866. Having personally on the spot verified all 
M. Dupont^s sections, I can testify to their perfect accuracy ; 
I can also testify to the care with which his facts have been 
accumulated, the skill with which the correlation of the various 
beds has been worked out, and the generosity with which 
the results he has obtained have been placed at my disposal. 
The disinterested frankness with which he communicated to 
me all his facts renders Dr. Dupont an example of scientific 
ethics not merely to Englishmen, but to the whole world. 

Our late energetic local secretary in Brussels, Mr. John Jones, 
F.G.S., was the first to place at our disposal the knowledge of 
the principal facts which were discovered. Had it not been 
for him, the Anthropological Society of London would never 
have sent a commissioner to examine into the subject. To his 
influence amongst Belgian scientific men much of the success 
which I hope has attended my mission is due. 

M.Charles Dumon,Ing^nieur-en-chef des Ponts-et-Chaussdes 
for the province of Namur, has verified the sections through- 
out. His kind influence has led in part to the results now on 
the table. 

My own experience having taught me the diflSculty of obtain- 






350 BEPOBT ON THE BELGIAN BONE CAVES. 

ing reliable anatomical information in England^ I proceeded 
to Paris^ and had the opportunity of comparing the jaw with 
collections in the Paris Museum of Natural History, in the 
Museum of the Soci^t^ d' Anthropologic, and with some most 
important specimens in M. Pruner-Bey^s private collection. To 
M. Pruner-Bey himself, as well as MM. Broca, Lartet, and 
Quatrefages, I am very grateful for valuable and important 
advice. 

The whole subject is as yet entirely in its infancy, and I 
trust that further examination will be undertaken.* 

* For deecription of jaw found in cave of La Naulette^ see Anthrapologieal 
Review, vol. v, p. 294. 



351 



XXII. — On Ancient Peruvian Graphic Records. By William 
BoLLAERT, F.R.G.S., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., Corr. Mem. Univ. 
Chile; of the Ethnological Societies of London and New 
York, etc. 

In my work on South American Antiquities,* I advert to the 
graphic records and Quippus of the Peruvians, and to the state- 
ments of early writers, that the ancient Peruvians used a spe- 
cies of hieroglyph engraved on stone, and preserved in their 
temples. However, not one example has been preserved to 
show whether such was hieroglyphic or merely figurative. 

On reference to a paper of mine in vol. i. Memoirs of the 
Anthropological Society, 1865, "Introduction to the Palaeo- 
graphy of America,'^ I brought together all that was then within 
my reach. Subsequently was discovered the hieroglyphic Maya 
alphabet of Yucatan, preserved by Landa, which led me to com- 
pare the hieroglyphs and codices of Central America in particular 
by this long-hidden treasure. The daguerreotype of a Llama 
skin, painted with characters, lately found in Bolivia, has again 
prompted me to look into the question. I will first allude to 
the very little that is known on this subject as regards — 

Ecuador, The first people there is any account of had their 
capital at Quito, and were governed by chiefs called Quitus ; 
these were conquered about a.d. 980, by a coast nation, known 
a^ the Caranes. No graphic records have been handed down 
of either Quitus or Caranes. At p. 92 of my South American 
Antiquities, I have given a plate of an ancient embossed earlet 
from Cuenca, with something like a symbol on it ; this is the 
only approach to graphic design I have met with from Ecuador. 

Humboldt, Researches, i, 177, tells us that, in large spaces 
between the rivers Atabapo and Cassiquiare, and destitute of 
human beings, figures engraven on stone show that these wil- 
dernesses were once the seat of some degree of intellectuality. 

* Aniiq, Ethno., etc., Researches in PerUf etc, Trftbner, 1860. 



352 BOLIiAEBT ON ANCIENT PEBUYIAN QBAPHIC BEC0BD8. 

Between 2® and 4**N. are found rocks of granite covered with 
colossal figures of alligators^ jaguars^ the sun^ moon^ and do- 
mestic utensils. He was inchned to view these remains as 
traces of an ancient civilisation belonging, perhaps, to an epoch 
when the tribes, whom we now distinguish by various appella- 
tions, were still unknown. In his Travels, ii, 395, he observes, 
the Amazon stones of green jade, found in possession of the 
Indians of the Rio Negro, worn suspended from the neck like 
amulets, are loaded with inscriptions, not the work of the pre- 
sent owners. In his Researches , i, 153, he heard of inscriptions 
on granite mountains, extending from Uruana, T 5' N., 67' 
22' W., as far as the banks of the Caura. A missionary, Ba- 
mon Bueno, having entered a cavern in this district, saw a 
block of granite on which were what he believed to be written 
characters. The missionary gave Humboldt a copy of part of 
these, which had some resemblance to the Phoenician alphabet; 
but he doubted whether the monk had copied them carefully. 
Humboldt says, from such meagre facts, it results that there 
exists no certain proof of the knowledge of an alphabet among 
the Americans. This was written by the great traveller and 
philosopher in Paris, in 1813; but in 1863, the Abb^ B. do 
Bourbourg accidentally lighted, in Madrid, upon Bishop Landa's 
MS., in which is depicted the alphabet of the ancient Mayas of 
Yucatan. 

Humboldt, Researches, i, 1 74, observes : '^ We are ignorant 
whether the tribes of the Toltec race penetrated into the 
southern hemisphere ; but a curious fact, with which I became 
acquainted during my abode in Lima, leads to this supposition. 
Narcisso Gilbar, a Franciscan, found among the Panoes, on the 
banks of the Ucayali, in Peru, north of Sarayacu (6'' 57' S., 
57° 40' W.) bundles of paintings resembling a quarto volume. 
Gilbar was told that these paintings contained hidden things, 
which no stranger ought to know. He sent one of these col- 
lections to Lima. Every page was covered with figures of 
men, animals, and isolated characters, which were deemed hi- 
eroglyphical, arranged in lines with order and symmetry. It 
was intended to deposit this MS. in the convent of Ocopa ; but 
whether the person to whom it was intrusted lost it in the pas- 



BOLLAERT ON ANCIENT PERUVIAN GRAPHIC RECORDS. 353 

sage over the Cordillera, or whether it was sent clandestinely 
to Europe, it never reached its first place of destination. Every 
search to regain so curious an object was fruitless, and the re- 
gret of not having copied the characters came too late. The 
Panoes say that these books were transmitted to them by their 
fathers, and supposed to have relation to wanderings and an- 
eient wars/' 

Tschudi, Travels in Peru, p. 411, speaking of the tribes of 
the lower Ucayali (among which are the Panoes), observes, 
that on the birth of a child, the name of some animal is given 
to it; the witnesses of the ceremony mark, with a wooden 
pencil, some hieroglyphical characters on two leaves, and on 
the death of the Indian, the leaves are deposited in the grave 
with the body. 

Peru. 

I now notice all we at present know of graphic records in 
Peru. I put but little faith in the statements of Montesinos, 
who writes that, five hundred years after the Deluge, the Pe- 
ruvian rulers commenced reigning ; that during the reign of 
the third, in his list of one hundred and one ! the use of letters 
was known, and the art of writing on plantain-leaves taught ; 
that in the reign of his sixty-fifth ruler, Titu, there were civil 
wars, and the use of letters lost ; that Titu looked upon letters 
as the source of public troubles ; and when a learned Indian, 
some years afterwards, invented a new sort of character, the 
Inca put him to death; that the seventy-eighth ruler intro- 
duced the quippus of knotted, coloured strings, by which they 
kept accounts and historical records. 

Acosta, a more reliable authority, says, the Peruvians had 
symbolical paintings ; for at the conquest they made their con- 
fessions by paintings and characters. We are not informed if 
this sort of painting had been taught to the Indians by the 
Spanish priests, as was resorted to in Mexico ; or whether it 
was an aboriginal aii;. I do not know of the existence of one 
example of such symbolic mode of painting in Peru ; still it is 
probable they had some approach to figurative representation. 

As a pre-incarial example of graphic art, Tschudi states that, 
in many parts of Peru, chiefly in situations greatly elevated 

VOL. III. K K 



■*A.'-J>'i'fc-J-jifc^iB^B^— B^^i^lfaaM— ^M^^^ihj— ■C^^.mJ^^ii -- «_ 



354 BOLLAERT ON ANCIENT PEBUVTAJJ GRAPHIC RECORDS. 

above the level of the sea^ are vestiges of inscriptions ; and he 
gives a drawing of a stone found at Haari^ containing outlines 
of a man^ Uama^ and other markings. At Corralones^ near 
Arequipa^ are sculptures on granite stones of animals^ flowers, 
and fortifications, which may be of Incarial times.* 

At p. 203 of ray 8. Amer. Antiq., I give a drawing of a Chima 
(Trujillo) deity ; there are compartments on the body contain- 
ing an approach to symbolic forms ; also two others, — one like 
a mountain ; the other of a large flying insect. This I have 
placed in the British Museum. In the same collection is a 
specimen oihuaca, or sacred tomb pottery, probably a priestess; 
on the forehead are some angular figures. 

At p. 218 of my S, Amer, Antiq., I describe, from Rivero 
and Tschudi (plate xxvi), a sacred vessel, probably from Pacha- 
camac, the shape of a human figure, perhaps a priest, having 
round the waist a mystical looking belt. I make nothing out 
of this arrangement. The following may be considered as Inca 
or Quichua work. Figure of a llama, carved out of stone, which 
Gibbon, Explorations in Peru, calls a drinking-cup j the scratch- 
ings upon it may have a meaning. Gilliss, JJ. 8. Astron, Exp,, 
ii, 138, gives drawing of an approach to symbols, on a chuspa, 
or coca bag. On the huaca, or sacred pottery from the tombs, 
are indications of natural objects, in relief and painted, of the 
sun, moon, stars, plants, fruit, human figures, animals, weapons, 
etc., but no hieroglyphic signs. 

At p. 146 of my 8. Amer. Antiq,, is a plate representinfjf 

* Whilst this paper was at the Nottinf^ham Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, 1866, 1 received from my friend Professor Baimondi, his commonica- 
tion in Spanish, which I translated and sent, " On Ancient Engravings on 
Stones observed in various parts of Peru." No. 1 to 9 were from the Altos 
de Caldera, north of Arequipa. No. 10 to 16 from Locumba. The stones 
are diorite (feldspar and homblend), and at Caldei'a, known as the Campanaa 
del Diablo, being very sonorous. The homblend is a compound of silicate 
of lime, magnesia, and protoxide of iron ; this last, by exposure, becomes a 
peroxide, and it is through a film of this peroxide the engravings are made, 
generally with a sharp pointed stone down upon the lighter coloured diorite. 
Some of these engraving^ are much more ancient than others. They are 
all of the first state, or merely figurative, as men, animals, birds, serpents, 
etc. Professor Baimondi's paper may appear in vol. iii of the Memoirs of the 
Anthropological Society. 



BOLLAERT ON ANCIENT PERUVIAN GRAPHIC RECORDS. 355 

wliat I have called the Peruvian Calendar^ or Zodiac ; it is of 
gold^ and the figares are stamped thereon ; some are figurative^ 
others appear to be symbolical. 

At p. 157 of same work is a plate of the Pintados, or Indian 
pictography, observed by me in the province of Tarapadl. 
The figures consist of colossal representations c^ Indians, 
Uamas, dogs, circles, etc., scooped out on the sandy sides of 
mountains ; at one spot, a body was found. At Tacna in the 
neighbouring province. Pintados are also seen. At Pisco, 
farther north, on the peninsula of Parracas, there is a pintado 
of considerable size, in the form of a trident ; at the base is a 
square, underneath it may contain a huaca, or tomb. 

In 1854 I made a journey into the Andes of Tarapadl, 
and a little to the south-west of the rich copper mines of 
Yabricoya is the Pampa del Leon, 20° 10' S., 69® 10' W., so 
named from a large boulder, having picked out upon it, with 
other objects, an Indian wrestling with a puma, having a very 
ancient appearance ; there is a Christian cross placed there by 
some Spanish priest with the hope of exorcising the original 
paganism. 

At the end of Molina^ vol. i. His. Chile, is an account of a 
pillar 150 feet in height ! in the province of Cuyo, known as 
the giant, said to have inscriptions '' resembling Chinese 
characters !" There is also notice of another engraved stone 
near the Bio Diamante, south of Mendoza, containing '' cyphers 
or characters and the impression of a man's feet with figures 
of animals ;" the Spanairds call it the rock of St, Thomas, 
from a belief that the saint wandered in these regions I 

When in Paris in 1866, my friend the Abb^ B. de Bourbourg 
showed me a copy he lately made in Madrid of a Quichua MS. 
entitled Relacion de Antiguedades deste Bey no del Peru, by Don 
Juan Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yumquiz Salcamaygua, contain* 
ing a drawing of the back gable of the Ooricancha, or Temple 
of the Sun, at Cuzco. The whole of the said gable is seen to be 
covered with well drawn figures in outline. 1 . Five stars and 
oval outside the gable. 2. Five stars. 3. Large oval said to 
represent the Creator in heaven and earth — -the Great Unknown, 
and had a glory round it, 4. The sun. 5. The moon. 6. Star 



356 BOLLAEBT ON ANCIENT PERUVIAN GRAPHIC RECORDS. 

of night. 7. Venus. 7a. Clouds or winter. 7b. Stars or 
summer. 8. Southern cross. 9. Probably indication of the 
maize harvest. 10. Man. 11. Woman. 12. The rainbow., 
13. The world or earth. 14. The River Pilcomayo issuing out 
of the earth. 15. Lightning. 16. Unseen eyes that see every- 
thing. 17. The sea. 18. A spring of water. 20. Hailstones. 
21. A tree. 22. Collca-pata, a building carved with plates of 
gold, and called the Corichanda or Temple of the Sun. 

