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Socrates was of genuine Attic extraction. He spoke of him* 
sel^ sportively, perhaps, as belonging to the family of the Dseda- 
lidae of mythical renown, since his father Sophroniscus, by his 
devotion to the profession of a statuary, proved himself a loyal suc- 
cessor of the founder of the family, Daedalus.* His mother, Phse- 
narete, was a midwife, as her son reminds us, by comparing his 
own relation to the mind with hers to the body.f She seems, 
however, to have been a woman of excellent character, and of 
many noble qualities.^ The quiet, unostentatious home of these 
parents was in the suburbs of Athens, northwest of the Acropo- 
lis, in the borough Alopece, near Cjoiosarges (White-dog-town), 
where the school of the Cynics was held, and not very far from 
Mount Lycabettus, probably identical with the present hill of St. 

* Plato. Eathyph. 11. B. G. : ToD tifier^pov wpoy6you, i E^^/>oy. 
iout€p fTyoi l^euZd^Qv tit &ith aov Xwy6fi§pfu Gf, also Alcib. I. 121. A. 

f G£ Plato^ Theaetetufl^ p. 149. A and 151. A In the latter passage 
he MtyB: nd^ovvi di M^* ol ifuii ^yyyiyv6fuy9i koI rovro ralnhp roii 
Turrod^oit, icr.X. 

I TheaetetuB^ pu 149. A. 


George. A competence, tHough no superabundance of this world't 
goods, had been t}ie result of their industry. • 

About the year 469, and early in the year, in March or April, 
a son ^vas bom in this retired cottage. No special prognostics, 
as far as we know, heralded his birth, no prodigies signalized his 
boyhood, and yet he was destined to be the most remarkable 
man, perhaps, that the world has ever seen. When of a suitable 
age, he was sent to the schools of his native district, where he was 
taught in the usual departments of learning then thought necea- 
sary, music, poetry, and g;^nastic exercises. Of his attainments in 
the two former arts, we see no special indication in his subsequent 
life ; and yet we hesitate not to believe, from his general charac- 
ter, that he fell not a whit behind his compeers, if he did not far 
excel them. His success in the training of his physical nature, 
we shall frequently have occasion to allude to in the subsequent 
pages. He also received instruction in the art of his father, which 
was probably supposed to be the profession most suited to his 
capacities, as well as to his birth. And he would doubtless have 
become world-renowned even there, if he had not been allured 
away to a higher sphere of exertion ; for we are credibly informed, 
that in addition to other' works carved by his hand, a draped 
statue of the Three Graces, which would necessarily require no 
small degree of skill in the use of the chisel, was thought worthy 
of a place in the Acropolis at Athens, near the Minerva of the 
master-sculptor, Phidias.* 

Crito, a wealthy Athenian, in some way, perhaps, attracted 
to the studio of the artist by his love of the creations of the art, 
seems to have taken a fancy for the uncouth figure of the boy, as 
he bent over the half-formed mass of stone before him. ^ Come," 
said he, ^ leave this thoughtless, senseless mass, and these walls 
that imprison the free spirit, and go with me and learn something 
better." How long the good father was in yielding to this offer 
80 unexpected, we know not ; but sure we are, that the heart of 

* This group was preserved and exhibited as the work of Bocratec 
until the time of Pausaniasi See Pans, I. 22. 8 ; IX. 85. 2. 


the son leaped within him at the prospect of a life of cnltnre and 
intellectual growth. At all events, the consent of the parents 
was finally obtained, for we have evidence that he made con- 
siderable progress in early life in physics, which he himself 
says he iiad a fondness for,* although afterward, when he had 
attained to better things, he looked upon them with some con- 
tempt, or at least without any very strong feeling in their favor ;f 
60 true is it, that in the joy of the attainment of a desired object, 
the thousand little, or it may be important aids therein, are for- 
gotten or nearly lost sight>o£ 

Several teachers come in for iheir sLare of the honor or dis- 
honor of his early training. According to Ion of Chios, an un- 
impeached contemporary witness, he accompanied the physical 
philosopher Archelaus from Athens to Samos, in order to avail 
himself of his instructions, and there is little question that he was 
for a time also the pupil of Anaxagoras. The Parmenides of 
Plato, doubtless, gives us a true picture of the zeal and enthusiasm 
of the young scholar in his attendance upon Parmenides and 
Zeno, during his earliest efforts to acquire a knowledge of the 
process of dialectics as pursued by them. Indeed, the natural 
curiosity of his mind seems to have urged him, now that the 
liberality of his patron had given him the means, to pursue 
eagerly every branch of knowledge then accessible. 

The degree of satis&ction that physical science, as pursued in 
the age of Socrates, would give to an original and discriminating 
mind, was, it must be confessed, very small The opposing 
dogmas, the obscurity, the confusion, the chaos in which rival 
sects had enveloped all nature, seem to have been too much even 
For his keen penetration. This we should hardly have expected. 

* Plato, Pbaedo. p^ 96. A where he says: ri^or Av ^eoffiaffr&s At iw9 
^v/iTiaa raunif r^r ao^las V 5^ KOkova-i w§pi ^^cwf laropimp, jctA.^ 
The earae thing is implied in Mem. IV. 7. 8 sq. : koItoi ovk iTtip6t y 
tAr&w ^r. 

t Mem. IV. 7. 6 ; L 1. 11 sq., and Grote, Vol VIIL p. 672. See alio 
lye&sen'B Diaaertation TTcber. d. Prozeee d. Sokratea^ in Bibliothek d. Alt 
lit XL Kunst Ist 8t p. 48. 


Some struggling rays of light, we should have supposed, would 
have met his eager gaze into the depths, and saved him from 
wholly discarding this kind of knowledge, ^ut no ; even in the 
maturity of his powers, he classed the working of the machinery 
of nature among those things which the gods had designed to be 
kept from the knowledge of mortals, and as a secret, the attempt 
to pry into which would not only prove nugatory, but would be 
punished as impious.* Yet, as we have before intimated, these 
efforts of the youth were not lost in their influence upon the 
character of the man. 

Dissatisfied with the study of Physics, Socrates naturally 
turned his thoughts to' more purely speculative the mes, and to 
moral relations and duties. Even his teacher, Archelaus, might 
have aided in 'directing his attention to these subjects, by his dis- 
cussions upon the foundations of justice, and upon the effect of 
law. But the instructions of Parmenides and Zeno are unmi»- 


Precisely when Socrates deserted his father's workshop, or 
how long a time he devoted to study before he became a ^ public 
talker,^ is uncertain. He probably came into his position gradu- 
ally, as his own views became more settled, and his knowledge 
of the errors and defects of those who professed to be teachers, and 
of the questionings and wants of those who frequented public 
places, were by degrees revealed to him. He, however, is sup- 
posed to have devoted himself to the main object of his mission 
when about thirty years of age. After that time, about 530 B. C, 
he was generally to be found in some public place in the city, 
with his little company of adherents, and those strangers and 
curious persons who had been allured into his society by the fame 
that had gone abroad concerning him. The external appearance 

• Mem. I. 1. 7 sq. ; TV. 7. 6. 

t Cf 6rot«^ vol viil 668 and 478. 



of the man was certainly noticeable, although not altogether 
attractive. Indeed, his uncomely exterior was ahnost proverbial. 
He was compared to a satyr or silenus,* and his prominent eyes, 
scarcely parted by the low ridge of the nose, his dilated nostrils, 
wide mouth, and thick lips, low and protuberant %ure, and awk- 
ward movement,! were thought a siifficient ground for jests ^nd 
merriment even among his friends. Neither did his soiled and 
worn garments, and bare feet without regard to the season, add 
to his personal attractions. The pale face which Aristophanes 
attributes to him could not certainly be indicative of infim health, 
for *' his physical constitution,'' says Grote, ^ was healthy, robust, 
and enduring to an extraordinary degree. He was not merely 
strong and active as an hoplite on military service, but capable 
of bearing &tigue or hardship, and indifferent to heat or cold to 
a degree which astonished all his companions." { 

The natural temper of Socrates seems not to have been 
without some acerbity, but his habit of self'<x>ntrol enabled him 
generally, at least, to keep it in complete subjection. Indeed, 
the one great principle of his life, after he had devoted himself to 
the instruction of others, was to reduce as much as possible all 
his desires and appetites. His diet and regimen was all made to 
conform to this, in order that his time might be the more at his 
disposal, for the benefit of his fi^ends and country : thus, when 
Antiphon objects to his philosophy, that it does not enable him 
to Hve freely and generously, and that the legitimate result of his 
teachings to men would be misery, he replies : " Men rejoice when 
they are prosperous in their respective pursuits ; but how much 
greater is the delight that I have in conscious advancement in 
virtue, and in aiding others therein." And, in conclusion : *^ I 
suppose that to want nothing is godlike (Stiov), lyid to want very 
HtUe is to be most nearly related to the gods ; and the divine is 
most excellent, and that which is nearest to deity is best" § 

• Plat Symp. 215. A 
f Encyclopaedia Britannica, Art Socrates. 
X See Grote*s Oreeoe^ viiL p. 646, 547, 562L 
i Hem. L 6. 8 eq. 

vm introduction:. 

We are not, however, to conclude that he had so entirely pot 
off the character of his age and nation, as never to relax the 
rigidity of his life. On festal occasions, whether religious or 
secular, the viands and the wine were not I^s grateful to him 
than to others, yet he was ^careful never to cast the reins -of desire 
wholly upon the neck of his appetites ; self-command he was 
careful never to lose.* 

The life of Socrates, with some few interruptions, which will 
be hereafter alluded to, seems to have passed on in an even 
tenor, which was the great object of his seeking. Early in the 
morning he was to be found in the public walks, and in tlie 
places set apart for the physical and intellectual training^f the 
young. He went thence to the market-place, where he remained 
as long as the crowd set in that direction. He then passed the 
remainder of the day wherever he supposed he should fall in with 
the most of his fellow-citizens. And his biographer adds signifi- 
cantly : he was talking for the most part,f and that not privately, 
but all who wished, "sophists, miUtary men, artisans, ambi- 
tious or studious youths," all were permitted to listen to him. 
" He visited all persons of interest in the city, male or female. 
His friendship with Aspasia is well known ; and one of the most 
interesting chapters of Xenophon^s Memorabilia recounts his visit 
to and dialogue with Theodote, a beautiful Hetasra or female 
companion.'^! He himself says in his Apology, as given us by 
Plato : " To all yoimg or old who have desired to know of my 
words or actions, I have exhibited them ; I have not spoken for 
money, nor kept silent for want of it ; but I have freely permitted 
any who wished, the poor as well as the rich, to question me, 
and hear my answers." He also-tleclares that he had spoken his 
sentiments without reserve to all. ^ If any one," he says, " avers 
that he has ever been taught any thing by me, or heard me say 

* See the SjmposioD of Plato and Xenophon, and ct Grote, vol. « iiu 

f Memorab. I. 1, 10 : IXcyc fi^y &s rh %o\v. 

X See Mem. II. 6. 86; III. 11. 1 sq. ; and Grote's Greece^ viu. 655 


any thing in private which I have not declared openly, be assured 
that he does not speak the truth.* 

Socrates was always attended in public by ^ companions oi 
listeners " more or less numerous, who were known by the citi« 
sens generally as disciples or scholars. But he and his personal 
friends never designated the relation between them and himself 
by ** teacher " and " pupil " or disciple. He would thus not only 
have been confounded with the professed teachers of the time, 
who were accustomed to make pecuniary gain from their instruc- 
tion, but the general and pubHc character of his teaching would 
have he&k marred, as many would have hesitated to isten to 
him, ^r appear among lus auditors, if they were, as a conse- 
quence, to be termed "^ disciples of Socrates."! 


When thirty-seven or thirty-eight years of age, near the be- 
ginning of the Feloponnesian war, Socrates, in obedience to the 
call of- his country, enrolled himself as a footnsoldier, and marched 
with the army into Thrace, to aid in reclaiming the colony at 
Potidsea, who had revolted, and were sustained in their revolt by 
many of the Peloponnesians. We may suppose that Socrates did 
not unwillingly gird on his armor at this time, if war was neces- 
sary. It brought him into close contact with many of the young 
men, whom he would influence, and also gave him an opportu- 
ni^ to put to the test, and make a public exhibition o^ some of his 
principles of action. The siege took place in the midst of a 
Thracian winter, and yet Socrates walked barefoot over snow and 
ice in his usual summer-clothitig, and conducted himself with so 
much bravery, that he was thought worthy of a prize ; which 
he, however, generously yielded to his young friend Alcibiades, 
whose life he had saved in battle, as an inducement for him to 
strive for future promotion.^ Many anecdotes are related of hii 

• Apol 83, B. 

t Mem. L 2. 6 ; L 6. 18 ; and Grote's Hist, vol. viii p. 666, '6. 
X Plate Symppa p. 219, EL 


conduct during this expedition, which are at least characteristic, 
as great a recommendation as could be bestowed upon a large 
share of those told of the great men of every age.* 

About six years later, in 424 B. C, Socrates t^as present and 
took part in the battle at. Delium ; and if all of the Athenians 
had exerted themselves as much and fought as bravely as Socrates, 
the Boeotians would doubtless have been vanquished, instead of 
erecting trophies over their antagonists.! 

Two or three years later, when nearly fifty years old, Socrates 
again engaged in miUtary service for die third and last time. 
Advancing age had not yet so chilled his blood as .to cause him 
to shrink from exposure to the inclemency of a Thracian winter, 
or so damped his ardor as to incline him to forego personal dan- 
ger when the rights of Athens were in jeopardy. 

While' Socrates was on his second military expedition, or at 
least during that year 424, the Clouds of Aristophanes was exhi- 
bited on the stage ; and however misapplied, the keen wit and 
biting satire of this play should seem to have been too much for 
even the imperturbable philosopher to receive with composure, 
for twenty-five years afterwards, when he pleads his cause before 
the dikastery, he goes back to this as the fountain-head of the 
accusations against him, and spends most of his time in show- 
ing its injustice. 


In all probability, Socrates remained unmarried until aft^r 
these military expeditions had been made, and his rigid habits of 
life had become fixed. It might seem that Xantippe had no 
great reputation for sweetness of temper before her marriage with 
Socrates, for when AntLsthenes asks him why he did not bring 
the influence which he exerted so powerfully in correcting and 

* It is said that he oooe stood for tweDty-fonr hours on the same spot 
before the camp, absorbed in deep thought^ with his eyes fixed on an ob 
Jee^ as if his soul were absent from his ho^j^-^Wigger^ JUfy Ch. 5. 

t Wiggera' Life, Ch. 5. 


forming others, to bear upon her, who, 8aj» he, ''is the wont 
woman of all that exist, nay, I believe, of all that ever have 
existed or ever will exist ;*' he replies, " I see that those who wish 
to become best skilled in horsemanship do not select the most 
'obedient but the most spirited horses ; for they believe that after 
being enabled to bridle these, they will know easily how to 
manage others. Now, as it was my wish to converse and to live 
with men, I have married this woman, being firmly convinced, 
that in case I should be able to endure her, I should be able to 
endure all others."* 

Yet we are inclined to think that this was an after-thought 
with him ; and we should not much censure perturbations of tem- 
per in l^r, for one who professed to marry for the promotion of 
public interests alone, who spent his whole day ji public, and 
brought home nothing, and, indeed, took no thought for domestic 
comfort, could not have contributed very much to the happiness 
of his family. His admonitions and advice to his son Lampro- 
cleSyf in respect to the treatment of his mother, are, however, 
certiiinly very good, and show some appreciation of what is due 
from a child even to a bad mother. Three children seem to have 
survived Socrates, for he says in his defence : ** I have three sons, 
the eldest of whom is yet a youth, and the other two mere 


Socrates ever exhiBi^ a strong attachment to his native land, 
and especially to Athens. He never left the city without good 
reasons. Even the country presented no allurements to him. In 
his view, man comprised all that was attractive in this vast and 
varied world of ours. When Phaedrus§ decoyed him out into 

* Xenophon's Synipo& H 10, as quoted by Wi^^n^ 
f Memorab. II, 2, 10 sq. 
i Apology, p. 84, r 
4P. 280, D. 


wood« and fields, and reproached him for never going beyond th« 
walls of the city, he says, " Pardon me, my excellent friend ; for I 
am a lover of learning ; now the fields and trees will not teach 
me any thing, but men in the city do." 

Not even the most flattering invitations from the princes of 
other nations had charms suflScient to withdraw him from Athens, 
where, he says, *^ Four measures of flour are sold for one obolus, 
the springs yield plenty of water, and I live contented with what 
I possess.* He occasionally, however, took a short journey, as to 
tlio Athenian games or to Delphi, and perhaps once went to 
@amos with his teacher Archelaus.f 

Notwithstanding his regard for his native city, and the fre- 
quent inculcation of the obligation resting upon every ^e-who 
was fitted for it, to aid in the administration of the affairs of the 
State, and the honor and happiness of a life of public service, he 
uniformly resisted the urgent solicitations of his friends in this 
particular, until, when sixty-five years of age, If^ once accepted the 
appointment of senator. This refusal of all public office was- 
made the subject of reproach against him by Antiphon. How 
is it, said he, that you attempt to make others politicians, whilst 
you do not yourself engage in political life, if^ indeed, you know 
any thing about it In which way, Socrates replies, can I accom- 
plish most for the State, by myself alone accepting office, or by 
exerting myself to fit as many others as possible for these duties^ 
In this we have the key to his conduct His desire was to exert 
an influence, as private citizen, over the young, and those who 
were coming forward into political life; «nd it was doubtless 
through this persuasion that the influence of his ** familiar spirit, 
the divine voice," was exerted ; to which he attributes, in the 
Apology of Plato, his refusal to enter into civil life. That he 
could not have exerted the influence that he desired if he had not 

* Diog. iL 25 ; Arbt Rhet iL 28 ; Cie. Tnsc; v. 12 ; Epictetu^ FragoL 
1*74, ed. Schweig. 

t Wiggers* Lifc^ chap, t., foot note. 
\ Mem. I. 6. 15. 


remained in a priyate station, he expressly arerS) and adduces his 
reasons in his apology.* 

The manner in which he would have performed the duties 
of magistrate, and the result to his influence, is very apparent 
from his short experience. Soon after his appointment to the 
senate, an occasion offered to test his firmness in adhering to 
his oath of office. After the hattle at the Arginusse, the gene- 
rals in command did not, as was supposed, exert themselves suffi- 
ciently to rescue the dead for burial. They were accordingly 
arraigned, and would have been forthwith conde^aned to death 
in a body, which was contrary to law, if Socrates had not stood 
up alone, in opposition to the people, and refused to put the vote. 
** I protested," he says, ^ against your decree, and notwithstanding 
all your menaces and outcries, and the orators who were standing 
ready to bring an accusation against me, I thought it necessary 
to expose myself to peril, rather than to yield to you in the per- 
petration of injustice."! 

He also adduces one other incident which occurred while the 
Thirty were in office, which shows his unwavering adherence to 
the right amidst the greatest inducements to a contrary course. 
They with evil intent had ordered Socrates with four others to 
bring Leon from Salamis, in order to put him to deatli. The 
others obeyed the tyrants, but Socrates says : " I made known to 
them, both in word and deed, that (if it be not too harsh an ex- 
pression), I did not care at all for death, provided I did nothing 
unjust or unholy, which was the great object of my solicitude ;" 
and he adds, *^ The great authority of the government did not in- 
fluence me to violate my sense of right. . • . But I went 
away home, and not improbably my life would have been taken, 
if that form of gotemment had not soon been abrogated."! 

• P. 81, C. 

f Apol. 82, R, and also Mem. I. 1. 18. 

X Apolog. 82. C D. ; Memorab. iv. i. 8. 



The life of Socrates as public discourser must have continued 
about thirty years. Thirty years diligently and perseveringly 
passed in indiscriminate conversation and dialectic subtleties I 
Surely something must have been accomplished during this long 
period of service, and something more than has reached us 
through the medium of his biographers. But the close of these 
labors, — how sad and disgraceful to the Athenians ! It does not^ 
at first, appear possible, that they who were Inost tolerant of dissen- 
tient opinion and speech, did actually condemn to death their great- 
est benefactor, and the greatest uninspired bene&ctor of the race 
of man. ^ It should seem tliat there must be some mistake in the 
records of the affair. But no ; the chain of testimony is un- 
broken, and caft not be gainsayed. But what are the circum- 
stances leading to the fatal result ? No special^occasion seems to 
have been given by him for reproach during the last years of his 
life more than during the preceding. Indeed, he appears in his 
apology to trace back the accusation to the early part of his 
career, and to indicate clearly what he supposes to be the ground 
of it, his attempts to convict men of their want of wisdom. 

It may not be amiss to give a little more at length the 
causes of the hatred of the Athenians to their great benefactor. 
It was no one individual act of his life that had caused the public 
indignation to descend upon his devoted head, but, as Grote says, 
^ The accumulated force of antipathy — ^ihe numerous and impor^ 
tant personal enemies, each with sympathizing pardzans — the 
longstanding and imcontradicted calumnies'' which had been 
promulgated against him. 

I. All of the Sophists, the teachers of .the age, would be op- 
posed to him, since he by precept and example discountenanced 
what he considered their mercenary spirit in teaching for pay. 
Many of them in this way amassed large fortunes, and the feeling 
'fef the times seems to be embodied in the lines of Aristophanes :* 

» Clond^ 98, 99. 


"These are they 
Who can show pleaders how to twist a canse^ 
80 you'll pay them for it, right or wrong." 

But Xenophon says, '' Socrates did not take pay of those who 
came to him for instruction. But by abstaining from this he be* 
tieved that he was ensuring his own freedom ; and he was accus- 
tomed to stigmatize those who received a compensation for services 
of thb kind as enslavers of themselves."* In the Apology of 
Plato, he also says : If it has been asserted by any one that I have 
fltt myself up as a teacher of men, and received pay therefor, it 
IB utterly £alse^f 

He also brought their manner of teaching, as well as the ob- 
jects of their instruction, into disrepute. The Sophists were 
accustomed to display in dress and equipage, and to make great 
pretensions to ability in teaching. They also communicated 
their thoughts in lofty words. Socrates, on the contrary, was not 
only himself most simple and unpretending in these particulars, 
but spoke with contempt of the opposite couise of procedure.^ 

2. He likewise offended many of those who joined themselves 
to him as disciples and engaged in conversation with him. His 
professed design was to converse with all of the most distinguished 
men of his time, and by cross-questiomng, not only to show tliem 
their ignorance, but to oblige them to confess it ; and his success 
in this, by means of his skill in dialectics, was unfailing. Now it 
is not in the nature of man to see all of his cherished thoughts 
turned into ridicule, and himself the object of the severest sarcasm, 
and the most open and unqualified derision, however beneficial 
it may be, without some feeling of dislike for the author ; espe- 
cially when there is discrimination enough to perceive that there 
is at least a degree of sophistry employed in accomplishing the 
object Thus Xenophon, after giving an account of the manner 
VI which Socrates corrected the false estimate which Euthydemus. 

* Memorab. L 2. 6. 
t P. 19, D. K 
X Mem. 1. 1. 11. 


a mere youth, had of his own ability to enter political life without 
further training, says : Many of those who were thus treated by 
Socrates, no longer desired his society, and were considered by 
him as dunces ; but Euthydemus suppo^d that one could in nc 
other way become worthy of renown, than by associating as much 
as possible with Socrates.* 

3. lie also did not approre himself to those who discarded 
all advancement and progress in government, religion, and cul- 
ture. The crime of innovation should seem to have been early 
alleged against him, and reiterated during his whole publi^ 
career ; and it was only from these early and continued calumnies 
that he felt himself in any danger. He says : "^ My first accusers 
are more, to be regarded than Anytus and his accomplices, be- 
cause, being numerous and well agreed among themselves, they 
have addressed many of you from youth up, and have falsely per- 
suaded you that I discard the worship of the gods, and persuade 
others to follow in my steps.'*f These calumnies were first publicly 
disseminated when Aristophanes exhibited his comedy, the Clouds. 
In this comedy, Socrates, in connection with Chserephon, is held 
up to the most unsparing ridicule, and all the follies and mis- 
deeds of the Sophists are embodied under this appellation. Errors 
which he had long before publicly discarded, and severely re- 
proved as practised by the Sophists, he is ma^e accountable for. 
It is also worthy of note, that the points in the final accusation 
are precisely the same that are made conspicuous by the come- 
dian — atheism and the corruption of the youth.| 

4. His assumptions of superiority would naturally awaken 
the suspicion and jealousy of many, especially of the ignorant 
and ambitious. The response of the oracle at Delphi to Chaere- 
phon, that there was no wiser man than Socrates, and his recep* 
tion of that response, and claim of a special mission from the 
gods, as indicated by what was supposed to be the aid of hi^ 

* Memorab. IV. 2. 1 sq. esp. 40; and ct Grote, VIIL p. 604 
f ApoL 18. C. sq. 
X Aristoph. Clouds. 


gaiding spirit, would meet with little &Tor from those who had 
Been him in his work-«hop, or associated with him on terms of 
eqiudity. Thus he says: ''The calumnies that are heaped upon 
me have their foundation in a c^^in wisdom that^ possess."* 

5. His political views were offensive to many. He was not 
attached to the Athenian constitution in its practical hearings, 
although he as little approved of an oligarchy like that of the 
Thirty.f He even ridiculed some practices of the government ; 
as, for example, the manner of appointing rulers. Those were 
not legitimate rulers who held the sceptre, nor those who were 
appointed hy any and every hody, or who had received office hy 
lot, or obtained by force or deception, but those who knew how 
to rule.^ No one would be willing to trust his life to a pilot thus 
chosen, or to commit any important private interest to the 
management of those thus designated.§ And yet no one was' 
more rigidly observant of law.] Both Eridas and Alcibiades 
were adduced as examples of his pernicious political training.^ 

It is not, then, so strange as it might at first appear, that So- 
orates was arraigned before the tribunal that had in charge both 
the morals and religion of the Athenian community. The cla- 
mors o^ so many classes of citizens for so many years could 
scarcely pass unheeded. • The charges, too, were of a nature to 
arouse the Athenians, ever watchful over any defection from the 
national religion. We may, then, justly conclude that it was 
only the blameless life of Socrates, and the unparalleled liberality 
of Athens in respect to individual life and opinions, that shielded 
him so long from the enemies whom he had so often and severely 

The most trivial circumstance may have been sufficient to cause 
ihe smothered flames of anger to burst forth, and to recall the 

• ApoL 20. D. 

t Grote's Greece, Vm. p. 680. 

X Mem. m 9. 10 

§ Mem. IIL 9. 11 ; and L 2. 9. 

I Mem. lY. 4. 1 sq. ; and et Grote, YIIL 646. 

^ A sufficient defence of Socrates is found, Mem. L 2. 9 sq. 


aspersions of the comedians to recollection. And veiy little 
Vould probably have been enough to induce the leading iudivi- 
duab to set on foot the accusation, for Anytus was a personal 
enemy, becaus^ his son, tinctured with Socratic speculation, did 
not choose lo tread in his Other's steps, and aid in repairing a 
broken fortune by selling leather. The other two accusers, the 
one a poet and the other a rhetorician, were probably not per- 
suaded with difficulty to avenge their respective professions, 
which had suffered severely from the inquisitorial proceedings 
of Socrates. 


But how, as it is frequently asked by Xenophon, could the 
judges pronounce sentence of condemnation upon a man whose 
life and teachings were so pure ? He might have been arraigned 
in obedience to popular clamor ; but that his judges should so 
mistake the character of a man of so pubHc a life, in which no 
one could say that he had seen him doing, or heard him saying, 
any thing either impious or corrupting,* seems beyond compre- 
hension. But it should be considered, that that very assembly 
by whom he was judged, was made up of those citizens, so many 
of whom had been annoyed, vexed, even maddened, by his cross- 
questioning, rebuked for superstition, or offended by his desire for 
poUtical reform. 

The manner, also, in which he presented himself before them 
and conducted his defence, was not calculated to conciliate those 
before alienated, but rather to repel those who were indifferent o^* 
but moderately in his favor. He was himself not anxious what 
the result should be, life or death. He was conscious of a life 
of rectitude. He declares this to his' judges. He is now old, 
and can hope to accomplish but little more should life be pro- 
longed. Any anxiety, any effort to influence his judges, especi- 
ally after the prohibition of his guiding spirit, would be contrary 

• Uejfn. L 1. 20. 


to ^e whole ooune of his life.* In order not to seem to discahl 
the laws, and throw contempt upon the court ; not on his own 
account, but " on account of the Athenians, lest they, by con- 
demning him, should sin against the gracious blessing of the goda,'^f 
he deigned to defend himself against the accusation of disregard 
io the gods of his country, and that of corrupting the youth. But 
no one can read his defence, as found for substance in the Apo 
logy of Plato, and take all the circumstances into account, with* 
out astonishment that no laiger a majority than five or six in aq 
assembly of more than five hundred should have voted agains 
him.^ And yet who would wish that he had taken a differei]^ 
course ? Who does not feel, that in his last da3rs he exhibitei 
an elevation of character that ^shed double and triple lustr 
over his whole ]ife.''§ 

In the final result, the affixing of the deserved penalty upoi 
his crime, his course was not less honorable. According to th^ 
laws, he might name a penalty, between which and that of th| 
accuser, the judges were obliged to make a selection. Now, it 
cannct be doubted, that if he had in sincerity chosen to name 
fine, exile, or imprisonment, that would have been gladly ac- 
cepted. But instead of this, Socrates indignantly asks, ^ Afler 
all these crimes, what are my deserts ? Doubtless, Athenians, 
' if you proportion the reward to the merit, I deserve some con- 
siderable good. Now, what is it that is suitable for a poor man 
that is your benefactor, and wants leisure and opportunity for 
exciting and exhorting you ? Nothing suits better with such a 
man than to be entertained in the Prytanseum ; that is more 
due to him than to those of you that have brought off the tro- 
phies of victory from the horse and chariot races in the Olympic 

* Plat ApoL p. 28» K sq. 

f Plat ApoL p. 30; Mem. lY. 4. 4 ; and of. Grote, vol Yin. p. 651. 

I A{>o]. p. 86. A : baufid^m kKoeripw rw¥ ^^ttv t^v yryop^ra api^fU^, 
oi yhp ^fifiP l^)fe#7c o1h» jrap* 6Kiyo¥ ftrttrbcu, AK\ii Topk m\6* vvp 94 &t 
lwjc«y, «l Tpf IT fUreu fj^eriir^cow rtiv ^^^^r k-wvwt^tirpi &y. Cf. also I>i<^ 
laert. iL 41, quoted in Grote, vol. YIIL p. 647. Ct alw jk 654. 

g Grote, vol YDX p. 649. 


games. For these victors purchase you a seeming happiness 
by their victories ; but as for me, I make you really happy by 
mine. Besides, they stand not in need of such a supply ; but I 
do. In justice, therefore, you ought to adjudge me a recompense 
worthy of myself."* But after further remarks, not calculated to 
conciliate, he concludes, that although he is innocent, yet, in 
accordance with custom, as he will not impose banishment upon 
liimself, he will, name a fine ; ^ and perhaps,^' he says, ^ I should be 
able to pay you a mina of silver. But," he addsj " since Plato 
here, and Crito, and Critobulus, and Apollodorus, urge me to 
extend the sum to 30 minae, I amerce myself in a fine of that 
amount, and give you them for security."! ^ 

When the final sentence of death was pronounced, Socrates, 
without a change of countenance, or the least indication of falter- 
ing in his course, addressed his judges, expressing his satisfaction 
in the result which his upright and independent conduct had 
brought upon him, for which he had been prepared by the silence 
of his monitor. He was convinced that death was no evil to him, 
whether it should prove a peaceful, dreamless sleep, or a passage 
to another state of existence, where there are no false judgments, 
and where he should pass his time in conversation with all the 
great and good who have passed away from earth, with Hesiod 
and Homer, Palamades, Ajax, and Ulysses. He had, however, 
still a few words to address to those who had decreed his death, 
but more in sorrow than in anger : Reproach will surely follow 
you for having condemned to death one who will be reputed to 
be wise, although not in reality so. Had you patiently delayed 
a little time, death in the natural order of nature would have 
come to me, and you would have been spared the infamy of tak- 
ing the life of one who might have saved himself if he would 
have condescended to demean himself before you with tlie en- 
treaties and supplications that you are accustomed to hear on 
such occasions. But our shares are fitly meted out to us ; mfne 

♦ Plato, ApoL p. 86, D., Taylor's TranB. 
t Flato, Apt L p. 88, B. 


death, and yours infamy. Tou have hoped to escape the task of 
giving an account of your lives, as you Haye been compelled to 
do by my qu^tions, but be assured you will find yourselves mis- 
taken. Others, who have* hitherto been 'restrained by my pre- 
sence, will be emboldened by my death, and, young and vigorous, 
will be more troublesome, and harder to rid yourselves of than I 
have been. Far easier is it to escape censure by amending your 
lives, than by violently stopping the mouths of its authors. — I 
have not yet done. I am at that point of time which gives me 
a view into the future. No sooner shall I sleep in death, than 
the hand of the Avenger shall be laid upon you with more 
severity dian yours is laid upon me." After giviflg a word of ad- 
monition in reference to the course he wishes his accusers to pur- 
sue in reference to his children, he finally says: ^ It is now time 
for us to go our respective ways, I to die and you to live; 
and which of us is going on a better voyage is known to God 


According to the ordinary course of procedure with the con- 
denme^ at Athens, Socrates would have received the poisonous 
draught on the day following his condemnation. But it so 
chanced that the sacred ship, which was annually sent to DQlos,f 
had set sail dn the preceding day, and according to law, no per- 
son could be publicly put to death until its return, in thirty days. 
A month in prison and chains, we should suppose, would effec- 
tually try the spirit of the philosopher, and exhibit the dross, if 
it had not already been purged away. But it may truly be said 
of him that his last were his best days. His friends were con- 
stantly with him, and the conversations held with them, as ex- 
hibited in the Crito and Phsedon of Plato, give us a picture of 
equanimity and cheerful resignation in the prospect of death, 
which few even under a Christian dispensation have ever attained 

* Plat ApoL p. 42. 

t See Mem. lY. 8. 2 ; Plato, Crito^ and o£ 


nnto. It would be pleasant to linger long with my readers in 
that prison, for the^ companionship of the good and great in the 
hour of trial is elevating, ennobling. But I must satisfy myself 
with two or thr6e characteristic acts in this drama. 

We find, that when lefh alone even, Socrates did not lose the 
cheerfulness which he exhibited in the presence of his friends. 
For he employed himself in poetic composition, in accordance 
with the guidance of his monitor, and produced a hymn to 
Apollo, whose festival was then kept at Athens, and also metrical 
versions of the &bles of Esop, which came readily to his mind.* 

He also refused to avail himself of an opportunity to escape 
from prison, which his friends had contrived and urged upon 
him, because it was contrary to law. Orito came to him with 
anxiety imprinted on his brow, and appearing in every motion, 
early in the morning of the day before it was announced that 
the ship would return from Delos. Socrates, however, was 
quietly sleeping, and his friend waited, impatiently, we may sup- 
pose, for his awaking. When Crito had expressed his aston- 
ishment at the quietness of his friend when death was so near, 
and Socrates had declared the assurance that had been given 
him that he should not die until the day after the morrow, Crito 
made known to him the plan that had been formed for his 
escape, and urged upon him, in behalf of his friends, its imme- 
diate execution. Never, perhaps, was his greatness more conspi- 
cuous than av this tii^e. A way is opened, without his solicita- 
tion or knowledge even, for him who is unjustly condemned, to 
escape death. His friends are solicitous, would even, if they 
dared, be clamorous ; but an unequivocal refusal to become a 
party in any infringement upon his country's laws was the only 
answer that could be wrung fronxhim. He had lived obedient to 
law, and in the prospect of death he would not counteract the 
teachingb of his life, or even throw a shadow over them by a 
moment of hesitation. 

The ship at length had returned from Delos, and hia disciples, 

* PhflBdoD, p. 60. E. aq. ; Memorab. IV. 8. 


aware that that was the last time that they should listen to him 
who spake as no other man had spoken to them, were earlj 
at the prison-grates. But the civil officers were before them, to 
announce that the execution was to take place that day. When 
they were admitted, they found that Socrates' chains were un- 
lock, and that Xantippe, with one of her children, was present 
When she began to express her grief noisily, the philosopher 
could no longer endure it, and requested his friends to conduct 
her home.* When she had gone, quiet was soon restored in 
that prison-room, and Socrates discoursed a great part of the day 
with perfect cheerfulness upon topics connected with his life and 
the future state of existence. Many things were then said which 
sunk deep into the hearts of his auditors, and which, with a con- 
siderable admixture of Platonio dogmas, are to be fofind in the 
Phsedon. ^ li," said he, ** I did not hope, first of all, to find 
other gods who are wise and good, and then to be associated 
with men who have gone before me, far better than those on the 
earth, it would be wrong in me not to grieve at death. But^ be 
assured, I confidently expect to join the assembly of the good. 
I may be mistaken in reference to this ; but that I shall find 
divine guides of great purity and excellence, I am as confident as 
I can be of any thing of that nature ; and on this account I meet 
death with composure, which otherwise I could not, and hope 
that something awaits the good after death, and, as has long 
ago been said, that it is much better with the good than witH 
the evil."! 

Toward night, after reminding his disciples that those who 
have distinguished themselves by a pure life, spent in beautifying 
the soul by the appropriate ornaments of virtue and knowledge, 
ought to pass quietly the time of their sojourning, as always 
ready for the voyage which wiU introduce them into those 
bleaaed mansions which he is unable to describe, but whither they 
will soon follow Um, he says : ** The grim messenger now calls 

* Flat Phsd. p. 60. A. 
I Phied. p. 68. K Bq. 


me, and I wish to go to the bath as preparatory to the &tal cup.'' 
He still continued to convene, as his disciples accompanied him 
to the bath-room, cheering them who sorrowed most of all that 
thej should see his face and hear his yoice no more. After he 
had returned, his children and the women of the family came to 
receive his last advice and benediction, which he gave at pon- 
siderable length. 

A little before sunset, the officer came to make the announce- 
ment that the fatal hour had arrived, but was unable formally 
to do so, so strongly had he become attached to his prisoner. 
Afler he had retired, and Socrates had made a passing remark 
concerning him, he asked Onto to bring the poison if it was in 
readiness, if not, to give orders to have it immediately prepared. 
Grito endeavored to have him postpone it for a time, but in vain. 
When it wa« brought, after asking directions what he should d > 
after the draught, and inquiring if there was enough for a liba- 
tion, took the cup with a joyful expression of face, and drank it 
off without the least appearance of unwillingness. As the poison 
began to take effect, his friends could no longer control them- 
selves, but weVe compelled to give utterance to the feelings that 
had long struggled within them. This was too much for the 
dying philosopher, and reproo& were on his lips in death as well 
as in life. "' What are ye doing, strange men ? I sent away the 
women, most of all that these discordant notes might not be 
heard ; for I have felt' that it is fitting to die in quietness. Be 
. composed, therefore, and silence turbulent feeling." " When we 
heard this,** the disciple adds, " we were ashamed, and restrained 
our lamentations." Coldness soon began to creep over his frame, 
which when he perceived he said to his ^ends, " When it reaches 
here (my heart), I shall leave you ;" and turning t9Crito, as if 
with his last breath to show the injustice of the accusation of in- 
fidelity which had been made against him, he, said :* '' We owe a 
V)ck to .^Esculapius ; discharge the debt, and be sure not to fo^ 

• Plato, Phasd. p. H8. 


get it" Thus died the man who, aajB Xenophon, was not only 
the best of men, but most fayored of the gods.* 


A full discussion of the power and influence of Socrates 
would require a volume, rather than the yeiy few pages which 
only can here be given to it It would be necessary to give a 
somewhat minute account of the condition of Greece in an intel- 
lectual point of view at the time of the appearance of Socrates 
We should naturally speak at length of the awakening of the in- 
tellectual energies of the Greeks, which resulted in the rise of two 
classes of men, the dialecticians and rhetoricians, and their fre- 
quent union under the appellation of a-otfMrTaij Sophists ; and 
point out the relation of Socrates to these men with whom he is 
ranked or contrasted, in connection with, or preeminent among 
whom he is ridiculed or praised. But all that our present limits 
allow is an enumeration of some of the sources of his influence, 
giving prominence to those brought to view or implied in the 

1. His uncouth figure and appearance, peculiar habits, and 
pleasant voice, attracted the attention of many among a people 
who were ever desirous of learning some new thing,f and whose 
attention was gained, not merely by the graceful and the winning 
in the human form, but also by the strange and ludicrous. 

2. The peculiarity of his method of instruction not onlj 
gained him listeners, but also retained them ; especially the more 
cultivated of the Athenian youth. He did not teach by a cou^ 
tinued or set discourse. He did not highly value a simple com 
munication of knowledge to the mind in a passive state. He 
thought it necessary that its powers should be awakened by col* 

• Mem. IV. & 11. 

f Spintharoi^ a hearer of Socrateik bs quoted by Grote^ Hist, YoL 
VnL p. 605, eays: Zrt hb voXXott tUnot y* vi<^ayorr/poir <rr«rvxi|«^< 

lo} vp^t nwri Tff rots ^Ifnifiipots riip rov cJBovt IMiAntrtu 



Hsioii with other minds in conversation. His illnstrations, too^ 
were not like those of the most of the teachers of his age, drawn 
from obscure or little known objects, but from the occupations 
and professions of daily life and employment So true is this, 
that he was even reproached as having dwelt upon these so much 
as to have worn them threadbare.* 

3. He turned the thoughts of his countrymen from useless 
speculations to the investigation of practical^ subjects. In this 
way, he not only influenced his own, but all subsequent ages. 
Xenophon says : " He did not, as most do, discourse upon the 
nature of all things, considering how that which is called by the 
Sophists cosmos, the world, exists, and by what necessary laws 
the heavenly bodies are governed ; on the contrary, he considered 
those who entered into laborious investigations of that kind as 
fools ;f and indignantly asked whether such inquirers, supposing 
that they already have knowledge enough of human affairs, ap- 
plied themselves to the divine ; or what advantage do they expect 
to gain by the investigation of physical phenomena ? Do they 
think, as in the study of human affairs, to make a practical use 
of their knowledge, and excite and calm the winds and the rain, 
and produce the seasons at their pleasure, or do they seek only 
to gratify a prurient curiosity f ' From these and numerous other 
passages of the Memorabilia, the difference between Socrates and 
his predecessors is evident They spent their time in mere specu- 
lation upon ontolog^cal subtleties, confrised and confusing ; but 
he turned his attention to ethical, practical duties. With him 
the proper study of mankind was man, his duties and relations.^ 
These had been assigned to man by the gods as subjects of study. 
These they were to imderstand by personal investigation, and if 
this was neglected, the true object of life could not be secured. 
It was only by diligence in learning what the gods permitted to 
be learned, and reverent and pious inquiry of the gods, that in 

* Memorab. L 2. 87. 
t ^em. L 1. 11. 
} Mem. I. 1. le. 


dttoed them to grant informatioii by divination upon those poinU 
which they had reserved as belonging to themselves.* 

4. He accustomed those with whom he conversed to accurate 
definition.! This was the foundation of his success in his conver- 
sations with the young and arrogant He would draw forth a 
definition or general statement from the unwary, and then, by * 
making them acknowledge, step by step, the inadequacy or adkual 
erroneousness of the sentiment expressed, would not only lead 
them to accurate statement, but to a distrust of themselves ; and 
doeely connected with this — 

5. He led his auditors to careful introspection. In a ooaver* 
sation with Euthydemus, who supposed himself wise, and without 
need of instruction firom others, he inquired : Have you ever been 
at Delphi 9 Yes, indeed, twice. — ^Did you notice the inscription, 
yvtoSi cravroK, found somewhere on the wall of the temple t I 
did. — ^Did you suppose that this injunction had no reference to 
you, or did you undertake to examine yourself carefully to see 
what you aref — ^When Euthydemus replied that he already 
knew himself^ and had no occasion to apply this precept, and 
Socrates had made him acknowledge that all who have not a 
just appreciation of their own powers, as applied to human use, 
do not know themselves, he proceeded to inquire : '^ Is it not 
plain that men experience the greatest good from self-knowledge, 
and the greatest evil from ignorance of self f For those who 
know themselves know their own wants and necessities, and dis- 
tinguish between what they can and cannot do, and order their 
lives accordingly."! Socrates dwelt so much upon the necessi^ 
of self-knowledge in his teachings, that it was even made the 
subject of ridicule.§ "To him this injunction, 'Know thyself^* 
was the most sacred of all precepts, and he constantly cited itp 

« Mem. L L 9; L 4. 17 sq. ; IV. 7. 

f See Mem. lY. S. 1 aq. ; 18 aq., et'fd. MBpt 

X Mem. IV. 2. 24 eq. 

4 See Arifltoph. doudi^ 1. 842. 


and BtreDUOualy enforced its obligation upon his hearers."* 
The influence of this teaching, with Socrates' abilityf to accom- 
plish the end aimed at, cannot be appreciated too highly. It 
strikes at the root of ignorance and delusion. It dispels self-con- 
ceit, and clears away the rubbish, aud opens the mind to the re- 
ception of true knowledge. ** To preach, to exhort, even to con- 
fute particular errors, appeared to Socrates useless, so long as the 
mind lay wrapped up in its habitual mist or illusion of wisdom ; 
such mist must be dissipated before any new light could enter.'' | 
But it was not merely a negative process, with him. He so dis- 
pelled error and ignorance from the mind, as to leave it with an 
unextingnishable desire for knowledge ; and thus I am thought 
to another means of influence of Socrates. 

0. His abhorrence of ignorance in every form. The worst of 
all ignorance was self-ignorance, and ignorance in general was 
folly and vice, whilst knowledge or wisdom was virtue.§ This 
principle formed the basis of all his instructions. The man who 
had knowledge and wisdom had the right of entire control over 
others so fiur as they were void of knowledge. | This r^^lated 
all the intercourse and relations of life. In his view, the man 
who sinned ignorantly was far worse than the one who erred 
knowingly, for the former could not conduct himself justly, how- 
ever much he might desire it, whilst the latter could.^ Enow- 
ledge, with him, was a right appreciation of one's self in all the 
relations of life, whether to gods or men. If, then, a parent, or 
child, or friend, failed to conduct rightly, it was from a want 
of discrimination of the right, from ignorance ; and he was deserv- 
ing of severe reprobation. The defectiveness of this philosophy is 

• Grote, vol VUL, p. 002. 

f Mem. I. 2 : rott Ztk \rf6fuwois alrrf iraffi XP^I^^" ^^ '''^* Xdywt, 
iwms fieCKoiro, 

X Grotc, ToL VIII., p. 608. 

i Mem. III. 9. 4 aq.* 

I See Mem. L 2. 49, where his applicstion of this principle to the 
treatment of parents is defended by Xenophon. 

^ Mem. ly. 2. 19 eq. 


too palpable to require remark ; and yet the influence of such 
ieadiing, especially upon the young of the age of Socrates, in 
rousing a spirit of inquiry and investigation, must have been 
Teiy great Neither, as a matter of fact, was this teaching so 
defective in a moral point <^ view as we should suppose from the 
above statement; for he was as constant in his inculcation of 
oontrol over the passions and appetites, as the means of conform- 
ity to the gods, as if this, too, were a primary article of his creed 
How, he reasoned for substance, can one live virtuously and tem- 
perately, who does not know what virtue or temperance is ? but 
if he has acquired a knowledge of them by conscious effort, by 
diligent attention, he cannot fail to practise them. He will be 
inevitably lured on in the path of rectitude. 

7. His honesty, simplicity, and disintwestedness of character, 
especially contributed to his influence. These traits shine out in 
almost every page of the Memorabilia. ^ The shortest, safest, and 
best way to acquire the good-will of others is to strive to possess 
those good qualities which you wish to seem to have."* This 
was not only a precept which Socrates inculcated on others, but 
one on which he based his own course of life. An open, frank, 
and generous spirit he exhibited .to all. ^ The love of Socrates,^ 
says Potter, *' was equally pure and warm, individual and catho- 
lic, firm and free, ennobling and attaching. His heartiness, 
frankness and pleasantry, his power of convincing his friends of 
their faults, and then of converting them to sounder principles 
and conduct ; his extraordinary power of stimulating the luke- 
warm and encouraging the earnest ;. and, above all, his way of 
founding the most practical conduct on the highest motives, 
must all be studied in a variety of details before they can be 
adequately comprehended. Were wo to attempt quotation, we 
should be embarrassed with all the treasures of Socrates^ love — 
love for his friends, love for his country, love for his species — ^that 
noble love which flows in a clear pure stream in the conversations 
of Xenophon, but glows with equal light and warmth in those 

* Mem. IL 0. 89. 


admirable Socratic Dialogues of Plato, in which we aeem to catch 
the very tone and manner, nay, the very gesture and look of So- 
crates, and see that Silenus face beaming not only with wit and 
humor, sense and feeling, but with a spirit and a grace which 
still make the reader of Plato hang on the lips of Socrates the 
live-long night"* 


Perhaps no one thing in reference to the character and teach- 
ings of Socrates, has been the subject of more diverse and con- 
tradictory opinions, than his idea of the Soifiovior, of which he so 
often speaks. Even his own friends questioned him in vain upon 
it, and the Delphic oracle gave no satisfactory responses to the 
listening ear of an eager curiosity. The commentators have been 
able to trace, from hints in his scattered allusions, the uncouth 
lineaments of the artificer of all evil, or the mild and pitying 
visage of one of those pure spirits, whose delight it is to walk the 
earth or traverse the air as the. guardians and guides of erring 
mortals. Bufit is not our pleasure, were this a suitable place, 
to group together these several representations, but to give as 
well as we are able, the most probable explanation of this some- 
what difficult subject 

I. The demon of Socrates was not a mere fictitious represen- 
tation, devised for the sake of acquiring authonty with the 
people. His whole character forbids the supposition. His life 
and his death exhibit the most unequivocal proof of the sincerity 
of his belief^ as exhibited in his daily intercourse with his fol- 

H. Socrates understood by Satfiovvov something more than 
the simple voice of conscience or the internal sense. 1. The 
meaning of the word, and the manner in which it is employed 
by him, show this. To Soufioviov is equivalent to to ^cZok, that 
which comes tnm the gods, and is so used in contrast with that 
which has its origin in die mind of man. So in I. 1. 9 : Tov9 Sk 

* Hie Qreek Philosophen^ Socrates and Plato, pi 119, 20. 


fn|Scy Tvr rowvrwv otofUvov^ c&ai Socfiovtoy, aXXk iravra njs £k- 
^pmrunp yytofufp, Sai/iovav c^; L 4. 2, 10, 18 ; IV. 3. 14 ; Plat 
Apol. p 31. C. D. In the plural, then, ra Soi/jlovui must corres- 
pond in general with oi Seol] L%1. 1 : ovs fiky ij iroXis vofiiia - 
S€ovs ov vofuiiay, crcpa Sc Kcuya SaifJLovia cis^^poiv. 2. The 
manner in which he invariably speijcs of the guidance that he 
received from this source, indicates that he considered it as some- 
thing sapematmnl. It was the voice of Grod : ^cov f^tam^, Xen. 
ApoL § 12, 13. It was unerring. So it was found to be, not in 
his own experience only, but by others who had recourse to its 
revelations ; L 1. 4 : Kal iraXXoi^ r^v (wovnuv vpoerf^fKvt ra /i}y 
woiidvf ra £^^i| irocciv, us rov SatfiO¥iav irpfHnifuiwavroSf koI roi$ 
iftCK irwL&ofUyoK avr^ aw€ift€fi€^ rois 81 /i^ v€iSofi€vots /act^acXc ; 
Theages of Plato, p. 275-8. 3. Xenophon's testimony both to 
Socrates' and his own confidence in this unerring guide is beyond 
dispute. It was to Socrates, what the revelations of the gods 
through auspices, oracles, and the like, were to others, only more « 
direct and certain. The entire reasoning of Xenophon in I. 1. 
2-5 depends upon the fact, that Socrates relied upon the moni- 
tions of the ScufLoywy as divine. How else could it be any argu- 
ment that he did not discard the belief in the existence of gods ? 

nL Socrates' Saifiovujv was not, on the other hand, as has 
often been supposed, a specific supernatural being, vouchsafed to 
him alone for his guidance. His exhortations to Euthydemus 
not to expect or desire to see the forms of the gods, but to rest 
satisfied with their revelation of themselves in their works, and ^ 
his declaration in close connection with this, that all men might 
receive the same guidance as was given him, if they would only 
acquiesce in the requisition made upon them, to forego the de- 
sire of a physical revelation, IV. 3. 12, 13, is inconsistent with 
iuch a belie£ 

IV. We are now, perhaps, prepared for a more definite state- 
ment of what is meant by the Socratic demon. If what has been 
said is well founded, it was something beyond the dictates of 
mere human foresight, and yet not a specific personal deity, ex- 
trinsic from, but everywhere present with him, to give audible 


warnings, nor a miraculous revelation, granted as a special favoi 
to hira, but al>ove the hopes or even the reasonable expectations 
of any man who will faithfully strive after its attainment One 
fact in the history of the age of Socrates aids us in coming to a 
more precise determination in regard to this matter. The belief 
in guardian angels, ministering spirits sent forth on errands of 
mercy, was not confined to the Jews. The reliance of the an- 
cients upon supernatural communicationB by various methods, 
and their view of the intimate connection between the deity and 
the human race, is too well known to need reiteration or proo£ 
It is plain, too, that Socrates himself believed in inferior gods, 
who are childien and ministers of the supreme God, a medium 
of communication between God and man, a connecting link be- 
tween heaven and earth ; cf. Apol. p. 27. G. D. ; Memorab. IV. 
3. 13, and these he oallsd iatfuoviau Two ideas, then, seem to be 
at the basis of this guidiince of Socrates : First, his subjective fit- 
ness to receive aid from the gods, his spiritual conceptions of and 
'Obedience to them, and then, their willingness and presence to 
aid unerringly those who thus trust in them. The combined 
result of scrupulous attention to the suggestions of the inner sense 
and reason, and the assistance of the gods readily given to virtu* 
ous men, make up what is ascribed to the SaufMvuov, It is not 
strange that Socrates gave it the appellation of divine. For 
although preparation of mind was necessary, yet it was only in 
matters beyond the ken of human foresight, that he was accus- 
tomed to expect supernatural aid. In his view it was equal!} 
insane and foolish to have recourse to the aid of the gods on 
trivial occasions, and to reject it in reference to those matters, a 
full knowledge of which they have reserved for- themselves. Gice- 
ro^s exposition of Socrates* Saifiovtov is perfectly consistent with 
this view, although it gives' rather the subjective relation of the 
matter, leaving the rest to be inferred; de Divinat I. 53. 121, 
and 54. 122 : Ut igitur, inquit, qui se tradet ita quieti, praepa- 
rato animo quum bonis cogitationibus, tum rebus ad tranquiili- 
tatem accommodatis, certa et vera oemit in somnis : sic castus 
senstts purusque vigilantds et ad astrorum et ad avium reliquo- 


minqiie mgnorum et ad extomm veritatem est paratior. Hoc 
nimirom est illud, quod de Socrate saepe dioitur, esse diyinum 
quvidam, quod Baifioviov appellat, cui semper ipse 
paruerit. nunquam impellenti, saepe revocanti. 

In ooQchision, one ^remark seems to be required upon an 
alleged contradiction between the accounts of Plato and Xeno- 
pbon in r^ard to the office of this demon* Plato says that it 
only restrained him, whilst Xenophon represents it as both ro- 
Btraining and impelling him; ct Plat Apol. p. 31. CD, and 
Theages, p. 128. D. with the passages above cited. The true ex- 
planation undoubtedly is, that Xenophon intends to give only a 
general idea of the character of this guidance ; and it is not 
strange, that a sign which only prohibited, is spoken of also as 
indicatiDg what was allowed, since the absence of a prohibition 
would imply permission. The object of Xenophon did not re- 
qinre him to draw a precise distinction between that which was 
positively commanded, and that which was to be inferred from 
silence. Besides, the fact that Socrates did consider the silence 
of his demon as a sign of assent, seems to be pretty well esta- 
blished by Plato himself. Cf. Apolog. p. 40. A. B. ; Phaedr. 
p. 242. B. C. On this whole subject, see Plutarch de Socratis 
Genio ; Wiggers' Life of Socrates, Ch. IIL ; Bitter's Hist. Philos. 
n. p. 38 sq. ; Tennemann^s Gesch. Philos. XL 33-6, et al. ; Grote't 
Greece, Vol. Vm. p. 667 sq. 


At the time of Socrates' death, 399 B. C, Xenophon was ab- 
sent on the military expedition with Cyrus in Asia. And although 
no definite record of the fact is found, it cannot be doubted, that 
the Memorabilia was written soon after his return. There is a 
fireshness of feeliug and definiteness in allusion, which render it 
almost certain that the place of the teacher had not long been 
vacant, when the devoted disciple took up the pen on his l)ehal£ 
The sadness which must have come over him on his return from 
the expedition, so unwillingly undertaken, into the land of bar* 


barism, with the hope of again resuming his place with the little 
band of chosen friends around their companion and guide, seems 
yet to linger about him, and give coloring to his words. Even 
the absence of bitterness at the mistaken folly and injustice of the 
murderers, is perhaps an indication of the heartiness of his sorrow, 
of the subdued feeling of recent grie£ 

It is unnecessary at present to discuss at length the compara- 
tive merits of Plato and Xenophon, as rival bi(^;raphers of Socrar 
tes.* Neither of them has given a complete and finished por- 
trait, but both have left vivid and distinct outlines of particular 
parts, which need to be carefully studied and compared with dis- 
crimination, in order to supply the portions which are left in 
shadow, and to form a just idea of the original. But our imme- 
diate concern is with the sketch given in the present volume. 
We have already alluded to the facilities which Xenophon en- 
joyed for the execution of his work, by a long, familiar, and 
confidential acquaintance with his master, and with others who 
were so fortunate as to witness the equanimity and cheerfulness 
of his last hours. We might also speak of the good practical 
sense, the cultivated mind, and simple and graceful style of our 
author, but any one who is not strongly impressed with these 
qualities in him, before reading far in the work itself^ would be 
little influenced by any presentation that we should be able to 
make. We could also express a hearty disapproval of the senti- 
ments of those who accuse Xenophon of deficiency in warmth of 
feeling in defending his master. It is true he exhibits no ebulli- 
tions of passion ; and how could he, and yet be the faithful and 
reverent disciple of one who had labored so often and so earnestly 
to subdue in himself and others all violent emotion ? It may, we 
think, be asked with confidence, where we should go for an idea 
of Socrates as a man, a citizen, a moral teacher, if the Memora- 
bilia were not in existence. As a philosopher, if we have skill 
enough to separate the Platonic from the Socratic, he is most 
fully exhibited in Plato. Xenophon, if he were capable of the 

* See Sohiermacher. 


did not attempt to gire this part of Socrates' character, ex- 
cept incidentallj. And yet '^he intimates," says Grote, ^'very 
plainly, that the conversation of Socrates was often, indeed usually 
of a more n^;ative, analytical, and generalizing tendency ;" . . . 
*^ destined ... to awaken the inquisitive Acuities, and lead to the 
rational comprehension of vice and virtue as referable to detenni- 
DAte general principles." Humor, in which Socrates was not 
deficient, we cannot find to any considerable degree in Xeno- 
phon. If he could appreciate it, which we see no reason to doubt, 
it was little to his purpose to give this a prominent place in his 
work. And besides, he could have had little heart to join in 
mirth over the new-made tomb of his murdered, fnend. He 
would most naturally dwell upon the serious and thoughtful de- 
vdopmentB of character at such a time. 

Xenophon's principal design was, to present and illustrate the 
object of the life of Socrates, and thus correct wrong impressions, 
and rescue his memoiy from the calumnies which had proved so 
fatal. He wished to exhibit him as a good man and a useful citi- 
zen, the two points in his character which had been especially 
assailed by his accusers. His own practical turn of mind led him 
more to the consideration of the good -results of his teachings, 
and the direct and palpable means of obtaining those results, than 
to mere speculations, however ingenious and subtle they might 
have been. It is, in fiEU^t, the basis of the character of Socrates 
that is given by Xenophon, the nucleus around which other qua- 
lities encircle, but without which we should often be left in dark- 
ness and doubt We may with safety say, that no one of the 
pupils of Socrates had imbibed more of the genuine spirit of theii 
teacher than Xenophon. The very absence of some of the more 
poffltive qualities of mind which are so conspicuous in Plato, 
enabled him to yield more implicitly to the teachings of one 
whose word was law to him, and fitted him to give a simple, un- 
adorned representation of his life and character. 

We do not contend that the conversations of Socrates, as re- 
corded by Xenophon, were taken down precisely as they fell 
from his lips. The title indicates that they were given firom 


recollection. They are also frequently spoken of as things 
remembered. We do not claim that full justice is always done 
to Socrates In their presentation.* This could not be expected in 
a brief abstract, which they undoubtedly often are. ' It does, how- 
ever, appear to be indisputable, that Xenophon had carefully 
stored in his memory not only the truths themselves, but the 
manner in which they were presented to eager listeners. There 
is a minuteness and circumstantiality in many of them, and in- 
deed a repetition,! which would have been avoided, had it not been 
the design of the author to give a transcript from real life. The 
very purpose of the author, too, in writing his book would have 
been frustrated, could it have been shown to be erroneous or false 
in respect to matters of fact For it was without doubt written 
and made public while many of those with whom the conversa- 
tions were held were yet living, and would have been ready to 
give their voice in its condemnation, had not the representation 
been faithful. And furthermore, his defence would have had 
little influence, if it could have been shown, that it was not in 
accordance with reality, especially as he professed to narrate that 
which he had heard with his own ears, or had received from the 
mouth of credible witnesses. 

Tlie general characteristics of this work are so well and briefly 
stated by an English scholar,^ that we cannot do the reader a 
better service than to allow his remarks upon this point to take 
the place which we had reserved for our own : " The Memora- 
bilia of Xenophon is a possession for all time ; for the noble sim- 
plicity of the style is worthy of the purity and soundness of the 
principles. Indeed, who can mark without admiration the strong 
sense, the good feeling, the high principles, and the right prac- 
tices of this book ? It bears the same ratio to the Dialogues of 
Plato, that the practical teaching of the Gospels does to the doc- 

* See L 2. 63; I 8. 1; 14. 2; IL 4. 1 ; IV. 8. 4. 
t CI L 4 with rV. 8; L 6. with IV. 6, et aL 
X Rev. J. P. Potter: Characteristics of the Greek Philosophers, So* 
erates and Flat* pp 7, 8. 


trinal teaching of the Epistles. He who runs may read. It was 
a great service which Socrates rendered his countrymen. He 
cleared the foundations of religioi^ and morals from whatever was 
obscuring and undermining them. He exhibited these founda- 
tions in all their strength, and showed that principles and conduct 
may be safely rested upon them. The veiy characteristic of So- 
crates' philosophy is the grand simplicity of a Doric temple. He 
states tlie great principles of religion, and morals, and politics, so 
clearly and convincingly, that every one must understand, and no 
one can deny. The sincerity of the manner is equal to the truth 
of the matter. And to all this must be added a genial warmth 
of feeling, whether it be shown in deep reverence for God, or in 
hearty love to man, which it is impossible to resist ; for whilst 
Socrates states truth so convincingly as to compel assent, he 
mges it so kindly as to win conviction.^* 

The text of the present edition is that of Eahner, with occa 
sional alterations in pointing and things of minor importance. 
When it appeared desirable, various readings have been given in 
the notes, and reasons for the one adopted, briefly stated. 

In preparing the first edition, free use was made of the labors 
of Kohner, whenever they seemed to our purpose. We did not, 
however, follow him blindly, and sometimes came to results quite 
different from his, on the examination ti a passage. We also 
had constantly by us, Xenophon's Memoiren ; mit Einleitungen 
und Anmerkungen von Dr. Moritz Seyffert, EOnigl. Professor and 
Conrector am Gymn. zu Brandenbeig, and sometimes received 
valuable aid from it, klthough the notes are, for the most part, 
made up of the translation of single words and phrases. Other 
editions, as those of Schneider, Weiske, Bomemann, and Green- 
wood, were occasionally consulted. The additions and correc- 
tions in the present edition are princfpally the result of experience 
n teaching, although the suggestions of others, either in printed 
jotices or private correspondence, have not been unheeded or 


without much value. If the diligent student shall be enabled bj 
the present volume, to gain a more thorough insight into the 
character of one of the greatest «nd best of uninspired men, and 
more love for, and familiarity with, the most cultivated and re^ 
fined knguage of any age or nation, we shall feel that we have^ 
in addition to the enjoyment which each day spent in the prepa- 
ration of the volume brought with it, a full reward for our labor. 



Kuhn. Ot^ the TVaiiBlation of Kiihner^s Grammar by Edwarda and 

L, Or., the Larger Grammar of fhe aame anthor. 
El, Qr^ his Elementary Grammar as prepared in English hy Taylor. 

B, Or., simply B,, or BuUmann, Robinson's Battmann, ed. 1851. 

C. Or.f Crosby's Grammar. 

8. or Soph. Or., Sophocles' Grammar. 

Other Grammars are often referred to, but in such a way, it is believed, 
as not to need explanation. When references are made without nam- 
ing the work, as L 2. 6 ; HI. 6. 8, 20 ; 8. 10, Ac, the books, chapters, and 
sections of the Memorabilia are intended ; and when only the name of 
the work, without the name of the author, is given, as ApoL ffellen, 
Ac, some treatise of Xenophon is referred ta 








Iir the trial of Soerate^ two crimes were alleged against him, as render* 
ing him worthy of death : — 1. He did not reyerence the gods of the State^ 
but introduced other new deities instead of them ; — 2. He corrupted the 
youth (^1). In confutation of the first accusation, the following consi- 
derations are adduced : 

1. He did not omit either private or public sacrifices to the gods (§ 2). 

2. He made use of divination (^ 2 — 9). In sayvg that his divinity 
(t^ Sofft^rior) made known to him future evfi&'tfl^ he did not differ from 
other Athenians^ who do not suppose that stictificesyihe flight of birda^ 
and other such things, of tliemselves make known tlje future, but that 
Uie gods make revelations through them. While others^ then, say that 
they are guided by casual events, he, going back to the cause, averred 
that a divinity guided him ; and by the confidence which lie placed in 
the revelations made to him, he showed his confidence in the gods and 
his consequent belief in their existence (^ 2*-^]. In reference to neces- 
sary duties^ he gave advice to his friends upon the manner of their per- 
formance ; but in regard to things of a doubtful nature, he counselled 
them to ask direction from the gods ; he believed it equally impious not 
to consult the gods in reference to those matters, the knowledge of which 
they had retained to themselves, and to have recourse to them in respect 
to things that fall within the province of human reason ({ 6 — 9). 

8. The innocence of Socrates is also evident from the whole course of 
his life. He passed much of his time in public, where all could Be« and 
hear him, and yet no one could adduce an instance of hnpiety in word 
or action, Qe did not^ like the other philbsophei's, employ his time ii 

1 • 

2 xenophon's memorabilia* 

fniitlees diBCuaBioxiB in regard to the origin of the world and other thiogi 
which are beyond the bounds of human knowledge, but upon, qu^tiona 
relating to the conduct of life both in private and public ; his endeaxor 
was to give men correct principles of action, and to make them yaluable 
citizens (^ 10 — 16). Socrates confirmed his precepts by specific actions^ 
showing how much his reverence for the gods preponderated over fear 
of man. It is indeed strange that the Athenians were persuaded that 
he was guilty of impiety, when he proved both by his actions and word^ 
that hci not only did not despise but was especially mindful of tho goda 
ft 17—20). 

eireiaap ol ypay^dfievot SaoxpaTrjv, a>? a^u)9 eti; ^avd- 
rov T§ TToKei, *II fihf yap ypcu^^ /car avrov rouiSe 
T(9 ^v aSiicel Sffi/cpdrrf^ o&9 fi€V 17 ir6\i^ 
vofiL^ei ^€ov^ ov vofii^av, Irepa Bk xatvh 
Baifiovia €l^<f>ip(DV aStKci Si xal tou9 viov^ 

2 UpSnov fiev ovp, w ovte ivofii^ev ot^ 17 TroXm vofil' 
^€t ^601^, TTotigi WOT* i^^acano rexfiripitp ; ^wop re 
yap ^pepbff ^p iroWaKi^ fiep ot/coij iroXkaxi^ Se iirl 

T&P KOiP&V _^^^ *irokB(0^ fiw/JL&P, Kol fiaPTlK^ ypto'jLepo^ 

OVK d<l>apffi ^* Siere^pvKrjTO yap, &^ 4>aif} Safcpdrri^ 
TO haifiopurp iavr^ (Tf)fia(p€tP • ff^ep Bfj teal frnKiard 
fioi Bo/covaiv avTOP alTidaaa^ai Koipa Baifiopia eh^i* 

3 p€LP. O 8* oi/Ba xatporepop el^ii^pe t&p aXKtop, oaoi 
fUiPTiKrfp pofii^opr*^i oitopok re ')(p&PTaA koX ^rifiais kcX 
avfifioXoi^ Kal ^va{ai^' ovrol re yap inroKafipdpovatP 
ov T0U9 oppi^a^ ovBi roxpi oTrapT&pra^ elBipai ri, av/M- 
^ipopra T6A? fiaPT€V0fi€P0tf;j aXX^ rov^ ^eoif^ BtJt tov- 

4 TO)]/ airra cnj/iatpeiPf kokcIpo^ Si oirro^^ epofii^ep. *ilXX* 
01 fjL€P irXeloToi ^)aaip into re r&p opp&ap leai r&v 
dfraPTwpTeop dirorpeTrea^ai t€ Kai TrporpiTrea^at' 5®- 
tcpdrr)^ Be &<:irep iyiypoixrKep, ovtu}^ eXeye* to Baifiopiov 
yhp S^Tf ofjfiaipeip. Kai iroXKo'k r&f ^vpoptwp wpo-^ 


ifyopeue r^ /jlo/ woiciv^ ra Sk fiif iroUtvy w rov Sat- 
fjLOPiou irpoarjfiaivovTO^' kcu toI^ fiev irei^ofiivoi^ air^ 
awi<ff€p€j TOW 8e /mt) Trei^ofiipot^ fieri fieXe, Kairoi ti? 5 
oifK av Ofiokoyriaetev airrov ffovXea^ai firjr ^Xl^iov 
fii^T* aXa^ova fffcuvea^cu Tot? awovctv ; iSoxet B * av 
aii^repa ravra^ el irpotvyopevwv (09 inro ^€qv ffxu- 
vofjteva Kara yfrevSofievo^ i(f>aiv€To, jdrjXov oSi^, ori 
ouK OP TTpoiXeyev, el fiif eirioTevep aXrji^evireiv^ Tavra 
Si Tt9 av aXX^ irtarevaei^v fj ^e^ ; iriarewov Sk ^eok 
irw9 ovie elvai ^€oif^ ivo/u^ev ; ^AXXA fifjv inoiei Kal 6 
raSe irpo^ rov9 eintTjBelov^' ra fiev yap ava^KoIa 
awe^ovXeve xal irpdrreiVj w ivo/Mi^ev apurr hv 
7rp§f^rjvcu • wepl Se rwv oBijXmv, ottcd? &v^ airo^ija-oirro^ 
fiavrevao/ievov^ hrefiirev, el TToirjTea. Kal tov9 fiiX- 7 
Xoin-o? oiKov^ re kgX iroXei^ KcCXSyi oIki](T€iv fjLavriicrfi 
Sifyrf irpo^Sela^cu' re/CTOvitcov fiev yap fj ;^aX«c€VTi/coi/ fj 
yewpyucbv ^ ai^parirav dp^^iKov ij r&v roioicrwv epytov 
i^eraoTUcov fj XoyurriKov ^ oUovofiiKov fj ^-TpaTtjyueov 
yev&r^ai^ nravra rk roiavra fui^i^fiaTa Kal av^pdorirov 
yvtifiTj aiperea ivofii^ev elvai* rd Be fLeyurra t&v iv 
TovTOi^ €<fn) T0V9 ^€0U9 iavToU tcaToXeiirea^cu, &v ov- 
hev BfjXov elvoA rot^ av^pwTToi^. OOre yap rob Tf5 8 
KaK&^ aypov ^vrevarafievtp Br[Xov, 09Tt9 KapTrdxreraf 
oSre Ta> KaXm ohciav oucoBofiiia'ap.ivtp BrfKov^ o^t9 ol 
KTiaei' ovre rA aTpaTijyiK^ SfjXov, el avfju^epet arpa- 
Tfjyetv ovre r& voXiruc^ BfjXov, el avfi^epei trj^ iroXem^ 
irpotrrarelv ovre t^ kolXtiv yrjfiavTi^ Xv ewf>paijnirai, 
BfjXoVy el Bid ravTTjv dvuLaeroA^ ovre r^ Bvvarov^ iv 
ry TToXei, /cfjBeoTd^ Xafiovri BrjTiOv, el Bid rourov^ ere- 
prfcrertu rrfi iroXeta^, Toiyi Bk firjBkv r&v toiovtodv 9 
olofievov^ elvcu Baifioviov, dXXd irdvra rf^ dv^panrivTf^ 
yvtofii]^, Ba^pjovdv e^' Baifiovav Bk xal roif^ fxavrevO' 
fUvov^y h Toh dv^panroi^ SBcoKav oi ^eoX fia^ovai Bior 
Kplveiv otov el ri^ eTrepem*^, irorepov hriardtievov 

4 xenophon's hemorabilu. 

^vio'xelv cttI feOyo? Xa/Sciv Kpelrrov fj fitf hrurrdfievop^ 
fj irorepov iirurrdfj^vov icvfiepvau cttI t^i' vavp KpHTTOp 
\afielv fj fit} ivioTdfLevov, fj & e^eariv dpi^fiijaavra^ 
tj fierpTjaavTa^ fj arrja'airra^ elBivai, rov^ Ta rotavra 
irapa t&v ^€&v mvv^avofiivov^ a^ifiiara iroieiv ^JyeJ- 
To* eifyrf Sk Belv & fiiv jm^ovtw; irotelv iScoxav oi ^eoi 
fiav^dvetv h Se fit) BfjXa T0Z9 av^panroi^ iari, Tret- 
paa^a4, SiA fjuuni/ci]^ nrapa r&v ^e&v irw^dvea^ai' 
rou9 ^60U9 yhp elk &v &<nv t\€q> (Ttf/jLaipeiv. 

10 *A\Xa fifjv iKelvo^ ye ael fikv i^v iv r^ <l>caf€p^* 
irpm T€ yap ek tow irepiTrdTov^ /cal ra yvfivdaia jfet, 
ical wXTf^ovarj^ ayopa^ ifcel <}>av€po^ fjv, xai to Xoittop 
ael rrj<i rffiepa^ fjV ottov ir\eL<rrots fieXKoi aweaea^kiw 
KoX eXeye fikv &^ ro iroXu, rok he jSovXofievoi^ i^v 

11 aKoveiv. OvheX^ he irJairore S(OKpdTov^ oifhep cureffe^ 
ouhe dvoaiov ovre irpdrrovro^ elhev^ ovre Xdyovro^ ijkov- 
aev, Ovhk yap trepX rrf; r&v irdurayv (f>vaea}^ ^^p twv 
SXSmv oi irXelaTOL hieXeyerOj o-kott&Vj otto)? icaXoih 
fievo^ xnro r&v <TO<f>ioT&v Kotr/io^ l^ir, teal riaiv opdyxai^ 
l/caara yiyverai r&v oupapicop, dXXk xal tov^ ^op- 

12 Ti^opra^ Ta roiavra fioypaipoPTCK airehel/cwep. Kal 
trpa)TOP fjL€P airr&p iaKOTrei, iroTepd irore pofiicrapre^ 
iKapw rjhtj Tav^paytripa ^elhipai epxoprat cttI to irepl 
T&p ToiovTeop <j>popri^€ip^ fj tA fiep dp^pdireuL Trapipre^, 
ra haifiopia he aKOirovpre^, tiyovprav to, Trpo^i^Kovra 

13 TTpdrreLP. 'E^av/xa^e h\ el fi^ <f>apep6p airrot^ ioTip, 
on Tavra oif hvparop eariv dp'^pdyirots eupeiu' eirel xal 
T0U9 fiiyioTOP <f>popovpra^ errl t^ irepl rovrmp Xeyetv 
oif Tavra ho^d^eip aXXi]Xot^, aXKci rok fiaipofiepoi^ 

14 OfioiQ}^ hta/ceia'baj, Trpb^ aXX'qXov^. T&v re yap fuupo- 
fiiptDP roif<i fiep ovhk ra heip^ hehtipat, rov^; he koI ra fiff 
<f>offepa <f>o^€ia^aL' Kal toi? fiep ovS^ ip o^e^ hotcelv 
ala')(poP elpat Xeyeip rj iroielp oriovPy toS? he ovh ' e^vrq* 
reov ek ap^pwirov^ eipcu hoxeip* Koi tov9 fiev off^ 


Upow ovT€ /3m flop oUt* oXXo t&v ^emv ovBh ri/mv, 
roif^ Se Kai \i^ov9 ical ^vXa ra rv^ovra xai ^ijpla 
a^ca^at • , r&v t€ irepX t^9 r<av irdvrwv ^va€€o^ fiepi- 

fAWOVTfOP T0«9 fl€V SoKclv €V flOVOV TO OV elvai, TOW S* 

oTTcipa TO ttX^^ov* teal tok fiev aei xivelo'^cu irdvra^ 
Tovi S* oifBiv av vore Kivrf^rjvai: kcu tok fiev irdvra 
yiyvea^ai re /cal oTToWva^ai, toJ? Be ovr hv yevia^cu 
irorre ovBiv out airoXela^ai. ^Ea-fcoirei Be irepl airr&v 15 
iuu ToBe' ip\ A^Trep oi av^patTreia fiav^dvovre^ ffyoxhh 
rat To0^^, o Ti &v fid^oxriv^ iauroU re xal r&v aXXcov 
St<p &v fiovXonnai iroirjaeiv, ovrd teal oi ra deta ^17- 
TOvvr€<: vofitXovaiVj iireiBcLv yv&aiVj al^ avdyxai/^ exeurra 
ytyvercuy ironiaeiv, orav povKoDvrai^ koX avifioi^ teal 
vBara xal &pa^ koX orov B* &v aWov Biwvrcu rS)v 
rotovro)Vy fj rotovro fihf ovBht ouB* IkTrl^ovatv, apxel 
8* cunov; yv&vai fiovov, ^ r&p rotovrap eKo^ara yiype- 
rcu. lie pi fiep ovp r&p ravra TrpayfiarevopApoup roir 16 
oSTa iXeyep' airro^ Be irepl r&p ap'^ponreitop &p del 
BieXeyero, gkott&p rl evae^h, ri daefi&i* ri xaXop^ ri 
aia^pop* ri Bixcuop, rl aBucop' ri a<a<f>poauprf, ri fuiPia* 
ri apBpjEla, ri BeiKia* ri woXtv, ri TroXiriKo^* ri dp'^if 
^ap^pdnnoPy ri dp^itw ap^pdyjrwp' xai irepl r&p aXKiOP^ 
h T0V9 pihf elBora^ riyelro Ka\ov^ xdya^ov^ elpcu, roif^ 
8* dypoovpra^ dpBpairoBtloBei^ &p Bifcaito^ KeK\rj<T^ai. 

"Oaa fiep ovp fitf (f>apep6^ fjp ottco? eyiypoxr/cePj oi- 17 
Sep ^avfiaarop inrip rovrtop irepl avrov irapayp&pa^, 
T0U9 Bucaard^' otra Be rrdpre<; i^Becrap, ov ^avfiaa-rop^ 
el fitj rovToop ipe^vfu^rfaap ; BovKevaa^ ydp irore 18 
teal rop jSovXetrritcbp opkop ofioaa^j ep ^ ^p xarcL roif^ 
pofiov^ ffovXeuaeiP, emoTdrr)^ iv r^ Brffitp yepofiepo^^ 
ent^vpkriaapro^ rou Bi]fiov nrapa roir; pofiov^ eppea arpcu- 
rriyou^ fiia y^i]<l)(p roif^ afufn OpdffvXXop xal ^Epaai- 
piS7)p diroKrelvai irdpra^t ovk rfheXriaep iiny^fpiaau 
opyi^opJpov fiep ain& rov B^fioVj ttoXX&p Bk tcai hvpa^ 


T&p aTreiXovpTwv aXKa irepl wXeiovo^ hroi'qaaro evop 
Kelv rj 'xapiaraa^ai r^ Sijfiq) irapb, to Succuop Ka\ 

19 if>v\d^aa^ac roi^ aireiXovpra^, Kai yap iirtfieXeia^ai 
^eou9 ipofii^ev av^pdyrroap, ov^ hp rpoirop ol iroWol 
pofii^ovaLP' ovToi fiep yap oloprai roin: ^€ou9 t^ flip 
elSipaij r^ S' ou/c etZipai" StoKparrj^ Si iravra fikp 
ff/elro ^€ov^ elSivai, ra re Xeyofiepa xal irparTOfiepa 
KoX rii <rtrf^ fiovXevofiepa, irapraypv hi irapelpai, xal 
arjfiaipeip roU av^pdmoi^ irepl twp ai^pmireimp irap- 

20 Qavfia^(o oip, ottq)? irori iirelo-^Tfa-ap ^A^Tfpaloi 
Stio/cpdrrjp Trepl roif^i ^eov? fitj a&^popelp^ top aa-efii^ 
fikp ovBip TTore vepl roif^ ^eov^ ovr eiiropra ovre 
vpd^apTOy Toiavra Bk xal Xiyopra Koi Trpdrropra irepl 
^€&p, . old T£9 &p Kol \iya)P teal irpdjrmp eltf re Kal 
pofil^oiro eva-e^iararo^. 



Tbx second accusation of the enemies of Socrates (I. l.% that he was a 
corrupter of the youth, is shown to be without foundation by the follow- 
ing considerations : 

1. He dissuaded the youth from impiety, disobedience to law, the 
indulgence of the sensual passions and effeminacy, and inculcated the 
opposite yirtues^ inspiring the hope, that^ by the love and practice of 
them, they would become honorable and good. This he did, especially, 
by presenting himself as the most perfect example of the practice of thost 
virtues which he inculcated (§ 1 — 8). 

2. Tlie accusation that Socrates made his disciples violent op{x»er8 
of the established laws and usages, is confuted by the simple fact, that 
his teachings, showing the inconvenience and injuries resulting from the 
use of violence as contrasted with persuasion, must necessarily have had 

BOOK I. CHAP. n. 7 

the Tciy opposite effect (§ 9-^11). The diBorderlj oonduct of Critiaf 
aud Alcibiades after they had been hispapik) ia no cause of reproach 
against him. Thej sought not his society from any lore for his charac- 
ter and teachingi^ but as a means for 'the more effectual accomplishment 
of their ambitious purposes ; and* yet whilst they were with him tliey 
practised self-government ; and that not from constraint but from per- 
masion (^ 12 — 18). But yirtne unless constantly exercised falters and 
dies ($ 14 — 23) ; and Critios and Alcibiadee^ after leaying Socrates, were 
withdrawn from the continued practice of those virtues which he en- 
joined, by the influence of other men, and Socrates ought, in contrast 
with these men, to receive praise father than blame (§ 24 — 29) ; for he 
fiuthfully admonished his pupils whenever he saw them going astray. 
Critias, offended by the severity of his admonitions, sought revenge after 
he had become a ruler of the States by causing a law to be passed against 
Socrates (§ 30 — 38). The object of both Critias and Alcibiades in joining 
themselves to Socrates, is evident from their conduct ; and in the case of 
Alcibiades, was strikingly illustrated by a conversation with his guardian 
Pericles (§ 24 — 47> In contrast with these men, all who joined them- 
selves to Socrates with the desire of becoming wise and good, passed 
their whole lives in the exercise of virtue and without reproach (( 48). 

8. The accusation of inspiring in those who associated with him, a 
disregard of parents, relatives, and friends^ rests entirely upon a misun- 
derstanding of the nature of his teachings in this r^ard ; for his object 
was to give the relation of parents and children, friends and relatives^ a 
higher object mutual benefit (} 49 — 55). 

4h The accusation made against him, of quoting from ancient poets, 
for the purpose of inculcating feelings of malevolence and tyranny, is 
absurd (§ 66 — 59). On the other hand, he ever exhibited the most disin- 
terested regard for all men, both citizens and strangers (§ 60, 61). 

In fine, it appears from the considerations adduced in this and the 
preceding chapter, that Socrates was worthy of the highest regard and 
honor from the city, rather than punishment (§ 62 — 64). 

BavfiaoTov 8k <f)aiv€Tal fjboi xal ro 'jreio'^vcU riva^, 1 
m So^fcpdrif^ T0V9 viovs Si€<f>^€i,peVj d? 'Jrpo^ roh elpti- 
fUvoi^ irp&Tov fikv aif>po8i€rifav /cal ycurrpo^ iramtov 
av^punnov iyKpariararo^ ^i/, elra irpos jdEifi&va kol 
^ipo^ Kol Trdirra^ ttovov^ KaprepiKdnaro^ eri Se irpo^ 
TO fierpimv &£cr^at ireiraiheuiiivo^ ovT<a<;, &<:re iraw 
fiucpi Ke/CTTffiivo^ irdvv paZim^ SjaEtv apKovvrct. Ilm 2 

8 xekophon's mehorabilia. 

oZv, auT09 &v ToiovTO^, aWov^ &p fj aaepek fj wapor 
po/JLOV^ fj \i')(yov^ fj a<f>pohiai(ov aKpaT€i<; ^ irpb^ to 
TTovelv p,aXaKov^ iTroitfaev ; 'ilW' Ivavae fiev rourtop 
TToWoir? aperrff; iroirja'a^ inC^VfJiAf xal eXmSa? irapa- 
tryiv^ ap eatrrcop eTrifieXcoprai, Ka\ou<: xal aya^oif^ 

3 eaea^ai. Kairoi ye ovSerrcoTroTe inriaj^ero BiBdaxaXo^ 
elpai TouTOv aXKa t§> ^avepo^ clvai Totovro^ Ap iXwi- 
^€ip iiroiu T0U9 avpiuiTpifioPTa^ eavr^, fjLtfiovfJbipov^ 

4 iKUPOP Totov^Ze yep^a-ea^ac, *AWa firfp teal rov adfJLOr 
T09 avTo^'TC ovfc rjpiXei T01J9 t' iifi€'\jovPTa<i ovk iirrfpeu 
To flip ovp virepea^lopra vTrepiropelp aTreSoKifia^e, to 
Se, oaa y' ^Seo)? v '^^V Scp^^rat, ravra iKapA^ ixTro^ 
veip iSoxifia^e • raxrrqp yap rrjp i^ vyieipi^p re Ikupw^ 
elpai Kal rrjp rr]^ >/ri;^9 iin/iiXeiap oifK ifiiroBi^eip iifyrj, 

5 *A\7C ou firjp ^fiVTrriKos ye ovSe dXa^opiKo^ ^p ovt 
dfiTrexopTj off^^ inroBeaei oure ry dXX'g iiairri' ov fjLtjv 
oiS* €pa<n^^fjLdTov<; ye tou? atwoprw; iiroiei' r&p fiev 
yap dXKgop eTrt^vfimp eirave, rov^ Sk eavrov ^tti^v- 

6 /lovpra^ ovk eirpdrrero ')(pi]fiaTa. Tovtov 8' aTre^o- 
fi€Po^ ipofii^ep eXev^epia^ eTrifieXeia^ai' tou9 Se Xap,- 
fidpopTos T^ ofiiXla^i pua^op dpSpaTroS^ard^; eavrmp 
direxaXeij Sid to dpayxaiop auTol^ eipai StaXiyea^a^ 

7 irap &p dp XdPoiep top fiia^op^ ^E^aufia^e S\ el tl^ 
dperrjp eTra/yyeXXofiepo^ dpyupiop irpaTToiTo^ Kal fitf 
vofii^oi TO fidyioTOP /cepSo^ e^eip <f>CXop dya^op /cTtj" 
cd/j^po^j dXXd <f>ol3oiTOf fi^ 6 yepofiepo^ kolKo^ xdya^b^ 
T^ Ta fxeyiOTa ev€pyeT'qara>irrt fit) t^p fieyiaTijp x^P^^ 

8 i^ov^ Soi>/cpdTfy; Si iirrfyyeiXaTO fiep oiSepi irdnrore 
ToiovTOp ovSep' €7rlaT€ve Se t&p (vpoptodp eavr^ tov9 
dwo^^afiepoxf^t airep axrm iSoxCfia^ep, ek top vaPTa 
piop eairrflt) re koX dXXrjXoi^ <f>CXois dya^oif^ eaea^cu, 
irw dp OVP 6 TOIOVTOP dpr}p Sva<P)^€ipot tov^ piou^ ; el 
fiff a pa t} T^9 dpeTry; eTTifieXeta SuKp^^opd eoTLP, 

9 'AKXd^ prj Aia^ o KaTijyopo^ €<f>rj, inrepop&p eiroUi 


T&» Ka^earantov vofuov rots awoprcK, Xiytov, &^ fMo- 
pov etrj T0U9 fiev t^9 iroXeao^ ap)(pinras am Kvdfiov 
Ke^ioTcta^ai, Ku/SepuijTrj Be firfieva ^iXeiv K€'Xpri<T^(U 
icvafJLevTw, fitfSe rixrovi, fiijB* auXrjT^, firjS^ iir* oKKa 
roiaiha, h ttoW^ iXdrrova^ ffKdffa^ afiapTav6fi€va 
iroiel rav irepi rr}v iroXxv apupravopAvtav' roif^ Be 
TOtovTov^ Xoyou? hraipetv €<f>ri tov^ viov^ KorcL^povew 
T^ Kc^e<rro}arfi TroXireia^;^ xal iroieiv ^uilov^. 'JBycti 10 
S* oifjuu T0V9 ^poprja-iv curKoxhnwi leaX vofii^opra^ itca- 
vois eaear^ai ra avp^povra BiBdiT/ceiv tolv iroXira^ 
fjKurra jlyvecr^cu fiiaiov^, e^To^, on ry p,€V fiia 
IT poseur IV e^pcu kcu /cipBvvoi, BuL Be toO Tre&'^eu/ okip- 
Swa^ re seal pLerh ^CKia^ ravra ytyverac • oi p,ev ykp 
fiuuT^evres eb? cufMipe^eine^ fiia-oOatv, oi Bk ireur^evre^ 
€09 Ke^apurpivoi, ff>iXov<Tiv» Ovk ovv Tiav if>p6v7jtriv 
oaKouvrtov ro ffid^ea^a^ aXXa rwv la"xyv avev yvd}- 
firj^ e)(pvT(ov ra rotaiha irparreiv iariv. '-4XXA fi^v 11 
Koi avfipMypDv 6 p.ev ficd^ea^av roXfi&v Beotr &v ovk 
oXiyaVt 6 Bk ire^eiv Buvdp^vo^^ ouBepo^* kuI yap pi- 
vo^ ffyolr &v Bvpaa^ai iref^eip, Kal ^opeveip Bk roh ' 
TOiovToi^ rjKurra avfifiaipcL' riv yap dTTOtcreipai rtpa 
fiouXoiT* &p paXXop fj JSirrt irei^op^kptp 'xpria^ai ; ' 

^AXX €<f>7j ye 6 Karriyopo^y ScjKpdre^ 6p>iX7jTa yepo- 12 
pApfo KpirCas T€ xal ^AXxtfiidBrj^ wXelara Kcuca ttjp 
iroXiP hrovqcraTtiP, KptrUv; phf yap t&p ip t§ oXi- 
ya^pyia 'irdpTCjp irXeopeKjCaraTOi re koI ^nuoraro^ 
eyepcTO, *AXKiffiaBtj^ Bk av rwp ep t§ Brip/yKparCa Trap- 
T(DP oKparearaTos Kal v/SptaroTaTo^ Kal ^laioraTo^, 
*Eyw B\ el p^iv Ti Koxov €Keip<o rtfp irdXiP hrotr}ad' 13 
Tffp, OVK diroXoyrfaopLOL' rtfp Bk irpb^ S(OKpdTi]P avpov- 
ciop avToip, <i? eyeperoy Biffytjaopat. ^Eyepetr^Tjp pkp 14 
yap Brj ro) apBpe tovto) ^vaet <piXoTipoTdTco irdpTcop 
^A^flPoicoPf fiovXofUpai re irdpra Bl eavr&p trpdrrea^aA 
cal iroprtdp 6pop,a<rrordrto yepea^ai. pBeaap Bk 2'a>- 


10 xenophon's memorabilia. 

Kpdrrjv air lKxi')(l<rT<a» fiev jQUjfiaTtov avrapKiarara 
^mvra, r&v rfiovwv hi iraa&v iyicpariararov ovra, rois 
Se StaKeyofJLevoi^ ain^ iraai j^pa>fi€ifov iv rok "koyoi^, 

15 07ra>9 ffovXoiTO. Tavra S^ op&irre koX ovre oixa Trpocl' 

pTfa^OV, TTOTCpOV Ti9 oifTOO ^ TOV filOV TOV SoiKpaTov^ 

€7n^vfii^<ravT€ icai rrj^ a<i)^po0'vv7)<:, fjv ixeufo^ ^hc^i 
opi^aa^cu t?;? ofiiXias avrov, ij vofiiaavre, el o/teXi/- 
Krairrfv. ixelv^, yevia-^ai &i/ iKawardrta Xiyetv T€ koX 

16 Trpdrreiv ; *£yci> p,€V yhp 'qyovficu, ^eov SiSovro^ ainolp 
7J pjv oXov rov fiiovt wirep ^Apra Sto/cpdrrfv idpeDv^ 
fj re^viivcu, kXia^ai &v f^Woi/ ainii ri^vdvat. Arj)sM 
S* iyevea^rjv i^ &v iirpa^dTfjp' w^ yctp Td'Xi<rra /cpeir- 
rove Twv avyyiyvofiivtov fjyrfo'da^rjv clvcUy ei/^v^ airo- 
mfirjcavre StoKpdrov^ hrparrenjv ra TToXtrt^o, &W€p 
€V€Ka StoKpdrov^ &pe^i]T7fv, 

V "lam^ oZtf eiiroc Tt9 &p tt/oo? raOro, Sri XP^^ ''"^' 
'StOKpdn^v fitf irporepov ra troXLrtKa SiSd<TK€iv roif^ 
avp6irra<; ^ aca^popelp. ^Eyi> he irpo^ tovto fikv ovk 
apTiXeyoD* irdpra^ hk roin StSdaKopra^ op& avroif^ 
SeiKPVPTos re roU fiap^dpovtrtp, ^ep avroX iroiovanf 

18 h SiSdaKovai, xal r^ Xoytp 'irp(y;l3ifid^opTa^. OlBa Si 
teal S(o/cpdrrjp Seucpvpra Toi<; ^vpovaip eaurop koKop 
Kay a^ OP 6pTa, Kal SiaXeyofiepop KdWurra ire pi dperrj^ 
/cal r&p aXKjap ap'^ptoirtpcop. OlSa Be KaKeipta <r0<f>p&' 
povpre, erre StoKparei avpi^tmjp, ov ^po/SovfjJpv fiif 
^rjfiioiPTO fj TraloiPTO inrb XfOKpdrovSt aW* olofiepm 
Tore KpdriaTOP eipoi tovto irpdrreip, 

19 ^laooa oZp eiiroiep &p iroXKol t&p i^a^KOPTmp (f>tXxh 
cro^etp, Stl ovk ap Trore 6 Sikoio^ aSiKo^ ye'poiTo, ovBi 
6 KTfo^pwp vppUTTT^y ovSk oXXo ovBep^ &p pJ^fftri^ 
iartPj 6 fjuAoDP dpem,crTTip^p ap irore yevovro, 'JByw 
hi irepi tovtcdp ov^ ovt<o y^ypdxrKCD* 6p& yap wvep 
ra TOV trdfiaro^ epya roif^ firj ri cw/iara daKovPTO^ oi 
Bvpafupov^ iroielp, ovrto koI ri rij^ V^KX^ epya tov9 


It^l 7171^ '^X^v aa/eouvra^ ov Suvafiivoi;^' ovre yap & 
BeZ vparreip ovre &v hel a7ri)(€a^av Bvvajnai. A to 20 
Koi T0V9 vieX^ oi waripe^, kSlv &ai cwf^pove^, Ofia^ uTrb 
T&v irovffp&v av^p<!yira>v elpyovaiv, cb; t^i^ p,€v r&v 
jfpfjaro^v ofiiXiav oaKijo'iv ovcrav rrp apeTryiy rtfv Si 
T&p irovTfp&y KardKv(rtv, Maprupel Sk teal t&v irotri^ 
T&v o T€ Xeymv 

*Zff^\&p ftkp 7&P &ir^ ic^?<k diktat' fjw 9h KUKOuruf 

Kol 6 Xiyav 

KajoD ie fiapTvpA tovtoi^' op& yhp, &^w€p t&v iv 2\ 
fUrpip iretroifffAivtov eirwv tov^ p,f) (jueKer&vrw: eTrikav^ 
^avofjtivov^, o{jT<o koI t&v BiSac/caXxKoiv Xd«yo)l; roi? 
a/ieXov<ri Xijf^fjv iyyiyvofiiv^v, ^Otov ik t&v vov^ert'. 
ic&v Xoytav hrCKa^ryrai ti% eviXiXijaTcu kol &v fi 
-^uj^^ Traaxova-a t^ a(a<l>poavvrf^ erre^vfiei' Tovrtov 
8' hriKa^ofJbevov ovSev ^avfuurrov teal 7^9 (rto^po- 
avvrfi hriKi&ia^ai. *Op& Si seal tov9 €k ^CKonoaiav 22 
irpoa^ivra^ Koi tov9 €49 epcoTa^ iyKuXia^ivTo^t fJTTov 
SuvafjUvov^ T&v T€ SeovTODv iirifieXela^at koI t&v firi 
SeovTfov a'Trk-)(ea^af iroKKoX yap icaX xprf/Mdrtov Suvdr 
uevoi <f>€i8ea'^(U, irplv ipav, ipaa^ivTe^ ovKm SuvavTa^* 
ic€u, Th 'Xpr^fuiTa ieaTavaXwa-avr&f, &v nrpoa^ev airei- 
')(ovro KcpS&Vj aiay^it vofii^ovre^ elvat^ TovToyv ovk 
airejdoVTCU. II&^ oiv owe ivSix^srai, atoffipovrjaavTa 23 
irpoc^ev aS^t9 fi^ aw^poveiv, koX Sifcaia Swij^iifTa 
vpaTTCiv atf^i^ aSvvaT€tv ; Ildvra (ikv oiv efiovye SoKci 
T& Ka\it zeal Taya^^ aatcrjrcL elva^ ovj^ fJKurra Sk 
iTfo^pwrivri* iv t^ yhp airr^ adfiaTi avfune^VTevpAva* 
T§ ^^vy^ ai riSovaX TrcC^ova-iV aMjv fiif a-m^povetv^ 

12 xenophon's hemobabilia. 

aXKa Tffv Taxi<rTf}v iavrai^ re xai r^ cwfiari, x^P^* 

21 Kal Kpiria^ Srf Kal *A\Kil3idSri^^ lci>9 fikv XfOKfmrek 
cupijaTrjv, i8vvdcr^r)v, ixeiv^ j^mfiepon <rvfipLd-)(tp^ tcsp 
firj KaXwv iTTi^vfiiGM/ Kparelv' i/ceipov S' airaWayarret 
KpiTia^ fiiVf <f>vya}V €19 QerraKiav, ixei trvvfjv ai/^pon 
TTOt? avofila fiaXXov fj SiKacoavvrj ')^pa}^ivoi^' AXki- 
/3uiS7j^ 8* av Sia fxkv koXKo^ viro ttoWwp koI aefipwv 
yvpaiKoip ^TjpcofAepo^;, BiiL Svpa/xip Se rffp ip r^ TroXei 
Kal TOL<^ (TVfifidypi^ inro ttoWmp koI Svparwp KoXaxeveiv 
dp^pcoTToyp Sia^puTTTo/xei/o?, inro Sk mv hrjfjuov TifuO' 
fi€PO^, Kat paSieo^i irptDTevtopj &^ir€p ol rwp yvfiPiKo^p 
ay(op<op d^\f}Tal pq£ia}^ irpo^Tevoprc^ afjL€\ov<ri rrj^ 

25 daKi^aecd^;, ovrto KUKelpo^ ^/ieXiycrei/ airrov, Toiourtop 
8i crvfi/3dpra>p avrolp, xal dyyKo>/i€P<o fihf iin yipcL, 
errrfpfiipo) B* iirl ttXout^, ire^varifiepto S* hrl Bwdfiei^ 
Blared pvfifiipto Se xnro ttoWcoi/ dp^pdnrcop, eirl Bi ncun 
rovToi^ Bt€^^ap/i€P(0 Kat iroXup ypopop airo ^wicpdrov^ 
yeyopore, ri ^avfiaoTOP^ el inrepij^dptd eyepea^ijp ; 

26 Elra, cl flip ri eTrXrjfifieXija'dTrjp, roinov So}KpdTi]p o 
Kariiyopo^ alriaraL ; on Bi pito orre avrd), ^pUa koI 
ar/ptafiopeardTta Kal aKpareoTdTOD eiKO^ elpai, XfOKpdrry; 
m'apiaj^^e (r(o<f>pop€^ oifBepo^ hraipov BoK€i tgI) KaTijyop^ 

27 a^io^ eZi/eu ; Ov fiifp rd ye aWa ovt<o KpiperoA ' t/<p 
fiep yap avXrjr^^, T19 Be KaX KAaptanj^, rk Bk aXXo^ j 
Bi&dfTKaXo'i Ixapoif^ iroti^aaf roif^ fia^rrjrd^, iap irpb^ < 
aWoif? iX^opre^ '^eipov^ ^aptiaiPt air iap e^et rovrov ; 
rk Bk irarripy iap 6 iral^ avrov avpBunpi^wp Tfp 
caxfiptap 17, varepop Bi aXXq> r^ avyyepofiepo^ iroprfpo^ 
yiprjTai, top 'jrpoa^ep ainarai ; clXX' oif^ ^^^ ^^ irapa 
ra> variprp ^eiptop <f>alpijTai, roaoirtp /xaXXoi^ hrawei 
TOP irporepop ; aXX' oX ye nrarepe^ axnoi avpopre^ rol^ 
vleai^ rwp iraiBttDP irXtffjifieXovpTCDP, ovk alriap ixovatv^ 

88 iap ainol actx^popcoa-tv* Ovtoh Be koX S(OKpdTrjv Buccuo^ 


])y Kpiv€tp' el fiiv aino^ hroiet rt if>av\ov^ ehcirc^ &v 
eSJ/cct irovffpb^ etvai* el Sk avro^ crto<f>povoiv htereKei, 
wm &u SvKaica^ 1779 ovk ipovarj^ ain^ xaxia^ alrlav 

'^XX.* €^ Koi firfSev airb^ /rovqpov rrot&v ixeivou^ 29 
^uKa irpaTTovra^ op&v errfivei^ BiKoio)^ &v eireTipAro* 
KpiTiav p.ev roivw ala^avofievo^ ip&vra Ei^vSi^fMOv 
tuu weip&irra ')(prj<r^(u, Kc^awep oi irpo^ ra^poBurut 
tS>v fftofiaTtDV airoXavoirre^j airerpeTrej ^daKwv ave- 
Xeif^epov T€ elvai xal oi vpiirov apSpl koXS xdya^^, 
Tov epdfieyovj cS fiovKerai ttoXKov a^io^ (f>aivea^aif 
irpo^cureTv &^Trep rov^ irron-xoif^ hcerevovra koX Seofie- 
vov 7rp(t^Sovvat, kclI ravra firfSevo^ aya^ov. Tov Sk 30 
Kpiriou Tot9 ToiovTot^ ov;^ inroKovovTo^ ovSe airorpe- 
irofievov, Xeyerai tov Stofepdrrjv^ a\\a>v re ttoTCK&v 
irapovTtov xal rov Ei^vSijfiov, ecTrelv, ori vucov ainp 
SoKoiff iraa^etv 6 Kpiria^, eTn^vpMV Ev^vSi^fiq> tt/oo?- 
fcvrja^cu wrrep tA vl^ia rol^ Xi^ot^.^'Ef &tf Brj Kal 31 ^tf 
ifiicei TOV So>/epdTf]v 6 Kpiria^, &st€ /cat, ore t&v Tpid- 
Kovra &v vofJu/^eTfj^ furcL- XaptKKiov^ eyivero, aTrefi- 
vrifJLovevaev avT&, kol iv T0&9 vofiom eypayjre \6y(ov 
Te)(injv fJLfi SiSdaxeiv, eTnjped^oDv iKeivtp, koI ovk e^^v 
OTTQ hrCKd^oiTO^ aXXA to koiv^ toU <f>iXoa'6<poi^ inro 
T&v iroXKmv eiriTifuofievov hri^ipfov avroS, koL BiaffdX- 
Xeav irpo^ tou? voXKov^' ovSi yhp eytoye ovr* airrb^ 
TovTO TTwrjroTe ScDKpdToi/^ T^Kova-a, ovT SXKov i^daKOV' 
T09 oKffKoivat ya^ofirjv. *ESij\a)a-e Si * iwel yhp ol bjl' 
rpidfcovTa iroXKoif^ fikv t&v ttoXit&v zeal ov Tov<i 'xei* 
pCoTov^ airifcreivoVf ttoXXou? Be irpoerperrovro oBcxelVj 
ehre ttov 6 SfOKpdrri^, ori ^avftaarov ol BoKolrj etvcu, 
el Ti^ yevofievo^ ffo&v ayiXtf^ vofieif^ xal r^9 /3ov^ ekdr- 
Tov^ Te Kal ')(eipov<; iroi&v fMr) 6 fioXoyo iff koko^ fiovKO- 
X09 elvai' en Be ^avfiaoTorepov, el rt? irpoaTaTrjH 
yevifuvos iroKec^ koX iroi&v Toif^ TroX/ra? eKdrrovi 


Kal x^tpovi fi^i alaywertUj iirfi* oUnu sca/eo^ elveu 

33 TrpoardTrf^ rtj^ irokem^, ^AirayjO^^iino^ Si airrok 
rouTov, KaKiiravTe^ o re Kpirias ical 6 XapucXSj^ top 
ScaKpoTTiv, TOP re p6/mop iBeiKPvrrjp avrw xat rok vioi^ 
air€i'7r€Trjp firj ButXeyea^ai, *0 tk SaKpanj^ hrrjpero 
auTQi, el e^eit} mw^apear^a^ el ri aypoolro t&p irpo^ 

34 ayopevfievap, Ta> S' iifxirrfP, ^Eyw toIpvp, e<^ri, ira- 
peaKewuTfuu fikv ireC^ea-^cu rok pofioi^' 07ra>9 Se fi^ 
St' aypouLP Xa^o) rt '/rapapofii^aa^, touto fiovkofuu 
o-o^cS; fjui^eip irap vfiwp' TrSrepop t^p twp Xoy&p 
T€)(Pfjp aifp rok op'^ok Xeyofiipoi^ elpat pojii^opre^ ^ 
aifp Tot9 fiff op^coff am-exeo-^at KeXevere atnij^. El 
fiep yap avp tow op^cS?, &rjXop on a^/cfiop ettf rov 
op^ck \eyeip' el Bi <rup tow p^ti op^ok, SrjXop Sri 

35 Tretpareop op^dk Xiyeip. Kal 6 Xapi/cKfj^ opyca^elif 
avT^' ^EttclSiJ, €<f>rj, & SdiKpare^t arpfoel^ raZe trot 
eufAa^earepa 8pra irpoayopevofiePy rok pioi^ oX6>9 fiif 
iuCKkyeo^a^. Kai o Sfo/cpdrrj^^ *'Ipa roiuup, e^, fi^ 
afi<f>i/3o\op ^, C09 aXKo ri, worn fj rk irpotiyopevfiepo, 
opLcrari fioi, f^^XP^ iroatop er&p heZ po^i^etp peov^ eti^cu 
T0U9 ap^pdyrrov^, Kal 6 XapucXrj^* "Oaov irep, elire^ *: 
Xpopov fiovXevetp ov/c e^earip, ok ovttoo <j>popi/Jboi^ oSo-i* 

36 fifjBi cif BulX^ov petarepoi^ rpUucopra ir&p, — MrfBe, 
OP ri a>p&fuic, e^, ^p irmX^ pewrepo^ rpuucopra ir&p^ 
Spm/iai^ OTToaov TraiXel ; — Nal rd ye roiavra, 1^ o 
XapucXSj^' aXXd rot ov ye, & Sdixpare^j eliuf^ai;, €^Sa>9 
TTck ^€^9 T€L TrXelara epcarap* rairra olfp pJt) ipdna^ — 
M17S* dwoKpiPtOfiai oipj iijnj, ap rk fie epon^ peo^, ii>v 
elBS^ otop TToi) oUel XapucXrk ; ^ frov lerrt Kpiria^ ; — 

87 Nal rd ye rouivra^ Sifnf 6 XapixXaj^* 'O Be Kpirla^* 
*AXXci roovBe rol tre airixi^tr^cu, e<f>rf, Beijaetf & Sdh 
Kpare^j rwp GKvriadP Kai rwp reicropwp koX rwp ;^aX- 
xiwp' Kal yap olpuii avroif^ ^jBij Kararerpl^^ai Bu&pu- 
Xovfupou^ inrb aov, Ovkovp, e^ o ScoKpdrtf^, Kal rwk 


hroiihrnv rovrot^t rod re Bueaiou Koi rov oaiov koX 
rAf aXKtov r&v roiovrtop ; Nal fia idt*, i<^ 6 Xapir 
k\%, icai Twv fiovKoX/JOP ye* el Be fiij, (^vKdrrov, 07rci>9 
fi^ xal <T\f eKaTTov^ ras; fiov^ iroti^(rg^. "Ev^a tcaX 38 ^' ), 
BrjjKov iyivero, Sri^ OTrayyeX^ePTO^ avrok rov Trepl r&v 
fiooaif Xoyou, i>pyi^ovTO r^ StoKpdrei, 

Out fi€P ovv 71 awova-ia iyeyivet Kpirla irpo^ ^€0- 
tcparrfv, kcu &^ el^ov 7r/oo9 aXXi^Xot/?} efpi/rat. ^aii}v 39 
£* a» iyayye fii^Sevl firjSefiiav eh/ai iraiSevaw irapii 
Tov fit) apeatcovro^, Kpiria^ Be xal ^AXtei/SidBrf^ ovk 
apicKovTO^ avToi^ Sto/epdrov^ AfuktfO'dTrjv, bv jy}6vov 
ifjuXeirrfv avr^ aXX* ev^if^ i^ ^P7fi^ wpfiij/eore irpoe- 
trrdvcu ri}? 7ro\60>9* eri yap Saicpdrei axwovre^ ovk 
aXkoiq Turl fjL&XKov hre)(elpow StaXeyecr^at tj roV: 
ftaXurra irpdrrovav to, iroXtTixd, ^i\A.eyerai ykp ^AXkit 40 
fiidBrjv, vpXv elfcoatv er&v elvai, HepticKel einrpoTrfp 
fi€V oifTi eaxrroVj irpofrrdTg Be ty^ 7r6X€a>9, roiaJBe 
Bf>aKjp)^rjv{u irepi vofitav* Etiri fioi, ^dvai, & Hepl^ 41 
K7<jet^t eyoi^i av fie BiBdfcUj ri e<m vofio^ ; ITairra»9 
Brprov^ iJMvai rov Tlepuchia. AUBa^ov Bif trpo^ rwv 
decSi/y <l>dpai top *A\KifiidBrjp' w eyooy^ axovoyp tipAp 
iiraivovfiipcapj Sri po/u/jloi apBpe^ elaip, olfuii fitf &p 
Biicaio^ TOVTOV rvxetP tov hraipov top fitf elBora^ tC 
e<m pofio^. 'ilXX' ovBep ti ^^aXciroi) irparfpLaro^ hrir- 42 ^ 
dv/Lt€Kt & *A\KifiidBrf, (fidpM TOP HepiKKea, /SovXofiepo^ 
ypooptu, Tt ioTi pofio^' irdpre: yitp oSrot pofioi ela-ip, 
ot^ TO ttX^^ov avpeX^op xal BoKipAaap eypa^e^ if>pd' 
S^p^ a T€ Bet iroielp koI & fiij, — Horrepop ik Torfolhh 
pop,laap Belp iroteip^ fj r^ Kcueii ; — Tayc&d^ pt) Aia, 
^pcu^ & fieipdKiop, TcL Bk Koick ov. — ^Eap Bi fiff to 43 
wXjjf^o^, aXX*, &^irep ottov oKiyap')(la iarip, oKiyoi, 
avpeX^opre^ ypdy^tnp, o ti j^ iroieiVy Tavra tl ioTi ; 
— llain-a, <l>dpai, Stra &p to KpaTOVP t^9 TroXeo)? fiov* 
Xevadfupop, tt j(prf iroietp, ypd'^, Potior KdCKeiTot, — 

16 xiaropHON^s memorabilia. 

Kai &v Tvpavvo^ ovv Kpar&v t% 7roXefl»9 ypdy^ roJq 
TroXiVat?, & ^ij 7roi€Uf, /cal ravra vofio^ iari ; — Kai 
oaa Tvpapvo^ o.pypDV^ ^avai^ jpuif>€i^ xal ravra vofioi 
ii KoKurai, — BUl Se, <l>dvcu, seal avofAia rl i<mvy & 
IlepUXei^ ; ^Ap ov^ otov 6 Kpeirroiv top ^frrfti fi^ 
ireiaa^i, aXKa jSuurdfievo^ avajKocrp Troieiv, S ri &» 
avT& SoKtj ; — ^Efioiye Boxelj ^dpcu top IlepiKKia. — 
Kai oaa apa rvpappo^ fifi Tvetaa^ rou9 iroXiTa^ apa- 
yxd^ei TTOiklp ypd(f>top, apofiia iarl ; — AoK^t fioi^ <f>dpcu 
TOP Hepitckka* apaTCbcfiat yhp to oaa rvpappo^ /iff 

45 irelaa^ ypdff>ei po/iop etpai. — ''Oaa ik ol oKiyoi Toif^ 
7roX.Xov9 fif) Trelaapre^y aXXa KpaTovpre^ ypd<f>oyai, 
TTOTcpop fiiap ^&fjL€P, ^ /JLtj <l>6^fi€p elpai ; — Tldpra fioi, 
Soxel, <f>dp(u TOP UepiicKicLf oaa rt? /Lt^ Treiaa^ dpayxd^e^ 
Tipa TToietPj elre ypd<f><op efre fii], jSia fiaWop fj pofio^ 
clpav. — Kai oaa apa to irdp 7rX.^^09 /cparovp t&p tA 
yprifjLaTa i)(6pT0}p ypd<f>€i fifj ireiaap, jSia fidWop ^ 

46 pofjLo^ ap elrj ; — MaKa toi, ^dpat top FlepiKXea, & 
*A\Ki0idSrf Kol ^fieUj ttjXikovtoi oinrev, Seipoi Ta toi- 
avTa Jj/jL€P' Toiavra yap xai €fi€7<£T&fi€P Kai iao^i^o- 
fi€^a, old Trep tccu aif pvp ifiol So/cet? fiekerdp. Top ik 

A\Kil3id£rfP <f>dpai * £2^6 aoi, & TlepixXei^, t6t€ aupe- 

47 yepofifjp, ore SeiPOToro^ aaxrrov Tavra ^a^a. ^Errel 
Tolpvp Tdj^iara t&p woXiTevopUpwp {nriXafiop xpeiT' 
Toi/ev cIpcUj Soi>/epdT€i fihf oixm irpo^eaap • ovt€ yhp 
auToh aXXo)^ ^peaxev, et t€ 7rpof;eX^oiep, \nrkp &p 
^/jbdpTapop iXeyxofiepoi rjj^oPTO' Tct Se t^9 iroXeeo^ 
errpaTTOP, &P7r€p epetcep xal Stoxpdret irpo^X^op. 

18 AXXct KpiTcop re StoKpdrov^ ijp ofiiXrfrrf^ koI Xa^pe* 
4>&Pi teal Xaipe/epdrtf^, xal ^EpfJiOKpdnj^, Kai Strfifila^f 
Kai Ki^Ti^y Kai ^aiBcopBr)^, Kal.aWoi^ ot ixeip^ avprjaap^ 
ovy^ "'fit Si]fiijy6piKol 'fj SiKapiKol yipoiPTo, aW' tva, KaXoi 
re Kaya^ol yepofiepoij Kai oU^ koI olxirai^ Kai ouceias 
Kol ^tXo(9 Kai iroXei Kai TroXiVat? BiipaiPTo KaXm 


j^pf}<r^eu' icai rovrtov ovSeh, ovre v&irrepo^ oure irp^a-' 
fiurepo^ &Vj ovT^ iTToirjae kukov ovSePj ovt air lav ea^ev, 

*AXka StoKpaTT]^ y, €(f>i] 6 Kari^yopo^, tov^ irarepa^ 49 
TrpormiKjcuci^ew iSiSaaxe, Tre^wv fikv tou9 avpovroi av- 
T^ aoffxaTepoin TToteiv t&v iraTip<ov, <f>d<r/c(ov Se xarii 
vofiov i^lvat irapavoiwi kkomi, koX rov iraripa S^cat, 
TtKfjLTipUp TovTtp jQxifievo^, w TOP a/Jui^^oTepov tnro 
Tov ao^Horipov vofiipov ett} SeSia^cu. XfOKparij^ hi 50 
Tov fihf afia^ia^ evcKa Seafievovra Stxaiio^ av xal axnov 
^ero SeSia^cu inro r&v hnarafikvanv, h fiij avro^ hrU 
oraTtu' Kol T&v roiovrav evexa 'iroXKaKi,^ ia-KOfirei, rt 
Suitf>€p€i fiavla^ afJM^ia* Kai rois fihf fiaivofiivov^ 
^€T0 avfi^povTt^ &v BeBic^cu teal avrot^ xai rois 
<f>i\ot^, TOLP? Sk fiif iiri^rafiivov^ t^ hiovra Sixaio)^ &v 
pLov^aveiv irapa rwv iinarafiivtov^^ AKKa So>Kpdrr]i 51 
ye, €<fyij 6 Karrgyopo^i, ov fiovov rob^ iraripw;^ aSXa kcu 
Tois aXKov^ avyyeveU iiroiet iv aripLia elvai irapi, 
Tok iavT^ awov(n, Xiyeov^ w ovtc tov9 /edfivovra^ 
ovT€ roif^ SiKa^opAvov^: oi avyyevw i><f>€Xov<rtVt aXKA 
Toif^ fihf oi larpol, roin Se ol avvSiKclv hnardfievou 
^E<fyrf Sk Kol irepX r&v <f>i\a}V ainov Xiyeiv, (o? ovBkv 52 
J^Xo9 evvov^ elvcu^ cl /iff koI axl>€\€lv iuvrjaovrai' 
fjtovov^ Be if>daK€iv airrbv a^iov^ elvcu rifirj^ rov^ elSo^ 
ra^ rh Bdovra xal ipfir^vevaa^ BwapAvov^' dvairel- 
%ovTa oiv roxf^ veov^ axnov, m axno^ etrj aoifxaraTo^ 
re Kol aXKox;^ ucaworaro^ iroirj<rat ao<f>ov^, ovrto But- 
rC^kvcu T0V9 eavT^ cwovra^, &rr€ fiijBafiov irap 
axnovi rov^ oXXoi^ eZi/eu irpo^ iavrov, *Eyw B* av- 53 
rbv olSa fihf koX irepX irarepav re Kal r&v aXKtov 
avyyev&v re xal irepl ^CKoav ravra Xiyovra* Kal 
irpoi TovTois ye B^, ort rrj^ y^t^xfi^ e^eX^ovoTj^, iv ^ 
fiovfj yiyverat <f>p6vrjai^, to a-Afia rov ouceiordTov 
av^pdonrov rifv Ta')(L<TTqv e^eviyxavre^ d^avifyvaiv, 
"EXeye Bi^ oTt teal ^a>v Ikooto^ eavrov h nrdvrtov &! 

18 zsnophon's memorabilia 

fioKiara ^CKUt tov a-tofiaro^ S n &p ajfpetov § xai 
aP€Oif>€\eSt avTo^ re a<f>aip€l koX SXKjtp irapi^ei' avrot 
T€ y€ avT&v ovtr)(a^ T€ km rpi^a/s xal rvXov^ a<fHU' 
povai, KoX ToU larpok irape)(pvai, fiercL wovrnp re xal 
AXyriSovtov xal airorifxpeiv teal aTroKdetPj teal tovt<op 
^apu/ otovreu SeZv avroU Kal ^a^ov rip€iv fcaX ro 
alaXop ix tov orofiaTo^ airom-vovatp m Svpoptoi 
iroppwrrdrtOy hUni, i^Xei /jl€p ovBhf airroi/i €p6p, fikor 

55 irret Sk irokv fiaXKop. TaOr ohp iKeyep ov top pJep 
iraTepa ^Apra KOTopvTTeiP Bi8d{rK€i>p, eavTOP Be xaTa- 
T€/jLV€ip* dW' eir^BevKPwop, 8t$ to &(f>pop arifiop iari, 
wap€tcdXei emfuXna^at tov co9 t^popifidnaTOP elpai 
Kol axf^eXifuoTOTOP, otto)?, idp t€ inro iraTpo^, iuv tc 
vrro dBe\<f>ov, iav t€ vtto aXko9 tipo^ fiovXtfrai Tifia- 

^ a^cuj fit) TO) ouceloi elpcu irioTewop afieXfj, dXXA 
iretpaTcu, v<l> &p &p jSovXrp-ai TipMa^ai, Toinois OM^e- 
XLpjo^ elptu. 

56 "Effnf 8* avTop 6 Karqyopo^ Kal t&p ipSo^OTorop 
froifjT&p iKXeyo/Jtepop rd iropripoTwra koX toutoi^ fiap^ 
Tvplot^ yptofiepop, BiSdaK€ip rov9 trvpopTa^ Koxovpyoi^ 

T€ elpCU KoX TVpOPPlKoi^* ^HaioBoV fl€P TO* 

TovTO Sif Xeyeip ainop^ iy; o iroiffriy; /eeXeuei fivfieiw 
epyov firjfre aSixov firp-e aur)(pov dirkxea^ai^ dXXd 

57 K€U TCLura 'jroieip hrl r^ xipBeu SfOKpaTrj^ S* hreiSii 
OfioXoyijacuTO to fiep ipyuTrfp elvcu onf^iXiiiop t€ up* 
^pmnp Kal aya^op etpeu, to Sk apyop ffXafiepop t€ 
Kal KOKOP, Kal TO p^p ipyd^ea^oA aya^op, to Be ap- 
yelp Kaxop, Toi>^ p,€P aya^op Ti iromvPTa^ ipyd^ea^ai 
T€ €<f>rf Kal ipydra^ aya^ov<: eipai' tou9 Si Kvfievop- 
to; ^ Ti oKXjo iropripop koL irri^fjpMP ttoiovpto^ apyov^ 
avreKaKjeu *Ek Bk tovtcop op^w ap €)(pi to* 

BOOK I. CHAP. n. 19 

To Si ^OfLiipov €<fnf 6 KOTTiyopofi iroXKoLKi^ avTov Xi- 68 
yetv, OTi ^OSvaaeif^ 

^Orrara fi}p fioffikria icol ll^oxop Mpa itix«(i|, 
T^ 8' &7iarois ^Wto'iriv ifn/TwreurKw wepturrif 
AaifiAyi', oC irt loiicc Kcuchp At itiZiffffttrdai, 
*AA\* aMt re xd^iro, irol &Wovs liput \aoCs. 
*Or 8* aS 54/aou r' &»r8pa tSoi, fio6mrrd r' 4^6pot, 
Thw aic^iwrp^ ixirao'Ktr, 6/ioK\'^aaffK4 re A^^y * 
A«i/i^ri', krpiiMMs ^irOf iral &AAMy /iSdor &xoim^ 
Ot Wo ^4pr9poi tiffi' ah 8* &«T^Ac/iOf Ktd ipaXKtt, 
O0rf TOT* ^r roK4fi^ ipapi&fuos, ofir* M fiov\y. 

Tavra Bff airbv i^riyeta^ai, co9 o iroifirf)^ iiraivoiff 

vaiea^ai rots Sfjfxira'i koX irhnfra^. S<0iepdr7)^ 8* 59 

ou ravT eXeyc xal yap iavrov ovrto y* av ^Sero Seiv 

TTcUca^ai* aXX' €<f>ff Beiu rov^ /iifre Xoy^ firfv^ ^PJV 

&<f>€\ifiov^ SifTos, fi'qre trrparevfiart fujre iroXe* fiifre 

airT& T^ iriiitp^ el rt Sio^ fiorf^civ- Ucwov^, aXXa>9 r 

ii,v irpo^ rovrtp xal ^peurei^ ct>(rt, iravra rpiirov teto- 

Xvea^at, k&v Trdw TrXouaioi rvy^avtoo'LV Svre^.y^ *AWiL 60 

Stotepdrrf^ ye ravamia rovrtov ifxivepo^ ^i^ xal &7/A0* 

Ti/K09 fcal ^iXai/^/9Q>^09 &P* ixeli^ yap woXKovf hri- 

^vfLfird,^ Kol doToif^ xal (evov^ \a/3a)v ovSipa iranrore 

fua'^op T% axjvovala^ hrpa^ro^ aXKk iraaiv aiff^ovm^ 

hniptcei T&v iavrov* &v rives fiifcpd fUprf irap iicelr 

vov irpouca XajSovre^ iroXKov rot9 aXXoi^ iirdikovv, 

/ud ovK f^aPj A^irep i/ceivo^ SrjfioriKOi,' rois yap fjiif 

ejpvai jyyijfjLara SiSovac ovk ^^eXov SiaXiyea^ai. 

'AWA So»icpdr7j^'ye xai rrphs rov9 aXXoir? dv^pdytrov^ 01 

Koa-fiop r§ iroXei vapetx/s ttoXX^ frnXXov fj Ai)(a^ t§ 

Aa/ceSai/jLOpitop, &9 ovofUKrrb^ ini rovrtp yiyope. Ai)(a^ 

jiiv yap rak yvfivoiraiZiai^ rov^ hniifipAivvra^ ip Aa- 

iceSa^p4}pt ^€Pov^ iSeiirvi^e' Staxpartf^ Be Sid iravro^ 

Tov Piov rd eavrov Sairap&p rd fiiyurra rrdpra^ roif9 

20 xenofhon's msmobabilia. 

/Sovkofjiipov^ a}<f>€X€f fieXriov^ yhp iroi&v roiff avy* 
yiyvofjL€Pov^ aireirefiTrev. 

62 ^EfjLol fi€P Btj Stio/cpdrrf^ toiovto^ &p iSoxei rifjurj^ 
a^to^ elpac ry woKe^ fiaXKop ^ ^apdrou. Kai Kara 
rov^ pofiov^ Sk aK(nrS>p Sv Tt9 roD^* evpoi^ Kara yap 
T0U9 pop^w, idp Tt9 (f>ap€p69 yhnyroA KKetrrtop ^ \a>- 
TToSuTtap ^ l3a\aPTioTOfi&p ff roix^p^X^^ ^ dpBpoTro^ 
Bi^ofiepo^ ^ lepoavXMP, rovrov^ ^aparo^ icrw fi ^tffiUf 

63 &p ixelpo^ irdpTCDp dp^pdnrtop TrKeZarop d7r€tj(€P. *A\' 
\a firjp ry irokei ye oure iroXifiov KOK&f crvfi/SaPTO^^ 
ovT€ <7Tacr6a>9f otrre irpoSocia^j ovre aXKov kokov ov- 
Sepo^ 7ra>7roT6 aiTLO^ iyepero, OuBe firjp IBia y€ ovBipa 
iroiTrore dp^pdyirmp ovre dya^&p direarepria'ep^ ovre 
teaxoU •jrepiifiaXep' a\X* ovB^ air lap t&p elprjfiiptov 

64 ovSepo^ ttcSttot* €cr^e. IIS^ oup €Poj(p^ &p eitf r^ 
ypa^y ; b^ dprl flip rov fitf pofii^eip ^€ov^, (09 ip r^ 
ypa^^ yiypairrOj <f>ap€p6^ ^p ^epaircvwp rovg ^eov^ 
fjidXiara t&p oKXmp dp^pdyrrcop' dprl Be rov Bia<f>^€i- 
peuf T0U9 piov^, h Bff 6 ypa^frdfiepo^ ainop yriaTO, 
^apepo^ flP T&p ovpoPTtDP tov^ iropffpd^ errt^vfiia^ 
S)(ppra^ TovTa>p phf Travcop, 1^9 Be KaXKiaTq^ Ka\ pieyor 
XoTTpeTTCOTaTi/? dpertf^, 17 iroKei^ re koX oIkov^ ev oi- 
Kovai, TrpoTphroDp iiri^vp.etP' rafrra Bk irpdrrtop wci? 
ov fieydXtf^ a^to9 I^p t*/a^ t§ TroXet; 



Tub two preceding chapters contain n ooufutation of the accusations of 
tlie enemies of Socrates. He was neither a despiser of the ^^ds of ths 
State nor a corrupter of the youths With this chapter, the more posi- 
tive part of the work is commenced. The particular points of defenes^ 

BOOK I. CHAP. lU. 21 

which hare been rapidly passed over, are again returned in the sabse- 
qnent chaptera and more fully discussed, and illustrated by the oonyer- 
Mtions of Socrates ~^ith his fiiends and disciplea. Thus not only the 
Mijustice and malignity of his opponents^ but the integrity and piety of 
his own life, is made more eyident. 

The reverence of Socrates for the gods^ introduced in chap. I. ^ 2, is 
again brought into yiew in this chapter, and his manner of worshipping 
them more fully explained ; and then the subject of his self control is 
resumed from IL § 1 sq. 

1. He both adhered to the usual manner of worshipping the gods, and 
enjoined it upon others to do the same (§1). In his players he merely 
asked for good things^ believing that the gods know best wliat is good 
for man (^ 2). In sacrifices^ the gods have not respect to the magnitude 
of the offering; but to the motives and feelings of the offerer ($ 8). The 
revelations made by the gods were with him paramount to all human 
eonnsels (§ 4). 

2. Socrates was most abstinent in respect to food and drink, and in- 
culcated this virtue upon others (§ 5 — ^) ; he also had command over 
1u8 sensual passions (i^po5i(rtWX and ridiculed a vice prevalent in his 
day (§ 8—15). 

'fl^ Be htj Kal a><l>€\€lv iSoxei fjLOL rov^ ^vvovra^ t^ 1 
fiev €py<p Set/cvvmp eavrbv oto^ ^p, ra Bk xal BtaXeyo- 
fievo^f TOVT<ov Br) ypay^co, onrotra &v BiafivrnjLovevGCO, 
Ta fiiv roivup irpos tov^ ^eou9 <l>av€p6^ fjp koX ttoi&v 
Kat Xiyaop, ^ep 17 Hv^ia {nroicpipercu rot^ iptorc^ai, 
TTok Bel TTOLelp fj irepl ^vaia^ ff irepl irpoyopoup ^epor 
Treia^ fj irepl aXXov Tti/09 t&p roiovrtop* rj re yap 
Ilv^ia vofitp TToXea^ apcupet iroiovPTa^ euaefiw9 &p 
iroielp, StaKpaTt)^ re o{rra>9 xal airro^ hrolei koX toV; 
oKXoK TTapj^peif rots Bk aXXay^ 7ra)9 iroiovPTa<; irepiep- 
yov9 Kol furraiov^ ipo/JLi^ep elpat. Kal euyero Be irpo^ % 
rois ^€0^9 airXSf^ raya^^ B^opat, coj tou9 ^eow koK- 
\urra elBora^:, OTToia aya^d i(m* tov<; B* ev^o/iipov^ 
ypvalop fj apyvpuiP fj rvpappiBa fj aXXo ri t&p rotointop 
ovBey Bid(f>opop ipofii^ep €V)(ea^ai, fj el Kv^elap fj fidy^rip 
4 aXXo TV evxptPTO rmp <f>ap€p&<i dBi]\(OP ottco^ diroPrf' 
aovro. Suaia<: Be ^vcov fiixph^ diro fiiKpap ovBcp ^yelro 3 

22 xenophon's memorabilia. 

fjtewva^cu t&p airo iroXKi&v koL fieyoKav iroXKii xai 
fieydXa ^voirrfov ovre yap toU deoTr e^ xaT^ lx^^^» 
el TaU fieyakai^ ^vaiai^ fiaXKov fj ral^ fj,iKpeu<: exjcu- 
pov iroXKaKL^ yap av ainroU ra Trapi, t&v irovrjpwp 
fiaXKov ^ Tct itaph r&v j^pTja-TAv clvai xexapiafidva* 
ovT &v rot9 ai/^/xo7roi9 a^tov eipoi $171/, el r^ irapet 
r&v trovrip&v plSlSXov Ijv /ce'xapia'fiiva roZf; ^eoU tj t^ 
irapi^ T&p ')(fyri<TT&p* dXX* ipofu^e roif^ ^eoif^ roi? Trapit 
rmp eifa-efieardroiP rifuik ftaKarra j(aip€tp, ^ETraipi- 
Ttf^ S* ^v /cat Tov hroxn rovrov* 

Koi ir/909 <^iXjou9 Bk xai ^hfox/^ xal irpo^ r^p oKKifP 
Bicurav Ka\f)P 1^ trapaipeatv elpo^ rtfp KaS Supafiiv 

4 epSeiP, El Be rt Bo^eiep ainw irrnuiLpea^ai irapa t&p 
^e&v. fJTTOP &p hrela^Ti irapa riL (nffuup6)i€Pa iroirjaaiy 
tl 61 Tt9 axnop hreC^ep oBov \al3eip ^e/iopa TVtpiXJbp , 
Kol fJLTf elBora t^p oBop clptI PXjhropro^ teal elBoTo^* 
Kal roil/ aXKofp Bi fuoplap Kanfyopei^ oitipcs wapii r^ 
Trap^ T&p ^e&p arffiatpofiepa iroiovai Ti ^vKaTTopLCPOt 
TTjp irapk Tok ap^p&woi^ dBo^iap. Airro^ Bk iravTa 
TUP^p&Tnpa tnrepe&pa wpb^ t^p irapct t&p ^e&p ^vpk 

"■ fiovXiap. y 

5 AiaiTtf Bi Trjp re ^u^v hraCBevae koX to o'&fLa, 
fi 'XP&P'€vo^ OP Ti9» el firi Ti Ba^fjLOPiop etff, dappaXea)^ 
Kal aa<l>a\w Buiyoi^ koX ov/e tip airopriaete Tocravrr^ 
Bairdpryim Ovra yip eirreXrf^ ^p, cSjt' ovk oZS', el tw 
ovTta^ &p oXiya epygXpvro^rre fit) Xa/ifidpeiv to. So)' 
Kparei, apKOVPTC^' acT<p fiev ykp Tocovrip e')(prjTo, oaoif 
flBe^^ fia^ie* /cat exl tovt^ ovt€o wapeaxeuaafiepoi 
^ei, okre rrfp hrC^vfiiap tov cItov 6'^p avr& elpoA^ 
iroTOP Bi Trap yBif f^p airr^ Bi2^ to fi^ iripeip, el fiif 

6 Btiy^^. El Be irtne KKrf^ei^ i^eXijaeiep eirl SeiTTPOV 


iX^eiv, h T0A9 wTieloToi^ ipytoSicrraTop iarip, cSyre ^i;. 
Xd^aa^cu to *inr€p rov xaipop ifiiriTrXao-^ait tovto 
paBuo^ iravv i(f>vKaTT€TO ' toi<: Se fir) 8vvafi€voi^ touto 
irouuf auvefiovKeue if>u\dTT€a^at to. ireC^oma fit) Tret" 
vwvTiK ia^teip, fiTfBe Styp^wpra^ irLp€ip* koX yap rh 
XufiaiPOfiepa yaoTipa^ teal K€<f>a7\A^ xal '^v;^<^? ravr 
€<Pff elpai* Oiea^tu S* Cifyrj iTrKncdmrdUP koI rrfp K{p' 7 
Kfjp V9 TToieip ToiovTot^ TToWoi^ Sepfrpi^ovo-ajf * top &i 
^OSwraea *Epfiov re inro^tifioavptf koX ainop iyKparif 
ovTo, KM airo<r)(pfi€POP to inrip top Ktupop t£p tolovtwp 
airrecr^at, Sta Tovra ovSe yepea^at vp. 

