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$2$ Co^ia printed. 
No. fJ/^ 


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^ ^evs/ S-oa\cJlrr»o club, f\\3e»-cleeri, ^cot. 

L-no.33 r^y 


Mfiiimt ^mtti Matutii 









'^vxtiteb for (^c ^ew $patbinQ glt«6 


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S^£ lleto Spattrtng Club. 

Pounded nth November^ 1886. 


9icc-9rc*i^<nt* : 

The Dukb op Richmond and Gordon, K.O. 

Thb Marquis op Huntly. 

The Earl op Strathmore. 

The Earl op Southesx, K.T. 

The Earl op Kintore. 

The Earl op Pipe, K.T. 

The Lord Forbes. 

The Lord Saltoun. 

The Lord Provost op Aberdeen. 

The Principal op the University op Aberdeen. 

Charles Elphinstone-Dalrymple, of Kincllar 

Oeoroe Grub, LL.D. 
Alexander Forbes Irvine, of Dram, LL.D. 
John Webster, of Edgehill, LL.D. 

0t5liBnr{ ^raibfts 0( CosiicU : 

The Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney. 

William Alexander, LL.D., Aberdeen. 

Colonel James Allardvce, Aberdeen. 

George Burnett, LL.D., Lyon King of Arms. 

James A. Campbell, of Stracathro, LL.D., M.P. 

The Rev. Professor Christie, D.D., Aberdeen. 

The Rev. James Cooper, Aberdeen. 

William Cramond, CuUen. 

Peter M. Cran, City Chamberlain, Aberdeen. 

John Crombie, of Balgownie Lodge. 

Alexander Davidson, of Desswood. 

Charles B. Davidson, Aberdeen. 

The Rev. John Davidson, D.D., Inverarie. 

Thomas Dickson, LL.D., H.M. General Register 

Francis Edmond, of Kingswells, LL.D. 
John Philip Edmond, London. 
Robert F. O. Farouharson, of Haughton. 
James Ferguson, Edinburgh. 
William Ferguson, of Kinmundy. 
The Rev. James Gammack, LL.D., Aberdeen. 
James Murray Garden, Aberdeen. 
Henry Wolrige-Gordon, of Esslemont. 
The Rev. Walter Gregor, LL.D., Pitsligo. 

Alexander Kemlo, Aberdeen. 

Colonel William Ross King, of Tertowie. 

The Rev. William Forbes-Leith, S.J., Selkirk. 

Georee Arbuthnot-Leslie, of WarthiU. 

David Littlejohn, Sheriff-Clerk, Aberdeen. 

James Matthews, of Springhill. 

The Rev. John G. Michie, Dinnet. 

James Moir, Rector of the Grammar School, 

Arthur D. Morice, Aberdeen. 
Charles Rampini, Sheriff-Substitute, Elgin. 
Alexander Ramsay, Banff. 
Major John Ramsay, of Barra. 
Alexander W. Robertson, Aberdeen. 
William Forbes Skene, D.C.L., LL.D., H.M. 

Historiographer for Scotland. 
The Rev. William Temple, Forgue. 
Alexander Walker, Aberdeen. 
George Walker, Aberdeen. 
Robert Walker, Aberdeen. 
John Forbes White, LL.D., Dundee. 
John Dove Wilson, LL.D., Sheriff- Substitute, 

The Rev. John Woodward, Montrose. 

Peter John Anderson, a East Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

Patrick Henderson Chalmers, 13 Union Terrace, Aberdeen. 

James Augustus Sinclair, C.A., Aberdeen; and George Cooper, C.A., Aberdeen. 


The Monograph which is now submitted to the Members of the 
New Spalding Club is an attempt to describe and to portray 
an historical monument of more than mere local interest and 
importance — the Heraldic Ceiling of the Cathedral Church of 
St. Machar in Old Aberdeen. It is to this monument that Dr. 
Joseph Robertson, the most eminent of our recent antiquaries, 
alludes with pride, when he characterises it as " the flat ceiling 
of pannelled oak which still remains, with its eight-and-forty 
shields, glittering with the heraldries of the Pope, the Emperor, 
St. Margaret, the Kings and Princes of Christendom, the 
Bishops and Earls of Scotland,"* all dedicated to God as 
the King of kings, and so proclaiming — 

^he 0hielb0 of the earth belong tmto the g^orb— 

rich, therefore, with the blazons of "Kings, Princes, Prelates, 
Potentates, and Peers". 

The work now issued endeavours to deal with this 
monument — its history and its heraldry ; and it falls accordingly 
into two sections — one the historical and descriptive part, the 
other the heraldic and technical part — for each of which a 
separate author is responsible. 

Regarding the Latin heading on the title-page, it is right 
to remark that this title has been adopted in imitation of 
the interesting volume regarding a kindred and coeval monu- 

* QuarUrly Review^ vol. Ixxxv., p. 141. 


ment, the Lacunar Striveliense.^ This latter work treats of 
a contemporary, and. in some respects parallel, work of art in 
civil architecture, which, though it has now perished,t may be 
considered no less characteristic of Scotland in the period im- 
mediately preceding the Reformation than is the monument in 
ecclesiastical architecture which forms the subject of this Mono- 
graph. In the roof of the hall of Stirling Palace, and dating 
from about 1529, there existed a series, not indeed of shields, 
but of medallions, carved in oak, representing in some instances 
real persons, in others fanciful and allegorical figures, .but all 
designed and carved in a high style of art, and from the same 
period of Scottish history as that to which our monument 
belongs. These medallions are now displaced and scattered, 
having been allowed to be broken up in 1777, and the yolume 
to which we refer preserves all that is now known of what 
must have been a unique display at once of the taste and the 
magnificence of our Scottish Kings, and specially of the King 
whose armorial shield is blazoned in the Heraldic Roof of Old 
Aberdeen. We shall find that this same King (James V.)- 
had among the northern bishops of his realm a prelate like- 

* The title is more fully: Lacwuar Strwelimu; thi Collection of Heads Etched and 
Engraved from the Roof of the Hall in Stirling Palace : Edinburgh, 4to, 18x7. An interesting 
review of it, at the time of iu publication, appears in Blackwood's MagaMtne (vol. il, Nov.. 
1817), from the pen of Tytler the Historian. R. G. Billings refers to the roof at Stirling as 
follows : ** The ceiling was of massive oak, arranged in deep richly moulded compartments, 
each of which served as a frame ft>r a piece of oaken sculpture, generally a head, raised in 
cameo '* (Town of Stirling, in vol. iv. of Billings's Architecture of ScotLmd). 

t Much has been said and written of the ruin of so many of the old Scottish Cathedrals. 
It is open to doubt whether the Palaces of the Scottish Kings have fared in any respect 
better, so many of them presenting a spectacle of woe. Falkland, Linlithgow, and Stirling 
are monuments of our callousness to the national honour, which the partial preservation of 
Holyrood barely palliates. 

introduction: , ix * 

minded, who in his measure was equally, and perhaps more 
wisely, munificent and enlightened in the encouragement of 
art and in the adornment of architecture, and who has certainly 
been more fortunate than his sovereign, in the better preser- 
vation of the more prominent of his artistic memorials.* 

This prelate was Bishop Gavin Dunbar, to whom, among 
many other artistic labours, it was a delight, in the words of 
the poet — 

** To r^se the ceiling's fretted height, 
Each pannel in achievements clothing " ; 

and it .must have been from a sense of the value of such 
memorials, as well as with an eye to posthumous renown, 
that he sought to surround his name and See with artistic 
trophies of distinction.t 

Tlje illustrations representing the shields have been exe- 
cuted by Messrs. Andrew Gibb & Co., Aberdeen, and will be 

* Greatly as we deplore the treatment which has been giveo for centuries to Bishop 
Danbar*s tomb— once no doubt radiant with harmonious colour, and still, we m^y say — apart 
from the monuments of the Douglases at Lincluden— without any just rival on this side of 
the Cheviots in tasteful splendour, notwithstanding its exposure in the now roofless transept 
— ^we may rejoice that Time has spared so much of the other relics associated with his 
name. In this regard we may recall, by way of consolation, the words of Prescott when 
describing the much sorer dilapidation that has befallen the contemporary Church of St. 
Juste, in Spain, where the once great Emperor, whose insignia Dunbar emblazoned, ended 
his days. 

" Without, the touch of decay is upon everything. The church still stands, but the 
delicately carved wood-work of the choir, and the beautifril tiles that adorned the walls, have 
fallen from their places, or been torn away by the hand of violence. All around, the ground 
is covered with the wreck of former splendours, with fallen columns and shattered arches. 
. . . Yet even here kind Nature has been busy, as usual, in covering up the ravages of time 
and violence, spreading over them her rich embroidery of wild-flowers, and clothing the 
ghastly skeleton in a robe of beauty " (Prescott's CharUs V., ii., p. 632). 

t The feeling thus ascribed to Dunbar regarding Art is akin to that expressing itself in 
regard to' the Muse by the poet Spenser : 

*• What'booteth it to haye been rich alive ? 
What to be great ? What to be gracious ? 
When after dei^h no token doth survive 


found faithful copies of the various shields. They are tepro- 
ductions of the beautiful hand-drawings in colour which Were 
carefully executed by the late Mr. Andrew Gibb,. and are now 
collected in an. interesting MS. volume, belonging to his family, 
the product of much labour, ingenuity^ and taste. It was during 
the process of restoration of the interior of the Cathedral, in . 
the year 1867,. that Mr. Andrew Gibb had the opportunity 
of examining minutely and reproducing closely the different 
shields emblazoned in the Heraldic Rodf. 

In regard to the heraldic accuracy* of the shields, as Exhibited 
on the Ceiling, little'doobt need bef entertained. • Along with »Mr. ' 
Gibb were associated, as 'a heraldic collegium or committee, of 
restoration,', the late Principal * P. C Campbell and George 
Burnett, Esq., Lyon King of Arms. Either of the flatter 
two names is sufficient guarantee, for the. substantial accuracy, 
as well as for the faithful reproduction', of tlie details of the 
heraldic representation on the roof of the Cathedral. 

To the name of the late Princip^ Campbell a special 
tribute of acknowledgment is due, not only for the great 
trouble and pains he bestowed, in. the year 1867, on the 

Of former beeing in this mortall hpusSi - 
- . But ftleepes in dust dead and ingloriotts, 
Irike beast, whos^ breailh but in his nostrils is, * 
And' hath no hope of happinesse or blis. 

' ** How manie great ones may cemembred be, 

Which in their daies most famouslie did flourish ; 
Of whom no. word we heare, nor signe now see, 
But as things wipt out with a sponge do perishe, 
Because they living cared not to cherishe \ • 
No gentle wits, through pride or covetise, 
'Which might their names for ever memorise" 

—Spenser's " Ruins of Time ". 


• • • • 

details of the entire restoration) both heraldic and structural^ 
l>ut also for the excellent little sketch, which he composed 
at the time, and contributed to the Herald and. Geneafogist 
(vol. v., p. 9),. giving an* account of the Roof and the three 
series of Shields. This sketch, which consists of only a few' 
' pages, contains figured illustrations of. ten out of the fbrt}'- 
eight shields, and forms a Valuable nucleus which has* been 
found useful for the construction of the present work. 

It may serve to indicate the amount of* historic interest 
that lies folded up in this gropp of ancient blazonries, if we 
mention two incidents bearing on their historical importance. 
The late Dean Stanley, whom we had the pleasure of escorting 
some years ago over the buildings was greatly charmed with 
the spectacle of .such a monument as having come down from 
the period of the Unity of Western Christendom. In running 
over the hierarchic roll— commencing with the six paUe^ or 
Bails of the Medici — his eyes^ glistened with delight at what 
hcj juSdy considered the strange spectacle of a* Pope's Arms 
remaining ei^blazoned on the roof of what is now a PresTby- 
teriap Church. Turning round with a smile, the Dean re- 
marked that Scotland had not shown itself so fiercely 
"iconoclastic" as was generally supposed 

. The other inddent belongs to a more distant age, but it 
is of considerable historic value. The famous historian of the 
Earldom of Sutherland, Sir Robert 'Gordon, who flourished 
nearly two centuries and a half ago, has occasion to deal with ♦ 
the question' of precedence among the Scottish Earls, and in 
settling the place of the Earl of Sutherland, the leading argu- 


ment to which he makes appeal is the evidence furnished by 
the roof of what he calls the "Cathedrall Church of Aberdeen".* 
On the general subject of " the boast of Heraldry " with its 
" pomp of power,*' a few passing remarks may not be inappro- 
priate, in order that we may form a right estimate of the surviving 
value which it may be said still to retain to the modern mind. 

. The last century expressed its relation to Heraldry in the 
characteristic jibe which fell from the lips of Lord Chesterfield, 
addressed to the "Garter", of the day : "You foolish man, you 
don't understand your, own foolish business " ; but more severe 
things have been uttered since that period, and in unexpected 
quarters. Two of our greatest historians acknowledge, but in 
a sarcastic way, the fascination of the Heraldic science. 
Gibbon, in his autobiography, likens it to a kind of superior 

- Totemism of the Red Indians, and Hallam calls it "the 
science of those fantastic people who believe in ho other 
form of science". These are jibes which do not affect the 
historical value of the Heraldic science as illustrating the 
period when Heraldry was still in the ascendant, as it was 
in the age to which the Heraldic Roof belongs. Though 
later than the high and palmy tipie of the " Noble Science," 
which may be said to hav€ culminated about the age of 

•Froissart, or that of Edward IH., this heraldic display in. 
St. Machar's Church is ancient enough to mark the period 
when armorial shields were still realities, among the weapons 

* " You may see, in the Cathedrall Church of Aberdeen, the noblemen of Scotland 
ranked in order upon the sylerin of the rooff of the bodie of the Church, wher the Easle of 
Southerland is placed befor Crawfoord, Huntlie, Argile, Errol, and Marshall ** (Sir Robert 
Gordon's Genealogy of the Earls of Sutherland, p. 55 ; Bdinb., ^813). 


to be worn in tournament, if not in the tented field,* and 
bore in no. metaphorical sense the dint of hostile spears. It 
is true that changes were already at work, including "vil- 
lainous saltpetre," producing that revolution in the methods 
of warfare which eventually obscured,* if it did not obliterate, •. 
this among the other ** glorious circumstances" attaching to 
it in the period of 'chivalry. But although Heraldry, as a 
system, was already (in 1520) past its prime, the subject of . 
Heraldry .had still a> great meanings so that it is no paradox 
to assert that the " Noble Science** is, for that period, no mere . 
antiquarian frivolity, but an important branch .of historical 
knowledge. In regard to the Middle Ages, it is a branch 
more than important, it is essential^ in order to obtain a prpper 
understanding of the* Europe of the Cnisading and Feudal 
periods, whereof heraldic blazon may be said to have been the . 
bloom and flower. The fair fantasies therefore may perhaps, 
as a subject pf study, long survive, having in fact survived the 
attacks of two of their principial enemies— 7 Ridicule and Taxa- 
tion ; for they e^ert a spell that fascinated not pnly the aristo- 
cratic Walter Scott,t but the democratic Robert Bums,|.a spell 

* An almost contemporary Record (anno 1513; wob Burgh R$c&rds of Abitdtin^ Sp. Cl., 
p. 87) justifies this statement as to actual use of the ikield in the warfare of Gavin Dunbar's 
time. The Burgesses are required to 94)pear at call, *' ilk* an havand anespeir, ane bow, and * 
ane iargt *\ See also Hall's ChronieUs in the full account of the nearly contemporary knightly 
pageantry (anno 1525) under Henry VIII. (Nott*s Memoirs of Sir Thoma* Wyatt, p. 9). \ 

t Sir Walter can no doubt, upon occasion, indulge in a jest at the • peilantries of 
Heraldry, as in the Baron*^ matinderings {WavirDeyt cK iv.). 

X Bums, as is well known, amused himself by composing what must be admitted to 
be an appropriate and delicious coat of ^ms, developed in full heraldic nomenclature, a ■ 
remarkable proof of the depth and variety of his information (Letter to Allan Cunningham, 
March, 1793 ; Seton's Scottish HerMldry^ p. x'6l.) 


to which the sparkling Montaigne * and the universal Shaks- 
pere t himself yielded no vague hoipage. The extent, indeed, 
'to which the language of Heraldry has coloured indelibly the 
speech and imagery of English literature will render it expedient 
for even superficial students of our literature to obtain a passing 
acquaintance with heraldic terms and conceptions. The Poet- 
Laureate, for example, though he foteshadows the time when 
shields will probably, in a democratic world, cea^e to be,t is in 
danger of becoming partially unintelligible, unless a * remnant * 

. * The eyer delightful Michel condescends to note, in his Travels^ the arms at Domremy, 
tiA vilUige of Joan of Arc^those anns which were assigned to her Ascendants emioi>led 
by the French king. These Montaigne details with the pfecision of a professjod Herald: 
<* Azur a un esp^e droits conronn^e et poign^e d*or, et deux fleurs-de-fis d*or ^u cdte de la • 
dite esp^ '* {Voyages de Montaigne, i., p. x8). The Seigneur's account of his own arms, ^ 
described with some minuteness, is found in. the Essais, Livr. L 46, where he adds^ with 
insight into the vaniias vanitatum of this among all human things ;* ** What, pfivilege to 
continue particularly in my .house and name? A son-in-law will transport it into another 
family, . or some paltry purchaser will make them his first Arms i there is nothing wherein 
there it more change and confusion.*' 

t Of Shaikspere's attitude to- Heraldiy, take as a specimen the indignant words of 
Bolinglvoke, howt among the insults to him, his foes have — 

*' From my own windows torn my housdiold coat, 

Razed out my impress, Uamng me no sign 

To show th$ world I am a gsniUman ", 

— *♦ Richard ll.," Act IIL, Sex. 
The obverse is found in the passage of the first scene of the ** Merry Wives,*! where the 
poet pokes immortal fun at the ** do^en white louses on an old coat **— a juvenile joke, 
against the " luces ** of the Lucy family, from his own Warwickshire. 

t The keen eye of Edmund Burke discerned long ago the ilsk to the "^Noble Sci^ce," 
and the danger then looming'in the near distance from the French Revolution, when *' with a 
view to their great experiment on human society the Assembly abolish^ all titles o^ honour, 
- all armorial bearings, and even the insignificant titles of Monsieur and Madame **. (Scott's 
Life of Napoleon, ch. 6). Speaking of the qualities of the Duke of- Bedford, who had 
assailed him, and who favoured the French democrats of the time, ^urke flashes out in the 
famous invective : *' I would willingly leav« him to the heralds* college, which the philosophy 
of the sans-culottes (prouder by far than 'all the Garters, and Norroys, and Clarencieux, and 
Rouge Dragons, that ever pranced in any procession of what his friends call aristocrats ^nd 
despots) will abolish with contumely and scorn **. The whole passage is interesting, as *a 
severe verdict on the too easy Diplomas that are or v^re won by mere wealth in the mild 
school of Heraldry. 


survive acquainted with, the "mysteries" at which he smiles 

There is one other observation of a general kind that we here 
offer, and with which' we would close these prefatory remarks, 
namely this, that not only the antiquary or the curious-minded 
herald may derive from the historical monument here described 
material for his purposes, but the •patriotic citizen will find a 
new interest in our Scottish nationality. The whole style and 
conception of the Heraldic Roof shows that it is a monument 
thoroughly national. It proceeds upon the idea that Scotland 
has an independent 'existence, and takes her place in the array 
of nations as, in her own right, a sovereign power. The lion 
rampant is, in his awn domain^ imperial, and is represented here 
under the arched, and therefore imperial, crown. He is accord- 
ingly placed here ih the first rank, in line with the ensigns of 
Pope and Emperor. It is true that the Scottish Church is de- 
picted as owning allegiance to the See of Rome, but no trace of 
the subjection, that seemed imminent at one .period of our his- 
tory, to the See of York and sometimes of Canterbury, is here 
discernible, fivery Scotsman who surveys this historical me- 
morial ought to feel a new pride .in the lion rampant, as being "the. 
noble creature in its- noblest .posture," there felicitously displayed 

* The passage refinred to, deserving close study, is that in ** Merlin and Vivien " : 
<* Azure, an eagle- rising or, the sun in dexter chief*'. Compare also Tennyson's attitude to 
*< achievenients" in *' Aylmer's Field," &c., Ac. The same remark applies to Thackeray's 
sarcastic shield of the Southdown family, " three lamb^ trottant argent,** &c. (Vanity Fair), 
the humour of which only a Herald can appreciate. .' ' 

t On the irrefragable authority of the Baron of Bradwardine (jVaverUy, ch. xi.). — Guillim 
anticipates the Baron, p. zz6, averring that the attitude of any Lion as Rampant betokens 
" their mpsi nohU and fierce action ". — See Dunbar's. Thistle and the Rose, where the 
** Lyone^ of Scotland is described i 


It is hoped that the publication pf this volume in the New 
Spalding Club Series will not only preserve the record and 
the interpretation of an interesting, yet perishable, historical 
monument,* but tend in some degree to augment the growing 
interest now being felt in such local historic studies. 

In conclusion, it is proper to acknowledge the excellent 
services rendered by various gentlemen during the progress of. 
our investigations and while the book was passing through the 
press. We have to record most hearty thanks to George 
Burnett, Esq., LL.D., Lyon King of Arms, who has taken a 
deep personal as well as official interest in the Heraldic section of 
the work. Justice requires us also gratefully to mention the names 
.of Charles Elphinstone Dalrymple, Esq., of Kinellar Lodge; 
Archibald Hamilton Dunbar, Esq., younger of Northfield; and 
P. J. Anderson, Esq., the excellent Secretafy of the Club. . 

Lastly, a special tribute. of ackrfowledgment is due. to the 
distinguished Artist, who has done so much for the name and 
fame of his native city Aberdeen — George Reid, Esq., R.S.A. 

* — whose admirable sketches must be regarded as enhancing 
in no* small degree the artistic value of the volume now sub- 

* mitted to the Club. W D C 

Aberdeen, November^ 1888. • . . * P D 

" Reid of hU cttUoor, as is the ruby glance ; 

On feild of gold he stude fiill mythtely, 

With « flour delycis ' sirculit [encircled] lustely.** 
* " Quis est enim qjiem non moveat clarissimis monumentis testata consignataque 
Antiquitas ? " (Cic.)« The insigne patemum of the Virgilian Warrior (JSfi., vi^ 657) shows how 
near an approach the Ancients made to the hereditary character of Heraldry. See treatise of 
Ernst the Berlin Academy (1374), where he says : " Im Orient gah es nur dynas-' 
tische, priesterliche und Privat Wappen ; Gemeindewappen finden wir erst in der Hellenischen 
Welt *', *' In the East there were only Arms (Devices) for Dynasties, Priests, and Individuals ; • 
it is in the Hellenic world that we first find Arjns for Communities,^* 




Chapter I. The Cathedral and its Surroundings, . , . 3 

II. Interior of Cathedral and Heraldic Ceiling, 

III. Foreign Sovereigns, .... 

' IV. Scottish Temporal Dignities, . 

V. Scottish Ecclesiastical Dignities, . 

VI. Historipal Observations, . 





Prefatory Note, 85 

Chapter I. Kings, 87 

II. Scottish Nobles, . 103 

III. Church Dighitaries, 119 


Appendix I. Notes on Life of Bishop Dunbar, . . . 137 
II. Arms of Our Saviour, ...... 147 

III. Inscriptions round Frieze, . . . . . 149 

IV. Notes on Similar Heraldic Displays, . . 151 
Index, .161 



Interior of the Cathedral of St. Machar, looking West, from a 

drawing by George Reid, R,S. A., . Frontispiece. 



Plan of Heraldic Ceiling, 

Arms of the Emperor, and of the King of France, 

Arms of the Kings of Spain, and of England, 

Arms of the Kings of Denmark, and of Hungary, 

Arms of the Kings of Portugal, and of Aragon, . 

Aims of the Kings of Cyprus, and of Navarre, . 

Arms of the Kings of Sicily, and of Poland, 

Arms of the King of Bohemia, and of the Duke of Bourbon, 

Arms of the Duke of Gueldres, and of the City of Old Aberdeen, 

Arms of the King of Scotland, and of St. Margaret of Scotland, 

Arms of the Duke of Albany, and of the Earl of March, 

Arms of the Earls of Moray, and of Douglas, 

Arms of the Earis of Angus, and of Mar, . 

Arms of the Earls of Sutheriand, and of Crawford, . 

Arms of the Earls of Huntly, and of Argyll, 

Arms of the Earl of Errol, and of the Earl Marischal, 

Arms of the Earl of Bothwell, and of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 

Arms of the Pope, and of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, . 
Arms of the Archbishop of Glasgow, and of the Bishop of Dun 












Arms of the Bishops of Aberdeen, and of Moray, 

Arms of the Bishops of Ross, and of Brechin, 

Arms of the Bishops of Caithness, and of Galloway, 

Arms of the Bishops of Dunblane, and of Argyll, 

Arms of the Bishops of Orkney, and of the Isles, 

Arms of the Prior of St. Andrews, and of the University and 

King's College, Old Aberdeen, 133 

Bishop Gavin Dunbar, /rom the Portrait in the possession of the 

Senatus of the University of Aberdeen, .... 137 
Seal of Bishop Gavin Dunbar, from the impression appended to an 

instrument confirming the foundation of the College of St. 

Mary, 143 

Part of the Frieze round the Ceiling, 149 

Tomb of Bishop Gavin Dunbar, from a drawing by George Reid, 

R.S.A., 160 





SelUitiiiE0 betemmitiit btl^ea monnmhitii bttorttnt^ViRGiL. 

Bbporb proceeding to the more immediate subject of our investiga- 
tion — the historic import of the Heraldic Ceiling of the Cathedral in 
Old Aberdeen — it is necessary to take a preliminary survey of the site 
and scene, and of the general surroundings. and architectural character 
of the buildingi of which it forms internally the most conspicuous 

Aberdeeni as is well known, is the largest city of Scotland north of the 
bisecting line of the Grampians, and consequently may be said to be the 
capital of the northern or Transgrampian portion of the Scottish kingdom. 
At the beginning of the present century, our city stood third among the 
cities of Scotland, and this position it still retains among the University 
cities; but owing to the recent sudden rise of its southern rival, Dundee,* 
which has now come to stand next to Glasgow and Edinburgh in 're- 
spect of population, Aberdeen has been displaced from the position which 
it formerly occupied, so that it now ranks only fourth among the centres 
of Scottish population. Time was, however, when Aberdeen ^tood 
still higher in the scale, and could claim to be, in a manner, the second*of 
the Scottish Burghs, inferior in political importance only to Edinburgh.* 

* Besides the Royal Tressore which it boasts in the '* City Anns"— a remarluible and, 
among cities, ahnost unique distinction^Aberdeen possesses claims to high rank among the 
Scottish towns, and, in more than one particular, is historically second only to Edinburgh. 
Without refierring to the existing honour of its being the cspital of the sole county in Scotland 
where Royalty has a stated residence, the student of history and of literature cannot &il to 
remember that it belongs to the county where ^e patriot king of Scotland gaineii his first clear 
victoiy (Inverurie), leading, with untm)ken success, ultimately to Bannockburn, and that in 
literature ihe same county stands pre-eminent lor the double honour (i) of having produced 


In the period of the Covenant^ it is tolerably certain that the relative 
rank and position of Aberdeen may be so described ; for besides being 
superior to any Scottish city in the array of its learned men,* it was, 
next to Edinburgh, the great pivot of the early movements of both of 
the contending parties at that Important era ; and although Glasgow 
shares the prominence of the capital as the scene of the first mani- 
festations of that struggle, the historical development of the contest 

the oldest existing literary document penned on Scottish soil, standing at the head of the 
National MSS. of Scotland, vie, the ^ook of Daft and (a) of owning among its sons the 
** Homer** of Scottish literature, the poet Barbour, who, ** in his poem of the Bruci, determined 
the character of modem Scottish, and cast it in a permanent mould, just as his contemporary 
Chaucer did for our English language" (Prof. Earle). But apart firom these distinctions, there 
are grounds more relative than these: viz., (x) in the Pictish period, according to John Major, 
who wrote A.D. 1521, "Aberdeen was the Regia or royal city of the Soots*' {Book of Bom- 
Acford, p. loa) ; (2) since the original Scotia, as a kingdom localised in our island, and apart 
from older Irish associations, extended from ** the Fixth of Forth (the Scots- water) to Spey,** 
Aberdeen lay near the centre of the kingdom so defined, and thus shared with Dunfermline 
and Perth the honour of being the royal residence, whence we hear, once and again, in the 
pre-Stewart time, how the king *«kept Yule in Aberdeen**. Thb last, be it remariBed, was 
the normal occurrence at a time when Edinburgh belonged not to Scotland, but to Lothian, 
which was originally a province of Northumbria, and when Glasgow lay outside Scotland, 
and was included in the Cumbrian kingdom of Strathdydd. The evidence for the above 
historic fact is complete, and nothing could be better ascertained than that there was a 
time when Edinburgh and Glasgow were not Scottish, but became so by annexation, imd 
at that period Aberdeen was the centre of the annexmg kingdom. See Proclamations of 
King David I. (1124-53), where the official style runs: "To his subjects in Scotland 
and Lothian*' (per regnum suum in Scotia it Lodonia). Compare Cosmo Innes, in his 
Preface to the Acts of Parliatiunt of ScotloKd (vol. L, p. 4), where he defines the boundaries 
of " Scotland proper ** as "from Forth to Spey,** in contradistinction to "Cumbria, Lothian, 
Moray,** and the appanages which '* Scotia** acquired. Still more fully in Skene's Celtic 
Scotland^ i., p. 6; iii, pp. 2, 3; in one of which passages we have the following: "These 
districts** [vis., the region firom forth to Spey] "formed the real nucleus and heart of the 
kingdom, and were more directly associated with her monarchs as kings of the Scots *\ It 
was this region— the unconquered* Caledonia of Galgacus— of which Aberdeen may be said 
to be the aentre, that' constituted the real " Scotia,** which never owned fealty or shadow of 
homage to the English king.— It is, therefore, worthy of note that the New Spalding Club, 
in choosing as its territory the region from Ness to Tay, has chosen a field of operation 
nearly conterminous with the " S^6tia*' of the pre-Stewart period. 

* Compare Parson Gordon of Rothiemay {Scots' Affairs, p. 843), on Learning in 
Aberdeen in 1640, which is the era of the " Aberdeen doctors ** referred to by Clarendon : 
"Thes emhient divynes of Aberdeen were either deade, deposed, or banished; in whom fell 
more Learning than was left hehynde in all Scotlande besyde at that tj^me. Nor has that 
cittye, nor any cittye in Scotland ever since, scene so many learned devynea and scoUers 
at one tynve together, as wer immediately befor this in Aberdeen.** 


assumed more numerous and more various phases in Aberdeen than 
in any other Scottish town. 

As the City of the Two Rivers, it is flanked by the sister streams 
of Dee and Don, each of which is spanned at no great distance by an 
ancient bridgCi dating from pre-Reformation times. Each of these 
very notable structures owes its origin to the munificence and public 
spirit of ancient prelates of the See. The city consists of two Burghs, 
each resting on its own river : the one the Royal Burgh of Aberdeen, 
populous, busy, and commercial; the other the Episcopal Burgh of 
Barony of Old Aberdeen,* quiet, sombre, and secluded.f It is with 
the latter that we have now to deal, as it contains the historic monu- 
ment which is to engage our attention. 

As the traveller wends his way toward the Cathedral from the 
town of Aberdeen, he passes first the College in Old Aberdeen, 
and then, at some distance, arrives in view of the Cathedral, two 
buildings of nearly coeval antiquity in their most important remains, 
fortunate at once in their society and in their solitude. It is in the 
most distant and sequestered part of Old Aberdeen that the Cathedral 
is situated, in a part of. the town still known by the name of the 
Chanonry,t where had been gathered, in old time, the residences of the 

* On the 2 1 St August, 1498, Bishop Elphinston obtained a Crown Charter erecting Old 
Aberdeen into a City and University and Burgh of Barony {Registry Episc, Aberd,, Sp. CI., 
i., p. xlv.. Text of Deed, in vol. ti., p. 303 ; also Orem, p. 81). 

f The following quaint picture of the two towns in their mutual contrast, as given 
three centuries ago, is worth transcribing. It gives the palm of beauty tfun to the Old Town. 
** In Marr lyes Abirdine a Damous citie, in a maner in twa partes dtvidet, to wit, in ane aide 
toune, and ane new toune, and betwene the twa a feild put; hot on that syd, quhair foundet 
ar the Bischopis Cathedral, the Channounis honorable houses, the almous house or Hospital 
of the pure, and that ancient Academic and universitie of renoune, is mtkU mair illustrg and 
hcutiful to behalde, than the othir, quhais decore cheiflie does consiste in nobilitie of gentle 
men and merchandes and deidis of civilitie" (Father Dalrymple*s Translation ^f Bishop 
Leslie's History of Scotland, p. 49, Scottish Text Soc.). The same contrasted character of the 
two towns is thus expressed in the distich of John Leitch, i6ao (p. 48, Book of Bon-Accord^ : 

" Qua geminae, in geminis surgentes valUbns, Urbes, 
Mirdbus Juu^ Mum clarior ilia suis *\ 

t The name Chanonry is interesting as showing traces of the French mfloence exerted, 
as is well known, so powerfiif ly upon our vernacular. The French ckanoinCf rather than the 
English canon, has been at work in shaping this local name. It occurs also in connection 
with the Cathedral of Fortroee, where, in the old diocese of Ross, the name still designates, 
not inappropriately, a presbytery in Easter Ross. 


canons, as in a cathedral close, such as we know of in cathedral towns 
in England. Rising above the surrounding dwellings, among its shel- 
tering elms, is found the edifice of the granite Cathedral — ^unique in 
regard to its material among our Scottish cathedrals, and with no 
adequate parallel as a structure in that respect nearer than Brittany 
— a great torso of what once had been, majestic still in its massive 
grandeur, and predominating, as was said of stately Kelso, 'Mike 
some antique Titan over the dwarfs of a later world'*. Both exter- 
nally and internally the style is seen to be of the severest Gothic 
type, with some singular reversions to the round arch and rounded 
pier of the Norman. A happy instinct as to what was possible in 
such obdurate material as the granite, under the instruments and ap- 
pliances of those days, seems to have presided over the construction, 
and guided the architects of the time to the wise conviction that it 
was hopeless to contend with the cathedrals of the South in variety 
and finish of floral decoration, and that they must find some other 
source of architectural nobleness. Hence they recognised their task 
to be the production of a broad and grand effect by the grouping of 
simple masses without elaboration, under the feeling that what was 
possible with the soft and light freestone of other more favoured 
districts, such as Morayshire, was not possible with the hard and heavy 
granite of Aberdeenshire ; and hence, also, they relinquished any am- 
bitious aspiration after stone-vaulting over a broad nave, such as had 
to be dealt with in the great cathedrals of the South. It is possibly to 
this latter inability that we owe the heraldic blazoning. For the roof 
of the nave came thus to be treated as a flat surface, and hence the 
space of this surface had to be lighted up by appropriate decoration ; 
whence the origin of this, the chief ornament of the Cathedral. 

Of this once great edifice many portions have disappeared; the 
choir, with apse and chancel, if indeed these parts were ever fully 
finished, has entirely vanished;* the central tower, now known only 
from views in old engravings, has passed away; the transepts remain 
only in outline of their foundations, sufficient to show the contour 
of the space which they enclosed ; but the nave is still entire, with 
its seven-lighted western window, which, flanked by its two guardian 

* Neither Lady Chapel nor Crypt teems to have existed. A capiiulum or Chapter is 
often mentioned, but no *' Chapter-house " is now discernible. 


towers, fonns a western firont of wonderful symmetry, strength, and 
dignity, in harmonious combination. 

These twin towers strike the eye of the stranger as being peculiarly 
massive, almost stem in their simplicity. The apex or spire of each is 
evidently on a different design and projection from that of the base or 
lower portion,* which is severe and grim, like the keep of a feudal castle 
rather than the base of a cathedral tower; and this castellated t appear- 
ance is further heightened by the bold corbelling of the parapet, the 
battlements of which suggest, as does also the castellated tower of 
Dunblane, the pathway where the armed warder paces in times of unrest 
or danger and turmoil. Our English friends, in visiting the Cathedral, 
are found very generally to advert to this feature, which they at once 
sei^e upon, not unnaturally, as an evidence of our warlike tendencies or 
insecure social conditions in the ancient days. Be this as it may, the 
contrast architecturally between the upper and the lower portions of 
these towers is distinctly noticeable. The apex of each is composed of 
freestone, in marked yet not inharmonious contrast with the granite of 
the lower portion, and it is curious to observe that, the moment we 
reach the freestone, the treatment becomes more free, and bursts out, as 
it were, into a flowering of finials and other ornaments of a decorated 
kind. The freestone apex of each tower is pyramidal, consisting of three 
cap-like sections, divided by broad ribs or dividing bands, and diminish- 
ing to a point; and the tradition is that Gavin Dunbar, the Bishop who 
built this part, wanted to suggest or image forth in stone the triple 
crown or tiara of the Papal See.t It is known that this Bishop was 
himself a native of Moray, and brought with him from that county of 
rich freestone a native taste for ornamental decoration. The same 
Bishop was also the erector of the heraldic roof, and it is therefore to 
Gavin Dunbar that we owe both these ornaments, so that he may 
be said to have left his impress not less on the external than on the 
internal aspect of the Cathedral. § 

* The lower or granite portion was built by Bishop Henry Lichton, ^^lo died in X440. 

t In Avtla, in the nplands of Old Castile, there is a granite cathedral with similar 
featotes, '* towers showing machicolation," a combination of church and fortress (Fold's Hand* 
bdok to Spain). 

t Kennedy's AnnaU ofAbtrditn, iL, pp. 340, 344. 

I Boeoe, in his unfinished life of Bishop Dunbar (whose demise in 1532 he did not record, 
though he himself lived to 1536), speaks as if the roof was in progress in his own time. 


The Bishop's palace lay east of the Cathedral, but not a vestige of 
it remains ; and the old alms-house or bede-house, which was erected 
by the same Gavin Dunbar, and of which views remain in old en- 
gravings, where it is seen outside the churchyard on the west side, has 
also perished. Notwithstanding the absence of these two doubtless once 
picturesque companions, the Cathedral still strikes the stranger as happy 
in its surroundings ; but the full beauty and aptness of the situation are 
not discerned until we pass to the north side of the building, and per- 
ceive the fine and commanding elevation on which it stands above the 
valley of the neighbouring Don.* At a little distance, and at a level 
far underneath, we can there perceive the beautiful bend of that river, 
which is seen suddenly turning northward, and then rolling away behind 
a screen of trees toward the dark gorge from which it emerges at the 
bridge well known in story, the Brig o' Balgownie. The relation of the 
Cathedral to the river, where it forms this loop or bend, requires to be 
specially noticed, as thereby hangs the interesting traditionary tale 
connected with its origin and foundation. The story is found in 
Thomas Innes's Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, where it is drawn 
from the account of St. Machar in the venerable Breviarium Aberdoncnse, 
and we think it better to present it in Innes*s own words : 

" St. Machar was bom, of noble parents, in Ireland, and at first 
named Mochonna. I find him also called Mauritius, but Machar is the 
name by which he is commonly known. He had followed St. Columba 
into Britain, and after he had made more than ordinary progress in 
piety and in learning in Ycolmkill, St. Columba, having caused him to be 

"Gavtniu alind ett opus aggressus, BauUca Ahtrdomnut calahiram: aed hoc quoque 
magna ex parte mira arte consummatum eat ** (Boece'a Vita Episcop,^ p. 85, Bann. CI.). 

* The following extract from the deft pen of the late ingeniona John Ramaay, who 
dearly loved the spot, gives the impression of the scene : 

*' Viewed as it now stands, althon^ sadly shorn of its original gloiy, the Cathedral is a 
highly picturesque and interesting object. The aspect of its western end, with its noble 
window of seven lights, flanked by lofty towers capped by those quaint old steeples, is singu- 
larly beautiful and striking— more especially when glowing in the mellowed ray of the western 
sun, and partly shaded by the venerable trees, which so beautiiy and solemnise the scene, 
redeeming the dreariness of the graveyard, and, by their obedience to the law of the aeasons, 
instinctively symbolising the change from mortal to immortal life. None but the veriest clod 
of the valley can be uninfluenced by the spell which binds one in the rapt contemplation of so 
fair a scene, of which the fascination is crowned by the swelling music of the Don, * unseen 
but not remote * " (John Ramsay's StU^Ud Writings^ pp. 92-3). 


advanced to holy orders and afterwards to be consecrated bishop, sent 
him with twelve of his disciples to preach the Gospel in the most 
northern parts of the Pictish provinces, admonishing him to settle and 
erect a church upon the bank of a river where he should find that by its wind- 
ings it formed the figure of a bishop's crosier. St. Machar, following this 
admonition, went on northward, preaching the Gospel, till he came to 
the bank of the river Don, near its entry to the sea, at a place where 
by its windings the river makes the foresaid figure of a crosier (prasulis 
instar baculi)^^ and there he built a church which still bears his name, 
and became the Cathedral of Aberdeen " (Innes*s Civ, and EccL H. of 
S., p. 194, Sp. CI.). 

The building that now overlooks this the last bend or crook of the 
river Don is the successor, perhaps at more than one remove,t of the 
primitive and original cell or church of St. Machar.| It is no part of 
our subject to give any minute details of the history of the building,^ or 
to enter into the chronicles of the See of Aberdeen, except in so far as 
is necessary to bring out the historic aspects of the monument which 
forms the subject of our investigation. Those chronicles are contained 
in such works as the Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis (Sp. CI.), or 
the Statuia EccUsue ScoUcana, by Dr. Joseph Robertson, from either of 
which may be obtained traditional details as to the position of the See 

* UhifiunuH, frasuUs instar baeuU, intrat mart (Bnviar, Abtrdon,^ 12 Nov.). On Uiis 
suppositioa, the date of St. Machar's foundation cannot be put later than 597, the year of 
St Columba*8 death. St. Machar is said to be interred, not in his own church, but in St. 
Martinis at Tours.— How little, however, we know of St. Machar appears from Dr. Gammack's 
critiqus {Scottish Notts and Queries, October, 1887). 

t The historic vista as to the successive stages of Church economy in Scotland is not 
so dear as is the case so frequently in the old ecclesiastical buildings of England. There we 
sometimes find no less than four distinct strata, so to speak, historically discernible, as, i.g„ 
at Glastonbury and St. Albans, churches which dispute with Canterbury the right, not 
perhaps to precedence, but to priority as Christian centres. At Glastonbury in particular we 
know of (ist) the original British church, made, after the Celtic fashion, of timber (see Quart. 
Rev,, vol. Ixxxv., p. xxx), perhaps of wattled work; (and) the Saxon church of St. Dunstan, 
both of which exist only in records of the time ; (3rd) the existing ruins in the Early English 
style ; (4th) the contiguous church of St Cuthbert's, in the Perpendicular or Tudor style. 

X For details as to this saint (Machar or Macarius, also Mauritius), see Bishop A. P. 
Forbes's Kalendars of Scottish Saints, p. 3g4. 

I Short outline of the stages of progression in Dr. Joseph Robertson's important article 
on Scottish Ecclesiology (Quart. Rev,, vol. Ixxxv., p. 141). 



in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland. Inferior necessarily to the two 
archiepiscopal Sees of St. Andrews and Glasgow, and in a certain sense 
inferior also to Dunkeld, which claimed to represent the succession from 
lona, Aberdeen may be said to rank fourth among the Scottish Sees, 
a place which it holds nearly invariably in the rolls of the Scottish 
Parliament, and such is the position, accordingly, which it occupies 
in the Scottish ecclesiastical array in this heraldic roof. It is worthy 
of note, however, that twice in the history of the See it was on the eve 
of attaining something like archiepiscopal position. Under Bishop 
Thomas Spence {Statuia EccL ScoL, p. cxvii.) the diocese was privileged 
by the Papal Court to be exempt " during his lifetime ** from the juris- 
diction of St. Andrews; and again, on the proposed elevation of the 
saintly Blphinston to St. Andrews, it was intended to translate 
Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Caithness, to Aberdeen, and to exempt 
the diocese from all jurisdiction, not only archiepiscopal or metro- 
politan, but also primatial or legatine (Statuta EccL Scot., p. cxxvi.). 
The design in this latter instance was not carried out, and Aberdeen 
has therefore to rely less on the rank accorded to the See than upon 
the eminence of her individual bishops, some of these, whether in the 
Roman Catholic or Protestant period, being among the most remark- 
able of the Scottish prelates. The memory of Elphinston,* Dunbar, 
and, later, of Bishop Patrick Forbes of Corse, long survived ; and it 
was probably owing to the recent memory of the virtues of these 
prelates that Episcopacy obtained and retained such a strong foot- 
hold, as is well known, in this north-eastern province during the 
most stormy periods of the Covenant. 

* Elphinston, " a BatnUy bishop, who came too late for canoniBing " (Cosmo Innes, 
Sk€tch€S, p. 85). He died in 13x41 within three years of the commencement of the Reforma- 
tion, by which time rapid canonisation, like that of Becket (1173, only two years after his 
murder), had ceased to be possible. 



S^nxntMfpu ixnhte, beiernm becara uliit imrenttim.— Virg., y£fi. 

The interior of the Church, as it now presents itself, falls into three 
divisions — the centre, or naye proper, with its clerestory resting on a 
fine double arcade of supporting pillars, but without any triforium 
or ''blind-story"; the north aisle, and, lastly, the south aisle, both 
flanking the nave at a lower elevation. Each of these three divisions 
has had the fortune, or misfortune, to undergo a separate treatment, 
and to possess, therefore, a separate history. 

The north aisle has suffered most from alterations : it was taken 
down and reconstructed, under unfortunate conditions, about fifty 
years ago; the windows were unfortunately debased by wooden 
muUions, and its roof, which is now flat and is under lead exter- 
nally, is in plaster, with plaster bosses, and ribbed with plaster bands 
indicating the supposed beams of the construction. The monotony and 
poverty of the design, together with the coldness of the colour in the 
roof of this north aisle, form, it must be confessed, a harsh contrast 
to the rich and varied decoration and warm colour of the central 
nave, over which is placed the heraldic ceiling. 

The south aisle has the ordinary sloping roof abutting on the 
clerestory. The wooden beams and integuments of this southern 
portion of the Cathedral have been, within the last twenty years, 
decorated with appropriate flowering in colour under direction of 
Mr. D. Cottier of London. Regarding the south aisle, , there is 
nothing further that needs, for our purpose, to be noted than that 


the bold stone ribs of the muUions in the original windows have been 
in this instance fortunately preserved. 

It is to the roof of the nave or central part that our attention 
must now be directed. Before proceeding to tabulate and describe 
its features in detail, it may be well in the first instance to glance 
at the structural conditions and the problem that was solved by the 
adoption of such a design. 

We have already alluded to the enormous difficulty of con- 
structing an over-arched roof of stone where granite was the material. 
The absence of flying buttresses on the outside is a feature indicating 
that the architects did not contemplate provision to meet the lateral 
thrust of a superincumbent stone roof, such as, f.^., that of King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge. Neither did they preserve the fiction of 
an embowed roof in timber, such as we see exemplified in the modem 
roof of another Cambridge chapel, that of St. John's, and also in our 
own King's College Chapel of Old Aberdeen, where we find a wooden 
embowed roof, with escarbuncles for decoration. Yet the architects 
were resolved that the central space should be broad and capacious, 
not narrow and attenuated like many of the old Scottish non-cathedral 
churches, where the length was sometimes more than five times the 
breadth (as in old St. Congan's,* Turriff, length 120 ft. by i8 ft. of 
breadth, and similarly in such as Foulis Wester, Cowie, Gamrie, &c.). 

It was therefore only by a flat or horizontal wooden roof that so 
large a central space could be covered,t and the question naturally 
arose, how was this surface to be lighted up, and to have its monotony 
relieved? The problem was solved by creating a suggestion of the 
firmament with its constellations and its ordered zodiac of powers, and 
no more happy treatment could have been devised. Already from the 
influence of the Byzantine architecture, with its characteristic feature, 
the " dome," the conception of the roof considered as a sky was pre- 
sent to the mind of the medieval Gothic architects; and this feeling 

* Book of DeiTf edited by Dr. John Stnart. This is the extreme, bnt even Foulis 
Wester is 90 by 27 feet (about a.d. 1450, Billings). This narrowness of the old Scottish 
chnrches was partly owing to the rarity of suitable timber easily accessible. In the CMMrai 
churches the proportion of breadth to length was different, the breadth being much ampler. 
St. Andrews had its nave 200 feet long by 62 broad, 

f A roof of timber, not, however, always flat, was a necessity in covering wide and great 
halls like those of Damaway or of Ruiiis at Westminster. 


or conception continued to be inherited and to operate even where 
the dome» originally a Byzantine feature, was discarded, or where it 
was found structurally unattainable, as it ultimately became under the 
Gothic architectural development. 

In sacred literature there was high authority for such a conception. 
In more than one passage of the Apocalypse relating to the revolutions 
of terrestrial powers, the changes in the earthly dynasties are symbol- 
ised under the changes in the signs of heaven, and in the words, " The 
powers of heaven shall be shaken," * we catch the notes ominous of the 
fall of dynasties and empires. 

By some such process of thought, working on such imagery, was 
shaped the happy design of occupying the roof- space above with a 
galaxy of gleaming shields, to give a faint image of the field of heaven, 
with its groups of fixed stars f in never-changing array, and hence the 
author of this blazonry set himself to map out the powers, political and 
ecclesiastical, then visible in his historical horizon.! 

* Angnstine was on Uie track of this thon^t whon he wrote : " Pauperi plus est vtdere 
coelnin stellatuxn quam diviti tectum inauratum ** — " To the poor man it is a grander thing to 
bdiold the starry heaven than for a rich man to see his gilded roof*'. And so Shakspere, 
when he makes Hamlet speak of " this brave o'erhanging firmament, this mafestieal roof 
firgtUd mitk goldm firw *\ Compare in the TemfU of Fame the kindred simile of Pope : «« As 
heaven with stars, the roof with jewels shines **• 

t Pope Innocent IV., confirming a PostulaU of the clergy of Aberdeen, has the follow- 
ing: '*Episcopt tanquam sUlla Jixa in fitmamenio lucere debent '* (a.d. 1247, '3^ ^^y* '^^ 
Theiners* VtUra Monuminia). Sometimes the firmament is conceived in a narrower sense, 
withoat the circling stars ; and then we hear, in the Middle Ages, of the ** Two Great Lights,** 
vis., the Pope and the Emperor (Wyntoun*s Crony kit. Prologue to Bk. v.). Says delightful 
old GutUim, in his dedicatkm to the King : "There is a firmament of stars, that shine not 
withoat your benign beam : you are the sun of our Hemisphere, that sets a splendour on our 
NdbiUty ** (OuUlim*s Display of Hiraldry). 

t It is hiteresttng to find a confirmatkm as to this interpretation of the design in a 
nearly contonporaiy document describing the works of Bishop Dunbar: "Hujus templi 
toceumata, uu tslum iftum^ opere eaasciato imaginibos et principum instgniis fiibricari fecit'* 
(Registrum Epise. Ab., il, p. 249). The proper reading must be, not mh, but r#«, f.r., like 
a8--j.#., an ornamented roof, just as tkifirmamint itself. So likewise the University of Oxford 
in iu letter of thanks to a great benefactor (Bishop Kempe, a.d. 1480), describing the heraldic 
ocMMMiitaiion of its Divinity schools: '^Omamenta Regibus et principibus digna , , , ad 
maimratts emU imaginem variis pictnris snbtilique artifido cislaU" (Wood*s Oxford, ii., pp. 
77S-9). The Boppoaed etymological connection bet wee n ecplnm (heaven) and eah (to engrave) 
hdped the analogy.— Conversely, the language of armorial garniture has been transferred in 
targe measure so as to describe the celeatlal sphere, The hQsi of heaven at once occurs as 


It 18 fortunate, therefore, for us that the designer addressed himself 
to his task just in time, not a moment earlier, to represent to us the 
still unbroken commonwealth of Western Europe, before expirii^ 
chivalry passed away with the last breath of Bayard, at Pavia, in 1525. 
Great events of world-wide significance had marked the middle and 
close of the preceding century. The fall of Constantinople in 1453, the 
counterstroke dealt to Mahometanism in the fall of Granada in 1492, 
and above all the great lifting of the curtain of the world by the mari- 
time discoveries toward East and West of Gama and Columbus — ^these 
were among the events witnessed by the generation to which Bishops 
Elphinston and Dunbar belonged ; and before Bishop Dunbar quitted 
the scene, the gathering storm of the Reformation was already bursting 
over the Northern world.^ The hierarchy of the Western Church stood 
till then unbroken ; a few years later, and the great revolution was 
consummated by which that hierarchy was shattered, and the execution 
or even conception of such a comprehensive artistic representation 
became no longer possible. Happily, however, the work was con- 
ceived, if not executed, under the one Pope (Leo the Tenth) who, 
more than any other pontiiT, is a central figure for all time, marking 
out an era to which his name is affixed as a designation, and who is 
also the last pontiiT that can be said to have received the undivided 
homage of the West. Hence the value to us historically and senti- 
mentally of this delineation, for it gives us the aspect, as it shaped 

significant in this respect, the same image which Milton {Paradise Lost, iv. 553) has expanded 
into the glorious vision of the angelic guard : 

*' Celestial armoury, shields, helms, and spears, 
Hung high, with diamond flaming and with gold **• 

A brilliant cluster of kindred illustrations might also be added from such sources, as the 
«• garnishing*' of the firmament {yob xxvi. 13, " Spiritus ejus omavit ccelos," Vnlg.) and the 
Greek Cosmos (Koafios), a word which we know has been transferred to the celestial sphere 
from the armorial, to which it originally appertained. In more modem literature there is no 
example more apt than P. J. Bailey^s apostrophe to the sua : 

** God*s crest upon His azure shield, the heavens *' {Festus), 

* The historical array is, in the eye of the student of history, the most fortunate among 
all the epochs that could have been chosen. Charles V. is already on the Imperial throne, and 
it was during his time, according to Robertson, that *« the powers of Europe were formed into 
one great political system, and the ideas concerning the balance of power were introduced 
or rendered general that still influence t)ic councils of nations ", 


itself four centuries ago, of the *' dominations, princedomsi powers," 
that then in their several spheres held sway. 