I conclude these observations with an account of the recently 
discovered Peruvian figurative wHtings, 

In vol. i, p. 187, Memoirs Anthropological Society, I allude 
to the daguerreotype of a llama skin in the museum at La 
Paz in Bolivia, some thirty-four inches by twenty-five covered 
with lines of characters. Tschudi, to whom was shown the 
daguerreotype by Mr. Helsby, of Valparaiso, was led to think 
that the characters were probably indications of some Christian 
form of worship. In December, 1865, my friend Mr. G. W. 
Helsby, of Liverpool, entrusted to my care for examination 
the original daguerreotype taken by his brother and Mr Tier- 
nan in 1857. Mr. Tiernan tells me it was the opinion of a 
priest at La Paz, that the figures were of tocient invention. 

It was found in the Peninsula of Copacacava in the Lake of 
Titicaca, which is in the old Aymara country. The height of 
the daguerreotype is three and one-eighth inches, in width four 
and two-eighths, the figures generally one-eighth to one-sixth of 
an inch. The skin is much shriveled, distorting the figures, 
apparently drawn with a black composition. The skin is 
stretched between two Indian weapons, one a stone axe, the 
other a sort of halberd. 

. The writing is in ten lines, and I describe it from top to 
bottom, and from left to right : — 

1st line. The first representation looks like a gallows, and an 
Indian hanging from it, a Spaniard at the spot may be the 
hangman. The circle with points may mean the sun or day. 
An Indian is seen falling as if wounded. Another is beings 
flogged before a Christian cross. 

2nd. Commences with seven upright strokes, may mean 
there are seven Indians to be flogged. An Indian kneeling, 
being Bogged before a group of SpamaxAa. 



BOLLAERT ON ANCIENT PERUVIAN GRAPHIC RECORDS. 357 

3rd line. A Spaniard firing an arqaebuse at an Indian. 
Dots and strokes, doubtless to act as numbers. Figure in a 
menacing attitude. Parties fighting. A monk or priest. 

4tli line. Man with thick stick. Apparently a Christian 
oratory. A man with a weapon, another with an arquebuse. 
Man firing an arquebuse. Two Indians kneeling. Spaniard 
blustering. People in conflict. 

5th line. Man attacking as if with a lazo. Strokes. Spaniards 
with arms akimbo. Kneeling figure. Figure before a cross. 
A priest. Spaniard trailing a pike. Two Indians kneeling 
before a cross. Indian prisoners. Spaniards. Figure before 
a cross. 

6th line. Indian kneeling. A priest and cross. Two figures 
kneeling before a Spaniard. A Spaniard holding up an Indiati 
child by the leg, the mother supplicating for it. Cloaked and 
armed men. Two more examples of men holding up infants, 
and mothers supplicating. Series of strokes. Spaniards. Indian 
kneeling before a cross. 

7th line. Man attacking. Man with uplifted arms. A cross. 
Ten strokes joined, and three series of strokes not joined, 
Man with a whip. 

8th line. Children. Indians. A tree. Spaniard as if shoot- 
ing. Another approaching with an arquebuse. Kneeling 
figure apparently a priest, may be giving absolution before 
execution. Man running away. A priest. Indian. A cross. 

9th line. Strokes. Figure on the ground. Figure holding 
his arms towards the latter. Series of strokes and circles. 
Two figures meeting. Figure with outstretched arms. Strokes. 
Circles. Armed figure. A cross. 

10th line. A priest. Kneeling figures. Woman kneeling 
before a cross. Two women seated. A tree. Kneeling figure 
before a cross. Same as last. Spaniard arms akimbo. Figure 
before a cross. Same as last. Series of fifteen strokes. 

It has been already stated that Tschudi thought this figura- 
tive composition was indicative of some form of Christian 
worship. 1, however, after careful examination of this specimen 
of picture writing, interspersed with numerical representations, 
suppose that something of this style Y^a^ e^^n Vtics^tjl^*^'^^ 



■nnn 



358 BOLLAEBT ON ANCIENT PERUVIAN GKAPHIC EECOBDS. 

Ajniard and Qoichua Indians before the conquest^ and that 
they thus in this case represented the sanguinary doings of 
their conquerors. These paintings the Indians did in secret 
and were handed down to their children, so that when any op- 
portunity offered to be revenged on the Spaniards, their suffer- 
ings should not be forgotten and vengeance taken, of which 
there are fearful instances, including that of Pumacagua in 
1780, that of Condorcanqui some years later. 

This painted skin, having been found at Copacavana, leads to 
the idea that it is of Aymard origin ; for as yet nothing of this 
character has been met with among the Quichua-Inca Indians, 
and may be called a figurative and numerative document. 

This is all we at present know of graphic art in Peru and 
neighbouring lands ; it is worth while recording for the reason 
there is so little of it. 



359 



XXIII. — On the Physical CharacterLstics of the Inhabitants of 
Bretagne. By John BBDDOB,M.D.,V.-Pres. A.S.L., Foreign 
Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, 

The materials for this paper have been obtained in part from 
those afforded by the several memoirs and papers of Broca and 
Boudin, on the statore and other physical characters of the 
people of the French empire. My friend, M. Broca, has more* 
over favoured me with further information on the subject dur- 
ing my intercourse with him. Much has been derived from 
the two valuable tracts of Dr. Guibert of St. Brieuc, which 
refer almost exclusively, however, to the department of the 
C6tes du Nord. For me they have, however, a peculiar value^ 
as Dr. Guibert has done me the honour to apply my own me- 
thods of observation to the inhabitants of that department; 
wherefore, his facts may be compared or contrasted with my 
own, with almost as much confidence as if they had all been 
obtained by a single investigator. Lastly, I am able to refer 
to the results of a very hurried excursion, which I was able to 
make in Bretagne in the course of last autumn (1869), when 
I visited the stones of Carnac and Lokraariaker, and the towns 
of St. Male, Dinan, Rennes, Auray, Kemperle, Kemper, and 
Morlaix. Of these towns, the last-named four are within the 
limits of the Breyzonnec language : it is true that they are all 
situated on the railway which girdles the country; but the 
formation of that railway is but recent, and the native popu* 
lation has as yet been but little disturbed. Indeed, there are 
probably few portions of western Europe, of equal extent, in 
which the native population has been less adulterated during 
the last few centuries. This is owing partly to the peninsular 
situation of Bretagne, but still more to the deep and obstinate 
attachment of the Bretons to their language and nationality. 
I have it on the best possible authority, that of Count de la 
Villemarque, that the boundary line of the French and Breton 
languages is to-day precisely where it did in the fifteenth 



360 BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OP BBETAGNE. 

century, which is the more remarkable inasmuch as it does not 
coincide with any strongly-marked geographical barrier. A 
French colony may be said to have been planted at Brest, and 
another at L' Orient ; and the language of law, and civilisation, 
and the school, has gradually gained, in the other towns, on 
that of the market and the nursery ; but in the rural districts, 
within the boundary, there has been hardly any admixture, 
whether of blood or of language. Exclusive as are the Welsh, 
and defended from amalgamation, moreover, by stronger phy- 
sical obstacles, they are probably, on the whole, a less pure 
blooded people than the Lower Bretons. 

The French speakers — ^who lie east of the boundary, occupy- 
ing the departments of lUe-et-Vilaine and Loire Inf^rieure, 
with about half that of C6tes-du-Nord, and perhaps a third 
of that of the Morbihan — are called by the genuine Bretons 
Oallo. The name may be of some importance with reference 
to the question, when and how the Bomanisation or Prenchifi- 
cation (call it which you will) of this extensive district took 
place. It is possible, indeed, that the word Gallo (whence 
Gallec, applied to the French dialect of Upper Bretagne) may 
mean simply a stranger or foreigner, as Gall does in Erse ; but 
if this conjecture be rejected, we must suppose it to date from 
a period when central France was still Gallic, while the Armo- 
ricans distinguished themselves as non-Gallic. On this latter 
supposition, the fact that the Carloviugian, and perhaps even 
the Merovingian Franks, were called Gall by the Bretons, need 
cause us no doubt nor difficulty, if we recollect that the word 
Saxon, or some variation of it, was applied, by our British 
Celts, equally to the Saxons themselves and to their Norman 
conquerors. The most simple view that can be taken of this 
Gallo population is, that it resembles that of eastern Monmouth- 
shire, which really consists of Welshmen who have lost their 
language and been slightly crossed in blood, but which is re- 
garded as Saxon by the Welsh, and as Welsh by the west- 
country English. 

The ethnological changes known, or supposed to have oc- 
curred in Bretagne since the beginning of history, are as 
follows : — 



BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OF BBETAQNB^. 361 

1st. The Romans completely subdued the country^ and mas- 
sacred^ or sold for slaves^ the most important tribe, that of the 
Veneti in Morbihan. But it is not likely that they introduced 
much new blood. 

2nd. In the fifth century, large immigrations took place, it 
is believed, from the western portions of insular Britain. The 
colonists occupied especially the northern coast. 

3rd. Saxon, Frisian, and Scandinavian pirates harassed the 
coasts for centuries, and seem to have formed permanent set-» 
tlements on some of the islands, and about the mouths of the 
Loire and other rivers. 

4th. The Franks made repeated attempts, with varying 
success, to conquer the eastern portion of Bretagne,. but any 
new element introduced by these attempts would probably be 
rather Romanised Gallic than Teutonic. 

5th. The Normans of Normandy, especially in the eleventh 
century, exercised great political influence in Bretagne, and 
had at least a military occupation of some north-eastern districts. 

The general result of all these partial changes in the popula* 
tion should, one would suppose, be exhibited in an approxima- 
tion, so far as regards the Gallo population, to the physical 
characteristics of these nearest neighbours. The people of the 
northern coast should show some approach to the prevailing 
types of the West of England ; but the original type should 
still preponderate almost everywhere, and be especially pure in 
the centre and south-west. Facts seem to me to bear oat 
these inferences to a great extent. 

The Breton is, as a rule, a man of short stature, compact and 
strongly built. His head is broad, the ears wide apart, and 
the zygomata expanded, the cheekbones also often prominent. 
There are two prevailing types of feature, one of which corre- 
sponds to some extent with the Kimric of Edwards and of 
French anthropologists generally : in this the face is long, the 
nose long, aquiline or sinuous, and the chin narrow. But much 
more frequently the face is broad, short, and squarish, and the 
general aspect reminds me strongly of the mountaineers of the 
Apennines. Dr. Guibert speaks of a certain prominence of the 
face, /.';., as I take it, of the central portion of the face, as be- 



862 BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OF BRETAONE. 

longing to this tjpe^ which he calls Turanian or Iberian^ and 
others Ligurian^ and which is common enough in most parts of 
Wales. 

The eyes are of various colours ; often brown no doubt, but 
very ofben dark grey, or sea-grey, what De Belloguet calls 
'* bleu de mer fonce^' j they are seldom, I think, obliquely set, 
but have ofben that almond shape and heavy eyelid with which 
obliquity usually concurs. The hair is generally coarse and 
often somewhat curled : in about three-fourths of the people it 
is very dark, and in about one-fourth, according to my observa- 
tion, it is coalblack. Dr. Guibert and Dr. Guiche make the 
proportion of black hair in the Cotes dn Nord upwards of 40 
per cent. Bed hair is not particularly uncommon. 

My observations on the colour of the hair were a great deal 
restricted by the prevailing fashions in Bretagne. The men, 
indeed, cdlow their hair to grow long, and to hang in shaggy 
locks ; but the women cut theirs short, and hide it under a 
close cap ; and this statement applies especially to the peasant 
women, whom it was most desirable to examine, but who for 
the most part completely baffled my investigations. 

The Bretons are, as said, of low stature : they are remark* 
able in this respect even among the French. Our data are 
derived entirely from conscription statistics, and as these refer 
to young men of twenty years, they do not indicate the full 
adult stature of the race. In a good many cantons the average 
number rejected for insufficient height, (i.e., for falling below 
156 centimetre8=5 ft. 1 in.), equals or approaches 40 per cent.* 
We may probably estimate the full adult male stature in these 
cantons as averaging 5 feet 3 inches. They form part of a dis- 
trict represented on the anthropological maps of Broca and 
Guibert as stretching from sea to sea along the confines of the 
Finistere and of the two neighbouring departments, and corre- 
sponding pretty well, except in its approach to the sea at its 
northern extremity, to that in which the Armorican race may 
be supposed to have remained most free from admixture. 

* Guibert, who takes for his basis of colcuhvtion the numbers actually 
measured. Broca takes a dilfercnt himits. 



BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OF BRETAGNB. 363 

Some of these cantons, but not all of them, are hilly, barren, 
and poverty stricken, and those that attribute great power to 
*' media'' or external causes, may be disposed to credit poverty 
and scantiness of food with producing the stunted stature of 
the people, but Dr. Guibert points out that in some cantons 
near the northern coast, where the soil is rich and the people 
are well-to-do, the stature is but little more elevated. But in 
proceeding eastward along the same coast, though the soil is 
less fertile, and the population not richer than in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lannion, the change from the Breton to the 
Gallo, i.e., from comparatively pure to mixed blood, is ac- 
companied by a considerable augmentation of stature. And 
the same is the case wherever else we have reason to suppose 
the existence of much mixture of blood. Thus the stature 
rises in the Leonais, the district which community of traditions, 
as well as other reasons, point out as that most freely colonised 
from Great Britain ; it rises in the Ule-et-Yilaine, towards the 
border of Normandy, and still more in the populous, commer* 
cial, and long-Frenchified department of the Loire InfSrieure. 