Toiairra fi€P irepl tovt<dp hrcu^ep afia (nrouSd^onf 8 
a^po^iauop $€ TTapjjpei twp koK^p layypm^ airi^ea^aA* 
oif yhp e^rf paSiop eipai tosp Toiovrap amrofievop o-ev- 
i^popelp. ^AXKii xal KptTofiouXop ttotc top Kphcapo^ 
7n/^6fi€Po^ OTt i<l>ikri<r€ top *A\KLJ3(4iSov ylop koX^p 
SpTOy TrapopTO^ Tov KptToffovXoVj Tjpero Sci/o^cSin'a* 
Eliri fioi, €<^, & Hci/o^cSi/, oif ai) KpiToffovXop ipofii^e^ 9 
€lp{u T&p iTCd^popiicmp ap^fxoTriop fiaWop ^ twp ^pa- 
cmp, icat T&p irpoporp'tK^ fia>0iop fj Tdp aporfrtop re 
KoX pt^^KipBvpoDP ; — Hapv flip oip^ e^ o '&€P0<f>dp. — 
Nup Toipvp pofii^e avTOP ^epfiovpyoTaTOP etpeu kcU 
XewpyoTaTOP* o5to9 iciip ek fiayaipa^ tcv^urn^aeie, k&p 
eh irvp aXoiTo. — Ka\ ti Si], €if>rf 6 Uepotfwp^ lBi>p 10 
voiovPTOj TOULvra KaT&fPtaKa^ ainov ; — Ov yap ovro^, , 
etfnff iroKfiTiae top ^AXxifiiaBov viop <l>i\rjacu, SpTa ' 
einrpo^coTToraTOP xat ipcuoTaTOP ; — *AX>J el fiejrrott 
!if>rf o S€po<f>oiPf TOUUVTOP e<m to piy^oKiphvpov Ipyop, 
K&p eyia SokS fiot top kIp^^pop tovtop trrrofielvtu ; — * 
*/2 TTSifiop, e^ o S'oyKpdTTf^, koI tI &p oUi va^etP 11 
KaXop ^(Xi;o-a9 ; ^Ap* ovk &p am Lea fidXa BovXo^ fikp 
elpcu aPT iX^v^ipov ; iroXKh il SaTravap ek fikafiepit^ 
^Sopd^ ; irdXXrjp Si cur)(p\Cap e^eip tov eirifieXrf^TJpal 
Ttpo^ Kokov Kaya^ov ; oirovSdfyw 8* aporfKoa^Poif 


12 iff} oh ouS' &v funvofievo^ awovBdo'eiev ; — ^12 'Hpax- 
Xei^, €<f>rj 6 S€PO<l>&v, a>9 Seiv^v riva Xe^yet? Svvafiiv tov 
<l>i\7]/xaTo^ civeu. — Kai toOto, I^ 6 SayKpa-nj^i ^au- 
fid^€i^ ; OvK ola^a, cffyrj, on ra ^aXdyyia, ovS^ fffjiuo- 
0o\uua TO /JLiye^o<s Svra vpo^ay^dfieva fiovop to! (tto' 
fiari, rav; re oSuvcu^ hrirpipei rov^ av^pdnrov^, koX 
TOV (fypovchf i^ioTTfaiv ; — Nat iih At*, €<f>ij 6 Ucpoifrnv 

13 ivifja-t jdp Ti Tct ^xiKdyyia xaTa to Sfjyfia. — */2 fJLa>piy 
S<f>rf 6 So^xpdvri^, Toif^ Sk icaXov^ ovfc oUi <f>iXovpTa9 
ivUvcu Tt, OTi trif oir)^ opS^ ; Ovk oZo-y, ori tovto to 
^Tiplovj h KoXovtn KcOsxiv koX d>p(uov, TocrovTfp SeiPOTepdv 
ioTi T&v ifyaXayyuDV, oatp ixetva fikv ir^dfievcLy tovto 
Si oifS^ d'TTTo/ievop, iiip Z4 ti^ axrro ^eaTOi^ ipiffai ri 
Kal irdpv TTpoaw^ep tomvtop^ a>9T6 fiaipea^ai ttouIp ; 

tCfO^ Se KCU oi *'Ep<OT€^ 'fO^OTCU hl^k tovto Ka7sjOVPT(Uy 
^ StI KoX VpQ(T(0^€P oi KOKol TlTpd^aKOVCTlP. *A\Xct avpL-' 

povXewa aoi, &* U€PO<fmp, oiroTap ?&79 Tipa kclKop, 
<l>€vy€ip TrpOTpoirdhrjp ■ aoX Sf, & KpiTo^ovXe, trvfifiov- 
X€v<D dTrepunrriaai,' fioki^ ykp &p fcro)? ei' ToaovTip 

14 XP^^V *^^ Brjyfia vyt^9 yipoio. OuTto hrj /eai a^pohir 
<nd^€ip TOVi fitf dfTifuiKm e^ovTa^ Trpo^ a<f>poiitn4i ^eTO 
XPV^^ 7r/909 ToiavTa, oZo, fir) irdpv fikp Seofiepov to€ 
ad>fJUiT09j OVK &p irpo^Si^aiTO ^ V^t^X^j Seofiipov Se, ovie 
&p TTpdyfutra 7rapi)(pi, Ainro^ Bk 7rpo9 Tavra 0ai/epo9 
^p ovTOD irapeaKevacTfiipo^, &^€ paop awi'xea^aL tcop 
KaXKioTCDP Kal d)pcuoTdTa)p ^ oi aXXoi twp ata-^ioTtov 

15 Koi dcopOTaTWP. Ilepl fikp Brf ^pd>a€OD^ Kal Tr6<r€to^ 
icol dif>poSurlap ovT(o Korea Kevaapipo^ i}i/* Kot ^ero 
ovSep &p ^TTOP apKOvpTto^^Sea^at twp iroXKk iin tov 
Tois irpttyfiaT€vofiipo»Pf Xvirela^ai Be ttoX^ eXarrop* 





turn object of this chapter is to answer the objection, tliat Socrates only 
disoourBed upon the theory of virtue and religion, without inducing 
Qfthers to practise tliem. This is done by presenting an example of the 
manner in which he was accustomed to correct the false notions and 
practieee of his disciplea Aristodemua^ it appears, practically disre- 
garded the godsi, and ridiculed others who served them ; Socrates endea- 
vored to restrain him by showing, 

L That there is good evidence of ihe intelligent agency of the gods in 
the works of natore. All works of art^ such as paintings and statues, are 
the result of intelligence ; much more must the creation of living beings 
be ascribed, not to chance, but to a designing mind (§ 3, 4). Tlie perfec- 
tion and manifest adaptedness of all parts of the human frame, and indeed 
of the whole organism of man, to each other and to a good end, require 
a belief in a living and wise creator (§ 5 — 1). Clear evidence of intelli- 
gence is also exliibited in the other works of nature (§8, 9). 

Aristodemus then disowns the feeling of irreverence towards the 
gods^ but doubts whether they condescend to take oognizanoe of human 
affiiirSk Socrates replies: 

H. 1. The superior endowments of man, both in respect of body and 
still more of mind, to all other created tilings^ show the special regard of 
the gods for him, and their consequent claim to reverence from him 
« 10—14). 

2. The gods indicate their favor to man, by their revelations to him 
by means of divination (^ 16). 

S. The special regard of gods to men, individually and collectively, 
further appears from the general belief of man in their power to reward 
and punish, and from the fact that both whole States and nations as well 
as individuals^ in proportion to their age and wisdom, are reverent to 
the gods {i 16)l 

In oondusion, the divine providence rules the world as the mind the 
body (4 17) ; and in proportion as mtfi sincerely worship the gods^ they 
iboll experience their readiness to assist in circumstances of doubt and 
darkness^ and be assured, that they see and hear every thing, and are 
ever present to care for all. The natural effect of this conversation, the 
author adds, was to make those who heard him, careful of their conduct^ 
not only in public, but when' not visible to any but the all-seeing eye ^ 
ft 18, 1»). 


26 xenofhon's memorabilia. 

I El Si TiV€^ SfOKpdrrfv vo/JLi^ova-iv, w Svioi ypd^vai 
re teal \iyovai irepl avrov reKfitupofievoi, wporpeylraa^at 
fikv av^pdjnrov^ iif aperr}v xpaTurrov y€yoviv(u, irpo^ 
ajaryetp S' iir avrrjv ovx ifcavov* aKeyjrdfievof., p.rj fjLovov 
& ixelvo^ KoXaaTTjpiou evexa tov9 ttuvt oiop4voxs elSi- 
va^ ipmn&v ijXejx^v, aXKh kol & Xiytov avp7ffi€p€V€ 
roi^ avvSuLTpiffova-iy SoKifJUi^ovraiVi el ucavo^ fjv ^eXrlov^ 

3 iroielv tou9 trvvovrc^, Ai^ta hk irp&rov^ a wore avroS 
ijKovaa irepl rov Bat/ioviov BiaXejofiivov wpo^ ^Apurro^ 
SrffjLov TOP Mucpov inucaXov/ievov. Karafia^wv ycLp 
avTov ovT€ ^vovra rok ^eok, [out evj^p/JLevop,'] ovre 
liavTuey j(pd}fJLepov, aXKa Kal t&p irotowroDP ravra Kara- 
yeX&pra^ Ehre /lOi, 1^, & *Apuno&qfi€, earip ovrriva^ 
av^pdnrov^ T^avpxuca^ hrX aoifila ; — "Eytaye, etfnf. — 

3 Kal 09* Ae^op ripXp^ etfyq, ri, opop^ra atn&p, — ^EttI 
/JL€P Toipvp hr&p TTOiriaei "Op^rjpop eyfoye pAXurra re^av- 
puKa, errl Be Bi^vpdp,/3<p MeXapiinriBrfP, iirl Be rpcvytp- 
Bia So<j>oKXea, errl Bk apSpiapToiroiia IIoXvKXeiTOP, hrl 

4 Be ^€i}ypa<f>ia Zev^tp. — Horepd, aoi Bokovcip oi oTrep- 
ya^6fA€Poi elBwXa a(f>popd re xal oKiPfjTa d^io^avpuaTO- 
repot elpoi fj ol ^Sm epxf^popd re Kal epepyd; — iToXv, 
pil Ala, oi ^o^Uy etirep ye pij tv^JJ tipi, dXXa inro ypto- 
p,ij^ ravra yiyperai. — Tatp Bk dre/cpAprca^ i^opraap^ orou 
epexa eari, Kal rcop <f>apep&^ err ox^eXeia Sptoop, rrorepa 
rv)(7j^ Kal irorepa ypd>p,ff^ epya Kpipet^ ; — Uperrei, pep 

5 Ta hr ia^eKeia yiy p6p,€pa yptop^rj^ epya elpa^ — Oukovp 
BoKcl aoi 6 ef dp^^ ttoi&p dp^ptoirov^ eir co^cXeta 
TTposl^elpat avToh Bi &p aur^dpoprai eKaara^ o^^aX- 
p,ov^ pep, a)9T€ 6 pap rd opard, &ra Be, wre aKoiuv 
rd dKovard ; ^Oap,S}p ye p,i]P, el p,ij plpe^ trpo^ere^iia-aPj 

• ri dp Tjpip 5^6X09 ^P ; Ti^ B ' &p ata^rjcri^ i^p yXvKeoiP 
Kal Bpipecop Kal Trdproop rayp Bid ar6p,aroi rjIBecov, el prf 

6 yXcjrra rovrwp ypdypmp ipeipyda^i] ; II/009 Be toiJtow 
oi BoK€t aoi Kal roBe irpopoCa^ epyop eoiKepo^ to, eirel 


ma^ev^ fihf iartv ^ oy^i^, fiX£(f>dpot^ airrtjv ^vp&<rai, 
a, orap fjkev air^ ^rja^al ri, Sirfj avairerdwincUy ev Bi 
tS irnvtp avyKXeierai ; w 8* tiv firjSe avcfioi ^SXaTZTO)- 
civ, 17^/xoy )8\€^piSa9 i^if>va'ai' o<f>pv<rt re aTroyet- 
awacu ra inrkp t&v ofifidrfavt iy; firjB* 6 ix 7^9 K€<l>a\rj^ 
ISpo^ xoKovpy^ * TO Sk TTiv aKotfv Sex^o'^ai /mcp iraaa^ 
^Kova^j ifnrhfKaa^cu &€ fnfirore ' koI tou9 fJi€v irpoa^ev 
6S6vT(K iraat ^uh)l^ dioif^ rifiveiv elvcu^ roif^ Bi yofjr 
i^iov^ oiov^ irapk rovrav Sc^afjUpov^ XeaipeiP' xai 
OTOfia fUpy Si oi &p eiri^v/iel rii ^caa ekirijuTreTai, 
7rKrf<riop 6<fit^a\fi&p xal pip&p Kara^eipai • iirel Si ra ^ 
cnroyfDpovpra Sv^eprj, atroarpey^ai tov^ tovtcdp 6j(€- 
Toif^ ical airepeyKeiPt ^ Suparop irpoaenrarto^ ano r&p 
aia^i]ir€top' raura ovtod irpopo7jTUcS>^ ireirpcpyfiipa, ajro" 
pek, TTorepa tv;^ rj ypdfjLT}^ epya iarip ; — Ov fik top 7 
AV, €<f>Tff aXX* ovTto ye a'KOTrovix€P(p irapv eouce ravra 
ao^v Tivo^ Srifuovpyou kclI ^iXo^ov re^VTifiart. — 
To 5^ ifi^vacLL fi€P €po»Ta rrj^ rcKvoTroua^, ipA^vaai 
Se raU ^yeipafiipai^ epana rot) iieTpi<p€tp, T0Z9 Si rpor 
^uri fUyurrop fi€P irdi^op tov Pjp^ fiiytoTOP Si <f)6fiop 
Tov ^apoTov ; — ^AfiiXei kcu raura eoixe fJLij)(api]fjuiar( 
ripo^ (^o>a eipai fiovXevaafiipov, — Sv Se aavrop i^po- 8 
Vifiop Ti SoK€i<; e^cLP ; — ^Epcora yovp xal airoKpiPov- 
fuu, — "AWo^i Se ovSafiov ovSep otei ^popifiop elvat ; 
KoX ravra elSat^, ori y^9 re p,iicpop fiipo^ ip r^ adfiart 
iroXKry; ownj^ €X^*S ^*^ vypov fipa^if iroWov opro^, 
KoX rSiP SXKcop Siprov fieyaXcjp oproDP eKoarov fUKpop 
fiepo^ \ap6pri ro a&fia aupijpfioaTai aoi' povp Se /lo- 
i^p apa oifSafiov opra ae evrvxw 7ra>9 hoxeh avpap- 
irdaatj koX raSe ra inrep/ieye^Tf xal irXrf^o^ aireipa St' 
a(f>poavpr)p rtph, w otet, euraKro}^ ^x^ip ! — Ma AC' 9 
ov yap 6p& T0U9 Kupiov^t H^nrep r&p ip^aSe yiypofuvtap 
T0V9 Srfjuovpyovf;. — OuSi yap rfjp eavrov trv ye '^u^^p 
opa^Sf ^ rod acofiaro^ Kvpla itrrlp* mre xard ye rovro 

'p * 

28 xenofhon's kemorabilia. 

e^earl aoi Xeyav, otl ovSh yi^co/iii;, aWcL TV)(rf iravra 
yC 10 irparrei^, — jKai 6 ^ApLO-ToSfffio^' Ourot, e^, c'yco, & 
S(OfcpaTe^, inrepopA to Scufi6vu)pj aXX' iicuvo fieyaXo 
*nrp€Tria'T€pop '^yovfiat fj a>9 ttJ? €/x^ ^epaTTCta? irpo^* 
h^la^at^ — OvKOvv^ €ij>rjy oatp fieyaXoTrpeiriaTepov a^ioZ 

1 1 (re ^epaireveiv, Toaoiir^ fiaXKov TtfiijTiop avro ; — Ev 
io^i^ €ipr)y OTi, el vofii^otfii ^€ou^ av^payirmv ti ^povri" 
^€iVj ovK hv afieXoirjv aln&v, — ^Eireir ovk oUt i^pov-' 

7^1 Ti^eiv ; ot TTp&rop fiep fiopop t&p ^okop ap^pairop op^op 

avi<rrqaav* fi Si op^oTtj^ xal irpoopap irkAop wotei 
Bvpcur^ai, Kol to. virep^cp fiaWop ^eaa^cu, koX ^ttov 
Ka/co7ra^€iv, [0I9] xal o-^iP Kal OKoijp xal arofia ipe^ 
iroirjo'ap' eireira to*9 fiep iWoi^ ipTreroK iro&a^ eSo>- 
Kav, ot TO iropevea^at fxopop irapi^ovaip ' ap^poiymp 
Be fcaX xelpa<; irposi^ea'av, at t^ irXelara oU eifBcu- 

12 fiopiarepoi itceipoip eafiep, i^epyd^ovrcu, Em fi^p 
yX&TTap ye rrdprmp t&p ^(ocop €)(6pTa)p, fioprjp rffp r&v 
dp^pdvcop eiroiqaap otai/, aXKjore dXKa')(rj ^^vovtrop 
rov CTOfiaro^, ap^povp re rr)P if)cjpiip, xal (rq^ialpeiv 
irdpra aWi^Xot^i h fiovkofie^a ; To Bk koI t^9 t&v 
d<f}poBialaiP '^Bopd^ roli fiep aKXoi<; ^(ooi^ Sovpai wept^ 
ypdrlraPTaf: rov erov^ 'xpopop, fiplu Be avpe^Z^ H'^XP^ 

13 yi}pa>9 Tauray irapexeof ! Ov roipvp fiopop tipKeae t^ 
^e^ Tov (rdfiaTO^ iinfjLeXff^rjpat, dX\\ otrep fiiyurrip 
eVri, Kal rrjp yfrv^V^ KpariajTiP to) dp^pdiirtp €P€<f>va€' 
TiPO^ ycLp aXXot; l^<aov ^vyjq Trpcara fiep ^ecjp rcop ri 
fieyco'Ta xai KoXXiq-ra avpra^dprtop ^a^r}Tai ort, elai; 
rl Bk it>vXop aXXo rj. ap^pcoTrot ^eov9 ^epairevovai ; 
TToia Bk ^t/^b Ttfi dv^ptoTTiprf^i l/captarepa irpo^vXaT- 
rea^ai, fj Xifwp fj £^-^09 fj '^v^ ff ^dXirrj^ ^ pwtovs 
hriKouprjaai, ij p(Ofirjp dtncrjaaLt fj Trpb^ (id^'qaip ifciro- 
pfjaav, '^, oaa &p aKOvcrrj tj cBrf ff fia^jf, UaptoTepa 

14 e<rrl Buifiefipvja^a^ ; Ov yap irdpv aoL KardBrjXop, oti 
irapit tA aXXa ^{ja, &nr€p ^eol ap^ptDiroi ^lorevovai. 


if^wrei Kcu T^ ai&fJLar^ teal ry '^v)(fj icparKTrtvovre^ ; 
OvTC jap ffobi £1/ e^a>i/ <ra>/xa, dp^panrov Bk ypwfiriv, 
iivvar av irpdrreiv & ifiovXero • ov^ ' oaa x^^P^^ ^X^*» 
a^pova h* icrrit ifKjkov oihev €)(€i* ait hi afiif>OT€pwv 
rwv irXeioTOV a^iav T€TV)(rf/ci}^ ovk otet aov ^€0v^ iir^- 
fjLckeur^cu' aXX, orav ri iroa^ao^ai, vofiuU airroif^ aov 
^povrifyiv ; — "Orav Tri/jLirtoatP, WJrep aif aol <f>7J^ irifJtr 15 
TTCiv airrou^, <rvfifiov\jov^j o ri ^ph 't'oUip koI fiii iroieip. 
— "Otop Se ^A^r)paioi<:, eifyij, Trup^avofikpoi^ ta hid fiap- 
Tuofi (f^pd^axrip, ov /cal aol hoxel^s <l>pd^€cv airoth, ovh* 
orap ToU "EXXtfat ripara TrifiTTOPre; TrpocqfJLaipaxnp, 
ovh* orap irdaiv dp^pdnroi^ ; dXKd fiopop ai i^cupoup- 
re? ip dfieXeia KararC^eprcu ; OUi S* &p rov^ ^eov^ 16 
Tok dp^ptoiroi^ ho^ap ifiif>v(raitj (09 ikupoI elaip ei xal 
icoKW iroielPj el fitf huparoi fiaaPy koX tou9 dp^pcairou^ 
i^irartj^epov^ top iravra ^oi/oi' oiheiroT dp aia^e- 
ar^oL ; Ov^ opa^, on rd iroXvypopuinara Koi co^xiy- 
rara rap dp^ponripwp, iroXei^ xal e^i^, ^eoaefiiaraTa 
ioTi^ KoX ai ^poPLfuoTarai tiKiKiai, ^ecSi/ errifiekiaTa' 
ra& ; */2ya^^, e^i;, Kard/jLa^e, on Koi <709 voxri ipa>p 17 
TO (TOP a^fuif a7ra>9 fiovXcToi, /JLeraxftpi^erai. OU- 
a^ai oip XPV *^^ '''W ^ iraprl ipp6prj<np rd irdpTo, 
OTTQi? &p avrfj ^8u rjf ovro) rC^ea^aij Kol fiff to aop 
fup OfJLfia hvpoa^av iirl TroXXa ardhui i^ixpeia^cu, 
TOP he rov ^€0v 6if>^aXfiop dSvparop elpai afia^ irdirra 
op&p, fJLfjhk rrjp <rrjp fiep '^v^rfP kclI irepl tcjp ip^dhe 
teal irepi twp ip AiyuTrrtp tcaX ip SuceXuf hvpaa^ai 
^popTi^etp, rtip hi Tov ^eov <l>p6prj<np fiif iKaprjp elpai 
ifui irdprwp inrifuXjela^ai^ ^Hp pAirroi^ H^irep dp- 18 
^pdrirov^ ^epavevGjp yiypoxTKec^ tow dpri^epOTreveiP 
i^iXopra^, xal ^^pi^ofiepo^ roif^ dpnxP'pifyixipov^^ koX 
avf^fiovXevofiepo^: Karafiap^dpet^ tou9 ^popifiov^, ovroa 
Koi TWP ^edop irelpap Xafifidvtj^ ^epawcviop, el ri aoX 
^eXifo-ovo** irepX r£p dhipiMP dp^payiroi^ avfi^ovXeveiP, 

80 xenophok's memorabilia. 

yvaxTfj TO ^eiop Srt roaovrov leal roiovrov ioTtVy &s:^ 
afia irdvra opav, xal Travra a/coveiv, xal Travra^ov 
19 irapelvaLj /cal afia iravraov CTn/ieXeia^ai axnov^, ^Efiol 
fi€v ravra Xiytop ov fiovov tov9 avvovrwi ihoxei, iroir- 
€ti/, OTTOTC VTTO Twv ap^ponrfov opwino^ a'fre')(€a^cu rwv 
avoaltov re kol aSUcav koX alfryp&Vj aXKa, kcu hnrore 
hf iprjfjLia eUv, hrehrep tjyi]a-at:n'o firfSh av irore, &v 



Socrates oommended Belf^sontrol {iyiep^rtu), especially in regard to the 
indolgence of the possiona^ and appetite^ and indolence, in the following 
manner : 

1. He taught that any one who was desti^te of this Tirtae, could 
not safely be trusted in any of the important duties or callings of life^ 
not eren as a servant (f 1, 2). Such a man is unjust to others and still 
more so to himself ; for he not only squanders his estate, but destroys 
both body and soul ; his society is especially to be avoided (^ S, 4). 
Temperance or self-control is the foundation of all virtue, and the careful 
and hearty practice of it is the first duty (^ 4) ; for without it no know- 
ledge or skill of any value can be acquired (^ 6). 

2. He confirmed his precepts by the practice of the most rigid tem- 
perance, and by foregoing the acqubition of the means of self-indul- 
gence (4 6). 

1 El Se B^ teal iy/cpdreia koKop re Karf€&op avhpi 
KTtjfid ioTCPf eTTurKeyfrdfie^a, ct ri irpovfiifia^e \iytap 
eh aifTtjp TotaSe* */2 apSpe^, el^ iroXifiov fjiup yevo- 
pUvov, l3ov\oifi€^a iXia^ai dpBpa, v^ oi fidTuar &i* 
avTol p.€P aoi^oifjLe^cL, tov^ Be woXefiiov^ jfeipolfjbe^Ot 
Sip ovTLP ap alar^apoifte^a fJTTO} ycLorpo^ rj oipov ^ 

BOOK I. CHAP. y. 81 

eu^pohuriav fj irovov fj iirvovt tovtov &v aipoifiAa ; 
tcaX irw &v olrf^eifffiev rbv toiovtov fj ^/la^ <r&<rat^ fj 
Toif^ TToXefiiou^ Kparfjacu, ; El B* iirl reXeirr^ tov fiiov 2 
yevo/ievoi fiovXoifie^d T<p hnrph^ai fj iralBa/s appeva^ 
iraiBeva-ai^ fj ^vyaripa^ irap^ivov^ 8uul>v\d^aij fj XPV" 
fiara Stair&a-ai, ap a^unrunov ek ravra ^ytfaofie^a 
rbv axparfj ; iovKcp 8* axparei emrph^cufiev cLv fj 
paaKTifiara fj Tafueta ^ epycov hricrraaiv ; Btcucovov Si 
seal ayopturnjv toiovtov i^eXqtrcufiev hv irpotxa "kor 
ficiv ; *AXX2t ^tjv el ye jirjSe SovKov axparfj he^cUp^A^ 3 
aVf irw ovfc S^iov ainov ye ^vXd^aa^ai toiovtov ye- 
via^cu ; KaX yap o^, mirep ol vXeovi/cTCU t&v aXKoov 
atfxupovp^evoL yprjp^iTa eavTois BoKov<n irXovri^eLv, ov- ' 
Ta>9 o cucpaTTj^ T0i9 fiiv aWoi^ fika/Sepo^, eavT^ 2* 
wfiiXi/Ac^, aXXk KOKOvpyo^ fikv t&v aWav, iavTOv Si 
iroXv KaKOvpyoTepo^, el ye xaxovpyoTaTov cVt* p,ij p,6' 
vov TOV oucov TOV kovTov fjAeipeiv, oKKii koI to aS>/jui 
Kal Ttjv ^vxnv» ^Ev avvovaia Si tc9 &v ^o^elrj r^ 4 
Totoxntp^ hv elSeirj tw &y^ t€ koI t& olwp yaipovTa 
fiaXKov fj Toli; ^CKoi^^ Kai to? iropva^ oyairAvra puX' 
\ov fj TOV? eraipov^ ; ^Apa ye ov jfpij iravTa avSpa^ 5 
ffyjjadp^vov Ttjv iyxpaTeuiv aperij^ elvcu KprjinSat TOAh 
Tf/v wp&rov iv T§ ^i^xS KaTaaKevdaaa^cu, ; Tk ycLp 
avev TavTfj^ ^ /ui^oL tl &v aya^bv fj p^eXer^ceiev 
d^toXoyots ; ^ Ti9 ovK &v tcu^ 'qSovaU SovXewov at- 

aj(pW Si0T€^€lTf Kol TO G&p/l KoX T^jV '^V^1]V ; 'JEJ/iol 

uiv Soxei, vtf ttjv ''Hpav, ikev^ep^ fiiv dvSpl eiftcrbv 
etveu fiij Txrxeiv SovXov toiovtov^ SovXevovTa Si TaU 
ToiavTcu^ ^Sovai<s iKerevew Toxf^ ^eoi/^ SearroT&v dya- 
^mv Tv^elv' ovTO)^ yap &v pivto^ 6 TotouTO? 0*6)^6/17. 
Touarra Si Xiyojv eri eytcpaTearepov toJp epyois fj Toh 6 
Xoyoi^ lavTov hreSeiicwev ov yhp p.6vov t&v Sid tov 
a&fJLaTO^ fjSov&v ixpdTCi, dXXd /cal Ttj^ Sid t&v XPV' 
fiaTtoVj vofiil^wv Tbv irapd tov TxrxpVTO^ xpijpMTa Xapr 


fidpotrra SctnroTtjv eavrov Ko^urrdvaiy kclL hov\jsv€i3 
iovXjeiav oifiefiias; fynov al<r)(pav. 



Ths chapter is cloeelj connected with the preeeding, and embreocB * 
defence of that branch of iyKpdr^ia, which was so admirably exemplified 
in the moderation and even abstinence of the life of Socrates^ in three 
conyereationa with the sophist Antiphon. 

I. Antiphon adduces the poverty, the mean and scanty diet and 
apparel of Socrates, as an objection to his philosophy. Philosophy, he 
thinkis ought to enable its votary to live freely and pleasantly, but that 
of Socrates had the contrary effect By not receiving a remuneration 
for his instructions^ to enable him to procure the pleasures of life, he by 
example commended to his disciples a life of misery (§ 1 — 8). To tliis 
reproach Socrates replied : 

1. By receiving no remuneration for my instruetionsL I secure inde- 
pendence. I am compelled to eonvei*80 only with those whom I choose 


2. Simple food is both more healthful and easily procured, and I'e- 

lishes better than that which is more expensive (§ 6). Scanty clothing 
and bare feet, by inuring the body to heat and cold and rough waya^ 
obviate the necessity, and even remove the desire, of more abundant 
clothing (i 6, 7)1 

8. Those who have higher and more permanent enjoyments can 
eaaly forego the pleasures of sense ; especially, when by so doing they 
can command greater ability and more leisure for self'improvement, 
and for rendering valuable service to friends and to the State (^ 8, 9). 

4. Happiness consists not in external affluence and splendor ; but he 
who is most free from want^ is most like the gods^ and consequently 
best (§ 10). 

II. When Antiphon at another time told Socrates that he thought 
him 9iKaios (just), but by no means wise ; since even he himself plainly 
indicated that he considered his instructions valueless, by receiving no 
remuneration for them ($ 11, 12) ; Socrates replied : 

Both beauty and wisdom are good in themselves^ and one who pro» 


litotes either of them for money exhibits bBseneas and follj; but he who^ 
hj imparting knowledge, attracts others to himself and makes them his 
friends, is wise, and performs the part of a good citizen (§ 13); he who 
thtis benefits his friends, reaps a richer harvest of enjoyment in his in- 1 
tercoone with them, than could be procured by pecuniary recompense 

IIL The third conversation seems to be appended by Xenophon to 
the preceding, as a sort of corollary. The wisdom of Socrates had been 
there called in qt estion, on account of his refusal to receive a reward 
for his instructioDfl^ and to indulge in the luxury which was usnal with 
the sophistsw The leading subject of the chapter, self-control, is lost sight 
of in this last conversation, and a further illu&iration of his want of wis- 
dom is adduced, i e. his attempts to teach statesmanship without himself 
engaging in political life. The only and safficient answer of Socrates was 
eontained in the inquiry, whether less was accomplished for the State by 
fitting others for its management; than by engaging personally and alone 
in that employment (§ 15). 

^A^iov S* airrov kcu & irpo^ *AvTi(f>&vTa rbv co^ir 1 
OT^v SteXe^^iy iii) irapaTuTrelv 6 yhp ^Avtl^v irore 
PovKofievo^ Tou? <rwovauia'Ta<: avrov TrapeXea^cu, irpo^- 
eh^i>v T^ SdOfCpaTCi^ 'irapoprav avrwv, eke^e raSe* */2 2 
SiOKpaT€9i eya> fiev iSfinjv rov^ ^iKoa'o<l>ovvra^ evBat* 
fjLOV€<rT€pov^ 'Xp^ivai yiyv€a^cu, aif^ fio^ SokcU rav' 
avrUt TTfq <f>iKoo'0(l>ia<: airoXeXavKipai' (^ yovp ovrto^^ 
c»9 oiS* &p eh Sovko^ tnro Seinrorg SicuTdfievo^ fiei- 
V€i€t atria re <n/r^ xal irora irivei^ r^ ffHivKorara, 
/uu ipLOTiov rip.(f>ie<rcu ov fiovov <f>av\ov, aK\A rb airrb 
ShEpov? T€ Kal ^Cifi&po^y aPinrdSrjTO^ re kcu ayirtop 
hiareKek. Kal fif}P j^fiard ye ov XapL^dpet^, & kcu 3 
xrafUpov^ ev^palpet Kal K€KT7)fiepoi/9 ekev^epuorepop 
re Kal i]Siop iroiel ^p. El oip, m^irep Kal r&p aXSMP i 
ipytop oi StSdcKaXot rob^ fuibfira^ fii/irira^ eavr&p 
aTToSeiKPvova-ip, oUrta kcu ab rob^ awopra^ SuAi^aei^^ 
vofu^e KaKoSai/iopia^ SiSdaKaXo^ elpat* Kal 6 StoKpor 4 
T179 Trpb<: ravra elTre' AoKe'k pu)i, e^^ & ^Apri^&p^ 
{nreiKri^evoA fie ovna^ avuipm ^p$ c5st6 ireireurfiai ere 


84 xenophon's hehorabilia. 

fiaXKov airo^apeip &v ekea-^ai ff ^v Srirep iyd. T^l 
081/ hria Keypad) fJLC^a, rl j^aXejroi/ ^cr^r}<rai rovfiov ^iov. 
d IIoTepov, OTi TOW fA€if Xafifidvovaip apyvptov avar/Kcuow 
iariv airepyd^ea^cu tovto, i(f> ^ av fiur^ov Xafi/Sd- 
v(oaiv^ ifioi Se fitf \afil3dvoim ovk dvdy/crj SiaXeye" 
a^cu, & &v fitf fiovXwfuu ; ^ rrfv Siairdv fiov <f>av\i' 
Jety, ft>9 ^TTov fihf vyiecva ia^iovroi ifiov ij aov, ^ttov 
Se ia"xyv irapixovra ; fj a>9 xaXsTnlyrepa TropUrcLo^ai 
TO, ifii^ StatT'qfiaTa t&p c&v St^ to <nravuoT€pd re koI 
TToXureXioTepa elvai ; ^ a>9 '^Bia aol h av irapaaKCvdfy 
OPTO, fj ifiol a iyd ; Ovk ola^\ on 6 fbkv riSiara ia^imp 
ffKiara Sr^v Beircu, 6 Si fjBioTa iripoav * ij/CKTra rov 
> 6 fiTf irap6pT0<{ iin^vfiel ttotov ; Td ye fir^p ifidria olaV 
OTt oi fjLcral3aXk6/JL€POi '^{r)(pv^ koX daX7roi/9 epexa pL€r 
rafidXKopTcUf xal inroSi^fuiTa wtoSovptcUj 07ra>9 fiti BtiL 
ra XvTTovpra tou9 ttoBu^ KcsiKvwprcu iropevea^ai' ffiri 
oJfp TTore ^a^ov ifie fj Bia y^v^o^ p^XKop rov SpBov 
pApopra, fj Bii, ^dXiro^ pLayppuepop rtp irepl cKia^, fj 
Bia TO dXyeiP TOU9 ttoBos ov fiaBi^opra^ ottov &p pov- 

7 XuipMi ; Ovk oZo'V, OTt oi ^vtrei cuAepeararoi r^ 
adpLari, peXen^aavo'e^ t&p lajfypoTdroDP dp^XtjadpTaup 
KpeiTTov^ T€ ylr/P0PT(u TTpb^ &p pLeXeT&ai, koX pqav 
ainh ^ipovaw ; ''Epi Si apa ovk oU^ t^ cmpLaTi del 
ra cvpTvy^dpopra pLeXer&pra Kaprepelp irdvra p^v 

8 ^epeip aov pij ' peXer&pro^ ; Tov Bi pij SovXeveip 
yaarpX prjBi vttp^ koI Tux/fpeia oiei ri aXXo alruine- 
pop ehuu fj TO erepa e^eiv tovtwv ^Bito, & ov piopop 
ip XP^^ Spra ev^pcUpei^ oKXa KoiX iXirlSas irapeyppra 
i^Xiqaevp del ; Kal pkifp tovto ye ohAa, on oi phf 
olopiepoi prjBhf eS irpdrrew ovk evtf^paiPOPTcu, oi Si 
riyovp.€POi #raXc09 irpo^fidpelp eavroK fj yetopyiap fj pav- 
KXfiplap fj aXX' o n &p rvy^dpo^aip ipya^opepoi, w 

9 eS irpdrropre^ ev^palpopTau Olei oip dirb irdprwv 
rovTcop roa-avTfiP fjSopfjp elpcu, Sarjp airb rod eauro^ 


Tc yyela^ai ficXrlm yiypea^cu teal ^tXot/9 dfA€wov^ 
teraa^at ; 'Eyw roivvv BiaT€\a> ravra vofii^&v. *EiUf 
a S^ tf>L\jov9 ^ iroXiv oi^eXeip Serj^ Trorip^ 37 irXeuop 
ff^X^ TovTtav iTrifieXeur^atj tq>, &9 iyo^ vuv^ fj r^, 
»9 <rv fiajcapi^€i9, BiaiTWfUv^ ; crrparevotro Si ?roT6- 
po9 &v paov, '6 fitj Buvdfievo^ Svev irdkvT^kov^ hiairq^ 
(^i^j fi & TO trapov apKotq ; i/ciroXiopKr/^eit) Se irore' 
po^ &v ^arrov, 6 r&v yaKenroyrarmv evpelv Seofievo^, 
^ o ToZs paxrroi^ ivTvyj(aP€tv apKowroa^ j^pdfievo^ ; 
"Eouca^, & ^Avri^Av^ rr^v evSai/ioviap oiopLivtp rpv^p 10 
Kal iroXt/riXeuLP elptu* iyi> Si pofii^co to fihf fiffSepo^ 
Seea^cu ^eiop etpoij to S* (09 ika^lartDP iyyvrarfo 
Tov ^€iov' teat TO flip ^etop KpaTurron to Si iyyv^ 
rarm tov ^elov iyyvraTa tov KpanoTOv. y 

HdXip Si 7roT€ 6 *ApTi4f>&p SiaKeyofUPo^ r^ X(0' 11 
xpaTci €hr€P' *fl Sd/cpaTe^^ iyd toi <ri fih/ Sucaiop 
vofii^, ao^p Si ovS* O7ro»^iovv, Ao/ceU Si fiot, leai 
tuno^ TovTo yu/voHr/cew ovSipa yovp 7% tnipowrla^ 
apyvpuip irpaTTQ' xaiToi to ye l/MaTiop fj TtfP ohciav 
fj oXXo rt, &p Ki/cTTjaait pofii^ap apyvplou afiop elpcUj . 
ovSepi OP fiif OTi irpohca Soirf^y d\X ovS^ ekoTTOP ttj^ 
o^iiK Xaficop. AriXop Srj 0Ti„ et koX Ttjp avpovalav 12 
^v TIP09 d^iop elpcu, 'xai Tavrrf^ &p ovk SXaTTOP TJ79 
a^ia^ apyvpiop hrpaTTOv, AUaio^ p,€P oip &p ettj^, 
Srt OVK i^aTrara^ irrl TrXeope^ia, ao^<; Si ovk up, 
arjSepo^ ye a^ia eiriardfiepo^. 'O Si S<ofcpdTff9 vpo^ 13 
roOra ehrep* *Ii ^Aptu^p, irap ^/iip pofMi^eTtu Tifp 
&pap KoX TTjiP ao^lop OfMua^ fihf kolKop^ opLom^ Si 
aurxpop SuLT^ea^ai eZi/iu* nfi/ Te yhp .&pap ihp fUp 
Ti9 dpyvpiov TToiX^ t{3 fiovXjofiiptp, iroppop airrop diro- 
KaXovaiP, idp Si ti^, hp &p yp& koKop tc Koya^op 
ipturriiP opto, tovtop <j>ikop iavT^ iroirfrcUj hdx^popa 
pofAi^fiep* Kal TfiP ao^iap an^avToi^ Toifi phf apyv- 

86 xenophon's memorabilia. 

plov To> fiov\ofiiv(p TToikovPTa^ ao^ioTii^ &^nTep irop* 
vov^ airoKoKovaiv^ 09Tt9^86, hv &v yvA €Vif>ud oma, 
BtSatTfCcdv o Ti &p exjj aya^ov, <f>iXov iroirjrat, rovrov 
vofii^ofJb€V, & To^ koKS Kaya^ip iroXirri irpo^icei,, ravra 

14 TToielv. 'JByo) S' ovv KoX airo?, & ^Avri^v^ &<;7r€p 
aWo9 TK fj hrrrtp wyci^^ ^ kwI if Spvi^i {jSerai^ 
oSto) Koi en fiaXXov rjBofjuu <^i\ot? aya^oU' kcUj idv 
T£ a^& dya^ov, SiBdaKtD, xal dXKoi^ awvanjfii, nrap 

.(. &v dv fiy&pLOu d>(f>€\i](r€a'^al rt auroiK el^ dpenjv* 

^}Hyy^* JKal TOW ^r)<ravpois r&v 'rrdXtu aoffmv dvSp&v, oft? 
iKclvoi KariXnTov iv ^i/3\iois ypdi^avre^j dveXirronv 
KOipfj cifv Tok <^i\ot^ Siip'xpfuiit Kai^ dv rt op&fjtep 
dya^ov, eKXeyo/ne^a Kai fieyd vo/Mi^oficv teipSo^, idv 
dXXrjXoi^ ^iXoi ytyvoifJLC^a, ^Efioi fihf iri Tovra 
{iKovovTi iSoKCL auTo? re fia/cdpio^ eZi/cu, xal rots 
dicovovTWi eirX KoKoKdyd^lav dyeiv, 

15 Kal irdXip irork rov ^AvTi<f>&vTo^ ipofiivov aur6v, 
wa>9 aWou9 P'hf rf/elrcu 'rroXimKoxn nroielv, airro^ Si 
ov irpdrrei rd voXiriKd, eXirep irrloTaTcu ; Iloripeo^ 
S* dp, e^fj, & *ApTt(f>copj fiSXKov rd iroXir ixd irpaT' 
Totfit, el fiopo^ airrd 'rrpaTTOifii, tj el iTrifieXoifirjp rod, 
CD9 7rX6urTot;9 i/cavoif^ elpcu irpdrretv axnd ; 



Tma chapter is connected with the preceding by the principle of col 
troat False pretension {jkKa(ov9la\ baaed on pride and vanity, may be 
reckoned among the errors opposed to the iyKpdrtia, comniendod in 
the colloquies with Antiphon which precede. Thus in chap. 11. ( C, a 
SSpvirriKSt and ii\t(oytKhs Staira is represented as opposed to the 
iyicpdrua of Socrates' coarse of life, and these two chapters in cocne» 

BOOK L CHAP. Vn. 8 li 


tion seem to be based upon tbat paasage. The rettoning which Socrata 
employed to avert his friends from false pretension, and urge thvm tc 
the practice of real virtue, is briefly as follows : 

The best road to honor is^ in end^voring to be what we would wish 
to seem to be (§ 1) ; for the false pretender is constantly in peril of hav- 
ing his knowledge put to the test, and of thus exhibiting to others hik 
empty assumptions and base hypocrisy. He will, consequently, pass a 
troubled ard useless life, as well as bring upon himself and others serious 
detriment. A course of deception is especially perilous in those who 
have the management of the State (§ 2 — 5). 

^ETTiaxey^fie^a Sk^ el xal aXa^oveia^ oTrorpemov \ 
Toifi awovra^ apeiij^ iirifiekeia^ai Trpoerpeirep* aet 
yap iXeyev, oy: ovk etrf KaXKleav 6S6^ hr evSo^ia, fj 
Sa' ^ UP T*v aya^b^ tovto yivotro, h koI BokcIu f3ov- 
Xoiro. "On S* aKrf^r} eKeyev, eSSe iSlBaa-Kev '£i/^v- 2 
fA€ofjL€^a yap, eifyrj, el T£9 fitf &p aya^bii aiXrjTtf^ Soxeiv 
fiovXoiTO, Tt &v avT^ iroifjriov eltf ; dip ov tA e^w t^9 
T€j(yrj^ fiifirjTiov roif^ aya^ois avXrjTa^ ; Kal irpA- 
TOP fJL€P, OTi ixelpoi <rK€V7} T€ KoKcL Ke/CTrjvrai teal atco- 
Xov^ov^ TToXKoif^ wepidyopTai, Kal roxntp raina iroit]' 
reop' hrena, on ixeipov^; vciXXol iiraipovo't, fcai rovnp 
iroXKoxs eiraivera^ Trapa^KeuaoTiop. *^XX^ fiifp ipyop 
ye oiSafJMv XTjirriop, fj ev^in: iXey)^i]<reTai yeXoio^ 
&Py icai ov fiopop avXrjTrf^ Kaxo^:, aXX2t xal ap^poyiro^ 
aXa^p» KaiToi ttoWA fikp Bairapwp, p,r}8ep Be a>06- 
XovfJL€Po^, TTpb^ Bi Toyroi^ xa/coBo^wp, irw^ ovk iiriirO' 
iwy re xaX aXvcrireX&i xal KaTor/eXatrrtas fiidaercu ; 
H^ b avrcov, el n^ fiovXoiTO orparTfyo^ aya^o^ fitf 3 
wp ffMipea^oij fj Kv^eppTfTTis, ippowfiev, rl &p avr^ 
€rufiPalpoi, ^Ap ovk olp^ el phf, eirt^vfidip rov Boxelp. 
Ikopos elvoA ram a irpdrreip, p>r) Bvpairo Trei^eip, ravrrj 
XvTTTjpop ; el Be ireiaeiePf en a^Xuorepop ; ArjXop yap, 
Sri Kv/3eppap re xaraara^els 6 firj eTriardfiepo^ fj 
orparTjyeip, airoXAaeiep &p ob^ fJKiara fiovXoiro, koX 

38 -xenofhok's memorabilia. 

i airrb^ aicfxpw re xat kokw airaXKa^tev. 'fl^avTiOH 
Sk Kai TO TrXovaiov xal ro apSpeiov xal to lajQjpiop 
fLTf ovra ioKuv aXvavrekks ani^aive* irpo^drrea^iu 
yap avroU €^ fiei^cD fj tcarh^ Svpafiip, xal fir} Swor 
fiivov^ ravra irovelv, ^hoKOvvra^ ixavov^ elvai, avyyvm- 

5 fiff^ ovK &v Tiry^dveiv, ^Atrare&va S* iKoKjei ov fiucpov 
pAv^ €1 T£9 apyvpiov fj axevo^ wapd rov ire&ot Xaffi^v 
aTroarepoirjj iroXv Be pAytarov, 09Tt9 p^rjSevo^ a^io^ &p 
i^ijTraT^K€i ire^eov^ w Uapo^ ettj rij^ woXeoi^ ^e*- 
a^cu, 'JS/Aol p,ip oip iBoxev Kcd rov aXa^ovevea^iu 
aTTOTpeireip «~o^ avpopra^ rovdSe SiaKeyop^po^, 






Tux general subject of this chapter is the eamo as that of the fifth of the 
fint Book, lynp^Tcia. The nature and influence of the dass of yirtues 
included under that temo, are here more fully explained in a conyersa- 
tion with Aristippna^ and the neoeasitj of their cultivation, especially to 
the statesman, more definitely pointed out The course of thought may 
naturally enough be presented in four divisions : 

1. The proper training of one who is destined k> rule is presented in 
a series of interrogations^ by which Aristippus is made to acknowledge, 
although entirely in opposition to his effeminate and luxurious course 
of life, that he must be inured to hunger, thirsty vigilfl^ and labor, and 
must abstain from the indulgence of sensual passion ($ 1 — *l), 

2. Aristippus^ in answer to the question whether he ranks himself 
with those who wish to rule or be ruled, abjures any desire for the labor, 
and trouble, and servitude, to which he thinks a ruler subjects himself 
and desires to live in the easiest and pleasantest manaer possible (§ 8, 9). 
Socrates then institutes the inquiry whether the life of the ruler or ruled, 
masters or servants^ is most pleasant (( 10). Aristippus is willing neither 
to command nor obey, but desires entire freedom (( 11)> Whereupon 
Socrates shows that such a life as Aristippus desires^ is incompatible with 
human society, which acknowledges but two classes ; and he who with- 
holds obedience to the more powerful will be subjected to them by force 

012,13). ': . . 

3. In order to avoid the dilemma in which ho finds himself, Aristip- 
pus proposes not to become the citizen of any State, but to wander from 
place to place. In answer, Socrates, in addition to other inconveniences 

40 xenofhon's memorabilia. 

and perils of a mignitorj life, suggests the ease with which one may M 
reduced to seiTitude, and tlie treatment to which an intemperate servant 
is natui-ally subjected (§ 14 — 16). 

4. Aristippue, forced to yield every position which he has taken ia 
opposition to the life of the statesman, brings the objection, that the 
voluntary submission to privation and toil which he takes upon himself 
does not differ at all from that wliich is involuntary (^ 17). On the con- 
.trary, Socrates designates several points of difference: (1) The continu- 
ance of voluntary toil, or suffering, or privation, depends upon the will 
of him who assumes it (2) The good aimed at and the hope of reward, 
give a satisfaction to the willing sufferer, to which the one who suffers 
from compulsion is a stranger (^ 17 — 19). (3) Whilst effeminacy and 
luxurious indulgence are conducive neither to soundness of body or 
mind, on the other hand, vigorous activity for the attainment of every 
thing good and noble, is conducive to the highest physical and mental 
excellence. Nothing of value is obtained without labor. So say the 
poets (§ 20) ; and the well-known story of Prodicue^ " The Choice of 
HerouleS)" also teaches, that unless a man strive to be temperate and 
virtuous he cannot attain to true felicity. The chapter concludes with 
an admonition to Aristippus to give heed to the instructions of *ApeHi 
« 21—34). 

1 *ES6k€l Bi fioi KOI Toiavra Xiycuv irporpiireiv roxf^ 
iTUvovTWi aaKeiv iy/cpdreuip irpo^ hri^v^iav /Bpwrov 
KoX rroTov koI Xcuyveia^ xal vTrvov, xal piyou^ xal ^dX- 
TTotf? fcal TToVou. TVou? Bi riva r&v (rwomoDV d/coXa- 
aroripoa^ expvra 7rpb<i rd rotavra' Elrri /ao«, e^, & 
^AplcTTtinret el Sioi ce iraiZ&ieiv vapaXajSovra Svo r&v 
pioDVy rov flip, 07ra9 iicavo^ earav ap^eiv, rov Bi, oirta^ 
firiB* dvTLTroirjaerai dp'xij^^ 7re!>9 &p ifcdrepop iraiZevoi^ ; 
BouX.6t (TKOTr&fi€V, dp^dficpot dwo T^9 Tpo<^^9» WTrep 
diro T&p oToi^eifop ; — Kal 6 ^Apurrvmro^ e^' AoKel 
yovp fJLOt fi Tpo<f>ff dpyri elpcu' ovBi ydp f^ y up tw, 

2 el fiff Tpi<f>oiTO. — OuKovp to fiep /SovXea^at airov 
airrea^aL, orav &pa ^fcy, dfi^oripot,^ elKo^ iraparfi- 
ypea^ai ; — EIko^ ydp, €<fyrj. — To ovp irpocupeia^ai ro 
tcareirelyop fiaXXop irpdrrew fj rfj yaarpl *)(apil^ea'^at 
wore pop &p avT&p i^i^otfiep ; — Top ek to apx^^^i ^4^t 


vri Aiay 7rcuS€v6fi€voVj ottod? fiff rit rrj^ 9r6\eQ>9 airpcuera 
yijinfTat, irapa rrjv ifcelvov dp^rjv, — Ovkovu, €<f>tj} ^^^ 
Srcuf inelp PovXjcovtcu^ to Supoa^ai Styfr&VTa dv€)(€(T^ai 
T« avT^ TTpo^^eriov ; — Hdvv jiiv ovp, €<fnj» — To Se 3 
ihrvou iyicparij elvcu, q>9T6 Bvvaa^ai xal o^^ Koifirf^ri- 
p€U Kcd frpat dvcunijvat xal aypinrvrjaai, €i rt Seoi^ 
TToripqf &v TTpo^^eirj/iev ; — Kal rovro, ((fyq, r^ avr^ 
— Ti Be ; €<fyrf, ro d(l>poSuri€ov iyKparij elvai, akre /*^ 
&a ravra Kojikvea^ai irpdrreiv^ et re Sioi ; — Kal 
TOVTO, iif)vjj Tw avrm. — Ti Si ; to fitf <^€vy€tv tov9 
irovov^, dXXA ^eXovrifv virofiepetv, iroriptp tip irpo^- 
^€ififi€P ; — Kal TOVTO, e^, tc3 ap^eip iraiSevofjiiptp. — 
Ti Se; to fia^elp, et ri hnTrfieiop itrrt fm^rjfia irpo^ 
TO Kpareip r&p dvTLfraKxop, 'froriprp dp irpo^eipai /taX- 
\op trpeiroL ; — TIoXv, ptj /ii\ e<f>ri^ tw ap'XjEiP TratSeu- 
ofiipfp* Ktu ydp TOii/ aWa>p ovSep S(f>€\o^ apev r&p 
TOtovTtop fJM^rjfidrap. — Ovkovp 6 ovrto TreTraLBevfiipo^ 4 
^TTov &p SoKcl aoi xrrro r&p dpriirdXcop fj rd Xontd 
^S>a d\i<rK€<r^€U ; Tovrcop ydp Btprov rd fiep yaarpl 
BeXea^ofiepa, xal fidXa €Pia Bu<;oi>'7rovfi€pa, ofito^ t§ 
hn^viiia rov ffxiyeip dyofiepa irpo^ ro BiXeap dXlaKe- 
reu, rd Se ttot^ ipeBpeverai. — Udpv pLep oSp, iijyrj. — 
OvKoup /cal a\\a inrb Xivypela^j otop oX re oprvye^ xal 
oi iripBifce^, irpo^ rrjp rrj^ ^rjXeia^ (Jhopt^p t§ im^Vfiia 
teal ry ikiriBi r&p d^poBiaUap <f>€p6fiepoi Kal i^urrdr 
puepoi rov rd Beipd dpaKoyi^etr^ai roU ^rjpdrpoK epb- 
irhrrovai; — Stnfdijyrf Kal ravra, — Ovkovp Bok€i o-oe S 
aiaypop €ip(u aj^pdnr^ ravrd iraa^eip rol^ d^pope- 
ardrots r&v ^T^pUop ; &^w€p oi pLOiyol el^iipypprat efc 
tA? elpxrd^ elBore^, Stl kipBvpo^ r^ fioi^^vopri a re 6 
vofAO^ dTreiXei ira^elp Kal ipeBpet/^rjpai Kal \r)<l>^ipra 
v/Spur^rjpcu; Kal rrfKiKovrcav fikp imKeifiipcop ^^ /tot- 
yevopr^ kok&p re koI aurxp&^i Sprmv Be iroXX&p r&p 
drroXvcoproDP t^9 r&p d^poBurio^v iwi^vfila^, o/uo? etv 

42 xenophon's memorabilia. 

tA hrtKivix/va ^dpea^at^ ip ovk TjSrf tovto iravrd- 

6 iraai KaKohaifiov&vTo^ ioTiP ; — ^E/xoiye Soxel, eifyrj. — 
To Be elvai fiiv t^9 avayKaioTara^ irKeiara^ irpd^i^ 
T049 av^pdnrois iv inrai^p<p, olov rd^ re iroXefiiKa^ 
Kal Toy y€<apyiKa^ koI t&v aWcov ov T€^ iXa^iara^, 
Toi^ a TToWoiHf ayv/JLvdoTco^ €)(€ip 'jrpo^ re '^vx'l '^^^ 
^aKirq^ ov SoKel coi iroXK^ a/iikeui elvcu ; — Svv€<fnj 
Kal TOVTO. -^Oi/covv BoKcl aoc top piXKotna ap')(eiv 
aaxelv Seiv xal Tavra exnrefw (fiipeiv ; — Udw p,€V 

7 oip, €<f>rj. — OvKovv, el tou9 eyKparm tovtg)v airdv- 

TCOV ek T0V9 dpr)(UCOV^ TUTTOpSV, TOU? divvdTov^ TavTa 

iroielv 6t9 Toif^ p,rjB^ dvTtTroirfaopApov^ tov apj(€W 
Td^o/A€p ; — Svpd(fyfj xal tovto, — Ti ovp ; eTretS^ xal 
TovTCDP CKaTepov TOV <f>v\ov Tr}p Ta^tp ola^a, i]Bt) nor 
iTrea-xiyftta, et9 iroTepav t&p Td^ewp tovtcop aavTOP 

8 BiKauD^ &p TaTT0t9 ; — "Eymy^ i^ 6 ^ApioTiinroi • 
KoX ovBap,&<; ye Tarra) ipMVTOP eh t^p t&p apj(etp 
/Sov\op,ipa)p Td^ip, Kal yap irdpv /iO( BoKCi a^popo^ 
dp^pwTTOv elpoA TO, p^eyaKov [e/^yov] 01/T09 tov eavr^ 
Tit SioPTa 'irapao Kevd^eiP, p,ri apxeip toSto, aXXA irpo^ 
apa^ea^a^ to /cat, Tot9 aXKot^ TroXtrae?, &p BeopToi^ 
iropt^ew Kal iavr^ pip rroXKa &p fiovKerai eXKei- 
Treti/, T^ Be 7r6\6a>9 '/rpoeoT&Taf ekp prj . irdpTa, oaa 
fl 7r6\i9 jSovXeTCUj KaTairpaTTtf^ tovtov Bifcijp \rrre)(etp^ 

9 TOVTO 7rct>9 oif iroXK^ a^potrvvq earl ; Kal yiip a^iov" 
atp ai 7ro\6£9 Tot9 apj(pv(TVPy &^Trep eyii> roi9 o^c€T£U9, 
ypriar^aA' iyd> re yctp a^i& tou9 ^epdtropTa^ ipm phf 

• a^^opa Th hnTqBeia irapacKevd^eiv, dirrov^ Be /xi/Se- 
1^09 TovTtop SmTea^ax* aX re iroKevi oXoptoa yprjpoA 
Tov^ apxpPTa^ eamaS^ p»hf a>9 tfkeiOTa aya^h iropi- 
few/, airrov^ Bk TrdpTtop tovtwp aTri^ea^ai, 'JSyo) oip 
Toif^ p^ep l3ov\op,€POV^ woWcL irpdypuiTa e^ett/ avToii 
Te Kal a\Xo£9 irap^xeip otrroi9 Ap 7ratS€i5o'a9 eU tov9 
apxf^ov^ KaTo^Tijaaipi* ipLavTOP toipvp TaTTto eh 

BOOK n. CHAP. L 43 

TDU9 povKofiiuox/: ^ paard re koI fjSiara /Storeveuf* 
Em 6 S(afcpdT7}<; e(fyrf' BovXet oZv xaX touto axe^pw^ 10 
^^o, iroTepot i^Siov ^uxtip, oi ap'xpvre^i^ fj oi cLpyp- 
ficvoi ; — Haw p.kv oiv, etfyq. — HpSnov /jl€p roiwv 
T&p i^va>p, &p ^fieK iafiep, ip phf r§ *Aala Hipaat 
flip apxovaip, apxoprai Be Svpot teal ^puy&: teal Av- 
Soi* ip Se ry EifpcoTrrj Sfcv^ai phf ap^xpya-i^ MauS- 
Tcu Si dpxoPTai' ip Se ry Ai/3vrj Kap^Zoptoi fihf 
apxpva-i^ Aipve; hk ap)(ppTai, Tovrtop oZp iroripov^ 
ijSiop oUi ^p ; ff T&p 'EWqpa^p, ip oh /cat avrp^ el, 
TTorepoi aoi hotcovatp fihiop, oi Kparovpre^^ fj oi xpar- 
oufiepot ^P ; — *iiXX' iyd roi, e^ 6 * A ptaTiTrrro^, 11 
oifSi et9 T^P SovXelup av ifjuavrop rarra)' aW.* elpal 
Ti9 fioi BoKei fieoTf rovrtop 6869, fjp ireip&put fiaSi- 
^eiv, ovT€ SC ap)(ij(;, ovre £ta SouX^ui?, aXXet St ekeih 
^epia^, ijTrep pLoKiara irpo^i evSatfiopiop ayei. — *AXS^ 12 
el fUPTOi, e<f>rj 6 Sfoxparri^, w^Trep ovre St* ^p^fi^ 
oSre SuL SouKeiag 17 6S6^ avvq ^ipu^ ovrta^ fiffSk S^** 
dp^panruPj ura>9 ap Tt Xiyot^' el fiiprot ip dp^pdmoi^ 
&p iirJTe dpj(€tp d^uocet^ fiip-e apx^o-^cu, iirfre tov^ 
apxopra^ exSap ^epairevirei^, olfial ae op&p, (09 iTri- 
araPTcu oi tepeiTTOPe^ tov^ tJttopck ical Koipfj kclL iSia 
ickaiopra^ Ka^urrdpre^ SovXoi^ '^ptja^iu' fj Xeu/^d- 13 
vovnl ae oi aWcjp (nretpdprtup kclL ^vrevadpToup top 
re atrop rifipopre^ xal SepSpoKOTrovpre^, koX irdpra 
rpoTTOP TToXiopKOvPTe^ Tov^ fpropwi KoX firi ^eKoPTWi 
^epaireveip, &)9 &p ireiamatp eKea^at SovKevetp optX 
rov TToXefielp row Kpeirroai ; . xal ISUf ai oi dpSpeiot 
Kol SupoTol T0V9 dpdvSpov^ Kol aSvpdrov^ ovk ota^a 
oTi KaToSoifX/oo'dfiepot KapTTovPTCU ; — *AXX^ iyto rot, 
€<pTf, tpa fiTf wdtrxco Tavra, ovS* efe iroXtrelap ifiav- 
jrop /caTcucTielas, dXKd ^ivo^s irapra)(pv eifii, KaX 6 14 
St/s/cpdrrj^ Iffyrf' Tovro fUprot ijSrf Xeyet? Seipop trd- 
Xtua/jLa* T0V9 ydp ^pov^, cf o5 8 re SIppi^ ical 6 

44 xenophok's memobabilia. ' 


Sfceipoiv KoX 6 IIpoKpovaTrj^ air^avov, ovi^X^ ert aS«- 
K€i' aWct vvv oi fi€V iroTuTevofievoi, ip rak irarpiai 
KOI vofJLOV^ ri^evraij iva firj dSiK&vrai, xal if>i\oys 
irpb^ TOK avajKaioi^ KoXovfiipoi^ aK\ov9 /ercavTa* 
/3or)^oik, KoX ral'; rroT^aiv ipifiara ireptfiaXKovrcu^ 
xai oirXa kt&ptcu, oU afivpovfcu rov^ aStKovpra^, xai 
irpb^ rovToc^ aWov^ i^to^ep avfi/ui-xpirf icaTcuTKeu^ 
75 d^oirrai' koX oi fikp irapra ravra Ke/errffiipoL ofuo^ 
aSiKovPTcu' aif ik ovBep fiep tovtwp e)(top, ip hk rat? 
oSoe^j iv^CL ifKuaroi, oBiKovprai, ttoXup ^opop iiarpL' 
fia>p, ei^ oTToiap S* &p ttoXlp a^Uri, t&p woXit&p wop-' 
Ttop ffTTa>p &p, xal Toioiho^j oiots fiaXtara CTrtrt^ei/- 
rai oi fiov\6fi€POi aSixeiP, ofico^ SicL to ^€1^09 ewai oif/c 
&p oiu oBifcrf^^pai ; ij, SufTi ai iroXei^ aoi icqpvTTOV' 
(TIP cuT^aXeuip koX Trpo^ioPTi koX dirtoPTi, ^appek ; 
^ iioTi KoX hovko^ &p otec, rotovro^ elpcu, 0Z09 firfBepl 
Sea-TTOTrj XvaLreXetp ; rtV ydp &p ^iXnt op^payTrop ip 
oixia e'xetv ttopcIp flip firfSev ^iTiOPra, r^ Be ttoXv' 

16 reXeardrTj Bialrp ^aipopra ; Stceyfnofie^a Se zeal rotrro» 
TTwy oi SeairoraL to?9 tolovtol^ oifcirai^ ')(pS}pT(U' dpa 
oif rr}p flip Xaypeiap avr&p r^ Xifi^ traxf^popt^ova^ , 
xXivTeiP Be KcoXvoutrip diroxXeiopre^ S^ep up ti Xa* 
fieip ff ; Tov Be Bpairerevecp Bea-fiok direlfyyovav ; rifp 
dpylap Be 7rXi;yat9 i^apaytcd^ovaip ; fj aif irok Trotm, 
orap T&p olKer&p ripa toiovtop Spra Koraficaf^dprf^ ; 

17 — KoXd^Wt l<fyrf^ irdo't Kaxoky eca^ tip BovXeveip dpor 
y/cdao). ^AXXik jdp^ & Scl^KfxiTe^, oi et? rtfp fiaaCKir 
Ktfp r^ypTfP vaiSevofUPOty tjp Bo/cek fioi <r\f pofil^etv 
evBaifiopiap elpaif ri Buuf>€pov<rt r&p i^ apdyieryf xcueo^ 
TTa^ovPTtop, el ye ireanjcovat xal Biylrq<rov&t ical ptytD' 
aovai zeal dypwrprja-ovci xal rSXXa irdpra fio^-q- 
<Tov<np €fc6pTe<i ; €ya> fiep ydp ovk otS*, o rt Buuf>ep€i 
TO airro Bepfia e/copra rj aKOPra fiaaTiyova^cu, rj oXqk 
TO auTo a-c^fia Trda-t Tofe toiovtoi^ exopra ^ SxoPTa 

BOOK II. CHAP. 1. * 46 

TroXiopKeta-^cu, aXXo ye fj ajypocrvvrf irpo^ean r^ ^£« 
XoPTt ra Xxnrqpa inrofiiveip. — Ti Se, & ^AploTiinre, 18 
6 SonKparri^; Ifp-q, ov Soxel aoi rtav toiovtodv Sia(f>€p€tv 
ra hcovaia r&v a/couo'itop, ^ o fiev €xq)v ireivwv <f>dyoi 
OP, onore fiovkocTO ; xal 6 Ikohv Siyft&v irloi^ koX 
rSXKa di^avToaf* t^ S' ef apdyxjj^ ravra 'rrda'XpPTi 
oiuc l^eoTiP, OTTorap fiovKryrcUt iravea^tu ; Iweira 6 
fkhf hcovauo^ TaXai'jrap&p hr aya^^ iKirlZt irop&p 
eu<l>paip€TaL, dtop oi rit ^rfpia ^fjp&pre^ iXiriSi rov 
Xi/^cr^cu iJS^a>9 fJU}^ov<n. Kat ra {ikp roiavra 19 
2^Xa Tmp w6pa>p fUKpov tipo^ a^ia ioTi' roif^ Si 
TTOPovpra^^ tpa c^/Xoi;? aya^oif^ fCTi]<ra)PTai, tf ottco^ 
€)fipoif^ jfeipaxTtoPTcu, fj Xva huparol yepofiepoi xat 
T0i9 adfUKn teal toI^ yp'v^aU teal top iavr&p ol/cop 
icaXoi9 ouccIkti, koI tou9 (f>i\ov<: eS iroi&ai^ koX rijp 
varpiSa etfepyer&ai,, irw ovk oUa^cu 'xjpt) roirrov^ 
teal iropelp ffSifo^ ek rh toioutcl, koX ^p €v<f)pcupO' 
fACPOv^j ayapLtPov^ pikp iavTOikt eiraipovfiepov^ Si xal 
^TjXovfiipov^ xnro t&p oKXmp ; ^Eri Si ai fiep pqSiovp- jsO 
yiai KoX CK tov irapa^^pfjfia ^Sopal ovt€ awfuiTi eifc^iap 
ucapoi etcip ip€pyd^€a^(Uy &^ i^aaip oi yvpLPoaral^ 
ovre '^v)(^ hruTTTipLrip a^ioXoyop oifSe/iuip ifiiroiovaip' 
at Si SuL /caprepia^ irrifiiXeuu r&p kclK&p re icdyO' 
^&p ipywp i^ifcpela^cu iroiovaip, &^ ^xiaip oi dya^oX 
apSp€9' Xeyet Si irov ical *SaloSo^* 

T^w ii\v yhp KCJ^Hfra jcol iKaX^v ttrriw iK4advu 

'A^diwrot ' fiOKfAs ih Kid tpdiot olfiot if a&r^r 
Kal Tfnix^f fh frpAroy iw^w 3* fit Sxpov Xnirai, 
*Pi}?8fi| 8^ Ifrcira v^Aci, x^'*^ "P ^^^^ 

Maprvpel Si xal *E'trl)(apfJLo<; ip raJSe* 


Kal ip oXX^ Bk roirtp if>rja'iv' 

21 Kal IIp6SiK0<; Sk 6 0-0(1)0^ iv Ta> avyypdfifiari, r^ 
irepi Tov *HpcucKkov^, oirep 8^ koX irXeiaroi^ hriBeL 
Kpuraij mavTio^ irepl rij^ aperrfi dvoffuilveTai &Bi 
7ra>9 Xeyav, oaa iyo) pAfivrj/uu' <l>fjai yap ^HpcucXeOf 
hrel ix TraiStov ek rjfiffv wpfiaro^ iv ^ oi vioi ijSrj 
auTOKparope^ yiyvofievoi SffXovarip, eire rf^p Si aperij^ 
oSop rpey^preu inl top fiiop, etre ttjp Bul kcucuKj 
i^eX^oPTa ek r}<Tir)(iap KcC^ria^ai,, ^aTTOpovpra^ mrori- 

22 pap T&p 6B&P rpamfrax' koX ^aprjpak ain^ Buo yup' 
cuxa^ irpoUvfu fieyoKa^^ rrjp piv eripap einrpenij re 
IBeip teal iXev^ipiop, ^vaei K€Koap,rifUpriP to p,ip a&pui 
Ka^apoTfjTi, Tci Be SfifioTa atBoZ, to Bi o^fia aay- 
<l>poavprf, icr^ryn Bk Xevsc^' tt^p B* eripap re^papr 
fjUprfP /JL€P ek iroKua-apKiap re tcai airaXoTfjTa, KexaX- 
Xcairtap.ipTiP Be to /mcp y^p&pA^ WTe XevKOTepap t€ 
Kal epv^poTepap tov Spto^ Boxelp <l>aip€<r^ai, to Be 
ax^ifia, o>9T€ Boxeip op^oTepav ttj^ <f>va€(Oi eZi/at, Ta Bi 
ofjLfiaTa ey^tp apaireTrrap^pa, ia^tJTa Bk, i^ ^ &p 
fxaXiOTa &pa BtaXap/rroc, KaTaaKoirelo'^ai Be ^apJi 
€auTi]P, eTruTKoirelp Bi seal, el Tt? aXXo9 avrtjp ^ea- 
Ta*, iroXXoKi^ Be xal ek Tt^p eaurtj^ cKiap uTTo/SXe- 

23 Tretp, */29 S' eyevopTO irXriaudrepop tov ^HpaxXeov^, 
Trjv p,€P irpoa^ep prf^elaap l^cu top avrop Tpowov, 
Ttfp S* eripap <f)^daai /3ovXop,epr)P 7rpo<:BpajMeLP t^ 
^HpaxXeZ Kal elirelp' 'Op& ae, & 'HpoKXei^, airO' 
povPTOj irolop ohop hrl top fiiop Tpdirg* cap ovp epi 
<f)CXi]P 'rroiija'dp^po^, iwl Tf}P '^Bl<rTf)p T€ Kal pa<miv 
oBov afoi a6, koX t&p p,ep TepTrv&p ovBevo^ ayevaro^ 

24 €0-17, Ta}p Be ')(aXeTr<op a^retpo? Bta/3uiarj, UpwTOP phf 
yap ov TToXifMOP ovBi irpayp^iTtop (f>poPTL€kt aXXi, 
fTKOTTOvp^epo^ Bie<rff, Tt &p Ke)(apiap,€POP rj aiTiop fj 


TTOTov evpoKj fi Ti &v ISoDv fj tI oKovaa/f repffAch]^, 
ti Tivfov 6a<f>paiv6fjL€vo^ ff aTrrofiepo^ 'qo'^elrj^, riari Si 
vatBtKols ofuXSu fid\t(rr &p €v<j>pav^€lrfi, koX irdo^ &v 
fLaXcucfOTOTa xa^evSoi^, /cal 7reS9 &v airovtinara rov- 
Tttiv irdvTwv Tvyxavoif;, *Eav Be ttotc yiprirai Tt? 25 
tnroyp'ia (nrdvee^ a<f> &v iarod, ravra, oif ff>6Po% fii] 
ae aydrfo} iirl to iropovpra xai TaKanrtopovpra r^ 
atofiOTi Kol ry ^vj(^ ravra Tropl^ea^a^* aXX* oh &v 
oi oXXoA ipyd^oDprah rovroi^ aif XPV^^ ovSepo^ aire- 
j(jifi€Po^, S^€P &p Svparop p ri tcepSava^* iravra'xp^ev 
yap ai<j>€Xela^ai rot^ ifioX ^upovaiv i^ouaiap eytoye 
Trapiyw, KaX 6 *HpaK\r^^ oKovaa^ ravra' */2 yvpcu^ 26 
€^, opofia Si aot ri iariv ; *H Si' Oi fi€V ifioX 
^nKoit €^, KoKoval fie EvSa^fiopiaPj oi Sk fiicovprdf 
fie tnroKopi^ofiepoi opofid^ovai fie Kcuctap, Kal iv 27 
rovr^ 17 erepa yvpfj irpo^e'X^ovaa ehre' KaX eyo) rjxto 
vpo^ <ri, & 'HpdKkei^, eiSvla tou9 yepprftraprd^ ae^ 
jcal rrjp ^v<nv rrjp arfp ip ry iraiSeia KarapuAovaa' 
i^ &v ikiri^ta, el rr}P irpo^ i/ii oSop rpdiroio, c^Sp 
av ae rwp koSmp Kal aefip&p ipydn^p aya^op yepd' 
ar^cUf Kal €/i€ eri iroXif ivri/ioripap koX eir aya&o'k 
Stair peTrearipap <l>aprjpai' ovk e^airarriaon Si ae irpo- " 
oifiioi^ 17801^?, a\\\ fiTrep oi ^eol Sii^eaap, ra opra 
Siffyrfaofuu /ler dXTj^ela^, Twp yap oprap aya^c^p 28 
Koi KoXcop ovSep apev rropov Kal iirifieXeuif: ^eol Si' 
, Soaaip ap^pdyjToi^' aXX' elre roif^ ^eov? TXetos elpai 
aoi ffovXeij ^epanrevriop rov^ ^601/9* elre vtto (f>iX(ii)p 
^iXei^ dyairda^aij rovy <f>iXov^ evepyerqriop ' elre 
VTTO ripo^ nroXeoD^ eTrAvfieh rifiaa^at^ rifp irdXip 
ii^Xrjriop' elre inrb rrj^ 'EXXdSo^ Trdarfs d^ioU err' 
apery ^avfid^ea^ai, rtfp 'EXXdSa Treipariop eS Troielp' 
elre yfjp fiovXet aoi Kapirov^ a<f>^6pov^ t^ipeip, rffp 
yrjp ^epairevreop' elre otto fioaKr)fidra)P oUc Seip 
irXovriXea^cu, r&p ^oaKrjfidrcop einfieXTfriop ' elre SiA 

48 xenophon's memorabilia. 

irdkifiov opfia^ aS^ea^ai^ xal /SovXei Buvna^ai rov^ 
re ^tX.oi;9 iXev'^epovv xal roi^ i^pov^ ')(€ipova^cu9 
Tct^ iroXefiiKa^ re^^oy aurd^ re irapa t&v hnara- 
fUvdJV /jLa^Tjriov, koI 07ra>9 airraid hcl yprjo^cu aatcq- 
riov el Sk kcu t& awfiaTi jSovXei BwaTo^ elvat, r^ 
yvd^H innjperelv i^cariov ro a&fia zeal yvfivacrriov 

29 avv rnvoi^ xai iBp&Tt^ Kal 17 Kcucia viroXafiovaa 
ehrev, &^ ^<n IIpoSuco^' ^Ewocvs, & 'HpoKkei^, C09 
XjCtXeTrifV Koi fuucpiiv oBov iirl to? ew^poaiva^ 17 yuvri 
aoi airrf BiryyetTcu / iyi> Si pq&iav #cal fipaxeiav oSop 

30 ewl TTjv ciSaifjLOPiav a^a> ae. Kal ^ ^Apertf ehrev 
^fl TXrjfxov, ri Bk av aya^p ex^i^ $ rj ri ^Bu otcr^o, 
pjlBiv TovT€Ov iveKa vpdrreiv i^iXova-a ; ffrvi ovBe rffv 
T&v rfiitov hrC^vfuav avafuvet^, dXX^, irplv hri^v* 
fi^a-cuj TrdvTcjv ifnrhrXaa'ai, irpiv fuv ircanjv ia^l" 
ovaa^ irpXv Bk Biy^v irivoua'a, [fcaX] Xva fikv 17S6099 
<f>dyrj^t o^7rotov9 fJL'q')(avtofjLiv7i, Xva Bi ^Bica^ irivj^^ 
oipovi T€ iroXvreXeU irapcurKeudfy, koI tov ^ipov9 

- j(i6ya irepC^iovaa (fi/reip* Xva Bk Ka^virvmcrp^ ^Bia^^ 
ov ^vov T^ OTpoofjLi/ds fiaXoKd^, oKXd xal rd^ kXl- 
va^ Kcu rd virofia^pa rat? xXivcu^ 'trapcurKeva^tf* ov 
ydp But TO irovclv, dXXd Bid to fii)B€v e)(€tv, S ri 
TToi^f, VTTvov eTTi^ir/iet? * T^ Be d<f>poBiaia irpo rov 
Biea^ai dvayxd^eK, irdvra fi7f)(ava)fiiprf, xal yuvai^ 
Kal dvBpdai ^toftivt)' outcj ydp vaiBevei^ rov^ eau- 
T^9 <f>iXov^, T^9 fih/ vvKTO^ v/Spl^ovo'a, Ttj^ S' ripipa^ 

31 TO j^ai/JuoraTOp KoraKOtfil^ovcra, ^A^dvaro^ Bi oiaa 
ix ^e&p fiev direppv^ai, xnro Be dp^pwrtt^v dycih&v 
drifidfy* TOV Bi irdpTtop fiBiarov dKOVCfiaro^, hraivov 
eatm}?, dvriKoo^ el, koX rov trammv fiBiarov ^edfutro^ 
a^€aT09* ovBep ydp trdyiroTe aeavrrf; epyov koKjov 
r^eaaai. Tk B ' ap aoi Xeyovat) ri irtarevaeie ; rl^ 

^ B* &p BeofiipTj Til/09 eirapKiceiep ; fj rk ip ev ^popSnf 
TOV <rov ^uurov ToX/jbi^aeiep elptu ; ot veoi flip Sptc^ 

BOOK U. CHAP. I. 49 

TOi? atofiaaiv ahuvaToi elat, irpea^urepov hi yepofievoi 
Tok y^vxO'k avorfToc, airovo)^ fiev XtTrapol Sia peoTTi- 

T09 Tp€(f>6fJL€V0l, iTTlTTOVCO^ Sc aV)Ql7)poX Sia JljpCii^ TTep- 

AvTC^j Toty /M€V TTcrrpayfjiivot^ ala')(yv6p,€vot,^ to?? Se 
trpaTTOfiivoi^ ^apvvofxevoi^ ra fiiv i^Sia iv t§ veorrjTi 
SuiBpaftovre^j ra- Se )(a\en'ct ek to yrjpa^ awo^efievoi, 
*£yo> Sk avi/eifJLC fiev ^eoK, avveifu Si dv^pdriroL': roh 32 
aya^ok' epyov Se xaXop oure ^elov oure av^pcinnvov 
X^P^^ i^ov ytyverai' rifi&ficu Se fiaXioTa iravrtov 
icaX iraph ^eok KaX irapit, av'^pdtTroi^, oU irpo^/cei, 
dyoTnjTrj fiev trvvepyo^ Te^^vtVai?, 'Jriarif Sk (f>vXa^ 
Oitcoiv SeaTTOTCu^, eufiein}^ Be irapaaTaTi^ ol/ceTai^, 
aya^tj Se ovXK'qTrTpui r&v iv elpijvff irovav, ^e^aia 
Se Tcav iv iroXAfKp avfju^yp^i epycov, apioTtj Be (f>i\ia<: 
Kotvcjvo^, "EoTt Be Tot9 fiev ifJLol^ <f)i\oL^ ^Sela fiev 33 
seal airpdyfKov aircov xal iroT&v diroKcLvai,^' ave^ov- 
rai ydp, eca^ av iTn^vfJuja-cjaiv aindov. ''Tttvo^ 8' 
avTol^ TrdpeoTiv fiBlaav fj rok dfi6')^0L^y ktu oure diro- 
Xeiirovre^ ainbv a')^ovTai,, ovre Bid tovtov fie^uuri 
rd Beovra vparreiv. Kat oi fiev veot rpt^ t<Sp irpea" 
fivrepoiv eircUvoi^ ^(aipovciv, oi Be yepairepoi toZ^ 
TOM/ v€(DP T£fuu9 dyaKKovTui' KoX '^Secj^ fiev r&v ira- 
Xcu&p irpd^etop fi€fipr)PTai, ev Be Ta? irapovaa^ ijBop- 
rat irpdrrovTe^ BC i/xe (^iKot fiep ^eoU opre^y dya- 
irtjTol Bk <^/Xot9j rifiLoi Be TrarpiaiP' orav S' eX^i; 
TO ireirpKoiiepop t6\o9, ov fierd Xij^iy? arifioi Keivrcu, 
dXKd fierd fiprjixri^i top del j^opop vfipovfiepoi %d\- 
\ovai. Touixrrd aoi^ c& iral tokccop dya^ojp ^Hpd' 
K\€i^, €^e<TTL BuLiropTiaap^vtp ttjp /jMfcapcaTordTTjp ev- 
BaifjLOPiav KexTTJa^ai, Ovrto 7ra>9 Buo/cei np6BLKo<; 34 
Trfp vTT ^Aperi]^ 'Hpaxkeov^ iraiBeva-iP, iKoap.'qae flip- 
Toi tA? yvd^jMas ere fteyaXeiorepoL^ prjfjLoahP fj iyco 
vyv. ioX 3' ovp a^ioPf & ^AptaTiinre^ tovtcop ip^v^ 



fiovfihifi ireipacr^ai tl koI t&v ek tov pMKKovra j(po 
vov TOV fiiov ^povri^etv. ^ K^^f* V ' /Sf^ 



Tos remainiDg chapten of Book IL, which treat of filial piety (Chap. ILX 
the relation of brothers (Chap. IIL^ and of friendslup (Chap. lY.-^DLX 
are founded on Book L Chap. IL § 49 — ^55, and oontaiaa more complete 
defence of Socrates against the three points of accusation but slightly 
examined there. 

The present chapter contains a conyersation with his son Lamprode^ 
who had become much embittered towards his mother Xantippe, on 
account of her seyerity. The strong regard for the parental relation, 
which Socrates felt and inculcated, is here made eyident The course of 
thought is somewhat as follows : 

1. Those, firatv are justly accused of ingratitude, who, haying reoeiyed 
fayors^ do not^ when they are able, make a return. Secondly, ingratitude 
is injustice (^ 1, 2). Tlurdly, ingratitude is criminal in proportion to the 
maguitude of fayora receiyed. But the greatest fayora are bestowed by 
parents upon children, especially by the mother (§ 3 — 6). Acerbity of 
temper or seyerity of treatment on the part of the mother, does not 
excuse a want of filial regard and respect ; for the recollection of the 
suffeiiugB, toil, aud anxiety of the mother for the child, especially during 
the early period of his existence, and the certainty that her seyerity does^ 
not nrbe from ill-will, but from the highest regard to his well-beiu^ 
should secure from him a willing obedience, and prompt and hearty 
sei-yice (§ 7 — 12). 

2. To these strongest and subjectiye arguments for filial piety, an 
objective one is added : The State recognizes the sacredness of the obli- 
gation of children to parents, by punishing its yiolation ; and all men 
despise the disobedient and ungrateful child (^ 13. 14). 

I Ala^6fi€Po^ Si TTore AajxirpOKKkay tov irpearfivTO' 
TOV viov eavTov, Trpo? Ti^v firjTipa ^oXeTraivovra' Eiiri 
/Liot, e^tf, & TTol, ola^a tiv(k av^pcor/rov^ a')(api<TT0V^ 

BOOK n. CHAP. IL • 61 

tULkavfikvov^ ; — KaX fioKa, €(fyrf 6 veavlaKO^. — KjurrcL- 
'uefid^Ka^ oup roif^ t( iroiovvra^ ro ovo^ia rovro 
a7roKa\ov<nv ; — "jBywye, €<fyrj* rotv yap cv 'ira^ovra^, 
OTOV hxfvafievoi xapw aTToSovvcu fitf aTroS&aiv^ a'^api" 
OTOv^ KaXowTiv, — OvKOvv BoKoval aov iv robi oZIkol^ 
KoraXoyi^ea^ac rov^ aj(aplaT0V9 ; — "Efioiye, S(fnj. — 
*HSrj Se iroT i<nc4y^<o, el apOj Oi^irep to avSpawoSU % 
^ea-^cu Toif^ fiiv iplXov^ oBiieop elvcu SoKei, rov^ Bk 
troKefiCoxr: BitccuoVj koI rh dj(apurr€w wpo^ fiiv rov^ 
^CKov^ aSiKOP ioTij trphs Bk rov^ iroXefilov^ Sucatop ; — 
KaX fioKa, eifn)* /col SokcI fioi, wf)* ov ap ti^ d tto- 
^a>v, em <f>i\ov etre iroXcfiiov, fiff ireLparai, 'xaptp airo- 
htSopcu, oBuco^ ewat, — Ov/covp, el ye ovrca^ e)(eL rouio, 3 
ttKixpunfi Ti9 &P etf) aSucia i^ a-xapitrria ; — Svpcd^o- 
Xoyet. — OifKouPj oatp ap tl^ fiei^o) a/ya^h 7ra^a>i/ fiv 
&7roSiS£ x^P^^> ToaovTtp aSi/canepo^ &p ettf ; — Svpe^ 
teal TOVTO, — T/]/a9 ovp, e^, inro tIpcop evpoi/JLCP &p 
fui^opa eifepyerqpApov^ ^ iral^a^i inro yopewp ; oh^ oi 
yopeif €K fikp ovk Sptodp jhroiqaap elpai^ Toaavra Se 
KoXa ^Ip xal roaovrap aya^&p /jLeraaxj^tp, Sera oi 
^eol irapexova-v T0Z9 ap^pdmoi^* & Stf koX ovtod^ fifxlp 
hoxel iraPTo^ a^ia elpai, w^re nrapre^ to /caTaXnreip 
avra irdproop fiaXiaTa ^vyofiep' xal ai TroXeif; iirl 
rok fi€yiaToi<; aBtKi]fiaav ^ijfiiap ^dpaTOp ireTroii^Kaa-ip, 
Wi ov/c &p pL€i^opo<; KOKov ^6^<p Ttjp aBiKiap Travaop- 
T69. KaX firjp ov T&p ye a<f)po8iauop epexa TraiSo- 4 
TTOvela^oi T0U9 aifbponroxn wroXa/A^dvecs, eirel toutov 
ye T&p diroXvaopTcop fiearal fiep at oSot, fieara Bk r^ 
ouc^fuiTa' ^apepol 5' icrfjuep Koi axoTrovfiepot, i^ ottoIodp 
av yxn/aiK&p fieXTiara fifup Texpa yepoiTO, ah avpeX- 
^6pt€^ Te/cpoTTOLovfie^a, Kal 6 flip ye dvfjp ti]p t€ 5 
axnne/cpoTroiijaovarap eavr^ Tpi^ei^ Kal toU fiiWovaip 
eaea^eu rraial irpoTrapaa-xevd^et irdpra, oaa ap olrj- 
rai aifpoiaeiv avToU irpo^ top fiiopj xal Taxha &<i &p 

52 xenophon's memorabilia. 

BiiptfTaL TrXctcTa' 17 Sc yvifi) inroSe^a/jLivrj re <l>€p€i t€ 
<l>opTiov rouTOj ffapx/vofiivrj re koI KivSuvevovaa ircpl 
Tov fiiov, Kot fieraZihovaa 7^9 Tpot^rj^ ^> kcu airrrj 
rpi(f>€Taij xal avv ttoXXo) irovtp Bievi^vKaaa xal reicoGcra, 
rpi<f>€i T€ Kal iTTifieXeiTac, ovre irpoTrerrov^via ouBev 
aya^bv, ovre ytyvtaaKOV to Ppi^o^ v<f> otov €v Tra- 
trj^ei, ovSk aijfiaipeiv Sin/djjL€vov, otov Selrcu, aXX* avrff 
OToj(a^o/jLevrf rd re avp^^ipovra tccu Ke)(apiafUva irei- 
parcu i/crr\rfpovPt fceu rp€if>€i, ttoXvp ')(povov k<u fifiepa^ 
KCii vvKTos xnrofiivova-a irovelp, ovk eiSvicL, riva tovtcov 

6 x^P^^ aTToXT/'^crat. Kat ovk apKcl ^pey^ai fiovoVj aX- 
Xa Kal, iTretBav So^eoaiu Uapol elvat oi TralBe^ fiav- 
^dp€tv ri, h fi€P &p avTot e^P^aLP oi yopek dycC^h 
irpo^i TOP l3iop, BiBdaKovacp* a B^ &p oitopTCU aXXov 
ucctpanepop elpcu BiBd^ai, Trifiiroyo'i vpo^ tovtop Bet- 
'7rap&PT€9, KoX iwifieTsMVPTcu irdpTa irotovPTe^, ottoj? ol 

7 TratSe? airroU yipcopTat cbj* BvpaTOP fiiXTiaToi. — IT/009 
TavTa 6 peapiaKo^ €(f>rf' *A\Ka toi, el koX irdpTa Taxna 
ireTToiqKe Koi aXKa tovtcop ^roXXaTrXao'ia, o^Sft? &p 
BvPcuTO avrf]^ apacrx^a^ai, Ttfp ^aXeTronyra. — Kal i 
Scj/cpdTT]^' HoTcpa Be otei, e^rj, ^rjp{ov oypio-n/Ta 809- 
(f)op€OT€pap elpai, fj fbrjTpo^ ; — ^Eyi> fiep olfxai, €<{>% 
T7}9 fii]Tp6<;, T^9 ye To^vTrf^. — "HBtj irtoTroTe, ovp ^ 
Baxovaa xaxSp tI aoi eSeoKCP fj XaKTiaaaa, ota vrro 

8 ^ffpicop TjBtf iroXXoi hra^op ; — '^IXXo, 1/17 ^ia, e<^, 
Xeryet, & ovk up Tt9 eVt tcI) iSiip iraPTl fiovXoiTo aKov- 
aai,-^^^i) Be iroaa, €<f>rf 6 SaoKpaTrf^:, otet TavTp 81/9- 
dpexra xal Ttj ifxop^ Kal T019 epyoL^ eK iraiBiov S1/9- 
KoXaipojp Kal fjfiepa^ kcu pvkto^ TrpdyfiaTa irapaax^lp, 
TTOcra Be XvTnjo'ai xd/MPayv ; — '^XX' oifBeirdTroTe aimjp, 
€<f>7jj ovT eiTra ovr eiroirjaa ovBep, €<^' cS 7J<r)(yp^rf, — 

h Tl 8 ' ; oieL, €(f>i], j(aXe7rd)T€pop elvai col uKoveiP &p 
avTTj Xiyei, rj toa9 inroKpiTaU, OTap ip Tat^ Tpay^BUu^ 
aXX97Xoi;9 Ta ea^aTa Xeyaaip ; — 'i4XX', otfuiL, hreiBi^ 

BOOK n. CHAP. IL 63 

ouK oiovrai rcitv XeyovroDV ovre rov ikiy^ovra. ikey- 
^6£Va wa ^Tffiuo<rpj ovT€ TOP aTTeiXovPTa aTreiXew, iva 
KOKov Tt iroii^ayt paBioD^ ^epovxn, — Xif S' d elSw, 
<09, o ri \eyei aoi n /^^iTi/p, ov fiovop oiSkv kokov 
voouaa Xeye^, aXXct Koi fiovXofxivtf aoi aya!^a cZi/cu, 
oaa ovSevl oW^, ^aX£7ra(Wi9 ; fj vojiii^ei^ kokovow 
TTiv /nrp-ipa ao^ clvcu ; — Oi Bryraj 6^, tout 6 ye ov/e 
olofJLai, — Kai 6 S^fepdrrj^;' Oukovv, e<fytfj aif ravrrfv, 10 
euvouv re aot oZ<rav koX iTnfieXofiivrjVf w fioKurra 

BvVOTiU, /cd/JLVOVTO^, OTTO^ VyUtlinj^ T€ teal 07rCc)9 T&v 

iTTiTijSeuov /ifjBcvb^ ivBeij^ latfj xal irpo^ rovrot^ ToXXi 
Tok ^€ok €i)(pfiiv7fv aya^a inrep arov, teal ev;^a9 afro- 
StSovaav, ^aXcTT^i/ elvai (f>j^ ; iyot fikv olfjun, el rot* 
avTTjv fit) ivvaacu ^ipeiv fiTjripa, raya^d ae ov 
Bvvaa^cu <l>€p€u/. Ehrk Si fioc, 6^, irorepov aXKov 11 
Tivii otei Selv ^epaireveiv, fj irapeaKevaaai fiijSevi dv- 
^ptinrmv irevpaa^ai dpia-Ketv, fJLrjS^ eTrea-^ai, fiTjSe 
ireC^ea^ai firfre aTparrjy^ pujre dXktp apxoirn ; — 
NaX fia AC eyooye, €<f>Tj, — Ov/couv, €<f>7j 6 Xf^Kpdvr^, 12 
Kcu, T63 yeiTovL fiovXet trv dpecrieecv, Xva aoi koI irvp 
evawj, Srav roxnov Seiy, Koi dya^ov re aoi, yiyvrjraL 
avWiprro^p, Kai, av ri a(f>aXK6fi€vo9 tv;^, evpotK&f' 
iyyji^ep l3of}%^ aov ; — "Eytoye^ e^, — Ti Si; owo- 
SoiTTOpov fj avfjLTrTsMuVj fj el r^ aWo) ivrvyyavoi^, oih 
Sev av aoi Sia<f}ipoL if>i\ov fj i)fip6p yepia^aij fj xal 
T^ irapd TOVTOiv evvoia^ otei Seip eirifieXela-^ai ; — 
^Eyoyye, e^fyrf. — Elra tovtcop fiep eTn/jLeXeur^ac irape- 13 
tncevao-cu, ttjp Sk firjripa rfjp irdprayp fmXLord ae 
if>iXova-ap ovK ocet Setp ^epairevetp ; ov/c oZcr^\ oti 
teal ti Tr6Xi<i aXXf}^ fiep d^apiaTia^ ovSefiids: hnfie- 
Xeirai^ ovSe Sixd^ei, dXXd irepiopa tow ei ireirop^oTa^ 
j^apti/ oxfK diroSiSoPTo/;, idp Si ta9 yopia<i firj ^epa- 
TrevTj, TovTtp SIktjv t€ iiriT^Tjaif Kal dTToSoKifid^ovaa 
OVK ia apx^tP tovtop, ok ovre &p rd lepd evaefim 


^Wfi^a inrip rrj^ TroXeo)?, tovtov ^vovto^, ovre aWo 
icaXSi^ Kal iiicaUa^ ovScv &v tovtov irpd^avro^ ; Kal 
VT} Aia iav ti^ twi/ jopicov TeKevrqaavTwv touv Tdj>ov% 
' fiff Koafi^j Kcu TovTO i^erd^ei fi iroXi/; iv TaU tw* 
14 ap')(6vT(ov SoKifJMO'uiL^. Sif ovv, & TToZj &v aa><l>pop^j 
T0U9 fih^ ^€ov^ irapairrjarf avyyvo>iu}vds aoi, eivai, 
€? Tt 7raprjfjLe\'qKa<: rfj^ firjiTpo^, firi ae koX oxnoi, vofii- 
aavTe^ d')(dpvaTov elvcu ovk i^iXcoaiv ei iroielv' tois 
Se dv^pdnrov^ av ^uXa^, ^,r| ae ai<r^6/i€P0i, t&p 
yovitov dfieXovirra irdvTe^ diifida'toaiv, elra iv ipfffiia 
^iSMV dva<f>av^^' el ydp ae inroXdfioiep Trpo^ tov^ 
yoveU d^dpioTov eZi/at, ouSeW &v vofutreiev ev ae ironj* 
cwi ydpiv diroKrjf^i/hain 



Socrates perceiving that two brothers^ the elder Chaerephon and the 
younger Gbaerecrates^ were at rarianoe with each other, admonished the 
latter to seek a reconciliation. He suggests the following motiyes and 
inducements to fraternal concord : 

1. A brother ought to be valued above all wealth (§ 1) ; unce poe- 
seesions are insecure and their enjoyment uncertain, without companions 
and friends ; and the best friend is a brother, who is so by a natural 
relation, and on account of whom one receives honor from men, and is 
less exposed to their hostile assaults (§ 2—4). 

2. It follows^ then, since a brother is to be so highly valued, that 
even though his alienation and hostility be great, it should not causo 
hatred, but rather induce one, laying aside all angry feeling, to seek to 
appease him (§ 5 — 9). Tlie means of reconciliation are easy ; by first 
exhibiting fraternal affection and kindness, a reciprocation of it will be 
secured (^ 10 — 13). The advances, Socrates teaches Chaerecratea, should 
be on his part (§ 14 — 16). You can rely, he adds, upon the honorabk 
and noble feeling of your brother for success ($ 16 — 18). 

BOOK n. CHAP. ni. 66 

S. Brothers ought not to be at TBriAnoe with one another ; for as the 
members of the body, which are by natare in pairs^ are for mutual aid, 
so are brothers^ who^ if friendly, although &r separated, are still able 
from a natural affinity to be of special eervice to each other (§ 18,19). 

Xaipe^&vra Bi irore kolL XcupeKpdrTjv^ aSeX^ fihf 1 
ovT€ dXKi]Xoiv, kavT& Sd yvmpifico, ala^ofievo^ Sui<f>€' 
pofjtipto, iSoDv rbv XaipexpaTTjv. Ehri /loi, e^, & Xair 
pacpaTe^f oif Si^ttov koI aif et t&p rotovrav av^pdnrcov, 
ot jQyijaifuoTepov vo/xl^ovai j(pij/JMTa ^ o&X^v? } teal 
raura t&v pJkv a^povtav ovrav, rov Si ^povipLOV, lail 
T&v phf fiorf^eia^ SeopApcop, rov Sk fior/^etp SvpapApov^ 
xaX vpo^ rovTOi^ t&p p^hf irKeioptop inrap)(6prap, rov Si 
hfb^. OavpMOTOP Si msX tovto^ el tc9 roiff p,€P aSeK- 2 
^ov9 ^f)piap ffffArai^ Bri ov koX t^ t&p oSeXtfAp 
xejcniTcu, rov^ Si iroXira^ ov)^ ^elnu ^ffptap^ Sri ov 
tuu ra T&p iro7uT&p e^e^ aW' ivraff^a piv Svportu 
\joyi^€a^(Uf on, Kpehrop airp .iroXKok ohcovpra aa^xi' 
Xa>9 ap/eovpra e)(€iP, ^ pLOPOP SuuT(op.epop r^ ~ t&p 
iroXiT&p eiruupSvpm^ irapra Ke/crfja^aCy iirl Si t&p 
aSeX^p TO avTO tovto aypoovat. Kal ouckra^ phf oi 3 
Svpdp,€POi wpovptcu, a/a avpepyoirs Sx^^^' *^^ <^tKov9 
tcT&praij (09 Porf^&p Seop^poi, t&p S* aSeX^p ap^Xov- 
aip &^Tr€p i« TToXiT&p p,ip yiypopipov^ <f>iXov^, i^ 
oSeXxfKifp Si oif ytypop,€Pov^, Kal pLtfP wpo^ ^CXUlp 4 ' 
piiya p,ip inrapj(€c to ifc t&p ain&p ^vpcu, piya Si 
TO opLCv Tpaxf^rfpaiy hrel Kal tov; ^r^pioi^ wrf&o? ta9 
eyy iypertu t&p avprpotfxop^ 7rpo9 Si tovtois fcal oi 
aXXoi cLP^ptoirot Tip&al t€ paXXop Toif^ avpaSiX<f)ov^ 
oiTay T&p apaSiX(l>eop, koL ^ttop touto*? iirtTi^epTai, 
KaX 6 XeupefepaTT}^ ehrep* ^AX^J el pip, & ^(OKpare^^ 5 
M pi^o, evq to Sid<f>opopj la-ca^ &v Sioi ^epeiv top 
aZeXxfiop seal prj piKp&p epexa ^evyeip' aya^op yap, 
wrep Kol oif X4y€i^, aSeX^o^, &p otop Set' ottotc p^hrroi 


TravTo^ ivSioi, teal 'trap to ivavridnaTov etrj, rl av ti? 

6 hri')(^ipoiri Tot9 aivvaroL^ ; Rat o SfOKpart}^ ^4^1* 
Horepa Be, & Xcupi/epare^f ovSevl apiaai Svvarai Xai 
p€(f)(»)ify Skircp ovBe aoi, ^ eanv oU xal irdw apia/cet ; 
Ala TovTO yap rotj €<f>rj, & StoKpare^, a^iov itrnv 
ifMot fita-elp airrov, on aXXot^ fiev apea/eeip Svparat, 
ifiol Be, OTTOV &p Trap^, 'rraprayaov xal epytp xaX \6yip 

7 ^7)p,ia fwXKop tj axpiXeid iarip. ^Ap ovp, €ff>r) o So}- 
Kparrj^, &^7r€p hnro^ t^ apeiriarrjiiopi fi^, eyycipovvrt 
Sk ')(pi}a^ai ^rjfjiia ioTiP, ovtcj koI aS€\<l>6^, orap rt? 
avTip /JLt) iinaTdfiepo^ ^JX^^PV XP^^^^^i ^rjP'ia iarip ; 

8 Jlwy 8' ap €ycJ, €(f>r) 6 XaLpe/cpdny;, apemarijfKDP eirjv 
dB€\(f}S '^(prja^ai, iinaTdfiepo^ ye xaX eZ \iyeip top 
ei' \eyopTa, koX eS iroi^lp top ei iroiovpra ; top /jlcp- 
TOi Kai Tioytp xal epytp 7r€ip(Ofi€P0P ifie apiap ovk &v 
Bvpalfirip ovT €t; Xkyeip^ out ei iroictp, aXX' ovBe 

9 treipdaofuzt, Kal 6 X(OKpdTfi^ Cffyr) • Oavfiaard ye 
7<£yei<;, & Xaipexpare^, el xvpa flip, ei aot f^p iwl 
irpo/SdToi^ €7rtTi}S€«)9 Ai', /cal tov^ fiev iroifiepcv; rjaTrd- 
fero, col Bi Trpo^iovTi i^aX^aipePj dfieXi^aa^ ap tov 
opyi^ea^ai iireipS} ev iron^aa^; irpavpeip axnop^ top Bi 
aBe\<f>6p ^i)? flip pueya ap aya^op elvai^ oPTa wpo^^ 
ak olop Belj iirlara^^ai Bi ofioXoy&p Kal ev 'jroieip 
/cat ei XiyeiP, ovk eiri')(eip€l<: fjLij)(apda'^aij 07rci>9 croi 

10 m /3iXTtaT0<; earai ; Kal 6 XaipeKpdvq^* AeBoiKa, 
e^rj, & S<oKpaT€^, fxfj ovk e^a> eyo) Too'avrrjp ao(f>iap, 
&^€ Xaip€<f>&PTa 'TTOirjaai irpo^ ifie otop Bet Kal 
fMr)P ovBip ye irovKiXoPy €(f>r) 6 S(OfcpdTr}^, ovBe koipop 
Bel iir airroPj w ifiol BoKel^ firfj^avaa^ai, oU Be xal 
cv hricTaaai auT09 otofiat &p avrop oKopra irepl 

11 iroXXov iroiela^al <re. — Ovk &p <l>^dpoi^, €<l>tj, Xeywr, 
el TL 'pa^Tjo-ai fie <f>iXTpop iinaTdfiepoPf h eyi) elBw^ 
XeXrf^a ifiavrop, — Aeye Brj fioi^ e^i;, et Tiva todv 
ypioplfioip PovXoio KaTepydaaa^cu, oiroTe ^voi, KoXelv 


<re iirl SchrvoVf ri &v irotolrfi ; — ArjKov^ on Kordp' 
j(pifu &v Tov aino^^ ore ^voifii, KoKelv i/celvov, — 
El Se fiovkoio T&v ^iXaov riva Trporpiy^aa^tu, onrore 12 
awoSfffioiTj^, CTTt/xeXeZa^at ra>p trofv, ri &v iroioir^; — 
AifXjoVf or I irporepo^ &v iy^eipoirjv iinfieXela^cu r&p 
ixcipov, oTTore airoSijfioirf. — El Sk /Bovkoio ^ivov iroi/f)- 13 
acu inroSe^ea^eu aeavrop, ottotc IX^oi? ek rifv exei- 
vov, rl av woioirj^ ; — ArjXov, Sri koX tovtop irporepo^ 
tnroSexpifiTjp up, oirore e>&oi ^A^rjvafy* koX cl ye 
fiov\oi/ji,7jp avTOP irpo^Vfieur^ai BunrpdrreiP /jloi i<f> 
& tj/coifiit SfjXoPj OTL Koi rovTo Beat cLp irporepop avrop 
heeipfp Troieip, — Hdpr apa^av ye rcL ip dp^pdmoi^ li 
^IXrpa hnarapuepo^ iraKtu aireKpvTTTOV* fj OKpeUj e<fnj, 
ap^cu, fitf ctur)^po^ <f>ap^^, icLp Trporepo^ top dS€\<f)OP ei 
TTOi^ ; KciX /iir)P vXeUrrov ye Soxel apffp erraipou S^ios 
euKU^ 89 tiv ^dpTi T0V9 fiiv iroXeiilou^ kcucw iroiSw, 
Tois Si <f>CKov^ evepyer&p* el fiep ovp iSoxei fioi, Xaipe- 
^Ap fffefiopualnepo^ elpai, <tov irpo^ ttip <^vaip ravrrjPj 
i/ceipop &p eiretpiifirip 'n'e^eip irporepop iyx^cpeip r^ 
«re <l>i\x)p iroieur^cu' pvp Be fwi aif Boxei^ ^ovfiepo^ 
fioKKop &p e^epyd^ea^at rovro. Kai 6 XavpeKparq^ 15 
ebrep* ^Arorra Xeyei^y & Sd)fcpaTe^, xal oiSafiA^ irpb^ 
aov, 09 ye xeXeuei^ ifii pedrrepop Xpra Ka^rjyeia^ai' 
Kotroi TovTOV ye iraph, Traaip dp^pwwoi^s rdpapria 
vo filler aij top irpea^urepop fffeur^av ttopto^ kcli epyov 
/cat Xoyov. II&9 ; €<f>7j 6 SGyKpaTrj^' ov yap teal oSov 16 
'irapaj((opr}aai top pednepop Trpeofiuripfp arvprvyxd- 
poPTi TraPTaj(ov POfii^erai, koX xa^'qfiepop inrapaa-rrj' 
pcu, kolL koCt^ fidXax^ Ttfirjaat, ical \6ya)P inrel^at, ; . 
a>ya^€, firj okpci^ e^fyq^ aW' eyxeipet top apBpa Karti- 
irpavpeip, /cal irdpv Tayy aoi viraKovo'eTaf oxf^ opq,*;^ 
w ^tXoTt/xo? COT* Kal eXjev^ipio^ ; Ta fiev yap Troprjpit 
ap^pdrrrui ovk &p aXXa>9 fiaXKop IXot9, fj el BiBoirj^ 
Tt, T0V9 Bk KoKob^ Kaya^oif^ ap^pdmov^; 7r/>o9^tXw9 


58 xenofhon's hemobabilia. 

17 yp<ofi€vo^ fiaXLOT &p Karefr/dacuo, KclL o Xcupe 
Kparrj^ eiirev' *EcLp oup^ ifiov raura ttoiowto^j iKcl- 
vo^ firjSep fieXrlap yiypffrcu ; Ti yap aXKo, €<f>rj 6 
Xtofcpavq^j fj KipSupeva-ei^ eirjZu^ai^ aif phf j(prf<rr6^ 
re Kol <f>i\dS€\<l>o9 elpai, ixelpo^ Bi ifnivXi^ re Kai 
ovK a^to^ euepyeaia^ ; *^W* ovSep olfiiu tovtodp eae- 
<r^ai' pofii^oi yhp airrop, eireiSap qXa^tfrai a€ irpoxa- 
Tiovfiepop iairrop eh top ay&pa toutop, vow <^(Xoi/ei- 
KTiaeip^ oira^ irepiyipryrai aov xal \6y<p kcu epytp cv 

18 iroimp. Nvp fup yap oirra^V) 6^, Stdxeia^oPt S^irep 
el roi X^Zpe, &9 o ^eoi eirl to avWafifidpeiP aXXq- 
Xaip eiroifja-ePj d(f>€fi€pa} tovtov rpairoano irphi to 
hicucmXveiP aXKriKw, fj el rci> iroSe ^eia fiolpa ireTroiif- 
fjL€P<0 irpo^ TO avpepyelp a^sXrjKoiP dfieXijaavre tovtov 

19 e^TToBi^iep aW'^Xio, Ouk &p iroXKif dfuAla eirf xai 
KOKoSeufiopla T0&9 eTr* axf>€\eia ireiroifffiepois eirl pXafin 
yprjar^ax; KaX fiifp oBeXifHo ye, 6>9 ifioi So/cei, 6 ^€09 
eTroirfcep hrl /Mi^opi oxpeXeia aXXqXotv, tj %ei/)^ re 
KCU voSe Kai o^^aX/ioi T&XKd re, oaa oBeX^ eifivaep 
ap^payrroi^, Xelpe^ p^hf yap, el Seoi airrd^ r^ rrXiop 
opyvia^ Sii)(ppTa dfia iroirjacu, ovk &p Bvpcupto^ iro- 
Be^ Se ovB^ &V eirl Th opyvihp Bie)(pPTa IX^oiep afiOy 
6<f>^aXfjLoi Be, oi koI BoKovpre^ iirl wXetarop e^ucpei- 

♦ a^eu, ovB* &p T&p €Ti eyyvT€p<a optwp Ta efnrpo<r^€P 
afia Kai Ta oiria^ep IBelp BvpaiPTOj dB€Xil)a> Si, ^tXco 
SpTe, Kai TToXif Btear&Te irpoTTeTop afia koI err a>^« 
Xeia aKXi]Xoip, 




Tkn fint chapter upon friendship {see Argument to Book IL Chap. II.^ 
gives a general yiew of 0$ value. Many who acknowledge in general 
terms the worth of friendfl^ appear least of all anxious to acquire or retain 
them (§ 1—- 4). But yet no possession is more deurable or permanent 
than that of a good friend ; for he cares for another's property and busi- 
neai^ shares his.fortune whether prosperous or adrerse^ and is sometimes 
eren more solicitous for the health and prosperity of his friend than for 
his own (§ 5 — 1). 

"Hfcovaa Si irore aurov xal irepl ^tkoiv SutKeyO' 1 
ptevoVt i^ &y e/ioiye' iSoxei fidkiaT av n^ i^Xela^ai 
vpo^ <l>£\tDV KTrjalp re teal j^ifxv" tovto fiiv yhp 5^ 
TToXX&i/ iffyrf cucoveiv, (09 irainfov /cT7jfidro>v Kpdrurrov 
av etff ^iXo9 0*0^9 KoX aya^o^, hrifiiKovfieiHiVi 5« 
iravTO^ fiSKKjov opav 1^ rov^ toXXov^ ij (f>iKiov tcrq- 
<r6a>9. K(u yhp olxia^ xal aypoif^ xal avSpdiroBa teal 3 
fioa-K^ftara Kal aicevr) /cT€op,€vov^ re iinfieXw opav 
iifnft xal ra ovra aco^eiv TreipcDfiivouif <f)i\ov Bi, h lie- 
yunov a^a^op elval <paa-Wf opav e^ rov^ '/roXKovs 
ovT€ OTTo^ KTrjo-ovTOA ^povri^ovTa^^ ovT€ OTTias oi 6VT€9 
iavToli ad^tovTcu. ^A\\a xal xafivovnov ^CSmv re 3 
KoX oUerow opav TtV€i^ e<fyrj toU f^ev olxeTCU^ Kal la- 
rpoxs eh^ayovTOf, xal rSXKa irpo^ vyieiav iirifieXM^ 
irapaaKevd^ovTa/f, t&v Si ^CKmv oTuympovvra^, airo^a' 
vovrwv re afi^xneptov hr\ fiev rol^ oUirat^ a^^ofUvov^ 
xal ^fifilav ^ovfjUvov^, erri Si rw ^/Xot? oiSev olo- 
fievov^ iKarrova-^a^, xal r&v, fikv aXKwv xrqfidrav 
oifSiv i&vra^ a^epdneurov ovS* aveirlaxeTrrov, r&v Se 
^Ckav hnfuKeUK SeofUvmv afiekovvra^. ^Eri Si irpo^ 4 

62 xekophon's memorabilia. 

Toiavrd iarij icak&^ hv eypi i^d^€iv Ttvh kavroy^ 
iroaov apa rvy^avei toI^ <f>tKoi^ a^io^ Ap, teal ireipo' 
a^ad, <09 irXeloTov a^io^ elvcu, Zva fftrov ainov oi ^l' 
Xoi irpoSiS&tnv eycci yap roit eiptf, TrciXXoKt^ okoiw 
Tov fikvj Stl irpoiBtoxev avrov (f>iKo^ avi]p, rov Si, or* 
fipav dp^^ iavTov fiSXKop etXero dpfjp, hp ^ero <f>iKov 
5 elpcu. Tit Toiavra irdpra tr/coTr&f firf, &^ir€p Stop Ti^ 
oheerrfp iroprjpop ira\§ koX diroBiBorreu rov evpovro^g 
ovrto Kcu TOP iropffpop <f>iKop, orap i^ rb TrXeiop rifi 
a^Uvi Tiufieip, hra/ytayop ^ TrpoSiBoa^cw roif^ Si XP^ 
aroifs ouT€ oUira^ irdw rt ircsikov/iipov^ op&^ ovre 
<f>iKov^ irpoSiSofiipov^. 



Ton chapter treats of the selectioD, proying, and aoquiaitioii of fiiendi^ 
and of the real foandation of friendship : 

1. Those only should be chosen as friend^ who are temperate (iyicpa- 
rtiffX faithful, obliging and prompt in the performance of the offices of 
kindness^ and are not oontentioui^ araricioufl^ and ungrateful (§ 1 — 6). 

2. In order to determine whether a person is worthy to be a friend^ 
it is necessary to consider his treatment of other friends (f 6, 9). 

8. When any one appears to be worthy of friendship^ he may be 
sought as a friend in the following manner : Firsts it should be inquired, 
whether the gods approve the alliance (§ 8). Then, we should make 
known our regard to the individual whom we would wish to be our 
friend both in word and deed (^ 9 — 18). Friendship, however, can 
exist only between those who are good and honorable (( 14 — 16). 
The dissensions and animosities which indeed exist among the good, 
and cannot but exist among the bad, are the result of a mixed nature, 
partly inclined to friendship and partly to hostility, and should not dis* 
courage in the attempt to acquire valuable friends; for a prevailing 
friendliness is predominant over the baser passions in good men, and 


mutes them U^ether, hj means of the virtae which resinuns and sub- 
jects to reason the desires which lead to dissension (§ 17 — 28]l 

i. Friendship is fonnded not on external beauty, but on noble quali- 
ties of mind (§ 30 — ^82). It originates in admiration, which is followed by 
regard or good will (^ 83, 34), and necessarily demands the possession 
of the yirtues which giye value to a friend (§ 86). But as truth is the 
-foundation of all real friendship (( 36 — 38), the shortest^ surest^ and best 
way to the attainment of friends^ is to be what you wish them to belioye 
you to be, L e., good, &yad6s (§ 89). 

*ES6k€i Se fioi Kol €h to Soxifid^eiv <l>tKov^ oiroU 1 
ov^ a^iov KToxr^at ff>p€vovv roidSe Xiytov* Eliri fioi, 
€ifyi], & KpiTofiovXcj el Seoifie^a ^i\ov aya^ov, 7rm 
&p €7rij(€ipoi7jfjL€v aKOTTciv ; cLpa irpSnov fiiv ^rp-ryriovy 
S^K o,p)(€t ytUTTpo^ T€ KoX <f>iKoTroala^ KaV Xayveia^ 
fcaX virvov kolI apyuK ; 6 yctp inro rovrav Kparov- 
pL€vo9 ovT avTo^ kaVT^ SwaiT &v ovT€ <f>tX^ ra Biopra 
irpdrreiv ; — MA ^C, ov Sr^a, Sifyrj. — Ovkqvp rov fiev 
inro TovTcov apj(pfi€Vov atf^e/criov EoKel aov elvai ; — 
Haw fjih ow, €<l>Tj. — Ti ydp ; S^y 09Ti9 hairavqpo^ 2 
&v fit) avrdp/etj^ iarivj aXX* del t€ov irXtjaiop Selrcu, 
Koi Xafifidvtov fiev fifj Svvarcu aTToStSovcUj p.ri Xafi^d- 
Vfov Zk TOP /It} SiSovra fiiaei, ov SokcI aoc koI oSto9 
j(aKeiro^ 0tXo9 elpcu ; — Haw, Stfnj, — Ovkovv d<f>€/CTeov 
zeal rouTov ; — ^A<f>e/cT€ov fxePTOCj ecfyrj. — Tl ydp; osrts 3 
j^fiari^ea^ai fihf SuvarcUj woWmv Si yjyqpMTtov h^ir 
^vp^ly KoX ilk rovTO ^v^^fifi%Ko^ iarij koX 'Kafi^dvoav 
fiiv Tjiherai^ airoSiSovai Si ov fiovXerai ; — ^Efjtoi iiev 
SoKet, i<f>yj, oirrof: erv irovrfpoTepo^: ixeivov elvcu. — Ti 4 
he ; 09Tt9 Sia rov eporra rov '}(p7f/juiTi^e(T^<u fir)Si irpo^ 
hf aXXo irxpKrjv iroieiToi, fj otto^cv avTo<: tcepSctvet ; — 
*A^eKT€0P KoX TOVTov, (09 ifiol Soxei' av(0(l>e\tf^ yhp 
&v etrf To> j(p(op,€P(p. — Ti Si; 09Tt? aTaai(oSy<; re iari 
ical ^iXwp '/ro'yKov<: to?? <l>iKoi(; €')^pov<; irapej^eip ; — 
^evtcriop, pff Ala, xal tovtop. — El Si t*? tovtwp fiep 


T&v Ka/e&v iirfihf expi, €v Si Trda^nov ave)(€rcu^ firjShf 
(f>povTi^(OP Tov avrevcpyerelv ; — 'ili/o)^eX^^ &u citj koI 
otrro9* aXXct irolov^ & Xo^Kpare;^ eirixetpija-ofiep ^i\op 

5 iroula^ai ; — Olfxai /a€p, &9 ravavrla rourtov iyxpar^ 
flip ioTi T&p Sia TOV adfiaTo^ ^Sop&p, evopKOf Se xal 
ev^ufjL^oXo^ (OP Tvyxjipet, kcu <f>i\6p€iKo^ irpo^ to fi^ 
iXKelirea^ai ei iroitap tou9 evepyerovPTa^ avrop, mre 

6 XvaiTekelp to*? j(p<Ofidpot^. — IId>9 oip ILp Tavra So/c*- 
fidiraifAep, & S(i>fcpaT€^, wpo tov ')(prja^cu ; — Toif^ fikv 
apSpiapTOVoiov^, i^^ SoKifjui^ofiePf ov Toi^ Xoyoi^ aih- 
T&p Texfiaip6/jL€Poc, a\}C hp &p opw^ep Toin irpoa^ev 
aphpujLpTO^ KOLhM<; elpyaafiApoPy Tovrtp TnarevofUP koX 

7 Tou? Xoi7rov9 eS troirjaeip. — Kal apSpa &rf Xc'yet?, e^, 
h^ &p T0U9 ^iKov<: Tov^ irpoa^ep ci iroiwp ^aipryrai^ 
hriXop elpai leal Toiv vcrrcpou? evepyen^a-opra ; — KaX 
yhp iTTTrot?, e^iy, hp &p toi^ irpoa^ev 6p& KoXm XP^ 
fiepoPf TovTOp teal aXKoi^ olfuii Ka\(S<i ^prja-^ai, — 

8 EUp, €<f>ij' b^ S^ &p fjfup a^ios ^cKias Sok^ cIpoIj tto)? 
XPV <f>iKop TOVTOP TTOicla^ai ; — IIpooTop /xeV, iffyij, tcl 
irapa t<op ^€wp iTna/ceTrriop, el avfi/SovXevovaip airrop 
<f>ikop iroiela^tu. — Ti oip ; e^, hp tip fifup re hoic^ 
Kal oi ^€ol fit} ipaPTLWPraij €)(€is elircip, otto)? oSto? 

d^ffpaTw; — MA Al\ €^, ov KaTk TroSa?, &r7r€p o 
Xayd^^ ouS' airdTtf, &^Tr€p al SppAe^, oifBi ffioy &^ 
irep 01 i)fipoi' axopTa yap if>i\op eXeip ipy£B€<:* 
j(a\errbp Sk xal hriaccpTa xaTi'^eip, w^rrep SovKop* 
i)^pol yap fjLa\7iX)P ^ <^i\oc ytypopTcu TavTa Tracr^ou- 

10 T69. — $t\ot Si TTW? ; €(f)7j, — Eipai fiiv Tivds ^a^ip 
eiTipSd^, &9 ol eirtoTafiepov irraSopTe^ oh &p /SovKodp- 
Tcu <f>CXjov<; eavTok iroiovpTai^ clpac Se xal ^{KTpa, ot? 
ot iTTiardfjiepoi tt/jo? oft? ap /SovKxDprat ^^ptoiiepoi ^t- 
XovpTcu inr avTfSp, — Ilo^ep ovp, €<fyrj, Tavra fuL^oi* 

il fi€P ap : — ^A fi€P ai Seipfjpe: enfSop tw ^OSvaaeii 
TjKovaa^ 'OfLijpoVj &p iartp apx^ ToidSe tis' 


Acvp' &7ff B^ wo\6cut^ *OSv(rcD, fi4ya icvSof *Ax<u£y. 

— TavTtjv oivy €<f>r}, rijv errtpBtjv, & S<OKpar€^, koX 
Tok a\Xot9 cof^pdnrov: ai Scipfjve^ hraZova-ai KaTct- 
XOVj WT€ fiff airUveu air airr&v tou? hracr^hnwi ; — 
Oux' oKKa T0?9 hr aperp <f>iX(ynfiovfi€voi^ o0ra)? 
eTT^Sov. — I?;^6S6i/ ri Xeyet? rciavra jQjfjvcu itcdoTtp 12 
iiraSeiVy ota fiff vofuel okov^ov tov hraivovvra Kara- 
yeXairra Xeyeti/* ot/rco fihf yip i^itav r &v eirj, koI 
direXavvot roif^ av^pdirov^ a(f>* iauTov, el rov elBorOj 
OTt fUKpo^ T€ teal ala")(po^ koX aa^evij^ €<mv, e/rai- 
voifi Xeycoi', on xdKo^ re kol fiiya^; koI iayypo^ 
ioTtv, "A'KXaq Be riva^ ola^a €Tr<pS<v: ; — Ouk' aXX 13 
rj/covaa /*«/, ort IleptKXfj^ TroXXa? iwio'TaiTo, &? crra- 
&»if T§ TToXe* erroiei, airrrjv if>c\elv avrov, — OefnoTo- 
icXjff Se frck hrovqae rtjv nrokiv ^CKelv avrov ; — Mik 
Ai* ovK eiraStov, aXXa ireptdypxK rt aya^bv airr^, — 
AoK€l<; fioi Xeyeiv, & S<ofcpaT€^, a>9, el fiiXXoifiev ayor 14 
^6p riva tcnjaaa^ai if>i\ov, airrov^ fifws ayc^oin hel 
yepia^cu Xeyeip re xal irparreiv, — Xv S' cSov, i^ o 
So^xpdrtf^, olov T elvau Tromfpov oina ^prfOToif^ ^t- 
Xov? Knia-aa^at ; — 'Edpav <yap, €(fyrf 6 Kpiro^ovXo^, 15 
prfTOpwi re tjiauXjov^ aya^ol^ SrjfjLffyopoi^ (f>iXov^ oirra^j 
fcai arparrfyelv oif)(^ Uavoif^ iravv arpaTqyiKok av- 
Spdaiv eraipov^. — M/>' ovp, €<f>i], xai, irepX ot SiaXe- 16 
yofie^a, ola^d ripas, ot apa>if)e\e2(; Spre^ a><f>e\ifiov^ 
ivpavrai, <f>i)sjov^ iroula^ai, ; — Mi, AC oi StjTj I^* 
dXX* el aBiiparop ioT^ Trovrjpbp Svra KoKoin Kaya^ov^ 
<l>iKov9 /cTTJaaa^atf exetvo tjSt) fiiXec fioi, el earip av' 
TOP tcaXbv xdya^op yepofiepop e^ eroifiov ro'k /caXoi^ 
vaya^oi^ iptkop elpcu, — ^O rapdrrei ere, & Kpiro- 17 
fiovXe, oTi iroWdKi^: avSpa^ koX xaXi irpdrropra^ koX 
Twv aur')(p^p direxofAevov^ opa^ dprl rov <f>iKov^ elvcu 
tnaaui^opTafi aXXi^Xot^ ical 'xaXsiroyrepop XP^H^^^ 


IB T&v /MffSePo^ a^ltov av^pdyrrtov. — KaX ov fiopov y*, 
e<f>Ti 6 KpiTofiovKo^i oi ISt&rai, tovto irocovaii^, aX\A 
KoX 7r6\6i9 a,i t&v re koKxov fiuKiara i'n'ijxe\6fj,€V(Ut 
KoX rcL al<r)(pa ^Ktara irpo^iifievcu, iroXkaxi^ '/roKe- 

19 fiucwi e^ovai Tpo^ a\Xi]\a^, ^'A Xoyi^ofievo^ iraw 
a%v/JLo>^ 6;^a> tt/do? Ttjv t&v <f>i\a>v KTrjaiv oure ykp 
Toxf^ TTOvr^ov^ 6p& <l>i\x)Vi aXXi]\oi^ hwapivov^ eivcu* 
TTcSf yhp &v ^ a'xoLpifTToi, tj ap^Xel^ ^ ifK£ov€KT<u ff 
OTrurroi ij axparek av^ptairoi SuvaivTo <l>tKoi yeve- 
a^ai ; Oi p.ev ovv irovTjpoX Travrca^ Ipx^ije SoKovaiv 

20 aX\j]\oi^ i')^pol p£\Xov ^ <f>iXjot ire^vxivau . *A\KiL 
p^TjVt A^irep aif Xeyet?, ouS' Slv to?? j^otok oi Trovq- 
pol irare a-wapp^a-euiv ei9 ^iXiav irok 7^/0 oi t^L 
TTovTfpiL TToiovvre^ T0t9 TCL Toiavra pvaovat ^iKjoi ye- 
voiVT av ; El Be Stf xal oi apertfv aaxovvre^ oToaia- 
^ovaC T€ irepX tov irptoTeveiv iv tok iroKeai, xai 
<f)%ovovvTe^ eavToli p^urovaiv aXKi^Kovs:^ Tive^ en ^&Xo& 
eaovTcu, koX iv Ti<nv av^pdmot^ euvoia koI ttioti^ 

.21 iarcu ; ^ATOC e^et pAv^ €<fn) 6 StoKpcmj^, vouciXto^ 
7ra>9 ToSrct, & KptTofiovKe' <f>va€v ycLp e)(pwnv oi 
av^ptoTTOi T€L p,ev <f>i\tKd* BeovTal T€ yhp aXKrjKa^Vf 
KoX eKeovtn, koI <rwepyovvTe^ i>^e\ovai k€u tovto 
avvUvTe^ Xdpiv expvaiv aXKijXoi^' t^ Si iroXepiKa* 
Ta Te ykp ainh KeCKk kcu rfiea vo/hi^ovtc^ inrep tov- 
Ttov pA^ovrai^ xat hvxoyvtopavovvre^ evavriovvrai* 
woXep^iKov Si ical epi^ ical opyti^ km Su^p^evh ftei/ o 

22 ToO Trkeove/crelv 6/}a>9» pMrrfrov ie <f>^6vo^. *A\7C 
o/Lta>9 Sict TovTOiV iraVT(ov 17 ^CKla SiaSvop^ivrj awd- 
TTTCL T0V9 fcaXov^ T€ Kuya^ov^' Sta yap rrjv iiperrfv 
acpovvTcu p,ev avev irovov Ta fxerpia K€icT7}a^ai pJoLk- 
Xoi/, fj hik TToXep^v iravrwv KVpteveiv^ k(u hvvavroA 
ireiv&vre^ xal Siy^vre^ aXv7ro)9 cltov koI ttotov koit 
jmyveivt teal tok twv &palfov d^poBiaiots rfiop^evoi 

23 eyxapTepeiv, &rr€ p.rj Xwretv o&9 ft^ irpo<;i]/cei* Buvavrru 

BOOK n. CHAP. VI. 67 

5€ icaX jQyrjfioTmv oif fiovop tov nXeovexTetp aireypfie- 

vol vofiifLd^ KOivoDveiv^ aXKcL xai hrapKeiv aXKrjKoi^* 

iuvauTCLi 8k KoX Ttfv epiv ov fiopov aXihro)^, aWA xal 

ai/pL^p6vT<oi aXXi^koi,^ SmTi^eo-^at, koI rtfp 6pyt}P Kto- 

Tui^Uf €h TO /jL€Tafi€\r)a'6fi€PCP irpoUpcu * top 'Bk ^^6pop 

TTCLprdTraaiv a<l)cupov<rt tcL fiep iai/r&p aya^a tok 

i^ikoi^ ouceia irapiyppre^^ ra hk t&p ^iKcop iavr&p 

vopLi^opre^. Ilok ovp ovfc euco^ rov^ KoXoik re /ca^a- 24 

^ov9 teal T&p TToXiTtK&p Tifi&p fiT} fiopop afiXxifieU, 

aXXa Koi w^eklfiov^ dWijjXoi^ Koipaopoxn elpcu ; oi 

fi€P yap iin^vfxovPTe^ ip tcus iroXecc Tifiaa^aL re 

Mcai dpx^iPt Xpcl i^ovclap e^aoai, j(pi]fjuiTd re KXeTrreiP 

KoX dp^pwTTov^ iSuL^ea^cu teal ^qSvira^elPf dSiKol re 

Kcu iroprjpol &p elep xal oSupotol dXKq> avpapfioa'ai. 

El Bi Ti9 €P TToXeL Tifiou/hcu l3ov\6fjLepo^, 07rQ>9 airro^ 25 

T€ fJLti dhucrgrai, xal Tot^ <^tXo£9 tcl SUaui ^otf^eip 

hvPTfToi, KCU, dp^ai^ dya^op ti iroietp Ttfp iraTpiSa 

Treiparai, Bid rt 6 roiovTo<: dXK^ rotovrtp ovk &p 

BvpiUTO avpapfioacu ; irorepop Toif^: <f)i\ov^ &<f}€\€ip 

fierd T&p kclK&p Kaya^&p ^rrop Bvpija-enu, fj t^p 

TToKip eiepyereip dBt/pardrepo^ SaTai xaXov^ re xdya- 

^ov9 exo)P cwepyovs ; 'ilXXa koL ip rol^ yvfiPiKoU 26 

dy&<Ti Br(Sjop 60TIV, OTt, €t ef^v T0J9 KpaTiaTOis; ovp- 

^€fiivoif^ iirl T0U9 x^t/aou? Upcu, wdpra^ &p tov? dy&- 

PCK ovTOt iplxmpj Kal irdpra Ta S!h\a outol ikdfifiopop* 

^EireX OVP ixei fiev ov/c i&ai tovto iroutp, ip Bk T0&9 

'n'o\iTiKoi<;, ip oh oi tcoKol Koya^ol KpaTiaTCVova-ip, 

ovBeh Koaikvei, /ieV ov dp ti^ fiovXrjTai, Ttfp ttJXlp 

eucpyereip^ irw ovp oif Xiro-tTcXel roiri fiekrloTov^ 

^iXjov^ KTT^o'dfjLepop TToXcTeuea^aij tovtoi^ Koiptopovi Kai 

avpepyoh t&p irpd^osp fiaXKop fj dpTayaypurrak XP^' 

fjL€POP ; ^AWd fiffp xaKelpo BfjjKop, ort, k&v iroXep.^ 27 

Ti? TAW, avfifjbdx<i^v Seijo-erat, xal tovtwp irXeiopcDP, idp 

KoKolk /cdya^oh dpTvrdmyrau KaX firip oi avfifiax'sip 


i^iXovTC^ eS irotryrioit iva ^eXckxrt irpo^vfieta^fu 
irdkif Se KpeiTTOv tov<; ^eXriarov^ ika-novw: ei irotr 
euf ^ Tov? 'yelpova<i TrXeiopa^: Bvra^* oi yap Tromfpot 
TTciKu TrXetovcov euepyeacwv ^ ol 'xfTjaToi heovrau 
26 ^AXKcL ^app&v, et^^ & KpirifiovXje^ ireipA aja^o^ 
yvyvea^ai, koX rotovro^ jiyv6fJL€P09 ^ijpdv ivix^ip^i 
Tov^ KoXou^ T€ /eaya^ou^;, *'J<ra)9 S* av ri coi Kofyoik 
avWajSelu ek ttjv rSiV koX&v re tcaya^&v ^ijpav 
€')(pifu Sck TO iptoTiKo^ eivai* Seivw yapj &v &v hn- 
^Vfiri<r<o av^panrtov, o\o^ &pfif)fi(u eirl to ^i^mv re 
airrov^ aim<f>t\€la^€u irrr avTCJv, koX iro^Syv ami- 
iro^tla^aCj KaX iiri^vfi&v ^vvAftu kcu avTeirC^vp.€l' 

29 c^cu T^9 ^vpovaia^, 'Op& Bi xal aol roxnwv Sefjaov, 
orav iTTi^v/Mija^ if>iXiav irpo^ rivas iroieur^cu. M^ 
cif oZv aTTOKpinrrov fi€, oh av jSovXoio ^iKo^ yevi- 
a^ai* hia yap rb iirtfieXela-^ai rov apiaai rS dpi" 
axovri /io( oifx aireipGn^ ol/iac e)(€iv irph^ ^ijpav 

30 av^pdyrrmv. Kal f KpirofiovXo^ e<fn}* Kai fiijv, & 
S(!i/cpaTe;j rovrav iyw r&u fia^rjfiaTwv wakai ctt^^v- 
fi&, aWeo^ re teal el e^apxeaei fioc ^ aifrt) hnarrffiri 
irrX Tou? aya^qv<i ra^ ^v)(a<: Kal iirt rovi xaXov^ 

31 Ta acoftara. Kal 6 Scotcpdrrf^ €<p7f' *^XX\ & KpirO' 
/SovXe, ovK eveoTiv ev rfj ep,^ i7rurrijp,r) to tA? ;^€4/oa9 
rrpo<iif>epovra inrofLevetv rroielp rov^ kcCKjdv^* rrhreurpAi, 
he Kal diro r?}9 ^kvXKti^ Bid rovro <f>evyeiv rov<; dv- 
^pdnrovi, ort rd^ X^^P^^ avroh Trpo^e<f>epe' rd^ Be ye 
SeipTJva^t OTL Ta9 X^^P^ oifBevl irpo^e^pov, dXXd nrdat 
iropfKo^ev iir^Bov, rrdvra^ ffMatv irrrofiivetv, kcu aKoih 

33 ovTa<{ avT&v KriKela^a^, Km o Kpt/ro/SovXof e^* 
*n^ ov rrpo^oi<Tovro<i rd^ x^lpa^^ el ri eyei^ dya^ov 
eU <})lX(ov KrijaiVy BlBaxTxe, OvBe ro arofia oSi/, e^^ 
o Xoaxptirrj^ irpo^ ro OTOfia irpo^oiaei^; ; &dppei, €<f>f) 
6 KpiTo^ovXjo^ ' ovBk yap rb aropLa rrpb^ rb arofia 
irpo^oiato oifBevl, edv p^rj kolKjo^ ^. Ei/hv^t i<f>Tf, av ye^ 


& KpiTofiovXe, rovvavTiov rov avfi(}>epovTo^ elprjKa^* 
oi fiev yap /eaXol ra roiaura ov)(^ inrofjiipovaiv, oi hk 
ai(r)(po\ Kai riiicio^ 'Trpo^ievraiy vofMi^opre^ Sia r^v -^v- 
j^v xaXot tcdKeuj^au Kal 6 KpiTo/SovXjo^ 6^* '/29 33 
Tov? fJL€V #caXou9 ^tXi^croin-o? ftov, roif^ S' aya^oifi 
KUTa<f>i\i]<rovTO<;, ^appwv SiSaa'K€ r&v <f>C\mv ra ^rjpa- 
Tixd. Kal 6 S(0KpdT7j<: €<l>r}' ^Orav oSv, & Kpno- 
fiovXe, ^/Xo9 rivl fiovKg yevia^ai, idait^ fie KaTecrrelv 
o-ov 'jrpo^ airrovj on ayaaai re avrou, /cal' eirJ^VfieK 
^tko^ avTOv elvax ; — Kartiyopei, €<fyr} 6 KpirofiovKo^* 
ovSepa yap olSa fiiaovpra rou^i iiraivovPTa^. — ^Eav 34 
Se aov irpo^KaTTfyopija'tD, etf>r}^ on Sta ro ayaa^at 
avTov Koi evvoucSis e^ei^ vpb^ avrop, apa firj 8ia/3d\' 
\ea^at So^et^ \nr ifiov ; — *A\Xci /cal aur^ fiot, e^^ 
eyyiyiferai evvout irpo^ ot^ &v vTro\a/3cj eifVolxSy; e')(eiv 
wpo^ ifiL — Tavra p,ev Si], etfyif 6 Sioteparq^^ i^iarai 35 
fUH Xkyeiv irepl aov irpo^ oty; &p ^ovXtj <f>i\ov<i iroirj- 
{racr^oA' ekif Si fioi h'i i^vo'iav S^ Xeyeiv irepl aou, 
OTi hrtfLekq^ re r&v <f>iKodv el, xat QvSevt ovrco ;^a/- 
pei^ <09 4^(Xo(9 aya^oK, Kal hrl re rov; KOLKxik epyoi^ 
rcjv if^iktav aydXXfi oify^ fjrrop ^ hrl rol<; eaurovj Kal 
irrl roi^ aya^oi; r&p ^CKjcop ')(aipet>^ ovSkp ffrrop fj 
iirl rovf eavrou, ottq)? re ravra yiyprjrav rot? if>CKjoi^y 
ovK airoKafXPei^ /nrjxapdfiepo^, Kal on eypcoKa^: apSpo^ 
aperijp ewai pixap roif^ flip <f}i\ov^ ev iroiovpra, tov9 
S* i)fif>ois KOKOt^j rrapv &p olfiai aoi iirtrriSeiop clpai 
fie avp^Tjpop r&p arfa^&p ^CSmp. — Tl ovp, €(f>7j 6 36 
KpirofiouXo^, ifiol rovro Xeyeiv, &^nrep ovk hrl aol 
hp, on tip fiovXrj, irepl ifiov Xiyup ; — Ma AC ov)^, 
W wore iyo} ^Aarraaia/s rJKOvaa' €(f>f} yctp to? aya- 
Sa9 trpofiprjarpiSa^; fiera flip aXrf^eia^ raya^i Stay- 
yeXXovaa^ S€vpa<: elpai avpdyelp dp'^pcoTTou^ ek ktj- 
Seuip, 'sfreuSofiipa^ S* ovk oxpeXeip iiraipovaa^' roi/^ 
yap e^airarrf^epra^ a/ia fiureip dXXi^Xov^ re koX rrjp 

70 xenophon's memorabilia. 

irpo/ivria'afiivrjv* & Stf teal eyo) Treto-^et? op^w iyeiv, 

fffovficu, ovfc i^elval /xot ircpX cov \iyeiv hrcuvovim 

'SI ovSev, Tt &v fiif a\7)^€u<o, — Si fiiv apa, €<fyrf 6 

KpiToffouXo^, TOIOVTO^ /JLOi ^tX09 €^ & S(OKpaT€^, oJo^f 

&v fidv Tt avTo^ ix^ eTTinjSeiov et9 to f^CKou^ ferr^aat^ 
a^(u, avXXafjL/Sdvetv fiot' el Se fii], ovk &v i^iKoK 
irXcura^ t& eliretv hrl t§ ifip a»^X€ia. — Horepa S* 
aVj iifyq 6 ScDKpdn^j & KpirofiovKe, Sok& cot fiaXKov 
a^XeZv <re tcl ^IrcvBfj erraiv&Vy ^ vet^tov ireipaa^ai (re 

38 dya^ov avSpa yevia^ai ; El Se /irf if>av€p6v ovr<o ao^, 
ix T&pSe aKcy^ai' el yap ae /3ov\6fi€VO^ (piXov irocff- 
<rai vavK\rjp(p yp^evBofiepo^ eTTcuvoirjv, if>datcci>u dya^ov 
elvai Kvpepvryrqv, o Se fiov iret^^eU eirn-pe^eie go$. 
TTfp vavp firf einaTapAp^p Kvfieppdp, e)(€V^ ripd iXiriSa 
fiif &v aavTOP re kcu rr)v pavp diroXea-cu ; t) el aoi 
irela'cufii koip^ t^p itoTup yfrevSofiepo^, ay; &p {rrparff" 
yiK^ re koI hucaaruc^ koX irdkiriK^^ eavrijp 67rt- 
Tpr^at, t/ dp oi6i aeavTOP xdl rrfp irokip xnro aov 
ira^elp ; ^ el jwa^ ISuf r&v ttoXit&p ireUraifu '^rev- 
hofiepo^, 0)9 ivTi ohcopofuicfp re xal iirifieXelt rd lau- 
ra>p iirirrph^ait dp ovtc dp irelpap tiZoif^ dfia re 

39 fiXajSepo^ eitf^, teal KarayiKaaro^ ^ipoio ; *AXKjd 
avPTOfKardrrf re Koi da<f>aKecrrdn] Kal /caXXiarrf oSi^i 
& KptrofiovXe, o rt Ai' /SovXtf Soxehf dycAo^ elpMg 
rovTo KoX yevea^ai dya^ov ireipdcr^av. ."Oacu S* iv 
dji^pdyjroi^ dperal \iyoprtUt tTKonrovfiepo^ eupi^aeK ird- 
<rafi fJUi^ijaeL re xai /lekirp av^avofJLepo^. ^Eyw phf 
oUp, & KpirofiovXe, olfuu Setp ripSs raxnrf ^'qpdar^tu* 
el hi av 7ro)9 aXXo)? ycypda-xei^, SiBacKe. — Kal 6 
KpLTofiovXo^' 'ilW* alayypoLfiriP dp, e<^, & Sa^fcpor 
T€9» dprCKerfddP toiJtow ovre ydp xaXd ovre dXtf^ij 
Xeyoifi dv. 