And they were in those days " powers " * in a sense and with an 
ascendency such as we in these times can but imperfectly conceive. The 
despotic form of monarchy, as shaped by Louis XL, Henry VII., and 
Ferdinand of Aragon, had just appeared in full form. It was also the 
age when Charles V. and Francis I. were contending in their long 
European duel, and when even minor potentates, such as the Scottish 
nobles, were as kings or petty princes rather than vassals to the Crown 
— ^not yet reduced to the mere guard of honour to royalty which they 
afterwards became, f It is obvious, therefore, that we have in this 
heraldic ceiling a pictured page in the great book of time at a period 
of peculiar interest, a transcript of an important epoch of history in 
shorthand, of which Aberdeen has reason to be proud. 

On the pannelled ceiling at the intersections of the mouldings or 
cross-bars occur the several series of heraldic shields, which are arranged 
in three parallel longitudinal rows, % sixteen in each row, and all carved 
in low relief. Each shield has proceeding from it on either side an 
escrol on a lighter ground than that of the ceiling, bearing in black text 
with red initial letter the official designation, in Latin, of the dignity 
represented. The order of dignity advances as you proceed from the 
west eastward; the extreme west is occupied by the three local 
corporate bodies, two municipal and one academic. The place of 
honour for the highest European dignitaries — a trio with shields having 
their several devices upon a ground of imperial gold — ^is at the extreme 
east, where the nave joined on to the cruciform and more sacred por* 


" Facta etentm et vitas hominum suspendit ab astris**. 

^UrniiL, m. 5S. 

t On the almost autocratic power of the Scotch nobles, and the struggle undertaken oy 
the Stewart princes to curb that power, especially by James I. and II., and again renewed 
under James V., see Lord Crawford's admirable sketch (L, p. 25, Earldom of Mar), 

X There are thus three main lines on which the shields are arranged, and the insertions 
take place at the poinU of intersection, where the beams indicating the joists cross these main 
lines at right angles. A series of square pannels is thus produced, and these pannels are 
again crossed obliquely quincunx-wise by diagonal lines ^ a lighter kind, and from the 
centre of each square pannel there depends a pendant with a four-rayed escarbunde out of 
which it proceeds. 


tion of the building. Further, the trio at the extreme west is in re- 
markable symmetry with the trio at the extreme east. In each case, 
two temporal or secular powers flank at either end of the nave a spiri- 
tual or intellectual power, and the place of honour, such as is given to 
the Pope between Emperor and King, is correspondingly assigned to 
the University, which stands flanked at the west end by the two muni- 
cipal corporations. Of these three series of shields, thus commencing 
and closing, one represents the Emperor and the other sovereigns of 
Europe, another the Pope and the Scottish bishops, and the third the 
King of Scotland and the nobles of Scotland. The Church dignitaries 
occupy — ^and rightly in such an edifice — ^the middle row, and their 
escrols have the precedence of being slightly in advance of those of the 
temporal powers flanking them on either hand. The northern row, 
which is heraldically the Sinister row, and therefore inferior to the 
Dexter^ but which, looked at eccUsiasticalfy, upon the analogy of the 
precedence attached to the north side of the altar, may have been 
regarded as the more honourable position, is assigned to the external 
powers of Christendom; while the southern row, which is here 
heraldically the Dexter row, is left for the immediate temporal powers 
within the Scottish realm. 

The date of the decoration of this roof may be assumed as 15201 
at which time the work of blazonry must have been in progress. The 
presence of Pope Leo X.'s arms, who died in 1521, and the non-ap- 
pearance of the arms of the Bishop's nephew and namesake, viz., those 
of the Gavin Dunbar who became Archbishop of Glasgow as early as 
1524,* justify the date ascribed. 

We now proceed to enumerate these shields in their several orders, 
and to present the luminous points attaching to each personality de- 
noted by the various shields. 

* The aecond of these arguments is the condttstve one. The arms of Clement VIL, 
Pope from Z523 to 1534, were the same as those of Leo, both being of the Medici frunily. 






























































































































prBLir Li:s \\ 

TiL •.. . .A-... -v. .^S 


A.D. MDXX.). 

Sbries op Forbign Sovereigns— Northern Row. 

I. Sin)rerat0ne jRa]e0tatt0.* [No. i. 

Charles V., Emperor, 1519-1555 (as Carlos I., King of Spain, 1516) ; 
resigned his crowns in 1556; died in 1558. 

The Emperor or Kaiser appears here as the first secular power of 
Christendom. He claimed to represent not only the imperial dignity as 
reconstituted by and in Charles, the son of Pepin, monarch of the Franks, 
but also the older and primary succession of the Roman Empire, both 
Pagan and Christian. By the fall of Constantinople under the Turk in 
1453, that rival shadow of a Roman Empire of the East, which had 
maintained, though feebly, a continuous existence, now vanished, but 
the surviving Empire of the West retains the double-headed eagle,t as if 

* M^ttias properly and strictly of the Roman Emperor. The style of the King of 
Scotland is, at this time (see p. 30), only Celntudo, " Highness '' — an appellation now given 
. to the Princes of the Blood. So in England, Henry VHI. is the first who took the title of 
Majesty, each King before him being styled '* Sovereign Lord," "Highness". In Shak- 
spere ** Highness," and even " His Grace," still remain alongside of the term " Majesty ". 
t The symbol of the imperial eagle with outspread wings — ^what Dante (Parad, 20) 
calls "il segno del Mondo," the ensign of the world — ^is the most august of all the 
scutcheons of the world, reaching back to Augustus and up to Jove, whose representative he 
claimed to be. There is thus historic truth as well as beauty in Ariosto*s line, where the 
imperial eagle on a warrior*s shield is described as — 

*'Augel che Giove per Taria sostenne ".~OW. Fur,, xxx. 48. 
** The bird that once in air could Jove sustain." 

Compare, as to the two beaks of the eagle, the double scimitars at the girdle of the Caliphs 
*' as the symbols of a double reign over the East and West " (Gibbon, vol. vii., p. 176, chap. 
57). Charles himself once surprised the poet Alamanni, who in audience as ambassador 



to claim the succession to the Eastern as well as the Western inherit- 
ance of the Cesars. This dignity purported to be elective, and was 
now held by Charles V.* (I. of Spain), ** the greatest monarch of the 
memorable sixteenth century, and the most famous of the successors of 
Charlemagne " (Stirling's Cloister Life of Charles V., p. 2ii). As the 
son of Joan of Castile, who was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella 
and consort of Philip, Archduke of Austria, and as the grandson of 
the Emperor Maximilian, and of Maiy, daughter of Charles the Bold, 
the heiress of the house of Burgundy, Charles V. became the heir of 
the Indies in the New World, and of many converging inheritances in 
the Old ; whence, in veritable truth, he bestrode Europe as a Colossus. 
Besides the imperial eagle, he is the possessor of three of the other 
shields on this heraldic ceiling — Spain (i.^., Castile and Leon), Aragon, 
and Sioily--and so fills one-fourth of this regal series. It may there- 
fore be doubted with j^ayle whether a prince ever walked the stage of 
this world with a larger array of titles of renown, t The assertion that 

htd made freqaent mention of the impniai iogle, by quoting MitMtioitty Ms own ttnes 
agninet him: 

*' . . • r aquila grifagna, 
Che per p\^ divorar dm becchi porta **.— Ro8Coe*s Lio X., il, p. 453. 

On the qneation as to precedence between Eagle and Lion in heraldic symboiiBm, Sir 
MTalter Scott tonchea graeeftilly in chap. xi. of the TaUsman, In 1575, half a century later 
Chan Gavin Dunbar, Philip II. adoma agata at Toledo with the eagle and shield of Charlea V. 
(Fofd*a Spaim, p. 484), 

* Charles Quint, *' le plus grand homme qui soit sorti de I'auguste If »soa d*Autridie *' 
(Bayle). The name Charles was thought from its associations to have an imperial sound with 
it. See Lord Bacon, addressing our Charles I. (War with Spain). 

t Roscoe's succinct account of the convergence of crowns is as follows: 

•*From his fiither Philip, Archduke of Austria [and son of the Emperor Maximilian], 
Charles inherited the rich patrimony of the Netherlands, which Philip had himself acquired 
in right of his mother, Mary of Burgundy. His title to the crowns of Castile and of Arsgon 
was derived from Ferdinand and Isabdla, by their daughter Joanna, the mother of Charles, 
who was yet living, and whose name was, in fact, united with his own in the sovereignty, 
although she was incapacitated by a derangement of intellect from talcing any part in the 
administration. The crown of Sicily had descended in peaceable succession for several genera- 
tions, and Charles new assumed it as reprssentative of the legitimate bnuich of the house of 
Aragon. Although the kingdom of Naples was for the present held by the sword rather than 
by an acknowledged title, yet Ferdinand died in the exercise of the royal authority, and 
Charles was possessed of resources sufficient to maintain his pretensions. By the death of 
Maximilian he entered upon the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria ** {Life of 
Leo X., ii., p. 198). 


Charles V. had it in his designs to become also Pope, rests only on 
the authority d Brantdme, who is not partial to the en^ny of France 
(see Bayle). ''In this prince/' says De Thou, ''fortune contended 
with virtue that it might crown his merits with the highest pitch of 
felicity." Bayle sums up more justly: "His history is a melange of 
fortune and misfcMlune ". His famous tnot as to the aptitudes of the then 
four leading tongues of Europe is interesting to us now as showing how 
little was as yet thought of the Teutonic element, and how the branch 
thereof which we know as the English tongue was as yet, notwith- 
standing Chaucer's appearance on the scene, virtually ignored by the 
European mind. It may be interesting likewise to refer to the literary 
blazon given to this Emperor by our countryman Buchanan, during 
the imperial visit to Bordeaux in 1539, about the time when this 
heraldic ceiling was still young: 

** Auaonia ragalis honoe, decus orbis Iberi, 
Carolns, wdoi soboles Mavoitia Rheni. 

• • Rectorexn gentiB IberaBi 

Auaonia dominusn, Boree pugnads alumniim, 
Victorem Libycae terrse, ScyUisasqae tinMwem.'* 

Compare the still more magniloquent stanzas of Ariosto in his praise 
(Orl. Fur.f xv. 23-8). Yet, for all his victories, he failed to save Metzto 
the Germanic race, which lost that fortress in 1552, and has only re- 
covered it in our time. On the strange resignation by Charles V. of 
the imperial purple, "retiring to a Spanish Spalatro, gout-worn, empire- 
sick, exchanging crowns for rosaries " (Ford's Spain), there is quite an 
anthology of literary references. Besides Lord Bacon's reference in 
his Essay on "Empire," see the approving remarks of his almost 
contemporary, Montaigne (ii., chap. 8), and compare Gibbon on such 
abdications (ii. 98 ; viii. 127) ; also Lord Byron's lines, in the " Ode to 
Napoleon,'* "The Spaniard, when the lust of sway'V 

II. jfrmuoram IRegitt. [No. 2. 

Francis I. (Franjois) (of AngouWme), King, 1515-1547. 

The world-wide historic name of the "Frank" here meets the view. 
In the time of the Crusades it became equivalent to European, and 
still survives in the " Feringhee " applied by the Hindoos to the natives 


of the West, even to such as are neither French nor Frank. The name 
is here a survival from the period of Karl the Great (Charlemagne), 
who was ''King of the Franks" as well as Kaiser, being the first 
TeuUmic " Emperor of the Romans *' ; but the severance has long since 
taken place (in a.d. 887) betwixt the East Franks and the West Franks, 
between Latin or Gallic Neustria and Teutonic Austrasia, and so the 
monarch of Neustria, which grew into France, is here credited with 
the ancient but wider title, the half dominion claiming to retain the 
name of the whole,* 

The JUurS'dC'lis, as the arms of France, are now concentrated to 
three, having been so reduced by Charles VI. of France, and no longer, 
as in the early time, scattered, or, as the phrase is, semi, in profusion over 
the shield. Though they look like flowers of the Iris species, justifying 
Ariosto's " i Gigli d*oro,'* it is a question what is the original form or 
meaning of the device, and Voltaire has the grim joke that these flowers 
are spear-heads in disguise. In fine balance as a pendant to this 
scutcheon, in device and colour, is the shield of St. Margaret, which 
occupies the corresponding rank in the Southern Row, also with ** gold 
charges on an azure field'*. 

The wearer at this time of the fleHrs-de4is, or, as both Spenser 
and Shakspere style them, fhwers-dC'lucCf is the chivalrous f but 

* We can only glance thus briefly at the historic interest folded up in the name 
''Francorum*'. In process of time, as Prance has gradually become less Prankish and 
Teutonic, and more Latin and Celtic, which is indeed the outcome of the Revolntkm oC '89, 
" Gallorum " might be expected as more accurate ; and so Soult, in the Latin Inscription at 
Corunna regarding Sir John Moore, records him as having fallen fighting against the GalU 
(not Pranci) (Ford's Spain). By a fine instinct, Buchanan in his History speaks of Franci 
in the time of Carolus Magnus, but uses GatUa and QalU regularly for Prance and the 
French people throughout the Stewart time. 

t A personal device of Francis I. was a salamander in the midst of flames, with the 
motto Nuifiuo et extinguo* It is said to have been suggested by Artus de Gouffier-Boisy, a 
Poitevin gentleman, the king's literary preceptor, fot the purpose of symbolising the fiery spirit 
of his pupil {Proc, Soc, Antiq, Scot, vol. x., p. aig). It is a device not unhappily suggestive 
of the troubles amid which he reigned. An autograph letter of Francis I. to James V. in 
153 1 appears among the National MSS. of Scotland (Part IIL). It is couched in most flat- 
tering terms, and has for its object to attach Scotland to the French interest in the great 
drama of the time. The oMurg in the case of the golden lilies may be taken to represent 
appropriately the blue water of a lake (cf, Guillim, p. 4) ; in the case of the martlets of 
St. Margaret, the bltu ether of the sky. Among the quaintest argumenU ever known to logic 
was the appeal to the New Testament text as to the Lilies, in support of the Salique law 


erratic Francis L, the victim of his own rashness at Paviai who waged 
the life-long duel * with Charles V. According to Brantdme and Bayle, 
the latter would have subjugated Europe but for the stand made by 
Francis I. In the field of literature and art Francis is remembered as 
the patron of Budaeus and of Greek learning, as the bosom friend of 
Leonardo da Vinci» and as a composer of chansons that have a place 
in the histoiy of French poetry, and he is further styled '' the father 
of letters " t (De Thou). The fine stanzas of Ariosto (Orl. Fur., xxxiii. 
52-3) are the homage of the muse to the captive of Pavia. ** Upon his 
accession to the crown, he raised in eveiybody mighty expectations of 
himself, as there was a certain majesty in his looks, a lively wit, a 
courteous demeanour, a love for learning, and an experience of the 
world (for as yet he had scarce arrived at the age of twenty), joined 
to the royal dignity " (De Thou). This great promise can hardly be 
said to have been realised; many virtues and not a few vices com- 
pose a very mixed character. Compare Ford's lively but far from 
favourable sketch of Francis I. {Spain, p. 571). 

III. 30i0imttorttm lUsift [No. 3. 

Carlos I. of Spain, 1516 (Karl [Charles] V. of Germany). 

The arms represent only a part of the Spanish monarchy, viz., 
Leon and Castile. Of these two, Castile was greatly more prominent 
in the view of the next generation, and Spenser takes, allegorically, an 
embattled " Castle," 1.^., Castile, as allegorical symbol for the Spanish 
power (F. Q., iii., 3, 49). Aragon has, later in the series (No. VIII.), 
a separate acknowledgment. (For personal history, see No. I. of this 
series.) From the Spanish point of view, Charles is thus, somewhat 
severely, characterised: ''In him the Spanish crown passed to the 
Foreigner. A Fleming by birth, he was an Austrian at heart, and 

exclndiiig females from the French throne— vii., that the lilies toil not, neither do ikey spin ; 
and therefoce no J^'iuttf oonld become a sceptre (Guillim, p. zo;). 

* According to Montaigne (i., chap. x6), Charles wanted to bring it to a veritable duel, 
oflering ** to fight Francis in his shirt with rapier and poniard in a boat " 1 TanUau ammis / 

t Montaigne (ii. za) refen to the enthusiasm for polite letters radiating from Francis I., 
and aflecting by its infloence Montaigne's own fiither and his paternal home. 


wasted on German politics the blood and gold of Spain" (Fold's 

No. 4.] iv. ipetw Jtngliwitst 

Henry VIIL, King, 1509-1547. 

The second Tudor, the first prince that united in his own person 
the lines of York and Lancaster, known in history as — 

That broke the bonds of Rome ".— Thoe. Gray, •* Ode to Masic ". 

This King, the first ** Defender of the Faith,*' affords a memorable 
instance of Papal fallibility in things temporal. Leo X. dreamt little 
that in giving Henry that title he was glorifying the future destroyer 
of Roman Catholicism in the realm of England.* It was under the 
pontifical reign of Leo's nephew (Clement VH.) that the crisis even- 
tually developed itself in the antagonism betwixt Pope and King. 
How grimly terrible the whole tragedy of their relation was, we may 
feel from the quaint words of Anthony Wood, describing their mutual 
position as to the divorce question : *' The King for his part acted 
John the Baptist, [averring] that it was not lawful for him to have 
his brother's wife, and the Pope acted King Herod; yet I am sure 
in the catastrophe of this scene the King served the Pope as Herod 
served the Baptist, and beheaded his supremacy in the Church of Eng- 
land " (Wood's Oxford, ii., p. 40). 

It is worthy of note that the arms here assigned to Henry VIII. 

* One of the moat oiriooa piecea of Uteraliire most be the Unea ki Hemy'a own band 
(with one ialae quantity) on the dedication copy of his book against Luther* stiU preserved at 
the Vatican: 

" Anglomm rex Henricus, Leo Decime, mittit 
Hoc opus, et fidei testem et amiciti« ". 

Montaigne, when in Rome, in 1580 {VoyagiM^ ii, p. 148), saw and was stnick with this 
book, but does not remark the £adse quantity in what he calls the '* bean distich Latin '*. The 
annotator of Montaigne, however, suggests Maxims fot Dicims, but, in the spirit of 
Sigismund, the Emperor iuptr grammai k a m , he wisely adds: '* Crowned heads are above 
quantities ! "—The musical, and even poetical, aocomptishmenU of Henry VHL appear to 
have been notable. A short hymn which he composed stiU appears in some collections of 
sacred song, as in the hynn-book of the Temple Church, London. 


are not the arms that he himself recognised or employed.* The arms 
here represented are from the Angevin and early Plantagenet time, 
before Edward III. introduced the custom of quartering the fleurs-de-lis 
of France with the three leopards of England. There is little doubt 
that we have in this feature — viz., the non-inclusion of the fleurs-de-lis 
— a touch of sympathy with Prance, in harmony with other indica- 
tions of the Scottish antagonism toward England (see Ch. VL 3). 

In less than a hundred years after the time of Henry VIII. the 
royal shield was to be changed again, upon the accession of James I., 
when the three leopardst were joined to the "one lion". Andrew 
Melville's epigram on this combination — more arduous than the union 
of the Roses — is worth citation : 

** Macte Leoni uni tres unus junge Leones, 

Ceu Rosa juncta Rosae est tma ab utroqne atavo : 
Si geminas junxiaae Roaaa res magna, Leones 
Ifazima res ani jungefetergeminos".— Z)f/i7. Poet, Scot, il, p. 118. 

* Ariosto, in his Orl. Pur. (z. 77), refisrs to the English blazon as the *' bandiera grande, 
Ch' insieme pon la Piordiligi e t Pardi *'. 

t The leopards, or, as some call them, becanse not spotted, the lions, of England, 
were originally personal to the Plantagenet kings ; and their adoption by these kings, as 
explained more folly in the Heraldic Section, Part IL, was an inheritance from their ancient 
dmcal dominions on the Continent— vie, Normandy and Cayenne. It is no ungracious 
paradog, therefore, to assert that the three lions do not belong primarily to England, except 
in so for as it was an appanage to Normandy, and so a conquered country. It is, there- 
fore, matter of inquiry whether, apart from this, England, as "the land of the Angles," 
can claim to possess national Arms of her own, now cognisable.— The continental and 
ducal (not regal) origin of the three lions is important to remember, as throwing light on 
the question once keenly debated as to the precedence between Lilies and Lions in the 
shields of Edward III. and his successors down to George III. Historically, the Lilies, as 
regaf, should ha^ the first quarter of the shield. The three Lions have, however, now 
become national for England to the exclusion of the family arms of the Tudor, Stewart, 
and Brunswick dynastiea — Scotland, on the other hand, has possessed a national cog- 
nisance dating from the Celtic dynasty in the time of William the Lion, and neither the 
fomily arms of Baliol, nor of Bruce, nor of Stewart were ever in a position to become the 
arms oC Seotland.'— A very early notice of the blaaon of England is that found in the 
Noman^Frsneh poem, *' The Siege of Caerlaverock '* (p. 23),. m which it is thus described 
(Nicolas's English translation) : 

" In his (t.r., Edward I.*s) banner were three leopards {trois luparti) courant of fine 
gold^ set on red, fierce, haughty, and cruel ; thus placed to signify that, like them, the king 
is dreadfol, fierce, and proud to his enemies, for his bite is slight to none who inflame his 
anger, not but his kindness is soon rekindled towards such as seek his friendship or submit to 
his power "•— " Lkms,*' in Shakspere, if we may rely on I. Hen. VL, I., 5, 28, 


No. 5.] V. Segt0 S^nomrn. 

Christiern IL, King, 1513 ; dethroned for tyranny, 1523. 

On the dethroning of this prince, who was the Nero of the North, 
Frederick I., Duke of Holstein, his uncle, succeeds, and he reigns from 
1523 to 1534. 

The name is spelt Christiern ("Miles Christi") by the kings 
themselves till about 1550, when Christian appears (Pinkerton, History 
of Scotland, i., p. 262). 

Denmark is here in a more prominent place than we might ante- 
cedently expect, but it is to be remembered — (i) that in the time of 
Knut (Canute) it was the head of an almost Oceanic monarchy ; (2) 
at this period the treaty of Colmar was still in force, and Norway 
and Sweden were under the Danish crown, having no proper inde- 
pendent existence. In 1523, however, Gustavus Vasa appears, and 
Sweden becomes free. Another reason for the exalted position of 
the Danish king among the sovereigns may be due to the circum- 
stance that the then reigning sovereign, James V., is grandson of a 
Danish princess (Margaret), Queen of James IIL 

No. 6.] VI. S^giB Bnsarte.'^ 

Louis IL Reign, 1516-26. 

The kingdom of the Magyars is the sole non-Aryan kingdom in the 
European family, as here acknowledged. The reigning prince, in a 
war with Soliman, is defeated at the battle of Mohac2, where he 
perished, in 1526. He was also King of Bohemia, in whose history he 
is known as Louis I. After his demise, Hungary and Bohemia fell to 
Ferdinand, brother of Charles V, and Archduke of Austria, who survived 
his brother and became Emperor, bringing into the Austrian family 
the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary. Tlie defeat of the now reigning 

* This is the first territorial title among the kings, and such are all the titles henceforth 
to the end of this series. The dominant races previously memorised have kings who take 
designation as rulers of peopUi, It is noteworthy that the feo^Us are all toward the north 
or west. The Urritories are toward the east and south-east of Europe. 


prince (Louis II.) had the further effect of bringing the Turks into the 
heart of Hungary, and gave them possession of Buda for one hundred 
and sixty years, till 1686, when the deliverance of that city came as 
the sequel to the memorable raising of the siege of Vienna by Sobieski 
in 1683. (On this King, see Carlyle's Frederick^ vol. i., p. 234.) 

VII. 9e8t0 9<^^S^^^- [No. 7. 

Emmanuel (Manoel), the Fortunate. Reign, 1495-1521. 
JoAM or John III., son of Emmanuel, 1521-1557. 

In the reign of Manoel, Vasco de Gama performed the exploit 
which gave Portugal a foremost place at once in maritime annals and, 
through Camoens, in epic song. The circumnavigation of the Cape 
was the culmination of a series of brave enterprises, which may be 
taken as an apt allegory of the progress of the human mind, moving 
on from vision to vision, like the Portuguese mariners from cape to 
cape, till some great discovery is revealed. 

Among the poems of Buchanan is one to Joam III. : " Ad Joannem 
III., Lusitaniae et Algarbiae regem, Carmen*'. 

VIII. 9e8t0 Jlrajome. [No. 8. 

Carlos L, as heir of Fernando (the great Ferdinand of Aragon). 

(See No. I.) 

IX. 9e{i0 Cjnrrt (? Cypri).« [Na 9. 

(Cyprus absorbed by Venice since 1489, and retained till invested by 

the Turks in 1570.) 

The kingdom of Cyprus dates from the Crusades, and the sword 
of England had the creation of it. '' By a strange concatenation of 

* In the Dhtmal of (kcwnnis (Bann* CI.),— a work oontemporaiy with James Vir-it 
appean that a king, caUiag himaelf of Cepres. had come to Scotland, and he may have come 
in contact with Biabop Donhar. Under gth February, 153a, we have thia entry: ** Against 
the whiUc (taxes) waa Qopiu^ Bishop of Aberdeen. In thia mene time the king of C^m 
caoae to Scothmd, and with him twa servantis in sopport, becans he was baneist out of his 
awin coontrie**' 



events/* says Gibbon (vii., p. 286), " the sword of ottr English Richard 
bestowed the kingdom of Cyprus on the house of Lusignan, a rich 
compensation for the loss of Jerusalem." 

The Lusignans continued to hold it for three centuries. 

Their direct line ended with the death of John III. of Lusignan 
in 1458, who left it to his daughter Charlotte, his sole legitimate 
child, who married Louis, second son of Duke of Savoy, and so 
brought into the house of Savoy the claim to be kings of Cyprus 
and Jerusalem.* 

A rival claim against that of Charlotte was set up by her illegiti- 
mate brother James. By marriage with a daughter of the Venetian 
merchant-house Comaro, who was adopted as a daughter of St. Mark, 
he conveyed the claim of kingship to the Commonwealth of Venice. 
Cyprus was therefore one of the three sovereignties whose banners used 
to float on holidays on the three masts in the square of St. Mark's. 
(The other two royalties were Candia and Morea.) 

No. 10.] X. |^t0 ^abatre. 

Henri d'Albrbt (or Henri II. of Navarre), King, 15x6-1555. 

The kingdom of Navarre originally extended over territory on both 
sides of the Pyrenees. But in 1512 Fernando (or Ferdinand) the 
Catholic reft away the province on the Spanish side, and annexed it to 
Aragon. The territory on the north side of the Pyrenees, with Pau for 
its capital, remained a separate sovereignty. The Queen of this Henri 
was the celebrated and witty Marguerite of Valois, sister of Francis I. 
She was married to Henri d'Albret in 1527, and died in 1549. Their only 
child and heir was Jeanne (or Joan), who married Antoine de Bourbon, 
Duke of Venddme, and the issue of their union was the great Henri 

* " The Duke of Savoy is by Plus V. declared to be the first Prince of Italy, and in the 
Chappels of France, Venice, Ac., gets the first stall, and, as King of Cyprus, pretends to be 
ranked among the crowned heads. But it may be admired, why the Duke of Savoy takes the 
tiUe of Royal Highness; for if be be King of Cyprus, he ought to have the title of Majesty; 
and if he be not King, Royal Highness is not due to him.** (Sir George Mackenzie, Of Prut- 
dincy, ch. iv. See also ihidim^ ch. iv^ on relation to Venice and its claims to the sove- 
reignty of Cyprua)^It is not an improbable speculation to suppose that this dormant title of 
the house of Savoy may yet assume some day a concrete form in the dhwuemiutt of the future 
as to the destinies of the East. 


Quatre (Spenser's F. Q., v., ii, 44-9)1 who rose to the throne of France, 
and so mex^d Navarre in the monarchy of France. (It is remarkable 
that probably the greatest royal inheritances in modem times have come 
through the lucky name of " Margaret *'. Both the Bourbons and the 
Stewarts have this among the many coincidences marking their historic 
destiny, that they both got their huge second inheritance through a 
princess of that name.) 

Buchanan has a fine tribute to Marguerite of Valois ('' lambon/' 
i. II), which the classical reader will admire. 

XL Segui ^ioUe. [No. ix. 

Carlo. (See N6s. I. and VIII. of this series.) 

The kingdom of Sicily dates from 1130, when Roger,* great Count 
of Sicily, obtained or assumed regal title (Gibbon, vii., p. 133 ; on this 
addition to the nine monarchies of Latin Europe, see p. 29). Sicily had 
been united to Aragon since the time of the Sicilian Vespers (1282), 
and hence it is under the same political rule as No. VIII. 

XIL Slegis ^clmue. [No. 12. 

SiGisiiUND I., sumamed the Great, King, 1506-1548. 

The Jagellon dynasty, to which Sigismund belongs, began in 1400, 
on the death of Hedvige, the Queen of Poland, who had married Jagel- 
lon, the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Before this union Jagellon was a 
Pagan, but thereafter a convert to Christianity. Jagellon continued on 
the Polish throne after Hedvige's death, and his dynasty ended with 
Sigismund II. in 1572, when the monarchy, nominally or theoretically 
elective, became practically so, with consequences that ended in extinc- 
tion and the finis Polaniae. (The Horse, so prominent in this shield, is 
not such a favourite in Heraldry as are other animals, such as the Lion 
and the Boar. The description of the war-horse in the Book of Job 
might lead us to expect otherwise. Guillim, however, gives the reason 

* " Apulns et Calaber, Siculus mihi servit et Afer,*' was the proud inscription, after his 
reduction of Tunis, on the sword of Roger, afterwards first King of Sicily. 


—viz., that *' the Horse's service and strength [in war] is principally 
by help of his Rider, whereas the Lion's is his own**. The Horse is, 
therefore, only an auxiliary.) 

No. 13.] XIIL Seats 9ohtmxt. 

Louis L (also King of Hungary, 1516-1526). 
(See No. VL) 

No. 14.] XIV. 9iid0 llnrbeme. 

Charles, Duke of Bourbon and Vend6me, grandfather of Henri IV. 

It was toward this house that the Scottish Cofurt was now look- 
ing for a matrimonial alliance to secure a consort to their youthful 
sovereign ; which perhaps accounts for the presence here of a iukedom 
of France. " Mary, daughter of the Duke of Venddme, of the Bourbon 
branch of the royal family, was finally selected as the intended Queen 
of James V." (J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, iii., p. 349). (The 
alliance however did not take place, and the king married — (i) the 
short-lived Magdalene of France, (2) Mary of Lorraine.) 

No. 15.] XV. 9ttd0 SUtm. 

Duke of (Gubldrbs) Gbldbrland.* 

The Queen of James II. was Mary of Gueldres, a circumstance 
which may account for the presence of this continental dukedom of 
the Empire. 

No. 16.] XVI. 'Qeterie Jlberbirnit. 

The City op Old Abbrdbbn. 

Created a Civitas and Burgh of Barony by a charter of James IV., 
August 2ist, 1498 (Regisirum Episc. Abcrd., ii., p. 303). ''The arms 
are a pot of lilies (which by their whiteness are an emblem of chastity), 

* A glimpse of the fiunily connection between Oelderluid and Scotland la fMind in 
"Alexander, Albania dux, germanm regiB, qni tmne in Qtldna cwm OMniailo digthat, 
reductua" (Boece, VikeEpisc., p. 31). 


the town being under the patronage of the Virgin Mary *' (CoUec- 

iiom on the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, Sp. CL, p. 152). 

*«* With the above list of sovereign powers in Europe at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, compare the old list of kings ol 
the Latin world in the beginning of the twelfth, immediately before 
the creation of the Norman kingdom of Sicily — 










Consult also Gibbon's incisive note 100 thereon, in chap. Ivi. (vii., p. 
133). The Emperor is not here named, being assumed to be the 
paramount ruler. Remark also that Scotland is in the array, but 
not Ireland, which indeed (as being within the domain of the King 
of England, who is ** Lord of Ireland," or Dominus Hybemie), does 
not rank anywhere as a national unit. Note also, in this earlier list 
of potentates* the absence of the Slavonic kingdoms oi Poland and 
Bohemia, whose recency or remoteness may account for their com- 
paratively inferior position — ^last of the kingdoms — in our heraldic 
regal series. 

A passing reference is here due to the singular and quaint List 
of Potentates' at the dose of the Cartulary of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen, 
a transcript of which appears in the volume recently issued by the 
New Spalding Club. The full interpretation of this List, which is in 
Norman-French, and contains Saracen and Heathen as well as 
Christian Powers, awaits- further investigation. 



Sbribs op Scottish Tbmporal Diqnitibs— Southbrn Row. 

No. 17.] I. Segie CelfttnbttuB. * 

Jambs V, Reign, 1513-1542. 

The King, contemporary with this scutcheon of " the Ruddy Lion, 
ramped in gold,"t is James V., the son of the ill-fated but most 
gallant of all the Stewarts, James IV. How the father was betrayed, 
by his chivalrous promise to the French Queen, into the war waged 
with England against his own brother-in-law, and ending in the disaster 
of Flodden in 1513, belongs to a most tragic crisis of Scottish histoiy.t 

* The tiUe CMiudo belongs to Ute Latin (Codex Thiodos.), but iu Engltah Smid 
CiUitudi it vecy current in the Scoutsh poets of the contemporary period, such as Danbar 
and Lindsay, to denote the king's •< Highness," fix which afterwards «' Majesty " became the 
current style. See note on p. 17. 


t Sir David Lindsay (** Testament of PapyngOt" Works, L, p. Si) has haU-a-doseo fine 
stanzas on the virtues and sad fate of ** King James the Feird," where, among other tributes, 
occurs the following: 

** And of his court through Europe sprang the &me 

* Of lusty lords and lovesome ladies young ; 
Triumphand tourneys, Justing, and luiightly game, 

With all pastime according for ane king : 
He was the gloire of prinoelie governyng '*. 

As a tribute firom his conquering foes we may take the proud lines (Surrey*8 Works, 
Nott*s Ed., pb 27), of the poet Surrey, his conqueror's grandson : 

** How can ye thus beat a lion of the race, 
That with his paws a crowtud king devoured in the place ? ** 
alluding either to the " Lion " in the Norfolk crat, or to the **Red Lion" of Mowbray, appear- 
ing in the scutcheon of that Surrey who gained the victory over the ** Red Lion Rampant '*. 
The counterpart heraldically to this UUrairy blason is the charge which was added to 


The elder prince has been variously judged both by contemporaries and 
by posterity. From the pen of Erasmus we have a panegyric upon 
his accomplishments.* Of his linguistic proficiency the Spanish am- 
bassador of the period has left an interesting record.t He was the last 
of our Scottish kings who could speak the language of " Albyn/' the 
older speech of the commonalty of Scotland, such as it had sounded 
in the ancient time^ while the Stewart was still a Fitz-Alan, and, in 
harmony with this, he is known to have cherished kindly intentions 
towards the Gaelic portion of his subjects (Tytler, v., p: 131). Whence 
we may infer his ready patronage of the designs of Bishop Elphfnston, 
which resulted in the establishment of a University in Aberdeen, with 

the silver bend of the Norfolk Anns, and which still continues therein, being given after 
Flodden as augmentation. The bend is charged with a reminiscence of the &tal day — *Uhe 
royal shield of Scotland/' having **a demi-lion rampant pierced with an arrow*'. To this 
allusion is made also in lines attributed to Surrey : 

** That I^yon placed on our silver bend, 
Which as a trophy beautifies our shield ". 

The ribald lines of Skelton are those of a churl : 

** Whatever they say, 
Jemmy is ded 
And closed in led, 
That was their own kynge ".— Dyoe's SkeltoHt I, p. zSa. 

At the Heralds' College, London, where the Duke of Norfolk retains the style of 
Hereditary Marshal of England, are still preserved relics of Flodden— viz., the swoid and 
dagger of James IV., also— the fiUefiil gift— the turquoise ring sent him by the French 
queen {Old tmd Niw London^ vol. i., p. 300). 

* *« Brat ea corporis specie ut vel procul Regem posses agnosoere. Ingenii vis mira, incre- 
dibilis rerum omnium cognitio, invicU anuni magnitudo, vere regia pectoris sublimitas, summa 
oooutas, efiiisissima liberalitas. Denique nulla virtus erat quia magnum deceret principem. 
In qua itte non dc excelleret, nt inimicorum qooque sufiragio laudaretur."— Erasmus, in his 
"Adagia," on ** Spartam nactus es" (quoted in Dr. Joseph Robertson's InventorUs of Mary, 
p. 17). 

t Don Pedro de Pnebla reports to his master as follows : 

"He [the King] speaks the following foreign languages: Latin very well; French, 
German, Flemish, Italian, and Spanish. His own Scotch language is as difiTerent from English 
as Aragonese from Castilian. The king speaks, besides, ihi language of ike savages who Uve 
in some parts of Scotland and on the islands. It is as dtfiTerent from Scotch as Biuayan is 
from Castilian " {]. H. Burton, History of Scotland, iii., p. 2x3). We can forgive the ambas- 
aador's representation of the Highlanders because of the felicity of his phUological analogies, 
which Bopp himself oould not describe more accurately or felicitously. (A signature of 
James IV. is found in Kilravock volume of Spalding Club, p. 179.) 


the special view to benefit the remoter purts of hit dominion. (See 
Preamble of Deed of ErectioUi Fasti AbtrdotieHseSf pp. 3, 4.) The 
historian Pinkerton has a sketch of his character {Hisiofy of Scailand, 
iu, p. 2)1 and elsewhere he describes him acrimoniously as a monarch 
" whose faults were few but fatal, whose virtues were many but use- 
less ". The severity of this judgment ought to be modified when it 
is remembered that he not only founded the third of the Soottidi 
Universities, but encouraged the introduction into Scotland of the 
art oi printing, *' that art which," as Pinkerton confesses, *' is the art 
that preserves all the others". 

Passing from the father to the son, we find that James V. must 
have been still a minor when this heraldic shield was emblazoned in 
his honour. He was bom in April, 1512, in the palace of Linlithgow, 
being the third son of James IV. and Maif^aret Tudor (his two elder 
brothers having died in infancy). One of the most notable facts in his 
history was the circumstance that in 1537 the then Pope, Paul IIL, 
bestowed on him the title of ^ Defender of the Christian Faith " — an 
appellation, however, which James V. never used. (See StaMm B^. 
Scat.9 p. cxxxviii. ; also J. H. Burton^ Histaiy of Scotland, iii., p. 343.) 
His character is darkly drawn by Knox in the History of Reformation. 
Compare Pinkerton's estimate {History of Seothmd, ii., pp. 292-3) ; also 
that of William Drummond, pp. 114-5 (edition of Drummond's Works, 
Ed. 171X}. 

Few monarcha have received mcure frequent homage frt>m contem* 
porary poets. 

I. Ariosto, according to Drummond* (iM<., p. 115), compliments 
him under the name of Zerbino, Prince of Scotland : 

«• ZcKbiao. di beUusa t di vstora 
Soprm totti i tigaort emiiMate, 
Dt virtil eaempio e di bdlexia raro*\ 

The fine tribute in OrL Fur.^ x. 84, is interesting heraldically, 
thou^ not faultless in the representation : 

** Vedl trs dne ontoomi fl gian leooe, 
Clie la wpmUi d*argeiilo tra Mlla xampa: 
* Dovbt 1mm been cast on this view of Dnnmand, aiiiee Arioito paUiahed die Orlomdo 
in 1516, hifon James V. luid il^Mm any quality er peoaitee (Mickle in note on Hook's 
Ariosto, xiii^ 1. 39). 


Queir h del Re di Scozia il gonfalone ; 
II 8U0 figliuol Zerbino ivi s* accampa. 
Non h un si bello in tante altre persone ; 
Naiura ilfece e poi ruppe la stampa ; 
Non e, in cut tal virtu, tal grazia luca, 

tal pasaanza ; ed i di Roscia Duca.** 

" Yon lion, placed two unicorns between. 
That rampant* with a silver sword is seen, 
Is for the King of Scotland's banner known ; 
Zerbino there encamps, his gallant son. 
No form so graceful can your eyes behold. 
For Nature made him and then broke the mould. 
The title of the Duke of Ross he bears, 
No chief with him for dauntless mind compares.** — Hoole's Ariosto, 

2. Ronsard, who in his boyhood was page to James V., and spent 
some time at Holyrood, has the following tribute : 

** Ce roy d'Ecosse estoit en la fleur de ses ans ; 
Ses cheveux non tondus comme fin or liusans, 
Cordonnez et cuspez flotans dessus sa face, 
Et sur son col de laict luy donnoit bonne grace. 
Son Porto estoit royal, son regard vigoureux, 
De vertus et d*honneur et de guerre amoureux. 
La douceur et la force, illustroient son visage, 
Si que Venus et Mars en avoient fait partage." 

3. Sir David Lindsay's kindly reminiscence of the King's boyish 
years is too well known to need citation, containing the familiar lines 
(" The Complaynt to the King ") : 

'* How as ane chapman beiris his pack, 

1 bure thy Grace upon my back,** &c. 

Also the Stanza in the dedication of " The Dreme " : 

** Quhen thou wes young, I bure thee in my arme 
Full tenderly, till thou begouth to gaing, 
And in thy bed oft happit thee fiiU warme 
* With lute in hand, syne sweetly to thee sung,** &c. 

* In the literature of Heraldry there is a pleasing morceau on the royal arms of Scot- 
land in Francis Douglas's East Coast of Scotland. It is quoted at length in Book of Bon- 
Accord, p. 217. According to Cosmo Innes (Sketches, p. 113), the arms first appear on a seal 
of Alexander II. about 1235, and ao Seton (Scottish Heraldry, 192, 425). John H. Burton 
deals with this subject in vol. ii., p. 65, of his History of Scotland, 



No. i8.] IL <^att£ti00iitte JR»t]pitete.* 

St. Margaret, Queen of Malcolm (III.) Canmore. Bom 1046 ; died 
1093. Canonised in 1249 by Pope Innocent IV. 

The insertion of this name and shield in the place where we should 
expect the presence of some living queen, either reigning or queen 
dowager, is a feature of some note. It was not, however, till 1537 that 
James V. obtained the hand of the short-lived French princess, Mag- 
dalene, and thereafter came to espouse his more famous Queen, Mar>' 
of Lorraine. The fact of the King being at this time a minor at once 
explains the absence of a reigning queen, but it is difficult to explain 
the omission of the living Queen Dowager, Margaret Tudor of England, 
the mother of the reigning Scottish sovereign. It is true that Margaret 
Tudor was not very prudent or fortunate during her widowhood, and on 
one occasion, presumably later than this blazon, caused Gavin Dunbar 
to be put in ward (1524), so rendering herself obnoxious in his eyes. 
Over and above the lurking jealousy felt towards the English ascend- 
ency, which she represented, a feeling of which we have seen traces 
in the previous series, the vagrancy of her affections may account 
for her being thus entirely ignored. That she acted very imprudently f 

* The shield of St. Margaret is the only one of the forty-eight that can be aatd to 
bear a tinge of sentimental **&nta8y*\ All the reat are veritable, and legitimate, being 
either of living, or recently living, personages, or of then existing corporations. This 
shield alone goes outside the then "visible diurnal sphere". On the whole, it remains 
true that there is a notable and creditable absence of the fantastic in this heraldic roll, 
especially when it is compared with the Heraldic MS. (lately reprinted) of Sir David 
Lindsay, who, in a similar array, introduces the arms of Prester John (viz., the Cruci- 
fixion), those of each of the Three Kings of Cologne, besides the "Nine Worthies '* — ^three 
Jewish, three Pagan, and three Christian. The blazoned book of Sir David is, however, 
considerably subsequent to the erection of this roof; and hence, we may say, the keen 
sense of the Aberdonian for the actual, rejecting all ** nonsense,** is, in our heraldic roll, 
thus early manifest. 

t Compare Sir David Lindsay on the chequered and descending personal fortunes of 
this Queen Margaret (Tudor) (" Testament of Papyngo,** Works, vol. i., p. 83) : 

*' Quho was more heych in honour elevate 
Nor was Margareit, our heych and mychtie princess ? 
Sic power was to hir appropriate, 
Of King and Realme she was govemoress : 
Yit come one change, within one schorte proces ; 


IS clear from the statements vouched for by the best historians, 
that " Margaret Tudor divorces Angus, flirts with Albany, and has 
Henry Stuart as her paramour" (Pinkerton, History of Scotland, ii. 245). 
Sir Walter Scott, in his Tales of a Grandfather, chap. 26, has the 
sarcastic witticism, " It was the fate or the folly of Queen Margaret 
to form rash marriages. Like her brother, Henry VIH. of England, 
who tired of his wives, Mafgaret seems to have been addicted to tire of 
her husbands; but she had not the power of cutting the heads from the 
spouses whom she desired to be rid of." 

She died at Methven, near Perth, 24th November, 1541 (J. H. 
Burton, iii., p. 363), and was buried in the Carthusian Church of St. 
John's Town {i.e., Perth), near the tomb of James I. At the time 
of her death very little anticipation was entertained of the great 
succession, which, through her, was to fall in 1603 to the Stewart 
line.* Yet it is interesting to note that, according to Lord Bacon, 
the shrewd eye of her father, Henry VH. of England, saw the possi- 
bilities in the future that actually became realities. (See the passage 
in Bacon's Life of Henry VIL, toward the close, "The same year 
were the espousals," &c.) 

Regarding the saintly and sainted Margaret who is acknowledged 
in the heraldic array, it is noteworthy that she was chosen, with the 
approval of Pope Clement X., Patroness of Scotland,t and had a peculiar 
pre-eminence in connection with the Royal Family as well of England as 

That peirle preclare, that lusty plesand Quene 
Lang tyme durst nocht in to the Court be sene." 

To the ascending personal fortunes of this Queen the other great Scottish poet of the 
age had on three several occasions dedicated the early incense of his muse. Witness " The 
Thistle and the Rose " of William Dunbar ; also his other gem of Scottish poetry on the 
occasion of the Queen's visit to Aberdeen, in May, 15 11, with the refrain : 

** Be blyth and blisful, Brugh of Aberdeen ". 

A third tribute is the poem (No. Ixxxvii. in Small's Edition of Dunbar, Scottish Texts) 
beginning, ** Gladethe thoue Queyne of Scottis regioun," in which she is celebrated as the 
*' Mergreit," t.^., pearl above all the precious stones, which he enumerates ; also as the 
" Roys, red and quhit, resplendent of colour ". 

* The Banquo vision of the unborn kings ** That two gold balls and triple sceptres 
cany" (" Macbeth,*' IV. i, which is Shakspere's great allusion to the Succession), belongs to 
the year 1606* 

t See note of Dr. Gregor in Rolland's Court of Venus, p. 205 (Scottish Texts). 


of Scotland. Bom in the year 1046 in Hungary,* where her father was 
then an exile, she was sister of the unfortunate Edgar Atheling and 
grandniece of the Confessor, and was married to Canmore in 1067. 
Besides being a Queen in Scotland, she was also the mother of three 
Kings (Edgar, Alexander I., and the saintlyt David). Her name 
concentrates all that is impressive and imposing in a great historic 
memory, surcharged, however, with a momentous change in the for- 
tunes, political and ecclesiastical, of her adopted country. 

It is in her time and under her influence that the centre of political 
gravity shifts from the Celtic side of Scotland to the Saxon side, and 
Dunstaffnage and the West may be said to yield Anally to Dunferm- 
line { and the East. Thenceforth we hear no more of the burial of 
the Scottish kings as taking place at (Hy or) lona. Malcolm (III.) 
Canmore, unlike the two previous Malcolms, is interred at Dunferm- 
line, as also his Queen, and the Dalriadic associations of Royalty 
with the West are entirely broken. The last known Culdee or Gaelic 
Bishop of St. Andrews dies in the same year with Malcolm (III.) Can- 
more (E. W. Robertson, Scotland, i., p. 174), and the Culdees thereafter 
become a shadow in history. In the Royal Family the nomenclature 
is no longer Celtic; among the eight children of Margaret (six sons 
and two daughters), not one bears a Celtic name (Dr. Grub, Ecclesias- 
tical History of Scotland, i., p. 203). What is more to be regretted is 
that the old ecclesiastical associations were greatly disturbed and 
obscured, and the Celtic Church of St. Columba, which had long 
been fading away from internal decay, became all but obliterated 
under the influence that radiated from Queen Margaret. The result, 
no doubt, was greater organic unity, a new and revived spiritual life 
and activity, and more of architectural and artistic omateness than 
the Celtic period can show, but these advantages were purchased at 
the cost of the independence of the Scottish Church, which came more 
completely under subjection to the See of Rome. (On Queen Mar- 

* '* Dochter to Edward, prince and heretour to England, and of Agatha, dochter to 
Salomone, King of Wngarie ** (Sir David Lindsay, in hit Heraldic Manuscript^ Edinb., 1878). 

t ** Saintly," for he was never actually canonised (J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, 
ii., p. 4). 

t Quein*sftXTy and St. Margaret's Hope are names marking the footsteps of Margaret in 
the region near Dunfermline. 


garet as the centre of this great '' revolution/' see the very favourable 
remarks of Joseph Robertson, Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxxv., p. 116.) 

The following is the summary of Dr. John Stuart regarding this 
Queen in his Book of Deer (Pref., p. cxi.) : 

" The portrait of the Saxon princess, as it is drawn in the pages of 
Turgot, her friend and spiritual adviser, commends her to our admira- 
tion as one of the purest, the most humble, and beneficent of women, 
while, as a queen, she appears to have combined with her personal graces 
admirable majesty of conduct and true love of her adopted country ". 
(Consult further regarding St. Margaret,* Statuta EccL Scot., i., p. xxi. ; 
Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii., p. 344.) 

The life of Queen Margaret, by Turgot, is the main source for the 
personal details of her history. Bishop Turgot, however, was not her 
sole spiritual adviser; she had the honour of enjoying likewise the 
counsel of Lanfranc, who, next to Anselm, and apart from Becket, is 
probably the greatest name in the roll of the Archbishops of Canterbury. 

The armorial bearings which are here given to St. Margaret are 
those assigned to Edward the Confessor. These arms, however, are 

* It must be owing to the influence which centres round the personality of Margaret 
that her name has been taken as a sobriquet for the Scottish nation, and hence the wits of 
Queen Anne's time speak accordingly of " Northern Peg," the sister of " John Bull **. — It is 
throagh this Queen, as mother of Matilda, Queen of Henry I., that our Queen Victoria is 
directly descended from Alfred the Great. The early links are : 


Edward the Elder. 

Edmund the Elder. 

Edmund Ironside 
(Half-brother of Edward the Confessor). 

Edward the Exile. 

(Sister of Edgar Atheling, grand-daughter of Edmund Ironside). 