So much for the stature of the Bretons. As for the form of 
the head, Broca long ago set it down as short and broad, 
except in the Leonais district already mentioned. And Drs. 
Guibert and G uiche have put the fact beyond doubt, so far at 
least as concerns the department of Cotes du Nord. These 
observers have measured no less than 866 living heads, and 
find the average modulus of breadth in the Gallo and in the 
most purely Breton districts, which here coincide, to be about 
84*5, while in the Breton coast lands, towards Lannion, 
where British immigration is suspected, it falls to 81*4. 
Pour men from Finistere yielded me an average modulus of 82. 
Once more, as to the colour of the hair and eyes. Dr. 
Guibert's observations were made on 777 conscripts of the 
Cutes du Nord, and he has digested them into a table ar- 
ranged on my own system. His results are curious. He 
finds light eyes and light hair more common in the coast dis- 
tricts of Lannion and Treguier, already signalised for the 
comparative dolichokephaly of the people, than in any other 
part of the department. Light hair is also slightly more 



864 BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OP BBETAONB. 

common in the Gtillo cantons than in the purely Breton in- 
terior, but light eyes, contrnry to what might perhaps have 
been expected, seem to be less numerous in St. Brieac and 
Dinan, cantons near the coast of the Gallo region, than in 
any of the other divisions. 

I myself tabulated 900 observations on the eyes and hair, of 
which 400 were taken in and about St. Malo, Dinan and 
Rennes, all in the Gallo region, 133 in Morlaix, which may be 
taken as representing the Leonais, and 368 in and about 
Kemper, Kemperl^, Auray and Camac, in the purely Armorican 
district. I found the proportion of dark hair, estimated by 
what I have called the Index of Nigrescence, e.i,, by subtract- 
ing the red and the fair from the dark brown plus twice the 
black ([2N H- D] — [R + F] =index) to vary inversely as the 
probable amount of blood mixture. Thus at Kemperld it was 
111, at Kemper 92, at Auray and Camac 87, at Morlaix 78, 
at Rennes about 70* or 75, at St. Malo and Dinard 67, and 
at Dinan t 53. 

The figures towards the close of the series do not differ 
much from those I have obtained in Wales and Cornwall, but 
those at the head are far more striking in the direction of 
darkness than any that could be found in Wales or Ireland, 
nor could those gotten at Kemperl^ be pai*alleled anywhere 
on this side of Rome or Naples, so far as my opportunities 
enable me to speak. 

Yet the likeness between the Bretons and the Welsh is as 
undeniable as that between their respective languages. And 
if I may trust my own eyes, and those of an unbiassed ob- 
server who accompanied me, the Morlaix folk resemble their 
supposed kindred in the west of England, in their general 
turn of features, as well as in their comparative fairness and 
length and narrowness of skull. 



* I tinfortiinately lost my Bennes observations after having tabulated 
them ; and here quote them from memory. 

t Where an English colony, established some fifty years, may have pro- 
duced some effect. 



BEDDOE ON THE INHABITANTS OP BRETAONE. 



365 



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XXIV. — Account of the Shdl of a Ohillak. Ajipemlix to Article 
II, x>p, 21-40, " On the Skeleton and Skulls ofAinos" By 
J. Barnard Davis, M.D., F.R.S. 

Since the memoir, which appears in the early part of this 
volume (pp. 21-40), was written, by the rare generosity of a 
friend. Dr. Isidore Kopemicki, himself a craniologist of emi- 
nence, I have had presented to me a skull belonging to a dif- 
ferent race of aboriginal people, inhabiting the same remote 
part of the globe. This is the calyarium of a Ghiliak, a people 
who dwell on the Sea of Okhotsk, the Strait of Tartary, and in 
the Island of Saghalien. For many reasons it is desirable that 
some account of this Ghiliak skull should be placed in connection 
with that of its near neighbours in the island, the Ainos. 

The history of the finding of the Ghiliak calvarium is curious: 
a Polish patriot, exiled to Siberia in 1835, Mr. H. Weber, was 
engaged in making a botanical excursion, in 1858, in the Trans- 
Amurian province ; and traversing a forest in the neighbour- 
hood of Lake Kizia, discovered it in the branches of one of the 
trees. I am not certain whereabouts this lake is situated ; the 
whole of the Amurian region abounds in lakes ; still it is be- 
lieved to be on the eastern side of the range of mountains which 
runs parallel with the Strait of Tartary, not far from the Tunji 
River. It appears that the Ghiliaks dispose of the dead by 
placing the bodies in trees, like some North-American and 
Australian tribes, or they bum the bodies.* Mr. Weber, the 
botanist, took the skull carefully down, and sent it a long 
journey to Irkutsk, in Siberia, to another exile, Mr, A. Giller, 
a friend and relative of Dr. Kopemicki, who had been solicited 
to procure him cranial spoils from that country, Mr. Giller 
conveyed the calvarium with him to Warsaw, in 1860, where it 
remained for a length of time ; subsequently it was transmitted 

* La Perouse found that tho natives of the Bay of Castries, which is a 
little south of the mouth of the Amur, placed the dead in coffins upon ft 
scaffolding made of poles. {Ante, p. 30.) 



DAVTS ON THE SKULL OP A OHILIAK. 867 

to its owner at Paris, where it was exhibited before the Soci^t^ 
d' Anthropologic of that city, on which occasion Dr. Prunerbey 
presented a precise account of the peculiarities exhibited in the 
conformation of this rare Ghiliak calvarium. Its travels did 
not then cease, for I have recently received it from Wallachia^ 
its late home. 

In De Pauly's fine volume on The People of Russia^ we are 
informed that '' the Ghiliaks, or Ghilem, or Kilen, as they name 
themselves, are perhaps the most essentially fishing people of 
any in the world. This tribe but a little ago presented all the 
characters of a nationality almost untouched; but for some 
years its contact and frequent relations with the Russian colonies 
founded at the mouth of the Amur, the power of which has 
risen so rapidly, have induced it insensibly to forget its language 
and its primitive manners to a considerable degree. The 
Ghiliaks are probably of the same race as the Kouriles, their 
neighbours, although to our days they have been considered as 
an absolutely distinct people. They dwell upon the shores of 
the Amur, from the mouth of the river to about one hundred 
and thirty miles up its course, then along the northern shore 
to a distance of about seventy miles from the river^ and towards 
the south to Cape Lazaret ; lastly, on the lower course of the 
IJsuri, and in the northern part of the Island of Saghalien. 
The first Ghiliak village upon the Amur is Oukhtar, which they 
inhabit in common with the Mangoutes, or Manguns, whilst a 
little further down the village of Kerch is exclusively Ghiliak. 
About forty Ghiliak villages are established along the Amur^ 
and there are about a dozen on the north and south of its 
embouchure, of which Kol, the most northerly, is situated 
almost twenty miles from the winter station of Petrovsk. The 
whole territory of the Ghiliaks is surrounded on the north and 
west by Tungouse tribes, among whom they seem to be in- 
troduced like strangers. 

^' The Ghiliaks live absolutely in the same manner as the 
Tungouse of the lower Amur. As a fishing and hunting people 
they are in the same degree of civilization as these last, from 
whom they are distinguished by their exterior, and especially 
by their language, which has not the least affinity with the 



368 DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A GHILIAK. 

Tungouse language, and is remarkable for the quantity of its 
monosyllables. 

^^ The Ghiliaks are more strongly built and larger than the 
Tungouse, They have the face broad, or rather squared, and 
their little black or deep brown eyes are less oblique than those 
of these last. The mouth, although little and enframed in 
thick lips, is not generally disagreeable to look at ; the nose is 
short, thick, and turned up ; the eyebrows are very thick and 
strongly arched. The black and thick hair is curled in the 
greater number ; the beard is stronger than among the Ton- 
gouses.'^* The Ghiliaks of De Pauly's beautiful plate are of a 
light tawny brown colour. 

Mr. Bavenstein says, '^ there are several tribes of Ghiliaks, 
those of the mainland, the Smerenkur of the west coast of 
Sakhalin, and the Tro of the east coast, but the distinction be- 
tween them is trifling. Nor do they difier much in outward 
appearance from their Tunguzian neighbours ; the features are 
still Mongol, the nose is rather flat, the eyes are small, the lips 
are voluptuous, the eyebrows bushy, and the beard is stronger 
than with the Tunguzians ; they do not shave the head, but 
wear the hair tied up into a thick tail or in tresses. The 
Russians describe their women as frights, but tastes are not 
always the same, and Rimso, the Japanese, says they are very 
comely, and doubly attractive on account of their daily ablu- 
tions.^'t They are represented as avaricious, addicted to theft, 
to murder not unfrequently, and greatly to revenge. The 
missionary De la Bruniere was murdered for the little mer- 
chandise he had with him. Rimso says, polyandry prevails 
among the Smerenkur Ghiliaks, who treat their women with 
great indulgence ; only those skilled in the use of the needle 
can expect to get married. The children are strapped down to 
a kind of board and hung up to a rafter of the house. 

After these introductory remarks, we may now tui-n to the- 
craniology of the people of this remote part of the globe. Our 
Ghiliak calvarium has belonged to a man of about thirty-five 



• Peuples de la Russie, foL, St. Petersburg, 1862. 
t The Rwsians on the Amur, p. 389, 1861. 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A GHILLAK. 369 

years of age ; there is already much tendency to ossification of 
the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures ; and the teeth^ of which 
seven of the molars remain, are a good deal worn down, not 
unlikely by a coarse fish diet. The calvarium is a little asym- 
metrical, being slightly flatter in the right occipital and left 
frontal regions. The face is broad, and unusually flat on the 
cheek bones ; the space between the orbits wide and unusually 
level; the nasal bones, barely half an inch of their roots re- 
maining, rising only very gently; the forehead ascends for but 
a short distance slopingly, when it turns backwards, meets 
the interruption of the frontal protuberances, and then falls 
rapidly back towards the vertex, so that, although the frontal 
region is broad, it much lacks elevation. The temporal regions 
widen out as they pass backwards from the external orbital 
processes, and the semicircular lines do not ascend high up on 
the parietals. The arch of the palate is wide, and there is an 
exostotic ridge along the outer margins of the alveoli, especially 
on the left side. The whole calvarium is low and broad ; the two 
parietal bones meet for the anterior half in a slight ridge ; it is 
not a brachycephalic calvarium, still it has a somewhat cuboidal 
aspect, because its breadth and height are the same, and thus 
bear the same proportion to its length. The zygomatic arches 
are unusually robust ; there is a distinct paramastoid process on 
the left side. This general outline of the chief features of the 
calvarium is given purposely before reading the able and minute 
description of my friend Dr. Prunerbey, which shall now follow. 
As two observers are often led to fix a difierent estimate upon 
various forms, it may possibly be of some use to mark the 
writer's doubts where he is not impressed in the same manner 
with the peculiarities pointed out by this discriminating cra- 
niologist; such doubts will, it is hoped, be regarded by Dr. 
Prunerbey as a homage to truth. 

" This cranium certainly presents such a conformation as to 
engage all our attention : it is voluminous, massive, and very 
heavy ; the lower jaw is wanting ; the upper teeth are but little 
worn (? the dentine is thoroughly exposed in the two first molars, 
on the right side), when compared with the progress of ossifi- 
cation of all the sutures. In fact, the lambdoid is the only one 

VOL. III. B B 



370 DAVIS ON THE SKULL OF A GHILIAK. 

remaining open (?). This precocious obliteration is sometimes 
observed in crania proceeding from the high north ; and all tho 
other characters indicate that the individual to whom the skull 
belonged died in the vigour of life ; save a very slight occipital 
asymmetry, the cranium is normal throughout. 

" Viewed in the face the skull offers, in a high degree (?), the 
lateral contour in the lozenge form proper to the Turanian races. 
The forehead, receding towards the vertex and towards the 
temples, is marked by thick, horizontal superciliary arches, 
conjBuent at the glabella ; great (?) horizontal depression above 
these arches, and considerable prominence of the frontal bosses 
above this depression, the distance between the two bosses 
being only fifty-one millimetres. The root of the nose is flat, 
very broad, and slightly depressed towards its lower extremity. 
Nasal bones very narrow (four mm.), and joined on the flat; 
nose flattened, more even than in some Esquimaux, so that the 
nasal processes of the maxillaries scarcely exceed the plane of 
the face by three mm. Orbital cavities placed entirely towards 
the face, square, with horizontal transverse axes, wider than 
high, with the lower edge much thickened ; the eye has looked 
forwards ; external orbital processes, massive and very promi- 
nent; suborbitar foramina very large and placed quite low; 
region of the malar sinuses flat, broad, high, and without any 
trace of canine fossa. Nasal spine, without being pointed, 
elongated downwards, following the palatine suture (the suture 
between the superior maxillaries) ; nasal aperture turned out, 
and the external surface of the incisive alveoli hollowed, in place 
of being prominent. Considerable inclination and projection of 
these alveoli, especially those of the canines, which form a right 
angle between the premolars and the incisors, which are want- 
ing. Teeth strong, curved at the roots in the antero-posterior 
direction, with white enamel. The canine is thick and notched 
on the internal surface ; the first premolar more voluminous 
than the second. The wisdom-teeth are small and crenelated 
on their grinding surface. The form of tho palate, which is very 
deep, approaches to a parallelogram. Before quitting tl:e face 
let us remark that the glabella projects over the nose, the lower 
edge of the orbit beyond the upper, and the alveolar border 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OF A GfllLIAK. 371 

beyond the nasal aperture ; from this conformation there results 
a face inclined from above downwards, from behind forwards, 
and really prognathous. Regarded from above, and laterally, 
the supraorbitary region of the forehead appears to be sur- 
rounded with an osseous ring. 

