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L/.-: /J3 7 7' )^ ' / 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



r 




MEMOIR 



OF 



WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, LL.D. 



COMMUNICATED BY 



CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS 



AT A MEETING OF 



€]^c fiHa^ml^m^ttsi l^iistoncal ^odttVy 



February 13, 1902. 



CAMBRIDGE: 

JOHN WILSON AND SON. 

S9ni))ersits Press* 

1902. 



r I .■*, |» t 






> . I^> 




Q/lXlu-O-u 'h «. ( . •) rt I ; 



MEMOIR 



The task of preparing for our Proceedings a memoir of the 
late William Crowninshield Endicott was, some time since, 
assigned to me. Though I knew Judge Endicott many years, 
and, in common, I think, with all others, of whatever kind or 
condition, who came in contact with him, had been always 
sensible of his charm of presence and manner, yet I cannot 
pretend to have known him well. Our acquaintance, though 
somewhat casual, was always agreeable ; and I retain a fresh 
recollection of not a few incidents, anecdotes and sayings of 
his to me, always marked with that flavor of refinement and 
good fellowship which seemed inseparable from all he said 
and did. He was essentially a patrician ; as such he wore the 
robes of his order lightly, because they were natural to him. 
But I lacked both time and material out of which to produce 
a suitable memoir. I was not born in Salem, nor am I of 
Essex County. He was. My presentation of him would, 
therefore, have in it of necessity something of the touch of 
one not to the manner born. Under these circumstances, in 
pursuance of what I cannot regard otherwise than as an excel- 
lent practice, I had recourse to one much better informed and 
more intimately acquainted with the man. I went to his son^ 
the present William C. Endicott, during our associate's life 
the younger of that name, and asked him if he would under- 
take the duty of preparing what must always remain the 
official record of his father's life and work. He consented 



so to do ; and it now affords me satisfaction to submit the 
memoir thus prepared. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, who died at his resi- 
dence in Boston (163 Marlborough Street) on Sunday, May 6, 
1900, was elected a member of this Society on April 4, 1864. 
He was born at Salem on November 19, 1826, in a house at 
present standing on the. corner of Curtis and Derby Streets. 
It is rather a curious fact that two Cabiiiet Ministers from Salem 
should have been connected with this house, for it was owned 
and had been occupied by his mother's uncle, Benjamin Wil- 
liams Crowninshield, who was Secretary of the Navy, 1814- 
1817, under President Madison, and was afterwards a member 
of Congress for several years. 

His parents, William Putnam and Mary Crowninshield En- 
dicott were Unitarians, and on the first day of July, 1827, he 
was baptized William Gardner Endicott by the Rev. Dr. Flint, 
minister of the East Church at Salem. After the death of his 
uncle, William Crowninshield, who was lost at sea while mak- 
ing a voyage from Marseilles to Genoa, his name was changed 
on April 19, 1837, by a special Act of the Legislature, to Wil- 
liam Crowninshield Endicott. 

A lineal descendant of Governor John Endecott in the 
eighth generation, he came (excepting on the Crowninshield 
side of the family) of pure New England stock, and his ances- 
tors on all sides can be traced back to the early settlers of Salem. 
The descendants of Governor Endecott were people in mod- 
erate circumstances, quiet, law-abiding citizens, who took no 
active part in politics outside the town of Danvers, and who 
for five generations tilled the soil and lived upon the Gov- 
ernor's estate, known as the " Orchard Farm " in Salem Village, 
now Danversport, which farm was granted to the Governor by 
the Court of Assistants on July 3, 1632. This estate was 
handed down from father to eldest son until 1828 : at which 
date, it was sold and remained out of the family for sixty 



5 

years, when it was repurchased by a descendant of the Gov- 
ernor. Though somewhat diminished in size, this farm is now 
the property of a member of the family, and possesses a famous 
pear-tree still bearing fruit, said to have been planted by the 
Governor himself in 1635. 

Mr. Endicott's grandfather, Samuel Endicott, moved to 
Salem at the end of the last century, and led a sea-faring life. 
At one time he and his five brothers (John, Moses, Jacob, Wil- 
liam, and Timothy) were in command of vessels bound from 
Salem to distant ports. 