BOOK n. CHAP. vn. 71 



Ih the three preeeding chspten^ the theoretical iDstmctions of Soeratos 
in regard to the relation of friends is explained, and in tho«e which fol- 
low, to the end of the book; Xenophon exhibits the manner in which 
he applied these precepts in the instmction and admonition of his disci 
pies and friends. 

At the time of the insurrection of Thrasjbulus and his followers 
against the goTemment of the thirty tyrants^ there was a great dearth 
of proyimons in Athens. Socrates having learned from Aristarchns 
that he was much troubled to know how to provide for a large number 
of relatives^ who had assembled at his house (§ 1 — Z\ shows him the 
folly of supposing tltat any degradation is attached to engaging in the 
pursuits requisite for procuring the necessaries of life (§ 4 — 8). He then 
points out the mutual bad efifect upon himself and friends of living in 
their present state, and the contrasted effect of inducing them to engage 
in the employments best suited to their capacities and characters (^ 9, lo). 
Aristarchns approves the recommendation of Socrates (§11). 

After procuring the materials of industry for the women, by borrow- 
ing money, Aristarchns finds the experiment to be successful, and, return- 
ing; relates his experience to Socrates ; he however states one obstacle 
which yet reooained to the entire success of his plan ; L e. his own in- 
activity, which was a source of uneasiness to the women. Socrates 
counsels him to relate to them the fable of the watch-dog (§ 12 — 14). 

£al fiffv T^9 airopuv; ye r&v (f>iKeov t^9 fi^v Sc 1 
ayvotav iireiparo yvcdfirj axeia^ai, Ta<: Sk S^' evSeiav 
SiSdcKOiv Korii iuvafiiv aXKriKou^ hrapKelv, *Ep& Si 
KoX iv TovTots h avvoiZa avr^. ^Apiarap^ov yap 
wore op&v a/a/^pcyrrw €)(pvTa* ''Eoitea^, €<f>tf, & ^Api- 
CTap')(€, fiapeeo^ ^ipeiv Tf j^^ he rov ^apov^ fiera- 
BiZovcu T0?9 <f)CKoi^' laoj^ yiip av rl ae fcal fffiel^ 
scov<f>i&€Ufi€v. Kat 6 ^Aplfrrap^a^* ^AXKib fiijp, €<lyrj, 2 
& Stoxpares, iv '/roXK^ yi eipx airopta' eirel ykp 

72 xenophon's io:morabilia« 

iaraxrlaaev 17 ttoX^?, iroXK&v ^vyovreov ch rov ITet- 
paid, aupeXjjXv^aaiv w ifie KarcLKeXeifiixivai, aB€\<f>al 
T€ Koi aSeXi^tSat xal ave\fnat roaavrai^ wr elvat, iv 
tJ olKta TcaaapesfcaiBeKa rou^ eXev^ipoiM;' Xufifidvo^ 
fjL€v Se ovT€ ix T^9 '^^9 ovBiv oi yap ivavrioc Kpa- 
rovaiv ainr^' ovre airo r&v oUt&v oKiya^^payrria 
yap iv T^ aaret yiyovc ra emwXa Bk ovBeU wi/etra*, 
ovBi Baveiaaa^aL ovSafio^ev lariv apyvpiop, aXXa 
wporepov av Tt9 /tot Boku iv ry oS^ ^tir&v Apelv ^ 
Bav€i^6iJL€vos Xafielv. XcCKeirov fiev oiv iariv, & Xdy- 
Kpar€<:, roi)^ ol/ceiov^ wepiopav aTroXXtz/iei^oi/?) aBuvarov 

3 Se ToaovTov^ rpiif>€iv iv toiovtoi^ rrpdyfuurLV, *Akov' 
aa^ oiv rama o S<ofcpdTrj^' Ti irore iaTiv^ e<f>i]y Sri 
6 Kepdfjuav fi€v iroXXoiff; rpiffrnv ov fiavov eavr^ re 
Koi TouTot9 T^ eTTtTT^Se^a Bvvarai irape)(€iv^ aXXa koX 
TrepiTTOielTai roa-avra, e!)9T€ xal irXovreiv, <ru Be iroX- 
Xov9 Tpiifxov BiBoiKa<;j fiif Bl IvBeuLv r&v eiriTifBeuDp 
awavre^ diroXtja^e ; — '^Oti v^ Ai\ 1^, 6 fiev BovXov^ 

4 rpi^i, iyw Be iXev^ipov^. — Kal TTorepov, i^^ tous* 
irapi, cot iXev^ipov^ olu fieXriov^; elvaiy fj tov9 irapa 
KepdfjLODvi, BovXov^ ; — ^Eyo) fiev olfjuu, itfytj, roi^ irapa 
ifjLol iXev^ipov^, — Ovkovv^ €<l>rj, aia^^pov rov p,hf airo 
T&v 7rov7)poT6p(ov ewTopelv, <ri Be iroXX^ fieXriov^ 
ey^ovra iv diropUu^ elvai ; — Ni] AC^ €<f>7)' 6 fiev yap 
^re^vira^ Tp€<f>€i^ iya> Bk eXev^epm^ ireiracBevfihov^. — 

5 ^Ap* o^v, €(fyrj^ re'xylral elaiv oi ^i^aifjtov t* troieiv 
eiriardfievoi ; — MaXLord ye, etfyq, — Ov/covv '^i^aifid 
y aX<f>iTa ; — S<f>6Bpa ye. — Ti Be aproi ; — OvBev ^t- 
Tov, — Ti ydp ; e^iy, Ifidrid re dvBpela xal yvvaifceia, 
KoX 'x^LTeovlo'/cot fcal j^XafivBe^ xai cf cD/u-tSe? ; — S<t>oBpa 
ye, €<f>rf, zeal iravra ravra ')^T](nfia, — ETretra, etfyq, 
oi irapa a-oi Tointov ovBev iirio'TavTai iroielv ; — Hdvra 

5 fxiv oifv, w iy^fiai. — EIt ovk ola^a^ on, dif> evo^ 
fikv TOVTCov, aXipiroiroUas, NavaiKvSrjs ov fiovov eavroi 


re iedi rovi ohcerofs rpi^^p aXX^ irpo^ roiroi^ KaX ii 
voXAo? tcaX fiov^t xai nrepnroiArcu, roaavTOf mre seal 
"T vokei TToXKwuf XeiTovpycufa airb Si aprrairoiia^ 
Kvfnjffa^ Ttjv T€ ouciav iraaav SuLTpiif^ei xal ^ Say^i' 
XAfj AinUais Zi o KoXXirreuv airo xkafivSovpyia^^ 
Idhwiv S* airo ')(ka»iZoiroiia^t MeyapioMf 8* oi ttXcS- 
crroi, 1^, airo i^fuSoiroila/f hutrpi^vrai, ; — Nil ACg 
i^* oinok iihf yhp &povfJt€yoi ffapffdpov^ ai^panrot;^ 
Sx^uatv, &rr* avayicd^eiv ipydfjea^eu & KoXm Ix^h 
rya> £* iKeu^epovf re teal avyy€V€K»'^*Eir€iTt S<pVt ^ 
Sri ikevl^epoi r elai teal atryyeveU co^ pfci x^mu 
fiffihf oifTov^ iroUlp aXXo ij ia^Ui^v xal tca^evSeiv ; 
Horepov KoX r&v oKKup iket^ipvtp roihs otrro» ^&irr€K 
afieivov Buiyovra^ opf^ koX /jloXKov evhaip^vl^ci^ ^ 
TOV9, & hriaraPTOi ^^pTO'i/ua irpo^ rov fitoVf rourmv 
iirifUKofUvov^ ; if r^v fUy apyiav icaX Trpf apiXeiav 
oitAdpfi ToU av^pJmroi^ irpo^ re rp /ui^eJy & irpo^- 
flK€i hrtaTCLa^ai^' KoX irpa^ to pvfjfioveveiP h ttv §10- 
dwcrc, Koi TTpo^ TO vyiaiveuf T€ teal iajpieiv rok dficurit 
KoX irpo^ TO scniaaa^al re icol cofl^eip rh XP^^^H^ irpo^ 
TOP fiiop a>^€X»fia SpTOt rffp Sk ipyaaiap xal tt^p iTT^- 
fUkeutP oifSep xpii<n^ ; "Efia^op Si, & ^^ airra^ M* 8 
trraa^cUf irorepop &9 ovre xri^^f'^ ivra irpoi top fiiop, 
oure iroiriaovacu avr&p ovBip, ^ roipovrioPj (09 xal 
hrifie\if^fl<r6tJi£pai, tovtwp, "UlL &(^\ff^7i<r6p,€pa& air aih 
T&p ; 7rorepa>9 yiip &p paWMP aP^ponroi> cto^popolsPt 
apyovPTC^j tl T&p jyniiTLfiMP itrifAeXov/jtepoi ; iroripo^ 
S* &P Succuorepoi elep, el ipyd^unoj ^ e* apyownes 
fiovkevoiPTo irepl t&p eiriTfjSeitop ; *AXKii xal pup fUp, 9 
C09 iy^fuu, ovre air hcelpa^ tfuXeK, ovre ixeipcu ai* 
av fup fiyovfievo^ airrii^ hri^fffilov^ elpa& acamS, iK^lr 
poi Be ai 6p&<rai a^ofiepop i^ iamah, ^Ek Si 
TOVTtop kIpSvpo^ fte(^09 re cnri)fi€iap ylypea^ai, /eai 
TTfp TTpoyeyopi/iap xapiv fAeiova^tu. *Eap Si irpoara^ 



74 2£Kophon's memorabilia. 

rffOf^, 07ra>9 ivepyol Sxriy crit fihf i/eeiva^ ^iXi^crci?. 
op&v m^eKlfiov^ aeavr^ outran, ixclvai Se ak arfainj' 
aovaiv, ala^ofievai j^aipovrd tre aureus, r&v 8e 'jrpo- 
yeyowi&v evepyea-i&v rjSiop fiefivrniivoL rrjv air ixei- 
viDP x^P*'^ av^ijcrere, Kal i/c tovtoov <f>iXi/c<irr€p6p re tcaX 

10 ouceiOTCpov aXXt/Xoi? e^ere. El fikv rolwp aia^pop 
TL e/jLcWov ipyaaaa^ai, ^dvarov dvr airrov irpocu- 
periov Tiv* vvv Si^ & ficv Soxel KdXKKrra km irpeiroh' 
Siarepa jvpcukI elptu, hriaravTcUt cb?. eouce^ iravre^ 
Si, & eTricrravrcUt pqard re kcu, rdxyrra kcH KaKKjicTa 
KoX ffSurra ipydfyvrau M^ oiv Stcveij eifnf, ravra 
ekfiyAr^ai avraS^, a aol re \vainre\riaei, Koiceivtu^^ 

11 KaC, w el/co^j ^Sifo^ {nraKovaovrai, — 'ilXXo, v^ tov9 
^£01/9, 6^ 6 ^Apiarrap'xp^t ovre^ fiot Som? KoKm Ai- 
yeiv, & S<oKpaT€^, &^e irpoar^ev fiiv ov "/rpo^icfirjp 
Saveiaaa-^aii eiSw, Sri dvoKxia-cK, o ri &v Xafia, oi^ 
6^(0 diroSovpai, pvp Si fioi Sok& €p Ipytop d^p/iifp 
inrofM€P€iP aino iroirjacu. 

13 ^Ek rovTtop Si erropta^rf flip d<f>opfiijj io^pi]^ Si 
ipia* KCU ipya^6fjL€Pai flip ^piaroDP, ipycurdfiepot Si 
iSeiirpovp, tXapdi Si dprX <TKV^p(oirS>p ffcap* Kal dpri 
v^p(Ofiipo»p iavrd^ ^Si<o^ dXKijXa^ idpmp' Kal ai flip 
c!>9 KrfSefiopa i<f>i\oup, 6 Si &^ w^eXifiov^ ffydira. 
Ti\o^ Si ik^a>p vpo^ top StOKpdrrjp x^ipap Sirjyelro 
ravrd re, Kal on alri&prai avrop fiopop twp cp tiJ 

13 oiKia dpyop ia^ietp, Kal 6 ScoKpdTtj^ €(jyrj' Elra 
ov Xeyetv ainrdk top tov kvpo^ \6yop ; ^aai ydp, 
0T€ ^pi]€PTa l^p tA $s5a, rifp Sip irpb^ top Setnrorrjp 

.W'elw^tp* SavfiaoTOp itokKj d? ^fiip flip raSf fcal epui 
aoi Kal appa^ Kal Tvpop wapexovaaK o^sp SiSaf^, 
o Tt &p fit) iic Ti}? yrj^ \dff(afi€py t^ Si kvpI, ^ ovSip 
ToiovTop <roL 7rap€)(€t, ficraSiSto^ ovrrep airrov fx^*' 

14 airov. Top KvPa oZp oKovaama elireip* Nal fih Ala* 
iyob ydp etfit 6 Kal vfiaq airrd^ ato^p, (S^re fitfre 

BOOK II, CHAP. vm. 76 

tnr ap^panrwv Kkeirreir^iu^ - fM/re urro Xu/aop apnrar. 
^jE^a^ en-el vfiek ye, el firj eym nrpo^vkarroiiii, vfiS^^ 
oifS^ &p vifAea-^at Suvaia^e, <f>ol3ovfi€Pai^ fiif diroXi)' 
a^6. Ovra S^ Xiyercu teal t^ irpofiara avyxpoprjaeu 
rov Kvva irpimfuur^iu. Kal av oJrv i/ceivai^ Xeye, 
irrt ami tcum^ el ^v\a^ kcH eTrt/AcXi/n;?, koX hik ai 
ov£* vif} evo9 aSueovfievai aai^Xw re Kal ^Sies^ ipyor 



EDiBSBoa^ an old friend of Soerato^ had lost hia paternal estate by the 
peace of Theramenea between the Athenians and Spartan^ and was oom- 
pelled to engage in mannal labor to procure his doily bread (§1). So- 
eratea nrgea him to engage in some pursuit better suited to his age, and 
recommends that of a vtUieun, an overseer or steward to some person of 
wealth (4 2, 8^ The objection of Eutherus^ th^ there is something 
slATieh in obliging one's self to be accountable to another, Socratea 
obyiates by the comparison of those who engage in public life, who are 
rather considered more free on account of their employment, and by 
the suggestion, that it is impossible to engage in any pursuit which is 
wholly devoid of this accountability. Each one should apply himselt 
with zeal and alacrity to that which is best suited to his station and 
abiUty (i i— 6> 

"ilXXov Si fTore ofiycuov eraipov hik 'xpovov IBdv, 1 
Uo^ep, e^, EtJ^pCj <f>aiinj ; — ^Tiro fiiv Tr)v Kari- 
\uaw rov irokifiouy e^, & Scaxpare^, i/c t^9 diroSff- 
fttas9 I't/vl fievroi auro^ep* etretZ^ ydfi ai^pi^rffiev rh 
iv T0 vnrepopuf Kxrifiara^ ev Si ry ^ArriK^ 6 irarqp 
fioi ovSev KariTuireVp avayKa^ofuu vvv hriSvifiricrtv; r^ 
ewftari ipya^ofievo^ rit ivin^Seut wopi^eo'^cu' So/cei 

76 xenofhon's kehobabilia« 

Bi fiOi TouTO tcpelrrov eZi/ae tf Beea^al rivo^ ap^puh 
TTow, aXXco9 re xaX firfSev e^ovrOy €^* ot^ &v Sopcir 

2 ^oifiriv. — Kal ir6(rov j^ovop oUi aoi, e^, to aoifia 
Uavop elvai, fiur^ov rit eTrin^Sfia ipyd^ca^cu ; — M^ 
TOP Ai*, e^, ov TToXifp ypovop. — £al firiv^ e^» orap 
ye irpea-fivrepo^ y^Pjf^ SrjjkoPj on Sairdptj^ fjikp Bei^ajf, 
fua^op Si ovSei^ aoi ^eXi/cret t&p tov ad^ro^ epytop 

3 SiSoptu, — *A\fj^ Xeyei^, Sifnf, — Ovkovp, c^, tcpciTTOP 
i<mp aurJ^ep rok roiovroi^ r&p Spymp erriTC^ea^aij 
& xal irpeafivrepip yepofiiptp eTraptciaei, koi Trpo^- 
eX^oPTa T^ T&p TrXeiopa jfprifiaTa ie€KTfjfA€P(OP, r^ 
BeofAep^ TOV avpeirifieXrfa'Ofiipou, epytop t€ eirurra- 
Tovpra Kol avyxofii^ovra xapvov^ teal avfufivXaTTOPra 

4 TTiP oiaiap &(f>€\ovPTa aPTto^eXeia^cu. — XaXeirA^ op^ 
€<f>rf, iydt & S(!>KpaT€^f SovXeuiP inrofieipaifu. — Kal 
fjkifP ol ye €P Toi^ woKea irpooTarevopTe^ Kal t&p Svf- 
fioiTuap eTTifteXofUPoi ou SovXoTrpeTreoTepoi epetca tov- 

5 TOV, aW^ iXjev^ipuaTepov POfii^oprac, — "OXto^ firjp, 1^, 
& ' S&xpaT€^, TO {nraiTiop elpai tipi ov vdpv irpoilt' 
flat, — Kal pffP, e^, Eff^rjpe, ov irapv ye paSiop 
ioTiP evpetp epyop, i^* ^ ovk up Tt9 aiTiap e^oi* 
^(aXeTrbp yhp ovra ti iroitja'cu, a>9T€ firfBh afuipTeZPf 
^aTixrrop Bk kol apafjLapTijTai ti ironia-apTa fi^ afpfto- 
fiopt /cpiTff irepiTVxeiPi eirel xal oh pvp ipyd^ea-^tu 
4>V^i ^avfid^(D el pqZiip iarip apiytcXifTOP Siayipea^cu, 

6 Xpif oZp ireipda^cu tov^. re i^tXcuTiov^ ^vyeip, Kal 
Toif^ evypmfjtopos Suoiceip, teal t&p irpayfidrtop, o<ra fih 
ivpaacu iroieip, inroixipeiv^ oaa Be fi^ Bvpaa'ai^ ^vXaT- 
Tea^ai, o ti B* &p irpdrTrj^f tovtodp w KoKXioTa leal 
vpo^vfJLOTaTa emfjLeXeio'^M' ovTm yhp fjKurra flip ce 
olfuu ep aWla ebfeu, fidXtara Be Tfj atropia fioif^eiak 
evpeip, pfora Bk teal aKwBvpoTaTa ^p teat eh to yfj* 
pa^ ButpKearaTa. 

BOOK n. CHAP. IX 77 



Ctata, a rich and worthj man, complained to docrates of the herd-of 
Bjrcopbanta by whom he was annoyed (§ 1). Socrates recommended to 
faim Arehedemoi; a poor but honest man, who was well qnalified, both 
by his ability to speak and act» to protect him from all tiieir injustice 
, (§ 2—4)1 Archedemns was employed, and not only won the esteem and 
friendship of Crito^ but his aid was much sought by the friends of Crito 
in the management of their busineesi He thus not only obtained peen- 
Biary advantage, but authority and distinction ($ 5-^). 

OtSa Si irore aurop teal Kplr^vo^ oKowravra^ &^ 1 
'jfoKjeiroU o /Sib? *A^riviii<nv efr/ avZpl /SovKofi&Hp r^ 
iavToy Trpdrreiv, Nvp ydpj Sifnf, ifU rive^ eh Siicws 
ayovavp^ ovx Sri aSucovvreu \nr ifjLOVt aTOC Srt vofJiU 
^ownv fjSiov 3v fte dftyvpiop reXitrat fj irparfiiara €)(€iv* 
Kju 6 Siofcpdrri^* Elni /AOi» e^, & Kplrmv, fcwa^ Si 2 
rpk^y^t Tva <roi tov^ \ukov^ airb r&v irpofiar^v aire' 
pVKOHn ; — Kxil fidKoj 1^* ptaXXop yap fio^ XucireXel 
rpi^w fi firj, — OifK &p oip ^pey^ui^ /cal apSpa, ckri? 
i^dXot re koI Svpairo gov airepv/ceiv roi/^ hn'xeipovp' 
raff aSucew ae ; — ^HSew^ y av^ e^t el ft^ ^i^fiolfAffPf 
ftroK fiff eir airop fie rpdvoiro. — Ti S* ; e^, ovx ^ 
opa9» OTi iroKKjp fjjStop iari yapi^ofiepop oup aoX avSpl 
^ ajrej^ofnepop dH^Xeur^eu ; e5 Xtr^^ on elatp h^aSe 
TcSv TOIOVT09P avSp&p ot irdw &p ^iCkomiMf^elep ^Ckip 
aoi ^^cr^at. 

Kal i/c T0VT(DP aP€vpl<ricov<np ^Apx^SfffAOP^ irdpv 4 
flip itcapop ehretp re xal Trpa^tu, irhnyra Si' ov yhp 
ffp 0I09 airo irapro^ KeffSalpetP, dX\^, if}iX6xpfJ<Tr6^ re 
Kol eifi^viarepo^ &p^ anro r&p avKO(f>apr&p XafifidveiP* 

78 xenophon's kemobabilia. 

TovT^ oiv 6 Kplrhvy inrore avytcofii^oi tj airov ^ ikeuop 
tj olvov fj epia fj aXKo ri r&v iv ayp^ yvyvofih/wv XPV' 
clfjuov 7r/}09 Tov /3{op, a<f>€Xa>p [&v] eSco/ce* teal iiroTh 

5 ^jiot, iicaSjEif koX rk roiaXna irdvra iTre/ieXelro, No^ 
fiiaa^ Si 6 ^Apj^iSrjfio^ airoarpo^riv oi tov Kpinovo^ 
obcov fidKa irepiehreu ainov* xal €u^up t&v avKOt^eW' 
roivrav tov Kptrwva av€vpiJK€i iroXKlt i^kv aSua^/iaTOg 
7roXXou9 Si ijfipoik, /cat ain&v Tiva irpo^eKoXiaaTO 
ek Sltcqv SfffioalaVj iv § ainrov SSei Kpi^rjvcu, o Tt Sei 

6 Tra^eiv ^ airoTtaai. 'O Si, axn^iSoi^ avr^ woXKA ical 
irovripkj ttovt iiroUi, &rr€ airaXKayrjviu tov *Apj(€Sij' 
fjLOv* *0 Si *Ap)(i^fU)^ oitK a7nyX\aTT6To, fi»9 tov tc 

7 Kptrmva aifnj/ee, ical airnp j^pi^fiara eSaxev. ^Eirel Si 
tovto re xal aXXa Toiaura 6 ^Apx^StffJLo^ SiCTrpd^aTOf 
flSvf Tore, &vrr€pj Srav vo/i€V9 aya^ov Kvva e^, teal oi 
&XKoi vopum fiovXovTcu 'rrKrja'tov avrov r^9 076X09 iardr 
V€U^ %va TOV Kwty; airo'kawoa'iVf oi/ra teal Kpvrmvo^ ttoV 
Xol T&v ^iKxov iSeovTo teaX a^lai irapiyctv ^vKaica 

8 TW *ApxiSrf/jLov. *0 Si ^Apj^iSijfio^ t^ Kptmv^ ^8€a>9 
e;(opi(f€ro, «col oity^ on fiovo^ o KpiTOfv iv ^<rv^ia ^v^ 
oKKA teal oi ^iKoi airrov* el Si rt? avT^ Tovrav, oh 
iinjjfiero, oveiSi^oi, m inro Kpirmvo^ &<^XovfA€vo^ 
teoKateevoi avrov Ilorepov oiv, e<fnf 6 ^ApxeSfjH^i 
aurxpov i<mv evepyerovfievov vno yfivftrr&v av^parmov 
teat avrevepyerovvra Toi^ fiiu toiovtov^ <f>tkov^ woiet- 
a^at, ToU Si irovtfpok Sut^ipeo'^aij fj Toi^ iikv teaXovf 
teaya^od9 aSixeip ireipfifJLevov e^pov? iroUia^eUj toU 
Si wovtfpoh cwepyovvra irHpSur^aA if>iKov9 Troieta^ai, 
teal ;^ff%oi tovtoi^ avr ixclvav ; *Ek Si tovtov eh 
re T&v KptrcDVOf ^iXtav ^ApyiS^pLO^ fjv, teal viro t&p 
SKXuv KplT€9vo^ ^iXmv erifJLaTO. 




SocBATB admoniahed his friend IHodorus, who was poflseased of wealth, 
to aeeare to himself the friendship of Hermogenes^ a poor bat worthy 
man, bj giving him peconiarj aid. 

If we offer rewarda^ he reasoned, for a slave who has ran awajr, or 
care for one that is sick, should we not much rather see to it that a friend, 
who is of £u- more value than a slave, is not emshed nnder the burden 
of poverty (§ 1, f), Hermogenes is able to be of more value than many 
elavei^ and may now be firmly secured as a friend at a very small price 
^§ 8, 4). Socrates refused to send Hermogenes to Diodorus^ but urged 
Diodorus to go to him (§ 5X which he did, and the result verified the 
prediction of Socrates (^ 6). 

OlSa Bk Koi AioSdpip avTOP iraiptp Svri, roiaBe &a- 1 
\€)^€VTa' Ehri fioi, S<f>r)y & AioSape, av rk croc r&v 
oheerSiv airoSp^ eirtfieX^, otto)? avcucofiiaij ; — KaX 2 
aXXoi/p <y€ vi} AC^ €(fnfj irapaKaX&t aSxrrpa rovrov 
avcucijpvo'aoiv, — Ti yap; e^, idv rk coi tcd/ivp r&v 
oixer&p, rovTov hnfieK^, xal irapa/caXeU tarpov^f ottqi? 
firj aTTO^canj ; — S<l)oSpa y, etfnj. — El Si T& o-ot r&v 
ypwpifjuov, Sifnjj iroXtf r&v oucer&v xpfitrtfuinepo^ Av, 
KivSuv€V€t Si SifSeiap airoKicr^ai^ ovte oiei croi a^iov 
etvat eirificXrf^rjvcu, otto)? Suuto)^^ ; KaX fitfv dla^d 3 
76, OTt ovtc ayimfioiv iarlv *EpfJLoyiprf^, aUryyvoiro S* 
w, €( a><f>€\ovfi€vo^ inro aov fitf avrto^^Koiri (re* Kal- 
rot TO vTnjpenjv exovra re xal evpovv /cal irapdfiovov 
Kol TO xeXevofUvov Uavov iTQtelv l^eti^, xal firf p4vov 
TO tceXevofievov Uavov Svra iroietv, aXX^L Svvdfi€VOv 
teal d^ iavTov 'Xprifnpav elvait koI vpovoetv Kol irpo- 
BovX£V€(Aah iro\Xj&v oucer&v olfuu avrd^ioi etvau 

80 xbnofhon's memokabttja. 

4 01 fiiPTO^ aya&ol oUovofioi, Srav to iroXkov S^iov 
fUKpov i^ Trpiaa^iU, rare ^hktI Sctv atveia^eu* vvp 
Se ilk TO, irparffiara exKavordrov^ San ^iXov^ aya^oif^ 

5 KTi^aaa^at. KaX 6 jdioSc^po^* *A\Xa Kokm y€, e^y 
Xiyetiff & Sdtcpare^f /cal Kikeva-ov ik^ew &f ifik top 
*Epfioy€Vfjv. — M^ Ai*, e^i;, ovk eyoiye* vofu^a yap 
ovT€ aol KoXXunf elvai to KaXiaeu ixetpov tov ainov 
eX.^eZi' 7rpo9 iiceufov^ oure iteeipqi fiet^ov aya^op to 

6 irpaj^rjpai TaOra ij aoL OuTto Sif 6 AioSmpo^ fS%ero 
vpo9 TOP *EpfioyipifPj Koi ou iroXif Tekeira^ i/cnjorarc 
^tkop, 89 epyop e^x^ a-Koireip, o ti tLp fj Xeyeay fj vpar^ 
T»p i^ekoiff Te Kol ev^palpoi AioSmoop. 





Tom fint aeTen chapters of Book III. relate to the duties of those who 
cogagB in the maDagement of ciTil and military affairi^ and comprise a 
more oomplete refatation of that branch of the second accosation of 
Socratei^ stated and briefly oontrorerted in L 2. 9 sq. 

The sabjeei of this chapter is^ the duties and qnalifieationB of a mili- 
tary commander. 

Socrates nidged a yoang Jlthenian, who desired to become a general, 
to put himself under the instruction of a professed teacher of the art of 
managing an army. Knowledge is the more necessary for the general, 
since the whole State in time of danger is intrusted to him, and the most 
important consequences are dependent upon his skill in the duties of his 
calling ($ I'-Z), When the pupil returned, thinking himself, witliout 
doubt, qualified for any office in the army, Socrates sportively inquired 
of him, what and how he had been taught^ and was told that he learned 
only tactics (§ 4» 6). Socrates explained to him that although the ability 
to arrange an army is important, still it is but one among many pre- 
requisites for a good general ($ 6 — %\ He further shows him that arbi- 
trary rules lor arranging an army, without discrimination in regard to 
the character of the troops^ and without reference to time, place^ and 
other contingencies^ are of little ralue^ and sends him back to his teaehsTj 
to question him on these points (J 9 — 11). 



ya^ 7roT£ AiovwroSmpov €& t^x' ttoX^i/ ^«6(v eTroyyeX- 
Xoficifop cpaTTjyeiv BiBd^eiv, IXefe tt/do? rti^a tAi^ ^o 
vovTODv, hv ^a^dvero fiovki/iepov t% ri/Li% ravTfji ip 

2 T^ ?r6\6& Tvyxdv^cp* Aur)(p6v fihnoi^ & veavia^ top 
fiov\6/jL€pop ip T§ 7r6\€t oTpaTTfjcipj i^op toOto fuAeip^ 
afLeKfjcai aurovy /cal Sixalto^ hp olrro^ tnrb rrj^ iroXea^ 
(rffiiolTo irokif fiaXkop, fj el t£9 apSpidpra^ ipyoKO" 

3 fioiffy fitf fjbCfMAfjtcoi^ apSpiapr<nroi€ip. ''OXrj^ yip T79 
7r6\e(09 ip ro(9 TroXfftt^ow icei/Swot? eirtrpeirofikpri^ r^ 
arpaTfjy^ psyaXa rd re aya^h Karop^ovpro^ avrov 
KoX TCi Kcuci^ SuifiapTdpopTO^ euco^ ylypea^cu* irw ovp 
ovK &p SueauD^ 6 rov fiep fiap^dpeip rovro dfieXAp^ 
rov Sk aipAfjpcu hrifieXofiepo^ ^tj/jlioIto ; Toiaura fiep 

i Bff Xeywp eireurep avrop iK^opra fiop^dpeip, ^Eirei H 
fA€fia^rjKW ^/ce, 7rpo<;dTra>i^€p ainA \iya>p* Ov hoxel 
i/jupj & opSpe^^ &^ir€p "Ofiffpo^ top ^Ayapifivopa yepa- 
pop 6^17 elpcu, Kol [ouTQ)?] oSe arparfiyelp fjui^obp 
yepaporrepo^ <l>alpea'^ai ; fcaX ykp &rtrep 6 /ei^api^euf 
/jM^oiP, Kol Olp fiif xAapify, xAapum^ iari, xai 6 
fia&wp laa^€U^ teSiv p^tf iarpevrfy ofuo^ tarpon iariVf 
ovTw Koi oSe airb rovSe rov ypopov iiareXel arparrj^ 
yo^ &p, K&p firjSeU avrop !\f]Tcu* 6 Si fiff hrurri- 
fiepo^ oure oTparrjyo^ ovre larpo^ €<mp, ov&e Hlp irrro 

5 irdpTfDP ap^pwr<ap eupe^§, ^Ardp, S<f}tfy Ipa Ka\ eav 
flfASm Ti^ '^^S^P)(S V ^®X^*75 ^^h i'fvaTTff/Mpearepoi 
T&p iroXefiiK&p &jj,€Vj Xi^op ^ficp, iro^ep ffp^aro ere 
BtZdaKeip T^v PTpoTfiyiap, Kal 09' ^Ek tov airrov, 
eif^rj, 6i9 Srrep koX ireXevra* rh yhp raiCTUch epA ye 

6 KoX oXXo ovSep iBlSc^ep, ^AXSA fiijpj e^ 6 So^tcpd- 
TiTy, tovt6 ye iroXkooTop p^po^ iarl OTpanjyicK' icai 
yhp wapaa/cevturrucop t&p ek top irokepMP top CTp€L- 
Tifyop elvcu XP^» **** iropurrucop t&p eirvrfiheUop Tois 
trrparuoTcu^, koX p,ffj^apuc6Pf teal ipyaoTUcop, xai Ar*- 
/X6\^» Kal tcapTepucoPf teal oTXiVotw, /col ^Cki^povd t% 


jKol <»/iov, jrol airkovv re teal iirifiovXoPj koI ^vKaucrir 
K&v T€ KoX KkeimiVt KciX irpoerucov koX afnraya, Koi 
^M^oSotpov Koi 7r\€0viierrfv, leal oo-^oXi; xai errt^er^ 
Kov, Koi aXka voXXiL teal <f>V4r€i koI eTTumj^tf Bel 
Tov €i oTpaTfiyija'ovTa e^eiv* KaXop Be teal to roicrt- 7 
Kov etvai* troXu yhp hta^peu arparevfia rerarfixivov 
ardicTov' wirep Xi^ot re xal vXiv^oi Kal ^u\a seal 
icipafjM^ ardiCTd^ fiev ippifXfUva ovSev ypritrnid iariv, 
iireiSap Be raj^^ Kara fih kcu iirtiroXrj^ to, fiifr€ 
trrpropLeva fiifre rrffcofAeva, at re \Cboi xal 6 xipa/JLO^f 
iv fiiatp Be aZ re irkCv^oi, koX t^ ^vKa^ &^ir€p iv 
oyccSofiioy avprl^ercu. Tore yiyverai ttoXKov a^iov 
KTTjfia oucla, *AXKit iraw^ eifnj 6 veaviaxo^, ofioiov, 8 
& S(OKpar€^9 eiptjKa^' xal yap iv r^ irokefifp rov^ re 
TTpdroi^ apioTov^ Bel rdrreiv teal Toin; reXcvra/ot;?, iv 
Be fieatj^ tou9 ;^€£/!>/<rrov?, Xva inrb fiev t&v aytovrcu, 
inro Bk aSf t&v ii%5nnat, — Ei fiev Toiviw, e^j kcu 9 
Siayiyvmaiceiv ere Tod^ dya^oif^ xal Toifs icoicoifi iBl^ 
Sa^ev' ei Be fii^, ri cot 6<f)e\o^ &v e/ia^e^ ; oifBi yhp 
el ae apyvptov iKiXevae irp&Tov fiev xal TeXetrrcuov to 
tcdXkKrrov Tdrreiv, iv fiiaip Be to ')(eiptaTOVt firf Bi- 
Bd^^ Btaytryvdaxetv to Te koKov xal to fel/SBtfXoVf 
ovBkv dv cot o<f>e'Ko^ ^v. — *AWd /xa ^t\ 6^, ov/c 
iBiBa^, a>9T€ aurov^ &v fifid^ Beot tov^ T€ dya^oi^ 
teat Tois Koxoi^ Kplvetv. — TL ovv ov a'KOTrovfJi,eVf €(f>rj, 10 
Tr&9 &v airr&v /i^ BiafULprrdvotfiev ; — BovKofJuu^ e^ 
o veavia-KC^, — Ovkow^ etfrrfy el fiev apyvptov Beov dp' 
ird^eiv, T0U9 ^CKapyvptordTov^ 7rpa)Tov<: Ka^tardvre^ 
6p^&9 dv TdTTotfUV ; — ^Efiotye Bofcet — Tt Bi Toii^ 
KivBwevetv fiiXXovTO^ ; dpa Toif^ if>t\oTtfiOTdTov9 irpo* 
TctxT^ov ; — Oirrot yovv elatv^ etfnfy oi Ivexa hrcdvov 
iCivBwevetv HeKovTe^* ov Toivvv otrroi ye oBrjXoij aXX* 
ejTtifMvev: iravTa'Xpv ovre^ evalperot dv etev. — *ATdp^ 11 
€^» TTorepd ae Tdrretv fiovov iBiBa^ev, ^, zeal Snrov 

84 xenophon's hshobabilia. 

Koi 07ra>9 xpfforiov itcaartp r&v rarfiidmv ; — Oi 
irdvVt 1^17. — KaX ftijv iroXXd y i<rrit irpo9 & ovre 
*TarT€iy ovre ayeiv w^airta^ Trpo^xei, — *iiXX^ /x^ ^i\ 
€<fyij, oif Sie(nul>i]Pi^€ raura, — Ntf Ai\ €^, iraXiv roi- 
vw ih^wv hravepdrra* rjp ykp hritmyrfu, koI /itf 
aveuSri^ ^, ataxyveirav apyvpiov €tKff4>w ivBea ae 



BocHATBB^ in oonvcnation with an Athenian who had been appcinted to 
a command in the army, on the authority of Uomer, compares a general 
to a shepherd. His duty is to proyide for the safety and comfort of his 
soldiera^ and to lead them on to the successful subjugation of their ene- 
mies {i 1). He must not merely fight brayely himself but inspire his 
fbUowers with military ardor. like a good prince he should not care 
for his own happiness alone^ but wisely conduct others to good fortune 

1 ^EvTv^w hi irore arparfiyeiv ipflfUv^ T<p* Tov 
fuacev. e<fy^f ^Ofiripov oi€i rov ^AyafUfivova irpo^tvyo- 
pevaiu iroifiiva Xa&v ; ipd ye Sri, mirep rbv woifUya 
iw^fieKeta^cu Sel, Sirc^ a&al re S<rovTcu at ole^f koL 
rh eirin^ieui l^ova^j [teal oi Ivexa rpi^vraif tovtg 
earcut'] otrra> koX rov crparfffov empLekAr^cLi &^ 
oTnu? aSioL re ol crparuSurai eaovrai^ tcalX rh hnrrj^M 
i^vtrit Kolp o5 Ivexa crparevovrai^ rovro eartu ; or par 
revovrcu S^, tva KparoOvre^ r&if iroXefAwv evSaiftopi- 

2 arepoi, &<nv ff rl Siprore oirc^^ hr^veae rov *Aya* 

fjUfjLvova ehrdv, 

*A/i^^fpoy, /SoviAt^f T^ JkyoiMs^ Kpartp^s r* o^XM^P^'p 

BOOK m. CHAP. in. 86 

ipd ye Sri alxf^V^V^ '''^ xpartpo^ &p etffj ovk 
€t ftopof avT09 eS aymvi^oiro irpof roif^ woXefAtov^^ 
aXX* el Kol ireunl r^ arparairiSfp rovrov alrio^ ehf ; 
Kok /3a<rtX699 aya^09} oxfic el fAOPov tov eavrov 
8iou teaXSt^ vpoetmJKoi, dX\' el ical, &v fiaaCKeuoij 
TovTOt/f evSnifiovia^ curiae elrj ; Kol ykp fiacriKeif^ ai- 3 
peirai^ ovy^ tva icmrov kclKA^ en ifieXrirai, aXK* tva teal 
€U eXofUvoi St auTov eS irpdrroHn,* icat (rrparevovrtu 
Si iravre^, tpa 6 fiio^ oifToU Jo^ fieKrurro^ ^* zeal 
OTpamffoif^ alpowrat rovrov &e«a» tva irpo^ rovro 
airdk fffeiiove^ Swu Aei oSv rov (rrpanjyovtrra rovro 4 
vapaaKevd^eiv ro'k eXo/ihfoi^ atrrov crparrf/ov xaX 
yitp ovre tcdWtop rovrov aKKo paSiov evpeiv^ oi/re 
aiayiov toS ivavrtov. Kal ovTa>9 eiruneoTr&Vj rk eiff 
aya^ov fiyeiiovo^ apen^, rit p,kv oKKa rrepi^pei, tcari- 
\eiire Se ro eifSai/iova^ iroieiv, &v &v rjyrjrai. 



representing; in general, that the object of the ' prefect of the 
horse' is not the gratification of personal Tanitj, but the improvement 
of the forces under him, Socrates more specifically designates his duty as 
twofold: the care of the horse and of the rider (§ 1, 2). 

1. He mnst give his personal attention to the care and training of the 
horses^ and not leare them to the management of their riders alone 

8. Oare for the rider, requires attention to his moonting, sitting flrm- 
Ijr in the saddle, and the managing of his weapons (§ 6, 6) ; to his eonrage 
and alacrity in opposing the enemy, and to his prompt obedience to 
orders ($ 7, 8). And as an inducement to the prompt obedience and 
serrice of the soldier, the oommander must perform his own duties 
well (4 9)* and inculcate the honor and utility that result frum obe* 


dience (f 10). In fine, the ability to qpeak in public ihoald be eoltivaledt 
not only as a means of procuring ob^ence and discipline, but also for 
the excitement of military ambition and loye of glory, that thus the 
desired object of warfare may be the more readily attained ($ 11 — 16)i 

t Kal iTnrapjfeuf Be livi ^pfiiihftj^ oZSa ircre avrov 
ToidSe Sutkej^ivra* ^Exo^^ av, i^^ & pcavia, €hr€w 
fj/uif, OTOV iv€Ka hrAvfJLfiaa^ iwirapx^lv ; oif yiip S^ 
Tov irp&TO^ T&v imriav ikauveuf* tcaX ykp oi imro^ 
TO^OTOi TOVTov y€ o^iovvTcu, TTpocXavvovo-i yovp Kal 
T&v hnrdpx^P» — ^AXij^i} Xiyet^j iffyrf, — ^AKKJk fifip 
oifSi TOV yvfaa^TjivcU ye, hrei koX oi fuuvofievoL ye viro 
irdvTtov yirfvoncKovrai. — *A\ff^^^ etf^rf, /cot tovto >i- 

2 y€K^ — ^AX>C ipa on to hnrucov oUi ry iroKei fiiK- 
Tiov &p TToti^craf irapaSovvcUj tcalj el rt^ XP^^ ylyvotro 
ImrifoVt rovrmv fffovfievo^ ay<Aov rivo^ aXrio^ yofi^ 
<r^€u T^ iroXet ; — KaX fuxKot 1^. — Kal eart ye, v^ 
jdTj eifnf, 6 Sc^Kparrj^j KaXov, ehv Svinf raura iroifjaau 
^n Si apxo ^o^ ^^* ^ VPV^^ Tmrav re xat apfia- 

3 r&v ioTiv ; — "JEJort yhp oiv, etfyf}, — *'J&t 8if Xi^v fipSv 
irpSnov TOVTO, o7rci»9 8tai/og roiv Ztnrov^ fieXTiov^ iroiij' 
acu ; — KaX o^. ^AXKa touto fUvy e^, ovte ifiov olpui 
TO Ipyov ehai, aXXcL iZUf Ixaarov Seip tov eatrrov Zmrov 

4 iirifJ^Xela^a^. — ^Ei^v oSi/, e^fnj 6 XtoKpaTq^, Trap^avTai 
aoi T0V9 Zttttou? oi pJkv otrroK KajcoirclSa^ fj tcaKocKe- 
"Keh fj atr^epe'k, oi Si oirrw arpo^ov^, wre fiif Swcb- 
a^ai afcoXoiAelv, oi Si o{rn^ ovayAyov^, cS^rc fiif 
pAveiVy OTTOV &v aif Ta^, oi Sk otrrco? XaxTurTa^, &rr€ 
fM)Si To^eu SvpaTOP elpcu, tI aot- tov irnnicov 6j>e\jo^ 
ioToi ; fj Trm Svpijoff Toiovrmp iffovp^po^ aya^op t« 
voi^crcu Ttfp nroktp ; — KdX $9* *ilXXA KcCkm re Xe- 
<]re&?, e^ koI iretpdaofuu t&p vmrtdp el^ to SwaTov 

6 CTTi/ieXeier^ae. — Tl Si; tov^ imria/i ovk hrv)(eipTiiTei^, 
f^j fieXrlopcL^ iroiijaai ;-^''Eyo»y, S<fytf. — OvkoOp Trpfi- 

BOOK in. CHAP. m. 87 

TOP fiiv avafiaruceoTipov^ ^l rots tTnrov^ irouja-et/s 
avTou^ ;—-Aet yovv^ tjtai* koX yap, el Ti9 axn&v fcara- 
Tritroi^ (iaXKov tiv ovrm ai^iro, — TL yap ; idv irov 6 
KtvSup€V€LV Biff, irorepov hra^tvyelv roxf^ irokefilou^ eni 
T^v afifjbov K€XiWT€i^, hf^avep elta^are hnreieiv, tj 
weipcuTff r^9 /icXero? i» toioutoi^ irouja^ai j(wpioi^t 
hf ouH^Trep oi iroXipuot ylyvoinat ; — BeKnov yovv, 
e^. — Ti yap ; rav fidXKeiv &^ irXetarov^ awo r&v 7 
tmr^av hnpAkeuiv riva irot^atf ; — JBeXriov ywv, i^p 
KoX rovTO. — Oifyeip Bi ra^ ^^t/^^^ ''^^^ hnrimv koX 
i^pyi^eiv trpo^ roif^ voXcfiiovf^j threp aKxi/uaripov^ 
TToieivj Siav€virf<raA ; — El Sk fii^, oKKa vuv ye ireipd' 
cofuu, e^. — *'Oir€^ Si cot 'rrei^fovreu oi imreh^ 8 
ve^povTucds Tt; auev yhp hri rovrov otrre i7nr<ov oure 
imriwp aya^&v koI aXxifiav ovSiv ofpeXo^* — ^AXr/^ri 
Xe)r€«9» e^* aXKci '/rw av Tt9 futKKrra, & Xoaxpare^^ 
hrl rouTO airroi^ irporphpucTO ; — ^Exewo fiev Bi^ov 9 
ola-^a, OTi ev ircanX irpa^fuvn oi av^ponrot tovtoi^ 
fAokurra ibiXovai iretbea^ai, ob^ hp ffy&pnu fieKri' 
<rToii9 eZj/ai* teai yhp ep pocrfp^ hp tip r^&prat, iarptr 
Karrarop eiptu, rovrtj^ fioKiffra ve^oprat, xal ip irXoitp 
oi irXeopre^, hp &p Kv^epptp-ucoyrarop^ koX h /ewpyia, 
tp &p yeapyuaoraTOP. — Eial fioKa^ e^ri* — Oiteovp 
CMTo^, 1^, KoX ip iinri/cff, 89 &p fAoXiora elSw ^fr- 
prjTcu h Set iroieip, Toir<p iiakurra Hdkeip roif^ aX- . 
Xov^ vet^eo^cu. — *Eip oip, etfnj, iydj & SdKpare^, 10 
fiiXrioTOi &p avT&p SrjXo^ &, apxiaei fiot tovto ei^ 
TO irel^ea^ai avrois ifioi ; — *Edp ye irpo^ roxntp^ 
1^, SiZa^tf^ avTov^j &^ rb ireC^ea'^ai <toi xaSXtop 
re luu aeorrfpuorepop avroU earai. — II&s oip, e^fnft 
TOUTo StSd^ ; — IIoXv pff Al\ e^, P^^i 4 ^l ^0$ 
Seoi SiSdaxeip, (09 r^ /ea/ca t&p aya^wp a/ieipa xal 
XvoiTeXiorepa earu — Aiyet^^ etfyij, aif top imrapj^pp 11 
irpo^ ro'k oKKoi^ hn/jteXeio'^iu SetP koI top XiyeiP 

88 xbnophok's hehorabilia. 

Svvao'^aii — Sif 8' ^v, i^^ xpj}wu aumr^ imrap^ 
X^ 9 ^ oifK evTAvfiffa-eUj orij oaa re voijuf fUfiaS^ 
tca/i€V tcaXKurra 6uTa, Bt* &v ye ^v hrurra^^a^ 
raSra irdpra Biit Xoyov i/id^ofUPg xal el rt oXAii 
kclKov fiai/^dp€i rt9 fAa^fffUij SiA Xoyov fuu/^avei ; 
KciX oi dpurra iiSd<r/eovTe^ frnXiara \iy^ j(p&vTa$9 
icaX oi ra airovSoMraTa frnXurra hrurrafievoi koX- 

12 "kurra SidKeyoirrtu ; *H roSe ovk ivrrji^v/i'/ja'tu^ Wj 
Srap ye X^P^ ^^ ^ r^Se Ttfi iroKem^ ytyvffTtUj 
okirep 6 eh ^ij[Kop irefiirofiewK^ oiSeU aXKo^ev o\h 
hafii^ev rovTip i^/uXKo^ yirfverai^ ov8d euavBpla ip 
aXXp iroKe^ opLola t§ h^aZe avpayercu ; — 'ilXi;^^ 

13 Xeyei/^t e^. — *AXKk fiifv oire ewfwvia roaovrov 8u»- 
^epovciv ^Ahvivaioi, r&v SKKkov^ ovre a-afidtav fiey^ei 
tcaU pfoiiffy oaop ^^CKjamiilOi fjirep fidXiara irapo^vpei 
irpo9 ra KoKik xal hmpau — *A\rf^^^ e^fi, icai rovro* 

14 — OvKovp oUif i(pfi, KM Tov vmrucov rov et/^oBe el 
TK iTTip^Xfji^eitff W9 voXu &p xal rotntp BievefKoiep 
r&p oKKup, Sirkeap re xal vrrnwp irapaaKevQ tuu 
cvrofio, Kol T^ irolfiu^ KipBupeveiP irpo^ tov9 ^roXe- 
filov^f el pofiiaeuLP raSra voMUpre^ hraipov koI rifAtj^ 

15 reu^ea^M. — EUo^ ye» e^i;. — M^ rolwp 8icpe$, effnf, 
aXKi. TreipA rov^ opBptK iirl ravra irporpeireiP^ a^ 
&p avro^ re co^Xi^^tctj/i koI ol aXKoi iroXtrtu Stk 
ae. — 'ilXX^ pif Aia weipdaofuu, 1^. 



iriooMA€HiDn oomplained to Socrates that Antisthenefl^ who neither hid 
experience in military affiuri^ or knowledge of anj thing but to ama« 
weelth» had been choaen m leader of the armjr, instead of himaelC who 

BOOK m. CHAP. lY. 89 

iMd deToted lus life to sach puiBoitfl^ and bore the marki oi prerioof 
w&re (§ 1, 2). Socrates replied : Sinee Aatisthenee has shown skill 
in the management of his own affairs^ and as a leader of the chonu^ 
and is ambitions of a good name, he may be safely trusted with the army 
(f 3 — 6X A man who has knowledge and skill will be snoeessfol as a 
leader any where ; for the same qnalities are demanded in presiding 
orer the ehoms and in oondacting private affiiirs^ as in commanding 
the State or army ($ 6 — 12). 

ovra f)p€To. Tive^j & NucofAaxi^V^ frrparqyol ^prpmu ; 
Kai o9* Ov yap, i^^ & Sfoxpare^, rowvrol eiaip 
*A^ipfaSoi, WT€ ifii lihf ov^ eVKjovro^ 89 he KoraXoyov 
arpaT€u6fA€V0^ /earaTerpififiai koI Xoj(ay&v teal ra^iap- 
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phf aya^ovj e2ye ralk arpaTuireu^ Uavo^ iarcu rA 
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beica TOVTov Kal aTpanjyew Swcuvr Sv, KaX o Soi^ 3 
fcpdrtf^ &f)ff *AXKli Kol ff^ikoveiKoq ^Avrur^hnf^ iarivj 
h arparfff^ irpowviu hnrrjSeiop itrriv* ov^ ^PV^% on 
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owj l<Pff 6 NueofLayf^* SXKov^ fjtkv eupi^ei roi>9 
Ta{6irra9 ai^* iavrov, aXKovf Si rov^ fuixpvfiivov^, 
OvKovp^ €<^ 6 ScaKparrf^f idv ye tcdL hf roU voke- 5 

90 zenophon's mkmoeabttja, 

fUKok roif^ KparioTOv^f wirep hf roU XV^^^» ^^^^ 
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^iXeiv et9 rrjp ^ifv SKtf ry irokei r&v iroXeftuc&p 
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<ri, e^Tj, & SdKpare^, C09 rod ainrov avSpo^ iari X^P^ 
j€ip re Ka\&^ koI orpaTrjyelv ; — Aiyta eywy, €(f>Tj, 
W, oTov av Tt9 TTpooTaTewf, iav yiypaxr/qj re &v Sei, 
tcaX TO&ra iropC^ea^at BvpffTM, aya^o^ hv ^vq irpo- 
trrdrri^^ elre x^P^^» ^^'^^ olteov, clre iroketo^, elre arpor 

7 revfAOTO^ irpo<rraT€voi. — £al 6 NiKo/iax^^^' ^^ ^**» 
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^^"^I^i &7, e^» i^erdamfiev ra epya ixaripov axn&v, 
iva elS&fiev, vrirepov ret airrd iariv, ^ Bia^ipei tl — 

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TOVT €<ftfj, — Kal p,ifv Kal ro rots kojcois KoXa^eiVj 
Kal rots aya^ois rip>av, afi^oripoi^: olpju Trpo^Kciv, 

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aoi avpL^petv dpAJ^oripoi^, ^ ov ; — Hdvv piv oiv^ 
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10 T^ avr&v Ipya ; — Tavra piivy i^yri^ rrdvra op^ita^ 
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riptav, — *AX>C i)fipol ye roi dp,if>OTipoi^ yiyvovrtu ; 
— Kal pd\a, e^rj, rovro ye. — Ovkovv to irepiyevi" 

11 a^a^ rovTwv dp^ripoi'^ avp,<f>^p€i ; — Hdvv 76, e^* 
aVX* ixelvo vapiei^t &p S^ puixetr^ah ri oi^Xiiaei 1} 

BOOK in. CHAP. y. 91 

oUopofiucij ; — ^Evraff^a Si/ttov /ral irXeiarov^ e^* 6 
yap aya^o^ olicovofio^, 6tSa)9| otl ovScp avrta Xutrt- 
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TToXefjUov^ vi/cav, ovSi oSnaq a\v(rvT€\e9 T€ tcai ^fjfM- 
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Si p,ii eirLordp^evoi dp,ff>oripcat^i 7r\rfp^p^Xov<np» 



T^ chapter consists of a colloquy of Socrates with Pericles the younger, 
upon the means of restoring the Athenians to their former valor and 
glory in war. It should seem, from some aUuaions in $ 4^ to haye taken 
pUice soon after the hatUe at Delos^ B. C 424. 

The Athenians^ Socrates argues, are in possession of all the advan- 
tages and qualities necessary for the conquest of their enemies ($ 1 — 8^ 
The very fiict tliat* they, on account of several disastrous engagements^ 
fiar the enemies which they formerly despised, will cause them to be 

92 xbnofhon's heuorabilia. 

more obedient to a good leader, and will banish sloth, arrogance, and ab 
insubordination or irregularity (4 4 — 6). If then they be obedient^ the 
next step is, to incite their courage and stimulate their ambition, by 
recounting to them the virtues and yalor of their ancestors^ which are 
committed to them as a sacred inheritance (f 7 — 12). Their present 
degeneracy is occasioned by their prosperity which induced careleasnc« 
(§ 18). The only way of restoring them to their pristine splendor, is in 
bringing them back to former manners and habits, or in reading them 
to imitate the virtues of the Lacedemonians ($ 18 — 16). There is no 
occaMon to be disheartened on account of present factions and dissen- 
sions; they have among them the elements of union, and only need 
well-informed and skilful leader^ to make them obedient and efficient 
in war as well as in other occupations (§ 17 — 21). Hence the impor- 
tance of knowledge and thorough training for those who are to guide 
the army (f 22-^24). Finally, Socrates alludes to the advantages ot 
Attica for self-defence^ and enjoins upon Pericles active exertion aa a 
military commander (§ 25^28). 

1. IJepisckei Si irorCg r^ rod traw IlepixXiov^ vi^ 
SuiXeyofievo^* *Ey<i roif €(fni, & nepucKei/^^ ikwiSa ix^ 
aov crparrfyriaavTO^ afieivct re koI ipBo^epav rifv 
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pov he Boiwr&p oUi itXeIm &» iKXejfitjpoit ^ e{ 'il^i;- 

, v£p: — OvSi ravry fioi Boxovai Xehrca^ai, — EifAepe- 
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3 6p£ ToiouTOP. — 'ilWd p,rfp ffuXoTifioTaToi ye ml ^iXo- 
fffpopioTOTOA irdvTfop etaiPj awep ovj^ fJKurra irapo^pei 
KipSvpeveiP inrep evSo^icv: re seal irarpiSo^^ — OvSi h 

BOOK in. CHAP. Y. 98 

TOVTOH9 *A^fivaSoi fAefAirroC — Kal fitfv irpoyowov ye 

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fjicovra, fuiXiar &v ovrto^ avroif^ i^pp^p^ev dvrixso'^ai 


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9 /leXovfievoL Travratv av eUv Kpdriaroi. — Ilm ovv &v 
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10 fi€v aifTov^ oKfiKwna^ apiarov^ yeyopivai. — ^Apa 
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#cay eauToif^ ap^pammp. — AeyoPTtu ydp^ 1^. — 

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inrb fcpeiTTOptop vfipt^ofAepoi KaTe^€vyop irpo^ ixeipov^* 

13 — Kul 6 Ilepuekfj^' Kal ^avfid^ia ye^ 1^, & S^ 
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Kal *A^7}paiov^ woXif SiepeyxoPTos afieXPjaoA iavT&p, 


col SiA TOVTO j(€ipov^ yey ovAfcu. — Nvv oipj 1^, ri 14 
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mv eliHH T§ iroKei r^v icdKoicarfi^iav irirre yhp oif- 
Tfl»9 ^A^rpfoSoi^ &sirep AcueeSaifiovioif ^ irpeafivrepovs 
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€)fipa Kal fuao^ aKKqKMP rok iroXirai^ iyyiyverai^ 
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vixov: ar/wri TreShovrai tow eTrurrdrai^^ oifSepmp Si 


icartiSeiaTepop iv roU X^P^'^ {nrffperava-i'ToU BtSacKd- 

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20 rmp. — Kal 6 Sc^fcpaTrj^ e^* 'H Sk ip *Ap€i^ iraytp 
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ra^ T€ Suca^ Bucd^opra^ mi rSXKa irdpra vpaTTOP- 
ra/i ; — Oif pipL^fuu^ c^, roirrot^. — Ov toIpvp, I^« 
Sel a^Vfieip, m ovk evrdterap Sprap ^A^ijpau»p. — 

81 Kal fi^p €P ye roU arpanmriKoU, l<^^ h/ia fidXiara 
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ovx o/>f 9, OTA tcAapurT&p fiep /cal ;fop€tn'o>y xal opxf 
ar&p ovBi eU ivixeipei apx^^v fiif hrurrdfupo^^ o\£k 
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Tojirmp apxova-iPf exovci Be^ai, o.Tro^ei' SfuAop ravrOf 
iff)* oh i<l>€aTaa-if r&p Be arparffy&p oi vXeioToi au- 

83 Toax^BM^ovirip, Ov fiipTOi tre ye roiovrop iym pofii^m 
elpaif aXX* olfiai ae ovBep ^ttop e)(etp ehretp^ oirire 
OTparfiyetp ^ iirore iraXaieiP ffpfto fiap^dpeiP' teal 
wciXXiL fiep olfial ae t&p varptpoup crparrf/fifidTfap iror 
peCKri^ira Buur&^eiP, iroXKiL Be wapraxo^^p avpepfjPO' 
p^ei^ot, oiro^ep olop re fjp fia^elp n &(l>e\ip4}p ek orpo- 

83 rffiyiap. Olpxu Sf ae iroXKa fiepifApav, Sirat^ fiif Xd^^ff^ 
aeavTOP dypo&p ri rwp ek arparrfyiap i^XipMP, xal 
edp ri rotovrop aXa^n aeavrop fitf elBora^ ^tiretp tou9 
hrtarafiepov^ ravra, ovre Sdpwp ovre ;^a/>/Tc»v ^etSo- 
fiepoPf o?ra>v pd^j}^ irap avrwp & p,i) hriaraaa*, xal 

84 avpepyoif^ dya^oif^ ^XP^' ^^^ ^ TlepucKSjf:* Ov Xap^d'^ 
P€i^ /i6, & StoKpare^, Itfnj, cm ovS^ oUp^Po^ pe rovrop 

BOOK m. CHAP. yi. 97 

trx^tv, OTt TOP fiiXXovra arparriyelv rovrcav aTrdvroyv 
hrifjLeXeuT^at Set* 6fio\cy& fiivToc Kayco aoL ravra, — 
Tovro S\ e^, & IleplkKei^, xarava/oTjxa^, orv irpi^ 25 
KeiT-u rij^ xdipas ^fio^p Spri fieyaXa, xa^i^Kovra eirl 
7171/ Bouoriav, SC &v ek rrjv 'Xfopav eX^oioi, areual re 
vol irpo^avrei^ etai, Kal or^ fiearf BU^totrrai opeaiv 
ipv/ivoU ; — Kal fidkOj effyrf.-^Tl Si ; ait ixelvo axri' 26 
Koa^t Sri Mvaoi icaX tUtaHScu, iv r^ fiaaiXim^ X^P9 
vare^oirre? ipvp,va iraw jfrnpiaj xal Kov^>e^ wrrXurfie' 
voif Supavra^ voXKii fiep rtfp jSaa-iXiot^ y^opcw Kara* 
^ioPTt^ tea/eoTToteZPf aurol Bk (^1/ iXev^epoi ; — Kal 
rovT'j jf €<fnj9 oxouQ). — ^A^rjpalovi S* ovtc tip oUi, 27 
t<l>V» M^XP^ ^^ ika^paf; ^Tuxia^ inrKurpApov^ KOu<f>o» 
ripTHJi mKjoi^^ Kal ri, vpoKei/nepa rrj^ X^/>a9 ipfj 
tarixopra^r fiXafiepoif^ fi€P roif rroXep^loi^ etvaif ^e- 
yaXffp Bk irpoffoXifp rot^ iro\irai/s rrj^ X^po/i Kare^ 
Tjcevda^a^ ; Kat 6 iTe/si/icX^' Hapr ol/uii, e^, & 
Xdncpare^t icaX ravra XPW^M^ eZpat. El roCpvp^ S<fnj 28 
f Staxpdrrj^y apiaicei a-oi ravraf iirtx^lpet axnol^ & 
Ipurre' o ri flip yi,p &p rovrtov tearairpdfy^, teal col 
<a\op earai koX r§ woXei aya^op, iap Si ri dSvpa- 
/^v, ovre rrfp wdkiP fikay^K, ovre aeavrop Karai' 



Gukuoa, a brother of the philosopher Plato, ridionlously persiatang m 
haranguing the people in the auembly (8i?f«i|7opf(yX '^^ opposition to 
the wishes of. his friends^ with the hope of obtaining honor and influ- 
enee in the State, was arerted from his oourse hj a oonyerwtipii with 
Socrates ($ 1). 


Socmtes first gained the Ikrorable atteDtion of Glanoo» hj a repre* 
■entation of the importance of the office that he desired, and of the honor 
tliat was attached to it (^ 2). He then hj a series of questions exhibited 
to Gknco bis entire want of qualifications for performing adequately the 
duties pertaining to it (f S — 13). By this means Glauoo wos prepared 
for the advice, that he should begin a preparation for so important § 
trust, by undertaking the management of his uncle's a&irs (^ 14). The 
objection that his uncle might not be willing to intrust his estate to him. 
gaye Socrates occasion to inculcate the setinment^ that one who is nol 
thoroughly acquainted with public' busineti^ will not b^ able, as a ruler, 
to advance the prosperity or provide for the safety of the 3tate^ aor tc 
gain for himself any renown (§ 14 — 18). 

1 PkavKtiva 8k Tov *Apurr€9Vo^f St hreycip^i Sff/Atf- 
yopeiif inAvfJL&p irpoaraTeveiv rrfi TroXeoi?, oilien'to 
eucotriv ertf yeyovoa^t ovro^v aXKxov oUeUdv re koX ^i- 
Xo>i/ oiicl^ iSvvaTO iravacu kXKOfUvov re diro tov 
fii^fjuiTo^ ical KaToyikaoTov ovto, SmtepaTtf^ Be ewov^ 
i}v ain^ Sui re XapfjLtSr^v tov rXavtcmvo^ teal Siii 

2 nxdro^va ixovo^ hrauaev ivTV')(jav yap airr^ irp&rov 
piv eU TO ^eKriacu cucoveiv ToioBe Xe^o? tcarea^ev 
^fl rXavKwv, €<fyfj, Trpoarareveiv fiplv Buufevorfaeu t$9 
TToXeoi? ; — "EyoDy, €fl>rfj & ScaKpare^. — N^ AC, eifnjj 
teaXov yap, eXtrep ti seal aXKo t&v ev av^pdnrot^* 
Btjjkov yapj ori, iiv tovto Btairpafy^ Bvparo^ fihf eajf 
airro^ Tiryxaveiv Stov &p hn^vp,'^, itcavo^ he tov^ ^U 
Xov^ (o^eX^ij/, iirapek Bk tov iraTp^v ohcov, av^aei^ 
Be T^v TraTpiBnj ovofiaaTO^ S* ecn; irp&Tov p>€V ev t§ 
iroKet, hretTa iv t§ ^EXKoSi^ uroi^ Bi &^Trep ©e/i/crro- 
kXtj^ Koi ev T0i9 fiap/SapoK, oirov 2' &v ^, itavraypv 

3 irepipKeiTTOff eajf, Tavr oZv axovtav 6 Tkavxtov €/a€- 
ya\uv€To Kol ^B4ai^ irapep,€ve. Jdera Bk roOra 6 Sc^ 
Kparq^* Oitcovv, €<fnf, tovto piv, & TXavKo^Vj BijjKov, 
OTi, eiirep Ttp,da^at ^ovXet, dx^eXjiria aoi 17 ttoXjs 
ia-riv ; — Ildvv p,ev oiv, e^, — II po^ ^e&v, eifyq, fi^ 
Toivvv airoKpin^, dXX' ehrov fipZv^ iK tLvo^ ^$V '^ 

BOOK m. CHAP. YI. 99 

voXav €V€fyy€T€iv ; ^Eirel Sk 6 rKavtcmp Steauomjaep^ 4 
tt9 Sv t6t€ axoTTOiVf 07r6^€V ap^oiro' ^Ap^ €<fyq o So^- 
Kpamf^, wirep^ <l>iKov oIkop el av^acu /3ov\oio, irXov- 
auorepov ainov eirvxetpoiri^ tiv iroieiv, ovrto xal r^p 
iroKtv ireipcurg v\ov<ria>T€pap iroiijaat ; — Hapv fiep 
ovvj e^. — OvKovp irXovauoTepa y &p elrf, 7rpo^6Stop 5 
avT§ vkeiopwp yevofiepnop ; — Euco^ yovPj i^, — Aifyp 
Sj;, e^, €« Tipwp pvp ai *rrp6^oSot tQ iroXet xal iroaai 
Tive? cmta; Svjjkop yhp, ore SaKei^ai^ 7pa, el pip riPCf 
airr&p ipSem lxov<np, iteirKrjpdxrjj^, el Bi irapdXeiiroP' 
rat, wpoviroplafj^. — *AXKa p^ Ai\ effnf 6 r\av/aop, 
ravra ye ovk eTreirxeppxu. — 'iiX\*« el tovto, etfnj, irapi- 6 
Xiire^t rd^ ye Sairdpa^ t^9 7r6\ea>^ ^ptp ehre * Sijkop yapj 
orn KoX TOVTtop Ta9 irepLrra^ cufnupeip SutioQ, — *AWA 
ph, TOP AC^ 1^, ovhe irpo^ ravrd rrto ea')(pKa(ra, — 
OvKouPj etfnj, TO p^kp irXovauoripap ttjp iroXip iroiew 
ivafiaKovpdha* irm yhp olop re ptf elSoTa ye rh apor 
Xtapjara tcaX ra^ vpo^oBov^ empeXrf^^pcu rovrtop ; — 
*AXX^j & S<oKpare^, lifyrj 6 PKavKap, Svpotop ian koI 7 
OTTO irokep^Uop rtfp 7r6\ip irXovri^etp. — Ni} Ala, <7^- 
Bpa y*, €(fni 6 Stofcpdrtf^, edp Ti9 ain&p KpeiTTtdP ^' 
ffrrmp Si &p koI ra Sptu irpo^airofiaXoi ap, — ^AXrf^ij 
XeycK, eifyri, — Ovkovp, e^, top ye /SovXevaopepop irpo^ 8 
oikrwa^ Sei TroXepeip Tr\p re t^9 TroXeeo? Bvpaptp koI 
TTfP tSw epopritop elSepcu Sei, ipa, iap pep ^ t)}? ito- 
X€fii>9 Kpeirrtop ^, avp,/3ov\evff eirc^eipelp t^ iro\ep,<py 
iap Bi i]TT(OP T&p ipaPTioDP, eifXafieta^at vei^rf. — 
*Op^w Xeyei?* €<fyri, — UpSnop pep toIpvp, iffyrj^ Xe^op 9 
^ptp T^9 7r6\£©9 Ti}v re Tre^/crjp xal Ttfp pavTt/crjp 
Bwap^p, eha Ttfp t&p epaPTimp. — ^AXXi, pA top AC^ 
ei^ff, ovk &p €')(pirp,i aoc ouTa>9 ye diro crrofiaTo^ ehreip, 
— 'ilXX*, el yey pairrai aoiy epeyxe, e^* irdpv yhp 
ffiefii^ &p TOUTO oKOwoApi, — *il\X^ pA TOP Ai\ e<fyij, 
ovBk y&ypaiTTal pol iron. — Ovkovp^ l<l>rf, koX irepl *7roXi-10 


fjLov avfifiovXeveiP Tqv y€ irpomiv hrurxriaoii&f' iCfa% 
yap Kol Sta to /ueye^o^ ain&v apri apxofievoi t^ 
TTpooTareia^ owrto efi/Tcwcay. ^AWd roi irepi ye ^u- 
Xa«^ T^9 X^p^^ 0^* OTi aoc fAefUXrfxe, xal ola^a^ 
ivoaai re ^vXaxaX hriictupol elau Kal oiroacu fiij, koI 
irtroaov re <f>povpo\ iKavoL etai xal oiroaoi fii] elai, xal 
Ta9 fi€v hriKaipov^ ^vKaica^ avfifiovX^aeiv fui^opa^ 
XI voiew, ra^ Be irepnra^ a^MipAf' — tiii Ai\ etfyij 6 
rXavK€av, dircurai P'hf* ovv eya>76, ivexa ye rov ovtqi>9 
avT^9 il>v\dTrea^ai, &^€ KKiTrrea^cu ret ifc rfj^ ympa^* 
— ^Eav Si Tii a<f>i\ff y, e<fnj^ ra/^ ff>v\aicd^, ovfC oUi xal 
^ apr/ra^eiv e^ovaiav eaea^cu r^ fiovkofUpip ; ardpf lif}!), 
Trinepov iK^oav avT6<: i^rcuca<: rovro, ^ irw oh/^a, on 
KaKW ^vKjarrourtu ; — EUd^ti}, effyrj. — Ovkovv, e^, 
icaX irepi tovtcdv, orav fitf/cen eucd^fo^p, aXX' ijStj 
elBAfiep, rore avfifiovkevaofiep ; — "Jcro)?, lifyj 6 FXaO- 

12 Kiop, fiiXriop. — EU ye fiijp, e^, rdpyupia olS^ &n 
oifK d<f>l^ai9 &rr e^eiv ehretp, Siori pvp iXdrrto t) 
irpoa^ep irpo^epyerfU airro^ep. — Ou yap ovp eXi/Xi/^Oy 
€<fnj, Kal ydp ptf Ai\ etfyrj 6 So^/cpdrt}^, Xeyerdi fiapif 
TO xo)piop elpai, eS?Te, orap irepX rovrov Siy avfi/Sov^ 
XeveiP, avTfi aoi fj nrpo^ai^ apxiaei* S/cdnrrofiat, 

13 e^ rXavKCDP. — *A\\* etceipov ye roi, €(f>r), oli* on 
ovK tifiekTiKa^^ aXX' eatcey^at, koX iroaop xpovop ixopo^ 
ioTip 6 €K T179 %ci)/9a9 yiypofiepo^ airo^ htarpi^w t^p 
ir6\iPi Kcu iroaov eh top epuivrop wpo^SieTai, ipa pL^ 
TovTO ye Xd^y <ri irore ^ m-oki^ ipBeri^ yepop,€Pfj, aXX' 
eiSca^ extf^ inrep t&p dpayKamp avfiffovXevap t§ iro^ 
Xei fiorf^ehf re koX <rd>fyip avnjp, A4y€i^, 6^17 6 
rXuvKOipj wafifiiye^e^ irpaypLO^ elye teat t&p Toiovrtop 

14 hrifieXela^ai Serjcec *ilXXa fiipToi, etfyij 6 Staiepdrtf^, 
ovB* &p TOP eavTOV irore oIkop /caXo)? TiV oiKi^aeiePt 
el fjLtf irdpTa fikp etaeTai, &p '/rpo^Sderai, irdpmnt ii 
iTTifieKofiepo^ itcirXfjptiaei* aXX* eirel 17 fxep iroki^ it^ 

BOOK m. CHAP. TL 101 

trXitopatv fj fivpiwv oIkiAv awearrfieef x^Xeirov Si i<rraf 
SfAa TOirovTwv oUctov iirifieXela'^ai, irm ov^ ^f^^ 'fOP 
Tov ^€iov, irpSnov hreipa&ri^ av^acu ; Sierat Si' k&v 
u€V Tovrov Svinf, seal irXeiotrtv hrv)(€ipri<T€i^' Iva Si fiif 
BwdfjLOH)^ w^X^trait 'irm &p iraiXXov^ ye Supi^^eiri^ ; 
ONTrep el rt9 ip raXaPTOP fitf Svpturo t^ipeiPj 7rm ov 
i^avepoPj Sri irXeio^ ye ^ipeip ovS* iirv)(eipvfriop airr^ ; 
*^XX' eyfoyy €<fnf 6 rXavKo^p, ax^Xolrfp hp top tov 15 
^eiQV ohcoPf el pjoi i^eKot, ireHhea^tu. Elra^ e^rj 6 
SfOKpaTTi^f TOP ^elop ov Svpu/JLepo^ iret^eip, ^A^rfvaiov^ 
iravra^ fiera tov ^elov pofii^ei^ Svpijaea^ai iroirjciu 
vet^ea^al aoi ; ^vXaTTOv^ 1^, & TXavKfOP^ ortrm^ fiif 16 
TOV eiSo^eiP iin^v/JLijp ek Toirpapriop eX^rj^* ^ ov^ 
opa^p C09 a(f>a\€p6p iari to, & fiif oiSi Ti9, Tavra 
Xeyeip ij irparreiv ; ip^vfiov Se t&p aXKup ocov^ 
ola^a TO£ovTot/9, otoi ^aiPOPTcu koI XiyopTe^ & fiif 
laaai, tcaX irparropTe^, irorepd <rot SoKovaiP errl Tofc 
ToiovToi^ hralpov puXKop fj '^^vyov Tvy^dpeip ; xaX 
TTOTepop ^avfid^ecr^tu /jloXXop fj Kara^popela^ai, ; 
*Ep^vfiov Si Kol T&p elSoTODP o Ti re Xiyovai seal 17 
S Ti iroiovcri, KaL, iyi iyo) pofii^oj^ evpr^trei^ iv irSartP 
epyoi^ T0U9 flip evSoKifiovvrds re koX ^avfia^ofiipov^ 
ix T&p puKurra irrtaTap^ptop Sptu^, Toif^ Si xaxO' 
So^ovpTd^ re xal KaTa<f>popovpApov^ i/c t&p dpa^e- 
ordTtop, Ei oiv hrAvpel^ evSoKip^lp re /tal ^at/fta- 18 
tJEi^ai €P T^ iroXei, ireipA Karepyda-cur^ai co9 pdXurra 
TO elSipai & fiovXei irpdrreiP' ectp yap Toirnp Siepi- 
yxa^ T&p aXKtap hnyaeip^ ri Trjq iroXem^ irpdrreip^ 
ovK UP ^avpAaeufii, el irdpv paSta>^ n^ot9 &p irr^ 

102 xekofhon's heuorabilll 



This chapter ib the counterpart of the preceding. Socrates encoiiragei 
Charmidefl^ a man of gi'eat worth and ability, to engage in public life^ 
although averse to it 

One who is able to advance the interests of the State, and thereby to 
obtain glory and honor, is under a twofold obligation to exercise his 
talents (§ 1, 2). Socrates saye^ that he has learned that Charmides pos- 
sesses this ability, by noticing his conversation with other statesmen (§ 8). 
He who can express his thoughts or give his opinion among them, can 
certainly speak in the assembly of the people (§ 4 — 1) ; Tor if those who 
are most wise and powerful are not, those who have less ki^pwlpdge and 
power need not be, feared (^ 8). Seek, Socrates adds» a right under- 
standing of yourself, which will impart confidence ; and neglect not to 
give your exertions for the advantage of the State, that you may thus 
benefit not the citizens alone, but yourself and friends (§ 9). 

1 XapfitSrfp Sk rbv rXavxcDVO^ op&v a^ioKoyov fihf 
avBpa Sirra, xal ttoXX^ BupaTcarepov r&v t^ TToXiTudt 
Tore irparrovTODV, o/cvouvra Se TTpo^Uvcu r^ Bi]fi^ xal 
r&v rf}^ 7r6\ea>9 irparffiartov ivifieXcla^ai' Eliri /toi, 
€^17, & XapjiiiSrf, et Tt9 Itcavo^ £>v rov^ aT€<f>avira^ 
arf&va^ vikav koX iia rovro airro^ re ripAa^at koI ri}V 
irarpiSa iv t^ ^EXkdSi cvBoKifUJTipca/ iroieiv fi^ deXoA 
ayavi^ea^iu, irotov nva tovtov vo/ii^oi^ &v rov avhpa 
elvcu ; — AijXoVf ort^ Sifnf, ficCKaKov re Kai SeiKov, — 

% El Si Tt9, Sifyiff, Svvaro^ <&i/. r&v 1^9 iroKeta^ Trpayfid- 
Ttov iirifieKoficvo^ n^v re rroKiv av^eiv koI avro^ Sii^ 
rovro rifJMa^ai otevoitf Bff roOro rrparreiv^ ovic &v 
eucoro)^ SeiXo^ vofiifyiro ; — "Icro)?, i^* arhp rrpo^ ri 
fie ravT iptara^ ; — *'Ori, e^, olfiai ae Suvarop Svra 
OKvelv iTn/iekeia^ai, teal ravra &v avdytcq aoi, fieri' 

BOOK m. CHAP. vn. 108 

X^tv iroyJrg ye Spti, — T^ 8k ifiifv Bvva/iiVf l^ 6 3 
XapfjkiSf}^^ iv TToitp epytp KarafJuAwv ravrd fjLOV Koror 
yirpnixTKevi ; — '£i/ raSs avuovaiai^, iifyij, aJ? civet roi^ 
Ta r^ 7r6X€»9 irparrovai* koX yap^ orav ti avatcoi' 
v&vrai aoi, 6p& ae Kdk&^ ovfA^ovXevoirraj kcu otov rt 
afULprrdimo'LVt op^W- hrirtfi&VTa. — Ov rairrov iariv, 4 
e^, 01 Sto/cpare^, iBia re BtaXiyea^tu koi iv r^ irXtf- 
^€1 aytovi^ea^ai. — Kal fii^v^ e^^ o ye apAfulv Bwdr 
fA€vo^ oifBkv ffTTov iv TQ) TrXq^ci fj /lovo^ apAfiet, teal 
oi Kork fjLova^ apurra /cAapi^ovre^, oirot ical iv taS 
wXif^ei Kpartarevovatv, — Al&Si Be koI (f>60oVi €(f>rfj ov^ 5 
opa^ efi^vra re av^pwTTOt^ ovra koL ttoXKm fiaXKov iv 
To*9 o')(Kovi fj iv rcufi IBicu^ OfuXiat^ vapurrdfieva ; — 
Kcu ai ye BiBa^tov^ e<^, &ppLrffuu, OTt oUre Toif^ <f>pO' 
vifuaraTov^ alBovfievo^ ovre rois iaxypordrov^ ^fioV" 
fjLCvo^ iv T0A9 d^poveardroi^ re xal aa^eveardrot/s 
{uo-jffivrj Xcyttv irorepov ykp tou? yva^eU airr&v, fj 6 
TOU9 cr/ciH'efc, fj tou9 Tetcrova^j fj tov9 xaX^cfc. fj tov9 
yee^pyov^ fj tois ifivopov^^ fj rou^, iv r^ ayop^ fiera- 
ffdKXofievov^ xal ^povri^ovra^, o ri iKdrrovo^ trpidr 
fievoi wXeiova^ diroB&VTaij ola")(yvrf ; iic yctp rovrcov 
airavTwv fj iKK\fjaia awiaraTcu. Ti Be olei Bia^epeiv 7 
5 axf iroieVi fj r&v da/crjr&v ovra /cpeiTTto tou9 IBuora^ 
€^l3€ur^<u : ov ykp tok wpcorevovtriv iv t§ iroXeij &v 
evioi Kara^povoxkri crovj pqSm^ ButKeyo/ievo^, icaX r&v 
emfieXofievav rou ry iroKet BtaXeyea^cu iroXif ireptwvj 
iv TOW p/qBi iramore ^povrlacun r&v iroXirttc&Vf fitjBk 
aov tcaTaire<l>povrjK6(nv otcveh Xeyeiv, BeBiWj fitj /caror 
ye\a<r^^ ; — Tl S*; lifyrj, ov BokowC aoi ttoWoki^ oi B 
iv T^ ixxXfjO'la r&v op'^ck \ey6vrwv KartvyeXav ; — 
Kai yhp oi Srepoi^ e<fyrj' Bi6 teal ^avfid^69 aov, el 
i/eeivox^, orav rovro iroi^t, paSl<o9 xetpov/^ci/of, roV' 
Tov: Se fJLffBiva rpoTrov oXet Bwria-ea^cu wpo<reve^^rjvai. 
^/lya^if fiij ayvoet aeavrov^ fiffBi apMpTave & oi trKjel- 9 

104 xekofhon's hehorabilia. 

0T0< afiafyrdvovo'iv' ot yap iroXKol Apfuj/core^ cttI ri 
aicoTrehf ra tw SWojp vpdyfiara ov rpeirovrai iirl 
TO iavToif^ i^crd^eiv fii) oip diroppa^vp^ei toutov, 
dXXa SuiT€iPov fiaXkov TTpo^ to aeavT^ Trpo^i^eiv 
teal fJL^ apMkei, r&v riyi iroXeta^^ el ri hvvarov iari SiA 
ck fiiXTtov e^eiv rovrtov yap KoKok ixovrtov^ ov fio- 
vov oi oKKjot, TToXiTOi, dXX^ kcu, ot aol <l>i\oi xat avro9 
aif oifK €X.a;(i0Ta oxf>€\i](nj. 



Ths remaining chapters of the third Book are of a miscellancoiiB natnre^ 
not directly connected with the preceding chapters and not connected 
with each other. They contain practical explanations of ethical princi- 
ples^ conyerBations with artists and workmen in regard to their ocenpa- 
tion^ apothegms and precepts in reference to exercise, regimen, etc Their 
object seems to be to show the extent and value of Socrates'*! nstructions^ 
and thus they indirectly hare a bearing upon the second accusatioa 
against him. 

The present chapter shows in what manner he answered the some* 
what captious questions of Aristippus^ in reference to the good and 
beautiful, by showing their practical utility in life. Nothing, he says^ 
Is absolutely good or evil, but only in reference to its object (f 1 — 3). 
The same is true of the beautiful, which does not differ from the good, 
and they both are comprehended in the useful (( 4 — 10). 

1 ^Apiarlmrov 8* emx^tpovvTo^ iKiyxetv rov Smiepd- 
rrpf, &rn'€p avro^ xnr ixeCvov to wpoTcpov iJXeyp^cro, 
fiovXofievo^ T0U9 avvopra^ i>(f>€\€hf o SfOKpdTtf^ aTre- 
Kpivarot ou)^ A^wep oi ^vKoTTOfievoi, fii] irp 6 \oyo^ 
eiraXTia')^^, a\V c&9 &v treTreurfiepot fMiKiirra irpdT- 

8 T€tv tA SiovTo, *0 fJLCv ycip avrop ijpero, 6? t« elBeifi 


iyeAopf Sya, tl r$ cTiroi tAv toiovtwVj olov 4j ciriov^ 
^ TTOTOV tl j^f^fiara, fj vyUiav, fj fw/iffPf fj roKfjLap 
Seucmioi &ff tovto kokov €Piot€ 6p* 6 Si elSw, Sti, idp 
Ti ipoy^§ ^fjuist Seofie'^a rov iravaopTo^t dweKpiparOt 
i^ep xal woietp tepdrurrop' ^Apa ye, itfyfj^ ipmr^ fu Z 
ei ri olSa irvperov aya^op, — Ouk eycoy*, e^. — *ilXX 
o^^ciXfuW ; — OiSi tovto, — *i4XXa \ifjLov ; — OvSi 
Xiftot). — */lXX^ /ii]P, i<l>fj, ety ip(aTa^ fie, el ti aya^op 
oldoj & fifjSepo^ aya^op icrnp, otrr* otSa^ et^f ovre 

HoKiP hk Tov ^Apiortmrov iporrSpTo^ airroPj el Ti 4 
elSelrf tcaXop ; — KoX ttoXXo, e^. — ^^p oj^, e^, 
iravra f/ioia aXXs;Xoi9 ; — *S1^ otop Te fiep o0v, e^, 
apofJUHOTaTa Spm, — II w oSv, e^rj, to r^ koX^ api- 
fiotop tcdKop itp elfj ; — "Oti^ ptf ^i\ e^, e<m fihf t^ 
moKA irpo^ SpofJLOP ap^panrtp aXKo^ apofioio^, tcoKo^ 
irpo^ irdXrpfj eoTi Sk dairk, /ea\^ rrpo^ to irpofia- 
Xia^eUj &9 cm apofAoioTaTff r^ oKOPTifp, xakm vpo^ 
TO a<l)6Spa Te koI Ta^v ^peor^ot. — OifBep iui^pop- 5 
TflK, e^» drroKpipff fioi fj ore ae ijpdnrja-at el ti 
aya^op elSeiri^. — Sif S* olet, iffyq, clKKo flip aya^oPj 
aXKo 8e icaXop elpai ; ovk oZcr^*, 8r* irpo^ Tainii, vop* 
Ta KohA Te Kayc^d earip ; Upmop fih yap fi dper^ 
oif irpof aXKa pJkp dya^op, irpo^ aXXa Bk tcaXop iariv, 
hrevra oi ap^ponroi to airro Te koX- Trpo^ Tci airrd 
/raXol- xdya^ol XeyopTOCy irpoi Tk axnd hi koI Td 
owfAora tAp dp^poonrwp leaXd Te Koya^d ^ipeT€u, 
irpo^ Tavrd Si xal TiXKa trdpTei, oU ap^p^'trot j^Ap- 
TOA, KoXd Te xdya^d po/Mi^eTtu, nrpo^ airep &p e&xp^' 
ma y, — ^Ap otfp, 1^, Ktu KOffyipo^ Kowpo^po^ koKop 6 
ioTiP ; — Nil Ai\ eiprf, ical XP^^ 7* dtnrU aurxpop^ 
iap irpo^ Td eaxnAp epya o fiep icaXA^ veiroifj/jLepo^ f, 
if Si KOKW. — Aiyei^ av, effy/f, xaXd Te Kal alc^pd t^ 
avrd etpoi ; — £al pfj Ai^ iyofy^ Iffnf, dya^d Te xal 7 


106 xenophon's kekorabilu. 

KOKa* iroXKcuei/f yitp to t€ Xifiov aya^ov irvperov tea" 
Kov ioTi, leal ro irvperov aya^op Xi/ioS kokou iartt 
iroXKojci,^ hk TO fihf irpo^ Spofiou tcdkop irph^ iraKriw 
oio")(p6vt ro hi nrpo^ iraXriv kclKjov irpo^ SpofjLov ai<r)(pov 
Trdvra yitp. aya^ii fiev xal xaXd icrri^ wpo^ h &» eS 

8 Kai oIkuk Se Xeytop t^9 airrit^ KoKd^ t€ eipoi koI 
jy)ff<rifiov^ TTcuSeveip S^oi/y iBoxei^ ouk xPV oitcoSo" 
fieia^eu. ^EireaKOTrei Be &S€' ^Apd ye top fiiXXopTa 
olxiap, oXap XP^» ^X^^^ tovto Bel fiTfxapaa^a^ &nw^ 

9 rjBioTfi T€ ipSuurao'^at teal ')(prf<nfia}TdT7j ecrrcu ; Tov' 
rov Be OfAoXoyovfiipov Ovkovp ifiv flip ^ipotf^ ^t^€i- 
pifp €)(€iP, ifBif Bi x^Lfi&po^ oKeeipi^p;' — ^EiretHj Be «ral 
TOVTO ayfi<f>cu€V' Ovkovp ip roi? irpo^ fieoTjfifipiav 
^Xerrova-ai^ oixiai/s tov fiep yeipMPO^ o fjjKio^ ek r^9 
TraoToBa^ v7ro\dfiir€L, tov Be ^ipov^ inrep fi fi&pairr&p 
Kol T&p arey&p iropevSfiepo^ aiuap irape')(ei ; Ovkovp 
el ye kclKm^ Sx^t ravra ovTm ylypea^cu^ oUoBofjtetp Bei 
in^XoTepa fihf to, irpo^ fAeaT)fifipiaPj ipa 6 'xeifieptpo^ 
^\io? firj airoKXeifiTaij ^afiaXdyrepa Bk Ta Trpo^ ap' 

10 KTOP, Xva ol '^vxpol /i^ e/JLiriirTfoo'iP Svefioi ; *{1^ Bi 
avpeXopTi ehreipj ottol vdaa^ &paji airro^ re &p ^urra 
KaTa^)€vyoi, koI Tct 6pTa a<r^CLKk<rraTa ti^oito, avrtf 
&p eUoTta^ ^BiaTTf re Kal KoXKlarrj ohcrfci^ eitf <//x»- 
^l Bk Koi TTOkKiXCcu vKelopo^ ev^pocvpa^ airotrrepoV' 
aip ^ irap^ovtri. Naoh ye fi^p /cal fifofioti^ X^P^^ 
Sifyri elpeu irpeTrtoBeardTrfPy ffrt9 ifJ^MpeardTtf oiaa doTi- 
fietrrdTTi eitf ^Bv fikp yhp IBopTa^ irpo^ev^aa^aA^ ^h 
Bi afjfp&9 e^oPTOis vpo^Upai. 

B001C UL CHAP. IX. 107 



TmB chapter consists of definitions and explanations of seyeral terms 
czpressiye of moral qoalitieflb 

1; Although some men haye by nature more courage than others^ yet 
this qnalitj maj be strengthened By precept and practice (^ 1<— 8). 

2. Witdom and dUeretion {v€f^poa^) cannot be separated ; since . 
erery one who knows the rights and acts accordingly, is both wise and 
discreet But as eyery one does what seems best to him, he who does not 
the right; is not only not discreet; but not wise (( 4). 

8. Justice, and eyery other yirtue is wisdom {<ropic) (§ 6). 

4^ The opposite of wisdom is insanity (juufia) ; but ignorance is not 
insanity, yet self-ignorance is next akin to it Great Aberration of under- 
standing is commonly called insanity, but Socrates understood by it the 
mistaking of the good, which has its foundation in want of self-know- 
ledge (§ 6, 7). 

5. Bnvy is the pain or sorrow felt at the prosperity of friends. It is 
the companion of fools and not of wise men (§ 8). 

6. Idleneae is not entire inactiyity, for all do something, but a yacuify 
of all useful employment (§ 0). 

7. Those who bear the sceptre are not necessarily kinffi and prince^ 
but only those who haye the skill and ability to goyem (( 10—18). 

8. The best employment of life is ^bwpa^ia, good conduct; which is 
to be distinguished from tbrvxia, good fortune; as vpo^if from r^Xf 
« H 16). 

IlaXiv Sk ipfOTw/ievo^t V civSpla irorepov efi; hir J 
haxTov^ fj ^vaiKov ; Olfiai fiiv, Stf^rj^ ok^rep a&fia 
adfiaro^ iayyporrepov irpo^ rov^ irovov^ ^vera^ ohto 
xal ^^v^ffv '^vj(fj^ ipjInofieveoTepav Trpo^ rh Scofit ^v- 
C€i yiyvea^af 6p& yhp iv roi^ avrok v6fU)i^ re xal 
S^eat rpe^fiivov^ iroXif Sia^ipoma^ aXKqXav roXfip, 
Nofu^to fiivTOi Traaav <f>v<nv fjufyi^aei xal fieXerp irpa^ 2 
avSpiav av^a^cu* ii]\ov phf yhp, ort Sfcv^ai tcaX 

108 xenofhon's vekorabilia. 

&pf,fc€^ ovK &v ToXfu^aeuuf aairiSa^ /eat Sopara Xa* 
fioine^ AaKeBaifjLOvloi^ iiafiayea^ai,^ if)av€pov Se, ort 
fcal AaxeSaifiovioi out &v Opif^lv ip iriXrat^ koI ojcoih 
TiOL^j ovT€ S/cu^cu^ iv To^Oi^ i^iXouv &v Biaymvi^e' 

3 a^cu. ^Op& £' eycoye koX hr\ r&v SXKxov iravrtov 
ofioio)^ Kol (ffuo'ei Bui<l>ipovTa^ aXXijIXuv rov^ op^pio- 
irov^i teal hnp^Xeia 'rroKv iiriZiZovra^' ix Be rovrtop 
B^Xov ioTiv, OTt irdirra^ j^pij teal touj €v<f)V€aTipov^ 
KoX Tov^ afjLJSXvripov^ t^i/ ^vaiVy iv 0Z9 iiv afuiXoyoi 
fiovXioprat yepia-^ai^ ravra /cal fiav^dveuf teal fieXerav. 

4 Soif>iav Be xal aw^poavvqv ov Buopi^ep, aXXa 
Tov TO, fikv xaXd T€ xal aya^et yiywoa-Kovra j(prja^cu 
auTclh, xal TOV ra alaj(piL elBora eiXafieta^a^j ao<f>6v 
re teal tro^^pova CKpivev. npo^epmrdfiepo^' Se, el rots 
hrurrafUvov^ fikv & Bel irparreiv^ Trotovvra^ Be ravav- 
Tia, a'o<f>ov^ T€ Kal iytcpareU etvai vofii^of OvBiv ye 
fiaXXoVf e^, r^ aao^v^ re xal axparevi' irdvrc^ yitp 
ol/jbaif irpocupovpAvov^ ix r&v ivBejfppUwov & oXovrcU 
avfuf>op(OTaTa auroU elveu, raura irpdrretv, Nofii^ia 
oip roi/^ fifi op^Si^ Trpdrropra^ ovre <ro^if^ ovre aoy- 

5 ^popa^ elpcu. *'E(fnj Bi teal rtfp Bitcaioavprjp teal 
TtfP aXXijp iraaav aperifp ao^Cap elvcu* rd re yap 
Biteaui teal Trdpra, Son aper^ trpdrrercu, leaXd re teal 
aya^k elpcu' teat ovr &p roit^ ravra elBora^ SXKo dpri 
rovrtop ovBht TrpoeXea^ai, ovre roir^ fitf eirurrapUpov^ 
Bvpaa^ai vpdrreiPj dXXiL teal Hlp eyj(€ip&tnpj dfJLap^ 
rdpeip' oirto koX rh tecCKd re koX ayc^ii roif^ fikp 0*0- 
^oif^ irpdrreiv, roit^ Bk fx^ aoif>ov^ ov Bvpaa^ai, aXXa 
Kal iitp ey^eipwripy dfiaprdpeip' irrel oZp rd re Biteata 
Kal rh aXXa KaXd re teal aya^h irdpra aperQ rrpdr* 
rerai^ BvfKjop ehai, Srt Kal Bitecuoavprj teal ff aXXtf iraaa 

6 dper^ aoifila e<rrL Map lap ye /iifp ipovriop iihf e^ 
elvai, ao<fft(fj ov fieproi ye rijp apeirumjfAoavpvfP p/iPiak 
ivofii^e, ro Bi aypoetp iavrop, xal firi & oT&e Bo^dfyii 


r€ KoX oUa^eu yiyvm<ric€iv, iyyvrarto fiavuK iXoyi^ero 
etveu* rois fiivrot iroXKoif^ 1^, & fihf oi irXelaTOi 
ajpoovai^ Tov? StTjfiapTTjKOTO^ rovT(ov ou <f>daK€iv fia^- 
V€a%ai Touf Se Siij/JLapnjKora^j &v oi irciXXol 'ytyi^- 
axouch fiaivofiepov^ KaXeu/' idv re yap r(9 fA4ya^ 7 
oSto)? ynyiroA elvojLt okre /cvyrreiv tA? irvKa^ tov rei- 
Xov^ Stef Moi/, idv re oi5Ta>9 lo'x^po^y &^* iiriy^eLpehf 
olmla/i alpea^cu^ fj aXKup r^ eirvrCbetr^cu r&v iroun 
hrjXMV 5m aSvpard iari, rovrov fiaiveo'^ai ipda-xeiv, 
T0V9 Bk fiifcpov SuifiapTdvovTa^ ou Boxeiv roU voK- 
XoS? fiLaivcfT^cUj aXX*, WTTcp rifv Ur-xypav iirAvfiiav 
epfuna kclKowiv^ ofrno teal r^v fAeydXrjv irapdvouLV 
fiaviav aifTov^ KoXelv. 

^^OPOV Si CKOTT&V, 6 Ti CII/, XvTTfJV fUt* TiVa % 

i^€UpiaK€v avTOP ovra, oure pAvroi rffv inl ^CkodV 
arvj(ia^, ovre rtfu hr ij^p&v euri/p^tat? yiyvofxipffVy 
aXXA fJLOvov^ etfnj ^^ovetv rov^ iirl raU ra>v ^tXxov 
elnrpa^Uu^ dvia^fiipov^* OaufAa^ovrwv Be rivtop, el ri^ 
if>iK&p Tipa hrl t§ einrpa^ia avrov Xvttoito, {nrefil- 
fAPffCicep, OTi TToXXol ovTfii? irpo^ ripa^ expvciv^ wre 
Ktucm fup irpdrropra^ firj Supcur^ai wepiopapj dXXA 
fioff^eip dr\r)(pv<nPy eifrux^vpro^p Bi XvTreto'^cu' rovro 
Si ^popifjLtp flip apBpl ovK &p avfiPffpai^ roif^ rjki^iov^ 

Bi del ird«r)(€^^ axno. 

^^oX^v Be aKorr&p, ri etrj^ wounhna^ fUp n 9 
[oXa>9 airainro^t ax'^^^"'^^^^ fiePToi] tov9 ttXc/cttou? 
iif>rf evpuTKeip' teal ykp^ roif^ irerrevopra^ koX, roif^ 
yekooTonroiovpTWi iroieip n* irdpra^ Bi toiJtow i^ 
axpXd^eiP' i^ipoi yhp avrol^ Uptu jrpa^oPTW r^ 
fieXrUo rovrtav* diro fUvToi t&p fieKriovwp hr\ rh 
Xeipci lepcu ovBepa axpXd^eiPt el Be ri^ loiy toutov 
oir^oX^? avT^ ovatf^ teoKSf^ Sffytf tovto irpdrreip. 

Ba<rtX6i9 Bi koL apxopra^ ov rov^ ra aKvprrpa 10 * 
e^oirra? li^ elpai^ ovBi tov9 vrrb t&p ruypprtop alpe- 


fuvov^, ovBi T0V9 i^aTran^cavTtK^ aXKa tov9 hrurrek- 

11 fiivov^ apx^^v, 'Otrore yap n^ ofuiKoyi^irete rov fUv 
apxovTo^ elvai to irpo^atreiv o ri j(ptf Trq^uf, rov Bi 
apypiUvov TO Tre^ea-^cu, eireSeUwep iv re vtft top 
fuv emardfievov ap^ovTa, tov Si pavxXijpov /cal tov^ 
oKKov^ T0V9 iv T§ V7ft iravra^ veAofiivov^ tj5 erri" 
aTafievtp^ koX iv yetopyia rot^ K€ieTf)/i€vov^ aypov^f 
Kai iv voaip tou9 voaovvra^, koX iv andfuuncla tov9 
c^fuuFKovvTo^y KoX T0V9 aXXoi/9 irouTO^^ 0I9 inrdpxei 
r» iwifieXeia^ Seofievov^ hv fiev airroi fiy&VTcu hriCTOr 
a^cu eiri/jLcXeia^cu, — el Se fjnj, Tok iTrioTafUvoui oi 
fiovov vapovai 'rrei^o/ievov^t aXXA koI anrovra^ fAera- 
irefiTTOfievov^t ottoi? ixeivoi^ ireC^ofievoi tcl Siovra 
irpaTTfoaiv iv hk ToKaala koX ra9 ywaUiK inehei" 
fcwev ap^ovaa^ r&v avBp&v^ SiiL to to? fliiv etSevaiy 

12 07r<»9 XP^ ToXaaiovpyelv, tou9 Si fiff elSivai, El Si 
Tt9 TTpo^ Tuvra Xiyoi, on r^ Tvpawtp e^eari fiif iretr 
^ea-^eu toS? op^m Xiyovai' Kal irw avy €<^, i^itj 
fiil ireHS^ea^ai, irriKevfievrj^ ye fy/ila^j idv ri9 r^ eS 
XeyovTi fiij ireS^ryrcu, ; iv ^ ykp av Ti9 irpdyfiari firi 
ireC^TfTcu T^ eS Xeyoirrt, ofJutpTi^aeTtu SifiroVf afiap- 

13 Tavmv Si ^rffu&^i]<T€Tai. El Se KJiairf Ti9 t^ TVpawfp 
i^lvav Kol diro/crelviu tov ei ^povovvra* Tov Si 
awo/ereivovTa, €<fnf^ tov^ xpaTioTov^ t&v avfiiidxw^ 
oXei a^fuov yiyvea^ait fj w erv^^e ^rjfuova^a^ ; iro- 
Tepov ykp &v fuiXKov oUi ati^ea-^ai tov Tavra iro^^ 
ovvTa, if ovTO) Kal Tdyyrr hv anroyJka^oA ; 

4 ^EpOfUvov Si Tivo^ airrov, Ti SoKoiq airr^ Kpa- 
TUTTOV avSpl imTriSevfia elvai^ direKplvaTO, Evirpa- 
^iav, ^Epofikvov Si TraXii/, el xal rijv euTxrxUof etn,* 
Trfievfia vofii^ot elvai* Hav fiiv oZv Toin/carrlov eyih>y\ 
€if>ff, Tv^ffv fcal irpa^iv riyovfuu* to fiiv ykp pLti 
fylTowra einTir)(elv tivi t&v SeovTcav einvyUof olfuu 

BOOK m. CHAP. JL 111 

eluatj TO Si fta^opra re Kai fAcKerqcavrd ri eS iroieuf 
evTrpa^iay vofii^o^j ical ol rovro iirirrfSevovre^ Soxovai 
/iOA €u TTpdrreiv, EmI aplarov^ Si koI ^€0<f>iXje<rrd' 15 
rov^ €<fnf €&<M ei; fiiu yetofyyiti rov^ rk yewpyuck eS 
TrpdrTovTo^^ iv S* iarpeiti rov^ r^ larpiKdj iv Bi wo' 
Xireia rov9 rk iroXirucd, top Si firjSiv ei irpdrropra 
aSre ypriai/jLOV ovSiv 1^ cZi^at, oGre ^eo^CKrj, 



SooRATEB aUo sought to be usefol to artists and mechanioB, bj oonyersiDg 
with them in fegard to their employments : 

1. Painting consists not merely in copying exactly all the objects that 
come within the circle of vision ; even the highest beanty of the human 
figure is not found in any one indiyidnal, but must be consummated by 
the union of all the separate beauties of different persons^ with the emo- 
tions expressed in the eyet^ countenance, and the whole mien (} 1 — 5). 

2. In statuaiy, not only must the motions of the body be imitated, 
but thoughts and feelings designated in such a manner, that the statue 
shall seem to be endowed with life (} 6 — 8). 

8. With Pistias^ he conversed upon the manner of constructing the 
breast-plate, so that it would best protect the body, with the least im- 
pediment to its free and easy motion (} 9 — 15). 

^AXSA iir^v Koi el wore r&v ra^ TlyytK ixovrtov 1 « 
Kol ipyaaiwi ivexa 'Xptop,4v(iiiv axnak SiaXiyoiro rivi^ 
teaX TovTOi^ 0D<f>€\ifJLO9 ^v ' €k€\^o>v phf yap irore Trpa^ 
Happaaiov rov ^mypdi^v leat Siakeyofuvo^ avr^* ^^P^ 
eifnj, & nappdat^ ypa^ixri i<rrwfi eUcurla r&v 6pm- 
fUvudv ; rh, yovv icoTKa KaX rh tnp^Xd, koX rk aKoruvk 
KoX rk ifxor€ivd^ Kal rk aKKr/pk xal rk ^idKcued, teal * 
rk rpax^a Kai ra Xcia, koX rk via leal rk ircCKouk 


aa^fiOTa Sih t&v ')(p(OfiaTwv aweucd^ovre^ iKfiijj^ta^e,-^ 

2 ^AXtf^Tj Xiyei^, €<fn). — Kal /AtfP rd ye xaXa eiStf a^- 
fioiouPTC^, hreiStj ov piBtov ivl dv^pion^ irepinrxetv 
a^jMirra irdvra Jp^oirrt, ix itoXKmv awdyovre^ Ta i^ 
ixdarou KaWtarctf ojrroi? oXa rd vrnpLara icaKd vqum 

3 (f>aiv€tr^ai ; — IIoiovfJL€P ydp, 6^, oCtcdv. — Ti yap ; 
i^t TO irAavoanraTiv re koX ffiicrrov koX ^CKuaHnarov 
KoX iro^eivdrarov icaX ipaafuayraTOV dirofiifuta^e r^ 
'^V)(fj^ ^^09 ; fj ovBi fiifiTjTOV ioTi TOVTO ; — ITa>9 ydp 
dvt lifyrfj fiifitfrov eitf, & Sdtcpare^, h /Aijre avfjLfLcrptaVf 
fitfre yp&iia^ pujre &v cv ehras dprt firfiiv ex^h M^S^ 

4 oXi»9 oparov iartv ; — ^Ap* oZp, i^, ylyverai, iv dv- 
^pdnrtp TO T€ ^CKof^povw^ Koi ro ij^pSf^ pXhreiv irpo^ 
riva^ ; — "Efioiye SokcI, lifytf, — Oukovv tovto ye fiifiri- 
rbv ip ToU Sfi/KKTiP ; — Kal fidXa^ etprf, — 'JBtt* Bi toJ? 
T&p if>ihMP dyo^ol<s Ktu roi<i xaxoh ofiolo}^ aoi Bokov- 
aip ex^tp rd irpo^toira ol re ^poprP^ovre^ koX oi p,Ti ;— 
Md AC ou S^TO, !<l»j' hri fiep ydp roh drya^ok ^oi- 
Spoij eprl Be tok tcaxoU ctcv^ponrol yiypoprai. — Ov- 
Kovp, l<f>ff, fcal ravra BtfPaTOP dTreued^eip ; — Kal fioKa^ 

5 e^ri^ — ^AXKd fir^p Kal to fieyaKoirperri^ re icaX ikev 
^ipiop KoX TO rairupop re xal dpeXev^epop, leal to 

fftO^pOPflTUCOP T€ Kal lf>pOPlflOP Kol TO vfipUJTlKOP T€ 

KoX direipoKaXop xal Bid tov irpo^wnrov koX Bid t&p 
tr)(rifiaTwp Ktu itrr^Ttap koX KiPOvpAptop dp^poyrrt»p Bior 
iJMipei, — ^AXrj^rj XSyei^t e^. — Ovkgvp koI Tavra 
utfifird ; — Kal fidXa, e^. — IHrepop oip, etfyrj, po/aI- 
^€1^ ffBiop opop Tov; dp^pwirov^t BC &p t^ KoXd re 
Kdya^d koI dyawffTd if^ff (f^alpcraij ij Bi &p Ta at- 
(Txpd T€ Kal iropffpd kgI fiKrifrd; — HoXi> pf) Ai^ Iffnf 
Buiff>€pei, & SfOKpaT^^. 
d IT/0O9 Bi KXerrmpa top dpBpiaPToiroiop ekeX- 
^dp irorre koX BiaXeyofiepo^ airr^' ^Oti flip, e^, & 
KXeiTcoPj dXXoioi;^ iroieh BpofieU tc koX iraXaiard^ 

BOOK in. CHAP. X 118 

teal ^jcra? teal woy/cpaTuurrh^^ 6p& re seal oZSa* h Si 
fioKuna '^^(ayoyYcl Bta rrj^ Syfreo)^ tov9 ap^pdnroi/^, 
TO ^wTtKov t^ivca^cUy 'JTW TouTo ivepjdfy Toef avSpia- 
trtv ; ^Eirel Se airop&v o KXeiTtav ov raj(y airexpl- 7 
varo* ^Ap\ €(fyrf, roU r&v ^tntov eiSea-iv direixd^tDV 
TO €pyov fytruuoripov^ mius (futivea^ai rov9 apSptdv- 
Ta9 ; — KjoX fidXa, €<fyi], — Ovkow rd re inro r&v c'X!'!" 
fidrwv Karaairdfieva xai rit, dpoaTrcofitpa iv Tot9 cd^ 
fiaa^ Kol rk avfiirie^ofieva xal rii hicKKop^va^ Koi riC 
iirreivofieva xal r^ avtifieva dTreixd^tov ofiounepd re 
ToS? dXrf^LVol^ Kcu irC^avdnepa rrote'k if>alv€a^ai ; — 
Hdw fihf oiv, etjyrj. — To Be xai ra ird^ij r&v iroiovv- 8 
rmv Ti atdfidrwv airofUfieia^ai ov rroiel nva rep^iv 
Tot? ^eafJL^vot^ ; — El/c6<: yovv, e^, — Ovkow koX r&v 
uev fxa^ofiivoDv drreiXrfTi/ca ra Sfi/iara direiKcurreov^ 
r&v he veviKTfKOTdDv ev^pcuvofiivtav 17 o^t? fii/irfrea ; — 
Sil>6Bpa jt etfyij, — ^iel apa, etfyrfj rov dvSpiavroiroiov 
tA t^ '^v)fi^ epya r& eiSei irpo^eucd^eiv, 

Upo^ Be HiorCav rov ^tDpaicoiroiov eUe)C^&v, 9 
irrtSel^avro^ avrov r& Sc^/cpdret ^(opaKa^ ev elpya- 
aiievom • Ntf rffv "Hpav, etfyrf, koXov ye, & IlKrria, ro 
evpTffia r^ rii fiev Beofieva aximf^ rov dv^panrov aKe^ 
irafyiv rov ^a>paxa, raU Be X^P^^^ MV tc^^vetv ^/o^^^at. 
^Ardp, S^t \e^ov fioi^ & II tor let, Bici ri oiire Itrxypore K 
pov9 oire iro\vre\e<rrepov^ ^r&v SXKmv iroi&v rov^ &(A-^ 
patca^ vXeiovo^ TraoKet^ ; — "Ori^ l<l>rf, & "S&icpares, eipV" 
^pArripov^ Troi&. — Tov Bi fnAfiov, l<f>ff, irorepa fidrpip 
fj ara^fi^ eiriSeiKVwov irXeiovo^ rifi^ ; ov yap B^ Icov^ 
ye irdvra^ ovBi 6/jloiov^ olfuU tre iFoieiv, eXye appArroV' 
Ta9 7ro£6C9. — *il\XA vff AC, iflyrf, iroi&* ovBev yap J^Xo9 
€<m ^(opoKO^ avev rovrov. — Ov/cow, €4% ad/xard yell 
aaf^pwmov ra fiev eSpv^/Jtd i<m, rd Bi appv^fj^a ; — 
ndvv p,kv oiv, l<l>ij, — IIw oivy lifnjj r^ dppv^fjup aoh 
fiari dpfiorrovra rov ^dpcuca evpv'^fiov iroie'k ; — 

114 xenophon's mekobabilia. 

12 "fl^irep /ecu apfMrtovra, ijrq' 6 apfiorroDv yap i<mp 
evpv^fio^, — Jo#c€i9 fioh effyrj 6 ScoKpdrrf^, rb evpv^fiop 
oi Ka^^ iauTO \ey€iv, oKKii irpo^ rov jQxofievop, W' 
irep av el <f>aifi^ currriSa, ^ &v ap/ioTTtf, rour^ cvpu' 
^fjLov elvai, Kai j(kafJLvSa, xai riWa di^avrto^ eoixcv 

13 e)(€iv r& <r^ X079). *'J<ra>9 H kcu SXKo ti ov fiucpov 
ayo&ov T^ apfAOTTUV irpo^eoTt. — j^iSa^ov, €if>ij^ & 
Sdxpare:, el ri e^et?. — ^jBTttov, effnf, rS fiapei, irU- 

* ^ovaiv oi apfioTTovre; rwv avapfiooTtov, top ainov 
4rra^fi6v e^ovr&i' ol fiev yap avdppLoaroi fj oXoi ex 
T&v &pM>v Kp€fidfi€voi^ fj Kal oKKo Tl TOV a&fUlTO^ 
a-<f>6Bpa irie^ovres Sv<;(l>opoL xal ^oKeTrol yiyvovraVj oi 
hk apfioTTOvre^, SieiXrffifiivoi to fidpo^ to fiev inro t&v 
K\eiS&v Kal eTTtDfiiBtov, to Se inro t&v &fMov, to ik 
xmo TOV cm;^ov9j to oe xnro tov va>Tov, to be inro 
T^9 yaxjTpo^, oXiyov Selv ov ^prffiaTi^ dXKh, irpo^- 

14 ^ijfjMTi ioixaaiv. — ElprjKa^j €<fyrf^ aino. Si OTrep eyeo^ye 
Ta ifia epya irXeioTov a^ia vofii^to elvai' ivtov fihnoi 
T0U9 iroiKiXjoxf^ kolI TOiv hn')(pvaov^ ^fopaxa^ pLoXKov 
&V0VVTCU, — 'ilXX^ fjL'qv, e^, eXye hih Tavra fitf dp- 
fioTTOVTa^ mvovvTo^'^ xa/cov ep^oiye So/eovai troixiXjov t€ 

15 Kol erri^vaov Ji>v€ta^ac. ^ATdp^ e^, tov atapLaTo^ 
p,rj p,evovTO^, dXKct, Tork p.kv icvprovfievov, tot6 Se op" 
^ovfievov, 7r&9 &v a/cpifiel^ ^wpaxe^ dpp^TToiev ; — 
OifSafi&^f €<lyrf. — AeyeK, €<f>r}, dpfioTreiv ov tov^ oKpt" 
fieUf oKKib T0V9 p^ff Xvirovvra^ ev t§ XP^^ — Avto^i 
e^9 TOVTO y^ev:, & S<o/cpaT€9i /ad irdw op^m airo* 





8ocRAT£S having heard of the beauty of a famous courtezan Theodota> 
TiMts her with some of hU disciplca « 1), and finds her engaged with a 
painter. After instituting the inquiry whether they conferred or re- 
ceived greater favor by looking at so great beauty (4 2, 8), Socrates 
convenes jestingly with Theodota upon the value of friends and the best 
means of obtaining them (<i 4—9). Lasting friendship, he says, is not 
secured by beauty of person and the arts of love alone, but by kindness 

(J lu 12). In the gratification of sensual desire the greatest moderar 

lion should be preserved, lest satiety and disgust ensue (§ 18, 14). The 
interview is concluded by a playful dialogue between Theodota and 
Socrates (^ 16—18). 

Fwauco^ Si wore owny^ iv rg iroXei #caX^, ff opofia 1 
fjv OeoSoTTf, /cal oSa? aweipcu r^ Trci&oin-t, fivrja^ev- 
T09 aurfj^ rcjv irapovrwv nvo^ Koi elnovro^, art Kpetr- 
TOP €17} \iyov TO KoXKoi TYJ^ jwaiKO^, teal ^(oypd(l)0V9 
<l>ijaavTO^ elwvdi 7rpo9 airrrfp dircifcatrofjUvov^, ok iKcir 
prjv eiriBeiKVuetv caim}? oaa KaK&^ e^o** 'Irioi/ &p ettf 
^ecurofiivoi/^, e^i7 o SfOKpdrrjs' ov yctp Btj axovacuri ye 
TO Tiiyov KpeiTTOv fo-rt KarafAa^etp. Kai 6 SiffyTjaa- 
fiepo^^ OuK &p (f/idpoiTj e<l>i], aKoXov^ovPTe^. Ovreo 2 
fihf hii iropet/hhne^ irpo^ Tfjp OeoSorrfP, koX KaToKa- 
fioPTe; ^oyypd<f>q^ tivI irapetrrqKvtap i^edaapro* iraV' 
aa/iipou Si tov ^(oypdifyov ^il apSpe^, €<f>fj 6 S(D/cpa' 
T17?, irinepop ^fui^ &J fmXXop OcoSdrij xdpiP ex^i^i 
OTt fipip TO KoXKo^ iavTTfi hriSei^ep, fj Taivqp fifUP, 
oTi ^ectadfLc^a ; ip €i phf tovvq &<f>e\ifioyripa' iarip 
fj eirCSei^t/fj Tavrr/p fipip x^P^^ ktcriop^ el Si ^fiip 17 ^^o, 
ifi&^ TavTjf ; EliroPTo^ Si Ttpo^j Sti SUaia Xiyoi* 

116 xenophon's memorabilia. 

3 OvKovv, 6^, avTf} fi€v ijStj t€ top trap iffiAv erraipow 
fcepSaiveij /cat iireiSap €t9 irXeiov^ SuiyyeiXxofiev, 'rrXeua 
a>0€Xi7<7'6Tat, ^fJkcU Se ijSr) re, &v i^eaadfie^ay erri^v- 
fjMVfiev a'^aa^a4^, /cai atnfjkev vTroxvi^ofieuoi, teal aveX- 
^6uT€9 iro^riaofiev* i/e Sk tovtcov cUo^ ^fia^ fih/ ^epor 
T€U6ti/, ravrriv hk ^epaTrevea^au Kal 17 OeoBoTtj* N^ 
ACy e^, €1 roivup Taff^* ovrto^ ^X^^ ^f^ ^^ ^^^ vpiv 

I TTfi ^ea? x^P^^ ^X^^^' -^^ ^^ TOUTOV o StoKparri^ op&v 
airrjv re iroXinrcXw xeicoa-fjirjfiivrfv, xat fir)Tipa irapov- 
aav avT^ iv ia^riTi, koX ^epaweia oxf t§ Tvj(pv(njt fccd 
^€pairaiva/^ ttoXX^? koX evetSew, icol oihe ravrwi ^jfie- 
XfffUpo}^ i)(ov<ra^t Kal roU aXXoi9 tt^p ouciav a^^opta^ 
KaT€a'K€vaa'fjL€Pi]P' Eirri fiot, 1^, & OeoBorrj^ iari aot 
aypo^ ; Ovk e/ioty, c^. — '^XX' apa oUia Trpo^oSov^ 
iypvaa ; — Oiik olxfa, c^iy. — 'ilXXA pii) x^LpoTijQfai 
Ttph ; — OvSe yeiponreyyatf c^. — IlJ^ep ovp, e^, 
TttTTtTijSfia e)(€K ; — 'JSar Tt9» €^, ^tXo9 fioi yepo- 

5 fi€Po<: eu iroielp i^eXtf, o5to9 fioi /9io9 itrrL — Nff Trjp 
^Hpap, eifnfj & BeoSon], koKop ye to Krrjfia' tcai 
TToXX^ Kpelrrop otoop re teal fio&p xal aly&p ^iXxop 
a/yekfjp Ketcnja^ai. ^Ardp^ 6^, irorepop t§ Tv^jf eirir 
rp€7r€i99 idp rh crot <^tXo9, &<;7rep fivia^ Trpo^TrrrjTcu, 

6 fj Kal ainrj ri firixava ; — ITo)9 S' ap, €^, iya> toutov 
fir))(aprjp evpoifxi ; — IToXv v)j Ai\ €<fnf, 'rrpo^rfKOPrco^ 
fiaXXop fj ai <f>d\ayy€^^ oZor^a yeip, C09 iKetpOA ^rjpSun 
tA irpio^ TOP Plop' dpaypia yhp hrfirov XeTrra iHfyrfpd- 
fiepat, o Ti &p ipTai^a ip/ir^arj, roxnfp rpo^ p^/oeSr- 

7 rat, — KaX ifiol odvj Sifn), avp,/3ovXev€i<: v(l>i]paa^al ri 
%riparpop ; — Oi yhp S^ ovrta^ ye are)(PW oi€<r^at 
XPV '^^ frXelarov a^iop aypevpu, if>t\ov^, ^rjpdo'eip' 
ovx opSs, Sti Kal TO fAUcpov a^ioPy rov^ \ayw, ^17- 

8 p&PT€^ TToXXa rexpa^ovcrip ; ''On flip yhp t^9 pvkto^ 
pcfioprat^ KVPtK PUKTepevTiKk^ iropurdfievoi^ ravrat^ av- 
T0U9 ^*7/)ft)<rti/, 5t* Si fiey rffupav airoStSpda'Kova'iP 

BOOKIIL CHAP.. 21. 117 

oXXov iCT&imu Kwa^j airive^, fi &v iic Trp vofitj^ eh 
T^y eivtfp airiK^toai, rff oafifj aia^apofievcu evpUrxoV' 
auf auT0U9, OTi hk iroSdKet^ elctp, &^e seal ifc rov 
^avepov Tp€)(pvT€^ a7ro(l>€vy€w, aXKa^ ai tcwa^ to- 
yeia^ irapaaKevdfyjnai^ Xva Kara iroia^ dXiascwvraiy 
5t4 Be KoX ravra^ axn&v rive^ a7ro(l>evyovaij Sucrva 
urrcunv ek ra^ aTpatrov^, ^ <f>evyova'iVj Xv ek ravra 
€fjLiriirTOPT€^ avfiiroSi^cavTM. — Tivi oiv, 1^, roiovr^ 9 
4^iKov^ av cyo) ^rfp^v ; -^ ^Eav v^ Ai\ e^, ami 
tewo^ icrqarfy 09tk co^ Ixyewav fihf Totv if>CKoKd\ou^ 
seal irXovaiov^ evpTi<rei, evpi>v Be fiTfx,^in]aeTai, oirw^ 
i^aXff airrov^ ek r^ era Bi/crva. — Kal wota, €if>7i, 10 
iya> BiKTva €)(fo ; — ^Ev fiev SiyrroVy 1^, teal fioKa 
ev TrepnrXjeKOfievovj to a&fjLOj iv Be Tovnp '>^vj(i]V, ^ 
Karapuv^dpei^, icaX m &v ififiXeirovaa x^P^^*^* ^^ 
o ri &v \eyovaa ev(f>paivot^j xai on Bei rov p,€v hn- 
fjteXofievov iurpipw^ inroBexeo'^a^t top Bk Tpv^Sipra 
aTTokkeieiP, leai dppatm^aapTo^ ye (f^iXov ^poprurrucm 
hricKey^aa^aij koI tcaXop rt irpd^apro^ tn^oBpa ainrq- 
<F^fjpaLi teal r^ a<l>6dpa aov ^poprC^opri o\ri r^ ^^xS 
KCxapia^iU' (f>iK€tp ye fiijp ei olB* on eirifrraacu oi 
fiopop fidXjOK&fi dXKa xai evpoucm* icaX on dpearol 
aoi eiaip oi ^ikoi, oio on ov Xoy^^ a\K epytp apo- 
ireC^et^, — Ma top Al\ etfyq fi OeoBortf, iyw roirtop 
ovBip firfxop&fJ^cti, — BUL fii]p, €<fnf, iroXif Bm^ipei to 11 
Kara ^iaiv re koI 6p^&9 dp^pdnr^ irpo^^pea^ai* 
Kol yip Bif fiuf flip ovr &p iKot^ ovre Kardaxoi^ 
^tXoPf eiepyeala Bi k^ i^Soi^ to ^ifpiop rovro aXc&- 
cifiov re Kal vapafiopifiop e<mp. — ^AXrf^Tj Xeyei^, 
l^. — Ael rolpvpj 1^, irpSyrop fiep rov^ ^poprl^oprd^ 12 
aov roMvra d^tovPt ola irotowip axno'is afiucporara 
fieXi^aeij eireirra Be avrifp dfieiffea^ai xapt^ofiiprfp rop 
alnop rpoTTop- ourto ydp &p fiakiara ifiiXoi ytypoipro, 
ffol TrXetarop ^^povoi^ i^iKotep, xal fUyicrra evepyerotep. 

118 xenophon's mkmorabtt.ta, 

13 Xapi^oio S* &v fiaKuTTO, el Seofiivoi^ Siopoio rh Tropin 
a-eavTT]^' o/>^9 y^/o, OTt teat t&v fipenfJuiTtov ra ^S^oto, 
iav fUv T»9 irpo^fpiprjf irplv hri^vixeiv, aqhri ^xuvertUj- 
Ke/copeafiipoi^ Si fcal fiSeXvyfuav irapi^ei^ iav Se ri^ 
irpo^^iprf Xifiov ifnroiijaa^, k&p <f>av\oT€pa if, iraw 

14 fiieg, <l>aiv€Tai. — II w oiv aVy €<fn), eyia XipJov i/JLTToieiv 
T^ T&v trap ifJLol Svvaifirjp ; — El vrj Ai\ 1^, irpS^ 
rov pJkv Tclk Ke/copeo'/ievoi^ MV^c irpo^^ipoui fujre vtto- 
fJUfivrjffKOiSt eta^ &v r^ irXtftrp^vfj^ irawrd/iepoL waXof 
SitavTOif hreira rois SeopJvou^ {nrofUfivrjCKOi^ a»9 ko- 
a/JLiwrdrji re opuXief Koi r^ ^aivecr^ai fiovXofiivrj xaplr 
^€a^ai, KoX SuK}>€vyova-a, &>9 &v co9 p^\*^Ta Seif^otai^ 
rrjvi/caura ycLp *iro\v Suiff^ipei ra avra S&pa, fj irpiv 

15 iiri^vp^fjaai, SiBovcu, — Kai 17 ScoBotij* Ti oiv ov av 
fjLOij S^yf), & Sdtcpare^, iyivov aw^riparij^ t&p ^IXtop ; 
— ^Edp ye pif Ai\ 1^, vrel^ry; p,e cv. — Ilm ovp op, 
e<^rfi ireia-ai/ii ae ; — Zrjn^aei^j lifn}, rovro aurif xai 

^^ Fnx^^^V* ^^^ ''"* P^^ ^^' — Efe*^* Toipup, Sifyij, &a- 
fupd, Kai 6 X^Kpdrq^ hrio'icdmrfov rifp airrov airpa- 
yfioavpffp' *ilXX\ & OeoSoTTj, 1^, oi irdpv pjoi pdSiop 
eari (ryoKdaai,* mai yap Ihia irpdypMra iroXKa koX 
Sff/jLoa-ia frap€j(ei fioi d<rj(pXlap, elai Si kqI <f>iKai fioij 
at ovT€ fipiipa^ ovre pvkto^ d<f> avTWP ida-ovai pte 
dwUpaij ^ikrpa re puuf^dpoviTcu irap i/xov KaX ivip' 

17 Sa9. — ^EirUrrao'cu ydp, iffyrf, xal ravra, & Sdxpare^ ; 
— ^AWit Sia ri olei, l<^, ^AiroWoSeopop re ropSe koX 
*ApTia^€P7fp ovSerrori /xov diroXeiireiT^aA ; Si^ ri Si 
KoX Kefirfra koX SipLp^lap Oijfirf^ep vapaylyvea^ai ; ev 
Ja^i, on ravra ovk opev irdXXoip <f}iXrpoDP re xal 

IS eir^Swp teal Ivyyaop iari, — Xpffaop roipvp piot^ l^» 
rrjv tuyyat Xva eirl aoi irpArop eXxto aunji'. — *AXXa 
pik Ai\ 6017, ^'^^ avro^ iXxea^ai rrpo^ ai fiouXop/Ug 
dXXa ai irpo^ ipi wopevea^cu. — ^AXXa TTopevaopuu, 
i<f>rj' pipop inroSixpu. — *AXX^ vTroSi^opuai ae, l^« 
eat' II f) Tt^ 4>t'XfOTfpn frnv ei'^nf !}. 




SoGBATB enjoined upon Epigenes^ one of his disciplea^ who, although a 
joath, was suffering from physical ^^bilitj, the duty of engaging in 
gymnastic ezereisea. As a citizen of Athena^ and hence bound to fight 
against her enemiei^ he, as much as those who contended in the Olympio 
Games, needed to cnltivate his physical powers. The dangers and in- 
conveniences are many to those who neglect physical exercise^ whilst 
those who are robust and firm in health, can easily extricate themselves 
from peril and danger, and by succoring their friends and country, ob- 
tain honor and glory, and thus provide happily for the future life of 
themselves and families (^ 1 — i). But health is not a boon to be deured 
for warlike purposes only ; it contributes to soundness and vigor of mind, 
and cannot be n^lected with impunity (§ 5—8). 

^Eiriyivrfp Si r&v ^vvovrav rivd^ vkov re Svra tad I 
TO c&fia KaxSt^ ej(pirra, iS<ov* 'fi^ ISuotucA^, iifnf^ ro 
a&fia ^619) & ^Ewiyeue^, Eial ck* ^IBuHnrf^ fuv, 1^, 
cifjiiy & Saotcpare^, — OvSev ye fiaXKov^ iffnf, r&v iv 
^OXvfiir^a fUXXoprmv ayavi^ea^ai' ij Soxei aoi fuxpo^ 
elpoi 6 irepi t^ '^v)(fi^ irpo^ rov^ TroTs^fiiov^ a^fov, 
hv ^A^rivatoi ^rfirovaiv, orav rir)(€ociv ; Kal fAtfv ovk 2 
oXiyoi fihf hiii rifv r&v awfiartav teaj(i^iav awo^inf' 
axovirl T€ iv roU iro7s£fUKoi: tcivSvvoi^, Kal ala^&f 
ad^ovraif 7roXS/)l Si Si airro rovro ^&vt€^ aXlcieovrcUt 
§cai aXjdvre^ ffroi, Sov\evov<n rov Xoiirov jSiov, iiv 
aura rt^a>9C, Trfv j(a\€7ro!>TdTf)v SovXeiav, ij ek t^9 
avdyxcK r^ dXyeivordra^ ifiweaovre^j xal iKriaavre^ 
ivioT€ 9r\6/a> rwv v7rafy)(pvT0JV avrok, rov Xoiirov fiiop 
ivoeel^ r&v dva/yKauDV Svre^ xal KOKcnra^ovvre^ Sui^ 
(fieri, iroXXol S^ So^av ala^dv ictwvt(U^ Sid, rr}v rov 
atofuzTo^ dSvvafiiav Sokovvt€9 diroSeiXiav' fj xaraif^po^ 3 

120 xekophon's memorabilia. 