'^ Laterally the malar bone is broad, very high (thirty-four 
mm.) and inclined downwards and outwards; the temples are 
flattened, greatly elongated, and their semicircular lines are 
elevated without approaching so near to each other as in certain 
Calmucks, Australians, New Caledonians, &c. The branches 
of the zygomatic arches are broad and strong, their superior 
edge ascends from behind forwards, without being curved; 
auditory openings with a wide aperture, funnel-shaped ; mastoid 
processes not thick but long, flat and directed forwards ; hence 
the cranium rests at once on these processes and the occiput, 
and very probably the incisor teeth will have been supported 
in the air, without touching the horizontal plane. Parietal 
bosses, small and projecting upwards in the last third of the 
cranium ; parietal region of the vertex ogival, but yet less so 
than in the Esquimaux. 

" The occiput is slightly contracted, prominent, pentagonal, 
asymmetrical. Its scaly part is joined to the muscular almost 
at a right angle. At the base which, in its post-auditive part, 
is less wide than common in the Mongol race, all the spines, 
processes, crests, etc., serving for the attachment of muscles, 
are strongly developed ; the occipital condyles prominent and 
elongated ; lastly, there is a trace of an occipital paramastoid 
on the right side, and the anterior edge of the occipital fora- 
men is more elevated than the posterior. The cranial sutures 
are very simple, or linear, or with rude and distant dente- 
lures. 

" Let us recapitulate all the traits of animality we have ob- 
served. These are, without speaking of the considerable re- 
duction of the papyracious lamina and of the almost complete 
exclusion of the malar from the suborbital fissure, the volume 
of the first premolar, the form of the palate and of the supra- 
orbital region, the presence of the occipital paramastoid ; and, 

bb2 



372 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A OHILIAK. 



lastly, the disposition of tlie edges of the occipital fora- 
men/'* 

We shall not follow Dr. Pninerbey in his measurementSy as 
there seem to be some misprints in this place, but adopt the 
method employed with the Aino skulls. 

Mbabubeicxnts of ths Skulls of a Ghilla.k, bomb Alsutian 

ISLANDBBS, AND A KAXTSCHADALB. 

Ohiliak. Aleutian Islanda. KiamtschAdAle. 

(Von Baer.) (Von Baer.) 

Inches. MlTlm. Inches. Millm. Inches. Millm* 

Length 7-2 = 182 69 = 175 68 = 172 

Breadth 5-6p. 142 5-8 148 5*7 145 

Height 5-6 142 50 127 5-3 135 

Least frontal width 3*9 100 3*6 91 3-8 96 

Greatest „ 4-7 119 4-3 109 4-6 112 

Parietal „ 55 140 51 130 5*2 132 

Occipital „ 4-9 125 

Zygomatic „ 56 142 5*5 140 6*8 148 

Frontal radius 4*8 122 

Vertical „ 4-9 125 

Parietal „ 4-9 125 

Occipital „ 4-2 107 

Maxillary „ 4*2 107 

Fronto-nasal radius 3'9 100 

Circumference 20-8 522 20-4 518 20-4 518 

Longitudinal arc 14*9 377 140 355 14*2 360 

o. Frontal ditto 5*3 135 

b. Parietal „ 47 119 

c. Occipital „ 4-9 125 

Frontal transverse arc 12*7 322 

Vertical 132 335 

Parietal 13*8 350 

Occipital 11-8 298 

Cephalic index, latitudinal *777 -843 -85 

„ altitudinal... -777 -721 

Gnathic '3 

Cubic Inches. Cubic Centim. 
Internal capacity 100 1638 

By reducing this internal capacity of 100 cubic inches into 
its equivalent of brain, making proper allowance for the mem- 
branes and fluids, we arrive at the weight of the brain which 
has been contained in this Ghiliak calvarium, which is 51 '51 



• <t 



Description d'un CrAne de Ghiliak, et note sur les Ghiliaks." BulleHns 
de la 8ocidt4 d'Anthropologie, t. 2e (2e s^rie), p. 571. 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A GHILIAK. 373 

ounces, or 1460 grammes. The result of this investigation is 
to show that this individual Ghiliak has had an unusually large 
brain ; even among European skulls it would be large. It has 
exceeded in weight the average brain-weight of males of 
Oceanic races, Australian races, American races, African races, 
and even Asiatic races, being surpassed solely by the mcJes of 
European races. In examining the ccdvarium itself, it becomes 
apparent that it owes this unusual capacity to its cuboidal 
form. 

In its general configuration, this calvarium is at once seen 
not to belong to any European r€ice. It is quite unlike the 
dolichocephalic skulls of western Europe. It does not conform 
to any African, Australian, Oceanian, or American race, nor to 
the skulls of Chinese or Japanese. Yet it evidently belongs 
to a rude race, as is apparent from its bony angularities. This 
race must be distinguished for considerable flatness of face. 
Although it cannot be strictly paralleled with any other ex- 
ample known in the museums of Europe, it will be desirable 
to compare it with known skulls derived from the same region 
of the world, — the skulls of Tunguse, Kamtschadales, Aleu- 
tians, and Ai'nos. 

1. As the Tunguse live nearest to the Ghiliaks, they may bo 
taken first. Blumenbach's museum contains two Tunguse 
skulls. One of these has been etched in his Decades Graniorwm 
(tab. xvi), and also in his l)e Varietate Nativa (ed. 3, tab. ii, 
fig. 1). But this skull was derived from the neighbourhood of 
Lake Baikal, at a great distance from the Gulf of Tartary. 
Neither of these figures is a direct profile ; they are, however, 
taken at difierent angles. They both agree, in some measure, 
with our Ghiliak, — in the flatness of the face, in the small, low 
nasal bones, and in the wideness of the forehead ; besides which 
are seen the robust zygomata, and the great prominence of the 
external orbitar processes, the general conformation of the 
calvarium being much the same. There are, at least, three 
Tunguse skulls in the museum of the Imperial Academy at St. 
Petersburg, but these have not been either described or 
figured. 

2. The calvarium of the Kamtschadale of Blumenbach^s 



374 DAVIS ON THE SKULL OF A GHILL^K. 

" Decades Craniorum'^ (Tab. lxii), in all its prominent features, 
closely resembles the skulls of the Aleutian Islanders depicted 
by Choris and Von Baer, more so than that figured by Van 
der Hoeven ; and it agrees in general form with our Ghiliak, 
which, nevertheless, has a better elevation of the frontal re- 
gion, but less eminent nasal bones. 

3. The Aleutian islanders in the sea of Kamtschatka. In 
the " Voyage Pittoresque autour du Monde" of Choris, which 
is the atlas of Kotzebue^s voyage, there is a plate representing 
two skulls of the inhabitants of these islands, — one seen in 
face, the other in profile {Isles AleoutienSy pi. vi). The litho- 
graph is poorly executed, and it is probable that both figures 
are taken froiii one cranium. But allowing for the imperfec- 
tion of the execution of the plate, there is no doubt that the 
form of the skull is correctly given, and this is sufficiently sin- 
gular to attract much attention. It is a considerable exaggera- 
tion of a cranial form which appears to prevail in this region 
of the globe. The width of the face; the very widely sepa- 
rated zygomatic arches; the flatness of the nose; the extreme 
want of elevation of the frontal region which, after rising at 
the supraciliary ridge, falls away in a rapid slope towards the 
vertex, even after the figure is recalled to its normal position ; 
the prominence of the parietal protuberances ; the breadth of 
the calvarium, combined with its lowness, are all most cha- 
racteristic features. 

There are five skulls of Aleutian islanders in the museum of 
the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg. One of these, a 
calvarium, has been figured by Professor Von Baer. He has 
given three plates of it of the full size, — a profile, a face view, 
and a vertical view.* These exhibit the same flatness of face 
as our Ghiliak, the same small, low nasal bones, the same low- 
ness of forehead, and the same roof-like elevation of vertex ; 
the same robustness of the zygomata and prominence of the 
external orbitar processes. Professor Van Baer has projected 
the outline of another Aleutian island skull, from the island of 
Atchen, upon the vertical view, which proves it to be much 
shorter. His measurements vary a good deal from those of 

• Crania Selccta, 1850, Tab. U, 15, and 16. 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A GHILIAK. 375 

our Ghiliak. The length of his first specimen is 6*8 in., that 
of second, 6' 6 in. ; the heights of the two are respectively 
4*9 in. and 5*2 in., and the breadths respectively 5'2 in. and 
5*4 in. From these dimensions it is obvious that both these 
examples are much smaller than our Ghiliak. The cephalic 
indices are respectively '72 and '78. Van Baer^s means are 
given in the preceding table. 

He compared the skulls of the Aleutian Islanders with those 
of Calmucks, and points out one or two resemblances and many 
differences. He next compared them with the cranium of a 
Japanese, which is figured in the great work of G. Sandifort, 
as the Aleutian Islanders have been said to resemble the 
Japanese, and points out the much more upright forehead and 
higher calvarium of these latter. He, lastly, compares the 
Aleutian island skulls with the Kamtschadale figured in Blumen- 
bach's Table, and finds a considerable resemblance between 
the two. He procured the measurements of the Kamtschadale 
calvarium, which have been repeated in our table. 

The late Professor J. van der Hoeven described the skull of 
an Aleutian Islander, and added a profile and vertical view of 
the same, with measurements.* This complete cranium, which 
is in the Rijks Museum, at Leyden, presents a certain degree 
of resemblance to the figures of Choris and Von Baer. Its 
most important difference is seen in the unusual elevation of its 
frontal region. The nasal bones are narrow, not much elevated, 
and rather long. In the norma vertlcalis it considerably re- 
sembles our Ghiliak. 

Although there is some general resemblance of form among 
these skulls, the Tunguse, the Kamtschadale, the Aleutian 
Islanders and the Ghiliak, the measurements convince us that 
there must be a great diversity of proportions in the series. 
The Ghiliak skull is dolichocephalic, whilst both the Kamtscha- 
dale and the Aleutians are bra chy cephalic. And it equally re- 
sults from the measurements of a series of skulls of Tsuktshi 
recorded by Professor Jeffries Wyman, that they also are brachy- 
ccphali, having a mean index of 80*3. f From this comparison 

* Ilcschrijving van dric mcrkuaardige mcnschelijke Schcdels, 
t Observations on Crania, IbiiS, p. 22. 



876 DAVIS ON THE SKULL OF A QHILL^K. 

we are justified in concluding that, although there may be some 
degree of resemblance, there is still a considerable diversity of 
cranial form among the tribes inhabiting the remote eastern 
regions of Asia and the surrounding islands. It is true that^ 
up to the present time, very trifling materials have been col- 
lected to elucidate the subject, nevertheless this conclusion may 
be confided in. 

4. When we pass to the skulls of the Atnos, who are a 
people living in the same immediate neighbourhood, a people 
occupying the southern end of the same Island of Saghalien, 
the northern extremity of which is the dwelling place of diffe- 
rent tribes of Ghiliaks, we meet with a difference of cranial 
conformation which is quite remarkable. The skull of the Aino, 
as described in the preceding memoir, offers no similarity worth 
naming to the broad and flat-faced Ghiliak. On the contrary, 
it exhibits a considerable resemblance both in the face and the 
calvarium to our European forms. The difference between the 
Aino and the Ghiliak is so important and extends over so 
many features, that, at the risk of being somewhat tedious, it 
will be desirable to pass over these features separately, to make 
the differences fully obvious. In describing the compUcated 
forms of the human skull, it is only by very careful and patient 
enumeration that they can be duly estimated, and it is always 
difficult to convey by words that which may be at once per- 
ceived by the eye. 

In the Ghiliak there is a broad flat surface, or plane, upon 
the superior maxillary bones covering the sinuses, which is seen 
in a very inferior degree, or may, indeed, be said to be wholly 
absent in the Ainos. The facial surface of the malar bones is 
considerably less in these latter. Measured obliquely from the 
edge of the orbit to the free space below the zygoma, in the 
Ghiliak it is 37 mm. In the male Aino (No. 1482) it is only 
32 mm. The distance between the orbits in the former is 30 mm., 
in the latter it varies from 27 to 28 mm. The orbits of the 
Ainos are more like those of Europeans. The frontal region is 
tolerably well elevated and prominent in these latter ; in the 
Ghiliak it is low and recedent. In the norma verticalis the 
Aiuos skulls exhibit the regular, smooth, ovoid forms of those of 
Europeans, whilst the GhiUak is less regular, and has upon the 



DAVIS ON THE SKULL OP A GHILLAK. 377 

whole a more angular aspect. The mean cephalic index in the 
three Amos male skulls is the same as that of the Ghiliak man^ 
viz., -77. 

Whether the essential differences between these two distinct 
series of skulls have been made very clear by this description 
and the accompanying figures may still be somewhat uncertain, 
although it is hoped that it will have been rendered tolerably 
plain. But, when the skulls themselves are presented to the eye 
of the observer, they appear to appertain to distinct varieties, 
and to have no connection, or scarcely any connection, with each 
other. We have not been able to trace any gradation from 
one form to the other. The two remain clearly marked out as 
distinct, quite as distinct as the mild character of the Ainos, 
from that of the treacherous and cruel Ghiliaks. They must 
both be regarded as primitive peoples, for the wildest imagina- 
tion can hardly conceive of either of them having migrated — 
of an European tribe, for instance, having roamed to such a 
very remote and inaccessible region of Asia and planted itself 
there — still less of their having migrated from two different 
and opposite sources. Hence this important fact of the pre- 
sence of two different primitive peoples living in the same 
island, where they have uninterruptedly resided for an unknown 
and indefinite antiquity, who are strikingly contrasted in their 
most essential forms, must be added to the large number of 
facts of the same kind, which are continually presenting them- 
selves in the survey of human races. No system of anthropo- 
logy can be of any value whatever which will not embrace a vast 
multitude of facts of this kind. 