From his mother he had either German or Swedish blood in 
his veins, for she was the great granddaughter of Johannes 
Caspar Richter Von Crowninscheldt, ^vho came from Leipsic 
to Boston about 1688. His grandfather, Jacob Crowninshield, 
was a member of the Massachusetts Senate from 1800 to 1802, 
and a prominent Member of Congress from 1802 to 1808. He 
was appointed Secretary of the Navy by Jefferson at the 
beginning of his second term in 1805, and was confirmed as 
such by the United States Senate. Though his commission as 
Secretary of the Navy is on file in the Department of State at 
Washington, he declined the honor for personal reasons, — 
that he could not be absent all the year from his business and 
family. The correspondence between him and Jefferson (who 
was his intimate friend) on this subject, on trade, on finance, 
and on the political aspect of parties in New England, is a 
very interesting one, and is in part preserved. His career as 
a sailor and sea-captain (for he commanded a ship when 
he was twenty-two years old) was during that interesting 
period preceding and following the French Revolution, when 
the arbitrary decrees, paper blockades, seizures and detention 
of our ships and the imprisonment of our seamen vitally 
touched the sailors of New England. On all these questions 
he was thoroughly informed, as appears from his speeches and 
letters, for to careful study of these subjects, he had added 
experience from travel in many quarters of the globe. In 



1800, he had left the sea and joined his father and brothers in 
the firm of George Crowninshield & Sons. Jacob Crownin- 
shield died in Washington on April 15, 1808, at the early age 
of thirty-eight. After his death, the firm of George Crownin- 
shield & Sons continued its foreign commerce and played a 
very conspicuous part in the War of 1812. They armed and 
equipped several privateers, one of which, the " America," be- 
came famous, had several sharp fights, and made numerous 
captures. The sum realized from her prizes is said to have 
amounted to several hundred thousand dollars. They not 
only gave their support to the Government, but it is a tradi- 
tion that they loaned to the Government all the money they 
could from their business, and at times were crippled in their 
resources. 

The name of Gardner, which Mr. Endicott first bore, came 
into the family from the wife of Jacob Crowninshield, who was 
Sarah Gardner, a daughter of John and Sarah (Derby) Gard- 
ner. It is somewhat remarkable that in a small place like 
Salem there appears to be only one instance where the families 
of Mr. Endicott's mother and father were connected. His 
father's family for many generations were much inclined to 
agriculture, and resided in the inland towns of Danvers, Mid- 
dleton, Topsfield, Boxford, and Andover ; while his mother's 
family were engaged in commerce and the various industries 
connected therewith. They lived for the most part in Salem, 
and took a prominent part in its political affairs. 

With such tradition and surroundings, Mr. Endicott began 
his life. 

He was educated in the public and private schools of Salem, 
and entered Harvard College in 1843 from the Salem Latin 
School. His scholarship was above the average, and during 
his college life, he acquired an unusual love of books which 
gave him an extended knowledge and acquaintance with 
literature. He graduated from Harvard in 1847. At his 
Commencement, he delivered a disquisition on '' Public 



Honors in Different Ages.'* Among his classmates were 
Charles Allen (afterwards Associate Justice on the Supreme 
Bench with him), John Brooks Felton, Henry Larned Hallett, 
Richard Manning Hodges, Augustine Heard and Andrew Cun- 
ningham Wheelwright. During the last year of his college 
life, it had been proposed that after graduation he should go to 
China, and enter one of the firms which at that time was very 
prosperous and appeared to have an unusual business opening 
for a young man. Strong as the temptation was to do this, 
Mr. Endicott believed that the law was his vocation, and 
immediately after his graduation he began its study in the ofl&ce 
of Nathaniel J. Lord, at that time one of the most prominent 
lawyers in Salem. Tiiose were the days in which the Essex 
Bar was particularly famous ; for such men as Rufus Choate, 
Caleb Cushing, and Otis P. Lord were its leaders. Mr. Lord 
took keen interest in the work of his young student, showed an 
affectionate regard for him, and great satisfaction in the success 
which later came. Mr. Endicott always believed that the 
years spent in his office had been of untold benefit. 

The winter of 1849-1850, he spent at the Harvard Law 
School, where he remained for one year, and in 1850 at the 
November Term of the Supreme Court sitting at Salem he was 
admitted to the Essex County Bar. His account-books show 
how meagre were the earnings of a lawyer in those days, and 
the first few years of his practice were hard and brought him 
but little remuneration. He stuck to it with grim tenacity, and 
his patience was soon rewarded. 