&v oUc <l>€p€iv rp, TOLaura ; koX fiifv olfiai ye iroXKj^ 
pioD KoX ifiiio TouTwv elvai a Bel inrofiive^p rbv iiri' 
fjL€\6/i€vov rfj^ rod trwfiaro^ eve^iwi' fj vytetvorepov 
T€ Kal 6t9 rSXKa j^crifjuorepov vofii^eis cIpoi rffv 
xa^e^iav rrj^ eifc^ia^ ; fj twv St^ r^v eve^iav yiyvo- 

4 pAvmv KarcL^povw ; Kcu, fjLrjv iraura ye ravavria 
avfifiaUfet rok ei rit aipiara e)(pvaiv fj roU Koxm* 
Koi yap vyicuvovaiv oi rh dp^ra eS exprne; KoiX 
UT^yovaij Koi iroXKol p^hf Sta roirro €k tcop iroXe 
fUKCov aydvoDP ad^oPToi re evayripip^^^ ical ra Beipk 
iravra Sui<f)€vyov<rtt voXKol Se ^iXot9 re fioij^ovat xal 
rifp irarpiSa evepyeTovtr^, xal SiiL raxha ^a/9iT09 re 
a^wvprai, xal Bo^ap p^eydXtjp ktAptoa,, koX ripoip koX- 
Xlarwp rvyjfopovai^ koX Sm raxha rop re Tioimhp fiiop 
ijBiop Kal KoXXtop SuL^wiTi, Kol roU eaurwv iraurl ivaX- 

5 \iov9 a^p/m^ eh rop fiiop KaraXeiTTOva-tP. Ovroi 
XPVi ^^ V ^oXt9 ov/c aatcei Bripuoala rh rrpo^ rop 
ir6Xepx)P, SiA rouro xal IBiif ap^Xetv, aXX^ pffSep ^« 
rop hrtp^Xeia^ai' ei yhp la^it ori ovSi ep oXX^d 
oxfBepl aywvty ovBk ep irpa^i ovBepia pLelop e^ei^ St^ 
TO fieXriop TO awpA irapeo'Kevda^cu' irpo^ iravra yii^» 

,. oaa rrparrovtnp ap^ponroi, yp-qa^pbop ro awpui iarip* 
iv rratrai,^ Be rdk rov ad>p4iro^ j^eCai^ ttoKu. Buuf>€pei 

6 C09 fieXrurra to a&pxt expip* eireX koX ip ^ Boxeh 
eKayfxrrqp adpuiro^ ')(pelap elpoA, ep r^ Btapoela^ai^ 
Ti9 ovK olBep, ori teal ip rovrip iroXXol pkeydXa aifxiX-' 
Xoprai, Biit ro p,rf vytaiuetp ro <r&p4i; xal Xi^^i; Bi 
KoX a^vpia teal Bi;^icoXia koI puLpla ttoXKoki^ ttoXXcS^ 
Btii ri}P rov ampuirc^ Kax^^iap ek rijp Biavouip epiri- 
rrrovaip ovrco^, &^e teal t^9 eirta-r'^pa^ exfidXXeiP, 

7 ToK Bk ra cdp^ra ei eypvai rroXKri aa<f>dXeia Koi 
oifBel^ KivBvpo^ Bid ye rtfp rov aw/juiro^ /ea^e^iap roi' 
ovrop rt ira^eip, ei/co? Bk p£XXop irpo^ ra epovria tcS* 


§xov elvaL' Kairot t&v ye rotq clprjfiivot^ ivavrUov Sve/ca 
Ti oifK av Ti^ vovv e)((ov inroficivctev ; — Aury^ov Se S 
seal TO SuL Tf)v dfiiXeuLP yrjpaaai irplv IBelv iavrov, 
voio^ &v icdXKiaro^ Kal Kpari^aro^ t^ ad)fiari yivoiro* 
ravra he ovk eariv IBeiv afxeXovvra* ov yiip i^iXei 
ainopuiTa yiyvea^cu. 



Skvkkal ■hort aayiogs or apothegms of Socrates upon the conduct of life^ 
are preeerved in this chapter. They are briefly the following : 

1. Rusticity of conduct as well as physical deformity should be or^r- 
looked a 1). 

2. The best remedy for loss of appetite is lasting (( 2). 

8. The necessity of guarding against being too much troubled by tha 
IttUe ills of life, such as the impalatableness of food and drink (f 8). 

4. If you would correct a servant's faults, see to it that you are not 
yourself equally culpable ($ 4). 

5. One who is accustomed to walk every day, need not fear a long 
|oumey, which may be considered merely as an extended walk ; still it 
is better to hasten in starting^ than while on a journey (^ 5). 

6. A man of liberal training cannot honorably aJlow himself to be 
azs^lltfi, in encountering difficulties^ by a slave (J 6). 

Opyi^o/jUpou Be wore tipo^, &n irpo^enrdav ripa 1 
XO'lpew OVK apTVirpo^eppri^ri* Tekolop^ l<l>rj, to, el fiep 
TO a&fia KCLKiop exppTi, aTn^prrjo'd^ np, fit) tip opyl^e* 
o-^oi, ort he Ttfp y^vxH^ dypoiKoripa^ Bca/cetfjUp^ 
vepUrvx€^9 rovro ae Xwret, 

AXKou Si XiyopTo^f or* drfBm ia^ioi* ^A/cov/mp6^, S 
iifnf, rovTov ^apficucop arfolhop BiBdaxei, ^Epoiievov Be* 


122 xskophon's kekobabilia. 

Hoiov ; Ilawraa^cu ia^tovroj e^* teal rjSiov re teal 
evreXioTepov koX vyuivorepop [^<rl] Sid^ip iravao' 


3 "AXXov S' aS XiyopTo^, ot^ ^epfiop etrj vap iavr^ 
TO vSoip, ft iripof "Orap ap^ eifyri, fiovXtj ^epfi^ Xot/- 
aao'^cUy IroifjLOP earoA aqi, — *ilXXA '^vy^oPf e^^t 
S9T6 Xovo-oa^oi, itrrlp. — ^Ap oipj eifnj^ koX oi ohcinu 
aov ajfiopTOi irtpopri^ re avro koX \ov6fiepoi aur^ ; 
— -M^ TOP AC J iifnf* aXSA kcu iroXKitci^ Te^avfjuucoj 
at^ ^36fi»9 airr^ irpo^ apL^inepa Tavra ')(p&PTCLi. — 176- 
repop Si» €^, to vaph aot vSotp ^epfioTepop vuIp 
i<mp, fj TO ip *AaK\fi7riov ; — To ip ^AaxXfjiriov, iifnj. 
— HoTepop hk \owT€La^(u ^v^orepop^ to irapa aol, 
^ TO ip ^ApL^iapaov; — To ip *Afu^iapdov, 1^. — *Eih 
^vfJLov oiPj e^f on tupSvpevei^ Bv^apearorepo^ ehftu 

T&P re ol»€T&P Kol T&P appmaTOVPT€0P. 

4 KoXdaoPTo^ B^ Tipo^ Itrxypw okoXoiAop iipero, rl 
yoKeiraipoi tw ^epairoPTi, — "Oti, iffyrj, on^^yitrraTo^ 
re &p pkaxlaraTo^ ecm, kclL ^CKapyvpdyraro^ &p ap- 
yoraro^, — ''HStf irori oip errecKeylnOf irorepo^ irXeiopmp 
irXfiy&p Setrai, <rv f^ o ^epcnrdp ; 

5 tofiovfiipov Si Til/09 T7fp 6(9 ^OXvfiTrlap oBop* Ti, 
eifytf, ^fi§ aif Ttjp iropeiav ; oi koX oXkoi (r)(€Bop oXi)P 
Tffp ^fiipajf Trepiirarek ; icai iKeiae wopevofiepo^, irepi^ 
iraTrjaa^ aptoTrjaet^^ irepnrarriaa^ Bcnrpi^aei^ koI ova- 
irawTji' ovK oUr^cL, otIj el ixreipcu^ Toif^ irepitrdrov^, 
ot^ ip irePTe ^ i( fiiiepai^ irepnrarei^, pqBUof &p *A^ii» 
pr/^ep 6i9 ^OXvfiirlav a^Uow ; XapUorrepop Bi xal 
TTpoe^opfiap fipipa fiid fiaXXop fj varepi^etp* to phf 
ykp opayKafya^cu irepcuTepw tov fierplov fifjicvpeip rcl? 
oBois x^xKeirop, ro Bi lu^ ^M^P? irXjelopa^ vopev^pcu 
voXX^p paardpffp irapi)(€i' Kpelrrop oip ip t§ opfi^ 
airevBeip ^ ip tjj 6BS, 

6 AXXov Bi XdyoPTo^, c&9 waperd^fi fuuepap 6B0P 

BOOK m. CHAP. xiy. 128 

rropei/^eh, fjpero airroPj el mi ^fnlov i^pe. — Mik 
Al* ovK €yty/^ etfyij, aXXei rb ifidriov. — Movo^ 8* eiro- 
pevov, €<^, ij KoX aKo>dOV^i^ <roi iJicoXov^et ; — ^Bko- 
\off^€it €<fyrj. — Uorepov xevo^, e^, ^ <f>ipa)P rt ; — $e- 
pc»v vrf AC, €<piff, rd re (TTpd/uiTa xai rSXKa axevrf. — 
Kal irm Si;, Sijnj, ain]XKaj(€V ix rij^ oBoO ; — *E/jloI 
fikv Soxei, Sfpf}, fiiKriov ifiov. — Tl oiv ; i^, el t& 
iteetpov ^prriov If&i tri ^p€ipj vm SLp oUi SiarArj' 
viu ; — Kojcm pi} ACj jf^* fiaXKop Si ou5* &p i^upij- 
Siyv KOfdtrai* — To ovp Toaovrtp ffrrop rov tratSo^ 
Supoa^cu TTOpeip vm ^aicrffUpov Soxet ao^ dpSpo^ 
etpai ; 



XxxoFBON ^Tea in this chapter a spedmen of the conyenation bj which 
Boerates loaght to benefit his friends on festive occasions. 

1. The manner in which he effected an equal distribntion in the fur- 
nishing of the food at a feasts is explained ((1). 

S. One who ate little or no brc»d with his other food, Socrates called 
a gourmand, ^0^701 ($ 2—4). 

8. A caution is given against too luxurious living, as an offence 
against the art of cookery, and as injurious to the offender (§ 5, 6). 

4. He is said to live well, who eats food that is not injuiioua to body 
or mind, and is easily obtained (§ 7). 

'Ottotc hi T&p ^twioPTtop errl to Setirpop oi fihf 1 
giixpop 2^01/, oi Be iroXif ^poiePt ixiXevep 6 StOKparff^ 
TOP ircuBa TO fUKpop fj ek ro koipop Ti^ipoi^ fj Biapi- 
lutp eKacrtp ro fiepo^. Oi oip to iroKi) ^ipopre^ V^HC^ 
VOPTO r6 re fitf KOiPtopew rov ek ro icoipop r^^efUpov^ 


KaX TO fJkri avriri^evai, to kavr&v irl^ecrav oiv koX to 
iavT&v 6t9 TO Koivov Kat iwel ovBev irXiov el^pp r&v 
fiucpov ^epofiivtov, hravovro iroXKov 6yfra)vovvT€<;, 

2 Kara/jLa^wv Si Tiva t&v ^wSenrvovvrtov rov fJL^^ 
aiTOV ireiravfiivoPj to Se S^v avro «ca^* aurb ia^i- 
ovTOj Xoyov XvTo^ Trepl ovofioTtav, 6^* oiip cpytp Dca- 
oTOi' etrj* "Eypifiev av, l^i;, & avSpe^f ehrelv^ hrl iroUp 
irork €pyip av'^payiro9 iy^vif^dyo^ KaXeiTtu ; ia^iovck 
fihf yap Hi irdvTe*i hrl to5 aCrtp 6'^ov, orav irap^* 
dXX* oifK olfiai 7ro> hrl ye roxntp i^(f>a}yoi koXovptcu. 

3 — Ou yap ovp, €<fyq Tt9 t&v vapovrmv* — Ti yap ; 
Iffyrf, iav t(9 av€V rov alrov io o^y avro ia^ijf^ fi^ 
aatajo'ea)^, aXX 'qSovrj^ eveica, worepop iy^<f>dya^ eZi/ai 

Boxei, fj ov ; — Sx^^V 7* ^^» ^^j a\\o9 Tt9 0^^709 
611;. — Kal TK a)sXo^ t&p vapoprtop, ^O Si fUKpA 
clr^f €<l>rf, iroXif cn^p iwea^ioiP ; — *£/lu)1 fUp, iifytf 6 
StoKpoTTf^, KOX ohro^ Soxel Sixalfo^ &p or^^yo^ ko- 
Xeta^ai' Kal Stop ye ol aWoi ap^ponroL rot^ ^eok 
€U)((apTai TToXuKapTTuiPj elxoTttg &p oSto9 TTokvo^^iap 

I ei'XpiTo, Tavra Se rov Stotcpdrou^ eliroPTO^^ pofAiaa^ 
6 peavlaKOi eh avrop elpf^a^ai ra Xe^^epra, to fihf 
S^p ovK errawraro ia^ioDPf aprop Si TTpo^iXafiep. 
Kal 6 Sto/epdrrj^ xarafuAiOP* HaparqpelTt e<f>rfj rov- 
TOP oi TrXtfalop, oTrorepa r^ clrtp o^^, fj t^ Sn^ 
aiTtp ypTjaerax. 

5 ''AXKjop Se TTore r&p axwSelirpfOP ISodp hrl r^ hfl 
y^fi^ irkelopap 6'^ltcop yevofievop' ^Apa yepotr ap, 
€<f>ij, TroXvreXetrripa joyltoiroila tf fiaXXop rcL Sypu Xufjuu' 
pofiipri^ tj fjp (n^^yiromraC 6 afUL iroXKk ia^itup xai 
ifia iraPToSaTTti ffivaiiara eh to arofia Xapfidvwp ; 
irX^tm fiev ye r&p oy^oiroi&p avfifiiypvmp iroXureXi*' 
aiepa iroiei, & ti eKelpoi fitf avfifuypvovaiPt &^ ov;^ 
apfAOTTopraj 6 avfifuypwop, elirep etcelpot op^m woiov^ 
aaf» ofxaprdpei re koI tcardXuei rffP rex^rftf avr&p. 

BOOK in. CHAP. XIV. 126 

Kjoiroi irSff ov yeKoiov icm 'irapaaK€ua^€a'^a4, fiiv € 
ayfrinroiov^ rov^ ap$aTa em^oTafjJvov^, avrov Si firfi* 
aPTtiroiovfUvov lij^ '^^xy^ ravrf^ rk xnr ixeivwv 
iroiovfieva fieran^ivai ; teal aXKo Si rt Trpo^iyvereu 
T^ ifia TToXX^ hrea^Uiv ihta^ivri,' fit) irapourtov ykp 

ITOWmP fl€lOV€KT€Uf Sv TC SoKolffj ITO^&V TO OVPTJ^C^* 

6 Si €rw€^ia^€i^ rov iva '^^fiop evi 6y^ irportrifj^ 
veiVj ore fiij irapei'q ttoWo, SvvatT &p aXxhrto^ r^ evl 

"EXeye Si xal, w to €WDj(€ta^ai iv r§ ^A^rjpaltov 7 
jKunrff ic^UiP koXoIto' to Si ei irpo^Keia^M effnf 
hrl T^ roSra ia^ieip^ iripa ft^re t^p '^^v^p firfre to 
^&fjLa XuTToirj, fJktiTe Sx/^evpera etf)* wre koI to eve^ci' 
irdoi Tok teoafiua^ SuurtDfAepoi^ ai^eri^ei. 






Ill the preceding Booki^ Xenophon illustrates the manner in which 
Socrates benefitted his fellow-citizens in general ; in this Book he exhl- 
bits him more particolarlj in his relation to his disciples, his selection 
of and manner of instmcting them, and snch like things The first two 
chapters are doselj connected, and show, firBt^ the kind of persons whom 
he preferred as pupils; and secondly, the different manner in which he 
treated different individuals, and attempted to win them over to an at- 
tendance npon his instmctionsL 

1. Socrates* loye for the youth was not founded on beauty of person, 
but upon mental and moral excellence ; by which he understood fiscility 
in learning; a good memory, and a desire of acquiring and unng e^erj 
species of useful knowledge. Those who were possessed of these quali- 
ties he supposed would themselves be made better and happier by in- 
struction, and would in turn communicate giod to others ({ 1, 2). 

S. He adapted his instructions to the character of his pupils Firsts 
he showed those who trusted to their natural endowments or genius^ 
and despised instruction, that they were in especial danger of running 
into error and folly (^ 8, 4). Secondly, those who trusted to their wealth 
as a means of procuring every good thing, he recalled to sanity, by 
showing the folly of supposing that any one who was uninstructed could 
understand what is good or evil, or adapt his exertions to the attain- 
ment of the good; and, in fine, the imposnbility of maintaining the 

128 xsnophon's kemorabilia. 

BppearauM of goodness and the ooneeqnent esteem of others bj meftni 
<if wealth {i 6). 

1 OuTta Be 6 SfOfcpdrrj^ fjv iv iraml wpayfiari, koX 
irdvra rpoirov o><^€\A/i09] &>9T€ t^ axoirovfUj/ip tovto^ 
xal el fierpUo^ ata^avofievtp, ^avepov elvat^ on ovBev 
i><f>eKifKOT€pov iji/ Tov Soi/cpdrei avveivai, xai fier ixei- 
vov Star pi fie tv ottovouv tcai ev ortpovv irpayfiar^* eireX 
Kcu TO ifceivov fiefivfja^ai fir) irapovro^ oi fiiKph ii^ir 
'Kei T0V9 eUo^oTWi re avr^ crweiveu Kat awoBe^ofievois 
itcelvov Kat yap irai^wp ovBep fgrrov fj (nrovBd^tav 

2 ikvartreXei roU awiuirplfiown, HoXKoki,^ yap €<l>tj 
fiev Sv Tti/09 epav^ <f)avep6^ S* ^v oif r&v t& atopLara 
Ttpo^ &pap, aX\d Ta)P ra? 'yfruxit^ irpo^ aperijp ei ire- 
^VKoriOP €^iep.€vo9* ireKfialpero ik t^ aya^^9 ^vaevs 

€K TOV Ta^U T€ fiaP^dpeiP oU '7rp0^€)(pt€P Koi /JLPJJfJLO' 

v€veiv & hp fui^oiep, Kal hri^vfielp t&p pui^Tj/jLaTtav 
irdpTiOPy iC &p eoTip oUciap re kclKSh^ olxelp kaX ttoXai/, 
KoX TO oKop dp^pcjriroi^ re koI dp^pcrrripoi^ Trpdypuza-iv 
ei jQi^a^cu* tois yap toioutov^ ^yeiTO ira^Sev^epTa^ 
ovK &p fjLOPOP axnov^ re eviaipLOPa^ eh/cu Kat tov^ eav- 
T&p oiKov^ Ka\m oucetp, aWa koI aXKoi^ dp^pdonrov^ 

3 KoX TToKei^ Supo^^ai evZaifiopa^ voieZp. Ov top airov 
Si TpoTTOP iirl irdpTa^ 'pet, aXX^ tou9 m^ olop,epoui 
^iaei dyolhovi elpo*, fAa^i^a-eco^ Bi*KaTa(f>popovpTa^j iBir 
Ba<rK€P, OTt ai apurrai BoKovaai, etpai ^wei^ pLaKurra 
waiBela^ BeoPTai, intBeiKPveop t&p re vmrcop tov^ eif- 
^vetrrdTOV^t ^vpLoeiZe'k re koX a(f>oBpoifi oPTa^, el fihf 
€K petop Bafiaa^etep, e^^i^oTorarot;? koI apiaTOVf 
yvypop,ipov^f el Bk aBdpLoaTOi yepoipro, Bv^Ka^exTOTO' 
T0V9 Kal ^avXoTdTov^' xat t&p kvp&p t&p eifipueoTd" 
TtoPy ^CKoTTopfop Te ova&p koX hrC^eriK&p ToTf: ^rjploi^j 
Ta^ fiep KaX&^i ajfieiaa^ apUrTa^ yvypea^cu irpo^ raf 
^ripoi KoX 'Xp^cripM/rdTa^, dvay&yov^ Be yiypofupa^ 


fAaraiov^ re xal fiavuoSei^ kcu Sv^TreAetrrdTa^, ^Ofiolto^ 4 

araroxf^ re raSs '^t^oi? 6vra^ K€U i^pyatmictaTaTov^ 
&v av €rp(€ipS>ai,t waiSev^hrra^ fiev Kai fu&ovra^ & 
Set irpdrreiv apiarov^ re teal cio^eXi/tarraToi;? ytyi^e- 
tr^OL ('irXcMTra jap seal fidyurra a^a^a ipyd^ea-^iu)^ 
aTToiBevTovf Si koX dfuAeU yevofiivov^ Kcueiarov^ re 
Kol ffkafieptorarovi ylyvea^cu' Kpu/eiv yap ovk hn- 
trrafiivov^ & Set rrpdrreiv TToXXa/ce? irovripok hrvyeir' 
p€u/ vpdyfuiat, fJkeyaXelovs Se-tcal affnjSpov^ ovra^ Sv^ 
/ea^&crov^ re fcal Sv^oTrorpenTov^ elvai* Sio vKeiara 
xat fiiyurra Kaxh ipyd^oprai, Tov9 5' eirl irXovr^ 5 
fiiya ^povovvra^ koX vofil^ovTa^ oifSeu irpo^Seta-^ai 
vaiSeia^, i^apxiaeiv Si a<f>ia-i rbv irXovrop otofiivov^ 
irpo^ TO Siairpdrreo'^ai re o ri &v fiovXoDvra* xal 
TifMo^at xnro r&v dv'^panrav, ii^pivov XiywVf Sri fMh 
/>09 fiiv etrjj et ri^ oiereu fi^ fia^iip rd re ixpiK^fUi 
Kid ra pkajSeph r&v irpay/idroiP Sia/yvdaea^ai, fitopog 
S\ €1 Ti9 fi^ SuMTfVfPoxTKtop fi€P raOro, SiiL Se rop TrXou- 
rov o rft ap fiovKriroA iropi^ofjbepo^ oterai Supijirea^ai 
icaX rh avpL^povra rrpdrreiv^ ijXi^to? S', ef Ti9 /a^ Svpd" 
/i€vo^ ra av/ju^ipopra irpdrreiv eS re Trpdrreip oJerai 
Kai rit, irph^ rop piop ainS ^ koXw fj bcavSj/^ vape- 
aKevda^ai, ff\Cbto^ Se xal, el ri^ oteroA Si^ rop TrXoO- 
rop /ifjSiv hrurrdfiepo^ So^eip rl d/ya^o^ elpai, i) /ii^Sey 
ayado9 elpM Sok&p evSoMfiijaeiP, 





Tnx Diethod of iustruction which Socrates pnnned with different ind^ 
vidaals is further developed in this chapter, "hj an example. Having 
heard that one Euthydemusy a mere youth, had conceived the notion that 
he was poeseesed of great wisdom, and that he should soon distinguish 
himself as a statesman, without any aid frpm teachen^ he sought to con- 
vince him that mauy who thought themselves wise were fooli^ and that 
thorough instruction and discipline could by no means be superseded 
by any natural endowments^ 

He first repaired with some of his disciples to the shop near the forum, 
where Euthydemui^ who was not of a suitable age to appear in the pub- 
lic assembly, was accustomed to harangue his fellow-citizens. He then 
in his presence^ in answer to' the question whether Themistodes' influ- 
ence in the State was the result of natural endowments or of thorough 
discipline, showed the folly of supposing that the successful pursuit of 
the inferior arts and employments^ required the instruction'of teacher^ 
whilst the more important one of governing the State could be assumed 
al will (§ 1, 2). At another time, he, in the presence of Euthydemusy 
showed with much dexterity the folly of a public speaker, who pretended 
to have never learned any thing from teachers (§ 8 — 5) ; and after he 
had gained the attention of Euthydemus^ although he yet took no part 
in the discussion, Socrates again recurred to the necessity of previous 
ti-aining to one who would rule (} 6, 7). 

After Socrates had thus excited the interest of Euthydemus^ he. re- 
paired to the shop of the young man, unattended by his disciples, and 
after praising his taste in collecting a library, inquired what use he 
intended to make of his books^ and what pursuit in life he intended to 
follow. He finally obtained, by means of his interrogations^ the unwil- 
liug confession, that his aspirations were for political honor (§ 8 — 11). 
Socrates praises the art which he calls royal, and by a series of ques- 
tions npon the qualities and knowledge requisite for a statesman, and 
npon the abstract notion of ffood and evil, obliges Euthydemus to confess 
his ignorance of that with which he had before supposed himself per- 
fectly acquainted, and that he could not accordingly abjure the name of 
uncultivated, ip9pawoi^^t (^ 8 — 22). 

Socrates then recommended to Enthydemu^ who finds himself in a 


■tata of entire anoertainty what ooiine to puTBue, to learn to know him- 
self as the foundation of all true knowledge, and the source of all real 
prosperity and happinees in life (f 23 — 29). He also replied indirectly 
to the question of Enthydemus in r^rd to the manner of entering 
upon self-knowledge^ by interrogatories in reference to good and evil, 
the useful and injurious^ as pertaining to happiness^ and also in regard 
to the nature of government^ which gave Euthydemus a still deeper 
sense of his ignorance (^ 30 — 39). 

The result of these exertions of Socrates was not to drive Euthy- 
demus from him, as was frequently the cose with others but to maka 
him a Cost adherent. Hence Socrates ceased to confound him with que^ 
tions^ and imparted to him, with all simplicity and clearness the know- 
ledge of which he saw that he had need ($ 40). 

Tov; Se vofii^ovai TratSeia^ re .7^9 aplarryi renr^ 1 
xiiHU KOI fieya ^povovaiv hr\ ao^ia &^ 'rrpos€<f>^p€TOj 
vvp hvTfyriaofuu, Kara/ia^wv yhp Ev^vS7)fiop top tear 
Xbv ypdfjLfuiTa iroXXA aweiKeyfJidvov Trotrjr&v re koX 
ao<l>iaT&v T&v evSoKifuoTaTtov, xal iic tovtwv ^817 re 
vofJLi^ovTa im^peiv r&v rjKucitoT&v hr\ ao^lot koIX iie- 
ydXcK iKiriSa^ e^oirra iravrmp StoUreiv r^ SvPoa^iU 
Xiyeiv re koX irpdrreiVj irpSnov fiep ala^apofiepo^ au- 
Top Bi2t peoTfira owrto ck r^i^ ayopap elwpra, el Se 
ri l3ov\oiTo SuLTrpd^aa^ai, Ko^ifypra ek '^punrouiop 
Ti r&p iyyif^ t^ ayopa^t ek tovto §caX aino^ jfe* t&p 
^V eavrov rt^pa^ ej(mp. Em irpSnop fikp Trvp^ctvo^ 3 
fUpov Tipo^, irorepop QcfuaTOKKrfi Sia attpoiHrlap ripo^ 
T&p aoiff&p fj (pvcei Toaovrop Bujpeyxe t&p iroKtr&p, 
wre irpio^ ixelpop airopKe/rew Ttfp iroXip^ oTrJre awov' 
Saiov apSpo9 Serf^elrf, 6 X(OKpdTri<i fiov\6/Jb€P09 /upetp 
TOP Ev^vSrffiop e6rji^€9 i^ elpcu to otea^tu t^9 fiip 
oKiyov a^ta^ Tcxpa^ fiif yiypea^cu airovBalov^ &P€V 
BiBtiaxaXtop ucap&py to Si TrpoeoTavtu 9roXea>9) vaprciv 
epycop fiiyioTOp op, otto TavrofiaTov Trapa/ylf/peo'^cu 
Tok ap^pcoTTot^, IldXip 8i iroTe trapopro^ tov £v^v- 3 
Si;/iot/^ opw axnop avoj(wpovPTa Try: ovpeSpitK xal 

182 xenophon's memorabilia. 

^vXaTTOfiepop, fitf Bofy rbv Sto/cpdrTjv ^avfid^^iv ivl 
ao^lq' ^Otl fiiv, e^, & avSpe^, Ev^vSrj/io^ ouroal iv 
rfKiKia yevofievo^, t^ woXew? Xoyov Trepi rivo^ irporir 
^cioff^y ov/e ax^^ai rov avfifiovKeveiPy evSrjfKov iariv 
i^ &v errirrjSevet' Boxei Si fiot' xaXov irpooifuov t&v 
Srjfirjyopi&v TrapaaKevdaaa^at fpvKaTTOfievo^ fiii Sofy 
fiav^dveiv n irapd rov Srj/Kov y^/>, on X^eti; dp^o- 

4 /i6x/09 &B€ irpooifitdo'enu' *'IIap ovSevb^ /ihf irdyirore, 
& avSpe^ ^A^rjvaioij ovSiv -Ifia^op', ouS* dxovfov rivii^ 
elvai Xeyeiv re xal irpdrretv iKavois i^ifnja-a roiJrot? 
ivT\r)(elvy ovS* iirefieX^^rfv rov SiSdaKoXop fiol ripa 
y€pia^^a^ t&p eTnarafiiviop^ dXXa teal rdpapria* Siare' 
reKsKa ydp <f)€vy<Dv ov fiopop ro fiap^dpetp ri irapd 
Tipo^i dXXA fcaX TO ho^ar ofuo^ Sk o tc &p dm raino- 

5 fidrov eirirj fiov avfifiou7s£va'<a v/up.^^ ^Apfioaete S* &p 
ovTta irpooipLid^ea^at kcu to(9 fiov\op.ipoi^ irapa r^ 
wokeoD^ larpiKOP epyop Xafielp* ejriTfjSeiop y &p aino'k 
efiy Tov Tuoyov apx^o^cu ArreO^ev ''Hap ovSepo^ fikp 

^ irdrrrore, & apSpe^ ^A^rfpotoi, t^p larpi/crfp rixvv^ ^A"** 
^01^, ovS' i^jj-nja'a Si8d<rKaXop ifiavr^ yepia^ai t&p 
laTp&p ouBipa' SiaTeriX^fca yctp ^vXarTOfiepo^ ov fio- 
pop TO fia^€ip TL iraph t&p iarp&p^ dXKja iccii to ho^i 
fi€/xa^fjK€Pai TTfP T€j(prfP TavrrjP' o/juo^ Be fioi to UiTpir 
KOP epyop BoTC ireipdaofiai, yap ip vfiip diroKwBvpewpp 
fiap^dpeip,^^ IldpTe^ otfp oi irjapopTC^ iyiKaaop iirl 

6 T& irpooifiitp, ^Eirei Be ^opepo^ fjp o Ev^vBrffio^ ^Si; 
flip oU o ^fOKpdrq^ \iyoi irpo^ex^v^ ^^ Bi ^i/XarrJ- 
fiepo^ avTO^ Ti (f/^^yyea-^ai, Kal pofii^ap t§ o-mott^ 
a(o<f>poavprj^ Bo^ap irepiPdWea-^ai^ TOTe 6 SfOKpdrrf^, 
fiovKofUPo^ ainop Travtra^ tovtov* Oavfuzarop yap, 
€<^rj, tI iroTe oi PovXofiepoi Ki^api^eip ff aiiKeip tj iir- 
nreveip ^ aXKo ti t&p TOiovrmp Ixapol yepia^ai iretp&p* 
TaL w crvpe^earaTa ttoicip o ti &p fiovKioPTCu BvpaTol 
yepia^a^, Kal ov ^aV iavrov^, aXAA iraph Tod9 dpi* 

BOOK IV. CHAP. n. 133 

<rro«9 SoKOvaiv elvcu, iravra iroioupre^ Kal inrofUvovre^ 
€v€Ka Tov fiffSiv avev rfps itceivwv jvdfirf^ irouiv, as 
ovK &v a\Xci>9 a^ioX/oyoi y€v6fi€voi' r&u Se fiovkofiivtov 
Swarwp yevia^cu Xiyeip re xal irpaTTciv ra TroXt- 
Tuch vofii^ovd riv€^ avev irapcuneevrj^ /cal eiTLfuXeia^ 
ainofMiTOi i^aiifipTy; Suvarol ravra iroiuv eaea^ai, 
KaiToi ye Toaovrip ravra ixeiPfDv Su^KarepyaarSrepa 7 
ifKuverai^ oatp irep ifXjeiovcuv irepl ravra irpayfutrevo- 
fiivfov iXurrov^ oi tcarepya^ofievoi yiyvovraf StjXop 
oSp, m teal hri^pLeKeia^ Sioprai wXeiovo^ /cal Itrj^po- 
ripa^ oi rovrtov i^ieiiepov fj ol i/ceipoap. Kar dp)(it^ 8 
fthf oipj aKoiopro^ Ev^vSi]fiov, roiovrov^ Xoyov^ eXeye 
Se^icpdrtfi* a»9 S* ^a^ero avrop kroifiorepop inrofii- 
vopra^ ore SiaXiyoiro, koI 'rrpo^vfiorepop axovopra^ 
/lopo^ IjX^ev €£9 TO ^pioTTOteiop' irapajca^e^ofiipov S* 
airrw rov Ev^vBi^fiov Eiire fioi, effyrf, & Ei^vSrjfiej 
T^ Sprtt &^ir€p iyii axowo^ iroXXd ypdfifiara crvpfj')^a^ 
r&p Xeyofiiptap ao<f>&p dpSp&p yey opepai ; Nrf rop /ii*, 
litnfj*& SfOKpare^* Kal en ye away to, &>? &p xTqaay- 
liai a»9 tiv Bvptofiai irXeJara. Nfj rfjp "Hpap, €<f>rj 6 
SfOfcpdrrj^^ ayafuil ye aov, Biori ovk dpyvpiov kclI 
ypvcriov irpoeiXov ^rja-avpoif^ xexr^a^ac fiaXXop tj ao- 
^ia^' SfjXop yhpj Sri po^i^ei^ dpyvpiop koX ')(pv<ylop 
ovSep fieXriov^ iroteip roif^ dp'^pdnrov^, rd^ Si r&k 
ao^v dpSp&p ypfofia^ dper^ irXovri^eip roif^ tcetcrri' 
lupov^, KaX o Ev^vSrjfAa^ e)(aip€P dxovwp ravra, 
pofil^dop SoKelp T^ StoKparei op^m fieriipai rrjp ao- 
^uw. *0 hi KarafuAmp avrop ^a^ipra r& hrcupt^ 10 
rovrtp* TC ik S^ 0ovX6fi€PO^ dya^o^ yepia^aij e^, 
& Eff^vSfj/Ae, avXXiyei^ rd ypdfifiara ; ^Eirel Si 
Btea-uSmrja-ep 6 Etf^vSfffiof ckott&p o ri diroKpipatro^ 
TToKiP 6 Sto/cpdrtf^' *Apa firj tarpon; e^* ttoW^ 
ydp Kal larpAf itrrt avyypdfifiara. KaX o Eifhv- 
Bflfus* Md AC J 1^, OVK hfomye. — ^AXXd fiif dpx^ 

184 xenophon's hekorabilia. 

riKTcop fiovKei yevia^iu ; ywofun/iKov ykp ivBpo^ xai 
toSto SeZ. — OvKovv eyeoy^ Sifyq, — *A\\h fiff yeafU- 
TpTfi iwAvfiei^j e<fyij, yevia^a^ a^a^i^, mirep o Oed- 
Soopo^ ; — OuSe yefofidrprj^, e^, — 'ilXXA fiif aaTpo- 
Xoyo9i €<f)ff, fiovKei yev^a^ai ; ^Sl^ Bk xal tovto 
ripvelro' *A\Kh fut} pay^qtSo^ ; e^' xal yhp rh ^OfUf- 
pov ai ^>aatv enrij iravra K€icrrri<r^tu, — MiL AC ovK 
eywy', c^* tov9 yap rot pw^^Bov^ olBa ra phf eirtf 

11 a/epifiowra^, airrov^ Bi iravv fjkC^ioin 6vTa^* Km 6 
So^fcpdrrj^ effyq* Ou Bijirov, & Eu^vBrf/ie, Taunj^ rfj^ 
d/)€T^ i^U<rai^ Bi t^v ap^ponroi TroXiri/coi yiyvovnUj 
Kol oheovofUKoLf icaX apj(€iv Ixavol, koX wif)€Ktfioi rok 
T€ aXXo£9 ap^pdyrroL^ teal iainrol^ ; Kal 6 Ei^vBrjpos* 
S<l>6Bpa y\ €<l)rj, & Sfotcpar€<:, ravTrf^ T^9 aperfj^ Seo- 
/Luu. Nrf ACf €<fnf 6 SoiKparrf^, rrj^ KcMuaTij^ aperii^ 
Koi fieyioTTj^ i^Uaai re)(pri^' €<m, yhp r&p fiaaiXifav 
auTfjf Kal KoKetToi /ScurtXiKij' ardpj €<f)fj, /earapepotj'- 
KQ^, el olop T iarl firj Spra Bitcaiop aya^op ravra 
yepia^cu ; — Kal pAXa, €^y 9caX oif^ ^^^ "^^ 7^ &P€v 

12 Bifeaioavpij^ aya^op iroXirTjp yepea^ai. — Ti oup ; etfyij, 
<rif Brf toOto Kareipyacrav ; — Olfxai ye^ €<fyrfj & Sd- 
fcpare^i ovBepo^ &p ^rrop tf^aprjpa^ Bucaio^, — *Ap oup, 
[€^,] Tciv BiKOMOP iarlp epya, wirep r&p re/eroptop ; 
— "JBcTTt fjtipToi, €<f)ff. — ^Ap^ bSi/, etfnf, A^irep oi rbcro- 
pei €)(pvai rh kovr&p Spya iviBe^aij ovto>9 oi BUaiot 
rd iavT&p S^oiep ap Bie^fjyi^a-aa^at ; Mif oZp, I^ 
i Ev^vBfjpLO^, oi Bvpafiat iya> rit rrj^ SuauoavifTf^ 
ipya i^riyqaa^^a^ ; icai pij AC eyayye rh t^ aBcxia^* 
e7r€4 oifK oXtya icrrl xa^ etcdarrfp rjfiipap TOUkvra 

13 op&p re xaX cucoieiP, BovXel ovp^ e<fnj 6 Satcpdrrisj 
ypdypwfiep iprav'^ol fiep BiXTa, iprav^ot Bk aX^a ; 
elra 5 ri ficp &p Botcfj fifup rr^ Bifcaioffvpij^ epyop 
elvai irpo^ to BeKra rt^&fjL€P, o ri B^ &p riy; aBucia^, 
wpo^ TO aKfl>a ; — JB? ri crot Boxei, etfyij, irpa^uf 


TouTOfv, iroU$ ravra* Kal 6 X^icpdrr^ ypa^a^ W' 14 
irep elirep' Ovtcovv^ 6^, eariv iv av'^panroi^ [to] 
^rfuSeo-^oi ; — "EoTi /^irrot, e^. — Horipfotre <Avj 
©^, ^&fi€V Tovro ; — ArjKov, 1^, OTi irpo^ rrjp aS^ 
Kiaof* — OvKovp, €<^, Kol TO i^airarap Stm ; — Kai 
IxaKn, €<fy>j, — Tovro oSv iroripfaae ^Afiev ; Kat rouro 
SrjIKov on, e^, irpo^ ri)v aZuciaif. — Tl hi ; to KOtcovp' 
yeJy ; — Kal tovto, eifyrj, — To Bi dpSpairoSi^ca^ai ; 
Kal TOVTO, — IIpo^ Se t§ StKcuoavinj ovBev fiplv tou- 
Ttov /eeiaera*^ & EvhvStjfie ; — Aeivov ydp &v ettf, Stfn}. 
— Ti S' ; idv tw arpaTryyo^ aipe^eU aStxop t€ Kal 16 
ij^pdp iroKxp i^apSpaTroSia-rp-ai, (ft^aofiep Toxnop dhi,- 
Keip ; — Oi Bffra^ e^. — Alxtua Se ttoUip ov ff>ri(TO' 
fi€P ; — Kal fiaka. — Ti S' ; iap i^airaT^ iroXe/jAp 
airrol^ ; — Aucomp^ €<f)ff, /cal tovto. — *Eap Bk Kkeirrrf 
Ttf Kal aprrd^ff Ta tovtup, ov BuceLut iron^a-ei ; — Kal 
fidXaj €<fnj' aXV iydo <re to irp&TOp {nreXAfifiapop 
mpo^ T0U9 <l>tKov^ /Jiopop Tavra ipcrrap. — Ovkovp, I^, 
oca irpo^ T§ dBiKia ^iJKafJLep, irdpTa Kal 7rpb<: t§ 
BiKOMovpTf ^eriop &p etrj ; — "Eolkcp, iifyrj, — BovXei^ 16 
ovpf €<fnj, TavTa ovtod ^ipTC^ Biopurd/ne^a irdXip, irpo^ 
lihf TOV9 iroXefiiov^ Buciuop elpai t^L Touivra voielp, 
irpo^ Bi Tois 0tXot;9 oBucop, aXXk Beip Trpo^ ye tou- 
Tot;9 w d'jrXovaTaTGP elpai ; Hdpv fikp oip, lifnf 6 
Ev^vBTjfio^. Tl oip ; S(fn] 6 StoKpaTij^, idp tc^ CTpa- 17 
T17709 op&p c^vfuu^ €j(pp TO OTpaTevfJui '^evadfJLepo^ 
^riarf aviipAxpv^ irpo^iivat^ Kal t^ '^evBei tovt^ 
irawrff Ti? d^Vfiia^ tov OTpaTevpLoro^, 7roT€/>o)^A tt^p 
airaTifv tovti^p ^i^ff^fiep ; — AokcI fioi, 1^, irpo^ Ttfp 
BiKcuoavpfjp. — ^Eap Si Tt9 viop iairrov Beofiepop (JHip^ 
lUuceuK Kal fit) wpo^U/iepop <f>dp/JuiKOP i^aTraTiitra/^ cb? 
fftTiop TO ^dpfioKOP B^, Kal T^ y^cvBci j^adfiepo^ 
ovTco^ vyta irottiarf, TavT7)P ai ttjp dirdTriP irol ^6- 
rioi' ; — AoKel fioi^ e^, Kal Taimjp efc to auTo. — 

186 xekophon's kemobabilia. 

Ti S' ; idv TC9, iv a^fila Svro^ ^eXov, Seio'a^ fiif 
Bia^t)<n)Tai iavrov, x\ey^ rj afrrrdajf ^ (iifx)^ fj oKXo 
Tt TOLovrov, TovTO ai Troripotxre ^eriov ; — Kal tovto 

18 vr^ AC, €<^, TTpio^ Ttfv Suecuoauvrjv. — Aiyei^, Sifyf}, av 
ov8e irpo^ TOV<: <f>C\oi/^ airavra Seiv airXot^ea^cu ; — 
Mii AC ov S^TO, Sffyrf' aXKii (lerart^efJMi, rh elpijfiivctf 
chrep S^eoTt, — Acl ye roi^ etfnf 6 So^Kparrj^j i^elviu 

19 TToXif /jSXKov fj fit) op^w Ti^epcu. T&v Si S^ roif^ 
if>iKov^ i^airartivTtav errl ISXdffrf, Xva fitfBe tovto iror 
pa\hr<0fjL€v oa-teenToVj iroTepo^ aStKa>T€p6<: icmv, 6 ixdv, 
tj o axiov ; — *ilXX*, & StoxpaTC^, ov/ceri fikv eycuye 
vujT€va oU airo/cpivofuu' koX yap tcl 7rp6<r^€v iraina 
vuv SXKxo^ ^X'^ttf SoxeZ fioi fj w eya> t6t€ wofif^v* 
5/iQ>9 Sk etpija^w fioi aSiKoyrepov elpai top hcoma 

20 ^^^vSofievov rot) okovto^, — AoKel Be trot fid^rjtn^ km 
hrurTTjfivi rot) Sikcuov elvai^ A^nrep t&v ypafifiaTtav ; 
"EfjLoiye. — HoTepov ik ypafipLaTiicunepov Kpivei^, df &» 
iKi>p fi)f opd<u9 ypd^ Kal avayiyviaKTi, ^ 89 Ay 
OKfov ;-*-^09 hv iK(!>Vf eywyc SuvaiTo yap av, iirJiTt 
ffovXoiTO, Kol op^&9 avTa irotetv. — Oukovv 6 fiev eKoav 
fiif op^m ypdifnav ypafifiaTiKo^ &v elrj, 6 8k &Kiov 
fiiypdfifiaTO^ ; — ITo>9 yap ov ; — TA hucaia Bk ttJtc- 
pov 6 ixoiv ^^evBofJLevo^ koX i^waTwv oTSev, ^ 6 ojcfov ; 
— ArjSjov, OTL 6 €Ka>v. — Oukovv ypafifiaTLKoyrepov flip 
Tov eirurrdfievov ypdfifiaTa tov fitj hriaTafiivov ^^ 
etvai ; — Nat. — AixatoTcpov. Bk tov hntrrdpLevov r^ 
BUaia TOV fiif hnoTapivov ; — ^alvofjuu* BokS Bi fioi 

21 Kol TavTa, ovk olB* oTTcof, Xiyew. — Ti Bk Si;, 89 itp 
fiovXofievo^ TaKfj^rj Xiyeiv firjBerrore Ta aini Trepl 
T&v avT&v \&YV» ^'^^ ^^^ ^^ fppd^mv Ttfv ovttjv Tork 
fikv irpof &» Tork Bk Trpo^ iarripav <l>pd^7), koX Xoyt* 
cfAov airo^KUvofievo^ tov avrbv totc fikv irXeuo, TOTk 5' 
iXaTTta dvoi^ivffTaA; tI col Bok€i 6 rotot)ro9;— ^^Xo? 

»2v^ AC elvai, Sti tt ^o elBevav ovk olBev. — OJa^a 

BOOK lY. CHAP. n. 187 

Si riifa^ avSpairoSdfSei^ KoKovfUvov^ ; — ^Eytoye. — 
Hirrepov hiii ao^iav, fj Si ifia^iav ; — ji^Xop, on St 
afja^iav, — M/>' ovv Sia TtfP rov ^aXxeveiP afia^iav 
Tov ovofJMTO^ TovTov Ttry^dvovacp ; — Ov Stjra. — 'i4W' 
apa Sia rr)p tov rexraipea^ai ; — OuSk Sia ravrrfp, — 
'^XXa Sia Tffp TOV a/cvTeveip ; — OySe Si hf Tovrtop^ 
€<fyq, a\X& icaX tovpoptIop' oi yap irKuaroi t&p ye 
Ti Totavra hnara/iipap apSpairoSooSei^ elaip. — Mp* 
ovp T&p Ta KoXa Koi aya^h xal Sixcua firi elSortop 
TO opofjM TovT iorlp ; — ''Efioiye Soxei, ©^. — Ovkovp 23 
Sei ircunl Tpov^ Siareipafiipov^ ^evyeip^ oiro^ /itf ap- 
SpdwoSa &fi€P, — *ilXXa, pi) Toih ^eot^, e^, & So^ 
/epare^j iraw ^firjp <lii\oao<f>eiP ^iXoo'O^uxi/, Si fj^ Ap 
fidKKTTa hfofiifyp iraiZev^YiPcu tcl T'po^KOPTa ivSpX 
sedKoKaya^ia^ opeyopiptp* pvp Sk '/r&9 oUi fie a^vfuo^ 
exEip, op&PTa ifiuvTOP SiiL fup r^ irpoTreiroprffiipa 
oiSi TO iporra>/jL€POP airoKplpea^cu Svpafupop inrep &p 
fiakurra j^prj etS^pcu, aXKrjp Se oSoP ovSefiiap expPTa^ 
tjp &p iropevofupo^ fieKTuop yepoififfp ; — Kai' 6 Sfo- 2i 
KpaTTfi' Eive fioi, €<fnf, & Ev^vSrffie, eh ^eX^ov? Si 
fjSrf iwirore a^Uov ; — KaL Sk ye pif Aia^ 6^. — 
Karifia^e^ oSy wpo^ t^ poS ttov yeypafifiipop to 
Fp&^i aavTOP ; — "JSyeaye. — HoTepop oZv ovSip <roi 
TOV ypdfi/iaTO^ ifiekTjtrep, ^ irpo^iaxe^ Te xal hreyeU 
pvfaa^ aavTop hruTKorrelp, o^ts ^iV^ i — Mh AC ov 
Sr/TOy 1^* ical ykp Sif trdpv tovto ye ^fAfqp elSepoi* 
o^oX^ yhp &p aXXo Ti ^SeiP, eXye fiffi^ i/jLavrop iyi- 
ypfoaxop. — Hirepa Se aoi Soxei ytypdirieeip eavTOP 23 

09T<9 TOVPOfJM TO eOVTOV flOPOP olSeP, fj 59T»9y St^TTep 

Oi T0U9 vmrovi mpovftepoi ov irpoTepop oIoptcu ytypti^* 
axeip, ft]/ &p fiovKonnoi yp&pcu, 'irpip Ap e/rurxe^PTOit 
irorepop einrei^i^ itrnp^ fj Sv^nrei^rfiy xciX troTepop 
Ur)(ypo^ ioTip fj aa^evi^^j x<d irinepop Tayy^ fj i^pa- 
Si^, xdi T^XXa T^ irpi^ r^y tov tmrov \peiap hri' 

18S xekophon's msmorabilia. 

Tr^ia T€ KOk averrin^Beia a7ra>9 e;^€ty o&rai9 6 iavrov 
iiriaKe^fievo^, o7ro!o9 iori irpo^ tt^p av^pwirCvriv 
j^iap, eyvfOKC rrjv avrov huvafuv ; — Otn'o>9 efiotye 
boKclf e(f>7f, 6 /Iff elBm rrjv iavrov Svpafuv ayvoeip 

26 iavTov, — ^Ek€ipo Be ov <f>ap€p6p, 6^, on Bia fiep to 
elBipcu iavToif^ TrXcurra aya%a irda^ova-ip oi ap^p<D- 
iroi, hik ik TO i^€va^cu iavr&p TrXeurrm xated ; ol flip 
ykp iavTois elBore^ rd re hrvrrfieia iavrovi laaat^ tcai 
huvfiypoi^Kovaw a re Svpaprai koI h /ii;* ical & fiep 
hrUrrapTiu trparroprei iropi^opral re &p heoprai $caX 
ei TTpaTTovaiPy &p Se fiif eirioraprai aTrejfOfiepoi apa' 
fidpTTjToi yiypoPToi koI Sia<f>€vyov<Ti to Kaxw irpaT^ 
T€iP* hii, TovTO Si Kol Tov<i aXXot/? dp^pdnrov^ Bvpd- 
fiepoi SoK^fid^etp teal Bu^ t% t&p aXKa)P j^pela^ Ta re 

27 dya^ii iropi^oprai xal Td Kaxd ^uXaTTOirrai. 01 Bi 
fiil elBoTC^t aWd Bie^evafiipoi t^9 iavr&p Bvpd/ieoo^ 
rrpo^ T€ T0U9 a\Xov9 dp^pdnrov^ kcu TiXKa dp^pd- 
iripa TcpdypxkTa ofAolo^^ Btdxetpraf Kal ovre &p BioP' 
Tcu uratTiPf ovre o t* irpdrrovaiPj ovre oh 'xp&praij 
dXSJd irdpT^p tovtwp ButfiapTavopre^i t&p re dyci^&p 

28 dTromrf)(dpovai icai rot9 KaKol^ irepiirinTOvau Ktu oi 
flip elBoTe^ o rt woiova-iPf iirn-vyxdpopTe^ &p irpaT^ 
TovcTiPy evBo^oi re /cat Tifuoi ylypoPTOi* KtiL oX re 
Ofioioi TOVTois ^Bio^ ^&PT€U, ol re dirorrvyyavoPT^ 
T&p irfKiyfidrmp iiri^vfiovai rowrow inrip avr&p fiov- 
Xevea^eUp xal vpotdraa^ai re iavr&p tovtov^j icai 
r^9 ikiriBa^ twp d^cl^&p ip tovtoi^ S^ovci^ koX Btd 
irdpTa Tavra irdpTWP fiaKurra tovtov^ dyair&fnp, 

99 01 Bi fiff elBoTc^ o Ti iroiowi^ Koxm^ Bi alpovficpoi^ 
Kal oU dp eirv)(ei,prfir<o(np dirorvyxdpoPTe^^ ov fiopop ip 
avTo'k roirroi9 ^fffuovpral re teal KoXd^oPTai, dXKd teal 
dBo^ovai Bid Tavra koX KaTayiXjaaroi yiypoprcu^ ical 
KaTo^popovfievoL koX arifia^o/iepoi ^oiaiP' 6p^<; Bi teal 
Tmp iroXeap on oacu &p dypoffaaaai TtfP iavr&p 

BOOK ly. CHAP. n. 189 

Swafuv Kpelrroai iroXefn^ormatv, at fiiv avdararoi 

yiy voPTcu^ ai 8* i^ iKev^ipap SovXxu. Kal 6 JSv^v- 

Stffio^* 'fl^ irauv iioi Sokouv, effnj, & Sd/cpare^, irepl 30 

TToXXoS voiffriov elvtu to iairrop yiyva>aK€iv, ovtw9 

ic^f iiro^ev Sk j^ ap^aa^ai iirtCKoirtiv kavrov^ 

TovTo irpo9 are oirofiXjeTrm el fMOi HeXqa-cu/^ &p 6^717- 

a-cur^eu. Ovkovp^ €<fyrf 6 StOKpartf^f t^ flip aya^h 31 

K(d ra Kcuck inroia itrrif irdpTc^ vrov ypypd^axei^ ; — 

JV^ jii\ e^* el yhp /itjSe ravra olSoj /cal t&p apSpa- 

TToSfop <l>av\jiT€po^ ap elrfP, — ''J^^ 81], e^i;, /col ifiol 

i^ifyrjo'eu avrd, — 'ilXX' ov j^aXeTroj/, €<fyrf irp&rop 

fjL€P yip aino to vyuUveiP aya^op^clpcu pofMi^<», to 8i 

voaelp KOKop, hreira ra aXria kxarkpov avr&Pj /cal 

irorh KoX Pparrh, Kai ejnTTjSevfiaTa^ rh^ fup irpo^ to 

vyuupeip if>€povTa aya^dy ra Si irpo^ to potrelp Koxd* 

— OifKovv, €(fn), icai to vyiaipup kolL to pocelp, oravZSi, 

flip ayfAov ripo^ atria yiyprfrai^ aya^h &p elrf, orap 

ik tcaxoVf /eased. — ITot€ S* op, l^, to fjb€P vyuilpeiv 

KOKov aXriop yepovro^ to Si poaeip aya^ov ; — "Orap 

pTf Ai\ €(f>rf, or pare la^ re alaypSs koX pavriXuK fi\a- 

fiepS^ /cai aXKtup ttoTCK&p roiovrtop oi flip Sul poafirjp 

fi€Taa')(6vr€^ dTroXMPrav, oi Si St aa^^peiap airoke/r 

if>%ePT€^ aoJ^Staip. — *A\ff^rj Xeyei^' dXX opas, €^^ 

OTi Koi T&p oi^Xifuop oi flip Sii, pdfitjp fierexovo'iv, 

oi Si Sc aa^ipeuip amXeliropTai.—Tavra ovp, e^, 

ttot^ flip aHf>€XjovPTa, irori Si fiXdwropra /ioWov 

aya^ii fj /caxd iarcp ; — OvSip fih, Aia ^Iperai Kara 

ye TOVTOP TOP Xoyop, *ilW' H ye rot ao^ia^ & S<0' 33 

Kpare^j apafi^K^ffrifrc^^ aya^op eariv* irotop yap &p 

Ti9 irpayfia ov fiikriop rrpdrroi o'o^io^ &p fj ifuihrf^ ; 

— Tl Sal ; TOP AatSoKop, Iffyrfy ov/e oKij/coiK, Sri . 

Xff^^eU irrro Mlpm SiiL rifp aoif>iap ^pay/cd^ero ixeip^ 

SovXevetp, /cal rrj^ re irarplSo^ afia koI rrj^ eXev^e- . 

pla^ iarepifbfj, /cal hriyeip&p airoStSpdcxeiP fiera roO 

140 xec^ofhon's mkmorabtt.ta, 

viov Tov re TroiSa airtoKetre Kot airro^ ovk tjBw^fi 
ato^ijpaij aXV aTrepe^ein ek tou9 fiapfidpov^ iraXii 
ixei iBovXevev ; — Aeyerai vri AC, €^17, ravra. — Th 
Bk IlaXa/AijSov^ ovk axi^Koa^ ird^ff ; tovtop yap Bif 
wdvre; Vfxvov<nVt (09 Bia aoffiiav ^ovrj^eX^ inro rov 
'OSi;<ro"6fi)9 airoXKirrai, — Aeyercu kcu touto, e^. — 
MXXoi;9 Si iroaoxn oUi, hiii aoj>iaif opapTrdoTov^ TTpo^ 

34 pcurCKia yeyppipai^ teal ixci Sovkeveip ; — KipSupevei^ 
Sifnf, & Scl>/cpaT€^f dpafi<f>iXoyarraTOP aya^op elucu to 
€v8cufioP€ip. — Elye p/q Tt9 aino^ €^17, & Eii^vBijp^e, 
i^ a/ju^i\6y(op dya^&p avpri^cif). — Ti S* apj itfyrfy 
rSiP €uBc^ip4)PiK&p ifi^iXoyop eltf ; — OvBdp, Iffyrj, ely^ 
pA irpo^^ri<rop.€P ainA koKKjo^^ fj la)(yp, ^ vXovtop, 
fj Bo^ap, ^ /cat Ti aXKo twp toiovtwp, — ^AXKk prf 
Aia irposi^rjcop^p, effnj* irm yap Sv t(9 aP€v rovreop 

35 evBeu/AOPOirj ; — Nif Ai\ e^, '7rpos!^i]a-ofi€P apa i^ ip 
iroWa Kal j^aXeTriL av/ifiaipet rots ap^panroL^' ttoXXoI 
fjL€P yap SiA TO iCoKKo^ inro t&p ivl roZs &paioK 
'jrapa/ce/ciPTjKOTcap Bia<f>^€ipoPTatt iroWol Bk Bt^ r^p 
ta'xyp p^i^oaip epyoi^ iirij(€ipovpT€9 ou pLiiepovi Koxok 
irepiirlTrrova^f iroWol Bi Bid, top ttKoutop Bia^pwro- 
/i€Poi T€ Koi hrifiovKevopiepoi, airoKKvprai^ irohXoX Be 
Bui Bo^ajf teal iroXirucrfp Bupapup fieydXa xatciL ire- 

36 irop^aorip, — *AXKii p^i^p, e^jn], eXye fiffBe to €vB(Uf44)P€ip 
eircup&p op^w Xeya, ofioXoyA fiffBi o rt irpo^ tov9 
^€0V9 €V)(€a^ai XP^ elBipcu. *ilXX^ ravra piPy 6^ 
6 StoKpdrtf^f la-Qi^ BUi to a^Bpa irurreveip elBePM 
ovB* lo'tce'^ai* iirel Bi voketo^ BripLotcparovpipii^ rrapor 
<ric€vdfy irpoeardpM, Bfjjkop, on Bi^ptoxpariop ye oZo-^a 

37 Ti eoTi. — Hdvrta^ Brftrov^ e^. — Ao/cel otfp aoi Bvpa^ 
rop elvcu Btfp^fcpariap elBepai p,^ elBora Bfjp,op ; — 
Ma AC oif/e epLoiye, — KaX ri pop,ifyi,^ Brfpjop elpcu; — 
Toi^ iripTjra^ r&p woXitwp eyt^e. — Kal roif^ ireptf- 
Ta9 &pa oUr^a ; — 11 &^ ykp ov ; — M/>' oip Kal tow9 


irXovalov^ dltr^a ; — OvBiv ye ^ttov ^ xal tov9 Trew;- 
Ta9. — IToiou9 Bk irivrjTa^ /eai trolov^ irXovalov^ KOr 
\cU ; — Tois /liv, ol/icu, firf ixava e^ovra^ ek & Set 
TcXeiu irevrjra^j tou? Bk TrXe/o) r&v iicav&v TrXovaiov^ ; 
— Karafiefid^fjKa^ ovv, on ivloL^ fikv irdpv oXiya 38 
e^ovatv ov fiovov apKcl ravra, aXXa koI irepi/iroiovp- 
rat air airr&v, iviot^ Bk irdvv iroKKiL oxf^ hcavd iari ; 
Hal vii AC, €<f)7i 6 Eif^vS^ffio^y 6p^a>^ .yap /i€ ava^ 
fjtifApija-Kei^, olBa ycLp ical TVpdtn/ov^ rivd^^ ot BC ev- 
Seiav, eo^irep ol airopwraroi^ dpoy/cd^ovrai oBikhv, 
OvKoWy €<lyq 6 SfOKpdTff^f elye ravra ovron^ hc^^t '''^^ ^ 
fiev rvpdppovi ek top Btj/iop ^ijaofiep^ rov^ Be oXiya 
K€KTijfA€Pov^j iop oucopopLiKol Shtip, €t9 TOV9 irXjoualou^ ; 
Kai 6 Eif^vBrjfJLO^ €<fyr)* ^ApayKdfyi fie xal. ravra 
OfioXoyeipj BrjKopori i^ ifirj ^vXorrj^' teal ^popri^w^ 
firi Kpdrurrop ^ fioi aiyap* KipBvpevo) ykp aTrXm 

OVO€P €iO€PaU 

Kai irdw^ d^vfjuo^ ^Xf^v dirrj>S^e koX xara^po- 
vr^tra^ eavrov teal pofiica^ rm 8pri dpBpdtroBop elpo^. 
IIoXXol fikp oip r&p ovT(o BiarAiprcifP inrb Sca/epdr 40 
rou^ ovK€Ti airrw irpo^ecap, ob^ koX fiXaxforipou^ 
ipofU^BP, 6 Bi Ev^Btj/ao^ {nriXaffep ovk &p a\Xai9 
aPTfp a^ioXoyo^ yepia^ai, el firf o ri pAXiara Sf^- 
Kpdrei avped]' Kai ovk direKjeiirero en avrov, el ^rj 
rt apayKoSop eiij' epia Be Kai ifUfieiro &p ' exetpo^ 
hren^B^i/ep* 6 Bk m eyprn airrop ovrm^ exoproj ^Kiora 
fikp Bierdparrep, dirXovarara Bi Kai a-atf^earara efi;- 
yeiro a re ivofi^^ep elBepcu Beip Kai eirirriBeveuf Kpa- 
Turra cZmu. 

142 xenofhon's memorabilia. 



Lf thd two preoediDg chapters^ we hare a brief exemplification of Socn^ 
tea' method of acquainting himself with the character of different indi- 
yiduali^ and gaining them as listeners to his instmctions. Xenophon 
next presents more particularly the manner of his treatment of his dis- 
eiples^ and the subjects on which he was most accustomed to dwell in 
his teachingSb 

It wos his earnest desire, firat of all, to make them reasonable beings^ 
and to inspire them with sentiments of reyerence and gratitude to the 
gods^ without which all knowledge would only give them ability to ^o 
evil (f 1, 2). In a conversation with Euthydemus he first explained the 
care of the gods for men in providing for all their necessities and minis- 
tering to their happiness (f 8 — 9). They have even made and sustained 
other animals for the use of man (§ 10). Besides the pleasures of sense 
they have given him reason, the ability to express his thoughts and feel- 
ings in language, and the knowledge of the future, by means of divina- 
tion (§ 11, 12). In answer to the intimation of Euthydemus that 
Socrates is himself especially favored by the gods^ alluding to his guid- 
ing deity (Scu^yio^X ^^ answers^ for substance, that all would be guided 
as well as himself, if they did not look for visible deities^ but gave heed 
*x> their revelations of themselves in their works (§ 12 — 14). It is also 
the duty of all to honor and reverence the gods according to their ability 
4{^ 15—18). 

The general similarity of the contents of this chapter with Book I. 
chap. IV, will not escape notice. There Socrates attempts to convince 
the skeptical Aristodemus that the gods have a direct regard for indivi- 
dual men. In this chapter, the real existence and agency of the gods is 
made prominent. 

To fikv oZp XexTiKov^ koI irpascrucov^ teal firpdavi^ 
Kois yiyvea^ai roif^ avpovra^ ov/c S<nr€vS€P, oKKci 
irporepov rovrayv ^to Xpiji^at atof^poavvrjp airroK iy^ 
yevea^cu' roif^ ycLp avev rod awif>pov€ip ravra BwO' 
fiivov^ aSucmripov^ re koI Bvpararipov^ Kcucovpyeuf 

BOOK 17. CHAP. m. 143 

iifofu^ev etvcu, Hp&rov pikv S^ Trepl ^€ov^ iireiparo 2 
adxppova^ iroielv rois awoirra^, "AXKoi fiev oip ain^ 
vpb^ aXKov^ ovTto^ OfiCKovvri Trapayevofievot huryyovvro^ 
iya> Se, ore 7rpo9 Ev^vSrffjLov rotdSe Siekiyeroy irap^m 
jepofJLfjv. Ehre fioi, €<f>7i, & Eif^vSrffie, ^Si; iroTe aoi 3 
hrfjX^ev iv^vfirf^rjva^j d>^ iirifieXM^ ol ^€ol &v oi av- 
^panroL SiovroL KareaKevcuccM'i ; Kal 09* Mk rbv ^t', 
€017, ovK Sfioiye, — 'ilXX' ola^d y*, lijnj, on irp&rrov 
fi€v 0a>TO9 Seo/JLe^Oj ft ^fuv ol ^eol irapiypviTtv ; — 
Nil AC^ c^, o y el fjiff etxofiev, ofiovoi roU tv^XoZ? 
&v ^/Jtev iv€Ka ye r&v '^/leripcov o0^aX/ia>i/. — ^AWa 
fiffv KoX avatravaew ye Seoiiivoi^ fipiu vvtcra trapi- 
j(ovat KaXKicTTOV avairavrripiov, — Haw y, Itfyrj, xal 4 
rouTo yapiTO^ a^iov, — Owcow Kal, iiretS^ 6 fiev ^\£09 
ifxtoreivo^ &v rd^ re &pa^ t^9 ^fiipa^ fnuv koX tSXKbl 
nravra ca^vi^et^ 1} ik vif^ Sia to oKoreivrf elvcu aaor 
^arepa earlv, ourrpa iv tjj mj/crl ave^vav^ h ^/iw 
tA? &pa^ rrj^ w/ero^ ifjufuivl^ei^ xal Sih tovto iroWA 
&v Beofie^a irpoTTOfiev ; — "Eari raina, etfyrf, — ^AXXA 
/Mrjv fi ye oeXrjvri ov fiovov r^ vv/ero^, aWd, koX tov 
fir^vo^ r^ fiiptf <f>avepi, rjfuv iroie'L — Haw fihf oiv^ 
l^i;. — To S*, hreX rpo^rj^ Beofie^a, ravrijv fipHv ex 5 
TJT^ TV? avaBi£6vcUy koI Sypa^ apfjunrovaa^ 'Frpo^ rovro 
nrapexetv, at ^fjup ov fiovov &v Beofie^a voXKei xal 
wavTola irapao'Kevd^ova'iVf aXXA xal oh €v<f>paiv6fi€^a ; 
— Ildw, e^, KoX ravra ^CKdv^pcyira. — To he Ktu 6 
v&np fifilv ir^ipeyeiv ovrtd irtiKKov a^tov, wre xal ^u- 
reveiv re koI awav^eiv r^ y^ xal raU &pai^ irdvra 
rh 'Xpr^aifia ^/jfilv, awTpe^etv hk Koi avrov^ tjfia^j fcal 
fjLtyvvfAevov iraov roh rpi<f>ova'iv fifias evKarepyaard' 
repd re koI &if^e\ifJuSn€pa /cal ^8ua iroietp avrd, xal, 
iireiStf irXeioTov Seofie^a tovtov, dtp^oviaraTov avro 
irapt)(eiv rifiiv ; — Kal rovro, 6^, irpovorp-ixov. — To 7 
Se teal rb irvp woplaat ^fiiu^ hriKovpov /lev ^^'v^ov^, hrir 

144 xbnophon's mehobabiua. 

Kovpov a atcirov^t 0W€fyyov Si irpo^ vaaav ri^yrfv 
Kal irdvra, oaa ia^XeCa^ Spexa ap^ponroi scaraaKcvd" 
^ovTcu ; €09 yap aweXovrc elnelv, ovSev a^UXoyov avev 
jrvpo^ ai/^ptoTTOL r&v wpo^ rov jSiov j^prjaifitav Kara* 
CK€vafyvTau — 'Tvep^aXXei, e^, Kai tovto <l>i\aif' 
B^pmirC^ — [To &€ Kal aipa fiplv cufAovoi^ otrroi irap^ 
raj(ov Biajfitrai, ov fJLovov 7rp6iJM')(pv koX avvrpo^v 
(^o>^, aXKik KCiL ireKdyrf irepop Si avrov teal r^ eiri- 
T^Seia aXXou9 aXKaxo^^ /col iv aXKoSair^ oreXXofii- 
V0V9 iropi^ea^ai, ttw ovx v^ip Xoyov ; — ^Avhc^pa- 
oTov. — "] To Si TOP ^X^i', eireiSap ip ^(eifA&pi rpaTnjirtUt 
nrpo^Upai rk phf aSpvpopra, t& Se ^paipopTOf &p 
Kcupo^ Si€\ij\v^€p, Koi Tavra Siairpa^dfiepop pLfjKeri 
iffyvripto irpowpcu, aXX' aigOTpivea^eu ^vXarrofUvop^ 
firi n fifia^ ijmKKjop rov Seopro^ ^epiialytup ffXdypiff 
KoX orap aS iraKiP diriMP yhnjrai^ ep^a koX ^/up £^ 
\6p ioTip, oTi, el 'n'poatordpfo aireurip, oTroTrayr^aops^a 
inro Tov ^rv^^oi/?, iraKiP aS rpeirea^iu koX irpo^mpelp^ 
KaX iprav^a rov ovpapov ivcurrpk^a'^iu^ hfha &p 
liaKurra fipJa^ &^Xoirj ; — N^ top Ai\ e^, koI Tcaha 

9 iraprdircurip eoixep dp^ptoTrtDP hfeica yvypofieva, — To 
S' aS, hrciBrj koX tovto ^avepop, on ovk &p inrepe- 
yxatp^p ovre to Kav/JM ovre to ^i;;^09, el efavipr^ 
yiypoiTO, ovTto pip Korh fiucpiop irpo^iipcu top tiKlop^ 
ovTto Si Kori, pAxpiop dinipeu, &rr€ Tutp^dpeip ^fia^ 
eh iKorepa to, Itr^vpoTaTa Ka^iarafiivov^i ; ^Eyoi /tev, 
iijyq 6 Ev^vSffp^, HSrf tovto atcoTrm, el apa Ti etm * 
T0i9 ^eol^ epyop fj av^pdnrov^ ^epaireveip, ixeipo Si 
Hopop ip^TToSi^ei /JLe, OTt teal TiXKa ^&a toutcop ficTe^eu 

10 Ov yhp Kol TOVTy €<^ 6 SoDtcpdTff^ (JMpepop, 0T& KoX 
Taxna dp^pdnroiP b/exa ylrfperal tc koI apaTpi^>eTcu, ; 
tI yap oKXo {oioi/ alr/&p t€ xal otcop teal hnrmp xal 
fio&p Kal 6p€op koX t&p aXK/op ^<imp ToaavTa aya^i, 
airoXavei, oaa ap^ponrot ; i/jLol flip yhp Soxel Trkeim 

BOOK IV. CHAP. in. 145 

T&p if>ov&v' rpi^irrcu yovv koI p^/^i^/iar/Jfoi/riu ovBhf 
^TTov airb rovrtov fj air iicelpmv* irdkit Se yivo^ dy- ^ 
^/MOTTQ)]/ T019 ^€2^ CK T% y7J<: if>vofievoL^ els Tpoifyr^v ov 
yp&vra^t airo Be fioa-tcTjfiaTODV ydXa/crt xal rvpw koX 
Kpiaai Tp€<f>6fJL€vo^ ^a>ai' irdvre^ Se Ti^aaaeuovref; koI 
Safxd^ome^ ra ^i^aifia r&v ^(ov eU re iroKefjLov xal 
ek oXXa woWa awepyol^ j(p&PT(u. — 'OfioyviDfiov& 
aoi teal TovT, eifyrf' 6p& yctp avr&v koX t^ ttoXv Uryy- 
pirrepa fipAv ourta^ xnro^eipui yvyvofieva rov; dv^pca- 
TTOi^, «9T6 '^^prja^cu avrol^ o rt &V fiovKMVTCU. — To 8\ll 
hreiS^ woXKd fiev xdXA ical w^eKifut, hui^ipovra Si 
aXXi]\jai}v iarij vpo^'^elpat roi^ dv^pwroi^ ala^i^aei^ 
apfiOTTov<ra^ irpo^ ixaara^ SC &v diroXavofiev irdvTO^v 
r&v dya^&P' to Se Kal Xoyicfibv fipip ifi^wai,, ^ 
irepX &v aia^avop^a Xoyi^ofievoi re xal fivrjfLovevoV' 
T€9 /carafiav^dvofiev, oinj eicaara crvfKfeipei, xai iroXKit 
fiffj(av(i/A€^a, St &v T&v T€ d^a^&v diroKavofiev koX 
Td Koxd dXe^ofie^a' ro Se /cal ipfirfveiav SovpcUj Si 13 
^ irdvTHdv T&v dya^&v fAeraJSiSofiev re dXk'ijXoi^ St- 
SdaKovre^ koL Koivcoi/ovfAev, teal vofxov^ ri^ifie^a, kclL 
woXiT€v6fM€*^a ; — HavrdTraaLV eoUaaiv, & Sdxpare^, 
•t ^eoi iroWtfv r&v dv^panrwv hnpiXeuof irQisZa^ai. 
— To a Kai^ el dSwarovfiev rd avfi^povra irpovoeZ- 
a^(u \nrep t&v fieWovTtav, tovtq airroif^ fipHv trw- 
epyelv, SUl fJUivTL/cTJ<: tok irw^cofofiivoi^ <f>pd^oirra^ rd 
dTrofir^cop^eva, xal SiSdaxoPTa^f fj dv apurra yiyvouno ; 
— Xol S*t 1^, & SdiKpare^, iotfcao'iv iri (fytXi/CMrepov 
^ To£? aKXoi^ ;fp^cr^iu, el ye fiTfSi eTrepornifievoi vrrS 
cov irpooTifiaufovo'L aot a re ')(pf} iroielp koX & firi, — 
"Otl Se ye oKif^ri X^q>, kclL cif yvdxrj^, &v firf dva- 13 
fUpTj^, loi? &p T^9 fiop<l>d^ T&p ^€&v tSrjf!, dXX' e^ap/c^ 
<roi rd epya avr&v op&vn aefiea'^ai Kal ri/idp Toif<: 
^eov^, ^Eppoei Se, ori, tcaX airrol oi ^eoX ovro^ inro- 
SetifvvoviTiV* oX re ydp aKKoL fipUp ra/ya^d SiS6pT€i 



oifBhf roirrmv ek rovfJufKOfh lovre^ SiBoeurij koi 6 7X>» 
SKoy KoafMCV awrdrrafv re koX avpijdiop, iv £ irdvra 
KtCKk KoX aya^d iar^y koX aeX fihf jQHOfUvoi^ arpiPrj 
re KoX vyia teal dyrfpara irapijdo^v, ^drrov Bi vo-qfia- 
T09 avafULfyrrp'fo^ vrniperovvixiy o5to^ t^ /liyurra fiep 
'Trpdrrtov oparai, rdSe Bk aUopofi&v daparo^ ^fuv iariv, 

H^Etnfoei S*9 ori seal 6 irSun ^vepo^ So/cAv clvai ^Xi09 
oifK eirirphrei roh caf^pwroi^ eavrop dxpifiA^ opop, 
aX\!, idp T*9 avTOP dpoiSw ^JX^^PV ^^^o'^^ij t^p 
Sy^ip a^cupetreu, KalX roh^ trmfpira^ Si t&p ^eSp 
evpija-ei^ d<f>ap€k Spra^' icepavpo^ re yap Sri fih apf^- 
^€P d^lereuy hrjkop^ kcIX oti ok &p hrnrytf irdprwp 
/cparett opartu 8* ovr hrulav, ovre tcarcurtcrfy^^, ovre 
diruip* fcal aP€/ioi airol fiep ovj^ opwtrrcu, h Se 7ro&- 
ovat ^pepk ^/up iariy teal Trpo^ioprwp avr&p ala^a^ 
pofjte^a, ^AXKcL ^^p icat dt^pdinrov ye ^vx^y ^i einep 
TV icaX oXXo r&p dp^pcyrripcap, rov ^eiov fiere)(€h Sri 
flip fiatriXevei ip fjfilp, ifyapepop, oparai Bi ovS* aim]. 
^A xph fcorapoovpra fitf xareuf>pop€lp r&p dopdrap, 
aXX* ix r&p yiypofiiptap rifp Bupa/up axtrwp /cara/AOP^ 

XS^dpopra rifiav ro Baifiopiop, *Eya> flip, & S&xpare^^ 
€<^f) 6 Ev^vBfffio^, &n flip ovBi fu/cpop dfieXi^cto rov 
Baifioplov, caffxik olBa, itcelvo Bi d^vfi&i on fioi Soxei 
rd^ rmv ^e&p evepyeerla^ oiB^ av eh rrore di/^pw^ 

IBircop d^Uu^ xApt^iP dfieifieo'^ai. ^AWd fitj rovro 
d^Vfieip €^, & EUvBrffie* opa^ yap, on o ip Ae\' 
ipok dcoft oretp ri^ cwrop hrefiwra, v&i &p rok ^eot^ 
Xapl^oiro, drroxpiperai* Nofi^ 'iroXecj^* pofio^ Bi 
Biprov irapra'xov iari xard Bvpafiip iepok ^eous* dpi- 
aicea^cu* irdk oip ap ri9 icaXXiop xat eicefiiirrepop 

« Ti/A^ d€ou9, ff m ainol KeXevova^iv, ovra irowp ; 

17 'ilXXd ')(p^ 7^9 flip Bvpdfiec^ fiijBip v^iea^at * orop 
ydp T*9 rouro iroi^, <f)av€p6^ Bifirov earl rore off rifiu¥ 
^eov^' XPV o^ fiff^^ iXXehropra xard Bvpafup rifuof 

BOOK 17. CHAP. IV. 147 

Toi^ ^6ov9 ^appeuf re leal ikirl^eip rh fieyurra ayor 
^d' oxf yhp irap aXXov y av Tt9 fiei^ca iXiri^cov 
awff>povoifi ^ irapci rmv rh fieyurra a}<f)€\€ip Bwa- 
fAhftov, ovS* &v aXXci>9 fiaXKoPj fj €i tovtoi^ apiatcoi^ 
apiatcoi Sk 7rco9 &v fiaKKov, ^ el d)9 fmXurra Tret^otro 
avTok ; Toiavra uiv 5^ Xeywv re xai avro9 iroitSp 18 
eiHrefiearipav^ t€ koI a<o^pov€aTipov^ roi^ awovrtK 



ZvsfncM, ^ucaiovlmi or rh 91kcuo¥, is the subject of this chapter, as pietj, 
^m^pov^ wtfl bw6st was of the preceding. Socrates inculcated thia 
upon his disciples : 

1. By his example ; especially by his regard for law and his nnde- 
Yiating obedience to it, both in private and public life (§ 1 — 6). 

2. By precept ; an example of which is given in a conversation with 
Hippia, a sophist : After a considerable colloquy, the purport of which 
is that jostice consists rather in right action than in ingenious and novel 
theories, Socrates defines it as obedience to law: rh r6fufio¥ BUtuov 
tJpoi (§ 6—12) ; and he who is obedient to the laws, which are the pre- 
scriptions of the citizens in reference to what they shall do or abstain 
from doing, is just^ and the reverse (§ 13). The fact that the laws are 
dianged is no objection to them (^ 14). Those are indeed the best 
rulers who, like Lycurgua^ make the citizens most obedient to the laws, 
and that State will best acquit itself in peace and war, whose laws are 
obeyed (( 15). Even peace and concord in the State and families, and 
honor and confidence among individual citizen^ are dependent upon 
obedience to law (§ 16 — 18). 

But all laws are not written, Socrates adds ; some are given by the 
gods to the whole human race, and are to be observed at all timea Jlie 
violation of these laws brings certain punishment with it, and thus a 
higher than human authority la evinced for them (§ 19— 24)l The god% 


then, presoribe only just lawB^ and thus ehow that erei^ thing tliat k 
¥6iu/iow is 9litcu9¥ (^ 25). 

1 ^AXSA fiijv KOL irepl tov Sixaiov ye ovtc dveKpV' 
irrero ffv Aye yvwfj/rjv^ aXKcL koX Ifyy^ aTreSeucpvro, 
ISia re iraav vofiifjuo^ re xal oxfieXifjuo^ ^(paifievo^, 
Kcu KOiv^ ap^ovci re & ol voiioi, irpovrarroiev ire^o- 
fi€vo9 teal Kark ttoKiv koI ev rcw: trrpaTeuu^ outo>9, 

2 e59T€ SuxSi/Xov elvcu irapk roif^ oKXoi^ evToxT&Vj Koi 
Sre ev tcu^ €/CK\ff(riai^ eTTtoranyv yevofievo^ ovk erre- 
rpe^ T^ hripLfp irapi roif^ vofiov^ '^<f>iaaa^cu, aXKa 
aw T0i9 vofJLoui fivcanua^r} rouLvrg opfip tov hrniov^ 
fjv ou/c &v olfiai aWop oiSiva av^ptoirov inrofietpcu* 

3 KoX ore oi rpiMKOpra irpo^erarrov avr^ irapa tou9 vo- 
fu>v9 Tt, ovic hreH^ero' rok t6 yap veoi^ airtvyopevov' 
Ttov avT&p fiif huCKkyeiT^atf koX vrposrd^aPTwv eKeiptp 
re KoX aXXot9 ruri r&p ttoXit&p a/yayelp rtpa eirl 
^avdrq>, fiopo^ ovk hrela^ri St^ to iraph Toif^ vopjov^ 

4 ain^ irpo^aTTea^ai* /cai ore ttjp xnro MeXiyrot; 7/>a- 
^p e^vye^ t(op aXKeop eta/^orap ip toU BcfcaoTiipioK 
irpb^ ^a/9£i/ T€ T0i9 Bii^aaTal^-SiaKeyea'^ai kcu koXo- 
Keveip Kol Sela^ai iraph tov^ pofiov^, koX Sut Tct to»- 
avra iroXKmp TroAXaxw ifTro t(3p BiKcurrmp a^iefUPt^v^ 
ifceipo^ ovSep i^^eXi/cre twp eUo^orayp ip t^ SiKotmjpiqi 
irapk T0V9 POfiov^ iroirjaaiy aXXA paBito^ &p a^^el^ 
inro rd^p iucaoTWP^ el kol fierpito^ ti Tovrtap hroirja-e, 
irpoeiKeTo fwXKop Tot^ pofioi^ ifipApwp avo^apelp fj 

5 irapapofJL&p ^p. Kal €\eye Se ovtcd^ xal Trpb^ aWav^ 
phf iroXKaM^, ot6a he irore ainop kcu irpb^ 'Iinruip 
TOP ^HXeiop irepl tov BtKaiov TOidBe BiaXe^epTa' Sii 
jfpopov yap a^ucop^po^ 6 *IinrCa^ ^A^ripo^e trapeyipero 
T^ StaKpdrei XeyovTi irpo^ Tipa^;, w ^avpxurrop eirj to, 
el fiep Tt9 fiovXoiTo aKvria ZiZa^aa^aL Tiph fj tcktopo 
^ j(jaXKia ^ iTrrreOj p,rf airopelp, oiroi &p w^fiy^a^ tovtoi 

BOOK IV. CHAP. IV. ' 149 

Tvxoi' ^Mai Se rtves icaX hnrov koI jSovp TfiS l3ovKofiiv<p 
Sueaiov^ iroii^acuT^cu iravra fiearii etuai t&v SiBa^omayv^ 
iav 8i Tis ^ouXrjTcu fj airro^ fia^etp to SIkcuop, fj vlov 
fj oucirrjv SiSd^aa^at, fit) elSevcUj oiroi &v ik^oiv rt^oi 
TOVTOV, Kal 6 fL€V 'dmria^ axovaa^ raOro, wirep 6 
eiricneayirmv airrop* "Eti yap trv, etfyrj, & S(OKpaTe^, 
itcelva ra aink X^6t9, & ^o> iraKat, irori aov i^Kovcra ; 
KaX 6 SoDfcpdrrj^' ^O Be ye rovTov Becporepop, €<fyrj, & 
Imria^ oi fiopop ael ra airrcL Xeyto, aXKct Kal irepX 
r&p ain&p* av S* ura)9 Biii to iroKvfu^ri^ elpai irepX 
r&p avT&p ovSeiroTe ra avrcL XiycK, — difiiXet, e^iy, 
ireip&fiiu Kaipop re \iyeip aeL — Ilorepop, e<fyq, koL 7 
irepX &p eiruTToa'ai, otop irepl ypafjL/MaTtap, iav Tt? eprf- 
ral ere, iroaa Kal irola Xt^Kpdrov^ iaripj aXKa fiep 
irporepop, aAAa Si pvp ireipa Xiyeip ; fj irepl dpi^fidip 
roK ipandoaip, el ra SU irhne Sixa iarip^ oi rk aur^ 
PVP, it KoX TTpirepop, airoKpipr) ; — Ilepl fiep rovrtop, 
€^, & StoKpare^, &^7rep av, Kal iyoD del rd avrd 
Xeym, irepl fUproi rov Sixaiov irdpv ol/uu pvp e)(eiP 
elirelp, irpo^ h ovre av, ovt dp aWo? ovhel^ Svpoct 
dvrenrew, — JY^ rijp *'Hpap, e(fir), /leya Xeyei? dya^op 8 
€vprfK€P(u, el Travaoprat, fihf oi hiKO/rraX Si^a yjrrfi^^ 
^o/iepo^ iravaoPTOM Si oi iroXircu irepl r&p SiKaCo^p 
dpTiXeyopre^ re v/cal dpriSiKovpre^ xal araaid^opre^, 
iravaoprai Se ai iroXei^ Sia^pofiepai, irepl rwp Sucaltov 
Koi iroXefiovatw Koi eyi» fiep ovk oZS\ Sttoi? dp diro* 
Xeuf}^eitjp aov irpo rov dKOvacu rrfXiKovrop dya^op 
evpijKoro^. — ^AXXd fid ACj e<fnj, ovk dKovatf, Trpip y 9 
dp avrb^ dTTo^'qPTj, S ri pofit^ei^ ro Sucaiop ehcw dpKet 
ydp, 8ti rap aXXmp KararfeXS^ eptor&p fiep Kal eXeyxtop 
irdirra^, avrb^ S* ovSepi ^eXxop xnreyeip Xoyoi/, oitSe 
yptofirip diro^alpea^ai irepl ovSepo^. — TL Se ; & 'Itt-IO 
TTUK, €^, OVK ya^fjcaij Sri €ya> & Soxei fioi SiKaia 
elpai oifSep irtxuofiai diroSeucpvfiepo^ ; — Kal irom Siy 



oW* epytp cnroheucwfiai* fj oif Soxei aoi a^uneKfiap" 
roTCpov Tov \6yov rb epyov elvcu ; — IIoXv *f€ vt) AL*, 
6^' SiMua fiev yap Xe/oirre? iroXXoi aSuea iroiowri^ 
ilhuuua 8i irpaTTtav ouS^ &v el^.oStiCo? ^ltj, — "Hur^^rf- 
aeu oip irdmoTe fiou fj '^vSofiapTvpovvrof, ^ avKo- 

1j aXXo Ti aSi/cov vparrovro^ ; — Ovk eyewye, e^. — 
To Sk T&v ahiKtDV airiyea^cu ov SUcuov f}y^ ; — Arj^ 
Xo9, €% €<l>7jf & StaKpare^y /ecu vvv Suul>€uy€iv irp(€ip&v 
TO aTToBeiKPva^cu yvwfktjv, 6 ti vofii^ei^ to Bucawv* 
ov yip h irparrova-iv oi SiKiuoi, aXX\ & fi^ irpdrrovai^ 

l^ravra X^et9. — 'ilXX' ^fi^iv eywye, ejyq o Sca/cpamf^, 
TO /i^ ^iKetv aSixeiv ixavov ZuccuoavvTy; hrlZetypLa €7- 
voA* el Si (Toi, fiTf BoKclj (TKhlrcu, ictp ToSe aoi fiaXKov 
apiatcff <fyrjpX yhp iyi) to vofjLifMOP huccuov eZva^-— 
*Apa TO aino Xiyei^, & SdxpaTC^, vofiifiov t€ teal Si- 

13k(uov elvcu; — "Eyoyyet €(f>7). — Ov yap ala^dvofjuu 
aovy oTTolov vofUfioPy ff iroiov Bikcuop \iy€i^» — Nofwv^ 
Si TToXeo)?) e<fyrfj yiypaxrKet^ ; — ^Eytoye, e^. — Kai 
T^po/f TovTOV^ pofiL^et^ ; — ^A oi TroXZrat, etfytf, trvp^e- 
fiepot a T€ Set iroieip xal &p airiyea^ai iypd'^pro. 
— Oij/covp, €<f>rj, pofUfio^ flip &p etr) 6 iearh Tovra wo* 
\iTev6fiepo9, apofjLo^ Se 6 Tavra frapa/Scuptop ; — Ildpv 
fih/ oip, €<f>rj. — OvKovp koX Buccua fiep &p irpaTTOi 6 
TovToi^ weA6fJL€P0^, S&uca £* 6 tovtoi^ direi^&p ;'-^ 

HdPV fJL€P oip, OvKOVP fl€P T^ SuCCUU ITpaTTtOV 

SiKcuo^, 6 Bi tA aSiKa aBuco^ ; — IIw ykp ov ; — 'O 
fikp apa pofiLfio^ BUaio^ earip, 6 Be opofAo^ aBixo^. 
MKal 6 'Imrla^' Nofiov^ S*, e^, & SancpaTe^, irw av 
Ti<s riyrjacuTO cnrovBalop irpayfia elpai fj to Trei^ea^a^. 
avToU^ oik ye 'iroXKdjei^ avrol oi ^ifievot airoBoKifidf 
aapre; fieraT^eprcu ; — Kal yap iroXefiop, e<fyrf o Xfl>- 
KpoTfj^f iroXKdxi^ dpdfiepai ai iroKei^ ttoX^i/ eiprfptjip 

BOOK rV. CHAP. TV. 161 

TToiovvrtu. — Kal fioKa, Sifnf, -— Aia^pov oiv n oUi 
iroielv, itfyrfy rois rok vofioi^ iret^ofiiuov^ ^vXl^caVy 
irri KarcCKdhelev av oi vofioi^ ^ el roin iv roi^ TroXe- 
ao4? cvroKToOvTa^ '>^iyoi^, on yivoir &v elpijinj ; ^ 
Kol Toif^ iv T0?9 iroXi/iot^ raZ^ irarplo'i Trpo^/uoiv 
ffoff^ovvra^ fiifjuf^tf ; — Mh Ac ovtc iyay/^ €(f>rj. Av-lb 
Kovpyop Se rov AcuceSaifioviov, €<l>rj 6 XoifcparTy;^ Kara' 
fA€fLd^rfK(K, cm oifBev &v Stcul>opov r&v aXKuv mXemv 
Tffv Svdprriv iTroCrja-ev^ el fitf to ire^ea-^cu toJ? po^ 
fkot^ puiXtaTa iveipydaaTo avr^ ; r&v Be ap^ovrtov iv 
rak voXeaw ouk ola^a, on, oinves Av rol^ TroXircu^ 
alndrraroi &<n rov rois vofioi^ rreChea^ou, oiroi apir- 
arol eiai ; ical iroXi,^^ iv. ^ fioLKurra oi iroXtrtu roi9 
vofioi^ irel^ovrcu^ iv eiprivrf re apurra Sidyei koI iv 
voXifJUjp avvTroararo^ i<mv ; ^AXKii fi^v Kal ofiovoid 16 
ye pAr/urrov re aya^bv SoKei rot? iroXeaiv elvai, teal 
vXeurraxi^ iv avraK at re yepova-uu Kal oi apurroi 
avSpe^ irapaxeXevovrai rol^ iroXirai^ OfMvoelv, koI 
wavra'^ov iv ry 'EXKaSc vopLO^ xeira^ tou9 iroXira^ 
ofivvvai ,6fiovoi^a€iv, xal iravra')(pv ofivvovaL rov opKov 
rovrov olfuu 5* iyo} ravra yiyvea^ai, ov^ ottoi? roifs 
airrov^ Xopoif^ Kplvtoaiv oi woXirai, ovS^ Siro»^ rov^ 
cturoif^ avXrjrit^ iircuv&aiv, ov8* oira^: roiff avrov^ 
rroiTjTk^ aip&vTcu, ouS* iva rot? 'airrot^ ijStovrai^ aXX' 
&a roU vofioi^ ireS^tovrat* rovroi^ ykp r&v iroXtr&v 
ifjLfievovrtov, ai TroXet^ iayyporaraC re koX evBaifiove- 
<rraT(U ylyvovrat' avev Si 6/xovouk ovr &v iroXis e5 
voXtrev^ehf, our oIko^ KaX&9 ouefj^eitj, *I8ia Si ttS? 17 
fjL€V av ri^ ^rrov inro iroXec^ 2^/uoZto, Troy? S' &v /laX- 
Xov n/i^o, fj el roU vofiov; vel^ocro ; 7r&^ 5* hv 
fffrrov iv roh StKcumjplot^ ^rr^o, fj 'rr&f &v fioKKov 
ViKmq ; rlvi, S* av rt? pLoXKov trior evceie irapaxarar 
^ia^ai 7J )^/Mara, ^ vlov^^ rj ^vyarepa^y riva S' &v 
^ TToXt^ oXfj a^ioTTurrorepov ^yqaatro qw vofjUftov f 


iraph rlvo^ 5* Av fiaXXov r&v Sixaitov rvxoiev ^ yo 
vei9, ^ oUeiott fj ohckrai^ fj <f>iXjoi, tj ttoXHtcu, fj ^evoi ; 
rivL S' tiv fiaXKov iroKkfitov TnoTevaetav ^ avo^d^, ^ 
airovSdi, ^ avv^riica^ ire pi elprjvri^ ; rivi B* hv fiaXKov 
tj T^ vofilfjMp avfifia)(pi i^iXjDiev jiyvea^ai, tA S* &p 
fidXKov 01 avfifia^oi iri^rewreuiv ^ ff/efioviav, fj ^pox}- 
papj(^[av, fj 7r6X€A9 ; riva o av Tt9 evepyerqaa^ {nroXdr 
fioi ;^apti/ KOfucia'^iu fiaXKov fj rov vofii/iov ; fj riva 
/jmXXov up Tt9 €if€pyerqa€iev tj irap o5 ^aptv airo- 
Xqy^o'^eu vofii^ei ; t^ £* av Tt9 /SovXolto fiaXKov 
if>CKo^ elvai if r^ TOiouTq>, rj tcS ffrrov e)^p6^ ; r^ 8* 
av Tt9 ffrrov 7ro\efiija€L€v ff w &v fioKurra /lev ^tXo9 
elveu fiovXoiTo, fjKurra 5* i'^^po^, Kal ^ TrX^urrot ficv 
^i\oi fcal (TVfifiayoi PovKoivro dlvat^ iXA'^jtoTot h* 

18 i')fipol Kal iroXifiiot ; ^Eyw fiev oivj & ^Iirrria, to 
avTo hriZeUwfH vofUfiov re koX Bixaiov elvai^ av S* 
el ravavria yiywoaKei^y SiBaaxe. Kal 6 'Iinrla^* 
*AXKa^ iia rov A (a, e<l>rj, & Sd/cpare^, ov fiat SokA 
ravavria yvyvdHTKeiv ok eXprftea^ irepX rov Sixaiov. — 

19* Ay pd<f>ov^ Bi rtva^ ota^a, Sifyij, & 'Iinria^ vofiov^ ; — 
Tov^ 7* iv frcuTff, eifnj, X^P9 tcarh rairrii vofn^ofie- 
vov^, — "JE^^ot? hv oinf ehrciv, €(f>rf^ on, ol av^panroi 
avrov^ 6^€VT0 ; — Kal Trwy av, eKfyrjy oX ye ovre aweX- 
^€tv awavre^ &v Bvvrf^eiev, oOre ofioiJHOvoi elai ; — 
T(i/a9 otfv, e^Tft vofil^ei^ re^eixiva^ rov^ vofiov^ rov- 
rov^ ; *Eya> fiiv^ etfyrf, ^€0V9 olfuii rov^ vofiov^ rovrov^ 
rok av^payfroi^ ^eii^cu* Kat yhp iraph iraaiv di/dpco- 

20iroK irp&rov vofjLi^erai rov^ ^eov^ aefietv. — Ovkow 
KoX yovias: rifxav nravraypv vofii^erai ; — Kal rovro, 
'Stfnf, — Ovkow Kal i^ffre yovia^ iroM-l p,iy wa^ai, fiifre 
TTotSa? yovevatv ; — OvKm fioi Boxel, e^, & SdfKpa- 
T€9, oirro^ ^€ov vofio^ elveu. — Tl S17 ; e<^. — ''On 

21 ata^dvofiai riva^^ e^, wapafiaivovra^ airrov. — Kai 
yhp aXKa mWd, etfyrj, irapavofiownv d\X' ovv Bucqy 


<y€ TOi SiSoatriv oi irapaPalvovre^ rov^ tnro r&v ^e&v 
Ke^fihfois vofiois, fjv ovSepl rporrt^ Swotop av^panr^ 
Suiff}vy€lVf St^irep roif^ v7r av^pdnroDP /ceifjiivov^ vofiov^ 
ivioi irapapaivovre^ 8ui<f)€vyovcri to Bi/crfV SiSova^ ol 
U€P Xcu/hdvovTC^, oi Si fiia^ofievoi, — Kat irouiv, 6^,23 
SUfjv^ & Sdtcpare^, ov Bvvavrai Suuf>€vy€ip yopek re 
ircual Koi waiSe; yopevai fuypvfiepoi ; ^-^Ti^p fier/ianrip 
v^ ACj €<^r)' ri yctp &p fMcl^op ira&oicp ap^paairoi 
T€KPOTrotovfi€POi Tov Kaxw TetcpoTTOieur^aL ; — Ilm oip23 
€^, KcucSi^ o^ot TitcporrroiqvpTa^ ov^ ye ovBep /eoaikvei 
aya^oif^ airov^ opra^ i^ aya^&p waiSoTroteio'^cu ; — 
^On j/7 AC J eifyf), ov fiopop aya^ov^ Sel Toi^ ff aX- 
Xi^kap iraiZoTTowviiipov^ ^ipai, aXKa koX axfjid^oirra^ 
T0i9 adfuiaip' ^ SoK€t aoi ofioha t^ airipfuira elptu 

Th T&P OKfLa^OPTaP T0i9 T&P flTfTTOO aKfia^OPTODP fj T&P 

irapffK/AOKorofp ;—^*AWA fiii A'i*^ e^, ovk elxb^ ofioia 
ehfoi. — IIoTepa oSp, €<f>ijy fieXrio) ; — ArjKop ori^ €<f>f)f 
T^ T&P ax[iaJ^ipT(OP. — Ta t&p /jl^ oKfiaJ^oprrmp apa ov 
airovSala ; — Oifx eUo^ fih Ai\ €<fyrj, — Ovkovp ovtc^ 
ye ov Bel 'rraiBovoieur^ai ; — Oi yap oZp, etfyij. — Ov» 
tcovp Oi ye ovtod ircuBoiroiovfiepot co^ ov Bel ttcuBottoc- 
ovPTOi ; — ''Efioiye Boxet, etfyrj. — T1W9 oip aXKoi^ €(f>7}j 
Ktuc&^ &p iravSoTToiolpTO, eiye fxtf ovrot ; — ^OfioypcD' 
fiop& aot, eifyrj, Kal tovto, — Ti Be; rob^ ei 7roiovPTa^2A 
oprevepyerelp qv irapra^ov pofiifiop icTi ; — No/nifiop^ 
6^' vapafiaiperai Bk xal tovto. — Ovkovp /cal oi 
TOVTO frapaffaipoPTe^ Blxtfp BiBocun^ ^tXcuv fiep aya- 
^&p epTffioL yiypofiepoL, tov^ Bi fiurovPTa^ eavToif^* 
dpoyxa^ofiepoi Bia>KeiP' rj ov^ oi flip ei iroLovpTe^ tov9 
j(p<o/i€vov^ edvToU aya^oi ^i\oi elaip, oi Bi fii) coh 
TevepyerovpTe^ tow? TotoiJTOw Bid fxhf ttjp d^apurriap 
fuaovPTai inr avT&p, Bid Bi to fMaXurra XvaiTeXelp 
T0Z9 Tou>in-Oi9 XPV^^^'^ TOVTOV^ fJbdXurra BuoKOvac ; — 
Ni) TOP Al\ & S<oKpaT€^, Itfnj, ^eoh Tama iravra 


eouce* TO yhp roif^ v6fju)v^ avrou^ roU vapafiaUwMn 
T^9 TifLwpia^ €X€tP fiekrlovo^ fj xar av^pedirov pofAO- 
25^eTov Botecl fjMi eluai, — Ilorepov ovVt & ^Iinria, rov^ 
%eou9 ^yp TcL SUoMi vofuAerelv, fj aXKa rmif BvKau^p ; 
— Ov/e aXKa fia Ai\ e^* <^^^V J^P ^^ aXKo^ ye 
Tt9 rit, BiKouL vofuf^errjaeyevt el fiif ^eo^. — Kal rol^ 
^eoU apOj & 'Imrui, to avro BUaiov re xal vofUfiov 
elvcu apiaKCi. 

Totavra TJywp re koX Trpdrrofp Buuuorepov^ irroUi 
Toy? TrXiyo-tafoirroy. 



Hatino in the two preceding chapters showed the manner in which 
Socrates hiid the foundation for a good character id his pupils^ b^ incul- 
cating the practice of religion and morality, Xenophon proceeds to his 
instructions which have a more direct bearing on practical life. In 
this chapter he presents the manner in which Socrates endeavored to 
qualify his disciples for action. He went back to the source from which 
energy in action springs^ i e., temperance or self-control, iyicffdrtuL. 
This virtue he recommended by his example and by his instructions 
(f 1, 2). A conversation which he held with Euthydemus was substan- 
tially as follows : 

The servitude of the passions b most abject ; for they not only pre- 
vent from doing the greatest good, in which the highest freedom consist^ 
but^ confounding good and evil, urge to the commission of great evil 
(§ 2—7). As intemperance is the greatest of ovilsi so on the contrary 
the g^reatest virtues arise from temperance (§ 8 — 10). The man who 
18 under the dominion of his passions is fitted for no virtuous action, and 
does net materially differ from a beast But the man of temperate 
habits^ is attended by the best gifts of fortune, and is most worthy and 
happy (4 11, 12). 

With this conversation Book L chap. V, and YL i 6 ; also Book U 
chap. I. $ 21 — ^84^ may be compared. 

BOOK IV. CHAP. v. 166 

'/29 Be Kal TrpoKTiicorripot^ iwota roif^ awovra/i 1 
eauT^ vvv ai tovto Xe^* vofilfy>v yap iyKpareuw 
inrap')(€iv aya^op clvcu t& fiiXKopTL teaXop rt irpd^eiPy 
irpSnop pb€P airro^ ^apepo^ fjp rob: awowTip ^ataj/coi^ 
iatrrop fiakurra iraPTWP ap^punroiP, eiretra Buikeyo* 
fiepvi irpoerpeirerg irdpT&p ftaXurra tov9 avpopra^ irpo^ 
^Kpdreiop. 'ilel ijl€p oip irepX t&p irpos dpen}p XPV' ^ 
clfjMV aino^ re Si^riKet fiefjonifiipo^ xal roif^ avpopra^ 
irdpTtK inropufiPijaKmp' olBa Si irore air op kcu irpo^ 
Ev^vSvffjtop irepl eyieparela^ rouiSe ScaXex^ipra* Eiiri 
fioif e<f>rj, & Ev^vSrifi€j ipa xaXop Kal fieyaXeiop pofiir 
^et^ elvoL Kal apSpl xalmXet tcrijfia ikev^eplap ; — 
*i09 otop re ye fjuxXiorOj e<^, — "Orris oip ap^enu 3 
inco r&p Bih rov amfuiro^ ^Bop&Py koI BicL ravra^ fiij 
Bvparcu irpdrreip rk fiekriOTOj pofbi^et^ rovrop ikev- 
^epop elpai ; — "HKurray Sifnf. — Tq-«9 yhp iXjev^epop 
^^peral aoi ro irpdrrew ra fieKr^ara, elra ro eyew 
T0V9 icaikvaopra^ rh rotavra iroielp apeXeu^epop POfiU 
?€A9 ; — Haprdira^i ye, Sifn). — naprdiracrip apa aoi i 
SoKovatp ol oKpareh dpeXev^epoi elpat ; — Nil rop AL*, 
e^, eitcdrof^, — Uorepop Be aoi BoKovaiP oi dxparels 
Kfntkiear^ai, /iopop rtt KaXKKrra irpdrreiPy fj icaX dpa- 
yxd^ea^oL ri dttr^iOTa TroUip ; — OvBhf ffrrop iptoiy, 
e^, BoKovai ravra dpay/cd^€a^a4^ fj ixeipa KtaiKuear^eu, 
— Iloiois Be rtpa^ Beairiras ^yp rots ri fikp apurra 6 
tuoKxfovraSf rh Bi tcdxiOTa dpayxd^opra^ ; — ^il^ Suva- 
rop pff Ai\ etpTf^ tccucioTOv^. — AovXeiap Bi irolap kclkIt 
arfjp POfil^eK elpcu ; — *jEi</a> fiep, e^, rtfp traph rois 
Kaxiaroi^ Beairorcus* — Ttfp KOKurrrfp apa BovXeCap oi 
Mcparek BovXjevovaaf ; — ^Efioi^e Boxei, Sifyrj. — So<f>iap 6 
Bi ro fieyuTrop aya^op oi Bo/cel coi, direipyovaa r&p 
di^pdnrwp fi aKpaala ek roivapriop airoi^ i/ifidX^ 
Xeip ; ^ oi Boxei aoi irpo^ex^iv t% roi^ a>^€Xo&<r^ teal 
xarafMi^dpetP airik KtoXiew d<f>€XKOU(Ta evl ri, ^Bia^ 


Kol iroXKojci^ ala^aPbfiiyov^ t&v aya^&u re xal tm 
KOK&v ifcirXri^aaa nroiAf rh p^6ipoy avrX rov fiekriovo^ 

7 alpeta^tu ; — riyverai tovt\ €^. — Stoff>poavinf^ W, 
& Ev%vSi]fiej rivi &p if)airffiev ^rrov fj r^ axparei 
TTpo^Kciv ; avTa yap Siprov r^ ivapria <r6fif>poaw7fi 
Kol cLKpaala^ epya icrrlv, — 'OpLoKoy& KciX tovto, i^^ 
— Tov S' hrviieKeia^aA &v irpo^ij/cei oUi ri /ic«Xvt*- 
Konepov cucpaaia^ elvcu ; — Ovkow eya>ye, Stfyrf. — Tov 
a avTi T&v oxf>€KowTo»v r^ pKatrrovra irpoaipeur^ai 
ttomOvto^, Kol rovT€»v phf einfi€kela^€Uj ijceuwv Si 
a/iieKetp iret^ovro^, koI roh aw^povovai rh ivamla 
iroieiv aijiay/ed^ovTO^ otei rt av^pwrtp koxiov elvat ; — 

SOvSip, iffyrf. — Ov/covp t^p iyKpareiap r&p ipavrltop ^ 
rtfp aKpaaiap eiKo^ rok ap^pdnro^^ air tap elpcu ; — 
Haw fihf oip, 6^. — Ov/eoup xai r&p ivavrUap ro 
airiop eUo^ apurrop eZi^eu ; — Eucb^ yap, e^. — "JSo^ 
K€P apa, lipff, & Ev^vSrffie, apurrop ap^pmrtp fi iyicpd- 

9r6ea cIpcu ; — Eueoro)^ yap, Sffnjj & Sd/cpare^, — ^Etcewo 
Bi, & Ev^vSrjfie, ^Srf rrwrrore ipe^vfiif^ff^ ; — Uoiop ; 
€<f)rf, — "On Kol M, tA ^Sia, i<l> iirep /i6pa So/cel fj 
axpaala rov9 ap^pmrov^ ayeip, avrif fi€v ov Suvartu 
ayeip, fi S* eytcpdreia rravrwp fiaXurra rjSeo'^at Traiet 
— IIw ; Sififj, — "H^irep 17 fiep axpaaia, ovk i&aa xap- 
repetp ovre Xi/Jtop^ oure Si^jraPy ovre a^pohiaUdP hrC^V' 
filap, oire a/ypv7rpiaPf Bi &p ii6pwp (otip ^Be<o^ piv 
iJMzyetp re xal irieip teal o^poBiaiaa'aA, 1786019 S* diwi- 
rravaa^^al re xal xoifu^^pcUf koX wepifielpcufra/^ teal 
ivatrxofUpov^, &19, &p ravta m hfi ^Stora yhnjirai^ 
K(a\vei, rol^ apayKaundroi^ re koL <niP€j(€(rrdrovi dfuh 
X6ya)9 tjBea^ai' rf B* eyxpdreia fiopf) iroiowra icapre^ 
pelp ra elprffiepa p^prf teal fjBea^ai iroiel d^ia>^ fiprjpLTii 
hrl TOW elprffiipoi^* — HaprdiraaiPy etfyrj, dXrf^fj XeycK* 
10 — 'ilXX^ fitfp rov^fuAeip ri kclKjop icaX aya^op, teai 
rov hnp^Xrf^ripai r&p roioir<»p rofo^^ Bl &v op t*9 

BOOK IV. CHAP. V. 167 

Kol TO eat/TOv a&fJLa koXm^ Sioi/djaeie, xal rbv iavrov 
oucop /caXa>? olKovofi^(r€i€, xal ^tXot9 ical iroKei a>^6\£- 
fjLo^ yivoiTo, xal i^poif^ xpar^aeiep, a<f> &v ov fwvov 
(o^XcMU, aXKa teal ^Boval fiejKrrai ylyvovrai, oi fjiJkv 
iy/eparek airokavovfn, irpdiToirre^ avriLf oi S' aKparui 
oifSepo^ fi€Ti)(pu<rf rm yap &v ffrrov ^i]<rdifi€P r&v 
TotovT&v 7rpof;i]K€iv fj ^ ^tfurra Ifeort ravra irpdr- 
T€iv, /carexpfiiv^ eirl TfiS tnrovSd^eiv irepl ri? eyyv- 
rarcu ffiovd^ ; — Kal o Ev^vSrffio^' AoKck poi, 1^,11 
& SolfxpaT€<:, \dy€iv, w avSpl ffrrovi^ r&v St^ rov 
'a-fofiaro^ ffiovS>v trdfjLirav oihefiia^ dperij^ irpo^rjicei, — 
Ti yitp Bia(f>^p€i, lifyt), & Ei^vSrffjLe^ av^payrro^ aKpa^ 
rrj^ ^ffpiov rov afJUt^earaTov ; octl^ yap rh fihf 
Kpdrurra firi a/coirelj ra rjSuiTa S' i/c Trairro? rpoirov 
^ijrei voieiu, rl iiv Sia^poi r&v dif>pov€ardTa)v fioafcri- 
fidrtov ; dXX^ Toh iyfcparecri fiovois e^eart aKoirelv 
rh Kpdrurra r&v irpaypArtoVj icaX epytp koI 7i6y^ Smi-* 
Xeyovra^ icarh yivTf ra fiiv dya^it irpoaip€i<r^a^, r&v 
Se KOK&v dire^ea^ai* KaL oSrto^ e^ dpUrrov^ re xal 13 
evSaifioveardrov^ avBpa^ ylyv€<r^ai, xal BuCKiyea^cu 
Zuvarcardrov^* €<l>r) Se xal ro SiaXeyec^ai ovofui' 
a^wu ix rod awwvra^ tcoivfj ^ovXevea^at SiaXiyov' 
ra^ Kark yhrq rh irpdyyMra* Zeiv oiv Treipaa^cu o n 
liaKurra vpo^ rovro iavrov jSroifiov irapaa/cevd^civ, tcaX 
rovrov /laKurra hrcfieXeia^iU' ix rovrov ykp yirfve' 
a^OA avSpa^ dpiarou^ re xai fiyepLovixfardrov^ xaX 




Socrates also endeavored to make his disciples more expert in reasoo- 
iog, 8tciXc«rucarr/povs. He supposed that those who had clear notions 
themselyes ooald communicate them to others^ but those who were 
ignorant were themselves liable to be deceived and to deceive othersL 
He accordingly constantlj labored to communicate definite ideas or defi- 
nitions of things (^ 1). Some of his definitions are as follows : 

1. Piety, MMfitia, is the knowledge of that which is established bj 
the laws in regard to the worship of the gods (§ 1—4). [Compare witii 
this, Book IIL chapu YIIL, where every virtue is represented as consist- 
ing ip wisdom, 0*0^(0.] 

2. Justice is the knowledge of the laws of the State, in regard to in- 
tercourse with men (§ 6, 6). 

8. Wisdom, 0-0^(0, is the knowledge of that in which one is versed 

(§ 7). 

4. The good and beautiful, which are equivalent to each other, are 

discerned by their utility. Tet that which is useful is not so in itself, 

but in its relation to other things ($ 8, 9). 

6. Manliness, iufZpia, consists in knowing how to conduct ourselves 
in circumstances of difficulty and danger (^ 10, 11). 

6. Definitions of several terms which relate to civil affairs^ sudf as of 
kmgdom, tyranny, aristocracy, etc. (§ 12^ 

In fine, Xenophon adds several particulars conoeming Socrates' mach 
ner of disputation (§ 18 — 15). 

1 '/29 Be teal SiaKetCTUcandpov^ hroUi, roi^ awovra^^ 
ireipaxrofuu k(iI tovto Xiyew Sto/cpanj^ yitp tow fJ^ev 
eiSira^, ri Ixaarov 6(97 t&v opt<oVj ipofu^e teal toU 
oXXoe? &p i^ffy€i<r%(u SvpcLa-^tu, roif^ Sk fiif etSora? 
ovShf €<fn) ^avfuurrbv elpcu avrov^ re a'<f>dXKea^(u teal 
aXKov^ a-ijxiWecv &v Ivexa axotrAv avv T0i9. awovci^ 
ri S/eaarov etrj t&v ovrcav, ovBfrror ikrjye. Hdvra 
fi€V oiv, ^ Suopi^ero, iroXif epyov &v €ifj Sie^X^eip^ 


hf oaoi^ Si KoX TOP rpiirov r^ eiruTKe^to^ SfjiXtoireiv 
otfjuiif TOfravra Xi^to* Hp&rov Se irepl evaefieuK &S€ S , 
7re09 eaicoTret* Eliri fAoi^ €<l>tf, & Ev^vSijfie^ iroiov rt 
vofjki^ei^ evaifieuiv elucu, ; Kxu 09* KaXKiarov vtf AC^ 
€<ln), — "-5;^ 6*9 oiv ehrelv, oiroio^ t49 6 eiaefii]^ iariv ; 

^EfJLoX fl€V BoKcij 1^, 6 T0V9 ^€0U9 Ttfl&V. — "E^eoTi 

Be iv av Tt9 povKTjTfU rpthrov tow fteow rifiav ; — 
OvK' aXKa vo/xoi eurl /ea^* 0O9 Bet rovro iroieiv. — 
Ovfcovv 6 T0U9 vofiov^ TovTov^i elZw elBeifj &v, a>9 Bei 3 
Touy ^eois riiiav ; — Olfiat eyfur/, eifnj, — ^Ap* oiv 6 
eiSoff rov9 &eov9 rifiav ovic oWok oler<u Behf roxho 
iroieuf ^ w otSev ; — Ov yhp oiv, effyrf, — MXXa)9 Be 
Tw ^eoif^ Tifiq, rj m olerat Belv ; — Ovk olfiat, lifyrj. — 
'O apa T^ irepl rov^ ^eoif^ vofiifia elBuis vop,ifjM^ &v 4 

T0V9 ^€0V9 TLfl^ , Hdw flkv OVV, OvKOW JC 

vofilpM^ TLfi&p e&9 Bel Tifiq» ; — Hw yitp ov ; — '0 Be 
ye m Bel rifi&v evcrefii]^ iari ; — Haw fiev ovvj l^. 
^~'0 apa r^ wepl rov^ ^€o^ vofiijxa elBm op^&i 
&v ripiu eiae^ryi wpuxfJiAvo^ etff ; — ^Efiol yovv^ eifyrf, 

^Av^pdnrovi Bk ipa e^eoTiv hv av t^9 rpinrov fiov- 5 
Xtp-cu XP^^^** » — OvK' aXXiL Kal irepl rovrovs 
elBm a ioT^ vofjLi/JLO, xaV & Bel Trto^ aXXi^\oi9 XP^ 
a^euj vofUfJLO^ &v ettj, — Ov/cow oi Kari, raxna XP^ 
ftevoi aXXi7Xot9 w Bel ypSnncu ; — JTok yiip ov ; — 
OiKow ol ye (09 Bel xpd>/jL€vo^ tcdXw ^^Sin'cu ; — 
ndw fiev oiv, l(fnj> — Ovkow ol ye T049 av^pdyirois 
KcCKw xptofievoi KaK&^ irparrovav rav^pconreta irpa,' 
yiiara; — Euco^ y\ etptf. — Ovkow oi roU vopfii^ ireL- 
^o/A€i/oi Bucaia oiroi iroiovat ; — Haw fiev oivj e^, 
— AbcauL 5^ ola^a^ effyrf, oirola KoKjelroL ; -^^A ol ^ 
vofjLOV KeXevovaipy [^^]« — Oi apa iroiovvre^ & oi vo- 
fioi tceXevovai BiKcud,re iroiova-i ical & Bel; — Tim y^/> 
ov ; — Ovkow ot ye ri, BUccua irowuine^ BIkcuoI eiaw ; 


— Olfuu eyary*, Stfyri. — OUi oiv riva^ weS^ea^tu Toft 
vofjLoi^ fitf elSora^ & oi vofioi KcXevovaiv ; — Ovk eya>y*, 
60^. — £frSoTa9 Se h Bel iroielv oUi rivii^ oUc^cu Seiv 
fiTf iroUiv Taxha ; — Ovk olfuu, e^. — OlSas Bi riva^ 
aWa woiowra^ ^ & olovrav Selv ; — Ovfc iytoy, €<fyrf. 

— Oi apa TcL Trepl av^pdnrov^ vofiifia etSore^ tA 8i- 
/C€ua ovTOi iroiovo'Lv ; — Haw fuv oiv, eifnj. — Ovkow 
Oi ye r& Sucaui voiovvTe^ SUcuol eun ; — Tive^ yap 
SXKjoi ; 6^. — *0p^&^ av irorre apa opi^olfie^a opi^O' 
fiepoi Bixaiov^ eipai, roif^ €iB6r(K r^ irept av^panrou^ 
v6/ii/ia ; — "Epjoiye Bo/cel, €<lyij. 

7 J?a>^tai/ Bi rl &v tf>ria'a^iJL€v elvcu ; ehri fiot, irirrepd 
aoi BoKovaiv oi ao(f>ol, & hriaravrcu, ravra ao(f>ol 
elvai, fj eiai rive^ & fitf iwiaravTai ao^i ; — *^A hrU 
aravroA BrjKov on, Ifpf)' irw yiip av ri^, a ye fiff 
eiriaraiTOj ravra ao<l>b^ etrj ; — Mp' oiv oi aoifnil eir^ 
cm]fjLff €roif>ol elcri ; — Tivt yap, i^, aXX^ Tt9 &p etrf 
ao^o^, el ye fifj iwumjfirf - — "AXKo Be ri ao^iap otei 
elpcu fj cS <ro^t elaiv ; — Ov/c eyiwye. — ^Eirtamjfjktf apa 
aoif)ia ear IP / — ^Efioiye BoxeL — ^Ap* oiv Boxel aot 
ap^pinrfp Bvparop elpat rit Spra irapra hrlara^r^a* } 

— Oifhk /aA AC efioiye itoXKootop fiepoi avr&p, — 
Havra fikp apa <ro^p ov^ otop re ap^pcarrop etpai ; 
— McL Al\ ov Bf/ra, etfyrj, — ^O apa hrlararcu, Itcaaro^j 
rovro Kol ao^^ earip ; — ^Efioiye BoKet * 

8 Mp* ovp, & Ev^vBrffie, xal ray a^ op ovrea l^rjrrjpreov 
iarl ; — Uw; e^. — Aoxel cot rb airro irSurtv wf^ 
Tufiop eiPOA; — Ovk IfjLoiye. — Tl Be; rb aXX^ a>^6Xt- 
fiop ov BoKel aoL ipiore aXKxp /3Ka/3epbp eTpcu;~^Kai 
fidXa, effyq. — MXXo 8* ap ri, ifKiirf^ aya^bp elvai fj rb 
&<l>€>ufiop ; — Ovk eyooy*, e^. — To apa axpiKifiop 
a/ya^op earip, or^ &p ia^iKifiop ^ ; — AoxeZ fioi, e^. 

9 Tb Be KoKop expifiep dp ir(o^ aXKca^ elireip, % ei 
e<rrtp, opopA^ei^ Ka\op fj cAfia fj a-xevo^ ^ aXX' oriovp^ 


h ota^a irpo^ irdpra fcaXav Sv ; — Ma AC ovk ly^*, 
€(fnj. — *ilp' oSi/, irpo^ b &v exaoTov yprifrifiov ij, irpo^ 
TOVTo ktcaartp KcCKSy; e^ei ')^pija-^ai; — Haw fiiv ovv^ 
€<fnf. — KaXbv Sk Trpo^ aXXo rl itmv I/cootop, fj irph^ 
h kxcurrtp koKSs^ .€J(€L j^tr^at; — OuBi 7r/jo9 iv aWo, 
eifnf, — To jQ)ijai/iov apa koXov i<m., irpb^ h &p ^ ^^PV" 
aifJLov ; — "Efiotrfe So/cci, 1^. 

^AvSpiav Bi, & Ev^vSvffie, ipa r&v kclK&v vofjLi^ei^ 10 
elvai ; — KaXKurrop fiep oip eyory, etfnj. — Xp'tjai/jLov 
apa ov irpio^ ra iKd^urra pofii^ci/f t7)p avSpuip ; — 
Ma AC J itf>rfj irph^ tA pLe^urra flip ovp, — Mp* o^ 
8oK€l aoi irpo^ T^ Seipd re xal eirtxtpSvpa 'XprftripLOP 
elpai TO aypocip avrd ;—'*HKicrTd y\ S^. — 01 apa 
fjLtf (l)ofiovfjL€Pot rh Toiavra SiiL to p,^ elSipcu rl iariv 
OVK apSpeioi elaip ; — N^ AC, Itjyrj, ird^ot yitp &p 
ovTto ye r&p re p,atPO/jLip<op xal t&p SeiXSiP apSpeloi 
elep, — Ti he oi kcu rk p,rf Seiph SeSotKore^ ; — "Bt* 
«y6, pt) Aia, fjrroPj c^. — ^Ap^ oZp tov9 flip aya^ov^ 
irpioi ra ieipk kclL eiriKipSvpa opra^ apSpeiov^ rjy^ 
elpai, roif^ Bi kokois BeiKov^ ; — Ildpv flip odpj e^. 
— *Ay(Aois Bi irpo^ rh rotaura pofii^eis aXKov^ Ttpi^ 11 
fl T0V9 Bvpafiipou^ avroifi tedXm ^^p^o'^cu ; — Ovk, dX- 
Xd TovTov^j €<fyrf, — Kaxoif^ Bi apa tov9 oioif^ rovroi^ 
teaifSa^ ')ynja^ac ; — Tipa^ yap aXXov^ ; €if>rf. — ^Ap* 
OVP eKooToi j^pmpTOA, d>^ oloprai Beip ; — Ilok ydp 
aXXoK ; Sifyrj. — ^Apa oip ol fiif Bvpdfievoi KcCKm XP^' 
a^cu la-aaip, w Bel jfpV^'^^'^ > — Oif Bijirov ye, l^i/. 
— 01 apa eiBore^f co9 Bel ^^odai, oiroi Koi Bvpap' 
rai ;'^M6pov y, e^rf, — TL Bi ; oi fitf BirjfiaprrfKore^ 
ipa Kojcm ')(p&prcLi rot9 roiovroi^ ; — Ovk oXoficu^ etfyrf, 
— 01 apa KdKok ypifiepoi, Birffiapn^Kcunp ; — EIko^ y\ 
€<fnf. — 01 flip apa iTrttrrdfiepot roi? Beivol^ re Kol 
hriKipBvpoi^ KcCXw ^pria^a* dpBptlol eiaip, ol Bi But' 
fiaprrdvovre^ rovrov BeiXol; — "Efioiye BoKovaiP, e^* 

162 xskofhok's kemorabilia. 

12 BaaiXeiav S^ xal rvpavpiBa apx<^ M^v afL^orripofi 
fffeiro elvaij Suiff>ip€LV S^ aXk^Xcav ipofii^c rfjv fih 
yap kfcovrtov re rSv ap^pdyirmv, /cal tcara p6fiov<: t&p 
iroXeiov apyi^v jSaaiXeiav '^eiTo, rifv Sk aKovratv re 
fcaX fjLT) KarcL v6fiou<:, aXX* 07ra>9 6 apytov j3ov\oirrOj 
TvpavviSa* koI oirov fiev ck twv ra vofiifui hrvre- 
Tijoxnntov ai apyaX Ka^urravTaij ravrqv rr^v ttoXctcuiv 
apuTTOKparlav ipofu^ev elvai^ oirov S* ix Ti/jLfjfidTa>v, 
irXovTo/cpariaVf oirov £* iic iravrmv StjfioKpaTiap. 

13 El Si Tt9 ayroS ire pi rov aPTiXAyoi fitfBep eyfop 
aa(^h Xiyeip, aW* opev cnroBei^eoi^ ijroi <ro<l>ooT€pov 
(fxiatccop elvoL hp aino^ \iyoi tj iroXiTituorepop ^ op- 
SpeLOTcpop ^ aWo n t&p TOtovrotp^ hrl rtfp inrffbeaip 

li iTraprjyep ap irdpra top Xoyop &Si ttoj?' $^ aif 
afieipca TToXiTrjp etpeu hp <rv eircupeh f) op iyd ; — 
$i7/il yap oZp, — Tl oip ovk i/ceipo irpSyrop €7reaK€^rdr 
fie^a, ri iarip epyop dya^ou ttoXitov ; ^- HoUofiep 
TouTO, — Ov/covp €P fi€P ')(pr}fmTcop Siovfcijaet /cpaToltf 
&p 6 ')(prjpMaip €\nropmripap iroi&p rrjp iroKtp ; — Haw 
p.€P ovp, e^n)' — '^^ ^^ 7^ iroXefjup 6 Ka^mrepripap 
T&p aPTiirdXtop ; — Ilok yhp ov ; — 'Ei; Se wpeafieuf 
apa 59 &p (fflXov^ dprl irdKEfimp irapa^xevafy ; — 
EltcoTo^ ye. — Ovkovp teal ip h^fAtfyopia 6 ardceis re 
Travoap teal Ofiopoiap ifiiromp ; — "EpMiye Soxet, Ovjm 
Si r&p Xiytap eirapayo/iipcop xal roU dpTiXeyova-iv 

itauToU <f>apepop iyiypero raXi/S^e?. 'Ottotc Se airro^ 
Tl TO) Xoyq) Si€^ioi, Slit rcSi/ fidXioTa 6fioXoyovfiip(OP 
eTTopevero, p6/jli^<op Tavrrjp ttjp da^dXeiap elpa^ Xjoyov* 
TovyapovP iroXi) fidXiara &p iyo) olSa, ot€ Xiyoi, Toif^ 
oKOvoPTa^ ofLoXoyovPTa^ vap€i)(€P' etfyrj Se Kat ^Ofifj- 
pop T^ ^OSva'ael opa^eipai to da'<f>aX7] pijropa elvaij 
w iKcufop avTOP Spra Sui t£p So/covpto^p to»9 av^/wa- 
TTois ayeip tov9 Xoyov^. 




Ih the preceding chapters Xenophon has exhibited the manner in which 
Socrates made his disciples^ xpcutriico^s and 9ia\tKriKo6t ; he now pro- 
ceeds to his influence in making them skilful in the application of every . 
art and science to the uses of life, L e., ft.iix«ufueo6% and thus independent 
of aid from othera He tanght what and how much was useful for them 
to know of the separate arts and sciencesi as of Geometry, Astranomy, 
and Arithmetic (§ 1 — 8). He also inculcated special care of health (f 9) ; 
and that thoee who desired knowledge that was beyond the limits of 
human investigation should consult the gods by means of divination 


It should be taken into the account^ in forming a judgment of the 
contents of this chapter, that Socrates^ in his more general instructions 
to his pupils^ has in mind the subtleties and useless speculations of many 
of the sophists, and wishes in opposition to them to give prominence to 
the practical in life. This too is the part of his teaching that is especially 
important^ for the accomplishment of Xenophon's design in writing his 
book, to bring to view. It must not be supposed that Socrates would 
limit all investigation, to the narrow bounds which he seems to prescribe 
here, or that he did not with his more gifted pupils^ such as Plato and 
even Xenophon, enter upon &r more subtle and elevated themes of dift* 

"On fikv oSif airXw rtfp iaurov yvmfitfp atre^lvero 1 
StoKpdrrf^ 7r/709 rou^ OfJuXovvTiK avr^, SokcI fioi SfjKov 
ix r&v elpfjfidvoov chfoi, Srt Be koI ainapKei^ iv roZ? 
wpo^Kovo'ai^ irpa^eaof ainoif^ elvcu hrefjLeKeiTOf vvv 
TovTo Xi^(o' irdvTCdv fi€v yhp &v eyo) oZ8a p^Kurra 
epjiK£if avT^ clSipai, orov ri^ hri^rrqp^v etrj r&v cru- 
vovTtov airr^ &v Si irpo^xei avSpl xaTs^ Koya^^ 
elSiveu, 8 ri pip avrb^ clSeirji nrdintov irpo^vpLorara 
iBiSaa-Kepf Stov Be avro^ aireiporepo^ etrj^ Trpo^ tov9 
iirurrapApox)^ fjyep avrov^. ^EBiBaaKe Bi teal p^exp* ^ 

164 xsnofhon's kemobabilu. 


OTov Bioi Ifiiretpov elvtu hcdarov irpdyfjurro^ rov op^w 
ireTraiSevfJiivov* aurUa yetofierpiav fi€j^^ fikv tovtov 
€^71 Selif fiav^dveiv, elw? Uavo^ T4y yepoiTO, ei wort 
Sei^creic^ yrjp fierptp op^m ^ irapaXa^eip fj irapaZovvcu 
fj Bcavelfjuiij ^ epyov diroSei^cur^cu* ovrto Se tovto 
paSiov elvtu fia^elv, &^€ top irpo^i')(pvTa rov vovv t§ 
fjLCTpria'ei, &fia ttjv t€ yrjv orroarj iarlv etSevai, kcu m 

3 fierpuTcu iinaTdfievov dirUviu. To Be fiexp^ t&p Sv^ 
^upirtop Siaypafifidrap yem/ierplav fiaifhdpup aTreSo- 
xlfia^ev S TV fi€P ykp w^ekoirj ravra, ovk e^ opav* 
Kairoi OVK direipo^ ye avr&p i}i/* e^if Be ravra hcaiA 
elpoi dp^parrrov fiiop Kararpi^eKP, ko^ aXKoop iroXK&v 

4 re Kal a}^\ifi(OP fia^rj/idrtap diroKddKveip. ^ExeXeve 
Si Kcu dorpoXoyla^ ip^relpov^ yiypecr^ai, Kal ravrrj^ 
pAproL fieypi, rov pvkto^ re &pav koX firjpo^ koI ipiav- 
rov Svpoa^ai yiypofaKCtP SpeKa iropeia^ re koX ttXoS 
KCL <f>v\aKfj^, Kal oaa aXKa fj vvkto^, ^ p/ijpo^, ^ eptav- 
rov TTpdrrera^, vpo^ ravr ej^etp reKfirjpioi^ y^a^a^^ 
rd^ &pa^ Tcjy elptffiAoDP BiayiypwaKopra^* koX ravra 
he paBta elpcu fuAetp irapd re \rS}p\ pvKro^rjp&p xal 
Kvfiepvrjr&p koX SXKxop ttoWcSi/, 0I9 hrip^Xk^ ravra 

5 'eiZepoA, To Bk p^XP^ rovrov dcrrpopofiiap p^p^dveiVj 
p^XP'' '^^^ ^^^ '^^ M^ ^ '^V oin^ irepiifHyp^ opra xal 
roif^ rrXdpTfrd^ re koI dara^p.i^rov^ darepa^ ypwpax, 
koX Ta9 diroirrdaei/i avr&p dvo t% yrfi Kal rd^ wepto- 
Sov9 Kal rd^ airia^ air&p ^ryrovpras Kararplfiea^ai^ 
i(rxypok direrpewep* dHl>eXetap p^kp ydp ovBep»la» ovB* 
€P rovroi^ e<fnj opav* Kalrot, ovBi rovrcop ye dp^Koo^ 
^p' 6^ Be. Kal ravra Uavd elpcu Kararpifieip oi'^/mo- 
irov fiiop, Kal ttoXKwp Kal d><f>e\lp^v diroKmKvetv. 

6 "OXo)? Be r&p oifpapiooPj ^ Sxaarra 6 ^eo^ p,rf)(apara^ 
<f>popria'rr}p yiypear^eu direr peirep' ovre yap evperd 
dp^pdrTTOi^ avrd €p6p,i^€P elpa*, ovre ;^a/}i([6a^<u ^eoU 
&p ^yetro rop ^lyrovpra & iKetPOi aa^piacu ovk efiov- 

BOOK IV. CHAP. vn. 165 


Xi^rfO'av ieivStJ!jf€v<r(u S* Ap'ei^ xal irapa<l>povtja(U 
TOP ravra fiepifiv&vra, ovSkv ^ttov fj ^Ava^ayopa^ 
irape^ppovrjarepj 6 /Jbeytarop tf>popi]a'a^ errl t^ ra^ t&p 
^eojp fifiyavi^ 'i^rjyeur^at, ^Etcelpo^ ycLp Xeyaup fikp 7 
TO airro elpcu irvp re Kal ijXiop fiypoeu, cb? to fiep irvp 
oi cuf^porrroi pqBio)^ Ka^opa>aiPy cl^ Sk top i]\u)p ov 
hvpaPTOL apTifiKeTreiP' koI inro fiep rod fjKLov Koror 
Xa/Airofiepot rh j^ptofuira fiekdprepa e)(pvaiPy irrro Si 
Tov irvpo^ OV' iffpoti Sc, ota Kai t&p ix t^9 7^9 ^vo- 
fiipfop qp€v fi€P fiXiov avyif^ ovBip Svparai KoKm 
av^a^aij inro 8e tov irvpo^ ^€pfjkaip6fi€pa irdpTa 
airoXXvTcu* ^aiuop hk top ^Xlop XI^op hvairvpov eZ- 
voA KoX TovTo fjypoei^ OTV Xtdo9 ti€P ip irvpl &P 0VT€ 
Xafiiretf ovTe ttoXvp ^opop apri^ei, 6 Se ^Xto9 top 
iravra ypopop irdpTtop XafiirporaTO^ &p StapLCPei. 
^ExiXeve Si xal Xoyto'/iov9 fuip^dpeip, xal Toxrrtop SkB 
6/ioi(D^ T0i9 a\Xo£9 ixiXeve il>vXdTT€a^ai ttjp fuiTaiop 
irpayfiaTeiap^ /JLexpi' Se tov a><l>eXifJLOV TrdpTa xai avTo^ 
avpeTrea-Koirei xaX avpSie^ei Tofe avpovtri. npoirpeireO 
Si (T(^Spa Kai vyteCtK iwc/jLeXeia^cu tou9 o-vpoptu^, 
irapd T€ T&p elSoTcop pLUP^dpoPTO^ oaa ipSe^oiTOj xal 
iavT& ixaoTOP 'n'po^i)(ppTa Sta wapTO^ tov fiu)v, tI 
fip&fui fj Ti irofia fi TTom iropo^ avp^epoi axn^ koX 
irm TovTois: ypdyfiepo^ vyieiPOTor op Sidyof tov ykp 
ovT(o irpo^exp^^^^ iavr^ epyop €^r) elpat €vpflp laTpop 
TCL 7rpo9 vyUuLP avfif^ipoPTa axn^ fmSXop Supytypw- 
a-KOPTa iavTov. El Si Tt9 fioKXop 'fj Kork tt^p dp^po- 10 
iripfjp aof^lop w<f>€X£ia'^ai fiovXoiTo, avpeffovXeve fiop- 
TtKTj^ erri/ieXeia-^cu* top ykp etSoTa, SC &p oi ^eol 
Toiir dp^panroi^ irepl t&p irparfyMTt^p arffiaipovcnpg 
ovSiiroT eprf/JLOP etfyrf yiypea^cu cvfi^ovXr^ ^€&p* 




Turn last section of the preceding chapter famishes a transition to tlie 
subject of the last and closing chapter of these Reminiscences of the 
Life and Death of Socrate& This chapter is fiUj occupied with the 
closing scenes of his mortal life. It might be objected that the tcu/t^ 
yioir, in which the philosopher so confidently trosted during his life^ for- 
sook him in his last houn^ since he suffered a Tiolent death. But not 
so thought the philosopher or his pupil. His death rather showed the 
especial regard of the gods for him; since, first, he thus escaped the 
evils of old age which were fast coming upon him ; and, secondly, in 
his trial and daring the thirty days that interyened between it and his 
death, he exhibited a magnanimity and cheerfulness^ which obtained for 
him immortal honor (^ 8). In proof of this Xenophon adduces a con- 
rersation which he held with Hermogenes after his condemnation. 
The leading thoughts in it are as follows : 

Socrates replies to Hermogenes' entreaty that he will take into con- 
sideration the defence that he is to makCi that his whole life, passed in 
the exercise of yirtue, is his best defence. The fear of the injustice of 
the judges does not influence him, since his guiding genius dissuades . 
him from making a defence ; for if he should continue to live, he might 
be depriyed of his powers of improvement and usefulness by age, and 
die with leas honor than now (§ 6 — S). The disgrace of an unjust 
condemnation would fall upon his judges, not upon himself; he should 
rather be held in grateful remembrance, since he had not only not 
done evil to men, but had always exerted himself for their improve- 
ment ($ 9, 10). 