The weight of the brain in these remote Asiatic peoples is 
alone suflScient to prove that they are not degenerate remnants 
of some former more highly-endowed race. On the contraiy, 
they possess fair average sized brains, such as are proper to 
the races, not falling materially below the mean volume of Euro- 
pean brains. The general average deduced from the internal 
capacities of 299 skulls of European men is a brain-weight of 
48'25 ounces ; the mean of the three Ainos skulls is 45*83 oz., 
and that of the male Ghiliak skull is 51*51 oz., which is, as 
before explained, no doubt, an exceptionally large example. 



378 



XXV. — On the TIeadform of the Bancs. By Dr. Beddoe, 
President of the Anthropological Society of London. 

Measurement of the living head, though of course much 
valued by phrenologists, has on the whole been strangely ne- 
glected by the students of comparative anthropology. The 
presence of the integuments, and the extreme difficulty of find- 
ing fixed points, in bodies presenting almost everywhere curved 
and convex surfaces, prevents any satisfactory system of men- 
suration from being devised, and scientific men have generally 
passed by such measurements as worthless, or, at least, as 
almost infinitely less valuable than those obtainable from the 
bare skull. 

But in most countries, civilised as well as uncivilised, skulls 
are not procurable without much difficulty; and the authen- 
tication of the race and birthplace of the original proprietor 
of a skull is very often impossible. In several civilised coun- 
tries, and particularly in our own, few crania, save those of 
lunatics, idiots, paupers, or malefactors (all unsatisfactory spe- 
cimens of a race), have ever been measured or catalogued. 
Under these circumstances, it is surely very desirable that some 
plan should be devised whereby the abundant material on the 
shoulders of our fellow-citizens may be utilised to the full 
limits which the obstacles, opposed by nature, will permit. 
Such simple questions as those of the relation of breadth to 
length in the European races, for example, might thus be solved 
almost immediately ; whereas we may have to wait half a cen- 
tury before we can accumulate crania numerous enough for 
their settlement. 

The system of measurement I practise is my own ; it has 
been gradually arrived at through many additions and varia- 
tions, and its present form has received the valuable approval 
of my friend Pruner-Bey. All I can claim for it, however, is 
that it is expeditious and convenient in application, not re- 
quiring the aid of any implement more costly or less portable 



WESTERN ISLESMEN. 



No. 



Q^ 



00 



B 



CO 



Birthplace. 



10 



Aarhaos ... 

Ditto 

Fredrikshavn 
Near Skag Poini 



• •i 



• I 



Apenrade i 

UxvXiO ... ... «•• 

Near Apenrade.. 
Sonderborg 
Flensborg 

f F. Kjobenhavn 
I M. Apenrade 
Kjobenhavn 

Ditto 

Sioelland 

Helsing&r 

Middlefart Fyen 
Langeland 

Moen 

Laaland 

Bomholm 

Ditto 

^LuiaK ... « • • • • 
Ditto 



Bomo 

Ditto 

Fano 

27 I Ditto 

28 Ditto 

Averages of fourteen 
Ditto of fourteen Jul 
Ditto of the twenty- 
Ditto of ten from th 



Mast 

51 
4-9 
5-3 



5-5 

5-2 

515 

6-6 

5-4 

5-2 

5-7 

5-7 

6-4 

516 

51 

5-4 

56 

5 

5-3 

5-2 

6-7 

4-9 

53 

4-8 

5-4 

5-6 

5 

5-8 

5-33 
6-22 
527 
5-21 



Circumfereace. 



Gl. Po. 


Fr. In. 


21-7 


21-6 


22-6 


22-5 


22-5 


22-3 


23-9 


234 


22-3 


22-1 


22-6 


22-2 


22-8 


22-6 


23-3 


22-8 


22-8 


22-2 


221 


21-9 


23 


22-6 


23-5 


23-2 


22-7 


22-4 


21-6 


21-4* 


23-2 


231 


23-5 


23-2 


225 


21-8 


21-8 


21-5 


22 3 


22-4 


22-3 


222 


22-75 


22-76 


22-4 


22-5 


22-4 


22-2 


22-4 


22-2 


221 


21-9 


23-4 


23 3 


22-7 


22-4 


23-3 


23-2 


22-57 


22-36 



22-76 
22-66 
22-65 



22-47 
22-42 
22-43 



Gl. In. 

21-4 
22-7 
21-8 
23-4 

22-2 
21-8 
22-6 
229 
22-2 

21-6 

231 

23-3 

225 

21 

22-7 

23 

22-1 

21-5 

22-1 

22-2 

22-7 

22 

22-1 

21-8 
22-2 
23-4 
22-4 
231 

22-27 
22-42 
22-34 
22-47 







Arcs. 




B. D. 


Naao- 


Inter* 


Inter* 


Cephalic 




Inial. 


helical. 


meatoid. 


Index. ' 


216 


13-3 


12-2 


141 


81-4 


225 


14-6 


12-5 


14-5 


75-6 


22-4 


14-9 


12-8 


14-6 


75-6 


23-7 


14-3 


12-5 


14-7 


82-5 


221 


13-2 


12 


13-8 


81-6 


22-3 


14 


12-6 


14-4 


81-7 


22-7 


14 


12-8 


14-7 


82-2 


23 


14-4 


13 


14-8 


82-6 


22-7 


141 


12-2 


14-2 


79-6 


22-3 


14 


12-2 


13-8 


83-5 


22-6 


14-9 


12-4 


14-8 


79-6 


233 


14-2 


13 


14-7 


833 


22-6 


13-2 


124 


14-5 


84-3 


21-5 


13-5 


12-2 


13-6 


81-6 


22*9 


145 


13-2 


14-8 


83-6 


23-3 


15 


13-8 


15-4 


76-9 


22 


13-5 


11-9 


14 


77-9 


21-6 


12-9 


114 


13-3 


79-6 


22-3 


14 


13-5 


15 


85-9 


22-4 


14 


12-3 


14-2 


76-3 


22-7 


14-2 


12-5 


14-3 


79-4 


22-4 


14-5 


12 8 


14-5 


80-2 


22-3 


14-3 


12-1 


14 


78-9 


22-2 


13-7 


13-2 


14-2 


77-6 


22 








831 


231 


14-4 


12-3 


14-2 


81-4 


22-5 


13-3 


12-8 


14-8 


81-1 


23 


14-1 


12-8 


14 7 


82-3 


22-37 


1405 


12-55 


14-35 


80-B 


22-63 


14 


12-55 


14-40 


80-5 


22-50 


14-02 


12-55 


14-38 


80-5 


22-42 


14-44 


12-37 




78-4 



382 BEDDOE ON THE HEADFORM OP THE DANES. 

few North Germans, have settled in the country since certain 
Wends colonised Laaland and Falster in the thirteenth century, 
Nevertheless, it will be observed, that great variations in the 
modulus of breadth occur in the series, and in almost every di- 
vision of it. For my part, I believe such to be the case in 
every race, however pure. The resemblance between the 
averages of the fourteen Isle-Danes and the fourteen western 
men, is sufficiently near to lead me to think that I have really 
approached the true average of the maritime population. It 
is not unlikely that the Jutes of the interior and west may be 
longer-headed. 

The average stature of fourteen, known to be aged 23, or 
upwards, was 5 ft. 6*9, or 170 centimeters, — a fair average for 
Great Britain. The mainlanders were generally taller than 
the islesmen. The eyes were almost always light, and either 
blue or blueish-gray, and the hair generally either pale yellow 
or light brown. The only person of dark complexion was the 
man from the Isle of Moen, to whom I will return presently. 
The prevailing form of face was the spade, broad in the fore- 
head, broader at the cheekbones, and tapering thence, with a 
gradual and regular curve, to a well-marked chin. The same 
form prevails in Sweden and Shetland, and in some parts of 
Cumberland and East Yorkshire. It was most marked in the 
Schleswigers, who were all fine men, and reminded Dr. Davies 
and myself of the old Norman type. The nose was slightly 
aquiline in the Schleswigers, straight in the Jutes, variously 
formed, and sometimes concave, in the islesmen. 

If I were to attempt to classify the heads under any certain 
types, I should place them all, except that of the Moen-man, 
under two: one of these is elliptic, or rounded-oblong in section, 
resembling the Saxon type of Lubach ; the other approaches 
the Frisian type of Lubach, and has some resemblance to the 
oval Celtic type of Wilson and of myself, though the distinct 
protuberance, which is apt to occur at the point of greatest 
breadth, is placed rather more forward than in the Celts. In 
the finest men, the head was elliptic in section, but the features 
were rather Frisian than Saxon. 

One man (No. 4) from near the Skag point, in the Vend- 



BEDDOE ON THE HEADFORM OF THE DANES. 383 

syssel, was a magnificent specimen of humanity ; his head and 
face closely conformed to the heroic type of the Greeks. The 
folk of the Vend-syssel were formerly called Vendels, and were 
probably identical with the Vandals ; but whether the Vandals 
were Slavonic or Scandinavian, I will not pretend to decide, 
though I incline to the latter view. 

The inhabitants of the Isle of Amak are said to be de- 
scended from a Hollandish colony. My two Amagers were of 
the Saxon type. The Loesso-raan was remarkable for his 
harsh features, pentagonal face, and large parietal tubers. Of 
the Bornholmers, one had rather oblique eyes and a thick flat 
nose, but he had nothing else of the Tartar about him : the 
other was a good example of my second type ; his face was 
spadcformed, his temples rather flattened laterally, his nose 
aquiline, and brows prominent though arched : he might equally 
well have been a Frisian, or a Swede, or an Englishman, not 
untinctured with Celtic blood. 

The Moen-man differed toto coelo from all the rest. His 
complexion was swarthy, his eyes dark and obliquely set, his 
hair dark, thick, and curly, his face oval, nose cocked, brows 
and cheekbones prominent, lips thick ; forehead squarish, low, 
and receding; head rather narrow and pyramidal, with the 
point of maximum breadth set far back. His appearance did 
not at all suggest the presence of Negro blood ; but he would 
have passed unnoticed in some parts of Connaught or South 
Wales ; and his head reminded me of the primeval skulls dis- 
interred at Borreby, in Moen. Was he, in truth, a descendant 
of that ancient tribe ? 



The End. 



334 



XXVII. — On the Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles. 
By John Beddob, B.A., M.D., F.S.S., President of the 
Anth. Soc. of London. 

Prefatory Chapter. 
The plan of the present work originated in the following way : 
— In the year 1860, Dr. Barnard Davis, in view of the chapter 
in the " Crania Britannica,'' entitled Ethnological Relations of 
the present population, conceived the idea of printing and cir- 
culating certain queries as to the physical characteristics of the 
natives of various portions of Britain. He did me the honour 
to submit his scheme for my consideration and approval ; and 
we subsequently circulated a good many copies of his " ethno- 
logical queries,^' and obtained thereby a good deal of valuable 
material, an abstract of which may be found in Decade vi of the 
great work above-mentioned. I had, however, been struck by 
the unlocked for, and, as I thought, interesting and anthropo- 
logically important character of the information bearing on the 
stature of man, which Lad thus been obtained ; and I resolved 
to carry on the inquiry into that branch of the subject on a 
more extended scale, by the circulation of blank tables, to be 
filled up with particulars respecting a number of specified indi- 
viduals. 

The formula I adopted was as follows : — Surname, age, birth- 
place, occupation, height (in feet, inches, and quarters), 
weight (stones and lbs.), colour of eyes (blue, grey, dark 
grey, or brown), colour of hair (red, fair, brown, dark, or 
black. Diredians : Only men between 23 and 50 to be mea- 
sured ; they are to be taken indiscriminately as to size, big and 
little as they occur, so as to yield an average sample of the 
population, or of the class observed ; mention whether measured 
in shoes or not. 

The returns, however, came slowly in; and I applied for 
assistance in circulating the schedules to Dr. Hunt and Mr. 
C arter Blake, then President and Secretary of the Anthropo- 
logical Society. Copies of my schedule were distributed. 