(Queen of Henry I., a.d. xioo, whose union eventually fused Saxon and Norman royal blood, 

in the person of Henry II.)* 


an ex post fhcio creation (Arms of Attribution). Although not contem- 
porary with King Edward, they are still an ancient assignation, and 
there is the further interest attaching to them that the quartering of 
these insignia of the Confessor with his own Norfolk arms proved fatal 
to young Surrey in IS47. It may be further noted that the sainted 
Margaret ha.s here an ordinary warrior's or prince's shield. The com- 
paratively modem practice of giving ladies' arms in lozenge form (except 
when queens regnant in their own right), though earlier in English 
heraldry, is in Scotland, as a rule (apart from the instance of the Eng- 
lish Joan of Beaufort, queen of James I. of Scotland, in 1439 — Seton's 
Heraldry^ p. 208), later than this ascription. In Sir David Lindsay's 
Heraldic MS., St. Margaret has the lozenge form of shield in common 
with the other queens, also the ordinary impalement of arms. In this 
heraldic ceiling, however, the introduction of a single or solitary instance 
of the lozenge would have been felt to disturb the symmetry. 

No. 19.] III. Jlibame purie. 

John,* Duke of Albany. 

This prince of the blood-royal is grandson of James II., being " son 
to Alexander, Duke of Albany, the brother of James III." (William 
Drummond, p. 81). The older branch bearing this title lasted only 
two generations, having come to an end in the execution of Murdoch 
and his sons, at the Heading Hill of Stirling, 1425. The house of 
Albany, to which, under its second creation, this Duke belonged, plays 
a part in Scottish history somewhat like the house of Orleans ih that 
of France : both houses being of the blood-royal, but each antagonistic, 
either openly or covertly, if not disloyal, to the main regal stem. 

"John, Duke of Albany," says Pinkerton {History of Scotland, 
ii., p. 133), " son of that Alexander who has been seen attempting to 
wrest the Scottish sceptre from his brother, James III., whom he 
termed a bastard, cannot be supposed to have been warmly attached to 
the royal race." On the 13th November, 1516, Parliament declares 
" Johne Duke of Albany, lauchfull sone of the said Alex' and dame 

* " CarissimuB consanguineus noster, Johanes Dux Albante, marchie, Garioth, Bolonie 
et Alvernie comes, Vallts Annandie et Mannie dominua." (Thti designation is found in a 
letter of James V. to the Pope, zst May, 1517 ; cf, Theiners' Vetera Monumenta^ p. 520.) 


Agnes of Bouloigne, is the secund persoun of this realme ". In his 
administration during the young King's minority, he never forgot his 
French birth, signing himself, accordingly, Jehan, and he was a 
A^Tetched ruler. Hence he quitted the country on 20th May, 1524, 
'' loaded with the execrations^ of a people oppressed by the exactions 
and stung with the ignominy of his government ". 

Only in Sir David Lindsay do we find anything like a slightly 
favourable breeze of contemporary opinion about this Duke, viz., in the 
" Papyngo," where he is styled " the prudent Duke of Albanie " ; and 
Douglas, in his Peerage of Scotland, characterises him, strangely, as a 
" wise, brave, and virtuous prince ". 

IV. JRarchiar. fiomitie. L^o. 20. 

Dunbar, Earl of March, f 

The last of the Dunbars who held this title was George, eleventh 
Earl, subjected to forfeiture in 1434. The next we hear of the title is 
its bestowal on Alexander, Duke of Albany, in 1478 ; but, he having 
also forfeited it through rebellion, the dignity reverted to the Crown. 
James VI. conferred it on Robert Stewart, second son of the Earl 
of Lennox. In the Scottish Peerage the name survives in the title of 
Earl of Wemyss and March. The title of Earl of March also appears 
among the honours of the Lennox stem of the ducal house of Gordon. 

This is the highest in rank among the then existing Scottish 
earldoms, but it was one of those that had been crushed by James L, 
as is referred to with more detail under (Mar) No. VIII. (On CospatricJ 
(usually explained as Cotnes Patricius), who got from Malcolm III. (Can- 
more) the castle of Dunbar, and became the ancestor of the noble family 
of Dunbar, long prominent among the barons of the South as Earls of 
Lothian or March, see E. W. Robertson, Scotland, &c., i., p. 138.) 

* In Skelton, the English contemporary laureate, will be found scurrilous satires on 
this Duke of Albany and on Scotland at same time. Medals in honour of this Duke appear 
in Mr. Cochran-Patrick*s Medals of Scotland, pp. 35, 36. 

t The designation from the *' March," or " Marches " (of which there were three— East, 
Middle, and West), was not confined to one frunily, and hence there is liability to confusion. 
Albany we find declared "Earl of March" (W. Dnimmond, p. 83), and "Lord Home, in 
James IV.'s time, is warden of all the Marches " (Pinkerton, ii., p. 93). 

X Gospatric is a rival spelling, well authenticated. 


No. 21.] V. ^orabit Somitie IJanbnlphi. 

The arms of Randolph, Earl of Moray, the same as those illus- 
triously described by Froissart. The title was now held by James 
Stewart, natural son of James IV. by the Lord Kennedy's daughter. 
He was created by letters patent in 1501, and held it till 1544, when, 
by his death without male issue, it reverted to the Crown. After a 
short bestowal upon the Earl of Huntly, it was given to another 
natural son of royalty, viz., James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, 
who plays so prominent a part as the Regent Moray in the time of 
his ill-fated half-sister, Queen Mary. 

The then existing Earl of Moray is here ignored by Gavin Dunbar, 
who gives effect to the older associations binding the title to Randolph, 
the friend of Robert Bruce in the Independence struggle. Being a 
native of the county of Moray and also of the lineage of Randolph, 
Gavin Dunbar was no doubt jealous of the due honour appertaining to 
such an earldom. 

The history of this earldom goes deep into the early annals of Scot- 
land. Among the salient points may be observed, (i) the extinction of 
the Celtic earldom, or rather kingship, in 1130, when David I. crushed 
the rebellion of Angus, Earl of Moray, at the battle of Stracathro 
(Skene's Celtic Scotland, iii., p. 7) ; (2) thereafter, its suppression till the 
time of Bruce, who bestowed it upon his nephew, Randolph; and 
(3) lastly, the struggle for the earldom in the reign of Queen Mary, a 
contest in which the house of Huntly was nearly overthrown. 

No. 22.] VI. pongla0it (!C9miti0. 

Recognition is here given to the first or earliest stem of Douglases,* 
called the " Black " Douglases, who rose into eminence after the time 

* On the *< Bloody Heart " in the Douglas shield, see the ballad of the «' Battle of 
Otterbourne " (Bishop Percy text) : 

*' The blodye harte in the Dowglas arms, 

Hys standerde stode on hye; 
That every man myght fiiU well knowe ; 

By syde stode starres thre. 
The whyte Lyon on the Ynglysh parte, 

Forsoth, as I you sayne, 


of the good Sir James Douglas, Robert Bnice's friend, but at this period 
their fortunes were shattered and broken. The last of these earls was 
James, ninth Earl of Douglas, who, after the misfortunes of his house 
in the rebellion of 1455, escaped to England, and finally retired to 
the Abbey of Lindores, and died a monk in 1488. With him the title 
ended, and there was, therefore, no Earl of Douglas at this period; and 
the title seems here retained only as the shadow of the mighty name.^ 

VII. Jlngttdie (iCamitte. [No. 23. 

ArchibalDi sixth Earl of Angus. Succeeded 1514; died 1556. 

The coat armorial is here not that of the Douglas, the then Earl 
of Angus, one of whose line figures so prominently in '' Marmion,** 
but of the Umfravilles,f who held that earldom a long period before. 
Still, this rank and place, though not the arms, must belong to the 
representative of the Red Douglases of the time — viz., Archibald, t 
sixth Earl of Angus. 

The earldom of Angus passed to the house of Douglas by marriage 

The lucetts and the cresaaunts both ; 
The Skotts &ught them agayne." 

-The hlason is tolerably correct, except that ** Above stode ttarres thre** would now be 
more accurate than " By lyde '\ See the interesting note of Bishop Percy on the heraldry 
of the passage. The date of the battle was 5th August, 1388, but the date of the 
poem was probably under Henry VI., from 1422-61. 

* Compare the lines of Sir David Lindsay, quoted under No. VII., beneath. 

t On the mystic meaning of the "cinque-foil," as betokening the five senses and their 
mastery, as under control, see GuiUim, p. xi6. 

{ The vicissitudes in the fortunes of the house of Douglas, in both ** Black *' and ** Red " 
branches, struck the contemporary age. Witness these lines, in the " Testament of the 
Papyngo " (anno 1530), by Sir D. Lindsay : 

" Qnhart bene the douchty Erlis of Dowglas, 
Quhilkis rqyallie in to this region rang ? [t.r., reigned] 
Forialt, and slane, quhat nedith more proces? 
The Erie of Marche wes merschellit tham amang ; 
Dame Curia thame dulefiillie doun thrang ; 

And now, of lait, quho clam more heych amang us [t./., clomb or climbed] 
Nor did Archebalde, umquhyle the Erie of Angus ? ** 

—Sir D. Lindsay's Work$ (Ed. 1871)^ vol. i., p, 84. 


about 1381. From George, third son of William, first Earl of Doug- 
las, the Douglas house of Angus lineally descended. The bestowal 
upon this house of Angus of the territory appertaining to the Earl of 
Douglas was a political error, which reproduced in the younger line 
the same exorbitant ascendency which had been so harshly repressed 
in the elder line (Pinkerton, i., p. 238). 

The Earl contemporary with Bishop Dunbar is grandson of 
Archibald,* " Bell the Cat," whom he succeeded in the earldom direct, 
owing to the death of the heir, his father, at Flodden. He played an 
important but wayward part in the politics of the time. He married the 
Queen-mother, Margaret Tudor, by whom he had issue. Lady Margaret 
Douglas, afterwards the mother of Damley. In this succession, there- 
fore, Damley was grandson of Angus, and through him the blood of his 
grandfather Angus passed into the line of the Stewart kings who reigned 
in England, beginning with Damley*s son, James Vl.f This Angus, 
the progenitor of kings,' was vain and arrogant, a cruel, thoughtless 
man, and his quarrel with his wife, the Queen Dowager, was one of the 
scandals of a scandalous age. His character is found in W. Drummond 
(p^ 82), where a full-length contemporary portrait of his character is 
given, as painted to Albany by Hepburn, Prior of St. Andrews. 

* The Angus who is •* Bell the Cat ** figures, in 1495, together with William, Bishop 
of Aberdeen, as witness to a royal charter of James IV. {CoUecHons on ike Shirts of Aberdeen 
and Banff ^ p. 263), as "Comes Angusie, Dominus Dowglas ". 

t Earl of Angus + Margaret Tudor. James IV. + Margaret Tudor. 

Lady Margaret Douglas. James V. 

m. Matthew, Earl of Lennox. m. Mary of Lorraine. 

Henry, Lord Damley + Queen Mary Stuart. 

James VI. (I. of England). 

On this descent from Margaret Tudor, Sir Robert Gordon shrewdly remarks {Earldom 
of Sntkerlandf p. 249) : 

**Ther succeeded therfor to the kingdome of England James the Sixth descended 
of the same Margaret, both by father and mother; so that by a rare event in the 
pedigries of Kings, it seemed as iff the divyne Provydence (to extinguish and take away all 
invy and note of a stranger) had doubled upon his person within the circuit of one aige, the 
royal blood of England to both parents". It is worthy of remark that the name of Stewart 
for the English section of the dynasty (James I., Charles I., &c.), comes, not, as most people 
deem or assume, through the mother, Queen Mary, but through the father, Darnley, who also 
was a Stewart. 


VIII, JRarrie ComittA [No. 24, 

The earldom • of Mar, with the old earldoms of Strathem, March, 
and Lennox, had been crushed down by the first James, in order that 
its power and territories might be absorbed under the Crown. Accord- 
ingly, since 1435, the earldom had been in a kind of interregnum, more 
or less of an appanage to the royal house of Stewart. There was a 
strange fatality attending it : " Every one of the three Stewart Earls 
[to whom it was successively granted] was cut off, either in the bud or 
in the flower of his age. The dignity appeared to revolt against con- 
tinued existence except in the lawful line.'' The last Earl of Mar, in the 
period preceding 1520, was John Stewart, third son of James III. He 
died in 1502, at the age of seventeen. (See '* Kalendar of Feme," in 
Bishop Forbes' Kalendars, &c., p. xxviii.) After his death there was no 
attempt at regranting the title, either under James IV. or James V., until 
Queen Mary's reign. After an erroneous temporary concession of it, in 
1561-2, to her illegitimate brother, James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, 
which concession was subsequently withdrawn, Mary ultimately, in 1565, 
restored, or professed to restore, the old line in the family of Erskine, 
heir-general to the ancient earldom. (This earldom, in abeyance in 
1520, seems here retained in this heraldic array, partly for old associa- 
tions, as coming down from the Pictish time, and partly as territorially 
located in the district of Aberdeen.) In later time John, eleventh Earl 
of Mar (attainted in 1716), was made Duke of Mar in 1715 by the 
Chevalier St. George, and through his vaulting ambition the earldom 
came under a cloud, from which, through various Parliamentary vicis- 
situdes, it has only recently emerged.t 

* Ariosto {Orl, Pur,t x. 85 ; also xvi. 55), by a singular second sight of the futnre evanescent 
titular honour, has strangely got hold of, among the Scottish chiefs, a *' Duea di Marra, Che 
nel travaglio porta il leopardo **. 

t Much interest attaches to the fateful history of this earldom, of which there are traces 
as far back as a.d. 1014. The two volumes of the late accomplished Earl of Crawford on the 
Mar peerage-question exhibit the points at issue; and the championship which he has 
bestowed on the claim of the heir-general inheriting through the female goes deep into the 
Scottish history both of the Celtic and Pictish periods. Of this earldom of Mar, Lord 
Crawford says : 

"It is the only survivor of the ancient, I may say prehistoric, mormaerships of 
Scotland : iu extinction would be tantamount to the loss of one of the brightest jewels 
which adorn the British crown, and I cannot consent to see it crushed down unjustly** 


No. 25.] IX. ^iithtrlxit (Somttis. 

Adam (Gordon), fourteenth Earl of Sutherland. 

About the year 15141 Gordons came in to succeed the " Souther* 
lans ". The succession fell, on the death of her brother, John, ninth 
Earl, without legitimate issue, to Elizabeth Sutherland, wife of Adam 
Gordon of Aboyne, and her husband, by the custom of the age, assumed 
the title. From them descended Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland, wife 
of the Marquis of Stafford, who was created in 1833 Duke of Sutherland 
in the peerage of the United Kingdom. The stars of De Moravia in the 
Sutherland shield have thus shone long and far. This Adam, fourteenth 
Earl, died in Aboyne, 1537, and was there buried, leaving the reputation 
of being "a very provident, valiant, and wyse man" (Sir R. Gordon, 
Earldom of Sutherland^ p. 106). The same authority says quaintly 
regarding him : '' This Adam, Earle of Southerland, and his brother, 
Alexander, Earle of Huntlie, did both live to bury their eldest sones, 
gentlemen of singular hope and of great expectation, which office by 
course of nature they should have executed to their fathers" {ibid., p. 183). 

No. 26.] ' X. <Iiafttt)^u Comitif. 

David,^ eighth Earl of Crawford ; Earl from 1517-1542. 

The head of the house of Lindsay succeeded on the death of his 
father, Alexander, seventh Earl, who died in 1517. This earldom 
(dating from 1388) is of note as having been " the third created since 
the extinction of the Celtic dynasty, that of Douglas (created by David 

(Lord Crawford's Earldom of Mar, i., p. 40). [In calling it the only survivor, the noUe 
writer seems to have overlooked the title of Sutherland in this regard.] 

So (i., p. 176) his Lordship quotes Mr. Riddell in corroboration, who says : 
'* Mar is not only now the oldest Scottish earldom by descent, but in many respects the 
most remarkable in the Empire ; for the present Earl [1842] is the direct heir-at-law, through 
a long and illustrious ancestry, of persons who were Earls of Msr ah iniHo, and never known 
under any other character. 

** * Certa retro series' comitum, ' sed cujus origo 
Ocean! cum fonte latet.' " 

* In Sir D. Lindsay's *' Squyer Meldrum " occurs the line : 

** First, David Erll of Craufuird, wist and wicht ". 


11.) having been the second, and that of Moray (created by Robert 
Bruce) the first " (Lives of the Lindsays^ vol. i., p. 97). 

In 1489, the title of Duke of Montrose was bestowed on the then 
fourth Earl of Crawford, but only for the life of the holder (Douglas, 
Peerage of Scotland, p. 158). In the roll of Parliament of 1489 appears 
" Dux de Montross " at the head of the " Barones " or Nobility. 

XI. Iptttitlu (tomili0. [No. 27. 

Alexander, third Earl of Huntly. Died 1523. 

This Earl Alexander, head of the house of Gordon, is the elder 
brother of Adam Gordon, who became Earl of Sutherland by his 
marriage with the heiress of the Sutherlands. (See No. IX.) 

The original familyof Gordon, which proceeded from the Borders, 
bringing thence the name of Huntly, came, in respect to its eldest 
branch, to a close in the male line in the person of Sir Adam Gordon 
(" Dominus de Gordon et Huntly ")• killed at the battle of Homildon 
in 1402. He left an only daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir 
Alexander Seton, second son of Sir William Seton of that Ilk, 
ancestor of the Earls of Winton. This Sir Alexander Seton obtained 
charters in which he was designed " Alexander Seton, Lord of Gordon 
and Huntly". The son of Sir Alexander Seton* and Elizabeth Gordon 

* The representation of the Qordont in the male succession is believed to belong to the 
Gordons of Pitlurg. The titled houses bearing in our day the dukedom and the marquisate are 
known to be properly Setons, and it is still common to hear them spoken of around the firesides 
of the North as the *' Seton-Gordons ". The circumstance is of some note, as we l^arn that the 
great ornament of their name and line, Lord Byron, has left it on record, that his mother {iU€ 
Miss Gordon of Gight) made this a point of pride as to her ancestral line : " My mother," 
says the poet, " was as haughty as Lucifer with her descent from the Stuarts and her right 
line from the old Gordons— not the Sry ton-Gordons, as she disdainfully termed the ducal 
branch ". The poet, when a boy, according to Moore, his biographer, made himself out and 
out a Scotsman [Life, chap. 12), insisting on being called ** George Byron Gordon '*. It is a 
misfortime that the poet did not persevere in this resolve, as in that case the laurel of the 
Muse would have wreathed with yet more conspicuous lustre the great Aberdeenshire name. 
[This shows, I fear, that Mrs. Gordon Byron was indifferently versed in her own pedigree, as 
the Gordons of Gig^t were indubitably "Seton-Gordons," descending from Sir William 
Gordon, son of George, second Earl of Huntly, and the Princess Annabella Stuart. Sir 
William received Gight from his fruher, who acquired it from the daughters of Sir Patrick 
Mattland of Gight.— Note by Correspondent.]— Seal of this third Earl of Huntly, 1503, in 
Laing's Scottish Seaht ii., p. 72. 


is Alexander, Lord Gordon^ who is created Earl of Huntly in 1449, 
and performs at the battle of Brechin the service of "keeping the 
king^s crown on the king's head " by crushing the rebellious movement 
of Earl Crawford, confederate with Earl Douglas. The ducal house of 
Gordon and the marquisate of Huntly, which are afterwards to diverge, 
are as yet both in the loins of this Earl. 

No. 2&] XII. Sixtktbit Comitto. 

Colin, third Earl of Argyle. Succeeded 1513 ; died 1533. 

His father, the previous Earl (Archibald, second Earl), fell at 
Flodden. He is the chief of the Clan Campbell, whose representative 
appears in the roll of the Barons in Robert Bruce's time (see p. 50). 
The Celtic title of MacCailin* Mor signifies " son of the great Colin," 
a chieftain who flourished about the year 1300. 

No. 29.] XIIL (Erolie Comitic 

William, sixth Earl of ErroL Son of the fifth Earl, who perished at 

Flodden in 1513. 

He is the head of the house of Hay,t and hereditary Constable t of 
Scotland. The title is derived from the parish of Enrol, near Perth, 

* " MacCallum More," though now imbedded in our literature, is m mistake in form, 
being one of Sir Walter's venial mistakes in Gaelic transliterations. It is unfortunate that his 
genius has stamped iu indelible impression on what is an error ; for *' Galium ** is Celtic for 
** Malcolm," whereas the potent chief from whom the race of Campbell received its great pro- 
pulsion bore' the name of ** Colin **. (The Gallic ** Cailean '* or •• Cdin ** is said to be only 
another form of " Cuilean,** ** whelp ".) 

t The classical scholar will turn to Buchanan's charming narrative of the story {Hist., 
Book vi.) and will not fed less enjoyment because of the croak of the historical critic as to the 
anachronism of a surname introduced before surnames yet were (E. W. Robertson, Scotland, 
6^., i., p. X17). The reference to ** the Arms ** is in these words : ** Insignia ferenda, uti mos 
est nobilitati, data : scutum argenteum, in cujus solo tria scuu rubricata insunt ". The motto 
of the family, *' Serva jugum,*' alludes to the ** yoke of the plough,*' said to have been used so 
effectually by the husbandman and his two sons.— About this motto a curious local jest was 
once current. Some forty years ago a tavern in the hollow of Spital exhibited the Errol arms 
with the Latin motto in full display. The jocular students of those days regularly rendered 
it accordingly, *< Serve the jug," much to the satisfaction of the Bonifince within. 

X Constable is from the French ** Connesubile," from ** Comes stabuli ". 


and tradition, or rather fable, strives to connect the rise of the family 
with that locality, at the battle of the " Leys o* Luncarty " against the 
Danes about a.d. 980. The legend as to the sudden services in battle of 
the peasant and his sons is the same story as appears in ** Cymbeline *' 
(Act v., Sc. 3) (Lives of Lindsays, Pref., p. xviii.). [It is worthy of 
note that Ariosto {Orl. Fur., x. 87) has heard of the " Conte d'Erelia " 
—4.e., Enrol — ^among the Scottish chiefs.] 

[The real origin of the house must be sought for in the rise of the 
great Norman ''de la Hayes," whose name appears in the roll of 
Battle Abbey, and who were great manorial seigneurs in England 
before David I. brought his Southern friends in such numbers north- 
ward. A protest must, therefore, be entered against the story of Boece, 
who boldly derives them from a " Celtic savage race, yet represented 
as ploughing where ploughs were unheard of for centuries later".] In 
Barbour, the name is always " de la Haye," and see No. 18 in the roll 
of Bruce's Barons, p. 50. 

XIV. JEatisntUi (tomiixB. [No. 30. 

William, third Earl Marischal.* Succeeded about 1510 ; died 1530. 

Head of the house of Keith. Had charge of the young prince, 
James V., in his minority, in the castle of Edinburgh, 1520. 

* The function of the Marischal or <* Marc-scalc *' {U., horse-servant ; ef. schal of sene- 
schal) was originally, like that of the Constable, connected with the royal stable. In 
the Salic Law the ** Mar^chal" is counted among the *'un-frei*' servitors, and is coupled 
with the "/oArr ferrarius " or «* smith/' important precursor of the engineer of our day. 
In a still more primitive sute of society, as in that of ancient Thrace, the king is on a level 
with his groom (Montaigne, i., chap. 40). The duties of such an officer increased in dignity 
with the growing importance of the chevaUrie, until at last the name has assumed the form 
of " Marshal," <* Field-Marshal," or commander of the wkoU army, and so has virtually 
become in modern times the highest military title. In ancient days the " Magister Equitum " 
in Rome seemed at one time likely to attain an importance like that of the ** Marischal " 
in medieval times, but the cavalry played an inferior rdle relatively in the Roman military 
economy, and so the ** Magister Equitum " under Rome subsided eventually into comparative 
obscurity. (See E. W. Robertson {Scotland, S^c, I, pp. 313, 315), who thinks it a composite 
word, with the first part {i.e., "marc") Celtic, the second Teutonic— i.^., "schalk". But 
Dieffenbach considers the German form of Marschal, Seneschal, ftc., to have been borrowed 
by the Germans from the Romance Nations). The ascent in dignity of the name ** Marshal " 
is worth noting, in contrast with the descent in dignity of the title "ConsUble," unless we 
bring in the " Provost-Marshal," with his coercive (unctions, to redress the balance. 


The Scottish form of this title bears homage to the French 
'' Mar6chal " rather than to the English dissyllabic " Marshal ". 

On the various and chequered fortunes of this house — ^the sole 
family among the nobles of Scotland that had the exclusive honour of 
founding a College which grew into a University — see Collections on 
Shires of Aberdeen and Banff^ pp. 191-2, Sp. CI. 

No. 31.] XV. |p0(ht]tU[i]e Comiiie. 

Patricic Hepburn, Earl of BothwelL Succeeded 1513 ;• died 1533.+ 

Father of the Patrick (third Earl of Bothwell) who, in Pitscottie's 
picturesque narrative of the palace gossip of the time, is the rival of the 
Earl of Lennox for favour at the Court of Mary of Guise. He is also 
the grandfather of the notorious James, last Earl of Bothwell, the 
husband of Queen Mary, who created him Duke of Orkney. 

The creation of this ill-fated earldom^ was effected under special 
circumstances contrasting sorely with its lurid eclipse, after a century, in 
gloom and shame* In the Acts of Parliament of 1488 appears a formal 
deed setting forth the virtues of nobility in the case of " Patricius,** 
who, using his great ascendency which he acquired with the young 
King after the battle of Sauchie, is created Earl, " and is girt with a 
sword, as the manner is, in order that himself and his heirs may in all 
time coming shine fulgeant with the dignity of Earl '* {Acts of Parlia- 
ment ofScotlandy vol. ii., p. 206). 

No. 32.] XVI. ^otoe JUierlumu. 

The City of Aberdeen. 
The three towers on the shield have been thought to be significant 

* The previmit Earl, who fell at Flodden (15 13), figufcs in the poem of ** Flodden Field,** 
edited by Heniy Weber (Svo, Edinb., 1808), p. xii. 

t Died 1534 (Sir R. Douglas, Parage of Scotland). 

t Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh sayiiiuaintly : ** It was hereditary to the house of 
Hailes to be kind to the widow Queens, as Patrick to Queen Jean, widow of King James I. ; 
his son to Queen Mary of Gelderland ; Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, to Queen Mary of Lorraine, 
widow of King James V. ; his son to Queen Mary ** (Cosmo Innes, in National Mantt- 
urifts of Scotland, part iiu, No. xxiv.). 


of the triple hills {Collections on Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, pp. 43, 
124-5, Sp. CI.), formerly within the Burgh, viz., Castle-hill, Gallow- 
hill, or Port-hill, and St. Catherine's-hill. (See Mr. Farquhar Shand's 
Preface to Bishop Patrick Forbes* Funerals, p. xxiv., Spottiswood Club.) 
In p. 20 of Parson Gordon's Description of both Toums of Aberdeen 
(Sp. CI.) is found a detailed description, not entirely accurate, of the 
arms of the city. 

♦^,* Roll of Scottish Nobility in Time of Robert Bruce, 1320. 

From the famous letter of Barons of Scotland to Pope John 
XXII.,* who was one of the Avignon series of Popes and of French 
origin. In this document, which was drawn up at the Abbey of 
Arbroath in justification of the Scottish claim to political independ- 
ence, we have the muster roll of the nobility of Scotland at a date 
exactly two centuries before the period when Gavin Dunbar designed 
the heraldic ceiling. The Bishops and clergy are not included, pro- 
bably as having already given, as early as 1309, under circumstances 
indicating still greater courage, long before the fortunes of Bruce 
came to be assured, a similar declaration in favour of the Bruce 
(found as No. xvii. of Part v. of National Manuscripts of Scotland). 
(The County of Angus has also the honour of being the scene where 
this earlier declaration on the part of the clergy was enacted. It 
was framed at the Church of the Friars Minors at Dundee.) 

1. Duncanus, Comes de Fyfe. 

2. Thomas Ranulphi, Comes Moravian, Dominus Manniae et 

Vallis Anandiae. 

* See National Manuscripts of Scotland^ Part -ii., Na xxiv. — This great document, of 
which our Scottish nation has reason to be proud, is among the most memorable State Papers 
ever penned in the annals of any kingdom. It is simply magnificent in its comparison of 
Robert Bruce to Judas Machabaeus, and is ever memorable for the declaration that even if 
Robert Bruce were to give up the struggle for independence they would disown and depose 
him. As a piece of composition, it ought to be studied in every Grammar School in Scot- 
land ; and Cosmo Innes applauds the schoolmaster who used this letter as an exercise for 
his boys in Latin, holding that iu -patriotism atoned for any defects in its Latinity. — From 
such inspiration Barbour no doubt drew his patriotic outburst, "Ah, fredome is a nobil 
thing 1 ** 



3. Patricius de Dunbar, Comes Marchiae. 

4. Malisius, Comes de Strathern. 

5. MalcolmuSy Comes de Levenax. 

6. \yillielmus, Comes de Ross. 

7. Magnus, Comes Cathaniae et Orcadiae. 

8. Willielmus, Comes Sutherlandiae. 

9. Walterus, Senescallus Scotiae. 

10. Willielmus de Soules, Battelarius Scotiae. 

11. Jacobus, Dominus de Douglas. 

12. Rogerus de Moubray. 

13. David Dominus de Brechine. 

14. David de Grahame. 

15. Ingelramus de Umfraville. 

16. Joannes de Meneteith, Custos Comitatus de Meneteith. 

17. Alexander Frazer. 

18. Qilbertus de Haia, Constabularius Scotiae. 

19. Robertus de Keith, Mariscallus Scotiae. 

20. Henricus de Sancto Claro. 

21. Joannes de Grahame. 

22. David de Lindesey. 

23. Willielmus Olifant 

24. Patricius de Grahame. 

25. Joannes de Fenton. 

26. Willielmus de Abemethie. 

27. David de Weyms. 

28. Willielmus de Monte Fixo.* 

29. Pergusius de Ardrosan. 

30. Eustachius de Maxwell. 

31. Willielmus de Ramsay. 

32. Willielmus de Monte Alto.f 

33. Alanus de Moravia. 

34. Dowenaldus Campbell. 

35. Joannes Cambum.^ 

* Probably s Mount-Fitchet. 

t Probably s Monhaut, or Mowat, perhaps from Mont-haut in Brittany on the frontier 
of Normandy. 

t Probably ss Cambroun. 



36. Reginaldus de Chen. 

37. Alexander de Seton. 

38. Andreas de Lescelyne. 

39. Et Alexander de Straton. 

(Caeterique Barones et Libere tenentes, &c.) * 

* The student of Scottish History will find in the examination of this Roll many points 
of great interest in contrast with the Roll of nobility which we have been considering, as it 
appears emblazoned two centuries later in the Heraldic Ceiling. We can only briefly note 
meantime the presence here of some of the old Pictish earldoms still surviving (Fife, 
Strathem), but now being broken in upon by the newer creations, such as Randolph, Earl 
of Moray; the rise of iamilies of hereditary officials not yet in the titled Peerage, SUward, 
ConstabU^ ButUr, &c.; the absence of the house of Gordon, who are still in vassalage to 
the Earls of March, and who joined Bruce later ; the advent of the yet untitled houses 
of Douglas, Lindsay, Grahame (three entries), St. Clair, Ac., and of the Norman families, 
engrafted on Celtic stems, such as Eraser or Frisel, and also the great race of Campbell. 




Scottish Ecclesiastical Dignities. — Centre Row. 

No. 33.] I. 9onti£d0 ^Ponuini.* 

Pope Leo X. (1513-21). 

The Roman Pontiff who is contemporary with the erection of the 
heraldic ceiling is Giovanni de' Medici, otherwise Leo X., whom, 
therefore, Gavin Dunbar has placed as the Head of the Church, and 
consequently of the Scottish Hierarchy. He was the second son of 
Lorenzo the Magniiicent,t and became the pupil of Politian ; was 
bom at Florence in 1475, and died on the ist December, 1521, after 
a Pontificate of eight years eight months and twenty days. He 
was the first of the Medici family to attain the Tiara. 

The age in which he appeared was the period when art was being 
breathed upon by the spirit of antiquity, and the Renaissance on the 

* The Xhxctjtiurs-de-lis on "one of the torteaux in orle,*' or, as they are rather styled, 
''palle" or balls, in this pontifical shield, are memorable^ as showing the intimate alliance 
*<entre la maison de France et celle de Medicis**. Montaigne remarks, in his visit to 
Florence {Voyages^ ii. 56), that throughout the city, and notably in the palace, **les 
fleurs-de-lis tiennent le premier rang d*honneur'*. It was Louis XI. who, in 1465, as 
Lorenzo himself says (Roscoe, Life of Lorenzo, p. 493), "in acknowledgment of the 
friendship between our family and the house of France, decorated our arms with three golden 
fleurs-ds'lis on a field azure, which we now bear. I have the King*s letters patent by me, 
with his seal attached."— In Leo X.'s Pontifical seal, the Medici arms are given without the 
French appendage (Tr^sor Numismatique, Sfeaux det Communes, &k,, p. 40). 

t Giovanni*s mother was one of the Orsini fiunily, which gave occasion to various 
epigrams on the singular descent of a Leo from an Ursa. 


south side of the Alps was in full development. As the patron of art 
and letters, Leo X. occupies an epoch-making position, and hence the 
apostrophe of Pope : 

*' But see, each muse in Leo*B golden days 
Starts from her trance and trims her withered bays". 

Notwithstanding the blaze of splendour that now surrounds his 
name, it is remarkable that the recent rise of his house from the ranks 
of the mercantile aristocracy was regarded in his own age as that of 
parvenus, and our own Mary, who had felt the hauteur of Catherine 
de' Medici at the French Court, once let fall the gibe that she (Cathe- 
rine) was none other than " a merchant's daughter " {figlia d'un 
mercante) (Jos. Robertson's Inventories, &c,, p. xv.). This house, 
however, was destined to g^ve three occupants to the Papal Chair 
subsequent to Leo X. (viz., Clement VII., Pius IV,, and Leo XL), 
a larger number than any other single Italian family can boast of 
having supplied. 

The Popedom in Leo's time, is now at its culminating point of 
power and splendour.* Territorially considered, the Roman See had 
in immediate dependence, at the time of Leo X., a larger portion of 
Italy than at any other single period that can be named. Tuscany had 
come as a patrimonial appanage to the States of the Church, so that 
Central Italy Vas in entire subjection to the Papal sway. As regards 
his intellectual position, Leo himself does much to favour the advance 
of science, as well as of art and literature. He prepares the way for 
the Gregorian reform of the Calendar, receives the dedication, under the 
Greek verses of Musurus, of the Editio Princeps of Plato, accepts, in his 
early days as Cardinal, the same honour from Erasmus in the dedica- 
tion of the Greek New Testament, is the ardent patron of Greek 
learning, indites Latin iambic verses upon occasion, and is in his time 
the centre and leader of the Renaissance, a movement which was 
ultimately to dissolve the more visible links of the Papal power. The 
irony of history has been seldom seen in a form so notable — ^the chief 

* The words of Erasmus may justify the ascription : " Quantum Romani Ponttficis 
fastigium inter reliquos mortales eminet, tantum Lbo inter Romanos pontifices excellit '* 
(Erasmus, Epist 30). 


magician busy in dissolving the spell by which he held the world 

In forming a judgment of the character of Leo X., we can only 
allude in general terms to the estimates, more or less favourable, 
advanced by such Northern authors as Ranke or Roscoe. The delinea- 
tions by his own countrymen, Paul Sarpi and Pallavicini, are of more 
interest and value, and deserve to be given at large, as being carefully 
drawn but mutually confirmatory portraitures by rival and in some 
respects antagonistic artists. They are as follows: 

"Leo X.," says Paul Sarpi, "displayed singular proficiency in 
polite literature, wonderful humanity, benevolence and mildness; the 
greatest liberality and an extreme inclination to favour excellent and 
learned men ; insomuch' that for a long course of years, no one had sat 
on the pontifical throne that could in any degree be compared to him. 
He would indeed have been a perfect pontiff, if to these accomplish- 
ments he had united some knowledge in matters of religion, and a 
greater inclination to piety, to neither of which he appeared to pay 
any great attention." 

These animadversions of Pra Paolo are thus adverted to by his 
opponent Pallavicini, who has entered very fully into the consideration 
of this part of the character of Leo X. " It has been asserted by Paolo," 
says this writer, " that Leo was better acquainted with profane litera- 
ture than with that called sacred, and which appertains to religion, in 
which I by no means contradict him. Having received from God a 
most capacious mind and a studious disposition, and finding himself 

* Ariotto*s grand ttansa In his bonoor shows a sense of the gathering stonns then encir- 
cling the Pontifical throne : 

" Tn, gran Leone, a cui premon le terga 
Delle chiave del Ciel le gravi some," &c. — Orl. Fur,^ xvii. 79. 

Thus translated by Hoole : 

*' Thou, mighty Leo, to whose hand is given 
The glorious charge to bear the keys of Heaven, 
If thine the trust our Italy to keep, 
Let her not perish in lethargic sleep: 
Thou art her shepherd : Ood on thee bestows 
The sacred crook, and, Leo, thee He chose, 
That thy loud roar might terror round extend, 
And thy strong arm thy sheep from wolves defend ". 


whilst yet almost in his infancy placed in the supreme senate of the 
Church, Leo was wanting in his duty by neglecting to cultivate that 
department of literature, which is not only the most noble, but was the 
most becoming his station. This defect was more apparent when, being 
constituted at thirty-seven years of age the president and chief of the 
Christian religion, he not only continued to devote himself to the 
curiosity of profane studies, but even called into the Sanctuary of 
religion itself those who were better acquainted with the fables of Greece 
and the delights of poetry, than with the history of the Church and the 
doctrines of the fathers. Nor will I affirm," says the same author, 
''that he was as much devoted to piety as his station required, nor 
undertake to commend or to excuse all the conduct of Leo X., because 
to pass over that which exists in suspicion, rather than in proof [as 
scandal always delights to affix her spots on the brightest characters, 
that their deformity may be more apparent], it is certain that the 
attention which he paid to the chase,* to amusements, and to pompous 
exhibitions, although it might in part be attributed to the manners of 
the age, in part to his high rank, and in part to his own natural dispo- 
sition, was no slight imperfection in one who had attained that eminence 
among mankind which requires the utmost degree of perfection." 

It was from this pope (Leo X.) that Gavin Dunbar received his 
promotion to the See of Aberdeen, and hence the place of honour here 
accorded to him. The erector of the ceiling lived to see two other Popes 
ascend the Pontifical Chair — ^vi^., Adrian VL, in 1522, and Clement 
VII., in 1523. The last, indeed, outlived Bishop Dunbar by two years, 
having survived to 1534. It was at this time that the final change 
took place whereby only Italians have been preferred to the Pontificate, 
Adrian VI., a native of Utrecht, the tutor of Charles V., having been 
the last occupant of the Papal See, not of Italian birth.t 

* Without dweUing on the darker insinuations descending from Leo*s time as to his 
character and Pagan or infidel opinions, it does appear that his addiction to the pleasures of 
the chase is vonched for under the best testimony, as the following note (Rosooe, vol. il, p. 
510) shows, describing his attire on these occasions : *' Fuit cum stola, sed pejus sing roekitto^ 
et quod pessimum, cum sHvaUbus sive octets (greaves or leggin's) in pedes, munitus "• Re- 
garding his personal appearance generally, see Rosooe (vol. il 355 and 377). 

t Not a few Spaniards and Frenchmen in the middle ages rose to the Papal Chair, but 
none from the British Isles, except once, in the case of an Englishman (Breakspear), whom 
we shall have to refer to afterwards, and who, in his actings as Pope, did not forget that he 


No. 34.] II. ^snrtiatib. Jtrrhufr. 

Archbishop Andrew Forman (1514-22). 

The Archiepiscopal See of St. Andrews* was then held by Andrew 
Forman or Foreman, son of Foreman of Hutton in Berwickshire ; 
previously Archbishop of Bourges, in the centre of France, and, in 
Scotland, Bishop of Moray. Was Primate and Legate, and a great 
^ pluralist, who brought discredit on the Romish Hierarchy. Before 
1472 the See was only episcopal; for, although many attempts were 
made to obtain the Pallium from the Pope, and even the " sore sanct to 
the crown,'* King David, endeavoured to secure the concession, the 
English influence at the Court of Rome was always successful in pre- 
venting any acknowledgment of any of the Scottish ecclesiastical 
dignitaries as Archbishop and Metropolitan ; until at length Sixtus IV. 
raised St. Andrews in that year (1472) to the rank of an Archbishopric. 

The dignitary, now occupying the See, was largely employed in 
public capacities and embassies. Among other offices of trust he had 
acted as one of the three Scottish commissioners charged to negotiate 
the marriage of Margaret Tudor with James IV., on which so much 
was to hinge in aftertime. (See Pinkerton, ii., pp. 39, 65, 85-6; also 
William Drummond, p. 82.) 

The contest for the Archiepiscopal See of St. Andrews, consequent 
on the death of Elphinston, who had been nominated to that high 
position, which, however, he never filled, was fierce and animated. 
Hepburn, the Prior of St. Andrews, and Gawain Douglas, Bishop of 

was an Englishman. He is known in the line of Popes under the name of Adrian IV. 
Alexander- V. was nearly another instance; but though a graduate of Oxford—the sole 
graduate of either English University that wore the Tiara— he was by birth a Cretam. Thus 
no Scotsman or Irishman ever rose to the Papal Chair, and although a Pope travelled in Scot- 
land, he was not Pope at the time (^neas Sylvius, afterwards (1458) Pope Pius II.) (Piccolo* 
mini). See notes of his Scottish travels in Stat Eccl. Scot, p. xcl 

* St. Andrew is also the patron saint of the Cathedral of Wells in Somerset, beings 
chosen as "mitissimus Apostolorum" (Dean Plumptre on Wells, Contemporary Reviewt 
January, 1888). The Scots were not unaware of his priority, as a disciple, to his brother 
St. Peter. Cy. Fordun {Scotichronicon^ 6-49), where there is praise of " Sanctorum mitissimi 
Andieae apostoli . . . vocatione etiam ad apoetolatum primi ". On the story of St. Regulus, 
or St. Rule, which has Greek or Byxantine rather than Roman associations, see Quarterly 
Review f vol. Ixxxv., p. 109. 


Dunkeld, whose escutcheons are both found appearing later in this 
series, had been among the competitors against Forman. Douglas 
had the English influence on his side, being presented to it by the 
Queen ; Hepburn was chosen by the Chapter of the Canons, but 
Forman had the Papal influence, and ultimately prevailed. 

In Drummond's History, p. 82, there is an interesting sketch of 
Forman's character, as portrayed by John Hepburn, Prior of St. 
AndreM^, at the time when he (the Prior) is instructing John, Duke of 
Albany, on his return from France, as to the intricacies of Scottish 
polity. " The third (powerful agent)," says he, " was the Archbishop 
Andw Forman, once secretary to the Pope, who, though he was not 
of any noble stem or descent of blood, nor, for his followers, friends, and 
adherents, much to be taken notice of or feared, yet considering him, as 
his legatesbip, plurality of benefices, many pensions from princes, had 
guilded him over, and, balancing him by his present treasure, he could 
make a weak party strong and add weight to what side soever he inclined. 
He was therefore with piercing eyes to be looked into, and all his actions 
and ways to be .observed." * 

IIL (Slnsfpun. S^uhitp. . [No. 35. 

Archbishop Ja^^es Beaton, 1509-22 (Glasg.) ; 1522-39 (St. And.). 

The See of Glasgow + became Archiepiscopal in 1491 (Cosmo 
Innes, Sketches, p. 61), under Bull of Innocent VHI. Long before, how- 

* It 18 of Andrew Foreman that Pitscottie (p. 255) teUs tlye absurd anecdote, that having 
once to entertain the Pope and Cardinals at dinner, and being in the act of saying grace, the 
Bishop, "who was not ane guid sc^ollar, nor had not guid Latine,*' was perplexed and put 
out by the responses of the Itisdians, and losing presence of mind and patience, " he wist not 
weiil how to proceed fordward, hot happened in guid Scottis, in this manner, sayand quhilk 
they understuid not, * The divill I give yow, ail Cgdse cardinallis, to, in nomine Pairis, Filii, et 
Spiritus SancH\ *Amen,' quoth they. Then the bishop and his men leugh, and all the 
cardinallis themselffis." (Seals of Andrew Foreman in H. Laing's ScotHsh Siais, i. 148 ; ii. 

t The Chapter of the Cathedral of Glasgow had the distinction of enrolling James IV. 
among its Canons : a circumstance not forgoUen in Joseph Robertson's glowing panegyric 
on Glasgow Cathedral and* its historic memories : *' It has seen a king serving at its altars ; for 
as the Emperor was a canon of Cologne, -and the French monarch a prebendary of Tours, 
so a Scottish sovereign^the devout and chivalrous King James of Flodden — had a stall in 
the choir and a seat in the Chapter of Glasgow *' {Quarterly Review, vol Izxxv., p. 135).— In 
Spain, the king is canon of Leon, of Burgos, and of Toledo, with appropriate stalls. 



ever, in 11749 Pope Alexander III. declared Glasgow to be " speeialem 
iiliam nostram nullo mediante/' intended, no doubt, as a rebuke to York 
and its pretensions (E. W. Robertson, i., p. 182). 

James Beaton (or Bethune), sixth and youngest son of John Beaton 
of Balfour in Fife, was Archbishop from 1509 to 1522 ; afterwards trans- 
lated to St. Andrews. He became, for a short time, Chancellor of 
Scotland in 1515, after the death of Bishop Elphinston. To him, as 
well as to the young king, Boece' dedicated his HisUny of Scotland, 
He is the uncle of the more famous Cardinal (David Beaton) ; and 
his best title to remembrance is that he founded St. Mary's College 
in St. Andrews.* It was this Beaton to whom Gawain Douglas 
made the famous remark when, in their altercation, was heard the^ 
rattle of Beaton's corslet : " My Lord, your conscience is .not eiiid, 
for I hear it clattering** (Pitscottie). (Seal of Archb. Beaton,- in 
Laing, i. 149.) 

The brilliant nephew (Cardmal David Beaton), who was after- 
wards to set. like a lurid star under so tragic > a destiny, has* not at 
this time (1520) appeared above the horizon. Bishop .of Mirepoix 
H in Languedoc, he became also Abbot of Arbroath, and in 1*538 ' 
Coadjutor-Archbishop . and Cardinal. Excepting Walter Wardlaw 
of Glasgow who was made Cardinal in 138^,* David Beaton appears 
to be the sole prelate of Scotland on whom, under the undivided 
Western Church, the dignity of Cardinal was bestowed {Stai. Eul. 
Scot,, p. 130). ' ^ 

* Among the experiences of this prelate was the rough handling 'which he reoeivedia 
1534, after his translation to Glasgow, when Ife was " wardit,** together with Gavin Dunbar, ' 
1^ the Queen-Mother. (See Appendix, on Life of Gavin Dunbar.) It was this Archbishop 
Beaton who, at a later period, officiated at the marriage of King James V. to Mary of Lorraine 
in the Cathedral of St. Andrews Oune, 1538) (Keith's Catalogue of ScotHsk Bifkopt^ p. 36). 
In the vicissitudes of courtly fortune, he is a mark for the commiseration of Sir D. Lindsay 
(** Testament of Papyngo '*) 9 

** The Aithebischop of Sanct Androos, Jamu Betatm^ 
Chancdlare and Primate in power pastorall, 
Clam, nyxt the kyng, moste heych in this regioun, 
The ledder schuke, he ti^, and gat ane fall," &c. 

This is a companion picture to Sir David's, well-known poem on the younger Beaton, *' The 
Tragedie of the Cardinall *'. 


IV. ^^nl^^^i^ <E)ri0CO)ri. [No. 36. 

Gavin or Gawain Douglas* (Bishop, 1516-22). 

The honour of standing next to the two Archbishops, and, therefore, 
of appearing foremost among the Bishops, appertains to the gifted scion 
of the house of Douglas, son, brother, and uncle to Earls of Angus, the 
immortal Gawain, who then held the Bishopric of Dunkeld. From its 
relation to lona and to St. Columba,t this See usually, if not always, 
ranked next to the two Archiepiscopal Sees. Hence Wyntoun {Cron., 
vf. 8) pronounces Dunkeld "off bure byschoprykis, off renowne The 
ihiydf and .reputatioun". In temporal benefits, as well as in spiritual 
rank, it was an eligible position; and Gawain himself describes it as 
"an rycht. guid Byschopry of r^nt, and the thryd seyt (1.^., See) of 
the realm " {Letter of Gawain Douglas, Small's Edition, p. xxxvi.). 

Gawain is the third and youngest son of Archibald, fifth Earl of 
Angus ("Bell' the Cat ")> by Elizabeth, only daughter of Robert, Lord 

* The following are the chief literary tribytes to Oawain Douglas, ta](en from hl9^|MK*:< 
temporaries : (i) *'Ane richt nobill and worschipfuU clerk " (Head of MS. of Douglas's Virgil 
in Trinity CoUege, Cambridge., . See SmalVs Edition of Gavtn Douglas, i., p. dxxiii.). 

(a) " The Palaoeof Hcyioor, 
Maid be Gawine dowglas of Dunkell, 
Bischop, 'and als an^ honest oratour, 
Profound poet and perfite Philosophour ; 
Into his (Uyis, above all bure the bell." 

(Jhone RoUand in " Court of Venus/* p. xx. of Dr.Gregor's Edition (Scottish Text Society). . 
Or, Sir David Lindsay's tribute ('' Testamenl of Papyngo ") :^ 

(3) " AUace ! for me, quhilk lamp wes of this land, 
Of eloquence the flowand balmy strand, 
^nd in our Inglis rethorick, the rose, 
As of mbeis the charbunclUe bene chose, 
And, as Phebus dois CyntfaSa precell. 
So Gawane Dowglas, Byschope of Dunkell," &c. 

t The erection of Dunkeld iiito a Bishop's See falls within the reign of the Pictish Con- 
' stantine, 789-820, and is the sole act of that prince transmitted to us. This event was the 
direct consequence of the inroads of the Northern and still Pagan Vikings, whose ravages 
foiced the monks to leave lona, bearing with them to Dunkeld a portion of the relics of St. 
Coloroba (E. W. Robertson's Scotland^ 6v., L, pp. 23-41 ; also, Cosmo Innes, Sketches, p. 
207 : Ji H. Burton, History ofScotlandj i., pp* 305-6). 


Boyd, High Chamberlain of Scotland. Born about 1474 ; Rector of 
Hawick, 1496 ; Provost of St. Giles, 1509 ; he was one of the com- 
petitors for the Archiepiscopal See of St. Andrews when Porman was 
successful. Had a stormy entry into his Bishopric in 1516; "when 
he came to take possession of his throne, he was opposed by a 
shower of shot from the cathedral tower and bishop's palace ; and it 
was not until the power of his still mighty house had been gathered 
from Fife and Angus that he obtained access to his church — ' thanks 
to the intercession of St. Columba,' says the Chronicle, * without loss 
of life or limb ' " {Quarterly Review^ vol. Ixxxv., p. 142). 

Involved in the political struggles in which his nephew, the Earl 
of Angus, was expelled by the Regent Albany, Gawain was forced to 
betake himself to England, where we find him in a famous autograph 
letter appealing to Wolsey in 1521. Prom this letter we gather that 
Bishop Douglas came to solicit the aid of Henry VIII. in restoring his 
nephew Angus to power, on the plea of thereby securing the safety of the 
young King, James V., who was alleged to be in danger from the ambi- 
tious designs of Albany, in whose hands he was. The Bishop was 
favourably received by the English King, who assigned him a pension. 
Gawain, however, had the misfortune to fall a victim to the plague in 
September, 1522, and died in the house of Thomas, Lord Dacre, in St. 
Clement's Parish, London. He was buried in the Savoy Chapel, Strand, 
where is still seen the memorial inscription on a brass tablet marking 
his grave, as also that of Bishop Halsey, beside whom he was laid. 

There is an interesting tribute in verse in Gawaiii's praise by Dyer 
{Poems, 1801, p. 89), but everything else is pale tn presence of the sixth 
canto of *' Marmion," where Scott portrays, alongside of old Angus at 
Tantallan, his brilliant son, who is described 

"More pleated that in a barbarous age 
He gave rude Scotland Virgil's page, 
Than that beneath his rule he held 
The Bishopric of ftir Dunkeld '\* 

* On the ecclesiastical character of Gawain, see the cautions estimate by Dr. Grub 
(Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, i., pp. 401-2): — *' A &csimile of the fiunous autograph 
letter of Gawain (he signs himself Gawyn) to Cardinal Wolsey, dated from Waltham*s Cross, 
Christmas Eve, in 1521, is found in National MSS. of Scotland (Part iil, Na xv.), as also a 
facsimile of a page of his Virgil, written by his Amanuensis (No. siv. of same vol. ).— The play- 
ful spirit of the poet has found expression in travestying his own name. At the end of the 


A poet he is of no mean order, and author of one of the great 
monuments of Scottish literature, the translation of Virgil's Mndd, 
which forms his greatest literary achievement. One of his lesser poems 
is the " Palace of Honour/* remarkable as containing an allegory in 
which human life is represented as a journey. The Pilgrim's Progress 
of Bunyan is said by Chambers to have been anticipated in its con- 
ception by this poem of Gawain Douglas. 