Xenophon concludes the chapter and his work, by an allusion to the 
regard felt for Socrates by all virtuous persons who knew him, and by 
a brief recapitulation of the qualities on which his own admiration, 
reverence, and esteem were based, and on account o( and by means ot 
which, he had endeavored to commend him to others (§ 11)l 

1 El Si rt9, &n <f>da'/covTo^ airrov to hcufiovtov eaur^ 
irpotnjfiaipeip, a re Sioi xal & fiif Siot iroielVf vrrb t&p 
SiKOa-r&p Kareywia^ ^dvaro^, otereu avrov iXiyx^ 

BOOK IV. CHAP. vm. 167 

cr^£U vepl rou Stu/jLOvkv yftevSo/jLCPOv, evvofjadrfa vrpA^ 
rov /*€V, art ovrto^ ijSe rore irop^ rrj^ ^iTukUv; ijp, 
&ST, el fcat fjLT) Tore, ov/e &v iroXXtp voTepov r^Xeur^ 
acu rbv fiiov, elra ore to phf a^eivorarov rod fiCov 
KoX iv & iravre^ rijv Bidvotav fieiovvTai aireXenrev, 
ami hk TouTov rfyi ^^vy(rj^ rrjp JHop/qv iwiSei^dfUPo^ 
evkkeutp *rrpo9€/cTij<raro, njp re Si/erfp irdprap dp^pd^ 
TTWP akrl^iarara 9caX iKev^epuorara teal SiKcuirara 
ehrmPj KoX rifp /eardype^tnp rov ^opdrov irpaorara koL 
dvSptoSiarara epeyteav, 'OfioXoyeireu ydp ovSepa 7rt» 2 
r&p pLPrjfiopevofJLevmp dp^pamayp xaXXiop ^dparop eve' 
y/eeip' dpdy/crf fUp yibp eyipero avr^ fi^erk r^i/ KpiaiP 
rpuucopra ^fUpcK fit&poi 8ii ro ArjKia fih iKeCpov rov 
firjpo^ elp€Uj TOP Se pofiop firfSipa iap StfjuLoaia diro^pif- 
a/cetp, &»9 &p 1} ^eeifpia ex Ai^Xov ewapik^ij* teal rop 
jfpopop rovTOp &7r€un rok arxnnf^eo'^ ^apepb^ iyipeio 
oiSep aXKoiorepop Si^fiioi^^ rf top e/iTTpoa^ep ypopov* 
xairoi rop Ifiirpoa^ip ye irdprcap dp^pdyjrtop pAXurra 
Aavfid^ero iiri r^ ei&Vfuo^ re xai €v/c6Xa>9 ^p. Kal 3 
rr&9 ap rt9 koXKaop fj ovrta^ drro^dpoi ; fj ttoZo? &p 
eiff ^dparo^ KcCKKltov fj hp &p xdXKurrd rv^ diro^dpoi ; 
rrom S' hp yepoiro ^dparo^ euSaipapi<rrepo^ rov «a\- 
\i<rrov ; fj irolo^ ^eoif>i\€<Trepo^ rov evSaifiopeardrov ; 
Ae^o9 Si Kid & 'Epp/yyepov^ rov ^IwjtopIkov 7JKov<ra 4 
trepi avrov' etfyrj ydp, fjSrf Mekijrov yeypap,p,epov av- 
TOP rtfp ypa^^P^ avro9 aKovcop avrov irdpra fwXkop fj 
'irepl rrj^ Sucrj^ SiaKeyopApov XiyeiP airr^ a>9 ypij cko^ 
irup 6 r& diroKoyi^aereu, rop Sk rb p,€P irp&rop etirelp* 
Ov ykp hoK& <roL rovro fieXermp Siafieffuj/eepai ; iirel 
Se avrop fjpero^ oirco^ ; elireiP avroPj ori ovShf aXKo 
irousp SiayeyipTfrak ^ SicurKOirAp p>€P rd re BUcua koI 
ra SSiiea, irpdrrcup hi rb, Suecua Kat rwp dSl/ccop aire- 
j(pp£p09, fpnrep pofil^oi KoKXlarrfp fieXirrfp aTtoXoyla^ 
cZmu. Avrbi Si iraKtp elireip* Oxt^ opq/s^ & S<Mcpare^y 6 


Sri ,oi ^A^i^vrfci Sucaaral iroXKjoif^ flip ijSfi fiffBev aSt- 
tcovvTo^ \oy^ irapa^fieirre^, aTrifcreipav, ttoXXou? Si 
aSiKOvvToi aTriXvcav ; ^AXkit vff top ACa^ (fuipcu ait- 
Toi/| & 'Epfwyeve^f i^St) fiov hnyeipovvro^ ^povriacu 
rrj^ 7r/}09 tov^ SueaoTa^ airoXoyia^, i^vavruo^rj to Ba4r 

6 fioviov. Kal avTO^ ehrelv Oavfuurra Xeyet9* tov Bi' 
Oavfid^et^, <f>dv(Ut el r^ dr£^ Soxet fiiKTiov elvat ifii 
reKevrSv top fiiop ijSrj ; ovk ota'^\ qti, fiexpt flip TovSe 
TOV j(p6pov iyoa oifSept ca^pdnrtop v<f>€lfirjp &p ovre 
fiikTiop ot;%* ijBiop ifiov fiefiuoKipcu ; apurra fi^ yhp 
otfuu ^p Toif^ apurra hrifieKofUPOv^ tov m /SeXrt- 
OTOu? yfypea^aij ^Surra Si TOif^ fiaXioTa ala^avo- 

7 fiipov^^ oTi fieXTiov^ ylypoPTOi, ^A iyib fiexp^ TovSe 
TOV 'xpopov ^a^apofirip ifiavT^ avfifiaiPOPTa, koX Tok 
aXKoi^ ap^pdnroi^ ipTvy)(apC9P Kal irpo^ tov9 aXXot/9 
TTapa^eap&p ijiavTOP otrro) SuvreriXe/ca irepl ifiairrov 
yiyp<o<rKOi>p' xal ov fiopop iyd, oKXA koX oi ifiol <f>iXjoi 
ovTOD^ exppre: irepX i/iov SuiTeXovo'ip, ov Sui to ifuXup 
ifie, KoX yhp oi Toif^ aXXov^ <I>iXovpt€^ ovrta^ &p cl^pp 
irpb^ Toif^ iavT&p ^ikov^, oXXA Stoirep xal avTol ap 

8 oioPTiu ifioX avp6pT€9 fiikTiaroL ylypea^au El Si 
fiuoaofiaL 7r\e/a> )(p6pop, lao)^ apayxdiop earai t^ tov 
yripto^ hnT€kHa^aXt tcaX opap T€ koL axoveip ^ttop, 
teal Suipoela^cu yflpop^ koX Sv^fia^iarepop koI hnXfj- 
afiopi<trepop airofiaipeip, Koi &p 7rp6T€pop fieKrioop j^i/, 
TOVTOiP X€ipa> y(yp€a^ai' oKXA fir)p Tovrd ye fiif 
ala^apofiip^ flip aPUaro^ &p elrj 6 /8i09> aia^apofie- 
POP Si ir&^ OVK apdyiCTf ;^e!p6i' re koI arfSiarepop ^p ; 

9 *AXKa fiffp el ye aSitua^ airo^apovfiaij toU fiiv aSi- 
taof ifii airotcreipaa-ip aUryjphp &p elrj tovto' el ykp to 
aSiKeuf aurxpop eari, irw ovk aUr^php koX to aSUca^ 
oTtovp TTOielp ; ifioX Si tL ala^(pop to eripov^ fiif Svpa- 
a-^ai irepl ifiov t^ SUeua fitfre yp&pat fitfre iroifjciu ; 

iO* Of»& S* lyoK/tf Kol TtfP So^ap twp irpoyeyopoT^p apd/xo- 

BOOK ly. CHAP. ym. 169 

irtuv iv Tovi hruyvfvoiihfoi^ ovj^ ofiolav KaretKjeviroiAiinpf 
T&v re aSiicTfO'dvrtop teal r&v aZucrfhhnmv ot!ba Si, ori, 
KoX iyi> hniieke'uK rev^fuu inr ap'^pdnrfov, kcu iiv vuv 
a7ro^dv(Oj ov^ ofJLol/o^ rok ifie aTTOicreCpaaiv* oZSa yhp 
adi fJMfJTvpi]a'€a'^ai /loi^ ot^ iya> TJSi/cvfa'a fikv ovBeva 
wanrore av^pdnrc^Pj oiSi x^lpto iirolffa'a, fieXrlou^ Si 
woieip hre^pdfirjp ael roif^ e/iol. crvpopra^. Toiavra 
fihf irpo^ ^Ep/JLoyeprfP re SieXij^i] zeal irpo^ tou9 aX- 
Xoi/9- T&p Si Stoxpcmjp yiyptaa/eoPTOiP, oto^ f/pt otll 
aperrfi i(l>t€/i€Poi rrdpTc^ en xal pSp SiareXovo'i iraP' 
rmp pLaKiara iro^oupre^ i/eetpop^ cu? i^^XifidyraTOP 
Spra vpo^ aperrfi hnpi'Keiap, ^Efioi flip Sif toiovto^ 
cipj otop iya> Si^ytjfuu, eifaefitf^ flip ovrto^j &rr€ fiff- 
Sip ap€v rrj^ t&p ^e&p ypdfiti^ iroieip, SUaio^ Si, &^e 
BXairreiP flip firjSi fUKpop firfSipa, oit^Xelp Si rii fid- 
yurra rov^ j^fxofiepov^ avr^ iy/epartf^ Si, &^e fiffSd- 
irore irpocupeia^ai rb HSiop aprl rod /SeXriopo^, t^po' 
vifio^ Si, &iTe fiff SiafUtprdpetP KpiPODP rh fieKrlm koX 
rii Xeifm, fivfSi aXKov irfyo^Siecr^cu, aXX' aSndptcri^ 
elpai Trpo? rrjp tovtcop yp&atp, ucapo^ Si xal Xoy^ 
elirelp re kcu Siopiaaa^cu r^ roiavra, Uapo^ Si xal 
a\Xot/9 SoKifidaai re koI afiaprdpopra^ i^eXiy^cu xal 
irfyorph^a^ai hr apertfp xal xaXoKaya^iap, iSoxei 
rotovTo^ elpcu, oto^ tip ettf apurro^ re aprfp xal €vS<u- 
fiopiararo^' €l Si r^ fitf apiaxei rat/ro, irapa/SdXXup 
TO aXXap fj^o^ irpb^ ravra ourto xpiperv. 




BENO»nNT0:i AnOBfNHMONETBfATON : kwofunt/wwti/uera, from 
htiKfniunft^iWt thingB related from memorj. It is not^ however, re- 
■trieted to that which fell under the author's own observation, bat 
indndes also particulars which he 'received from other witnesseei The 
liitin term Memorabilia, things memorable or worthy to be remem- 
bered, althoogh it does not correspond precisely k the Greek word, is a 
xery good designation of the contents of these Books, and as snch is 
Very eommonly nsed in English. We not nnfreqnently affix the termi- 
nation ana to proper names to designate much the same thing ; as 
Johnsoniana, the memorable sayings of Johnson. Anlns Gellins (N. H. 
XIY. 8.) called these books: Libros quos dictorom atqne fectomm 
Soeratis oommentarios composuit Xenophon. And some modem 
editors^ as Kflhner, retain Gommentarii as the most fitting title of the 
work. Gicero de Nat Deor. I. 12, refers to Xenophon in iis, quae 
a Socrate dicta retulit. 

Instead of kwoparniAovwijJirmVt two Mssw Victorii have diro^i^/iara ; 
and one, Parisiensis F. has in rAp rov Utvo^rrof ^o/unjftoycv/i^rwy, 
i. e., memoranda, things written down in order that they may be remenv 
bered. This name does not seem to apply so well to the contents of a 
work which consists not merely of hasty sketches, but in many parts 
exhibits signs of elaboration ; still the two words &vo/An|/Aoyc^/taTa and 
^ofu/ifiora may have been used, even in andent time^^ as nearly synony- 
moua Thus ^wofur^fura seems to be used like Avofunf/torc^/Aora in 
Polybius 1. 1. 1., 6. 82. 4 et aL 

BOOK 1. 


1« — TloKXditis ibaifA»ffa, ritf"! . .. X^oif ; the interrogative r.Vi in- 
stead of otortfft. Thus in Laced. Rep. L 1, we find the compound Sotii : 
i^u^fuwt, <ry vori rp^y rov^ -Jyiprro i Apol 11, and f 20 below | 

174 NOTES. 

but in IV. 2. 6 : dov/uwr^r . . , ri wort . . . mipmrrat, the nmpl« 
pronoun rL In indirect questions the simple interrogatiyes rtt, voios, 
v6T9pot, T&t, etc, are somewhat often (Buitmann, 139. m. 63, says 
rather otrongly, "just as often") employed instead of the compounds 
tsTiSt \wo7oft 6v^€pos, Smt, giving the phrase in a degree the force of 
a direct question. See Kahn. Or. § 844^ 8. R. 1 ; £3. Gr. § 167. (9) R. 2. 
Sometimes both classes of words are used in the same sentenea See 
Plat Gorg. p. 448. R For the use of the modes in indirect interroga- 

tion% see Kahn. Gr. § 844. 6; 6. 189. H. vot4 is often added to 

interrogatiye pronouns to indicate the desire for an answer, or astonish- 
ment or wonder; see Kuhn. Gr. $ 844. R. 2. Comp. § 2 and note upon 
it in ^ 20; III. 14. 2; IV. 2. 6. For the similar use of tandem in 
Latin to denote impatience for an answer to a question, see Znmpt*s 

Lat Gr. ^287. -K^yoit, argwnerUf, o/ ypm^d/i9P0t 2»- 

Hpdrjiif, The Mid. Voice here indicates causation : Those who caused 
his name to be written down, i. e., the aeeutert of Boeraten, Kflhn. Gr. 
260. R. 2. Crosby, 659. d. So in Plat ApoL Socr. p. 41. D. : 8i& rei^Te 
, . . iyttyt K«Tvo^^i9aii4pois /lov ... air wdi^v XP^*^^'^ ^^^ partidple is 
tued, followed however by the genitive. Cicero^ in Tusa Disp. 1. 41. 99, 
also employs a similar phrase : li, a quibus aceusatus sum. But 
aoousator is sometimes used in Latin. — Socrates in his Apology 
■peaks of two classes of accusers : those who had long been his enemie^^ 
many of whom, "setting a comedian [Aristophanes] at the head of the 
charge," themselves remained in concealment The principal points of 
this first accusation, he says, may be found in the Comedy (the Clouds) 
of Aristophanes. See v. 248 sq. Those most active in the last trial 
(Apol. Socr. p. 28. B.), were Melitus^ a man of rank and wealth, and 
^thor of poor tragedies (Aristoph. Ranae. v. 1802 sq. and also Stallb. 
Plato, ApoL Socr. 28. B-X Anytu!^ a tanner (Xenophon, ApoL { 29X and 
Lycon an orator (Aristoph. Vesp. 1801). Thus it is said: "Melitus 
stands by the poets, Anytus represents the politicians and tradesmen, 
and Lycon appears for the orators." The part that each took is more 
definitely stated by Max. Tyr., Disa 9. 2 : trnxpi^v M Airor fikv iypir 
^aro, "AvvTos 8^ citr^aye, A6k»0 8i Hwk*, cr.X., cC Brandis' Gesch. 
Gr. u. Rom. Philosophy, VoL II. p. 28 sq. The trial took place in the 
large court, called 'HAco/a ; concerning which see Potter^s Gr. Antiqui- 
ties L p. 128 ; Fiske's Man. of Class. Lit p. 186. its <^iot cfi| •^oyi- 

Tov ry ir J X c 1 , that Soeratea wax leorthy of death in rexpeet to th« State, 
For 6f, see note 2 below. Ia some phrases^ and especiall}* after &%, the 
Dative denotes the person in whote judgment, or in whose view a thing is ; 
here more definitely, fnmi the State, as it respects the State. See B. 138. 7. 
Kahn. Gr. ^ 284. (10) b. ; L. Gr. IL 681. «., and Rost 106, p. 601. Gt 

BOOK I. OHAP. L 175 

L 2. 62, 68 : II. 6. 1. The Optat mode, tTn^ with As after the Aor. 
Tenae^ Hutm, io the fiiwl claoee here is used instead of the Sobj^ to in- 
dicate that this was merely a persuasion of others not believed by the 
writer ; see EOhn. Gr. ^ 380. 2» and R. 2. (a). 

'H ti4if. The partiole fUp is nsnallj followed bj 94 or an equivalent 
word, and calls the attention to a distinction that is to be made between 
the clause in which it stands and the succeeding one. But the follow- 
^ing adYenatiYe particle, and even the whole ' antithetic dause^ may be 
omitted, as here, and be merely supplied by the mind ; fUp is then called 
Bolitariu^. See KQhn. Gr. §822. R.4; L. Gr. §784 2. Rost§184. 
Plato, Phaed. £8. A., and Stallbaum's note in h. L Homer often omits 
the adyeraattye clause after filv yip ; e. g. li V. 901. C£ also note, L 
1 62: iiuX /iir, icr.A.; L fi. 6; IL 6. 1, 8, 6; IIL 12. 1, and Hackett's 
Plut De Sera> etc p. 120. 7P a^^ ; an Attic law-term for an indict- 
ment for a public offence^ and hence opposed to luc^ a private action. 
It ifl^ however, as well as ypApMrdat, sometimes used in reference to 
private aceusationa For the occasions on which the ypap4i was used, see 
Meier and SchSmann, Att Process & 198sq. and Fiske's Man. p. 186, and 

also the word ypa^ in the Index of Meier and SchOmann. r o ii( 8 c 

Tit lipf wtu for tuUtanee thU, Lat h a e c fere; so rtr is frequently 
used with pronouns and numerals to give indefiniteness to the assertion. 
Kahn. Gr. 803. 4; L. Gr. IL § 638. 5. Crosby 617. C£ II. 6. 11. Bome- 
mann, Cyrop. II. 1. 2. and £ 8 ^ wms IL 1. 21 below. 

M/v is here, as commonly, followed by 94, introducing the counterpart 
of the declaration with fUw. It has been stated that the latter particle is 
sometimes omitted. M^r too is frequently omitted in poetiy and some- 
times in prose; c£ IL 2. 8. and 6. 22. Gyropaed. lY, 8, 21: «'o^^ck 
'yip ^Qffi Kol TvTor hf^pAvou rots i^aKfuiit vpoop&rra SijAoBr, roAXJb 
8 ) rois iwl vpoaicoAopra ciifudrttp. So especially where the correspond- 
ing clauses are far separated, as in L 2. 21. In III. 18. 6. both particles 
are omitted. The position here, after the words contrasted, is the most 
common, though the particles frequently qualify the predicate or tJie 
whole dause, and then take a different position ; KQhner Gr. 822, R. 2. 

For unusual positions of these partidci^ see also note, § 12. It 

should be noticed that in order to make good English the /iir ... 8) 
must be rendered variously. Frequently the force of fi4p is given merely 
by the tone of voice or emphasii^ and sometimes the 8^ is best translated 
by while, and both particles, by both . . . and, wkM . . . yet, etc. Either 
distinction and distribution may be indicated by these particles, or 

simple connection, relation ; see B. 149. 11-18. vofd(ti o6s . . . o& pofii' 

Cwy, icr.A,, in not reverencin|; those, etc The participle here introduocf 

176 NOTES. 

a daiue uidicatiTe of wbj or manner ; bo tlt^^fmp and Ztai^ipMf ; Me 
Kflhn. Or. (812. (e). The Latin would take a more specific form 
injuste agit Socratee^ qnod deos non dnctt^ eta The participle maj be 
Baid to have been a £&Torite part of speech with the Greeks^ and the 
beautiful conciseness which its use often gave to a sentence^ and the 
varied shades of idea which it so briefly designates^ may well be consi- 
dered a sufficient justification of this partiality. NofU(«cy ^co^s^ mean^ 
to believe in the gode^ to honor as god^ eolere deos, although even 
without the article it may sometimes signify, to believe in the existence 
of gods^ deos esse credere, for which i^S^J^ai ^§o6s is the more 
usual phrase. Hence ol rwofuvfUpoi bwi, the gods which are publicly 
received and worshipped, and in § 3 tuarrut^p wofdC^r, to put confidence 
in, to practise divination. It is used in a somewhat similar manner in 
the phrase: fiiop or rix^^ »ot»l(9tp, as in Aeseh., Ghoeph. 994 (1008): 
ApyvpoffTcpq fiUw yo/J(wr, leading a robber's life. For the meaning of 
Soi/A^Mo, deitici^ Lat dii, see the Introduction. —— &8iirc 7 th ko^ 
the repetition of uSucct here instead of a mere connection by particles 
both . . . and, c u m . . . t u m, is perhaps an imitation of the fulneas and 
definitenesi of the style in judicial proceedingii Anaphora, however, is 
oftener employed in Greek than in Latin where some rhetorical effect 
seems generally to be indicated by it See voXX^it /it y . . . roXX^ir 8^ 

2«— Ilpfiror fi^v, introduces the first part of the accusation, 
namely, that of impiety, and 8^ in chap. IL 1, without any word answer- 
ing to irpwroy, introducing the second accusation, may be considered as 

corresponding with it o { r is perhaps derived from the neut part 

i6if, tv of the verb c7i>ai, and hence refers to the present (being) state of 
thing^ hence ss thu^ so, and in general marks a sequence or dependence 
of the thought on what has gone before ; and then, a necessary conse- 
quence or deduction, Latin ergo or igitur. It is related to 6pa ia 
meaning, but has a wider range, and frequently denotes a atrong conclu- 
sive force, which is not indicated by that particle. It here denotes the 
transition from the statenient of the subject of discourse, to the examina- 
tion of it Lat igitur, then; see KCkhn. Gr. $324. 3 (b). Hartung, 6r. 
Partik. IL 1^ sq, Am. 2 Gr. Pr. Com. Ch. 44. •^^^- its is frequently used 
especially after verba BerUiendi et declarandi with much the same ugnifi- 
canoe as 8ri, but perhaps the manner, the how, may be generally hinted 
at when i»s is used, but the mere fact when 8ri is employed ; c£ just 
below : Ai ^% and see Lewis^ Plat Contr. Ath. p. 8. ■ wo/y vot^ ; 
the force of wri may be given here by pouible, what pouible, etc, see 
note upon rivi itori ( 1, above, and ( 20 below bivw re ; to this r4 


tlie Koi with fuurrut^ oorre8poiid& The eonneotion hjr W. . . mA both . . . 
mtd, fud only . . . 6«< aUo, or simply, and, with the last clause, is em- 
ployed where two ideas are to be brought together as ooe wholes the 
seoood being gtntraUy^ not always the more important^ and hence re 
oeiving the stronger particle, kuL The connection by fca( . . . ko^ on the 
other hand, is nsed where two distinct particulars are brought together. 

See Kflhn. 6r. §821. L 1. (a). wokXixit fi^p . . . voWdxtt 9^; the 

oorrelative particles fihp ,,,94 as above § 1 ; and iroAA^ir is perhaps 

repeated for the sake of emphasis ; c£ note upon oSficci, § 1. o f k o i ; 

i e., i¥ rp aibkj. The a6\4 was the open space, or court; around which 
the house was built» in which was placed the altar for private and do- 
mestic sacrificesL See Becker's Cbariklea, p. 202 ; Wachsmuth, Hellen. 
Alterthumskunde IL S. 416 sq. ; Plato, De Repub. 828. G. So among the 

Bomans it was in the compluvium. fiamticf, divinationt d i v i n a t i o 

or vaticinia, and /uanutg xp^M'*^h suppljring one's own need with, 
tuffi^ dtvination, whilst XP^ ^^ the Act Voice means^ to give the need- 
ful answer. ■ Stcrt^pvAifro yi^p, it was very commonly reported, 
pervulgatum erat r^ introduces a proof that he made use of divina- 
tion. On the subject of divination among the Greeks^ see Fiske's Manual 

and Wacfasmuth, Hellen. Alterthumskunde, II. §186. iavr^ o-i}- 

l»a (ycir. In 4 below wpofftnuuvtw is used, as there is in that place 
direct reference to making known future events, while here only the 
hg^^ of a revelation or disclosure is brought into view. ^ a 1 1| ; opta- 
tive in oratio obliqua; see Eahn. § 846. 4. and 880. 2. In general, 
not always^ in dependent clauses, the Opt is used after the Histor., and 
the Suhj. after the Primary tenses. — - rh Zcu/Uvtov ; see Introduction. 

S&fy 8^ Kol /id\iffrd ; from which very thing (S^cr 8^) they seem 

most especially (koJL ptdx,) to have accused him, etc Ai^ here qualifies 
the particle &^cr and gives it definiteness and force ; see EQhn. Gr. 
§ 816. 2. Ka2 streng^thens the superlative adj. fidktffra; see Kfihn. Gr. 
§ 289. 1. R. 1. ahrhy alridiraffdat , , , cir^^pcii*. Alnd- 

99ffbmL The verb ohtioitM is generally, like other verbs of kindred 
signification, followed by the Accua. of the person and Gen. (sometimes 
the Accus.) of the thing, but here by the Accus. with the In£ So also 
in IL 7. 12. 

8« — Ohtkp Ktup^9pw tUrd^pt rmp &AX«r; for this compendious 
comparison so common in Greek, by which the attribute of one object 
is compared with the other object itsel( see Kflhn. Gr. § 828. R. 6» and 
Felton's Note, Horn. II. L 168. —«-fi ay r I It ^y pofulCovrti, see note^ 
§ 1.— ~-^4fiaif Kol tfv/Aj3^Xoif ffol J^vffiat, ^/ioi are omens 
taken from the words of men. Cicero de Divin. I 45. 102: sequ« 


178 NOTES. 

•olam deorum yooes Pythagorei obserritaTeran^ Bed etUm hominom 
quae vocant omina; Eostath^ B. k. p. 799: ^^/iii ob riiw awKAt A^ 

Xen. ApoL 12. 2vfi$6\a are yarioiui occurrences from which thinga 
concealed and future were supposed to be known ; as thunder, light- 
ning, the casual meeting of men (o2 &varr»rrcf), and other things of 
the like kind, ^vaieu, extispiscia, the examination of the entrails, the 
exta, of yictims, which was performed by the Upotnc^ot, the Haruspex. 
Cf. the Prometheus 484—500, where Prom, enumerates the different 

kinds of divination which he had taught man. oZrol re... ic &irc<vof 

8^. Tff here stands related to koI in it&iectror, and contrasts odrol with 
-ffffiyof. Ka/...84 like the Latin, et...etTero, or et vero etiam, 
or atque etiam. The 8i here connects^ and, and Ktd means o/m. See 
6. 149. 10. Its position after Koi with one or mora words between is com- 
mon in Attic Greek ; see Xen. Anab. 2. 6. 8 ; 2. 6. below, etc This posi- 
tion in Tragedy has been denied. But see Aesch. Prom. 975 and Wei- 
lauer's note upon it; and KQhn. Gr. 321. L 1. (c). The use of the 
particles acol . . . 8^ in this way is quite frequent in Xenophon ; c£ L 2. 
11, 62 ; 8. 2 ; XL 1. 20, 21 et al. ; more rare in Thucyd. or Plata In like 
manner relative enunciations are connected by «cal . . . 8^ to what pre- 
oedeS) as in L 1. 15: ico) k»r4iunn irol 08ara jcal fipoi jral 8rov 8* &y 
tKKnv Uvrrm, Sympoa. II. 9. Cf. Eflhn. Gr. i 822. R. 7 ; L. Gr. 737. 2 ; 
Rost, 4 134; Hartung Gr. Partik. I. p. 181 sq., and for the difference 
between the significance of icol 8^ and 8^ Ktdi Hoogeveen, p. 118. XXIL 

robs Airai^rwrrar, with iir^pAwovs implied, tiie ^yo8Iovy ovft^S^ 

Kous of Aeschylus Prom. 488. 

4t— *AXX' o/ fA^if w\€icTol, 29tKpdriit 94, 'A?iXd (from (he 
pron. &Wof, other, another) denotes naturally difference, separation, 
restriction, change, etc It is very frequent in transitions from one sub- 
ject to another, especially in colloquies, in quick answers or objections. 
Upon its origin and different significations, see Hartung Gr. Partik. IL 
80 sq. Kilhn. Gr. f 822. 6 and L. Gr. II. $ 741, and Anm. 1, 2, 8. It here 
merely limits or restricts the meaning of the preceding affirmation, 6 8' 
o&8ir Koirirtpow cts^cpc, icrA. : yet or however the multitude, etc See 
Eahu. Gr. § 322. 6.— For the position and force of /iiy (whilst) ... 8^, 
see note § 1. — ^ol vKttarot, the many, the multitude, Lat pleri- 

qne or vulgus. awoTp4ir€(rbeu , . . irpoTp4w§a^ai, deterreri or 

revocari . . . impelli, to dissuade from, or hinder,... to persuade, 
urge forward. iroAXo7i rwy ^vyitfrww, many of his pupils, disci- 
ples, literally, those who wero with him, associates ; Latin : cum quibua 
frat» or quorum oonsuetndine utebatur. The Greeks were much mora 

BOOK L CHAP. I. 179 

fond of this partitiye constractioii after numerals, etc than the Latins 
The pupils of Socrates are nerer called fAodnrat, since he disclaimed 
the appellation of teacher, 9iZdcKa\os, See Wiggers* Life of Socrates^ 
di. lY. and cl note, L 2. 8. irporiy6p9vt, was accustomed to fore- 
tell or forewarn, like irpowoy ; the impeHl, as frequently, denoting re- 
peated or customary action. See Eilhn. £1. Gr. ^ 152. 9. R. 4.^— ^t& 
ukp ir^ I f I V ; T^ ii /lii voicty ; aca to Plato the genius of Socrates only 
dissuaded him from doing and did not incite him to action. See Theag. 

pil28D.etal^ and cf. Introd. its rov icufioylov vpoaiifialporrot. 

This phrase b equiyalent to the participle of the verb to think or saj, 
and the Accus. with the Infin.: \4ywif rh iaiiUvwv leposruAolvtiP, 'Or 
with the genitive of the participle frequently indicates the subjective 
ground of the foregoing action ; as here the real cause in the mind of 
Socrates which enabled him to forewarn, etc See Kahn. Gr. § 312. 6. (b); 
L.Gr. ]L§671. The Latins would use quod, with the subjunctive 

mode Cf. 2. 20 ; 8. 2 ; 6, 5 ; IL 8. 8, et al. fi^ itMi^ofUyots, Uii is 

used with pailidples and adjectives when they may be resolved by a 
conditional clause. Latin : si qui autem non parebant See Eiihn. Gr. 

§ 818. 5; El. Gr. § 111, 6; L. Gr. n.§7l5.2. /icr^^cAt, had cause 

of repentance 

ft* — Kafroi signifies, bui^ and yet, hovjever, Lat. verum, ted Uunen; 
and although, qnanquam ; here and yet See Hartung Gr. Partik. II. p. 

865. 6. rii o\nt &y btaoKoyiiaMity) This form of the 1st Aor. Opt. 

in -ciaf, -f ic(r) commonly termed Aeolic, is used more frequently by Attic 
writers than the regular form ; see Eahn. Gr. § 116. 9. According to 
Enstathius this form denoted the desire for an immediate result : 6 tk 
ciir^y rl^ttas, % \4^€tas, fj 7pc(t^ciaff, fCx^ftu rdx^or iunfffd^ytu, t 9^wtu ; 
but tliis distinction between it and the regular form does not seem to 
have been always observed. For tlie use of the optative with Ap by 
Attic writers to describe certain opinions, and sometimes even actual 
facts, see Eflhn. Gr. ^ 260 (4) (a) and (c) ; and for the use of o^ic and not 

fi4i in such cases, see also (a). i^Sxu 8* hy [sc -clyai] ...^^atvcro. 

The Subjunctive ImperC is used in Latin in hypothetical clauses, like the 
Imper£ wiUi Hy here, for the pluperfect, when the writer wfshes to con- 
vey Uie idea that the thing continued a long time, or was often repeated. 
Often also when the continued action has reference not to post only, but 
extends even to the present or future tinic See Zumpt's Lat Gr. § 525. 
CL EQhn. note upon Gic Tusc Disp. L 12. 27. The reason of the use of 
the Imperil instead of the Pluperf. seems to be, that the writer in mind 
places himself back in the post. Here, for example, Socrates would have 
seemed a fool if h i had appeared to those of his own age to speak 

180 KOTSS^. 

ftlselj. So •&« i» irpoixrywwt tl fi^ iwl^rwtw, indicates the enstom of 
Soentes when he was yet alive. Cfl note 1. 1. 16, 28, 29, 69. After 
30fccir, the Inf. ttvai is often to be supplied, as in L 7. 1, 4 ; Anab. YIL 

1. (( : As Ay oirrf dojc§ iur^a\4s. 

K2ra. tt&ra (irol cTro) and icJbrfrra (ical Ircira) are often need after 
participles^ where we might expect «Tra and IWcito. These participles 
originally denote seqnenoe in time, but the transition is easy to the idea 
in this and similar passages^ where the ttranffenen or inconngteney of 
doing the second thing after the first has been done, is indicated, tken^ 
after that, after alL See Stallb. Plat Oorg. p. 467. B. and Phaedr. p. 40^ 

atid Kahn. Gr. f 812. R. 8, and L. 6r. XL f 667. c^ Aikw eSr, ^i, 

ftr wpoi\eyw¥, tl, ic.rX It is clear that Socrates would not have made 
predictions if he had not, etc : patet igitnr non earn praedicere nisi cre- 
deret When the reality both of the condition (cl vpooy, turx) and that 
which is consequent upon the condition is denied, we have cl with the 
indicatiye of the hist tenses in the Protaus and the aamo mode with lb 

in the Apodoeis ; see Eiihn. Or. § 889. Lb; Ii.Gr.ILf 820. &Xi|- 

b*6ff9iv\ Verbs in •cuw from nouns or adjectives indicate the being in 
^ condition, -or the exercise of that indicated by the primitire. See Kflhn. 
Gr. f 282. (b). Tlie idea of real truth is prominent in this word and not 
the mere %Uteranee of truth : t^iat it was truth which he uttered. Set 
Lewis' Contr. Atheos p. 97 sq. — ravra (L c, AXifi^c^civ). The Latin 
method of using the sing, hoe, is more logically definite, but the Greeks 
seemed to prefer to extend the thought by the use of the plural ; see 
Eflhn. Gr. § 241. 8. The idea here b : The knowledge of future eyenfcs 
belongs only to the gods. No one then could feel confident in predicting 
the future, unless he referred his knowledge to them. — Htvr*^mp 8i 
i^fotr VMS o&x, ar.TJL, since he put confidence in the gods^ how is it pos- 
sible that he did not^ etc. See note, f 1. For thb use of the Greek parti- 
ciple where we use a particle with a verb, see Kilhn. Gr. § 812. (b). It wib 
be noticed, that in the statement of the accusations made against Socratei^ 
f 1 above, it is not said that he denied the existence of all gods, although 
in the more particular statement of the accusations in Plato, ApoL Sock 
26. C. this is affirmed by Melitus. 

6« — ^*AXXJt fft^r; Lat at or sed vero. These partides introduee 
another and stronger proof that Socrates believed in the existence of the 
gods ; so, in reasoning, these particles denote a transition to a new and 
stronger argument 'AAAi denotes change, transition, and fij^y, ssLat 
vero^ confirmation, htU further or heeidee. See note, f 4 above, and ct L 

2. 4 ; II. 6, 27. naX rd9%, icrA., also these things (which follow) he 

did for his firienis. As if he had said, (eft ii&vop raSrt^ h iKela, AXAik) 


«U r4i9. Ct not«^ i*l: Koi &i^. icrA. For th« use of lud referring to a 
sappreflBed claiue, tee Am. 2. Gr. Pr. Goinp. 348* — i— r& f»hf yiip iufceyiuutk 
T^ oompoun^ed of y9 (indicating oonfirmation) and (kpa (result or con- 
aeqnence), may ezprcM a reason, an explanation, or assurance, as the 
meaning of the one or the other particle predominates. It is often used 
as ezpUcatiye after demonstratives^ etc, and sometimes it need scarcely 
be rendered into English at aU ; here aft»r tc(8c it as namdy^ to wit. See 
B. 6r. 149. 17 ; KQhn. Gr. $ 824. 2 ; L. Gr. II. i 754. 1. 0, ; Matt IL $ 615. 
2.; Hartung Gr. Partik. I. § 467 sq. Cf. II. 6. 88 : U rwrSc frWifrw cl 
yAp k,tX. IY. 4. 5. — T& . . . iivayKata, thingt neceuary (to be done)^ 

i e, here, things about the result of which there is no question. 

rvK€/9e^^Atv«; this and following verbs in the Imperf. denote cus- 
tomary action; see note, §4: wpoifySptvt. xal irpdrrtWf At Mfit- 
(ffv, 1. e^ offrw irol vp., contrasting the doing (wpdrrtw) with the thinking 
{ivifuCwr).' The correlative is -not unfraqnently omitted, as in Herod. L 
19: ^ 94 ol ravra liB^v^c, irol hroUt icard rdxos. But in comparisons 
where it is in both members of the sentence we find koI repeated, s£ in 
L 6. 8. &rr§p irol . . . oUtu not; III. 5. 18. Anab. IL 1. 22. and Stallb. Plato 
Apol. p. 22. D. For the cases where one Koi is omitted, see Kdhn. L. Gr. 

IL§729. hw vpax^^fcit; for the use of the infinitive with !b 

after Verba sentiendi, see Kflhn. Gr. § 260. 5. (a). 

Ilcpl 8) AS^Awr, 8v»f tip awofiiiffoiro, but in regard to thoee 
things whose result would be doubtful (if perfonmed). The idea would 
be more extended in Latin : de iis autem rebus^ in quibus obscurum 
erat quomodo eventurae essent, or quarum inoertus easet eventus. "Ap 
is omitted here in iome editions, as in Emesti, but apparently without 
good reason. The fact of its omission in 3. 2 : ^ tt KXAo n c^x^t^^a 
rdy ^awMp&s AS^Xmi^ Bwrns &vo/940'oiro, proves nothmg. The 
idea there is simply : if they may pray for thoee things, the result of 
which is plainly uncertain ; but here the expression is intended to indi- 
cate the uncertainty with less definiteness. See Kfihn. Gr. § 260. (4). and 
R. 7. — — AiAirrffvcroft^Kovf, oraoulum consulere, to consult an oracle. 
This use of the Fut Participle after verbs of sending, etc., denoting pur- 
pose, where we may use thatf in ^er that, or in order to, with the infi- 
nitive or the simple infiniUve with to, is frequent in Greek ; see Kfihn. 
Gr. ^ 312. 4. (c) ; B. 144. The Present Participle is also used in a similar 
manner, as in the phrase frt/i^y a^hy &7y^AXorra. — — < I roiiir4a. 
The conjunction tl is used to denote a wavering between two possibili- 
ties» and hence is often found after verbs of deliberating, inquiring, etc 
whether, fohether or noL The context alone can decide whether the phrase 
which it introduces is to be understood affirmatively or negatively. Cl 
Anab. L 8. 6 : cl ftkp 8^ ZUata wotfiertt, 61k oHo, I am igpiorant^ wheth^ 

182 KOTSS. 

or not I shall do, ete. See alto Anabw IIL 2. 22. Eren in the plmae^ air 
ol8* #4 thin particle has an affirmatiye force, and also a negatiye as in L 
8. 6. See Eahn. Gr. $ 844. 5. (i). C£ the use of »i in Latin, Zampt't 
Lat Gr. $ 854./fi., and of an after dubito, etc., which however has 
an affirmatiye force, Eahn. Tusc. Disp. IV. 22. 50. For the oonstraction 
of the verbal Adj., see Efihn. Gr. i 284. 8. (12) ; B. 184. 10. 

7t — Ka\ roht, Kai, and 90, aeeordingly, is here an ezpletiye partide, 
introdacing examples in illustration and confirmation of the preceding 
sentiment Comp. Anab. ^ I. 9. 6. and V. 2. 29. For a similar ose of et 
in Latin, Liyy II. 13 is sometimes quoted : Ita honorata yirtate feminae 
qnoque ad publica decora excttatae. E t Claelia yirgo . . . dux agminia 
yirginum inter tela hostium Tiberim tranavit. See also Kohn. Tnse. 

Disp. L 34. 82. robs ii^KKorras oXkovs rt Ka\ v6Kus iraX£s oud^ff-ciF, 

those who would manage either domestic or public affairs welC Tc Kot, 
see n. 2 above. Oiicfictuf is here nearly synonymous with 8iomc<W. CL 

i%; note, L2.64; n.1.19; IIL 6. 14; iy.1.2. vpos99urbui,kato 

need, besides (in addition to other things, xp6s), rtKrovtithw fih^ 

yiip ^ x'^''' v'"'^'' • ■ • *'^'''''' ^^ Toiavra /lai^^/Aara, ic.rA« 
llie idea is : that all such arts as those of the architect, brasier, etc, are 
to be undertaken, in accordance with human judgment and insight alone^ 
without consulting oracles. The Kcd with k^^pAttoo ytr^/ifi, as in § 6 : 
ica2 rtOc (where see note)^ strictly refers to a suppressed clause ; as if the 
author had said : koI h^^. yi^fipf «al ou fUrop ^wp yv^M-Pt ^^ ^ ^- 
lea) Tov a^fiarof , , , ottK iifi4Ku {pb fi6vo¥ r^s ^X^t, &XA& icol rov 
ff^fiaros), 18: otta ical ^vicpdmip {&rrtp iWovs 9iSeurKd\ovs, ofhrm 
ffo) X) 21. See Ealm. Gr. } 821. R. 5 ; L. Gr. IL ^ 728, and Hartung Gr. 

Partik. 1. p. ISS'sq. r&v roioinwv ^pyaap; L e., such works as are 

ip rp r^KTopiKiff x^*<vTt'^ ®^ '^^^ ^jj* T^KTopiKip, etc, are in the 
Aocus. predicate after yw4a^€u, and Ji»bponrop is to be supplied with that 
verb. For the idea of ability, JUness, aptness, implied in the termination 

I 'uc6$, see Kdhn. Gr. § 284. 1. (b). ^{rrcumic^r, an investigator, one 

who points out the excellences and defects of a thing, or is employed in 
&c«pif not in irpd({ci. For the Genitiv^with verbals in -ticos, see B. 182. 

18 ; S. 187. 2. Eahn. L. Gr. IL ( 680. hh. yp^fip, Dat of meana. 

Instead of the simple Dat. sometimes ir with the Dat is pleonastically 
used (B. 147. 2. (a), for the means or instrument Aik with the Gen. if 
used if a person is indicated, and sometimes of things ; even after Pasn 
verbs, when the person is the means and not the efficient cause, L c, 
where per would be used in Latin. B. 147. 2. (a). See also the constr 
of iLT6 with the Gen. of means in L 2. 14. 


9m — Til 9k fi4yiffrti, but the most important tilings in these art^ 
L e^ which would result from the practice of these arts, the gods liavc 
reserved for themselyes, di here answering to fi4p in (7: rcKr^r. /i^p 
ydp. See i I above; the sense will be most distinctlj brought out by 
rendering : /or although . . . yet For the use of the infinitive cTrcu in the 
Bubordinate clause, see Kiihn. 6r. § 345. 6. and et with Zumpt's Lat Gr. 
$ 603, and IIL 11. 1. Also Apolog. ^ 8, 4, 6, and Anab. 11. 2. 1. and 
Bomemann's note in h. 1. — yJ^p roi. r^ introduces the proof or illus- 
tration of the &ct, that the gods reserve for themselves^ etc, which has 
just been affirmed, and rot adds confirmation, indeed. pvr€vaafi4y^. 
There is great force in the use of the Mid. Voice here and in the corre- 
sponding clause : oucoZofififfafidy^, indicating the object in planting, Ac, 
the individual's own interest irjXow Ssrts, jctA. A ^ X o r need not 
be repeated in translation. Xenophon in comparisons and parallel 
phrases loves to retain the full expression which would be avoided in 
lAtin as well as in our own language. For J^e use of ci see note, ^ 6, 
and for the use of the indicative mode, Kahn. Gr.§ 844. 6 ; !&uttm. § 189. 
22, 3. In the first two cases, with ov/i^fytt, §1 may be rendered whether, 

and in the last two whether .». not, Lat an. r^ woKi'tik^, one 

who takes part in the government iufid^trvu . . . (rrfp^o-rrai ; for this 

use of Fut middle for. passives, see Buttm. 6r. ( 118. 6. Compare below 
IL 7. 8 ; IIL 3. 15, and lY. 8. 10. Plato often uses Fut Mid. in the same 
way. See examples collected by Schneid. upon Civit Y. 470. A. 

9* — A attiiytop, pertains to, or coniee into the province of, the deity, as 
contrasted with r^f aydporrfnis 7K&/xi}s.'^— 'A A\& ird^ra rfjs itf^pv 
wIptis y¥^ fills, but that all things fall within the province of human 
reason or intelligence. The Latins in such disjunctive phrases generally 

express each member fully. 9atfio»ay, to be insane, according to 

Hesyiehius : 6irh Zaitiovos Kar4x*^^^tu The beauty and force of the oxy- 
moron here with firfi^p iatfi6ytov olofi4»ov$ cfyai will not escape the 

notice of the student 8^ ical, and aUo, — rohs fiayTtvo/i4povs 

,.,iu^p^ots..,fiabovtri ZtaKpiyttp; in those things which the 
gods give to men to understand by learning, (by knowledge of the things 
themselves). MarrwofUrovs and fM^ovtri are placed in contrast here. 
yitAovo't denotes the means, and is put in the dative by attraction to 
hydpAwots, see Buttm. •( 142. 2. (b). As the subject of the Inf. is omitted, 
the Part takes the case in which that subject is found with the preced- 
ing verb ; so sometimes in Latio, as the phrase : licet illis ease beati& 

oTov, ut, velut, for instance, a frequent use in Attic Greek.— -• 

4v\ i^vyos \afi€iy ,.,M r^v yavy,, . Xafiuy, We should naturally ex> 
pect the insQ*tion of the Article before Ccv^^^t o^ ^^ omission before ytwp. 

184 K0TE8. 

Bat the eonrtraetion Mems to haTe been d«igiMd hj tlie aoUior. Ao 
cording to Kdhn. M Ccvyvf withoat the article has the force of the Latin 
ad Tehendam; with Kafi§tp, ad yehend. adhibere; at the phreae^ 
Uifot 4w\ itiwrop, may be tranaUted by ad coenaodam, L8.6. Anab 
YII. 3. 16; IIerod.1. 87: M bitpe» Upot, yen a turn ire. See Kfthn 

Lb Gr. II. § 484. Anm. With nwr the article hai the force of a poe- 

aeflsive pronoun. Saappius explains the phrase iw\ r^p pqSp, by, in 
nayem, qtinm quia habet. See EOhn. Or. ^ 244. 4. Cf. IIL 9. 11 : 
Up r< pn% in nayigando, in naye regenda, — vindicating the action of nayi- 
gating, as jnat after, ip ytmprfy doea that of coltiyattng the fiddly and 
ip amfuuritif, that of exerciaing the body, and 4p p6c^ the condition ol 
BickkieaB. On the other hand, with the article, in II. 6. 88: riip pwp, 
his ship, and 7. 2. ip rf •utl^ in my house, et al. The use of the artide 
in Oreek where we use the ^bsaessiye pron. is frequent, particularly with 
the names of things that stand in some special relation, as som, /fiend, 
matter, eta See B. 127. 8. -^ — kpibfiiicapras Ij fitrf^vapr^s . . , 
€l9^pat ; i. e^ things that may be determined by the processes iamiliarly 
known among men. These participles denote the means (KQhn. Or. 812. 
4. {e\ and are equiyalent to the Abl. of the Oerund in Latin. For tbe 
accosatiye with the Infin. without attraction after (^tart, where the Bat 
is not expressed, see Kahn. Or. § 807. Rem. ; L. Or. II. i 645 and 647 ; 
and c£ IIL 12. 8 : raSra 8i o&ic foriir iBcir i^cAoSyra. The datiye of the 
noun is also sometimes used, whilst the accusatiye of the Part with the 
Infin. is retained, as inL2. 49; IL6. 26: c2 iiiiP roit Kparierott 
a-vp^9fA4povt M rovf x^^P*^^ t4pm; III. 9. 9; lY. 6.11. In like 
manner the construction yaries after lovput ; IL 8. 1 ; Cyr. L 6. 5. See 
Krager in Disquisit Oram. IIL $ 859—872 ; Stallb. Plat de Rep. IX 
p. 686. £.; Rest's Or. f 121. robs r& roiavra, acrJL This enun- 
ciation is asyndic, because it contains a brief summary or recapitulation 
of what precedes; so often wi^i rk roiavra. See KOhn. Or. ^ 825. (e).; 

L. Or. II. § 760. b, and cf. IL 1. 88 ; 8. 19 ; 6. 6 ; IV. 8. 18. et aL 

yoicir kb4iii9ra, nefarie agere. Some editions read a;^^fiiTi^ but 
kb4fucra. is best authorized. The phrase is a more extended expression 

for ItuiJMvup aboye. If if 8i, nnce, he eaid. a4 here introduces the 

ground, or reason of the preceding assertion, like the Latin cum. See 
Hartung Or. Partik. S. 167. & fihp. . . A 8^, et haec^ 
ilia, quae.^-— ^a^^yrar, having learned, or, by gaining a know- 
ledge of; the Part indicates the manner or means^ KQhn. Or. § 812. 4 

(e). $BvKap, have giyen or permitted, with the Infin. fuu^^dvtir. 

For the use of this form of the Aorist^ see Kllha i 178. 2. and cC IV. 2L 

16. fAcy Attic Nom. pluraL 

The idea of Socrates which lies at the basis of the preceding represen* 

BOOK I. CHAP. I. 186 

talion, f 6—9, in reepeet to diTination, leeiDs to he, ' that all phenomena 
are diyided into two elanee ; in one, the connection of antecedent and 
conaeqnent is inyariable, and can be traced by study ; and hence the 
connected future results are within the sphere of human attainment 
In the other, there is no invariable or ascertainable sequence, and the 
knowledge and results are reserved by the gods for themselvefi^ and only 
made known to mortals by means of omen^ prophecy, or some other 
inspired commnnication from themselvea These two classes of events 
he supposed to be radically distinct^ and not to be confounded, without 
impiety ;' see 6rote*s Hist of Greece^ Vol. L ch. 16, p. 498. 

19fe — *AXXii fiiiyf moreover, see § 6 above. ye qualifies iKtu^t 

after which it is placed, and gives it emphasis ; but its force cannot well 
be expressed in English without a circnmlocution ; he woe one who^ eta 

&cl fA^¥ ^tf i¥ ry ^eanp^, he was always in view of the citizens^ 

in pnblia A^ in ( 11, (Ov8«2r 84) answers to this ^y, and a /iiir...64 

in similar construction intervenes : IXr/c fAhp . . . roir 8i r c . . . jcal, 

both.. .and; see KQhn. 6r. § 821. 1, (a). wepiwdrovs ; the portico 

constructed for those who walked for exercise. literally, walkingt, Just 
as in Latin ambulatio is used for ambulacrum. See Eahn. Cia 
Tusc Disp. IV. 4. 7. Thus Aristotle and his followers received the name 
Peripatetics, because they gave instruction in the place for walking, 

vepiwdros. rit yvfii^data. The Gredan Gymnasia were employed 

as a place of exercise, amusement^ and instruction. The sophists and 
rhetoricians often assembled their pupils there for instruction. For a 
detailed account of them and their influence on Grecian life, see Becker, 

Char. p. 228 sq. wKii^oiffris kyopas, at the time of full market ; 

L e., the last half of the forenoon, perhaps from nine to about twelve 
o'clock, called also wepX trKfibovaay iyopdy. In general, the genitive is 
used of time when it is indefinite and continued, the dative when it is 
definite; and the accusative denotes duration of time, (6. 132. H. a; 
183. 4. e. and 131. 9. See Becker, Charides, p. 219. According to Dio 
Chrysostom the day was divided into five parts : 1. vpm% morning ; 2. 
wtplk iyopdt^, full market ; 8. /uinfft^ta, noon ; 4. ScUij^ afternoon ; 6. 
itnrtpa^ evening. Another division into twelve parts is given in Her<y 
dotus, 2. 109, as introduced into Greece from Babylonia. — ^ic«i ^ave* 
9^s ^r, was to he teen there, ^eafep6t from ^ivm, hence open to sights 

to he teen. ^ c X X o i , optative (subjunct in Latin). The oratio ohUgua 

is used in subordinate clauses in connection with the oratio recta as indi- 
eating the intention, wish, or feeling of the person spoken ol See Kfihn. 

Gr. i 846. 4 ; I* Gr. II. 846. Auul, and ct Cic Tusc Disp. V. 21. 62. 

vol $\ey§, he wai converting, engaged in convei'sation. — At rl 
ToX^. plerumque, usually. 

188 N0TS8. 

frequentl/ oonstmed, or with the prtposttion w§pl and the Gen., it b in 
transitiye, and the noun in the Oen. denotes that whieh cauaeB thought 
or anxiety. C£ IIL 7. 1, and { 12 below. See KOhn. 6r. § 274. 1. and 
R. 1 ; L. Gr. XL 683. 1. fitpi/ipdm is used moch in the same waj, c£ not^ 
§ 14 ; IIL 5, 28. Thus in Aristophanes' Clouds^ ^powrtarhptow, ti^i§iP9 
^povriorai (y. 101) are given as appellations of those who engage in 
minute and harassing inyestigations in physicsL See further upon Soecm> 
tes* opinion of such pursuits^ note § 16. 

12* — Mir here has for its eorrelative M in the beginning of $ 15: 

iiTK^u 9hf ictA. ubrAw iax^itni, jctX Aftrwr is in the genitiye after 

ivK^ttf referring back to ^p9rri(opTat rk roid&ra. See Note upon L 6. 
4: r\ xoAcv^f't tcr.K; and for. the eonstr. of the genitive, Kfihn. Gr. 
i 278. 5. £, and L. Gr. IL $628 and Anm. 8. — '- riiwbpd'rtra. Some 
editions and Mas. have rh^bpAwtt^i. The two words are used almost* 

promiscuousljr, see KOhn. in h. 1. rk ft>r ii^piiwua . . . t& ZtufUrta 

8 i ; a similar collocation of the particles fi>r . . . 8i is found in 2, 24 : 
9ik /A^¥ icdfJios, K.r,\. ; II. 1. 16; IIL 9. 8; IV. 5. IL Tk k^dpAw^ta, 
res humanae, and rk icufxdifus, res divinae, when contrasted, 
designate things which relate to man as such, his duties, etc., in contrast 
with things of a speculative nature, questions in phjsics^ metaphysics^ etoL, 
ealled also ovp^m in lY. 7. 6. Cf. Cic Acad. I. 15. 

18« — *Z^a6fAa(9 V, 9 1 /i^. Zl is here used somewhat like trt; ao 
not unfrequeutly in Attic discourse after verbs indicating emotion, and 
foUoMved by the Indie, where the doubt is merely rhetorical, for 8ri or its, 
in order to avoid harshness of expression. AthenioSi urbanity did not 
allow the direct imputation of such actions, etc, as excited the emotion 
indicated by the verb used ; they accordingly threw a coloring of doubt 
over them by the use of the interrogative form of discounie. See Kahn. 
I^ Gr. IL 839. R. 7 ; Buttm. ( 149. m. 60, and Rost $ 121. Anm. 5. p. 601. 
Cf. i 17 ; I. 2. 7 ; III. 7. 8 ; 9. 8, and observe a similar usage of the Latin 

si after miror in Cic Amicit XV. 68. ^a^tp^y atnots isriy 5ri 

..ov Zv¥ar6p ivrip. For the use of the indicative mode in oratio ob- 
liqua, see KCLhn. Gr. ^ 845. 5., and d { 12 above, iiTK^vu wirtpa.., 

Ipx<»'^a<t I* 2. 29, 50; II. 7. 12,etal, IrtX koI rohs n^yiarow 

4>poyovyrast jv.r.A,, since even those who are most confident in dis- 
puting upon these matters, etc Instead of fi^ytcroy ^poy. we 

might expect M-^ya ppoyt7y. In the poets this superlative neuter sing, ia 
used M an adverb, as in Eurip. Heracl. 792, but its use is rare in good 
pi*ose writers. Cf. Plato, Phaed. 257, R do^cC^ciy ; for tlie use of 


the infinitiTe, see note and reference^ i 8 above : 9i}Xor cImu. Tlie lame 
idea is further developed in lY. 7. 6. 

14c — ^Twr r9 yhp /uupo/Upww . , , rdw re. . lupquf^rrmf. Tdp intn>< 
daees the proof of the preyions assertion, which is contained in the par- 
allel clauses introdnoed by re— -rt, both — and, or better, like at — mo, 
Xenophon rarelj joined phrases in this way by r« — re. Tet they are 
found, as in I. 2. 4, and 8, 1 ; lY. 2. 28, and a few other passages. This 
form of connection is much oftener used by the older Epic writers. See 

Rosfs 6r. § 184. 4. a, and EQhn. L. Or. § 722, 8. robt fi\p . . . 

Tobs'Zh, ro7s /i^p, . . rois 9h. The Latins use greater yarioty in 
such expression^ as partim... partim, pars., alii. ..alii, 

h i . . . i I li, etc. 8c8i^yai . . . ^finai^ai, to fear ... to be frightened, 

Latin, metuere or yerere . . . timere, in accordance with the distinction 
between B4os and ^6fios. The former is fear of somethiog foreseen or 

meditated upon, the latter, sudden fright obi* i¥ 6x^^t not even 

in a crowd, Latin, turba. els Awdp^wout elrat, to be out of 

doors, or among men. lephy, a temple. icol Kirovs koI ^6\a 

rh rvx^f^ra. Some, as Schneider, suppose that by \t^vs and {vXa, 
Socrates understood idols made of these materials^ but rit rvx^rra (of 
whatever kind, however worthless^) belongs to both words and seems to 
preclude that meaning. He speaks of what are sometimes termed Fe- 

tei€hei,-'~—'rtfAa¥.,,a4fieffbaif to honor ... revere. /leptfiw&y' 

rmw, K more poetic and grave word than ^poprtCu in ( 12 above, desig 
Dating those who anxiously and carefully inquire into things obscure. 

Lat perscrutari anxie or solicite. ly fi6rop rh hr eJpat, Lot: 

nnnm esse^ea,^ quae sint. Maoy philosophers, as Thalesi Pyth- 
agoras, Xenophanes, and others, laid down the general proposition : &a 
rhp K6fffu>¥, See Stobaeus Eel. Phys. L 23. p. 496, and c£ Plato, Sophist 
242. D. and Parmenides, where he alludes to and explains the sentiment 
of Xenophanes, the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy : tr «7wu 
T^ vdrra KoXo^iiepo. Acad. XL 87. 118: unum esse omnia. Particulat 
aeoounts of these speculations and their authors may be found in Ritter*s» 

Lewes^, and Brandis* Histories. ivetpa rh vKri^os, T^ 6rra 

cfnu is to be supplied from the preceding rh Sw, iweipa is in the neut 
plur. Allusion is probably made here to Leucippus^ who lived about 500 
B. 0. and was the author of the Atomic theory, and his pupil Democritua 

who wcDt even bjeyond his teacher in his speculations. &cl iriKf i- 

irdac wdvra. See Stobaeus Ed. Phys.! 20. p. 896, as quoted by 

Kahn. in h. L Heraclitus of Ephesus sumamed ^xoreirSs, "the obscure," 

-affirmed that every thing was subject to constant change, which he called 

rifw rmw virrmv ^«^r, and this, is what constitutes life. See Plutardu 

190 KOTBS. 

I>ecrei. L 28 Plato Tfaeftetetm, p. 180. D. et aL, and Cntylna^ 402. A. 

X^ci wov *HpdK\9iT0tt irt wdrra x**^' ^^^ oMp /uytu oiZtr Aw 

iroTc Ktrti^ripai; the theory of Zeno £Ieate& See Aristotle, PhyOb 
YL 9. For an account of these two opposing systems of philosophy, the 
germ of the modem sensuous and supersensnons schools, see Lenria* 
Gontc Ath. p. 152 sq. Seiffert says that itf here may be translated, /act^ 
Bat mx»rding to Kohner, the*infinitiTe with Am both here and just below 
(Ibr ycWtf-doi) has the same meaning as the optatiye with lU in an inde- 
pendent clause. It softens the assertion. Cf. ( 16 : ^ccro . . ia>9par 
vtfiScif &r, icr.A. 

IS. — ^Kal rd[8e, this almy, this in addition to what has been stated. 
T^5c is plural, where in Latin and English the singpilar would be used. 

See note, ^ 6 aboye: ravra. 2p'; this interrogatiTe particle from 

the illative Apa does not of itself decide whether an affirmative or nega- 
tive answer is expected, dip* ob being used in the former case and 2pa /lii in 
the latter ; and yet ipa is used in several cases like ip* o&, . as in Alcestis 

229, 77l,.Bee Kfihn. Gr. ( 844. 6. (b). &pa$, the aea9<m» of the year, 

Kal trov y &y. Kal...Si, denique, and in fine, or and aUo. 
See note, ^8: iei«c7yor 8^ ^icci Bh. Instead of the adversative con- 
junctive particle in such cases as thii^ the Latin employs n)ore commonly 
the copulative que or at que. 

16»— Mii^ oZw, 02r, especially in repetitions and recapitulation^ 
loses much of its deductive force and confirms the truth of what is said, 
eurely, indeed. Especially in such combinations as yow, y^Lp oSy, offjcovr, 
pmv and ft'kp oSr, "oSar denotes the feeling of certainty raised to indiffer- 
ence.'* Ar. 2 Gr. Comp. 454 KQhn. Gr. § 824 (b). irpay/iarevo- 

/ji4r»w rotavra, those giving their time and labor to such things. 

attrhs hh is contrasted with rdir rovra vpeeyfuer, icr.A. ircpl rAr 

a^owTf («y ttv &c2 SicX/yero. "Ay is omitted in some editioni^ 
but without good authority. It is often used with the Indie of the 
Histor. tenses^ indicating that the action was repeated or euetcniaty, though 
dependent on conditions only suggested by the particle. So here with 
the indicative imperfect it indicates that the thing was not done once^ 
but as oft^n as the occasion required. Hermann ad Vig. explains it: 
quotiescunque oocasio ferret G£ lY. 6. 18, and Anab. I. 6. 2 and 
Erager*8 and Owen's notes upon it; also see B. Gr. 189. 12 ; Ktibn. Gr. 
§ 260. R. 6 and Examples ; Rost's Gr. § 120. c. y. It is placed here after 
rSi¥ Aifbptfvt(tt¥, since that is emphatic. See KOhn. Gr. ^ 261. 2; L. Gr. 
IL $ 457. The practical bearing of the teaching of Socrates is here 
brought distinctly to view. So also ip lY. 7. et aL See Ritter^s Hist 

BOOK L COAP. I. 191 

FhiL IL p. 46 iq. ; Bnndi^ EL 85, and Wiggen' life of Soer. Ch. IV. 
The often quoted eulogiam of Gioens Tnac Qnaeet V. 18, seewB to be 
well merited : Socrates sotem primus philoeophonmi deyocayit e ooelo 
et in nrbibus coUocaTit et in domos etiam introdnxitk ete. Of. also Gie. 
de Finib. IL 1 : S. qui parens phil. jure did potest^ and Tusol Quaest 

v. 8. — VKOvAr, contiderinff. rl am^poviwii, ri fiawla, 

■onndnesB of mind, sana naens... insania (Cia Toso. Disp. IIL 4^ 

amentia (GataL II. 11). ri Ap9p§la, ri 8ffiX(a. Some editions 

read Mpfa here, but withont good reason. See KOhn. npon the passage. 
*AF^f£a is from4he adj. iySpcibs^ and corresponds to the Latin virtu* in 
one of its signiff., nundineUt courage, and hence is the proper contrast of 

SfiX/o. ri voXirtK^f, rerum oiyilinm peritns, a ttatemnan. 

For the force of the termination -iic^s in voXiriic^f and itpxin^s, see note 

upon 7 above. jmI vt pi r Af &AA wr, to sum up tlie whole in one 

geueral propontioD. -^— 2 robs iikw tUt^r. K.r,X. This position of the 
relatire with the antecedent or subordinate part of the sentence is com- 
mon both in Latin and Greek. See Zumpt, f 812. Ihe omission of the 
antecedent when it is a general word, sudi as xp^f"'^, 'F^/^S or can be 

easilj supplied, is common. See Sophocles' Gr. $ 160. 6. k a\o bs 

miiya^ohs , , , &y8pcnroM8cir. Those are properly called koAo^i icAto- 
bchs, who are distinguished for physical, intellectual, and moral ezcel- 
lenoe combined, and the words are appropriately placed in contrast with 
MyMnro8ci8fftf, the servile, low. Gf. L 2. 29 ; lY. 2. 89 ; Plat Theag. 
180^ Bw In Socrates' idea, expressed by these words^ moral excellence 
aeems to be predominant^ as this was the highest excellence with him ; 
another might use them with more direct reference to honorable birth or 
intellectual preeminence. For the derivation of iytA6t from Ayofuu, to 
wonder at^ admire, eta, see Plato, Gratylus^ p. 412, and Lewis' Plato 
contr. Atheo& p. 1, n. 2 ; and c£ Gicero's explanation of the meaning of 

the word homu, Offic I. 7. 20. and De Orat L 47. 204. ttw 9uc 

KCfcX^tfdoi for Ky with the Infin., see Kfthn. Gr. § 260. 6. a. It may be 
rendered here in English by teem : should seem to be justly called, or, 
mighi justly be called. 

Vfw^Offa fi\r oSr fiii ^awtphs iv ivms iyiywtiffictr, «e.r.A. 
For the position of the adjective dause here and the use of the demon- 
strative ro6rmv, see Kfihn. Gr. $ 882. 8. — oSr denotes conclusion or 
inference from what precedes ; see note, $ 2 above, and c£ also f 20. 
The negative fiii, not o^, is used on account of the condition implied in 
the relative construction: ci fiii riva ^w, ^v 8 iyiyv,^-~^t-Kms iyi' 

yv^ffK§p, how he though^ what his opinion was. dirip ro^rwr, 

instead of the usual irtpC ro^, on account of the following ircpL Seifferfe 

192 NOTES. 

renders the whole datue : In qna er^pt non appareret quid ille eentire^ 
in hoc iniqne de eo sententiam tuliaee judioee nihil mirom est For th« 
signification of tl after ott daufiaar6Pf aee § 18 aod grammatical refer- 

enoes there. vapayrmimt, from the trop^ meaning of wa^ aside 

from, beyond, comes in composition that of miJmnff, failing; henoe^ 

here, vapvyvmrat signifies to misjndge, to judge wrongly, rolrmw 

4vt^vii4ib^irav, The yerb irdytuiabat i|i eonstmction with the geni- 
tive of the thing with or without tlie prep. «-vp4 signifies^ to meditate 
with one's sel^ to think upon, but with the aoeueatiye it means to pon* 
der, to lay to heart But it is not common in either of these construc- 
tions. For examples, see IL 1. 84 ; IV. 5. 9. A different construction is 
also found ; L e., with the genitive of the person who is the object of 
consideration and the accusative of the thing, or some secondary 
enunciation which takes its place, as in III. 6. 16: irdv/iov 8^ rw 
AAAwr, Jcr.A. 

18* — BovKtiffas, Aor. Part, having been made tenator, senator 
fact us, indicating individual and completed action ; in the present, fiov- 
Acvciy, to be eenator, I. 8 36, action as in pn^p'ess and incomplete. A 
similar distiuction in the meaning of the Aor. and Pres. is frequent. Thus 
ip^as, having been made msgistrate, IIL 6. 1, but 6fx*"'i ^ ^ archon, II. 2, 
13 ; ffov irrpcertfYh^arros, jou having been made leader ; /iocrtXc^af, hav- 
ing been made king ; rofutvoait quaestor factus. In like manner io^t^***'* 
potens, and lax^o-as, potens factus; Ao-i^crwr, one sick, iur^tpk- 
«-«, one who has been attacked by disease, Cyrop. 1. 4. 2 ; 8vi^cror, 
potens, and 8vn}^«fr, potentium nactus. Tlie place of senator 
was the only civil office ever held by Socrailes. See Plat ApoL p. 82, B. 

fiovKtvriKhv tpKOP bfi6aas ip f liw , * , ivurrdrfis » . , ^9^6 

liwot, having taken the senator's oath {lit, in which it was that) etc., 
being MirrtEnit, he would not put the vote. The joining together ol 
participles without connective^ as here, was common both among poet* 
and prose writers. They were thus enabled to introduce several parti 
culars into a sentence with energy and brevity. See KQhn, L. Gr. II 
^ 676. 2, and ct L 2. 22 ; IL 2. 5 ; IIL 13, 5, and Bomemann's Anab 
m. 1, 18. Stallb.; Plat Euthyphr. p. 127 ; Phaedr. p. 9 ; Phileb. p. 53 
So genitives absolute as just below: ivi^vfiiieapros rov S^^v.. 
ipyt(ofA4tfov ToD B^fiov, which maybe translated: when the peoplt 
desired, . . . although the people were enraged. But, where the design i/ 
successive participles is the sarae^ they are joined by the particles Koi, 
tK . . fcaf, 8i, etc, as jBovAc^at Ktd hfUtrat, Even genitives absolute arc 
joined in this way with nominatives^ see L 2. 25 : rowlrmv tk avfifidi^ 
T»y ubrottf vol ir/KctftJ^v , . , iwl y4p9t, when such things had happened 

BOOK I. CHAP. L 198 

to tliem, and (when) etc. Of. Thncyd. L 65. and Analx L 10. 6. with 
Krflger'B note ; also see examples collected by Poppo^ Thuc. III. 84^ 2. 
(Part IIL VoL 2, p. 884 sq.) 

'Zwierdriis, The fiov\ii r&if «-cyrauco<r(a)r, or Athenian Senate^ 
was composed of 600 members, chosen from the ten tribes {pvXaf), 
These 600 were divided according to the ten ^uXal, into ten wpvrdwus, 
each of which presided ot^ the state thirty-five or thirty-six days. 
From these prytanet ten were chosen each week, called ir^^cSpoi, who 
had the whole management of aiiairs for the time. The leader of these 
was called chief president^ IrioY^riyt, which was the office held by 
Socrates at the time alluded to in the text See G. F. SchSmann, de 
Comit Athen. Ch. YII. p. 88 sq., and K. F. Hermann, Lehrb. d. 6r. 

Stiiatsalterth. § 1 27. waph roirt v6iiovs. The unlawfulness of 

the act consisted in voting for their condemnation all together (^f ^^) 
instead of separately : Kplytiv Zlxa tnuffrov. See the law in Thirlwail's 
Hist of Gf«ece, App. XIII. The position of the words^ ii^ ^^ di- 
rectly after irvia arpterrryo^s, is chosen, to indicate the contrast between 
inf4a and /uf, th4b bringing into view, merely by the position, the prin- 
cipal pointy in which the unlawfulness consisted. See Kfihn. 6r. § 848. 

10 ; Jm Or. II. ^ 716. 4. ip»4a orparriyoht . . . roht i^ epdavKKop 

iccU *Zpaffi¥ilhi¥t JCT.A., Thrasyllus and Erasinides with the other admirals^ 
nine in all For the elliptical construction, see Eflhn. Or. § 268. d. ; 
lb 6r. II. 474. d. The occurrence here alluded to was briefly as follows: 
After the victory of the Athenians over the Pe Sponnesians off the 
Arginusae, three little islands between Lesbos and Avvlis (6. C. 404), it 
was decided by the admirals that they should pursue the enemy with 
their fleet, leaving behind some inferior officers, ra|i^x<'^ '^^^ ™^^ ^^^ 
the purpose of burying the dead. But a storm that immediately arose^ 
prevented the performance of this most necessary office for the repose of 
the souls of the departed, and the leaders of the army were publicly 
arraigned for failure in duty in this matter. It was at their trial when 
all the other prt/tanet yielded to the clamor of the people tor their con- 
demnation, that Socrates remained unshaken, and refused to put the vote: 
•2ric ^^Aifo-cK hrv^jt^iaoL By refusing to do it, he put a stop to their 
proceeding at the time, as it could be done by no other than an ivtard- 
nrt. Thus the condemnation was at least postponed until the next day, 
when a new prytanU came into office. For a^ more particular account^ 
see Thirlwairs Hist of Greece, Ch. XXX. Vol. L p. -476 sq. ; Mitford's 
Hist. Ch. 20. 2 and 3. Thrasyllus and Erasinides alone are named, be- 
cause the latter proposed and urgec^ that they all should pursue the 
enemy: M roht it MirvA^tngy woKtfiiovs rV rauci(mi¥ wKtti^ firoKrat; 
and the fQrmer advised the leaving behind of ships and men for burying 

194 NOTES. 

the dead: rkt /a^t povs Korahnrw rcuir S^ hA roht vcXtfitmn vXca\ 
Xen. HellexL 1. 7. 31 sq. Also cf. Xen. Hellen. L ft. 28» 7 sq. ; Diod. SicuL 

XIIL 620 sq.; Tlat Apol p. 32, and IV. 4. 2 below. vtpl wK^i- 

opos iwoftiaaro, he thought it better, of more oonsequenoe. The Middle 
Voice here and in ^vKd^wr^tu below, limits the advantage of the action 

indicated, to the subject, for or to hinuelf, tvopKtTy ^ . . . ^vAct^oajte 

robt iv-cxXovrraf, to keep his oath than ... to escape those threatening^ 
L e., the threats of the people. 

19* — Kal ykp, nam etiam. rip introduces the ground or reason, 
and icai gives emphasis to what follows : for he tuppoted that the godi 
even care for, etc. -— — ^«'i/AcXf70'dai . . . ^v^pAwuv, to eare for, to 
take cognizance of the actions of men. For the construction of h^fu^" 
\Mbtxi with the Gen., see Kahn. \ 274. 1. (b): with Prep, and Gen., see 
e. g. Xen. Cyrop. I. 6. 12 ; with Aocua. and lufin. to take care that, see 
below IV. 5. 10 ; with 6ws and the India Fut, see KQhn. Gr. ^ 830. 8. 

hp rp6irov, the Acous. of the manner in which any thing takes 

place, as an adverbial phrase, Kflhn. Gr. § 278. 4. K. 3. rk fJAp 

tiUpot, rk y olfK fiS. Some of the philosophers taught that the gods 
took cognijsauce only of more important things, and n^lected those of 

inferior importance. See Cic. Nat Deor. IL 66. III. 85, 89. ;* rd tm Xr>^- 

/Acra mo) wp^rT6tie¥a itat rh triy^ fiovKfv6fi€P€L When several 
words which would require the article, if standing singly, are connected 
by Kol and vi— ira(, if they designate but one idea or conception, the 
article is not repeated, as with irpaTr6fU¥a, but when they are considered 
as independent of, or contrasted with each other, they receive it, as in 
rd <ny§ 0ov\w6fifpa ; see Kflhn. § 245. 2. For examples of ita omis- 
sion, see U. 1. 20 : al ^fSiovpyiat Koi iK rov irapaxpVf^t^ ^9otnJ, also tmt 
koXAp re Khy«du¥ (pymv ; IL 2. 5 ; 4. 6 ; A nab. VUL 3. 21 : m rrptt- 
nryeH kcA \oxctyol j and of its insertion, see IIL 10. 5 : rh fuyaXovptwts 
re iral Mcudffuoy, i(al rh raxuviv r§ jc«1 iytK9^§pop. Hipparchus 1. 19. 
Even the most secret deliberations of men, according to Socrates^ were 
known to the gods who are every where present Ct the sentiment d 
this passage with L ^ 13. Sympoa, IV. 48. 

20*^^ avfii(9t oSr. Tliia section comprises a repetition of the sen- 
timent in § 1, with reference to one particular in the accusation, as a 
conclusion, indicated by o9v, igitur, (see note, ^ 2 above,) from the 
preceding arguments, a summary of which (r^y iurtPks^ k.t.K.) is given 

as a reason for the conclusion, Sirws 'irorc. The Latins would 

•sprees this by a circumlocution ; miror igitur, qui tandem factum 
•it, ut. The particles twMt vorh are equivalent to rlsi vot^ X^yett 

BOOK I. CHAP. IL t 196 

in 4 1, bat may be rendered how . . . ever^ or more familiarly : houi in ih6 
workL It should ^e remarked, that it is frequently difficulty if not im- 
poeaiblc, to express in English the shade of idea indicated bj ror^, as 
well as by several other of the Greek particles^ without too long a cir- 
cumlocution. It sometimee nu&y be suggested by the collocation of the 
words of a clause or by the tone of voice in reading, whilst its full force 
must be felt rather than expressed. See IIL 6. IS, for a similar con- 
struction, with 5vo»s: ital bavfid(t» yc...^ w6\is Sv^r iror* M fh 
X^^op licAirffr, and d note upon J 1. In the following clause, M49 

voT^ it has ita more usual signifl ever, at any time, irtpl rohs hwit 

/mIi vw^poptTw, was not of sound mind, right judgment, in respect of 
the gods. The negative m4 >b used, because this is a mere supposition, 
opinion of the Athenian«^ whilst oirrc is employed below with %lw6rra 
and rpd^avTo, which express the author's own opinion of the conduct of 
Socratea For the distinction in the use of ou and u4i, see Etihn. 6r. 

Ilff0l robs &€obs . . , V9pl dewy. A change of the construction 
of the Prep, in this way is not unusual. See Stallb. Plat Pha<^dr. p. 
231. D. ; Aeschin. Timarch. § 52: vtpl r&v ikvabii/Adrmp iutoitt 
X^ovf Xtyofuyovs, and afterwards: vtp\ H rhy r&y hfbpAwwv $io^ 
K€ti rhy Kiyop, ie.r.A. It is sometimes difficult to point out a distinc- 
tion in meaning between the construction of 'w^pX with the Aceus. and 
Gen. as in the cases above referred to. Se^ Fischer, Plat Phaed. f 11. 
276; Plat Enthyphr. p. 8. B.': KcuyarofifTy rcpl r& ^cia; 6. A.: icatvo' 
rofiuy rcpl r&y du&p. We even find the Accus. where we should 
expect the Gen. and the reverse. Plat Menon. p. 90. B ; Stallb. Plat de 

Repub. Vn. p. 688. D. et al. See also Kfihn. L Gr. IL ^ 624. 9k, 

answering to ^}k in the preceding phrase, and introducing an affirmation 

of the reverse of what is there denied. Lat, ac potius. cfi| rt 

Kttl pofiiCoiro, would be and be eoruidered. 


^avfiaffrby . . . rb vci<ri^ycU riifiu &s, jct.A. The article rb 
gives the phrase the force of a substantive, (see Kdhn. Gr. ( 244. 11,) 
which is the subject of ^Vcrai, and deaffjuurr6tf, is predicate. For the 
emphatic position of ^avfuurr6v at the beginning of the sentence, see 

Edho. Gr. § 848. 5, 6, 7. robs if4ovs Sic^^cipcy. For a mora 

definite statement of this accusation as answered by Socrates^ see Plat 
ApoL p. 19 sq, 8^..,fcgil, and.^.olso; see note, J 1, a, — «-«-vp^f 

196 NOTES. 

ro7r tlpfifi4pois, in. addition to what has alrcadj been said. ^— * 
wptiroy /iii^... cTra. The omission of B4 after crra, and twura follow- 
ing irpSnov 119V ia not infrequent ; see ECibn. 6r. ^ 822. Rem. 4 ; L. 6r 

n. $734; cf. I. 4. 11; 1.7.2; III. 6. 2, 9, et al. &<»/)o8i<r/«ir jcal 

ya<rrphst res venereas ezercendi et edendi potandique. 
The omission of the article here, giring a kind of verbal force to the 
noun% is worthy of notice ; so x«M^<^ i^^por, and r^yout which follow ; 

KQhn. 6r. ^ 244. R. 8. irp^t x^'A^*^ icrA. 1 he change from the 

genitive nsed in ii^poiurtmw and yuarp6t (EQhn. § 276) to fin accuaatiye 
with the preposition, to express a more objective relation cannot escape 
the notice of the student The Latins woud continue the genitive: 
'Mijeniis, aestatifs laborum omnium tolerantissinius." For the power 
of Socrates in enduring cold and heat, etc., see Plato, Sjmpoe. 220. B., 
and cf. I. 6. 2, 8, and Introd. 

''En 8i, and benden, or nay more. irftht rh nrrptw iuv^ai rc- 

weuttvfiivos ovrms, he was so trained (or accustomed) to mo<ieration in 
his desires, ficrrc vdEyv, k.tA., that having very little he was very easily 
satisfied with what he had. The use of the paKiciple, ic«jm|/i/rof, in 
the nominative by attraction here, is explained in Kflhn. 6r. § 841. 8. 
807. 4, compared with § 310. 8 ; L. 6r. II. § 825 ; and Yiger. Idiot 168. 
C£ § 7 ; III. 3. 1 ; 9. 7 ; 11. B, 14: r^ ^vta^ai fiovKofi^m, et al. For 
the construction of the adverbial sentence with £arf, to which o9rwf 
corresponds in the principal sentence, see Kfihn. 6r. ^ 841. 1. For the 
Infin. fx^tVt where we might expect the Indie., see also KQhn. Gr. § 841. 
8. (a); B. 189. F. 4., and L. Gr, IL § 825. 3. (a). The frugality of Socra- 
tes is described in 1. 8. 6 sq. ; Oecon. II. 3 ; c£ also L 6. 2. The pro- 
priety of the strong expression, vdvu fiiKpd, in reference to his possessions^ 
is evident from his own declarations found in the Apol. of Plato, p. 88, 
and Oecon. 2. 8 : ** If I could find a reasonable purchaser, I should per- 
hii\y& get five miuae for all my pro])erty, including my house." CI also 
Cic. Tuoc Disp. 84. 97. 

ft, — 11 apapS/Aovs, regardU9s of law^ like our use of the word lawleM. 
vpht r^ voif§ip /AaKuKobtt incapahU of enduring hardthip, 
labores adire. CC the meaning of the Infin. with the article with 
that of the nouns ir6mvf, icrA. above, without it •■~— &jr . . . iwoliicrtp, 
like our Potential Imperf., Lat Imperf. Subj., How could he make, or have 
made, etc. For the use of &y with the Histor. tenses in questions, pee 
Kahn. Gr. § 844. 6 ; L. Gr. § 454. 6. a. 'AX A * rirow<r«. 'AaV indi- 
cates the contrast with the implied negative answer to the preceding 
question. He could not, on the contrary he hindered {(reoMrt, avooare o,) 
many, etc Thl« word is here nsed na the Latins sometimes used immo 


rero, nay rather: "Si patriam prodere conabitnr pater, nlebit oe filiusl 
Jmino vero obeecrabit patrem/* — Cioero. Hai-tung, Vol II. 87, saja 
that aWd is often used when one suddenly stops and turns to a thought 
which gives the whole idea another phase. Gomp. ^ 27 ; II. 6. 21 ; Anab. 
IV. 6. 19. For the construction of verbs of this class with the accusative 
of the person and genitive of the thing, se? Sonhocles* Gr. ^ 180. 2. The 
verb vavu, in the Act. to eauae to ceane, in blie Mid. generally, to ceate 

voluntarily, and Pass, involuntarily. ii\v here has reference to the 

words, ^ 3, K air 01 7c oMctc^itotc {nri^x^^ Miaic icX., which re- 
strictx the clause with ikh^ while* that is in oontrast with ihe preceding; 

as above stated. See note 1. 1. r < 4 ^ a r , by making them to desire 

virtue, denoting the means. So also xapaaxf^rt see Eahn. Or. ^ 812. 4. (e)i 

&r... JrififfAMyrai, after a past tense for <l iirtfit\otvro ; cf. I. 2. 

55, 59 ; IIL 2. 4 : Sp Kv ny^ai for fty ityolro, Xy for ^^y, distinguished 
from the modal adverb &r by position at the beginning of a clause or by 
its oonnectionsw We have iy with the Subj. here, where we might expect 
9I with the Opt: ci itrifAtKoun-o, since the Greeks were fond of recuiTing 
from indirect to direct discourse in subordinate clauses; see B. 189. m. 69, 
and also for the use of the Subj. after Histor. tenses^ 189. m. 9. 

St^Kafroi 7c, quanquam or quanquam qnidem. The 
particle 7c like quidem in Latin, gives emphasis to the restriction. 
See Eahn. Gr. 4 317. 2. Cf. IV. 2. 7 ; Cyrop. III. 1. 88 ; also Cioero, de 
Legg. II. 6. 14 : de ejus legis laude dicam ; quod idem et Zaleucam et 
Charondam fuisse video; quanquam qnidem ill! non studii et 
dclectationis, sed reipublicae causa leges civitatibus suis oonscripserunt 
When 7« is separated from Kalrot by intervening words, it frequently 
has not respect to the whole clause, but to the word which it follows^ as 
in I. 6. 11 ; II. 8. 15 ; III. 12. 7 ; IV. 7. 5 : koItoi ob^h rolnt^p yt &yf 
Koos ^¥. See Hartnng*s Gr. Partik. I. S. 411 ; Kahn. L Gr. II. ^ 704. 

L 2. and Tusc. Disp. III. 84, 84. dirc<rx«To MdtrKdKot thai ro^ov, 

be never professed to be a teacher of these things^ "se harum rerum 
doctorem pofiteri." CI with ^4<rX' here the forms of ^trory^AAc- 

vdoi in § 7, 8. T^ ^artphs c7yai, by appearing to be such, etc, 

or on this account, because he appeared to be such. For the Nom. here 
by attraction with the Infin, see Kdhn. Gr. ( 810. 8, also § 1 above, and 

dm. 8. 1. cvvZuerftifiovrat iaor^ fitfiovft^vovs iKtlvov, In some 

Mss. kur^ is found instead of imir^^ but the latter pronoun is probably 
used, as referring to the thoughts of Socrates and not of the author ; see 
note, ^ 49. In sentiment, Plato Apol. 88 is parallel with this : ^7^ Z\ 
8i8«UricaAo9 ii\¥ ohZwht itAwor* iytyifitiVf k.tA. Accordingly, (see note 
I. 4,) Socrates does not call those to whom he gave instruction ^ad^^s^ 

198 * NOTES. 

(pnpils), bat avpirras, ow^utrplfiorTas, yimpifMmn, and HtrifitUvt, et t 
6. 8. In this way be dittingnuhed himself from the Sophists of his timc^ 
who boasted that they could effect all things by their teaehings. ^-^ 
iKMiPor, Atm, A3 contrasted with themselves. This Pron. is more em- 
phatic and Sttinet than airr6s, and hence appropriate where another ia 
contrssted emphatically with the penon speaking or thinking. CC lY. 

1.1; 2.3; Anab. Yll. 8. 4 ; Plat Protag. p. 810. D. roto6trdM. The 

pronouns SSc, £8c, roitfo'Sc, and roaSaBt, commonly .%fer to what fol- 
lows; whilst oZros, o9r«f, routdrof, and roirovTot lave reference to 
what goes before ; as in Gyrop. Y. 2. 81 : Kol 6 Kvpot iuto^as rov Tv 
fip^ roiavra roiiCSe vphs oitrhp C\«^c. Yet the latter class some- 
what often refer to what follows ; as in I. 2. 61 ; IL 1. 10 ; lY. 6. 1 ; 
see also KrOger. ad Anab. XL 2. 2 ; and the former more seldom to what 
goes before, as rotoCcBt here. See also rokESc in L 7. 5, at the end, with 
ilote. Different from this is it, when r^c, etc, refer to an object as 
present before the eyes» as in Gyrop. IIL 8. 85 : iyit 9h tfup /»^w vapaump, 
wototfs Ttviis xfh «'•'«( if' ^¥ rot^Sc, Le.,in the present state of things. 
So in Gyrop. IIL 8. 88. Anab. YIL 8. 47. In like manner in Latin, for 
the sake of rendering the narrative of past events more vivid, hie is 
used for is. See KQhner's note npon Gic Tvtk, Disp. L 8. 5. p. 68^ — 
Socrates was distinguished from all his predecessors by the correspond- 
ence of his life with his teachings. This was one secret of his influence. 
He lived according to his philosophy ; cf. L 8. 1 ; lY. 4. 16 ; 7. 1, etc. 
See Brandia^ Oesch. Gr. and Bom. PhiL IL S. S. 

4« — ^AAAJk M^*'> B^ Note, L 1. 6. bx9p90-biowTa hvtpwo' 

ycir, that one eating immoderately should labor excessively. Socrates 
probably alluded to the athletae whose voracity was proverbial. See 

Edhner's Note upon Gic Tusc. IL 17. 40. rh 8/, answering to rh 

ukw above ^vx^> ^^ appetite for food and drink; so it is not 

unfrequently used ; Gyrop. L 8. 18. YIIL 7. 4 : r^ tk ^ V^x^ arror ^H 
oh irposlvro. In like manner the Latins use anima and animus. 
See Eahn. note on Gicero^ Tusc Disp. IL 22. 53. G£ also, L 8. 14, upon 

which KQhner says: de vehementiore amoris appetitione. ravra 

iKav&t iKvow9tw, to digest by suitable labor. rcc^rq f . . . Hr «{i» 

iyitirhp Tff Ucawt tJyvu, This manner of living (((ly) is healthful (for 
the body), sufficiently so, etc This position of the adverb is emphatic 
See Stall b. Plat Phaedr. 256. R for abundant examples, and also Kfiha 
Or. § 348. 5, and L. Gr. IL ^ 863. 1. Gf. Gicero de Oratore, L 21. 96 : 
jucundum eutis fore videbatur. So of other adverbs both in Latin and 

Greek, e. g. wJunt, admodum, plane, etc ifiiroii(tiy, to hinder; liter* 

illy, to fetter, from iw and wo6s. 


-*AXX* ol fi^i^, dpmrriicijf 7t...«^ pk^p a A 8*. The partielef 
%b lii^p are often used where one phrase b followed by another which 
might seem to oppose it, but does not The latter thought is strongly 
affirmed, whilst the first remains tme. The idea here ia^ that^ although 
Socrates commended the ca^ of the body, yet he was not effeminate, eto; 
Latin : profecto tamen non or neqne tamen ; see L 2. 27 : oft i^v rd y€ 
i^Xa elhrip Kpiprreu, in respect to other things^ narelff, we do not so 
Judges Thnc 1. 5 ; Isocr. Paneg. 64, 68. Where there is no opposition 
between the antecedent and consequent member, but an agreement in 
sentiment^ the particle fi^r, in the phrase ob ftiiw or eM /i^r, not only 
oonnecta^ but enhances the mettbhi^ like the Latin yero in neqne 
T e r o . Ob ii^v Mk^ therefore a neqne . . . qnidem or ao ne . . . quidem ; 
see L 2. 63, and Hartung, 6r. Partik. XL a 873 sq. Efihn. Gr. § 816. L (a). 

L. Gr. H i 862. kXa iovixht ^r ofh^ i^ircx^rp, tcr.K *iiXa(o9tKht 

is from tK-n* a wandering, a roaming : thence kKa(<Avt a wanderer, and 
impostor, pretender, and the adjective kKaCovikhs, disposed to make fiilse 
preteusionSk and here, desirous of display in dress (oftvcx^t lit a fine 
outer garment worn by women and effeminate men), etc There is un- 
doubtedly a secret thrust^ in this passage, at the sophists who were fond 
of display in dress and equipage ; and were hence sometimes called jcor^ 
^oxh^ the iXaf/iv^t, 

'Epcwix^A^rovf from tpturtt {fpa^iM^ loye^ and xf^f^ money, aa 

money-loving, avaricious. ffvp6wrast "^ i^ote^ i ^ above.—— 

rmr ftikp ykp AAXmp . . . hrpdrrero xf^f""'^ ^^ introduces the proof 
that Socrates did not make his disciples avaricious ; and a more con- 
densed argument it would be difficult to find : For he both (fih) freed 
them from other desires, (and of course from a desire of money, as a 
means of gratifying them), and (Si) did not take pay, exact money (iitpdr* 
r«To x^M«^>) from those who were desirous of his instructions (iaurov 
iirtdvfMvrrat, lit those desirous of himself ii, qui sui cupidi essent ; and 
thus showed himself free from all avaricious desires. His course of con- 
duct was thus strongly contrasted with that of the sophists, who, by their 
exactions from their disciples^ were distinguished in the opinion of the 
common people for their avarice. See L 2. 6, 11, 60; L 6, 6; Stallb. 
Plato, Hipp. Maj. 282. D. and note ; Gorgias p. 519. C ; Oecon. 2. 8 ; 
ApoL p. 20 ; and Aristopb. Clouds, 99, 100 : 

"These are thef, 
Who can show plesders how to twist a cshmv 
So yon^U pay them for It; right or wroDg.** 

6« — ^To^rov 8' iircx^Mo^^'f abstaining (or, by abstaining) from 
this; i. e., from taking pay froift his pupils. — — > &r8oairo8«0'r&f 

200 NOTES. 

iavrmy ivtied\9t, 'Awipawo^urHis, a slare^eAler, from hf9p€Bw6Bi{ti^ 
to reduce to slayery (prob. from iufipSs and wo6s), a more emphatie word 
than 9ou\imt to subdue ; hence in the plan with lovrwv, tdlen of thaiu 
ielves, of their own libeHy. 'EitcimUci, to call in reproach, to stigmatize ; 
see I. 5. 6 : wi»livw rhv wapk rou rvx&mos xM^^^a Acvi/3^orra SMv^rify 

kmnov Ko&iardyai, ical iovKtituf 9av\€iaM oMc^tai Ifrrop majcpdp. 

8i& r^ iipecyKaioy edno7s ttmu 9ia\4y€adeu wap* &¥ &y \dfiotfp, because 
the necessity was laid upon them of conversing with those, from whom 
thejr might i*eceiye a reward. In Latin, as in English, the pronoun cor- 
responding to the demonstratiTe robots, would generallj be used before 
the relative (£y) : cum iis . . . a quibus^ with those, from whom. See ex- 
amples of its omission in Oreek in B. 127. 1. d. KOhn. Or. ^ S81, Rem. 8, 
L. Gr. IL ^ 782. 4; cf. also IL 6. 35. For the use of &9 here with the 
optative in oratio obL, see KQhn. Gr. § 883. 6, and Ex. ; L. Gr. IL ^ 79& 
CL a diiferent use, IV. 1. 2. 

7* — Et,.,vpdrroiro. In the use of this tl for &ri or itt we have 
an example of the urbanity of the Greeks^ who preferred not to express 
an odious sentiment as actually existing, but as possible ; see note L 1. 13, 
and notice the different significations of the India and Opt. mode in the 
two passages. t^ lUyitrrw Ktp^os . . . ^i\op iir/adhy, A beautiful illus- 
tration of this passage is found in the Life of Socrates by Diogenes Laer- 
tius, II, 84 : AiVx^yov 8i 9iw6irros * Tl4ni^ ^Ifd koX iXXo /thf o65iy fx^ 
dlimfu 94 <roi iimuriy *Ap* ody, cTvfy (6 t»ntpdn^\ obx tdadJarif ri^ fi4» 

ytard fiot 8t8o^t; fiii 6 yw6fii»os koX^i nkytAht r^ ra ft4yurra 

c^pycr^irarri fi^ t^v fityiffriiw x^P^" ff|oi. After verbs of fearing, 
etc, instead of /i^ . . . /aj^ we more usually find ^^ ofr as in IL 8. 10 : 
ScSoiJco, ftii oifK ix^ To0-a^n|y cro^fay. But the double ii.4i is used here 
to indicate more definitely that the sentiment was Socrates' own. The 
form of the oraiio obligua is retained in minor parts of the sentence aa 
well as in the general enunciation of it See Kiihn. Lu Gr. II. f 718. 1. 
Bem. 2 ; also et Thuc IL 18. Hartung, Gr. Partik. IL S. 177, compares 
this construction with that of y4 after ydp. For an explanation of which 
Elihner says: subtilior quam verior mihi- videtur esse, see Hermann, 
Adn. Viger. f 265. For tlie use of the participle with the artiele here sa 
Latin, is, qui: 6 yw6furof.,.r^,,.€b9pytrha«um, see KQhn. Gr. 
( 244. 8. >— - x^^^ ^X*^^ ^o f*B®l gratitude. Hence the idea of the whole 
phrase : lest one who had become truly noble and good should not feel 
the most lively gratitude towards him who had conferred the greatest 

8« — T&¥ ^vvivruv lavr^ as Latin, familiares See note upon 


(Sabore.^— ffl /lii &pa, Latin, nisi forte, used ironically. 80 
4jpa is often used in Attio proee. It must not be supposed, however, 
that ipa loses its inferential force in such cases. The idea in the mind 
of the writer here was undoubtedly something like this : unless^ (which 
we did not suppose, but might naturally infer from the fact tliat such a 
man as Socrates was accused,) virtue ia, etc The employment of par* 
tides in this way, as suggestive of trains of thought passing through the 
mind of the writer or speaker, frequently of so subtle a nature that they 
oould not well be expressed in language, is one of the most decided 
beauties of the Greek language, and strikingly indicative of the cultiva- 
tion of the Greek mind. A close attention to such particles as iiX\i, 
$pa, ydfi, wou, 84 etc, will not only convince the student of this (act; 
but will repay him by the acquaintance he will thus obtain with the an- 
cient mode of thinking and the reflex influence of Attic delicacy and 
refinement upon himselC £i ft^ without ipa is also found in a very 
similar sense. The exception made is in such cases always an impossible, 
or at least a highly improbable one. See KQhn. Gr. § 824. 8 , L. Gr. 
XL i 756. 6, and Stollb. PUt Repub. II. 876, and cf. Kflhn. Cic Tusc. 

Disp. IV. 23. 51. Sia^^opk, like the Latin, corruptela, that 

which corrupts^ contaminates, is perhaps here well rendered by the Part, 
adj., eorrupiinff, or personifying it^ a corrupter. 

•• — ^A\Xa, very often introduces an objection. Ilartung, Gr. Par- 
tik. IL 87. pii, followed by the Ace of the name of the deity in- 
voked, indicates strong affirmation, and is frequently used after iiWd in 

answering objections. See B. 149. m. 23. i Kariiyopo-s l^i|. 

The common position of the words is the reverse of that found here, as 
in ^ 36 : 1^ 6 Xapuc\ris. Still this order is not very unfrequent ; as in 
IL 1. 18 : 6 XotKpdrris 1^. 2. 7 : irpht ravra 6 vwyivKOi 1^. Symp. YL 
5 : b KoXXfaf f^. Cyrop. YIIL 8. 27. Oecon. XIX. 2. We find the 
same constiniction in Latin : accusator inquit; see 0. M. Miiller ad 
Cic de Orat p. 98. drcpopav, lit, to look over; hence, to over- 
look, to despise ; whilst Karauppovtw below means^ lit, to think down 
upon ; hence, to consider valnelesi^ to contemn ; like the Latin despi- 
cere and eontemnere. See L 8. 4 : vdrra raybp^wwa dvfpccipa. 4. 10 : 

wwtpopA rh 9«ufi6rio¥. r&if Ka^Mar^rctw y6fi»tf, the established 

or I'cceived laws. 1 fij, optative in Orat obliqua roht filv rrit 

v^Acwf ipxovrat; for this common construction of the Greek, with the 
article separated from its noun, by words which are combined with it in 
expressing a single conception, giving emphasis and direction to the qua- 
lifying words^ see Kfihn. Gr. § 245. 8. (a). \4yttv, by tayinff, or 

when he said. iiwh KvdfAov xa^lcraff^ai. The Athenian ma* 


202 NOTES. 

gistrates were chosen bj putting the names of candidates into an xm 
with black and white beans {mAofiot), and those whose names were drawc 
with the white beans 'were elected; hence thej are called ol hwh Kvdfmt 
Ikpxorrts and icvo/icvrof^ *bean Archons;* see Fiske's Man. Claae. Lit 

p. 180. Ko^/^rao'i&ai, Mfd. Voice, sibi collocare, or creare. Z\ after 

li\v aImyg, contrasts the conduct of men in respect to their choice of 
individuals for other occupations and for rulen^ and may be rendered 
wfiilst or olthougK 

ecAciK, for which many read ibix^tw. The shorter form, neyer 
used by Homer and early Epic writers^ and nearly always by the trage- 
dians except in the Imp£ ffi^cAoy, is seldom found in Xenophon and the 
more ancient Attic prose writers^ except in particular phrases; as d 
^cAciv, hf hthf ^4\ji ; hence the i was probably here erased by the cor- 
rector. It is however used in a few passages of the Memorabilia ; as in 
II. 1. 17, and 6. 4. In I. 4. 18, we have the full form after a word end- 

ing in a consonant, and the abbreviated form after a vowel. KtxP^' 

ff^ai, perfect used as present^ indicating possession or continued use^ 
to have in hin aervieef v. Kiihn. Gr. § 256, Rem. 5; Buttmann, § US. 
7. So this verb is geuerally used in Attic Greek. It is also used as a 
pi*eaeut in Epie writers, but frequently with signification, to be in want^ 
need of a thing. So in a few cases in Attic writers. Cf. Demosthenes 
d« Corona, p. 239, 40 ; 827, 804, and Homer, Odys. III. 266 ; XIY. 422 

et al. Kva/i9vr^f chosen by a bean, i e., by lot; implied of course 

with the following noun^ Wjcrovi, jct.A. fiiiJ' ^ir* &A\a to«- 

Aura; Seiffei't calls this construction a slight Anacoluthon for /triV &XAy 
M ToiaDto. It is better perhaps with Kflhn. to supply KtxPV^^ai Kva^tfur^ 

riA, h.,.iifiapTatf6fi9¥a.,.rAw,,,anapTavo/i4>fctWy which going 

wrong (or, in which if there is error), do far less injury than when wrong 

is done to (or, in reference to) the State. iwalptii^, to induce or 

incite. ?^n» i. «•» [icvrirtopos] 1^. r%s tca^ttrrwaiis voXi- 

refaf, the existing goveniment icol wottuf fiiatovs, and made 

them violent^ turbulent^ disobedient; opposed to v^dv, mild, gentle, 
obedient Iloiciir is connected by ica/ to iwolp^tv. It will be observed, 
that Xenophon does not deny the fact that Socrates was not altogether 
pleased with the demoemtical government of Athens, ^ian, Var. Hist 
IIL 17, says: XwKpdrris ip ry ii\v *Ai^m(«y voAircff oIk ^ionrro. 

10.— ♦prfKTio'iF k^Kovpras^ may be rendered, acting prudenJUy^ 
exercising practical wisdom, prudentiam colere or exercere. So 
SeifFert ; but it seems more in accordance with the spirit of the passage 
ic oonsider ppip^vit as antithetical to hfuAia, and to render the phrase: 


those who deyote theroaelyes to mental eoltnre. So Kahner : ego rero 

eredo eos, qui animi onltni operam dant. ponl(owrua 

Uapohs dfftvbai. For (at<rdat man j read clrcu, snpposing that after 
the foi'ms of ro/tl^c«r, to be eonstioied with the nominative^ Xenophon 
always uses the present infinitive ; but we find both the future and aorist 
used to indicate diffei*ent modifications of the same idea. For parallel 
cases of Uie Fut and Aor. after verba putandi, etc, c£ f 8 above; 
IL 8. 6 ; IIL 1. 1 ; 7. 8 ; IV. 1. 5 ; Cyrop. VIL 2. 28 ; see Ktthn. L. Gr. 
§ 445, note 2, and Gr. § 267. 2. Rem. 2. There seems to be special 
propriety and beauty in the use of the future here where a contingency 
is denoted; L^., those who suppose that (if time and circumstances 
favorX they shall be suitable, etc. 

np6a€iffiw, attend, are eonaegvent upon. ol fitatrd4prts . . , ot 

. . . irciff^d^rrcr, compelled by force {$ia) . . . induced by persuasion. It 
should be observed that in Deponents which have both a middle and 
passive form in the Aor. (as fiid(oftat, ifiioffdfKfiv, ifitd^diiv) tlie passive 
form generally, not always, retains the passive signification. See Rost^ 

Gr. § 118 ; KQhn. § 252. Rem. Cf. Hellen. VI. 1. 7 ; VIL 8. 9. 

A^ip<;^^i«TrT.. . iecxapc0'/»^i'oi ; these words are here contrasted, as 
also 0iaob4rr9s and wutr^tvret,' and luaovaiv and ^lAot/o-ir, and hence 
the most forcible rendering of xcxopiff^/ii^yot i8» those who have received 
fators, beneficio affici, in antithesis with those who are de*> 
prived, despoiled ; although the common, almost the universal meaning 
of x"p'C*0'^a< is to gratify, to bestow favor, beneficio affioere^ Cf. how- 
ever, Herod. VIII. 5 : olrot 8i iLvawrru<r/i4pot ^aew Kof rolat Eofiohat 
^K€x<^p««'To. — T«r lax^^ ip9v yv^iiTit ix^^'''*'^* those who 
possess force^ power, without understanding. In the words of Horace : 

qui "vim oonsilii ezpertem" habent » t& retaSha irpdrrtw. This 

is the reading of all the Mss. and of all the ancient editions of any 
authority. Some later editors have supplied r6 before t& rouuna, but 
although strict coneinnity of construction would require the article to 
correspond with that before jBii^fo-dcu, yet it does not so demand it 
as to set aside the authority of Mss. and early editions. For the in- 
finitive, ^li^co'dai, standing Jby itself, seems more to need the support 
of the t6 than wpirrttp, whieh is attended by its object; and be- 
tides^ many passages are found in the most accurate Greek writer^ 
where this strict conformity of the parts of the sentence is not obsenredp 
Kikhn. in h. L 

11« — ^AAA& M^yf see note .upon L I. 6. a'vtifidx^if ^ fht 

fiUCtadttt ToKfAmp Ziovf t» 9bK h\lym¥.»,olZepis, he who Ten* 
tured to use force, (like vi grassari in livy,) would indeed {jikw) need 



204 NOTES. 

allies Dot a few, eta This emphatio position of the oIk ixiymrt not afn^ 
at the end of the daiiae aod tlie oorresponding place of the ovS€p6s, not 

one, none, should not escape the student's notice. jcai y^p* See 

note L 1. 19. The yhp gives a reason for the assertion in the last clause^ 
and icol strengthens lUpoi, even bj himself, by himself alone; fi^Mw 
being the Nora, with the Inf., because referring to the same pei^son with 

the subject of the verb. ical. . .Z\. See note L 1. 8: iceur«iMt ZL 

^oKc^ffiK, = liitin, necare, whilst kwiertivtw as interfioei'e ; — Seiffert 

— 4 iitm irtt^Qfiw^ XP^^^^ ! ^^ ^^^ ^ • ^^^'^ ^ hare him, livings 
as a willing friend. 

12. — *A\\* i<pi/i y§. The force of the particles &AA* . . . •/# is nearly 
that of at enim, in Latin, but surely, or indeed. The sense is the same 
as if the objector had said : kcutoi y% rovro o0re»$ Ix*** ^' ^^ A^tsv 
oAAi yt Kperlas* K.r,K The yt not only concedes what precedes, but 
does it in such a way that the following is more strongly opposed ; 
though what you say is granted in general, yet it certainly cannot be 
denied that, etc. C£ note upon Koiroi 7c in I. 2. 8 above ; and also 
Tusc. Disp. riL 34, 84: verum quidem haec hactenus. The particle y4 
should seem most naturally to follow *Aaa2^ as both refer to the whole 
phrase, but in Attic Greek they are generally separated by intervening 
words, and no material difference in its force is discoverable, whether 
after &AAi oiU,he predicate that immediately follows, as here. The pre- 
dicate being the most important part of the enunciation, may properly 
take after it a%trord which qualifies the whole phrase. Cf IV. 3. 3: 
*AXA* ola&d y* t^ But when y4 is not subjoined to the predicate, but 
to some other part of the phrase, it frequently does not qualify the mean- 
ing of the whole phrase, but of the particular word with which it is 
placed. Cf. however, § 49 and 51. For the exceptions with regard to 
separate positions of these particles^ see Ast^ Lex. Plat L p. 101. In the 
only instances of their use in N. T. they are written together. See 
Hackett s Plutarch, De Sera, etc., p. 95. 

Kpir/ar, the son of Gallaesohrus, was one of the Thirty lyranti 
who, after the end of the Peloponnesian^ war, were placed over tb« 
Athenians (B. C. 408) by the Lacedemonians^ who had obtained the 
principality of Greece. He possessed much influence and exerdsed thu 
greatest rigor in his inile until put to death by Thrasybuluo. Hellen. IL 
8, 15 sq. Thirlwairs Hist, of Greece, Gh. XXIX., XXXL Mitfbrd, do. 

Ch. 21. 2. 'AAirii9i^8i}s, the son of Clinias, the inheritor of one of 

the lai-gest fortunes in Athens, and possessed of many noble traits of 
character, excited the interest of Socrates, and led to his untiring exer- 
tion to win one possessing such talents and advantages for serving hia 


•Mmtry; to the nde of truth and Tirtne. Thej not onlj lived together 
for ft time at AtheD^ but serred in oompsnj at Potidaea, where Socrat«i 
■ayed the life of his pupil, and were afterwards comrades at the battle 
of Delium. But the subsequent course of Alcibiades is well known. 
See Thirlwall L p. 895 sq. Ch. XXIV. sq. The fact that these indivi- 
duals had been intimate with Socrates^ without doubt had great influ- 
ence upon the minds of the undiscriminating multitude in making up 
their decision against him. ^^/i^i^ . . . d) ad. The same succession of 
particles also appears in ^ 24; IL 2. 14; robs M^y dto6s,.,rohs 8i &y 

»p^ovs aZ; IIL 1. 8. See Eahn. L. Gr. IL ^789. 2. bfipiirr6- 

raret, mott ititoleni, for which some read Cfipt^rucSraTOf, 

18* — ^TS^i^ 8i wpht XvKffdrri¥ avwoi* iar aitnoiw its iyiwwro harfh" 
99iimt hj a common attraction for ^ trwovaia avrow &s iy4¥., k.t,\. CC 
L 8. 8 ; 4. 18» et aL See Kahn. 6r. § 847. 8. A similar construction is 
found in Latin : " familiaritatem autem eomm cum Socrate qualis fuerit 
explicabo." With tlie imperative in Cic. On. Pompey XIIL : quae bre- 
Titer qnalia sint in Cn. ^onipeio oonsideremua. 

14, — *Zytpiadiiv fihp ykp 8^. r^ is used here to begin a pro- 
mised narration, sometimes called yap epexegetic. The 94i is added to 
oonfirm the declaration, indeed, Ct Symposw 11. 4 ; Apolog. § 20. Infra 
IIL 10. 10; 11. 17, et al See Hartung*B Gr. Partik. L 287, and Kiihn. 
L. Gr. 11. § 692. Sometimes the particle 8^ following ydp does not 
qualify the meaning of that particle, but a preceding word in the sen- 
tence from which it is separated hj ydp. Of. IL 4. 1 : rotrrv fikp y^ 
8^, L e., ToDro 8^ Mm indeed; Cyrop. Y. 8. 8: E9 ii\p o8r, f(^, 8oicm 
•JMimu' woXXk ykp 8^ iToryc Kiuctwos iwaf^fficurdfitba irphs ^L\A^Aovf, 

i e., voAAd 84, proreus multa. See Hartung and EUbner, as above. 

virTMT iwofuurTordrct ytwiobm, to become named, most celebrated, by 

all. 'Ey*r4ffdiiw /* ^ k . . . fU<rv 8^ . . . i\axi^rttp fi^t^,,. ijSoywr 8 4 

. . . Toit 84. The consecution of the particles is here worthy of notice. 
The first two parts of the antithetic clause introduced by 84, and con- 
trasted by fihv , ,,94, belong to one class or one general idea, whilst the 
last 8^ appends something of a different character, and may well enough 
be rendered by the Latin denique, aiuf tn/n«. — Av* iXax^crttp 
fUr xP^I'^*^^* having the least meana^ or with tbe least means. Hieron. 
XL 1 : iath rmv Viimw imifaArmif Bmnuw cit rh Koiwhtf iya^Si^, The same^ 
8 ; also Anab. L 1. 9. The means or instrument with which any thing 
is accomplished is frequently designated in Greek by the Prep. &irtf with 
the Gen. where the simple ablative would be used in Latin. C£ $ 9 
above: rehs riis w6K9ms ttpxnneis kvh KvdfAOv «ad/(rra0'|8«u, to appoint 

206 KOTKS. 

by the bean ; i. 6., hj easting lota with it In like manner the 

of which any thing is made, or frogn which it is derired, is denoted by 

kw6. S. 3 : ^vctta 8^ d6vw /uKpks iwh fUKpw. H 1. 26, 28. See Kflhn. 

Gr. ^ 28& 1. (e) and (f ). L.Gr.n.§698. avrapgdarara (Qwrm^ 

lived moet contentedly, or plane contentnm Tirere. The use of 
the participle as a complement with cIS^wu and imffrd^bm, as seen in 
^i»«-ra, 6rra, and xpc^fTcvoy, where we use the oonjunction and finite Terb^ 
and the Latins the Aocus. with the In£, is frequent in Greek, and is dis- 
tinguished from tlie une of the Infin., inasmuch as the Part expresses the 
simple fact^ and the Int generally indicates the manner; see EQhn. Gr. 

f Sll. 2. iv ro7t K6yois, Srwy ^eOAoiro, cf. Plato, Lache^ p. 187. Eb 

For the use of ip with the Dat here; see Kahn. Gr. ( 289. I (8). (a). 

1 5« — ^T aSra 8^ hpmvrt, perceiving these things, or, when they, eta, 
Lat quae qunm illi viderent — ^ icol tyr^ oT« wpotip^icfSw, and being 
such as they have been before represented to be ; or, and since they were 
Bucli, etc, Lat ac tales eesent, etc. The participles hp&rrt and tm 
are doubtless in the Accu& agreeing with adri^ and yet they may be ren- 
dered in Eng. as if Nom. Abs. w^tp6p rif aitrif ^ ; for the use of 

tlie Subj. in deliberative questions, or questions implying doubt see 
Kahn. Gr. $ 269. 1. (bX and L. Gr. IL ( 464. Cf. f 46 : Saa Zh Myot 
robt woXKohs fi^ welatarrttt AXXA Kpttroxnftwt ypiipowt, itSrtpow fiiuM 
^&fi9p fl 11^ ^mn9¥ fTwu. — — ^vi^v/i^irarrff, from love or desire^ 
propter oupiditateuL For this use of the participle, denoting the causey 

see Kahn. Gr. ^ 812. 4.(b). ipd^avbai, from ipiym, lit to reach 

after, to long for, means here^ in the Mid. voice, with the preceding 
Accus. aur^ touffht^ ezpetere. *Op4^, r^r 6/uklag corresponds in 
meaning with ItwKpdrovs ^fx^viyr, in § 16. Ct Symp. YIIL 86 : iiof 
teaX ^«x^ 'rov vAiutrot. 'OfuAfat is the Gen. of the end aimed at; see 

G. Gr. 878. 1 and 2. ^ wotiia'avr§, or because they supposed ; see 

Kflhn. Gr. § 812. 4. (b). ytriff^at hp; for the use and signification 

of Ap with the Infin., see EQhn. Gr. § 260. (6)l \^7fir rt jral 

wpdrr^ip. The Latin Gerund in the Aocus. with ad oorresponds to 
these infinitives : ad dicendum agendumque. 

16* — e ffoif 9t96pro$; the Latin would here take the oonjimctioa 
with the Subj. : u deus iis optionem daret For the use of the Fart in 
the Gen. absolute, where in Eng. we use a secondary clause introdoeed 

by some particle^ see Kflhn. Gr. ^ 812. 8 sq. {Apt a... 4Apmp. For 

the oonstr. of the Part as a complement so frequent in Greek, with 
various classes of verba^ see Kuhn. Gr. ^810. 4 sq. With yerba sen- 
tiendi (esxieo. of sightX the Part is ^nerally to be expected, whilst with 


thoM yerbs which ezpreas mere opinion, oonjectare, belief hope, etc, 
espee. when relating to the future, the Inf. is more frequently used. 
With yerbe of speaking, narrating, both formd'are frequently employed 
In geneml, from the nature of the two forms, the In£ is used whera the 
idea is geneml, indefinite, tiie Part where it is limited by time, place, eta; 
the Inf. simply nameMy the Part deaeribes. For a more* extended discus* 
sion, see B. 144. 6 sq, espec. foot note ; and for distinctions with particu* 

lar words, see Efihn. Gr. $ 811. itipmv. Besides 6pdm, the yerbe 

iantym and h^lcitofuu take both the temporal and syllabic augment 

i\4cdat &y fiaWow ahr& rtbydifai, Latin: " mortem yitae ante- 

ponere." A 4 Aw 8* iywiff^y^f^ K,rX^ they became known, etc^ i. e, 

their subsequent conduct reyealed -their character. ykp introduces 

the explanation of what they did, as the ground of the preceding asser- 
tion. &s,..'rdx^ffra, ut primuro, just as soon as. &irovi|84- 

o-arrc, a stronger word than avo^iri^crayrc. Philoetr. Yit ApoU. lY. 
88 : fff rts Zih rovro iMonnfi^ ^iXoo'o^/ar, is sometimes compared with 

this passage. iwparrdrjiy t& woKtriKd, they immediately broke 

away from Socrates and engaged in politicalji/e, 

17«— -'Itf'wr oZr, perhaps ilten^ or perhaps now. The oSk intro- 
duces an inference from what precedes ; the conduct of the pupils might 
suggest this objection to the conduct of Socrates. With ta^ts it denotes 

possible result or consequence. w^povt7if, to be of sound mind, 

here, to haye just yiewH ^n relation to goyernment) : Socrates ought not 
to teach his disciples the manner of goyeming, before he teaches them 

to do it with moderation, equity. obic avTiK4yu. Xenophon 

leayes this reproach unanswered for the present^ but resumes it in lY. 3, 

1. 8i...4/>», InUthitlue, ''hoc certe yideo," or ''tantum 

yideo." t^ f<6y^ irposfitfid{oyrat, bringing them oyer to 

their opinion, persuading them by their argumentsw Cf. Aesch. c Ctesi- 
phon, c 28 : r^ \Sy^ wposfitfidC^y ^ftaf ; also Aristoph. Ayy. 420 : irpov- 
fitfii \4ynf ; Eqq. Zfi : c3 wpovfitfid{9is fu, you teach me well, and Xen. 
Oecon. XIY. 4. 

18« — Ol8a...tfffiicr^rra; for this use of the Part see note on 14 

and 16 aboye. Ot9a 8i jR&Kff(jf«, I know too that these men, eta 

y^poFogyre like Scixr. aboye. Hvrw from i$ trt, until 

whens whilst o& ^ofiovfi4yat...ikK\' olofi4vat, not because 

they feared, but because, etc, Lat : non quod yererentur, etc. The stu- 
dent cannot too carefully notice the frequent and yaried constructions ol 
the Greek Participle. 

208 KOTJbb. 

19, — Efvoiffy &r. The Opt. with Hm is used here to ezpre» « po* 

sibility, B. Gr. 189. m. 16. ri»r ^avaiwrmp f iXo^o^f Tr, tfaoee 

who pretend to be philoeo)>hers, the sophbte; Seiffert Mys: qui le yolant 
eise philosophoa. oA^pttif ifiptrr^s, Lat modeBtus and in- 
sole n a , considerate or diMreet^ and presumptnoiis or insolent The same 

wordit are used as antithetical in C/r. 8. 1. 21. ov8^ &AXo o^Scy; 

tbeec nccusntives depend upon the following Yerbal adjective ia^twtaHt 
IMP, Sec Kfihn. Gr. ^ 279. 7 ; and cf. Cyr. III. 8. 9 : fwitrHifioyts hh ^vor 
rk wporfiKorra; Plat^ Epinom. B. 979. D.: 6 ravr* iwimifimp; Aescfa. 
Agnm. 1096: itaXA^ Kotck |w(ffT«p, andlOS,etc.— o0t«# yiyw^anm. 
¥or more in reference to Socrates' opinion upon the question, so much 
discusBod bj the ancient philosophers! Whether virtue can be acquired, 
and also upon strengthening it by exercise, see HI. 9. 1 ; IV. 1. and 
Sjmpos. 11. 6. His idea seems to be, that it cannot even be retained 

without the constant practice of it. 6pu ykp &ew9p ,,.oh 9vvafi4- 

9 0V s iroiccr. We should naturally expect a different constr. here^ 
Le., &sirtp.,,ol fA^i rk ffAfutra kaKOvprtt ou 96pavrat iroiciy, oSra* 
icol . . . robs . . . o& lvpu^4povs. «This kind of attraction by which the struc- 
ture in the secondary enunciation, introduced by Smt^p^ is made to con- 
form to that in the primary, is frequent in compaiisons ; cC § 21, and 
Cyrop. I. 4. 15, and examples collected by Lobeck, in Parerg. c YI. ad 
Phryn. p. 766 ; see KQhu. Gr. § 842. Rem. 8, and L. Gr. II. ^ 880. 8. For 
a similar attraction of the Infin. in constr. with the Ace, cf. I. 2. 29. An 
analogous construction is found also in tlie Latin. See Cic. de Amicit: L 1 : 
te snspicor iisdem rebus^ quibns me ipsum interdum gravius commo- 

veri ; and Tusc Disp. 1. 17. 89, and Eiihner*s note in h. 1. otr^ yk^ 

k 8ci irpirrcir ofir§ Sp 8ff< Av^x'^*^" S^yarrai; the Latin 
language can even excel the beautiful precision of the Greek here: 
** neque enim facere quae oportet neque abstinere possunt" 

iOt— *fiff ...oStray. When As is connected with a participle, the 
action expressed by the Pail, is indicated as something imagined or con- 
ceived of, or a supposed reason, and is the same as a Part denoting to 
think or say followed by an infinitive with or without an Accus. Lat: 
Proptcrea quod putant esse, because they gnppote, etc This construction 
is employed with a simple participle or with the €kn or Accus. absolute. 
Tlic construction with the Accus. Abs., as here, is quite frequent ; since, 
as Buttmann say^ 146. note 7, ** a cause or reason presented as in the 
mind of another seems to depend on a verb of thinking (sentiendi) im- 
plied." See KQhn. Gr. ^ 812. 6. (aX (b), (d) ; L. Gr. U. § 678. Cf. L 8. 2 : 
f 0XCTO 8i nphs roits l^ffoZrr kwK&s rkya^k 9iS6pat, its robs btohs KdXKwrm 
•iS^at. riip 8i rmp woprip&p KmrdXvvtp. If the ellipsis were 

BOOK J. CHAP. n. 209 

supplied here, it would read : rV '^ T»r vor. ipuXtaw itordK. o^tf'ai 
r^s itptrris. rm¥ ira<i)r«v 8 rt X^ywy.. • leal 6 XiyttPy one 

of the poets who says : . . . and aDother who sajs: . . . The first lines are 
taken by Xenophon from Hesiod, Theogn. y. 85 and 86. It seems to have 
been a favorite couplet with Socratesi as it is put into his mouth both in 
Xen. Syrop. II. 4, and in Plat Menon. p. 96. D. It is not known from 

what poet the last verse is taken. 8i8^{cai is here used in the 

signiC of the Middle voice: to procure instruction for one's self as to 
team. It is also used in the Mid. with the meaning : to have one taughL 

CCIV. 4. 5. rhw i&vra w6op, mentis quod fuit ante. This 

common usage of the Greek Part is worthy of notice. rtr^ fi^p 

...iK\9T§ S\ at one time another. 

SI. — K&yA 8^. See note I. 1. 8 : kokwos 94. We should naturallj 
expect fA4if here, to correspond wilh the 8c : 'OpA 8>, at the beginning 
of $ 22. But the fi4if is sometimes omitted before the 94. Here its 
omission may be accounted for from the distance of the clauses^ see 

note 1.1. 1. iiaprvpA ro^roit, I give my testimony or assent 

to them. In the Latin we should, as Seiflfert says^ have a relative in- 
stead of the demonstrative : quibus ego quoque assentior (testis sum). 
6pA 7 A p, see L I. 6. note. &swtp; for the form of this com- 
parison, see note, ^ 19. ip fi4Tpot w9iroiifii4ifw¥, numeris 

inolusus. rHif 9t9a<rKa\iKAy K6ym», those things communi* 

cated by a teacher in his instructions; \6ymv is hero contrasted with 

hr&v. Toit kiJL^Kovvi K4ihi^¥ iyyiypofi4iPii¥; Mi., a forgetting 

oeeure to those neglecting^ eie. 'Or-ar 8^ r&v wovberiK&w \6ymv 

e'wiXi^jirai rif, icr.A., and when one is unmindful of monitory words 
(admonitions^ exhortations), he also forgets those affections of the mind 
which led it to desire moderation. 2 r i^ ^vx^ ^^X* '^^ ante- 
cedent is omitted here, and the relative attracted to its construction ; see 
K 148. 8, and also a somewhat similar constr^ note ^ 6 above. 

tt* — To^f ff/t fpatras iyxvX., «r.r.A., thote who piunge headlong into 
loW'intriguee. CSonoeming the use of the plural here, see L 1. 11. note: 
hfJeyKott. For iyicv\ur^4rrat some Mss^ and editions have iHicu\tv^4r' 
vaf. But there is little difference in the use and signif. of the two former 
although, lit iyievXtm means to roll in^ and ^iricvX^ to roll out, in accord- 
ance with the prepositions with which they are compounded. 'EwiruA. 
has been compared in respect to signification witli iic^ip^ffbcu, ^(o«r«X- 

Affii', i^Xurddrup, ixxetirdai wpht ^9ottdit. r&y re 8ff^rri#y, those 

things necessary to be done; Seiffert: ea quae iacienda sunt— ^icfp- 
SMr; concemiog the variable use of the contracted and unoontraoted 

210 VOTHB. 

fomif of this And other •iniilar worda» see Kdhzu note in h. L — c«l . . 
Burdfityott although abU, Koi here denoting conoeasion; see Kilhn. Or 
§ 312. R. 8 ; B. 144. m. 15. The attraction or transpoeition of the ante 
cedent into the relative clause, and the substitution of a demonstratiTS 
Pron. in its place, is somewhat common both in Latin and Greek, sea 
Kahn. Gr. f 832. 4., and cl Uorace, Sat I. 1. 1, 2, et aL 

tSt — n&s ohf o^K ^ V 8 ^ X * ^ > ( » How then is it not possible — f *Er- 
i^xrrai is used impensonally as not unfrequently, c£ IV. 1. 9: iuipbi»9^ 
rat Bffa M^xotro ; III. 9. 4 : vpoa^Mtvfimvs iic rw M§xo/i4rmtf, choosing 
from those things which can be chosen from, Stullb. Plat de Rep. YL 
p. 601. C. ; and in regard to the sentiment cf. Plat Theag. p. ISO. A. 

aSi^iff, aSkiff in Homer and the Ionic writers^ is a lengthened 

form of aS, with which it agrees, for the most part, in signification. 
Here it is an adverb of time in contrast with itplvbw, and ss deinde. 

k9Kiirk, Weiske supposes that this should be ktmrriat but this 

conjecture is rejected hj Schneider and others. The idea is, that all 
tilings good and honorable, are attained unto, established, strengthened, 

and perfected by practice. o^x ^'t^^a '^> i^i^d not leaai, or amd 

eipeeially, corresponding substantially with oAAJk fidXivra, which Hero- 
dotus /iften uses, but more forcible. Cf. $ 82 : woXXoht ^^y r&» w9\iTih 
acal ov rohf xctp^^^^vt hw4itTttvw. See KClhn. L. Gr. IL ^ 690. h. ■ 
amppo^^yti; we should naturally expect the article, as this is the 
name of a specific virtue, but see KQhn. Gr. ^ 244. 2. R. 4 ; L. Gr. II. § 466. 
n. 1., and cf. III. 9. 6 : 9iKaioa^ . . . iropia isri ; IV. 6. 7 : 'Enirr^Mil ^^ 
vr^ta iffrip, and other examples cited by Bomemann on Plat ApoL 1. 
p. 88. 4v ry . . . a^^ a^fuert ovfiw9^vTtvfi4peu ry ^intX9' '^^ prepo- 
sition ff6p here in composition is best rendered, together, and ^^vx9 P^^ ^ 
the Dnt after r^ ain^ ; although tlie meaning is the same if ^vxi is gov- 
erned by tr^y. at ^9ora^ The Greeks as well as the Romans were 

accustomed to put pleasure for the love of pleasure. For the Plur. num- 
ber here, sec L 1. 11. 

24« — Kal...91^, now, A^ here indicates a resuming of the subject 
of the conduct of Gritias and Aloibiades, broken off in § 17 by answering 
an objection, which led to a disquisition upon the nature of virtue ; and 
klso indicates an application of what has been said, a satisfaclory conclu- 
sion of the whole matter, a confidence tliat the conclusion about to be 
stated is established. Cf. § 66 and § 68 ; and see Hartnng, Gr. Partik. L 
p. 261 sq. ; Kahn. It. Gr. IL $ 691. The particles koI 8^ have a some- 
what different signification in II. 6, 7, where see note. av/ifidx^t 

lit a fe]V>w- fighter, vbw and ftdxih hut here umply, aid, helper. -^-» 


itnirov 8* & v a \ X a7 /r r t ; concerning this Nom. of the pAiticiple added 
^7 T^ ^?fu» «ca^' SXi»r ical fi/pos, or partitive apposition, see EQhn. 6r. 
§ 818. 1 Rem. 1 : 866. 3., and ^ ^r* H. 678. 2. Cf. IL 1. 4. and the pas- 
sage cited in Kriiger Anab. II. 4. 1. p. 112 sq. ^vyin^ cfr BcTToXlajr 

...&yo/t(a; when Critias was banished at a certain time, he fled to 
Thessalj, where the people were notorious for their eztrayagance in 
livings frauds, and other species of immorality. It was eyen called : 
nebulqpum patriam. Gf. Plat Crito, p. 53, D., and Stallbaum*s note 

quoted from IWher; also Hellen. II. 8. 86. 8' oS, see § 12. above. 

Ztk fAhr Kd\Xot,,.9^.,,9h,,.Ka\. The dauseA connected by 

ii.. .94 are parts of one general idea, but irai connects something of a 
difft/ent nature. For the position of fi4y here, see Hartung, Gr. Partik. 

IL 416, and c£ L 1. 12. 9id... KdXKos, nearly like 9tk rh iraX^ir cTmu ; 

hence, having a verbal force, it is without the article, see note upon 1. 1. 
9, and ct III. 8. 11 : 9 A Kiyvv itavb^tw. The beauty of Alcibiades be- 
came proverbial in Greece. —*• voAXwk iral fftfip&if yvyauc&¥. A 
little below we find iroXXvw kqH Svpar&y; in II. 9. 6: iro/iXk icol 
wotnipd ; IIL 11. 4 : btpmrolwtu roAXJ^f irol cveiScii ; cf. also IV. 2. 85, and 
Anab. lY. 6. 27. In inverse order we find, for example, in Lys. p. 758 : 
wwripoi ical itoKKol ; Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 592 : i/^wa jcol iroAA^ Also 
in the Comp. and Superl. : irAff(« jcol titi(ttt vAcurroi ireU fiiKrurroi ; and 
in inverse order III. 5. 8 ; Hellen. IV. 2. 5 ; Cyrop. L 4. 17 ; Plat. Phaedr. 
p. 284. R et al. From such examples as these we see that the Greeks, as 
also the Latins, did not consider the notion of multitude or number, as 
something merely external, but as inherent, a property or quality of 
things ; and were consequently accustomed to connect numerals by jcoT 
with other attributive wordsb Cf. Hermann ad Viger. 823, and Kflhn. 

L. Gr. IL $ 726. 8, and 727 Anm. 2 ; Matth. IL § 444. 4. 8^a/iiy . . . 

riiWj the power which (he exercised or had). 

Avvarwy iroAaicc^iy. Many editors, as Weiske, think that jcoAa- 
Kci^iir should be omitted here, and that voWw xal 9mwr&tf i»bp^mw 
should stand in contrast with iroAAwy koX atfxpwf yweuK&v. But in that 
case iuf9po9p would have probably been written instead of iufhpSwctv, 
And besides^ there seems to be no good reason for the change, which is 
not authorized by the Mas. We are not to understand by rovl 9vrarobs 
aroAoirc^ffiy, simply, men distinguished by the art of flattery (ol 99Ufot or 
Kttwoi KoXxucM^ttw), sycophants^ but men able to flatter Alcibiades, i. e., 
who had great influence upon his mind. Accustomed to flattery from 
his childhood, he would spurn the common herd of sycophants, and be 
influenced only by the attentions of men of genius, authority, wealth, 
and renown. Such men might properly be called 9vi^aTo\ Ko\aKt6up, 
— — Stai^pvvr^/Acrof is well chosen to designate the enervating^ 

212 KOTES. 

corrupting effects of flattery. Cf. Gyrop. VlL 2. 28 : tvh irXo^9v Ziai^pt^ 

wr^iAtvos . . . Kol 1^ kifbp^irwv, o1 fit KoKoKtvorrts llKtyor, icrA. odrm 

ir&icciyof, for the i*epetition of the subject here after j>nrfA» icrA., for 
the sake of emphasis, see Eahii. Gr. II. ^ 682. Cf. IV. 2. 25, and Hellen. 
11.^. 41. It is found even in Homer, U. II. 474; XVL 428, 480. This 
peculiarity is found in Latin as well as in Greek. 

t5t — ^T oiovrwy 8c, ic.r A. Toioiruy refers to what has been i;p1ated 

in the last section. For the Gen. Ab&, see Efilin. f 312. ical... ik 

.. . 8)...8)...8i...iral, nfice..,and,..and...and..,and..,ttnd since ; 
Latin: cum., et, etc. ..cum or cum etiam. The clauses more 
nearly related, it will be noticed, are connected by 8c, and those more 
distinct by icdL For an explanation of the joining of the Gen. Aba. 

with nominatives, see 1. 1. 18: tpKOP, K.rA, cf. also note, ^24. &yKO' 

Ii4vm^ ParticL oi hyniw from [^irof, bulk, mas^ weight; hence pti^evf «/>» 

elated. iie\ y4if€i,,.iv\ ir\o6r^j k.tA. The Latin in such cases 

fi<equently varies the construction by interchanging ob and propter. 

28. — eTto, and yet, Elra and (irtvra are used in questions, denoting 
astonishment, indignation, and irony, indicating an unexpected conse- 
quence from what precedes. Cf. I. 4. 11 ; II. 7. 5, 6,7. Kjra and lAwttxa 
are used with still more emphasis ; as in Cyrop. IL 2. 81, and Symp. IV. 
2. See Kahn. Gr. $ 844, 5. (e); B. 149. m. 19. Latin writers might 
use et tamen, or simply et, as in Cic. Tusc Quaest I. 88. 92: et 

dubitsa, etc! See Kilhner*s note in h. 1. ^TXtf/i/icXiyo-^riir, 

1st Aor. of itKnififjLtKitc^ from irXi}fi^cX^t {'K^'hv and fAcXos), <nU of tune^ 
means, lit. to make a false note in music ; and hence to make a mistake, 

to do wrong. Sri 8^, on the eontrari/^ since, etc. A^ has a strong 

adversative or contrasting force here. ^y/ira...ciK^r, when, or in 

the age in which, it wu natural tliat they should be imprudent and 
headstrong, Socrates^ etc. 

27.-^Ov fi^y. See note upon ( 6 above. woiiiffas, after he 

has, etc ^av&aty, show themeetves^ turnout, alrlaw lx«* 

rovrov, ii blamed for this, Lat crimen habere, or culpam sus- 

tinere. vvv^iarpl^^av, passing his time with, being a pupil or 

disciple of Ty...&XXy ry, one^ any other one, Ty here is the 

abridged form of the dative of the indefinite pronoun rft and is there- 
fore enclitic irvyy§v6f».evotf being with, conversing with, as a 

disciple with his master. ixx' ehxt ac non. See note upon I. 2. 

2 : *AXX* Ifravirt fi4v, ixx' ©T 7 c Tar4p€s. r4 here is not concessive 

but emplintic ; and it does not qualify the phrase, but the^word taripts 

BOOK,!. CHAP. II. 213 

indeed. Sec Hartnng, I. S. 414. The whole clause may be rcodered : 
But even their fathera themselves, whilst they live with sons (u e., though 
even with their sons), are not blamed when their children do wrong, if 
they themselves conduct properly. How then, the author intends to 
have implied, can masters be reproached for the faults of their pupils^ 
since they are so much less favorably situated to exert an influence over 
them than parents. 

%%»^^LiKaioi^ ^p Kpi¥. The use of the Imperf. Indie, here correspcftids 

with the Latin usage : see Zumpt, Gr. ^ 518. 2. tl fji^p ainhs ivoltt 

...&y iB6K9i. By the use of the Indie, mode with «* here in the pro- 
tasis, and the Indie, with ((y in apodosis, the impossibility both of the 
thing conditioned and the result is implied, i. e., Socrates did : ot conduct 
badly and was not therefore bad. The Imperf. is used of past time when 
we might expect the Aor., because continued action is implied ; see B. 139. 

m. 28 and 29; Kahn. 339. 1. (b). §i 8* ainhs cta^ov&y 9itr4\€t, 

here we have ct with the indicative in the protasis^ since the condition 
is a reality or fact, i. c^ if he always was of a right mind (which he was), 
how, etc ; and &y wijth the Opt. in the Apod, to repreeent the thing 
conditioned as undetermined, uncertain, Kilhn. § 339. II. 8. a. (a); L. Gr. 
n. $ 811. b. Cf. n. 2. 7, and 5. 4: cT y§ ravra roiavrd ivrt, KoXnt &r 
txot, II. 2. 3. 

29« — ^'AXX* ff!, icr.X., comprises an objection of the opposer of So- 
crates^ in the language of the writer, and grants that if the accusation 
were well founded, Socrates would be justly reproached : If that be true 
which is asserted, (but it is not, as is implied in the use of the tenses, see 
note, § 28 above), that although he did not himself do evil, yet when he 

■aw it in othei's, ho was accustomed to approve, etc. Kpirlay fi^y. 