BEDDOE ON THE STATURE OP MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 385 

through their aid, to all the Fellows of the Society, at that 
time already above five hundred ; but, except returns from 
Sir Duncan Gibb, Bart., and from one anonymous correspon- 
dent from Ireland, their appeal bore no immediate fruit.* I 
therefore fell back on my own resources, carried out an exten- 
sive series of measurements, in the workshops of Bristol, and 
on all the men, available for my purpose, whom I encoun- 
tered in the course of my professional work at the Bristol 
Infirmary ; and applied to a number of ray medical and other 
friends in various parts of England and Scotland, and to a few 
other medical men, personally unknown to me, but distin- 
guished by their zeal for natural history or science in general. 
For the exertions which many of these gentlemen made to 
assist me in my object, I cannot sufficiently thank them : 
their names will appear in connexion with their respective con- 
tributions ; but I ought here, perhaps, to mention several of 
them who, though they did not all personally contribute to the 
work, were nevertheless of the greatest possible service to me, 
by procuring from friends of their own unconnected with my- 
self, some of the most valuable of the reports. Among these 
were Dr. Barnard Davis, F.R.S., Dr. Arthur Mitchell, the Rev. 
Canon Greenwell, the Rev. J. Percival, of Clifton College, Mr. 
Philip J. Worsley and Mr. John Bowman, both of Clifton, 
Dr. Johnson, of Shrewsbury, and Professors Cowan and 
Gairdner of Glasgow, and Struthers of Aberdeen. I subse- 
quently carried the inquiry into two other regions, and with 
the help of Dr. Maudsley and others, procured details of the 
stature, bulk, &c., of the inmates in most of our county lunatic 
asylums. The official recruiting statistics appearing to ofier 
another and a very important field, I made application through 
the War Office, to the proper authorities for permission to ob- 
tain and make use of them. In this I was successful, owing to 
the friendly interest of a number of gentlemen, among whom I 
ought to particularise the late Director-General of the Medical 
Department, Sir James Gibson, Deputy Inspector General 
T. Graham Balfour, M.D., (who has himself, among his multi- 
farious contributions to statistics, done much on this subject) ; 

* Ultimately, however, I was assisted by several of the Fellows. 
VOL. III. C C 



386 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

Dr. Kirk, H. M. Vice-Consul at Zanzibar, and Mr. Norman 
Lockyer, F.R.S. In availing myself of the opportunities thus 
courteously granted me, I was greatly assisted by Inspector- 
General S. M. Hadaway, Deputy-Inspectors-General S. Gurrie, 
M.D., J. D. Mcllreo, H. C. Reade, and W. L. Langley, M.D., 
and Staff-Surgeons-Major B. W. Marlow, M.D., and P. Sinclair 
Laing ; and in the classification of the facts obtained I had the 
valuable assistance of Dr. David Christison. These facts em- 
braced the necessary particulars respecting every recruit or 
re- enlisted man of twenty- three years and upwards, who was 
inspected in the United Kingdom during a period of two years^ 
commencing in March 1864, when the standard was reduced to 
five feet five inches. While the standard was kept at five feet 
six, it approached too nearly to the average height of the 
natives of most parts of the British Isles, to afford data of any 
value for such an investigation as mine ; and for all periods 
prior to March 1864, either the standard was too high or the 
information in the recruiting books on other points was de- 
fective. With respect to limits of age, the observations of 
Quetelet, Danson, and Aitken, seem to me to indicate the age 
of twenty-three as that when the average man has attained his 
full stature and bulk, if not absolutely and always, yet nearly 
enough for purposes of practical investigation. In fixing on 
fifty as the upper limit of ages admitted, I had little to guide 
me except Dr. Boyd^s paper in the Philos. Trans, for 1861, 
and the current opinion, which, basing itself perhaps on the 
old doctrine of climacterics, regards forty-nine or fifty as the 
point when the decline of life fairly begins. Hospital practice 
of course makes one comparatively too familiar with constitu- 
tional weakness and early decrepitude; and my impression 
that the inhabitants of towns on the average begin to decUne 
rather before than after fifty may therefore be erroneous. Dr. 
Boyd's figures would lead to the inference that in the class of 
people met with in the Marylobone Workhouse Infirmary there 
is a considerable difference in stature between the men of forty 
to fifty and those of fifty to sixty, while in the Somerset Lunatic 
Asylum no such decline is observed. Hard work, exposure, 
and perhaps peculiarities in the food, bring on the appearance 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 387 

of age much earlier in some agricultaral districts than in 
others ; and this I have particularly observed in Berwickshire 
as compared with some parts of England, though the former 
produces a breed of men unsurpassed in size and vigour. 

The data procured from the recruiting books, and those 
from the lunatic asylums and prisons, have been of great value 
to me, as will be seen in the commentary subjoined to my 
tables ; but they have but a remote bearing on the question, 
what is the average stature of man in the several divisions of 
the United Kingdom. For this part of the subject I have had 
to rely almost entirely on the schedules filled up from among 
the civil, sane, and free population ; and I must confess to a 
feeling of satisfaction not unmixed with wonder, when I con- 
template the extent of the material thus brought together. I 
have been asked more than once, by those who took an interest 
in the progress of the work, why I did not endeavour to fiirther 
utilise my own labours and those of my correspondents, by 
collecting at the same time information on some other points 
of importance, such as the size of the head and the girth of the 
chest. I had two reasons for not attempting this. In the first 
place, no two men exactly agree in their measurement of the 
same head or chest. The directions of the recruiting depart- 
ment on the latter point appear to be as precise as possible ; 
but the internal evidence of the official books has convinced 
me that two inspectors, equally experienced and skilful, may 
differ greatly in the results they obtain in following out those 
directions. But my principal reason for not attempting any- 
thing of the kind was, that the difficulties in the way of my cor- 
respondents, and the trouble entailed upon them, were already 
very great, and that by asking too much I should in many 
instances have deservedly failed to obtain the favour willingly 
granted to a more moderate request. Most of my allies were 
country doctors, members of a class which, though much over- 
worked, is perhaps above all others ready to respond to claims 
made on it in the name of either science or philanthropy. 
These impediments were great and very various in kind and 
degree. The want of ready access to a weighing machine was 
one frequently alleged. It was perhaps a mistake to insist 

cc2 



tn -im r-rmmrnmi '■ %. 



388 BEDDOB ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

upon the weight being taken, though some interesting facta 
resulted from that part of the inquiry ; for the height alone 
could have been much more easily gotten. But much more 
important difficulties arose from the character of the people to 
be examined, and some of these are perhaps worthy to be 
recorded, and may even have some anthropological interest. 

A very large proportion of my best and most elaborate con- 
tributions came from Scotland. There, as elsewhere, I dis- 
tributed a certain number of schedules without receiving any 
answer from the persons applied to ; but those who did send 
answers almost all promised assistance, and with very few ex- 
ceptions I believe they all carried out the engagement. The 
lower classes in Scotland are, as a rule, both intelligent and 
obliging; the men examined generally took interest in the 
matter, and in only two districts did I hear of any difficulty 
being raised by them. The fishermen, however, of some 
villages on the east coast, proved extremely stubborn and 
suspicious ; '' nothing less than an act of parliament would do 
it,^^ remarked one of my allies. Dr. Howden of Montrose. 
'' Waste of workmen's time '' was alleged as an objection by a 
Glasgow manufacturer. 

In Ireland the unsettled political condition of the country 
proved an insuperable obstacle to those who made attempts on 
my behalf. Some Tipperary ''boys'* fairly took to their heels 
when it was proposed to measure them. 

In England generally a good many of those who at first pro- 
mised assistance subsequently failed to carry out their engage- 
ments, finding the task more difficult than they had expected. 
These cases occurred chiefly, I think, in the east of England. 
In the same region, and particularly in the anthropologically im- 
portant county of Kent, I found unusual difficulty in getting 
people to take enough interest in the subject, or to comprehend 
its bearings sufficiently, to be induced to make the attempt ; 
the same was the case in Herefordshire and some other coun- 
ties, where a wearisome series of efforts on my part failed to 
elicit a response. In the south-east of England some of those 
who did make the attempt reported that the '' shyness " of the 
^nd fiutry was insuperable, or that they obstinately refused 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 389 

without reason assigned, but apparently from some super- 
stitious motive. In the south-western counties, there was 
generally little difficulty :* the lower classes there are, as a rule, 
courteous and obliging, though, except in Cornwall, perhaps 
not remarkably intelligent. In Wales there was unusual diffi- 
culty in disabusing the natives of the idea that the inquiry had 
been set on foot by " Government,^' and therefore must mean 
mischief; that the men measured would be carried off for recruits 
or exported to America, &c. ; when this difficulty could be got 
over there was no further objection. It was a long time before 
I could procure much material from Yorkshire, though I did 
ultimately receive thence a large number of very valuable con- 
tributions. In certain parts of the county my correspondents 
blamed the rugged rudeness of the people, miscalled by them- 
selves independence, as the cause of failure. In Lancashire 
the jealousy or indiflference of employers, and the rudeness or 
ignorance of workmen, have made my endeavonrs comparatively 
fruitless. But the bucolic and Boeotian county of Hereford is 
the only one from which I have failed to obtain any return 
whatever. 

Eoughly speaking, I should say that failures, where they 
occurred, were attributable, in Scotland, either to greed of 
time or to superstition ; in Ireland, to carelessness or to poli- 
tical feeling ; in Wales, to suspiciousness, and in England to 
stupidity. 

By all these difficulties I have been prevented from fully 
carrying out one of my original ideas, which was to get samples 
of similar classes, and especially the peasantry, from each of a 
number of districts strongly marked in race character. And 
some interesting districts, such as Orkney, East Caithness, 
Lochaber, Holdemess, Thanet, Lower Pembrokeshire, are 
either insufficiently or not at all represented, from no fault of 
my own. On the other hand, I have returns from the most 
remote of the islands, as the Shetlaiids, the Hebrides, St. 
Kilda, and the Scillys ; from the villages most elevated above 

• According to my firiend Mr. D. Mackintosh^ F.Q.S., the cultivators of 
natural science are far more numerous in the west than in the cast of 
England. 



390 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

the sea, viz. Wanlockhead, AUenheads, and Braemar; from 
the lowest districts, as Romney Marsh and the Fens ; and from 
districts more or less peculiar as to race, as Flegg and Spital- 
fields ; or as to mode of life, as New Forest, Sheffield, and the 
fishing villages of the east coast. So much for what may be 
called the extrinsic difficulties of the investigation ; the con- 
sideration of the intrinsic ones may be deferred till we have 
before us the collected material, or, at all events, until I have 
stated the objects of the inquiry. 

These were, in the first place, to furnish some reliable fea- 
tures towards the composition of a picture of the physique of 
the British population in its several races and districts, before 
those races might have been, through the greatly increased 
facilities for interrogation and cross-breeding, so amalgamated 
as to have lost all sharpness of distinction. It is probable that 
more has been done in England, since the beginning of this 
century, or even during the present generation, towards break- 
ing down these distinctions in a general fusion of race elements, 
than had been done during the preceding six centuries. And 
the process goes on year after year in an accelerated ratio, as 
the relics of the laws of settlement are being swept away, and 
as travelling grows easier and cheaper, and education more 
general. I wished to furnish standards of comparison for 
fiiture observers, who might interest themselves in the physical 
status of the British people, or of portions of it, whether from 
scientific or philanthropic motives. 

I wished also to do for Britain what a distinguished band of 
anthropologists, of whom Broca is the chief, had been doing 
for France, viz. to gather evidence as to the respective or rela- 
tive potency, in influencing human stature, of race and of what 
the French call media; as to the degree, that is, in which 
hereditary influence can overcome, or is overcome or modified 
by, such agencies as climate, soil, occupation, and food. Here- 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 391 

under arise a number of branches of inquiry^ interesting alike 
to the naturalist^ to the physician^ and to the philanthrope. 
What is the kind and amount of physical degeneration^ if any, 
which is taking place in the population of our rapidly-growing 
cities ? Is it accompanied with any notable alterations in size^ 
form, or colour? Can we at all separate the effects of the 
numerous agencies which most people believe to be active in 
this process, such as foul air, confined posture, working of 
children, syphilis, alcohol and tobacco ? How far do such 
causes act directly ? or how far through natural selection ? 

The method of investigation which I have adopted cannot be 
expected to furnish solutions of all these questions, but it may 
probably advance us a stage further on the road toward such 
solutions. 

I had yet another subsidiary motive. It was the wish to be 
able to form an estimate of the proportion of serviceable young 
men shut out from the army by the regulations as to stature. 
The subject is of national importance, though it was not, I 
believe, adverted to in the Report of the Parliamentary Com- 
mittee on Recruiting. 

To return to what I have called the intrinsic difficulties of 
the investigation. The most important one is that of getting, 
and being sure that one has gotten, a really fair and average 
sample of the population, or of a particular class. I have 
generally left to my correspondents the choice of means to this 
end, or at most have suggested two or three courses for choice. 
Most of them have aimed at a sample of the general population, 
and have picked up men for their purpose just as chance and 
opportunity favoured them. This plan might be supposed 
likely to yield rather too high averages, dwarfish men being 
more likely to shun the measurer than tall ones ; but I believe 
this objection is not of very great moment. I was myself dis- 
posed to think some of the returns from Scotland, made in this 



392 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

fashiou^ erring by excess ; but tbe facts that the highest return 
in Scotland^ or in all Britain^ (No. 54) is unexceptionably fair ; 
that in the two next (57 and 50) special pains were taken to 
avoid this fault ; and that in another (52) in which the results 
appear rather high, all possibility of error was guarded against 
by the inclusion of the entire population, have inclined me to 
alter my first impression. The highest among the English 
returns, e.g., those from Richmond, Bentham, Flegg, and 
Scilly, were all made by observers of the highest class, who 
were confident of their accuracy. 

To get a true average of the general population a larger 
number is required than of a particular class ; as it is certain 
than in some districts the upper and middle ranks exceed the 
lower rank in stature. I say in some districts only ; because 
in those parts where the peasantry are of a tall race, the 
gentry being somewhat mixed in breed, and nearer to the 
genei*al standard of their class, have not always the same 
superiority. 

In comparing the statements of difierent observers some 
caution must be exercised. I have already remarked on the 
discrepancy of the results, as to girth of chest, obtained by 
two skilled observers from two sets of men ; who, alike in 
stature, weight, nationality and occupation, must have had 
nearly the same average chest-girth. This diflSculty does not 
obtain to the same extent in regard to stature and weight, but 
one man is content with less exactitude in these matters than 
another. In a few of my returns the particulars are given in 
inches and stones only, the want of good weighing-machines 
having probably prevented a closer approximation. But the 
greatest discrepancies occur in the ideas of different observers 
respecting colour, and especially colour of hair. There is no 
standard of reference as to the nomenclature of hair-colour, 
except that of M. Broca ; and it would have been both expen- 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 393 

sive and otherwise inexpedient to have distributed his chro- 
matic scale to all my contributors. The internal evidence of 
the reports, together with my own observations in this de- 
partment, which have extended to most parts of the British 
Islands, have enabled me, however, to make more use of the 
evidence as to colour, than would at first sight have seemed 
pi'acti cable. 



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rintendent 
fair and bro 
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s t 

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. 26 

For " fair" 
imunity; ct 
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hose with lig 
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= itel! 