A notable feature in his greatest work, the translation of the 
^neid, is the prefixing of original prologues, full of discursive matter 
of his own, by way of introduction to each book. It was these pro- 
logues of Gawain that suggested to Scott the much admired Intro- 
ductions to the Cantos of '' Marmion," which are, in method, a direct 
imitation of Gawain's poetic procedure. (Seal of Gawain Douglas in 
Laing, ii. 172.) 

V. (Bat^ni Jlbtr)mun0i0. [No. 37. 

Gavin Dunbar (Bishop 1518-32). 

It is noteworthy that this is the only Christian name or pranotnen 
allowed to appear, or at all events appearing, among the escrols of the 
various shields. All the other designations are official ; none except 
this one is personal, and the circumstance is easily explained by the 
fact that we have here presented to us the name of the then living 
occupant of the See, who was also the Erector of the Ceiling. As the 
details regarding this Bishop might swell out beyond all due proportion 
compared with others of the series, it is thought proper to introduce 
a separate notice in one of the Appendices. (Seal of Gavin Dunbar in 
vol. ii. of the Registrum ; also referred to in Laing, ii., pp. 154 and 174.) 

The See of Aberdeen holds here its normal and fixed position 

Twelfth Book of the JEtmd (Smairs Edition, voL tv„ p. 167), we come upon these lines, 
giving a curious nhui on his own name :— 

To knaw th* naym of ths Translatovr. 
'* The Oaw onbrokyn mydlyt with the wyne. 
The Dow jonyt with the Glas richt in a lyne ; 
Quha knawis nocht the Translatouris name, 
Seyk na forthar: for lo with lytill pane 
Spy Weill this vers : men clepis him swa at haym. 

—Quod the Compilar Q. Dowglace.*' 


among the Scottish Sees. In the rolls of Parliament, the r^;ular order 
of enumeration is — (i) St. Andrews, (2) Glasgow, (3) Dunkeld, (4) 
Aberdeen. The chief exception occurs in the Papal Bull, referred to 
afterwards, of Innocent III., p. 67. 

No. 38.] VI. ^orabttn. ftftBCOfi 

James Hbpbubn (Bishop i5i4*-24). 

** Son of a rebellious race " (Dr. Joseph Robertson in Stat. EccL 
Scot., p. cxxix.). Son of Adam, second Lord Hailes, and brother to 
Patrick, the first Earl of Bothwell (Keith's Catalogue of ScoUish 
Bishops). (Seal of James Hepburn in Laing, i. 157.) 

No. 39.] VII. |^0«en. <E)ii 

Robert Cockburn (Bishop 1507-21). 

On death of Gawain Douglas in 1522, Cockburn was translated' to 
Dunkeld, which See he held till 1526. (Seal of R. Cockburn in Laing, 
ii. 172, 183.) 
No. 40.] VIII. Itetdiinau (tfXBCopl 

John Hepburn (Bishop 1517.58). . ^^ 

Of the family of Bothwell. Bishop John Leslie (de rebus gestis 
Scotorum) has an estimate at some length of the character of this prelate. 
He is second son to Patrick (third Lord Hailes and first Earl of 
Bothwell). (Seal of John Hepburn in Laing, i. 159.) 

A church existed at Brechin as early as loio, at which time, 
according to Joseph Robertson, the famous bell-tower of Brechin 
was built by Irish Churchmen {Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxxv., p. 114. 
See also Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii., p. 332). 

No. 41.] IX. (tathanm. 9fi»copx. 

Andrbw Stewart (Bishop 1518-42). 
Son to John, fii-st Earl of Athol. 

* Made bishop in 15 16, according to Douglas in his Peerage of Scotland, 


X. dbtibtbe (Saee dfx^cofi. [No. 42. 

David Arnot* (Bishop 1509-26), 

The Bishopric of Whithorn, or Galloway^t had a long history, and 
was in early time subject to the See of York. The Lords of Galloway 
in the Celtic time were almost independent sovereigns, and the district 
had laws peculiar to itself (Cosmo Innes, Sketches, pp. 96-7 ; also p. 207. 
For early history of this See, consult £• W. Robertson, Scotland, &c., i., 
pp. 357-8). Thomas Innes (Ecclesiastical History, p. 155) considers that 
the fixity of this See, and of that of Glasgow, compared with the 
migratory character of the other older Sees, was due to their being 
within the Imperial province of Valentia, and so partaking of the fixity 
of the ecclesiastical system of the Empire. This See being, in early 
times, taken as suffragan of York, Bede gives it as one of the Bishoprics 
of the Northumbrian province (Bede, v. 24), and hence it is not included 
in the enumeration of the Nine Scottish Sees in the Bull of Pope 
Innocent III. (1x98-1214), or in that of Pope Honorius, 1218. 

'7 XI. ^ttmblaiun. (tpiimfi. [Na 43. 

Jambs Chisholm (Bishop 1486-1526). 

Eldest sbf^of Edmond Chisholm of Cromlix, near Dunblane, who 
was a son of Chisholm of that Ilk in Roxburghshire. Resigned in 1526 
in favour of his brother, William Chisholm, and lived till 1534. (Seal 

* Son to John Amot of that Ilk, by Katharine Melvil his wife, daughter to Melvil of 
Carnbie (Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops). 

t Apart from the questionable traditions (Skene*s Miic Scotland, i., p. I99) as to the 
priority of St Andrews through the story of St. Regulus,~the nucleus of which belongs to the 
gth century (Jos. Robertson) ; an attempt, no doubt, to antedate the claims of St. Andrews so 
as to compare with the more real and rival antiquity of Hy or lona, — ^the See of Whithorn 
can claim on gpod grounds an antiquity higher than any other of the Scottish Sees. Its 
founder, St Ninian, the British Bishop, is generally placed as far back as from 400 to 450, 
and Whithorn is, therefore, styled by Joseph Robotson ** the oMest bishopric north of the 
Hnmber '*. St Ninian had studied at Rome, and on that headland of Galloway where he chose 
the chief seat of his mission, ** he built a church of stone, in a way unusual among the 
Britons ". It was dedicated by him to St. Martin of Tours, from whom he obtained masons 
to shape its walls after the Roman fiwhkm'* (Quartnly Review, vol boocv., pp. 108-9). Such 
was the origin of the '* Candida Casa," or ** White-walled House,** lighting up the shores of 


in Laing, ii. i8o.) The See of Dunblane was closely connected with 
the old Celtic earldom of Strathern, the only family among Scottish 
subjects that could claim to have founded a bishopric. In the early 
Stewart time (1371) Strathem was constituted the sole county Pala- 
tine of the Scottish kingdom. Ultimatelyj however, the title of Earl, 
now Duke, of Strathem has been included among those appropriated 
to the Royal Family. 

No. 44.] XII. I^bmoren. Spietopi. 

David Hamilton (Bishop 1504-22). 

The Bishopric of Argyle or Lismore * was disjoined from the great 
diocese of Dunkeld about the year 1200, under circumstances related in 
Dr. Grub's Ecclesiastical History, i., pp. 301-2. The contemporary 
Bishop was of the Arran family, a brother of James, Earl of Arran, 
and was Commendator of Dryburgh and Glenluce. 

No. 45.] XIII. Ordtabtn. ^fXBcofi. 

Edward Stewart (Bishop of Orkney, 1513- ). 

This Bishop is praised by Hector Boece. He is said to have 
consecrated the Chapel of King's College {Collections on Shires of Aber- 
deen and Banff, p. 210). The diocese of Orkney was then only recently 
annexed, or rather added, to the Scottish Church. In 1468, the 
Orkneys had been mortgaged by the Danish Crown for payment of the 
dowry of the Danish bride of James III. Up to that period the Bishop 
of Orkney was the suffragan of the Norwegian Archbishop of Dron- 
theim, but, in 1472, on the erection of St. Andrews into an Archiepis- 
copal See, the Orkneys became a diocese of the Scottish Church. 
This annexation is the more remarkable, as it was not until the 
beginning of the seventeenth century that these islands were brought 
under the civil jurisdiction of the Scottish Law (Stat. Eccl. Scot., 
ii., p. 293). Compare the pleasing sketch of the See of Orkney and 
its saint (St. Magnus), in Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxxv., pp. 122-4). 

* According to E. W. Robertson (Scotland, 6*^., il, p. 12), *• the earliett mention of the 
diocese of Lismore or Argyle occurs in a charter from Alexander II. to Harald, the first 
Bishop, dated in 1228 (Reg, Morav., No. 32) ". 


XIV. ^ohoitn. fipumffx,* [No. 46. 
Bishop of the Isles-t 

Interregnum in the See. It is uncertain who was Bishop between 
George Hepburn, killed at Flodden in 1513, and John ElecUis in 1526. 

The Bishopric of the Isles embraced the Hebrides, which were 
ceded by Norway to Scotland in 1266, after the victory of Largs. In 
the cession, however, there was originally a reservation of the archie- 
piscopal rights of Drontheim {SiiU. Eccl. Scot., ii., p. 293). 

XV. 9rioti0 §mtix Jltibr. [Na 47. 
John Hepburn (Prior of St. Andrews). 

Founder of St. Leonard's College in St. Andrews in 1512, and 
brother of the Bishop of Moray. See No. VI. of this series. Seal, as 
Prior, in Laing, i., p. 200. 

Brother also of Patrick Hepburn, first Earl of Bothwell, whose 
son, Patrick,. was educated by his uncle, John, Prior of St. Andrews, 
and succeeded him in the position of Prior, eventually becoming, in 1534, 
Bishop of Moray. John, the Prior, gets the ear of John, Duke of 
Albany, and is ''a great and shrewd intriguer" (W. Drummond, p. 81). 
** This man being of a subtle wit, malicious, crafty, rich, and endued 
with some courtly eloquence . . . turned his only Privado" (W. 
Drummond, pp. 82-3). 

Owing to the supremacy of the Archiepiscopal See with which the 
Priory was associated, the Prioi* of St. Andrews t ranked next to the 

* On the vicissitudes of this bishopric, and its relation to the Abbacy of lona, with 
which it is found finally conjoined in 1506, see the historical risumi by Dr. Skene, in papers 
of Scottish Sociify o/AntiquarUs, vol. x., pp. 207-9 ; also C. Innes, Skttches, &€., p. 207. 

t That is, the " Sudereys,** or Southern Isles, whence comes the title of the English 
Insular See, "Sodar and Man". The " Sudereys*' were so called by the Norsemen, in contra- 
distinction to the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland, which were also subject to their 
sway. This is the view of W. F. Skene (Celtic Scotland, iil , p. 29), who is at issue with £. W. 
Robertson {Scotlandt i., pp. 167, 350) in his explanation of" Sudereys," as merely the ** Southern 
Hebrides,*^ and also with J. H. Burton (il, p. X03), in taking as the line of demarcation, betwixt 
Nordereys and Sudereys, the point of Ardnamurchan. 

t See the singular chapter in Fordun*s Scotichronicon (vi. 49), on the dignity of the 
Prior of St. Andrews. 



Bishops, and, what is more notable, took precedence not only of all 
the Priors, but even of the Abbots, including the Abbots of proud Kelso 
and Arbroath. 

For some further account of Prior John Hepburn, see p. 57. 

No. 48] XVI. JUme 9iii'0 Bmkanntattf. 

The University op Aberdeen 

Ranks third among the Scottish Universities, as dating from 1494, 
when it was constituted by Papal Bull of Privileges, with all the 
amplitude belonging to the mother Universities of Paris and Bologna. 
For its history, see FasH Aberd<meti$es (Sp. CI.). 

The arms,* as represented on this tdiield, seem suggested by those 
of the University of Paris. 

»*^ On the Roll op Scottish Bishoprics at Dippbrbnt Periods. 

Three distinct stages are historically discernible in the development 
and expansion of the Scottish Hierarchy, These stages are coincident 
with corresponding stages in the national expansion. The first is the 
early Celtic period anterior to David I. (1124, Four Bishoprics). The 
second is the period from accession of David I. to that of Alexander III. 
(Nine Bishoprics). The third is the period from Alexander III. to the 
Reformation (Twelve, and finally Thirteen, Bishoprics). 

The expansion in the second period was gained mainly on the 
Southern frontier, in the region of Lothian and Strathclyde. The 
expansion in the third period was gained chiefly on the North and 
West, at the expense of Norway and Denmark : first, by the victory 
of Largs in 1263, and the consequent accession of the Isles ; second, 
by the cession of Orkney and Shetland in 1468. This last expansion 
completed the Scottish Hierarchy up to the number of thirteen, at 

* The arms of Uie Untverrity of Paris were the anns of France, vis., ihtflturs-di-Us^ but 
diflerenced by a hand issatng frtmi clouds and holding a volnme among the lilies. Hence 
BuUeus (Hist Univ. Paris. ^ i., p. 261) : '*Qiiod ad Lilia spectat, que trina sunt in Sigtllo 
Rectoris in triqoetram, sicut et Regia, in piano scuto disposita, clamm est ab ipso Fnndatoie 
foisse communicata. Et certe qois dnbitabit, qutn manns ilia libnsm tenens, e coelo delapsa, 
qua sigillttm in suprema parte adaugetnr et oneratur, indicet Carolnm Magnum • • . . soam 
institttisse Academiam?" In fiirther describing these arms he speaks of them as being "In 
camfo asMreo**, 



which it stands at the period of Gavin Dunbar and down to the 

A few details on these stages of development may here be sub- 
joined. Besides the variations in the number^ there emerge important 
divergences, easily explicable for the most part, in the order in which 
the Sees are from time to time enumerated. 

I. Period before David I. (Accession in 1124). 
Wjmtoun (bk. vii., 6, 33) has the following regarding King David : 

'* ByschapfykiB he fand hot foure or thre, 
Bot, or he deyd, nyne left he *\ 

These ''foure or thre'* early bishoprics his commentator (D. Mac- 
pherson) defines as follows: 

'' Viz., St. Andrews, Dunkeld, Moray, and most probably Catness, 
existing before the time of David; which with Glasgow (founded by 
him when Earl of Cumberland), Aberdeen, Brechin, Dunblane, and 
Ross, made up the number of nine bishopricks at his death. Galloway 
seems not to have been reckoned ; either because it was then a 
suffragan of the ecclesiastical province of York, or as having no bishop 
from the time of the Northumbrian government in that country till the 
settlement of Fergus, a lord of it, in the 12th century. And, accord- 
ingly, we find that Galloway (or Candida Casa) was not reckoned 
among the Bishops* Sees of Scotland in the enumeration of them by 
Pope Honorius in 1218, wherein the above nine are named." Skene 
{Celtic Scotland^ ii., p. 377) considers Glasgow, not Caithness, to have 
formed one of the four bishoprics existing at David's accession. 

The single reign of David, the son of St. Margaret, exhibits, 
therefore, at one projection, an expansion of the Scottish Hierarchy 
greater than all the other reigns of subsequent kings, singly or col- 
lectively, can show. 

2. Period after David I. to Alexander III. (1153-1249). 


1. Glasgow. 

2. Whithorn. 

3. St. Andrews. 

4. Dunblane. 


1. St Andrews. 

2. Glasgow. 

3. Dunkeld. 

4. Dunblane. 


1. St. Andrews. 

2. Dunblane. 

3. Glasgow. 

4. Dunkeld. 


5. Dunkeld. 5. Brechin. 5. Brechin. 

6. Brechin. 6. Aberdeen. 6. Aberdeen. 

7. Aberdeen [Galfirido 7. Moray. 7. Moray. 

Apperdunensi]. 8. Ross. 8. Ross. 

8. Moray. 9. Caithness, t 9- Caithness, t 

9. Ross. 

10. Caithness.* 

These three lists, out of what may be called the second period, 
resemble each other in two great features, i. Apart from the varia- 
tion caused by the presence of Whithorn or Candida Casa in the first 
list, they all present the same group for the first four Southern Sees, 
though in a different order. 2. They are identical as regards the 
order in which the remaining five Northern Sees are enumerated. 
The order of these last is simply geographical. In the first group, 
however — ^that, namely, of the Southern Sees — ^the variation of order 
seems to have turned more on claims to ecclesiastical primacy than 
on geographical considerations. 

3. Period after Alexander III. (Accession 1249)9 to Reformation. 

Now that Galloway, in the previous reign, has been absorbed into 
the kingdom, the chief expansion of Scotland takes place on its 
Western side by the victory of Largs, and the number of bishoprics 
of the realm rises successively to twelve, and finally to thirteen. 
They are found enumerated in their normal order in the Acts of 
Parliament of Scotland (vol. i., p. 85). 

The manifesto of the clergy in favour of Bruce in 1309, to which 
reference was made on p. 49 preceding, gives no order of classifi- 
cation. It runs in the name of the Bishops collectively^ probably for 
prudential reasons. 

But in 1371, on the accession of Robert II., the order of the 
Bishops in affixing their seals to the '* Declaration " of that date, 

* Bullof Pope Adrian IV, {Breakspear the EngliBhman), X155 (enjoining ^'sabmiaaion to 
Roger of York, your Metropolitan,*' a command obeyed only by the Bishop of Whithorn), 
t Bull ofPof4 Innoant III,, 1198-1216. 

t Gnat Bull of Pope Honoriut III., 1216-27 (No. xlvil of National MSS. of ScoUand, 
Part i.). 


fixing the succession to the Crown, runs thus: (i) St. Andrews, 
(2) Glasgow, (3) Dunkeld, (4) Aberdeen, (5) Moray, (6) Ross, (7) 
Dunblane, (8) Caithness, (g) Argyle, (10) Galloway or Whithorn. 
(See National Af 55. of Scotland, Part ii.. No. xliii. A.) 

The order and grouping of the Bishoprics continued with little 
variation in this shape during the third period till the Reformation. 
It will be noted that, while Aberdeen had in the second period only a 
geographical rank, in the third period the importance of the See has 
obtained for it a rank inferior only to the three more or less Primatial 
Bishoprics, so that, as in the heraldic ceiling, its normal order is that 
of fourth among the Scottish Sees.* See Bishop Lrcslie on the Scottish 
Hierarchy {Sc. Texts, i., p. 108). 

A very lucid account is given by Thomas Innes {History of Scot- 
land, Sp. CI.) of the order of establishment and general grouping of 
the Scottish Sees. Their development may be said to mark the stages 
of the national expansion, and the student of Scottish history will note 
their successive sequence, star after star, as it were, coming out in 
the Northern sky, in a certain mutual relation and dependence. 

Lastly, as the ecclesiastical series terminates in the University, it 
may be proper to remark that the order of development under which the 
Scottish Universities, so far as founded by Bishops, severally sprang up, 
proceeded in the same sequence as the order in dignity of the four 
great Sees, the only exception being that Dunkeld, not having had 
an Elphinston or a Wardlaw among its prelates, drops out of this 
Academic array. The relation of the Church to the three older 
Universities, of which she was the Foundress, is therefore seen in 
the following juxtaposition. 

Sees in final order of Prmdence . Pre-Rifonnaiion UnivirsiiUs (in order of 

(order nine as in heraldic ceiling). fioandation). 

1. See of St. Andrews. i. University of St. Andrews, founded 141 1. 

2. See of Glasgow. 2. University of Glasgow, „ 1453. 

3. See of Dunkeld. 

4. See of Aberdeen. 3. University of Aberdeen, „ 1494. 

* A deviation from the umial order occvn in the Parliament of xaSg (Margaret, Maid 
of Norway), where ** Evesque Moray *' stands before " Aberdeen '* (p. 441 of Aeit of ScoiHsk 
ParUamintt vol. i.). 



tntnhn fniotnm Series, ettmrntsqiie nttahim §Hstt U«.— 
fmeh the JSiwt% ml the JUrtoert ot 911190. 

If we turn our attention to the general aspects of the political and 
ecclesiastical horizon, as it shaped itself nearly four centuries ago to 
the eye and mind of the pre-Reformation age, we find hardly less interest 
and instruction in the phenomena that are absent and as yet unapparent, 
than in those that are present and visibly recognised. Hence it is of 
importance not only to advert to the particulars selected for delineation, 
but also to reckon up what the tableau conceals, or at least does not 
reveal, of the vision underneath the then horixon. In the general 
survey of these historical features which we now propose, it will 
therefore be necessary to note, as they emerge, the more notable 
negative as well as the positive and outstanding phenomena. 
The first head of remark, to which we draw attention, is the— 

I. Prominbncb op thb Empire. 

In the Heraldic array that is now before us, we have — ^under the 
precedency of the Emperor as a kind of Lord-Paramount in civil 
jurisdiction, co-ordinate with the Pope in his spiritual jurisdiction — 
an image of the World, as then conceived by Western Christendom. 

The political system of Europe is, therefore, still regarded, ac- 
cording to this representation, as cast in the mould of the Roman 
Empire, which continues to be conceived as a unity under one 
Imperial head. Hence the style of the Imperial chief is known to 
have been thus framed: "Carolus V., divina favente dementia, 


Rimanorum Imperatw Augustus ac rex Gennaniaei Hispaniarum, &c.". 
To U8 in these days it is difficult to imagine the time when all the 
Powers were assumed as standing in a certain relation of subordination 
to a superior Power, one, at all events, nominally superior. In regard 
to the succession to the ** Imperium Romanum," there are in our time 
virtually four claimants in the field : the House of Hapsburg, as the 
successors of the Medieval Kaisers, or, as they were loosely styled, 
the ''Emperors of Almaigne";* the House of HohenzoUem, as the 
de facto rulers of Germany; the C^ar or House of Romanoff, as claiming 
to be heirs of the Eastern Emperors; and the dormant claim of France 
under the Bonapartes to represent the Western Empire of Charle- 
magne. But, in the tableau of this heraldic ceiling, the House of 
Hapsburg of that day is alone regarded as possessed of the ** Imperium^ 

One of the most valuable and fruitful results of recent historical in- 
vestigatipn has been to familiarise the student of medieval history with 
the importance of the " Imperium/' f considered as a political conception 
long surviving the power that gave it birth, and as an idea dominating 
the movements of the middle ages, and giving a central unity to their 
various oscillations. In Dante, as is well Imown, the vision of the 
Empire with its ''Pax Romana," giving repose to the troubled nations, 
assumes a sanctity and a majesty in his aspirations that almost blends 
it with the vision of a Kingdom of God in this lower world. 

Of the prominence of this idea, we find evidence here presented, 
not without significance, in the position of the Imperial Eagle, as 
heading in this array the series of sovereigns. The Eagle is, how- 
ever, at this period only nominally Roman : it belongs, at the epoch 
represented, to the ruler of the Teutonic race; and it is one of the 
paradoxes of history which needs some research to understand, how 
it came that, by the time we reach the eve of the Reformation, the 
"Imperium'* is virtually acknowledged and exercised only by the 
race that originally, in the early centuries, repelled its yoke, and how 
that very Germanic race, having served itself heir to the Imperial 
sceptre which, under Arminius, it disowned, and afterwards gradually 
shattered, snatched up the broken fragments and strove to knit them 

* Prom the play of *' Edward III.," Act i, Scene x (attriboted to Shakspere). 
t Very important, In this regard, is Prolessor Biyoe's work, Thi Holy Roman Bm^€, 
Alao J. H. Bmton (History pfScotUmd, I., pp. 390-1). 


together into a convenient weapon for a " Princeps " of their own 
race to wield- 
No more notable spectacle is furnished by all the ages than this, 
of which we have here a visible presentment^ and which we may call 
briefly the Teutonising of the Roman "Imperium". Here, in the 
headship of a German as sole Emperor in Europe, we come to discern 
that the nation which Tacitus in the first century descried dimly as, 
by their rude virtues, the future hope of the world — ^that nation which 
the older Empire tried in vain to absorb^has taken up the sceptre 
now fallen from the grasp of the effete Roman, and in the sixteenth 
century is found dominating over its old oppressors — ^Arminius, as it 
were, by strange metamorphosis, masquerading as Augustus — and 
ruling the Italian peoples with their own weapons and their own . 
formuls, which had been invented to subjugate all others than them- 
selves. A consciousness of this revolution expressed itself in the 
proud words of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa : " The ornaments 
and virtues of empire have migrated beyond the Alps to a more 
deserving people" (Gibbon, vol. viii., p. 207). 

2. Political Fbatures. 

Among the features worthy of attention under this head is the unity 
which is recognised as belonging both to France and to England— each 
being taken as a political integer — compared with the fragmentary 
condition in which, for example, Spain appears. There is, there- 
fore, no recognition of the once formidable Burgundy alongside of 
France, much less of Brittany; the work of Louis XL has left no 
room for such satellites of the French monarchy ; and similarly, to our 
surprise, neither Wales nor Ireland gets any acknowledgment of 
nationality apart from England. It is otherwise with Spain, where it 
is manifest that the work of unification was not regarded as yet 
complete, and hence we have the Iberian peninsula apportioned 
between virtually five sovereignties: Leon and Castile (with arms 
quartered, indicating a union of juxtaposition and not amalgamation), 
Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal, the three last having each separate 
• and independent armorial insignia. 

It is further worthy of note that none but Christian Powers of the 
West are admitted into the array. Accordingly the Grand Turk, or, 


as he is styled ia the far Enst, the ** Sultan of Roum/* finds no place, 
though Montaigne, in that same century — ^the sixteenth — ^pronounced 
*' his empire the most potent then on earth " ; but the Christianised 
kingdom of the race which is Idndred to the Turk (the Magyars of 
Hungary) receives due recognition. 

Perhaps, to us nowadays, the most notable apparent lacuna is the 
absence of any acknowledgment of the power that has arisen to be the 
great Colossus of the East, the then Grand Duke of Muscovy. It was, 
however^onlyio 1547 — ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ of our monumental record 
^*-that be assumed the title of Czar, and in that capacity he claims, in 
our day, to represent the submerged Eastern Empire. This absence is 
all the more remarkable that already in the previous reign, that of 
James IV*, the country of Muscovy and its prince are well known 
commercially to the Scottish people (Pinkerton, History of Scotland, ii., 
pp. 59-6i)« The Slavonic communities, of which the Czar is now the 
most potent prince, are here represented only by the kingdoms of 
Bohemia and Poland, and these are no doubt admitted into the array 
solely as belonging to those Western communities that owned allegiance 
to the See of Rome. The probable reason for the omission of 
Muscovy is because there was no desire, rather a disinclination, to 
acknowledge more than one Empire with one Kaiser on the ^obe, 
and the fact of only one Emperor, therefore, being acknowledged 
ky medieval Europe, is a circumstance which goes far to explain 
this notable exclusion of the Muscovite, as well as the ignoring 
of the Eastern Church, of which the Czar stands forth in our time 
the champion. 

That Scotland,* while claiming to be imperial in its own domain, 
with its King on the same plane with the Emperor, within the realm of 
Scotland, should likewise acknowledge as sole Kaiser the Imperaior who 
was successor to Charlemagne^ was entirely just and proper. It was, 
moreover, in entire accordance with the then current belief in the old 
alliance, on which the Scottish fabling chroniclers, in the two centuries 
preceding Gavin Dunbar, built so much, between Achaius of Scotland, 

* «« Whatever may be delMited agaiatt other kuigdomi, which were once anbjeel to the 
Empire . . . Scotland and tta kings were never subject to the Roman Empire, nor con- 
quered by them : Ibr they, to tUfend tksmulva agmust th$ Scots, were iofced to bnfld a wall 
called Vallum Adriaui,'* ftc. (Sir Geo. Mackenzie, On Precedency, ch. i.). 



or Eocha, grandfather of Kenneth MacAlpine, and the Carolus Magnus 
of the Empire.* 

It is further owing to the ''Majestas" still clinging, even in that later 
age, to the ** Empire/' that there is no separate acknowledgment of the 
Italian dominions, and hardly any of the various German principalities.t 
The spear of Brandenburg, as well as the name of Prussia, is as yet 
underneath the horizon. So in the case of Saxony, then foremost 
among the German states, there is no special recognition of what was 
simply a constituent of the Empire. Most notable of all> the great 
commonwealth of Venice, t then reputed the astutest marvel of states- 
manship, is passed over without any acknowledgment of the winged 
lion of St. Mark, and so also the outlying and then but loosely attached 
territories of the Empire in the Netherlands, in Switzerland, and in 
Buigundy, receive no special recognition. These last named states 
are all comprehended under the Empire as among its constituents, and 
are hence regarded as parts of the " Reich " or " Roman Empire," still 
supposed to be overshadowing the world. The formal acknowledg- 
ment of Switzerland and Holland as independent of the Empire (which 
took place under Treaty of Westphalia, 1648) was yet far distant* Nor 
is this statement affected by the presence, in this array, as if they 
were independent factors, of such kingdoms as Sicily and Cyprus; 
inasmuch as Cyprus was a crusading conquest, and the kingdom of 
Sicily was held by peculiar tenure direct from the Papal See. The 
Norman dynasty that first created the kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
claimed to hold it without any allegiance to the Emperor of the 

* J. H. Barton (L, p. 326) identifies Achftius with Eocha.— For s poetic aUuBioa to the 
ttory of Charlemagne's alliance with Acfaaiiis see ** Marmion '*. It is sentimental, and not 
historic, to helieve that the trasurtjhry was added to the Arms of Scotland by Charlemagne. 
The notion was doubtless to indicate, by this garniture of the encircling JUurs-di-Us^ that the 
Lilies of France would always protect the Lion of Scotland. This they certainly did, during 
the long war against Edward IIL, when the impetuous valour of England was averted from 
Scotland, and the storm fell upon the fields of Prance at Cressy and Poitiers. 

t The King of Bohemia, a country which was reckoned an integral part of the 
Empire, is acknowledged probably as the chief of the secular Electors, and the duked^ 
of Gudderland owes its insertion, in all likelihood, to the memory of Mary of Gueldres, 
Queen of James IL 

} Venice is sometimes regarded as belonging to the Greek or Eastern Empire (Gibbon, 
vii., p. agz). 



The feeling toward England is one of cold respect, toward France 
of warm goodwill. Hence the fleurs-de-lis occupy the first place 
immediately after the Imperial eagle, and England, instead of standing, 
in the order we might expect, next to France, is placed behind Spain, 
or rather, as formerly remarked, not Spain, but a section of Spain (Leon 
and Castile).* England, no doubt, as already observed, is accounted 
an integral dominion : neither Wales nor Ireland is acknowledged as a 
separate European nationality. There are, however, three marked cir- 
cumstances deserving of notice attaching to the treatment of England : 

(i) The pretension of the Tudors, inherited from the later Planta- 
genets, to quarter the arms of France, is ignored. 

(2) The " Lions " of England are made to rank after the insignia 
of a portion of the Spanish monarchy. 

(3) The then living English princess, although Queen-Dowager- 
of Scotland (Margaret Tudor), is not acknowledged in the array. 
(See p. 34.) 

4. NoTANDA IN Roll op Scottish Nobility. 

The only native dukedom in the then Scottish peerage, at the 
period of Gavin Dunbar, was that of Albany, of the blood royal. 
Archibald, Earl of Douglas in time of James II., was Duke of 
Touraine only in the French peerage, although he happens to be so 
styled by courtesy presumably, in the roll of the Scottish Parliament, 
1438. Originally the title of duke was given only within the Royal 
Family, of which there was an instance in England as early as 1337. 
(As to the dukedom of Montrose, see p. 45.) 

There is as yet no marquisate,t although the Earl of March, or, 
by his Latin designation, the Earl of the Marches, is highest in rank 

* If the Spanish monarchy, aa we now know it, had preceded England, the wonder 
had been less; bat the Spain of the heraldic ceiling is simply Leon and Caatile, minus Aragon 
and Navarre, both of which receive separate recognition. On the disputed question at 
Papal conclaves, whether England could claim co-ordination aa to votes with the lour 
principal nations, one of which was Spain, see Gibbon's important notCi Na 75, ch. Ixx. 
(vol viii., p. 276). — In Diplomacy, France and Spain take rank before England. 

t ** The title and office of marquis (>.#., commander of the march or frontier) was 
introduced into Italy by the French [t.^., Frankish] emperors" (Gibbon, ch. Ivl, n. 13). The 


among the earls, and may be said to stand close up to the place where 
the "marquis/' as a title, ought to appear— f.e., after the dukedom, 
and at the head of the earldoms. 

One of the most notable featiu'es of this array is that there is no 
temporal peer acknowledged in a rank under that of earl. Neither 
viscounts* nor barons find a place, and hence the somewhat notable 
absence of the great Aberdeenshire family of Porbes,f notwithstanding 
that the title of the premier baron, Lord Forbes, dating from 1442, ex- 
tends back beyond the period when the heraldic ceiling was constructed. 

The earldoms that have arisen of later time belonging to this 
locality, in the great houses of Grant and Ogilvie, as well as in the 
Kintore branch of the Keiths, and the Haddo branch of the Gordon 
family, are all, though to us comparatively ancient, necessarily under- 
neath the horizon of Gavin Dunbar. 

But although we thus find ourselves at a period remote from 
these creations of the later time, the roll of the Scottish nobles is 
here far more full than it had been in the early time, when there 
were seven provinces of Pictland (Skene, Chronicle of Pick and 
ScoiSf p. Ixxxiv. of Preface), and consequently only seven mormaors, 
or earls of the ancient Celtic type. The coronation of Alexander II., 
in 1214, is said to be the latest occasion on which the earls of Scotland 
are specified as seven in number.| Yet of the twelve earls whose 

marquiaate of Mont&mt is sa cM sa the early Cnsasdea (A.a laoo), and the maiquiaate of 
Spoleto ia aa early aa 95a In England, the marqniaate ia flfat ftmnd in 1386, reign .of 
Richard II., in the peraon of Robert de Yen, Matqnia of Dublin. StiU it ia rare, in the 
English peerage, till the time of Edward VI., after which it becomea ooounon. In SooHand, 
Huntly and Hamilton were created marquiaes only in 1599. The German title cor r e sp o n ding 
(margrave, j.e., mark-graf) has obtained, in our day, the loftiest elevation. It is the Markgraf 
—or, aa we ahonld call him, Mafqtiia--of Brandenburg thai haa grown into the Kaiaer of 
Deutachland. The territorial chiefii, to whom it feU from local cooditiona to be the defenden 
of the borders of the Teutonic empire, naturally became powerful, juat aa, under the old 
Roman Empire, we find it waa always the oommandcra of the legionariea of the Rhine and 
Danube who became, by atreas of circumstancea and through their mora favourable oppor- 
tunities or environment, more potential than any prefects of the interior provfaices. 

* Vice*eomes in early deeda ia only a title lor aheriff, not what we now call viaoount 
t Arioato (OW. Fur., x. 87) namea a ** Forbesae *' among Scottish chiefs. 
t See E. W. Robertson, Scotland, 1., p. 32, on the seven provinces ; also J. H. Burton, 
il , p. xax. (Lord Crawford— in his Barldom tf If or— oonriders HdrUiH aa the number of the 
Scottish earMooM-al the dose of the Z3th century, and stalea that there ia evidence as toidl of 


shields are here emblazoned, there is hone (except, perhaps, the 
last — Bothwell) that is not locally appropriate, as being more or 
less closely connected territorially with the province of which 
Aberdeen is the capital. Hence there is no reference to such 
dHOtmi or territorially remote earldoms as the following, belonging 
to tbe then peerage: 

CreaUd circa 

Created circa 



Glencaim, - - - 1488. 


- - - 1455- 

Arran, - - - - 1503. 

Rothes, - 

- - - 1457- 

Montrose (Graham), 1503. 

Morton, - 

- . . 1458. 

Eglinton, - - - 1508. 

Buchan, - 

- - - 1469. 

Cassillis, - • - 1509. 

Lennox, - 

. . - 1474. 

The earldom of Buchan is strangely absent, but the Stewart family, 
then enjoying it, were not territorially connected with Aberdeenshire. 
The absence of Stewart, Earl of Athole, in contiguous territory, created 
earl as early as 1457, is difficult to explain alongside of the presence of 
the Earl of Bothwell,* created as late as 1488, and territorially remote. 
The only other remark which we deem it necessary to make regard- 
ing the roll of Scottish magnates, is that the order of the first six earldoms, 
from March to Sutherland, dating chiefly, it may be said, prior to tlhe 
accession of the Stewart dynasty, seems not to be regulated by any 
chronological principle; but, after Sutherland, the six subsequent 
earldoms (beginning with Crawford, as far as and including Bothwell) 
follow, with one slight deflection,t the exact order of their creation 

these being transmissible throagh female snccession.) The old earldoms were all territorial 
and had reference to conntia^ and thdr functions were judicial before they became feudal. 
Earldoms taking title from villages or from towns or from femilies (Barl Canning, Earl 
Russell) are modem innovations. (Some good remarks in Hewlett's Scottish Peerage, p. 17, 
Loildon, i88a, on the seven original earldoms.) 

* The Earl of Bothwell may owe his place to the marked ecclesiastical pre-eminence 
whkh his femlly had obtained, as is manifest in the triple entry of Hepbums in the 
hierarchical series (quadruple, if Qea Hepbom, Bishop of the Sndereys, had aurvlved till 
1530). The only other femily name that has more than one entry in the ecclesiastical series, 
is the royal name of Stewart, of which there are two represenutives. 

t Argyle, created earl in 1457, ^* placed before Brrol, created earl in 1452. The exact 
rcMOA seems difltenlt to discover. Perhaps it was to associate the two great military officers 
ofState; for the C0fiiM<# is thus placed beside the If oriscAol. 


according as it took place under the Stewart dynasty. [Sir Bernard 
Burke (Peerage and Baronetage) states that, in Scotland, precedency 
in right of priority of creation was not thought of till the i6th 
century, and was then an idea introduced from England. The rank 
in the old time followed the actual personal or family ascendency. 
As late as 1592 and 1604, the Earl of Angus protested for precedency to 
his title, as ranking before not only earls, but dukes (Burke, ibidem).] 

Great is the variety of fortune that has befallen these various 
houses in the after time. Four of these earldoms were raised to duke- 
doms, of which two may be said to have passed away, and two survive, 
but not of equal rank. Sutherland and Huntly, curiously linked in that 
distant age (see pp. 44-5), resemble each other in so far that both 
became merged in a dukedom, the former in a dukedom comparatively 
recent, and of the United Kingdom, 1833, the latter in the older 
Scottish dukedom of Gordon, which is as old as 1684,* but which 
came to a close in 1836. Argyle is a third earldom which has 
reached the ducal position in Scotland, but ranks only as baron in 
the peerage of the United Kingdom. A fourth earldom, that became 
ducal, is that of Angus, merged in the dukedom of Douglas, a title 
which supervened in later time among the honours of the house of 
Angus, but both titles have now vanished in that stem, and the title 
of Earl of Angus seems now to survive only among the ancient his- 
torical distinctions appertaining to the dukedom of Hamilton. 

5. Ecclesiastical Features. 
Turning to the ecclesiastical features, we find that the Scottish 
Church has at length attained its full hierarchical complement, and 
that all the bishoprics included in the series have become part and 
parcel of the kingdom of Scotland in things sacred and things civil. 
The nine bishoprics (see p. 67) named in the Bull of Pope Innocent III. 
(1198-1216), which recognises the independence of the Scottish Church, 
have now (1520) increased to thirteen. Lismore has been disjoined from 
Dunkeld, and three others have been added formerly under other jurisdic- 
tions — viz., Galloway, Orkney, and the Sudereys. In previous reigns this 
completeness could not have been actually attained ; for in a generation 

* The title •• Earl of Huntly** now belongs to the Marquisate of Huntly, and is not 
among the subordinate titles of the existing Dukedom of Gordon, which is a new creation 


not very distant, the See of Galloway was under York, Orkney be- 
longed to the jurisdiction of Drontheim, and that of the Sudereys or 
Sodor had been, in the Norwegian period, subject to the same 
Norwegian jurisdiction. The whole area of Scotland is therefore now 
accounted for, and the country is at length ecclesiastically complete in 
its hierarchical organisation; and the precedence which had succes- 
sively belonged to lona, then to Abemethy, then to Dunkeld, has finally 
become the recognised possession of St. Andrews. It is worth noting, 
in passing, that, with the exception of Whithorn in Galloway, which was 
long a kind of separate dependency under its own tributary lords (E. W. 
R., i., p. 235), there is no episcopal See planted south of the Firths of 
Forth and Clyde. They are all situated within, or on the border of, the 
ancient " Alban *' (Albyn), and so are situated north of the " Scots- 
water" or Firth of Forth. The diocese of St. Andrews included the 
Lothians, having gradually absorbed the northern portion of the 
Northumbrian kingdom until the diocese stretched ultimately to the 
Cheviots.* Similarly, the diocese of Glasgow extended to the west 
border at the Solway, the reason being that this See claimed jurisdiction 
over the territory of the once independent British kingdom of Strath- 
clyde. This kingdom with its capital, Alcluyd or Dumbarton, main- 
tained a kind of shadowy existence till the time of Malcolm II. (1003- 
1034), when it was absorbed in Scotland (J. H. Burton, i., p. 310). 

There is a considerable amount of evidence to show that in early 
time ''bishopric" was co-extensive with *' kingdom/' and it was only 
in the later time, after the diocesan subdivisions were introduced, 
that bishoprics became reduced in size, and increased in number, so 
as to be co-extensive with the lesser kingships, or what we know as 
earldoms.f Although it is difficult to trace out all the coincidences 

* A century previous [to the capture of Edinburgh, in the reign of Indulf, 954-962] the 
jurisdiction of the successor of St. Cuthbert still reached as far as Abercorn upon the Forth, 
but thenceforth it was bounded by the Pentland hills, until about fifty years later, when the 
diocese of Durham was contracted within still narrower limits (E. W. Robertson, Scotland, 
6<v., L, p. 76). By the battle of Carham in 10x8, Lothian was ceded by Eadulf Cudel to 
Malcolm II. (Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii., p. 336). Thus the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of St. 
Andrews extended beyond the " Scots-water" in exact proportion as the temporal authority 
of the king of Scotland grew and extended (E. W. R., l, p. 334). 

t In England, according to Ed. A Freeman, the early bishoprics emerge, each answer- 
ing to one of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Compare J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, i., 


proving such a coUocatioo^ it is worth noting that two at any ntte ^f 
the diocesan bishops in this array are placed parallel to and alongside of 
the temporal earl attached to the same territory/ much as Pope and 
Emperor were assumed to stand to each other on the European area. 
These two are the bishopric of Caithness, in the same line as the 
earldom of Sutherland, and the bishopric of Lismore, which is placed 
in line with the earldom of Argyle. The order is therefore : 
tm BccUmasiUtU 5m«i. In TtmfanU Smst, 

9. fisithmM^ ^hofr ot 9. ^atherbtih, Cail af . 

13. Siamort, §xthof ct la. Jlt|sk| . . . Caiclat 

But although there is here claimed an equality of rank as between 
bishop and earl in the same territory, both being entitled to be styled 
** lordi^f it is worthy of remark that, on the evidence of this Ceiling, 
the son of the Church who had entered the sacred profession might 
rise to a higher rank than he could have attained had he pursued a 
secular profession or obtained even the chieftainship of his sept or clan. 

That the Church even then offered the fairest field for intellectual 
ambition and opened the amplest career to resplendent talents is a fact 
that comes out not unhappily in this heraldic representation. It will be 
noted, e.g., that while the Earls of Douglas and Angus are credited with 
a high position in the secular array, their kinsman of the name of Douglas 
who has chosen the clerical profession is placed higher in rank than 
either of these chiefs of his own clan.^ Gawain Douglas, as bishop, 
stands fourth in his series, viz., the ecclesiastical, while his chieftain 

p. 169. 60 Father Innea {p. xltL of Civii and BecUtiasiieal Hisiory of Swtland^ Spalding 
Club), who Myt, in hit Latin Letter to WiUdnt, the Editor of the Camcilim, that theie was a 
time when there were only two bishops, one kt Pictland at Abemetl^, the other te the 
[Dslriadic] Scotland in Iona~" uniim saltern /ro aaofNOfiM r«sgfM eptscopum pcopriiim • . . 
Pictonun apod Abemethy . . . Scotonim in insula lona". 

* The remains of St. Margaret were removed to the high altar of DnnlennUne in the 
presence of King Alexander IH. and seven Bishops and seven BarU of Scotland^** Septem 
Episcoporum et septem Comitum Scotiis*' (Rigistr. Dun/mnkt 335 ; J. H. Bvton, Uiitory i(f 
Scotland, ii., p. 21). 

f " My Lord of Aberdeen " is in ancient records simply the •* Bishop" of Aberdeen. 

} So the eminence of Leo X. in this array to due to hto official and not to hto fenonal 
hereditary dignity. It to not as a sdoa of the Medid, who are here territoriaUy wiacknow- 
ledged, that he to here memorised : he takes hto place m thto array solely as the Patriarch 
of the West and Head of Western Christendom. 


and relative, the Earl of Angus, stands in the secular series only sixth 
in the array. A similar inference may be drawn from the high rank of 
the three ecclesiastics of the house of Bothwell at that time, coming 
respectively 6th, 8th, 15th in the roll of churchmen, in contrast with 
th^rank accorded in the temporal series to the earl of that name, who 
comes last (15th) among the nobles here commemorated. So, in the 
case of Gavin Dunbar himself, who takes the same armorial bearings 
as the Earl of Moray, the rank which he occupies in the ecclesiastical 
array is equal to that of the temporal earl whose arms he bears, both 
standing fifth in their respective series. 

But the most noteworthy feature, ecclesiastically, is the evidence 
which this heraldic ceiling bears as to the '* spiritual-independence 
principle," whereby, apart from the Court of Rome, Scotland at that 
time acknowledges no external superior in matters ecclesiastical. 

The evidence here furnished for this important phenomenon is 
complete and indisputable. The mists and uncertainties contracted 
around the political independence of Scotland by the treaty of Falaise, 
which was extorted from William the Lion, were the cause of the per- 
plexities attaching for a time to its ecclesiastical independence (E. 
W. Robertson, Scotlan4f i., p. 373). In 1188 those perplexities were 
removed, and the dispute was virtually set at rest by the declaration of 
Pope Clement III., that the Church of Scotland was in immediate 
dependence upon the See of Rome (E. W. R., i. 379). Then came 
the confirmation by the great Bull of Honorius III. (otherwise remark- 
able for its splendid caligraphy), referred to above on p. 68. There 
it is ordained that the Scottish Church "be subject, as a special 
daughter, to the Apostolic See, without any intermediary '* (" Sedi 
Apostolicae, sicut filia specialist nuUo medio sit subjecta "). 

In this array, therefore, the two Scottish Archbishops come next 
to the Pope without any intermediary; and thus the ancient claims, 
which were advanced both by York and by Canterbury, to rule the 
Scottish Church, are here boldly and systematically repelled.* This 

* '* Canterbury claimed jurisdiction over all the British Isles in virtue of the Bull of 
Gregory the Great to Augustine, and York asserted ecclesiastical supremacy over Scotland on 
account of the signature of Wilfirith at the Council of Rome and the short episcopate of 
Trvmwin over the Ptcts** (E. W. Robertson, Scotland, 6^., i., p. 178, where the whole 
question is detailed). Compare also E. A. Freeman, N. Conqfust, vol. iv., pp. 350-1. The 
claim of York had a more valid ground in the undoubted jurisdiction which it enjoyed in the 



marked assertion of *' spiritual independence" takes place also, it may 
be noted, at a date contemporary with Wolsey the Magnificent, when 
that august prelate was presiding over the See of York with all its 
rich historic honours. Those historic honours may be said to be, in 
England, still unmatched in respect of antiquity and splendour, inas- 
much as York was a city enjoying a kind of primacy during the 
Romano-British period, and inasmuch as it was more than once, in 
old time, what London never was at any time, nor yet Canterbury, an 
Imperial city, a residence of the Emperor of the West before the 
Roman Empire fell. This is indeed a circumstance of high signifi- 
cance. To those who can read below the surface, the whole of this 
blazon forms a striking and visible evidence of the vigour with which 
the Scottish national spirit, at this as at other periods, asserted itself 
in disdain of the least semblance of subjection to any external non- 
Roman jurisdiction, whether ecclesiastical or political. 

time of the Northumbrian kingdom m fax as the ** Scott-water ** or Firth of Forth; any 
Airther claim was contingent on the poUUcal independence question which Bannockbom 
effectually settled — In historical polemics, a fiur argument against the pretenaioa of York 
might have been obtained from the relation of St. Aidan to its most important suffragan, the 
See of Durham. It was from lona that St. Aidan proceeded to Hdy Isle or Lindisfame, 
becoming thereby the predecessor of St. Cuthbert, and so the spiritual title of the Northern 
Bishopric of England, in the province of York, may be said to have depended on that of lona, 
— As for the claim of Canterbury over Britain generally, that was stiU more shadowy, as St. 
Albans aod Glastonbury have each, in that event, a rival voice as to priority not to be ignored; 
and, moreover, we hear of Bishops of London and York as attending a synod of Aries as 
early as a.d. 314, long before Augustine appears at Canterbury. 





Thb subject of this section has been anticipated to some extent by the 
interesting description and blazon contributed by the late Principal 
Campbell to The Herald and Genealogist^ vol. v., p. 9, 26th July, 1867. 

The shields, which are of the form that came into use after the 
period of the heater shape, are not quite uniform in size or in proportion, 
the average size being about 18 by 14 inches. They take rank from 
east to west, and as the upper ends are towards the east, the spec- 
tator, in order to see them in proper position, is supposed to face towards 
the west. It then appears that the nobles are on the dexter side and 
the kings on the sinister, but it is possible that they were so arranged 
in order that the higher dignities might have place upon the north side. 

The charges on the shields are carved in relief. 

The Imperial shield is ensigned with a crown of the form peculiar 
to the Emperor, consisting of a circle of gold adorned with jewels, 
heightened with alternate trefoils and balls, four of each, and having d 
high semicircular red cap, closed at the sides, voided at the top, and 
showing in the opening an arch from front to back under a ball and 
cross pat6e. The crown of the King of Scotland is the only royal one 
that is arched. It has two arches, with a ball and cross pat^e at the 
intersection. The circle is jewelled and heightened with four crosses 
pat^e and as many fleurs-de-lis alternately. The other royal crowns 
are of gold, and consist of circles studded with ornaments carved 
and painted in red and blue, to resemble jewels, and having above the 
rims strawberry or oak leaves, eight in number, except that of Poland, 
which has ten, and those of Spain, Denmark, Hungary, and Sicily, each 
of which has twelve. In those of Cyprus and Navarre these orna- 
ments resemble fleurs-de-lis, and in those of Spain and Denmark some 
of them resemble trefoils. The crowns of Spain, England, Denmark, 


and Sicily have no caps ; those of Aragon and Cyprus have blue caps, 
and the others have red ones. The shields of the Dukes of Bourbon 
and Gueldres are ensigned with gold jewelled circles, heightened with 
eight plain points, that of Bourbon having a red cap, and that of 
Gueldres none. 

Above the shields of the nobles, with the exception of those of the 
Duke of Albany and the Earls of March, Moray, and Douglas, are 
coronets consisting of white circles with coloured ornaments to repre- 
sent jewels. That of Albany is of gold and of the same form as those 
of the Dukes of Bourbon and Gueldres, but with twelve points, and 
those of March, Moray, and Douglas are gold jewelled circles, nearly 
resembling the coronets placed by Sir David Lindsay, in his Heraldic 
MS., over the shields of earls. 

The arms of the Pope are ensigned with the tiara, the three 
encircling crowns of which are formed of numerous crosses pat6e, 
fleurs-de-lis, and trefoils ; the cap is red, and it is surmounted with a 
mound and cross psLi€c. Two keys in saltire, the dexter or, the sinister 
argent, are behind the shield. The arms of the two Archbishops have 
each behind the shield a crozier in pale or, the cross botonnde appear- 
ing above the shield, and those of the Prior of Saint Andrews have, 
in the like position, a pastoral staff or, of which the crook, turned to 
the dexter side, is seen above the shield. The shields of the Bishops 
are ensigned with mitres, which vary a little in height and shape, some 
having a more antique form than others ; the circles and arches are 
enriched with jewels and crockets ; the spaces between the overarching 
bands are blue, sometimes with red centres or borders, and the pendants 
or labels are blue (with the exception of one which is red) and fringed 
at the ends with gold. 

The linings of the crovms, coronets, and mitres are shown above 
the shields, and are coloured either rod or blue, so as to contrast, in 
almost every case, Math the prevailing tincture in the shield. 