The particle fi4¥ is here added, because the author has it in mind to s{)eak 

afterward of Alcibiades. rotyvtf, derived from rot or ry, therefore, 

and the slightly deductive pvy, introduces the confutation of the preced- 
ing objection. It is here /icrajSariir^v ; i. e., it indicates transition. See 
Hartung, Gr. Partik. II. 348 sq. ; K&hn. Gr. ^ 824. 8. (c), and Stallb. Plat 

Rep. VIL p. 518D. and YIIL p. 564. Eifdv^^fiov. This is the 

same individual who is called Ev^iirifiof & Ka\6s in IV. 2. 1. irci- 

o£vra xP^o'bai. Tlie Partic. irttpQrra may be used here in the mid- 
dle sense, irupaa^ai (to attempt, conari) ; but it is perhnps better, sup- 
plying avrhv after it., to consider it as active and equivalent to the Latin, 
teutare aliquem s ad amorem pellicere or pudicitiam tentare ; and then 
Xfiff^oi is the infinitive, denoting design or purpose : that he mighty etc. 
Hieron. XI. 11 : koI ro^t KoKohs oh ircipcu^, &AA& trtip^fitvov 6i^ abrmtf 

214 NOTES. 

ity^x^ff^M ^ 0'< '<•(> pnlchros noa tentare^ eta Cjroip, Y. 2. 28, and 
Stallb, Plat Phaedr. p. '227. C Xp^o^doi is elsewhere used of sexual in- 
tercourse. Rep. Lactl. 12: t$ &pf xp^^^^ Symp. VIIL16: /ao/m^^s 

XP%<f^i, also 28, and 86 ct al. kirirpfir^ ^daicvy, ke dUermragta 

him by wying^ or, whilst he thus spoke, Lat cum ita dictitaret 

f $o^\§rai. For the use of the Indicative Present in oraiio obUqua^ 

see note and references in L 1.13. «'pofairciv...lKcrc^orra 

Koi 9€6fi€yo¥, to seek with supplications and prayers^ supplicando ac 
precando petere. IlpotairciV is properly used of mendicants or beggars. 
Oeoon. XX. 15 : wposavrw SioKOf rroi /BiorciSccr. Plato, Phaedr. p. 238. D, 
and Symp. p. 203. B ; VIII. 23. fiiircp robs vr^xobs, by attrac- 
tion for &nr§p ol «Ta#x<>^ (m> irposoiroStriy). See note upon $ 19 above. 

wpo%9ovyatt Kal ravra, tcrj^, that he impart to himseli^ and 

that too of what is of no value, is positively bad {piKiifM l| &AXo rt ^Kir 
^fiOt Symp. YIII. 23). T^ /a^S^k Aya^^y s vitium. tlposioweu is here 
followed by the partitive genitive. See Kfiho. Gr. § 278. 8. (h), and cf. 
Eurip. Cycl. 628 ; Aristoph. Pac. 1111. For the use of xai rotrra, see R 
150. m. 16. 

SO*'-— ToC 8i Kptriov*,,Thp ^icpdrifiv, . »tov Eui^v84|u»v . . . 6 Kpt- 
r'lat, , u will be noticed that the article has not been previously used 
in this narrative with the proper names. It seems to be added here 
to make the distinction between the individuals more de6nite. Witli 
Ci'itias too : 6 Kpirlas, it may be considered as denoting contempt^ tAu 

Critiaa. Xrycrai, Irapers. it it »aid, etc iiKhp, like a Bwine, 

awinitJdy, One Ms. and some editora insert r\ here with vUiv, but it 
might have easily crept in from the Sri, and it is not necessary as the 
neuter adjective is not unfi'equently used in this way without rl. Ct 
II. 7. 13 : ^wnjoffrhy s-oi«ii ; Anab. 1. 4. 18 : il^Ku 8i bttov that ; Cyrop. 
V. 3. 2 ; Plat. Legg. II. p. 657. A. ^avfiotrrhy X^cir, Symp. p. 175. A, 
and Stall b. Plat Phaedr. p. 274. C. Concerning the word iiK6y, cf. Cyrop. 
V. 2. 17 : T^ Si KtKiy^^ai i*h rStv fiptcfidrttr jcol r^s Wo'fwt irJunf aurw 

iiKhy jcol di|piw5ct 8oieci cTkcu. irpoticw^ff^ai, confricare all 

quem. * 

Sit — *£{ £r 8^ koJL And on account of these tilings, (the reproofr 
related in the previous paragraph,) indeed ; or, on account of even such 

thing* as these. A^ here qualifies the sense of the '*Y>ronoun &w. 

ruy rpiJiKovra $t¥ vofuAiryis fitrk XaptK\tQvt. Cf. Ilellen. IL 8. 2 
and 1 3. Of the thirty tyrants besides Critias the leader, only Charidea 
b mentioned, because he, conspiring with Critias and aided by a few 
others, acqiiii-ed great autl ority and influence in the republic. Kofim 

BOOK I. CHAP. U. 216 

^4ri9%, 'legidaior^ latMmaker. The wofu^hm were a I^slatlTe oom- 
mittee clioeen for the final reyiBion of the laws before they were carried 
into execution ; see nomothetet in Smith's Diet of Antiquities. Critiaa^ 
it aeeina, was one of this committee. See Thirl wall*s Hist of Gr. Vol. L 
p. 460 sq. For the construction of the partitive genitive, r&y rptoK. with 

the Part Aw, see Kflhn 273.8. inr^tuynh^v^vir^v avr^, *Avo- 

funifi9W9V€w rwi, to bear something in mind either for or against any one ; 
here of course^ agaimL Of. II. XXIV. 428 ; Hesiod. Theog. 608 ; Thua 

L 187. \6y»p rc'x I'll y* uot rhetoric merely, bat the whole art of 

disooaning upon public afiain^ or upon philosophy and other species of 
literature. It therefore referred not oidy-^ Soerates^ but to all who 
taught any art of this kind. Hence, from its general character, the arti- 
cle is omitted with r«x>^'* iwfip§d(tt¥ ixtty^, lit threatening^ 

and hence seeking to abuse or calumniate him. The same verb is also 
used in III. 6. 16.— — Sirji iwi\dfi,t that on which he might lay hold. 

but applying to him the reproach made by the multitude against the 
philosophers generally (I e, that they possessed the art of making the 
worse appear the better reason, rhp l^rru A^oy Kptlrr» voifiy,) and 
[thus] calumniating him with them. Cf. Pluto^ Apol p. 18. B. and Stall- 
baum's note; Aristophanes^ Nubeis 95-100, et al., in reference to this 
reproach. — & 8 i yhp fywy9 otrt ahrht,.,oliT§ tiWov, jcr.A.; 
I have here followed Schutz, Weiske, and Kflhner in reading oM yitp 
instead of o0t€ yhp. The particles, ovltk yip, iu a negative, correspond 
to Kol y^ in a positive declaration ; d L 4. 9 ; and in Maa ol^t and 
oM as well as /*4tc and /Ai^dt are often confounded. The Greek ydip, 
like the Latin enim, often refers to a thought to be supplied from the 
preceding context ; here : there was no just cause of complaint against 
Socrates^ but the common reproach of the philosophers was transferred 
to him ; for neither I myself have heard Socrates claiming any such art 
(as u made a reproach against the philosophers, i. e., rhr l$Tr«, iie.r.A., 
see aboveX nor have learned that any other one says, etc Olht is used 
by Anaphora with ^ywys , . . ubrhs in order to make the contrast of those 
words with &AXav more emphatia 

Si. — 'Z 9^Kmir§ Z4. Kpiriat is sometimes considered as the subject 
of tfS^XcMTf, but it is much better to treat this verb as intransitive and 
impersonal ss 8^ \or fy/yrro, it was evident, or, the tiling itself made it 
plain, vizL that Critias had special reference to Socrates^ when he intro- 
duced this law. See Kahn. Gr. i 249 ; Buttm. ^ 129. 9 ; Mattliiae. IL 
i 860. 2. and ct Cyrop. VII. 1. 80: &s obit iarv iatcvpar4pa pdKtey^,^. 
494i\90fftw.~^4, oonttnuative here, atidl iwtX yhip. For the use 

216 KOTSS. ' 

of the explioative yip after such phraaeB as l8^A«M-e B^ see Eahn. L. Gr. 
V54. B; Hflrtung's Gr. Partik. ^ 470. a; cf. in.4. 12; Sjmp. IV. 17: 
Tf Kfi'fiptoy 94' ^aK\o(p6povs 7^, icr.X. ^— o^ roht x^'P^^^'^vs 
cf. § 23 and Dote above : ovx ^x^frreu Conoerning the cruelty and injus- 
tice of the thirty tyrants, see Hellen. 11. 8. 12 eq. ; Thirlwall's Greece, L 

408 sq., Oh. XXXL, and Sallust Oatil. LL 28-^1. roAXo^f <^ rpoc- 

rp4wo¥ro, it.r.X., tamed, incited, impelled many; Lat: impellere 
ad injaste agendum ; see note npon § 64» and c£ Plat ApoL p. 82. 
G. Mid voice used to denote that they did it for their own advantage or 

gratification. tov, perhaps^ I suppose, or if I am not mistaken; 

Lat opinor. It indicates here not that Socrates casually made the 
remark, but that Xenophon did not know that he made it except from 
eircumstanoes that afterwards occurred, such as Charides' allusion to it, as 

indicated in } 37. jSowy ity4\ris wofitbr, «.r.X. Plato uses this 

same image more fully drawn out in his Gorgias, p. 616. A. R f^ 

6fio\oyoli^ ,.,fiil aJtrx^i'cTac, m>)S* ofcrai, icrA. The change from 
the optative to the indicative mode in these two clauses is worthy of 
notice, as showing the facility of the Greek in expressing nice shades of 
thought The first is a comparison, a supposed case, and hence th« 
optative ; but the indicative is used in the last sinoe a real fact which 
was before the eyes of Socrates^ is brought to view. See KQhn. L. Gr. 
Q. i 819. Anm. 6. 

88* — Ka\4<rayT9s 8 tc Kptriat Kol 6 XaptitX^t.*. i9ttKV^riiP., 
&«-ciT^Ti)v, K.rA. Tlie interchange of number between the plur. and 
dual is not uunsual, especially with the participle, as here, even in pixwe^ 
though more frequent in poetry. See KQhn. § 241. R. 8 ; L. Gr. I[. $426. 

Anm. 2., and cf II. 3.18. r6y re v6fiOVf the law mentioned in 

{81: k6y»y rtxvriy ix^i hiZiffKtiv. — iLV9iir4rnv /u^ ZiaK4yt<r^aLL For 
tliis apparently pleonastic though emphatic use of the negative /u^ after 
verbs of forbidding and the like, see Eahn. § 818. 8 ; Hermann ad Viger. 
$271. CCIY. 4. 3. De Repub. Lac IX 2: 4 Avicoi//i7or. .. &rc<y« 

ui}8cy^f B.'KTwbaL 'O 8^ SwKpdCnjr; 8c may be here rendered by 

the Latin, tum, then, T^ 8* i^irtiv. The affirmative answer ie 

frequently made in Greek by some form of ^/i^ ai^<1 the negative by 
the same, with tlie addition of the negative oh, 

ti^-^-Tolyvv't see $ 20 above. This particle is not unfreqnently 
used in dialogue where one quickly and promptly answers another, as 
here : Well then I I am prepared to obey,^ etc ; cf. § 36, 37 and I. 6. 9, 

In the last case Socrates answers a question put by himself. Ki^m 

rt vapatfon-hg-uf. The Partic here maybe rendered as » verb, and 


tke verb as an adverb; uneantciou^y ; so frequently wltli Bucb verbs as 

kw^dum, Tvyx^i^, etc- ; see Kdhn. 6r. § 310. 4. (1). Tl^tpotf riiv 

r&v Kiy^v rtx^V^ ^^^ rols 6pd»s KeyofidyotSf K.r»\,, considering 
the art of speaking as an aid to (adjumento esse) those thiogs which are 
spoken, etc 2^y rufi tXrai or ylyw^tr^ai signifies, to be an aid or assist- 
ance to any one; the adw indicating accompaniment^ and then, both 
acoompaniment and the consequent aid. See Kiihn. Gr. § 289. 2. — — 
VfiiO¥ tri ii^tmiop cli|. This construction of the optative with Src, 
after the present, S^x^y (^oTir,) in the primary enunciation, is very rare ; 
and indeed is never used, without there is allusion to what has been 
spoken by another. Here the reference is to the prohibition which is 
under discussion. In other cases the present tense is followed by the 
indicative. See Kfthn. K Gr. f 769. — ^vcipar^oy op^&s \4yttw. 
This whole passage has been thus paraphrased : You prohibit the exer- 
cise of the art of speaking. The question therefore arises, whether you 
mean the art of speaking rightly {ipb&t)t or the art of speaking not 
rightly Qiii ipd&s). If you prohibit the art of speaking ip^s, such as I 
ezerdse, it is necessary to abstain from speaking ip&As, which is absurd ; 
but if you forbid the art of speaking fij^ ip^&s such, e; g. as the Sophists 
exercise, it is necessary to use exertions for speaking ipdms, and that kind 
of speaking which I employ must be approved, since it teaches 6p^t 
X^cir. For it cannot be supposed that all speech, whether well or ill, 
is forbidden by you ; therefore your prohibition pertains not to me, who 
eommit to my disciples the art of speaking rightly. 

S5« — Kal^ tum, tlien; the Latin might also employ et and a rela- 
tive, instead of a personal pronoun where there is a change of persons as 
interlocutors : cui Giarides. — rdli^, wmething ; referring as r<(Sc 
usually does to what immediately follows; see note I. 2. 8. For the use 

of the plural here, see note upon § 1. 1. 6 toCto. <roi t(fna^4' 

CTMpa ivra irpoayop€uofi§tf, icr.A., lit (with rdSt) we announce to you 
something that is more easily understood. Notice the difference in 
meaning between the participle, as expressing a fact, and verb in the 

infin. indicating the result^ the thing to be accomplished. Sx« t fi^, 

like the Lat omnino non. Germ, gar nicht, wholly not, ornoi at all, 

itfjL^lfiQ\ow 9* &s, that I may not be in doubt »o m to do, or and to 
do, etc Seiffert compares this construction with that of the Accus. with 
the Infin. in Latin, after dubito, (see Zumpt's Gr. § 641.), and Euhncr 
renders &tt as, Germ, wie, but may it not here take the place of Arrc, 

and denote result or consequence as above rendered. /t^XP< 'rSaw 

druy, within how many years, or, until what age; cf. III. 5. 27 : fi^xpi 
r^f iXa^pfit iiMnl^s, a9 long as active age oootinues. Hellen. III. 1. 14 1 


218 KOTES. 

^fXpi Ttrdpmw ipMp&if, to the end of four dajw. wimn ..t*^? At 

bpAwovs. Notice the use of the article in deugnating the rabjeet here. 

men are, etc. *Q<rov irtp, c?rc, XP^^*^^* the Gen. of the time 

within which something happens ; see Etlhn. § 27S. 4. (b)L The Terb 
1^ is more usually employed in quoting the words of another in this 
way. Tet cTve is somewhat frequently found. Cf. Symp. ILL 8: Tf 
T^kp aif, clirci^ and Bomemann's note in h. 1. where he quotes other in- 
stauoes. In Latin we sometimes find dixit used in the same manner, 
instead of inquit. BevXc^t ly aa /SovXcvr^r cTroi, see L 1. 18 and nota 
Tlie age at which one might be chosen to the senate was thirty yeani 
See Smith's Diet of Ant, Ai't fiovKii, So in the next dause it is added : 
you shall not converse with those who are under thirty yean of ag«L 
■ <lf otfrw ^piwlfioit oStf-f. 'fit is frequently used with a partidple 
in the same case as the principal subject of the sentence (here a pronoun 

understoodX to give a reason, motive, etc. m-V^^ o^h, neither indeed 

shall you. If the preceding dause were poeitiye instead of negative, we 
should in Attic prose have «al fii, although in Ionic and poetie wiiten 
tiffi4 might even then be used ; Edhn. Qr. § 821. 2. 

SI«-^Mi|Si <(r . . . ff y. Great offenoe has been taken at the change in 
form, iy, ^y, of this partide and its repetition without a connective ; 
hence some propose jfol for ffy. But no change seems to be necessary, 
fdr the identity of meaning in the two particles is unquestionable; And 
when one of two conditional clauses is dependent on another, i. e., used 
for the sake of explanation, illustration or more accurate definition, 
they are not connected by a copula. Thus here the action of buying is 
dependent on that of selli(}g. Ct the repetition of tl in H 8. 9 and 
Anab. IIL 2. 81 with Bomemann*s note. The same construction is found 
in lAtin. Ct Cic pro & Rose Amer. L 2 : si quis istorum dixisset . . . 
si verbum de re publiea fecisset ; also de Finib. L 8, and Kahn. Tosa 

Quaest Y. 9. 24^ and also L. Gr. 828. 9. lp«/i«t 696irou voXc?, 

** ask what he wants for it" In Latin Che principle verb would follow 
the subordinate phrase.—— ~*Nal rd yt routdra. Nal followed by iAAcC 
makes a qualified assent: yei^ such things indeed, (sc it is right for you 
to osk] but, etc. r« gives emphasis to roiavra, and thus strengthens the 
oonti-ast between Ikeae iMnga and those introduced by &\a4 following. 
iwd TO I, but certainly, (roi rendering the exception more empha- 
tic); see Kahn. Gr. ^ Zl*l, 8. These partides are used in the same way 
in II. 2. 7 ; III. 6. 10. A verb is frequently inteipoeed between them. 

Gil Cyrop. L 5. 13: 'AAA& ti0tc^ roi. o-^ yc. Fc renders the ev 

emphatia We should give its force by an emphasis on you. Mi|8' 

ikwoKptt^mfi,at.,,iitp clSw •foir, ic.r.X., shall I not answer. ..if I 
know, for example, where, etc. 

BOOK L CHAP. U. 219 

ST* — ^mt^i. For the use of S9fl roi^tS*, etc, as preparatiTes^ see 

Kuhn. Gr. (304.2; L. 6r. IL ( 631. 2. ac^orcisoportet 

r£y ffKVTfwy, icr.A. ; an elliptical phrase for tup vapaZttyfidrMy r&v 
iarh tAv a-Kvr^vv, Socrates was accustomed in his conversationSy to 
illustrate and confirm his positions bj examples or similitudes from com- 
mon life^ from potters^ artists in wood and iron, etc. The sophist^ on 
the other hand, lar less wisely, drew their illustrations from objects that 
were splendid and magnificent^ and endeavored to captivate their hearers 
by the elevation of their style. They often even ridiculed the Socratio 
manner of speaking, as common, low, trite. Cf. lY. 4. 5 ; Plat Sympw 

p.221. £; 491. A; see also Aristophanes' Cloudy 286. icararc- 

rpi^bat 9ia^pu\ovfi4wovs, they are worn out by your constant 
harping upon them, by your constantly having them in your mouth. 
The verb jcarorpZ/Scty properly refers to the ezampleM (which as we say 
«re trite), but is here poetically transferred to the men themselves firom 

whom illustrations were drawn. rwy iwofi4¥mw ro^roir, those 

things which are connected with these illustrations^ i. e., rod SikoTov, K,r.K, 
which I am accustomed to connect with these when I make use Qf them, 
(se. must I abstain from, it.ir4xi9deu frfivti). The phrase, rd rirc ir^fic- 
M»r, is often so used. See Plato de Rep. III. p. 406. D; p. 412; YL* 
486. D.-^--T«y AWoty r&y roto6rvy, such like things^ alia id 
genus. The article before roiovruy is sometimes omitted. But see 
examples of its use in Cyrop. L 22 : iral T^i^Xa r& rotavra ; Bornemann, 
ad ApoL § 33. p. 17. ed. 1824^ The Vulg. reading for roio^vy is lutaiw. 

Kai r'my fiovK6Ktay yt, and at least, from herdsmen. This is 

adduced as proof that the law was introduced with special reference to 

Socratest § 32, above. Bn»t /ih ^ ^^^^ followed by the Ist Aor. 

tense, Subj. mood, iroi^^f, in opposition to a canon of criticism which 
has sometimes been adopted, i. e,, that it requires a Fut indicative. 
Dawes* canon is now however given up by all scholars. See Kdhn. I* 
6r. Tom. IL §777, and c£ II. 1. 19; 10. 1; Woolsey's Gorgias^ 460. 
A. p. 169. 

S8«— "^r^^a Ka\, then indeed. Kai connects the fact, the 6eeofntn^ 
evident, S^Aor iyiyrro, with the previous supposition of the fiEu:t» § 82 

above. -o^y. See note on 1. 16 above. &s «7x<>' irphs &A- 

X^ikevf, ilpiirai ; lit, as they had themselves to each other, it has 
been related ; L e., their relation and interoeurse which each other hat 
been unfolded. 

t9«— -*A(i|r 8' ftr l^tfyc, andlwnddadd. We sometimes giY^j 
the force of y4 in sooh cases as th]% by emphasis upon ij T|i9 ideft i$\ 

220 ' NOTES. 

my opinion iB, etc dtic iip4vKorros o^roir trnxft. ifftiKtiffdriiw, 

The negative o6k fibonld be joined with &fii\ii<rdTri¥ in ti«nslating here^ 
and the Gen. Aba. with the Part indicates the ground or reason : be- 

canae S. was pleasing, etc; iy xp^'^or, jct.X., om long tu they were 

with, or, in company with, etc. ouk &AAo<r rial fiaWop. . .1^, they 

did not attempt to oonverse with others more than with those who, etc. ; 
or, not so much as^ etc, like the Latin, non tarn . . . qnam. Cf. Thuc 

II. 40; Demosth. pro Megalop. 10. p. 188. roit fidKtara wpdr 

▼OV0-I rk vo\iTtKd, "qui potissimum rempublicam ge< 
runt," most skilled in, etc 

40. — *Er«r, partitive Oen. with cTroi. See Kahn. Gr. $ 278. 8. 

IlffpiirXffi, ^iriTp^T^ fthf %9rt lavroS^ ic.r A., with Pericles who was 
his guardian, and a leading man in the State^ he was accustomed to oon- 

verM, etc Qt Plat Alcib. L p. 104. B; p. 118. B. roidCSc, aa 

follows. See note ^ 8 above 

4l«-^^c(vai. The sudden change here from oro/to obligua to rtela 
should not escape notice Such constructions are frequent in Latin, 
where the words of another are quoted. Cf. c^. de Oral. L 5ft, 239 sq. 

dt ncp(ic\ffit. The interjection with the Voc in Latin, is never 

a simple form of address, as here, but indicates wonder, displeasure, or 

some other passion or affection of the mind. ^X^" ^^^i potea ne 

— n<£rrwt Si^vou, entirely, I think. A(8a{or 8j^, now /A«n teach, 

etc A^ sometimes adds ui*genoy to tlie request, (CC II. 8. 11 : Xry« ^ 
lioi,) and also, at the same time, indicates a consequence which follows 
from what has gone before ; here an inference from v^brrwt Si^ov, (sineo 
you ai*e able), and urgency with the Imper. and the formula of swearing 
vp^r TUP bwv. Cf. IIL 6. 6 : Af |or 84 tell me then. See Hartung, Or. 

Partik. L 260 sq. ; KQhn. Gr. § 815. 1 ; L. Gr. IL § 691. B. ^dbw 

rhp *A\Ki$idtrip. Cf. this with the beginning of the section, where 
the verb stands by itself with the pronoun implied. p6fUfji»t, obe- 
dient to law, or, observant of law. 

42«— *A\X' here denotes opposition to a sentiment implied in the 
preceding paragraph, i. e., that it is difficult to understand what law is. 
We need not render it in English, the shade of thought may be given by 
the manner of uttering the clause following. ofrSir r i. Tlie inde- 
finite pronoun rl is used here, as elsewhere with adjective^ indefinite 
numerals, and adverbs, like the Latin quidem, to give emphasis; sec 
Kflhn. Gr. ^ 808. 4 ; L. Gr. IL § 688. Herbet renders the two words : 
nihU quicquam | cfc Symp. IV. 21 : 1trr6p r( fit ofci fu/u^ff^tu aftroSL 

BOOK L CHAP. II. "^ 221 

ywmvai; for the fonns of the Aor. of yerbe in •« like verbe in -fu, see 

Kdhn. Gr. § 191 eq. ndrrts yap oSroi w6fAoi tltrtw, by atti-action 

for vdyra ravrd itrri p6fAot, as in § 43 : ica2 ravra ySfAos icrL Cf. IIL 
11.4: oir6s iioi filos icrt, he is my life or food to me; IV. 4. 18 ; 
Anab. Y. 4. 27 : ^eraif 9h (cial cu* w\t7ffrai for ^v 9c (uaX rh, irXcio-ra. 
Bat th» is by no means a universal priociple of the language. Attraction 
does not take place, especially where tlie relative or demonstrative pro- 
noun precedes. See ri ian v6fiot in § 41, and also in the preceding 
clause; III. 11. 6: S n &y irrau^a ^/iW<n7, ro^ry rpopy xf^^^ <^°^ 
iral ravra v^/aos iim in § 48. Cf. other examples collected by Bornemann, 
Anab. L 3. 18 ; see Kuhn. 6r. § 240, 1 ; L. Gr. II. 421. A. 1. This law of 
attraction is carried much iartlier in Latin than in Greek ; see Zumpt's 

Gr. 4 876 ; and cf. Cic Tusc Disp. L 10. 20 ; IV. 10. 28, et al. Zoki- 

fidffatf, approving, typai^t, propose or ordain, ppd(o¥t in- 
dicating or explaining^ what, etc For the Part, as a complement with 
fierba dedarandi, see Ktthn. Gr. f 310. (b). & fi^. There is a bald- 
ness in this form of expression which is seldom allowed in Latin. Either 
the verb oportet with the negative or a verb antithetical Xafacere (iroitii^X 

as, e. g. omittere, might be supplied. rayabitf things that are good ; 

iee Eiihn. § 244. 8. In the answer it is unnecessary to repeat the rela- 
tive form in ti'anslating. ~— ro^fo-av. The common reading is ^ir^- 
/uaaM ; but the one which we have given, firet proposed by Reiske, found 
in Ms. F, and received by Wolf and others, seems to be preferable. The 
participle is frequently used in this way, with a verb implied from the 
preceding or succeeding context Cf. Symp. IV. 58, and also ^ 2 with 
Bornemann's note. Also 11. 1. 28 below, and note. See Hermann ad 

Viger. ^ 215 ; EQhn. Gr. § 813. R. 1 ; L. Gr..§ 680. S /itipdKiov. 

O youth I or in fomiliar language of address i may be rendered mg : 

my sonl rd Zh xaxh oC, The negative 06 is rendered emphatic 

by being placed last In Latin the same idea would be expressed by 
minime, but with a reversed position ; minimeque mala. 

4S» — *Ehy 8i, now if indeed Hdyra...Zaa Ay, all tkinga 

tohatioeiMr; like the Lat: omnia, quaecunque. rh k parody, the 

ruling power of the city, those who [at the time] rule it k par my 

riff ir6\9ms, rtder of the city ; Partic. as a nomen agentia, followed by 

the Genit ical ravra W/uor Ivrl ; . . . Ka\c7rai. In Latin, if there 

was not an attraction in gender as in the preceding section : rcCrrcY, ir.rA^ 
yet the singular number of the pronoun would be employed : hoc lex 
est; and, as a general principle, the singular relative, quod, is used 
wher* the Greek has the ^plural ; as Zaa in this same sentence. 

222 NOTES. 

4i«— ^Ap* oOx> iionne. The o^ indicates that an affirmatiTi 
answer ia expected, cf. note, L 1. 16, and Etlhn. § 844. 5. (b). Tlie deduc- 
tive force of the inteiTOgative 2pa can scarcely be traced in maoy casei^ 
although it nndoabtedly impliee the idea of consequence, resnlt, in the 

mind of the speaker. Breuf 6 Kptirrup . . . iuwyicAffjf, where the stronger 

constrains the weaker, not by pernian<m but by force. The participlei 

indicating the means; Kflhn. Or. § 812. 4. (e). iaa Ap; whatever 

things then, "Apa is here an illative particle, denoting an inference or 
conclusion from what precedes. Cd note L 1. 2, and ( 8 above, and see 

Eahn. Or. § 824. 8. (a). iipari^tfiai yiip rh, icrJL, for I retxaci 

what I before said, that^ etc This metaphor is irawn from the game of 
draughts (vcrrwy) ; iya^tinu ircrro^f, is to take back the draughts ; L e, 
to put them in another place, when they are found to be placed wrongly 
(3f<Mu ircrro^r, to place the draughts, is antithetical to this). Henee 
&r«r£^c0^ai receives the meaning: to correct an error, or retract €tny 
thing dotie amiet. Cf. 11. 4. 4. It is often used with this significance in 
Plato as in Oorg. p. 461. D; Protag. p. 211, etc. Mrrari^w^ai is used 

in the same manner in IV. 2. 18. For the use of the article rh with 

the Infin. cfj^oi, or with the phrase following, see KQhn. § 808. R. 1 ; 
L. Or. n. ( 648. 

45* — Efxf /i^, sc. ypdi^up; see note, §42. Kparovp rnr ri 

Xp^f-ara ^x^*">'**'i i^lingi prevailing, over those who have wealth. 

46« — MdKa rot...'AAirii3i^8ir. The particle rot is used in answers 
for tlie purpose of giving emphasis to an assent, or to indicate astonish- 
ment or impatience at the question asked. See Kahn. L. Or. n. § 840 ; 
Or. § 844. 7, and c£ note upon L 6. 11. In IL 1. 11, 18, it is used in an 
objection : *AAX' iy^ rot, but I indeed. Some editors substitute a comma 
for the colon after 'AXieifitdllifi, and connect fiAXa roi with 9civoL Bnt 
these words seem to supply the required answer to Alcibiades' question ; 
and their collocation at so great a distance from 9§tvot is perhaps a suffi« 
cient I'eason for not connecting them in meaning with that» although 
such adverbs as fidKa, fioAXoy, wdm/, wo\6, etc, are often separated by 
several words from a word which they qualify, for the sake of emphasise 
See note upon H 6. 85. ->-^- ical vfitis, toe alto. The use of the plural 
for the singular, for the sake of modesty, by which the speaker asso- 
ciates others with himself in his views^ etc., is unusual in Oreek prose, 
but very common in Latin, and somewhat frequent in the Oreek poeta 
Of. II. 7. 1 (nt the end) ; Gyrop. (at the beginning), and see EQhn. Or. 
§ 241. R 12. — — ri)XiKoGro( ^vrct, when we were of such an 

age [as you], of your age. 9ttvo\ . . . Hfiey, were powerfully. 

much skilled in such inquiries as these. Ef;^c...STc ZeufSrarof 

BOOK L OHAP. n. 22S 

trum^v raSra liadm, that I had been with yon, Peridei^ when yon 
excelled yourself [I e., at other timee], in these thingi^ or, when yoa 
were in posseasion of yonr full vigor and skill in these things. For the 
use of the Indie, mode, 0vi>c7cv^/«i|r*with the particle ct^c, see B. 189. 
N. 2. For this use of the SuperL with the Genit of the reflexive pro- 
nouns^ and its significance, see Kahn. Gr. f 828. 6 ; B. 182. N. 28, and 
li. Gr. XL ( 760. g. 'For a similar use of the Ck>mp., (Scu^cpotX which 
some contend, should be read here, see Yenat. XIL 20 : iwas iaurou ivrt 
fitKrUttf, and De Re Equest 1. 14 : Ikwaarra fi§\rit§ itatrov $crau 

47« — *Lwt\,..rdxiorra, lit, when they very quickly ; but we may 
render here, juti at twm aa, se^ C, 625. R. ^-— To/yvr, Lat igitur, 
denotes that the thread of discourse^ which has been interrupted, is re- 

svmed ; see also note upon § 29 above. froAircvofttfrwr i^ir Ac- 

3dr Kp§lTT,optt cfrai, supposed themselves superior to those who 

were employed in governing the State. olfrt yiip..,ik\ms.,. 

cf re, for in no other re$peet , , . and if, etc The particles oUt^ Oii&Tc) • • • 
Tc, are often used in Greek like neo (neque) (que) in Latin, fio# 
.. . and, indicating denial on the one side and affirmation on the other. Ct 
III.4. 1 ; Anab. IL 2. 8: 6/ioa't»,,.ii'^Tt wpdActiw iWiiKovt ^^fj^iaxol 
Tt lo-eo'dai; V. 1. 6, and Ki'figer, Dionys. Hal. Historiogr. p. 269, where 
many examples of otfrc . . . cf re and ol^c .,.1ip re are cited. See Rost Gr. 
p. 696 ; Kahn. L. Gr. II. ( 748. a ; and Gr. ^ 821. 2. (a). For the correspond- 
ing Latin idiom, see Cicero, Tusc Disp. 1. 29.71: Socrates neo judicibus 
supples fuit, adhibuit que liberam contumaciam; and L 4. 8 with 
KOhner^s notcw i\tyx^f*'ffot ffxdoin'o. For the use of the parti- 
ciple as a complement with verba affectuum, see KQhn. Gr. ( 310. 4. (c) ; 
L. Gr. H § 659. IIL ; and cf. IL 1. 83: &iroAff(vorrcf, ainhv tLxhovrtui 
111.13.8: tx^orrai irltfoirr§s.^-'~- &ww§p iv^K^y ncol ^Kpdru irpot- 
iiX^¥. The teal is omitted in one Ms. but its insertion is according to a 
common Greek idiom, which employs it after relative pronouns^ with 
the signification even or aUo, etiam. Ct L 2. 81 ; m. 8. 2: fvtp ind 
voiffijr jt^ctfTor. See Hartung, Gr. Partik. L S. 186» and Kdhn. L Gr. 
IL i 728. 2. 

48« — Kpiritp, a wealthy Athenian, who having disoovered the emi> 
nent talents^ and being charmed with the manners of Socrates, ** u said 
to have withdrawn him from the shop and to have educated him (icai 
vmScvff'w).*' He afterward became a fiuthful and " reverential disciple 
of the great genius he had discovered." See Introd. Cf. Diog. Laert 11. 

20. 6fnKiiriif, agrees as predicate with Kp(rwr and is understood 

with the following nouns^ see Kiihn. 4 242. R. 1 with (c). Xmp^^mf 

224 NOTES ^ 

Kol Xmpcjrpinir ; see note, IL 8. 1. 9i|^i|7opijroi, from 9rififiy9pim 

(9ritiof and ityopt^) with the adjectiTe-ending, quaHfied for pnblie 

speaking, oro/ors. oiKirais ical otittlots, when these words are 

used togetlier in this way, as they often are, the first, oiWroi designates 
servanti^ and the latter reUtives^ kindred. See IV. 4. 17, and Bomemann's 

note. Ka\ Toitr^v o&ScU, Latin: quorum quidem nemo. 

We can follow either the relative (Latin) or demonstratiTe (Greek) 

constr., in English. oJ^rc rc^epor ofir^ wptafi.. .,o€t§ iwoiii^w 

. • . 0r ff , ic.rA^ neither . . . nor . . . either ... or, Latin : neque . . . neque 
. . . aut . . . aut. 

49« — ^"AXXi.. .7*;^Bce note, §12aboye. vpow7jXaKl{ttw, lit, 

to begpatter with miid^ or, to trample in the mud; henoe to treat with 
contumely, to abuse. For more upon this reproach in reference to the 
teachings of Socrates^ see Apol. § 20, and Amtoph. Nubea^ 1407, SI, 
where Phidippides, a pupil of Socrates^ is introduced as beating his father 

and demonstrating its justness. rohs avpiwras avr^. Some 

editions read kovr^^ as in ^ 51, where one Msw has abr^. See also § 8, 
4 52, and IV. 5. 1, compared with IV. 7. 1. But there seems to be no 
good reason for a change where either word is properly used. The dif- 
ference seems to be that the reflexive kmnov refers the thought to the 
mind of the person who is spoken o^ and wtn6i to the mind of the 
speaker. Substantially the same principle obtains in the Latin, with this 
difference, that in Greek oJln6t is oltener used, and in Latin the reflexiTO 

pronoun. See Kahn. Gr. § 302. 5 ; L. Gr. 628. 1 ; Buttmann, § 127. 

wapavoiat kK6vri^ eormcting of madnete, folly. The verb oipcTr is 
used in law as a term, tech,: to convict of; c£ Aeschin. cdntr. Ctesiph. 
f 156 : fiii9' a/pcTrc wapapoitu ivmnlov rwr *EX\7iywr rhp irjfiom riap 'A^if- 
Mi/«r. See, for the causal genitive here, Kfihn. Gr. § 274. 2 In respect 
to 'the accusation, see Plato, De Legg. XI. 8. p. 928. E, and Meier and 

Sch5mann Attic Process III. 1. p. 296. r€Kfiiipi^ rovr^ XP^' 

fitpos, using this (L e., the law just specified, xarit. p6fiop i^tTpou, K.rX,) 
as an argument^ that it is right that the more ignorant should be held in 
bondage by those who have more knowledge. For the construction of 
the noun as predicate, with the demonstrative as subject^ and the omia* 
sion of the article, see Euhn. Gr. § 246. S. R. 1 ; L. Gr. IL § 488, Anm., 
and Rost § 98. n. 3. The phrase is equivalent to this : rovrd ivri rtxtiit 
piop, f ixM^^' Cf. ^ 56 below, and Plat Gorg. p. 510. D : atriif &t 
toiK9Pt eibr^ hZ6s itm, and Stallbaum's note in h. 1. In IV. 6. 15 we 
find the article used : ravrrip r^p iur^d\9tap elpot ; seij note in h. 1. — 
9c 8^0* 3a 1, Perf. to keep bound, and, to hold in bondage; see KQha Gr. 
^ 255. 2., especially R. 6. for this use of the Pert tense. 

BOOK I. CHAP. II. 225 

SO*— ''E0 K^ci, ri Zia^4pti. For the use of the proooan of direct 
interrogation instead of the indirect^ see L 1. 1 ; and for the India in 
oro^to oblifua here, eee note (and references)^ L 1. 18. Xlie difference 

between fuufia and i»€wtffTiyioai»7i is further explained in ILL 9. 6. 

rwy roio^TMir Sfveica, Xitttin: adeo, or, "quam ob rem." rh 

Ziovra, the things that ought to be known. 

61. — ^CX^tXovffiw, are of flcryice to. rohs iJi\v,.,rohs 8i, 

the former... the hitter, or, those ... these. ol cvpliH^tv iwi* 

rrd/i^roi, those who were skilled as, or were by profession, advocateSk. 
According to the Latin construction, either ^^cXciy or some synonymous 
word would be repeated in the disjunctive clause. 

62«— *%^i| 8^, [sc 6 Koriiyopos. 6^€\os, Supply iarty. For 

Socrates^ sentiments in regard to friendship, see further in IL 4. 6 sq. 
—'ipfAflw^viraif lit. to be an interpreter, kpfiai¥€^s\ here, to explain 
in words, to expound. Thus Pericles, in Thucyd. 11. 60, says of himself: 
ovScy^f ofofuu ^ffvwf €tvcu yvwvai tc rh Ziovra jcal ipfairtwreu ravr€L 

9iaTi^4pat, managed or infiueneed. firrc /ii}8aftov. . . c7 

wait were nowhere^ not to be taken into aeeounL Weiske, whose opinion 
Kiihner adopt% says, that K^ov or rifi'fifiaTos and not roir6v the more 
'usual ellipeisy is to be supplied with fii^SofioD, and hence the idea : were 
of no eatimatum. Such an ellipsis is found with toAAoG, 6Klyou clrai. 
Plato, Gk>i^. 466. C : obianov ^oyiivai, and Soph. Antig. 183, but it is un- 
necessary here. irphs iavr6p; the preposition here indicates cotn- 

fMrUon, with the idea of preference, see Efihn. Gr. ^ 298. III. (d) and 
Examples; L. Gr. IL ^ 616. cf. L 8. 4; III. 6. 4; Cyrop. IIL 8. 20. For 
a similar construction with the Latin ad, see Gia Tusc Dfsp. 1. 17. 40. 

63«— 078a fihr has ''EAff7C 8^ [=sol8a 8i Xiyotnai] answering to it^ 

in 4 64^ Ka\ ; corresponding to this is the xol before irpbt roirois, 

eu m . . . t u m, both . . . and. irtpl iraripww rf koI ritv tKXoav vvy 

yevmp re ical xtpX ^i\Mv, Some editors omit the r« after avyy*y&y, but 
without M& authority, although the re after wario^y is omitted by two 
or three MsSb The true explanation seems to be that <rvyy€y£y and ^l- 
Kmy are in apposition with &\X«y, and then the r« is in place : concern- 
ing parents and others, both relatives and friends. It is true the ir«pi 
before ^tfkwy seems at first view not to be accordant with this explana- 
tion ; for we should expect : vtpl 'war4pmy re Jca2 r£y AaAmf, o'vt^. re 
ital ^iK But ^iKuy designates a class distinct from wardpwy and ovy- 
yty&y, and may therefore very naturally have the preposition repeated 
with it See L 3. 8. and note, also Symp. V. ft: *W.yit u^y *ai fta Al\ 
(^ (rofJ(« rh Kokby cTnu) koI 4y Tmry col 0of mp) i' \Uilx^^* 


226 NOTES. 

voXXotf. Manypenon) prefer to render here: ''Coneeniing fathen 

and also the rest of our relativei^ and also , oonoeming friendsc*' 

ro^roif 7c S^, Irt, icr.X. In regard to the difil reading yt ti^^ 

see Kahn. in h. L /(cXi^o^o-iir, s^oing out from, leaving; ac the 

body. i^tpdyKavTfs ; instead of the form of the Ist Aor. the 

Attic writers more usuallj use Aor. % i^eyk^' Yet there are seyeral 
cases where the readings vary between the two forms^ as in IL 2. 5 ; IIL 

6. 18 ; rV. 8. 1 ; Anab. VL 5. 6, et al. i^avtCovviw, lit, to make 

unseen, from i^or^s (a priv. and ^afro/toe, ^>aar^pai), and hence^ as often, 
to bury, c£ Soph. Antig. 261, and Aelian. H. An. II. 7. 

54«— 'l£Xr)rc 8^, and o/sa ISitairrot lavrov t wdtrrtp,., 

ik^aipfi, icT.X. The construction here is titaffrof ainit rt iti^uipu ml 
KXXfi wap4x^t {i/^atpuy), (rovrov) t wdrntgy lairrov /tdKurra ^iXci^ rev 
a^futros (X^y«X ^ "*"** K.r.K., each one either himself remore^ or presents 
to another to remove, from that which he especially loves^ L e., from his 
body, whatever, etc For the oonstruction of 4oirroD with the relative, 
see ILL 11.1: lovr^f tva leaXms fx<»<- A relative clause is often added 
in Oreck either with, or, as here, without a demonstrative Pron. for the 
sake of explanation. So in Latin, see Tnsc: Disp. L 18. 29 : qui nondum 
ea quae multis post annis tractare coepissent^ physica didiciasent; and 

also 1. 85, and Kuhner*s note, p. 68. avroi t4 yt. Some editors aa 

Ernesti read ydp for yt, but the latter is supported by the Mss. The 
7* is used here like the Latin quid em, and is perhaps one of the moat 
striking examples of the employment of it^ much like yovw or a mild 7^^ 
in ai'gumentation. See Hartung*s Gr. Partik. I. p. 388 sq., and Kuhn. 

L. Gr. IL 704. 1. wop^xova-i ... iiw or 4 fiwt ly, icr.X. The infinitivea 

are used as the o)>ject of the verb without the article, and although active 
in form are taken in a passive sense. See Kfihn. Gr. i 806. 1., and JEtem. 

10 ; L. Gr. II. § 642. note 2. roinuv x^9^^\ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ of the Aoo. 

aa a preposition, see Kahn. Gr. f 288. 2. R. cv^cXci /i^r ohZlp 

mbrohs iv6y, ict.X., being retained, it not only does not... but 
ratiier, etc 

55* — 06 9i9dinctty, not that he might teadh, etc, non quo doee- 
ret. For the use of the participle to indicate purpose, see Kfihn. Gr. 
f 812. 4. (c); B. 144. N. 4. The different oonstruction after the two par- 
ticiples MJiffKȴ and iiriitucyAtty is worthy of notice. We find similar 
changes in Latin after non quo, c g. Cic de Orat I. 18. 64: non quo 
aperiret. . . sed cum moxi^ie tamen hoc significabat IL 72. 296: 

non quin imitondum sit, sed tamen est multoturpiu& rh H^pop^ 

the neuter adjective with the artide used as an abetrnct nounsA^po 


Hmi, amentia. ^— tqv . . . 9lmu For the use of the artide in the Oenii 
with the Infin. denoting purpose, see KOhn. $ 808. 2. (b) ; B. 140. N. la 

r^ olittTos cTyai, the being related, re/o/iofuAtp. /3o^A^- 

rai. For the ellipeb of the subject^ the indefinite pronoan rlt here^ 
lee KQhn. Gr. i 23& 4. (e); L. 6r. XL 414. 5 ; and Soph. 157. 8. The 
eonstmction is the aame as if: vopcKtUfi ficaffTow ^riftcXcitrdau had 
preceded. C£ IIL 9. 6: rh 8^ iiyrow ^wrhp, jcol /lii & o78c (ac. rU) 
9o^d(9Uf Tf itol olfir^tu ytyy^Kttv, iyyvrdrm luuflas ikoyt(§ro cImm, and 
see the note npon it The ominion of the indefinite subject rU is som^ 
^hat common in some of Plato's Dialogues. See Woolsey's Oorg. p. 46d. 
D. For the use of the Subj. instead of the Opt here, see note I. 2. 2 ; 
B. 189. m. 60. 

M. — To6rots /lafirvptmit ; for this oonstr. see note upm § 49 
aboTe — *Htrt69ov /ihp rh, and indeed this (line or sentiment) /rom 
Seeiod, The attributive genitive is frequently used without its govern- 
ing noun when it may be easily supplied. See KQhn. Gr. $ 268. /S. t4 
is in the Ace. and is the object of X^ciy, odfitted in consequence of 

its use in the following clause. "Epyow 8' o68)r tfrcidor, icr.A. 

This is from Hesiod's Works and Days ("E^. koI 'H^«^) I. 809, where 
the author is speaking of rustic labor, but the opposers of Socrates ac- 
cused him of quoting it as having reference to every kind of action. 
They joined the negative o^94p with Ijpyor, instead of with t^u^os, as it 

appears from what follows : fiifitifhf fpyov . . . a«^c<r3ai. ToOro 8^. , 

For the use of the particle Hi in resuming the discourse which has been 
interrupted (here, by the quotation), see note upon $ 24 above, and ell 

$68: rcwra 81^, icrA. Kiy^iv abrhv, &s; this he adduced [quoted 

and explained] 0$ if the poet, etc., o6r«f being implied in the preceding 

67< — This section, with IV. 6. 8, 4, 13, and 14, has been sometimea 
adduced as a proof that Socrates was accustomed to enter too much into 

detail in his conversationfli See Wiggers' Life, Ch. IV. 6tioKoy^' 

^aire. For the use of the Optat to denote repeated action, with such 
particles as #rffi84 see B. Gr. 189. C. note 2 ; Hermann ad Yiger. ( 248; 
KQhn. L.Gr. II. $809. 5, and 791 8. Soinl.8.4; 4.19; IL 9. 4 et saepe. 

&7ad^r ri voiovrras ipydita^ai ; ct Plat Charmid. p. 168. 

C: rk ykp ica\«r re ink it^eXtpMt -roto^fitra Hpya iitdKei, mtl ipyuriaa 

Tff irol vp^cif rhs roiairat trot^crcif. ipydr as kya^ohs. The 

word ieytt^ohs is omitted by some editors, supposing the idea of goodness 
to be included in Socrates' mind, in ipydCw^ai and ipydrris. But it 
seems to be added for the sake of emphasis : those who did something 

228 KOTES. 

good both labored and were good laborers For the fientunent^ cf 

hi: 9. 9. 

58. — ^T^ 8) 'O/i^fMu. This passage is from tlie Iliad,- II. 188 sq. and 

198 sq. *'Oyriya...&v8pa, wfiatever man, followed by the optative 

Kix^iVf hemiffhtfind /Sao-iX^a Kal (^oxor, (whether) ittit^ or 

noble, KUKhy As, like a base roan, a coward. Aaifi^yi, i. e^ 

ZaufUnt, used very often, especially by Homer, in salutation, sometimes 
as a term of regard, but oftener of expostulation and reproach. In the 
fii'st case, it may be rendered: good sir, or, my friend; in the last: 

wretch, villain. 9 iifiSr at ^9rifAOTtKo6st plebeios, the common 

people. This word is used by Xenophon alone- 1 f Attic writera. C£ 
Cyrop. II. 3. 7 and 15; VIIL 8. 5. In Rep. Atb. 1. 4 both BtuUrcu and 
huKnueSs are used in the same signification. C£ the use of the latter 
word in § 60 below. 

59* — *Ay C0cro ; for the use of this conditional Imperf, see note L 1. 
5. •^— &XAfltfr r* ihy wphs rovr^ icol ^paatis <^<ri, and bendes or etyt^- 
HaUy if in addition to tU^ they are also headstrong. "AAAof r' has here 
much the same import with which &AA«t koI is frequently employed. 
When Koi is added it perhaps gives additional emphasis to the clause : 
see KQhn. L. €rr. for the distinction between the two phitises^ and c£ hia 
6r. 4 821. (a), and Examples ; ButtoL p. 486 ; Hermann ad Yiger. § 232. 
C£ also, IL 6. 80 ; 8. I ; Plat Phaed. p. 87. D. 

60« — ^"AXXa S^Kp^Tifr y*. *AKKi here refers to the preceding nega- 
tive clause : oh raW IXryc. The force of the 7« is not the same as in 
{12 above, where see note ; but joined with the name 'XvKpdrni and not 
with the predicate, qualifies that noun ; but Sl (however it may be with 

others), etc Of. § 61. rkpawrla to^tw, the very reverse of 

these things. Sometimes also with the Dat robots instead of ro^mv. 
QL II. 6. 5: hi ravavrla roirwp iyxpceriis fi4p ieri, icr.X. Also 
rowayrlop in II. 7. 8, and IV. 2. 4. For the use of the Genit. see Kuhn. 
Or. { 273. R. 9 ; L. Or. II. $ 622. dd. ^ap€p^t ^y, presented him- 
self to all, or was evident to all, as^ etc. ivibvuiiriLs ; a highly 

descriptive appellation for disciples^ those who long for, desire^ ete. See 
I. 2. 5 : robt 9h iean-ov iici^/Aovrras, note upon I. 2. 3., and ApoL { 28. 
a in Latin, Cic Brut XVL 64: habet (Lysias) certos sui studioaoe. 

ohHtpa ircivorc finrbhp ,,.4npd^aTo, See L 2. 6. above. —^ 

itpb6puSf ungrudgingly, liberally. jtr^picci r&p iavrov, sa doe- 

trines, or knowledge. See II. 1. 31 : rts 9' ttp 9tofi4vjf (se. (rol) ru^s 
iwapic4(rttfy. K&hn. L. Gr. H. { 619. a. In regard to Socrates* liberality to 
his pupils, nee Symp. IV. 48 ; L 2. 6. above, and also L 6. 8. and 11. 


Apol 16. Plat Hipp. M. p. 800. J>. ct aL Sv T»r*». Perliape th« 

writer had especially, though not exduBively in view here, Aristippufl^ 
who fizBt gave out that he would teach the Socratic philosophy for pay. 

V.' Diog. Laert 11. 65. \afi6yr9s, having reeeivedt intrana. 

XphpLora ZiJUvait money to pay, 

61* — ^Ilp^t rohs &AAovr kifbp^ovs iC($<rfior. . . irapctxc* Cf< !• )■ 
8: jcol jtp^i (plxovsf K.T.A. The accuaative with the preposition aeenia 
to denote the propagation of the renown indicated by K6<rfiw wapux^ 
L *e.| among or in the ettimation o/foreignera. For a similar construction 
with tls, see Plat Tim. p. 25. B., and Kuhn. XL { 603 and 613 with pas 

sages there quoted. Aixas. Lichas was son of Aroesilaus^ and con 

temporary with Socrates. See Thucyd. V. 50. He b also spoken of in 
Xen. Hellen. UL 2. 21, but the name is written Atlxas, Ct also Plu 

tarch, Cimon, p. 284. C. (c 10). iyotxaarhf M to6t^. The pi-o- 

noun oZtos generally refers to what has gone before, although it may 
refer to what follows, see note upon L 2. 3. Efihner seems to refer it to 
the following account of lichas, but it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that its antecedent is implied in the general phrase: K6<rfiov irap«txc. 
For the use of M with the dative to indicate design, purpose, etc, see 
Kahn. Or. ( 296. IL (c) and Examples, and L. Or. II. ^ 612. p. 298. Cf. 
Demoeth. 01. IL (v. 11 IX p* 85: rV M raits tpyois 96^<uf, and also be- 
low IL 1. 27, 28: iV itprry bavfidC^a^ai ; UL 6. 16. rats yv/iwo- 

V a i 8 { a 1 1 . For an account of the festival of ** naked youths^'* see Smith's 
Lexicon, Art. Oymnopaidia. The time in which any thing takes place is 
sometimes put in the dative without a prepoeition. See Roet Gr. 106. 
L d. ; Kahn. Gr. f 283. 8, and L. Gr. IL 569. G£ Plat Symp. p. 174. A : 
9t4pvyo9 rots hrtruciois. So also other names of festivals, Ilayabiipaiott, 
Aiotfvaiots, £\eviriy/oif, etc In Latin the Ablat is used in this way: 

Satumalibua, etc See Znmpt ^ 475, note. r& laurov Sairaywir, 

expending his own resources, or bearing his own expenses^ L c, living 
without expense to others^ — r^ fi4ytora wdrrts,. ,&4»4\fi. The 
verb o^c/Aeiy governs two accusatives. The accusative of the thing 
may be taken adverbially. So in IV. 1. 1 : o& fiuepii 0Kp4\9i rohs cfc»- 
t^Jras air^ avp§7pai. In the same manner kokoitoiup is constructed in 
UL 5. 26 : ToWh ri^p xApo9 xeutorotup. In the pass. 6^t(\ti9^ i-etaina 
the Aecus. of the thing effected ; as in IIL 11. 8 : vXc(«# u^€\i<rrrai, et aL 
See B. 18 L 5 and 8 ; Kahn. L, Gr. II. § 558 b. and Anm. 2. In respect 
to the article with fiiyierra, dt Cjrrop. 1. 6. 8 : Src t& Apiara wpdrroif 

and Apolog. ^18, with Bomemann's note in h. 1. fitkrlovs ...wot&p. 

The Pres. and not the Aor. Part is used here, because customary and not 
a single action is indicated. 

230 KOIES. 

•t« — U^v S^. These particlea are often naed in oondndoniL Jfom 
(sinoe things are as above repnsentedX or aeeordinfffy Ct lY. 8. 18L 
Where alter /m^p B^, U or 9k 9^ follow, they indicate that the discussion 
of the present subject is oonduded, and that something new is entered 
npon. Indeed the particles fi^w 9ii not onfrequentlj begin a new senti- 
ment or argument for which prerious preparation has been made. So 
in IV. 8. 2. C£ Apol. § 31, § 82, and § 34. See concerning these parti- 
cles EQhn. IL § 691. B. c ; S. 887 ; Hartung, I. S. 262 sq. ; Hoogeveen 

Doctr. Part Gr. ed. Schatz, p. 460 sq. rtfiris A|iof c7wu rf v^Aci, 

see note upon 1. 1. 1. ^— Kal irorjk robs ¥6ftout 9h 0" iter fir, icrA. Thia 
would in Latin naturally be more doselj connected with the preceding 
sentence : '* quod si -quis e legibus quoque consideret, idem iuTenire po- 
tent See note upon L 1. 8. iJuf nt ^avtphs yivifroi cX^rrtpr, 

if any one is clearly caught in the act of theft^ or clearly a thie( eteu 
These same crimes are spoken of as mos^ heinous in Plato^ RepuK IZ. 

p. 576. B; Gorg. p. 608. £; Xen. Symp^ IV. 86; Apol. 26. Xuw- 

Zvrmvy a dothes^tealer, lit a putter on of others' dothes {Kihns and 
8^«), especially applied to those who stole dothes from baths^ furibns 
balneatoriifl^ who were condemned to suffer capital punishment if the 
value of the theft was more than ten drachms. See Potter^s Gr. Antiq. L 
25, or Smith's Dictionary of Mythology ; Meier and Schdmann, AttisdL 
Process^ nL 1. p. 229 and 869-861. ro^oit, Dat plur. after the sin- 
gular rlf construetio Kark aiptctw. See EOhn. I* Gr. IL § 419. 6 ; 
Gr. § 241, and c£ II. 8. 2 ; 8. 6 ; IIL 10. 1. 

-KK\k fiiip denote a passing to another and stronger ail- 
ment; see note L 1. 6. <-^—iriiir ore atrios iy4p9ro, was he ever 

the author. OM /AV...7f, see note upon L 1. 6. jcaKoif 

ittpt4ffa\9¥. Compounds with W9pl for the most part govern the 
Accua, but they are sometimes followed by a Genit, or by a Dat as here. 
See Eahn. L. Gr. II. § 610 note. C£ Isocrat Paneg. p. 67. B: wt^tfidxxttp 
reus fuylerats ffvfupopoSs, So also in UL 10. 2: &i^fM(iry irtpirMctlr. 
18. 1, and IV. 2. 27 : rots kokoTs irtpntlrrowru 

$4« — ^n«f oSr fpox"** ^ *^^ ^ yp"^* ^^^ ^^^ could he be sub- 
ject to indictment f For the use of oSr condusive, and the difference 
between eSr used to indicate result or consequence^ and tiptt, see L 1. 2. 
The force of iuf with the Opt in questions^ see explained in Kflhn. Gr. 

^ 260. 4. (c). ^r. The relative is sometimes emphatically used in 

Greek aft^r an interrogatioD, for oZros or ainhs y^l so in Latin qui 
or qui quidem, as in Cic PhiL IV. 6 : virtus est una altiasimis defiza 
radicibus; quae (ue^ haec enim) nunquam uUa vi labefoctiri potest^ 


•ta ; and in Eng. who with the emphanA. CI L 4 11 : '^mir' e&ic off 
' (^wbs\ ^parrt(ttw o% kjt^; IIL 6. 10: ir6rt yip otrtn 'Aj^mmou^... 
ot icrJL KUhn. Lu Or. IL ^ 800. a. Emphasis is added to the relative bj 
joiniDg y4 with it; U jm as in III. 6. 16 ; Hellen. II. 4. 41. "Of maj 
even be used for oZros ydp when not preoeded by an interrogative, as in 

m 6.11. imrl /iiy rov ftii rofit(€itf ^toht. This beautiful use of 

the Infia as verbal noun, where the Latin would employ a circumlocu- 
tory phrase with the Subj. : " pro eo, quod Deos esse non putaret^" should 
not escape notice.*-— 7 ^ypavro, so Bornemann, Kiihner, Seiffert^ 
and others give the text instead of iyiypearro. It should seem tluit the 
Augment in the Pluperfect tense is sometimes omitted even in prose for 
the sake of euphony, when a vowel which cannot be elided precedes and 
in words compounded with a preposition which ends in a vowel Cyrop. 
IIL i. 24, where the authorities are divided between yr/dmiKro and #y^ 
rorra, also in Cyrop. IV. 1.' 9 : icoroX^At cirro ; VIL 2. 6 : mrtJifipatJiKWtar, 

Hellen. IL 2. 11. ^iA«Ao(vci, et al. yrtaro ImperC tense, referring 

to the time in which the accusation was made, whilst the Pluperf., 
y4ypawro, alludes to the fact of the previous writiog of the indictment 

oficov tZ oIkovci. Ms. F. and some editions have here: oJkoi 

c2 ohnvffu It is certain that oUtu^ allows this construction, for it is used 
intransitively, meaning: to be inhabited, to be managed, etc. CC 
HeUen. TV. 8. 5, and examples cited by Stallb. PUto ad Rep. V. p. 468. 
D, and YIEL pu 548, begin. See Kahn. 6r. § 249. 1, and examples. 
But all the Mss. except F. without variation have the reading given in 
the text» and Xenophon uses such forms of expressions elsewhere. See 

note L 1.7. wporpiwrnv iin^vfi9i¥. The middle form wparpi- 

wfir^ai is used, $ 82 above, and in IL 8. -12 ; IIL 8. 8 ; 6. 8 ; IV. 6. 1 ; 
8, 11, and the active in IL 1. 1, et 6. 1 ; IV. 7. 9; m. 8. 16. From 
these examples it is evident that the two forms are used with substan- 
tially the same signif, the active perhaps denoting tlie simple notion of 
exhortation, whilst the middle joins with this a relation to the subject 


1. — Ah 8^. For this use of these particles s ical 8^ in similar con- 
structions, and introducing a particular under a general principle, see 
Hartung, Or. Partik. L 266, 6* and c£ Arn. Gr. Prose Comp. 267, & 
They may be rendered in Eng. iww or now indeed, hniin Jam oTJatij^ ffer<K 
jcal refers to a suppressed clause: Socrates not only did not cor- 
rupt or injure his disciples as we have seen, but he widi even (Lat : etiam) 

232 NOTES. 

proBtable to them. So in H 7. 14: jcol f/ios vtnds. HL 6. 11 ; 11. IS 
Cf. Dole upon L 1. 6, and IV. 1. 5 ; 6. 1. It is need in a similar manner 
even at the beginning of a treatise, as in Apol. § 1 : twcpdrovs 9h &|<^» 
ftoi fiojcci clirai fufjunjadui Kal &s. . . ifiovK^itraro T€pl re r^f iiroAoyfas 
Koi rris rcAcvT^r rov fiiov, L e., whilst you speak of other things^ it 
seems to me to 4>e important tdso, etc Cf. also ^ S : o&k ixpn'^ /itprM. 
ffKoirttif, ^ Xt Kni H ri iaroXoy^cTf ; and Bornemann's note. See KOhn. 

Gr. §821. R,6; L. Gr. § 728, 9. -ri, fi^p...rk «i, both. ..and, 

partim, . . , partim. K 128. n. 5. — — - 1^7^ 8c(«cy^i»ir...iral SiaAc- 

y6fi9rof ; see L 2. 69: A^t^ fih-*4py^ and note L 2^ 8. ro6rm¥, 

referring to &f w^cAciy ^S^kci, and in the plural, as manj kinds of nti* 
litj are included. — 8 ^ . See note upon L 2. 24. — - 6w6ffa & y . *A9 
is generally supposed to qualify the sense of ^6va in such cases as thi^ 
but it is worthy of inquiry whether it does not here qualify the verb 
which is in the Aor. Sub., giving an air of uncertainty to the declaration: 
I shall be able, (may chance), to remember ; or, answering to Fut Per£ 
of the lAtin : meminero. 

T& fihw corresponds to Ztairjii 8i in § 6 below. rolvvp, see 

note upon I. 2. 29. ^aptphs Ijpy may be rendered as if impenonal, 

as freq., although strictly personal, it was apparent. ical wo imp, 

icr.A., that he both did, and taid^ etc {fwoKpipcrat. For this 

word some modem editors have substituted intoKplptrat, but apparently 
without necessity ; for AwoKpipta&ai is used with the signification : 
to answer^ not only in the Ionic writei^s^ as in Herodotus, L 78, 91, and 

elsewhere ; but also in Thucydides, as in VIL 44. 5. ire pi, Latin, 

de, o^ concerning. Ij rc.SwKpclrijr t«, see L 1. 14* 

AFaipfi, very often used in reference to the responses of oracles 
Kahner says : Verbam oMupct de oraculorum responsis proprium est ao 

legitiraum. C£ Apol. 14; Anab. IR 1. 6; V. S. 7. oSrms tcaU 

This is the reading adopted by Bomemann, Euhner, Seiffert^ and others^ 
instead of oUrm xai found in some Mss. and editions. Ofhut seems to 
be used by Attic writers even before a consonanl^ where so or in thi* 

manner is to be expressed with emphasis. Cf. E&hi^in h. 1. ira- 

pfpti (sc otrrm vouip). Anab. IIL 1. 44 with Kruger*s note; also lY. 
8. 17: KoX &ro6&r i?Jifi0apf rk StrAa icol ro7t KAAois wwt mpirrr*^^'* 

(sc awoi6pTas \afLfidpttp ra iv\a. xfpi4pyovs, busy-bodies, ihotib 

who offended againsi Cicero's injunction, de Offic 1. 84: Per^rini an- 
tem atque incolae officium est nihil praeter suum negotium agere^ nihil 
de alio inquirera minimeque esse in aliena republica curiosum. 

2« — Kal... 8^, and further; see note upon L 1. 8: riya^k, and 
L a. 42. 6f, giving a reason, like 8t» or lirt i, and connected with a 

BOOK I. CHAP. ni. 233 

rkirt in Accn& absolute. .See E&hn. Gr. f 812. 6. (d\ and note I. 2. 20. 

rohs &9oCt. We shonld natarally expect the pronoun wro6s 

instead of the repetition of the noun ; but such repetitions are somewhat 
frequent in Greek. Cf. I. 6. 1, and note. It was a favorite sentiment 
with Socrates, that we should simply, airX&s, ask good things of the goda^ 
and not specific blessings. This appears abundantly evident from Plato, 
as for example, Alcib. XL p. 142 and 148. A, where the following verse 
from an old poet is quoted : 

Zcu fianfiX^v, T& /t}y itrdKd, ^fft, feed €bKOfi4vois jrol iiytvKTois, 
"Afifu UlioVf ra 8i 8cii^ ital ^hxofiivois &iraX/{eir. 

— kZliXmw 8vc»f aro^^o'oiro, see note upon L 1. 6. 

8« — ^Kith fiiKpUp, from small means; see note I. 2. 14. fitt- 

ovabai, (from /tctW used as a comparative of fJUKp6s and 6\iyofy) lit 
to be loss ; here, to fall short o^ or, to be less woilhy, and hence natu- 
rally followed by the genitive. oCt€ ...icaX»s ^x*'**! f-^.X., lit the 

tiling has not itself beautifully, i. e., it is not honorable, just So in 
oratio recta we find koX&s ttx't tcoKhy ^y ; and for the opposite idea, 
alaxpi>y ^»; tUSs ^y, etc Tlie Infin. is here without iuf, see Kflhn. 

Gr. §260. R. 8; L. Gr. 11.5821.8. oUr* tLy.,,i^ioy tlyat f^r, 

cl, icT.X. *Ay is here retained, although it might be omitted for the 
eame reason as above ; since in oro^to recta, the phrase would be : offre 
Toir ay^p. A^toy Ijy {^v. In reference to the sentiment of this passage^ 
see Plat Alcib.- IL p. 149. K Voigtlaender as quoted by Euhner ex- 
plains this passage, thus: "Socrates intended without doubt to indicate 
by this, that the life of man would be rendered wholly miserable, and all 
the laws which regulate society be destroyed, if the gods were better 
pleased with the sacrifices of wicked than of good men. For if the gods 
prefer the sacrifices of the bad, it necessarily follows that they will also 
bestow upon them benefits, and in every thing prefer them to the good. 
Thus the lives of both gods and men would be made miserable. The 
lives of gods, because they must either love men whom they cannot love, 
without violating justice ai^d holiness itself, or become themselves bad ; 
of men, because the good roust either yield entirely to the bad or probity 
vanish from the earth. Hence the result would be that the highest 
things would be eonfonnded with the lowest^ and life would not be de- 
sirable to any created being." 'E » o i v ^r ij s', laudator, praiser. 

Ifrovf, verse. Kk9 96yafity, K.r.A. This line is taken from He- 

siod, *Epy, irol 'H/tcp. 866. K^ [=s Kard] Zlyofuy, aeeofrding to (your) 

ability. fpZtty may be considered as depending upon x^ ^ some 

such word understood, or it may be rendered as imperative, as the In£ 
frequently is^ especially among the poet& tk^aydrotaiss Ai^oi^roif . 

231 NOTES. 

Ka\ wp6s ^i\mn 8>. Tlie ml here aoswen to the lud with vih tV 

tiWifv ilatroM, and is not connected in import with S^ which joins this 

to the preceding clanae. vpht aignifies, in mped tOt Latin, in with 

the AbL, and is omitted before ^4vovt, because that is included in the 
same idea with ^iKovs, and they together are contrasted with r^y &\Aifr 
8/iuTay ; cf. L 4. 17, where both the preposition and the article: rtpi rw, 
are omitted before ip 2i«crX(f ; also IL 1. 6, and IIL 10. 13, and L 2. 53, 

witn the note. r^y fUZ Z^t^ofuw, hj attraction for rh M S^. See 

KQhn. L. Gr. II. $ 492. 8. 

if — ^E{ 94, InU if, or, m often <u. S^cicr. This Aor. Opt de- 
notes not a supposed case, but a frequent occurrence of an actual event 
See Eahn. L. Gr. § 819. ».; Gr. § 8S9. R. 8 ; Rost $ 120. This form of 
the Opt in -ctat, -cie(r), etc, is more frequently used by Attic writers 
than the regular form in -«?, -oi, etc. See Eahn. Gr. § 116. 9, and note^ 
L 1. 6. We find a construction similar to this^ but without &y in the 
apodoeis^ in $ 6, and with itf and the Impt in IV. 6. 18 : ft 8^ nr ewr^ 

. , , iurrt\4yot . . , hratf^w ^. wapii t&p 3ci»y, from (L e, coming 

from), etc IIc^ ia used with the Genit of the author, instead of the 
more usual ^6, when a thing is represented as proceeding from the 
vicinity of one, or caused by his influence. See Etthn. Gr. § 251. R. 4^ 

and § 29*7. L (1). lirrov, less^ i. e., with more difficulty. wapk 

rk 99itiaiviii%va, sc. wapii r&p dcwr, as expressed below. With the 
radical meaning of wapd, betide, near, alowf Hde, is connected that of 
ffoing by, piurinff beyond, and, from this^ that of being beyond, and hence, 
contrary to, againsL The use of wapJk with the three caaes^ Gen, Dat, and 

Accuft. in this passage, should not escape notice. Cf. B. 147. p. 417, 18. 

%w%ib9v, attempted to persuade, persuadere conatus esset, or, suasisset 

bZov XoiBciy ^lUva rv^^y. .. 68^y. It is unnecessary in Lat 

or £ng. to repeat Mt : to take as guide one who was blind and ignorant 

of the way, caecum et ignavum viae duoem. irap^ rots ir^p^reit. 

IIop^ is here used in its causal or figurative signification, denoting in the 

judgment or opinion of. irp ^ f r^r . . . |i;/ij8ov\iar, in eomparieon with 

(prae, praeter) divine ooonsel. No reference is made to the contents of 
these first four sections in § 15, where there is a recapitulation of the 
preceding arguments^ and there seems to be a rather loose connectiou 
between piety towards the gods and temperance in food ; but it may not 
unnaturally he supposed that Xenophon passes from duties owed to tlie 
gods, to those which pertain to men. 

ft*— Aiafrp 9h. This emphatic position at the beginning of the 
sentence, is given to 9ialrp, in order to make the contrast stronger with 

MOK L CHAP. in. 285 

the pietj which has been the subject of the preceding aectioni^ and ik is 

antithetical to ficr (T& fikw roiwvw) in ^ 1. c/ /a^ ri SaifA^yior 

cli|,ssj^r fi^ ri 8ai/Ai(»r(or icm\^ or V M ▼<' <^<^' &voic«X^, unices 
there should be a divine intervention. G£ Cyrop. I. 6. 18 : ^k ft^ rif 

Oc^r jeIXiCtt]!, and Bomemann and Herbet^ Symp. YIIL 48. ro- 

ca^riit iawdpiif, 8o much money (sc. as would be necessary for the 

support of Socrates). obx oH', if tit oIKrwf &y ^Af^a ipydCoiro, 

whether any one could earn so little. Ct note L 1. 6. 8. Concerning the 
verb ^pytii^ see IL 8. 2, and in reference to the construction of &y with 
the Opt, netf Kflhn. L. Or. II. § 889 ; and cf. IV. 2. 80 ; Cyrop. 1. 6. 41, 

and 10, with Bomemann's note. j^S/Mf, with relish. iv\ ro(f 

r y, fat this, I c, that he might eat with a relidi, referring to i^S^wt Ijff^u, 

ff CI, sa M a7rop. H^'ok, lit, boiled meat, (from ^tt), as opp. 

to bread ; then, meat in general ; and finally, more delicate kinds of food 
(rfi&fffiara) ; as here, any thing eaten with food, to give it a relish, a condi- 
ment, sauce. Cf. L 6. 6, and Cyrop. 1. 6. 12 ; IIL 14. 2, 8, for different uses 
of the word, and see Boraemann, Symp. IV. 8. p. 108. Cicero in his Tusc. 
Disp. y. 84 97 : Socratem ferunt^ quum usque ad vesperam contentius 
amhularet quaesitumque esset ex eo, quare et faceret^ respondisse: ee 
quo melius coenaret^ opsonare ambulando f a m e m . 

6* — Ef ...c^fX^trciffy ; see note upon $4. fisrc ^vX^o^^ai. 

The Infin. is used after sucii adjectives as ipyvStcraror, inptXifiiy, etc, 
with tcTty, and some other words and phrases, to define or characterize 
more particularly ; and when Aire is added it gives greater force to the 
Infinitive. See Kdhn. L. Gr. 11. § 642 d, ^d Rem., and Stallbaum's note 
upon Plat Phaed. p. 103. R ^e find a similar constr. of the Infin. with 
the Accusi in Latin, as Cic. de JXtik Dcoruni IIL 1 : difiicile factu est me 
id sentire quod tu veils ; but tins mors usual constr. in Latin would be 
with ut and the subjupctive. rk vttJ^opra, things which per- 
suade, induce. Some read hmKH^rm, but apparently without good 

reason or sufficient Ms. authority. See Kh^o. inh.]. yavripat 

KttX K§pa\hs aral ^vx^'* ' Aoeo^ding to onr idiom the Sing, number 
would be used here, but both the Oreek and Roman writers were accus- 
tomed to use the Plur, both of r jsfcract and concrete nouns, where there 
was a direct reference to muiy objects ; see Eflhn. L. 6r. § 408. R. 8, 
and c£ m. 12. 2, and Edhn^f's Tusc Disp. IV. 2. 8, where abundant ex- 
amples are cited from both languages. 

T.— "^^11 iviffKAirrttVi sold sportively. r^v Ktpxiip, see 

Odyss. It. 239 sq. rotoirois woWois, sc & vcfi^ci u^ wupAtrraf 

iffbUoff icrA., i. e., by many things which persuade, etc kwovx^^ 

atpop r^...4«r ci^ai. Some editors for t^ read rov, but without 

236 NOTES. 

good reasons. Verbs generallj eonstr. with the simple Infin. are fre> 
queDtly, for the sake of emphasisi followed by the Accoa of the article 
with the lofin. Gf. IV. 7. 5 below, and also 4. 11 ; and see Knho. 6r. 

§ 808. R. 1. Bth, ravru. After a participle introdacing Uie cause 

or reason, 9ik ravra or 8i& rovro b frequently added for the sake of greater 
distinctness. Anab. 1. 7. 3 ; YIL 1. 9 ; Cjrop. IIL 1. 89 ; EOhn. L. 6r. 
II. i 667. Anm. 

8. — ^'A ^poZi<rtm¥, Three explanations are giren of the goTemment 
of this word. Kuhner in his L. 6r. § 625, 4^ explains it as depending 
upon wtplf to be supplied from the preceding clause, and refers to Bern- 
hardy *s Gr. Syntax, p. 204. But Herbst gpyerns ii^pohvltap by the verb 
&ircx«0'^at and t»v koXuv by &^o8., and this^ which seems to us a 
more natural explanation than the former, receives some support from 
such passages as II. 6. 22 : roit rwp &pait¥ iuppo9ifftoit ijS^mc^oi. Even 
Kahner is inclined to accede to this explanation in his note in fa. L 
But on the whole it may perhaps be better with Seiffert to consider 
iippoH. as a patlitive genitive (Latin : d e rebus autem venereis^ etc:) and 
TU¥ KoXuv as governed by itirtx^ir^eu. The meaning is the same as if r^ 
had been inserted after wapftfu : In respect to the iuppoSioiuy, he admo- 
nished firmly to abstain from that of the r&p icaA»y. airr^/icvor; 

for the omission of the pronoun here, see note upon I. 2. 55, and refer- 
ences thei'e. Cf. also § II : ip* oh o^8* hy luuwiiLtpos <nrou9da'€uw. 
ILL 17; 6.26; m. 6. 6; 9.14; 13. 2; IV. 2. 87. For the same 
eonstr. in Latin and abundant examples both from 6r. and Rom. au- 
thor^ see KQhn. Tusc. Disp. IV. 8. 17. o-w^poyfir, to preserve 

constancy of mind. Kpir6$ovX6y ;• a son of Crito, the .friend and 

disciple of Socrates. 

9i — Iv^povtKmiff modest, AS contrasted with f^pa/rimwt impudent; 
insolent; for the eonstr., see KQhn. 6r. § 278, 3.— -^vpoiroiyriicAr, 

(from itp6 and voit»\ prudent^ considerate. Aro^rwi^ (a priv. and 

yo^M), silly. ^iifroiciyS^ywi', (filirrw and KltfBvyos), rash, fool-hardy. 

Udvv fi^p odp, a frequent formula for an affirmative answer, 

and hence common in colloquy, as in the dialogues of Plata See II. 1. 
2. sub. fin. M^K oZw == fi^wovp, is also used with other words besides 
rdyvt and ^often with not merely an affirmative significance^ but also to 
extend or correct the preceding idea, like the Lat. immo, or, immo 
vero, as II. 7. 5: ndvra fi^v o9y, its iyftuu^ yea, truly, all things^ aa 
I suppose, and in IIL 8. 4. C£ Stallb., Plato, Crito, p. 44. B ; Gorg. p: 
464. B. See also Hartung, Gr. Partik. IL 899 sq., and KQhn. Gr. $ 316. 
R. (b). It is even used in contradicting and denying, as may appear 
from the above references. Btptiovpy6raroy, {^9pfA6s and ipym,) 


one who does hot» hasty acta^ moit rash, Xtttpy6raroy, probably 

from adv. AcMt ^ \/ay, and Hftyu, one who will do any thing := Toyot/p- 
70$, most audacious. Cf. the use of the word in Aesch. Prometheus 6. 
Kvfiierr'fia'tit, to throw headlong upon. On account of the dan- 
ger attending the casting one*s self upon a sword, the expression became 

proverbial, to indicate any peril however great tit irvp iXotro, 

also proverbial, as is the phrase : 9 A itvphs i4vai, Sympoa. IV. 16. Many 
editors retain here the Iroperf.form, iWotro, which is found in almost 
all the Mas, but the preceding Aor. would seem to indicate that the Aor. 
should be used here, and the change by the addition of X might have 
yery easily crept into the Mss. 

10« — Kal is placed with speci&l force at the beginning of (questions 
where the remark of another is taken up with surprise and its invalidity 
or absurdity implied. In such cases the Latins sometimes use vera, the 
Germans aber, and we but. See Kflhn. 6r. § 821. R. 1, and L. Or. IL 

^27. 2. It is so used m ^11 and 12 ; III. 9. 12 ; TV. 4. 10. 8^. 

The 84 in such cases as this may indicate more strongly astonishment, 
impatience, or indignation. So in II. 6. 7; IIL 18. 6; IV. 4. 10; Eur. 

Med. lOOL See Kahn. L. Or. IL H33 dL ri.^.niftf iroioDrra, 

tlie peculiar brevity and beauty of the construction of both the relative 
and interrogative pronouna^ especially with participles, should not escape 

notice; see C. 689. 2. iear4y¥otKat airov, have you judged so 

severely of him. Kard signifies here in composition, against^ opposed 

to; cf. IIL 7. 3. Ob yhp. KQhner calls ydp in such cases as this^ 

ydp conclusive in an interrogation, d 4. 14; IL 8. 16, 17 ; IIL 4. 1 ; 7. 
7 ; 11. 17, etc, and L. Gr. IL § 838. i. There is, however, here mani- 
festly an elli{)sis to which it refers. Xenophon's question implies the 
idea of injustice in Socrates* severe reproach of Critobolus, and he re- 
plies: I reproach him justly, for has he not, etc 'AXX* *l fi4protf 

but if indeed, at si profecto, as in II. 1. 12. fitvroi very often ex- 
presses confirmation, indeed, in antithesis with koU ob, iiWd, etc Here 
it is used to strengthen the objection to Socrates' declaration : if indeed 
what you say were just, even I, etc Cd L 4. 18, and Kahn. Gr. ^ 816, R, 

and L. Gr. IL § 698. 0. rb fi^^oKiybwop tlpyow, this rash deed, 

L e., the one just named : rhu 'AAiciiS. vlhr ^ikri<rau This phrase seems 
to be the subject here, and hence the article 4-^ Eiihner however con- 
siders it as predicate, and accounts for the article which is not generally 
used with the predicate noun, from the distinct allusion to a well known 
iact> and perliaps a direct repetition of the word from Socrates. See 

Ktihn. Gr. i 244. 6 ; L. Gr. IL H^^- '^^^ ^7^ ionik.. . bieonti 

ra<, I seem to be able to come into, to be exposed to this danger. 

288 NOTES. 

11«— ?a TX^/ior, mberable man. jcal rl, see noU^ $ 10.— «- 

&y . .. va^^ciy, what do you suppose will happen, you haying (I e., if or 
when you have,) etc For the Fut sense of the Inf with itf, see Kahn. 
^ 260. 5. (a). Cf. Symp. YL 25 : oZ fyvrot (sc. rov ^iKtof) M4v iart 

ifiySrtpoy MKKoufui, icr.A. ''Ap' oOk; these particles in inteiroga* 

tions like the Latin nonne imply an affirmative, whilst ipa fiii, Lat 
numne, imply a negative answer. See EOhn. 6r. f S44. 6. (bX and 
1*. Gr. IL 834. 8. In regard to the former, c£ L 5. 4 ; 7. 2 and 3 ; IL 1. 
16; 6. 88; and for the latter, IL 6. 84; IV. 2. 10: i^' oTr. .inravM- 
ffutp. The Prep, iwl is often put with the dative ease after verbs im- 
plying motion, to designate Ifae end or design of the motion. CC Plat. 
Phaedr. p. 276. B ; p. 278. D. Symp. p. 217. A, where the same verb is 
used as here. See also many other passages cited by Kahner in h. L 

12*— ^a 'H fxi^KXc I s, O Hercules! indicating surprise here. It may 
also be used as an exclamation of anger or indignation or disgusts So 
the Latin mehercle and hercle. — 8cu^y Tiya...8^yafuir. When 
the Indet Pron. rU is used in tliis way with adjectives, adverbe^ etc, it 
seems to bring out more distinctly the idea designated by tliese words; 
see Kfihn. Gr. § 808. 4 ; L. Gr. IL 688. 4. Soquidamis used in Latin, 
as in Cic Lat'l. IX. 2: admirabilis quae dam exardeseit benevolentiae 
magnitude, c£ also KQhn. Tusc. Die. II. 4. 11. In regard to the senti- 
ment of the passage, see Symp. IV. 25. ^akdyyia are small ani- 
mals similar to the spider. The most poisonous and destructive kinds 
have been described as belonging to Italy, and are called from the city 

Tarentura, Tarantula. Cf. Plin. H. N. XXIX. 4. iifuwfioKiata, 

equaling in magnitude half an obolus. The comparison should seem to 

imply that the ^aXJiyyui were small in size and round. rov ^pa- 

ycif i^lffTnviv,ss rhy vow ^inrA^rrsi, expels their refwon; cf. IV. 6. ^; 
II. 1. 4» for similar constructions of the Infin. with the Gen. of the article. 

Karii rh ^njfia, on account of, by, or 6y meant of, a causal sense. 

The proper meaning ss secundum easily passes into propter. 

1$«— To6r 8^ ffoXo^s. The adversative 8^ is frequently employed in 
animated interrogations, where the concessive member is to be supplied 
by the mind as here : ra /aIw ^a\d,yyia hUptu ri oUt, roh% 8 c imXcvs 
ooK oil, Ct L 6. 15; IL 1. 26, 80 ; IL 6. 10, 14, 87 ; IL 9. 2; IIL 8. 
11, et al. Oftentimes too the 8^ is copulative, and continues a question 
interrupted by a preceding answer ; of. III. 5. 2, and see EUbn. Gr. § 322.. 

Rem. 6 ; L. Gr. IL ^ 696. 5. diiptoy, used of man, as in IIL IL IL 

Toa-o6r^ 99iy6rep6if i(m.,.ta^. The correlatives Strop, Stf-f^ 

and r6ao¥n ro<roir^, correspond to each other, and indicate an equality 


m the two things oompared, 00 mnch ... as much, in what proportion . . • 
in jnst the same proportion. So : icoy r^r ipcr^y iurie^fftis, rovovrop 
MaifMP liajr, and Xen. Ojix>p. YIII. 1. 4. Frequently not only the 
quantity bat the degree of the quantity is indicated : Siry fiaWoy . . . to> 
9ovr^ fiuWap, or, Ztr^ fiAMrra . . , rotro^rr^ fuiAiora But sometimes 
when the quantity of two things is compared, the degree of the quantity 
of only one of them is indicated ; then we have, as in our passage, joined 
with one of the correktivea an adjective in the oomparatiye degree, and 
with the other, an adjectiye in the positive : This animal ... is so mnoh 
the more dangerous than the tarantula^ by as much as this...infQSfls 
poison, etc Ct with thia^ and note the difference in the construction, 
those passages where with S<r^ the comparatiye /mWop is to be supplied 
from the other member, as in Xen. Hier. X. 2: olia yitp Sn Affwtp h 
fmroif, otr9» icol h aybp^wois rurlv iyyly§rat, o- y &y linrXca rik Ztovra 
ix*^*t Too-oir^ ^fipiaror4pots cTnu. This constr. is unfrequent in 
the Latin hist, and yet it occurs^ as in Tac. Ann. 1. 57 : barbaris quanto 
quia audacia pr<teptns, tanto magps fid us rebusque metis potior 

habetur. iic€7ya..,rovro. The pronoun otros sometimes refers 

to the more distant noon, (as here to rh dniplop,) where it is the principal 
subject of the sentence, and iituyos not to the more remote, but to the 
less emphatic noun ; as in IV. 8. 10. See Stallb. Plat Phaedr. p. 282. D. 
and Euhn. Lb Gr. IL § 629. 7. So hie and ille in I^tin ; see Eiiha 

TusG. Disp. 1. 49. 117. itp6$t»^9¥. In some Mss. ir6f^v^tv. These 

words are often interchanged and are considered as synonymous in mean- 
ing, although Buttmann h. 6r. § 115 note, makes the distinction : in usage 
wp6ffm signifies, foraardM, and W^^« (Doric 'r6p9v) far. Ct 1.4. 6, and 
Anab. IIL 2. 22. ftrwf tk iccil oi ''Epttrts . , , rirpdaitovviy. Borne- 

mann here appropriately compares Achill. Tat p. 8. 29; KoUXos 7^ 
il^§pop rvTpAffnti fi4\ovSt lud Si^ rw¥ 6^da\fiSiw fif riiPt^vxh'^ rvrpAvMU 
Some have supposed this whole passage, from Xvms to the end of the Sec- 
tion, to be supposititious, i e., supplied from the scholiast, but there does 
not seem to be good reason for this assumption. 

14»— Kal ^poSurii^cir . . . Tp^s roiaSra. Kiihner refers iral back to 
t 6, where it is enjoined to abstain from deUoate food, here from the 

indulgence of impure love. *roht fi^ kff^aKikf fx^'^^f 'P^' 

ik^poScirio, those intemperate^ not sufficiently guarded, in respeot to love 

oTa...o(n€ ti¥ wposi4^airo if ^vx4» the soul shall liot admit 

I e., reject with scorn. C£ the use of y^vxh in regard to the Animal ap- 
petite in 1. 2. 4. oitic ht wpdyftara waptx^i* ^K makeJbusiness for, 

i. e., disturb, trouble. The word ofa is first the object of aftosV^^oiro and 
then the subject of -rapixou Instances of similar construction are not rare. 

240 KOTSS. 

15t — This flection 10 a Idnd of sammary of the preoeding diKmnoo. 
'^-^Mhif &r frroy hpKo^tts I^Sea-^ai, icr.A. Ho supposed that he 
held the just mediam, I e^ had not leas delight in the pleasures of senses 
and yet had far less trouble. Tlie particle &r is to be connected with the 
Jnfin. ^^ffboi and supplied with the following verb, AmrcMr^cu. So it 
is often to be supplied in one of two oorrespondii% clauses^ as in IL 1. 27 ; 
1. 18 ; IIL 8. 2, and sometimes where many words intenrene. See R 189. 

N. 6. Eahn. Lb 6r. n. 4 468» note 1. We should naturally expect 

lUw here with Ifi^^bai to correspond with Zi after Xvrcordai, as the 
words are contrasted. But such omissions are not uiknown even in 
prose authors^ as in Anab. IIL 4. Y, 41, and in Thncydides and other 
writers. See EOhn. L Or. IL ( 786. 


It — Tl^pi atnov r§Kfiatp6fitvot, The yerb r€icfiaip6/»M, after the 
time of Homer, generally signified, to peroeiye from certain signs, to 
Judge, and was usually followed by the Dat of the means, but with the 
Gen. of the tiling judged depending on a preposition. There seems to be 
an evident allusion here to persons who, after receiving the instructions 
of Socrates, had not continued in the practice of tho virtues which he 
enjoined, and rcicfiaip^/icyui is jud^ng from such examples as these, and 
therefore from insufficient data, conjechmng, ^-^ irporp^^^ao-^ai... 
vpoayay^Xif. The verb wporpS^aa^at seems to signify, to excite to 
the consideration of virtue, to praise and commend it, and wpoeeywyu^ 
to lead forward in the practice of it The objection is, that SocratesT 
instructions wei*e theoretical and not practical. For the sentiment d 
Gic de Oratore I. 47, 204 : Socratem ilium solitum aiunt dicere perfe&> 
turn sibi opus esse, si quis satis esset concitatus cohortatione sua ad sta- 
dium cognoscendae percipiendaeque virtutis ; quibus enim id persuasum 
esset^ ut nihil mallent se esse, quam bonos viros, iis reliquam facilem esse 

doctrinam. Kpdriffroif yyopdrnt, that he was most excellent, 

or had special influence; followed by the Inf oOk iKawiw, was 

onable. — M^ fi^yor, not o& on account of the Imper. Sojrifta^^fyrww. 
The participle o-itc^'^cvoi may also be rendered as impcr., connected 
with ZohtiA. : let them turn their attention to and examine, etc. Tlio 
propiiety of using it,4i then appears more evident It may be noticed 
here that the best Attic writers seldom use the vero frK^vTOfuu in the 
Pre& or Impf. teuae, but the forms of CKwiofuu in its stead. A... 


pmrmpf what things interrogating; I e., hy what quostiona ——^KoXa* 

^rtiplov (le. it6Xaafta) crcxa, for the sake of reproof, eastigation. 

robs irdwT* olofiSwovs ciS^yac. The sophists are to be und'ersiood 
as eepeciallj referred to here. Socrates strove in every waj to restrain 

and repress their arrogant boastings* cvptfi^ptvt, (aip and vt^4pa,) 

lit, to pass the day with^ 9oKttJLaC6prmy, the abbreviated Attio 

form for 9oictfia(htHray. 

i« — ^To V dai/Aortov ; not the divinity of Socrates specifically, but 

used generically, the divine one ^ the deity. 'A^ivt^Sif/Aor r^r 

Mucp^r iviKoJL Aristodemu^ samamed the Little, was an austere man, 
always walking innr^ifrof, but a most devoted and constant attendant 

of Socrates. o0r* ^bx^l^^^op, >> omitted in many editions and is 

probably spurious. See various readings, Kuhn. in h. 1. f 0-rir 

• ff^riirat kvhpAic9vtt a$^ mtn, *Ay;^pi^o»ir is the reading in many 
editions. For this use of the relative with Imr in either number or any 
case as a substantive pronooop see Efthn. Gr. J 831. R. 4 ; B. 150. m. 21, 
and L. 6r. IL f 788. Anm. 4; Soph. 160. 6 ; Rost $ 99, note 9. C£ Plat 

PliaedllLD. rtbaiiianat iir\ 0'o^lf. Ct PUt Sympos. p. 206 : 

vV ... tbalpuatiop M ffo^lf. For the use of the Dat with the preposition 
here, see Kfihn. Gr. ^ 296. IL and i 285. R. ; L. Gr. IL f 612 and § 684^ 
note. For the Pert tense denoting rather the result of action in the pre- 
sent time^ see KQhn. Gr. § 258. R. 5, and c£ L 2. 49 : ScS^^l^ai. 

''Eycryc. The affirmative answer is frequently made by the Proa either 
with or without the empluitio particle y9. So in I^atin, though generally 

with some strengthening word, as herele, profeetOt etc Kai 5f . See 

note I. 2, 85, mU ; and for the use of tiie 8r in a demonstrative sense, see 
Kahn. Gr. i 831. R. 1, and L. Gr. i 781. 8. a. Cf. also IIL 1. 5 ; 8. 8, 4; 
4. 1 ; 12. 1 ; lY. 8. 3 ; 6. 2. 

S« — Tolrvp, This particle is often used when one directly and with 
out opposition answers another's question ; see KQhn. L. Gr. II.'^ 758. 2 
irf 9h 9tdvpa/i$^, It has been supposed with some plausi- 
bility, that Bt^vpdpifitnf sc woi^trti should be read, since the word is not 
usually employed in the Sing, like Irof and /i^Aot, but in the plural like 

fk^A^i; iufdirtu^roL Mf Aariw(8i|y. ' This Lyric poet lived about 

520 B. G. — — noX^ieXffiror...Zf u(ir. Polydetus the celebrated 
atatuary lived about B. C. 480 and Zeu3d8» the distinguished paintar, 
near the same time. 

4«— "A^poycC (a priv. and ^pfip) is here contrasted with ((fi^vd (ip 
and pp^p), the ip, as frequently, indicating the possession of the quality 
denoted by the noun. So in ip€pyd, which is contrasted with iutlpvf^ 


242 NOTES. 

mihtmi motiatif moiionUti, wXirtp y9...ytyper€u. The particle 7c it 
ber« added to give additional force to cfvc^, if indeed, it is true tfaati 

etc; Cf. Anab. 1.1,9; Sympos. V. 6. rixjjr riA . . . *»i yr^ftv*' The 

ooDfltruction here ia beautifully varied, the dative ..being uaed for tha 
instrumental cause, and the Oenit with the preposition to designate the 
active, intelligent cause. When persons are designated we more fre- 
quently find 9id with the Gen., corresponding to per in Latin, and some- 
times even with words designating things ; see R 183. N. 12, and refereneea 

to wp6t and ^r, and also Zumpt's L Gr. 801. Tmr 9h ikr^icfidprms 

iX^^^^^t '^'^^ f ^^ ^<*^ things which are in the dark, which furnish no 
indication^ etc. — r£r ^aycpAr iv* it^§\. jyrtpr, those whieb 

are manifestly for use. tpyu, the producie of, or rendered aa a yerb 

with esse implied, are cau$edby. nphr^i, impersonal, ii it plain, 

fikr^/t,^ from which it b derived, ezpreeses 'eonfirmation. So 

frequently in Ionic writers and sometimes in Attic Greek, especially in 
answers. See Kahn. Gr. § 816. 1. R. 

6« — O^Kovw, Does -not tkenf an inductive interrogative particle; 
sometimes written ohK oSr, and oHkow ; but for the distinction in the 
n^e of these forms, see Kahn. Gr. § 824. R. 7 ; R 149. m. 18. In regard 

to the sentiment, see IV. 8. 8 sq., and c£ Cia de Nat Deor. IL 54. 

*Oirfimy 7c /i^r. The particles ye fiiip denote transition to a new par- 
ticular, on which special emphasis is put. Two cases are to be noted : 
where the ye gives force to a preceding word, as here, to ia/tAp; and so 
in I. 6. 6 ; 111. 6. 12; 8. 10 ; 9. 6 ; 11. 10, etc ; and where it is joined to 
a conjunction, in which case it gives emphasis to tlie whole sentence or 
clause. See ApoL ( 18 : 6* yt /liip, ir.T.A., and § 18 ; also abundant ex- 
amples in Hartung, Gr. Partik. L & 401 sq., II. a 888 sq. 9ik 9x6- 

/uaroi. The article is omitted here on account of the verbal force of 
Uie noun with the preposition : which are perceived by tasting. Ct 

note on I. 1. 9. yp4/i*tw, the judge, estimator. el fiii 4weip- 

ydffdii, had not been made or implanted. The student should notice 
the use of the Aor. here and in the context^ to denote a repetition of 
individual aots. R 184. 4, and N. 5. 

^—Ob Seicfi 0*01 ital r69e wpowoiaf Hpyow ioiie4wai, does 
it not appear to you that this should be, (or is to be,) considered, as the 
work of foresight ff The reading tpyop is supported by the best Msa. 
The Dat tpy^ and tpyoif seem to have arisen from understanding louU- 
wtu to have the signification : to be like, eimilar, instead of to be euppaeed 
or cimeidered, which should evidently be given to it here. It is equiv»- 
knt to ^edpevdai which is often placed in the same way with tonew* 

BOOK I. CHAP. IV. 248 

See U. 1. 22 ; lY. 2. 20, et a]. — ^ rh,,,bvp&irai; namely, (he elo$» 
ing it with eye-lid9 as doora, etc For the use of the article here with the 
Infill, after the preparative demonstratiye rt^Sc, see examples collected by 

Hase in his note upon Rep^ Lac. IX. 1, and Kahn. L 6r. IL $ 631. 2. 

«^$ XP^^^^^ f^ ^ °"® i^ ^^^ '^^y pnipose; rl is the Accu& ^of the 

object aimed at See Kohn. 6r. i 278. 4; L. Gr. II. § 649. b. As 

V htf . . . fiKdvTt^a-ty; cf. with &s . . . Koucovpyy without &y. See 
Kohn. 6r. § 380. 4, and L Gr. IL $ 776. The Subj. is used in the fina], 
because the verb in the principal dause, ifip^at, is an Aor. with a 

present signification. See Kllhn. Gr. f 380. 2. 4i^/Ahp fi\9^api' 

9 as, the eydaehee as a atrainer, or, eieve. 'MfA6s was a strainer, origin- 
ally used for filtering wine ; Schneid. — — i^do't r § ; the particle r4 
is seldom used as a oonnectiye by Xenophon without a iced following ; 
and it is not improbable that 8^ was originally written here. See Zeuuius^ 

Schneider, et eaet in h. 1. hvcytwAcut, to makeju^ out like a comiee, 

e£ Cia N. D. IL 67 : Primam enim snperiora, supemliis obducta, sudo- 
rem a capite et a fronte defluentem repellunt This whole phrase has 
been very well translated : " that by brows the parts above the eyes are 
rendered eaveslike^'* etc rh 8^... 8^x*^<^a'* '^^ '^^^ the fol- 
lowing infinitives are strictly the. subjects of irrtr, and are repeated by 

ravra in the last olause, thus producing a slight anacoluthon. oTovs 

r4fiwftp, c£ 7o/i^(ovt . . . XcaJycir. So olos is used with the Infin. in 
f 12; IL 1. 16; 6. 37,etaL See Rost's Gr.fl22; Kfilia L. Gr. n.$788. 
Anm. 8. Gr. § 806. 1. c In such cases it has all the propei*ties of an Adj. 

and nearly SB dvrar^f ; see K 189. F. 6. Ex& robs., .yofi^lovs, 

the molar teetK iwti Z\ rk kwox^povrra Sv^jcrp^, sc icrlp. The 

ellipsis of ffrcu after conjunctions is rare. See a similar representation 
in Cic N. D. IL 67. 

7« — Aiifuwffyov (fr. Zrifios and ffftym), lit, working for the people^ 
hence workman, worker, maker. In the New Platonic Philosophy it is 

used as the name of God, the Creator. rh tk i/j^verat, ic.r.A. This is 

a continuation of Socrates* question from § 6, and the infinitives are in 
the same construction as there with the clause : ravra oftrm . . . ierriy im- 
plied. — — 'AfA^Xci, strictly Imper. but here used as an adverb, truly, 
withoHi doubt, Latin : sine dubio. The same word is used in IV. 4. 6, 
— Tfi^of . .. /SotfXf vo'a/iA^i'ov, icr.X., one who has deliberately re- 
solved upon the existence [the making] of living beings. 

8* — Xavrhw.. . Ixffii^. When the subject of the Inf. is the same as 
that of the^ governing verb it is generally omitted, but b Retained where 
iny special emphasis is to be put upon it ; as here, oontrast ) notioe alio 

244 NOTES. 

the hm of 0-/ belov ; im-a vh, jc.r.A^ see Ktlhn. Gr. f 807. 4, aod R 4 ; 

L. 6r. U. $ 646. 1, and cf. IL 6. 35 eztr., 88. *Ep^ra yovp ««! 

iiwoKpipovfiai. This phrase, although in all the MaSb, is omitted hy 
many editoraw But it is difficult to see how it could have crept in here^ 
if not written by the author himself It is tme, it somewhat interrupts 
the continuity of the discourse^ but yet it contains nothing so inoongruona 
as to warrant its rejection. Aristodemus does not; it should seem, (per> 
haps from modesty,) choose to answer Socrates directly, that he beUevea 
himself ^m^r rt Hx^u^t ^^^ ^^ order tp avoid the answer says : now 
continue your questions and I will reply to them (and it is implied, yoa 
yourself shall judge by my answers whether I have any reason or intel- 
ligence). Socrates understanding this^ proceeds to ask further questionsi 
C£ Symp. Y. 2. &AX* Avoirpfrov. Sir i4 y§ ip^a. The particle yaw is 
often employed in responses as nearly synon. with ohf ; IIL 8. 6, 6^ 7 ; 

6. 5 ; 10. 8, et al. See Hartung^s Gr. Partik. IL & 15. leal ravra^ 

and that too; see L 2. 29, and reference. voXXnt offo^iyt.. .toX- 

\qv tvros. The simplicity of the construction of the Greek allowa 
these repetitions which would hardly be admissible in Latin : ** te et 
terrae exiguam partem in corpore et humoris habere, quum ea multa 

sint** ftiKphw fi4pos XaiS^rri rh aA/ia ffvr^pfiocTal rei, 

to you taking a small portion the body is fitted. The article is used with 
9'M/ui- since it is a well known, specific object; we might render either by 
the indefinite article a, or by the possessive, your. For the use of the 

Part here, see B. 144. 2. povp th ii6pov Upa olZaiiov twra, 

K.r.A., and do you tuppoM that you alone by tome yood fortune have ob- 
tained poseeesion of mind exietiny nowhere flee. This seems to be brought 
in to obviate an objection which might He in Aristodemus' mind, 
althougli he had not expressed it Gf. Cic: N. D. IL 6 : Unde enim 
banc (mentero) homo arnpuitf ut ait apud Xenophontem Socrates^ 
and III. 11 ; also Phit Phileb. $ 54. p. 81, and StaUb. notc^ and IV. 
8. 14 below. 

0«— M& Al*, a formula of swearing, (j»d being perhaps connected. in 

origin with fA^r, fi4w,) which, however^ by itself neither affirms nor denies^ 
but is generally connected with an affirmative or negative particle, aa 
pal /ik rhp Aia and ob fth, Ala, When it stands without the affirma- 
tive or negative particle, it has generally a negative implied with it 
either from a preceding or succeeding negative phrase. Here the refer- 
ence is back to "AXXo^i 8^ ovia/iov otti^p oUi ^pS.ptfiop tJpat; for 
examples of a previous negative phrase, cf. IV. 6. 10 ; Oecon. XIL 1 ; 
for one subsequent, cf. IIL 4, 8 ; Cyrop. VIIL 8. 45. It is however tni« 
that the negative 96 is Dot found in the immsdiate context, and yet fik 

book: l chap. iy. 245 

Ala has a negatiye foree. This takes place when it is snffidentlj plain 
without the n^^tive that a negative answer is to be given to a question. 
Cf. UL 13. 8, and note upon II. 6. 1. See upon this formula of a wearing 
SUllbaum, PUito^ Philebi p. 86, ^ 72 ; Gorg. p. 489. £. ; B. 149. 28 ; 
Eahn. Or. f 816. 4. ob yhp^ jct.A. It should be distinctly under- 
stood here that the reasoning of Aristodemus is not against the exiatenoe 
of the godfl^ but against their immediate agency in the affairs of life and 
the consequent appropriateness of worshippiug them, which Socrates is 
inculcating. Hence the appositeness of the following argument : / do not 
•m; etc, and tlie agreement with pievious (§ 7 and 8) and subsequent 

(§10) conceeaiona of Aristodemua tcvpiovs, auihort. fisircp 

sc. 6pA. OM y^p» Tdp here refers to a suppresaed clause ; aa per- 

bapa^ iromoalljr : you have apoken excellently, /or, etc. Thia kind of 
ellipsis before ydp is especially frequent in dialogue in answera to ques- 
tions. Cf. II. 1. 2, 15; 8. 6; 6. 7, 15; UL 6. 12; 11. 7. Still ydp is 
frequently used merely to introduce the anawer to a question, like a 
■treogtbened yd which entera into ita oompoution, yh &px See KOhn. 

Gr. 4 824. 2 ; L. Gr. IL § 840. d., and ct III. 5. 2. 10, 11, 16, et al. 

lavToS, in many Mas. and editions anunov or <ravro0. But it is eaaier 
to account for the introduction of ^uunov into the Mas. which have it» 
than icurrov into those where it ia found. It acema alao to be well estab- 
liahed, that the reflexive pronoun of the third person takea the place of 
that of the firat and aecond peraon, when the peraon to whom it refera is 
clearly denoted by the conatruction of the aentenoe, and the attention is 
not ao much directed to a definite individual aa to the fact that what ia 
affirmed is restricted to tiie subject itaeIC Hence it aignifiea nearly the 
aame aa titos. Cf. IL 1. 81 : rod 8^ vdwrcnp Ji^itrrov iuco^fuerot, iwedvov 
lavTTif (self- praise), iu^Koot c7; H. 6. 85; Anab. YL 6. 15, et aL ^ See 
Bost*a Gr. § 99 note ; Kfthn. Gr. ( 802. 8 ; B. 127. N. 5 ; L. Gr. H. ( 628. 
aa. KarJi y§ rovro, according to thia (sc what you affirm). 

10* — Oftrot, but not indeed; the adveraative force ia not however in* 
the Tof, which ia merely reatrictive, but in the negative o& See Kfihn. 

L. Gr. n. § 768. Anm. 1l &s^ for ^ firrs (v. in HL 5. 17^ ba not 

nnfrequently with the In£ Ct a different conatr. in Apol. § 16 ; Hier. 

X. 1; Cyrop. L 1. 2. Sv^ fi€ya\ovptir4ffrtpop (ac Sp); icr.A. 

In proportion as the divinity is more exalted and yet considers you 
worthy of regard, the more ia he to be honored, or, the more exalted the 
being who deigne to regard you, the more, etc For the omission of the 
participle Hr, see II. 1. 82 : rtfi&fuu 8i fid\urra rtdvrwv . . . hyainyr^ iiukf 
rvp9pyhs TCfcWraiT, ir.r.A. (sc oZira) ; 8. 15 : Srora \4y9ts . . . iral ov^afi&t 
rp^ff ffov, and in no manner suited to yourselC CI alao Symp. IY. 25 : 

246 NOTBS. 

§ui yitp SwXiiarop (seil. tv) ira2 iXw&^s rtpht yXvKttaa wapixti ; and es- 
amples collected in h. L by BomemaDn. 

lit — •'^vcir* oIk ofcf...? see note upon I. 2. 26. ot. For this 

use of the relative after an interrogation, see I. 2. 64. ipdhr kvi^ 

9'riicay, mads ereei, Cic de Nat Deor. IL IS6. 146. jcoi frrov kok^- 

vai^«ir, (oTt) ffol tfpiw icol Aico^r acol irr6fUL ivrroUntrvof, Nearly all- the 
Maa. have this passage as we have given it above, with the omiasion of 
the oTr and a colon instead of a comma: KOKvwfilbtTw' irol, jtrA. Still 
varions changes of the text have been proposed, but it seems hardlj 
worth while to enamerate them. Changes of the text^ unless it i» mant- 
fmly corrupt^ are but an indifferent method of esoikping a difficulty. If 
the off is to be admitted from two Mss. which have Kwwn^umtw, which 
IS very doubtful, the idea seems to be : he made them of erect stature^ 
BO . . . that they may be less liable to injury, in thoat part* in vhieh, oTy, 
the gods have placed the sight, etc. But it appears not to be altogether 
clear, how the erectness of man renders the parts of the body enumerated, 
less liable to injury than the same parts in beasts. It seems far mors 
probable that ofr should be omit£ed, and that the words from ^ Be ipA^ 
nit to Kvcowadw are parenthetical, and that the words jcol ^ir, icrJL, 
simply declare that the gods made men with ^ir, face, in its general 
sense, and iueoiiy, the power of hearing, and irr6/ut, mouth, not so much 
as an instrument of tasting as of speaking, by which man is distinguished 

from beasts. Ipircroci, lit, creeping thingt^ from l/nr«»; but as this 

verb means to walk as well as to creep, its derivative ipwrr^ is put for 
all things that walk on the earth, and thus is sometimes opposed to 
wtruydr wiuged animals. 

If. — Kal fi^p yKiiTrdp yc. The particles ircU fiiiw indicate tranm- 
tion to something new, which is adduced in confirmation (jifiw) of tJia 

general idea, and indeed, and truly. The y4 is called suppletive by 

•KQhner and Hartung. It seems merely to indicate that the word after 
which it is placed is emphatic^ or the word which is contrasted. This 
would be denoted by position in Latin and by the tone of voice in Eng- 
lish ; cf . I. 6. 8, 8 ; U. 2, 4 ; IH 4, 4 ; 6, 8, et al Sometimes the fi^w has 
an adversative force in such a connection : and (kcS), yet (ji-fip), truly 
(yO> oi*» ^^^ indeed it is true, but truly. So in II. 8. 4> 14^ 19 ; 8. 4^ 5 ; 
10, 8 ; IIL 1. 11, et al. See KOhn. Gr. $ 316. 1, and L. Or. IL § 696. e, 

and 704. 1. 1 ; Hartung, Gr. Partik. I. S. 401-404. oTar . . . api^po Sr. 

See upon the constr. oTot with the Infin. note, § 6. The idea ia^ that the 
gods made men with reason and with such oi^gans that they can exhibit 
it* ^a6ov<rap, like the Gerund, or Abl. of means in Latin, by 

' BOOK L CHAP. lY. 247 

toacfaing^eto.— ^— ic«2 ^iiiialpMip wdwra AXX^^oii & i3«vA^fici^«, 
and (auch oCv,) that we can make known, etc. When two relatiye clatuei 
feuooeed each other, the relatiye 10 frequently, as here^ omitted with the 
last^ or the eonstr. is entirely changed and a demonstrative takes the 
place of the relatiye. See examples in KOhn. Gr. § 884. 1, and L. Gr. IL 
\ 799. The subject of the InfiiL, ^^f, is omitted as usual in Greek where 

there is no special emphasis to be put upon it. rh 84 . . . 80 v vai . . t 

vapcx«<i^- Tlie Infin. with the article in the Aecusu is placed elliptic- 
ally in exclamations and yiyid interrogationa^ . indicating indignatioD^ 
surprise^ etc, the idea on which the Infin. depends being suppressed, as : 
•^ 3ovfiatfT^ iartw, or some similar phrase. See Rost*s Gr. } 125, note 
6 ; KQhn. Gr. § 808. R. 2, and L. Gr. IL $ 662. 1. So in lY. 8. 6 sq.; 
c£ Boroemann upon Apol. $ 1*7. p. 68. — rov Irovt xp^^^^* 1^* 
subetantiye with an attributiye genitiye which has the article, is often 
placed without it^ when the idea of both nouns coalesces into one. Tliis 
usage is represented in EQhnei's L. Gr. as confined to poetry, but cor* 
rected in his note in h. L Thus it is omitted in L 6. 2 : M rcXcvry 
rov fiiw (life's end) ; Apol. 80 : h itwrnX^u rov fiiov ; Anab. 1. 1. 1 : 
TiXcvT^r Tov fiUv, Cyrop. V. 1. 18; YIL 2. 20, et al Sometimei^ how- 
eyer, the article is added to boUi substantiyci^ as in L 9. 80 : iw if 
rtXcvrJ TOV fiUv ; De Rep. Laa X. 1. 

1S«— 06 rofrvr, see note upon L 2. 29. Tolrw here indicates that 
care for the soul follow^ as a natural consequence, from the great care 

of the deity for the body, which has just been exhibited. r^r 

^vxh' icpar(<rri|r. The Adj. placed in this way after the noun with 
the article has the force of a predicate, i e., Kpvrlcniif oS^-ar, or % itptf 
rttfni ierh. 80 in IL 1. 80 : rkt vrpmiufks ftoXoicJif m^cwicf vtf^jy, and in 
nL 10. 8 ; IV. 7. 7, et aL Gf. $ 12 : lUrnv Ap rmw i^^pAww (yXmrrw) 
4woiiiv9M, K.rA., i* ^f 1^ I'^P &ydpi yXArra /Uni 4ffrl¥, fip iwoiiia'aM. On 
the other hand ^ /Utni yK&rra, the only tongue. See Host's Gr. i 98. 

Anm. 1; Kilhn. Gr. § 246. 8.(b); L. Gr. IL §498. ^t&w...fcbii- 

rai trt §M. 8ffAr is the Gen. of the person of whom a thing is per* 
ceiyed ; Eflhn. Gr. § 278. 6. (f > For the attraction, see Ktthn. Gr. § 847. 
8. In Anab. L 2. 22, there is a sentence constructed much like thb with 
the AccuSi instead of the Gknit : (abrro t6 r9 M^rwroi arpdrwfia 6ri 
|8i| iw KiAiic£f lip. For the sentiment cC Cia Nat Deor. II. 61.—- 
rmp rik fi4yiffTa jcal mdWivra ffvpra^Aprotp. Compare with 

this lY. 8. 18: 6 rhp SKop KSafnop ovprdrrttp re jcol irvp4x»tip. ri 

14 ^vXor &XXo ^ Jkpbpmwi btois b9pa99iovvi; and what 
tribe ot/ur than^ or, buuU9, eta For the attraction of the yerb to the 
plural here^ by AvApMrei, see KOhn. Gr.$ 242. R. 4; L. Gr. IL §429. Th* 

248 KOTSS. 

ianM coDstr. is found also in Latin, as in SaHaslv Jog. L. 6 : opporhiniof 
fugae colli^ qiiam campi fuerant. Cic. Phil IV. 4: Qois igitur iUao 

Consulem, niiii latrones putant. 1^ ^^X^ ^ ddKwii, Aoena. plur 

eontract of the Sd Decl. For this use of the plar. to denote an abrtrad 

idea, see Ktthn. Gr. $ 248. 8 ; L. 6r. H. $ 408. p. 29, and c£ II. 1. 6. 

^fdroy^d-ai. The verb iiarotw is generally transitive and followed hj 
an Accos. ; but here Intrans. and with a Prep, before the Aceii& 

14. — 0& ykp, tumne i^Uur, is it not thenff Tdp eondibiye; see L & 

10. wapk rk ix\a (ma, prae, or, praeter, etc Tlie Prep. in^ with 

the Accnfli sometimes denotes comparison. So in IV. 4. 1 : wapk robs iXr 
Aovf c^cucr«#y. See Eahn. Gr. ^ 297. Ill (b) ; B. 147. woffd e. Aeeua. 8 * 

L. Gr. IL §615. S. 806. ttr3p««oi, without the article; so in the 

preceding section ; III. 12. 6 ; IV. 1,2; 8» 7 ; 4. 6, etc. This is one of the 
nouns that is sufficiently definite in itself and consequently does not need 
the article, but for the sake of emphasis, or to denote some spe^l signifi- 

oanoe. See KQhn. Gr. § 244. 2. R. 8 ; L. Gr. IL § 484. Anm. f^v^iu 

added to indicate that it is something more than an acquired superiority 

that man poasesseSi fiohs tip. The particle liv is rhetorical, giving 

emphasis to fio6s ; so not unfrequently when repeated, whilst at other times 
it is placed at the beginning of a clause to show at the outset that the 
predicate is conditional ; see Eahn. Gr. § 261. 8. (b) and (a), and L. Gr. 
IL § 468. 2. See numerous examples of such a use in Bornemann, ApoL 

^ 6, and Krfiger Anab. IIL 1. 6. ^X^'t ^^7 i^gre^ with tuf^ptnns 

to be supplied from i»dpvwot or with rlt, not unusually omitted with ft 

Partic or adjective. kfi^ordpttp rmw (i. e. vmiuk and ^vxq) irXcf- 

vrov kliuv Tcrvx^K<i's» utrumque praestantiasimum (animum et cor- 
pus) consecutus. 6rar rl itof^auvit icrX, when, ihey do vehatf 

L e., what must the gods do, so that you shall believe that they care for 
you I For tlie change here to a direct interrogation, see KQhn. Gr. § 344. 

R. 6; li. Gr. II. § 842. 1. roM<c<ti Attic future indicative; for its 

formation and use, see Kahn. Gr. § 117, and numerous examples in 
FritzscK in Quoest Luc p. 184-186. 

1 5* — S i ^laipovyrcs iv oficXctf irarard^ffrrai, selecting yon alone^ 
place you in forgetfulness. The direct discourse is here again assume^ 
c£ IIL 6. 14. Cyrop. 1. 8. 6 ; R 8. 8. 

16* — ^ M^ 8vrarol ilo'ar, sc «2 arol jcwcfit voicIf. — — 'ical, ao- 
eording to our idiom, may be rendered, or, i^awarmiiivvt^ (sq 

rp 8(({]r, ifs ol bw\ itcatfoi iio'ur cS^ icrJi.) 

17* — ^*fi yab4. Hermann says : " This is a friendly appellation which 
IB especially employed when it is desired to give one a gentle admonition. 

B00£ I. CHAP. y. 249 

For it d^aignates an almost entirely concealed reproo( like o bone in 
Latin. The Greeks also make use of 2 /3/\rurrc ;" ad Viger. ^ 64w C£ 
IIL 7. 9, and IL 8. 16. In tliis last passage 1^ is also used, as in h. L, 
although there is no change of speaker. This repetition is not unfre- 
quent in animated narration, and serves to direct the mind of the hearer 
more particularly to what is said. So in IL 7. 10, and IIL 4 12. C£ 

note upon IL 4 1. In quit is repeated in the same way in Latin. 

ivitp, sOi iif r^ c^fiaru The object of the following verb is not un- 
frequently to be supplied with a participle. Of. Anab. L 8. 11 : KdK4ffa9 

iropf ircXc^o rols ''EKKriffi : L e., jcoA. robs ^EAXi}yaf vapcK. drroit. 

iw 9apr\ ^p6vfifft9, intelligence which is in every thing. jcal 

/ft^, s& oUe^oi xp^ <^^ 7^^ should not suppose^ etc. There is also 
the same ellipsis after fofi^ just below. The reason of the change from 
aal /ii^ to nnU may be seen in Kahn. 6r. ^ 821. 2. Cf. L 2. 60, and m. 
7. 9. — »fpl r&¥ tr AiyixT^ jcal ip 2iicffX/f. For the ellipsis 
of Ttpl r«r, see note upon L- 8. 8. 

18.— *Hir fiipToi, if truly. i^4\orras , . . ^§\-fiffovci, see note 

upon L 2. 9. 9 0r», so, (inserted for the sake of distinctness after 

the preceding dause. r&p btup vtlpap Xafifidp-ps btpa^ 

vc^wr, to make a trial of the gods by worshipping them. cf, 

whether, "-'^yp^ffjf rh ^cior 8ri, #cr.\. For the constr. cf. §13 

above. iwifi§K*iff&ai ahro^s. The different readings^ with 

tAroh omitted, and with alrr6 in its place, seem to have arisen from a 
supposed difficulty in referring the plural pronoun to a singular antece- 
dent (t^ dnop). But such constructions, tearh a^wip, are not unusual 
in both Greek and Latin authors. So in IL 8. 9. C£ Bornemann Sym- 
po& rV. 68. p. 164 For the repetition of the subject by the pronoun, 
see Kahn. Gr. § 804. 8 ; L^ Gr. IL § 868. 10. 

19t — ^Tai;ra \4ywp, by saying these things. 6w6rt 6vh tS»p 

\pbpAtrwp hp^PTo. See note upon L 2. 57 : ^irciS^ 6tio\oyfiffcuro, 

^Tcfvcp iiyhiraiPTo. For this use of the Opt., see B. 139. ro. 16, 

and 44 ftriUhp &r irorc, . . . 8iaAai^«7v, not king ... can ever 

eeeape the notice of, etc. 


1« — ^El 8i 8^. In Attic Greek a fi^t or a general thought is fre- 
quently introduced by d^ and the sentence is vvoi^trtK&s, only in form. 
The cf is nearly the same as ^vci84 quoniam, einee ; (Ef^c is alio 
used^ the same manner as Ivcl ye ;) 84 then corresponds to the Latin 
• 11* 

250 NOTES. 

jam, or, rero, and indicates tliat the thing is established, is bejotd 
doubt See Hartung, Gr. Partik. L a 259 iq. ; Kflhn. U 6r. IL ( 691, 
and Gr. ^ S16. 1. C£ L 6. 9 ; H 6. 20 ; Sympoa. lY. 18. In Latin tha 
same idea is frequently expressed bj inserting nt est, or, nt est eerte 

after si, as: si, ut est certe. cai iyitpdr^ta KaX6w rt... 

iariVt self-government is both an honorable and good poesession (acqui- 
sition). wpobfilfia(9 ; 'see L 2. 17/ ''O trS^cs, in Latin the 

Yoc viri would not occupy the first place in the sentences — A r- 
Bpa, simply, ofu; any one, aliquis. Some suppose that i^Zpa is used 
here with some speciality of meaning, a real vum, but I do not so under- 
stand it fikif,. . Si, both,., and, tprtw' hp alv^apotfit^a. 

Hie Opt has the same force here as in a conditional sentence. The par^ 
tide ftr refers to a suppressed dause^ as §1 r^x^h ^^ it might be ; see 
Ktthn. Gr. § 260. 8. (4% (a) ; Lu Gr. IL 798 ; c£ a different use of Kr with 
the Opt in L 2. 6, and note. The participle 4»y is frequently not ex- 
pressed with the adjective or substantive, after verba eentiendi or dei^ 

randi. See EUhn. IL § 666. 8. 9rro» yaa-rpht, jcrA., inftrict to^ 

•ubjeci to, etc See Kiiho. Gr. § 275. 1. 2 ; L Gr. IL § 361 ; Roet ( 108^ 
p. 616, and cf. IV. 5. 11 : ^8pl llrrari r&w ^ rov c^fjucros ^oM#r. Thus 

in Latin with the Abl. : inferior voluptatibus. iriwov. 

*HrT«y ir^yov, e= one who is inferior to labor, yields to it, does not bear 
up under it roht voKwfilovs Kpar^trai, Kpar«2y is more inten- 
sive with the Accua than with the genitive. With the genitive it sign!* 
fies meraly to rule, to have in one's power; with the Aoeus. to subjugate 
to conquer. See KOhn. Gr. i 275. B. 1 ; L. Gr. IL ( 588. Anm. 2 
Kost> 4 108. Anm. 4^ 

2t — *Ewl rtk^vrp rov fiiov. See note, L 4. 12: rov Irovr XP^ 

po¥. t^vyaT4pas vapl^ipovt ; cf. Cyrop. IV. 6. 9: Km 94 /im 

f^il, Kot bvyinip wap^4tfOt, 9CT.K, iroiSf Do'cu . . . Sia^vXdC^ai, icr.A. ; 

these infinitives denote a purpose, and may be rendered in Eng. pas- 
sively; see B. 180.8. A^i^vitrroy cIs raDra, worthy of trust 

in respect of these Uiings; tlissLat de. iiyiia6fi€ba. For the 

use of the India in the Apodosis, after c2 with the Optat in the Protasis^ 

see Eahn. Gr. $ 889. 8. (bX and L. Gr. IL } 819. Mx^ i\ ir.rA. 

The ipa is to be repeated here, by anaphora, from the preceding sen- 
tence. -^— tpymv iwioroffip. The noun Kpyop is frequently used, as is 
also the Latin opus (opus facere ^ agrum colere), for agricultural labor. 
-— — T 1 9 Cr o r . Some editors insert the article before this word. And 
it is so used in ^ 1, and often elsewhere, when a person well known or 
previously described is referred to. Cf. $ 5 ; L 2. 87 : r&r &x. rAr roie^ 
rmtf, also Cyrop. Y. 5. 82. Often, too^ where the whole class of tho^who 

BOOK I. CHAP. y. 261 

are tticA, is referred Us the article is need, bat nerer where odIj one 
individual of the kind is designated 

-*AX\& fi^Wt simply bnt in the minor proposition, or, but ifuUetL 
-^— fff 7ff ^i|8^ touKop Airpark 9ff|a(/&«<^' ^"t if we wonld not 
eTer reeeiye a servant^ who was intemperate; i. e., if he might be 
intemperate, tl o^ot htpceriit cAg^ a conditional phrase to which the 
particle (ty here refers. Thin it is often need with reference to such a 
elanse, implied in a word, which is to be mentallj supplied. The nice 
shades of meaning, which the Greeks could express by th« use of this 
partide^ should not escape the student's notice. Hfi9h, not even, see 
Kflhn. Gr. ^ 821. 2. For the construction of the Optat. 8c(ai/iffy with 
&V Aft^r §1, see Kflhn. Gr. § 840. 6 ; K Gr. IL 526. Anm. 6; Roet» i 121. 

Anm. 8. ahT6p ye, AMs in contrast with SovAor, in Greek, 

signifies^ one who is free and of good lineage, and here it may be ren* 
dered, vie our^elpee, or, one himself, literally, (for the reflexive,) on«'f §ei/» 

T4 gives emphasis to the contrast Kal yitp. Ked gives emphasis to 

^rms, not so alto, — — — r&p, iWetp ii^aipo^/iepot xf^^M*'^'* 
The most common construction of A^aipcio'dai, is with two accusa* 
tives^ yet the construction with the Genit of the person and Aceus. of 
the things as here, is somewhat frequent ; so in Cyrop. Y. 4^ 29 : VIL 4. 
11 ; Demoeth. De Corona 282. 22, et aL It is very rarely followed by 
the AccQBL of the person and the Genit of the thing, in which case it sig- 
nifies to restrain, eta 'Avotrrcpccr also admilB these three modes of con* 
struetion, but whUst it oftenest has two accusativci^ it is very often 
followed by the Accusi of the person and Genit of the things as in Cyrop. 
UL 1. 11, and but very rarely with the Genit of the person and Accna. 

of the thing, as in D. Yenat XII. 8. ^^ icaicavffyos . . . r«r (IWmp. Ka- 

Kovpyot has the force and construction of a substantive. 

i^r-^Apd ye ol. See note upon I. 5. 11. The particle y4 with the 
interrogative denotes that having enumerated or passing by all else, the 
author proceeds to the last particular which is added with confidence in 
iti validity. It may be rendered, in fine, denique. See Hartung; 
Gr. Flartik. L a 877. Cf. HI. 2. 1, and note; also III. 8. 8: ^Afki ye.,, 

ipeerff fte. Do you, in fine^ ask me icpi}iri8a. The noun Kyraprft 

signifiei^ lit, a kind of boot^ and then generally a foundation, ground- 
work. So in Find. Fyth. lY. 188 (Boeckh.): fidXXero KfntwTSa ve^ 
Metp, foundation of a wise discourse. The same^ YH 8, et aL Upon 
the nature and value of temperance, as held by ancient philosophen^ 
see Ci& Tusc Disp^ lY. 18, 80, and Kllhner's note, and also the 
■ion i}i n. 1 below. 

252 NOTES. 

Aiartbttil jral rh v&fia, k.tA^ be oonstitnted both in bodj Mad 
mind. For the constr. of the pomye with an Accom, tee Kiihn. 6r. 

4 281. 1 ; L. Gr. n. § 565. 1. *E/iol fi\p, lUw mMUnre, see note upon 

1. 1. 1. v^ rj^r 'Hpay, a oommon oath among Athenian women, 

but probably not found in uie bj other men besides Socrates^ although 
somewhat frequent with him ; df. IIL 10. 9; 11. 5; lY. 2. 9» etc Con- 

oeming its use in Plato, see Stallbaum upon Hipp. Maj. pu 291. E. 

ZovK^lopra i\, opposed to 4\w^4p^ /iktr JbrSpl in the preceding elauseL 
<— /ictrc^fiy. The construotion with a verbal adjective, (as here 
with <v«rr^y) often passes into a simple infinitive. Kfthn. 6r. ^ 28^ 
R. 7 ; Lw Gr. il $ 587. Anm. 4. C£ ]>e Re Equ. IIL 7, where X^wrdm 
ftttpaaf is changed to vc^poy Aa|ti8d(r«ir. •— -Sff^vordv ikyal^mv rv- 
Xe«r. The idea of this passage seems to be that» whilst a free man 
should pray that he may not have an intemperate servant, he who is 
already Enslaved to his passions and appetites should supplicate that he 
may liave good mastery L e., those who by good example^ precept, and 
guidance, may exercise just restraint over him. The idea that by 8mt*- 
rail' &7cid. virtues are to be understood seems not to be well authorised, 
for although vioes» passion^ evil desires, etc, are called 8«o7r^ae and t4ff^ 
woiHu, virtues are never so designated ; neither are persons spoken of 
as enslaved to virtue : 9ovX«^iy rf iprry. 

ft. — '"Epyeif 1^ reit \6yois, in deed than in word, rmp' 9ik 

Tov v^fiarot iiZopAp, the pleasures of the body, or, which are 
experienced by the body. The common use of the article, in giving the 
force of an adjective to the words intervening between it and its noun, 
is evident here. — &AX& ar«l rqr 9th rAw xp^f^^^^^f ^"^ *^ 
of that (i^Soi^r, pleasure) which is obtained by wealth. ——v«p a rov 
rvx^yrof, from any one, quispiam, or, quilibet. -— — Sv^v^-' 
TUP iavrov, Gt L 2. 6. -— ~-o68ff/i*tar (rrei^ alexp^^' Thia 
phrase is in accordance with the Greek usage, although from the analogy 
of other languages we should expect : e6x frvoy ol^xp^ 4 lUAi^r ripd ; 
L e., the place of the object with which the thing is compared, r\% ia 
supplied by another pronoun, coalescing with the negative, (edtt^s) in 
the Genit witli the comparative adjective ; see KOhn. lb Gr. IL § 568. 
Anm. 8 C£ m. 6. 18 ; IV. 2. 12 ; De Yeetig. I 1. 


1«— "Af lor, sc iertp, it i$ worth while, or, it ie of «m»*y««i««. — 
»Tev jcal k vp'ht,.,pL^ wapaKtwttP, is equivalent to eArot weltt 


Avri^drra JiSyws fi^i 9«ip9\am¥, not to pass by his coDrenation with 
Antiphon; et Plat Rep. lY. p^ 439. B. The Genit utnov depends 
npon the relatiye clause ft . . . 8if A^x*^ which is equivalent to X^vs; 

r^ XvKpArti. We shonld naturally expect avr^ here, as the Pron. 

a&Tov precedes, but the Greek frequently repeats the subetantiTe after a 
pronoun or a noun, especially if there will be too great a concurrence of 
pronouns^ as there would have been here, ourov, avr^, oinmif. G£ H 0. 4 
Proper names^ in particular, are often repeated where a pronoun might 
be expected. Gf. Anab.-L 9. 15 ; Lycurg. contra Leocrat 87. p. 220. 

2t— ^Q 2i(icf»arct; see note upon L 5. 1. Tiraprtu r^s ^iKo- 
^o^tas &voA.cAavK^yac, to have been the participant of the very 
opposite from philosophy. For the construction of the Genit of the 
source of enjoyment with the Accus. of the thing enjoyed, see KQhn. Gr. 
$ 278. 6. (c) ; L Gr. IL ^ 526. Anm. 4 ; Rost $ 108. Anm. 16. See also 
lY. 5. 10.— — 'Yovy, compounded of y4 and oZp, aurely, at Uaxt, is 
often used after the general nature of a subject has been explained, and 
one argument or example, which is especially forcible, is adduced os suf- 
ficient pfoot C£ ^ 11 ; IL 1. 1 ; lU. 8. 1 ; 10. 1, etc It sometimes is 
simply a particle of affirmation, certainly, surely ; see Kfilm. Gr. § 824. 

R. 6. ohV hy tts, emphatic, for ov5eU &r. So in IL 6. 4 ; 7. 14: 

0&8* 6^* ^i^ff iZtKo6fA€voi; III. 5. 21, etc So in Latin, non ullus, is 
written for null us for the sake of emphasis. See Kiihn. Tnsc. Disp. L 

89. 94, Yar. Lectt oiria. re. The explanatory clause is frequently 

asyndic both in Latin and Greek. The ri corresponds with the follow- 
ing KoL IfidriQp iin^lta'at, Yerbs which in the Act voice take 

two accusatives, retain one in the Mid. ; see B. 135. 4. ^^oit ft6woif . . . 
Aax&, not only ...but This formula is us<^ where the* thought in the 
first clause is not denied, but the last is added as of more weight or of 
greater extent than the former, on which it is based. It accordingly dif* 
fers from ohjc . . . iOiXd, for the former * clause, when these partides are 
nsed, b excluded by the latter which takes its place. It is also to be 
distinguished from ov fi^iwr . . . hxxk Koit where the first idea as it stands 
alone is denied, but is affirmed as modified by the last clause. There are 
examples, though rare, where this last formula does not seem to differ from 
the one in our passage, as Plat Symp^e. p. 219, E : e6 fUpop ipMv wtpnip, 
&AA& jcol r&p HKfimw iiwd p T m p, but Kfihner thinks that in such cases the 
Kol may have been earelessly Wded. Stallb. Plat Sympoa. p. 206. A. in 

Yar. Lectt, and Bremius in Excursus IX. ad Isocr. &yvir^8i}T^f. 

This custom of going barefoot adopted by Socrates^ was the more oonspi* 
tuoue, since the Athenians especially prided themselves in tlie beauty 
9f their sandals : and this &et undoubtedly gave rise to his habit^ as a 

264 K0TS8. 

reproof of tlie lozniy and «ffeimiiA<7' of the timea. See AriBtopk 
Cload^ 108 : 

** ThoM iqiiaUd, banfoet, bcgprij Impoiionh 

Are BoerttM and Cheanplioiii.** 

Also c£ Mitehers note and y. 862; Plat Phaedr. p. 229. A. &x^ 

rwy, not without the inner garment; ^tyd^t, but the outer, hnt^^ 
mt which, jcoT^ Hox^, the anciente were aoeustomed to call tnnie ; and 
Uioee who were without it, were dx^T«rtt. See Emesti in h. L 
8iarfXffif. AiorfAffly need without the participle £r. So in 
YL 8 and 4^ et alibi So also Biaeyiyif9vdm, in XL 8. 6, and Gjrop. L 2. 
15 ; and rvyx^ttw, Hellen. IV. 8. 8 ; 8. 29 ; and mpw. See EfUm. Lb 
Gr. IL § 664. Anm. 1. In reference to Socrates* drea^ see Flat Fhaedr. 
p. 299 ; Sjmpoa p. 174^ 220. 

8. — ^Kal fiiiP,,,yL See note L 4. 12. Btw^p k«1, for the 

repetition of jkoI in comparison^ see note upon 1. 1. 6. — o0rt» jcal .. 
9iab^VMn, jou also will so dispose your disciples (that they imitate 
your frugality). Ct lY. 2. 40. 

4« — ETirt,... Aaicfftr fioi l^if. It b not unusual to interpose li^ 
in the middle of a sentence which is preceded by a verb of like signifi- 
cation. So in Sympoa. 1. 15 ; Plat SymposL pu 202. G. et aL Barely ia 
the same word 1^ repeated as in Cyrop^ IL 2. 18. The same idiom la 
somewhat frequent in Latin, where i n q u i t follows respondit. See 
KQhn. Tusc. Disp. V. 86. 105. — r( x^**'^*' fvl^m reAfiov /l/ev» 
i. e., ilk my manner of life. For the government of the Grenit, see 
Kahn. Gr. $ 278. 6. {t\ and L. Gr. IL i 628. Anm. 3. Ct L L 12 ; IIL 
4. 17. Ta^fiov is in many editions written without contraction rov i/toS. 

6* — U6T§poPt ae, x*^**"^ fcbit^M rod i/iov fitw, 8ri, U the 
severity which you see in my manner of life thii^ that, eta veTf 

M^r kafifidpovalv , , , ifi9\ 9^ fiii ka/Afidwopri, Two enuncia 
lions are frequently introduced by fi/r ...94 when the first is only in- 
tAoded to give force to the idea in the latter by contrast So here and 
in IL 1. 6 ; IL 1. 8 ; 7. 11 ; IIL 9. 8, et aL Sometimes two phrases are 

Uius placed in contrast without t^e ti4i^, but with far less force. 