.A.S.L., Member of the Anthropol 
6 lbs. for clothes. In these retnn 
black-haired in stature, but fall bclo 
Aitken's report), the dark and blac 
es in all these returns : 11 blue, 15 
dark brown, 5 black. The fair mas 

to Dr. W. Marshall, of Braemar, th 
nat be a perfectly fair sample, and 
Iba. for shoes and clothes. 
Bod VerjEWr 


1 


1 


1 men are tallest and largest, espec 
brown". The proportion of brown 
, the return (No. 26) from Kenmore 
' admixture of blood. Oatmeal is th 
the most elevated in the kingdom, t 

and then, at my request, added a fe 




^1 


Dr. T. Aitken, F 
vemess Asylum ; U'' 
surpass the dark and 1 
this country (see Dr. 
prevalence of grey ey 
14 fair, 12 brown, 11 


I owe this retorn 

it was compiled, it mi 

aUow 1 inot and 12-6 

Hair 


III 


Tout. 
, The black-haired 
probably have said " 
this ana other points, 
the fairer men, testify 
The district is one of 

Mr. W. Armstro 
sidered average men, 


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kilos. 

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528 



No. 


County of birth. 


No. of 
persons. 


354. 


Antrim 


89 




Down 


64 




Derry 

Tyrone 

Armagh 

Monaghan 

Fermanagh 

Cavan 


28 
39 
52 
34 
32 
30 




Donegal 

Tipperary 

Limerick 


28 
69 
71 




Cork 


105 




Waterford 


29 




Clare 


14 




KeiTy 
Dublin 


19 

288 




Kildare 


54 




Wicklow 


31 




Wexford 


35 




Kilkenny 
Carlow 


29 
24 




Louth 


25 




Meath 


47 




"Westraeath 


12 




Longford 

King's County 

Queen's County 

Sligo 

Mayo 

Leitrim 


20 
20 
28 
31 
62 
20 




Galway 
Roscommon 


49 
34 



Average height. 



With 
shoes. 



Without 
shoes. 



Average 
weight. 
(Naked.) 



ft. in. 



tt. in. 


5 739 


5 7-57 


5 7-57 


5 7-27 


5 7-34 


5 7-35 


5 7-22 


5 6-94 


5 7-51 


5 7-27 


5 712 


5 7-27 


5 813 


5 8-03 


5 7-88 


5 7-07 


5 7-67 


5 7-62 


5 7-36 


5 7-71 


5 6-98 


5 7-52 


5 7-23 


5 6-89 


5 7-18 


5 7-60 


5 7-08 


5 7-26 


5 6-64 


5 6-99 


5 7-21 


5 6-50 



lbs. 

135-93 

135-61 

136-78 

139-51 

135-57 

138-41 

139-06 

138-36 

135-93 

138-23 

137-28 

138-40 

142-81 

140-43 

135-81 

137-65 

139-83 

141-32 

135-17 

143-00 

137-71 

144-92 

138-36 

138-91 

140-20 

13710 

135-37 

136-45 

137-53 

138-75 

138-38 

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i30 



COMMENTARY. 



I HAVE endeavoured to put before the Society the materials I 
have gathered in as complete and lucid a manner as possible. 
In so doing, I may have laid myself open to the charge of 
needless particularity, by making too minute subdivisions ; but 
as my object has been to allow the data to speak for themselves, 
and not merely to bring forward an array of one-sided facts to 
support my own theories or conclusions, I do not see that I 
could well have done differently. 

The returns may be roughly divided into four classes, viz., 
private, lunatic, criminal, and military returns. The last class 
might perhaps have been expected to yield the most accurate 
and valuable data, at all events for the comparison between the 
several counties and districts ; but I am satisfied that as regards 
England, Wales, and Scotland, such is not the case, whatever 
it may be in Ireland. The military returns from Great Britain 
are to a great extent unconformable with the other three classes, 
which, on the other hand, generally agree among themselves. 
In my opinion this unconformability may in most cases be 
explained by the condition of the local labour-market. Thus 
in Somerset the peasantry are abundant in numbers, and the rate 
of wages is rather low ; and I am informed by Mr. Malet (see 
No. 234) that the military service is very popular, and that a 
great part of those young men who are sufficiently tall enter 
the marines or other corps. Here, accordingly, we find that 
the recruits average much higher than in some other counties ; 
while the private returns point in a contrary direction. 

On the other hand, where wages are high, and where there 
is much demand for men of superior physique, military service 



BBDDOE ON THE STATURE OP MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 531 

is less esteemed, and the recruiting sergeant cannot so easily 
obtain tall men. In such districts he has to fall back on the 
artizans and unskilled labourers of the towns, who are very 
frequently undersized. The low position of Yorkshire in the 
scale is probably due mainly to this cause, and the very high one 
of the small county of Bucks to accident. Norfolk, Cornwall, 
and Durham doubtless fairly deserve their high places, and 
London and Glasgow their low ones, but little use can be made 
of those facts in the face of the contrary instances already cited. 

When, however, we abandon the geographical method of 
arrangement, and classify these same materials with a view to 
the occupations of the men, and the industrial character of their 
birth-districts, we obtain from them some coherent and valuable 
information. 

It may be necessary to remind the reader, before I call his 
attention to the tables I have framed on this principle, that 
the differences of average stature and weight, shewn therein to 
exist between the members of different occupations, are in 
truth vastly less than they would have been, had there been no 
minimum standard. It is obvious that the lower the average 
stature in any trade, the greater will be the proportion of its mem- 
bers who will be shut out from the comparison, and the greater 
will be the difference between the true average height, and that 
yielded by those men who are tall enough to enter the army. 
For example, the average height of the Connaught recruits is 
5 ft. 6.9 ; of those from Dublin 5 ft. 7.07 ; and of those from 
Ulster, Munster, and the remainder of Leinster 5 ft. 7.38 ; yet 
observation of the curves formed by comparison of the numbers 
at each measurement, renders it probable that the average 
stature of the class supplying the recruits is, in Connaught, as 
low as 5 ft. 5^, in Dublin somewhere about 5 ft. 6^, and in the 
rest of Ireland not less than 5ft. 6|, the real being 2^ times as 
great as the apparent difference between Connaught and Ulster. 

I have divided England and Wales into five groups of 
districts, basing the arrangement on the industrial character of 
the populations of the several counties. Thus the Sussex group 
consists of Sussex, Berks, Herts, Bedfordshire, Bucks, Oxon, 
Cambridgeshire, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Wilts, Dorset, Here* 

M M 2 



1 



582 BEDItOE ON THE STATDHB AND BULK 

fordsbire, Salop, Lincolnsliire, and Nortb Wales, in all of whicli 
the agricaltaral element preponderates. The Kent group, 
which holds an intermediate position in this respect, contains 
Kent, Hanta, Northants, .Somerset, Gloucestei-shire, Devon, 
Cornwall, Notte, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Leicester shiro. 
South Wales, with Monmouthshire, andtberuralpartsof Middle- 
sex and Surrey. In the third or Staffordshire group I have in- 
cluded Cheshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, 
Derbyshire, Durham, and Northumberland, with the city and 
coanty of Bristol : in these, manufacturing and mining iiidastry 
begins to occupy the bulk of the population. A fourth group in- 
cludes the manufacturing counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire; 
and a fifth the metropolis. A sixth is constituted by Scotland, 
which could not be satisfactorily divided. My classification of 
employments will explain itself. I have omitted some from tho 
district tables which appear in the summary, because they 
famished nambera too siooll to be of any use. 



I. — GENERAL SUMMARY 


FOR 


GREAT 


BRITAIN. 


Occnpationa. 


fJnmbor. 


Avge. Statare. 


ATgre. Weight. 


Miscellaneoua Outdoor - 


174 


5 ft 


7-56 in 


142-11 lbs. 


Clerks, &c. 


242 


5 , 


7-28 „ 


136-74 „ 


Masons, &c. 


100 


5 , 


713 „ 


139-12 „ 


Labourers - . . 


834 


5 , 


7-11 „ 


140-36 „ 


Ironworkers 


209 


6 , 


7-11 „ 


140-22 „ 


Woodworkers 


200 


5 , 


7-08 „ 


137-07 „ 


Bakers 


34 


5 , 


6-91 „ 


142-06 „ 


Miners 


67 


5 , 


6-91 „ 


138-21 „ 


Tailors and Shoemakers 


135 


5 , 


6-89 ,, 


134-49 „ 


Miscellaneous Indoor - 


335 


5 , 


6-77 „ 


182-53 „ 


Grooms 


101 


5 , 


0-67 „ 


138-72 „ 


II 


— SUSSEX, &c. 




Miscellaneous Outdoor - 


28 


5 , 


7-55 „ 


145-35 „ 


Labourers - 


182 


5 , 


7-30 „ 


141-80 „ 


Shoemakers and Tailors 


14 


5 , 


7-20 „ 


136-85 „ 


Ironworkers 


25 


5 , 


706 „ 


140-80 „ 


Woodworkers 


30 


5 , 


6-88 „ 


137-70 „ 


Clerks - - - 


30 


5 , 


6-88 ,, 


134-23 „ 


Miscellsneous Indoor - 


17 


5 , 


682 „ 


135-41 „ 


Masons, ^c. 


16 


5 


6-65 „ 


135-40 „ 


Grooms 


32 


5 „ 


6-28 „ 


139-20 ., 



OF HAM IM THE BBITISH ISLIB. 



IIL-KENT, 


&c 




Occupations. Nmnbor. 


Avge. Stature. 


Avge. Weight. 


Clerks, &C. - 


43 


6 , 


„ 7-57 „ 


139-51 „ 


Minera 


12 


6 


., 7-52 „ 


143-92 „ 


Labourers - 


166 


5 


., 706 „ 


140-77 „ 


"Woodworkers 


42 


6 


„ 6-90 „ 


136-33 „ 


Miscellaneous Indoor - 


87 


5 


„ 6-94 „ 


13419 „ 


Grooms 


20 


5 


., 6-83 „ 


139-90 „ 


Wiscellaneoua Outdoor - 


38 


6 


„ 6-81 „ 


142-00 „ 


Shoemakers and Tailors 


31 


5 


„ 6-81 „ 


136-64 „ 


Ironworkers 


30 


6 


„ 6-79 „ 


138-71 „ 


Masons, &c. 


15 


5 


„ 6-65 „ 


138-66 „ 


IV. — 9TAFF0EDSH1RB, &C. 




Miscellaneous Outdoor - 


14 


6 


., 7-72 „ 


14300 „ 


Miners 


18 


6 


„ 7-30 „ 


14108 „ 


"Woodworkers 


20 


6 


.. 7-28 „ 


138-80 „ 


Ironworkers 


25 


5 


.. 7-10 „ 


140-25 „ 


Clerks 


80 


5 


„ 710 „ 


136-36 „ 


Labourers ... 


87 


5 


„ 708 „ 


140-26 „ 


Grooma 


IS 


5 


„ 703 „ 


143-33 „ 


Sboemakera and Tailors 


17 


5 


„ 6-91 „ 


133-00 „ 




46 


5 : 


., 6-84 „ 


135-44 „ 


v. — LANCASHIRE 


AND 


YORKSHIRE. 




Ironworkers 


49 


6 


„ 7-37 „ 


139-66 „ 


Miscellaneons Outdoor - 


40 


5 


„ 7-26 „ 


140-05 „ 


Masons, &c. 


19 


6 


„ 7-22 „ 


139-06 „ 


Clerks, &c. - 


46 


5 


„ 6-92 „ 


137-95 „ 


Labourers - 


170 


5 


„ 6-88 „ 


138-72 „ 


Miscolkneous Indoor - 


48 


6 


„ 6-76 „ 


132-85 „ 


"Woodworkers 


38 


5 


„ 6-75 „ 


137-76 „ 


Shoemakers and Tailors 


21 


5 


„ 6-66 „ 


132-14 „ 


Spinners, Weavers, &c. 


37 


5 


., 6-63 „ 


13213 „ 


Groom.;; - - - 


12 


6 


„ 6-33 „ 


134-66 „ 


Miners 


10 


6 


„ 610 „ 


137-90 „ 


VI. — LONDON. 




MiscGllaneoua Oatdoor - 


16 


5 


„ 7-36 „ 


139-12 „ 


Clerka, &c. - 


66 


6 


., 7-10 „ 


132-30 „ 


Labourers - 


94 


6 


„ 6-91 „ 


137-52 „ 


Musons Ac. 


10 


6 


„ 6-90 „ 


137-70 „ 


"Woodworliors 


30 


5 


„ 6-89 „ 


132-70 „ 


Slioemakers and Tailors 


20 


5 


„ 6-65 „ 


134-30 „ 


Ironworkers 


15 


5 


„ 6-46 „ 


137-80 „ 


Miscellaneous Indoor - 


67 


5 


,. 6-43 „ 


130-18 „ 


Printers 


10 


6 


„ 5-82 „ 


128-20 „ 



534 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

VII. — SCOTLAND. 



Occnpfttione. Number. 


Ayge. Stature. 


Arge. Weiffht. 


Drapers, &c. 


10 


5 „ 8-80 „ 


138-60 „ 


Miscellaneous Outdoor - 


38 


5 „ 7*93 „ 


143-44 „ 


"Woodworkers 


40 


5 „ 7-74 „ 


189-67 „ 


Clerks 


40 


5 „ 7-72 „ 


14010 „ 


Labourers ... 


135 


5 „ 7-43 „ 


14200 „ 


Masons, &c. 


31 


5 ,, 7-32 „ 


139-61 „ 


Ironworkers 


63 


5 „ 7-23 „ 


141-70 „ 


Weavers, &c. 


27 


5 „ 7-23 „ 


131-44 „ 


Printers ... 