In 1853 he formed a co-partnership — Perry & Endicott — 
with Jairus Ware Perry, well known as the author of " A 
Treatise on the Law of Trusts and Trustees." For twenty or 
more years, the firm of Perry & Endicott had a large portion 
of the legal practice in Essex County. Mr. Perry confined 
himself principally to office-work, and Mr. Endicott tried and 
argued the cases in court. While Mr. Endicott during these 
years worked hard at his profession, he was active in local pol- 



8 

itics and delivered political speeches in the various towns of the 
county, and lectures upon many subjects before the lyceums 
and other societies. He also interested himself more or less 
in the City Government of Salem by serving three terms in 
the Common CounciU in 1852, in 1858, and again in 1857, 
when on January 25th, he was unanimously elected president of 
the Common Council. From 1858 to 1863 he was elected 
city solicitor of Salem, and though after that he does not ap- 
pear to have been again elected city solicitor, he served in that 
capacity from time to time, through vote of the aldermen of 
the city. 

For three years he was the candidate for Attorney-General 
on the Democratic ticket, with Theodore H.Sweetser, as a can- 
didate for Governor in 1866 ; and with John Quincy Adams, 
as candidate for Governor in 1867 and 1868; and in the 
autumn of 1870 he was the Democratic candidate from the 
Fifth Congressional district for the Forty-Second Congress 
against Benjamin F. Butler, who had moved from his old 
Congressional District to Gloucester for the purpose of ob- 
taining the Republican nomination. In each of these years 
Mr. Endicott shared defeat with the other Democratic 
candidates. 

On February 23, 1873, the General Court of Massachusetts 
passed an act increasing the number of the Associate Justices 
of the Supreme Judicial Court to six. At that time no Demo- 
crat was upon the bench. Governor Washburn, a Republican 
governor, appointed Mr. Endicott to fill the judgeship, which 
has ever been considered a graceful and public-spirited act. 
The appointment was a great surprise to him, — there was 
no solicitation for the oflBce, either on his part or that of his 
friends, as far as he knew, — and his first knowledge of the 
fact was when his friend and classmate, the Hon. Charles 
Allen asked him whether he would accept the position from 
the Governor. Having signified his willingness to do so, the 
appointment was made on March 5, 1873, and on March 8, 



1873, Mr. Endicott qualified as an Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. The court at 
that time consisted of Chief-Justice Chapman, Horace Gray, 
Jr., John Wells, James D. Colt, Seth Ames, and Marcus 
Morton. 

During the next nine years, Mr. Endicott devoted his time 
and his strength to the work of the court. Laborious as 
the work was in those days, he was entirely absorbed in it, 
and only too gladly gave his whole energy to what he con- 
sidered his duty. The method of work then was far more 
difl&cult than at present, owing to the lack of general employ- 
ment of stenographers and typewriters. For the most part his 
opinions were written in his own handwriting. His opinions 
(378 in number) are to be found in the Massachusetts Reports, 
Vols. 112-133, and of these many opinions, written during the 
nine years of his service as judge of the court, '' not one of his 
opinions has been overruled." ^ 

The strain of this life told upon Mr. Endicott's health, and 
in the spring of 1882 he went to Europe. On October 25th 
of that year, he resigned his seat upon the bench, and travelled 
abroad for some eighteen months. Of his original colleagues 
upon the Bench, Chief-Justice Morton alone remained, and 
reluctantly handed to the Governor the resignation which he 
had urged Mr. Endicott to reconsider, thereby expressing the 
wish of the Court. His resignation was accepted by Governor 
Long, who wrote the following letter : — 

" It is with the greatest reluctance and only upon conviction tha't 
your determination is final that 1 accept your resignation of the office 
of Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court. I express the unanimous 
sentiment of the Commonwealth when I say, I regret the loss to Mas- 
sachusetts of your learning and wisdom and express the hope that you 
may soon be restored to health and to the judicial service which you 
have so long adorned." 