^av\i(€is (from ^twXos, bad, mean, etcX do- you bold cheapo despise. 
— •Ar...^0';^(oyTef i/iov, K.r.K,, ihail eat Un kioUkfiU food than 
yoH. The longer form of the pronoun i/Mu, is here used instead of the 
shorter fiov in the preceding clause on account of the contrast For the 
eonstr. of the participle in the genitive absolute^ see note upon L 1. 4 ; 
^t TOW ZaifMariov rposrifuU^rros. At x«^<'^^*pat vopi^a^^ai 

BOOK I. CHAF. YI. 255 

rk 4uk Biatr^ifAara. With xa^>««^cpa» Ihrrti is to be lapplied from 
the followiog ela«ue : ifitm . . . trra. The Accoa. abeolute here ia to b^ 
pat ia the same eonfltroctioii in translating as the Oenit preoeding- 
because that my food, means of living; are more difficult to be procured, 
etc See B. 145.N. 7 ; Kflhn. i 812. 8. (e) ; K Or. IL i 678. The first 
Aor. Infin. woplffoa^cu depends upon the adjective x<>^**^*p^ ^^^ mAJ 
be rendered passively like the supine in -u in Latin. So both the Infin. 
Act and Mid. is used after several adjective^ nouns; etc. See EQhn. 
i S06. 1. R. 10 ; L. Gr. II. § 640. Anro. S. Cf. $ 9 : xaXtvcfirara, c&p«i>, 

jcrA. n. 1. 22; IIL 8. 8. 9tk Th...9lyat, Inf. with 9iJi in giving 

a reason as often in Qreek. 6 fihu Ijita'Ta icbiuv, he who eats 

with an appetite, a^relish. toS fi^ irap^irrof ...totoG, drink 

that is not in readinefls» obtained with difficulty. 

6* — ^T^ yc 11^ ¥ Ifidria, The noun is here placed at the beginning 
of the sentence for the sake of emphasis^ and is strictly in what the old 
Orammarians call a case of synecdoche : aa to garments^ you know, et& 

Upon yt ft^y, see note, L 4. 6: ic/juav yt fi'ffy, iral twod'^fiara, 

sa oTdT^* tru ff8i|...^/AK..S<& ^i^xot fia\k6w rou IvSov 

ti4yopTa, ie.r.X» The idea is: now then have you ever perceived that» 
I (who do not wear sandals), have either remained at home more than 
another, rov (who wears them), or, on account of the heat^ contended 
with any one, r^ for a shade, or, that from suffering; rh ikyttw, in my 
feet^ I have not gone wherever I wished f For the Accus. robs v^s, 
seeEiihn. § 279. 7. 1Cy9or=sLat domi, from Prep. 4y, in. In refer> 
ence to the idea in this passage^ cf. Plat Symp. p. 220. A. R 


7t — ^MffXfT^o'ayrct, sc. t^ vAfuu Part denoting the meana^ aa 
often. iifi^XiiffdpTttp, neglecting it, Tphs hp\ (many edi- 
tions have irpbf t and & Ikp ;) in respect to that in regard to^ or, for 
which they exercise. ^-^*£^^ Z\ ipa oitK ofci, icr.A., do you not 
suppose that I who always exercise myself to bear with my body what- 
ever hapjiens to it^ can do it more eaaily than you, etc. T ^ 0^/uiri is 
to be rendered with Koprepup, as Dai of means or instrument^ and itap- 
rtpnp depends upon the Part fitXrrApra ; et III. 9. 14 Apolog. $ 8. 

S» — Tov, ,.fiii Zov\969tp.,.yavrp\.,.ol€t ri &XA.0 alriS- 
Ttpop, do you suppose any thing else is more the cause of my not 
being a slave, etc ? The In£ in the Qenit with the Art is governed by 
the Adj. oht^tpop. The negative /a^ is used, as generally with the^ 
Infin., ooDoected with the article^ to denote that an idea exists subje<y 
tively, in the conceptions of the speaker, Kahn. Gr. § 818. 4. — ~-f d- 
^pafrei; thjs verb belongs to both membera of the sentence^ and 

266 K0TX8. 

mny be translated with the latter only; as if written : k oh iMAvm H 
Xpc(? trra (wliile we nee them), kXkA jcal AirtSor 9ap4x9rra it»l m^ 
Kticuv •b^pal¥tu A yerb belonging to two members of a sentence ia 
often pat in the first only in Greek, as well as in onr own language. 

Cf. 1*7. 8; IL4.2, etal. Kal f(j^y...7ff, see note npon L 4. 13. 

ol.,,ot6fitroi fiiiSkw «Z rpdrrttv, those supposing that they 

do not prosper In every thing. The phrase, c3 v^rrcir, is really ellip- 
tical for 4? wpdrrtw rk a&roS. The phrase cS wpdxrtiy has two sensei^ 
to do well and to be prosperous ; sometimes it passes from one significa- 
tion to the other in Uie same sentence. &s cS vpirrorrtf, aa 

those who are in prosperity. For a similar play upon words, see Stallb. 
Plat Charmid. p. 172. A; Alcibi L p. 116. B. et^ Concerning the 

sentiment^ see TIL 9. 14, 15. 1^ &AA.' 8 ri tip rvyx^^^^^^ ^F' 

ya{6/i€vot, or anything ehe about tokieh they may be employed. The 
yerb -njyxi^t^v, when used with a Partis as its complement^ need not 
always be rendered at all It indicates that the event designated by 
the Partic ia one which takes place, not by design, but by chance, or in 
the ordinary course of nature, etc. See Kahn. § 310, 4^ (I). 

9i — tXvaif i% produced, fiowB fr<jm. Jo^ijr krrh tow kavrip 

re 4iy€7v^ai /3cXt(«, as from the feeling that one's self is becoming 
better, and is acquiring better friends^ jcal ^Kous oftciVovf Krardai, i, e., 
is so acquiring them that they are better, 6rrc kfithovs yiywfa^ai. Thia 
is similar in construction to the phrase : vcuSc^u' nifit ao^r, i e., vu- 
Sff^ciy rii^ &sre oo^p ylyvwbm. This question, as indicating Socrates* 
two principal Sources of enjoyment^ and, I might add, incentives to 
action, (i. e, self-improvement and the improvement of others by friendly 
intercourse,) is worthy of the prince of heatlien moralists and philoso- 
phers. rolfvy, see L 2, 84. raOra rofit^ttPf I e., that I am 

becoming better and acquiring better friends. ikw S) 8^ ; cf. note, 

and see I. 5. 1. TAc/«r <rxo\ht ic«t.A., more leisure to care for, ete. 

T^ itaphp, that which is present or easily procured. ^icvo- 

KtopKfibeiii ; this word seems to be used here in referring to peraomv 
in the sense of i\ttp, to take captive ; so fought against as to be taken. 
Eellen. XL 4. 8, and Thucyd. L 181, have been referred to as examples 

of this signiC of the word. rdi^ x^^^'^'t^^^"^ eipetp, of things 

most difficult to be obtained, with which roit ^^tfroit iprvyxipti is con- 
trasted ; cf. the use of the latter supine in Latin. iipKovpTots XP^' 

fi t p s sai ipKo^fitpot, vonlenled, 

lO»—^Zoticat,..otofi4p^. With the verb iotic4pat, the participle 
may be put either in the Dat as here, or in the Nominative. See Kiihn 
MIO. R. 2; L. Gr. IL ^ 66«. 2. For the Dat ct Sympcs. IL 15, and 


for the Nom., Hellen. YL 8. 8, and AnaK IIL 6, 18. ^^fii|8cy^f 8^ 
^v^ai ^97 OP «fyai; in regard to this priociple of the Socral.c philo* 
eophy, see Ritter*8 Hist Phil. II. p. 66 sq, and Brandies Gesch. Phil. IL 
Sl 9. For B4wbau many flditors read, Bm^ol But Xenophon seems 
to have had a preferenee for the fall form of this woi'd ; see Kflhn. 6r. 
§137. 2; L. 6r. 1.144. 

11. — *ZyA Toi, I indeed, or, fm my part See IL 1. 11, 18, The 
strengthening particle rot is often used with pronouns^ and with other 
particles esp. in answering questions ; c£ note upon I. 2. 46, and also see §817.8; L. 6r. IL § 706. 1. tr^ /i^p 8Uaioy, for which 

one MsL and some editors read : vh Hkcuov /jAv, It does not seem neces- 
sary to deyiate from the reading of all the other Msa, since even the 
best Attic writers do not always maintain perfect regularity in the col- 
location of the particles ti4¥ and 94 after the word which tliey qualify. 

See Kahn. Gr. § 822. R. 2. Soictir 8^ ; in Latin, instead of the 

Conj. the relatiye quod would be employed in such a connection as 

this: "quod etiam ipse mihi yideri&" yovp, see note upon § 2. 

wpdrrp, see note L 2. 5: Arp^TTfTo. — icafToi ...yf, see note 
1. 2.8.^-^ov8ffrl &y ft^ Bri vpoiJra 8ofi}f, &X\' ou5*, ir.r.A., I 
tay not» that yon would not give them to any one gratuitously, but not 
without a full price, L e., /lii \iyv 8ri, ict.A., like the Latin, ne dicam. 
Gfl II. 9. 8. Cyrop. L 8. 10. See Hermann ad Viger. 258 ; Kahn. Gr. 

§821.8; B. 160.1. iXarrow r^s ii^iaf, i. e., f\arro¥ fj ^ i^U 

Toitrmp rmv j^/tdrwp itrrL Cf. II. 6. 6 : rh wXmp r^s ii^ias ', IL 1. 22 ; 

IIL 11. 1 ; 18. 6, et al. See also Kahn. L. Gr. IL § 751. 4. &|U 

sc. ri/i^, its price or value. 

12. — Zl ital riip irvpovfflap. The particles W icol are not to be 
taken together, but kqI belongs with riip vvpovctapi alto; and col 
trasts that word with rh IfUriop, icr.A. ^powlap (from aifpufu) means 
literally, a being with ; here, the intercourse of teacher and pupil, or, 

master and disciple. Af«raiof fi^p oIp &y cfiys. The order of 

the words would here be inverted in Latin : Sis (or eris) ergo sane Justus^ 

0-0^9 8^ oIk &y; sc. ctiit. The particle $9 is found without a 

verb where it may be readily supplied from the context : see Kiihn. I^ 
Gr. n. § 456. Cf. Anab. IIL 2. 24, and passages from Plato, cited in 

Kuhner's Gr. as above referred to. fujSty^f 7c &(ia, things ytortk 

nothing, of no value ; y4 gives emphasis to iijfiw6t, 

IS*— nap* 4hi7p rofifCcTai, K.r,K The order of the thought in 
this passage is : irap* ^lup pofd(§rM tftolms fi\p itaX6p, 6ftoims 8^ aitrxf^p 
t?Mu T^r fipoy Kcd riip ao^iop 8iaf (dttfi^oi. It seems to us equally 

258 NOTES. 

hoDorabl« and eqaallj base to set to aale beaatj and wiadom ; L a, howi- 
eyer base it may be to prostitate phjsieal beaatj for gain, it is eqnaUj 
base to make pecuniary gain from wisdom ; and as it is honorable to sell 
(impart) beautj to one who is a lover of the good and tme, in order to 
acquire him as a friend, and for this purpose to impart beautj of mind 
(I e^ the love of the good and beautiful) to him, so is it to impart wis- 
dom to others who desire it^ not from lore of gain, but in order to con 
ciliate them as friends. In reference to ifiolmf lUw . . . 6fictms li, d. Hier 
X. 8: hikoimt ijAv Tpiff ffoit 29foir, hiM»iu% tk rott ir& riiv X'^P'^* Pl^t^ 
BjmpoB* p. 181. B. Aivrldtedai, which is used of mercliants who expose 
their goods for sale, is fitlj chosen to characterize the conduct of the 
Sophists^ who communicated their wisdom to anj one who might desire 
it, for a pecuniarj reward. —^ rovrw ^i\op iavr^ voi^rac. The 
reflexive pronoun is not unfrequentlj used with the Mid. Voice^ espe- 
ciallj in antitheses in order to bring out more distincUj the reflexiTe 
semie of the verb. So in Cjrop. IIL 2. 22 : lY. 2. 22 ; YIIL 1. 13, etc. 
Still we have in this same section : ^tkow roi^rai without the pronoun. 

See Kiihn. Gr. $ 250. R. 8, and L. Or. IL i 398. 2. riir ao^taw. . . 

roht.,. vwX vy r a f . The noun r^y <ro^Iay is placed at the beginning 
of the clause for the sake of emphasis. The usual order of the words 
would be: roht fiJkp r^y iro^leaf vfXMwras. C£ IL 2. 4: ro^ou 7« rSw 

iLvo\wr6rrwr ; TV, 4. 7: w€pi apt^f/uip rots ifmrAvw. ^o^ivrkt 

isir^p 96pwovs ; s^e note, L 1. 11. Bj the addition of fisr«p w6p9wt 
here the idea of prostituting wisdom, L e., giving it for a reward, as the 

w6ppos did the bodj, is distinctlj expressed. e&^va. Some few 

Msl. have Uie form c^inf. But there seems to be no reason for changing 
the text The form in -a is found in IIL 1. 11 : Mta, and in 3. 13^ 
although in the latter case there are various readings. In Plato both 
forms are used, but the form in -a more frequent! j. Kahn. L. Or. L J 15. 
Anm. 8, sajs that in such words ^a is contracted into a, although the 
contraction ^ is sometimes found, ^^-irot^rai. Manj editors here 
adopt the reading iroif rroi, which is found in two or three Mss. But the 
subjunctive seems to be required, and although we should expect tiM with 
the Subj. in a relative clause^ jet it is omitted in the preceding clause : 
rovTop ^ikmf kavT^ roi^oi, to which this seems to be conformed. Still 
if, as Matthias supposes^ it were necessarj, it might easilj have been 
omitted in copjing, after S<rru 94 in consequence of the similar words 

5ir &y following. See Kahn. L. Gr. IL $ 796 1. $XV «7a^^i'- For 

the use of Kx^ip with the signification, i/: be possessed of, to know ; 
cf. ^14: <rx&; I. 6. 13; IL 2. 6; III. 2^1. This word is emplojed io 
reference to anj tiling that is in one's power, whether external or inter- 
nal Thus we find it followed Dj xJlXXat and vtt^poHpiiP, as well aa 
lifrdtftfit, i^iir, eta 


14a— *E7^ S' 9Zw Ka\, andlaeeardinglpmytelf. ftX^oii rvr(- 

vriitHf eommendf recommend to othert. So frequently in Xenophon, 
▼. Bornemann in Index to Anab. p. 618, and in note Sympoe. lY. 68. 

p. 104. vap* iw.,.m^9\^<rtff^ai...iLp§riiif, from whom I 

think they will be in any way benefited in respect to virtne. For the 
future •^X^^c^dcu, y. note upon L 1. 8: itndarrut » . . ar^p^errai, and 

Kdhn. Gr. ^ 251. 8. K rAr wdKai tro^Ap kvhpmv. Some, as 

GL F. Hermann, have referred these words to the early poets- rather than 
the philosophers^ But this rather forced, though by no means impoesible 
interpretation, is not necessary. For Socrates does not affirm that he 
inculcated the dogmas of the Sophists ; but^ he says, if we find any tiling 
good in them (and he doubtless found much, see Introd.) we cull it and 

oonnt it a great gain. jrar^Xivor, the Aor. in the sense of our 

perfect; see Buttmann Gr. § 137. 8. iitp dXA^Aoif ^(Aoi, if we 

(before friends) may become, ^Uoi, endeared (by these common pur- 
suits). 'n^cXifioi instead of ^/Aoi, seems eyidently to be a gloss. 

15t — Tlor\, Notice the use of this particle in introducing each con- 

Tcrsation, see $ 1, 11. In § 11 connected with wiKiv as here. U&t 

.,,iiyeirat,..wpdTr€t..,iiriffraTai, These verbs are all found in 
the Optative, iryotro . . . wpdrroi . . . Mvtmto, in a few Mss. ; and that 
reading is adopted byEniesti and others. But the change probably 
arose from the feeling, that the indirect question required that Mood. 
It cannot however be doubted that even the present indicative may 
be used, when the oblique interrogation takes the form of the direct : 

see note upon L 1. 1, and examples there cited. 8^, whUtL—^ 

oh wpdrrei rii «'oAiriir&, see note I. 1. 18. — - ifvfff» iwiffra- 
rai, if he really had knowledge of it This seems to have been add.ed 

in derision by Antiphon. Ilor^pwf 8*. The particle 8^ here 

refers to a suppreseed clause: Aryeit /Uk 4fi^ rk woXtriKa fiii wpdrretv. 
You say that I do not engage in political life, but, etc. ; cfl note upon L 
8. IS. Socrates rightly supposed that the true government of a nation 
must begin with the education of the youth ; and that it is a fiir highet 
and better service, to form many to be good citizens, than to be the 
chief ruler of the State. 


1. — *AKa(o¥9las kxorpivuv. The Gknitive is here governed by 
the force of the preposition in eompotfition, or it may be termed, the 


260 NOTES. 

ieparntive Gkoit after the Part iatorphrmw. Se« KOhn. Gr. f If 
For the meaoing of k\a(. et Cyrop. XL 2. 12 ; and Aristot ad Nicoi 

IV. 7, and Theophitwt. Char. c. &3. wpo4rp*w9w, see note L 

iir* f&So{/f. Schneider, Emesti, Herbst, and others^ baf^ 

AocuB. c&8o(fay. Concerning the sentiment^ see IL 6. 89, and Cjr 
0. 22. Tovro ... ft, Ace of limitation. Eahn. Gr. ( 279. 7 ; & ) 

S. — 'Ep^v/A^fit^a ydp. The particle ydp in exhurtationf 
very much the force of our now : Let us now consider. He had fe 
spoken of AXa^orffar, boasting, to his disciples, and says: we will no 
let us now illustrate the subject by examples. See Hartung Gr. I^ 

I p. 476 sq.; KOhn. Gr. § 824. 2; L. Gr. IL 754, b. nil Ar, i 

he is not Sp' o6, must he not, etc f c£ nute upon L 8. 11. — ^ 

l|» ryjs r^x^V** icr.X. The oonstructioik of td I|m is the sac 
that of riXKa in Cyrop. L 8. 10 ; see Kahn. Or. $ 280. R. 1 ; L C 
^ 058, Anm. 1. The adverb f^m has the force of a noun in conseq 
of the article. See EQhn. Gr. ^ 244. 10. For the construction and gov- 
eming power of Yerbals» see Kdhn. Gr. (jf £b4. 8, 12 ; B. 184. 9, 10. — 
o'fcc ^i|. In regard to the expense of the equipage of the ancient chorus 

of flute-players, see Boeckh, Eoon. of Athtus^ B. IIL ch. xxiL f r c ira, 

for ^ircira 8^ see note upon L % 1. kwit ^^r...7f, see note 

upon L 1.6. fpyo¥.»,oHatAod \fi%r4o¥, he must never make 

a trial of his skill, give an exampU 6f his art Schneider and Borne- 
mann consider fpyop . . . Xijirr^or m synon. with ipyoXafitiy, HL 1. 2. 
■ leafroi. . . SavayAr, aUhmt^h at great expense. For xofroi with 
a Partic, see Kiihn. Gr. i 812. R. 8 ; L Gr. IL § 667. p. 870, and note 
upon L 1. 6. 

t* — ^'Ar 8* a0T»f. TL« 94 is sometimes though seldom written 
after itsavrmt, as in § 4 : *a»a^«t Bi. The adverb ittoArms corresponds 
in meaning to the adjective 6 alnis, the same, from which it u derived. 

^ fi Kvfitpp^TJif, For the position of this word, see L 6. 8: c^ 

^pcJyci. — -Ttt^rp Kvirvipiif, with cfi} understood: it would on this 
account be a source of misery. C£ m. 5. 2 ; IV. 8. 12 ; Sympos. IV. 17, 
and Bos' Ellipees Gr. L p. 888. — Kv/Sc^ray r§ iraraffrai^cU. 
In respect to the constmetioh of the infinitive here^ cf. IIL 2. 1 : ^rpain^ 
ytijr ijpriijjp9h *Dd 8* 1 : hnra^MUf j^fi4pos. The particle t4 here is a 
great offence to the critics. It is wanting in two Mbs., and some editor^ 
following these MsSw, have found it to be the easiest way to dispose of i^ 
to exclude it altogether from the text But Kuhner seems to be right 
in supposing that it cannot be thus summarily got rid of, and gives at 
.east a plausible explanation. The words otf ffjcMrra fioikono^ are oon- 
erasted with tdnlw, and the full ezpresaion would require rovrovf to 

BOOK L CHAP. vn. 261 

precede olft, ar.rA. But if the demonstratiTe bad been added, the pbraae 
would undoubtedly have been rovroos re oSfr, tcr.K, and as the demon- 
atrative was omitted the particle r4 very naturally took a plaee near the 
beginning of the clause. It is correlative with Ked before uurhs alirx' 
ar.r.A. Its influence is to heighten the contrast between evils that are 
inflicted upon another and upon himself by one who is unskilful in his 
profeflsion. So r^ is not unfrequently placed at the beginning of a 
sentence to indicate that one clause and not a single word is contrasted 
with another. See U. 1. 6, 28, and Bomemann's note; IL 2. 12; HL 
12. 4: jcol Si& ravra tSp ri Xotnhp filop Ifiiop mal icdXKiop BiaCiirt, KtH 
ro7r Iturrifp iraurl icoAAJovr kpopfiikt tls rbr fiiop KaretXtirowrtp (where 
we might expect koI a&roQ. It is placed in the same manner where two 
words blended in one idea are contrasted with another word, IV. 1. 2 : 
raxi T«, jctA. Some translate r§ here: "for instance;** see Knicker* 
bocker for Dec 1847. — -&va\\c({c<cr, come off, Tlie verb iwoK- 
xdrrtof is not unfrequently used in an intransitive or reflexive sense, 
TIL 13. 6 ; Cyrop. IV. 1. 6 ; Demostli. de Coron. p. 246. 65. 

4« — Mil tvra, Soicciy. The Inf. cfi^ai is to be supplied from the 

participle trra after ^okup. AAvo'itcXW Air^^aiKc. With 

verba utUiendi and deelarandi and especially with ^yofuu, the participle 
of flyoi is frequently omitted ; see K&hn. Gr. ^ 810. R. 6 ; L. Or. II. 

656. 8 ; ct II. 8. 14 : fiii alaxf^s ^avpf;lV. 2. 12 ; Sympos. III. 8. 

/Ac((<» 1l tcarii 9&pafitVf greater than (is in accordance with) their 
ability. For the force of the comparison with % xard, see Efihn. Gr. 

i 828. 7 ; I. Gr. n. 4 751. I ; and cf. IV. 4. 24; 7. 10. oific &r, 

not eaniy. 

6* — Ef rit. . . vapd( rov,»,\a^iiP itvoartpotfi. The participle 
Xufiitp governs the nouns itfy^ptop and Vicffvof. The full phrase would be^ 
<1 Tii ipy6ptor ^ ffKtvot irapd i%v \a0inf nirrhv ravra awocrtpoiri. ^-— 
^(ifvar^irfi, sc. rii9 itdKuf, Some have suspected that this verb sliould 
be in the Optative, L e., i^inwarfitcoi or i^awar^. But Socrates probably 
wished to represent it as a real fact^ and if so^ of course would use the 

indicative. >iir otp. The conclusive particle otp is omitted in 

two or three Msa, but it seems to be needed here. C£ L 1. 20 : davfUiot 
•3r; L 2. 62, where 84 takes the place of oSr ; L 8. 15; 4. 9 and 6. 14. 
Toi^8< ZtaX,ey6n9Pot ; we should rather expect rouwra here, 
referring to what has gone before ; see note L 2. 8, but roiiSc is used 
8«iimjr»f, i. e., in reference to the present conversation, the one now in 
progress. See Kahn. in h. 1., and Gr.$308. R. 1. AtaXiyta^at, originally, 
perhaps^ had reference to discourse between diiferent individuals by way 
of question and answer ; see Socrates^ definition of it in IV. 5. 12. So in 

262 NOTES. 

L 6. 1 ; H 10. 1. ixLi the idea of dUlogne was finally lost in the vord, 
and it was used for discourse carried on by one person, especially in 
the Socratio method of eliciting troth by questions^ etc G£ IL 4. 1, 
and see note, IV. 6. 12, and Woolsey's Gorgias^ p. 447. G. 



1* — Kal roiavra \4ym¥, by saying the following things he also 
seemed to me, etc Kal appears to contrast roiovra Xiytn^, with what 
was said in Book I. Chap. V. upon this same subject, and roiaDro, eon- 
traiy to the general, though not universal principle, refers to what fol- 
lows; see KOhn. Gr. § 808. 1. R. 1 ; B. 127. 1. b. The Part (\h*^\ 
here, as frequently, denotes the means ; EAhner, however, in h. L refers 
rauurra. to what precedes in the last chapter of the first Book, but it is 
difficult to see how what is there said, should tend directly to incite men 
to temperance in eating, drinking, etc, whilst the direct object of what 

follows is to inculcate ihsX virtue. vpht iwt^ufAiaw iSpwrov... 

Kal w6»ov. The difficulty in this sentence has caused different editors 
to propose a variety of changes in the text But the most natural sup- 
position seems to be, that it is an irregular construction of Xenophon 
himself, and that the nouna from fipwrov to Ihrpw are governed by ^«- 
bvfila^; and the following, ^lyovt, icrA., are governed by fyjcpdErccor 
as if iwt^vfilw had not intervened. 'Eyirp^rciay may then be rendered, 
temperance or moderation with the first nouns and with the last endu- 
rance, Latin: tolerantia. So SeifFert; and Kfthner assenta to the 

same explanation as proposed by S^ppius. Tpoht 94. Many 

editors, as Herbst and Seiffert, substitute ydp for 94 here. But it seems 
unnecessary, as 94 is not necessarily adversative but explicative. It not 
only, however, like ydp, introduces something for the sake of explanatioc^ 
but adds with it some new thought which gives force or dignity to tha 
preceding notion ; cf. IL 6. 6 ; Hermann ad Viger. 845, 6 ; Hartung Gr. 
Pai-tik. I. a 167 ; Bornem. ad Syrop. lY. 17. p. 117 ; and Kahn. L. Gr. 11 
^ 786. 8. So in Latin autem is put for enim. See Eiihner's note upon 

Cic Tusc Disp. I. 2. 8, p. 60. iueo\affror4p^t ^x^f^^^t ^X» ^*^ 

Adv. equivalent in signify as frequently to §ifit with an Adj. 'Apf- 

<m«r»f, AristippuB, one of the disciples of Socrates, termed "imperfect 
Socititbta." He was a native of Cyrene in Africa, from which the school 
of philosophy, of which he was the reputed founder, was called tha 

BOOKU. CHAP. I. 268 

Cjrenaio scliooL Bom of wealthy parentis he seems to have indulged 
in all the luxury and pleasure, for which the inhabitants of his native 
city were notorioua The fame of the discourses of Socnites induced him 
to go to Athens (Plat de Curios. 2 ; Diog. L. 1. 1), where he remained as 
a disciple of Socrates until his execution, PlaL Phaed. p. 69. He was 
odious to Xenophon and Plato (Diog. L. II. 65. c. note), termed Sophist 
by Aristotle (Metapb. III. c. il); and his subsequent life shows that 
Socrates did not wholly cure him of his inclination to sensual pleasure. 
See Ritter's Hiat Ancient Philosophy, Vol IL Chapu IIL p. 84 sq., and 
Lewes^ Biog. 'Hut. Phil. YoL II. Chap. IL p. 10 sq., where seyeral charac- 
teristic anecdotes of him are related.— —{^o r&if p^mp, two of our 

youth, young men. &px^' ! ^^^ conatr. see Kahn. Gr. ( 278. 8. (b)(8). 

— Bo^Aci ffKowmntr, For the Subj. after /So^Xci, seeEOhn. Gr. 
i 259. 1. (b) ; B. 189. 1. (1) ; L. Gr. § 464. c ; M. IL § 516. 8 ; cf. $ 10. UL 
6. 1 ; IV. 2. 18, 16. — ical 6 'Apiff, The connection here may be made 
in English aa well as Latin by a relative: to whom, cui, Aristippus 
replied. 70 Sr ; see note upon L 6. 2. 

2. — lUiths y^p> ^OT ydp in response, see L 4. 9. T^ odp vpo- 

atpt'iv^at...fia\\op. The comparative ftSxXop is frequently added 
to wpo€up€urbat when it might be considered as almost redundant; so 
potius malle in Latin. Cf. IIL 5. 16 ; IV. 2. 9 ; 4. 4; Isocr. de Pace, 

p^ 153.87. i^iCotfitP. This verb governs two accusatives^ one 

however is made by the Infin. with the article t6. See Kahn. L. Gr. IL 

i 643. iwpaitTu ylypiirait be left undone or neglected. 

veipk r^p iiceipov &px4^» under his government or while he has 

the control of things. rh 96paadat ii^^Apra kpix^^^eHf the 

being able when thiraty to endure it 5y ; see note upon L 8. 9. 

I. — T( Zi ; this phrase corresponds substantially with the Latin 
" quid vero," and is used in passing suddenly to another pointy to call the 
attention to iK rh fia^elp, ..wor4p^ hp irposttpat ftaKKop 

rp4irtt; to learn., .to which would thie more properly belong f 

no\2», sc. itMXXttP hf vphteu icol 7*^, for even; see Hartung, Gr. 

Part L S. 187 sq. The Yulg. reading is ical yhp icol, but the last kqL is 
not found in the eight Paris and some other Msa. and should in all pro- 
Wibility be omitted. See Kahn. in h. L 

4. — To^rwp...rh fikp, icrJL, of these (I e., brute animalsX some^ 
to wit enticed by the appetite, and even some who are very fearful of 
incurring danger, yet urged on by the desire of gratifying their appetites^ 
are taken, etc. T& /ikp indicates some of animals in general and Ikm 
ht^mwodfAtpa is subjoined by the figure ko^ 6\ep icol fidpot. CL note 

264 KOTSS. 

upon L 2. 24 ; IL 7. 1 ; IIL la 11 ; IV. 2. 81. The same figare is com 

moo in Latin. i^iirfdfitpot rov, being withdrawn, allurad from 

Uiinking of danger. See note upon L 8. 12 : rod ^pwtuf i^ivrnvu 

6« — TahriL,'is d^portiTT^roff . Words which contain the 
idea of likenesa, unlikeneaa^ etc, govern the Dat» hence raSnA (from 
h tun6s) governs &^rctfriro». See KQhn. Gr. § 284. 8. (4) ; L. 6r. IL 

§ 676; Soph, {r 195, n. 8. ttsv^p, jwA as, to adduce an example. 

Ct III. 8. 12. ff Ipacr&s, fr. c2^irH|> (fr. <Vy*^ to shot in,) an indoeed 

pUce, and hence here, the wamerCi apartmeni9f so called, as sednded from 

the rest of the house. JcfvSvrer, sc. fm. 6 tf^/iot AvfiXci; 

see an account of the penalty affixed to this crime in Smith's Diet Adml^ 
terium, and Meier and Sch5man, AttiQ Procesi^ B. IIL 1. & 827 aq. — * 
twru¥ Z\ voXXwy, ic.t.X., since there are many things that can fi«e 
from the desire of these pleasures Accord, to Fr. Po^tu^ the study of 
philosophy, the arts, painting^ eta Thus in IL 2. 4 it is said : rolrm yt 
rSw kro\va6trrm¥ fuvrtd ftJkr ol 69oL The future participle is used in a 
similar way in IL 8. 8 : rf 8«o/Aciry rod ovw^wtfuKtiaofidyov ; IV. 4. K. 

2p' o6ic ff8i|... jtf-Tiy, is not this now the part of one wholly 

posseased of an evil genius ff Upon f^Sif see Hartung, 6r. Partik. I. p. 248, 
and KQhn. L. Or. IL ( 690. B. The Latins use jam in the same way, 
and we, now, with the emphasis. Ct II. 1. 14 ; 9. 7. Plat Phaedr. p. 26a 
0: na77^Xoi^y y hp IjBii cfi}, that would new be very laughable. 

6* — ^T^ 8^ c7vai /A^^r 8^. The idea is: Is it not a great 
want of forethought that, although many of the employments of men Are 
in the open air, iif bwtdl^p^ where they may be exposed to .inclemency 
of weather, yet numbers are entirely unaccustomed to bearing heat and 
cold ; unexercised in, h.yvt»»iffrt»t fx^ur. For the constr. and the use of 
fi4p and 8^ see I. 6. 6, and cC § 8 below. 

7. — Tobt iyKpar^is. This word is used in a double sense as in $ 1. 
Toirtt¥ kxardpov rov ^vAov r^v Ttl^tv, the ranV of each 

kind (genus) of these men. 

8. — Tov, ..vapaffK^vditip; the Infin. as Oenit absoL with Sprot. 

fi^l iLpK97p rovrof sa a&r^. The verb ipttfip is found without 

the Dat of the person, as in IL 2. 6 ; IV. 4w 9. We might naturally ex- 
pect /i^ ipKM^m roir^t hKKk wposaptA^a^M, ic.tA^ not to be satisfied 
with this, but also to take upon one*s self to supply, etc. But it is fre- 
quently the case in Qreek, that the object of one clatise is made the sub- 
ject of the next, even witliout indicating it by a pix>noun. See KQhn, 
L. Gr. IL 4 852. a. CC Thucyd. L 45. 61 ; IL 65, and Stallb. note upon 


Fkto, Protag. p. 820. A. B ; De Repub. IL p. 860. A. ; Gorg. p. 510, B. 

iroXKh &» /So^Acrai ^AAcfveiy. The subject of 0o^\rreu is to be 

supplied from the preceding words &ppoyos k^bp^trov, 'EAAcfircii' ri 

lavT^, signifies to deny one*s self a thing. rodrov IHkiiv itei- 

X < < y » ^o tubjeet onit %elf to punishment for this, 

•• — ^'£7i( r c . . . at re v6\€is.. For the use of re . . . rt, see L 1. 14^ 
'— i^bova rk iwtr^Btta wapaffKtvdCtiw. The Adj. i^^'^ 
k a predicate, as the position of the article indicates ; see L 4 13. The 
Inll enunciation of the thought would be : r& 4wiT^€ta wapcurKtvdCtty, 
&rrs a^^ &^o¥a §hai. We, however, may express the word t/^opa 
in English by an Adv. or adverbial phrase, abnndantlif, in abundance, 

woKXik irpdyftara ^X*'^ airoTs r§ Kal iXkois irap^x***'* 

It is unnecessary to stop to enumerate the various changes of reading 
and the consequent explanations of this phrase, given by different edit- 
era. Those who are curious to see them, may consult Euhner in h. L 
The idea seems to be : those who wish to have many cares and labors 
themselves and to furnish them for others (i. e.; make others industrious), 
I would reckon, etc The pronouns a6rotf and iKKoit are contrasted. 
Thucyd. 1. 70 has been very justly compared with this passage. The 
Corinthians there say of the Athenians : firrc cf ris attrohs (urcXiliy (i. e., 
embracing every thing in few words) ^alii ww^vKivai M r^ /ilirt awrohs 
i^X*"^ V^vKieWt /liirt rohs AXXovs ba^bp^ovs iaif, ipbAs &y cfroc Cf also 
Diog. Laert X 139, concerning the Epicureans : rh fuucdptovt k.t.\. ; and 
Cicero's interpretation of it^ Nat^ I>eor...L 17 : Quod aetemum beatumque 
es^ id nee habet ipsam negotii quicquam nee exhibet 
alteri. CC also Cic. de Oft JIL 28. 102. In reference to the antitheti- 
cal use of wpdy/uira Ixcu^ ftad wpdyiutra Tap4x*aft cf> Hellen. IV. 5. 19, 
and V. 1. 29. ifiavrhif roivvw. We should expect some adversa- 
tive particle here as li ; but the conclusive particle roiyvp seems to be 
used by anacoluthon, and the natural completion of the preceding sen- 
tence would have been : rohs Zk $ov\ofi4yovs rii4mt fiiortdtiy tis rotts 
iipX^f &vffxoM^^0Vf ; in which case rolyvy would have been expected. 
For the use of roivw after fi4p in a preceding clause, see Arn. 2 Gr. 
Comp. pt 196 ; c£ Cyrop. I. 1. 2. 

lOt — TovTQ aict^^fitba. This is a plain case of the reference of 

rtvTo to what follows; see note upon L 2. 8. Tldrv fihy oSv, sa 

vKv^^fuba. — *Ey 8^ rp E&p. . . . ipx* For the extent of the Scythians, 

see Panegyr. Isoc p. 22 and note, Felton's Ed. ff r&y *EX\^y»y. 

A strictly regular construction would require «7ra answering to vpAroy 
ft^r. But the preceding question, ro&ruy qdy woripovs fiSiov oUt (nyf 
gives occasioQ to change to ^ r&y, icr.K. 


266 NOTES. 

11« — ^AXX' iy^ Toi, InU ItrtUy, or, indeed^ at ego qnideni. For thi 

uae of ro(, in aDBwen^ see note upon L 2. 46. aZ^ refers bade to $ 8: 

ical ovictfi&s 7C rdrrm ifiavrhv cir r^r r&w ipx*^*^ fiovXofUrtrr rd^ur, I 
by DO means reckon myself among those who wish to rule ; so, on the 
contrary, aS, I wish not to be enslaved, cif r^v SovXc^or ifiunn^ tcCttc*, 
which is for civ rifw rw Zo6xȴ rd^iy rdrrtt. The Latin may imitate 
the Greek here, and nse serritium for SovXciW ; see Zumpt's Gr. § 675. 

T(t...^8ds, BO the pronoun rb is not unfreqaently separated 

from its noun by several intervening words. M<^^ ^o 6rt»r 69 ds, 

middle vay between these, o0rc 9i' ipxti't oUtm Zik 9ov\t(as 

sc. iyovtra, which is to be supplied, &vk tcttwou, from the following Hycx; 
see numerous examples of a similar construction in C 6. KrQger upon 
IMonys. Histor. p^ 17 ; see also Eahn. L Gr. IL $ 862 sq., and e£ § 12. 

12«— *AAX' §1 fi4yTot, but if indeed. See note upon L 8. 10 
Although /i/rroi has here a confirmatory significance, yet just below it 
has an adversative meaning, btU. C£ Schneider and Bomemann upon 

Cyrop. y. 2. 12. p. 428. 8i' kwbp4wmp, so. ^4pei, which merk 

ff^Wrf^tif, is to be supplied from the preceding ^ptt ; see note upon {II. 
ifftfs &y ri \4yotSt you would perhaps say wmething^ i.e, some- 
thing that has meaning, force. So r( is used in Plat Sympos. p. 173. B : 

oXwh4 rt voiclr ouSiy votovms. Cf. the use of aliquid in lAtin. 

«l.../i^« ipX*^ a{ii6<reij fi^e fyx***"^^ /i'hT€,,,b€pawtvv€is. 
The reading of the Mm. here is i^iAcrps . .. Af/>avci&<rpv. But Bornemann 
and most of the other recent editors give tlie indicative future. The 
sense seems t;o requit*e this^ and the use of the subjunctive in this way 
after •{ by the prose writers of Xenophon*s time is not well supported 
by Mas. See Kahn. L. Gr. IL ^18. Anm. 1, and Matthiae IL 525. b. 
But still a variation from the Mee. would not be sanctioned, but for the 
fact that -<rciff Bud -irps are often interchanged and confounded in the 

written Greek. KkalowTas KadivrdprtSt bringing to team, cau*- 

ing to weep. Cf. Eurip. Androm. 635 : is K\atorrd a* xai r^r iw ofWots 
0^r KttrairHiffft ic6p7i¥, Schneider writes KM^nrr^s in imitation of 
Cyrop. IL 2. 14 and 15. Cf. also Plato lo. p. 585. £. and Stallbanm's 

note. So^Xeif xp^^<^a<* Some Msa have the Accua, MX9v% 

and some insert &$ before Se^Xoir. For the omission of &% cf L 2^ 49 : 
Tf K/iripl^ ro^V XP«i^<i'os; 56; IL6. 26; IILll. 6; 14. 4^ et al., and 
examples of tlie use of &r, collected by Sauppiue^ in note upon L 2. 66 ; 
also Aqab, IL 6. 25 ; IIL 1. 30, et al. There seems to be this difference 
betwe«^n the two forma of expreasioQ ; Xfi^^^'^ '''^^ wurr^ ^l\^ is used 
of one who truly has a faithful frieqd, whilst xp^t* t. its ir. ^tAy is used 
of one who supposes he has a £uthful friend, though he may not neces 


Moiiy be faithfbL 'Qt then la properly omittej^ here^ as real Bervitude is 

1S»— ^H Xap^dpovct at ol . . , r4fiyorrtt, have thoae egeaped your 

notice, who, etc Uo\iopKovpT€s. The Terb xoXiopttf^, lit, to 

blockade or besiege a city (from w6ku and ttftypt, fyicos), is used meta- 
phoricallj of other kinds of annoyance. Ct $ 17, and Plat Alcib. XL 

p. 142. A. It al ... a 9, and offain. These partides-are nsed together 

in Anab. L 1. 7 ; 9. 19; YL 1. IB; Plat Aloib. 1. 106. D. (^roj 

vayraxou, every where foreigner, citizen of the world. 

14« — M /rr 01 ; a particle of affirmation, truly. See Ebuinng, Gr. 

Partik. II. p. 898 sq. ; EOhn. L. Gr. IL i 698. ai. 4<i| ; see note 

npon § 6 above. vd\a tafia, lit, a trick of the waXmarfis, and then 

a trick or deyice in general. The latter, device or counsel, is evidently 

the meaning here. -r — 4^ o5, bc jcp^trov, eince, 2(yyit...2iCff/- 

pmp..,npoKpoiaTiis, were infamous robben^ slain by Thesenai See 
Plut Theseus a 8-11. Apollod. IIL 16. 1. The irony of this whole pas- 
sage cannot escape the notice of the reader ; especially in the clause : 

ovdflf Iri &8iiccl reiff apayxalois JcaXovfAcyoit, those called 

necessary, L e., relatives or kindred. Cf. Stallb. ad Plat de Repub. IX. 

p. 674. C. 8/A«f, yet, etill; see Eahn. Gr. $ 822. 7, and L. Gr. IL 

§ 667. c, and c£ § 16. 

IS. — 2h 8) obZlp flip ro6rt0v ^X^^* ^^ none of the protec- 
tion, safeguards^ which the citizens have, who are still exposed to injury ; 
and passing much of your time in joumeyings, where there is especial 
danger {ip Zh tm 68o7r . . . Ziaxplfittp) ; and when you come into any 
city, being the most unprotected of all, etc^ (cif 6woiap 8* tip w4\ip k^ticjf, 
jctA.) Both of the last two clauses^ ip 8^ reus 68oif...ff/t iwotw 8' 
&y, ic.r A., are opposed to the first o&Scy /i^p ra&rttp fx^^t hence the 8ff . . . 

^ answering to fi4p. roiavrot, oXo it, L e., having no fixed abode^ 

and no friends or companions but wandering from one city to another. 
For the plural number after the singular, see Eiihn. Gr. ^ 882. R. 1. (a) ; 

Lu Gr. IL $ 784 2. a. p. 608. 8i^ rh lipot flrai, for the attrao- 

tion here, see I. 2. 8 : rf ^opepht flrau. ^ di6rt xal SoDXof tip; 

L e^ cl iovKos fffi|r. A conditional enunciation is often impMed in a noun ; 
see K&hn. Gr. § 840. 1 ; L. Gr. II. § 823. 2. Previously it has been shown, 
that as citizen or guest he could not be protected from injury ; and now 
Socrates reasons on the supposition that he may become a servant He 
ironically asks Aristippns, if he places his hope in this^ that if he should 

become a servant, he should evidently be a useless one? oTot... 

Avtf-iTffAfir ; for the relative with the Infin., see note upon I. 4. 6; 

268 NOTES. • 

•lovr r4fir«iv. '•—'Tit ykp ; before this questioii ft deDifll of the pr»> 
ceding is implied: by no means, for who, etc.; minime yero, quie 
enim, etc. See note upon L 4. 9 : oM yip, 

1^-^Apa oh\ see note upon L 8. 11. vmfpopi(ov^t, ftaton 

to taniitf, correct itvotcKMlovrtt 9^w..,f, bj excluding ihem 

from (the plftoes) where it is possible, etc; 

17* — ^'AX A& yitp, M indeed; the force of the y4 in ydfp here predo- 
minates. These two particles often introduce an objection ; see Hartnng 
Gr. Fkurtik. L S. 470 sq. ; KQhn. L. Gr. II. $ 764. 5. C£ upon a similar 

use of at enim in Latin, KAhuer's Tus& Disp. Y. 16. 47. i^ kifd- 

yKfis, compelled by neoessitjr—^ff yt, si quideu * for the force 

of y4f see Kahn. Gr. i 817.2, and L. Gr. IL § 704. 1. » cir4«^«va-i 

icr.X. ; the future here denotes necessity or destination ; if they must^ or, 
it is destined to them, to suffer hunger, etc See Kflhn. L. Gr. II. § 704. 
1, and Gr. § 266. S ; Rost ^ 116. Anm. 7. See note upon $ 12, and c£ 

in. 8. 62; 6. 18. ovx olS*, Sri 9ta^4p^t rh avr^ 94pfia 

ijc^yra 1^ Aicovra fiairriyovadai, . . dKko y€, icr.A., I do nofc 
know what other (Sri . . . &AAo) difference it makes with the same skin, 
whether one is yoluntarily or involuntarily scourged, except, etc ; or we 
may make the Gr. Aocus. of limitation, Up/ia, a nominative ; whether the 
same skin is scourged, etc ''AAAe 71 are best rendered with Sri ; they 
are not strictly necessary to tH^ sense, as the idea is contained in 840^^1 ; 
but they make the distinction introduced more conspicuous^ and hence 
the yc, and also remoye any obscurity that might arise from the separa- 
tion of 9iaip4pfi from ^ iuppoa^rn^ cr.A. We should naturally expect 
the insertion of Sri after ^ : &XX97C, % 8ri &^p. icrA^ but it is omitted 
just OS it often is after tlie phrases : ovS^y &\Ao ^ fkkXo t< ^, ri kKko %, 
icr A. Of; n. 8. 17 ; Stollb. Plat Lysid. p. 222. D, and see Rost*s Gr. 

i 139; KQhn. Gr. ^ 846. 2. (d); L. Gr. IL ^ 862. m. woKiopKti- 

ffbai, to be harassed ; see note, § 18. 

18* — TSif roio6rwp, i. e., roS vciyi}^, 8<^r, ^lyovy, hypvwvup. The 
construction is : oh Soarci <r«i rk Iko^m rmr roio^w 9ia/p4pttp ^f/hf &jcoir> 

0-(ofr. {, s rabrpt Srt, inasmuch as, just as ; see L 7. 8 : raiSrjr. 

wtot; the particle &y is to be repeated from the preceding clause : ^ajot 

&y. See note L 8. 16. hit6raw /Ss^Atyrai. Just before we hayiB 

iwir9 $o6\otro (Optat) because the preceding clause on which this de- 
pends, fdyoi Ay, denotes an uncertain condition. We naturally have the 

Bubj. here after the present r£«my. See Euhn. L.Gr. IL^BIO. a. 

va^cir^ai ; sc irciywrri, 84»rr^ jcrJL iw* kyadp ^ArfSc, 

resting on good hope, with good hope for his reward. See KOha. 

BOOK II. CHAP. I. 269 

L Gr. U $ 612. g; Gr. i 296. IL In reference to the aentiment^ 
c£L6. 8. 

!••— ^A3Aa, designates the rewards of labor, from ft^Xor, the prize 
of oonteet^ which is Bistinct from ^kot, the contest itself; although in 
the plural and perhaps a few times in the singular, 2^Aor may like <L^Aot 
denote the contest itselC For the distinction, see Liddell and Scott's 

Lex. h. T. ; Pillon's Gr. Synonjmes, p. (4). /uKpov rcyoi &{ii iart, 

are of tome amaU «a/««.-^— x'^P^'**^^***! fS^^ ^® victory orer; 
Schneider in accordance with two or three Mas. reads x*<P<^^<>*^<u* -*— ~ 
% St« r . • . 1^ Xva. The change from trnttt to tra here seens strange, yet 

it is not without parallels; c£ IV. 4. 16; Atab. IL 6. 22, et al. 

<vrarol...roit a'«fi«0'i, «.rA, becoming strong both in body and 

mind. Ka\ms aticdo'i, see note upon 1. 1. 7. to^towi; the 

noun is not unfrequently followed by a demonstratiye pronoun for the 
sake of perspicuity, or, as here, for emphasia CI III. 7. 4 ; IV. 6. 6, 11 ; 

Cyrop. IL 1. 13, and see Kfthn. Gr. f 804. 8 ; L. Gr. II. § 858. 10. 

(^y €h^paivofi4Fovt, Utc happily.— a 70/1 ^irout fi^v iavrovs, 
since they admire, are satisfied with themselves^ etc; Iavrovs is con- 
trasted with tAw &AX«y below. (jiXov/iiwouSf esteemed happy, 


20. — *Ek rod vapaxp^Mtt ^Hoval, those pleasures which are ob- 
tainable immediately (l e., as soon as sought) and without labor. The 
explanation : pleasures of the present time, seems to be inadmissible from 
the* use of die, poet, after, not in ; from the usage of the formula rh ropef 
XpnpMsarh napumlita, or rh a&riita, not that which does not endure 
beyond the present time (the momentary)^ but that which immedintely 
follows the present tim^ and also from the contrast with ol itk Koprtplas 

^vi/iAcioi, the cares exercised with industry and perseyerance. c6- 

c^far, good state of body, or, good constitution. ^vX9 'via't^- 

/i^p iL^t6Koyop obhe/Alaif i/iwotovfftp, Kikhner says that ^{1^X070^ 
is justly added here, because it cannot be said that al wapavrUa ii^oyai, 
impart no knowledge to the min<f ; for who can deny that the mind ob« 
tains knowledge from hearing music, beholding pictures, and other similar 

pleasuresi aaXwy re aaya^^p 'pTw i^iKveiff^at. Theverb 

^{iicrcr<r3ai, to arrive at, to attain, is construed with the partitive Genit 
like rvyx^etv, Xacfximew, and irpor^Kcir. 80 also i^uewela^m, Isoerates^ 

Paneg. p. 64. 118, and p. 80. *H<rio9o9 ; "1^, mJ 'H/iep, L 286. 

TJ^y.. . xaic^riira ical IkaZhv, tc.rA^ we can obtain vice easily evet. 
in abundance. fiaAa 8* iyyu^i yafci, and dwells^ or, has its man- 
sion very near. T^f 8* kptrris, ictJL, but the immortal gods have 

placed before the temple of virtue (or guarded it by) bars of sweaty toiL 

270 KOTES. 

tp^ioft rteep. Ka\ rpifx^t rh wp&row, and rongli si firat 
— ^-TiriyTai. Olfios teems to be the Bubject of thia verb. Still some^ 
•8 Qoettling, nndentand rU, if any one who chooses this way shall oorm^ 

etc. Ti|i8/i|. It is perhaps most probable that oTftof is fern, here^ 

■o that ^tHii agrees directly with it This noon is used in both genders 
in later Attic writers^ and a few timesi though rarely, by the older poeti^ 
as in Aesch. Prom. 894» and Eur. Ale 838. Still the gender of the Adj^ 

fiflSln, may have been made to correspond with that of ip^ri. *£«-< 

X apM* ' • "^i* comic poet was a native of Coos^ an island in the Egean 
Sea, and was professor of the Pythagorean philosophy at the Court ol 
Hiero in Syracuse ; henc« he received the appellation Sicnliis^ He flou- 
rished about 470 B. C, and is frequently considered as the first writer of 
comedy. See Fisk*s Manual of Classi Lit p. 459 ; and Sch6ll, Gesch. d. 

Gr. Lit, EpieKarmu* in Index. Twr w6wmp «-«Aov0'ir, ir.rA. 

The gods sell to us all good things far labor. Genitive of the price ; 

Eahn. Gr. ^ 276. 8, c£ XL 8. 2 : /uffbov ra httr^Btia ipyi(wbai. iral 

ip Kaa^.-.t^vw, jctA. ThiF quotation is omitted by Bessariuic 
W. Dindorf supposes that the whole from VLapvvpti to Ixpt is spurious. 
But the reasons given, do not seem to be sufficient for forcibly excluding 

it See Kilhn. in h. 1. /t^ rk iiaKaKk fiiSco, ^^, K.r.A. The idea is: 

Do not seek an easy life, lest by that means you may procure for your- 
self a hard and troubled one. VLAw is the Pres^ Impi of /i^/imsa 

S I • — ^11 piZiKott was a Sophist of Ceos. He was, however, often at 
Athens, and was acknowledged by Plato to be distinguished for his wis- 
dom. He was a disciple of Protagoras. See Plat Hipp. Maj. p. 282 ; 
Theat p. 151, et al ; and also Brandis' Gesch. 6r. Phil L a 541 and 

546 sq. 49 r^ avyypd/A/iart r^ wwpX rou 'HpaicX^our, in 

the writing relating to Hercules. tw^p 8^... ^TiScfjcrvrai. 

The particle 84 here indicates the certainty of a thing, indeed, eertainly. 
See Kahn. Gr. } 815. 2; L. Gr. XL $ 692, and c£ H. 2. 8 ; IIL 5. 11. 
The present tense, ^vt8ff(«rvrai, should seem to be used by Xenophon 
because that Prodicus was accustomed to recite the * choice of Hercules" 
at the time when this colloguy of Socrates was held. 'Endtfiryva^l^ 
lit, to exhibit as a specimen of one's art This word is fitly chosen, to 
indicate the parade which the Sophists loved so much in the exhibition 

of their sentimentsw -~— d 8^ vms; cf. roid(8« ns^ I. 1. 1. Kal 

strengthens the superlative «-Ac(0yois, see KQbn. Gr. $ 239. dro- 

^alycrai, expressed his sentiments. jircl ^jc vall»9 cif ^/9i|y 

itpfiaro, when having completed his boyhood, he was entering upon 
the period of youth. yiy96n€wot, becoming (by law).— —«f re 


riip Si* &pcriif ... cfrc r^y Ztk Kaiclas, whether fhey will pro- 
ceed on the way through (or the way of) virtue ... or the way of vice^ 

etc. i^€\b6vTa tls ri<rvxitii' xa^ija^atf icrA., going out into 

a solitude, a sequestered spot; he sat down, being in doubt which way he 
should turn. Thus Cio. de Offic L 82. 118 : (Herculem) exisse in solitu- 
dinem atque ibt sedentem diu secuin multumque dubitasse, etc Schmidt 

eooneets cis ^^vicfar with ico^^^^oi, sat down quietly, or, in quiet 

6wor4paw r&w 48»r rpddrtyrai. For tiie use of the Subj. with the 
loterrog. of doubting, see note, L 2. 15, and c£ § 28. 

2t« — yknyiKas, large in stature. f&vpcv^ re 28«(r,* jcal 

iK9v^4piop, of a comely and noble appearance ; for the constr. of the 
Infin. see I. 6. 6. Gaisford, according to Cod. Stob. reads 4Ktvb4piap, but 
the change is unnecessary, as Xenophon uses i\§vb4pio9 both as an adjec- 
tive of two and three terminations. Cf. Sympoa. IL 4^ anu VIIL 16. — 
^^(Tci, the Dat of the agent with the Pert Pass, nature being personi- 
fied. This Dat of the agent is found With the Perl and Plup. Tenses^ 
and with verbal adjectives; see C. 417 and Note. The same idiom is 
found in Latin, though confined mainly in Glass. Latin to the Pert Part 
and Tenses formed with it Zumpt*s Gr. 419, note. — r^. . . o-w/ia. 
The Aocua with Pass. Part to explain it more fully. In English we 
should use a preposition, in or in rettpeet to ; see KOhn. Gr. $ 279. 7. » 
ma^apiriirit with purity. The sense may be well expressed in Eng- 
lish by joining ^^trti va an Adj., to «a^af>., having her body adorned with 
native purity. Some Mae. and editions have lea^api^iirc, but the read- 
ing which we have given seems to be most appropriate, as well as to be 
supported by the best Ms. authority. This phrase is opposed to icciraA- 
\Mirta/i4tnfy rhji^w Xf^/^ artificial appliances for ornament; and as icada- 
pt6r7is includes in it, according to Kflhner, the idea of elegance super- 
induced by art> which icoi^ap^i}? does not^ the contrast is better preserved 
by retaining the latter. ^o'i&^ri ^cvic^, are in the same construc- 
tion with the preceding nouns vm^pov^t eta, depending upon xficoo'/ii}- 
liimfif. But such incongruities of expression are not unfrequently found 

in the best writers CC I. 8.9. rt^pa/ifi4piip, jctA., pampered into 

obesity and effeminacy. &sr€ \€VKor4par re ical ipv^poripav 

rov ivros Sofceir ^atv,, so that she might seem or be seen to pre- 
sent a fairer and more ruddy appearance than she really had, roC 6rrof, 
(Upon these last words, see note, I. 6. 11.) Bornemann rendera the 
phrase : tliat she might seem manifestly (aperte) to be, etc (sc frcKoXXo^* 

rwiihrup), Tk Si a-xi|/*a. The W here answers to /iir above with 

XP&IM. rii t\ ififiara Jlx^t^- The change of construction here 

should not escape notice. Apavtrtrafiipa, wide open, i. e., aa 

272 KOTSS. 

indicating boldneas {fik4iifMa hatUr) in oontrast with rk iftfmrm «iB«s ct 

with oeulis verecunde demiasia &pm. Some editon insert the arti- 

ele hefore thiB word from AristAenetiu L ep. 25, where tht^ pewge i« 
imitated, but this aeeros to be one of the nouns that imitate the usage of 
proper names in omitting the article ; see Roet^ 6r. ^ 98. 6; KOhn.^ 244^ 
R. 4; L. Gr. II. i 484 note. Cf. IV. 1. 2, where both fi^or and ^prrk» 
are without it Other similar words also omit the article. Ct 1^/Si|r § 21 
above, and yqy ^ 28 below. For its frequent omission with ndXKn, sm 
Bomem. Sympo& L 8. p. 62. The word &^ lit, time, then season, spring 

youth and youthful bc»uty, hence, beauty in general jcarcviwrcZv^ftat 

. . . lovT^ir ; for the use of the Mid. Voice here, sec B. 186. 7, note 4. 

IriffKovcir 8i ical, cf rit &\Aof a&r^r t^carai, and also looks 
around (to see) if any other one is looking at her. We should rather ex- 
pect iavTi¥ here, and it would be necessary if the Opt were employed 
instead of the indicative ^caroi. See note upon L 2. 49. 

SSt — nKjiaialrtpotr roS 'Hpa«X/ovf. Adjectives denoting ap- 
proach, are sometimes followed by the Gen. though oftener by the Dat 

SeeKQbn.Gr.§278.R.9. Tiiv...9p6eb9w ^-nl^tifaw Uwai, Ace. 

with the Infio. liecause in indirect discourse. r^r ahrhv rp^wp, 

in the same gait as before, not faster or slower, contrasted with the hasta 

exhibited by her companion (irpof SpovAcIV). ^^dtr at fiov\ofi4w'iiw, 

wishing to anticipate, get before, etCi Avopovrra, woiav 48^ir... 

rpdwp ; cf. $21: AropoOyra hfworiptuf rAr M»v rpdEvifrai, with the note ; 
and for the use of the Pron. of direct interrogation, see note upon L 1. 1. 
—— — voii^o-^ficrot ; this seems to be the best authorixed, although 
more facile readings are found ; as voi^^, iroi^irci, and voti^ff^r. After 
the participle, r^y M rhv fiiw M^r rpdwip must be supplied from Uie pre- 
ceding context A somewhat similar construction is found in I. 2. 4^ 
but for an explanation of this ellipsis^ see Hermann ad Vig. ^ 227. p. 628; 

Symp. IV. 53. p. 146. iral. .. fiiK...8i. These particles may ba 

rendered here : that (and) . . . both . . . and. 

21* — A 1^0-9. Tills is the best authorized reading^ and BicZroi is con- 
strued with the participle in the same manner in which other similar 
words, hittyiyvM^M, SiaTfAcir, and Stdtyciv, often are. See EOhn. Gr. 
4 810. (1); hence here rendered alwayM or ccntinuaUy^ Lat semper, 

and the Part as a verb. Air or 16 vara, with the least possible 


25* — 'Zirdv9ms &^* £v ftf'rai ravra, i. e., «Yi(yM»f, roWmp, k^ 
ifp t<rrai ravra, of want of things from which these (sc. pleasures) are 
obtained. In reference to the preposition iat6, denoting the instrument 


466 note upon T. 2. 14w oh ^ifios, "roetat non e8t'*B"non est 

onod metnoflb'* ivX rh irowovwra...iropt(€ffl^ai, bring you to 

tni^ that yon ma»t obtain these thbgs (or bring you to obtain) by labor 

and by yarioua troubles of body and mind, eta oTf .*. . r o ^r o < r ; for 

the attraction, see Roet; f 99. 9, 10. p. 460 eq. ; Ktthn. L. Gr. H 787. 2, 

and Anm. 8. »^fAct(ri^ac...^'(ouo'fay, tlie power of receiving 

benefit from every quarter ; for the use of the Infin. without the article 
as a noun, c£ IIL 6. 11 : odx ofri xol iLpwdC^w i^owri«» ffftvbai (L e., 
i^dnc^m) r^ fiov\ofi4p^ and see B. 140. N. 8 ; Efihn. L 6r. II. $ 641. c. 

-O PC ft a 94, The particle 94 need not be ezpresMd in Latin or 
English : " nomen quodnam tibi est f ** The concessive member before 
94 is frequently omitted* and thus vivacity is given to 'the question : 

(this sounds very well) but, etc. See note upon I. 8. 18. 6iroics- 

pi{6fi9Poi, The verb hfOHopt(4adai sigiHfies originally to speak as a 
ebild or with fondling terms ; then, to smooth or gloss over an odious 
thing with mild and favorable words^ and the reverse here, to detract* to 
call a good thing by an odious name. 

S7« — *Zp To^ry ...vpof cA^ovff-a, coming up in the meantime. 

fflSvia robs ytpyiiffawras, ic.tA., having known your parents 

and carefully observed your nature, disposition, in education (i. e., while 

you have been trained up), eta rifw wpht i/th 69hPf the way to 

me, or, which leads tome. —-^v* ityadols SiairpcTco'TCfiar, icr^ 
more illustrious on account of the good that I confer upon you. See 

note upon L 2. 61: ipotAwrrht, jcr.A., and cd § 28. vpooifilois 

il9oyiit, by overtures, promises of pleasure, lit., prefaces; the idea is: 
I will not begin by alluring with deceptive promises of pleasure. 

^awiipat ; in respect to the omission of ip, cf. note, L 8. 15. 

r& 6pTa,,.titT* ii\ii^9las, I will recount to you things that really 
are, in truth. See upon the construction here, Kdhn. L. Or. IL ^ 868. 
8, and et Stallb. Plat Phaed. p. 66. G, and Bornemaon ad SymposL 

t8« — T&p yhp $prmp Ay abAp, icr.A. Schaefer expresses this 
idea more fully thus : ft y4ip iarip iyvAii leol KoXd, roinmp olAikp Krcv 
T^rotf . . . i^col 9i969ffip. dir> fioancjitidr^tp ; see note upon I. 2. 14. 

— ^rks..,r4xpaf ahrdf re. The particle r4 is placed here ss if 
the preeeding words* the arts themselves^ were contrasted with a^roTT 
. . . xp^'^w, the practising of them ; and the sentence arranged as fol- 
lows: riis «oX. r4X' u;OtdM ro icol tms abroSt 9u XP^^^ tuAifr4w, 
9ot only the arts themselves but the practice of them must be learned* 
After the iy9Kirr4op is added, the natural place of the r4 would be allet 


274 NOTES. 

ua^nr^op, oontresting that with iaxiir4w. But such irregfularitics €f 
poflitioD, arising from the blending of tvo con8tnlction^ are found else- 
where, cf. Cyrop. YIII. 2. 22, and Anab. L 2. 21. &<rici)rcey is con- 
sidered by some, as Fr. Jacobs, to have a pregnant signif. o^jc^tf'ci fw^ 
r4o¥, to be learned by exercise, bat it is perhaps better with Bomemann 
to consider the words thrvs o^wr 9*7 XP^^^ ^ oompristng but one idea 
ss r^v aln&p xf^^^' ^ ^ Vectig. IV. 1 : rwinf¥ (r^v 96imfuw) yw6rr*% 
vol Sr«t xP^^'^M '<*• ^^^ ^® oonstr. and goyeming power of Tcrbal^ 

see note 1.7.2. €i Z\ jcal ; after cfrt . . . cfrc seTcral times repeated, 

the last and most important member of the sentence la more emphatically 
connected by 8^ ical ; the adversative 94 contrasting this member with 
the othera aa most weighty. Ct Plat ApoL p. 40. G, and see Kflhn. L. 
Gr. II. f 746. Anm. So in Latin sire and si yero often answer to on^ 

another. See Kdhner's Oicl Tusc. Disp. I. 41. 97. cTvai, r y 71^^ 

^nipcrciK 4^t^4op. Some editors place tlys comma after drcpcTcu^ 
but erroneously as it seems to us. In respect to the sentiment of the 
passage, if our pointing is correct^ c£ Oecon. XYIL 7 : ouxoSir . . . 2hr«s 
Sin^rcu dmipcrffuf r^ yv^iitf ; and see also an interpretation of this pas- 
sage, Cicero de Offic I. 28 : Ezercendnm corpus et ita afficiendum est, ut 
obedire concilio et rationi poesit The appropriateness and truth of the 
idea that the control of the mind oyer the body conduces to^ and is the 
most certain means of physical health, cannot be doubted. This^ too, is 
evidently implied in the descriptions of the persons and habits of *Apcr^ 
and Koicfa. 

29a — ^Ed^poffi^raf, Lat hilaritates, jo^t happiness; for the use 
of the plural, see note, 1. 1. 11 : Mytcait, Notice the choioe of the words 
to characterize the different kinds of happiness^ and the contrasting force 
of the article. 

SOf — Ti 9\\ for the force of the 8/, see note upon L 8. 13 : rohs 84 

«a\0^r. 4 V 1 1 ; the relative clause does not simply define here but 

relates to the nature, peculiarities, of the thing itself, sc. votAnfra, Ac- 
cording to our English idiom it would be nnce yout or, as you, tic lo 
Greek as in Latin the relative is used with a verb in the second person. 

See E&hn. L, Gr. IL §781. 4, 5. wplw f^\p irciy^ir ^o-;^(ov0'a; 

this and the following clause are added as an explanation of the more 
general phrase: ird(rr«r ifiwiwXmvttt. The finite verb would be used 
instead of the participle in Latin: "priusq^m esurias» oomedis^" eta 

fiflKoimfUrfi . . . vapoffKtvdCp. Strict concinnity of expression would 

require the finite verb tniX"^ instead of the participle iaixoami».4ni, in 
qrder to correspond with the following va^urK%vA(p. But Xenophon 
undoubtedly, as was very natural, carried forward in his nund the con^ 

BOOK II. CHAP. I. 275 

ftmction of the preceding clauses with participles^ without noticing th« 
interruption by Ira, before be came to the next member, where the im- 
portance of the idea caused him to recur to the use of the finite verb. 
For the interchange of the finite yerb and participle, see E&hn. L. 6r. IL 

i 675. 4 ; and c£ note, II. 2. 6, and IV. 4. 1. olrovs ; fur the use 

of the plural, see Kflhn. $ 243. 8. (2), and L. 6r. IL 408. b. roZ 

d 4 pout, in summer. For tliis use of the Gen. of the space of time within 

which something happens^ see Kflhn. § 278. 4. (b). x*^^^* snow, 

l e., for cooling the wine. The Greeks seem to have had subterranean 
apartments for preserving ice and snow, like our modern ice-cellars, 
though it was oftener done hj covering them with chaff. See Becker's 
Charicles, p. 256.— o6 fi6pop rits vrpuiiykt /AaAaiciif, &AA& 
Ka\ rkt KklpaSt icrX. The climax in the thought is conspicuous here. 
Men of pleasure are not satisfied with soft matrasses or beds, (artfiwdt 
from ffrp^nnffu, to spread oui^) spread on the ground or floor, but they^ 
prepare couches {KK'tvat from icKiiw), on which to spread their soft ma- 
trasses; and still further, they put under these couches 6w6fiabpat as 
additional appliances of luxury. For the position of fiaXoKdt, see note 
upon L 4. IS. The noun dwSfiaJ^pa is generally interpreted foot-carpets^ 
spread under the icKirds. So in tlA Lexicons. But Schneider from some 
passages of An ty 11 as, a physician, in Fragm. medicor. Oribas, ed. Matthaei, 
pp. 114, 170, and 172, draws the conclusion that this word designates 
fulcra diagonalia, supports, put under the feet of a couch, as under 
cradles for the purpose of procuring motion, rockers^ Voigtlaender also^ 
in Observatt Laud, de iw6fia^por, refers to Stob. L p. 192, and Theo- 
phrast. L p. 192, Schn. This explanation at least looks reasonable^ and 

gives greater force to the passage than the usual explanation. 9tk 

,,.ik\\ii 8fA, on account of ... but because, ••—rk /iriikr fx*<^i 
8 Ti 9oi^f, you have nothing to do, you do not know what to da For 

the Subj. deliberative, see Host, ^ 119 ; KQhn. IL $ 464. 94€ffl^at ; 

the Msa. are divided between the full and contracted form of this word ; 

but see note upon L 6. 10. kfpoZiffta,.. kvayxJiCtis, provoke 

sensual indulgence. Ka\ yvpai^l Ka\ iip9pdfft xp^/'^^^V* Some 

read iral ywmfi rots h^piffi xPi ** ^^ ^ii^s tanquam multeribus uteris^** 
but this reading is not supported by Ma. authority, and the sense requires 
DO change. Hie vice of licentious indulgence in general, was doubtless 

aimed at^ rather than a specific kind of it iavrris ; second person, 

see note upon L 4. 9. ^$pt(ovira..,Karaitoifit(ovffa, comple- 
ments of the verb vaiMttt. The participle is often so used after a verb 
with a demonstrative word (o9r«). See Cyropb L 4. 15 : o5ra» 8i97«y» 

jcrA.; VnL 4. 5. Gf. Kfihn. L. Gr. IL ( 663. XL KaTmKot/ii(o¥' 

ea. The verb KoroKoifditu^ signifies^ lit, to fidl to sleeps and meti^ 

276 NOTES. 

phoricallj, to posB time UMlenlj, i e., m if falling to sleeps Tlie wordt 
in J 83: oih9 Si^ tovtqp (rhif ffrroy) fitdmn rk 94otrra vpirr^m, atv 
•troDglj antithetical to this word. 

SI* — ^*Ejc ;^c«r. .. Air/^^c^ai, 70a have been ezdnded from«th« 
namberoftbegoda.^— ToC xdvrwp JiZicrov iKoitrfiaros, k.t.K^ 
"the sweetest strain the ear takes in," jour own praise. CI upon 
the sentiment, Hieron. L 14: rou ft.lp iiiiarov iuepodftar ot ifatvav offrorc 
ffwayl(§T«f and Cic. pro Archia poet LX. 82 : Themistot. lem dixiase 
aiunt^ quum ex eo quaereretur, quod acroama aut cujus Tocem liben- 

tisaime audiret: Ejus, a quo sua virtus optime praedicaretur. &v4- 

Koef cT, lit, you are unhearing, but in Engl.: you never bear, so 

ii^4aros (sc. •!) you never see. Ae7o^0-]| t« tio-tc^o'cic. The 

Pron. t1 Accus. is used wiiii wivrt^iruM, but the Gen. rutht, with Ira^ 

Kivut¥\ see note upon L 2. 60. c9 ^pop&y, in his senses sa«& 

rov aou dicC<rov. The word biiffos seems to signify originally a 

company of men, assembled for the purpose of sacrificing to the godsi 
C£ Uerbst Sympw YIII : rov ^€ov roirov diaawrcu, where see many ex- 
ample& Hence used tauntingly here : Who would in his right mind 

venture to make one of your band of 'MK>rshippers. ot (sa dtoffArat) ; 

for the use of the plural, nark a^ttrip, see KObn. L. Or. IL § 418. Cf II. 
2. 8 : ui w6\tis wa6vopr9s ; ILL 5. 20 ; where ^ iv *Aptl^ '^79* $9»\ii 

is followed by roh-ots. &ir((ywt /ikv Kivapol Zth pt6Tiiro$ 

rp9^6fA9Poit they being supported witliout labor and in affluence, 
\iwapo\^ (with an abundance of every thing,) during youth. .With this 
the following clause is contrasted : 4wiv6ims Si ahx/^tpo^ S«^ yhp^fs vc/wa^ 
Tf f, passing through age in servile labor and poverty (in want of every 
thing). The idea is : ihgt whilst in youth they are suppoi-ted by parents 
or friends without labor, and enabled to indulge in a most luxurious style 
of living ; but they become old, are deprived of the aid of parents or 
friends^ and in consequence of their effeminacy induced by indulgence 
and their want of a trade or profession, are compelled to pass ttio rest 
of life in toil and penury, doubly severe to them in consequence of 

early indulgence. wtvpayfiipon . . . wparrofiiycis, by what 

they have done, and . . . whtU they are now doing. -»-— rib fihp ^8 ca . . . 
hvo^ititvoi, exhausting their pleasures in youth, and laying up tiouble 
and hardship for age. 

82« — Tlapii ikv^pAvoit, oft irpotriiKei, (^ e., irapk oft upeo'^icfi 
ift^ Ti/Mur^oA, Cf for similar eonstructioni^ IIL 7. 8 ; Sympoa IV. 1, on 
which see Herbst and Bomemann. The preposition is more rarely re* 
peated ; see IIL 8. ^;' ip roio^oit . . . x^^^h ^^ otoitvtp. See aki 

BOOK II. CHAP. I. 277 

llntUiiM 6r. II. ^ 595 ; Kahn. L. Gr. H. $ 625. 8. The Mina brevity of 
, ezprefltton is also found in the Latin : a bominibus quibns decet Cic. de 
Fin. lY. 20: Piatonem eadem ease in sententia qua tjrannuni Dionj- 
aiuni. Cf. also Cic Tusc. Disp., Eahn. ed., L 89. 94, pu 144. In reference 
to the Infin. riftaffdtu, to be supplied from the antecedent finite verb^ 
rtfui/juu, see Kahn. L. Gr. II. § 852, g. This ellipsis is common with 
such words as wpoc^Kti, Iockc, tMs icri, 9ti, xp^ \ cf. H 6. 22 ; lY. 5. 7. 
It is also found with oTSo, III 8. 8 ; icaX£f tx*^ in H 7. 6 ; IIL 11. 1, etc 

ayab^.,,<rvWii'rrptat k.t.\., a good coadjutor in the labors of 

peace, and a firm ally in war. kpiimii Z\ ^t\tas iroiywr^f, in 

fine, a most excellent participant in friendship. 

88. — ^Toif fA^v ifio7t ^t\oit, With this /idif (solitarium), the 
eontrast is to be supplied in thought ; i. e^ tlie friends of Koxia in con- 
tnst with ifiotf ^^if. ^^— ^ 8 c 7 a fi^y,,,air6\aviris; cf. L 6. 5, in 
regard to the sentiment The fi^r contrasts vtr^^ itirdkavait with thrros, 

below, with which a corresponding 8^ is found. i^wpdyfimv. * , itri-' 

Kavvis, enjoyment at their ease, untroubled enjoyment oOrt ivo- 

Xc^Torrcr aurhw (sc Biryoy) &x«^0 *''''><> icrA^ they are neither bur- 
thened when deprived of it (sleep),*uor do they on account of it omit, etc 
The verb is general in signification, including both physical and mental 
discomfort. The natural position of c9 would be with wpdrrorrts, but 
it is placed at the beginning of the clause for sake of the antithesis, which 
is su^ested wittf so much adroitness throughout this whole address ol 
'Aperif, It also thus corresponds in position with ^8««r in the preceding 

clause rifAiot 8c irarpiai, honored, each one in his own country. 

T^ v9wpttfi4woif T^Xot, end appointed by fatese death. 

i^dwovtriy to flourish, i c, be in honor; so th« Latin vigeo ; cf. Cic 
Tusc Disp. I. 49, init ; Harmodius in ore et Aristogito, lAcedaemoniur 

Leonidas^ Thebanus Epaminondas vigent. T<{ia vra.. . 8(airoFi| 

cafidp^, having completed such labors. For the omission of the con- 
nective here, see note upon L 1. 9: rvits rit rotavra. fAaKupiaro 

rdriiw. This superlative of tiwcapurr6% from /uucaptCtg, is peculiar to 
Xenophon, see Sympos. ; and even he sometimes uses fuucapurrdros from 
luucaplcs ; see Cyrop. YIL 2. 27. 

84« — Tiir tw* 'Apfr^t 'HpavXcovf, wal9tvffiw, the instmo 
tioi||Of Hercules by 'ApcH). ——lie ^^/iiyff'c fkivrot rks yvAfiat It 
/icyaAcioT^poir f^/iairty, 1^ iyi» wvw, although he clothed hif 
thoughts in far more magnificent^ splendid words, than I now da j. 
more magnificent as the genuine modesty of Xenophon would have ua 
believe, certainly not more fitly choeen or gracefully and happily ap 

278 KOTBS. 

nnged.— — 0*0 2.. .K{ior, it beoomes 7011, it is worth while for jon 
— — rfipStf-^af ri.,.^poPT((9tw, to exert jounelf, ... to take 0O11M 
eare for thoee things that pertain to the future time of your life. 


!• — ^AafirpoKA/a, rhw vptvfi^rarop di^jr lavrov; Soeratei 
had three sons ; (perhaps more than three^ see Wiggeni' life,) Lamprode^ 
Sophroniscus^ and Menexenus. Tlie eldest is the one who held the foDow- 

ing conversation with his lather. wphs... x^^>*'<>^^^*'^a> ^X'eat- 

ing harshly from anger, ill-tempered to. ral /idKa, mo9t certainly 

(I do). — — r 2r f rl iroiovprat rh Swofia rovro AiroicaXotfVir. 
The idea fully expressed would be as follows : icerrcvic/iidificas oSr, rhmt 
rh 6yofjta rovro (ac. &x^^<^®*^0 ^'oicaXovo'tr, jcol rl wotowrtw oZrot, dbs 
rh tyofia rovro diroicaXotViv, or less accurately : Karafitfid^icas, rl vmoS- 
o-iir 0^01, ots rh Spo/ia rovro AroicaAoMriV. Thus an interaction is 
frequently constructed in Greek with a participle accompanied by the 
article, from which it is separated by the interrogative pronoun. In this 
way two interrogations frequently are blended into one. C£ Flat de 
Rep. p. 332. C ; Sympos. p. 206, B, and examples cited by Bomemann, 
Sympos. VIIL 86 ; and see Matth. Gr. II. ( 66*7 ; Rost» 123. b. c; Ktihn. 
L. Gr. IL § 843 ; Gr. $ 344, R. 3. In reference to the subject of awoxa- 
Kov<rtv, see B. 129. 19, and in reference to two accusatives after it, see 
Kiihn. Gr. i 280. 4 ; L. Gr. IL § 558. b. Tlie Latin may imiUte this 
simple brevity of the Greek : ** quos quid facientes hoc nomine appellent.*' 

ffS wad6yraf, thote reeeitfinff /avort, KaraKoyli^a^ai; 

rome commentators suppose that ScZr should be understood with this 
rord, but the idea seems rather to be implied in ^kovcl After verba 
if believing, supposing, and the like, such as wofdCtiv, ofctf'dai, rrytiffbou^ 
Sojrtiv, etc., the idea of intention, wish, approbation, or of thinking to be 
just or necessary, is implied. See EGhn. L Gr. IL § 688, p. 837 ; Bomem. 
upon Sympos. IV. 42. p. 138 sq., and Cyrop. lY. 5. 16 ; VIIL 1. 12 ; 
Krflger Anab. L 2. 1. 

t«— "H 8i| 3tf ; see note upon L 3. 18 : robs 8i KoXo^f. cl Apm , 

see note, L 1.8. rh &y8pavo3f(c<ri^ai, to reduce to servitude. 

This clause is the subject of SoiCffI Sficaior, ical rh i^x^P^^^*^'^' 

Before irol, o0r«, added by Stephanus^ probably from the feeling that it 
was required after Grrtp, hss crept into most of the editions But ex- 
amples are frequent where the other member of a comparison, introduced 
by fifirc/s is without oSrws, See IV. 4. 7 : &nrc/> <r^, koI lyrf : IIL 1. 4 ; 

BOOK n. CHAP. IL 279 

Cyrop. L 6. 8 ; y. 2. 12; ApoL 83^ and Bob' £]]ip& p. 778, ed. Schoef. 
&^* oZ &¥ rif, icrA. For the attraction of the relative to the 
oaae of the subordinate proposition, see Kahn. ^ 332. 6 ; L. Gr. 11. § 791. 
The natural construction would here be : ical froicfi /wt, Zms &y, 6w6 riyot 
cS Todfliy (or i«uf ^h rtvot cS vcL^X M^ vcycwreu x4p"' &vu8i8i{yai &5i- 
«co5 cfyoi. Of. ( 6. The same manner of construction is common in Latin : 
▼idetur que mihi a quo quis beneficiis affectus sive amico siye inimico 
gratiam referre non studeat^ injustus esse. C£ Etthn. Tusc. Dis. L 34. 84^ 
and Zumpt's Gr. 

8.— Efyc otrts tx*^"-^ ^^* ^ ^^ 11« S; Cyrop. IL 1. 8. The 
optative with &«r frequently follows €{ with the indicative, or 4iip with 
the subjunctive, when the thing deduced is contrasted as uncertain, etc 
See Kahn. ^ 339. 3 ; L. Gr. 11. f 817. b, where many examples are cited. 
— —fi^iCw ay ad a. One Ms. has iitl(ova corresponding in form to 
li%i(o¥a with c&ff/»7cr. below, but the full and A>ntracted forms are pro- 
miscuously used. Of. Cyrop. III. 3. 20 ; Agesil. IL 7, and see the Gram- 

marSb tlvat,, »(>w}> rlyttv.. ,^ wa79as &wh yovdmv, whom 

can we find that have received greater favors from whom than, I e., con 
we find any persons who have received greater favors from others, than 
children from parents 9 For the blending of two interrogative sentences 
here, see Kuhn. Gr. ^ 844. R. 7 ; C. 539. 2 ; L. Gr. IL § 843. 1 ; Rost» 

§ 123. b, 10. b. ots ol yoptis.. . cTyai. The Latin is far inferior 

to the Greek in such phrases as this, substituting fiuite verbs for the 
Part and Inf. : quibus cum ante^ non essent parentes causa exstitenm^ 

ut essent & 8^, which, <u U evident; for this meaning of 84 se^ 

note upon II. 1. 21, and the references there. &srw. ,.^€6yofity. 

For tlie use and significance of the indicative with £irc, see Kiihn. Gr. 
§341. 2; ct I. 2. 81. —^^v2 ro7s fieytfrrots aZue^fAofft; the preposi- 
tion with the dative here denoting the goal or aim, has the same force 
OS in tlie phrase: yS/iovs d4irdat M rivu See KQhn. Gr. § 296. IL (1). (d); 
L. Gr. IL § 612. — -(i}/i^ar ddvaro^ vf voi^xao'iy, mode death 
the penalty, punishment The Greeks were accustomed to say : bivaros 
4 Olftia irrlp but ddyarop Cnfilai^ nirrciy, ivid^irdai or iroicir. In the 
former case the article distinguishes the subject^ but in the latter case 
(if;t(ar has not the force of- a subject^ but is added as an explanation of 
^ojrttrey, as penalty, and is consequently without the article. If it were 
added it might give the (rudaM the force of fitting, due punishment ; see 
Meatzner ad Antiphon. Or. V. p. 134. 34. Baydros, in respect to the 
artide^ is used as a proper noun. See Apolog. § 1, .where it is, without 
the article, contrasted with rov fiiov, •— 6i obx Itr . . . vavaotfr§t, 
tuppaaing th^U they can deter from crime by the fear ofnoffrtaier evU* 

280 NOTES. 

For the use of the participle with At M equiTMleiit to a partieiple of • 
rerb denoting to think or say with the Infin. or Ao& and Int, Bee KQhn. 
Gr. $ 812. 6 ; L. Gr. IL f 671 ; Roel^ f 180. For the nae of lU with the 
Part, see Kahn. Gr. f 260. 6. (b) ; L. Gr. IL $ 6*71 > Rost^ i 120. 

4« — kal tiiip..,y9. See note upon I. 4. 12. #rcl roirov 7c 

tAp airo\vc6prt0P. The pronoun r0{rov does not refer directly to difp»- 

itaiwp, but to the whole idea contained in the preceding words : rh tm» 

kppohfflttp ivi^fiHi^, See KQhn. L. Gr. IL ^ 421, Anm. 2. For the 

.irregular position of the article, see note upon I. 6. 18 : riip voftoM, K.r.A. 

oitHifuera ^ lupanaria. ^orcpol 8^ 'tr/tir, icr.K, moreover it ia 

evident that we even eoneider, etc fidKriara, most healthy, robust 

6t — Two99^afi4pii rt...fiapvrofi4wii re; for the re — re, see 
note upon I. 1. 14. It should be further noted, tluit the KtJ, before 0^ 

roAAi* corresponds to the first re. r^r rpo^rjs ^t mat ahr^ 

rp4^. This is the reading best supported by the Mss. and ancient edi- 
tions^ but the rareness of the attraction of the relatiye from the datire^ 
has caused several modern editors, as Schneider and Bomemann, to sub- 
stitute the pronoun in the dative f. Upon this attraction of the relative 
pronoun, see KQhn. L. Gr. IL § 787, and Gr. § 832, R. 6. In addition to 
the references in the grammars, cf. Aeschin. de F. Leg. 48 : vap* ttr /H^r, 

ic.r.A. 9t§p4yKaera; see note upon I. 2.58, offre yiyvA- 

ffKov rh fip4ipot .,.ob9^ irti/iairMiw Zvrdfitrqv, Most editors 
govern fip4<pos here by rp4fMt, but on account of the intervening wordi^ 
this construction seems to be harsh, and it is more probable that there is 
a grammatical irregularity in the sentence, which would naturally run 
thus: rcjcoinra rpe^ct re icol /niicXcrroi, •ffre vpowtropdvut ovthf Ayo- 
d6p, otfre ytyw^fTKorrot rod fip4^ovt, 6p* trov eS vdirx'h ov84 
Ttiftalyup 9vrafi4vov, Zrov Seircu, &AX* e^r^ tfroxaC^'M*'^ '''4^ ^* ^^f^' 
^4po»ra iral JvcxoptirAi^*'* f9ipvfjL4pii iinrKripovv' ical rp^ei, jr.rA. But 
Xenophon without i*egard to grammatical accuracy changed the genitive 
absolute into the nominative, in order to make it correspond in case 
with the preceding Tpoirtwovl^vta and the following o^ ffrox^(oti4ry)t 
and the participle wtipmn4ini, to the finite verb reiparai, on account of 
the importance of the idea to be expressed by it CC note upon IL 1. 80. 

o u 8 K . . Ivp^Liktvov, After offrt we not unfrequently find oM (and 

not). See Bomem. A nab. IIL 2. 27 ; Rest's Gr. $ 184. Anm. 2 ; Eahn. 
Gr. ^ 821. R. 6 ; L. Gr. IL { 748. Anm. 4. 

6* — ^A 8' ftr oXifprai &XXor Inap^rtpop §lpat 8i8^{ai. Tlie 
Latin sentence takes a very different foim here : quibus autem docvndia 
ilium magu idoneum putant ^irl /icXovrrai... Srwt •/ 


S«t adroit y4wm¥rat; this seems to bo the prefenble reodiDg, si 
though Bome editors and some Msa have 8ir»f tur e/ . . . ydtmrroi (olhen 

j4poi¥To); see KOhn. in h. 1. viwra voiovyr§s, exerting them- 

selyes in every wsj. 

7« — ^'O ycar/0'cof (sa Aofi'wpiicXiis) l^i|. For the order of the 

words here, see note upon L 2. 9. iwd roi, see note upon L 2. 86. 

ci...TCTo(i|jcc... ovScls &y S^raiTo;, for the Optat with 

Hif after the India, see note upon I. 2. 28: ct 8* ainht am^poimwt ie.r JL 
Tliere is a peculiar delicacy exhibited in the omission of the words ^ ^^^ 
u'lfnip before ircrod^Ke, as Lamprocles had only his own mother in mind. 

xoXAav^cttf'ia, from wtK&t and the termination -M'lof, many 

times, containing the idea of comparison, and hence governing the geni- 
tive To^«»y ; see Eahn. 6r. § 275. 2 ; L. 6r. IL § 540. i3; Rost, § 109. 
T^r x«^*"'^^^'''"f aeperitas; cf. Sympos.IL 10. In conse- 
quence of the asperity of Xantippe, her name, as is well known, has 
become synonymous with threw. But it cannot be denied that Socrates 
was somewhat in fault In his excessive devotion to philosophy and the 
State, the duties of domestic life were probably thrown somewhat into 
the back-ground. See In trod., and Ritter's Hist^ Phil. II. p. 88, 84. — • 

n^Tcpo 8^, see L 8. 13. t^s fiiirp6s. Some editors have here 

omitted the article, but it can hardly be doubted that it should be re- 
tained. Socrates has been speaking of the firrrfip in general, and hence 
omits the article ; "but Lamprocles here alludes to his own mother, and 

hence says r^r fiiirp6s, t^y 7c roiairns, being indeed such a 

uue, since she is of such a character. "H^ri v^wort, oi'iginally only 

in negative clauses^ as in Homer and Hesiod, but in Attic writens in in- 
terrogations that imply a negative, as in IV. 2. 24 ; 4. 1 1 ; 5. 9 ; Hellen. 
II L 6. 14. Also after conditional conjunctions ; as ci, Anab. 5. 4. 6 ; 
Gyrop. VL 4. 5 ; Aristoph. Acharn. 880 ; and after relative pronouns ; 
Plat ApoL p. 19. D; and even with participles in a relative construction, 
as 01 ifjtov wAwoTt imjiro^ff. Cfl Poppo, Thuc P. IIL Vol 2. p. 647. 

8« — ^N^ A fa, a formula of ^wearing, denoting strong affirmation; 
often used with itWd in answering questions ; see further, 7. 4 below. 

iwl T^ fil^ vaprl; for (at the price of) mtf whole life. For this 

meaning of iwi with the Dat, see KO^ Or. § 296. IL (f> it6^a 

..,v6va 8i ; see note, L 1. 1: ASucci 2mtepdr,, ilt.A. The words ir6aa 
8tf<rir«irra . . . ZwTKoKcdrwf , , , wpdy/uira wapaax"^"^ ^^ ^^® ^^^ clause an- 
swer directly to the words of the last clause, w6ea 8i Xvwriaai ndfiytp, 
and the rest are explanatory. ——«Tira ; this first person of the Aor. 
is seldom used in Attic Greek, and hence some editors have substituted 

282 KOTEB. 

for it the more nsiiiil 2 Aor. cTvor. Attio writers employ- the eeoond per 
eon fflvaf more frequently; the first per& plar. cfra^ey, prob. nerer 
the second persi «frarc and the imperatiyefl^ ^Iwdrm {wpos^twdrm) end 
cfvarc, Tery often ; and the third c7«ar, Teiy rarely. For the two aceoBa 

Uvea after cZra and iwoliivu, see Kahn. Gr. § 280. 4. jvx^"^ 

The Subj. in Lat ernbeaceret, or, pnderet. 

f •— Tlie connection of the thought here is : Stage actors permit the 
utmost severity of language to be used to them upon the stage, without 
being enraged, since they know that no insult or injury to themselves is 
intended ; mudi more ought you to endure the eeverity of your mother, 
knowing that she not only does not intend you any injury, but has your 
highest good most sincerely at heart— ^- dvoicpirair. The noun 
^AKpir^t, from 6woicp(pofuu, signif. first, one who afuwern, and then as 
responding to each other, wta^e playtr»; this is its usual meaning. In 
later Gr. one who acts a feigned part, a disBcmbler, and hence our word 

hypocrite. Axx^Xovr rk ftf-xa^a x4ymvtw, say the /a«< things 

L e, the worsts the most severe things. *AXX'. Instead of this par- 
tide, we may in English use the relative pronoun which, eta So in 

Latin: quos quidem arbitror, etc f^9ttts ^4povfft, bear calmly, 

aequo animo. roSr^ y§, lit, this at leoMt, but in English we 

should give the force of the y4 by erophasb on the preceding word. 

!•• — ^'Oiraif &ytattf}fs re Ka\ $wt9t.,,$cp. Two Maei have the 
reading iyiopfs, which some editors have changed to iytaytTt, to avoid 
a supposed discrepancy ia mood between this verb and Kcjf which fol- 
lows. Tliere are also two or three Ma& that have dytalrtit or iyuuwoit ; 
but the reading given in the text, seems to be the best authorised. There 
appears not only not to be any objection to the employment of different 
modes after the conjunction twut here, but a delicacy and beauty pecu- 
liar to the Greek in their use. In the first case, the result to be obtained 
depends more upon agency foreign to the actor, L e., of the god^ and is 
hence spoken of with 'more doubt and contingency, by means of the sub- 
junctive mood. But the future expresses the more certain event which 
is more in the power of the mother. Of IL 4. 2 ; Bornemann, Sympo& 

VIIL 25, p. 203, who compares Anab. lY. 0. 10 ; Agesil. VIL 7. 

voX\& Toit ;^co7f 9hxo^l4w^p iwhp irov, asking many good things 
from the gods for you, s ahwdtu &7ada nph rmp ^cdr, Cyrop. I. 6. 5. 

Gf III. 14.3, and IV. 2. 86. c&X^' AvoSiSoSo'ay. Tlie phrase 

c&X^' &vo8<8^rai signifies to perform vows to, to pay what is promised 
to the goda rikyabi,, the good, things that are good. 

BOOK n. CHAP. IL 288 

11«-»Mif8cy)...&p^a'irffir, m^'* tirtv^at.. .tipxovrt. Hie 
words from fti|8^ to Apxom are explanatory of /tiySeri i^vKtip, to please 
no one, neither to follow nor be obedient to one, whether he may be 
general or other ruler. The first verb twwhoi which has more direct 
reference to phjsieal action, is fitly chosen to correspond to ffrpanty^ 
and v«(dc0-3ai, denoting rather mental action, to &AAy Kpx^*^** 

lt«— "Ay Ti v^a\\6tJitPot r6xv'* if yon shall fall into any cala* 

mity, or if any thing eyil happen to yon. ofrSir Ar 0-01 9ia^4pog 

^l\ow 1^ iX^P^^ 7«y^0'dai. Aio^cpciy is constructed with the Aocus. 
of thA quantity and Dat of the person. So in Plat Ep. 18. p. 862. A ; 

Enrip Troad. 1248. r^f irapjk ro^T9$0 tvvolas, good will from 

thcAe, Of, their good will ; et IIL 11. 8, 18; Demosth. de Goron. p^ 226,8, 
and Dot« upon IIL 11. 14: r»y wup* ifwL 

^ 18» — ^E7ra. See note upon L 2. 26. Taptirictiaa'ai, Per£ 

2d Pera in the sense of the present tense as fi*eq. ; so in f 11 above. See 

Kfihn. 6r. f 255. R. 5. yowias fiii ttpavt^jf ; for an account of 

the law against ingratitude to parents^ ir<Ur«<rif ywimv^ the kind of 
neglect punished, etc, see Potter's 6r. Ant B. IV. ch. 15 ; Meier and 

Schdmann, Attische Process^ III. 1. $ 2; S. 288, 9. ttpx^'* ^^ ^ 

oome archon, ruler ; see L 1. 18. its offrc h,¥ rk Uph, c^o-toSf 

l^v6fi§tfa Iwhp T^t ir^XcMf, supposing that the sacrifices in oehalf 

of the State will not be reverently performed. oCrt &AXo ira- 

X«f ical ZtKaiwt ott9^p &y (sc. trporrtf/icyoy), ro^rov wpd^a^ros* 
ThA participle wpterrSfi. is to be supplied, iLwh koivoG, from wpd^wros, 
and To^ov d^rros and roirov wpd^arros correspond to each other. For 
the meaning of the participle with &f . . . &ir, see note, § 8 above : &t oiic 

hif , , . wa^aomt. iw rais rAw kpx^^'^*'^ hoictiiairlaii. The 

candidates for office at Athens were compelled to pass an examination in 
regard to their lineage, age, manners, habits, etc., and these examinations 
were called loKtiuurla', see Fiske*s Man. p. 181. 


14« — ivyyr^/iowds eot, indulgent, disposed to pardon yon. 

Kal oSroi, even they, they themselves, or, they in turn. a 5. See 

note upon I. 2. 12. cira. Eight Paris Mss. have ical cfro, from 

which Zeunius makes jcfro, and most of the more recent editors adopt 
the correction. But Kilhner and Seiffert seem justly to retain the com- 
mon reading which we have given. For cTra and firtira are frequently 
used alter a. finite verb^ where we might expect iral cTra (icf ra) and inX 
$wttra, signifying : then aftertoarda and sometimes, and then s irol r^c, 
as in IV. 5. 8 : cTra . . . rotii(ui ; Plat Apol. p. 28. C, on which see 
Stallb., and many other passages. For the reverse koI tlra or mil frtim 

284 KOTS0. 

ibr the aimple cTra and fir€tra, tee note upon L 1. 6. The preee^og 
p ^KkvotucSp (&r</i^«<ru») also is in favor of cfro, and the change of sub- 
ject is no valid objection to it 9ee note, IL 1. 8. tops Joyces. 
Several Msa and editors have yov4as here, but the Aecua in -cif from 
nouns in -t6s is not uncommon in Xenophon. Cf. as examples^ IIL 6. 
19 : robs hntut, 7. 6. ymptis, vkwus, x^t*''f ®^ ^ saep. 


1. — ^X aipf^drra. Chaerephon was an intimate fnend and diadple 
of Socrates^ but a man of violent passions ; see Plat Charm, p. 158, b ; 
Wiggers* Life of Socrates, Ch. II. He is also called ptKSri/ios in § 16. * 

JScbr, when he saw, or, met with. ov S^vov, not most certainly, 

or, not I hope ; ironically. See Eahn. Ix Gr. 1L ^ 835^ 8, and cf. IV. 2. 

11. xpv^^f^^Ttpoy m>fii{Qwri xp^fo^'^t ^ X^Mcn-^ iart XP^ 

(Ttfioy, and yofjd(m XP^M''''* xp^^^t^^" cZyoi, when the idea relates to 
treasures in general ; cf. ^ 6 ; 6. 21 ; 9. 1 ; IIL 8. 5 ; 6. 9, et al., and 
Anab. III. 2. 22. Sometimes mii/ui is added, as in Sympoa. IV. 14 : 
«7Sci;r 5ri xp^ftara ifih KrrifUL See Kahn. Gr. § 241. 2 ; Buttmann, § 129. 
The paronomasia in the words x^Ma^o^ and yc^rioqiArtpov, i/ppirw, ^po- 
plfAOv and /3oi)d<(aT, fioiid^tw, should not escape notice. The choice of 
words with refereuoc to their umilarity of sound, especially in proverbial 
expression^ was not uncommon in Greek, though much less frequent 
than in some of the oriental languages ; cf. IL 4. 5 : voibr yhp tnos ^ 

voiov (tvyos oUru XP^^'M^''* &nrfp 6 XP^^'''^* p(\os. ^ oJeA.- 

^ovs ; some editors have conjectured that this should be '&5cA^y in the 
singular, to correspond with the words in the singular which follow, 
referring to it But the plural seems here to be used to make the idea 
general, and when afterwards the application is made to a specific indi- 
vidual, the brother of Chaerecrates, the singular number is employed. 

— jcal ravra, and that too; see note upon I. 2. 29. jSoii^ctat 

Z9oti4vv¥t lit, needing help, I e., requiring the care of the possessor 
in order to keep^ preserve them. This phrase^ obscure in itself, is em- 
ployed for the sake of the antithesis with row 8^ fian^vf Iwofkirw. 

%% — ^ET; for the significance of this word, see note, I. 1. IS. rh 

(so. xp^l''^^*') '''^^ &8«A0«ir, the wealth, possessions of brothers. 

ivrav^a^ there, in respect to these (the jcitizens). Xoy^C^vdai, 

to suppose, to come to the conclusion. ^vi Z\ rStv &8cA^«y, in 

respect to brothers. For this use of M with the genitive^ cf. note npoo 


ID. 9. 8. &7yoov0-i, the plural number, kot^ e^tew, after the 

singular, ct nt, see note upon L 2. 62. 

%• — 'Qs fiorj^Air Sc^/icroi, because they need ; Lat quod with 
the Bubjunctiye, or thinking that thej need, etc., according to Kuhn. 6r. 

( 812, 6. &sr9p,,.ytypofi4¥ovs ^i\9vs; for the accusative 

absolute with &sv9^ see Eahn. Gr. § 812. R. 18 ; Buttmann, § 145,l)ote 
7, and note I. 2. 20. 

4« — Kal fih'^* andyetjSsKot fri, Lat atqui. The common use of 
the particle /i^r k to confirm or augment ; but it also sometimes indi- 
cates a kind of opposition between the clause in which it stands and 
wliat precedcflL See Hoogeveen, Partic. 6r. p. 271, and Kldtx's Deva- 

rins, IL S. 661. wphs- pi\iap iiiya iihv tvdpxttf contributes 

much to friendship ; for this use of irphs with the accusative, denoting 

object or aim, see Eahn. 6r. ^ 298. IIL (8). a. rh in r&w alrAv 

^vrait to be bom of the same (parents) ; the subject of ^4pX*<* 

fiiya 9k (sc ^dpx^i) rh 6fio» rpa^iiwatt to be reared, brought up, 

U^ether. v^^os rtt 4yyty¥€Tat, ict.a., a kind of love arises 

among those who, etc. 

ft. — ^*AXA.* c/ /tiy. 'AAAdI, ellipt, a pailicle of assent; see Elotz's 

Devnr. II. S. 8 sq. 6ir6Tt y^ivroi '»a¥rhs M4oi jcol vSy t^ iitaah 

Ttt&Tcero¥ cfi^ The most natural explanation of this clause in its connec- 
tion, is perhaps that of Weiske : but if he is entirely wanting in this (i. e., 
in respect of being such a brother as it is fitting to be a= Av^c wamht 
M4ot r^ &8(A^ roio^y cTrai, otov hu\ and is entirely the opposite 
There is another explanation, which gives a tolerable sense, by supplying 
ahr^ after M4oi : but if he is in need of eveiy thing, etc But the for- 
mer seems more in accordance with the context— ^r/ &r rif iwf 
X^tpolfi To7f aivpdroiSt why should one attempt impoflsibiliUefl^ 
L e., to unite, reconcile things that are wholly opposite f 

6* — n^Tff pa 94; see note upon L 8. 13: rohs th icaXo^s. Yerbs 
compounded with prepositions implying approach, junction, etc, are 
followed by Dat^ R 188. 2, b. l^artp off, tome, see note and refer- 
ences, L 4. 2. Ai& rovro ydp rot, on this very account indeed ; 

c£ XL 6. 4 : fyJIp 7d(p roi . . . iuco^ I hear even that ; IIL 6. 19; Sympoa 
IL 8. Tot gives emphasis to the 7^^ ; see Hartung, Gr. Partik. U. S. 858 sq. ; 

El5tz, S. 868 sq., and ct note upon L 4. 9. a^i6v ivrir ifiol, 

it is fitting, just, etc Ct IL 1. 84; Sympos. IV. 18, 64, 66 et al. 

iral (ipy^ icttl \6y^i these words are often found in the reverse order: 
iJy^ Kal fp7^ The latter seems the natural order of climax, and when 
Xiy^ is plac^ last it pppears to be put as a kind of complement to the 

286 K0TE8. 

former, on which spedal emphasis is placed. For numerous instances of 
both.<M>n8traction8» see Bomemann in h. 1. 

?• — ^T^ ikptwtffr-^fAotfi iiiv. The infinitive x/>9^^ ifl to be ^Op- 
plied here from the next clause, bj the common construction krh icouvSL 

8« — *hK\* obl\ w^ipdvo/iatj hut, so &r from it, I will not eren 
attempt it 

9« — El tclva fi4vf iLr.X,f if laying ande anger, joa would attempt 
by kind treatment to conciliate a dog, if you had one which was^ etc, 
i. e., f ^ iifuK'^at &r rov lfr^(9ff^cu iwttpA cS wot^^as xpaAwur iciim^ d 
roi 9r, M wpo$drois Irir^Sciof Aw, K.r.A. Ihe nonn idi^a is placed al 
the begiiming of the sentence for the sake of emphasis, and then cwr2r 
supplies its place with the rerb vpa^tv. For this use of the pronoun, 
see note L 4. 18; for «i...«i; see L 2. 88. The relation of the mem- 
bers of the sentence indicated by the particles fi4w . . . /Uy — 8i . . . 8^ — * 

/Ur...8^, should not escape notice. rhw 8^ i^tX^hp ^ys M^*'* 

jcr.A. Strict concinnity of expression would require the Part ^db, in- 
stead of the finite verb ^$t, to correspond with the following participle 
l/AoXoywt but the importance of the thought leads to the use of the verb; 

see note upon II. 2. 6. ivlrraa&ai 8i 6fio\Qyii¥, icr.A., and 

confessing that you yourself know how to do well, etc ; «8 roicZr and 
•3 X4y€w depend upon ivitrrunrbeu, and have not iScX^^r as accusative 
with them, as they are sometimes rendered ; c£. § 8 above. 

10s — A^8oiKa...fiJ^ oltK, I fear lhat.,,nott etc The Indie lx«» 
is used here to denote the probability that the thing feared does not 

exist; see Kflhn. ^ 818. R. 8. ical; see note, 1. 4. 12. 

oh9ip.,.woiKlKor, lit, nothing various, but here metaphor., skilfully 
devised, carefully thought out C£ Stalib. PUt Symp. p. 182. R — r— 
oft 8) Kal vb iwtffraffai avrhs; by attraction for rot^oir, k md 

iri», IC.TA, see note, H 1.25. vtpl woWov Tot^Tv^at •■€, will 

make you of mhch value, esteem you much. 

1 !• — ^This and the following sections are often cited as a specimen ot 
inductive reasoning of which Socrates wss so fond. So II 10, and III 7. 
Olfit tt¥ ^^dtfots..,K4yww cf, «c.rJL, yon could not tell me too soon, 
if, etc., i. e., tell me as soon as possible. For the construction, see Butt- 
maim, Gr. $ 150 ; Ktthn. § 810, 4. (1) ; L. Gr. H. * 884. C£ HL 11. 1 • 

qOk tut pbdi^tr\ r^, iueoKovbovyrts, 8-^7^ ffl8«l»t k^Kribr. 

ifiavrSp, which I have unconsciously known. \4y€ Bii ftoi, 

tell me I pray ; see note, L 2. 41. iw6r9 dvot, «aX«ir trt rf»l 

{•Tw^iroir. It was a common practice after making a sscrifioe^ to prepars 

BOOK IL CHAP. lU. 287 

• topper to which relatiyeB and friend^ as a special iayor, were called. 

C£ IL 9. 4. Kar^px^'fov icaXciy in^tvop, begin bj calling 

him. Verba fignifying to begin, etc., govern the genitire. 

12* — Hporp4}^airdai ; see note, L 2. 64. 


IS. — Eif T^)r iKtlvov, (sc WAim, or, y^w). 'A^^^ya^c for 

*Ad^raf U; see KOhn. 6r. § 2SS. 3, and R. 8. alrhy; this pro- 
noun is frequently employed where we use the personal pronoun him, 
her, it, but it isstricUy reflexiyesaiipsum, telf, as in the following 

clause where ifi4 is to be supplied, and used in all the persons. 

roSro... ^icff^yy vocciy; for the construction, see Rost^ Gr. § 104. 
Anm. 9 ; KOhn. L. 6r. IL § 669. Anm. 

14* — *EirtffrdfA9Pos.,,a99Kp6wrovt having known for a long 
time . . . have you . . . kept hidden. CI f 1 1 : h iyit tMt X/Xiy^a i/Atun-6w ; 

'SyinposL L 6 : k-w^Kpinrriiitiv O/ias i^X"^ voXXk jcol ao^it \4ytuf. ^ 

^jcyctr ; ^, like the Latin an, is not generally found in the second 
member of an interrogation, when it is wanting in the first, unless it 
may be easily supplied from the preceding words, as in h. 1 : f fya . .. 
iartxpiwrw, ^ ^icycis. — fiii alaxP^* parys, M^ has not^ like the 
lAtin n e for u t n e with a finite verb, the force of a final ooujunction. 
We may render it lesi or Mo/, but strictly it is an indirect interrogative, 
whether or not ; as in h. 1. witli oiey&if implied in the preced. verb 6kvus. 
So in IL 6. 6 : rk rotetdra wdrra anoTtA pAi \ i. e., rk r. t. trKtnr&p vkwA 
liifl, and frequently elsewhereu See Kahn. 6r. § 818. R. 6 ; L. 6r. IL 

( 779. 1. For the construction of cuVx. ^argy, see L 7. 4. Kal ijl^p 

...7c, different in signification from the same words in 1. 4. 12, but see 

the explanation there and c£ ^ 4 above. To&s...iroAcfiiovi 

tcanStt woiAp. Cf. a similar sentiment of Socrates in respect to private 

enemies, in IL 6. 86. «{ ft^p olp 496 k*i 11 01 X iiy^ii. clyai 

0*0 V irpht r^p ^ifftp r aerify. The idea contained in these words 
seems to be this : If then Chaerephon seemed to me more suitable tlian 
you to take the lead toward this state of mind, (I e., which would cause 
him first to confer fSiiVors upon his friends^ ^dvp ^^py^rap), 1 would 

attempt^ etc pvp 94; the use of these particles after a hypothetical 

proposition, to indicate the opposite of what is there supposed, has a 
parallel in the LatiL nunc autem, or, nunc vero, £ng.6W now; 
see Kiihn. Tusa Disp. IIL 1. 2. For the use of the Greek particle< sec 
Kahn L. Gr. II. $ 690. 2 ; Yiger. Idiot p. 860, and Hoogeveen, ^Gr. 

Partic p. 364. 9oit€7t...4^§pyd(9adat rovro, you by taking 

the lead seem rather (I e., better fitted) to do this. Why does Socrates 
represent it as more suitable that Chaereorates should take the precedence 

288 K0TE8. 

in the work of oonciliAtion f Efkhner thinki^ that it rests upon the agtt 
of the brotheri. The ressooing is : Yon Chaereerates are younger thaa 
Chaerephon, and as the younger should serre the elder, it- behooves yon 
to begin first to bestow favor upon your brother. But it is not more pro- 
bable that Socrates means this as commendatory of Chaereerates f He 
has before said that whoever does this, vktlarov 7c Soku h^ ^volrsv 
i{iot cimu. And does he not now intend to represent Chaereerates sm 
better fitted for this work than his brother I 

IS* — Kal o^Ba/iMf wpht rev, se. twru, (see note, L 4^ lOj and 
that are by no means in aooordanee with your character or practice ; 
for this use of vp6s with the Gen. to denote what belongs or is ap- 
propriate to any thing, see B. 147, wp4t c gen. ; Edhn. Gr. ^ 29S. 1 ; 
L Gr. IL 4 617. Anm. I. and 616. p. 806. CC Symposw IV. 23 : o»Si wp^ 

90U v0mS^ cr.X. *Of 7f KcAc^cit, who indeed (or forsooth) com- 

mandfli The y4 is not restrictiye, but ai^pupentatiye or explicattTc. See 

EOhn. Gr. ^ 817. 8; L. Gr. H. 704. IL 1. 4iik p^^rtpop twra, 

me who am younger. There is no intimation here that Socrates based 
his recommendation to Chaereerates on his being younger, but Chaere- 
erates brings this as an objection, wondering that Socrates should have 
overlooked it, and thus recommended a thing so adverse to the maxim 
received by all men, that the elder should take the precedence in all 

thingiL •ca/roi...7^; see note, I. 2. 8. ro^ov . . . r&FOKrfci 

p0fii(9rai ; so in ^ 16, vorraxev vofAtftrui, is the custom received, 
or practised. Thus in IV. 4. 19. CC also note, 1. 11 : wofiiCti ^§o6§, 

16«— 0& yitp; for the use of ydp in interrogationa^ see note L 3. 10. 

C£ ^ 17. ^TawaffT^yat ; concerning the construction of this word 

with the Gen. of pUce. see Eiihn. $ 271. 2 ; L. Gr. IL § 612. 1, 

Koirp fiakaxp rifi^^'ai. In reference to this mark of respect^ see 

Horn. 11. I. 617. 669 sq., and Odyas. w. 254. ifyabt; see note, I. 4. 

17. rhp ivZpass iKtiPOP ; p'^rhape, however, it is need to desig- 
nate the mstiire age of Chaerephon, in contrast with the youtli of Chaere 
crates. ovk ^/>$r ; we should naturally expect ^ as a sign of inter- 
rogation here, but it is frequently omitted with this and other phrsMS 

like it, as ovx V<>^*> <>^«' oU^a. Cf. III. 4. 8 ; 6. 18, et al. ^iA((ri- 

/Aot, honor-loving, in a good sense, and i\9v^4pios, noble-minded, 

in opposition to ZcvKowptrtis, /ikp yiip. Tip introduces the ground 

or reason of the declaration: irJant rax^ ^01 ^tucodcrrtu. ar^p^- 

VI a, diminutive in -top indicative of contempt } ci 8iSo(i}r ri, 

than by givinic him something ; for the use of the optative mode here, 

see Kahn. Gr. $ 260. 4. Kartpydaato, prevail over, conciliate to 


BOOK IL CHAP. m. 289 

7« — ^T{ yhp li\\o.,.1j ieipivy€6ff€i9; c£ note, IL 1. 17, and 
Flat Men. p. 80. A : ah o&S^y &AAo (sc iroicis), icr.X. The same ellipsis 
IB also frequent in Latin after nihil aliud quam, and similar phrases ; 
Bee Zumpt*s Gr. § 771. iiri9t7^ai.,.ffv /uiy ...r7yai. The infi- 
nitive is used instead of a participle after Scucy^fii either when it signifies 
to leach or when the object of this verb is to be represented as a thing 
merely possible ; see Eahn. § 811. 11 ; L. 6r. IL $ 658. Anm. 8. CI lY. 
4. 18. 2h flip are added after ^inScZ^ou for the sake of the contrast with 
iKWot 8c, after which KufBvrtwr^t ixt^u^oi . . . cfMu are to be supplied. 
'—^ rpoKaKovfitPoy iavrhw, challenging him. — v<£y v ^i^o- 
rciic^0'fiK, will be yerj emulous. 

18« — Tit x<</><> A* ^ i^cbt... ^vo/ifo'cr... &^ff/i/yw...&AA4- 
Aiv. For the article and qualifying words in the masculine dual whilst 
the Bubstantiye is in the feminine, see Kahn. 6r. f 241. 5. R 10. (b) ; 
L. Gr. II. i 427. 6^ and Anm. ; Buttm. ^ 129. 7, and c£ note, I. 2. 83. 

19* — OvK &r ToXX^ Sifia^la §tri. The harahness of the connect 
tion between this and the preceding context, has led some editors to sus- 
pect that' ovKovy sliould be substituted for ovk tof ; but paragraphs sum- 
ming up what has preceded are not unfrequently put iurvpHtTceSt as was 

shown in note upon L 1. 9: rohs rk roiavra, icr^ teal fi^y ...7c ; 

Bee note, L 4. 12. X*^P^ ^^ "^^l v6Bt leal i^^aK/jtit riwd 

Tf; other readings here are: ical r&XAa ; Just riXAa r* ccvs; Par. C 
rik\a ri»s; Par. G. r&AAa rt &s; Lw koI &AAa rt. But the reading 
in the text, is not only supported by M^ authority, but is defensible 
upon grammatical principles. For, after clauses connected by xai, an- 
other is not unfrequently affixed by r4. The last clause in such cases is 
not considered as parallel with what precedes^ for not and r4 are not thus 
used as corresponding particles in Attic Greek, but contains something 
accessory or additional See Kfihn. Gr. § 821. R. 2. Cf. Thucyd. I. 54 
and 108, also IIL 62. The same construction is found in Latin ; after, a clause with que follows. So in Cic de Legg. II. 13. 88: 
lam yero permultorum exemplorum et nostra est plena respublico, et 
omnia regna, omnesque populi, cunctaeque gentes, augurum praedictis 

multa incredibiliter yera cecidisse. &8cX^&, in paira, 6p' 

7v7ar, here ^a fathom, six feet and nearly an inch. oi ical BrnKody 

rcf. The Ktd here with the participle is concessiye: althougk; see 
Hermann ad Yig. ^ 822. p. 659 : Kfihn. Gr. ( 812. R. 8 ; L. Gr. IL f 667» c 
It has the same signification just below : icol iroXh htarArt ; also in IL 
4. 4: vol vdbrv iroAXwr Stnup, Cf. Sympos. lY. 18: 6 8i iraX^s, ictA 
— T*r It* iyyvr^ptt . . . t4 tf^irpoff^MV, ict.X. 'Eyyvrtpw is used as a 
noiw in tl^e Geo. with t&p, aad goyemed partitiyely by rh fn^potr^w 


290 NOTSQ. 

and rk irta!^ that follow. — »- vpcCrrffropr I/ia ical ^ «b^cXffff AXX^ 
Xoiy. *A/M Kol are not to be united in oonstniction here, as jost aboTe in 
the sense of pariter ac, but Sfui wpdrrtaf signifies to unite in a labor 
or employment, and ira/, and iftdeed, or, and that too. See KOhn. Gr 
^ 821, and L. Gr. II. § 727. 1. 


It — Ata\tyofi4^ov; see note, L 7. 6. ^| «r, from which, se. 

reasonings. The relative here is in the plural number, in oonsequenoe 

of an implied plural antecedent in the preceding phrase. vphs 

^(Km¥ KT^ffip Tff jcal xp*^^** ^^ respect to the acquisition, etc 

For the use of the preposition, see KQhn. } 298. IIL (2) (e). Ts»r« 

lk\w yhp i^. The paKide Z4^ here is to be taken with ^ovro and not 
with 7ap, this indeed, hoc ipsum. So it is used after voAAi separated 
bj 7d^ in Cjrop. V. 8. 8. See Hartung, Gr. Pai-tik. Vol. I. 287. It k 
fiir oftener, when thus placed, to be taken wiUi' Tdl^ see note and refers 
ences, I. 2. 14. — Kpiir I <rr 09 kv «fif ^iKot va^ifs koX ayat^4%. 
The condition which gives rise to the &y and Opt mode seems to be im- 
plied in the adjectives, aapiis koI iyo^t l ^^ ci vtu^s k. aysd. fA|. 
Some however supply cf rts c7i|. See Kiihn. Gr. § 340, and L. Gr. IL 

i 823. 2. 6pap If^i). The verb 1^ b frequently repeated in 8Q0> 

cessive dauaes for the sake of distinctness, especially in oolloquia!, and 
even familiar style. Cf. ^ 2 ; IIL 6. 11 ; 8. 8 ; 10. 10, et al. and note, L 6w 4. 

2« — Kal yiip olxfat, icr.A. ; Cicero in Lael XV. 65, has similar 
language : Quid autem stultius^ quam, cum plurimum copiis^ fiieultatiboi^ 
opibus possint, cetera parare, quae parautur pecunia, equos, fiunnlo^ 
vestem egregiara, vasa pretiosa; aroicos non parare, optimam et pul* 

oherrimam vitae, ut ita dicam, supellectilem t ical ra iwra, sc. 

acquired ; to be supplied from the correlative participle isrvfiipovt, 

^(^01" 8c, t fA^ytirrop iya^hw cTyal ^a<riF; the relative S, neu- 
ter for the masculine Zv ; see Kahn. Gr. § 882. 5. (6) and R ; L. Gr. IL 
786. 8. CC IV. 8. 4, and also note § 7 below, where the relative ia not 
attracted to the predicate. For a simUar attraction in Latin, see Znmpt's 

Gr, and KUhner's Cic Tusc Disp. IV. 10. 23. 6 par l^i| before 

robs voA. are best omitted in English, as their repetition encumbers the 

sentence. ^vmf Kr-fitrovrai ^poprlCotras ...v^itufrai', after 

9^ivrrai, ^porrl^grrac is to be repeated, see note, L 6. 8. A strict con- 
ttnnity of expression would require the last clause to read : o6t9 iwmt. 

BOOK IL CHAP. lY. 291 

ftr &y ix^^h Javroif ff^^mrrcu, but as ^Aoy is used genericallj, it may 
hare a plar. referring to it^ xark v^co-iv ; see Kdhn. 6r. $ 832. 6. (a). 

8« — ^*AAX& ica2, quin etiam, moreover. 

4i — Ka\ vim iroXXfiy octrois irrotv, Kai is here to be connected with 
imttw and not with v((yv, and is concesuve, aUhough; see note, II. S. .19: 

•I JKol SoicovKrct. r^ vA^;^09 9lZ6rat, For a similar expression 

of the same idea, see Diog. Laert IL 80 ; and Cic; Lael. XVIL 62 : saepe 
(Sciiuo) qaerebatur quod omnibus in rebus homines diligentiores essent^ 
at capras et oyes qnot quisqne haberet^ dioere posset^ amiooa quot habe- 
ret^ non posset dioere. — &AA& jcaL.. ircCAr^r ro^rovr hwarib^* 
^bat, the J retract, them again, L e., remove them from the number of 
their friendsi 'Ava-f fi^^;^ai, literally, to put over again, to change a move 
in chess ; see Woolsey's Gorg. p. 461. D. p. 149v So Cic in his Hortena 
says : tibi concedo . . . ut calculum reducas si te alicujus dicti poenitet. 
niAiy is fluently used with verbs compounded with iiyd in the same 

manner as we often use offain. So in ILL 6. 7 ; Thuc I. 109, et aL 

rotrovToy, only so much, i. e., so little; ct Cyrop. VL 8. 22. 

6* — Xp'^a'ifioy.,,xpvo'rhi. For the paronomasia see note, IL 8.1. 
'•~-^irapafi6pi/iov, from wapa/im, staying by, steadfast^ faithfuL 

€• — ^'E avrhif rdlrrci, devotee himtelf to (the supplying of ) every 
thing, etc. Kal ru¥ kqivAv wpd^tvv; with the ellipsis sup- 
plied : kq) Tilt r&p Kotp. yp((|. Korfluricev^t, as in the preceding member of 

the sentence. For the omission of the article, see note, L 1. 19. cS 

Ift^r itpJkrroPTas,,.fr^a\Koii.ivovt 8^, those in prosperity ... and 
those oast down by adversity. 

7« — Tit &ra irpoaHo^ovffi, The plural verb seems here to be used 
instead of the singular with the neuter plural for the sake of uniformity 
with the preceding and succeeding plural verbs. Xlpoeucoiuv, to hear be- 
fore (another) in a similar manner vpoopap above. roircty ^i\of 

9b€pytr&y oif^^pht Xc/vcrai, a friend fails in no one of these 
things, (I e., in whatever the hands supply, etc) to confer favor. For 
the construction of the participle with the verb Xtlvtv^at, see Efihn. 
§810.4; L. 6r. IL § 661. ; Matt^ IL § 664. £ Ct IL 6. 6: fi^ ik- 

kilwwbtu cS woi&y, jcrA. rttura 6 ^iKos*. .4^'hpK9ffty, these things 

a friend . . . abundantly supplies^ etc The verb i^ttpKUP, to suffice for, 
etc, seems to be properly rendered in this way, and the necessity of sup- 
plying the participle i^fpya(6fi§poSy is avoided.— —irr^/AaTOf, ft lea* 
X«irai ^l\os. The relative is not here attracted in gender to the pre* 
dioate because greater emphasis is laid upon the antecedent rr^/icrros. 

292 KOTBB. 


1, — *Oir6ffov roiff ^tKois i^tos cfi}, how much he IB Tii]a«d bj 

frienda. Cf. I. 1. 1, i^wf, k.tA. *Kpri9^4»ii. AotiatheDea was « 

diaeiple of Socrates and the founder of the school of the Cypica. See 
Hitter's Hist^ Philoa Vol II. chap. IV. p. 108 sq., and Lewes' Biog. 
Hist PhiL YoL U. chap. III. p. 16 sq. The form of the Aoc found 
here belongs rather to Plato than Xenophon, although in many paa^ 

sages the Mm* vary, as in III. 8. 1. Sympos. L 8. rod i/itkovwrot 

abrov koI Ax\mv v&XXw¥, before him who was negligent, etci In re- 
spect to the oqllocation of the words^ et IV. 6. 14 : ical roit ium\tyov0-t9 
abroif ^oMtp^v iylyrvro raXifids ; Anab. VIL 1. 9, et al Avrov and 
Ak?it»y ToAA^y are brought near together for the sake of the oontiast 
See Kahn. 6r. § 848. 10. 

f.— -lE^i} like inquit in Latin is tautologically used after a yerb ot 

speaking; see note, I. 6. 4, and also cf. note, II. 4. 1. h^tai, prioei^ 

estimationes. wov 8^o iivatv a|i^r itrriy, is estimated at 

about two minae. The fi^a was seventeen dollars sixty-one cental F<Hr 
the usual prices of slaves, see Boeckh's Econ. of Athens^ p. 67. B. L ch. 18. 

ViKiat, called by Athenaeus (vi. p. 272. f.) the richest of all the 

Greeks ; and according to Xenophon (VecUg. 4 14) he had 1000 slaves 

in his mines. See Boeckh, Eoon. of Athens^ B. IV. ch. 8. p^ 480. 

hriordnpf c<t rkfyvpta, overseer of the silver mines, sometimes called 
difyitpua tpya. In the rich silver mines of Laurion many laborers were 
employed in the time of Socrates by private individuaK See Boeckh's 
Diasertatton on Eoon. of Athena, p. 616 sq., where is a full account of this 
source of the wealth of Attica. Cf. also IIL 6. 12, and Vectig. IV. 1 sq. 

raXc(yrov, si60 miuae and 600 drachmae, about $1056^0.-^— 

cKoirodfiai Zii rovro. The particle 8^ is here resumptive, L &, after 
speaking of the price of slaves, Socrates returns to the originul question, 
this is what I ask, i. e^, cc 6pa, etc. in oratio obUqua^ but recta above. 

8. — ^Nal /aA Al*; so. ff»^) vol rdr ^tKwf i^lau iyit you¥\ for the 

force of your, see note, I. 6. 2. rhw fi4w rtpa,, .rhw 8', one, some 

one, ... another ; so 6 fi4v Tiff...6 Any, alius quis. .. alius quis» 

are often placed; see Kflhn. L. Qr. IL $481. d. wph Tdpra^y XPH* 

ftdrttw Ha\ w6¥a9¥ vpia/fiify. The idea of preference implied in r|»^ ia 
most suitable in this pasMge. Cf. Apol. ^ 20. Instead of v^rMi^ some editon 
use vdpwp, but without neceasity, authority, or, even apparent plausi- 
bility, as Antisthenes was doubtless veiy poor; v.Sympoa III. 8; IV. 84. 
In IL 1. 20 : tAp v6imw vwAov^ir ^/up wdpra rieyt^ ol dtot, good tJung* 

BOOK n. CHAP. YL 298 

•M tpoken of M told for labor. And b«sidei^ Antisthenes the foaoder ol 
the Cjnic school of philoeophera, might natarally be supposed to set a 
very high value upon v^mf, labor, trouble ; v. Diog. Laert Antisth. yita, 
p. 138 and 140. It is^ however, more probable that vpb wJiyrmp xt"U*^^^ 
iral rS^mif had a proverbial significance: before all wealth and labor, 

i e., above every thing. ^i\oy fioi tlvai ; in other cases, we find 

the particle ft^rt added after wpiatr^au. Cf. Cyrop. III. 1. 86 : X/^or /toi, 
ir6aow %M irpioM, firrc rify yvrcuKa knoKafi^tp ; YIII. 4. 23 : obx &r ilpUu6 
yt vafiv6\Xov, 6sr9 <re( ravra t^t^irdau 

4« — ^Ef y9,..iart, icaX&t &r Ikoi ; for the use of the Opt mode 

with ftr after tt, see note, I. 2. 28. &t wXtlarov ti^tos cTi^oi; this 

ought in strict conformity with the parallel phrase : koX&s h^ Ixoi i^r- 
rd^up rtrk ieunhv, to read: wMipwr^at &t vAc/crrov &|ior rZroi, but it 
is attracted to the form of the preceding enunciation : T6aou ipa rvyx^' 

pti voir flKois t^ios &v ; see Kfihn. U Or. IL § 646. 2. and 3. 4yi$ 

ydp roc, see note, II. 3. 6. rou /a^p. . . rov 9k, from one. ..and 

from another. &Kd* iavrov fiaWow §lK9ro; the preposition 

iarrl is often thus placed after a comparative ; see Kahn. Or. § 287. 1. 
(b) ; L. Or. 4 588. Anm. 2. 

6«— T& Toiavra vdpra ffKovA, fi^i; the participle (rxoirMy is im« 
plied in the verb intord, see note, II. 8. 14: ^ dxrcit, «c.rA., considering 
all such things, I oonuder, wGether, etc ; or aooording to Seiifert axovm 
may be taken in a pregnant signification : quae qnidem omnia con- 
siderans, vereor ne, etc— — &vo8{8wrai rod §&p6¥ros, dis- 
poses of him for what he is found worth, will bring. So rov tiplvicorros 
in Aesch. c Timarch. p. 117. 2. Cf. Oecon. IL 8 : w6ffop t» oUi 96pup rk 
ffk itHifAara VMAo^ittvo, and De Vectig. IV. 25. 40, where see examples 

collected by Schneider. rh vXttop r^f k^tat, more than hi» 

worth. The idea of the passage b: If one 'has a friend who is bad or of 
little worth, and he can dispose of him for more than his value, he will 
easily be induced to' sell him ; i. c, if a friend of little value can be ex- 
changed for one of more worth, the transfer will be readily made. — « 
irayvyhp f, then may be an inducement, etc 


1. — *ZZ6k9i,.,^p9povp, he seemed to sharpen the mind. 
iwtx9ipoiiiii9P ;,the Attic form of the optative of contract verbs in -^ 
and -^ is more unusual in the dual and plural than the oomir 'n form ; 

294 NOTES. 

although the reverse ia tnie of the eingnlflr. See EQhn. 6r. { 187. 4 ; 

L. Gr. I. § 144. 6 ; Buttm. $ 106. note 4. 1. 2. 2pa is sometimes equi- 

yalent to 2p* o0, nonne. See Eurip. Alcestia^ L 229,771. It often 
indicates doubt, unoertaintj, wonder, unbelief, etc, like the Latin num, 
and is taken negatively and anticipates a n^ative answer, as in § 16 ; 
IIL 18. 8 ; lY. 2. 22. It is also frequently employed as here in accord- 
ance with Attic urbanity, where there is no doubt^ even in interroga- 
tions^ when the interrogator knows that the answer of the person ad- 
dressed will be aifirpiative. When used for 2p* ov, there is frequently a 
shade of irony implied, as in III. 2. 1 ; 6. 4 ; 10. 1, 7, et aL So ^* oSr 
is sometimes used for 2p* ohf oC, as in IL 7. 6 ; III. 10. 4, et aL See 
Kdhn. L. 6r. II. $ 834. 2. For a similar use of ne in Latin for nonne, 

see EQhn. Tusc Dia. II. 11. 26. wpQrw iii\v\ the construction ia 

changed here, and instead of the ffira Z4 which would naturally follow 
wp&Toif fii¥, we find ri ydp (§ 2). ECihner compares in Latin, Cicero^ 
Tusc Dis. Y. 27.78: primum ii qui sapientes habentur — ; mulieres 

vero; and IY.35. 74, on which see his note. rod ftiy...apxo~ 

ficVov. Upon fi4y tolitarium, see note, I. 1. 1. Udvv fikif odp, see 

note, I. 3. 9. 

St — ^T( ydp\ these particles are used when one passes with some 
animation to sometliing new. Tdp has no reference to the logical con- 
nection of the thought, but is merely rhetorical, and gives animation to the 
question itself. Quid f is used in a similar way in Latin. See Hartun^ 

Or. Partik. L a 480, 1 ; EQhn. L. Or. U. § 8S3. 1 ; cf. $ 3 ; IIL 10. 8. 

rw vKrial^Pf hi$ neighhoTZ, ical kafifiivmw, when he receives^ eta 

*A^9ieT4oir fi4urot, abstinendam vero; fi4inoi denotes confir- 
mation. See Euhn. Gr. § 816. R. (a) ; L. Gr. IL § 840. t CI lY. 2 12. 
14 ; Sympos. lY. 38. 

t* — Ikvsl^iifioXoty (from wiifiiXXm^ with the inseparable partide 
8vf,) hard to agree with, hard at a bargain. See Stallb. Plat de Rep. YL 

p. 486. B. *£ftol ii\v Soicc? ; cf. I. 2. 62: 'E^ol ti\w iUxf^ and see 

note, 1. 1.1: if fiw yhp ypapii. otrof, ., iK^tvov, this ... than that, 

the other, characterized in § 2. A^os refers to the nearest object and 
itt€ufot to the more distant ; EQhn. L. Gr. § 629. 7 ; I. 8. 18 ; see Plat 
Apol 2. So hio and ille in Latin; see EQhn. Tusc. Disp. I. 49. 117. 

4«^Tf 8/; {what thenf) indicates that the writer passes to some- 
thing different^ yet closely connected with what precedes. As r/ 8^ 

follows rt ydp in this passage, so in III. 8. 6, 6 ri ydp follows ri 94. 

^i}8i npht tv &AXo, see not^", I. 6r 2 : oiii* tut tTs» For the use of 
wp4^, see EQhn. Gr. ^ 298 ; IIL (8^ (a). Of. IIL 6. 6: oM vphs rwn 


a-0» ^ffX^curi. — o'xo^^'' vocetrai, makes leisure, L e., allowB him- 
self (no) time. 6w6b€w avrhs icepSarci; the verb iccpSayc? in 

the future is expressed in Latin by a periphrasis with the subjunotive : 

nnde ipse lucrum capturumrse sperat, Ei 5^ rif...lx*'i <^ '^ 

v^a-X«K ar /%*'''*'> some editors change Ixoi to lx<i to make it oor^ 
respond with Arcxcrcu, and others read iufixoiro in accommodation to 
IXM> but both badly. For in addition to Ms. authority for the reading 
given in the text, there is manifestly a change in the shade of thought^ 
that requires a change of tense ; the first clause is conditional : if one 
may have, etc. ; the last^ declarative of a ifict : but he is pleased to re- 
ceive favor, etc ; see note, L 2. 82. When after <{ the indicative occura 
firsts and then the optative, the action indicated by the latter is condi- 
tioned upon the performance of that which is expressed as doubtful by 
the former. C£ Cyrop. lY. 6.' 7 : El qZp tfi fic 8^ jkoI iKwiUi ru^ Xdr 
fit/u. The verb ^cx^rou, lit, to endure, suffer, is here used ironically ; 
80 in Cyrop. Y. 1. 26 : ipArrii vm i^t^ifu^a . . . 6wh ffov thtpyrroifttvot ; 
upon which see Owen*s note. 

5* — O 7ft a I fi^Wf so also riyovfuu niv^ 8okm /i^y, ou«c oI8a /&*r, and 
similar phrases, are used without a corresponding clause with 14 : / ihink 
iJnU I will not venture to oMert ii, or some such phrase implied). There 
IS a modesty and urbanity in such modes of speech, characteristic of the 

Attic Greek. Kahn. Gr. M22; L. Gr. IL (734 2. riiwawria; 

the Ace. used adverbially. See Kahn. Gr. $ 279. K 10 ; L. Gr. II. § 557. 
Anm. 4L ^i\6w9tKos vphs rh fiii i\K€lw§tr^ai, ic.rA^ emu- 
lous not to be left behind in doing good (lit, in respect to^ etc) to thos«^ 
etc For the constr. of the Part see 810. 4. (f). 

6* — To7s \6yois.,,T9Kfiatp6fi€wot; with verbs of measuring, 
conjecturing, judging, etc, the dative is used ; see Edhn. f 285. (3). (b) ; 
L. Gr. IL i 586. c Cf. L 4. 1 ; Sympos. YIIL 11. The verb rtK/W- 
p9^^ai is also constructed with the prepositions iari and U in lit 5. 6 ; 

lY. 1. 2. ^tlpyafffi^row So* made. Act in signil here^ Pass^ IIL 

10. 9. 

T« — Ka\ ArZpa 8^ \4ytis; the particles ica2...8^ indicate that 
the phrase in which they stand, is joined to the preceding enunciation as 
a*consequence or conclusion. They introduce the general truth indi- 
cated by previous examples. The phrase would be here expressed in 
English by : Do you, then, mean or say, etc See Harlung, Gr. Partik. L 
264. In other cases ical . . . 8^ merely connect a passage which has greater 
force than the preceding, aftd indeed, et vero. They are also used to 
resume an intermpted discourse for the sake of bringing it to a dote ; 

296 KOTSS. 

eee note, L 2. 24. See also on the different meanings of these parftielea. 

KIotx*8 Devarinsp H 264. 5, and cf. Stallb. Plat Phaed.p. 115. Q 

ZijKop €'!i'ai...€utpy*T'fiaoyra; for the p^^rsonal construction coiv 
responding to BriKov cTyoi, with the participle, see Kuhn. 6r. § 310. R. S ; 
L. Gr. II. § 658. Anm. 2 ; Buttm. § 151. 7. It seems to be occasioned bj 
the desire to give prominence to the main word, (k^ipa, which is poshed 
forward into the leading clause, instead of standing in a secondary clanae 
as in the impersonal construction. See Woolsej*s Goi^iat^ p. 448. D. — — 
aral yap; icalf even, is to be joined with Xwwois, and ydp gives a reason for 
the implied answer to the preceding question, (I do) /or, etc C£ IL 1. S. 