The scrolls containing the titles or designations are so placed as to 
be read by the spectator when facing towards the east, or when 
advancing up the nave from the west door. 









••'. ►? . . ■ \vr' ^ '^Ti ]i- 

M • ! \ •:■. : 


''< . ;.'.■' 

■ V 

.: i, "<■ ■ 



I. The Emperor. [No. i. 

Or an eagle with two heads displayed sable armed gnles. 

The eagle's heads are, confonnably to the earlier practice, neither diademat^ that is, 
encircled with annulets or nimbi, nor crowned. The annulets were the special 
distinction of the Imperial eagle, marking a higher dignity than that indicated by 
crowns. The sword, sceptre, and orb came afterwards to be borne in the eagle's 
claws. On the breast of the eagle were borne the personal arms of the Emperor, 
which for a long time were those of Austria. 

The German emperors assumed the eagle as their device in virtue 
of their claim to be the successors of the Roman emperors, whose 
ensign it was, both in Pagan and in Christian times. The meaning 
of the two heads, with which the Imperial eagle has been represented 
since about the fourteenth century, has been variously interpreted, 
the most likely explanation being that the double head represented 
the united empires of the East and of the West. 

In the earliest representations the Imperial eagle has only one head. 
" The eagle of the Emperor, charged in relief upon the early shield in the 
north choir aisle of Westminster Abbey," " has a single head, and is not 
crowned " (Boutell, Heraldry ^ Historical and Popular, third edition, 1864, 
p. 452). Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and Emperor, second son of King 
John, who died in 1272, bore an eagle with one head (Ibid,, p. 234). 

In a Roll of Arms supposed to be of, or soon after, the time of 
Henry III., probably not later than 1280, published with Mr. W. S. 
Walford's notes in the Archaeologia, vol. xxxix., p. 373, the eagle of the 
Emperor is described as having two heads, and Mr. Walford there 
mentions the occurrence of the double-headed eagle in a MS. of about 
1250. It appears in a heraldic window in York Minster, "the pro- 
bable date of which is about 1307" (Appendix, p. 158). 


Boutell (Plate LXXVL, No. 678) gives a representation of a double- 
headed eagle taken from a drawing of the period of Edward L, and in 
the arms of Anne of Austria, wife of Richard II., as they appeared in a 
window of St. Olave's Church, Old Jewry (c. 1377), given by Wille- 
ment {RegiU Heraldry, Plate VI. 4), the quartering of the empire 
shows a double-headed eagle. On the monument of Edmond, Duke 
of York, at King's Langley, Herts (1402), the eagle has " two heads, 
but not crowned" (Boutell, p. 390). 

Planch6 (Pursuivant of Arms) is of opinion that the dimidia- 
tion of two shields with eagles upon them produced the effect of a 
double-headed eagle, either accidentally or purposely ; and it has been 
otherwise suggested that the double-headed eagle had its origin at 
the time when two emperors reigned jointly, and their seals and 
coins bore two eagles, the one surmounting the other, but with 
their heads turned in opposite directions (Nisbet, System of Heraldry^ 
1804, i. 337). 

Sir David Lindsay ^ves a representation of the arms of the 
Emperor of Rome, in which the eagle has two heads, not diademat6e 
or crowned (Facsimile of Heraldic Manuscript, 1542, Ed. 1878, 12). 

No. 2.] II. The Kino op France. 

Ajnre, tliree flenxs-do-lis or. 

The fleur-de-lis appears first as a badge or cognizance borne singly, 
not on a shield, on the seal of Louis VII. (1137-1170) (Planch^). 
In heraldic form it was borne sem6e on the shield (France ancient) 
until the reign of Charles VI. (1380), when the number was 
reduced to three (France modem). Boutell (p. 159) says that the 
change had been made by the French kings as early as 1364. 

The original meaning of the emblem has not been conclusively 
explained, the vexed question whether it was named from the iris- 
flower or from a spear-head, to both of which it bears some resem- 
blance, never having been decided. Montagu (Guide to the Study 
of Heraldry, p. 6) says : " The arguments of M. de Menestrier " {Le 
Viritable Art du Blason) "in favour of the iris are so strong as almost 
to set this question at rest". 

The name seems to be a variety or corruption of " fieur-de-Louis ". 


PUBLIC ii::^..:;y 


TSL'T: . <*r>DATiUN8 

B L 







^P5^ 3^0Tnzum. 


III. The King of Spain. [No. 3. 

Qoirterly: flnt a&d fourth Aigenti a lion nunpant gnles, Leon; seeond and third 
Okilesi a castle triple towered or, windows and pcorts sable, Oastile. 

The windowB and ports onght to be azure. The lion is borne crowned or by modem usage. 

At the time of the construction of the ceiling, and for at least 
two centuries before that date, the order of marshalling was, first and 
fourth Castile, second and third Leon. They so appear on the tomb 
of Eleanor of Castile, first Queen of Edward I., in Westminster Abbey, 
and Willement says : " They are remarkable as the earliest example, 
in England, of two coats quartered in the same shield " (p. 13). 

The kingdoms were united in 1217, in the person of Ferdinand 
III., who was King of Leon in right of his father, and of Castile in 
right of his mother. He gave precedence to the maternal kingdom on 
account of its greater antiquity. "Because it was the ancientest 
kingdom " (Nisbet, Essay on Armories, p. 151). 

On the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella, 
the arms of Aragon and Sicily impaled were added to those of Castile 
and Leon in the royal shield of Spain, and marshalled second and 
third, with Castile and Leon quarterly first and fourth. 

Sir David Lindsay gives as the arms of the King of Spain: 
Quarterly: first and fourth grand quarters quarterly, first and fourth 
Castile, second and third Leon ; second grand quarter, Aragon impaling 
Sicily; third, Sicily impaling Aragon. This arrangement of the second 
and third grand quarters seems to have been made for the sake of 
symmetry or equipoise (13). 

The femme side of the achievement of Catherine of Aragon, given 
by Willement as taken from a contemporary manuscript in the College 
of Arms, bears the same arms as those given for Spain by Sir David 
Lindsay (except that the impalement is not reversed in the third 
quarter, and that the shield is ente en point of Granada, viz.. Argent, a 
pomegranate gules slipped and seeded proper) (PI. XV., fig. a). 

An example of the arms quartered, Leon first and fourth, Castile 
second and third, occurred in the north-west window of the chapter 
house of York Minster, designed, it is thought, about the end of the 
reign of Edward I., and " destroyed during the Civil War of the seven- 
teenth century " {Herald and Genealogist, vol. v., p. 387). 

In the Roll of the thirteenth century {supra, p. 87) the tincture of 
the lion of Leon is given " purpur ". 



No. 4.] IV. The King op England. 

Onlai, three lione peeeuit gudaatt in pale or. 

The ensigns armorial attributed to, or invented for, the kings of 
England from the Conqueror to Henry II., were two leopards or lions 
in the attitude proper to leopards, namely, passant gardant. To 
these the last mentioned King, on his marriage with Eleanor, eldest 
daughter and co-heir of the Duke of Aquitaine and Guienne, is said 
to have added a third leopard, being the arms of his wife (c. ii54). 

The earliest known representation of the three lions passant gar- 
dant in pale is on the second seal of Richard I. (c. 1192) ; but it is not 
unimportant in its bearing on the vexed question whether the royal 
animals were lions or leopards to remark that an earlier seal of the 
same king exhibits a lion rampant, and as only half of the convex 
shield is seen, it seems probable that the complete bearing was two 
lions combatant. From considerations of space the lions seem to have 
been crowded into the attitude of leopards lionn^, uc, passant (as on 
the seal of King John), and afterwards into that of leopards simply. 
The normal position of a lion in early heraldry was rampant, of a 
leopard passant gardant, and the attitude rather than any other con- 
sideration regulated what it was called. Hence, not only in France, 
but in England, the English royal animals were often called leopards 
till far on in the fifteenth century. 

They continued to be so borne until 1340, when Edward III., 
having assumed the title of King of France, quartered the ancient 
arms of that kingdom with those of England, placing France first and 
fourth. This precedence was given to France, either because it was 
the more important kingdom, or because the English coat, being 
derived from the dukedoms, not kingdoms, of Normandy and Aqui- 
taine, took properly the second place. This usage was continued by 
succeeding English kings until about 1403, when Henry IV. reduced 
the number of fleurs-de-lis in the French quarterings to three, follow- 
ing the change that had been made some years before in Prance by 
Charles V. The reduced number is found first in the great seal of 
Henry V. (Willement, p. 32). Thereafter the bearings of England re- 
mained the same until the union of the crowns in 1603, when the arms 
of Scotland and those of Ireland were added. The fleurs-de-lis were not 
finally discarded until the union of Great Britain with Ireland in 1801. 

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V. The King of Denmark. [No. 5. 

Onlai, a lion rampant erowned or» holding in his forepaws a Daniflh batUe-ue 
axgant, handled of the second. 

The handle ought to be argent. 

These are the arms of Norway. The arms of Denmark are : Or, 
sem^e of hearts gules, three lions passant gardant in pale azure 
crowned of the field. These have been borne with numerous quarter- 
ings variously marshalled at different times. Sir David Lindsay gives 
as the arms of the King of Denmark and as the impalement of 
Margaret of Denmark, Queen of James III.: Quarterly, first Denmark, 
second Sweden, third Norway, fourth Vandalia ; over all, dividing the 
quarterings, a cross argent fimbriated gules ; on an inescutcheon, 
quarterly, first and fourth Schleswig, second and third Holstein ; 
on an inescutcheon over all, Oldenburg (13, 31). 

In the arms of Anne of Denmark, Queen of James VI., as given by 
Willement, Norway is borne in the second quarter (PI. XXII.). 

The Garter plate of Frederick II. at Windsor (1581) bears: 
Quarterly, first Denmark, second Norway, third Sweden, fourth 
Jutland, these four divided by a cross argent fimbriated gules, in base 
Vandalia ; on an inescutcheon, quarterly, first Schleswig, second 
Holstein, third Stormark, fourth Dietmarschen ; on an inescutcheon 
over all, Oldenburg impaling Delmenhurst (Boutell, pp. 310, 326). 

The arms of Margaret, Queen of James III., are shown, impaled 
with Scotland, in a painting at Holyrood, which contains the portraits 
of the King and Queen and others. The field is divided into four 
quarters by a cross argent fimbriated gules, and the marshalling is: 
Quarterly, first Sweden, second Denmark, third Norway, fourth Van- 
dalia ; on an inescutcheon, quarterly, first and fourth Holstein, second 
and third Schleswig ; on an inescutcheon over all, Oldenburg (Boutell, 

p. 327)- 

Norway has not been borne in the arms of Denmark since the 
separation of those countries in 1814. 

Three lions passant gardant, not crowned, in a field sem6e of 
hearts are the bearings on a counterseal of Knut VL (i 182-1202). 
The crowns on the lions are first found about 1250 {Memaires de la 
SociiU Royale des Aniiquaires du Nard, 1885, pp. 70-71). 


No. 6.] VI. The King of Hungary. 

Argent, four Imts gules. 

This ought to be : Gules, four bars argent. 

Sir David Lindsay gives the arms: Barry of eight or and 
gules (15). 

The four silver bars have been fabled to have had their origin from 
the four principal rivers that " thwart " the country (Nisbet, i. 62). 

Willement, in his illustration of the achievement of Margaret of 
Anjou, the Queen of Henry VI., taken from the hall-window at Opk- 
wells House, near Maidenhead, Berkshire, shows Hungary: Barry of 
six argent and gules (Plate IX., No. 2). 


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VII. The Kino op Portugal. [No. 7. 

Aigent, five eieateheoiis in enm tame, aaeb charged with as many plates in 
aaltJie, all within an orle emhattled oonntei^emhattled of the second. 

Instead of the orle there ought to be a bordnre of CastUe. 

Willement blazons Portugal : " Argent on five escutcheons in 
cross Azure, as many plates in saltire, all within a bordure Gules 
charged with eight castles Or," and says : "The plates were (according 
to tradition) adopted by Alphonso the First, in honour of the five wounds 
of our Saviour, and to have been used as his device at the battle of 
Ourique in 1139, where he defeated five Moorish kings; he is said to 
have in consequence repeated the charge on the five escutcheons of 
the conquered monarchs. The bordure was added by Alphonso the 
Fifth after his marriage with the daughter of Alphonso the Wise, King 
of Castile ; the arms of which province were : Gules, a castle Or " (pp. 

93. 94)- 

Sir David Lindsay reverses the tinctures, making the arms : 
Azure, five escutcheons in cross argent, each charged with as many 
torteaux of the field (in English blazon, hurts) in saltire, all within a 
bordure or charged with eight towers gules (17). 


No. 8.] VIII. The Kino op Araoon. 

Qmurtarly: tint and flmxth TbSj of ilz arg«&t and gnlM; saoond and tUxd 
Gules, an eagto diaplayad aigemt. 

The arms of Aragon are : Or, four pallets gules, being those of the 
Counts of Barcelona. 

Nisbet says {Essay on Armories^ p. 153) : "The Count of Barsolon, 
when he conquered the kingdom of Arragon, pulled down its arms, 
Argent, a cross gules, cantoned with four Moors' heads proper; and 
erected his own. Or, four pallets gules". 

Sir David Lindsay gives them : Or, four pallets gules (14). 

The arms quartered second and third seem to be those of Poland 
improperly inserted here and omitted from the shield of the King of 
Poland (No. 12) ; or perhaps the combination may have been 
suggested by that in the coat of Sicily-Aragon, in the second and 
third of which, however (Suabia), the tinctures are different (No. 11). 

The legend attaching to the origin of the bearings is that, in 
873, Geoffrey de Velon, Count of Barcelona, "returning all bloody 
from battle," the King of Spain dipped his fingers in the Count's 
blood, and drew red lines with them on his shield. 

A variety of the tradition is found in Ford's Spain (1845, p. 492), 
the blazon given there, however, being rather confused. " The heraldic 
arms of Barcelona are Or, four bars gules, with St. George's cross 
argent. These were the bearings of the old counts ; and are said to 
have. been assumed by Wilfrid el velloso (he had hair on the soles of 
his feet) ; after a battle with the Normans, he drew his bloody fingers 
over his shield — a truly soldier-like blazon — cruor horrida tinxerat arma.^^ 

There is a similar tradition as to the origin of the arms of Keith 
(No. 30). 

According to Menestrier the arms of Barcelona are relative to the 
name " barras longas " {Origine des omctncns des Armoiries^ p. 342). 


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IX. The King of Cyprus. [No. 9. 

Onlesy a cross between four wheels of four spokes argent 

The arms of Cyprus were those of the Counts of Lusignan : 
Barry of ten argent and azure, a lion rampant gules. This appears 
in the fourth quarter of the arms of the King of Sicily (No. 11). 

The sovereignty of Cyprus was given by Richard I., who had 
taken the island from the Saracens, to Guy de Lusignan,. titular 
King of Jerusalem, and it remained with that family until 1487. 

The Dukes of Savoy, as titular Kings of Cyprus, bore in their first 
grand quarter: Quarterly, first Jerusalem^ second Lusignan,' third 
Armenia (Or, a lion rampant gules), fourth Luxembourg (Argent, a 
lion with a double tail in salt ire gules) ; of which Nisbet (Essay on 
Armories, p. 219) says: "These four quarters are the Imperial ensigns 
of the kingdom of Cyprus ". 

The arms of Savoy are: Gules, a cross argent. 

The arms of the Emperor of Constantinople on the ceiling of 
Saint Alban's Cathedral (Gules, a cross moline or cantoned with four 
bezants, each charged with a plain cross of the field — Appendix, 
p. 154), may be noted as resembling in form those attributed to the 
King of Cyprus on the Saint Machar ceiling. It seems possible, 
allowing for fading or discoloration and incorrect renewal of the tinc- 
tures, that the arms here attributed to Cyprus were originally those 
of Constantinople. 

In the Roll of the thirteenth century (supra, p. 87) the arms of the 
Emperor of Constantinople are given of the same form as they are on 
the St. Alban's ceiling, but with the field crusilly and the cross " pas- 
sant " ; and those of the King of Cyprus : " Vert besantee vn crois 
passant d'or". 


No. 10.] X. The King of Navarre. 

OnlMi an <ieMrlwiiid» of olflit zajn wlthlii aa orla 

A more correct blazon is: Gules, a cross and saltire of chains 
affixed to an annulet in the fess point and to an orle (sometimes a 
double orle) or. 

Otherwise: Gules, a cross saltire and double orle of chains all 
linked together or. "It has been generally represented- with the 
double orle since the sixteenth century*' (Planch6). Planch^ gives 
an example from Jerome de Bara — an escarbuncle of " eight sceptres 
pometty fleuiy," without the orle. 

The ancient arms were : Azure, a cross pommetty argent. 

Willement (PI. II., fig. 3) shows this cross as the arms of Queen 
Berengaria, and says (p. 10) that her brother (Sancho, King of Navarre) 
** changed this device for the trellis of chains to commemorate the 
nature of his victory over the Moors in the field of Tolosa," where he 
is said to have broken through the iron chain that surrounded the 
Moorish camp. 

Menestrier derives the chain, called in Navarre ''una varra** or 
''na varra," from the name of the kingdom {Origine des ometnens, 
Extrait A\x Journal des Sfuvans). 

Planch^ says of the trellis of chains: ''It superseded the silver 
cross upon blue, about a.d. 1200 '\ 

Sir David Lindsay gives as the arms of " Navem " what may be 
blazoned : Or, an escarbuncle of eight rays flory and as many pointed 
gules, thus reversing the tinctures (i8). 

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XL The King of Sicily. [No. ii. 

Quarterly: first Argent, a croea crosslet between four crosses or, Jerusalem; 
second Chiles, a cross and saltire within an orle all linked together or, 
Na^azre ; third Argent, a lion rampant gales, Lnxembonrg ; fourth Argent, 
three bars asnre surmounted of a lion ramiiant gules, Lusic^ian. 

The lion of Luxembourg ought to have a double tail in saltire. Lusignan ought to be : Barry 
often argent and azure, a lion rampant gules. 

The first, third, and fourth were borne by the kings of Sicily for 
the kingdom of Cyprus. Navarre (south of the Pyrenees) was part of 
the inheritance of the Emperor from Ferdinand of Aragon, which may 
account for its presence here. The arms of Sicily were: Quarterly 
per saltire : first and fourth Or, four pallets gules, Aragon ; second 
and third Argent, an eagle displayed sable membered and armed 
gules, Suabia. 

Sir David Lindsay shows the eagles crowned (14). 

The ancient arms of Sicily were those of " the family of Suabia," 
" till Charles of Anjou, a brother of Frapce, conquered that kingdom 
with that of Naples" " and set up his own, Azure, sem6e of fleurs- 
de-lis or, with a lal;»el of five points gules'*. "Naples continues them 
still; but the Arragons having cut off the French in Sicily, pulled 
down the arms of Anjouj and again erected their own as before 
blazoned, which after they quartered per saltier with these of Arragon " 
(? Suabia) (Nisbet, Essay, p. 153). 

The arms of Jerusalem are remarkable as showing " a departure 
fi-om the rule prohibiting metal being placed upon metal " (Planch6). 

Nisbet bla2ons Jerusalem : " Argent, a cross potent counterpotent 
betwixt four crosslets or " {Essay, p. 218). 

Boutell blazons it: "Argent, a cross potent between four plain 
crosses or" (p. 307). 



No. 12.] XII. The King of Poland. 

Onles, a hone puautt azgont ftunlfllied or. 

The arms of the kingdom of Poland were : Quarterly : first and 
fourth Gules, an eagle displayed argent crowned or, Poland ; second 
and third Gules, a knight'armed cap-a-pie^ mounted upon a horse 
argent caparisoned azure, holding in the . right hand a sword proper, 
and in the left a shield of the third charged with a patriarchal cross 
or, Lithuania. 

These are arms of dominion. The kings of Poland, being elective, 
used to bear their own arms on an inescutcheoh over those of the 
dominion (Nisbet, Essay on Armories^ p. 152). 

Sir David Lindsay gives the arms of the King* of "Pole": 
Quarterly, first and fourth Poland, second and third Lithuania, the 
eagles not crowned, the field of Lithuania azure instead of gules, and 
without a shield on the knight's left arm (17). 


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XIII. The King op Bohemia. [No, 13. 

Paly of eight axgent and gules. 

The arms of Bohemia are: Gules, a Hon rampant queue fourch^c 
in saltire argent, crowned or. 

Sir David Lindsay gives these as the bearings of the King of 
"Bewme". (16). 

The arms of Anne^ first Queen of Richard II., and " daughter of 
Charles, King of the Romans and of Bohemia, who was afterwards 
Emperor, were painted in the north window of the choir of St. 
Olave's Church,.pid Jewry". They were: Quarterly, first and fourth 
the Empire, second and third Bohemia, and were marshalled tierc^e 
in pale with those of Saint Edward and of her husband (Willement, 
p. 34, PI. VI. 4). 

The ancient arms of Bohemia were : Gules, an eag}e displayed 
chequy or and sable. The double-tailed lion was given to Ladislaus II.» 
King of Bohemia, by the Emperor Frederick (Nisbet, i. 290). 



No. 14.] XIV. The Duke of Bourbon. 

France modern, enrmoanted of a bendlel gnlee. 

" Robert of France, Count of Clermont, younger son of Louis 
IX.," " carried France bruised with a baton peri gules. He married 
Beatrix, daughter and heiress to John, Lord Bourbon, whose eldest 
son carried the foresaid bearing, from whom issued the noble family 
of Bourbon " (Nisbet, ii. 8). 

In Les Souverains du Monde, these arms are shown in a plate of 
the bearings of the branches of the royal house of France as those of 
Conty ; the arms of the Prince de Bourbon have a bordure gules in 
addition to the baton peri (t.^., couped short). 

"The house of Bourbon beareth France with a batune gules, 
though the proper and true coat of Bourbon is or, a lion gules within 
an orle of escallops azure" (Peacham's Comphat Gentleman). 





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XV. The Dukb op Gubldrbs. [No. 15. 

Asoze, a lion rampant or, Gneldres, impaling Or, a lion rampant Bable^ Flandont, 
the lions respecting each other. 

The lions are langued gules, and are the only ones on the ceiling that are langued of a 
different tincture from their bodies. 

Boutell (pp. 1639 164) says that M. Bouton {Nouveau Traitc de 
Blason, p. 322) blazons the lion of Gueldres crowned, and that '^ in an 
illuAiinated MS. of the fifteenth century, in the College of Arms 
(Collectanea Curiosa, 1. xiv.), both the lions are crowned, and the lion 
of Gueldres is also queue fourchee ". 

The lions respect each other, "after the usage of Continental 
Heraldry". Sir David Lindsay shows the lion of Gueldres crowned 
in the impalement of Mary of Gueldres, Queen of James II. (29), 
and Laing (vol. i., p. 12, No. 48, PI. II., fig. 2) gives an engraving 
of her beautiful seal, showing Scotland, with the tressure complete, 
impaling the impaled coat of Gueldres, in which the lion of Gueldres 
is crowned. 


No. i6.] XVI. The City of Old Aberdeen. 

Axare, a bon^pot or oharsed with three, lalaum flahes In fret proper, and 
holding aa many liliee of the gaxden, the dexter In bud, the middle ftiU 
blown, the ainister half blown, stalked and leaTed proper, flowered argent. 

The pot of lilies is the emblem of the Blessed Virgin, tlie Patron 
Saint of the City, and the salmon fishes, -disposed in the form suggested 
by tHe meshes of a net, are significant of the resources of the adjacent 

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I. The King of Scotland. [No. 17. 

Or, a lion ramiiant wlthiiL a donUe treisiue flory connterfloiy gales. 

Whatever truth, there may be in the story that the Scottish lion 
bad his origin as far back as the reigtf.of King Fergus I., it is esta- 
blished that a lion was. the earliest .known ensign of the kings of 
Scotland. That device is believed to have been borne by William 
the Lion, and to have given rise to his designation. Its first authentic 
appearance is on the seal of Alexander II. (1214-1249), in which the 
tressure seems to be absent. The seal of Alexander III. (1249-1285), 
which bears the figure of the King on horseback, shows the lion ram- 
. pant within the tressure on the shield borne upon the King's left amj. 

Whatever, therefore, be thfe origin of the tressure, it was borne 
at an earlier date than the French alliance, which it has been supposed 
to typify, as thst alliance had no historical existence' before the four- 
teenth century. It is not easy to account for the motive of an Act of 
the Scottish Parliament of 1471, ordaining that in time to come £he 
tressure should be omitted from the royal arms. This contemplated 
change was never carried into effect. 

Nisbet (i. 180) says : " The double tressure is not allowed to be 
. carried by any subject without a special warrant from the sovereign, 
and that in these two cases: first, to those who were descended of 
daughters of the royal family " ; " and secondly, to those who have 
merited well of their king and country, as a special additament of 
honour "• 

The lion rampant, and also the tressure, derived, more or less 
renlotely, from the royal bearings, are found in the armorials of many 
Scottish families. 


The position now held, or which ought to be held, by the Scottish 
lion in marshalling the royal arms in Scotland is fully treated of by Mr. 
Seton in Tlu Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland, chap. x. The 
present Great Seal of Scotland has, ** first and fourth Scotland ; second 
England ; third Ireland ; with the unicorn as supporter on the dexter 
side" (Stodart, Scottish Arms, ii. 5), due precedence being thus given 
to the national insignia of Scotland. 

No. 18.] II. Saint Margaret op Scotland. 

Anm, a ero6S florettf between five martlets or. 

The cross U given often patonce and Mxnetimea flory. 

These are the arms which were assigned to Saint Edward the 
Confessor long after his death. 

Richard II., ** having chosen King Edward the Confessor for his 
patron saint, impaled that holy King's arms " '' in the first place, with 
his own in the second*' (Nisbet, Essay an Armories, p. 128). Nisbet 
calls them '* arms of religion ". The right to bear or quarter them was 
granted by Richard " to some of his near kinsmen " (Boutell, p. 126). 

They occur in the " original series of shields that were sculptured 
by Edward L, or perhaps by Henry III., in the spandrels of the wall 
arcades of the choir aisles" of Westminster Abbey (Boutell, p. 377). 
He calls them " noble shields ". " There is a fine example of this 
shield executed in relief and diapered in the south jchoir aisle of 
Westminster Abbey; also another fine example at th'e entrance to 
Westminster Hall " (Boutell, p. 126). 

"Edward IV. sometimes quartered the arms of the Confessor 
with France and England quarterly" (Boutell, p. 297). 

Sir David Lindsay gives them impaled with Scotland as the arms 
of ^^Sanct Margaret". He makes the cross pat6e (21). 

In reference to this coat Planch^ says : " When the Anglo-Norman 
heralds invented a coat-of-arms for Saint Edward the Confessor, they 
were probably guided in their choice by a coin of that monarch, on the 
reverse of which appears a plain cross with four birds, one in each 
angle or canton, and which I take to be meant for doves ". He adds 
that Froissart, when describing the banner of Saint Edward, as borne 
by Richard II., describes them as ''colombs". 









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III. The Duke of Albany. [No. 19. 

Qnarterly : first Scotland ; second Gules, a lion rampant within a bordnre argent 
charged with eight roses of the field, March ; third Gules, three human 
legs GOidoined in the centre at the upper part of the thighs fiezed in 
triangle, armed proper, garnished and spurred or, Man ; fourth Argent, 
a saltire and chief gules, Annandale. 

In Annandale the chief does not extend to the sides of the shield ; the field ought to be or. 

Alexander Stewart, second son of James II., and father of John, 
the holder of the dukedom at the date of the ceiling, having been 
created Duke of Albany, Earl of March, Lord of Annandale and of 
the Isle of Man, quartered with the Royal coat the arms of March, 
Man, and Annandale (Nisbet, i. 264). 

Boutell gives an engraving of the arms of the Isle of Man, " drawn 
from a roll of Edward L, preserved in the Heralds' College," in which 
the legs are encased in banded mail and without spurs (p. 56, PI. 
XIV. 176A). 

The saltire and chief of Annandale became the arms of Bruce 
by marriage with the heiress, instead of the paternal arms of Bruce, 
which were: Argent, a lion rampant azure. On the seal of Robert 
Bruce, Earl of Carrick (1285), ^^^ chief is charged with a lion 
passant gardant, a seeming combination of his maternal and paternal 
bearings, although, in an example of an earlier date (1280), the lion 
does not appear (Laing, i. 29, 30, Nos. 139, 140). 

This quartered coat of Albany is cut in stone on one of the piers 
on the north side of the Bridge of Dee. 

Sir David Lindsay gives for Stewart, Duke of Albany, the same 
quarterings, the legs of Man apparently argent, and the field of 
Annandale or (37). 

Laing describes the seal of Alexander, Duke of Albany, as it is 
represented here (i. 130, No. 790). 


No. 20,] IV. The Earl of March. 

Chilflg| a lion immpuit aigent within a bordm of the lait ehaziod wffik 6ii^ 

rotes of the field. 

The lion rampant appears first on the seal of Patrick, fifth Earl of 
Dunbar, who married, in 1184, Ada, daughter of William, King of 
Scots, and died 1232. The seal of Pj^trick, the seventh Earl (1261), 
is a lion rampant surrounded by thirteen rose's. The seal of Patrick, 
the eighth Earl, the first who was called Earl of March, and one of 
the competitors for the Crown, has a lion rampant within a bordure 
charged with eight roses (1291) (Stodart, ii. 7, 8). 

Laing (vol. i., pp. 54, 55) gives four of the seals of Patrick, whom 
he calls erroneously tenth Earl of March, with three engravings. The 
first, not dated, shows no bordure, although he blazons it as having one. 
The three others, dated 1292, have the bordure charged with eight roses. 
In vol. ii. he gives, on the frontispiece, representations of the seal and 
counterseal of Patrick Dunbar, ninth Earl. His seal and counterseal 
appended to a charter at Durham granted by him on the 24th May» 
1367, have each eleven roses in the bordure. George Dunbar, tenth 
Earl, has sixteen roses in his bordure; while his son» the eleventh 
Earl, reverted to eight roses. 

In the Armorial de Gelre (c. 1369), '^ Count de Maerche *' bears 
eight roses in the bordure.* 

Sir David Lindsay gives the bordure charged with ten roses (39). 

In 1434-5, George Dunbar, the eleventh Earl, was attainted, and 
at the date of the construction of the ceiling the title was held by 
John, Duke of Albany, who bore March in his second quarter, as we 
have seen (No. 19). 

* The references to the Armorial de Gelre were furnished by Archibald H. Dunbar, 
Esquire, younger of Northfield, from his facsimile of the original MS., which he compared 
and verified at Brussels in July, 1888. 

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V. The Earl of Moray. [No. 21. 


Aisent, three ensUoiis gnles within the royal treesiire. 

The txessure it not «hoiivn doable. The cushions ane lozenfe-shi^>e4« with coBoers 

Teaemhling tassels. 

Three cushions or pillows were the paternal arms of Ranulph or 
Randolph, which became the feudal arms of the Earldom of Moray. 

On the seal of Thomas Randolph {1280) (Laing, i. 114, No. 688) 
there are three pillows without a tressure. 

Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, Lord of Annandale and Man, 
nephew of Robert Bruce, " was the first of his family who was allowed 
to place the double tressure round his paternal figures" (Nisbet, ii. 69). 

In 1292 the seal of Thomas Ranulph, afterwards first Earl of 
Moray, was : " On a shield three pillows," and Froissart states 
that he bore : " Argent a trois oreilles de guelles " (Stodart, ii. 18). 

The Regent changed the pillows to cushions by adding tassels 
in or about 1330. 

In the Armorial de Gelre "Count de Morref" bears: Argent, 
three cushions tasseled within a double tressure flory counter-flory — 
with sixteen fleurs-de-lis — ^gules. 

At the period of the ceiling, the earldom of Moray was held by 
James Stewart, natural son of James IV«, and at his death in 1544 
it lapsed to the Crown. Laing describes his seal : Quarterly : first 
and fourth three cushions within a double tressure flowered and 
counterflowered, for Moray; second and third Scotland, surmoimted 
with a bend sinister (i. 135, No. 807). 

Sir David Lindsay gives the coat of Randolph, Earl of Moray, 
with the field or, and that of Dunbar, Earl of Moray, with the field 
argent, and in the quartered coats of Stewart and Douglas, Earls of 
Moray, he makes the field argent (39, 43, 45). Nisbet blazons the 
field argent (i. 180). By modern usage it is borne or. 

VL The Earl of Douglas. [No. 22. 

Axgnt, a huDjui heart gnlee, on a chief asnre three etan of the field. 

These are the paternal arms of the house of Douglas, and appear 
here as the feudal arms of the earldom. The dignity had come to 
an end by the attainder of James, ninth and last Earl of Douglas, 


c. 1455. There was no holder of the title at the date of the con- 
struction of the ceiling. 

Sir David Lindsay gives for Douglas, Earl of Douglas : Quarterly : 
first Douglas; second Azure, a lion rampant argent, Galloway; 
third Azure, three stars argent, Murray ; fourth Or, a saltire and chief 
gules, Annandale (39). 

William, first Earl of Douglas, after his marriage with Margaret, 
Countess of Mar, quartered Douglas and Mar (Nisbet, Armories, p. gi). 
His eldest son James, who was killed at Otterbum, leaving no lawful 
issue, was succeeded in the earldom of Douglas by Archibald, Lord of 
Galloway, natural son of the good Sir James, who married the daughter 
or widow of Murray of Bothwell. This may account for the second 
and third of the above quarterings. Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, 
had a charter of Annandale from the Regent Albany in 1409, from 
which the fourth quartering was probably derived. ' The seals of other 
earls of Douglas described by Laing show these and other quarterings. 

The original arms of Douglas were : Azure, three stars argent. 

Laing (ii. 47, No. 280) gives the seal of William, Lord Douglas, 
(1296): On a chief three mullets. This is the earliest known ar- 
morial seal of the Douglases. 

The earliest known appearance of the heart, which was added to 
commemorate the action of the good Sir James Douglas in setting 
out to carry the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land (an intention 
frustrated by his death in Spain), is on the seal of William, first 
Earl of Douglas, c. 1356 (Laing, i. 44, No. 236). 

In the Armorial dc Gelrc "Count a Douglas" bears: Quarterly, 
first and fourth Douglas; second and third Azure, a bend between 
six cross crosslets fitch^e or, for Mar. 

Two examples of the heart crowned gules occur in Sir David 
Lindsay's MS., those of Douglas, Lord of " Niddisdaill," and Douglas 
of Drumlanrig (65, 98). In the other examples of Douglas given 
by him the heart is not crowned. 

Mr. Seton says that the heart first appears ensigned with a 
crown on the seal of William, eleventh Earl of Angus, in 1617, and 
refers to Laing's Catalogue, No. 255 {The Law and Practice of Heraldry 
in Scotland, p. 224, n. 4). The use of the crown did not become 
general till about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

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VII. The Earl of Angus. [No. 23. 

Chiles, a dnqnefoil pierced aigent. 

The Umphravilles, Earls of Angus, bore a cinquefoil within an 
orle of cross-crosslets ; sometimes in a field sem^e of cross-crosslets. 

" The old Earls of Angus carried argent, a lion rampant gules " 
(Nisbet, i. 294). In another place he gives it : " Gules, a lion rampant 
argent ** (ii. 82). Laing (i. 22, No. 86) describes the seal of Malcolm, 
Earl of Angus (1225), "the last of the male line of the great and 
ancient Earls of Angus," as "a lion passant gardant". "He died 
before 1242, leaving an only daughter, Maud, who married Gilbert 
de Umphraville, who became Earl of Angus in her right." The 
seal of Gilbert de Umphraville bore a cinquefoil within ten cross- 
crosslets in orle (Ibid., No. 87). In the Armorial de Gelre "die 
Grave van Angus " bears : Gules, a cinquefoil within an orle of 
cross-crosslets or. 

Sir David Lindsay gives as the arms of " Makbreid, Erie of Anguss 
of Auld": Gules, a cinquefoil pierced or (46); and of Douglas, Earl of 
Angus : Quarterly : first Gules, a lion rampant argent, Angus ; second 
Abemethy ; third, Liddesdale ; fourth, Stewart of Bonkill ; on an 
escutcheon over all, Douglas (39). 

Stodart (ii. 33) says the seal of Gilbert, son of Gilbert de Umphra- 
ville and Maud, daughter of Malcolm, is a cinquefoil within an orle of 
ten cross-crosslets (1290), and that the coat given by Sir David Lind- 
say as that of the ancient earls " appears to be a mistake ". 

Nisbet says that the armorial bearing of Gilbert, Earl of Angus, 
was: Azure, a cinquefoil within an orle of eight cross-crosslets or 

(i- 393t)- 

Several seals of the Douglases, Earls of Angus, described by Laing, 
have in the first quarter a lion rampant, probably for Angus ancient. 

VIII. The Earl of Mar. [No. 24. 

Asure, a bend between alx croes-croBslets fltehte or. 

This is the original coat of the old Earls of Mar. It was associ- 
ated with them, and does not seem to have been borne as belonging 


to any surname apart from the earldom. The male line of the 
old earls came to an end at the death of Thomas, Earl of Mar, 

in 1377; 

Laing (ii. ii6, Nos. 690, 691) gives, with an illustration, the seal of 
Sir Donald de Marre, afterwards Earl, son of Gratney, Earl of Mar, 
and Christian, sister of King Robert Bruce, with the arms as given 
above, the bend charged with a mullet> possibly as a filial difference* 
He describes (No. 692) the seal of the same Donald after he became 
Earl as without the mullet, and (in vol. i., pp. 96, 97, Nos. 565, 566, 
568) the seals of Thomas, thirteenth Earl, last of the old male line. 
He also gives, with an illustration, the seal of Margaret, Countess of 
Angus and Mar, wife of Earl Thomas (1378). It shows a female 
figure holding in the right hand a shield of Mar, and, in the left, one 
of Stewart of Bonkill (i. 131, No. 792). William, first Earl of Douglas, 
Earl of Mar in right of his wife, Margaret, sister of THomas, bore: 
Quarterly, first and fourth Douglas, second and third Mar (1378). 
A broken seal of Isabel Douglas, Countess of Mar, their daughter 
(1404), shows a female figure holding in one hand a shield of Douglas, 
and in the other what, no doubt, was a corresponding shield of Mar 
(Laing, i. 44, 45, Nos. 238, 241). 

Sir David Lindsay gives Stewart, Earl of Mar : Quarterly, Scot- 
land and Mar ; on an escutcheon over all. Or, a fess chequy ax^;ent 
and azure between three antique crowns gules, which seems to have 
been a coat composed of Stewart and tjarioch, for the Lordship of 
Garioch (p. 38). This was apparently borne by John Stewart, third 
son of James II., on whom the earldom was bestowed in 1460. He 
also gives Stewart, Earl of Mar : Quarterly : first and fourth Scotland 
debruised with a bendlet engrailed sable ; second and third Mar (38a). 
This may have been the coat of Alexander Stewart, son of the Wolf 
of Badenoch, second husband of Isabel Douglas, with the bendlet as 
his mark of illegitimacy. He also gives Erskine, '^umquhile" Earl 
of Mar: Quarterly, first and fourth Mar, second and third Argent, 
a pale sable, Erskine (48). 

In the thirteenth century Roll {supra, p. 87) the arms of " Le 
Countee de Marre '* are given " d'azure billete d'or vn bend d'or ". 

In the Armorial de Gelrc the arms of Mar are given as those of 
" Count de Mar ". 

Tilt: N'EW YORK 

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No. 26.] X. The Earl of Crawford. 

Qoaiterlj: iint and fourth iMm, a Um cfaaqoy airgait and aim, Lliidaaj 
aaoond and third Argent, a Ikm rampaiit inlai, Ahamelhy. 

The field of Abemethy is generally or, and the tkm w debraiaed of a ribbon in bend table. 

The Lindsays originally bore arms which the late Lord Crawford 
connected with the coat of the Norman family of Limesay, from 
whom he considered that they originally sprung, namely. Gules, an 
eagle displayed or. " Towards the close of the thirteenth century," 
'' Sir Alexander Lindsay abandoned the eagle of Limesay, and adopted 
the fes8e-chequ6e argent and azure, probably in consequence of his 
close alliance, by kindred and interest, with the High Steward; 
retaining, however, the original gules, or red ground, of the shield ; 
while his son, Sir David, employed the eagle as tenant or supporter 
of the escutcheon " {Lives of the Lindsays, i. 54, 55). 

In a Roll ascribed by Mr. W. S. Walford to about the year 1300 
the arms of " Raf de Limesi ** are given : " Gules three eagles displayed 
or " (Archaeologiay xxxix., p. 409). 

David Lindsay, the first Earl of Crawford (created 1398), quar- 
tered the arms of Abemethy with those of Lindsay, on account of the 
marriage of his great-grandfather. Sir David Lindsay, with one of 
the co-heiresses of Alexander Lord Abemethy (Nisbet, Essay on 
Armories, p. 90). This is one of the earliest instances in Scotland 
of quartering arms, and Lord Crawford says that it " was a connip- 
tion of the pure essence of heraldry. The Crawford family ought 
to have borne the simple coat of Lindsay " (Lives, supra). 

Laing describes the seal of Simon of Lindsay (1170) as bearing 
an eagle displayed (i. 88, No. 504) ; that of Sir Walter Lindsay as an 
eagle standing with wings displayed, holding a flower in its beak, not 
on a shield, no date, probably in the twelfth century; of Sir David 
Lindsay, an eagle standing, wings expanded, not on a shield, early in 
the thirteenth century (ii. 105, Nos. 629, 630) ; of Sir David Lindsay, 
Lord of Crawford, an eagle displayed bearing on his breast a shield 
charged with a fess chequy (1345) (i. 88, No. 509) ; of Sir James 
Lindsay, Lord of Crawford, a fess chequy (1371) (No. 510) ; of 
David Lindsay, eighth Earl of Crawford (who succeeded 1517, died 
1542, and was Earl at the date of the constmction of the ceiling), 
quarterly, Lindsay and Abemethy (i. 90, No. 522). 

In the Armorial de Gelre the paternal coat of Lindsay is given 






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to '' Sur ia[mes] de Lyndezay/' and the same, debruised of a bendlet, 
to " Sur David de L}aidezay ". 

Sir David Lindsay gives the arms of the Earl of Crawford : 
Quarterly » first and fourth Lindsay, second and third Abemethy (44). 

Mr. Seton gives the arms of the various branches of the House 
of Lindsay, duly differenced, in a fine coloured plate containing twenty- 
nine shields (PI. IV., p. 86). 

XL The Earl of Huntly. [No. 27. 

Quarterly: fixst and fourth Azure, three boars' heads conped at the neck or, 
Gordon; second Or, three lions' heads erased gules, Badenoch; third Or, 
three crescents gales within the royal tressnre, Seton. 

The seal of Alexander Gordon, first Earl (1457), is described 
by Laing (i. 65, No. 361) as first and fourth Seton, second and third 
Gordon ; " over all a surtout, which is much injured, but has perhaps 
been three lions' heads erased, for Badenoch *'. 

George, second Earl (1470), carried: Quarterly, first Gordon, second 
Badenoch, third Seton, fourth Eraser (Azure, three cinquefoils argent) 
(No. 362). The paternal coat of Seton thus had the precedence in 
the bearings of the first Earl, but afterwards gave place to Gordon. 

The Lordship of Badenoch was given by James IL to the first Earl 
after he had defeated the Earl of Crawford at the battle of Brechin, 
and "had relieved the king from the power of the Douglas" (Sir R. 
Gordon's Earldom of Sutherland). Hence the Badenoch quartering. 

Honora, only daughter of William, Lord Keith, first wife of Alex- 
ander Seton, Lord Gordon, was served heir to her grandfather, the Lord 
Eraser, through her mother, Honora Eraser, and in 1442 the lands of 
Aboyne, Glentanar, &c., were apportioned to the Lord Gordon's wife as 
her share of the Lord Eraser's lands, thus introducing the arms of Eraser. 

Laing (ii. 71, No. 422, PL Vin.,fig. i) gives the seal of Alexander, 
Lord Gordon, afterwards third Earl (1492): Quarterly, first Gordon, 
second Badenoch, third Eraser, fourth Seton, with a label of three 
points, and that of the same Earl in 1521 (i. 66, No. 364) : Quarterly, 
first Gordon, second Badenoch, third Seton, fourth Eraser, which 
form has been used by the succeeding Earls and Marquises of Huntly 
and by the Dukes of Gordon. 

Sir David Lindsay gives for Gordon, Earl of Huntly : Quarterly, 
first Gordon, second Badenoch, third Seton, and fourth five cinquefoils 
for Eraser ancient (40). 



No. 28.] XIL The Earl op Argyll. 

Quarterly: flnrt and fourth Qyroniiy of eifht taUe and aigent, Gampbdl; 1 
and tliird Argoiit» a lymiihad saUio^ Lom. 

The Campbell doat is now borne Oyronny of eight or and sable, and the galley of Lom has 
the sail furled, flags flying gules, and oars in action. 

Sir David Lindsay gives for Campbell, Earl of Argyll : Quarterly : 
first and fourth Gyronny of eight sable and argent ; second and third 
Or, a galley sable having at the masthead a brazier of fire proper (40). 

Nisbet describes the galley as having flames of fire issuing from 
the top of the mast, and from the fore and hinder parts of the ship. 

The Lom quartering came by the marriage of Colin Campbell, 
first Earl of Argyll, with Isabel, eldest of the three daughters of John 
Stewart, who had been created Lord of Lom by James IL (1445), the 
Lordship having been resigned by Walter Stewart of Innermeath in the 
Earl's favour in the hands of James IIL in 1469. The Barony of Lom, 
which belonged anciently to the Macdougals, came to a Stewart of the 
family of Damley by marriage with the heiress of the Macdougals. 

The earliest example of the Campbell coat given by Laing is the 
seal of Nicholas Campbell (1292) : • Gyronny of eight (i. 32, No. 153). 
He describes the seal of Colin Campbell, first Earl (1470) : Gyronny 
of eight (i. 32, No. 154). That of Archibald, second Earl (1495) : 
Quarterly, first and fourth Campbell, second and third Lom (ii. 28, 
No. 161) ; and that of Colin, third Earl (contemporary with the ceiling) : 
Quarterly, first and fourth Campbell, second- and third Lom (i. 32, 
No. 155.) 

Mr. Stodart notes that in Workman's MS., which was compiled 
about 1565-6 (ii. 97), the arms of the Earl of Argyll are given as in 
Sir David Lindsay's MS., but with *' no fire at the masthead of the 
lymphad ; in the Campbell coat the altemate gyrons are argent, but 
the word 'or' is added " (this is in a handwriting of later date), and 
that in a MS. ascribed to Sir David Lindsay the younger (Lyon, 1591- 
1621): "The Campbell coat is Gyronny of eight or and sable". 

" The old barons of the countries of Arran and Lom were obliged 
to fumish a ship in time of war to the king, as their old charters 
bear : * reddendo unam navim viginti remorum,' upon which account 
they carry ships or lymphads" "as feudal arms" (Nisbet, Essay an 
ArmorteSf p. 9). 


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XIII. The Earl of Errol. [No. 29, 

Axgent, tliree escntcheoiui gnlea. 

These are the paternal arms of Hay, borne by the Earls of Errol 
as heads of the house. 

Little credence is now given to the legendary origin of these arms. 

Nisbet (i. 182) says that the king gave them to the peasant of 
Luncarty "to intimate that the father and the two sons had been 
luckily the three shields of Scotland ". It is more likely that the 
legend was suggested by the arms than that the arms were founded 
on the legend. The legend, however, has in its turn furnished the 
crest and supporters of more than one branch of the family. 

Laing describes the seal of Nicholas Hay (1292) (i. 74, No. 417), 
and also that of William, the fourth Earl, who was killed at Flodden, 
as three escutcheons (i. 75, No. 425). 

Sir David Lindsay gives the three escutcheons for " Haye, Erie 
of Errell " (41). 

The Hays were most probably a branch of the Norman De la 
Hayes. "When," says Mr. Planch^, "we can ascertain whose 
daughter was Eva, the wife of William de Haya, living in 1174, we 
may be able, perhaps, to account for the adoption of these arms with- 
out going back to the time of the Danish invasion of Scotland in 980." 


No. 30.] XIV. The Earl Marischal. 

Axgenty a ehiaf paly of alx or and giiles. 

The chief here is brought down so &r that the shield appears to be parted per fess. 

These are the ancient bearings of the family of Keith. 

Probably the earliest known example is the seal of Sir Robert 
Keith» Knight-Marischal of Scotland (1316), given by Laing (i. 81, 
No. 461). He gives various other examples of them in the same 

They appear in that form in the Armorial dc Gelre as the arms 
of "court a keets"; in Sir David Lindsay's MS. as those of the 
Earl Marischal (41), and on the stone over the gateway of Marischal 

In 1672, the arms of George, seventh Earl Marischal, were 
registered as: Argent, on a chief gules three pallets or, a departure 
from the ancient usage, for which there does not seem to have 
been any good reason. Tradition professes to account for the device 
by the story that at the battle of Panbride, inc 1006, King Malcolm II. 
dipped his fingers in blood and drew three strokes on the top of 
the shield of Robert, a chief of the Catti, progenitor of the race of 
Keith, who had killed the king of the Danes. Here also it may 
be surmised that the legend was manufactured to suit the bearings. 

The arms of Barcelona have a similar legendary origin (No. 8). 


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XV. The Earl of Bothwell. [No. 31. 

Chiles, on a chevron argent a rose between two lions combatant of the field. 

The arms of Hepburn, containing as they do the same figures 
and tinctures as those of the Earls of Dunbar, though differently 
arranged, are conjectured by Nisbet (i. 152-3) to have been assumed 
from those of Dunbar as arms of patronage. He says that the first of 
this name was an Englishman whom the Earl of Dunbar took prisoner 
and brought to Scotland, and, being a brave and valiant man, the 
Earl gave him the lands of Hales and others in East Lothian. 

The earliest example given by Laing is the seal of Patrick 
Hepburn (1371) (i- 75, No. 427), which he blazons: " On a chevron, a 
rose between two lions rampant respecting, within a bordure en- 
grailed ". He also describes the seal of Patrick Hepburn, Earl of 
Bothwell (1538) (the Earl at the period of the ceiling), as " Quarterly : 
first and fourth a bend, for De Vaux," or Vass, of Dirleton ; " second 
and third Hepburn " (i. 76, 429), and gives a representation of the seal 
of Patrick Hepburn, third Earl, which has Hepburn with an anchor 
in base, as indicating the office of Lord High Admiral (ii. 83, 493, 
Plate III., fig. 7). 

In the Armorial de Gelre the arms of Hepburn are given as 

Sir David Lindsay gives Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell : Quarterly, 
first and fourth Or, a bend azure, for Vass, second and third Hepburn 


No. 32.] XVI. The Burgh op Aberdeen. 

QuImi tliree tow«n aif eat» windowi and porti nUa^ wftUn an 
orlo of the tacond* 

The bluon given in the patent granted by the Lyon King of Anns in 1674 is : Galea, three 
towers triple-towered within a double tressiare counterflowered argent. 

At the date of the construction of the ceiling, and afterwards 
until as late as 1675, the seal used by the Corporation of Aberdeen 
was the one of which Laing gives an engraving (i., Plate XXIX., 
figs. I, 2). The matrix of this seal, dated 1430, which had been 
lost sight of for many years, was lately recovered by Mr. P. J. 
Anderson and the late Mr. John Cruickshank, and restored to the 
custody of the Corporation. It shows only one tower, within the 
tressure. Three towers appear on the seal of causes (1440) described 
by Laing (i. 208, No. 1148), and about the middle of the seventeenth 
century the three towers appear on Raban's title-pages, on the map by 
Gordon, Parson of Rothiemay, and elsewhere. 

For the history of these bearings, reference may be made to The 
Armorud Ensigns of the Royal Burgh of Aberdeen, by the late John 

Perth is the only other burgh that bears in its arms the honour- 
able augmentation of the double tressure. 

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I. The Pope. 
Leo X. Giovanni de* Medici. [No. 33. 

Or, six balls in orle, that in chief of France, the others gules. 

Otherwiae, Or, five balls in orle gules and one in chtdf azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis of 

the field. 

Originally the charges were six balls gules, borne usually in orle, 
but sometimes three, two, and one. In 1465, Louis XL of France 
granted to Piero de* Medici, grandfather of Leo X., an augmentation 
formed by substituting for the red ball in chief a blue one charged 
with the three golden lilies of France, *' in recognisance of the league 
and fidelity wherein he promised to stand bound to serve the king 
at his own charges" (Peacham). 