1 Remarks of the Attorney-General at meeting of the Bar of the Common- 
wealth on November 24, 1900. 



10 

During Mr. Eudicott's career as Justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, a case that created greftt attention among law- 
yers was the case of Willis Phelps vs. Samuel Bowles et aU,^ 
Proprietors of the "Springfield Republican," for libel. The 
damages claimed were very large, amounting to $200,000. 
The trial was in Springfield from April 27 to May 5, 1875, 
before Judge Endicott, without a jury. Benjamin F. Thomas 
and others were counsel for plaintiff. Richard H. Dana and 
others were counsel for defendants. One of the counsel now 
living, in giving an account of the trial, says : — 

" The alleged libel consisted of imputations, contained in articles pub- 
lished in the ' Republican ' upon the plaintiff, iq respect to obtaining 
legislation, and votes of the City of Springfield in aid of certain railroads 
in which the plaintiff was interested as contractor, stock and bondholder, 
and president. The case was notable from the character of the charges 
made, the heavy damages demanded, the eminence of the leading coun- 
sel on both sides, and the fact that it was the first instance, in Massa- 
chusetts at least, of an action of this kind, for a libel relating to a public 
and political controversy, being tried otherwise than before a jury. No 
application for a jury trial was pressed by either party, and so under 
a statute then recent the trial was before the court without a jury. 
The grounds of defence were, Truth and Privilege ; there was much 
evidence ; the case was argued by Mr. Dana and Judge Thomas ; and 
at the conclusion of the arguments. Judge Endicott (after a few minutes 
intermission) proceeded to give at length the grounds of his decision. 
He held that the words used were libellous in their nature ; that the 
charges made as to the plaintiff's conduct in obtaining legislation and 
in carrying a vote of the city to aid an earlier railroad enterprise, 
were proved to be true ; that the leading charges were that ' he bids 
for a city job,' * lobbies a bill through the Legislature permitting the 
city to accept the bid,' ' openly buys votes,' and that, ' having despoiled 
the city of a large sum of money, he is now using that money, and the 
power that its expenditure gave him, to despoil her of another sum 
nearly as large.' " 

This last charge he held to be not proved to be either true 
or within the defendant's privilege, and therefore must find 



11 

for the plaintiff; but in view of the plaintiff's practices, he was 
not entitled to large damages, and judgment was therefore en- 
tered for $100 damages. This would carry no costs. A bill 
of exceptions to certain rulings made during the trial was filed 
by the plaintiff, but these were not finally pressed, and were 
never allowed, and several years afterwards the plaintiff died 
and the action was " dismissed without costs." 

In the autumn of 1883, Mr. Endicott returned from Europe 
and resumed the practice of law. Shortly afterwards he was 
retained as general counsel of the New England Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, which position he held for many years. 

Originally a Whig in politics, he voted for Taylor and Fill- 
more in 1848, and for Bell and Everett in 1860, and since 
those days always supported the Democratic party. 

In 1884 he was nominated by the Democratic Convention 
at Worcester as its candidate for Governor of the Common- 
wealth, with the Hon. James S. Grinnell of Greenfield as 
candidate for Lieutenant-Governor. The letter informing him 
of his unanimous nomination says : " This action of the Con- 
vention is a merited recognition of your life-long devotion to 
Democratic principles — your fidelity to all the public trusts 
you have assumed, and the dignity, honor, and rectitude 
that has always marked your intercourse with your fellow- 
men." At first he refused the nomination, but finally, much 
against his will, accepted it with the [understanding that he 
should not take the stump, though he did make one speech 
during the campaign. The Democratic party of Massachu- 
setts at that time had become tinged with Butlerism, and it 
was thought by the conservative men of the party that the 
nomination of a man like Mr. Endicott, who had never been 
closely allied in any way with the machine, would be an advan- 
tage to the Cleveland ticket ; but Massachusetts was a strong 
Republican State, and, as was expected, he failed to be elected. 
Undoubtedly his prominence as candidate for Governor brought 
him to the attention of Mr. Cleveland, and in February, 1885, 



12 

Mr. Cleveland sent for Mr. Endicott to come to Albany, when 
he offered him a place in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 
After due consideration, he accepted it, and his career in the 
War Department, as Secretary of War, during the four years 
of Mr. Cleveland's administration is now a matter of history. 
During his term, the times were peaceful and the routine of 
the War Department under such circumstances is more or less 
the same in each administration. 

A great deal of trouble with the Indians had been brewing, 
and bloodshed was avoided in Colorado and New Mexico by 
supplying certain necessities to them. The last of the great 
Indian fights, the Apache Indian War, was ended by the sur- 
render of the Apache Indians under Geronimo. Many public 
buildings and monuments were erected, the business methods 
of the department were simplified, and favoritism in the army 
was to a great extent broken up, at least as far as it could be 
under existing conditions. The Record and Pension Division 
of the Surgeon-General's office, which had been in great con- 
fusion, was thoroughly re-organized. 