18 


5 „ 7-21 „ 


131-44 „ 


Shoemakers and Tailors 


32 


5 „ 711 „ 


133-84 „ 


Bakers - - . 


15 


5 „ 6-92 „ 


146-06 „ 


Miscellaneous indoor - 


49 


5 „ 6-87 „ 


131-87 „ 


Miners ... 


24 


5 „ 6-70 „ 


133-54 „ 


Grooms ... 


15 


5 ., 6-56 „ 


133-00 „ 



In commenting on these tables, I shall consider separately 
each of the occupational classes into which I have divided the 
recruits. First in importance, as in number, come the 
" labourers.'^ It is unfortunate for my purpose that under 
this term are comprised in the recruiting books two or three 
sets of men who diflFer iu several important respects, viz., the 
agricultural labourers or peasants, who are almost invariably 
born in rural districts or in villages ; the railway labourers and 
excavators, not so exclusively of rural birth ; and the general 
labourers, the unskilled workmen of towns, who are a very 
miscellaneous class, partly, indeed, consisting of the overflow 
and scum of the peasantry, but in great part townsmen by 
birth as well as habitation and manner of life, and, as a rule, 
inferior physically and morally to the country folk. This last 
section of the ^^ labourers" contributes far more largely to the 
army, in proportion to its numbers, than does the first. It is 
probable, however that in the Sussex, if not in the Kent table^ 
the majority of the recruits are really of the peasant class, the 
class to which, if my view be correct, we ought to look for the 
supply and revivification of our somewhat effete urban population. 
It is thus that I should explain the fact that the stature is 
higher in the labourers of the Sussex table than anywhere else 
except in the Scotch one, and that it declines pretty regularly 
with the increase of the urban element. In the Staffordshire 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 535 

table, indeed, it is a little higher than it ought to be on this 
view j but this superiority may very well, if not accidental, be 
a matter of race, my Staffordshire group including several of 
the more Scandinavian counties. 

Clerics include shopmen, commercial travellers, &c. Many 
of them are bom in the middle class, and in childhood are well 
fed and exempt from labour : on the other hand, the nature of 
their occupation after puberty is on the whole unfavourable, 
being more or less sedentary, and carried on in towns and often 
in impure air. The results are what might have been antici- 
pated : the clerks are generally above the medium stature and 
below the medium weight. 

Ironwarlcers and Woodworkers are two classes with several 
points of resemblance, but which come out with distinctive 
characters in these tables. In almost all branches of both, the 
work is active, and in most, especially of the former, laborious : 
in most cases it is carried on where there is free access of air, 
and the wages are sufficiently good to furnish a plentiful dietary. 
Probably more of the Ironworkers may be looked upon as 
picked men, some processes in the manufacture of iron requir- 
ing so much exertion and endurance of heat, that none but 
strong youths would willingly offer themselves for the work. 
The stature and weight are pretty much what one might have 
predicted ; in both divisions the former ranges rather high, 
but there is a pretty constant though moderate difference in 
weight between the two, the ironworkers rather surpassing the 
average, the woodworkers not quite reaching it. A sub-class 
might be formed of the cabinet-makers, carvers, turners, Ac, 
who work always indoors and with a less free motion, and of 
whom, as in almost all the smaller or more specialised handi- 
crafts, the greater part are town-bom. 42 of them yield 
averages of 5 ft. 6*88 in. and 133*6 lbs., which closely approach 
those given under the head of Miscellaneous Indoor Occupations, 
to which they might perhaps with propriety have been referred. 
The 158 carpenters, joiners, sawyers, wheelwrights, &c. who 
remain, will yield averages of 5 ft. 7*13 in. 138*0 lbs., so that 
their inferiority in weight to the ironworkers will still be pretty 
well marked. Sawyers are almost always light; their work 



530 BEDDOB ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

is extremely severe, and many of them suffer from pulmonary 
or cardiac disease. 

The class of Masons (including stonecutters and bricklayers) 
is hardly numerous enough to yield satisfactory results. They 
appear to stand pretty well as to development in both height 
and weight. The chronic pulmonary disease, which is so des- 
tructive to stone-masons, does not often tell upon them until 
after the period of life with which we are concerned; and, with 
the exception of the stone-dust, the influences to which this 
class is exposed are almost wholly favourable. 

Miners also are rather few in number, and their position is 
somewhat doubtful. The lead and tin miners seem usually to 
stand above the colliers ; but if it be really so, it may be partly due 
to differences of race as well as to differences of occupation. The 
low stature of the Scotch miners, who are chiefly colliers, may 
perhaps thus be partly accounted for ; for the evidence of sur- 
names testifies to a notable infusion among them of English 
and Welsh blood. 

I have set down the Balers separately, though so few in 
number, because the short stature and high weight, which 
characterise them in the Summary, follow them through 
almost all my divisions, so that they may perhaps not be 
merely accidental. If not, they can only be accounted for by 
the combination of a mainly indoor employment with excess 
of farinaceous food. 

Grooms are a peculiar class bynature and by selection. Short 
lads and men are generally preferred for the work ; and more- 
over, unless I am deceived, the instinctive attraction towards 
the horse, found in grooms and in so many of what are called 
" sporting men,^^ belongs to a temperament usually found among 
men of short compact build. The occupation is a healthy 
one, and the relative weight rules high. 

Tailors and SJtoemakers I have classed together. There is 
a striking resemblance between them as to the nature of their 
work, and the manner of carrying it on. No trades are more 
purely and strictly indoor and sedentary than these, and in each 
the labour is, generally speaking, restricted to certain mono- 
tonous and cramped movements of the upper extremities, while 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 537 

the habitual position is such as to favour the production of vis- 
ceral disease. There are, however, minor differences between 
the two. Of these the most important lies, I believe, in the 
fact that the tailors more frequently work in Jiot, crowded, and 
foul-aired rooms ; and to this their greater mortality in early 
life is probably attributable. Nevertheless the shoemakers, as 
seen in the out-patient rooms of hospitals, are, as a rule, the 
worse developed of the two, and they suffer more from dys- 
peptic affections than any other class of workmen. In the 
recruiting returns the tailors have slightly the advantage in 
height; but even in that respect they, as well as the shoemakers, 
fall considerbly below the average ; while in weight their inferi- 
ority is still more marked. 

There remain to be considered the numerous miscellaneous 
trades and vocations, which, as they could not be joined with 
congruity to any of the previous combinations, I have simply 
divided into outdoor and indoor. The one division shades off 
into the other in such a manner that I have, in several instances, 
had difficulty in placing the members of a particular trade on 
either side of the line. In such cases I have generally decided 
the matter in accordance with the amount of exertion involved, 
classifying the more laborious with the outdoor employments. 
In the outdoor class I have ranged the butchers, tanners, cart- 
ers, sailors, gardeners, farmservants, gamekeepers, plasterers, 
ropemakers, porters, millers, brickmakers, firemen, and the 
like; in the other, all those who work in metals on a small 
scale, or in textile manufactures, with the printers, painters, 
plumbers, potters, saddlers, &c. The physical difference be- 
tween the two classes thus formed is very great, for in such a 
case the excess of ^^ of an inch represents, as I have already 
endeavoured to explain, an actual avei*age excess in the mass 
of outdoor workmen which furnishes the recruits, over the 
corresponding mass of indoor workmen, which may perhaps 
amount to two inches or more. Nearly the same thing may be 
said as to the differences in weight, though on this subject my 
data furnish more hazy indications. 

So much for the military returns from Great Britain. Those from 
Ireland wear a different aspect; they have more of ethnological 
interest, and in them the relations of variations of mean stature 



538 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

to locality are somewhat clearer and of more value ; while the 
small number of recruits described otherwise than as " la- 
bourers'' would render any comparison of occupations, such as 
I have made with n'espect to Great Britain, almost wholly use- 
less. I shall therefore defer the consideration of these Irish 
returns until towards the close of my inquiry. 

The lunatic and the criminal returns have each their own 
special aspect and character ; but both of these series have a 
general conformability with that of private returns. 

The predisposing and exciting causes of lunacy and of cri- 
minality respectively, are so many, various and complex, that 
any physical character common to the whole of each series 
could not of course be expected to appear. And when I find 
that both lunatics and criminals are on the average shorter 
and smaller than sane and honest men, I deduce nothing more 
from the fact than this : that there are certain genera in each 
of these classes in which physical coincides with mental or 
moral degradation. Such I believe to be— firstly, hereditary 
lunatics, and those sprung from inbred families; and, secondly, 
hereditary and professional criminals. 

It should be noted that my schedules were filled np with 
such lunatics only as were in fair bodily health; and that idiots 
and congenital imbeciles were expressly excluded. I struck 
out from them also all persons returned as ''of no occupation'*, 
supposing such to have been usually either imbecile or insane 
from boyhood; i.e.,previous to the completion of growth. Those 
disqualified by this rule were mostly Uttle men. 

It is not possible to strike anything like a perfect average of 
either the Scotch or the English lunatics, because in some 
cases in Scotland, and most in England, I have only a sample 
of the asylum population ; and because, unfortunately, there 
are considerable gaps in the tables, Momingside, Aberdeen, 
and Dundee asylums having sent me no returns; and the West 
Riding, Northumberland, Cornwall, and Lincolnshire, with 
four other English county asylums of less importance for my 
purpose, being similarly deficient. 

The average for Scotland may, however, be roughly stated 
as somewhere about 5 feet 0*5 inches and 138 lbs. (naked) ; 



OP MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 539 

the Borderers and Highlanders exceeding the standard of 
height considerably, and the Hebrideans falling mnch below it. 

In some of the northern and north-eastern counties of Eng- 
land the stature is about the same as in Scotland. But in 
Wales and the southern counties, with very few exceptions, it 
ranges between 5 feet 5 inches and 5 feet 6 inches, and in Lon- 
don, Birmingham, Nottingham (town), Devon and Glamorgan 
falls below 5 feet 5 inches. The average weight varies more 
in England than in Scotland, and in some counties {e.g., Kent, 
Norfolk, Gloucestershire) rises much higher. Something may 
be allowed here for national or racial varieties of temperament. 
The typical Saxon Englishman is constitutionally a heavy feeder, 
and prone to corpulence, as compared with the other inhabitants 
of our islands. Differences in dietary must also be taken into 
account, and especially the larger use of beer in English asy- 
lums. 

It would appear that dark eyes and black or very dark hair 
are more common among lunatics than in the general popula- 
tion. Tall, dark -haired persons seem to be particularly subject 
to melancholia, and this fact accords with the ancient doctrine 
of temperaments. 

The criminals from the General Prison of Scotland, of what- 
ever nationality, surpass in size those from the English prisons; 
and the Scottish prisoners surpass the Scottish lunatics: on 
the other hand, in England the convicts, as a rule, hardly come 
up to the lunatics in stature and weight. This may, I believe, 
be accounted for by the greater proportion of hereditary and 
habitual criminals in the EngUsh prisons. Somerset, a mainly 
agricultural county, in which professionals are comparatively 
few, furnishes a striking exception to this rule as to stature : 
the prisoners at Taunton surpassing the Somerset lunatics in 
that respect, and about equalling the free population. (See 
225-240, 315, and 343-344.) The inferiority of the townsmen 
to the country-born criminals is in general sufficiently marked. 
The returns indicate no peculiarity or predominance of colour 
among them, such as has been noted to occur among lunatics. 

I will now proceed to consider the most valuable part of my 
material — the private returns from Great Britain — surveying 



540 BEDDOE ON THE STATURE AND BULK 

them firstly in geographical order, and confirming or correcting 
their indications by those of the other three classes of returns ; 
and thereafter endeavouring, partially at least, to unravel the 
respective infiuences of race and of the various media, such as 
soil, climate, and mode of life. 

Roughly speaking, the natives of Scotland and of the north 
and north-east of England exceed in stature those of Wales 
and of the south and west of England ; the most notable ex- 
ceptions to this rule being, in the northern division, the people 
of certain large towns and of some of the Hebrides, and in the 
southern, those of Cornwall and the Scilly Islands. 

The Shetlanders seem to be of fair stature (about 5 feet 7"8 
inches, or 1*723 metre), but their bulk hardly corresponds to their 
height. In the Western Islands there are considerable local varia- 
tions. The Uist men, for example, are tall and large; the men 
of Lewis, and of St. Kilda, are, compared with Scotchmen in 
general, decidedly short, though they would not appear so in 
the south of England, The Lochbuy people, in Mull (No. 
11) are remarkable for their huge size; but this may not be 
common to the whole island. Taking the Hebrideans all to- 
gether, they seem to be shorter, but hardly less bulky than 
the mainland Highlanders, and here the lunatic returns (263^ 
264) are confirmatory. 

With respect to the Highlanders of the mainland, contraiy 
opinions have been and are still often expressed. Some speak 
of them as gigantic ; others as stunted ; others, again, more 
discriminating, say that the descendants of the ruling families 
or septs are generally large and fair, those of the commonalty, 
or of dependent septs, small and dark; or, lastly, that particular 
clans have often a common character, the Campbells, e.^., being 
red-haired ; the Camerons small, wiry, and dark-haired. 

I believe it would accord with what has been observed in 
other mountainous and sequestered regions, such as Switzer- 
land and Styria, if there were considerable variations in ave- 
rage stature between one neighbouring valley or district and 
another. And, from general observation, I think such is the 
case ; and I regret that I have been unable to procure returns 
from some other portions of the Highlands, which might have 
brought out the fact. 



OF MAN IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 541 

Be this as it may, and whatever may have been the physical 
condition of the dependent Highlanders in former times, the 
evidence of all the four classes of reports — private, military, 
criminal, and lunatic — proves the modern Highlanders to be, 
as a rule, a tall and bulky race. Several of the private schedules 
were collected in such a manner as t