The origin of the bearings is not known. Possibly they were 
derived, in common with the name, from the supposed profession of 
the founders of the house, and represented pills ; but a more heroic 
origin was found for them in the story that "Averardo de' Medici, 
a commander under Charlemagne," '* for his valour in destroying the 
gigantic plunderer Mugello, by whom the surrounding country was 
laid waste, was honoured with the privilege of bearing for his arms 
six palU or balls, as characteristic of the iron balls that hung from 
the mace of his fierce antagonist, the impression of which remained 
on his shield *' (Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de* Medici, i. 7, note (a) ; 
Ed. 1795). 

It is almost needless to remark that coat armour was unknown 
in the time of Charlemagne. 


No. 34.] II. The Archbishop op Sain/ Andrews. 

Andrew Forman. 

Qnartorly: flnt and fourth Asnre, a dMTnm or between three KbdiM haoriant 
aivent; second and third Sahtoi a camel's head erased or collazed coles 
campaned of the second. 

It is doubtful which of these coats is borne for Forman. 

Stodart (ii. 90) says : " There are several seals of Andrew, Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews: 1501, a camel's head; 1502-14, quarterly, 
first and fourth, a chevron between three fishes; second and third, 
a camel's head erased, collared and campaned ; 1518, the chevron 
and fish impaling the coat with a camel's head. It has been said 
that the fish are for Fisher, but of this there is no proof, and it 
remains uncertain which is the paternal coat ; W." (Workman's MS.) 
" places the camel's head in the first and fourth quarters ". And 
at page 112 in his notes on Workman's MS., "Formane of yt Ilk, 
first and fourth, a camel's head erased campaned, this is not painted ; 
second and third, sable, a chevron between three fishes haurient. 
Notes on the margin make the field in the first and fourth sable, 
and the bell or; the quartering is said to be Fisher, and the field 
marked azure." 

In Mr. Stodart's first volume, Plate 28, there is a facsimile^ 
taken from " Additions to Sir David Lindsay's MS.," of the " Armes 
of the right worschipfuU Shir Robert Foirman, Lyon King at Armes ". 
These are : First and fourth Sable, three camels' heads erased or, 
bridled of the field, campaned of the second ; second and third Azure, 
a chevron between three fishes haurient argent. 

The presumption, therefore, is that the camel's head or heads 
are the paternal bearings of Forman. 

Laing (i. 148) describes the seals of Archbishop Forman (Nos. 
877 and 878), and says: " In the lower part of the seal is a shield 
quarterly, first and fourth, a chevron between three fishes haurient, 
for Forman ; second and third, a horse's head erased, and a hawk's 
bell at the neck, for Horsburgh ". This seems to be a mistake for 
the camel's head, and may, perhaps, have suggested the name of 
Horsburgh. The arms of Horsburgh of that Ilk were : Azure, a 
horse's head couped argent. 

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III. The Archbishop of Glasgow. [No. 35. 

James Bbthunb or Beaton. 

Quarterly : first and fonrth Asnre, a fesB between three masdes or, Bethnne ; 
second and third Argent, on a chevron sable an otter's head erased of 
the field, Balfonr. 

These were the arms of Bethune of Balfour, to which family the 
Archbishop belonged. 

The Balfour quartering was added to the coat of Bethune on 
account of the marriage of Robert de Bethune with the daughter 
and heiress of Sir John Balfour of that Ilk, in the reign of Robert 

Laing (i. 149, Nos. 879, 880) describes a seal of James Beton, 
when Archbishop of Saint Andrews, to which See he was translated 
from Glasgow in 1522, as having " at the lower part " ** a shield 
quarterly, first and fourth, a fess between three lozenges, for Beton ; 
second and third, a chevron charged with an otter's head, for 


No. 36.J IV. The Bishop of Dunkeld. 

Gavin Douglas. 
Argent, a human heart gnles, on a chief asore three stars of the llelcL 

Laing (ii. 172^ No. 1022) describes a seal of this Bishop as 
having in base a shield bearing: Quarteriy, first Angus, second 
Abemethy, third Brechin, fourth Stewart of Bonkil ; on an escutcheon 
surtout, Douglas. 

His nephew, Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus, bore the same 
quarterings and escutcheon (Laing, i. 47, No. 252). 

A seal of the Bishop's father, Archibald, fifth Earl (Bell-the- 
Cat), is thus described by Laing (i. 47, No. 251) : Quarterly : first 
a lion rampant for Angus (?) ; second a lion rampant debruised with 
a ribbon for Abemethy ; third three chevrons for Liddesdale ; fourth 
fretty for Lauderdale; on a surtout, Douglas. 





it ■, 

ir I.I 








(S^imm ^pifrapi. 


V. The Bishop of Aberdeen. [No. 37. 

Gavin Dunbar. 

Axgent» three coahions gnlee witliin the royal troBsnre. 

The cttshions have no tassels, and thus resemble the pillows which were the original 

bearings of Rannlph. 

These are the arms of Ranulph or Randolph, Earl of Moray. 
Those of Dunbar, Earls of Dunbar and Earls of March, were : Gules, 
a lion rampant argent within a bordure of the last charged with eight 
roses of the field (No. 20). 

In 1357, ^^^ Earldom of Moray was conferred by David II. on 
Patrick, ninth Earl of March and Dunbar, who had married Black 
Agnes, elder sister and coheir of John, the last Earl of the male 
line of the Ranulphs ; and the Dunbars, Earls of Moray, thenceforth 
took for their arms the coat of Ranulph, which had become the 
territorial arms of the earldom. Those arms were borne by the 
Dunbars of Westfield, who were descended from James, eighth and 
last Dunbar, Earl of Moray. Laing (i. 56, No. 298) gives an en- 
graving of the seal of Alexander Dunbar, fjrst of Westfield, the 
father of the Bishop, " a fess between three cushions ; all within 
a double tressure flowered and counterflowered " (1488). 

Stone carvings of the arms of Bishop Dunbar (the three cushions 
or pillows, sometimes within the tressure and sometimes without 
that addition) occur frequently^ in and about Aberdeen. Among these 
may be mentioned those on his tomb in the south transept of the 
Cathedral of Saint Machar, on both towers of the Cathedral, on the 
wall of King's College Chapel, and on the piers and buttresses of 
the Bridge of Dee. 

In these carvings, as well as on the ceiling, the cushions re- 
semble lozenges, and have no tassels. In Sir David Lindsay's MS. 
they are tasseled and pendent from the comers (39). 

Laing gives two seals of the Bishop, each having at the lower 
part a shield bearing three cushions within the royal tressure (i. 154, 
No. 899; ii. 174, No. 1033). 


No. 38.] VI. The Bishop of Moray. 

Jambs Hepburn. 

Oulai, on a GhovTon argmt a rota between two lions combatant of the field, 
in base a heart-ahi^^ baekle of the leooncL 

These are the arms of Hepburn of Blackcastlev the buckle of this 
tincture and shape being the difference of that family. They were 
descended of Riccarton, Avhose difference was^ a buckle in base or 
(Nisbet, i. 163). 

Laing (i. 157, No. 912) describes a seal of this Bishop, and gives 
an engraving of it (Plate XIX., fig. 5), having, in the lower part, 
the arms with the heart-shaped buckle in base. 

Till. n:.V YORK 

T ^'' I M.ONS 

';^onFn ^pifnipi. 

I8zfr]iinni (^pifrapr. 



yil. The Bishop of Rqss; [No, 39. 

Robert Cockburn. 
Anenty tbree cocks gules. 

The arms are those of Cockburn of that Ilk, Berwickshire, and 
not those of Cockburn. pf Skirling, whose difference was a spear's 

Laing (ii. 183, No. 1068) gives a seal of this Bishop, and says 
that ''the lower part of the seal, .usually occupied by the shield, 
is broken off" (1515), and one of the same Robert Cockburn, when 
Bishop of Dunkeld (ii. 172, No.. 1023), having *'a shield, bearing three 
cocks" (1525). He was third son of Sir William Cockburn of 
Cessfurd and Skirling. 


No. 40.] VIII. The Bishop of Brechin. 

John Hepburn. 
Qnlaii oa a oheynm aivent a rota between two liona combataat of tlie field. 

These are the paternal arms of Hepburn. 

Laing (i. 159, No. 919) describes a seal of this Bishop as having 
" at the lower part a shield, bearing the arms of Hepburn ". 

Pii;!jr Li:>#AIlY 

T:L. .* . ^rNlJATlONS 
R L 



QB^mm ^piirfljpi, 



<XHnIirknirf %rni|ir. 


IX. The Bishop of Caithness. [No. 41. 

Andrew Stewart. 

Quarterly: toM and fourth Or, a fees dieany argent and asme, Stewart; aeocmd 
and third Paly of aiz or and sable, AthoL 

The feas is here argent and azure, and it is so represented by Sir David Lindsay in the 
anna of the Earl of Athol. The blason axore and argent, as given in the Armorial 
de Gelre and also by Nisbet, is probably more correct. 

The common idea that the fess cheeky was in its origin allusive to 
the checker of the Steward's board is somewhat shaken by the fact 
pointed out by Mr. Ellis in his Antiquities of Heraldry that a fess 
chequy between three cross crosslets is on the seals of the family of 
Boteler, descended from the daughter and heir of William Pitzalan, 
son of the elder brother of the first High Steward of Scotland. A field 
chequy occurs in the earliest heraldry of England and France, appear- 
ing in the arms of the Earls of Warren, Earls of Mellent, and various 
cognate families ; with whom, however, it has not been proved that the 
Stewarts or Fitzalans claimed kindred. 

Robert II., on his accession to the throne, ceased to use his 
paternal arms of Stewart and bore the arms of Scotland, but the fess 
chequy has continued to be borne, with various differences or vari- 
ously composed, by all the branches of the house of^Stewart except 
the Royal line and some of their immediate descendants. 

The fess and other ordinaries chequy occur in the bearings of 
several Scotch families (Lindsay, Boyd, Semple, Menteith, &c.), 
having been derived from the Stewart fess either by descent, or, as 
Nisbet says, taken '' in imitation of the Stewarts or as vassals to them *\ 

Stodart (ii. 28) says: ''The ^eal of Alan Stuart, c. 1190, is 
the first in which the fess checquy appears *\ Laing gives the seal 
(i. 127, No. 772) with an engraving (Plate III., fig. 2), and says 
that it is perhaps the earliest instance of this well-known bearing. 

In the Armorial de Gelre " Sso- Alexsander Stuwart *• bears : Or, a 
fess chequy azure and argent, and ** Sur ioon Senescal '' bears the 
same debruised of a bendlet gules. 

The other quartering is the coat of the ancient Earls of Athol. 
It has been borne by the various lines which have held that earldom, 
either alone or as a feudal quartering belonging to the earldom. 


In the Roll of the thirteenth century (st^a, p. 87) the arms of 
" Le Countee de Asceles " arc given : ** Paly d'or et de sable ". 

The arms appear as three pales on the seal of John of Strathbo^e, 
Earl of Athol (1292) (Laing, i. 125, No. 761), and in the Armorial ii 
GelrSf Or, three pallets sable, is given as the arms of "Count a 

Sir David Lindsay gives the quartered coat, as it is here, as the 
arms of Stewart, Earl of Athol (42). 

This prelate was a younger son of John, first of the Stewart Earls 
of Athol, who was eldest son of the " Black Knight of Lorn," by Joan 
of Beaufort, widow of King James L 

The usage here differs from that in the case' of Bishop Gavin 
Douglas (No. 36), where only the paternal arms are given, without 
the feudal quarterings. 

No. 42.J X. Thb Bishop op Galloway. 

David Arnot.- 
Aiuib a star or, cm a ehisf aigtiit thrss tosas ffidM. 

The arms of Amot of that Ilk were : Argent, a chevron between 
three stars gules. 

Other families of the name had the same bearings, with differences. 

The only figure in this coat in common with these is the star, 
and the tinctures are different., , 

The Bishop was a son o{ John Amot of that ilk. 



J^umlilHnra eiHfrnji. 



XI. The Bishop of Dunblane. [No. 43. 

Jambs Chisholm. 
GuleB, a boar's head oonped at the neek argent 

Laing (ii. 180, No. 1057) gives a seal of this Bishop with an 
engraving (Plate IX., fig. 7). He says that it has in base *' a shield 
bearing a boar's head and neck erased". The engraving shows 
a boar's head without the neck. 

Sir David Lindsay gives the arms of "Lord Chissam of auld" : 
Gules, a boar's head and neck couped argent (65). 

The Bishop was a son of Chisholm of Cromlix, who was a son 
of Chisholm of that Ilk, county Roxburgh. 



No. 44.] XII. The Bishop op Argyll. 

David Hamilton. 
QuImi thTM dmmefallB ptewd aignife. 

The paternal arms of the house of Hamilton are : Gules, three 
cinquefoils ermine, and they are so borne by many important branches 
of the family. The cinquefoils were borne argent in the arms of 
the Hamiltons of Preston, Innerwick, Bangour, Silvertonhill, San- 
quhar, &c. 

The family of Hamilton are said by Nisbet (i. 382) to ''derive 
their descent from the old Earls of Leicester in England and Mellant 
in Normandy, who carried gules, a cinquefoil ermine, the paternal coat 
of Mellant". ''On the seal of Robert de Bellomont, called Fit^ Pemel, 
Earl of Leicester, a.d. 1191-1206, is seen the rude impression of a 
cinquefoil emine" (Planch^). 

The alleged descent ot the Hamiltons from the Leicester family 
has not been proved. The oldest known ancestor is Walter Pitz- 
gilbert, who swore fealty to Edward in 1296, and kept Bothwell 
Castle for the English. 

This Bishop was a natural son of James, first Lord Hamilton. 


AS '.:. LKNAX AM) 


R L 


Q>u\^m 6pifnipi. 

^ntinzrafif ^pifrnpr. 



XIII. The Bishop of Orkney. [No. 45. 

Edward Stewart. 
Or, a tas eheqny amre and argent witliin the royal tressnra. 

This is the form of the arms of Stewart borne by the family of 
Bute, who represent the hereditary Sheriffs of Bute, the first of whom 
was John Stewart, natural son of Robert II. They seem to have 
borne formerly the paternal arms of Stewart (Nisbet, i. 52). 

Stodart (ii. 78) gives " Steuartc of Butte/' from Forman's Roll 
(1562), the simple coat of Stewart, and (ii. 116) "¥• S' of Buit," 
from Workman's MS. (1565-6), the same coat of Stewart. 

The seal of David Stewart, Earl of Stratheam (1374) (Laing, 1. 
126, No. 768), has a fess chequy for Stewart, between two chevrons 
for Stratheme, all within the tressure. 


No. 46.] XIV. The Bishop of the Isles. 

Possibly vacant. 
Asim, a dove displayed axg«nt beaked and membend gnlea. 

The design here is perhaps more emblematic than heraldic. 

Principal Campbell suggests that Bishop Dunbar may have 
adopted the dove, "the well-known emblem of Saint Columba and 
also of lona/' as the symbol of the See. Orem blazons this : Gules, an 
eagle displayed or. 

Tilt NEW \ORK 

priiLir Hi .a;:y 

TIL. ..> l-ArM».\liMNS 
S L 

JziDzi^ ^anrtiHnk 



XV. The Prior of Saint Andrews. [No. 47. 

John Hepburn. 
Qnlei, on a chevron aigent a nwa between two Uons combatant of the Held. 

As in the case of John Hepburn, Bishop of Brechin, the paternal 
arms of Hepburn, without a difference, are used here. Laing (i. 199, 
No. 1109) describes a seal of the Prior and says : ** At the lower 
part is a shield bearing the arms of Hepburn'*. 



No. 48.] XVI. University and King's College, Old Aberdeen. 
Aiiire» an gpen book proper wtOda an orlo axfoil 

The University of Aberdeen possesses a seal '* believed to have 
been given by the founder. Bishop Elphinston, to King's College" 
(Principal Campbell's notes in The Herald and Genealogist before re- 
ferred to), which shows the arms borne by the University and King's 
College until the union with Marischal College and University in 

The blazon of these is: Azure, a bough pot or charged with three 
salmon fishes in fret proper and holding as many lilies of the garden, 
the dexter in bud the middle full blown the sinister half blown, 
stalked and leaved proper flowered argent ; in chief amid rays of the 
sun issuant downwards a dexter hand holding an open book all 

The orle appears to have been introduced as a fancy of the 
painter, suggested perhaps by the orle, which ought to be a double 
tressure, in the corresponding shield of the arms of the Burgh of 
Aberdeen (No. 32). 

By means of a bequest made by the late Mr. John Cruickshank, 
ensigns armorial have now been matriculated as the arms of the 
University of Aberdeen by warrant of the Lyon King of Arms, dated 
26th September, 1888, the blazon of which is as follows: ** Quarterly, 
first. Azure, a Bough pot Or charged with three Salmon fishes in fret 
proper and containing as many Lilies of the garden the dexter in bud 
the centre full blown and the sinister half blown also proper flowered 
Argent, issuant downwards from the middle chief amid Rays of the Sun 
a Dexter Hand holding an open Book likewise proper ; second. Argent, 
a Chief paly of six Or and Gules ; third, Argent, a Cheveron Sable 
between three Boars' Heads erased Gules armed of the field and 
langued Azure ; fourth, Gules, a Tower triple towered Argent masoned 
Sable windows and port of the last ". 

END OF part II. (heraldic SECTION). 


Ant. S ^ lobe iluee tiicunt msiw : 

■EU ruhtt txt$h Vifon them but toe set 

Our foot iqron «irau tebemib htBtoti. 

Jlnb qnrrtiimltfs here, in thi« optn court, 

nhick note lte0 nakeb to the ininrits 

9t stmnng loesthtr, conu mta lie interreb, 

Ipobeb the dhnrdi 00 tueU, siib (stie 00 lEtgelg to't, 

^kes thotigkt it 0k0iil& hMt nmopieb their bone0 

^ill boom0biii : but »U thingo luuie their enb. 

Chiirrhe0 anb ntie0, bihirh habe bt0ea0e0 lib ta men, 

|Rn0t hatie like besth that toe habe. 

— Wbbstbr, Duchiss of Malfi (v^ Sc 3). 


Hijfni^«¥nj*_ T>i t I'lttucu 

/^^Ai^vr^G" 5>^*AX avS^-nO^K.j^ 

_ • ^ APPENDIX I. 

Notes on the Life op Bishop Gavin Dunbar. . 

• ♦^^ The following outline of the life and doings of Bishop Gavin 
Dunbar is based upon' that given in the History of the See and its Bishops, 
farming the Preface to the EdUitm of the " Registrum Episcopatus A ber^ 
donensis " (vol. i., p./Iii.')* published by the former Spalding Club, A few 
additions, to that' text may be recognised as being in italics, and the cita- 
tions now added enable us to trace a good many additional ** vestigia'' of his 

On the^ decease of Bishop Alexander Gordon, who died on the 30th of 
June, 1518, " Gavin Dunbar succeeded,* a prelate whose power in the 
state and' zeal for his Church would have .secured him the highest 
panegyric^ of the Church historians, if he had followed less closely 
Bishop Elphinston. He was the [fqnrth] son of Sir Alexander 
Dunbar of Westfield,t by his wife Elizabeth [or Isabelkif\, daughter of 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. We are not informed of his first 
living, in the Church; but he is found dean of his native diocese of 
Moray in *I487.^ And be held that office, apparently alone, till after. 
* the 22nd of August, 1498.* On the 24th of May, 1503, he w^s Dean 
of Moray, and also Clerk of Register and of Council,^ and he bears 
the same titles on March 13th of the same year.^t Between the 

> In October, 1487. * fiegist. Morav.^ p. 357. ^ ' 

' 6urgh Ree. of Ahdn,^ p. 67 [where high office is designed fir him on an embassy 
*\ to the Archeduk ofAustrie,&»c."]. 

*Reg. Otasg.,p. 505. . * . 

* Act Parl„yo\ H., p. 272. [Also on ^ih/ufy, 150a. " Unpublished Exchequer RollsJ*'] 

* Being the 24tb Bishop of Aberdeen, Reg, Aberd., p. Iviii, * 
t Son of JameA, 8th Barl of Moray (Stodut, set infra^ p. 142). 

X^ Under his quill and hand at this time ha4 passed the matrimonial contract of King 
James IV. with Margaret Tudor. 



•» • . ' • • • 

» * .• • 

latter date and* 24th November, 1506, he had left the. Chapter of 
Moray, and had been installed .as Archdisacon 6f St. Andrews, \7hile 
he still held the office of Ckrk bf Register.* Among the. Lords of 
Coimcil at . Edinburgh on the 5th of December, 1506, is " Maister 
Gawan Dunbar, Archldah of St. Androis, AM Clerk Registre,'^* and 
he witnessed royal charters by the s^rae style, on the 8th of May, 
1509,'* and on the 8th day of Januaty, 1515.* , 

In the year 15 19, Gawin d^ Dunbar, now Bishop of Aberde^n,^ 
ratified -the statutes of William Elphinston touching the government 
of the choir." On the 7th December of that year, he collated 
Thomas Hay, secretary to the Duke of Albany, to the prebend of 
•Rothwan, on the presentation of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
patrdn- hoc vice ef in iumo suo}^' Ht was .again at Aberdeen, in 
April,. May, and June, 1521," and on the 7th of May, 1523, he gave 
collation to a chaplain in the Cathedral; on the presentation of the 
Lotd Forbes.** t • He wias present in the Parliament held at Edin- 
burgh on the 14th of November,. 1524 ; .aiid in that of 22nd February, 
. in which he was on^ of the Lords of the * Articles.^ J For his. 

■ Ibid,, p. 274. iArchdeacon of 'St. Andrewi, 5</k Augnit, 1506. *« Crown RtntaU.^^ - 


•' i4r<. Par/., vol. iL, p. 275-7. " . • 


* Regist, Ahrrd,, vol. ii., p. xoi, ' • • 
>• P. 383 of /{rivif. 

"P. 386-7. Bitr^A /2«p., p. 562. 
^V.i^ToiRigistl . . 

M Act, Pari, vol. ii„ pp. 284-28S, 289. 

* Bishop from 5th N6v., 1518, to 9th 'March, 1531-2 (Stodart). 

1 1522. *^A propyne" to Gavin 'Dunbar, p. xxi« of Preface, Bmrgk Records of Aher- ' 
iMfi (Sp. CD. 

} Entries relating to Gavin Dunbar (I.) in Burgh Records of Aberdim : zGth March, 
1524 (Burgh Rec, p. Z07J ; 14th August, 1525, pp. iio-i (o(i heresy of Luther); also, ist 
April, 1527; 3rd June, 1527; 8th Nov., 1527, upkeep of Brig of Dee {Burgh R*c p. 116-9). 
He is still Clerk of Register in 1525 {Burgh Rec,., p. in); and on Z2th Dec., X530, he is 
present at Perth as one of the Lords of Council,' in which he also appears as Clerk of 
Register {Burgh Rcc, p. 139). . 

(IL) The following notes are from Records of ParUament^ p. 295, Ac. i 
X. die Julti, 1525. 

(Present) Pps. Aberdonensis (Gavin Dunbar, one of the Lords of the Articles), 
xvii. die Julii, 1525. 


adherence to the' Regent ^Albany, he was' imprisoned, along with the 
Chancellor. Beaton, by thiJ- Queen Mother,- in August; of that year, 
an^. not; li))erated till October.* In Noveaiber, the Secret Council 
appointed by the . Parliament consisted of the .Chancellor, the Bishop 
of Aberdeen, Arran, and Argyll*, * with the Queen Mother for chief. 
In January the bis}iops'were, with Angus, aiid the confederated lords, 
at St. Andrews, in defiance of the Court. In February they were 
again members of a council of Government, of which the Queen was 
the head, in that unhappy time, parties were not drawn .together 

Condemnation of "the dampnable opinzeound of heresy** (Luther*8 name men- 
' In Parliament; 12th June, 1526, also present, and. a Lord of the Articfes. 
' •12th'' Nov., 1526, • M ' N i» • * 

. . loth fif ay, X527 <not pitesent). 

2nd Sept.,* 1528, present, and a Lord of the Articles. • 
' No entry as to Parliament- in 1529 or 1530. 
• In*i5|i, present, and for \^ time. 

In 1532, th^EUctu^ [Bishop ^^Uiam' Stewart], his successor, appears. 
(III.) The %oUowlng are the notices of Gavin Dunbar in the Fasti of the University :'. 

I. Befwe his Episcopate. 
At Edinbur^, in February [da^ blank], 1505, charter under Great Seal confirming a 
. charter of Foundation by Sir Al. Boswell, witnessed, among others, by ' " dilecto clerico 
*Magistrb Gavino- Dunbar, Archidiacono Sancti Andree, rotulortui • et registri ac cohcilii 
clerico**. • 

In Edinbqrgh, nth October, 4506, he is witness to a confirmation, under Great Seal, 
of a charter by ** Wpu Cumyog of Inverelouchy **. [3^s Wm. Cumyng is the jLyon King of 
Arms, contemporafy with the erection of the ceiling.] 

He witnesses similarly a charter of confirniatipil, Edinburgh,' 28th May, 1512. 

II. During his Episcopate. 

The* first mfention of him in the Fasti, after he became Bishop, occurs on 4th May, 
1526, in a ** Preceptum Sasine cbncessum per Gavinum Episcopum Aberdonensem**. 

He .is referred to by his episcopal office, without being named, in |he Bull of Clement 
VII,, at Rome,. x8th January, 1526-7. . _ 

His name occurs in the' Royal confirmation of Privileges to "University, college, and 
city tif Auld Aberdene,'** granted at Aberdeen by James V.,.7th February/ 1527. In this deed 
Gavin Ehinbar is entered as not onl^ " Bishop of Aberdeen,** but Clerk ** nostrorum rotu- 
lorum registii et eoncilii'*. 

The most important of the Records relating to*him in the Fasti is the long and 
luminous Deed of i8th December, 1529, confirming the *' Nova Fundatio** of the College. 

The last entry til which his name appears as acting as Bishop is in a charter granting 
a certain piece of waste land to the College. Dated 15th November, 153 1. 

* See Dimntal ofOccurrents (Bann. CI), pp. 9, 16. [See aboye, p. 34.] 


by any common principle of actidn. The leaders of the State, the 
passionate, fickle Queen, the profligate Albany, all their followers, 
and their opponents, acted from no motives higher than the narrowest 
. views of selfish interests It is unprofitable to follow our Bishop 
through the daily fluctuations of the factions of that vicious age. In 
1527, was compiled and written at Antwerp, under his direction and 
at his expense, the magnificent " Epistolare de tempore et de Sanctis," 
for the uise of his Cathedral, which is still preserved in the University, 
that owed so much to his care.^^ In 1529, he purchased the lands 
of Quarelwood and Lidgat, near Elgin, and endowed from them two 
chaplainries in the Cathedral Church of Moray, for the souls' gf his 
father and mother. The provisions of the foundation are more than 
usually minute as to the duties and conduct of the chaplains^—'* quod 
dicti duo capellani sint bonae conversationis, absque coneubinisaut 
focariis, in cbntu Gregoriapo experti, et. discantu mediocriter instructi 
et docti,'* with other provisions for their constant residence, and for 
enforcing the rules regarding their, honest conversation.^ On the 
14th December, 1529, Bishop Gawin j^nted to the burgh of Aber- 
deen the lands of Ardlair for the erection of a stone bridge across 
the Dee.^* On the 24th April) 1531, tbe Bishop appears for the last 
time in Parliament." On the 9th of February, 1531, he opposed 
the grant by the clergy of a« large yearly contribution for the support 
of the new College of Justice,^ and- he was appointed by the dis- 
sentients to prosecute an appeal to Rome against the tax; "but 
this," says Spotiswood, "ciaid on an accord made". Finally, 
on .the 23rd February, 1531, Bishop .Gawin — promulgating the truth 
that "the prelates of the Church were not the masters of the*patri-. 
mon^ of the cross, but its guardians' and administrators" — founded 
and endowed his hospital for twelv^ poor folk and a governor, to be 

." Regist Aberd., vol ii., p. 236, 

*• Jtegist, Morav^, pp. 416-7. 

^ P* 393* *^See the previous process. See also proceedings relating to the Bridge of 
Dee and the Chapel of Our Lady there, in Burgh' Records^ pp. ix^^* 126-9. L^" *^ ^^^^ 
of^ PP' 393-4 of *^* Regisirum, a ** Coadfuhr-Biskop and successor,'' Giorgius, Prior 0/ 
Pluscarden, signs with Qavin Dunbar, but probably pridtaaud him,^ 

*'i4f/. ^aW,, vol. iL, p^332. 

» Dium, of Occurrents^ p.. 15— an authority, however, not to be relied on fer dates. * 


built on the .outside of the Cathedral cemetery.*" He died [at ^t. / 

Andrews, Ktr's Donaidis, p. 15] on the loth of March of that year.* 
Father. Hay> adding somewhat to Spotiswood, gives us a few 
further particulars of his life and character : " Gawan Dunbar, Arch- 
dean of St. Andrews, and Master of the Rolls, a man of many ex- ' 
cellent parts, was, after Gordon, elected bishop; he set himself to 
perfect all those works which Bishop, Elphinstbn had begun and were 
not yet finished, especially the building of the bridge upon Dee (a 
fair bridge of stone, with seven arches) ; he built the south quarter 
of the College, and the' houses that were appointed for thcpreben-. 
daries^ and professors of sciences in the College* He did perfite 
the two lesser steeples, c&iled the . church, and built the • south 
aisle about «I522. The executors of. Bishop Elphinston he called 
to an account, and made them render • the moneys left by him in 
legacy ; adding thereto his own liberality, whetewith he accomplished 
all these works. He founded likewise, ane hospital for twelve poor 
men,* and a preceptor to attend tHem ; and all the time he lived 
bishop j which was thirteen years, whatsoever profit or commodity he 
made by the Church he bestowed wholly upon the ppor and public 
works, without applying a farthing to- his own use or the inriching 
of his kinsmen. . . . He bestowed many fich and precious ornaments 
upon the Cathedral, which remained there long after. He built a 
fair house for the small prebendaries called the • chaplains. Other * 
many commendable works were performed by this prelate, besides his 
just clealing towards the common wealtii. • He enjoyed the bishoprick 

for the space of thirteen.years, and got not the fruits thereof in vain." 
, • ■ • • • • 

"P.40I. • , • • , ' 

* kggist Aherd,^ vol. ii.,'P- 2x1. The Calendar of Feme gives his anniversaxy on the * 

^ of March, luid T. Innes's MS. notes give his death on the 26th of March. Another 
anniversary was celebrated for him on St Coliimba's day (gth June), perhaps the patron 
saint of his family, by the vicars of the choir, in gratitude.for the manse [rather, mannone$^ 
in qriginal], built for them by his executors after his death {Regist, Aberd.^ vol ii., p. 214). * 

[This ccnjuinrt of Cosmo InneSf as to the patron saint of the Dunbar family ^ is confirmed 
by the circumstance that a Bishop of Moray of the same family bore the, name of Columba 
de Dunbar* He died in his palace at Spynie in 1435, and is buried in the Dunbar aisle in 
the Cathedral at Elgin, Su StodarVs ** Scottish Arms,'* voL ' ii,, p. xo. The mention of 
Executors in the Registrum {ii, p. 2x4), recalls the fact that a stq^ inscribed with the jaords 
^*'per Bxecutores" in Sdxan letter, still exists in the environs of the Aberdeen Cathedral,] 


Such is the outline of the incidents in the Bishop's life as gleaned 
by Cosmo Innes in the Preface to the Registrum.* Our space will 
not suffice to include the contempor^uy Life by Hector Boece, forming, 
as it does, the last of the Lives of the Bishops of Aberdeen, composed 
by the First Principal of King's College. The Dedication of Bocce's 
book is given to Gavin Dunbar, and the two together — Life and Dedi- 
cation — ^form a fine tribute in Ciceronian Latin to the virtues of the 

To the above we append the following succinct notice of Gavin 
Dunbar's life appearing in Stodart's Scottish Arms (voL ii., p. 14) : 

'' Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen, fourth, son of ISir Alexander 
of Westiield, ^ Archdea'con of St. Andrews, and Clerk Register, was 
provided to 'the See of Aberdeen by Pope Leo X., on the 5th November, 

* Two letters of Gavin Dunbar, of date March is* 1525, both signed— one to Heory 
VIII. and one to Card. Wolsey — are fitand in vol. iii. of Thor«*b CdUndar of StaU Papon 
(Scottish Series). P/tir/i,- regarding these letters on p. 146 ii|/ra. 

t In yoannis Dunhari Epigrawuttaia (London, 16 16) occnrs (p. 17, centiiria via, Epigr. 
xlii.) an epigram ascribing to Gavin (with whom the author claims kinship, and whooi he calls 
proavi sui /rater) the foundation of . the Academia Aberdonensis ! Epigram No. xli. is 
entitled, ** Ejasdem, Gavint, Pons Donae ** (? Devai), in somewhat poor Latin, and with a 
pun upon the name Ponti/ej^: *'OstendiC verum se fore ponttficim**. These epigrams are 
thus referred to by M'Kenxie : ' 

" John Dunbar, the famous epigrammist, who flourished in the reigns of King James 
VI. and Charles I., made the two following Epigrams upon this prelate :— 

**Jam quod. Aberdoniae doctis Academia 'Musis 

Flpreat, et cdsum toUat in astra caput, 
' Ut labor ille sui, nunc sit laus'ista Gavini ; 

Hie posuit tantife prima elenienta schplae. 

II. ! • 
***• Circa* Aberdoniam tumidis Dona ]«))itur undis; 
. Turgidus, et nuUis trajiciendus equis : 
Huic' pontem hie Praesul fecit cum condere, numquid 
Ostendit verum se fore Pontifitem ? '* • 

M'kensie^s l^ivis of Scots Writers, 'U., p. 612. 

• t Spn 6f James, eighth Earl of Moray, who was grandson of John Dupbar, fifth Earl 
of Moray, who was grandson of Sir Thomas Ranulph, lirst Eari of Moray; the nephew of 
Robert Bruce. Sir Alexander died loth March, 1497-8. His effigy on his tomb in th^ Dunbar 
. Aisle 'in the Cathedral at Elgin has ** threccifthions ** on tU breast. The Bishop could thus 
claim a right 'to use the cushions, as being the son of the-g^elit great great grandsopof Sir 
Thomas Ranulph, first Earl of Moray. Cf. Prdc. Sac, Ant, Scot,, vol xxii., p. 187. . 




■ 11' .AilY 

A . ' r "■ 


SEAL OF BISHOP QAVIN DUNBAR, appended to an Instrument confirming 

Bishop William Elphinstone's new foundation of the College of 

St. Mary, Old Aberdeen, 1529. 


1518. It was Bishop Dunbar who had the Cathedral at Aberdeen 
ceiled with wood, and the ceiling decorated with coats of arms. 

** On an illumination in one of the Cathedral books^ his arms are 
embla2oned between two bears ; * but the Bishop does not seem either 
to have used or to have had right to supporters. 

" He died on the gth March 1531-2. , 

** His arms — three pillows within the Royal tressure — are on his 
seals ; and, with tlie addition of a* mitre and his initials, are on the 
Old Bridge of Dee, and on the canopy of his tomb oyer his effigy in 
'Bishop Gavin Dunbar's Aisle ' in the Cathedral at Aberdeen. 

"The Bishop is often confused with his ftephew, Gavin Dunbar, 
who was ' provided * to the Archbishoprick of Glasgow on the 8th of 
July 1524, and died on the 30th of April 1547." 

The following is ta,ken from Menteith's Theater of Mortality (Edinb. 
1704)* part ii., p. 223 : - * . 

" The names of the children of Sir Alexander Dunbar, of Westfield, 
first Sheriff of Morray, as they are in the Dunbars' burial-place, 
commonly .called the Dunbars' I«le, in the Northside of the Cathedral 
Church of Morray in. Elgine : 

1. Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock. 

2. Sir John Dlinbar of Mochrum. 

3. Alex. Dunbar of Kilboyack. 

4. Gavine Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen.. 

5. Jannet Dunbar, Lady InnerugieJ 

6. David Diihbar of.Duirhs (Durris). 

7. Mr. Patrick Dunbar, Chancellor of Aberdeen. 

8. Leonard Dunbar, student in Paris. 

9. DUnbar*, who died young." 

* The Bishop^B Smns witbthe two bears will be found in the frontispiece of the Registrum 
Bp. Ahnd,^ as taken from the "^pistolare " of Gavin Dunbar. Another example of hircoat 
of arms, within a G initial letter, is reproduced in Registrum Ef, Aberd, (vol.- ii., p. 154). 
In the same volume (iL of the Registrum, in Plate II., at close) isfouhd the round deal of 
Gavin Dunbar (sigillum rotut^dum), also with the three cushions. It is worthy of bein^ 
compared with his 0V9J *' sigillum autenticum," of which a representation frices this page. 
. A third seal of Gavin Dunbar, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, is noted by Laing (vol. ii., p. 56), 
under the evidently, erroneous date 1556. . 


Bishop Dunbar's Predilection for Heraldic Ornakbnt. 

The idiosyncrasies of individuals are, frequently the enrichment of 
the world, and what may have been, in some instances, little better 
than a foible of vainglory, may turn out to be, as so often in charitable 
endowments, a source of happiness and benefit to mankind. Such has 
been the case with the tasteftil predilections of Gavin Dunbar, and few 
among our old Scottish' worthies can be nanxed who have done more 
to delight .the eye aAd mind of posterity by bis fondness for heraldic 
decorations. ; , ' * 

The extent to which he indulged himself in the exhibition of his 
own heraldic blazoning may appear from the following ehuftieration. 
The list is one that reckons up the various coats of arms, attributable 
to and representative of the Bishop, which, after the lapse of nearly 
four centuries, are still visible in Aberdeen or its vicinity^ 

Coats. of Arms of Bishop Gavin, Dunbc^r at and around Aberdeen. 
Description. Place. 

Carved woo^ — painted. On the ceiling of the Cathedral, - ' - - i 
Freestone. On the two towers of the Cathedral, • - 2 

(on S. W. comer of North Tower ; ud on S.E. corner 
• of South Towrr.) 
Freestone. On Bishop Gavin t)unbar's tomb, with motto 

• on scroll, *' sub [spe],*' and initials, G. D., 

above, - - - - - - ,- i 

Freestohe. On house S.E. of Cathedral (chaplainry), - i 

Freestone. In King's College Quadrangle (modem), - i 

Freestone. Old Market Cross of Old Aberdeen, - -• i 

Coloured drawings.* ; Ih MS., Epistolare, in King's College Library, * 2 
Impressions of seals. Appended to Charters, - - - - 3 

(i as Archdeacon and 2 as Bishop.) 
Stone. . On the Bridge of Deej . • . . 8 

Total, - - -' - .J 20 

• In Univ. Library Catalogue, !>• 3.4a 

I For this mimite 'information in regard to Bishop Gavin Dunbar*a coats of arms we 
are indebted to A. H. Dunbar, Esq., younger of Northfield, whp is descended in the male line 
from Alexander Dunbar, the immediate elder brother of the Bishop. 


The coaf • of arms oL Gavin Dunbar Which .is ^foiind oii the old 
Market Cross of Otd Aberdeen,* i$ now in the ArchaBologi9al Nluseum 
in King!8* College. ; Doubtless his arms also appeared t over the door of 
his Hospital for twelve pocfr njen, at the west of the .Ckthedral^ and 
his shield is: said to have been upon the Bishop*8, Palace, which stood* 
due'east of the Cathedrai. .These two last rneritioned* shield^ have 
either perished, or, perhaps, =fttay.bc^:^flion§ tjibse 'Still' existhig, utilised 
in xnoire recent buildings. J: '. *\ ^ ; ..: * [^. • ' •. 

* In j^etent article on Hector B6ece,-in. the p^ripdipar tailed. The 
Scottish Church (bio. 12, "vbll li.)/ reference's made to. ati alleged 
distdrd.betweeii the first Prihpipal and his Chancellor on-the subject, 
of the'exterit to which Dunbar's heraldic shield should be introduced' 
..into the College Buitdings. then progressing. "The allegiation is that 
Baece^ objected to Gravin intrQducmg so largely his o\vn -shield into 
Elphipstort-s" College, and that Puhbar,* becoming displeased, caused 
the work tb be huddledup'withoiit.thiB artistic finish which 'h^ intended. 
The only authority for the stc«fy known to us is the' notice In Qrem^ 
(Old A berdeen^ p. 304, Edition,. 1850% who, however, living 200 years later, 
can. harcHy i)^ accepted as sufficient voucher for a story^devoid of any. 
contemporary ^videiiQp' and strangely discordant with the panegyric of . 
Dunbar in Bo'ecef s Liv^ of the J^ishopt of A bet'dcen. [ , / • . 

: II is worth noting that the Lyon King of Arms contemporary 
with Bisbpp <3ravnt Dunbar helonged to.the 'Bishop's diocese, vi^.^ 
Sir William Cumyrig of Inverallochy (in Buchan)/ Lyon King a.d. 

f See Orefn'9 *<'01d Aberdeen/' •]>.z86,.whtire,besidefrI>unbaLlr'8 arms, mefttion is made 
of theamtJB of Uie Klii^ of Sc^and and 9f Bishops Steward and Gordon, as figured^ . 
Mack^t Cross: On \ht arms of his nephe^k Gavin the Archbitfhop, see Her^ and Qen^, vii., 

p. 40. ■ ' • • . ' ; /•'••' ; \'\-\ '■■ 

' t See Kennedy's- i4infafe, li., P..316. * 

X In tlie records — unfortunately^'only records — of the tntemsLl pmamtets and Vestments 
given to the -Cathedral by this munificent Bishopy we are ngt surprised to, find evidence of * 
annorial decoration appearing even in the perishable furnishing of the Church of St. Mtfbhar. 
In the*" List of Gift».by Bishop Dunbar found in Rigistrum, ii. 1^2-3,. ipention is made^i># 
times, in describing the texture and uses of the various objects, that they were " cum armis 
dicti Domini Episcopi'*. On p. 196 of (he saiAe volume occurs an entxy in the vernacular 
to a similar e^ect : ** Ane banquhoir of tanne veluet, contenand sax ell jPIemis, vith Bischeip 
Gauinis armis m V places ". ' 

I Orem is the *^ scribe '•' who wrote the deed of Walter Ogilvy of Redhythe, 1678 {PasH 
Ab'srd.;p, 182.) 

. . T ' 


1518.* Although nothing beyond a mere incidental trace (see p. 139 n.) 
has yet been found associating the two or indicating any mutual 
acquaintance, there is little doubt that the Lyon King of the day was 
among the entourage surrounding the Bishop, and may have counten- 
anced or sanctioned the heraldic display in the Cathedral roof. 

Tradition has it that ** the work of the ceiling was performed by 
James Winter, from Angus, a lasting monument of his genius as a 
mechanic and artist ".t 

. Bishop Dunbar's Lovb of Architecture. 

Hardly less notable than his passion for Heraldry was his fondness 
for Architecture, in regard to which, if we may follow the facetious Thomas 
Fuller, in a like case, we may style him the ^ edifying Bishop '. If we 
except Bishop Elphinston, it may be doubted if any single benefactor 
of Bon-Accord has left so many, and so characteristic, ornaments, even 
after the sore ravages of time, enriching the architecture of the two 
cities. To these we can at present only allude, taking as our text the 
interesting enumeration given in a Graduation Address published 
exactly a century after Dunbar's death. 

In the Panegyricus ItMuguralis, by Andrew Strachan, Regent .or 
Professor, 1629 (Raban, Aberdeen, 1631), mention is made (pp. 14-15) 
of three of Gavin Dunbar's architectural works. Those specified are : 

1. Fanum Fratrum Franciscandrum Naeabrtfdonense (t.^.. The 
Grey Friars' Church, the sole Pre-Reformation -Church now existing 
in Aberdeen). 

2. Ptochodochium I amplum et accpmmodum in' Veteri Aberdonia 
(in quo) xii. cgeni aluntur (Bede-House for twelve poor men). 

3. S. Macarii basilicam, fiaaiXucikf sedificiorum novprum arte 
maxima elaboratorum accessione, veterum etiatn insfauratione, exomavit 

♦ Scton'g Scottish Heraldry, p. 478. 

f Kennedy's AnnaU ofAbsrdttn* 

t For Deeds as to this Foundation or Bede- House, see Rtgistr, Ef, Ahifd., u p^, 
399-406. . 

*«* The two letters of Gavin Dunbar referred to in*note on p. 142 occur in Brewer's 
Calendar, vol. iv., as Nos. ixgi-l. That to Henry VIII. is signed " be youreoraCoitre and 
chaplane, Byshop of Ab*den **. It is spotted with damp and damaged. The other to Wolscy, 
of same date, is in good condition and is signed "Mandatarius Ab*donen". This last is 
printed in full in the Quarto Edition of the St^ti Papers, voL iv.» p. 34a. No si^s, these 
having been lost. 

Arms of Our Saviour, anciently in St. Machar's Cathedral. 

It is singular that the heraldic impulse aspired beyond even the 
digfnities of earthly grandeur, and sought to glorify the Kingdom of 
Christ with the ascription of arms. Nowhere does this impulse 
appear to have manifested itself more motably than in the shire and 
city of Aberdeen. 

In Spalding's History occurs the following (i., p. 313, Sp. CI. Ed.), 
among the incidents of the " Troubles," anno 1640 : 

" Thairefter thay [Committee of Covenant] cam all iyding up the 
get, cam to Maucher kirk, qrdanit our blissit Lord Jesus Christ his 
armes to be hewin out of the foirfroont of the pulpit thairof. ... 
He (maister of Forbes) causit ane mesoun strik out Christis amies 
in hewin wark,.on ilk end of bischop Gawin Dpmbaris tomb-* . . .*' 
. What the afrangement of the arms in these two, or rather three, 
instances had been, we may, perhaps, conceive alternatively : Either, 
fifst, as an analogon to the singular blazon of Prester (or Presbyter) 
Johni as shown in Sir David Lindsay's Heraldic MS.,t or secondly, as 
the not unfrequent adumbration or shadowing forth, of . armorials to 

* At the finials terminating the curve of the arch are stiU noticeable two small shields, 
each with a therub behind displaying the shield. The disks of these shields, which are, 
from w!iatever cause, Uurred and obscure, are certainly the relics of this mutilation, for in 
the one to the west, on the right of the spectator, there is perceptible the heart with traces of 
the other appendages belonging to a well-known emblematic form 6f the Sacred Arms. ' 

t This shield of Prester John is thus blazoned in a careful note furnished in his own 
band bytlie late worthy John Cniickshank: — **0r, on a Cross of the Passion azure, rising 
t>at of a^ mount vert and between two scourges paleway's 0/ the ucond cords outwards 
i^nZ^s/the dead body of Our Saviour proper , nimbed of the field and wreathed about the 
loins with a cloth argent shadowed azure ; on Hi% head the Grown of Thorns, the Blood 
flowing therefrom, and from the Wound in the dexter side, and from the hands and feet 
which are pierced with the Nails, all proper; on the upper limb of the Cross the Scroll 
argent, lettered INRI sabU ". 


our Lord> • feutid* in such a group of emblems represeotiftg the Five 
Wounds upon the Cross, as this: "A man's Heart, hetvrj^en' two 
Hands expanded and wounded, and as m^ny F^et, tninked at the 
ancle, and wounded in the like manner; all placed saltire-ways 
and proper " (Boss of Stone in groined roof of* Divinity. Schools, 
Oxford, as described in Wood's Oxford^ li., p. 786). 

A similar boss of stone, with precisely the same'pmblems, occurs 
in an oratory in Towie Castle, Auchteriess, Aberdeenshire, An in- 
scription round this boss is believed to read, " Fit vitse dono Dominus 
domo oracio^iis". In the pld castle of Gight, which belonged to lx>rd 
B)a*on's ancestors, a boss of stone is reported to occur with a similar 
group of embhems. . A painting of the emblems is found on a wall in 
one of the rooms in Sir George Skene's house in the Questrow, 
Aberdeen,. now the Victoria Lodging House.* 

In the Second Report of the Royal Commission on Historical 
MSS.,t p. 201, it is stated that there is in Blairs College : ^' A vellum 
•Roll, written in the 14th centiiry, . containing a Poem on the Instru- 
ments of the Passion of our Blessed Lord, or» as they are sometimes 
called, the ARMS of Christ*': The concluding lines are thus* given :' 

These armes of Christ, bothe God and man, 
Seint Peter the pope descnvyed hem (= them) ; 
'« What man these armis overseeth {= desfifeih)^ ' . * 

For here (t.«., thdr) sinnes sort and schrive befth. ' 

(, tkiri will he sorrom and ^itemee). 

The following is a quaint morcedu, showing how medieval fainey 
interwove itself, among the solemnities of religion: "Thp-'is a 
gentylman, a churle sone, a preste made^ and that is a spirituall 
gentyiman to god and not of blode. 'But if a gentyjmannys eone be 
made preste, he is a gentilman both spirituall and tefoporall. Criste 
was a geqtylinan of his moder be hal've, and bare cote ajrmtire of 
annseturis" [ancestors] •—** The Boke of St. Albans," 'date, of MS. 
i486 (p.. 73 X){ BodUiah H^aldie Miscellanies). 

* In the Arekadlogieal youmal, xvii« 68, is a notice of a pilgrim^s badge ia .Uie fonn of a 
leaden amfulU or small bottle, •on one sid^ of which ** appears an escntcbeon of the symbols . 
of oar Lord^s* Passion eniigned with a crown, over which is the monogram, IHS ".-^Among 
the shields on the gioinedlroof of the Chapter House in the Cathedral at Elgin, is one which 
answers to the same description. 

t Mr. James Moir, Rector of the Aberdeen Grammar School, has famished this reference. -.. 

:\ \r,::K 

f, -Mr 

ir . \::y 

1 1.' .. ." 

''■■ :>;'AV../::s 




Inscriptions ROUKbtHE Frieze opX^v^nQ- *\ * 

.•^** Tiie following i^ th^jbi^ 6f..his%^ of Aier(ken and Kings of 
Scotland in the thscr^Hon, touHd, the Frieze of Nave" This Jnscfipiion 
is in Saxon letter, fhd$tfy-.bla6k,l)utyinihe6ase'of the christian names and * 

^ome catch Ufordsi vBiilh rid iniHak:- ." 

' ■ ■ ' ■* " * '•'•*•. . • ■ • 

V .* '. * \\ V North- SiDp. * -\ .\ ^ 

, '. . Primus, huj^ ecdie pcmtifex Nectaniis* Jj? Eduardus jij^ Matheus 
kyinmond ^ liii^ lohSrtcs pr6r de ; calco v? Ada biiciis regis Wifti' 
vi^ Gilbertus stritielid yii^ R^tduiphus lamtley -vui^ PetrtiS ramsay 
ix^ Richardus pottocht * x^. Hugo \benhartle . xi^ Hehricus cheine * 
xiP Alexander tie kyjmpund. xiii^.. jVillpis de la deyne .^iiii^ JcdxSnes 
de r^te xy? Alexstnder kyinmond xvi^ Ada tyingbaihe' jcvii^ Gjl- 
bertus .greynlaw xviii* . Henric^ lychton xix*. Ingeram^ lyndesay ,. 
.xxi^ Thomas spnes' [su:j ;xkp kobertus bleicater/xxii^ Willms elphyh- 
ston Vniu^sitatis\et collagii codiV>r xxiii^' Atexaader .Gordon xxiiii^ 
Gavinus Dunbar -f xxv^ 'WillSs'StUart' xxvi^- Willm's gordon 

• . .• ' • \ - ' ' /*■ ' ••. * ■ "•'" • \ . .' ^.' 

••; ".-' * South Side, /* ' '. . .' . . 

. Murcbilakee.n et abefdoneii.* ecclias . ^ ftfspectiue con- . 
•didere Pro quibus in hac sacrp. ede .fujidati bbligatiif orare p^ Ma- 
colm^ kehedi qui fnnShtlalfeefi eccttSin f^ instituit anno mil°. quarto 
Cui sucCessit Ducanus Cui^Macolm^ camoir.ano to^lV^^Cui Edgarus 
Cui Aleieandef Cui Dauid Stus ' ano m*>c*xxiiij qui .mrchtlakeen. 
eccti^m ad aberdoniam tnstulit Cui Macolmus Vjgg Cui Willins Cui 
* ' • * . • ,' . .. . • ■ I ^ 

* Potton (in Keith's Catalogue), Poiton (Gosmo Innes, in Prefape to Registrum 

,Ep. 4b.): : ■ . •. . . _ ...., . 

fin the Catahgus Ephcoporum at end of Boece*iB>"Epi8CoporuiD Vitae," Gavin 
Dnnbar ia^xxvl^' (A .Mattlueiis |« there inserted, as vi^, between Bishops Adam and Gilt>ert). 


% • •* * ' •. 