*' A Board on Fortification and other Defences," known as 
the '' Endicott Board," of which Mr. Endicott was chairman, 
was created by an act of Congress dated March 3, 1885. The 
work of the Board was long and laborious, and outlined the 
policy of the Government in regard to defences for the cities, 
coasts, and harbors of the country. The coast defences of the 
present day, for which Congress has made such large appro- 
priations, are the result of the recommendations of this Board. 

On May 7, 1900, the Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of War, 
issued General Orders No. 69 to the Army, announcing the 
death of Mr. Endicott as follows: — 

* * It is with great sorrow that the Secretary of War announces the 
death of Honorable William Crowninshield Endicott, which occurred 
at Boston, Massachusetts, yesterday, the 6th instant. 

" Mr. Endicott was a direct descendant of Governor John Endicott, 
who for nearly a quarter of a century (1641-1665) was at the head of 



13 

Massachusetts Colony. He was graduated at Harvard in 1847, and 
entering upon the profession of law, soon reached a high rank at the 
har. He held various public offices from time to time until 1873, 
when he was appointed to the bench of the Supreme Court of Massa- 
chusetts. This office he held for ten years, until compelled to resign 
on account of ill health. Upon the installation of President Cleveland 
on the 4th of March, 1885, Mr. Endicott was called to his cabinet as 
Secretary of War, a position which, though foreign to his training, he 
immediately rendered conspicuous by strict attention to duty and a 
keen interest in the army and its requirements. He remained at the 
head of the department during the entire period of President Cleve- 
land's first administration. He initiated many important reforms 
which, pressed to successful conclusion, enabled him to maintain un- 
diminished that high standard of integrity for which the Department 
of War has ever been distinguished." 

On his return to Massachusetts in 1889, he resumed his 
profession, and was counsel iji several prominent cases; but he 
never took up the active work of his earlier years, and only 
accepted a few of the most important cases which came to 
him. 

In 1867, Mr. Endicott was one of nine trustees named by 
George Peabody of London in his letter of " Gift and Instru- 
ment of Trust," accompanying a large donation for " The Pro- 
motion of Science and Useful Knowledge in the County of 
Essex." Francis Peabody of Salem was chosen the first Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees, and Mr. Endicott, Vice-Presi- 
dent. Mr. Peabody died in the autumn of 1867, and on April 
13, 1868, the name was changed by the Legislature to the 
" Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science." Mr. Endi- 
cott was chosen its second President, and held that office until 
his resignation in 1897. 

On October 7, 1891, Mr. Endicott was unanimously chosen 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Charles 
Devens as one of the Trustees of the Peabody Education 
Fund, and at the same meeting was appointed a member of 
the Executive Committee with ex-President Hayes, the Hon. 



14 

James D. Porter, Chief-Justice Fuller, the Hon. William A. 
Courtnay, with the chairman the Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, Ex'Officio. On April 6, 1897, he resigned from this 
Board. 

He always took a deep interest in the welfare of Harvard 
College, and was elected a member of the Board of Overseers 
from 1875 to 1876, from 1876 to 1882, and from 1883 to 1889. 
In 1885, he resigned as a member of the Board of Overseers 
for the reason that he had been chosen a Fellow of the Cor- 
poration in June, 1884. On Commencement Day, 1882, the 
degree of LL.D. " was conferred upon him in glad recogni- 
tion of his attainments, station, and influence." On Septem- 
ber 24, 1895, he resigned from the corporation, which passed 
the following resolutions : — 

" The Board desire to record their sense of the high value of Judge 
Endicott's service to the University, and their regret at losing his sup- 
port in the discharge of their trust. He brought to the service of the 
University an honored name, professional distinction, and a high, 
reputation in the community for impartiality, dignity, and firmness. 

" The Members of the Board will greatly miss at their meetings not 
only these rare personal possessions, but also his sincere friendliness 
and the charm of his courteous, cordial manners." 

Thus ended his professional and political career. 

On December 13, 1859, Mr. Endicott was married to his 
cousin, Ellen Peabody, daughter of George and Clara Endicott 
Peabody, of Salem. Two children were born — William 
Crowninshield Endicott, on September 28, 1860, and Mary 
Crowninshield Endicott, on March 15, 1864. The former 
married, on October 3, 1889, Marie Louise Thoron, and the 
latter married, on November 15, 1888, Rt. Hon. Joseph Cham- 
berlain, M. P., of Birmingham, England. 