•• I. In England. , . • ' *. 

• * * * . • 

1. The Savoy Chapel, Straodi London. ' . • . 

This roof is rich in blazonry, beginning abbut the. pericx^of John 
of Gaunt, and representing the Royal Family of England suhsequent to 
that tVince. It seei^s a display entirely English, insular, and dpmiestic. '. 
Moreover, t)ie blazon, though elaborate and interesting^ is not by carved/ 
bosses, but simply by painting the devices on the centre of flat pandels. * 

2. St. George's Hall and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

In regard. <o -these, two* heraldic ceiitres, we have pleasure in 
quoting the terms of a letter from. the librarian of Windsor Palape, 
in which he cdurteously gives the following details as to' the Jieraldie 
decorations there existing; ' * ' 

* '* In inquiries, I note : • • * . : 

"(i) The arn^orial bearing* of the Knights of the Garter are 
painted. OA* shields raised on the paniieb; the bosses are carved and 
. painted vnth badges, &c., of the Order. . * * . 

" (2) The shields are arranged in chronological sequence from ther . 
foundation of the, Order. . . 

" (3) The only foreign coats are of members of the Order. * . 

" (4) Th^ principal difference between the ceilings of St. George^s 
Hall and St. George's Chapel is that in the latter the* bosses are . 
carved with badges of knights instead of arms. They are described 
in Willement's Heraldry of St..Georg€*s Chapel. They afe. in stone. 

• All carving in Winds9r Chapel and Castle has relFerence to the Order 
of the Garter. There is, therefore, no parallelis^n between it and the . 

. very curious carving at' Aberdeen, to which I know nothing exactly 

* sinUlar'' (from Letter of Librarian^ Windsor Castle, of date 1,6th May, 
1888). • •^' . ' . • ' - . ' 

3. Divinity Schools, Oxford. 

Hardly less elaborate is the series of armorial bosses (nearly a 
hundred) in the groined roof of the Bivioity Schools of Oxford (already 
alluded to, p. 13), constructed about a.d. 1480. They. are fully, biit ' 
not completely, described in Wood's ^Oxford/ ii.^ pp.. 783-6 ; but it is to 
be remarked that (i) they are entirely English; (2) they present- an . 
indefinite multiplication, repeating the same arms^ and (3) as arranged 
in Wood's enumeration, exhibit no discernible gradation of distriftutfoo. 


'• "4. St Albai>'s Cathedral, Hertlbi^sWrt^^ V :. 

• In this* church, foitri^rly the church of the great Abbey of St. Alban, 
theVe repiaina.ari heIal<iic^dl^play representing Western. Christendom, ., 
which.ia tlie 'only one, known tp the writer,* comparable, to a certain 
extent, in.import^nc€?to that of St. Maphaf's Church in. Old Aberdeen. 
•/ . Xhe.inaginficerit»'moxiun(ient of ecclesiastical power and grandeur, 
which now croWhg the Hill of St. Alban's, dates bstck to Norman times, 
•and even in its'maferials 13 of ah antiqui^ going beyopd the Conquest, 
as far as the Roman period.- The briokk of the Roman town of 
Veralam are, ])y their shape and sizt ^nd' colour, stfK recognisable in' 
the K)ldest portions of th6. structure. o£ thef Cathedral. 

.Vjhe date of fhe decorated ceiling,. which is 40 feet wide, is be- 
fieved to* be the time. when. the 'abbey was held by John of.Wheat- 
. hampsted, 33Fd al>bot| about 1440. \ - 

.The treatmeicit of this vyoodeq ceiling maybe understood from the . 
following: short outline.: . . * 

.; The beautiful frontispiece, of Nfeale's^'work on St, Alban's (1877), 
^xhibij^ing, as a specimen^ the*sQcon4 shield^ hamely, Ihat of St. Alban, 
• supplied, an idea of the style 6f decoration^* which i$ nearly as follows : 

• to a- *squai:e. panhel with red ground, there is represented in the 

. cenife the shield of the Abbey anps, which shield is supported by an 

angel* with.wings^ holding this shield in front,* with an inscription, 

indicating" Scutum^ Sdncti AlbatU Martyris. The angel and shield are 

both cohts^ined within a green wreath, all painted on the under surface 

of. the pannel. ' ... 

, ' *Tbe same, treatment, tiiuiatn mutandis, recurs in the whole series 

• of shields. , ' . 

The following js the list of shields as given by the Rev. C. Boutdl 
in his paper on " The Early Heraldry of -the Abbey Church of St. 
Alban," in- vol. xxxiv. of Journal 0/ Arckaological Association for 1878 : 

1. -** Scutum S'ci Edmundi regis." A;?ure, three open crowns or. 

2. "Scutu S'ci Albani maityris.** Azure, a saltire or. 

* " Each shield U held by an angel, above whose h^.is a scroll inscribed with a brief 
teirt or pome pious ejaculation, or som& declaration of faith, while below each shield a corre- 
sponding scroll sets forth to whom the armorial blazon belongs " (Boutell). The device of 
an angel holding up the shield i8<io doubt beautiful, but it is apt to gel monotonous in a series 
of forty shields. 

• U . 


3* ^'Scutu S'ci Off* mercii regis." Gules, three open crowns or. 
4* '^ Scutum S'ci Georgii." Ajigent, a cross, gules. 
5* '' Scutum S'ci Edwardi regis." ^ A^ure, between five mart- 
lets, a cross fleurie or. 

6. ** Scutii S'ci Lodrici (fie) regis Pra." t Azure, three fleurs- 

' ' de-lys two and one, or. 

7. " Scutum Imperatoris Romano." ' Aigent, an eagle with two 

heads, di^layed sable. 

8. ''ScutiL",! 

g. ** Scuts Imperatoris Constantino." Gules, a cross moline or, 
cantoning four bezants, each charged with a 
* plain cross of the field. 

10. " Scutu regis Hispanic." Quarterly, Castile and Leon. 

11. '' Scutu regis Anglie." Quarterly, England and France 


12. ''Scutu regis Portugaul." Within a bordure of Castile, 

gules, charged with eight castles or,§ argent, 
three escutcheons azure, each charged with six 
plates; two two. and two. 

13. '' Scutum regis Sardie." Azure, three men's heads bearded, 

. affronts, ppr., crowned •r. 

14. '' Scutum regis Cyprie." * Argent, three bars azure, ovef all a 

lion rampant gules, crowned and collared or. 

15. ** Scutum regis de Man.'* Gules, three human legs couped at 

the thigh, conjoined in triangle argent. 

16. '' Scutum fidei." Gulesj the device emblematic of the Holy 

Trinity. . 

17. " Scutum Saluationis." Shield charged with emblems of the 

i8. " Scutum regis Arragon." Paly of eight or and gules, 
ig. " Scutu regis Iherusalem." Aiigent, a cross potent between 

four plain crosses or. 

20. " Scutu regis Danie." Oi, three lions passant in pale azure. 

21. "Scutu ducis Bretaign." Ermine. 

22. '* Scutum regis Boemie." Quarterly, one and tour, an eagle* 

* The Confesaor. f PrapGonim. X Blank, or not described. 

i This blazon aeems somewhat tautological. 


with one head displayed sable ; two and three, 
argent a lion rampant, queue fourch6e gule^. 
(Shield and supporters in a circle.) 

23. "Scutum d'ni thome filii regis." Quarterly, England and 

France ancient ; a label of three points ; the . 
whole within a bordure. (Shield and sup- 
porters in a circle.) 

24. " Scutii regis Cicilie.'* France ancient, with a label gules. 

25. " Scutii regis Hungari." Barrulde argent and gules. 

26. " Scutum regis Francie." Azure, senile de lys or. ■ 

27. " Scutii ducis Lancastrie." * Quarterly, England and Frs^nce 

ancient ; a label of three points ennine. 

28. " Scutum HeYci pi's [Henrici principis] Wallie." Quar- 

terly, England and Prance ancient; a label of 
three points argent 

29. "Scutum duci' Eboraci." Quarterly, England and France 

ancient ; a label of three points argent, charged 
on each point with as many torteaux. 

30. "Scutum regis Norwa." Argent, a lion rampant gules, 
• , holding in his paws a battle-axe. 

31. "Scutum regis Nau[arr]e." .Gules, an escarblmcle or. 
'32. .**• Scutum- regis Scotie." Or, a lion rampant within a double 

tressure gules. 

The above heraldic display at. St. Alban's differ^ from that of 
Aberdeen — (i) in being Pictorial, by painting on flat pannel, and not 
Glyptic, by darvihg in relief; (2) in being mainly Regal, and only 
allegorically Ecclesiastical ;. (3) in the Want of any clear S3^tematic 
order, exhibiting the "Powers" in any relative gradation.* 

On the contrary, at Aberdeen, the images are solid figures of 
what might pass as real shields ; such, indeed, as in moving through 
the armoury of an ancient hall, * one could suppose detachable by 
the warrior or wearer of them from the bosses from which they 
•depend; not mere painted images and ocular illusions. On these 
accounts the palm of artistic and historic interest must be awarded 
to the heraldic display of the northern city. 


IL In Scotland. 

Our limits do not allow detailed reference to su£h;&istant ana- 
logies as the '^Lacunar. Striveliense/' to which we alhided in the 
Introduction, or to the roofs ^ of Craigston Castle (Aberdeenshire) and 
Muchalls Castle (Kincardineshire); "enriched, not with heraldic shields, 
but with efQgies of Jieroes/ kings, virtues, evangelists,'*' in \he case 
of the former, and with*. " medallion portraits in delicate white par- 
getted plaster work"" in the latter. Neither do we. recognise any 
proper parallel to the decoration adorning the Aberdeen Cathedral, 
even in the beautiful pargetted roof of the hall of '(jlammis-Qa^tle, 
where shields and heads occur together. ; * 

Some analogies less remote may, however; be foilnd in the fdWowing.: 

1. In Church of Marykirk (Kincardineshire), the old aisle, called 
the Thornton Aisle, had heraldic ceilingih colours and gold (Charles 
Farquhar Shand's Funerals of Bishop Patrick Forbes, p. xxvii.). 

2. The apartment io Holyrood, called '^ Queeh Gary's Audiente 

A specimen of decorative art, by carving in' oak, of i6tb- century. 

The shields, in this instance; are in centre] of ptonels^ qot, as in 
Old Aberdeen, at' the intersection, except "in the. case of the central 
shield, which is in honour of Mary of Lorraine (Queen of James V.). 

The following shows the order of arrangement : 

Shield of France, H, R., t.#., Henri 11. ' . Shield of JScotland, J. R., U., James V. 

* . * . • « 

• * • .' • * ' • • • . 

Shield of Mary of ^x»rraine. , . 

Shield of F. D. . i.#., Francis, Dauphin, • * * Shield of M. R.^ . -'* . 

Son of Henri II. . . t./., Mary Queen of Scots.- • 

The date of its erection must be about 1558. Henri 11. of France 
died on July loth, 1559, and so Francis ceased to be Dauphin (" Plura," 
in Henry Laing's interesting notice, Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., yoL vli., p, 381).. 

3. Linlithgow heraldic pajnted ceiling (discovered in a' house in * 
High Street, Linlithgow). 

*■ See BiUings* AntiquiiUs of Scotland, Not the least beautiful among these heraldic 
ceilings in Scotland is said to be that of Earlshall {n Fife. . 


*. The shields 6f ./fhirty-seven Temporal Peers of Scotland were 
there . exhibited, viz., ii/teen Barons and twenty-two Earls. 

* , Details in ^otice by T. Etheringtpn Cooke, F.S.A. Scot. (Prac. 
Soc»'A,nt. Scotf vol vii., p. .409). 

' .The 'dat<e .of the Linlithgow blazon, is before the creation of • 
ibf arqui^tes in 1599, and before the. creation of Dukedoms other than 
those^ pf* t^e Blood Rb^aK Except for its antiquity, the're is no par*- 
tiidular interest' in .tHs' heraldic display, as ilo clear trace of any plan 
of. artiangement or prinbiple. of classification is discernible. 

.^.4. In thff-old byildiqg of Marischal '-CoHege, Aberdeen, there 
existed .an- her^ldlp ceiling of some significance, but of which tia- 
fortunately there remains only ^scanty record, •. It appears to have 
been iij.9ome respects an imitation of the heraldic roof of St..Machar. • 
Our knowledge of it, however, depends entirely on the notes in Pro- 
fessor Knight's; MS. volumes in the University Library ; .and on a • 
coloured drawing of the ceiling, executed in 1833, by Mr. A.* Dingwall 
Fotdyce, now of Fergus, Ontario, who has* obligingly presented the 
drawifjgto'the New Spalding Club. . • , 

^he Mfltrischal College ceiling comprised thirty shields on pannels, 
in three Toy(sl The cent-re row induded'arms of the Founder and . 
.five* Benefactors; each. of the other row^ .had six pairs — the east » 
row having twelve. Benef^LCtors in pairs, the west row having the first 
eight Principals and four Benefactors, also in pairs. The eight early^ 
Principal^^ of 'the College thus commemorated bore the names of*. 
-HoWie; Gray^. Aedie, :Fbfbes, Dun, Moir, Leslie, Paterson.* The, 
latest- Benefactor, compiemoriaited was John Tufneri who founded a' . 
Bursary in. i688.f ' This heraldic .roof wa^. erected circa 1682-9. in 
the "Principars Ch^mer*' in tbe time pf Robeiit Paterson, eighth 
Principal, 'and when this p£^rt of the' College was taken down in 1790, 
the ceiling ;was. removed* to the Public School, where it remained tilL 
the demolition of- the old building, ^bout .the year 1837,. when un- ' 
fortunately it was destroyed,' or at least disappeared. 

* It 18 ^mo8t' certain that thid ceiling was erected not only in the time of,- but' by the * 
exertions of Robert Paterson, eighth Principal (1678-1717),. to whose energy the- repairs begun 
in 1682 were due, and who seems to have had a liking fbr heraldry, if we may judge by his 
arms in stone in the Marischal College Library; 

• f In the Procuratory Accounts (Mar. Coll.) of ifi88-Sg, there is an entry, ^' Iteni for 
putting up Tourner*s Arms in the Colledge, £3 ". • . * ' . 


5. The Council Chamber or Town Hall of Aberdeen in the New 
Municipal Buildings contains a series of shields more or less note- 
worthy. They are placed, however, on the flat surface of the pannpls, 
and not, as is the case in the ceiling of the Cathedral, at the inter- 
sections. The whole display in this case, though fairly effective, is too 
modem, and at present too incomplete, for us meantime to criticise. 

Heraldic Windows. 

Of kindred effect and purpose are the heraldic windows, which, 
though rare in Scotland,^ are not unfrequent in England, as, ^.^ ., that 
in Lincoln's Inn Chapel, London, with the arms of the leading Beflchers 
in former times, and in the Colleges of Cambridge, in such as. the 
Hall of Trinity College.t The arrangement, however, in such as 
these can hardly be said to rise above mere aggregation. 

It is possible that among the varied wealth of the richer and 
more splendid ecclesiastical architecture of England, the writer may, 
from want of sufficient information, do injustice to her treasures, but 
he finds nothing in the shape of a heraldic window belonging to that 
country that presents any analogy to our heraldic ceiling in scope 
and breadth of conception, except the interesting window in the 
Cathedral of York. 

The following gives the series and relative arrangement of historic 
shields appearing in this heraldic window of York Cathedral : 

1. St. Peter, the patron of the Cathedral : Gules, two keys 

saltierwise or. 

2. The Emperor: Or, a double-headed eagle .displayed, sable, 

armed gules. 

3. England : Gules, three lions passant gardant in pale or. 

4. France : Azure, semy of lys or. • * 

5. Provence or Arragon : Paly of six or and gules. 

* An almost aotitary Scottish example of *a heraldic windo^, thovgh pn a small tfcale, 
is that in St. Magdalene's Chapel, Cowgate, Edinburgh, of which an acconnt is given with 
full details by George Seton, Esq., Advocate, in Proc, Soc. Ant, Scot. (vol. xxi.,-p. 266). 
There are four escutcheons in this window, containing the arms of-ri* Mary of Lorraine, 
widow of James V. and Queen Regent ; 3. Scotland ; 3. Michael Macquhoi, Burgess of 
Edinburgh, and 4. Janet Rynd his wife, impaled with those of her husband. 

t At Oxford, we cannot omit, as possessing notable heraldic windows, the Dtvini^ 
Schools. Compare Wood's Oxford^ with the Enunuration of Hu ShUlds (all of them 
English), vol. it., pp. 781 -2. 


6. King of the Romans : Or, an eagle displayed sable armed 

7* Castile and Leon: Quarterly, first and fourth gules, a 
castle or; second and third argent, a lion rampant 
8. Jerusalem : Argent, a cross potent between seven cross 

crosslets or. 
9* Navarre : Gules, an escarbuncle or. 
Here the Church, represented by the Patron Saint, has marked pre- 
cedence, coming in the front and alone, while the Emperor is brought 
into line with kings of France and England. Scotland, though acknow- 
ledged at St. Alban's, is here ignored, strange to say, in the Cathedral 
which once claimed to exercise Primacy over it and to be its Metropolitan. 
. The date of the armorial window in York is attributed to the year 
1307 (Archaological Journal, xvii. 22), and as this was the crisis of the 
Independence struggle, it seems probable that ' Scotia ' as a nationality 
was of set purpose unacknowledged. 

From the Herald and Genealogist we subjoin a few notes, with which 
we conclude — minor entries bearing on the subject that deserve enume- 
ration* and offer clues of enquiry to the antiquary. 

1. Heraldic Windows, as -described by Dodsworth, 1620, in 
. ' Swillington Church in Airedale, Leeds, are chiefly 

English, but with (among others non-English) " Arma 
Regis Scotiae " {Her. and Gen,, iv., p. 234-6). 

2. The Rev. John Woodward's article (Her. and Oen., iv., 

p. 289) on' the Heraldry of Bristol Cathedral, is a 
valuable and complete account of the shields of 
arms appearing ''in the stained-glass windows, the 
masonry, the stall-work, and the monumental tab- 
lets " of that Cathedral. 
• 3. Two Shields and four Crests upon Shields occur in roof of 
Brooke House, Hackney, London (Her. and Gen.^ iv., 

P- 392-3)- 
4. The work of the late J. Gough Nichols on " The Armorial 
Windows erected in the reign of Henry VL in Wood- 
. house Chapel, Leicestershire . . . Privately Printed, 
i860 " (full title given in Her. and Gen.^ viL, p. xxv.). 



Also the followiiig incidental Notes on subjects touched Oa in thid 
volume : ' ^ . ' ^ 

5. On the origin of the Arms of the Confessor, suggested by 

Ihe device on one of his Coins with a cross b^tv^een 
four birds (H^f. aikf Gm.y vi.,. p. 85 and. 164). 

6. On the descent of Lord Byron and the Gordbns of Qight 

(H0r. and Gen., vi.; p. 597). . 

7. On the relation of the Fleur^-de-lia of France to Toads 

(crapaiid) and on the 4ouble-headed Eagle of the 
Emperor (Her, and Gen., vii., p. 339). 

X >»£ BOO, iet.«0 WiidfB ^^^^ ^5^^ 

JSttith ihe.meiiuiriaie mvb the.thinge of* fame 

^hrtt bo uuotun tki0 cit];. 

-t-SHAKSP., 7\itelft\ Nighi^ (iii. 3). 





V/HICH »lOV/wL\tS rirKLU TO iHt >MJUR1EV »; 
1^ oy fT'j'^l^Y V/EATVER.SOME ^^V^A LlL !'iTE.l'/- ^'^ WHO 
f ilCVEO THE CHV^X'^ SO Y/E:'..AU3 C.a7e SO LA^CEL^^ ToV. 

TILL C')^',nsoAY: b/T,A^a.rj»Nf.e> haviih^jk end.** 

T. :k 

r; •• . M . .:Y 

1 L 





Abercom, 79. • 

Aberdeen arms, 118. 

— Burgh of, I34>'i4?- 

— city, 3, 5, 15, 35, 48-9. 

— " Doctors," 4. 

— See of, 61-2, 67, 68, 69, 80. 

— Town Hall arms, 158, 

— University, 31, 48, 66, 69, 134, 139. 

— Old, 5, 28-9, 102. » ' 

— (Old) Market Cross, 144, 145 
Abemethie, Willielmas de, 50. 
Abemethy, 79, 80. ' , ^ 

— Alexander, L^, iia. 

— arms, 109, 112, 122. 
Aboyne, 44, 113. 
AchaiuB of Scotland, 73, 74.. 
Adamus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, 150. 
Adrian IV., 56, 68. 

— VI., 55. , 
Adriani. Vallum, 73. , . 
Aedie, Principal, 157,- \ . • 
Agatha, w. of Prince Edward, 36. 

Agnes of Boulogne, Duchess of Albany, 39. 

Aidan, St., 82/ 


Alban, St., 153. 

Albany, Duke of (arms), 86, 105. * ' 

— Dukedom, 75. 

— Alexander „Duke of, 28, 38, 39, .105. 

— John, Duke of, 35, 38-9, 57, 60, 65, ' 

105, 106, 108, 138, 139, 149. 
Albret, Henri d', 26. 
Alclnyd,' m</# Dumbarton. 
Alexander I, of Scotland, 36, 149, 150. 

— II. of Scotland, 33, 64, 76, 149, 150. 

— III. of Scotland, 66,-67, 68, 80, 150. 

— III., Pope, 58. 

— v.. Pope, 56. 
Alfred the Great, 37. 
Algarbia, 25. 

Almaigne, Emperors of, 71. 
Alphonso I., 93. 
AlVemie, Comes, 38. 

Angeviri dynasty, -23. ".. ' • ♦ 

Angus, (^onnty oJL 49. • . 

— Eafldbm of, 78, «a 

— ;Ea[rl of (arms), 81, 109*. • • * 
— ' Archibald; v. ;Earl of, 42, 5^, . 60, 

: '122.. , , •.•*'.. 

— . , VI. Earl of, 35, 41.-2, 60, i;»2. 

— Efizlbeth. Countess of, 59. 

' — George Douglas, Ia Earl of,.*42. 

— .Gill>ert. de Umphraville, vii. Earl 
^ of, 109. 

. — - — ,*.viii. Earl of, ^og. 
. — Makjbreid, Earl of, iool / • ' 
-r- Itlalcolm, Earl of, ib^ • * • 

— Matt3,*Countessof, 109. 
William, z..Earl of, 78. 

♦ — , XI. Earl of, 108. 

• ' -A Douglases, Earls of, 109. 

— JUmphravilles, Earls oi, 109. • 

— and Mar, Margaret, Countess of^ no. 
•Anjou, 97.'. 

* • Annandale arms, 105, 108. 

-^ Lord of, 105; 

• Anne, (^uem, 37/ ' . * 

— oLDenm^k, 91; 

' — QueenofKichard II„88, 99. 

Antwerp, ^40. . 

Anselm, 37. • ' 

Aquitaine and Guienne, Duke of; 90b 

Aragoh arms, 18, 21, 27, 29, 72, 75, 86, 

, • 89. 94. 154. U9. . . 
Arbroath^ Abbey, 49. * . 
*— Abbots, 58,66. 
Aidlair, 140. 
' Ardrosan, Fergusius de,»56. 
Ardnamurchan, 65. 
Argyll, Bishop of (arms), 130. 

— Bishopric, of, 64, 69. 

— Earl of (arms), 114. 

— Earldom, 80. 

— Archibald, 11. fearl of, 46, 1x4. 
>- Colin Campbell, i. Earl of, ii4« 

— Colin, III. Earl of, 46, 114. 



•Argyll, Duncan, i. Earl of, 77. 
. — Isabel, CounteMol^ 114. 
Annenia, 95. 
Anninius, 7X1 7a. 
Arnot of that Ilk, ia8. 

— David, Bishop, 63, laS. 

— John, of that Ilk, 63, ia8. 
Arran, 114. 

— Earldom ot 77. 

— James, Earl oC; 64. 
Athol, Earl of (anns), 137* 

— John, I. Earl of, 6a, 77, i^, 

— Stewart, Earl of, 128. 
Augustine, 8z, 8a. * 
Augustus, 17. 

Austria, 18, 87. 
Avila, 7. 

Badcnoch arms, zii, 113.; 

~ Lordship o^ 113. 
Balfour, Sir John of that Ilk, lai. 
Bal^ownie, Brig o', 8. 
Baliol arms, 13. 

— John, 150. 
Bannockbum, 3, 8a. 
Barbarossa, Emperor Frederick, 7a. 
Barbour, John, 4, 49. 
Barcelona arms, 116. 
Barcelona, Covnta of, 94. 
Bayard, 14. ' 

Beaton, Cardinal David, 38. 

— Archbishop James, 57-8, 139. - 

— John, of Balfour, 58. 
Beatrix, Countess of Clermont, zoo. 
Bteket, Thomas a, zo, 37. 

Bede House, Old Aberdeen, Z46. 
Bellomont, Robert de, Earl of Leicester,. 

Benhame, Hugo, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, 

Beren'gana, Qoeen, 96. 
Bethune of Balfour,. zaz. 

— James, or Beaton, zaz. 

— . Robert de, zaz. 

Bishop's Palace, Old Aberdeen, 8, Z45. 

Blairs College, Z48. 

Bleicater, I&bertus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 

X49, Z50. 
Boece, Hector, y, 58, Z4a. 
Bohemia, a4, 73, 74. 
Bohemia, King or, 74, 99, Z54. 
Bologna University, 66. 
Bolonie, Comes, 38. 
Bonapartes, 7Z. 
Boswell, Sir Alex., X39 
Bothwell Castle, Z30. 

— Earl of (arms), ZZ7, 

— Earldom of, 77. 
•^ family, 6a, 8z. 

BoCfaweU, James, last Bari ci, 48. 

— , IV. Earl of, 48. 

— Patrick, i. Earl of; 62, 65. 

— , iL Earl ci, 48. 

— , III. Earl of, 48, ZZ7. 

Bourbon, Antoinede,I>nkeof Vend6me,a6. 

— Duke of (arms), 86, loa 

— John, Lord, zoa 
Bonrges, 56. 

Boyd lamily, 127. 

— Robert, Lord, 6a 
Brandenburg, 74. 
Bieakspear, vidf Pope Adrian IV. 
Brechin arms, zaa. 

— Battle of, 46, 113. 

— Bishop of (arms), ia6i 

— See of, 6a, 67, 68. 
Brechine, David, Domtnnt de, 5a 
Bretaign, Duke of, Z54. 

Bristol Cathedral, Z59. 
Brittany, 6, 50, 7a. 

Brooke House, Hackney, London, 159. 
Bruce arms, 33. 
^ Barbour's, 4. 

— Robert the, 3, 23, 40^ 41, 46, 49, 5"» 

68, Z08, zzo, zzi, Z42, Z5a 
Brunswick arms, 33. 
Buthan, Earldom of; 77. 
Buchanan, George, Z9, 46 
Buda, 25. 
Budaeus, az. 

Bunyan*s Pilgrim** Progress^ 6z. 
Burgos, 57.. 
Burgundy, 7a, 74. 
Bute, Sheriffs of; Z3Z« 
Byron, Lord, 19, 45, Z48, i6a 

Caithness, Earldom of, 77. 

— Bidiop of (arms), za7. 
^ See of, 67, 68, 69, 80. 

Caledonia, 4. 

Cambridge, za, Z58. 

Cambroun, 5a 

Cambum, Joannes, 5a 

Camoens, as. 

Campbell of Argyll (arms), ZZ4. 

— Clan, 46. 

— family, 5Z. 

— Dowenaldus, 50. 

— Nicholas, ZZ4. 
Candia, a6. 

Candida Casa, rtir 'Galloway. 
' Canning, Earl, 77. 
Canterbury, Archbishops of, 37. 

— Cathedral of, Z5Z. 

— See of, 8z, 8a. 
Cape of Good Hope, 35. 
Carham, 79. 

Carlo of Sicily, 27. . 


Carrick, Robert Brace, Earl of^ 105. 

Cassillis, Earl o(, 77. 

Caadle arms, 18, 21, ag, 72, 75, 89, 93, 154, 

Castle-hill, 49. 

Cathaniae et Orcadic, Magnus, Comes, 50W 

Catness, vidt Caithness. 

Catti, 116. 

Cepres, King, 25. 

Chanonry, The, 5. 

Charlemagne, 18, 20, 66, 71, 74, 1x9. 

Charles the Bold, 18. 

— Duke of Bourbon and Venddme, 28. 

— L of England, x8, 4a. 

— V. of France, 9a 

— VI. of France, 20, 88. 

— rv. of Germany, 99. 

— V. of Germany, 14, 15, 17-9, 21-2, 

«5. 55, 70. 
Charlotte, Duchess of Savoy, 26. 
Chaucer, Geofirey, 19. 
Cheine, Henricus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, 

Chen, Reginaldus de, 50. 
Chisholm of Cromltx, 129. 

— ofthat Ilk, 63, 129. 

— Edmond, of Cromlix, 63. 

— James, Bishop of Dunblane, 63, 129. 
Christiem IL, 24. 

Clement III., 81. 

— VII., 16, 22, 53, 55. 

— X.,35. 
Clyde, Firth of, 79. 
Cockbum of that Ilk, 125, 

— of Skirling^, 125. 

-^ Robert, Bishop of Ross, 62, 125. 

— Sir William, of Cessfiird and Skirling, 

Colmar, 24. 
Cologne, 57. 

— Three Kings of, 34. 
Columbus, Christopher, 14. 
Constantinople, 14, 17. 

— Emperor of, 95. 
Conty, House of, 100. 

Comaro, Venetian' merchant house, 26. 
Cornwall, Richard, Earl of^ 87. 
Corunna, ^a 
Cospatric, 39. 
Cottier, D., of London, ix. 
Cowie, X2. 

Craigston Castle, X56.' 
' Crawford, Earl of (arms), 112. 

— Earldom of, 77. 

— Alexander, iv. Earl of, 45, 113. 
* — David, i'. Earl of; 112. 

— , |ix. Earl of, 46. 

— , vin. Earl ofi 44, 112. 

— Sir James Lindsay, Lord ai, ixa. 

Cudel, Eadillf, 79. 

Culdees, 36. 

Cumbria, 4. 

Cumyng, William, of Inverdouchy, 139, 145. 

Cuthbert, St., 79, 82. 

Cyprus, 25-6, 74, 85, 86, 97. 

Cyprus. King of, 26, 95, 154. 

Dacre, Thomas, Lord,*6o. 
Damaway, 12. 
Darnley, Henry, Lord, 42. 
David I. of Scotland, 4, 36, 40, 47, 56, 66, 
67, 149, 150. 

— II. of Scotland, 44, 123, 150. 
De Moravia, 44. 

Dee, 5. 

— Bridge of, 105, 123, 138, 140, 144. 
Deer, Book of, 4. 

Delmenhurst, 91. 
Denmark, 24, 66, 85. * 

— King of, 91, 154. 

Deyne, WUUam de la, Bishop of Aberdedi, 

149, 150. 
Dietmarschen, 91. 
Don, 5, 8, 9» 14*. 
Douglas, Dukedom of, 78. 
Douglas, Earl of (arms), 86, I07-8. 

— Earldom o^ 44, 80. 

— familv, 40-1, 51. 

— Archibald, ixi. Earl of; xo8. 
'— , IV. Earl of, 108. 

— , v.EarlH75. 

— Bishop Gawam, 56, 57, 58, 594fi, 

80. 122, 128. 

— Jacobus, Dominus de, 5a 

— James, n., Earl oT, 108. 

— , IX. Earl of, 41, 107. 

* ' — Sir James, 41, 108. 

— L^y Margaret, 42. 

— William, I. Earl of, 42, 108, iio; 

— ,-viii. Earl of, 46. 

— , Lord, 108. 

Douglases, Black, 40, 41, 151. ^ . 

— Red, 41. • 
Drontheim, 65, 79. 
Drummond, William, 32. 
Drybnrgh, 64. • 
Dublin, Robert de Veie, Marquis^ ^. 
Dumbarton, 79. 

Dumfries, 151. 
Dun, Principal, 157. 

Dunbar, , brother of Bishop Gavin 

DunbaTj 143. 

— Ada, Countess of, xo6. 

— Alexander, of Kilboyadc, 143, 144. 
Sir Alexander, of Westfield, 123, 

137, 142. 143. 
i 0% 39- 

— Castles 



Dunbir, Colomba de, Bithop of Moray, 

— David, of DiarriB, 143. 

— Earl of (arms), Z17, 123. 

— Bishop Gavin, ix, 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 18, 

25» 34, 40. 42, 49, 5». 55» 58. 6i-a. 
^. 73. 75, 76. 81, "3, 132, 137. 
46, 147. »49, 150. 

— George, x. Earl oi; 106, 

— George, xx. Earl of; 106. 

— Sir James, of Cumnock, 143. 

— Jannet, Lady Innenigie, 143. 

— Sir John, of Mochrum, Z43. 

— John, the epigrammatist, 142. 

— Leonard, 143. 

— Patrick, v. Earl of, 106.. 
- , VII. Earl of, 106. 

^ , viiL Earl o<; 106. 

— , IX. Earl of, 106. 

— J Chancellor of Aberdeen, 143. 

— . Wilham, 30, 

Dunbars, Earls of March, 39. 
' — Earls of Moray, 123. 

— of Westfield, 123. 

Dunbar's Aisle, Elgin Cathedral, 141, 142, 

Dunblane, 7. 

— Bishop of (arms), 129. 

— See of, 63-4, 67, 69. 
Duncan, King, 149, 150. 
Dundee, ^, 49. 
Dunfermlme, 4, 36, 80. 

^Dunkeld, Bishop of (arms), 12a. 

— See ot 10, 59, 60, 62, 64, 67, 68, 

^69, 78, 79. 
Dunstattnage, 36. 
Durham, 79, 82, 106. 

Earlshall in File, 156. 
Edgar Atheling, 36, 37. 

— of England, 37. 

— of Scotland, 36, 149, 150. 
Edinburgh, 3, 4, 79. 

— . Castle, 47. 
Edmund, St., king, 153. 

— the Elder, 37. 
♦ — Ironside, 37. 

Eduardut, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, Z5a 
Edward L of England, 23, 88, 89, 104, 
105, 130: 

— III. of England, xii, 23, 74, 90. • 

— IV. of England, 104. • 

— VI. of England, 76. 

— . the Confessor, 36, 37, 38, 99, 104, 

— the Elder; 37. 

- — Prince, s, of Edmund Ironside, 36. 
Eglintoh, Earl o^ ^7. 
Eleanor of Castile, 89. ' 

Eleanor, Queen of Hemy 11. , 90. 
Elgin Cathedral, 141, 142, 143, 148. 
Elphiniton, Bishop, 5, 10, 14, 3'. 5^1 58. 

69, 134, i37i 138, Hh 149. 150. 
Enunanoel the Fortunate (Portugal), 25. 
England, 74, 75, 158. 

— 101^0^9^154. 
Eocha of Scotland, 74. 
Erasmus, 31. 

Errol, Earl of (arms), 115. 

— Earldom ot 77. 

— Parish oi^ 46. 

— William, xv. Earl oi, 115. 

— vx. Earl of, 46-7. 

Erskine family, 43. 
Etheired, 37. 

Europe, Western, 14, 

Falaise, Treaty of, 81. 
Fenton, Joannes de, 50. 
Ferdinand of Aragon, 15, 25, 26, 89. 
-^ Acchduke of Austria, 24. 

— II L, King of Leon, 89. 
Fergus I. of Scotland, 103. 
Fife, Earldom of^ 51. 
Fitzalan, William, 127. 
Fttzgilbert, Walter, 130. 
Flodden, 30, 31, 4a, 48, 57, 65, 115. 
Florence, 52.. 

Foirman, Sir Robert, Z2a 
Forbes family, 76. 

— Lord, 76, 138. 

— * Bishop Patrick, of Corse, 10. 

— Principal William, 157. 
Fordyce, A. Dingwall, 157. 
Foreman of Mutton, 56. 

— Archbishop Andrew, 56, 60, 120. 
Forth, Firth of, 4, 79, 82. 

Fortrose, Cathedlral of, 5. 
FouliS, Wester, 12. 
France, 74, 74, 75, 158, 160. 

— King oT (arms), 29, 88, 155. 
Francis L, 15, 19-21, 26. 

-« IL, 156. 
Franks, The, and Gauls, 17, 19, ao. 
Eraser arms, iii, 113. 

— famUy, 51, 

— Honora, 113. 

— Lord, 113. 
Fraxer. Alexander, 50. 
Frederick I., Duke of Holstein, 24. 

— II. p( Denmark, 91. 
Frisel family, 51. 

Fyfe, Duncanus, Comes de, 49. 

Galgacus, 4. 

Galli and Franci, 20, 

Gallia, 20. 

Galloway,. Bishop of (arms), 128. 



Galloway, Bishopric of, 63, 68, 69, 78, 79. 

— Lords of, 63. 
Gallow-hill, 49. 
Gama, Vasco da, 14, 25. 
Gamrie, la. 

Garioch, Lordship of, 1 10. 
Gelderland (Gueldres), Duke of, 28, 74. 
George IIL, 23. 

— St.. 154. 
Germany, 21. 71, 72. 

— Emperor of (arms), 87-8. 
Gight, Old Castle of, 148. 
Glammis Castle, 156. 

Glasgow, Archbishop of (arms), i2x. 

— Cathedral, 57. 

— city, 3, 4. , 

— See of, 10, 16, 57.8, 63, 67-8,* 69, 79. 

— University, 69, 
Glastonbury, 9, 82. 
Glencairn, Earl of, 77. 
Glenluce, 64. 

Glentanar, 113. • • 

Gordon, Dukes of, 113. 

— House of, 44, 51. 

— Dukedom of, 39, 78. 

— of Gight, 45, 160. 

— of Haddo, 76. 

— of Pitlure, 45. 

— Adam, of Aboyne, 44. 

— Sir Adjun, 45. 

— Adam, vide Earl of Sutherland. 

•^ Bishop Alexander, 137, 141, X45, 149, 

— Catharine, or Byron, 45. 

— Elizabeth, Lady Seton, 45. 

— Parson, of Rothiemay, 118. 

— Bishop William, 149, 1 50.. 

— Sir William, of Gight, 45. 
Gospatric, vide Cospatric. 
Gouffier-Boisy, Artus de, 20. , 
Grahame family, 51. 

— David de, 5a 

— Joannes de, 50. 

— Patricius de, 50. 
Grampian), 3. 
Granaula, 14, 151. 
Grant family, 76. 
Gray, Principal, 157. 
Gregcmr the Great, 8i. 

Grey Friars' Church, Aberdeen, 146. 
Greynlaw; Gilbertus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 

.140, 150. 
Gueldres, Duke of, 86, xoi. 
Guyenne, 23. 

Haia, Gilbertus de, Constabularius Scotia, 

Hailes £amily, 48. 

— Adam, 11. Lord, 62. * 

Hailes, Patrick, iii. Lord, vide Bothwetl. 
Hales, Lands of, 117. 
Halsev, Bishop, 60. 
' Hamilton of Bangour, 130. 

— of Innerwick, 130. 

— of Preston, 130, 

— of Sanquhar, 130. 
~ of Silvertonhill, 130. 

— David; Bishop of Argyll, 64, 130. 

— Dukedom of, 78. 
^ I. Marquis of, 76. 
~ James, i. Lord, 130. 

Hapsburg, House of, 71. 
Harald, Bishop of Argyll, 64. 
Hawick,. 60. 
Hay of ErroK 46, 1x5. 

— Nicholas, 1x5. 
• — Thomas, X38. 
Haya, Evade, 1x5. 

— William de, 1x5^ 
Hayes, De la, 47, X15. 
Hebrides, 65. , 

Hedvige, Queen of Poland, 27. 
Henri l\, of France, X56. 

— IV. of France, 28. 

— n. of Nav^ure, 26-7. 
Henry L of Englamd, 37. 

— n. of England, 37, 90. 
-> IV. of England, 90. 

— V. of En^and, 90. 

— V\. of England, 4X,92, X59. 

— VII. of England, 35. 

— VIII. of England, xiii, 17, 22-3, -35, 

60, X42, X46. 
. Hepburn arms, X17. 

— family, 77. 

— of Blackca3tle, 124. 

— of Riccarton, 124, 

— .George, .Bishop of the Isles, 65, 77. 

— James, Bish6p of Moray, 62, X24. 

— John, Bishop of Brechin, 62, 126. 

— , Prior of St. Andrews, 42, 56, 

57, 656, 133. 

— Patrick, Bishop of Moray, 65. 

— 1"7- 

Heralds' College, London, 31. 

HohenzoUern, House of, 71. ^ 

Holland, 74. 

Holstein, 9X. 

Holyrood, 33, 9^ , 156. 

Home, Lord, 3^ 

Homildon, 45. 

Honorius IIL, 63, ^, 68, 8x. 

Horsburgh, x2o • 

Howie, Principal, 1^7. 
^ H umber, 63. 
• Hungary, 24.5, 29, 36. . 
' . — . King «; Armp of, 85, 92. 155. 

Huntly, Earl (arms), X13. 



Hnntly, Alexander, u Earl oi; 46, 113. 

— . «». Earl of, 44, 45A "3- 

— George, 11. Earl o( 45, zii, 113. 

— IV. Earl of, 40. 

— I. Marquis d, 76. 

— Marquiaate of, 78, zz3« 
■Hy, vide lona. 

•Indulf^ 79. 

Innocent III., 6a, 63, 68, 78. 

— IV., 13.34. 

— VUI.,57. 
Inverurie, Battle of^ 3. 

lona, 8. 10, 36, 59, 63, 65, 79, *>, 8a, 132. 
Ireland, 8, 29, 7a, 75. 
Isabella of Arason, z8, 89. 
Isles, Biahop of the (anna), 13a. 

— Bishopric oftbe, 65, 66. 
Italy, 75. 

Jagellon dynasty. 27. 

— Grand Duke of Lithuania, 27. 
Jamea, ». s. of John III., feng of Lusignan, 


— I of Scbtland, zj, 35, 38, 39, 43, 4S, 

ia8; 15a 

— IL of Scotland, 15, a8, 38, 74, 75. 

loi, Z05, 113, Z5a 

— III. of Scotland, 24, 38, 43, 64, gz, 

Z14, Z50. 

— IV. of Scoliand, 30, 31, 3a, 39, 40, 

4a, 43. 56. 57. p. i«7. 137. 150. 

— V. of Scotland, yiu, Z5, 20, 24, .25; 28, 

30-3. 34* 38. 4a. 43. 47» 48. 5«. 60. 
139. 150. '56. «58. 

— VI. of Scotland, 23, 39, 42, 9Z, 142. 

Ieanne, Duchess of Venddme, 26. 
eruaalem (arms), 26, 95, 97, 154, 139, 
oam, or John III. of Portugal, 25. - 
oan of Beaufort, 38, 48, zaS. 

— of Castile, 18. 

Johannes, Prior de Calco, Z49, Z5a 
ohn III. of Lusignan, a6b 

— XXII., Pope, 40. 
Jutland, 9Z. 

Keith arms. 94, zi6. 

— family, 47, iz6. 

— (Kintore hrfnch), 76. 

— Robertus de, Mariscallus Scotise, 50, 


— Mfillii^n, Lord, iz3. 
Kelso, 6, 65. 

Kempe. Bishop, Z3. 
Kennedy, Lord, 4a 
Kenneth, 1$^ 

King's CoUcse, Aberdete, ;, 134, Z44. 
-^ Chapel, Cambridge, xa. 

King's College Chapel, Old Aberdeen, Z2, 

64. "3. 

— Langley, Herts, 8a 
Knut II., 24. 

— VL.91. 

Kyninmond, Aleiander, zn. Bishop of 
Aberdeen, Z49, Z50. 

— , XV. Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, 


— Matheus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, 


Ladislaus IL of Bohemia, 99. 

Lambley, Radulphos, Bishop of Aberdeen, 

Z49, zsa 
Lancaster, Duke oi, Z55. 
Lan^anc, 37. 

Largs, Battle of, 65, 66, 68. 
Lauderdale anna, zaa. 
Leicester^ Earis of, 13a 
Lennox, Earldom ot, 43, 77. 

— John, III. Earl of, 39. 

— Matthew, Earl o^ 42. 

Leo X., 14, 16, 22, 52-5, 8o^ ZX9, X42. 

— XI., 53. 

L«m, 1.8. 57* 72. 75. 89. 154* 159- 
Lescelyne, Andreas de, 51. 
Leslie, Bishop Tohn, 62. 

— Principal, 157. 

Levenax, Malcolmus, Comes de, 5a ' 

Liddesdale, Z09, Z22. 

Lidgat, Z4a 

Limesay family, xza. 

Lincluden, ia, z<i. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel, Z58. 

Lindeaey, David de, 50. 

Lindisfiume, 82. 

Lindores, Abb^ d^ 4Z. 

Lindsay family, sz, 112. 

— Sir Alexander, zia. 

— Sir David, 30, 39, 41, 58, 59, zz2. 

— Simon oU xi2. 

— Sir Walter, zia. 
Lindsays, Earls of Crawford, xza, 
Linlithgow, viii, 32, Z56-7. 
Lismore, Bishopric of, vide Argyll. 
Lithuania, 27, 98. 

Lodricus, St [Lodvicus], 154. 
London, Bishop of, 82. 
Lorenso the Magnificent, 52. 
Lorn arms, ZZ4. 

— Barony of, IZ4. 
Lothian, 4, 66, 79. 

— ' Earls oi; 39. 
Louis VU. of France, 88. 
-^ IX of France, xoa 

— XI. of France, 15, 52, 72, ZZ9. 
->- II. of Hungary, 24-5, 28. 

— s, of Duke of Savoy, 26. 



' " Luncarty, Leys o'/* Battle of the, 47 

Luaignan, Couhta 0^ 26, 95. 

— Guy de, 95. 
Li]thei\ 22, 139. 
Lttxembourg, 95, 97. 

Lychton, Henricus, BUhop of Aberdeen 

7, 149, 150. 
Lyndaay, Ingeram, Bishop of- Aberdeen 

X49, 150. 

MacAlpine, Kenneth, 74. 

Macdougal family, 1x4. 

Macquhen, Mtchaiel, 158. ' 

Magdalene, Queen of James V. of Scotland^ 

Magyars, 24, 73. 

Maitland, Sir Patrick, of Gight, 45. ' . 
Malcolm I., 36, 149, i$o. 

•— IL, 36, 79, 116. 

.^ 111.; Canmore, 34, 3$, 39, 149, 150. 

— IV., X49, X50. 
Man, Isle o( 38, X05. 

— King of, 154. 

Mar, Alexander Stewart, Earl of, xxo. 

— Christian,' Countess of; xxa 

— District of, 5.. 

— Donald, xii. Earl of, no. 

— Earl of (arms), X09-X0. 
— . Earldom of, 43, 44. 

— Erskine, Earl of, no. 

— Gratney, Earl of, no, 

— Isabel Douglas, Countess of, ixa 

— John Stewart, Earl o( 43, no. 

— John, XI. Earl, and Duke o^ 43. 

— , XV. Earl of, 44. 

— Margaret, Countess o^ xo8, xxa 

— Thomas, Earl c£, no. 

March, Earl of (arms), 86, xo j, xo6, X23. 

— Earldom of, 39. 43. SJf 75. 77* 

— George Dunbar, xi. £arl of; 39, 106. 

— * Robert Stewart, Earl of, 39. 
Maichiae, Patridus de Dunbar, Comes, 5a 
March and Dunbar, Black Agnes, Countess 

of; X23. 

— Patrick, IX. Earl of, X23. 
Margaret bf Anjou, 92. 

— Maid of Norway, 69, 
" I lit, 
', Queen 
34> 35i 4 

— Queen ofjames 

— Tudor, 

32. 34» 

24, 64, 91, 
Queen of tames IV., vii, 
U 35i 4*. 50. 75. I37. 139. 

Mar^:neriteof Valois, Queen of Navarre, 26-7. 
Manschal College, 48, xx^, X34, X57, . . 
Marischal, Earl (amis), xx6. 
^— George, vii. Earl, xx6. 

— William, iii. Earl, 47*8. 
Mary, d. of Duke of Venddme,'28. 

— of Burgundy, x8. 

Mary of Gueldres, Queen of James II., 28, 

48, 74, loi. 

— of Guise, 48. 

— of Lorraine, 28, 42, 48, 58, X56, X58. 

— Queen of Scots, 40, 42, 43, 48, 53,^ 

X50, X56. 
Marykirk, Church of, xc6. 
Mary's Audience Chamber, Holyrood, 156* 
Matilda, Queen of Henry I., 37. 
Matthaeus, Bishop of Aberdeen, X49, X50. 
Maximilian of Germany, 18. 
Maxwell, Eustachius de, 50. 
Medici, Averardode*; 119. 

— Catherine de, 53. 

— family, 16, 52. 

— PierO de*, 119. 
Mellant, Earls of, X27, X3a 
Melvil, , of Carnbic, 63. 

— Katharine, or Amot, 63. 
Meneteith,' Joannes de, Custos Comitatus 

de Menteith, 5a 
Menteith family, X27. 

— I. Earl o^ 77. 
Methven, 35. 
Metz, X9.' 

Mirepoix,*Languedoc, 58. 
Mochonna, vidi St Machar. 
Mohacz, 24. 

Moir, Principal, X57. 

Monhaut in Brittany, 50. 

Montaigne, 21, 2i, 52. 

Monte Alfo, Willielmus de, xiv, 50. 

-r Fixo, Willielmus de, 50. 
Montferrat, Marauis'of, 76. 
Montrose, Dukedom o^ 45, 75« 

— Earl of, 77. 
Moore, Sir John, 2a 
Moraviji, Aianus de, 50. 
Moray, jl 

• — Bishop of (arms), 124. . 

— Bishopric of; 56, 67, 68, 69. 

— Earl of (arms), 81, 86, X07, 123. 

— Earldom of; 45. 

— An£us, Earl of; 40. 

— Cauiedral Church of; X40. 

— Diocese of; X37. 

— Douglas, Earl of, X07. 

— James Dunbar, viii. Earl of, X07,. 
. 123,- X37, X42. 

• — James Stewart, Earl of, X07. 

— John, V. Eari of, 123, X42. 
-^ Randolph, Earl of, 40, 5X. 
•— Regent, 40. 

— Thomas Randolph, Earl of, 49. 107^ 

Morea^ 26. 
Morton, Earl at, 77. 
Moubray, Rogerus de, 5a 
Mount-Fitchet, 50. 



Mowat, 5a 

Muchalls CaBtle, 156. 

Mugello, 119. 

Murdoch and his sons, 38. 

Murray, -^— , of Bothwell, 108. 

Muscovy, Grand Duke of, 73. 

Naples, 18, 97, 

Navarre. 29, 72, 75. 85, 159. 

— King of, 26-7. 96, 97, 155. 
Nectanus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 149, z5a 
Ness, 4. 

Netherlands, 18, 74. 
Neustria, 20. 
Nordereys, 65. 
Norfolk arms, 30, 31. 

— Duke of, 3a 
Normandy, 23. 

" Northern Peg," 37. 
Northumbria, 4, 63. 
Norway, 24, 6j, 66, 91. 

— King 01 (arms), 155. 

Ockwells House, Berks, 92. 
Ogilvy, Walter, of Redhythe, 145. 
Oldenburg, 91. 
Oliiant, WiUielmus, 5a 
Orem, William, 145. 
Orkney, Bishop of (anus), 131. 

— Bishopric o( 64, 66, 78. 
Orkneys, 65. 

Orleans, House of, 38. 

Orsini family, 52. 

Otterbum, Battle of, 40, xo8* 

Ourique, Battle of, 93* 

Oxford University, 56. 

Oxford, Armorials in, 23, 152, 158. 

Panbride, Battle of; 116. 

Paris University, 66. 

Paterson, Principal Robert, 157. 

Pau, 26. 

Paul III., Pope, 32. 

Pavi9y 14, 21. 

Pepin, 17. 

Perth, 4, 118. 

— Carthusian Church of; 35. 
Peter, St. (arms), 158. 

Philip II., 18. 

— Archduke of Austria, i8, 
Pictland, 76, 80. . 
Pius II., 56. 

Plantageneti, 23, 75. 
Poitiers 74, 
Poland, i9, 73, 94, 98. 
Politian. 52. 
Port-hill, 49. 

Portugal, 72. 

— King of (arms), 25, 93, 154, 
Pottocht, Richardus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 

149, 150. 
Prester John, 34, 147, 
Provence, 159. 
Prussia, 74. 
Pyrenees, 26. 

Quarelwood, 140. 
Queen'sferry, 36. 

Raban, Edward, 118, 146. 

Raite, Johannes de. Bishop of Aberdeen, 

149, ISO- 
Ramsay, John, 8. 

— Petrus, Bishop of Aberdeen, X49, 

•^ Wiflielmns de, 5a 
Reyes, San Juan de los, 151. 
Richard L, 26, 90^ 95. 

— II., 76, 88, 99, 104. 

Robert of France, Count of Clermont, xoa 

— II. of Scotland, 68, 127, 131, X5a 

— III. of Scotland, 150. 
Roger, Count of Sicily, 27. 
Romanoff, House of, 7X. 
Rome, 22. 

— Emperor o^ 88. 
Ronsard, 33. 

Ross, Bishop of (arms), X25. 

— Diocese of, $, 68, 69. 

-* Duke of; vid£ James V. of Scotland. 

— Easter, 5. 

— WiUielmus, Comes de, 50U 
Rothes, Earl of, 77. 

Roum, Sultan of, 73. 
Russell, Earl, 77. 
Rufus, Hall of, Westminster, 12. 
Rynd, Janet, or Macquhen, X58. 

• St. Albans, See of; 9, 82. 

— Cathedral, 95, X53.5, X59. 
St Andrew the Apostle, 56. 

St Andrews, Archbishop of (arms), X2a 
•» Cathedral, X2, 58. 

— Prior of (arms), 86, X33. 

— See of, xo, 36, 56, 60, 62, 63, 6^, 
« ^ ,65-6.67,69,79. 

St Cathenne's-hill, Aberdeen, 49. 

St Clair fiunily, $1. 

St Clement's rarish, London, 6a 

St Columba, as^* 59i 60. «3«. 

St. Congan*s, Turriff, xa. 

St Cuthbert, 79, 8a. 

St Dunstan, o. 

St George, Chevalier, 43. 

St. George's Chapel, Windsor, X52. 

— Hall, Windsor, xsa. 



St Giles, 60. 

St. John's College Chapel, Cambridge, Z2. 

St, John's Town, vide Ferth. 

St. Juste, Church of, ix. 

St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, 65. 

St. Macarius, vidt St. Machar. 

St. Machar, 8-9. 

— Cathedral, fassim, 

St. Magdalene's Chapel, Edinburgh, 158. 
St. Magnus, 64. 

St. Margaret, Queen of Malcolm III., 34-8, 
67, 80, 104. 

— (shield), 20, 34. 
St. Margaret's Hope, 36. 
St. Mark's, Venice, 26. 

St. Martin's Church, Tours, 9, 63. 

St* Mauritius, vide St. Machar. 

St. Max^'s College, St. Andrews, 58. 

St. Ninian, 63. 

St. Olave's Church, Old Jewry, 88, 99. 

St. Regulus or St. Rule, 56, 63. 

Salamanca, 151. 

Salomone, King of Hungary, 36. 

Sancho, King of Navarre, 96. 

Sancto Claro, Henricus de, 50. 

Sardinia, Rex, 154. 

Sauchie, Battle of, 48. 

Saviour, Arms of Our, 147-8. 

Savoy, 26. 

— Chapel, London, 60, 152. 

— Dukes of, 26, 95. 
Schleswig, 91. 
Scotia, 4. 

Scotland, 29, 73, 74, 75-82^ 91, 158. 

— King of (arms), 103.4, ^SSt *S9« 
Scotswater, vtde Forth, Firth oL 
Scott's Marmion, 6z. 

Semple £unily, 127. 
Seton arms, xiz, Z13. 

— Sir Alexander, 45. 

— Alexander, Lord Gordon, Z13. 
--> Alexander de, 51. 

— Honora, 113. 

• — Sir William, of that Ilk, 45. 

Seton-Gordons, 45. 

Shetland, 65, 66. 

Sicily, x8, 27, 74, 85, 89, 95, 97, 155. 

Sigismand I., 27-8. 

— II., 27. 
Skene, Sir George, 148. 
Sobieski, Tohn, 2; 
Soliman, 24. 

Sodor and Man, 65. 

», 65. 

Soules, WiUielmus de,Battelariu8 Scotix, 50. 
Spain, 17-^, 72, 75, 85, 89, 151, 154, 
Spence, Bishop Thomas, 10^ 149, 150. 
Spital, Aberdeen, 46. 

Spynie, 141. 
Stewart arms, 23. 

— of Bonkill, Z09, no, 122. 

— of Bute, Z3Z. 

-^ Alexander, s, of the Wolf of Bade- 
noch, zxo. 

— Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, zo, 

62, Z27. 

— Edward, Bishop of Orkney, 64, Z3Z. 

— James, Prior of St. Andrews, 40, 43. 

— , ». *. of James IV., 40. 

— John, LordTom, ZZ4. 

— , n, 5. of Robert II., Z3Z. 

— Walter, of Innermeath, ZZ4. 

— . Bishop William, Z39, X45, Z49, xso. 
Stirling, Armorials at, viii, 38, Z56. 
Stormark, 91. 
Stracathro, 40. 

Strachan, Andrew, Regent, Z46. 
Strathclyde, 4, 66, 79. 
Strathern, Earldom of, 43, 5 z, 64. 

— David Stewart, Earl o^ 13Z. 

— Malisius, Comes de, 50. 
Straton, Alexander de, jz. 

Striuelin, Gilbertus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 

Z49, ISO. 
Stuart, Alan, 127. 

— Princess Annabella, 45. 

— Henry, 35. 
Stuwart, Syr Alexsander, Z27. 
Suabta arms, 94, 97. 
Sudereys, 6q. 

Sundereys, Bishopric of, vide Isles The. 
. Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, 30, 38. 
Sutherland, Duke of (arms), zxz. 

— I. Duke of, 44. 

— Earl of (arms), zzz. 

— Earldom of, xi, 77, 78, 80. 
-> Adam, xiv. Earl of, 44, 45. 

— Alexander, of Duffus, Z37. 

— Elizabeth, Countess o^ 44, zzx. 

— , or Dunbar, 137, 

— , or Gordon, 44. 

— John, IX. Earl of, 44, zzz. 

— John Gordon, z. Earl o( zzz. 
— , XII. Earl of, zzz. 

— , XIII. Earl o(^ zzz. 

— William, Earl of, 50, zzz. 
Sweden, 24, 29, 9Z. 
Swillineton Church, Leeds, 159. 
Switzenand, 74. 

Sylvius ^neas, vide Pius II., 2. 


Tantallan, 60. 

Temple Church, London, aa. 
Toledo, z8, 57, Z5Z. 
Tolosa, Battle o( 96. 

Touraine, Duke of, vids Douglas, Arch., 



TouTi, 9. 57, 63. 
Towie Castle, 148. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 59, 158. 
Trumwin, 8t. 
Tudor arms, 23, 75, 
Tlinis, 37. 
Turgot, Bishop, 37. 
Turner, John, 157. 
Tuscany, 53. 

Tyninghame, Adamus, Bishop of Aberdeen, 
149, 150. 

Umfraville family, 41. 

— Ingelramus de, 50. 
Utrecht, 55. 

Vandaiia, 91. 

Valentia, 63.. 

ValUs Annandie; 38. 

Vasa, Gustavus, 24. 

Vass of Dirleton, X17. * 

Velon, Geoflfrey de, Count of Barcel6na, 94. 

Venice, 25, 26, 74. 

Verulam, 15^. 

Veipers, Sicilian, 27, 

Victoria Lodging-house, 148. 

Victoria, Queen, 37. 

Vienna, 25. s 

Vind, Leonardo da, 21. 

Virgil's JStuid (Douglas's translation), 61. 

Wales, 72, 75. 

WalUe, Henricus princeps, 155. 

Walterus, Senescallus Scotiae, 50. 

Waltham*s Cross, 6a 

WazdUw, Walter, Cardinal, 58, 69. 

Warren, Earl of (arms), 127. 

Wells, Cathedral of, 56. 

Wemyss and March, Earl o(, 39. 

Westminster Abbey, 87, 89, Z04. 

Westphalia, ja, 

Weyms, Davia de, 50. 

Wheathampsted, John of; 153. 

Whithorn, vttU Galloway. 

Wilfrid, 94. 

Wilfnth, 81. 

William the Conqueror, 90. 

-- the Lion, 23, 8z, Z03, zo6, 149, 50. 
Windsor Castle, 152. 
Vrmtet, James, 146, 
Wolscnr, Cardinal, 60, 82, 142, 146. 
Woodhouse Chapel, Leicestershire 159.' 

Voolmldll, 8 ; vids also lona. 

York, 58, 63, 67. 79, 81, 82. 87, 8c, 158^ 

— l>uke of (arms), 155. 

— Edmond, Duke oi, 88. 

— Roger oi; 68. 

2erbtno, vide Jamei V. of Scotland. 


flew Spalb(na Club. 



RESOLUTIONS adopted by the Council, 27th October, i88y. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee, to be 
called ** The Business Committee": with power to add to 
their number : three to be a quorum. Mr. Ferguson, Con- 
vener ; Dr. Francis Edmond, Rev. Dr. Gatnmack, Principal 
Geddes, Mr. Alexander Walker^ Mr. George Walker, Dr. 
Webster, Dr. J. F. White ; the Conveners of the other 
Committees; the Secretary and the Treasurer. \Mr. A. 
W. Robertson, added 21st February, 1888.] The Business 
Committee will take the management of the finance and 
general business of the Club, and will receive and deal 
with the Reports of the other Committees, through which 
will be conveyed to it offers of works or materials for 
works which are made to the Society, These it will refer 
•to the Editorial Commitfee for consideration and report. 
It will, further, make all arrangements for illustrating, 
printing, and distributing the works that are decided on by 
the Editorial Committee as to be issued by the Club. It 
will fix the amount of remuneration to be allowed to editors 
and others, and will direct, through the Treasurer and the 
Secretary, the expenditure and affairs of the Society 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee, to be 
called **The Editorial Committee": with power, &c., as 
above. Mr. Dalrymple, Convener; Dr. Alexander, Prin- 
cipal Geddes, Dr. Grub, Mr. Moir ; the Secretary. The 
Editorial Committee will consider the works that will be 
referred to it by the Business Committee, and decide on 
which of these are to be issued by the Club. It will select 
the Editors, will regulate the literary details connected with 
their work, and will select the illustrations to be in- 
serted. It will communicate with the Business Committee, 
reporting its decisions, and acting in concert with that 

Committee as respects the progress of the works that 
are undertaken, and the dates of their issue. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Conmiittee, to be 
called " The Family History Committee," to investigate the 
contents of charter chests and other family and territorial 
records within the North-Eastern Counties of Scotland, or 
relating thereto : with directions to report to the Business 
Committee as often as requisite : with power, &c, as above. 
Colonel Allardyce^ Convener ; Mr. Dalrymple, Mr. A. 
Davidson, Mr. C B. Davidson, Mr. Ferguson, Rev. Dr. 
Gatntnack, Mr. J. M. Garden, Mr. Wolrige Gordon, Mr. 
Morice, Rev. Mr. Woodward; the Treasurer. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee, to be 
called •* The Burgh Records Committee/' to investigate the 
municipal, judici^, and commercial* records of the N. E. 
Counties : with directions, &c, as above. Mr. Cran, Con- 
vener; Mr. Cramond, Cullen, Rev. Dr. Davidson, Inverurie, 
Lord Provost Henderson, Mr. Kemlo, Mr. Littlejohn, Mr. 
Matthews, Sheriff Rampini, Elgin, Mr. Ramsay, Banff, 
Sheriff Dove Wilson. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee, to be 
called " The Church Records Committee," to investigate the 
ecclesiastical and educational records of the N. E. Counties, 
and the records of Scottish educational institutions at home 
and abroad : with directions, &c., as above. Mr. Moir, 
Convener; Rev. Mr. Cooper, Mr. Cramond, Mr. J. P. 
Edmond, Rev. Dr. Gammack, Principal Geddes, Rev. Dr. 
Gregor, Dr. Grub, Major Ramsay, Mr. Robert Walker. 
[Bishop Douglas, Sheriff Rampini, added loth Dec., 1887.] 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee, to be 
called **The Archaeology Committee," to investigate the 
place-names, folk-lore, and general topography and archaeo- 
logy of the N. E. Counties : with directions, &c., as above. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor, Convener ; Dr. Alexander, Mr. Crombie, 
Mr. Ferguson, Colonel Ross ^i^gj R^- Mr. Michie, Mr. 
Moir, Mr. Robertson, Rev. Mr. Temple. 


{Presented at the Meeting of the Business Committee on 
Tuesday, i^ May, 1888.) 

The Editorial Committee have the pleasure of presenting to the 
Business Committee the following Supplementary Statement 
relative to works in progress, or in contemplation, as future issues 
by the Club ; and to some slight alterations which it has been 
found desirable to make in the matter of illustrations. 

Mr. John F. White, LL.D., a member of our Council, has 
succeeded in obtaining the services of Mr. George Reid, R.S.A., 
in connection with the Chartulary of St Nicholas. Mr. Reid 
has executed drawings of Drum's Aisle, and of Provost David- 
son's Monumental Effigy, which, as Frontispiece and Tailpiece, 
will render the volume more attractive, and will also give a 
standing proof of Mr. Reid's interest in the Club and in his 
native town. These sketches will be reproduced by photo- 
gravure. A page of the Chartulary has been photographed, 
and will be given in /ac-sifnile. Several other illustrations 
mentioned in our last Report have, at Mr. Cooper's request, 
been deferred to his Second Volume. 

Mr. Reid has also kindly offered to furnish for the work now 
passing through the press, under the editorship of Principal 
Geddes and Mr. Duguid, illustrations of the Interior of the 
Cathedral, and of Bishop Dunbar's Tomb. 

With r^ard to the History of tHe Family of Burnett a cer- 
tain amount of progress can be reported. The actual work of 


editing has, we fear, been considerably hindered by the long and 
serious illness of the learned and respected Editor, — whose im- 
proving health, however, will be hailed with satisfaction by his 
friends of the New Spalding Club, — ^but Mr. James Anderson 
has executed transcripts of all the documents from the Charter 
Chest at Crathes desired by the Editor, while two of the earliest 
deeds and several armorial seals have been photographed with a 
view to their reproduction. 

Acting on a recommendation made by the Committee on 
Archaeology we have gladly minuted our approval of a Bibuo- 

DINE, as the tenth work on the programme of the Club. Mr. 
. A. W. Robertson, who has undertaken the duties of editor, will 
consult us as to details of arrangement, after his materials have 
been fully collected. 

In the summer of 1886, when the Club was in process of 
formation, the Convener of this Committee received a letter from 
the Right Rev. Bishop Macdonald, of Aberdeen, who in the 
handsomest way offered, as one of the trust proprietors of docu- 
ments belonging to the Scots Colleges on the Continent, as 
well as the College at Blairs, to assist the proposed Society in 
obtaining access to them. The Committee on Church Records, 
in its Report, duly noted these Records as a most interesting 
Item in the work to be carried out by the Club. It will be 
recollected that in our last Report it was stated that the Club 
had been so fortunate as to secure the services of Monsignor 
Campbell, the learned Rector of the Scots College at Rome, 
in editing the Register of the Collie of whidh he is the 
honoured head Since then the Committee have learned that 

the Diary of the Scots Collie at Douai,*-a transcript of which 
is in the possession of one of the Members of Council of the 
Club, the original being now the property of Mr. Maxwell Wit- 
ham of Kirkconnel, — is still unedited. With r^ard to the de- 
sirableness of printing this Diary, we may quote the following 
passage from Sir William Eraser's Report on Mn Maxwell 
Witham's MSS., contained in Volume V. of the Reports of 
the Historical MSS. Commission. 

'' Special interest attaches itself to the authentic original of 
the Douai Roister. . . . It is to be hoped that some day the 
former may find some patron generous enough to lay its entire 
and valuable details before the public. ... It contains the 
names of the various alumni of the Scots College, which was 
successively established at Pont-k-Mousson, Douai, and Lou- 
vain, commencing with the entries of students under Father 
Creichton at Pont*k-Mousson in 1581, and continuing till the 
close of the year 1772. A short account is given of the 
character and fortune of each student Each preceptor added 
in his turn whatever news he heard of any former pupil of the 

The question of including the Douai Diary among the issues 
of the Club first came before this Committee in a communication 
from the Church Records Committee, in these words : — 

" It is desirable that the Records of the Scots College at 
Douai, in the possession of Mr. Maxwell Witham of Kirkconnel, 
be edited for the Club, provided the consent of the owner be 
obtained, and the services of a suitable editor be secured ". 

The Secretary was thereupon instructed to write to Mn T. 


G. Law» of the Signet Library, Edinburgh (who, we had learned, 
was desirous that these Records should be brought out by the 
Scottish History Society, of which he is Secretary), to say that 
the Douai Diary was so germane to the work which we were 
promised by Monsignor Campbell, that the Committee were 
reluctant to give up the hope of possibly printing it at some 
future time for the use of this Club. Mr. Law, however, is of 
opinion that the publication of the Diary falls properly within 
the scope of the Scottish History Society, and beyond that of 
the New Spalding Club ; and that the former Society has esta- 
blished a prior claim. 

To obviate the. difficulty which has arisen from these con- 
flicting interests, the Committee would recommend that Mr. Max- 
well Witham be approached, simultaneously, by the executive 
of both Societies, — and requested to state whether he would be 
inclined to favour the idea of allowing the original of this 
interesting Diary to be made use of, — and, should he be so 
inclined, then to inform us to which, — if to either, — of the two 
Societies he would prefer to entrust it 



{Presented at the Meeting of the Business Committee 
on Tuesday, srd July, 1888.) 

The Editorial Committee are glad to be able to report that 
the n^otiation relative to the printing of the Diary of the 
Scots College at Douai, referred to in their last statement, has 
been brought to a highly satisfactory conclusion ; the Council of 
the Scottish History Society having intimated through their 
Secretary their willingness " to forego their claims to the 
manuscript . • • in favour of the New Spalding Club ". The 
Committee are desirous to put on record their appreciation of 
the courteous manner in which they have been met by the 
Executive of the sister book-club, and their anxiety to secure in 
the future as in the past the utmost harmony between the two 

All preliminary difficulties having thus been cleared away, 
the Committee approached Mr. Maxwell Witham, requesting 
his permission to print the Diary in his possession. To their 
proposal Mr. Witham most cordially assented, offering to lend 
the original to the Club for six or eight months, and making 
only the very modest stipulation that he should receive two 
copies of the volume when printed. 

Mr. Witham stated that the manuscript had recently been 
examined by the Rev. William Forbes-Leith, S.J., who, as was 


kno^vn to the Committee, had also made himself familiar with 
the documents connected with the Scots Collies now preserved 
at Blairs. To Mr. Forbes-Leith — the accomplished editor of 
The Scots Men-at-Arms in France^ and Narratives of Scottish 
CcUholics — the Committee accordingly felt that the editing of 
the Diary could be more fitly entrusted than to any other ; and 
they are gratified to be able to state that Mr. Forbes-Leith has 
readily acceded to their request that he should prepare it for 
publication under the auspices of the New Spalding Club. 

The Diary OF the Scots College at Douai, i 581 -1772, 
will therefore rank as the eleventh work on the Club's 
programme. The Committee are confident that in it, and in the 
companion Register of the Scots College at Rome, now being 
edited by Monsignor Campbell, the members will possess two 
works of high interest to the student of Scottish History. 

It is with regret that the Committee have again to note the 
non-appearance of the first volume of the Chartulary of Sl 
Nicholas. The text has been printed off for some time and is 
in the binder's hands, but the reproduction of Mr. George 
Reid's drawings, which is being executed in Paris, has involved 
an unexpected delay. Mr. Reid, however, has now seen proofs 
of the photogravures^ and it is anticipated that the book will be 
forwarded to members in a very short time. It is satisfactory 
to be able to add that the issue of the Monograph on the 
Cathedral of St. Machar will follow very closely on that of the 
Chartulary, the whole of Principal Geddes' text having been 
set up. 

The Lyon, we are pleased to intimate, is now able to 


resume work on his History of the Family of Burnett. 
Referring to the transcripts from the Crathes Charter Chest, he 
writes : " Some of the letters, particularly Duncan Burnett s, 
will, I hope, greatly contribute to the human interest of the 
book, giving curious glimpses of the private life and character 
of the first Baronet and his uncles *\ 



(Presented at the Muting of the Brntness Committee 
' on Tuesday, yd July, 1888.) 

The Committee have now to report that they have fully con- 
sidered the remit from the Business Committee of January 
26th, 1887, regarding their Report, viz.: "This Report was 
considered and the following deliverance adopted on it : — * That 
the Report be approved of, and that the matter be remitted 
back to the Committee with instructions further to consider the 
whole subject and to report to a future meeting of the Business 
Committee what steps they recommend should be taken to 
carry out the object in view * ". This object was explained in 
the Report referred to, and the Committee are of bpinion that 
the work now before them lies in two directions: 

I St, To assist, as far as in their power, the compilation of 
histories of some of our leading Families. It is believed that 
several of these are already in contemplation, and they must 
be of much interest where events of the times referred' to 
in them are specially described. The Committee consider that 
they will be able to find interesting materials for such works. 

2nd, To collect material for volumes of Miscellanies. 
This the Committee believe to be, perhaps, the most impor- 
tant work they can undertake, and they specially wish to see 


It successfully carried out, as such volumes carry with them 
a considerable amount of interest. This interest would also 
be much enhanced, if the volumes were illustrated by repre- 
sentations of persons and places that are principally referred 
to— -an addition which, it is believed, could in many cases 
be attained. 

In the Reports of the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
remarks are frequently made upon the value of particular docu- 
ments, which, though not exactly valuable for family history, 
yet are most suitable for publication in order to illustrate the 
general condition of the country at particular periods. The 
various documents of this class that are mentioned in the 
Reports referring to this part of Scotland, as being worthy 
of publication, would alone go far to form volumes of Miscel- 
lanies. It would be very desirable to have some of these 
taken in hand by competent editors,- and from, time to time 
given to the Club. Even in their variety of material such 
volumes would be of great interest and value in promoting 
the objects of historical research. 

The Committee further suggest that the attention of the 
Club be called to the fact that many curious and valuable 
collections are lying in private hands and must be rapidly dis- 
appearing in the changes and chances of time. Many of these 
bear upon the past condition of the country and upon the 
fortunes of families and individuals. They are often the work 
of men who had a taste for archaeological studies, and have 
been collected from sources that are now closed for ever. The 
present holders of such papers are possibly not fully aware of 
their value and interest, or do not at least feel called upon 


to publish them. Volumes of such Miscellanies as are here 
indicated would form a convenient medium for the publica- 
tion of such fragmenta. This, it is conceived, would meet 
the wishes of many of our members and save an important 
amount of useful and historically interesting material from 
drifting into oblivion. Meanwhile the Committee have satis- 
faction in being able to report that their Convener, Colonel 
AUardyce, 3 Queen's Terrace, Aberdeen, has expressed his 
readiness to take charge for the Committee of all such docu- 
ments as may be collected for volumes of Miscellanies. 

The Committee have also much pleasure in reporting that 
the Marquis of Huntly and Lord Forbes have both most kindly 
placed their respective Collections of Family Papers at the 
Committee's disposal for examination. They trust, therefore, to 
receiving the authority of the Business Committee to undertake 
the work of examining and scheduling these valuable and im- 
portant Mimiments, preparatory to the selection of what may 
be found suitable for issue by the Club. 



{Presented at the Meeting vf the Business Committu 
on Tuesday, 2nd October, 1888O 

In the last Report of this Committee it was intimated that the 
Marquis of Huntly and Lord Forbes had been so good as to 
place their family muniments at the service of the New 
Spalding Club. An examination of these collections has 
since been made with a view to a further Report, which we 
now have the pleasure of submitting. 

Mr. Dalrymple, as a Member of this Committee, inspected 
the papers at Aboyne Castle, and had, as he states, the valuable 
assistance of Dr. William Alexander, Aberdeen, and the Rev. 
Mr. Michie, Dinnet, while the Marquis of Hundy, who takes 
much interest in the subject, gave, in the most courteous way^ 
every facility for the lamination. The nature and value of the 
Collections at Aboyne Castle are clearly indicated in the Report 
of the Historical MSS. Commission, No. 2. The following 
brief summary will give an idea of their interesting character :^- 

I. — Charters and title-deeds of the lands of the Family. 
Many of these are of the fifteenth century, and several of them 
belong to a period previous to the time at which the Aboyne 
family branched off from the main\ stem of Hundy, while all 
are more or less of interest for purposes of local history and 


11. — Many old Rentals of the Earldom of Aboyne, the 
Barony of Birse, &&, &a, of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuriesi containing much of interest concerning the Agricul- 
tural History of that period. 

IIL — Correspondence bearing upon the political and family 
history of those centuries, carried on by the Aboyne family. 

IV. — A large number of miscellaneous documents, probably 
some thousand in number, which will require careful examina- 
tion and arrangement before they can be made available for the 
purposes of the Club. Many of these, doubtless, bear on the 
social condition of the country in times past 

Lord Huntly has expressed his willingness to place from 
time to time any portion of his papers in the hands of the Club, 
as may be most convenient for their being dealt with. 

The extensive collection of family documents which Lord 
Forbes has, in the same liberal and public-spirited way, placed 
at the service of the Club, has been examined by the Con- 
vener of this Committee, assisted by Mr. Dalrymple and by 
the Secretary of the Club. It also is of very great interest, 
and has been noticed by the Historical M3S. Commission in 
their Report No. 2. It comprises : — 

I. — Charters and title-deeds of lands. They are curious 
and interesting, and many of them were printed for the Old 
Spalding Club. 

II.— Rentals of the territory owned by the Lords Forbes, 
notably that of William, seventh Lord Forbes, of dates running 
back to 1552. 


III. — A MS. History of the Family of Forbes entitled, 
'• Memoirs of the House of Forbes " down to 1542 ; also a MS. 
entitled, " Historical Narration of the Life and Conversation of 
John Forbes, known as Brother Archangelus, of the Order of 
Capuchins," one of the family who, having become a Roman 
Catholic, died in a Monastery abroad. His life contains many 
curious particulars. 

IV. — Two MS. genealogies of the Family of Forbes. One 
of these comes down to the seventeenth Lord Forbes. 

V. — ^Two copies of Lumsden's " History of the House of 
Forbes " — one printed and one in MS. 

VI. — A vast mass of miscellaneous and unarranged papers. 
Among these there no doubt are many that contain matters 
illustrative of the social condition of the country in former ages, 
and are similar, in this respect, not only to the collection at 
Aboyne Castle, but also to the accumulations that are usually to 
be found in the charter-rooms of old and influential families. 

The charters and titles (Forbes, No. I.) were fully calendared 
by the late Mr. Cosmo Innes about fifty years ago, and the book 
containing his schedule, entitled, "Registrum Honoris de Forbes 
1 27 1 -1 756," is among the materials placed at our disposal. As 
at Aboyne, however, a very large number of documents require 
examination and arrangement before they can be dealt with for 
literary purposes. 

There can be little doubt that a large amount of material 
that is suitable for the objects of the Club exists in each of 
these collections, and the Committee beg to call the attention of 


the Business Committee to the advisability of having this 
material dealt with at an early date, as it is desirable that the 
Club should not seem, by any unnecessary delay, to fail in 
appreciation of the promptitude with which these collections 
have been placed at the service of the Club by the noble 

The Committee have to acknowledge the receipt from Mr. 
Cramond, Cullen, of a most carefully executed transcript of an 
Inventory of Lady Seafield's papers at Cullen House ; Lady 
Seafield having most kindly acceded to an application made to 
her in this matter by the Convener of this Committee. The 
Inventory has a very full Index of names and places added to it 
by Mr. Cramond, and is of much value and interest. The 
Committee would suggest that the thanks of the Council of the 
Club be accorded to Lady Seafield for her kindness ' in giving 
every facility for the compiling of this Inventory ; to Lord 
Huntly and Lord Forbes for so readily and fully giving access 
to their collections ; and to Mr. Cramond for his time and care 
in making the transcript of the Cullen House Inventory. 



{Presented at the Meeting of the Business Committee 
on Tuesday, 2nd October, 1888.) 

The Burgh Records Committee, in supplement of their previous 
Report, beg to state that the Sub-Committee of their number 
appointed to examine and report on the MS. volumes of Ex- 
tracts from the Sheriff-Court Records of Aberdeen made by 
the late Mr. John G. Leslie, Sheriff-Clerk-Depute, have sub- 
mitted the following Report, which has been approved of by 
the Committee : 

" In terms of the remit made to us by the Burgh and 
Judicial Records Committee of the New Spalding Club on 
nth January last, we have carefully examined the twenty-one 
MS. volumes compiled by the late Mr. John Grant Leslie, now 
in possession of the Clerk to the Commissioners of Supply of 

<< We are of opinion that the material contained in these 
volumes, with one exception, is not in a shape suitable for 
publication by the Club, and that it is not in itself capable of 
being put into such shape. That exception is the volume con- 
taining a Report on the Parochial Roisters of Aberdeenshire 
preceding the year 1880, and the information contained in it 
has now been otherwise rendered available to the public by 
the Register House publications, &c. We, therefore, cannot 


recommend the Club to take any steps towards printing these 
compilations. The volumes contain a considerable amount of 
information which would be useful to an original investigator, 
but the whole of the information contained in them is extracted 
from the Records under the charge of the Sheriff-Clerk» a full 
Inventory of which has been prepared, and is submitted along 
with this Report. 

(Signed) David Littlejohn. 
Alexander Kemlo." 

The Committee are making efforts to obtain complete 
Inventories of the various Sheriff-Court and Buigh Records 
in the North of Scotland, with a view of utilising the in- 
formation for the purposes of the Club. 

Inventories of the following Records have already been 
obtained : 

Sheriff-Court Records. Burgh Records. 

1. Kincardine. i. Dundee. 

2. Aberdeen. 2. Montrose. 

3. Banff. 3. Aberdeen. 

4. Moray. 4. Old Aberdeen. 

5. Nairn. 5. Kintore. 

6. Shetland. 6. Inverurie. 

7. Banff. 

8. Cullen. 
9* Elgin. 

ID. Forres. 
II. Nairn. 


The Committee are in communication with the authorities 
of the other Northern Coimties and Burghs with a view of 
obtaining Inventories of their Sheriff-Court and Municipal 

The Committee are glad to state that Mr. William Cra- 
mond, CuUen, one of their number, has undertaken the work 
of making a digest of the Inventories, and reporting as to the 
best method of making the information contained in them 
serviceable for the Club. 

P. M. CRAN, C 


(Presented at the Meeting of the Business Committee 
on Tuesday, 2nd October, 188&) 

The Church Records Committee are glad to report that the 
hope expressed in their last statement, that something might 
be done towards publishing the MS. Records of the Scots 
CoUeges on the Continent, is now likely to be realised. Mon- 
signor Campbell, Rector of the Scots Collie at Rome, has 
agreed to edit for the Club the Register of the Collie of which 
he is the learned head. Mr. Maxwell-Witham of Kirkconnel 
has courteously given the Club permission to print the Diary 
of the Scots College at Douai, 1 581-1772, now his property, 
and mentioned by the Historical MSS. Commission as of 
special interest, and highly worthy of publication. The Club 
have been fortunate in securing as Editor one so well qualified 
as the Rev. William Forbes-Leith, S.J. 

The Church Records Committee, having authority granted 
by the Business Committee to incur certain expenses in obtain- 
ing information as to the Records in their charge, from Parish 
Clei^men, Session, Presbytery, and Synod Clerks, and others 
within the three Synods of Angus and Meams, Aberdeen, and 
Moray, issued on 26th December, 1887, a circular respectfully 
requesting answers to the following queries : 


1. What is the name of the Synod, Presbytery, Session, or 

Congregation to which your replies refer? 

2. How many volumes of Ecclesiastical Records are in 

your possession ? 

3. What are the dates of the commencement and termina- 

tion of each of these volumes ? 

4. What are the dates between which entries have been 

omitted, or made with irregularity? 

5. The Committee will be obliged by your mentioning 

anything in the Contents of the Volumes in your 
possession which seems to you interesting, and 
suitable for the purposes of the Committee. 

6. Are there any other documents of the nature indicated 

in your possession, or are you ,aware of the exist- 
ance of any documents in your neighbourhood, 
which are non-official, and may contain material 
suitable for the purposes of the Committee ? 

Subjoined is a synopsis of the replies received up to date : 

Synod of Angus and Mearns. (No reply from Synod Clerk.) 

Presbytery of Arbroath. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Arbirlot, Arbroath, Carmyllie, Kirkden, 
Lunan, St. Ninian's (Arbroath). 

Presbytery of Brechin. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Brechin, Dun, Edzell, Farnell, 
Lochlee, Montrose (Old Church, second charge). 


Presbytery of Dundee. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Chapelshade (Dundee), Clepington (Dun- 
dee), Liff and Benvie, Lochee, Lundie and Fowlis, Mains 
and Strathmartin, Maryfield (Dundee), Monikie, Murroes, 
St. Luke's (Lochee), Wallacetown (Dundee). 

Presbytery of Fordoun. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Arbuthnott, Benholm, Bervie, Fettercaim, 
Fetteresso, Garvock, Kinneff and Caterline, Laurencekirk, 
Marykirk, St. Cyrus. 

Presbytery of Forfar. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Clova, Inverarity, St James* 
(Forfar), Tannadice. 

Presbytery of Meigle. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Ardler, Kilry, Meigle, Newtyle, 

Synod of Aberdeen. Reply from Synod Clerk. 

Presbytery of Aberdeen. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Fintray, East (Aberdeen), Grey- 
friars (Aberdeen), Portlethen, Rubislaw (Aberdeen), St. 
Clement's (Aberdeen), St. George's-in-the-West (Aberdeen), 
Skene, West (Aberdeen). 

Presbytery of Alford. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Alford, Auchindoir, Clatt, Glenbucket, 
Keig, Kennethmont, Kildrummy, Leochel-Cushnie, Strath- 
don, Tough, Tullynessle and Forbes. 

Presbytery of Deer. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and from 


parishes of Blackhill, Crimond, Kininmonth, Longside, 
Lonmay, Maud, Peterhead (East Church), Pitsligo, Tyrie. 

Presbytery of Ellon. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Ellon and Slains. 

Presbytery of Fordyce. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Banff, Boyndie, CuUen, Enzie, Fordyce, 

Presbytery of Garioch. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Bourtie, Inverurie, Keithhall and 
Kinkell, Kemnay, Leslie, Meldrum, Monymusk, Oyne. 

Presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil. Replies from Presbytery 
Cler,k, and from parishes of Glenmuick, Kincardine O'Neil, 
Logie-Coldstone, Lumphanan, Torphins, Tarland. 

Presbytery of Turriff. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and from 
parishes of Alvah, Auchterless, Gamrie, King-Edward, 
Millbrex, Turriff. 

Synod of Moray. Reply from Synod Clerk, 

Presbytery of Aberlour. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and 
from parishes of Aberlour, Boharm, Elchies, Glenlivet, 
Inveravon, Knockando. 

Presbytery of Abernethy. (No replies.) 

Presbytery of Elgin. Replies frofti Presbytery Clerk, and from 
parishes of Birnie, Burghead, Speymouth, Urquhart 

Presbytery of Forres. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 

Replies from parishes of Dallas, Edenkillie, Raflford.' 

i . 


Presbytery of Inverness. (No reply from Presbytery Clerk.) 
Replies from parishes of Daviot and Dunlichity, Moy and 

Presbytery of Nairn. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, and from 
parishes of Auldearn, Cawdor, Nairn. 

Presbytery of Strathbogie. Replies from Presbytery Clerk, 
and from parishes of Caimey, Gartly, Newmill, Rothiemay. 

Circulars were also sent to the Episcopal Incumbents 
within the same district, and replies were promptly received 
from most of these ; but the materials in their hands are meagre, 
and only of recent date* 

The Committee were disappointed at not obtaining answers 
from a larger proportion of the Presbyterian Clergymen. On 
comparing the returns received, with the details r^[arding 
Session and other Records incidentally given in TumbuU's 
Memoranda of the State of the Parochial Registers of Scotland^ 
1846, and in the Detailed List of the Old Parochial Registers 
of Scotland^ 1872, they were surprised to find, in many cases, 
such serious discrepancies, as to force upon them the conclu- 
sion that, in order to make the returns reliable throughout, it 
would be necessary to have them collated both with the local 
records and with those now in H.M. Register House, by 
competent persons approved of by the Club. 

In connection with this proposal, they beg to acknowledge 
with gratitude the services rendered or offered by several 
gentlemen. Mr. Cramond, CuUen, whose name is guaranteed 
for thorough work, has already, in the interests of the Club, 


gone over the records in the Banffshire parishes. Mr. John 
A. Henderson, Aberdeen, has examined those of the Presbytery 
of Aberdeen. Thus, the returns for these districts, though the 
answers to the circulars look meagre, may be considered as 
virtually complete. Tenders of assistance have also been re- 
ceived from the Rev. John Brown, Bervie ; Dr. A. C. Cameron, 
Fettercaim ; Mr. James Davidson, Kirriemuir ; Rev. Alexander 
Fridge, Lunan ; Rev. Dr. Gammack, Aberdeen ; Mr. A. 
Hutcheson, Dundee ; Mr. John Mair, Ellon ; Sheriff Rampini, 
Elgin ; Mr. James Spence, Peterhead ; and the Rev. James 
Thomson, Arbroath. 

It is believed that when the returns have been thus cor- 
rected and augmented, the Committee will be able to give to 
the Club a body of statistics of great interest and value, never 
hitherto made public in a complete and classified form. 



{Approved at the Second Annual General Meeting of the Club 
on, Tuesday, ^oth October, 1888.) 

It IS the agreeable duty of the Council to report that the affairs 
of the New Spalding Club continue in a prosperous condition. 
Not only has the full complement of 500 members been main- 
tained, but the list of candidates for admission is still a lengthy 
one, and further applications are being received from time to 

Since the last meeting of the Club, two volumes have been 
issued to members :— 

I.— Memorials of the Family of Skene of Skene. Edited 
by William Forbes Skene, D.C.L., H.M. Historio- 
grapher for Scodand. With reproductions of sketches 
by his father, the late James Skene, Esq, of Rubislaw. 

II. — Cartularium EccLEsiiE S. NiCHOLAi Aberdonensis. Vol. 
I. Edited by the Rev. James Cooper. With reproduc- 
tions of sketches by George Reid, R.S.A. 

The Council regret that the appearance of these volumes 
was unduly delayed. In each case the detention was due to 
the very considerable time required for the reproduction, by 
photographic processes, of the illustrations. It is, however, 
confidently expected that, from the experience thus gained, the 
issue of future books will be more regular. 


The printing of the Monograph on the Heraldic Ceiling 
of the Cathedral Church of St. Machar, by Principal Geddes 
and Mr. Duguid, is now approaching completion, and members 
may expect to receive the work before the end of the present 
year. The heraldic portion, having undergone the scrutiny of 
Mr. Burnett, Lyon King of Arms, may be relied on as in all 
respects trustworthy. 

As soon as the Monograph is out of the printer's hands, the 
iSrst volume of Selections from the Records of Marischal College 
and University, the MS. of which is in a completed state, will 
go to press. In deference to the wish expressed by many 
members of the Club, every Latin deed printed in this work 
will be accompanied by either a full or an abridged translation. 

The outlook for future years is of a highly satisfactory 
kind, for, as members may be reminded^ the following works 
have been approved by the Editorial Committee,. and are now 
in progress in the hands of their respective editors : — 

1. Collections for a History of the Shires of Angus and Mearns. 

Edited by the Rev. James Gammack, LL.D. 

2. The Folklore and Place Names of the North - Eastern 

Province. Edited by the Rev. Walter Gregor, LL.D. 

3. A History of the Family of Burnett Edited by George 

Burnett, LL.D., Lyon King of Arms. 

4. The Register of the Scots College at Rome. Edited by 

Monsignor Campbell, D.D., Rector of the College. 

5. The Diary of the Scots College at Douai. Edited by the 

Rev. William Forbes-Leith, S.J. 


6. A Bibliography of the Shires of Aberdeen, Banff, and Kin- 

cardine. Edited by Mn A. W* Robertson, Librarian of 
the Public Library, Aberdeen. 

7. A Calendar of the Correspondence in the Town House of 

Aberdeen. Edited by Mr. A. M. Munro. 

8. Hector Boece's " Lives of the Bishops of Aberdeen ^ : re- 

printed from the edition of 1522 ; with translation and 
addenda illustrative of the Lives of the later pre- 
Reformation Bishops. Edited by Mr. James Moir, 
Rector of the Grammar School, Aberdeen. 

9* Selections from the MS. Biographical Collections of the 
Rev. Robert Wodrow, in the possession of the University 
of Glasgow. Edited by the Rev. John Christie, D.D., 
Professor of Church History in the University of Aber- 

10. The Chartulary of the Church of St Nicholas. Vol. IL 

Edited by the Rev. James Cooper. 

11. Selections from the Records of Marischal Collie and 

University. Vol. IL Edited by the Secretary. 

Other works in contemplation, but not yet formally 
approved by the Editorial Committee are — 

1. A volume of Miscellanies. 

2. The Annals of Banff, 

3. A History of the Family of Forbes. 

4. A History of the Family of Gordon. 

5. ** The Book of Bon- Accord," revised and enlarged. 

6. The Records of the Friars of Aberdeen. 


Apart from the literary work already executed or now in 
prog^ress, the Council can point with satisfaction to the efforts 
made by their special Committees in furtherance of the objects 
for which they were appointed. 

The Family History Committee have acquired for the 
Club, through the kind permission of the Countess of Seafield, 
a transcript of the Inventory of the Writs of the Ancient 
Regality of Ogilvie (1405- 1705). The Marquis of Huntly and 
Lord Forbes have also, in the most courteous and liberal 
manner, put their extensive collections of family papers at the 
disposal of the Society. 

The Burgh Records Committee have made considerable 
progress in drawing up an exhaustive Inventory of the Municipal 
and Judicial Records of the whole North of Scotland, which, 
when complete, will form a convenient work of reference. 

The Church Records Committee, towards the close of 
1887, issued a circular to Session, Presbytery, and Synod Clerks 
in the three North-Eastem Synods, inviting information as to 
the Records under their care. The replies received were some- 
what disappointing, the returns in many cases being given in so 
unsystematic a manner as to render necessary a subsequent 
collation of them with the original documents by some com- 
petent persons approved by the Club. Several members have 
kindly volunteered their services, and the Council look forward 
to obtaining an Inventory which, as respects the district forming 
the sphere of the Club's operations, will form a valuable adjunct 
to the Detailed List of Parochial Registers of Scotland, printed 
in 1872 by the Registrar-General. 


The Archaeological Committee have also issued a circular 
relative to the Folklore, Place Names, and Bibliographical in- 
vestigations that are being carried out by Dr. Gr^or and Mr. 
Robertson. This Committee have also strongjy recommended 
the preparation of a volume dealing with the History of Agri- 
culture in the Nprth-East of Scotland, and the Council are in 
hopes that, with the approval of the Editorial Committee, one 
of their number may be induced to undertake the editing. 

The Reference Library, which it was thought desirable to 
establish for the use of members, has already attained consider- 
able dimensions. Several members have presented works of 
genealogical and historical interest, and the Antiquarian Societies 
of London, Edinburgh, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Christiania 
exchange their Proceedings for the publications of the Club. 
The Council wish to express their grateful sense of the courtesy 
of the Public Library Committee in pennitting the use of the 
Committee Room for the accommodation of the books belonging 
to the Club. 

It is, of course, inevitable that the ranks of such a society 
as the New Spalding Club should be gradually thinned by death. 
The Council have, with regret, to note the loss, during the past 
year, of an exceptionally large number of members, viz. : — ^The 
Earl of Seafield ; Sir Francis W. Grant, Bart., a memt)er of the 
Council ; Dr. Michie F. Anderson, Newburgh ; Mr. John Clerk 
Brodie, W.S., Edinburgh, an original member of the old Spalding 
Club ; Mr. Robert Chambers, Edinburgh ; Mr. William David- 
son, Aberdeen ; Mr. John Duncan,* Aberdeen ; Colonel Far- 
quharson of Invercauld ; Mr. R. B. Home, Aberdeen ; Dr. H. 
Haldane, Ballater ; Rev. William A. Keith, Burham Vicarage ; 


Rev. John Watt, Strathdon ; Dr. John Wight, Aberdeen ; 
Dr. Charles E. . Wilson, H.M.I. S., Edinburgh; and Dr. 
J. W. Winchester, Edinburgh. It is gratifying to be able 
to add that in the majority of these cases the representatives 
of the deceased members have applied for admission to the 
Club. The Council have not inconsistent with 
Rule 7 to admit such representatives at once, all other vacancies 
being filled up in accordance with priority of application. 

The Treasurer willsubmit a statement of the finances of the 
Club, which will be printed, together with this Report, in an 
Appendix to the next voluitie issued to members. 



Statement from the Accounts, Charge and Discharge, of the intro- 
missions had by Mr. P. H. Chalmers, advocate, Abeideen, 
as Honorary Treasurer of the New Spalding Club^ with the 
funds of the Club, for the period from nth November, 1886, to 
30th October, 1888. 


Subscriptions for year 1887— 

500 original members, . .£$^$00 

13 present members, taking the 
places of others, dead or resigned, 13 13 o 

Compositions for life membership— 

3 members, 31 10 o 

Subscriptions for year 1888— 

481 members, 505 i o 

Subscriptions for year 1889 — 

4 members, 440 

Banklnter^t 8 11 4 

Amount of the Charge, .£1087 19 4 


I. Miscellaneous Accounts Paid. 
Nov. 19. Banffshift Journal, . • . 040 

Jan. 24. Dundee Adveftiser^ . 036 

Forward, £076 


Brought forward, . . . 

£0 7 


Mar. 21. 

Edmond & Spark (preliminary 


23 12 


Imperial Hotel, 



May 2a 

Aberdeen Journal^ . 

2 14 


May 21. 

Daily Free Press, . 


.0 • 

» 22. 

Scotsman, • . . • 


» 24. 

W. Jolly & Sons, . 


July 9. 

Grosvenor, Chater, & Co., Lon- 
don (per Edmond & 


Spark), .... 

67 10 



Edmond & Spark, . 

2 6 



Daify Free Press, . 

I 17 



W. Jolly & Sons, . . 

9 2 



Milne & Hutchison, 

2 IS 


» II. 

E/gin Courant, 


Sept 27. 

John Annan, Edinbui^h, 

Set Spalding Club Books (per 



Edmond & Spark), . 


Oct II. 

James Garvie & Sons, 

19 17 


Nov. 19. 

Milne & Hutchison, 

. 4 2 

» 21. 

T. G. Stevenson, Edinburgh, . 

.0 6, 

n 25. 

Edmond & Spark, . 

"4 5 


D.Wyllie&Son, . 

I 16 

3 . 

A. Brown & Ca, . . 



Jaa 18. 

Rev. Walter Macleod, Edin- 

bui^h, .... 

8 10 

6 . 

Feb. 3. 

J. Malcolm Bulloch, 

2 2 


„ 4- 

Grosvenor, Chater, & Co. (per 

Edmond & Spark), . 

••59 I 


Mar. 9. 

James Anderson, Bridge of Don, 

15 15 

Milne & Hutchison, 

78 4 


Apr. 13. 

J. Farquhar Thomson, . 

26 s 

May 18. 

James Garvie & Sons, 

• b 8 



£%» 8 


May 1 8. 

„ 23. 
Sept 6; 

u 28. 




Brought forward, . 

Robert Brown, Inverurie, 

Milne & Hutchison, 

A. Gibb & Co., 

T. & R. Annan & Sons, Glasgow, 

Edmond & Spark, . 

Grosvenor, Chater, & Co. (per 
Edmond & Spark), . 

A. King & Co., 

Aberdeen Journal^ . 

T. & R. Annan & Sons, . 

The Convener of Church Re- 
cords Committee, 

James Anderson, 

Thomson & Duncan, • . . 

Boussod, Valadon, & Co., Lon 
don, « • ' , 

Edmond & Spark, . 

Abirdeen Journal^ . 

Secretary's postages, &c, to 3 ist Decem- 
ber, 1886, ; . . , . 

Secretary's salary, 1886-87, 

Secretary's postages, &c, ist January to 
1 2th October, 1887, 

Hon. Treasurer's postages, exchange on 
cheques, &c., to 12th October, 1887, 

Secretary's salary, 1887-88, . . . 

Secretary's postages, &c., 13th October, 
1887, to 27th October, 1888, 

Hon. Treasurer's postages, &c, f 3th Octo- 
ber, 1887, to 27tb October, 1888, 


;f3S9 8 


3 I 

18 I 


20 15 


41 6 


37. 18 

81 II 









13 3 


8 5 


38 13 


34 '4 





if659 14 11^ 

•I 15 


26 5 

4 13 


3 13 


26 s 

4 15 


2 12 


70 8| 


£72^ IS 8 















Brought forward, £^2t) 15 8 

III. Assets as at 30TH October, 1888. 

Three Deposit Receipts with Town and 

County Bank, Limited, dated 26th 

October, 1888, for ;f lOO each, 
Balance at Credit of Treasurer's Account, 

current with Town and County 

Bank, Limited, ex interest from 

30th January, 1 888, . 
Balance in hands of Treasurer, 

Amount of the Discharge, equal to the Charge, 

. P. H. CHALMERS.. /r^ Treasurer. 

Abbrdbbn, ydh Ociober, x888. 

The foregoing account has been framed from the annual accounts 
prepared by the Hon. Treasurer, audited by us, and approved of. 

Abbrdbbn, yih Novifmber^ i888. 

Note I.— At the close of the Account the Membership of the Club 

stands as follows : — 

Life Members, , . 3 

Members that have paid subcription for 1888, . .481 
Members in arrears, 16* 

Total, .... 500 
* Since the account was closed, eight of these have paid. 


Note 2. — ^The Miscellaneous Disbursements above are allocated 

as follows : — 

I. Preliminary Expenditure. 

Advertising, £24 

Printing circulars, 10 17 

Printing 800 copies of Report of Inaugural 

Meeting, 37 

Postages, 9 15 

Minute-Books and Stationery, • . . 5 16 

Use of room. Imperial Hotel, . i 1 1 





11. "Memorials of Family of Skene." 

Paper (44 lbs. per ream), 328 pp., . 

Printing, per estimate, by Milne 

Printing : corrections and extras, . 

Illustrations: photographing, 
„ A. Gibb & Co., 

„ T. & R. Annan & Sons, 

Indexing : Mr. J. Malcolm Bulloch, 

Transcripts : Rev. Mr. Macleod, . 

Binding 525 copies : Edmond & Spark, 
„ brass stamps, . 



41 7 6 


65 12 
12 12 


20. 15 
2 2 












£ii 12 3i 

206 II 4| 

III. ''St. Nicholas Chartulary." 

Paper (44 lbs.), 324 pp., 
Printing, per estimate, by A. King & Gx, 
„ corrections and extras, . 

Illustrations ; 

Boussod. Valadon, & Co., 
Thomson & Duncan, 

Forward, • 

40 17 

55 13 

25 18 
28 13 

8 5 

Vol. I. 



£iS9 7 4 £240 3 8 


Brought forward, . JC159 7 4 £24p 3 8 

Sub-editing : Mr. J. Farquhar Thomson, . 26 5 o 
Binding 523 copies : Edmond & Spark, . 21 15 10 

„ brass stamps o 12 6 

Packing, 237 

Carriage, 907 \ 

219 4 10 

IV. "Chartulary." Vol. II. 
Paper in stock, 20 reams (44 lbs.), 34 7 7 

V. "Ceiling of St. Machar's Cathedral." 

Paper, 17J reams (54 lbs.), .... 37 18 o 
Illustrations : T. & R. Annan & Sons, . . 10 o o 

47 18 o 

VI. *' Records of Marischal College." 

Transcripts : Rev. Mr. Macleod, . • 1 16 6 

„ Mr. James Anderson, . -13 3 3 

14 19 9 

VII. " Family of Burnett." 
Transcripts : Mr. James Anderson, 15 15 o 

VIII. Club Library. 

Book-case, 19 17 6 

„ removing, 086 

Set of Spalding Club publicatfons, . 32 o o 

Hist MSS. Commission Reports, . • . i 13 9 

Other books, 086 

Bleau's Map of District, . . . o 10 6 

54 18 9 

Forward, . , £627 7 7 

Brought forward, ;f627 7 7 

IX. Church Records Committee. 

Printing 400 circulars, &c, ....310 

Postages, 2 13 7 

Convener's outlays, o 17 2 


X. Sundries. 

Dandy, 10 o o 

Die of Arms for book covers, . .110 

Printing reports and circulars, . . 7 19 6 

Stationery, &c.» ^IS'I 

. 25 15 7i 

Amount of Miscellaneous Disbursements as above,. £6^9 14 i li 


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