The greater part of his life was spent in Salem, where he 
lived until 1894, when he moved to Danvers, and passed a 
large portion of the year upon his place in that town. He 



15 

visited Europe several times during this period, but soon with- 
drew from the active world and led a retired life until his 
death occurred. 

As he entered manhood, he was thrown upon his own 
resources, and early felt the necessity of active work as a means 
of livelihood. Could he have led a life free from drudgery, 
his taste and inclinations would have made it possible for him 
to have devoted his time to literature and public affairs. He 
had a natural bent for politics, particularly in his early life, 
and nothing but his profession prevented him from taking an 
active part in them. Once absorbed in his professional life, 
there was time for nothing else. His addresses, such as those 
delivered in 1867 upon the opening of the Peabody Academy 
of Science in Salem, and in 1878 upon the 250th Anniversary 
of the settlement of Salem, were graceful, showed learning and 
" refined and severe " taste in his use of language. 

He always stood for what was best, and was consistently 
firm, impartial, dignified, and just. He had righteous con- 
tempt for anything that was mean or unworthy, and held those 
standards which belong to the higher type of a New England 
man. 

He was well read, with a knowledge of books which made 
him a charming companion. His library, which he had grad- 
ually accumulated, showed him to be well versed in law, 
history, biographies, political economy, poetry (for which he 
had an unusual perception and appreciation), and the standard 
works of fiction. 

It has been often said that he was born to be a judge, and 
he certainly filled that office with dignity, patience, honor, 
and ability. At a recent meeting of the Bar of the Common- 
wealth, called by the Bar Association of the City of Boston, 
many flattering tributes were paid to his memory by Bench 
and Bar alike. The Hon. Richard Olney, who had been a 
lifelong friend of his, said : — 



16 

" Judge Endicott was always and everywhere the gentleman. He 
was so not merely in manner and by an uncommon elegance of deport- 
ment, but through an innate sense of justice and a natural love of fair 
play, which made him no respecter of persons, and made the humblest 
suitor in his court sure of an impartial hearing and secure in every just 
claim. The combination of such traits with the knowledge and wisdom 
derived from constant study of the law and its application to the prac- 
tical affairs of life made Judge Endicott approach the ideal of a judge 
as nearly as the lot of humanity will permit." 

In appearance he waa tall and striking. With dignity and 
repose of bearing, and with unusual charm of manner, he 
attracted all with whom he came in contact. Democratic and 
simple in his tastes, he made lasting friends among all classes. 
He firmly believed, in the words of Tennyson, which he often 
quoted : — 

" Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control, 
These three alone lead life to sovereign power. 
Yet not for power (power of herself 
Would come uncalled for) but to live by law, 
Acting the law we live by without fear ; 
And, because right is right, to follow right 
Were wisdom in the scorn of consequence." 



I 



SUMMARY. 



Nov. 19, 1826. 

July 1, 1827. 
April 19, 1837. 

March 13, 1838. 
Aug. 28, 1843. 
Aug. 25, 1847. 



1847-1849. 
May 8, 1848. 



Sept. 10, 1849. 
Sept. 13, 1850. 



Nov. term, 1850. 

1850-1873. 
1852-1853. 



Born at Salem. Son of William Putnam and 
Mary Crowninshield Endicott. 

Baptized William Gardner Endicott. 

Name changed by a special Act of the Legislature 
to William Crowninshield Endicott. 

Mother, Mary Crowninshield Endicott, died. 

Entered Harvard College. 

Received degree of A.B. from Harvard College. 
In the order of exercises No. 10, delivered 
a Disquisition " Public Honors in Different 
Ages." 

Studied law in the office of Nathaniel J. Lord. 

Commission signed by Gov. George N. Briggs as 
1st Lieutenant in the 6th Regiment of Light 
Infantry in the 4th Brigade, 2d Division of the 
Militia of the Commonwealth (elected April 29, 
1848). 

Entered Harvard Law School, and was there during 
year 1849-1850. 

Commission signed by Gov. George N. Briggs as 
Captain in the 6th Regiment of Light Infantry 
in the 4th Brigade, 2d Division of the Militia of 
the Commonwealth (elected Sept. 9, 1850 ; re- 
signed Jan. 29, 1852). 

Admitted as attorney and counsellor-at-law at 
Essex County Bar. 

Practised law in Salem. 

Member of Salem Common Council. 



18 



1853. 

Oct. 16, 1854. 

1857. 

Jan. 25, 1857. 

1858-1864. 

1858-1868. 

Oct. 12, 1858. 

Dec. 18, 1859. 

Sept. 28, 1860. 
Nov. 13, 1860. 

1861-1900. 
1864-1875. 
March 15, 1864. 
April 14, 1864. 

Nov. 6, 1866, 
Nov. 5, 1867, 

Nov. 3, 1868. 
1867-1868. 



1868-1897. 



Nov. 8, 1870. 



March 5, 1873. 



March 8, 1873. 

1875-1876. 
1876-1882. 
June 28, 1882. 



Formed co-partnership with Jairus Ware Perry 

under firm name of " Perry & Endicott." 
Admitted as attorney and counsellor-at-law in the 

Circuit Court of the United States, at Boston. 
Member of Salem Common Council. 
Elected President of Salem Common Council. 
President of Salem Bank. 
City Solicitor of Salem. 
Elected Honorary Member of the Phi Beta Kappa 

Alpha Society of Massachusetts. 
Married Ellen Peabody, daughter of George and 

Clara (Endicott) Peabody, of Salem. 
Son, William Crowuiushield Endicott, born. 
Elected Honorary Member of the Salem Light 

Infantry. 
Trustee of Salem Savings Bank. 
President of Salem National Bank. 
Daughter, Mary Crowninshield Endicott, born. 
Elected Besident Member of the Massachusetts 

Historical Society. 

Ran as Democratic Candidate for Attorney-General. 

Vice-President Board of "Trustees for the Pro- 
motion of Science and Useful Knowledge in the 
County of Essex.*' 

President of the Board of " Trustees of the Peabody 
Academy of Science" at Salem. 

Ran for 42d Congress in oth District as Democratic 
Candidate, against Benjamin F. Butler, Repub- 
lican. 

Commission as Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, signed by Gov. William B. 
Washburn. 

Took oath of office before Gov. William B. Wash- 
burn. 

Elected Overseer of Harvard College. 



u 



u 



<i 



Received degree of LL.D from Harvard Col- 



lege. 



19 



Oct. 25, 1882. 

1883-1889. 

1884-1897. 
May 20, 1884. 

June 9, 1884. 



June 18, 1884. 



Sept. 3, 1884. 



Oct. 20, 1884. 

Nov. 4, 1884. 

Jan. 26, 1885. 

1885-1900. 
March 6, 1885. 

March 11, 1888. 
1888-1890. 

Nov. 15, 1888. 

March 5, 1889. 

Oct. 3, 1889. 
Oct. 25, 1889. 

Oct. 7, 1891. 



Resignation as Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts accepted. 

Elected Overseer of Harvard College. Resigned 
April 15, 1885. 

Trustee of Groton School. 

Chosen a Fellow of the Corporation of Harvard 
College. 

Elected Counsel of the New England Mutual 
Life Insurance Company (resigned July 14, 
1897). 

Confirmed by Board of Overseers as Fellow of the 
Corporation of Harvard College (resigned Sept. 
24, 1895). 

Nominated at Worcester as Democratic Candidate 
for Governor of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts with the Hon. James S. Grinnell as 
candidate for Lieutenant-Governor. 

Elected member of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation. 

Defeated as candidate for governor by the Hon. 
George D. Robinson. 

Elected Director of the New England Mutual Life 
Insurance Company (resigned July 14, 1897). 

Member of the Saturday Club. 

Appointed Secretary of War by President Cleve- 
land. 

Father, William Putnam Endicott, died. 

President of the Alumni Association of Harvard 
College. 

Daughter married Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, 
M. P., of Birmingham, England. 

Resignation as Secretary of War accepted by Presi- 
dent Harrison. 

Son married Marie Louise Thoron. 

Appointed member of the Committee on Supreme 
Court Centennial Celebration. 

Appointed trustee on the part of the Commonwealth 
of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary 
(resigned Jan. 31, 1896). 



20 



1892-1894. 
Feb. 18, 1893. 

May 6, 1900. 

May 9, 1900. 



First president of the University Club, of Boston. 

Elected member of the Colonial Society of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Died at his winter residence in Boston (163 Marl- 
borough Street). 

Funeral services from his late residence in Boston. 
Burial at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, 
Massachusetts. 



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