8*~R7ff K, be U 90, well; formed from tJie 8d sing. tfi}. For the gram- 
matical form, see Buttm. ^ 108. p. 193» foot-note. It is sometimes a mere 
particle of transition, but oft^n used by the Attic writers when they wish 
to dismiss one topic and pass to another. See Stallb^Plat Apol. p. 19. A, 

and Euthyph. p. 88 sq. rh irap^ '''^^ «^ff« ffv/ifiovX^i' 

ovo-fty ; for the plural verb, kotA rt^co-iy, with a subject expressed by a 
neuter article with a noun in the genitive plural, see KQlm. Gr. § 241. 

R. 1 ; L. Gr. II. § 420. 1. CI Apolog. § 4. hw hy iifitp tc ioKy, 

•C ^i\oif voi€7<rdau 

9* — Karh w6Bat, sometimes rendered &y running, ''cursu,'* or, 
'yelocitate pedum,'* but perhaps better, "insistendo vesti- 
giis ejus;'' following elom on his track ; as livy, xxvii. 2, sajs: Mar^ 
eellus . . . vestigiis institit seqiii. Cf. III. 1 1. 8 : Xra mtra tr^Sar hxlvttmrrai ; 

Cyrop. 1.6.40. [ofj ix^P^^t are strictly those who from friends 

become enemies^ Lat inimici; whilst ol woXifiiot are enemies in war, 
armed enemies, Lat. host is. SoAmmon: cx^P^s ^t irepartpov ^tKos\ 
wo\4fuos autem 6 /uy SwXuy x^P^^ vf Aas. But still ix^^f is not nnfre- 
quently used for an armed or warlike enemy, as ix^P^ ^^ h.].,and voKtfuot 
for one who is a bitter enemy and yet not in arms ; see IV. 4. 17. A v t- 
IL9v4is is one who bears an invincible, lasting hatred to another; it ia^ 
. however, especially in Homer, used with the nouns hyiip, &v9pcs, for both 
the former ; see II. ic. 100, and Al. Pillon, Syn. Gr. p. 51. Those who 
are pursued as prey, and held bound {J^oaana iraT<x'"X ^^^ appro- 
priately called enemies, 4x^i ^^ ^oXiynoL ^iXoi l\ vms. Hie 

preceding answer of Socrates was negative, and only informed how ene- 
mies could be procured, hence the question: But how, friendtf See 
note, L 8. 13: robs 8i koKoOs, 

10. — *E^<f9orrts oft ir fiovXtttfrat ; for ^ir^S. rovroit, eJf &9 

fiovX. *£«r^8c(t iv^iuu rtin, incantare aliquem (carmine, or, verbis). 

piXrpa, from ^ix4o», and hence lit, a love-potion, a charm. 


lit— ^A /A^r ; to this fi4w, 94 near the end of $ 12: ''AAAaf 8^ rims, 

•nswem Toid9§ rts ; see note, I. 1. 1. Tif is used here because 

the line is quoted from niemorj, as heard (ffjcoiwas) from thoee who 

were accustomed to recite Homer. Acvp', it.TJL Thia line is from 

the Odyssey, XIL 184. The sentiment in thia and the two following 
■ectiona, according to Weiske, is that one who wishes another to be hia 
friend must first signify his own lore to him by words and then by ao- 
tionSb — — O01C* &XA& ; the general rule is that ob should be written 
before consonants and obm and obx before vowels. But where special 
emphasis is to be laid upon the particle, it is generally written o9 even 
before Towels^ Tliis takes place when oh stands at the end of a sentence, 
and there is a break in the discourse, when it corresponds to' our no in 
answer to a question, and in antithetical clauses ; when, howerer, closely 
connected with what follows, oiK generally, though here, oCk is written. 

See Kflhn. Gr. § 15. 4. rois 4*' iptry ^iXoTi/iov/t^roif, 

those earnestly striving for virtue. 

Ita-— H X996p' Ti, tUmoat ; with X^eif, these words may be para- 
phrased in Latin : hoc idem fere est, quasi dicas. oTa /4^ rofiic« 

...aarayfAtfrra A^7<ir, as (that) when he heara^ he will not sup- 
pose the one who praises speaks iiH>nically or in ridicule. For the form 
of future called Attic^ as it appears in volutin see Kflhn. 6r. § 117. 1 and 
2. o 8 r «, thus, L e., if he supposed himself ridiculed. 

\%m — 09k, nOt see note, ^11. ^Kowa n^p. The particle fi49 

is used here much as in sT/uu fi4if in § 5. 4wlaTairo; the optative 

is employed on account of its being a mere relation of what had been 
heard from another. Bomemann thus paraphrases it : IJKowa Xtyirrtv, 
5ri n«pi«. 4ri<rraiTo. See Kiihn. Gr. § 829 and 840 ; L Gr. II. $ 769. 8. 
— 4«-o(«i. The sudden transition here from indirect discourse, al- 
though somewhat common in Greek, would hardly be admissible in 
Latin.— vtpidC^af ri Ayai^^r, by conferring some fitvor upon it 
Socrates supposed that Pericles made himself profitable to the State as an 
orator and Themistocles as a general. 

14. — M4\\oi/i9p; for the optative see note, I. 2. i8. ar^* 

^affdat; for the aorist Infin. after fUkkufAtp, see IL 7. 10 and note^ 

L 2. 10. K4ytip Tf aal irpirrfir; by X4y9iw and rp^rcir 

the two means of becoming useful to the State, illustrated by the two 
preceding examples^ are brought to view. — 1^ S* ^ov; see nots^ 
L 8. 18 : ro^f si jraXa^s. 

15« — 'Z^pitp ydp; {jei)fcT, eta, see note, ^ 4 9. ^ih^vt and 

I r a f p V t ; see note^ L 6. 4b 


298 KOTSS. 

16i — Kat, w€pl «S ZiaXtyS/itl^a, olirl^d rirat. KoT is to bf 
joined with olirbd riraSf and wtpi oZ 9ta\ry6fi§bat (which is the point 
in discussion,) is thrown in, to recall Socrates* attention to the question 

proposed. ft^Xci /loi, ci, this if my care, this I wish to know; 

whether, etc i^ Irotfiou, easily; see Viger, p. 70, 1. 

17.— •© rapdrr^i «■€, 2 Kpir60. tru We may supply after t 
rapdrrffi vf, Tovr6 icrtp, Sri. SoStallb. explains Plato Rep. Lib. VL 
p. 491. B : t fi^y ^rdrrmw ^mffuurrSraror htovam, 9ri . . . hrpw40'af»^., 
Cf. Isocr. Paneg. p. 77. 176, and SUllb. Plat Lysid. p. 204. C. Tba 
relative is here made the principal clause, and that which should be the 
principal clause is introduced by tru The natural construction pf th« 
sentence would be: t rapdrrtt 0-c, voAXdUnr tw^pas , , , Spft. Cf. K&hn. 
Gr. § 847; L. Gr. IL 4 857. x>^**'^^<P^'' X^^'M^^^vt, aiv 

18« — Alffj^pii fjicivTa wposi4fA9wait which least of all admits ete. 

Cyrop. VII. 1. 18: iyit ykp Koiciit oIi9^p . . , wpot^itro/uu. »oX«fii- 

Kussss wo\tfil»9, since it is generally used in a good sense ; in a warlike 
manner, bravely, etc. ; while the meaning of ToKtfilws is with enmity, 
hostility, which alone is the appropriate idea here. Cf. f 21. . 

19* — *A^6fit0S iFx**! ^^""^ disheartened The adverb here with lx« 

is' tited like ff/u with the adjective as very frequently, see § 18. 

• (frc 7^^ robs irom/ipoht 6p&, icr.X. ; to this, obZh &r, jctA, in §20, corre- 
sponds. For the anaooluthon, see note, L 2. 81, and cf. H. 2. 5 : oM, icrA. 

SO. — E2 ik 9ii; for the force of 84 see L 6. 1 : but i( as you now 

say. {avro«t.. . &XXiftAovf ; the reciprocal and reflexive pronouns 

are often used, where there is no antithesis expressed or implied, with- 
out distinction, and even in the same sentence as here, merely for the 
sake of variety. C£ IL 7. 12 ; IIL 5. 16. As the reciprocal and reflexive 
pronouns both express a reflexive idea, and are nearly related to each 
other, the reflexive may take the plaoe of the reciprocal when it is easily 
- understood that several persons so perform an act in respect to them- 
selves, that it appears as reciprocal. But when the antithesis^ lairrW 
IffooTof is either expressed or implied, the reciprocal must be used; 
et IIL 6. 2, 16. See EQhn. Gr. $ 802. R. 7 ; Soph. 146, n. 2. 

2]« — ^AAX* lx«< fi4w,,.woiKt\ott ws ravra, but these thingi 
are somewhat diverse. For the use of the Adv. and lx*i "^ ^^^"^ 4 I^ 

Tlie particle fih- is here followed by *AAA* S/ms, § 22. 4>io'st 7^^ 

..Scpirra/ Tf yikp ; the second ydp introduces a parenthetical dauae; 
see note, IV. 2. 88; Bomem. Sympos. IV.66, and cf. Ut 10.8; rV.8.10 

BOOK IL CHAP. yi. 299 

rk...woX9fnKi, supply : ^^^ci txowuf oX iydpmwot, hare 9om&' 

things conducive to hostility, as opp. to r& . . . ^iXikL tro\tpLiit\i¥.., 

fyit^ icrA. The adjective ToAcftiJc^s here seems to mean : productive of 
divisions or discord. For the construction, see IL 8. 1 : XP^^^P^'P^'' 
po/iiCovin, jcr A. /i& i (T i| r b v , worthy of hatred, odious. 

it» — Alpouyrat fA^p as if followed by S^rarroi Z4, but there is a 
change of construction, in order to indicate an accession of emphasis in 

the last dause, by means of the koL 96w(irrai..<.96ravTai 8c; 

for the omission of fi^p, see note, L 1. 1 : iJiucti . . &8iicct 8^. — — iyitap' 
r§p€tp, to endure it patiently. ^—^ots fiii rpoir^icfi; sc AinrcZr; 
see note, IL 1. 82. 

SS« — ^Ntffi(fi«ff sScJco/wt ; c£ IV. 4. 1. T^ pi/iifup is also defined 

iu rV. 4. 11 and 12 as T^ ZIkoiow, Ct also 8. 11. t^f fpir...8ia- 

vtdtirdat, to settle a strife "not only without giving pain but also 

advantageously to one another." Hickie. rh fi9rafi9\fie 6pi9Pop, 

1. e., riip /Aero/i^^fiar ytrti<rofji4rriw wpoJiwat, from proceeding \o what 
shall cause repentance ; for the use of the absti*act neuter here, see KUhn. 
U Gr. n. f 474, 7 ; Matth. IL $ 67a 

%U — TloKtrtK&9 Tifi&p, governed in the Gen. by Koivupolf f7rai,'Bee 
Kflhn. i 278. 8. (b). 

S5» — El 94 rif, connected in construction with vciparoi. — 7-Toiff 
^(Xofff r& Hxaia ^oif^cir; for the construction here, see EOhn. 
Gr. ^ 279. 7 ; L. Gr. IL § 558. Anm. 4^ where several similar examples 
are given. C£ IIL 5. 16 ; Sympo& YL 8 ; Dem. L c. Aphob, p. 814 8. 

ical Ap^at. Kai connects Ap^at to fiovKS/ityot, if any one wishing to 

be honored io order that, etc... and having been appointed archon, 
should attempt, etc ; for the use of the Aor. see note, I. 1. 18. 

S6« — *E^iir roir Kpariirrots ffvv^9fi4povi . . . I4vat, The 
participle is not here put by attraction in tlie same case as the personal 
object, but in the accusative. See KClhn. Gr. § 807. R. 2, and note, L 1. 9. 

For the use of the Mode and Tense, see note, L 2. 28. evpri^e" 

, rbai, to make a compact, or to unite together. —— v^af hp rcha 
iLj&pat 0^01 iptKmp, the Accus. of a kindred signification with the 
verb, is common to the Greek with other languages. So we find my/iiip, 

yp^ft^p, B/mir pikop (to gain, win, etc) See EQhn. Gr. $ 278. 1. 

ZKti fA^p, i. e.,^r T04f yvfipiiani AyAo-ir. •-^— »oXiTato«f, sc iyAatP. — 
vdf o5r ; the particle olp is here pleonastic^ sinoe ^vtl odp precedes.- 
It is wanting in some Mas. KTri^d/iMPOP ; see note, L 8. 8: &«t^ 

I19POP. To^roit KOir«yoit... xp^M^i^'^f ^^ ^ !• ^2* 80^^<f 


800 NOTES. 

Vt* — ^*AAA& t^h'^l B^ note, L 1.6. ic&jccriro, iki* aUa, 

ical ro6rwp. For this use of oZtos with mi in making an addition tc 

a previous clause, see C.513. l,note. Kal fih^t ^^^ indeed; c€ not^ 

II. 8. 4. fd iroiiir^oi; for the signification and ose of the verbal 

in -rdos, see Eiihn. Gr. $ 234. 1. i; Buttm. § 134. 8. robs fitKrl- 

ffrovs 4\dTT0¥as .. .Tohs x^^P^^^' wKtlofas Swras, the befit 

who are fewer than the worse who are more. 4d4\ovr€t.,.t^4' 

\«a-i ; see note, L 2. 9. 

28.— '%X<'<M(> ^ able; see note, I. 6. 13. 8i& rh 4pmrt' 

Kht «7yai, because I am given or inclined to love. Ct L 6. 14. The 
love of true beauty, virtue, and honor, with which Socrates labors to 
inspire his friends, must be here meant In reference to tlie attraction, 
see note^ I. 2.3: t^ ^orcpbf c7yai.^-^8ci yvf SAos &pfiJifiat, J 

am ttnmgly all'impelled; BttvAs qualifies the phrase tKos &pf», ^c- 

\&if.., avr. &yTi^iAffio-i^ai, ufhiisi J love thnn, to the being loved 

in turn. iyrcvi^^u/icio'dai ryis ^vwovatas, to be sought in 

turn for the sake of intercourse, companionship; (vrovalar is the genitive 
of cause or occasion, see Kiihn. Gr. § 274. 1. 

S9« — To^r»y, oftheee (gualUiee indicated bj the preceding clauses). 
— — 8 • ^ 0- o y ; Neut Part, used impersonally. 

SO* — ndXvti 4wibvt/km, The idea is: I have long been and now 
am desirous^ eta So the Adv. vd\at is freq. used with a verb in the 
present tense. &A A«f r t Kal ; aee note, L 2. 59. 

81« — ^T^ rat x*'P*' iitpos^4po¥ra dro/A^Kcir troicir rohs 
iraAo v9, that he who lays hands upon, will retain thoee who are beau- 
tiful. 2<c^AAi}f ; seeOd. XIL 86 sq. riis 8f ye 2f ip^rat... 

bwo/i4yet¥. The pailicle 94 here denotes contrast, on the eontrarif, and ye 
renders the word on which the strength of the opposition is, placed (L t^ 
Sffip^yas) emphatic Cyrop. I. 6. 18, and Bomemann*s note in h. I ; 
Symp. IV. 13; and see Hartung, I. p. 380. *Tiro/i^yf ly, to await, not to 
Jleefronu In reference to the Syrens^ see Horn. Od. XIL 39. 52. 

St*— Ilpoto^tf'oi'rof, sa fwv; for the omission of the subject^ sea 
Kfihn. Gr. § 312. R. 4 ; L. Gr. IL § 866. Anm. 8. For the use of 4tt with 
the participle, see note, L 1. 4, and cf. { 83. — «&^^r, icrX,, yoa 
have forthwith, L e., notwithstanding your assurances (contained in ^ 
ov wposotiToyroti icr.A. and i^d^^ci), etc. — — ol /ihv. ,. xaKol, Socra- 
tes jestingly gives the word ica\6s, which is ambiguous^ and was applied 
to physical beauty by Critobulus^ an application to mental excellence, 
whilst tdvxp4t here, aesigaates one who is ogly in appearance, but wli^ 


tn»ts to his biental excellence to give bim the reputation of being Ku\6t, 
Critobulue perceiving the irony of Socrates^ seeks to ayoid the ambiguity 
of the word by showing that he uses Ka\6t in regard to physical beauty : 
As roi^- fity KuXovt ^lA^frayrtts fiov, robs 8* dTO^o^i KarcupiX'fitrairros. 


Ztw- 'Edatis /iff icaTfiTcir (Tov wphs a &r^V, yon will permit 
me (lit,) to aocnse you to him f The verbs wposKartiyop^u^ and 9tafid\Xttp 
are also need in the same playful manner. C£ Weiske, De Pleon. Gr. 
p. 29. Tlie idea implied in this question : will you so speak, feel, and 

act, that I can truly say of you, etc. (iyairat,,. ahrov ; the verb 

Itycurdai is very seldom construed with the genitive of the person with- 
oat the accusative of the thing on acconnt of which one is admired. 
But it is sometimes followed by the genitive of the participle, which 
designates both the person admired, and tliat on account of which he 
is admired ; as in Oeconom. IV. 21 : ^okh 8i fioAXor Syofuu rod Kara- 
furp^earr6% troi irol Ztvri^amos tKotrra roinwv. »The ascending order 
of the incentives to friendship should not here escape notice : 1. admi- 
ration (jEtoj-cu oSnov) ; 2. regard, good will {thvoiKtas lx<(t «-f>^f wr6¥) ; 
8. real merit as a friend, § 85,' (^iri^fA^f rwy ^lk»¥ «A «c.t.A.). See 
Weiske in h. 1. 

S4tt— ?Apa M^ ; B^ iiote, L 8. 11. *AXA^, on the contrary^ naif 

even ; there is an ellipsis of oO lU^op o6 8^(« ZwfidKKMbcu before kxxk 
jcol Ct the use of the negative phrase : &AA* oM, «.tA., IL 8. 8» and 
note. irphs ots for vp^t (mIvovs wfrr; see note, L 2. 6. 

S5* — KaAoTr ipyoXs ...rott ayaho'itf the honorable deeds... 

prosperity. roTt 4avTov; for vtanovf see note, L4. 9. — ^o&ic 

iL-rnQK^Iivnis tifix^t^^fJ^'tfot, you are unwearied in your devieee. —'^-^ 
Ka\ Zrt; the particle Sri is somewhat loosely repeated here, as it ocoara 
before iwt/itkiis above. iypwKai,. , tJwai; for the use and signi- 
ficance of ytyr^itup with the infinitive, as distinguished from the parti- 
ciple, see Kahn. 6r. $ 811. 4 ; L. Gr. II. ^ 657. Aniii. 2. C£ Apol. ^ 88, 

and Hellen. IV. 6. 9 ; YII. 1. 41. irdrv.. .^irir^Sffioy ; tiiis sepa^ 

ration (hy perbaton) of ircUv from its adjective gives it special emphasis ; 

see K&hn. Gr. $ 848. 9, and L. Gr. IL § 865. 1. oT^ai .. . c Zyaf /i«; 

see note, I. 4. 8 : vtanhv, jcr A. 

S6t— 'Arirffp oIk iit\ ffo\ Iv, as if it were not in your power. 
For the use of Avrtp with the participle in the Accna Abs., marking the 
objective ground of an action, see note, IL 8. 8 : and for the force of iwt, 

see Kflhn. Gr. i 296. IL 8; L. Gr. IL f 612. p. 297. oHx ^or off. 

Me note upon J 11. ^-^'A^'iradrfar. This woman, distinguished for 
the eharms of her person, mannen^ and conversation, acquired an almoat 

802 NOTES. 

onboundel inflbenoe over Peiieles as well m other litenrf men ai liel 
•ge. Presuely how much ib meant hj Socrates* allusions to her bistni»> 
tions to him is difficult to determine. It has been contended, with eoD- 
siderabld plausibilitj, that he speaks ironically both her^ in Plato, Me- 
nex. p. 236. E,, and in Oecon. IIL 14 : ^voHi^m U voi iy^ ml ^Aawuvituf^ 
^ iwtmifiowmtpow i/iou troi ravra virra iwiBtl^tu C£ Socrates' lift^ 

bj Wiggera^ and Thirlwall's Greece, L pi 820. S 1 1 rS f . . . wpdy c < r ; 

for the use of the In£ after Adjj. denoting fitness^ ability, etc., see Kfilrn. 

Gr. § SOd. 1. (c). i^Mv9oi^4pas, is contrasted with AXifAcfat 

rkya^a iiayytKko6aaf. iwaiwoivaSf when ihey praUe, 

k l^i vohieh ihinfft, referring to the preceding instructions of Aspama. 

i7a — OTot.,,irvKkafifidp9iif' /Aot; see note, L 4. 6: olovf W^uwy. 
-^— </ 8^ /lii ; we should rather expect iitw Bh m4 to correspond with 
&r {iiuf) /i&ir, 1C.T.A., abore, but c^ not unfrequently follows iitp when 
the first of two conditional clauses is more important^ and contains a 

more specific reference to consequences that may result ovk &r 

ib4Koit ; we might perhaps expect the construction with firrc instead 

of the form of a primary enunciation. vXdo'aSt the middle form of 

the verb TA^rrfir, is generally used with the metaphorical signification, 
deceiving, Ijring, etc ; see Demosth. pro Coron. p. 288. 10, and Euhn. 
Gr. § 250. R. 4 ; Lu Gr. II. f 898. 5. But the active Ibrm is also some- 
times used with the same meaning; see Demosth. de Coron. p. 268, 121 : 
rl \6yovs wkdrrttt ; also in 805, &2, although just aAer, the middle 
form occura Cf. also Plat Phaedr. p. 246. C. 

88. — ^"Eic rAvSff vkI^i* %l 7^p ; see note, L 1. 6: tA iiJh yap &iw)r- 

KtuBL r^p rai/r; see note, L L 9. its hw rr^aniyur^ ; 

Weiske conjectures that &r should be ivri^ but that reading is not sup- 
ported by any of the Mas. For the omission of the partidple 6rrt, seo 
note, L 4. 10 and 5. 1. The particle &v is not to be joined with the par 
ticiple as if the order vere : o-ol its tuf ttnt crrparrryiicis, but with rcf- 
0'ffif r, which is to be supplied in thought : §1 r^y w6\ip i^tMfAtpit ^m 
lovr^r iwiTpit^ vc/irai/Ai, its &y rtf oMip vcf^rcicr, ^i ^h cfifs rr p aniyucdt ; 
ef. Eflhn. in h.L, «nd IIL 6. 4; a 1 ; Gyrop^L 8. 8; yiL4. 8. See 
Ktlhn. Gr. $ 261. 4 ; L. Gr. IL $ 466. Hence As hp erpttnryue^ irrt, as 
or as it eta, designates a thing by comparison, whilst its arpemrrutf iKrri 
states the thought or supposition of the speaker : that you are^ etc. ; see 

note, 1. 1. 4. rl tkp ofci tr9avrhp.,,ira^9ip ; see L 4. 8. 

irctpay dtSoir?, when you made a trial (of your ability). 

89* — ^vproft6tTdT'ri..,itya&hp wMtpacbai't ooncemingthe 
timent^ see note. L 7.1. 5 ri...re0re, limiting accusativesi • 


ua^iio-tt >t Ka\ fi§\4r'p. The idea that yirtue is the retralt of edn- 
eatioQ and practice is a favorite one with Socrates; see L 2. 19 ; lU. 9. 
1; IV. I. Ct 8aep.—-—o Z/i a I B^iy ri/jtaf rair-ff ^ripa^dait hunt 
friends, in the manner in which I haye explained, etc ; see note, L 7. 8 : 

ra^rp \vwiip6y. a 6 tms &\\«f, in 9ome other way; other enclitics 

as vAsj icr.X., are placed in the midst of (liscourse like rls. Cf. lY. 6. 9. 


l«-»K«k! tf^Mi &nd indeed, or, moreover, jam vero.— — r&f 
Avoptflif . .. T&f /K^r...r&r 8^; for the demonstrative use of the 
article, see £&hn. 6r. § 247. 8. (d), and for the partitive apposition, 

i 266. 8, and c£ note, II. 1. 4. *Ep& 8i ical iw ro^roif & a^p- 

9i9a avr^, but I will speak even in this matter, what I myself have 
been witness of; lit, what I know with him, i. e., bj being in company 
with him; avvuZivai icivr^, to be conscious to one's self, conscium 
• ibi esse. Cf. Anab. VIL 6. 18; Oecon. III. 7; Sympos. IV. 62. 
When irwti94yu is used of tliose things which cannot be known from 
personal observation, it seems to be by a rhetorical figure, the person 
representing himself as present when he is not ; see Isocr. Areop. c 19 ; 
Plat Phaed. p. 92. D. where A^ovr^kes the place of persons, in refer- 
ence to which this word is more properly used. CKvdpwxcoM 

fx^y^Ay "Aodf a Umg face on,** ri/itis; for the plural here, see 

I 2.46. 

S. — ^"A Wb. fi1iw,; veil, (if yon wish me to tell yon my trou- 
ble^) I am, indeed; see Am. 2 Gr. Pr. Comp. 84, and c£ note, L 1. 4, 6, 10. 

iarav lafftp ^ w6\ts. For this revolt of the Athenians under 

Thnuiybulus from the dominion of the Thirty Tyrants and its result^ see 
Thirlwall's Hist 6r. Vol. L 600 sq. ch. zzxi. ; Mitford, ch. 21. 4, and 

Xen. Hellen. 11. 4. tls rhv ncipoTa ; this is the reading in 4 Mss. 

for the Vulg. ias rh¥ IL The latter preposition probably crept into the 
MsB. from the itt following. It seems at least to be decided that tot is 
used only with words indicating persons^ or the names of countries or 
eitie^ when they stand for the inhabitants ; see Eflhn. Gr. § 290. 8 ; 
L Gr. IL 4 604 ; Matth. H. ( 678. i. In Hellen. II. 4. 10 we find c/t rhp 
IIcifMua in reference to the same event ^^(rvycXijA^J^atf-xy its ifi^' 
...Ar^^ial roeraurat, fttr' ftrai, icr.A. At first view Uie indi- 
cative ^ffw with firrc should seem to be required here, as the oonse- 
qnenoe appears to be a reality and not a mere notion ; but ezaminatioii 

801 NOTES. 

shows that the oonseqnenoe depends not upon the whole preceding elavis 
but upon one word onlj : rocuvrtUt upon the idea of number, nraltitnde 

see Kuiiu. Gr. ( 341. 2. 3 ; L. 6r. IL (825.8; ct (8. ip rp oUif^ 

in my house ; the article with the force of a po o a cea ive pronoun; see note^ 

I. 1. 9. Tf<rffap9SKal9*Ka; many read rtmipaKaJBvta, the nn* 

declined form, which is more common in the writers oontemporarj with 
our author, but Xcnophon not unfrequently uses forms which are die* 

carded by his contemporarieSb robs iKtv^dpovs, The article 

here contrasts the free with sUves: fourteen of the rank of fireemen (to 
say nothing of slaves). For the masculine gender where only personality 
and not sex is taken into account^ see KQhn. § 241. R. 11 ; lb 6r. EL 430L 
c. Cf. robs ohctlovt . . . roaovrous, but in ( 8 where female employments 
are spoken of, the feminine is used. Cf. altto Roet*s 6r. 100. Anm. 12, 

and Matth. IL M36. 2. Katifidifofitv in rqt yris; seel. 3.6: 

£src fiii \afifidit€tif, acrA. Cf. also IL 9. 4 below. oKiyap^pm- 

via. Many of the citizens were put to death by the tyrant^ others took 
refuge in Piraeus or removed to Megara, Thebes^ etc Ct Thirlwall and 

Mitford, and Xen. Hellen. as above cited under ^oroirfflurcr, icr^K 

vp6r%povt LaU citius. Ttpiopar dToAAu/icyovs ; for the 

construction of the participle here to complete the verbal idea, see Kahn. 
( 810. 4. (e) ; L Gr. 11. § 660. V. The use of vtptopw (lit, to overlook^ 
with a Part in the sense of permit or aUoWf is fi*equent in the best writ- 
era; see Kahn. Gr. ( 311. 14, and cf. Isoc. Panegyr. iw Toce^roit 

•wpdyfiavkVt in the present state of things, his temporibus. 

S* — Tl WOT 4 4trrt¥t how can it be possible f or, how in Uie world 

is this? 6 K€pifiw¥. The article here is ^ccicrucwf Ceramo ille; 

see KQhn. } 244. 7. The same name is afterwards used, ( 4^ without the 
article. rpd^ttp, whilH he eupporia, etc. 

4«— Kal wdrtpov, utnim vero, see note, L 3. 10. re^s 

wpk ffo\, K,T,K ; the strict uniformity of position between the parallel 
membere of the sentence is worthy of notice, and also the force of the 
words between the Art and noun. — iixh, through, by means oil ■ 
tbwoptip, to have plenty, in contrast with ip kwoplcut clrai.-^— N^ 
At itpri. Tlie particle rh retains its usual affirmative force here. Aria* 
tarchus not perceiving tlie bearing which Socrates gives to the words 
o0KOtfr oiVx^r, replies : It is indeed base that I am in circumstances of 
want ; for free people are supported by me whilst only slaves by him. 
This passage is not then parallel with those, where after an interrogation 
with a negative, Kii Ala has the negative implied after it In such cases 
the negative phrase has the force of affirmation, and the pii strengthens 
It See lY. 6. 10, and ot Sympos. Y. 1 : 'O M KoAAkt «^* :i^ 9k H 


£ Kptri0ov\9t fit rhp W9p\ rov itdMiovs ky&vnL vp^r SoMrp^Enfjt^&ir kpfSl* 
aravai't Nj^ A/*, 1^ 4 IttKpdrjis, 'sc ovic Ai'^/ffrarflu. Notice also the 
force of the words yol ftk Aia ia § 14, where see note. 

5* — '*Ap* oZv, see note, IL*6. 1. &X^ira, meal for making 

bread. The grinding was performed bj women ; see Fiske's Man. p. 158. 
l^drta,,,xi'*'vi>lffKot, icrA. The IfAdrtotf was a rectangular (gener- 
ally square) piece of cloth, worn as an outer garment by both men and 
women, and nearly corresponding with the Roman toga. Tlie x<t<^ 
was an under-garment, substantially like the Roman tunica. The x""^ 
wlaitost tunieula, diminutive oi x*^^^* '^ attributed to men by Ammonius^ 
X<T<irioy to women ; but in Pollux YII. 65, x<^M*''<'''(ovt are also dresse* 
of females. The xAo/^^t was a coarser and shorter mantle' (Pollux X. 
124). worn especially by soldierai The 4^»/iis (fr. i/ios), according to 
Pollux and Feet, a man's vest leaving tlie shoulders bai*e. Often wora 
by the slaves with one sleeve ; see Fiske's Man. p. 208, and Smitli's 

Diet: Pallium, p. 717 sq. "Eircira, and yet; see note, I. 2. 20. 

So E7ra in § 6, and ''Eircir* in ^ 7 indicate affected astonishment ; see 
KOhn. § 344. 5. (eX and cf. note, I. 2. 26. — Ilcivra /tiy oZv ; similar 
to wdyu fi,\v oiy, see note, I. 3. 9. Here it is corrective, Tliose with you 
know none of these things, etc f Yea, erery one of them, I think, 
immo omnia. For the use of fi^v olv {fitvoZv) to express confirma- 
tion, cC III. 8. 4 ; 9. 14 ; lY. 6. 10. See KQhn. Gr. $ 316. R ; L. Gr. IL 

§ 698. b^ and 840. g, 594. Anm., apd 701. e. &s iyffiai, var. 

Lect. : &s #y f /aoi ; its ^»7« otfAotf and &s 4yit ofjuoi. 

6i — ^"A^* itfhs. Genii of means, with the Prep. ; see note, L 2. 14* 

X€{rovp7Ciy. For an account of the service called Xurovpyia, 

see the word in Smith's Diet p. 577. r^y re olKiaw waaav ; the 

article used as possessive pronoun, see note, L 1. 9. For the more usual 
position of was, see Elihn. ^ 246. 5. 0) ; for its position here, § 246. 5. 

{y\ and 245. 8. (b). fUtyapittv, Aristopli. Acharn. 519 says: 

i^vKo^drr^i M§yap49ty rit xAay(«ricia. mvo{iiiivoi.,Axovtriv, hold 

or have by purehtue. Buttmann calls this a paraphrase for the perfect 

tense (completion in the present time), see 144^ N. 18. £ f r t , so that^ 

on condition that For the eonstr. of Srrt here with the infinitive^ see 

KQhn. § 841. a (c), and L. Gr. H (825. c ipydCtffdai ft kuKAs 

fxcf> to elaborate, make whatever may be pleasing to them (the mas- 
ters). For the ellipsis) see note, IL 1. 82. 

7»^-'Ma^9iy...fivrifAOP96€tP».»&yiaip*iP re Ka\ Iffx^tiP... 
icriitrairbat t« Ka\ a^(€ip. The beautiful change of tense, so that 
the Preiw is used Where continued action is denoted, and the Aor. where 

806 NOTES. 

the action is momentarj or completed, should not escape notice ; see alsa 

note, IIL 14. 10. ro7s ffAfiafft, Dat of the respect in whidi a 

thing is taken, EQhn. 6r. § 284. (10). &^4\i/ia 6pra,..xpi' 

fft/ia. For the neuter gender after Fem. nouna^ see Eiihn. Gr. § 24^ 1 ; 
L 6r. 11. i 481. 2 ; Buttm. f 129. 6. C£ IVL 1. 7. 

8« — ''E/ui3oy Zt, ., w6r9po¥ ; the verb ffuAow a placed before the in- 
terrogative wirtfov for the sake of emphasis. C£ IIL 6. 2 ; IIL 9. 1 ; 

IV. 2. 20, et al See also note, IIL 5. 13: 1^ v^Xir Srwf. &r effrc 

Xp4«'tft> tfirra...o0rc voii^tf'ovo'ac, supposing that they are nei- 
ther useful . . . nor that they themselves will ever, etc ; for &s with the 

participle, see note, 11. 2. 8. ^vificXiyl^ija-^ficFai ; one Ms. haa 

4wtiuX7ia6iitvm, the form of the future of this verb always used elsewhere 
by Xenophon, as in IL 8. 8. It is not impossible, that the form given 
in the text crept in from the following it^^Xif^viiJi^vca, upon whidi see 
note, L 1. 8, and C. 554. N. kpyo vprts, when idle, 

9« — ^*AXXA Kal vvv ii\v. The idea is: but also, in the present 
state of things, this additional trouble exists, that, etc *A\Ka denotes 
transition and ko/ augmentation ; together they may be rendered mare' 
over. See Hoog. Partic p. 20. 1, and 21. II ; for the use of the particle rSr, 
to indicate result^ see Kflhn. L. Gr. IL f 690. 2 ; Klotz's Dev. IL p. 677. 

jcfrSurof /ac((«... A«'^X*^*'>''f <b<tA. Kli^wot is generally 

followed by yi.4i and the subjunctive or optative. For examples of the 
Infin. see Schneid. Anab. YL 1. 21. — — 4/>mf, when you see. — — • 
tue^fitw€u, icr.X., when they perceive that you are pleased, eta 

I0« —, if now. ^iraror ...vpoaipcr/or i|r; 

the verbal in -r^o^ indicating necessity, is used without &y. See KQhn. 
Gr. 4 854, R 3 ; L. Gr. II. } 821. 3. So in Latin the paHicle in -nd us 
is used, with a form of the verb esse in the indicative : preferenda 
erat mors ; see Zumpt, Lb Gr. 499, 7, and Eflhn. Tusc Quaes. L 49, 
116. p. 168. For the governing power of the verbal, see note, L 7. S. 
— •irpcirwS/tf'Tffpa; some editors substitute ir^rrafSeWara, which 
has very litUe Ms. authority, and is fiir inferior to the comparative^ 
given in the text The idea is : more becoming for women (than any 
other art or employment). For the connection of adjectives in different 
degrees of comparison, see KQhn. L. Gr. II. f 691. 

11. — ^*A\\& is used when one replies quickly and decidedly. See 
Kiihn. Gr. ^ 322 6. R. 12. It need not always be rendered at all in 

English, OS here. 6ot« wp^cl^w ft ^ r . . . wuw 94, to that wAt/s/ be/ore 

,yet now, see note, L 6. 6. o& irpoti4/iiiVt did not dare, or waa 

BOOK II. CHAP. vn. 807 

arene to^ unwilling, asinlV. 2. 17. cIi Kpyotv A^opfi^r, meani^ 

neceaaary for cari'jing on tlie work. 'A^op/A^ ia^ in general, that from 

which one atarta, the baaia of operationa. Ct III. 6. 11 ; 12, 4. 6iro- 

/ici^cir aitrh xoiriaat, to dare to do thia;* L e., 8aFc(<rcur3ai c/f 
fyy»tf a^tifivt to borrow money for, etc, whilat in tlie Act Voice it 
meana^ to lend an interest. 

]2« — 'Ettp^i^ri. The verb Mofuu is aeldom need in the Aor. by- 
good Attic writera ; inatead of it they nae iirpidfiiir, Aa it forma an Aor. 
L middle, the paaaive form takea the paaaive aignification ; (aee Stuart'a 
K. T. 6r. i 134, e. g, and Kahn. 6r. ( 262. R ; and beaidea, the Act 
form of thia verb ia found, according to Bekker Anecd. I. 96. C£ Kflho. 

L. Or. II. §403. 8; Rost^ § 113. ipyaC^/itvai /ihif ^pfo-rwr, 

ipyavd/i€Pat 8i iB^lwpovp. They took their dinner wAt'/e a/ loor^, 
but their aupper qfter they had finished their work. The beauty and 
definiteueaa of the uae of the tenaea in Oreek ia un^urpaaaed. The Kpitrror 
(^pfffTMy), the meal taken near the middle of the day and hence cor- 
reeponding in time with our dinner, and Ztiityov {iZ*i7tvov¥\ aupper, the 
principal meal among the Oi*eeka; aee Fiake^a Man. p. 204. For the 

force of fi2ir...8^, aee I. 1. 1. avrX h^opt»iiivtov lavr&s ; the 

Terb ^o/mU*, lit, to look askance at, and lience, to view with auapicion, 
ia contraated with yfiins . . . k^puv. When oppreaaed with want they 
looked with auapicion, leat one ahould receive more food, etc than an- 
other ; a very natural effect of want For the uae of imrds and kKKif 

Xaf, aee note, IL 6. 20. al fi^y.,. 4^l\ouy (ac ovrJi^X ^9h... 

Iiydwa (ac a^^fX Such ellipaea in parallel membera ia frequent So 
in Thucyd. I. 73: obyhpirapik SucaoTcut offrt rifi&if (ac wphs roirovs}, 
otre ro^ruw (ac wfAs riftas) ol \6yot t» yiyvoivro. See Kdhn. Or. 
§ 346. 2. (bX and L. Or. IL § 862. h. 'Ayairoir aa diatinguiahed from ^tAf Zk, 

aeema to designate regard and aatiafaction rather than love. x<^^* 

pm¥ SiiiYciro, he related with joif ; for the numeroua adverbial rela- 

tiona deaignated by the Partic in Oreek, aee KOhn. Or. § 312. Siif- 

yciTo ravTu re, jcal 8ri airidirrai, he related theae thinga... 
and added, etc; aee EQhn. L. Or. IL § 762. AnuL For the Indie 
euTMPTOi, inatead of the Opt after the Praet followed by 8ri, aee note^ 

L 1. 13. ahThp.,.iff^itip. For the AocuSb with the lot after 

aktuff^at, aee L 1. 2. 

13t— Elra. See note, I. 2. 26, and §5 above. — — r^y rov Kvrhs 
\6yoVf the dog-fable or the fable concerning the dog, as in III. 6. 10: 
T^¥ rutv dt&¥ Kplffiv, judgment in relation to the godsL Cyrop. VL 8. 
10 : nfMop X^of, rumor concerning ua ; YIIL 6. 28, et al. See KQhn. 
L Or. n. § 628. A. 2 ; Matt Or. IL § 842. 1. The idea here, however, 

808 NOTES. 

may b« : the word of the do^ L e^ which the dog spakc^ as in Flat 

Alcib. L p. 44: fivS^St t» ii AxAwri^ wphs rhr ktorra cfrc Sir. 

XenophoD seems to have preferi'ed the Ionic form of thia word, although 

tbo i-eadiugs of the MsSk are various. wphs rhr itvwirnip uww, 

s|>oke thus with her master. ^aviivkorhw Toicir, see note, L 2. 30: 

Srt llK6¥t jcr.A. %s gives a reason and is equivalent to^ in that ycm^ 

or, heemue ywL See Kahn. 6r. § 834. 2 ; L. Gr. IL $ 802. 8. kfuw 

fiU' rait..,wap€xo6a-ait, who furnish, etc For this common use of 
the article with the Partie, resolved as a relative and verb^ seev^ohn 
Or. i 244. 8. 

14. — ^Nal fik A (a, he does indeed do this and rightly. Nal /U are 
frequently used in Attio Greek like ptd simply, with the Aecua. CI note, 

(4» ci/ii 6..,9A(uwt I am he teha, etc See note, ^ 13, for the 

oonstr. of the Partic and particle Kal ifias airiis, i. e., with 

the implied clause, Ipia irol Apras vol rvp6if, f 13, even you yourselves 
as well as your lambsi wool, etc ; but others prefer the elli|)sia : ara) 
ttbr^tff L c, your master. Cf. upon jccU ellipt, note, L 1. 6, and 1. 3. 1. 

wpo^vKdrroifn 6ftaf, to guard, keep, whilst wpo^ 6>A«r would 

be to'keep guard over. ^ofiov^t^ai fi^ hw6Kii<rdt. By the 

use of the Subj. instead of the Opt hei*e, the certainty of the fear is indi- 
cated. Cf. Anab. L 3. 17, and Bornem. Sympos. p. 70, and see Kuhn. 

L. 6r. IL § 773 ; IlL p. 486 sq. O0rM 8^, in this manner, condn- 

sive. ivrl Kvvhs, like a dog, B. 147. N. 1. o68* if* ^r&s. 

For W obZfy6t, but more emphatic, see note, I. 6. 2. 


1* — AiA xp^^^^t A^^i* A considerable (or long) time, interjecto 
tempore, Le., aliquo, or, longo tempore. See Kflhn. Or. ^ 291. 1; 
L. Gr. n. { 226. p. 282. Ct also Stallb. Plato, Hip. Maj. p. 281. A. and 
IV. 4. 5 below. n6^§p. . . f a(riy ; bo Plato Protag. at the begin- 
ning: n6^w, S ^fcportf, ^pti; where Stallb. compares Cic Fragm. 
apud Prise VL p. 706. ed. Putsch. : Quid tu f nnde tandem apparea^ 

Socratef cf. Stallb. inh. 1. ^wh n^¥ r^r KardXvfftp roS wok4' 

fiov; Latin, sub exitum belli; i. e., without doubt^ at the time of 
the peace between the Spartans and Athenians, mode by Theramenee at 
the end of the Peloponnesian war, in consequence of which the latter 
lost all «.f their possessions out of Attica. Plut Lys. 14; Tliirlwall's 
Greece L p. 490 sq. ch. 80, and Mitford's Hiet ch. 20. Sec V. im 

BOOK II. CHAP. vni. • ^ 809 

r^j ivoiiinlas, 8C 4^aa^6ftriw. a&r^^^cir, here of place a ^( a&- 

ToD rov t6wov, i. e., from the city itaelf. In § 8 below, and IIL 6. 12, 
it has reference to* time, illico, on the epot, immediately. Cf. Stallb. 

Pkt. Symposw 213. A. iiipyptdTifity tA . . . jcT^/mra. The verb 14 

here in the plural as the subject includes both himaelf and fellov-citizena. 
'—ip tJ iftpopitf, .1 e,, in the countiy beyond the borders ol 
Attica. *Tv§p6pios from iw€p and tpos, beyond, is opposed to tyfoiot 

{iv and 7^), within the borders. See Bomem. Symp. IV. 81. rfwi- 

IfllA.'heatt remaining at home. &\A«s t« jcaK. See note, I. 2. 69. 

Spicffi Z4 iioi...txovra. See note, L 1. 9: & l^ccrrur, «.tJL 

i^* Sry &y 9ay9i(oifArir, upon which as surety, I might, etc. 

See Kuhn. L. 6r. II. § 839. ^ 

S«— Ka2, see note, T. 8. 10. /irof^ir, (lit, snCeient) ««ro«^ 

enough. fitv^ov tA ^irir^Scia ipydCta^ai, to earn daily 

food. Mio'i^ov . . . ipydCfffdcu means, to labor for a reward or pay, but 
here with the accusative, to earn, or to cbtain as the reward of labor. 

ical fi4i¥, atqui ; see Hoogev. Gr. Pai-tik. p. 271. VIII. and c£ 

note, II. 6. 27. t«k tow 0-ci/Aaros fpyvff for bodily labor. The 

contrast denoted by roD trt&fxaros, between the labor tliat he was now 
engaged in, and that which Socrates was about to propose, is worthy of 

S« — Abr6d€p, illieo e vestigio, /orMinM; ef. §1. r^... 

rf Sco/icry; after the pronoun rU the article is often inserted to 
designate more particularly that which is indefinitely referred to by rU. 
T^ 9€ofi4p^ rov evp€irtfA€\riirofi4yov, who wants an assist- 
ant in the management of his business; see note, II. 1. 6. tpyw re 

i-Kivrarovpra; ixurTartip is generally followed by the dative. See 
KGhn. L. 6r. ^ 588. a. and Anm. 2. c, and Matth. IL § 859 and 402. 

4« — ^X a \ f ir « f , with difficulty, unwillingly, a e g r e . k a 2 ft ^ r 

•T 7ff, but surely, atqui certe ; cf. note, L 4. 12; so in § 6. 

5.— *'OA«f, in Mkort, or, in a word, Lat. denique. fi^ir, ad* 

versative here, but; see Kiihn. Gr. f 816 ; Ij. Gr. II. ^ 696, and Wolf, 
Demoeth. Lept p. 220.~^^T^ Iwairtoy •Jyai tifi ob wdyu wpof 
Ufiai, the being responsible to any one, is not at all pleasing to me, or 

lam wholly averse to, etc fiii 'kypAfiopi, who it not 9ever&^ 

•ft, in respect to thoee things in which, etc. For the cllipeist see C. 528. 
— ar^7icXi|ror Btaylpta^at ; cC note, L 6. 2: &yi;ir^9i|T0f, icrA. 

€• — *Twofi4r9irt ^^ undertake, antith. to ^Xdrrtadai, to avoid, to 
than. 8 ri 5* lb' Tpdrrpt robrttv, ictA. For the plural roirtar 

810 NOTES. 

•fter i ri in the singular, see note, L 2. 62. Some Msa. however have 

roirrov, and some to^t^. ^iptiv ; for the use of the aorii»t here, aee 

note and references, L 2. 10: roftl(orrot, icr.K ffara 8^ Kal; aroX 

is not connected with Pfrra, hut corresponds to jcal . . . Zut^Kicrora : both 
live without exposure to danger and with a most abundant supply for 
old age. 


\» — *KKolaa¥ra &s, heard from C, haw, etc; Verbs of hearimg, 
•tc^ ar^ frequently Mlowed by the Gen. of the person from whom any 
thing is heard, and the Ace of the thing heard/^or instead of it an acees- 

lory clause, as here. Kplrmvo$\ see note^ L 2. 48. x'^^*"^^ 

6 fiiot. In respect to the evils to which the wealthy were subject at 
Athens, ^e Thirlwall's Hist I. p. 608 sq. ch. xxxil ; Mitford, ch. xxL 

sec 1 ; also the word syeophantea in Smith's Dictionary. ipy^pior 

Tt\4ffai 1j wpdyfiura ix*^^f to pay money than to have businefl^ 
trouble, llpdyfiara, the trouble made by those who brought unjust accu- 
sations, WKO^dmaju 

t* — Kvyof 8^ Tf>c^cit...5^, is used elliptically, see note, 1 8. 13: 
rohs Z\ JcoX. &ir^ rwr rpofidrttp iLTtp^ictffi, with the prepo- 
sition of which the verb is compounded repeated, but a little after we 
find vou &rcp^ftffiy without a repetition of the preposition. Cf. IL 6. 81 : 
iittami Hr ri^i. III. 6. 21 : i^* oh iptcraai, etc Such repetitions are 

not uncommon both in Greek and Latin. ^ofioi/iJiy, Swms m^... 

rpiiroiTo; this is a more unusual construction after verbs denoting 
fear, for the simple fi^. So in Plat Euthyphr. p. 4. E ; Phaed. p. 84. B ; 
DemoBth. Phil. III. p. ISO. 75. In sudi cases verbs of fearing seem to 
imitate those which indicate care, since one who fears lest {fi-fi n yirnrat) 
a thing may be done, etc., may easily be considered as taking though^ 
in what manner it may be prevented; see E^hn. L. Gr. H. ^ 779. 
■ote 4. 

8«— Oty ao\ &v8p2, le., roio^y Mpi, otos ah tl; for this attrac- 
tion of the reUitive efof, see Kahn. Gr. § 832. 7 ; L. Gr. 11. § 788; Mattfa. 

II. 478. n. 2; Rost, §99. 11. Cf. HI 8. 2. x^P^C^t*^^^^^ -"^ 

ait9x^^f^*Pov, ffratifyinff , , , than beinff hated by him. xMy rot- 

oCrwy iktf^piiv; we may supply tip4s or better consider these gem* 

tives as dependent upon the of following. ^iAot i/fti|i^ff«cy, oonsidex 

themselves as honored, or, aspire to. 


4« — *Eic ro^rwr, after these oonYenations. — o^ot...lrffpSa(<• 
arfflr...Xa/Ai3e(yfflv ; see note, L4.6: otavt rifivtw, ^^^^XPl' 
ar6s re kuI cv^v^trrcpot Ay; the comparative is placed here 
after the positive because the one virtue is represented in an absolute^ 
and the other in a comparative manner, referring to a suppressed clause: 
Archedemus was a man who loved honesty, and of too noble a nature^ 
or of a nature more noble than, to make gain by means of the syco- 
phants ; with special reference, doubtless^ to taking bribes in order not 
to prevent them from* obtaining the results of their unjuat aocusationSb 
It is by no means tueeuary that irapd should be used here instead of &vtf 
if we adopt thia explanation. See examples of the use of kw6 in KUhn. 

Gr. and the Lex 6w6r€ avyicotAi(ot,,. i'r6r9 i^^oi ; see note^ 

L ^ 57. ikftkifp [&jr] iBwKt. The partible &y is her^ added by 

KOhner. For when the secondary enunciation is introduced by iwiT§, 
trt, and similar particles with the optative denoting indefinite frequency 
of action, in the primary enunciation, the Imperf. (or the Plupert used 
as Imperf.X the iterative Aor. in 'Vkop, or the ImperC or Aor. with t» is 
generally found. Cf. I. 2. 57 ; 4. 9 ; IIL 8. 9, 11 ; Anab. L 5. 7 ; Cyrop. 
YIL 1. 10 (with Xy), et saep. It is true that the ^y might easily be ab- 
sorbed in the -i^y of i^tXAp ; but is it not more probable that this is a 
deviation from strict propriety of speech, such as occurs in every writer 
in every language f iicd\9i; et note, IL 8. 11 : ir^t 3^i, ir.r.A. 

5« — *Aw0ffrpo^^iP o/, a place of refuge for him. Kal ^b^bt 

. . . &r ff vp4 K ffi, and immediately ... he had found. The Pluperf. .denot- 
ing celerity. lie had no sooner done this (vcpicrrty) than he found, ete. 

C£ Hellen. YIL 2. 9, and Cyrop. L 4. 5. ^ vcpicttrcr (from vtpi and 

iwM, to be butjf around), signif. here with /tdUo, diligently served (him, 

oinip), irpo(rfficaA«<raro ciy ZiniiP Hrniooiap', for the use of 

wpovKoKMbtA in summoning to court {jp6ffkKn<nst the summons), see 

Meier and Schfimann, Attische Process^ IV. 2. p. 676. abrhp tZti 

mpt^ripai, 8 rt 8ci ira^^tp ^ ^xorltrai. So in Sympbs. V. 8: 
Ipa &t rdxtffra 9l9m, 8 ri fit xp^ iro^^cly ^ iiwarlaau The verb vadcZr 
means^ to suffer, sc. corporal punishment ; and ktrorlcai, to pay, as a fine; 
Tliese words are common in reference to the penalty claimed or imposed 
by the Athenian accusers or judges. Cf. Dem. contr. Mid. 523. 2, et saep., 
and Meier and Sch6mann, IV. 18. pi 789 sq<^ 

6, — ^•O 8i, (TvyciS^f abr^ woWii, jcr.X., but he being conscious 

to himself of many and evil deeds ; cf. note, L 2. 24. ^roAAcry^Ko^ 

•*tob€ Ut off by" so below, ovjc kwaXKirrrrot he did not "let him o£* 
— ffal aftrf , sc. Arohedemua. 

812 NOTES. 

T« — -"HSif r6r€\ for the more usual r^c 4|f9i|, then indeed, tau 
yero. So ia IV. 8. 1, and Plato, de Legg. VL 2(X p. 326. Bornemann, 
Sympoa YUI. 40. p. 216, compares 4|fSi| vuv, 8j^ vw] cf. note, IL 5. 14. 

8* — Ka2 ovx 8ri fiSifos, i. e., icai o& X^m, Srt /x^ror ^ Kp., more 
emphatic than Koi ob lUwov i Kp. &A\ik araf, jctA.; see note, L 6. 11 ; 
Plat Sympofl. p. 179. B., and Stallb. and Ast*s notes^ The adjective 
fUi^s is here put for the adverb fiipop. So the adjective is somewhat 
freqaently eonstmcted in Greek. See Kfihn. t}r. 4 264. 8, and R. 7 ; 
L. Gr. IL$ 685. tl 94,,.iptt9((ot; see note, I 2. 57. 


1. — "A If rls iroi; one Msl &ir ris ct. But aoi ihonld undoubted] j 
be retained and connected with kwoSpf. EUhner calls it a Dat ineom- 
tnodi So just below in § 2 : ris o-oi Kd^iyp, and in Oecon. IL 14 : vpo^^ 
/JMS 7f, i ^KpartSf kiro^(6y9ty /coi irctpf. See KOhn. 6r. f 284^ 

(7). R. 3 ; L. Gr. II. § 679. 8, and Matth. H. § 412. 9. Sms kra- 

kofilffp ; see note, L 2. 37. 

8« — Kal iWovs yt. In answers ko/ is frequently used, denoting 
a continuation of the preceding interrogation, taken as an affirmation, 
i. e., it assents to what has been asked, and adds something else to i^ 
which is here made emphatic bj y4, Cf. UL 8. 6 ; IV. 2. 12 ; Hieron. 
1. 17 ; Sjmp. IL 6. wapaKaKA, jk.tA., I call in aid, offering a re- 
ward for his recover J. rourov, sc rtvhs riȴ oUrrmv. Tl ydp; 

see note, IL 6. 2. -roXl r&if oIk^tAv xP^^'M'^'^'Cf'^' ^^* ^^^ 

Uie separation, Hjrperbaton, of voK6 from xP^^^M^*pot here, see Euhn. 
Gr. i 848. 9, and L. Gr. IL i 865. 1, and c£ Cyrop. VL 4. 8: li^tuf abrf 
<ri woKh *ApAirirov tuf^pa koI wia'r6rtpow Ktd afittt^owa, Symp. L 
4; »7fiai oSy ito\h tty r^y icarao'icf vi^y /ioi Xafitrporipav ^ar^rai. — — 
KiySvyc^ci. . . kwoXiff^ai , see note, I. 2. 10. 

8« — KaX fi^y olir^d yt; see note, I. 4 12. wapdfioi'op, a 

rare form for wapafUvttMv^ (see IL 4. 6 ; IIL 11. 11,) which some editors 
would read here, but without any Mei authority. Xenophon, as haa 
been before said, often mingled poetic and dialectic forms and words in 
his writings : " The Attic bee,"* snys Hemsterhuse, did not refuse to cull 
poetic and Doric words and phrases which are not found in other Attic 
Greek, if they would add to the beauty or force of his writings. Cf. note, 
IL7. 13: tXw, «cal...T^^/*cyoir iKv^vhp voicif; thes^ 

BOOK III. ' CHAP. L 818 

words are repeated so as to make the dimaz more eoospienoos ; able to 
perform the duties enjoined, jea, not only able to perform that which is 
prescribed, but who of his own will, without anj command, is able to be 
useful. A word or clause is often repeated for the sake of perspicuity * 
cf. Cyrop. y. 2. SI : &0'4>aXcffT^pay oM fiiay wop^iaw i^/uy rrjs wphs a^ 
r^9 BafivK&m wop^ias Ut^tu. 

At-rHdpr^ foraooth, ironically; see Hartung, Or. Partik. p. 894; 

KOhn. L. Or. II ^ 698. a. 8i jk rit Tpdy/iara, in the present state 

of thiogsi 

6* — ^Ttfv alrhr 4\&^7w, We should expect o^^, but the usual 
attraction is neglected ; see Kiihn. 6r. § 807. 2, and R. 2 ; L. Or. II. i 648. 

iH^tw^ fifi^or iiyadh¥,.,1l aol, a greater favor to him... 

than to you. t^ wpax^^vat ravra, l e., tliat he should be re- 

eeivcd as a friend by you. 

tt—OUrm 8^, see note, IL 7. 14. ical oi woKh r^ki^as, 

non magnis sumptibus, at no great expense. ts tpyop f7x«t 

who made it his work, to see, in what he could, etc ; cf. Cyrop. YIIL . 
4. 6: ipyov tx*u^ Mfitpw roirov itoam¥M roirt fopitnas. So tlpyw 
wouT&^at as in Plat Phaedr. p. 282. A where cf. StallU and Heindorf ; 
also Hieron. IX. 10: woWoht &y lud rovro ilopfi^ctuv tpyov voit2<r^ai 



!•— *Oti; for the ellipsis with 9ri, sc Ira 8?\or 4 (Sri), k.t.X., or 

something of the kind, see Hoogey. Or. Partik. p. 891, 2. III. tup 

Ka\&p, here means public office, or honors. ^iri/ncXcif &p ip4' 

yoivTo woi&Pf by making them careful in reference to those things 
which they desire. The Opt ^4y. is used to designate indefinite fre- 
quency ; see KOhn. Or. ^ 888. 4 ; I* Or. IL § 797. 2. Ct IV. 4. 1 : a o/ 
wSfAoi wpotrdrroup irttbifupof ; 7. 1 : 8 ri pAp aMt •iStlih irirrmp wptAv- 
lUrara ihicurictp, Zrov 9h aitrhs awtip^r^s tfiy, vp^t robs iwiarofitpoos 
^ffr aftrevff. ^-^ Atopvvd^mpop, Dionysodorus first professed to be 
a teacher of military tactics at Athens and afterwards joined himself to 
the Sophists. He was brother of Enthyderous. His yanity and ignor- 
m^ Hre ipade coQspicuous here, (is well as in the Entbydemus of PlaU^ 


814 NOTES. 

which M«, with Stallbamn's PrdinL DiBserUtion. — — &ir«^9«».» 
4)«ccir ; for the constraetion of iucoltiM with the Infin. eee Kohn. Gc 

§ 811. 1 ; L. Gr. IL ^ 667. A. 2. Cf. alio III 6. 9 ; IV. 2. 4. iray 

y€K\6fi€vop..»9i9d^€ir ; see note, L 2. 10: rofil{orras, icr.X.^— > 
^ffddptro; the Lat would require the Subj. mode. 

8. — fH4yrot, confirmatory, Lat yero, or, profecto ; see not^ 

t 8. 10. i^h¥. For thU Accua. Ab&, see Euhn. 6r. f 812. 6; R 

145. R. 10. (2) ; L 6. 5. note. 

tn — Td . . . aya^^dl, 18 the subject Aocus. before yfyvwbai and iiirfdXmt 

the predicate is also to be supplied with rk mattk, mar^p^. a^« 

reS» Gen. Abe. as also hufupr. 

4i — np0s49ai(tp ahr^ \4yatp; the imperfect tense is used to 
denote a repetition of the action, and hence the present participle is ap- 
propriately used. The verb vpoTrai(§i0 is sometimes, as here^ construed 
with the dative. See Plat Euthyd. p. 278. B ; Legg. VL 808, and some- 
times with the Aca as Menex. p^ 285. C. 8oicct... ^aircflr^^ai ; 

see note, L 4. 6. '0/&irpot...l^: i e, XL IIL 169, 70: 

KaX^r 8* o9r«» iyin^ i^hnt Haw 6^a\fUMrt, 
Ov8* offrw y9pap6p * $affiKiit yiip iu^fli fouewr. 

C£ these with the preceding yerses in h. 1. arparfiyttp fia^kw ; 

et just before /i9/ia^Ki» («#. The Aor. Part denotes simply the £ms^ 
that he had learned something, but the Perf. that he not only had learned, 
bat also retained something in mind ; see Efihn. Gr. ( 255. 2, and 256. 
2 sq., and cf. note III. 7. 7. The infinitiyes are used in a similar way in 
IV. 2. 5: ^v\arr6fitros ov fi6vo9^ rh /ta^civ ri npk rwv laTpw, oAAik 

icol rh ii^ai fiffAabyiie4yat T^^y Wx*^'' '■•"^*'' JiOTfAfi vrp^' 

riiyhs dtvt vfill alway he or eeaui not to he; see KQhn. Gr. $ 811.4.(1). 

5* — ^*Ii'a ical ; sa inius, supplied from the clause: ihv Vwr nr. 

Aoxctyy 0*01; the dative iroi, here may be rendered: to you or under 
your command. See Knhn. Gr. § 284. 8 ; L. Gr. II. i 581 ; Matt IL 
§ 889. — — • ^p^ard irt 8i8^iriccir ; for the distinction between ipx^ 
<r^<u with the Inf. and Part see KQhn. Gr. ( 811. 16; L. Gr. IL 

)660. A.a.-^ — Ko) Ssi see note, L 4. 2. TJk...ToicTiico ; every 

thing relating to the order and arrangement of an army in battley on 
marches, etc. 

6.^— *AAA^ fiiiv, at qui, but^ indeed; these particles are used in the 
assumption of a conclusion from what has preceded. See KChn L. Gr. IL 
4 696, d, and cf. IIL 8. 8 ; Apollon. Alex, de Conj. in Bekker, Anecd. U. 
p. 518, and 839, where this example is quoted : el 4ifi4pa ierri, fws itrruf*^ 


BOOK ni. CHAP. L 815 

AAX& fiiip ^ytipa iori* ^£t t^ ierlp.—-^rovT6 yt. The particld 

y4 here gives emphasis to Tovro. troWoarhw /ifpost averysmall 

part. noAAo<rr^f is literally one of many, one of the common sort ; and 
hence generally : very small, trivial So in IV. 6. 7. Cf. also Cyrop. L 
6. 14, where fUKp6y is used with the same meaning: c^t 8^ /loi Kara/payhs 
^«o(it<rat, Sri fAiKp6p n /i4pos cfi| ffrparriyias rit raKrixd. 

mat. y^pl see note, IL 1. 8. wapaffK^vaartKhw rHw elf 

T^v w6k§fiow...wopteriichw rS§v ^ycTir5e(«r; for the Gen. with 
xerbal adjectives in -iieof denoting fitness, etc, see note and raferenoefl^ 
L 1. 7; EahD. L. Gr. n. 4 630, bh; and cf. 1. 1. 7 ; IV. 1. 4. In lY. 1. 
8 : iwibwrutw rott dripUis, we find' the dative, since the dative follows 

the verb iwKrt^ff&at. iirix^^^f^^^i in inveniendo solers, of 

a ready invention, skilful in devising expedients. Those who, according 

to ly. 7. 1, are aWdpKut ip reus vposriicoAirais vpd^t^ty, ipyaort" 

k6w, quick or ready in execution. ital ^vAaicrcir^y t9 leal 

«cA^trri9ir. So in IIL 4. 9 : ^vXcuerucohs rwp ivrttp, I e., those who are 
careful to keep what they have. Hence ^v\€ucriK6s is contrasted here 

with jcX/iTjy, a tliiet rpocriK^y jcal Apwayn, giving Icmtkly 

amd rapaeitnuL iio-^aKri Ka\ iwibfTtK6v, himself safe and ready 

to attack another. Ct Heindorf's Plat Soph. p. 231 A, and IV. 6. 15. 

7* — K4patios, tiles. So Kipafios, Ki^os, vKir^os, etc are frequently 
used in the sing, for the plur. (collective). See Kahn. Gr. § 248. 1 ; L. 

6r. IL i 407. 2. ifpifiiva ; the neut plur. is. somewhat frequenti 

after several substantives of different genders, when the substantives 
denote inanimate things; see S. 167. 2. (a); B. 129. N. 11 ; Kahn. Gr. 
4 242. 1 • L. Gr. a § 804; Matth: IL § 804. Cf. UL 7. 6: ai8» 8i jcol 
pi^v . . . olx hp^s ffi^vrd re kpdp^ois 6trra koX iroAAf fiaWop ip rtnt 

^XAoit ^ ip roTs tSiatt 6fii\iais wapterdfiwa; itdrot. . , imvoKris, 

below . . . ab(nfff antithetical, and together contrasted with ip fiitr^. — — 
ffvpri^trai, in the singular as agreeing with the nearest substantive, 
the neuter plural, t^ |^Xa; see Kuhn. Gr. § 242. R. 1. (b), and § 241. 4; 
L. Gr. IL 438. 2. 

8.— ndEyv...5/ioitfy...ffff>i|irar, you have made a very good com- 
pariaon. -—^To^t rt wpArovs kpiarovt 9€t rdrrtip. Tliis pas- 
sage seems, at first, to be in direct opposition to the general principle^ 
tliat the subject has the article and the predicate not ; and we should 
naturally expect : wptirovs rohs htpirrovs. But when it is compared with 
Cyrop. VII. 6. 6 : hpdytcn rchs irp^ovs aptirrovt firoi irol rohs rt Acvro/ovf 
. . . rerdx^atf it seems quite certain, that rohs vp^ovs is subject^ and &p(- 
ffTouf predicate : it i» neeetiary to form the front and the rear of the hetL 
Qt also Horn. IL IV. 297 sq., and IIL 14^ 6 below : ito^aaKtvdCiohat^ ic.r.A. 

816 NOTES. 

See EQhn. L. Or. IT. H^^ ^'^ /lip r«r...«r^ Zl aZ rAw, for 

^h rm¥ fi^w . . . Cwh r«y Zt dL ThU poeition of fUw ia howerer very 
frequent See Stallb. Plat Phaedr. p. 268. B. In respect to oS^ c£ L S 
12. and note. 

8« — Zt iZlZa^tp; understand KoXmt lx«ii or something of the kind, 
as the apodosia CI III. 9. 11, and ^ee Kuhn. L. 6r. IL 4 82S. 3. c ; 
Matth. II § 617. a. Ellipsis of the apodoais after tl /thf or u Z^ /c^ k 
found in Homer and is quite frequent in Attic prose writers. A cchv 

responding usage can hardly be found in lAtin prose. Ay ffuAwt, 

L e., To^rt»r & Ifiai^cs. itifiZii\ov, prob. from KtfiZii, dross; and 

hence meaning, $pttriou^ had fitr«... &r. ..S^oi. The particle 

fty with the Opt here indicates that this is a conditional expectation cur 
supposition; see KQhn. 6r. 4 341. 4; B. 134 54; L. Or. IL i 827. L 
avrohs,,.iifiaSf ¥te ourselveM^ empliatic here. 

\^-^Ti oZw o6 ^Kovovfi§Pf a more forcible and animated expres 
sion for vicawwfiMP oZr. C£ Plat Ljsid. p. 211. D: T( oZp, i Z* Zt, avc 
^^•rrft ; for ipAra oSr, and Prot p. 310. £: rl o» fiaZlCofin^; "come let oa 
go/' and Stallbanm^s note. Tlie Aor. is used with still more erophasia ; 
see Kuhn. Or. $ 266. 4. (e), and L» Or. II. ( 443. 3; cf. note, IIL 11. 15: 
Tf oZw o6 a6 iMi . . . ^y/ivv (rupbripar^t rw ^(Awr ; IV. 6. 14. The Latins 
use quin with the India Prea in the same way; quin igitur consi- 

deramus, for illud eonsideremus. abrAv; for the oonstr. 

see KQhn. Or. $ 271. 2. Ti Zh roht KiwZvpt^tip ^/XXorrar ;^ 

BC ti rdrTtip Z4oi, how shall it be^ if we wish to arrange those, etc 

^poraKriovt the constr. of the verbal Adj. in tcos, see in K&hn. Or. 
284. 3. (12). OItoi y9v¥ ; see note, L 6. 2. 

11« — ^Owot iral Svtff, Wit^/^r, and AoM^ quo loco quaque ra- 
tio ne, or, with what design and in what manner; for the idea, cC Cy- 

rop. 1. 6. 43. — icol /iA^ir...7/; see note, L 4. 12. o0Tf &7ciy, 

the Vulg. reading olh-t \4y9tp, alcrxvyfirai ; upon tlie con»tr. of 

%ta-xvpwbat, see Kdhn. 6r f 811. 14; L. 6r. IK ( 659. Anm. cw 

ii'wow4fiy^avdatt to 9end you from him, Ct Cyrop. L 3. 18: bJip^i, 
iff Z 7ff eht wnriip effr* i\Ko¥ oMva oCi^ ipA ZM^as vAcoyfrrciW &«s- 
fr4fi}^§rai, and see on the use of the Mid. Yoice^ KOhn. Gr. § 250. (d) ; 
L dr. IL 4 396. y. 

BOOK ni. CHAP. II.y III. 817 


1. — *Evrux^f^'-'^'''P^^vy*^^ ipiifi4if» ry. For the Dat 0e€ 
KOhD. 6r. § 284. 2, and for the Infio. (choeen to command, or, to be 
commander)^ a I. 7. Sj and III. 8. 1. The arparriyol, generals^ in Attica 
were ten, choeen from each of the ten tribes who held the command in 

regular rotation one daj each; see Flake's Man. p. 196. ^O/iiipop, 

XL XL 243, et al. 2pa, is it not! eee IL 6. 1. yd added to an 

interrog. qnalifies the whole phrase and gives it emphasb ; cf. $ 2 ; and 
UL 8. 8, and see Kahn. L. Gr. IL i 708, 2. 

8. — ^*H, aut. *Afi^6T9poPf icr.X., IL IIL 179. Alexander the 

Great is said to have had an especial admiration of this verse of Homer. 

alxfiilT^' Tff, jcrA. Tc here corresponds with KtU before fiwrf 

Aff^r, both . . . and. 

S«^K al . . . 8 i ; see note, 1. 1. 8. 

4« — Tls till. The simple for the oompcund prononn : 4}ris ffi|. See 

note, 1. 1. 1. vtpijfpsi, icar^\fiTff, used in contitist: took away, 

left. &» ip ^7^rai, those of whom one may be leader, where we 

mi^ht expect £r ^wro ; see note, L 2. 2, and B. 139. m. 45 and 67. 


1. — Kal...9^; see note, L 1. 8. lxirapx*ttf...ifp^fi9P^l 

see L 7. 8, and III. 2. 1. The twwapxoi, " prefects of the hoi'se," at 
Athens, were two. They had subordinate officers of the cavalry under 
them, but were themselves subject to the ten orparfryot ; see Fiske's Man. 

p. 196. "Exec ^»'» can you! — — ofr ykp 8^, for wurelynot; 

see Kahn. Gr. §815.2; L. Gr. U. §692, and c£ I. 4. 9, and IIL 11.7. 

rov irpAros . . . i\a^itp, for the sake of riding as first of the horsemen. 
The preposition Ircxa is to be supplied with rod from the preceding 
clause : irov cvcita. So just below with rov yvonrbvyat ; and very often 
m responses the preposition is to be supplied from the interrogation. 
Symp. V. 5: Ola^a odp, f^* i^a\fA&p ripos §P9Ka Mfitda; A^Aoy, 
1^, 8rt rov 6pap. See KQhn. Gr. § 800. 5. (c), and L. Gr. H. § 625. 6^ 
where many examples are given. For vpcirot in the Nom. with the In£, 

by attraction, see note, 1. 2. 8 : t^ ^op. thou yovp ; see note, L 6, & 

*AAXJk /i^r...Yff ; see note, L 1. 6. 

818 KOTSS. 

>'AXX* ipd ; for wbieli perhapt &XX' ipa thould be read, aa ii 
Ttxu Mfli D : we find &y Upo, but perhaps, or, perhapt then. See not^ 
in. 11. -4, and cf. IV. 2. 22. It may however be rendered as it is now 
pouited: is it indeed beeaute-^^ Seiffert: immone propterea.— 
•f«c.../3^Xrioy ftr voi^iraf wapaBovpat. The particle ftr in &ek 
qualifies the infinitive wapaiovtm, but is pkoed after fi^Knop, since that 
word is emphatic ; see Eahn. Gr. ^ 261. 2 ; L Gr. II. § 457. This is 
more evident^ if instead of the infinitive, the finite verb is nsed : dfci, Srt, 

ei rb Iwwuchp fiiXrun' roiio'ttas, rp w6K§t vapatofifr* Ar. ycr^- 

ri^ai ; with this Infin. Hy is to be supplied from tht, preceding clauae; 

see L 8. 15. 'H Zh &px4 nev, the authority, prefecture i% if I mi*' 

take not, nifjiUor, or, opinor. Ct L 2. 82; III. 5.15, et aL —^ 
'^* t.f fp^vat. We should expect a Dat or even an Aoc: in prefer- 
enoe to this Gen. with iwt, but see examples ot similar oonstmction in 

Kahn. Gr. ^ 296. (IX and L. Gr. II. $ 611. a/ifiarAp, of rider^ 

from kimfiai¥%uf. The form A/ii9an}s is used almost promiscuously with 
kpu^TiiSt by Xenophon in his work De re Eques. and the Mss. vary 
much in regard to their use ; see IIL 12 ; XIL 8 ; V . 7 ; IIL 9; YL 6, 

and various passages in that Treatise. ykp oZv\ the ellipsis here, 

for which yip introduces a proo^ is : IpbAt X^cit ; for, eta ; o2r ex- 
presses confirmation: surely; see KQhn. § 824 K. 6, and L Gr. IL § 706b 
8. Cf. IV. 6. 14. 

8« — Kal St; see note, L 4. 2. rovro fiir...o6ic ifihw oJ fiat 

rh fpyow cTrai. The order here is: revro rh (pyw evic 4/*^ c&cu; 
and 4fi6p that form the predicate. If ifA^r had belonged to fpyop it 

would have been placed thus: rh iphv tpyow. 19 1^ cKao-ror, each 

one by himselC 

L — riap^x*'^'''*' ^«<* pi'^Mnt to you as general, Iwwdpx^ theit 
horuM, L e., exhilnt them. Mid. voice.— els rh ^vwarbw^m. qoan- 
tum potera 

$m — *A¥a$ariK»r4povs iv\ rshs Tvrovf, more ready, expert 

in mounting their horses. yo vy ; ct with oSy in $ 2 above^ and see 

note^ L 6. 2. 

6« — *Evayay9ip I sa roht twwovi, Afifiop, race eouree^ifi' 

§i69potioSt so called because made upon the sand. ol voX^/aisi 

ylywowrai, where the enemy make their appearance (adveniunt). Ct 
Anab. IV. 8. 29: St &y irpinot ir rf wdpatf 7<n|ra4.— — 3^Xrioy, 
. better, sc is it to do this. 

7. — Tov fidWtip As rXtiirrQvt dkv^ icrA., <o Mrow as many as 
possible from their horses. Tliis seems to me the plain meaning of fid\' 

BOOK m. CHAP. nL 819 

htip here, followed as it is bj i,w6, B4iy9tp,».i^opytC9ip.,.woi' 

€7f ; these inflnitiyes all depend upon he»w6vicaL El 84 fi^, if I 

have n<4 hitherto, eta 

8* — U&s,.,fidktcTa, in tohat way could one hut, etc rpo- 

rpf ^airo ; for this use of the Mid. Voice, see note, I. 2. 64. 

f«^~*Eicciyo /i^r. There is no ti antithetical to this ft^r, bntthe 
constmetion changes at the beginning off 10.— -S^vov, Inippo§e; 
see note, III. S. fi : iroi. 

IQ» — B4Krivrot i^¥..,Zfi\os S; see note, XL 8.7: S^Aor cImcu 
. . . wiffpyeHiaopra ; here fi4xrtffrot has the emphatic place in the clause. 

0^ §lt rh irMw^at, Jcr.A., for procuring their obedience to me. 

cf VI Scoc SiB^icciy, for the more frequent construction: cf vt 8/o( 
8i8<(<riceir. CL Oecon. YII. 20 ; YIII 9, and Anab. lEL 4. 85, and see 
Eiihn. Gr. § 807. R. 8, and L. Gr. II. f 551. A. 6. 

11« — np^t ro7s &XAo<f .. . 8cty ica2, ir.T.A., in addition to other 

things ... must take cai)p also, etc Xh S* ^ov; have you indeed 

supposed; as in IL 6. 14; see note, L 8. 13: roht 84 acoAo^r; Zaa 

re w6fi^, icrA. This dause is contrasted with tbe following jcol cf rt 
iXXo Kokhp luofbJufti Ttt iiAbyiiia, bj the parUdes re . . . jcol N^^y, in 
accordance with the customs and prescriptions of the State, and r< jUa» 
KoX^r . . . fJ^iuLt i. c, arts Vhich men learn of their own accord. — 
iri r, here tror^ ^|ox^i^, for life adjusted according to the institutions and 
laws of the State, in opposition to rustic and uncultivated life C£ Isocr. 
Panegyr. c 5: e^p^ero/Mv yiip ahriiv (r^p wSkxp) ob fiipwp rmp Tphs rhp 
96Ktfi»p KtpZ6pvp, aXkk iral r^f tAAiff learcuriccv^v, ip f Koroucovfiep kcI 
fiedr* ft iroAircu^ff^a iral 8i' 9ie (^p Zvpd/ie^a, axe9hp awdtn^t airlop 

eZaeof, 8iJb \6yov. In accordance with tbisi is the signification of 

^pfiifpeiop in lY. 8. 12: kpi».^pelap — ^^ 8i* ft vdrrttp tAp iyodAp furuMl- 
9ofL4p re iAX^Xoit ZiZdcrKopres Ktd Koipupov/iep jrol pipuevs n3^ft«^a ica2 
9oKirev6fiebeL For the omission of the artide^ see note^ L 1. 9 : M (ev^ 
yes, jcr.A. ; and c£ I 2. 24 : icdUXor. 

IS*— *H r6Ze s6ic ipreb^iirivait icr.A. The general idea con- 
tained in this and the following sections is: You perceive that the Athe- 
nians, who excel other nations in many things^ excel in nothing so much 
as in the love of honor, which leads them to noble exertions. If then 
you would make your soldiers better, you must foster this principle by 

bestowing honor and praise upon them when they do well. trap* 

fe x^P^' *^' ^oc ri|s8c rijf v^Xcwr, when one chorus is made 
«p from this whole States L c, the best performers among all the Ath«» 

820 KOTBS. 

niaof are chosen. T1i« prononn $$€, ^jjU, t^9, not onlj calb the attav 
tioD to what foIlowB (see note, I. 2. Z), but also desigDatea that which liec 
before the eyes of the speaker and to which he may be supposed to pointy 

hence called Sciirriirdr. See KObn. Gr. § 303. R. 1. 6 tls A^Kow 

ir9fiw6fi9Pos. In reference to the Delia or expeditions to Delos and 
festiyals held there, to which allusion is here made, see Smith's Diet of 
Gr. and Rom. Antiquities p. 845, and cf. lY. 8. 2. — *«&ar8p(a... 
6fiol«L, Mueh a ttore of goodly mtn. In reference to the Fanathenaea to 
which allusion is supposed to be made here^ and the selection of tba 
handsomest men and boys to take part in the ceremonies of the festival, 
see the word in Smith's Diet. ; Potter's Ant 1. 452, and Kflhn. and Hiekia 
in h. 1. 

ISf — 'Lh^mvlt^t noeetneu of voice, i. e, in singing. The Dat. indi- 
cates that wherein one thing excels or surpasses another, see B. 133. 4« {d), 

^i\oTi/il^,,,^wtp vapo^vrci, in love of honor, which iueitet, 

etc. Cf. III. 5. 8 : ii\X^ fiiip ^iKorifi^arot 71 ical ptko^pow^orarot wdvruw 
tMPf iwtp obx ^Ktrra vapo^vwti itt»9urf^tw 6rip 9v9o^tas re jral worpl- 
8of, K,rX. 

II* — ^'Ivimcov, sc Wx"^»» hoTKmanehip, rod iw^d9*, lit, 

which i$ here, i. e, with Iwwucov, our horsemanship. ro^ry, sc ht- 

wut^ We sliould expect iw with the dative, and it may liave been 
omitted in copying in consequence of similarity with the preceding &r. 
9i9v4yitot§¥, sc 'A5i|ya«oi; cf. Kahn. Gr. f 288. R. 8. in refer- 
ence to the ellipsis. wapaaxtvy, K.r.K. These datives give a more 

definite explanation of the idea contained in ro^^, 80 in latin we 

frequently find successive ablatives in a similar relation. Eijc^r 7c ; 

fo it teetne at leaet, 

!&• — Uporp4w§tw ; see note, L 2. 64.— -'AX^&, certainly, a par- 
ticle of affirmation as freq. in responses^ where however there is an ellip- 
■b; seeB. 189. m. 16. 


la — '^rparriyoXt generals, chief commanders, ten in number, one 

from each of the ^vAoT. Oh ydpt ar« not indeed; see note, L 3. II. 

— rotourot •Ictv, are euch (as they ever exhibit themsel ves). — 

'iuh fiiy, contrasted with *Arrur^4niv 8<. -^ 8r ^«e KaraXiyov 

arpar€v6fi€ifos, making war in the regular service KorcUoTot was 
the list of persons in Athens who were liable to r^iilar military servioc^ 

BOOK m. CHAP. lY. 821 

Httioe, thoM penons who potMised a prescribed amount of propertj. 
terved in the regular infantrj, and were termed : 0/ 4k KwraXAyov trrptt- 
rcdovrff. Tlioee of inferior rank, tnetetf were called : ol €(» rov itartf 
K6yw, See Catalogo% in Smith's Diet, and consult also Wacbsmuth 
Hellen. Alterthumsk. IL sec. 1. & 376. CC Thuc YIH. 24 ; Polit y. 2, 
and Suidaa' explanation, quoted from the Schol. ad Aristoph. Equ. 22. 23 : 
KariKoyof 19 kroypu^ rmv 6<p9i\6fTotp erparfita^ai kqH ^ i^apidfiif- 
CIS* 6 vIpo^ i^' oZ i¥4ypai^¥ rwf iKorparwoiiiwitw r^ 6w6fuera, ■ 
' Karar^Tpifinat, I have worn away my life, spent my vigor.-—— 

Aoxa7<»*'i commander of a X^x^t, about 100 men. ra|iapx^'> 

commander of a rd^it, a diyiBion of the armjr, furnished hj one ^vAi|. 
— rpa^/xara 'li^T^ rSy voAc/i^w. . . fx*"'- Tpa^futra fx''*'i ^ 
pasmye in signification, to receive wounds, or, to be wounded ; hence in 
construction with the preposition &ir6, Cf. IV. 8. 10: iyi> iwintXtUu 
rt^^ofioi W hif^p^ruw. Yenat I. 11 : Irvxc rifjiMplat dirb ^tw. R. Lac* 
YL 2 : vXiryAs Xafitlp iw6 nrof. Hellen. Y. 1. 6 : ol 'Adiqptuoi . . . irpdy 
fwra cTx^y ^^ f* TW \jf<rr&if iral tow Toffy^a.—"-' oBrt SxXirfiP 
wAwoTt vrpartwdfitpop, ,,,r§. The service of the foot soldiers to 
whom Nichomachides belonged, and which he considered as giving him a 
superior daim to the office in question, was more onerous Uian that of 
the cavalrj, which until the latter ages of the republic^ was com]Kjfled 
chiefly of the nobility ; see Fiske's Man. p. 270 sq. O^rc ,,,t€, see note^ 
L 2. 47. 

S.— Er7ff, if (since) indeed ; see Kahn. Or. i 817. 2 ; L. Or. IL 704. 

U. 1. Kal yhp ol t fir pot, for even the merchant^ etc. Cf. note^ 

IL6, 7. 

t* — Ktxop'hyii^*' Pol* <^° account of the Oreek Choregia, see 
Boeckh's Public. Econ. of Athens, p. 464 sq. ; TVachsmuth, Hellen. Alter- 
thumsk. H ^ 97. S. 92 sq. Ma Al\.,.iJJC oOih; see note, L 4. 9. 

8fioioy...XApov Tc Kol (rrpart vfiarof irpot<rrdifai ; cf. the use 

of Sftotot, lY. 8. 10 : 6p& koI tV Jrf^or r&y fpoyryopiruy ki^bpAwmf iw 
ToiT iiriyiypofi4poif oix ^t^olav icaTaXci«-0ft/nrr rmv r§ iAuaivdtrrmp 
teal T«r iiZiKtfi4vTm¥', and for a parallel use of simile m in latin, see 
Kahn. Tusc Disp. Y. 8. 9: similem sibi videri vitam hominum et 
mercatum eum, qui haberetur mazimo ludorum apparatu totius Oraeciaa 

4. — Kal fi4ir...7f ; seenote, I. 4 12. ^8^t...xop«*' 8«8tt- 

ffKaXias. The first duty of the Ch&ragua was to assemble the persona 
who were to take the several parts in the chorus, and then to providt 
teachers (SiSo^iccUoi) for them; hence SiScwicaAfcu here. The prepara- 
tion for the musical i«rt of the entertainment was often attended with 

828 KOTB8. 

«onttd«r»bl« difficnltj ; hence ^r here. See Chorut end Chmtijfm* m 
Smith's Diet of Ant ; Boeekh's Eoon. of Atheni^ p^ 456, end Wechsmutii. 

[L f 97. 2. S. 96. r*ht leparivr^vs ravra; i. e., as Schneider 

Hijs : poetas^ citha^oedo^ tibicines ct rcliqaos artifice^ qui scenam Atti- 
cam iinplebant et choros Dionysiacoe. — • ro^s r^E^oyrar^t 
/Aaxov/t^rovt. For this nse of the Art and Part, ct IIL 8. 2; Sc^ 
f&fft^a rov ira^orrof ; IV. 6. 8 : r^ ^X^O' t«^' Kt»\^9rras, and see Kfthn. 
Gr. i 244. 8 ; L. Gr. II. i 486. 2. 'Ardf* hwrov is to be supplied in th# 
last clause : others who will fight inttead of him. 

6« — Toirov wtmi^pos, se. r£r iroAcfuic«r, or we may supply xH^/Mtroff 
or wpdyfua-os. We should naturally expect the plural jiumber. But cC 

ApoL i 7 ; Cyropi YIII. 4. 6; Anab. II. 1. 21 sq. ical...8«rcp>ar 

8*; see note, L 1. 8; ittUrcIrot, K.r.A. |^r r$ ^vXp, in eonjuneiurn 

wUh, etc The honor of a victory obtained by a chorus belonged to the 
, whole tribe, ^vX4 ^i^™ which tlie chorus was taken. The number of 
the Attic ^vKtd was ten, and they were again subdivided according to 
the region which they occupied into 174 9rifML See Smith's Diet of Ant, 

6« — *^iL9 ytyw^vicif.,,ieYadhstt'w cfiy. For this nse of the modes 
with 44^ and &y, see Kahn. Gr. i 889. 8. (a) ; L. Gr. II. § 818. 2. bi Ct 
IIL 6. 18 : iktf . . . iwtx<*t^s rk r^t w6K9mt rpdrrtw, ovac &r davfidamifu, ictJL 

7« — 'AftoDo-ac, ift; see note, 11. 8. 6. n^rcpor rk abrd 

ia-rip, 1^ Bia^4ptt ri, whether they are the same, etc ; ct Oecon. V. 

8«--T^ rporrdCrrcir... vpdErrfiy, the imposing of each thing (duty) 
on those competent to perform them. 

9f — *AtA^or4povt «Tnu vpoo'^icffi; ct f 8: rh rvbt icmiuhs ifkir 
(cir... &/A^or^pois oJfuu irpof^Kcir. The former is perhaps the 
more usual construction. Ct note, IIL 8. 10. 

10. — O^ir/rc, no longer, or betjber, not al9o, non item. Anab. I. 

IOl 12, and examples collected by Haase, Rep. Lac XL 7. (8). ^x«^f*^ 

y4 TO I, etrtainly at Ua&L These particles make an emphatic contmst 
or restriction. See Hartung, Gr. Part IL S. 865, 6 ; Kahn. Gr. ( 817. 8 ; 
L Gr. IL ^ 705. 4, and ct Anab. II. 6. 19, and IIL 6. 18 ; IV. 2. 18, 88. 

11* — ^Ilapiclt. There is an ellipsis of Ki^o¥ here. But panting 5y 
Mti^ Mjr, <«// me. By this omission the impetuous^ impatient state oC 

mind of Niohomachides is indicated. ohx ^Kivra 8^ To6r«r, 

ikv hwapdiTKtvos f; the idea is: far the moat important of these 
things, if he may be unj repared, is, etc 

BOOKin. CHAP. y. 328 

li«— N^ jcara^p^rti ; we should nfttunllj expect •Sr after these 
wo^d^ but a paragraph containing the conclusion of a discourse, is fre- 
quently asyndic, see Kahn. L. 6r. IL § 760. 2. b ; and cf. IV. 2. 89 ; 8. 7. 
f^tl't of. note, L 4. 17. rh 9h /i4ytvrop, Jri; for the con- 
struction of this appositional daiise, as it is sometimes termed, see Kflhn. 
L. Gr. II. § 600. Anm. 2 ; and Matt II. § 482. In I^itin it would be 
changed to a relative enunciation: id quod maximum est. We 

frequently imitate the Oreek construction in English. &XXoir rt 

vXp iLp^piwois, different men. 


1* — ^nfp<icAc<...nffpiirX/ovs 6t^. This Pericles was the ijatural 
son of the great Athenian orator, who was by a formal decree ** legiti- 
mated'* by the Athenians^ after the death of the other sons of Pericles^ 
and permitted t9 take the name of his father. See Thir^walFs Greece, L 
p. 845. He was one of the ten generals condemned to death after the 
battle of Arginusae. Cf Plut in Peride ; Hellen. L 6. 16 ; 7. 2, and 88. 
ToS vdwv, the ioell'known or dUtinguuJied ; so ircbv is sometimes 
used, where ip96^osi ittptfiKtwros, or some similar word might be em- 
ployed. TEyrf Toi; see note, I. 6. 11. vrpariiy^eatfTot ; 

for the force of the Aon see note, L 1. 18 : /SovAcdo-af. ^r8o|oT^- 

pap,..9ts rk -roXffiiKk; for the construction of the Acc with Pfep. 

see Kflhn. L, Gr. II. $ 657. b^ and Anm. and Gr. ( 279. 7. B. 9. ical 

6 TlepiKXiis; the relative construction is usual in Latin' and English in 

such cases: cui Socrates. iia\oytC6fi9¥ot wtpX a^rAv, in 

our discussion of this matter. JSirstr Ijiii rh 9v¥ar6p ivrtp; 

this answers to the preceding, Svwt 8) ravro, k,t^ We might expect 
$wm$ for 8vov (qua in re), but cf. ApoL f 25: Atrc ^aufunrrhf l/ioryv 
8oKff7 cTrcu, Zwov vox) i^dmi 6fup rh roD ^wrdrov 9tpyair/i4wop i/uA tf{ier. 

"HSih novf, i. e, that we may come directly to this pointy may omii 

all circumlocution. Cf. Hartung, Gr. Part L 241. 2 ; EQhn. L. Gr. IL 
f 690. b. 

t«— Ol8a ydp ; the ydp here has little more force than an emphatio 

>*/; etL4. 9: M^ydp, J^/iara 9^ kya^k jral acaA& : the pori- 

tion of these words so u to be in contrast with wk^t fih^, deaervea 
notice. The Latin can rAun tlie same position by means of the relative 

circumlocution: quae quidem bona pulchra sint itit^pop; see 

note^ n. 7. 8: Hfiadw 8^ wirr^poy. ra^rp ; see note^ L 7. 8 : rair^ 

824 K0T1R8. 


Amnip^r. ^-^A«/rf0'5ai, to b€ inferior. -*— la «r««f. TIm rfefliziini 
for the reciprocal pronoun ; see IL 6. 20. 

t.— 'AXXJ^ fi^r...7^(at Yero)...Ka2 ft^y...7v. (jam Tcro); 

cC note, I. 1. 6, and L 4. 12. wpoy6pwv ; cf. Uipparch. VIL S : nd 

tt^y M jM ro7r vpoy6»9if oh /ttior 'A^muoi 1^ Botiirr«l ^po^ovaiw. 

lo-Tiir off; see note, I. 4. 2. M'^C^ k«1 »Ar/»»; see note, L 8. 

24. ft on account of whieli, qua re, sc r^ vpayiimw KoXa ifrfu 

ntvoL wpoTft4worrai rt ; this position of tc is not elsewhere un- 
known, when the predicate takes precedence ; cf. IV. 2. 40 : i(yry^rra, 
X re Miu(np wlZtwM 8ffly acal iwinfit^iv, for: h ipofuCiw tiS/yai re 8. 
atol ^v. 

4* — ^*AXi|^^, expressed by an adverb in Latin: Tire. 0-^0 

To\/it9ji .,,4p Aci3a8c(f cvfi^opk. The disaster here alluded to^ 
was the defeat of the Athenians under Tolmides at Lcbndea in Boeotia» 
near Ohaeronea, B. G. 447, Olymp. 83. 2. See Thirl wall's Greece, Cti, 
XVIL Vol. I. p. 306, and Mitford ch. 12. sec 5. Cf. Thucyd. I. 118; 

Plut Per. c 18, Ages, c 19; Diod. XII. 6. ^ /im^ 'IwwoKpdrovs 

4w\ Ai}X (y . For an account of the defeat of the Athenians at Delium, 
B. C. 420, here referred to, see Thirlwall, Vol I. 381. Socrate^ then 
forty-five years old, was hinoself present at the battle of Delium ; and 
the Athenian general Laches " declared, that if all the Athenians had 
fought as bravely as he, the Boeotians would have erected no trophtea.* 
See Introd. and Wiggers' life of Socrates, Ch. V. and references there. 
The use of the preposition M with Ari\t^ after ip with Af/SoSc/f, de- 
serves notice. It has been found on examination that wherever this 
battle at Delium is spoken of, either iwt or irtpf is always used with the 
name of the place, and never 4p, as in other cases in accounts of battles^ 
The reason seems to be, that the name Delium was pruperly given to a 
temple, and although comprising the city proper, it did not extend to 
the country around the city, where the battle was fought ; hence, 4wi is 
appropriate. CC the meaning of the prepositions 4p and 4wt in Kflhn. 

Or. 4 289, 1. (1), (aX and § 296. (1), (a). ^jcro^rwr, after a<^' oZ, as 4it 

to6to¥ often follows 4w9[, indeordeinde. Ct Cyrop. V. 8. 15; VL 

1. 88, et aL ir^^f roht BoMrrp^f ... vp^t retf 'Abiipuiovs, Tlpis 

here, in eamparUon m'/A, strictly governs Z6^«p implied : wp^t t^p rmp 
*A»vtfatmp 8^(ar ; e£ III. 6. 8 : Mr 8^ (^ r^t w6K§ms Upofut) ^^rrmp r«» 
4parrimp (^ ; and see KQhn. Or. § 828. R. 8 ; L. Gr. IL ( 749. d. 

• /...roX/Awrrffs; see note^ IL 7. 13. 


5« — ^*AXX', see note, I. 2. 42. It should be noticed that iikXd is here^ 
after the concessive clause which it introduces : 9dffS>d*otiai /i^p, followed 

BOOK m. CHAP. y. 826 

bj tba adi«natiy6 8^— «— AySpL.. &px«>'^'***'<"*<^'^><t ^ ^ 
mora obediently disposed toward a good leader ; cf. Cjrop. VII. 6. 4fi ; 
iyit ykp 6/ur, Anrtp •iic^f, Si^ti/uii. Auucuobtu is oooBtructed here with 
the dative, but frequently with the Ace and the preposition ytp6t or 
W9^ r^.,.bJipoos,,.iiLfiJiKK9i, K,rX^ a feeling of security pro- 
duces in them negligence, etc 9Jtpaot is opposed to ^djBos. 

6f — ^TfjcfAipaio.. .dirb r&v, icr.A. ; cf. note, 11. 6. 6. Iit' 

tty, CM Umg om, whiUt, quamdiu; cCL2. 18: vto^ovovpr^ Hrrt S<»- 
Kfidru ffvir^im^p ; Oecon. L 23 : alKi(6fitp€u , . . rohs otxovf ofhrar§ X^ou- 

rir, Isr* &y KpX^o'cy a6rwy. firvcp x^P*^"^^^* as those who dance 

in the chorus^ It was necessary that the dancers should keep their eye 
on the leader of the chorus ; and hence, the force of this comjuiriaon. 

7»— *Apa hp fffi| k4y9iPt it would be time to consider. 11^ 

Xir arffpt&ifri^^yai r^r Apxa^tti Apcr^f, jcrA., to be again 
animated with the desire for the i^ncient valor, etc Concerning the verb 
&vfpfi^^ see Bomem. Anab. YL 6. 9. For the construction of the Gen. 
with ^i implied, see Schneider in h. 1. 

8. — El ifiov\6fitda,, ,i^opfi^/itp, sc vellemns, incite- 
mus. In the protasis «/ with the indicative of a post tense, implies that 
the negative of the condition is true (I e., if we wished, tohich toe do not), 
but in the apodoeis, on the contrary, the affirmative is true ; see KUhn. 

6r. i 889. 8. (a) ; L. Gr. IL § 820. U, and ct Zumpt's Lat. Gr. ^ 624. 

e0rwf ; after the participle, otrmt and some other adrerbs are fre 
quently added, to denote more definitely the result of the action indi 
cated by the participle. Cf. III. 10. 2: ^jc itoXXHp a-vpdyoprtt rii i^ 
iitdffrav KdKKurrOf e 8 r « r SXa r^ a-^fAora KoXh iroir<r( ipaipttrdeu ; IV. 8. 
11, and see Stallb. Plat Phaed. p. 260. D, and Kilhn.;Gr. i 812. R. 7 ; 
L. Gr. II. ^ 666. Anm. 6. ^— • irarp^a, . . vpoffiKOPra, patrioMny . . . 
estate.— —TO i/t" a 9, sc rh /ur* ipcr^r ytptnt^%i9, the being first — 
Sciier/or. . . Tpor^fcor. . . jcol &t...&y ffcy Kpdrtirrot, For the 
ehange of construction from the Part wponjitop to &t with the yerb^ see 
EOhn. L. Gr. n. i 771. 4 

9« — OJfiai f-^p'f see note^ IL 6. 6. — e I ro^t yt raXaceriC- 
rovt.,.kplffrovs y9y9p4pat; the construction is: •/ AnvufiH^iricoi- 
fMf ntrroht iuniKO^Tas ro^t 7ff . . . wpty^povt vbrAp ipterovs tt/oWmu, il 
we should remind them that they have heard (or they having heard 
Xii it), that their ancestors, the most ancient of whom we have any know- 
ledge, were the brayest of men. In sense a^o^t is connected, ikwh km 
psfi, with both iucfiKp6rat and iutafufUpfi^KotfUP. Ct KOhn. L. Gr. II 
t852.k. . 

826 NOTIC8. 



li«^*A^a, Oft. — rV T6r J^cfir Kpiffuff judgmtrnt in rtuf^i H 
tki Oodt ; th« objectiTe genitive. Ct IL 7. 13 : r^r r«S miF^ A^ym 
of r9pl K4Kpoira, not simply Cecropi^ m thii eireamloeiitioB 
was employed in a later stage of Greek literature^ bat Gecropa and Uiosa 
with him, the tribunal, with him as presiding over it See Kikbn. Or. 
i 268. d ; L. Or. JL ( 474. d; Buttmann, 140. m. 25. The allnsion here 
is to the contest between Neptune and Minerva in referenee to the guar- 
dianship of Attica, of which Cecrops was made umpire. Ot Apollod. HL 

14, and see Orote*s History of Oreece, YoL L 266, 7. Zi* aps t^f ; 

L e., 8i^ T^ firr* itprr^t wptirtitip, as in $ 8. On aeoount of his virtn^ 
Cecrops was counted worthy to be a judge, umpire^ among the God& 

-; A4ym ydp, yes, I refer to that; cf. note, L 4. 9. Kal...y« ; 

c£ L 2. 53; IIL 8. 6, and Plat Menex. p. 286. £ : Tit offnv ; It SiA«r $n 

*Aowaal9M \4y9is ; liiym ydp, xal ISAvvop yt rhp MrirpofiUu. riiw I 

'Eptx^^*" 7< r^ s^^r jcal ydptatp; for the figure called Sar tp tw i 

wpirtpop, eC the passage of which this is an imitation, in Homer^s Iliad, ■ 

II. 547. Erectheus was a very renowned king of Attica, son of PandionL 
He also appears in the fabulous history of Athens, as a god, Poseid6n 
Erectheus ; and as a hero Erectheus^ son of the Earth ; Orote*s Hist of 

Oreece, Vol. I. p. 271 sq. !«-* itctlpov, in his age, illius aetate; 

tee Kahn. Or. i 296. (2^ and f 278. R 12 ; L. Or. IL f 611. ^« r ii t 

ixofL^piit ^Tff/pov, from the whole a^oining eontinent, as opposed to 
the Peloponnesus ; L e., Thrace, which in roost ancient times extended 
even to the borders of Attica. The war of the Athenians with the Thra- 
•ians and Eleusinians is here alluded ta Ct Orote's Hist Or. L p^ 275 sq^ 

and references. i^* 'HpajcAcidwr irp^t rolfs 4p XIcAovorri}- 

o'y, the war carried on by the sons HerlLcli^ the Heraclidae, against 

Eurystheus and the Peloponnesians ; c£ Orote's Hist IL p. 1 sq. » 

4w\ %'nff4ms. The war under the guidance of Theseus against tlie 
Amazons and Thracian& In reference to the character and exploits of 

Theseusi see Orote's Hist Or. L 282 sq. rup icad* lavrobt kp- 

bp^9tp ipiareiaaPTet, as having excelled the men of their age^ 
their contemporaries. The Oen. is here governed by itpiart^vuprtt ; see 
a Or. Oram. ( 862. 

ll« — Zl 9h fioiXet, (sa iamfUfiP^KotfiMP &% (lit, if you please, let 
us, etc., vtoreover, porro. There is an urbanity in the phraseology 
which is especially characteristic of the Oreek language.— —*e/...f&^*^ 
hv4yop0it,,.i^ wph iifuip yrfOp4Tet, their descepdantfl^ wAo preceded^ 
tho9tgh not long, our age ; thus the force of the fi\p . . . 8i is given by our 
relative who and particle though^ in Latin: qui...tamen. Special 
allusion is made here perhaps to the Athenians of the age of Miltiadei^ 


niemistodei^ and Aristidei^ who Cftrried on the war with the Peniana 

See Thirlwall, L p. 288 aq. abrol Ka^* iavroht, they by thein- 

BelveS) L e, aUme. l^epoe however says^ Milt c. 6 : Hoc in tempore 

nulla ci vitas AthenlensiboB fuit aoxilio praeter Plataeenses. Kvpi§6' 

9prat, L e., the Persians. w\*limiif,., inpopfi^p xcicrii/utf- 

pous, had acquired greater power and rewurcee than any of their prede- 

eenore; cf. note, H. 7. 11. o\ l^ ical \4yorrai, far they, etc *Of 

is not nnfrequently, as here, used for qZtos ydp ; et note, J. 2. 64. Tlie 
particle 84 Kahner sayi^ in this place signifies: uti constat inter 
o m n e s ; c£ note, H. 2. 8» and H. 1. 21. The praise here bestowed upon 
the Peloponnesians^ must have special reference to the Lacedemonians. 
A4yorrai ; the idea of celebrity is contained in this word, as frequently : 
eelebrantur. Aryorrat ydp; see note, I. 4. 9. 

12* — Aidfittpaw, remained, ip rp [sc yy or x^pH ^avr&r, in 
(heir own territory. Hence the AUienians were called a»n'6x^oP9s and 

yVY^put; Isocr. Panegyr. p. 66. iwlp iiKaiwp &rT(X^7oi'rfff ; 

ell Aristidesi Panathen. p. 109 sq. as cited by Schneider in h. 1. 

iwirpewop ^Ktipois, committed or referred (the matter in dispute^ 
their difficulties) to them. The subject of Mrp^wop is rh iurriKry^titpop, 
supplied from Ajn-iAryorrci, unless we with Kflhner take 4w(Tp§vop as 
reflexive: tubmitted thetnaelveM; so in HL 11. 5: ry t^x9 ^viTpercit; 
Demoeth. de Cherson. p. 92. 9: 8ct fiii iimpiwtip avr^ (t^ ^lAfinry). 
See Kahn. Gr. ( 249. 1 ; L. 6r. IL § 892. 

13. — Kal ^avftd(Q» yt. The particles xol . . . 7c here indicate assent 
to the opinion of Socrates and add an inference : (I know it) and am 

astonished, etc 9^ ir^Aif Swus; the unusual position of ^ ir6?ut 

before 2hr«r gives it emphasis : thi9 city [sc of which such a thing was 
least of all to be expected]. See Kahn. Gr. § 848. 8 ; L. Gr. IL ( 864. 8, 
and cf. Stallb. Plat Phaedr. p. 238. A, also U, 1. 8 below, where an in- 
terrogative particle is constructed in a similar manner. For the same 

idiom in Latin, see Kahn. Tusc Disp. IL 4. 12. f^v* olfiai, 6 

2«irpiri)f. This is the order of the words in most of the best Mas. 
Ct in Latin, Cic Brute 28.^91: Quid igitur, inquit, est causae^ 

Brutus ; and Bomem. Cyrop. I. 6. 8 ; Plat de Rep. VI. p. 508. B. 

Atv9p ica2...o0Tfl» jcal; see note, L 1. 6 : jcol trpJerrup, Cf. for a 
similar idiom in Latb, Cic de Nat Deor. H. 6. 1*7 : ut quod e t i a m . . . 
hoc idem. 

14* — Aoin'i fioi, in construction with the Xom. with the Infin. and 
the Aoc with Inf. {x*^povt ytp4c^tti). Thus we not unfrequently find 
the Aoc when the idea of thinking, judging, is contained in Zoku /lofc 

828 NOTES. 

CC IV. 8. 10; Herod, m. 124: Mk94 9I r^v 9mr4pa.,,XMVff»tu /tkp M 
Tov Ai6tt xp^wbm it l»rh roS ^\(ov. Both oonstruetions are found ia 
Anab. III. 1. 11: tZo^t¥ alr^ fiponiit ytvoiUmit o'jriivr^r vco'cip 
f/r r^y varp^oy •{jrfoir irai ix rovrov X^fivt^dai waaap. See KUhn. 
L. 6r. XL ^649. b. So Tidetur is used in Latin; ct Kabn. Tosa 

Diap. V. 5. 12. vvw Tpwrc^orrar, ec the Laoedaemouiana. 

ro^Toit rii aitrik ; for the Dat after 6 tArSs, see Kiihn. Or. § 284. (4); 
L.6r. ]L ^616,—^~6fiolms.,,xp^M'*t^^^f equivalent to a conditional 
phrase : If they practised the same things in Uke manner, they would, 
etc & r . . . < f ff r ; the change from the Part^ to conditional enuncia- 
tion should not escape notice here. CI I. 4. 15, and L 1. 18^ note. — 
«2 8* 4itt/i9\4trr€pow, sc XP¥^'''^ supplied iarh Koanv from the 
Part xp^ficroi, and 4wiftt\tvT4po¥ corr^ponds to ifioiws : mart carefully, 

15* — Uifpm irov clrcu, u very far indeed, procul sane abease. 
Ile^ primarily implies doubt or hesitancy, opposed to 8^ and is frequently 
employed where a thing is certain, to give a more courtly air to an affir- 
mation : do you not f or, if Imietake fiot Cf. Lewis, Contr. Atheos, p^ 23. 

n. 10; and note, IIL 8. 2; IV. 2. 31. irp9ff$vr4povs alltvov 

Ttti; cf. Cie. Cat Maj. XVIII. 63: Lysandrum Laoedaemoninm dioere 
aiunt solitum Lacedaemone esse honestissimum domicilium senectutia 
Nusquam entm tantum tribuitur aetati, nusquamest senectus honorattor; 

and Xen. Rep. Lac X. 2. ot ; cf. note, L 2. 64 : ts. — oX kwh t&9 

waT4pwr ipxovrai Kara^popttw rmw yepavr4pmv, who even from 
their fathers begin, etc For the use of the Inf. here, to indicate that the 
thing is done with purpose, instead of the Part which would merely 
show that the action was entered upon, see Kilhn. 6r. § 811. 16 ; L. Gr. 
II. { 551. e. Tlie phrase is much stronger than tpx^'^^ icaruppowovms 
would have been. Cf. III. 1.5: 1ip^ar6 ve IMarK^w ; 5. 22 : (c<Tc<r) 
4iit6T9 TaKoiu¥ ffp|« fu»^4»u¥ ; 6. 8 : ^jc tIpos Ip^jr r^r w4kuf mpyerw ; 
IV. 2. 8 : Xiytiv kpx&fitwf £8c trpootfudatrau 

10* — Ot...&7^AXovrai irl, ic.rA., who even exalt^ etc rw- 

• pyMtp iavToif t^ irvfi^4popra; for a similar construction with 

the Aoc, see note, IL 6. 25. AXX^Aocs ; for the interchange here 

between iXX^Xoit and kunoit, see note^ IL 6. 20. — — vXtfrrof 8(iras 
Axx^Xoit 9iKdCowrai, they bring very many suits, etc: the Dat 
depends 4]pon 8iirifeKrai, from the idea of contending which is included 
in that verb; see Kiihu. § 284. 8. (2); L. Or. IL i 574. c —^wpoai' 
povprai /laWop; ct note, IL 1. 2.^— a8 /adxoprai. Ai, ayain^also, 
designates a kind of correspondence between pL^xorrtu and ZUat Sunt- 
Cerroi. See Hartung, Or. Part L S. 155. rait tit rk roiavrm 

BOOK m. CHAP. y. 829 

Bvwdfitvit M.r.K Tk rotaSra refers not to rpit Koiroiff, but to /Uxop" 
rat, icrA., L e., they rejoice especially on acoonnt of their ability to con- 
tend, etc 

17* — *Aw€ I pia ttaX ttaitta, ignorance and degefieraey, which arise 
from neglecting gymnastic exercises and from contempt of the authority 

of leaders. fx^P* "^^ /aivos, hottility and hatred, arising from 

spurning the authority of magistrates and intestine dissensions. /ie7- 

C^v % &sr€ ^4pur 9^waff^at tccuch^ ; for this construction of the In£ 
with (^ &rr§ aft*r the oompaititive, see KQha ( 841. 8. (a); L. Or. IL 
§ 825. e. 

18« — Tlopiipt^ wov€7w. In accordance with an idiom common in 
other langnageSk iwrtT^ is metaphorically used in reference to a disturbed 
condition of the State ; cf. Anab. YII. 2. 32 : rk *09pwrw wpdy/Aara 4p^ 
mietr; Demosth. Olynth. IL p. 22 : BcttoXoi^ rotrowri icat ffratnd(ovin 
Kol rtrap«yfi4pois. It is also used of the State as visited by famine, Xen. 
de Vectig. IV. 9. Thus in Latin it is said : aegrota respublica, mor- 
bus ciritatia^ etc Seiffert renders k^Kitrr^ leov, vocuw : insanabili 

pejryersitate laborare. rots iwitrrdraif, those who taught 

gymnastic^ ircuBorpifiais ; see Smith's Lex. Offmtuuiwnf p. 488. — 
• 68^y«ir 8) irara8c^<rrffpoy ... diri}pf roSiTf, \, e., oM AXkmp ranuf 
Karaiedffrtpoif ^iiperovffty, inferior to none, etc, see note, L 5. 6. 

If. — ^ToSro y^Lp roi ; for the force of yip in answer^ see note, L 
4. 9, and Kahn^ Gr. § 817. 8. Tovro is here prospective, L c,at prepares 
the way for and makes more emphatic the phrase following: r^ ... irfi- 

;»apx«<>; see Kflho. Gr. f 804. 2; L. Gr. IL $ 68L 2. ical bmfpm- 

or6w icrt, is even wonderful (not only tnie, but also wonderful). Vial is 

emphatic; see Kijihn. Gr. § 821. R. 6. rohs iilv rotovrovt, L e., 

wavrat, 4p4rat, iwtfidrat, etc, the lowest class of the Athenians robs 

.. . 6wKirtit ml robs IwTs ; these nouns are contrasted with robs... 
roto&rovt above, as indicating persons belonging to the higher classes of 
citizens ; see Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. P. IL Vol. L & 408. 

SO.— «H 8i i, 'Aptl^ ir^74» fiovKi ; for the force of 8/, see note^ 
L 8. 18, and for a description of the council called fiwki and the Areopa- 
gus (Ap*t^ VAT^X the most ancient judicial tribunal of the Athenians^ 
V. h. vv. in Smith's Lexicon, and Potter^s Gr. Antiquities, L p. Ill sq. 

U r&¥ 9tBoiciftafffi4p9t9; see note, IL 2.18. t^4ti^otiai 

TO vro If, I find no fault with these; revolt refers^ Kara v&w^var, to 
^ouA^y ; see note, IL 1. 81. 

SI* — Kal iJL^p,..y4\ see note, I. 4. 12. ahB%p\ ro^rvw, L e., 

temperance, order, obidienee^ etc, aa implied in the preceding InfL — ^ 

880 • NOTES. 

lo-iis y^pt L e., wlut you bbj is trne, for perktiq»$, etc C£ lY. 4 1^ 
14, 21, and see Kdhn. L. 6r. II. § 754. 1, and a similar use of the Latin 

enim in Cic Tasc Disp. L 6. 11. Cf. aJso note, L 4. 9. ovBk vfr, 

emphatic for ovScfs, see note, L 6. 2. i^* off i^tvrac-t; for the 

repetition of the preposition, c£ IL 9. 2. a2'ro0-xc8ii£(ovo-ir, 

rashlj, without the requisite knowledge, take the rule upon tbemselTe^ 

SS« — ^A^, and aUo, itemque. iroAA& fi^ptftt^aw, to think 

much upon, be solicitous ; cf. note^ I. 1. 11 and 14; Oecon. XX. 2S. ■ 
Zwms fiii Kdb^t ctavrhp ttyyoHr, that jou maj no^ without 
knowing it^ be ignorant^ etc See Kahn. Gr. $ 810. 4. (I). We find this 
constmetion, the Aor. tense Ka&w with the present^ as well as the Aor. 
participle ; cf IV. 2. 7 ; YL 1. 22, et saep. For the use of the present 
participle^ cf Gjrop. Y. 8. 9 : 8ir«r XiL^ ^IXor Ar ^fut^. There is no 
good reason why the present should not be employed with XaJ^cSW ; in- 
deed the sense seems to- demand it as in the passage above cited. 

/fti^ §l94Ta, We should rather expect ou« §Mt, But the attraction 
appears to be omitted here on account of the contrast with the Ace tv^ 
iwtarafimus ; and iili (not oii) seems to be used on account of the con- 
ditional form of the phrase : i^, •cr.A. Cf Kilhn. 6r. $ 810. 3. B. 1, and 
L. Or. II. ( 650. 1. 

24. — Aap&dtfMtt /i€,..tTt,,,K4y€is; personal, for the imper 
Bonal construction : X8ty;^dErci fu, jcrA. ; see Kfihn. Gr. ( 829. R. 4 ; 
L. Gr. II. f 771. 2, and cf. lY. 2. 21 : AiiXor ... Sri & 5^^^ ctScW wk oI- 
8fy, ohV oi6fi9P9s, Probably the construction Sri \4yus is employed 

to avoid tlie ambiguity of the two participleSk oUfAttns and Arywy. 

6fioKoyii fi4wTot, 9iiUf I concede, eta Eikhner makes fitrroi merely 
confirmative here, as in IL 1. 12 ; but there is perhaps an allusion to the 
irony in the preceding thought of Socrates^ which would naturally lead 
Pericles to objection instead of assent 

tftff — 'O pii fttydJia; Citheron, Cerastis, and other mountains guarded 
the approach to Attica. -—» Si ^(«0'r at iptviw ipvfiwo7s, is girded 
around (lit, fenced, secured) by steep hills and mountains ; L e., Pame% 
Brilessus, Hymettus^ Inurion, etc 

20, — Mverol leol UtatZoL The Mysians^ inhabitants of Mysia, and 
the Pi^idiAn^ of the country bounded by Phrygia on the west and north, 
Isauria on the east and Pamphylia on the south. See Owen^s Anah. L 

1. 11 ; IIL 2. 23. fiaaiKdvs, The king of the Persians was fiaat-^ 

Ac^f, KOT* 4^ox'fiVf and this noun is accordingly used as a proper name, 
without the article ; see Kahn. Gr. $ 244. R 3, and cf I Y. 2. 33 ; Syrop. 
lY. 11, et aL &ico^« ; for this use of the present as a Pert after 


the Perf. ftic^icoat, see Kfllm. Gr. $ 256. R. 1, and c£ Woolaej's Gorgiafl^ 
4. 470. A, and 503. C. 

27* — M<x/>< T^f i\afppas iiKixlas &x\t<rfA4povt ; cf. note, 
L 2. 85. The youth from 18 to 20» ephebi, who were frequentlj sent 
into the country under the name of vfpfroXoi, are here alluded to. In 
Xen. Yectig. lY. 52 it ia said of them : ol ircptroAcir r^y X^P^ rax^^yr^s. 
Ct Smith's Lex £phelm9, p. 407, and Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. 
Sw m. $ 56. a 476. 


1. — ^r Kaimmva, This Glaueo was brother of the philosopher Plato^ 
and a different individual from the one mentioned below and in the next 

chapter, as father of CharmideSb ob94itm cficoffiF Irij ytyortit 

So in I. 2. 40» it is said : vpir ^Xkovw Ir&p clrai. Twenty yea» was the 
age at which the youth must arrive before taking upon himself all the 
duties of citizen, and before he was allowed to vote and speak in the 
publie assembly. See Thirlwall, Vol. I. p. 186 ; Smith's Dictionary, 

EpMui, 6wTt»w i\\»y oiJcc(wy, K.rX., alihough he Aa<f other 

relatives, etc. ^S^raro ir«D<ra< iKK6iJi%v6» re both rov fiiifutros 

fcal KorayfAatfTor Svra, no one liad been able to prevent him from 
being dragged from the speaker's stand, and from derision, L e., no one 
was able to dissuade him from haranguing in public, althougli hissed 
from the stand, etc. For the construction of the participles with the InC 
here, see Kuhn. Gr. § 310. 4. f ; L. Gr. H. } 660. YL Cf. III. 14. 1 : ^a^ 
•rro woWov i^wvovyrts. In illustration of this passage, especially of the 
means employed to silence a speaker in the public assembly, Sdineider 

quotes Plat Protag. p. 819. C. Xapfil9ii¥ ; see III. 7. 1. nxc(- 

ruwa. The rare allusion of Xenophon to Plato in his writings, has been 
attributed by some without very good reason to jealous rivaliy. See 
GelL N. A. XIV. 18. 

S« — E2f rh 4^9\riffat Airo^cir, in order to excite in him a de- 
sire to hear. For c^t r6 with the Inf., see Eflhn. Gr. $ 808. 2. (d^ and 

cf. Anab. VIL 8. 20. roidZt X^(af Kar4ax*y» having spoken 

to him, he detained him aa follows. For the use and signification of 
the Aor. Part here denoting priority in time, see B. 144. 2. N. 8. «— 
ilfi'ip. The Dat of the personal pronouns of the first and second per- 
sons is used to denote a familiarity or confidence between the speaker 
and hearer, (Dativna ethicus) ; see KOhn. Gr. § 284. (10). (d^ and ct 

832 N0TX8. 

put AlciK L ei 06.-— — iraX^r yip\ oC note, L^ 9. — -ttvc^ r 
«al ft^Ao rmp iw kwbpAiroitt if there is anything else in hamao 
affaira, i. e^ itaA.^y, honorable. Gf. Cyrop. IL 2. 17 : ovikv hnffArtpt* 
wofAl{ta Tw iv iif^fxinoit f fyoi. Ct the um of tccu in comparison^ note^ 
L 1. 6; 6. 3, and also Bomem. Symp. p. 67: rfrcp n aal iWa, a a) 
Tpvro fio^irr^r; Cyrop. IIL 8. 42: Sv^^/>c< 6' iiyair, cfvc^ r^ mat iXX/f, 

!• — *Z/i9ya\i¥§T0f from /iryds, and the termination -vn» which 
denotes a transforming into that which the primitive adjecUye ngnifies ; 

Kabn. Gr. ^ 232. 1. (c); hence here^ wa» dated in mind, ii94ms, 

gl€uUy.^^^ikT0Kp6^p; some Msa and editions have inroicpin^s, hot 
not well ; for iatoKp&wrttw ri refers to tilings without oarselvei^ to hide « 
thing ; but hrotcpAvrttrdui rt to that within, to conceal, plainly the idea 
here. CC IL 8. 14: vdrra r^ iv aafbpAmit pt\rpa iwtarit^twos wiEAcu 
tar^Kp^wrov ; 6. 29 : fiii al ohf kwoicpvwrov fu ; and IV. 4^ 1 : wtpl row 
SiJCflUov yt ouK kwMKp^wr^ro ^y clx* yvA/iii9 ; and see Kahn. Gr. § 250. 
R. 4 ; L Gr. II. $ 398. 6. 

it — ^"Ar hy r6r€ cricorfir, elliptically for At &jr 3Muri«v^0'ficy tfiw 
wwy or ffi r6r§ okowoiii ; cf. note, II. 6. 38. 

S. — ^Eifc^r yovp; cf. note, I. 4. 8, and IIL 8. 6: Ac? tomt. 

A4^ov 84 ; see note, L 2. 41 : A(8a(«r 8^ vitrat rir^t ; c£ note 

and references^ I. 1. 1 : roii(8« nt ^r. nvit ahrmv, sc. wp^oSei 

tf v^Aci. ^y8««t Ixovt^'i^* Are deficient or small. 

€• — Ilp^f Tairri...^0'x^Aaa'a, lit, had leisure for, hence, ^ven at- 
tention to. TaSra refers to the whole preceding clause : 8ri irol to^mv 
rdr 9€piTrkf ik^aipttp Ztavaj ; hence the plural number is used ; see Kuhn. 
§ 241. 8 ; L. Gr. IL i 423. Cf. at tlie end of the section : M^cAii^mu 

ro^ttv, and ^ 10: 8i& t^ fi4yt^of ainAw. T^...iroif ir ; the article 

is used for the sake of emphasis ; see Kfihn. Gr. § 808. B» 1 ; L. Gr. IL 

§ 648. fiii ciS^ra ; the subject is implied in the participle: one not 

knowing ; cf. note, L 8. 8 : kwr6/i9roy. 

T* — Kal rk twra irposawofidKot Up, L e., he not only would 
not enrich the city, (ob iUpw oh vAovr^Coi &r r^v v^Atr,) but eten,. 
lose, etc. 

8* — "Hrrttv r&p ipapriatp, for r^t r&p ipoarrlttPf compendioOi 
compariaon ; see note and referenoei^ IIL 5. 4. 

$•— 08r«f 7c iiwh CT^tiaros circir, to speak thus directly 
from memory, memoriter. Cf. Stallb. Plat Phaedr. p. 28/5, C, and 


Theat p. 142. J>: ob fik rhp Ata, oIk ohf offrav (sio Btatim) ^t hrh tfr^ 
^corof ; also IIL 11. 7 : ob yhp Z^ ofhms y€ artx^^t oUtrl^ai xp^' 

10* — Otntovy; see note, L 4. 6. r^y, , ,wpArriy, sc. ipx^v or 

S^y, lit., at Jlrntf primum, but well here: a/ present; cf. Oecon. XL 
1 : rii fA^ 8^ ircpl r»y rijf yvyauths tpymy Ixayws /loi Soicw hxuKoiytu 

r^y vpAriiP't and see KQhn. Gr. ^ 279. R. 8. ahrSay, not sc. lyyir 

fumy or woUtfwc&yt bat referring to the whole matter in question: rei. 

*Ak\d roi; ct note, I. 2. 86. ^v\aKa\,..^poupol, prae- 

Bidia...milite8 praesidearii. iwtKaipot .,.lKayoi, ad- 
vantageous ... sufBoient wfifiovKt^aeiy, i. e., olid trt ffufifiou- 

Xtvffuy, to be repeated from the preceding context, instead ci oI9a, Kri 
vb ffvfifiov\96<r9is ; bat the change from 8ri with a form of the finite verb 
to the infinitive is not rare. For the distinction in meaning between 
these two foi*ms and also between tliem and the construction with the 
Part instead of the Infin., see Kahn. § 829. R. 5, and 811. 2; L. Gr. XL 
§ 771. 6, and § 657. Anm. 2. 

11a— 'lB7c»7c, sc. kpaipuy wfiBovXtCtrm, ^-^ t y t it d yt rov o9- 
rtts...^vKdrT9<rdai, Atrt K\4irr€ff^at rk iK r^t x^P^'t 
since the watches are so badly kept (^uAoxal ^vKdrrorrai), that^ etc. 
T^ iK rijs x^P" '^ ^ constr. praegn. for rd 4y rp x^P^ {Hyra) i^ avrrit 
(riff X^P^') KA^vTctrdai, like oi ix ti}s iyopat &ybpwroi kwi^tvyoy for 
61 iy T$ kyop^ iy^pmwot ix r^f kyopat kx4^vyoy. Cf. IIL 11. 13: ZmtpoU 
rk wapk ff-ccurrijt ; Sympoe. IV. 81 : rk iit r^f olKia% xiwparai ; and see 
Kilhn. L. Gr. n. § 628 ; Buttm. § 151. 1. 8. The verb icXiwrtiy, to take 
secretly, by stealth, is here contrasted with kpvdCuy^ to seize openly. 
Cf. IV. 2. 15 : ia9 l\ HXiirrjf re icol kpmdCui rk ro^rtty ; 17 : ky... ic\4^ 

1^ ap-wdajf , . . ^ipo$. iral apwdC^ii^ i^ovatay, even the power 

of openly plundering, taking by force, l e., o( fL6yoy ic\4wr9iy AWk koH 
kpird(fiy. For the construction of apwdCtw iiovvtay, see note, II. 1. 25. 

ry fiovXofidy^, cuilibet, or, cuivis. krdp, If^i? ; for 

the repetition of f^, see note, IL 4. 1. irlrepoy 4Kdi»y ahrhs 

,.,1l v«t, whether yourself coming (being present) ... or. Aoio. The 

particle v«t answers to the participle 4\dity, Zrtny fiiiK4rt tlicd' 

(c»/icr...ffiB«Mcr, for ctxcCCj?' • • • «%'> ^^^^^ ^® °o longer conjec- 
ture but already know, in accordance with Athenian urbanity. 

It, — r^ fi'hy; see note, L 4. 6. rkpyipia, the silver mines 

of Laurion; see note and reference^ II. 5. 2. — 6 ykp ol 4x4^ 
Xv^a. Upon ydp in responses^ see note, L 4 9. City indicates that the 
reason introduced by ydp is certain, beyond doubt. Cf. III. 14. 2; Cyrop^ 
IL 1. 7 : O^Kovy kKpo$9Xi(€ff^at k^dyiai 4ffri, rotoi&rvy yt rvy twXmy tytmy. 

884 NOTES. 

*Ai^Kir yiip oSr, t^; and see Eohn. Or. §824.R.6 L.Or.IL§70« 

S, and HartUDg, 6r. Partik. II. & 15. Xiy^rai 0apb rh Xmpitf 

cTra<, the country is said to be unhealthy, pestilential; CC Comiiu: 
**9usdfpop Kol t'oo'wScf * tvwrt tk kcSl ^ crvn^dcia r^r Ac^u^i fiaphr kipa 

k^yowra rhp voa-ovot6p.** eKAvrofiaif I am mocked, or, jeered at; 

some few Mshw have eKivropM^ but they are undoubtedly wrong, since 
in the present and imperfect^ the Attic writers do not use VKhrroiuk, 
iaK€'wr6fn9P, butv^jBOTM, aicovoufuu, iaK^ovw, iiricovu^/iiiw, Woolsey in 
his Goi^aSi p. 166, aays^ that "there is only one instance of vxhm 
fAoi in Plato to yery many of ^kovA." It should be further stated, that; 
on the other hand, not fl-icoTw but o'lrArrofuu is employed in the Fut, 
Aor., and Perfect 

IS. — T4 rot; see III. 4. 10. Ixat^it ia'ritf..»9iarp4^timt 

K.rX. The provisions of Attica were brought to a considerable extent 
from foreign countriei^ hence the peculiar necessity of attention to the 

supply; see Smith's Dictionary; »ito*, p. 899. rpot 8c era i, sc. 

h Wxit. So the object of one clause frequently becomes the subject of 
the following, without even a pronoun to indicate it See KQhn. h. Or. 
II. 4 852. a. with examples ; Stallb. Plato, Protag. p. 820. A The same 

change is also found in lAtin. Tya fiii rovri yt...iy9fiis ycvo^ 

fitpflt that the city being in want^ in respect to this, may not escape 
your notice. Tovro seems to be Acc; of more de£ limitation ; see Kflhn. 
L. Or. IL f 657. Anm. 4 ; Or. f 279. 7. For abundant examples of the 

same construction in Latin, see Kdlm. Tusa Disp. Y. 28. 81. fff^c 

. . . Sc^tf'cc ; see note, IL 1. 17. 

lit — ^'AXA^ fiiyroi, hut indeed. Hirroi expresses confirmation, 

Kfihn. Or. $816. R. ; L. Or. 11^698. a. o&8* &y...«i*jc4<rffic» 

CI fiii,.. cftf^crai. CC note, L 2. 28. The future c&crai, seems to bo 
employed on account of the word pi-eceding^ although instances may be 
found where a similar verb in the Ind. Fut follows tJ, after an Opt 
with ip, V. Bremius, Excurs. VH ad Lysiae, Orat p. 444 sq. quoted 

by KQhner in h. 1. iK TXci^rwy I) fivplup oiKtAv. Accord* 

iiig to Boeckh, Oecon. of Athens, R L Gh. vii, the mean average of the 
population of Attica consisted of about 500,000; vix., 865,000 slavei^ 

135,000 free inhabitants; besides about 45,000 resident aliens. oIkiwp 

. . . of ic M r. The former (from o2fcia) signifies merely the houses^ whilst the 
latter (from oIkos) every thing pertaining to the houses the households ; 
hence the appositeness of the words here ; as the first is a mere enume- 
ration, and the latter brings to view the objects of care and solieitudeb 
Iro, rkr row ^etov, one [oJitow], that of your uncle. 94 


crai 94; ct I. 6. 10. This clAUse is parenthetioal. rdkapr9p, 

here of coarse a weight, mid =s near! j 57 pounds. 

15, — Elra; of. note, I. 2. 26. ivyiivtv^ai wotriffai wct^t' 

ffbal 0-0 i ; for a similar accumulation of infinitives, see IV. 6. 6 ; and 
Bornemann*s Cjrop. I. 8. 13: oUi rivks qUo-^cu 9e7y fi^ xoitiv rcSha, 
For the use of the lufiu. to denote purpose or result, see B. 140. 3. 

16* — *£yi^v/&oD 84 r»y KXAwy. . . T<(rcp^, icrA. 'Eyi^/Mv is 
eloaelj connected with the question w^tpd aoi, and not with otoi ^- 
rorroi, icrA. See also note, L 1. 17. 

17a'-*Ei'^v/iov. .. mU.. •c^p^ff'ffxy, cogita et inyenies. For 
the construction, ct IL 8. 16: fiii ixyti, 1^, &Xx* iyx^ipfi T^r 
tufipa ieararp9J^§tp, ical w^un/ rax^ voi iwaKo6a€Tai,-—^§lB6r9tP 
Sri Tc X4yovfft, jcr.A. Some commentatora connect 5ri, icr^., with 
ipbvfuv, instead of u96rtty, but ol ciS^ct 5 rl rt \4yovtn aeal 8 ri wotowrt 
seems to be intended as a contrast with roiovrot, ofoi ^aivovrtu aeoi Xvyo»- 
rcff & ft^ iffwri JToi vpdrrorr^tt and the objeetum ret is implied in cdp^trtit 
. . . afial^€irrdrtir. Tliis will appear more distinctly if the words are thus 
arranged : ipdufJMv leal rSv §ti4rwy . . . 8ri iif weuriy Kpyois ol yukv c&8o«ri- 
/iotVrtr . . . CK r£r A*d(Xi<rTa ixiffra/A^imv ttal, jc.rA. Ct note, L 1. 17. 
iK T&¥,.,6yras, Lat esse ex, or, ex numero, etc 

18* — *Eh¥..,iwtx*tpit-"ObK hy davfidaaifti ; see note, IIL 

4.6. ro6T^ 9i§y4yKas tup iWety, having excelled others in 

this; instead of rot^y, some Mss. and editions have ro^ro, and also 
SitptyxAw for Sicycyicaf. Ct I. 2. 58. 


It-^Xap'iAiifir 8i rhv rXaJiewyot. Charmides the son of Glauco, 
a youth distinguished for great beauty of person and excellence of char- 
actei-, was placed under the instruction of Socrates^ by his guardian 
Critiaa. See a further account of him in Stallb. Plat ProlegooL ad Char- 
midem. — r-Zvvar&rtpov, sc. r& iroAiriJc^ wpdrr^w, to be supplied 
kwh Koiyov, from what follows. See note, IL 1. 11. — ^voositfyai rf 
S4fi9», L e., to harangue, address the people from the forum. The words 
wap^kbwf cjf rhp 8^/uoy, have the same meaning. — o'tc^ ay Ir at 
&7Myar pikup. The ffrc^aylnif kyttp was a contest in which the 
prize was a crown or wreath. The fr^^dpos does not seem to have been 
tt&ployed as a reward of merit in the heroic ages. Smith*s Diet Oonmn^ 

836 KOTKS. 

jx 809. For the eonstraction of iryStm rucSv, after the analogy of ir(m» 

rucor, see note, IL 0. 26. AijAor Zri, f^ri ; we ahoald natoially 

expect i^fiay, f^, iri m in IV. 2. 14 ; the aanie position of the words i* 
found also in IV. 2. 14; 4. 28 ; Cyrop. VIL 1. 1, et al. 

t. — *Ok¥oIii i^; there are yarious other readings here, such as 
litwoi Ijhit iKPotii ff8i|, it.rA. The 84 seems to he used to giye force to 
the idea expressed by the yerb which it follows : may {even yef, in fA«te 
cireumaianceM) hesitate^ etc This partiele is frequently employed in a 
similar manner, after the imperatiye, as trichtw 84 ^e note, L 2. 41 ; and 
it is also fonnd after other forms of the verb with similar significance. 
C£ Hellen. lY. 8. % : ipofthw tk rov ^KyiictKiov . . . ftrcftpfraro 8^ i Ac^ 
KvKKlZaa\ Anab. IV. 8. 27; 6. 84; Plat miaedr. pi 278. D; /pci 84 
See Hartung, 6r. Partik. L a 288 ; KQhn. 6r. ( 815. 2; L Gr. H. $ 692. 
«ral ravra, sc. iwiiuKua^ui rovraiy. ^~— xal ravra\ see note, L % 

29. £r Arayxii. ..voX^rp y tfrri, of those things which it ia 

necessary for yoa» as a good citizen, etc 

8. — Tiip l\ ifihtf BApa/iip,,. For the force of 8/ here^ see note^ 

L 8. 18, and c£ ( 6 below. ruurd /lov KarayiypArK^n ; ct L 

8. 10: r)...l8^r, K.rA. aft, for ^r oTr; a similar ellipsia ii also 

found in lAtin ; c£ note, IL 1. 82. Sraw ri ivaKoivAwrat, when 

they eommunieaU any thing to yon. 

4«^-0( TAvr^r i9ri¥,.AH^ re SiaX^^co-^ai «al i» rf 
wX^&fi ikymvli^ff&ai ; for a similar construction, c£ IV. 4. 12: Jipa 
rh attrh Kiyut . , . piiuiUw re jcal ZIkomp cZroi; 7. 7: X4rfmw ftiw t^ 

alrh 9hai vvp t9 ical 1)A.ior. ical fi^w,..y4; see note, L 4. 12. 

Kark /iSpas; supply x^P«' ^^ twdfitts. The phrase nearly corre- 
sponds to Kar* tiltuf; Latin: seorsum, or, priyatim. C£ Thncyd. 
L 82 : a&Tol Korii fi6rat kwfmadtAt^a Koptr^lovt ; Plat Alcib. L p. 114. B* 

•l,,.Ka^api(o»rts, oSroi ; see note, IL 1. 19. In like manner 

in Latin i s is frequently used after a noun, as e. g. Cic de Kat Deor. IL 
10. 27 : Jam yero reliqua quarta pars mundi ea et ipsa tota natura per- 
▼ida est et, etc 

ft. — ^A28« 8^ical ^6&o»...lin^»Ta,.,t¥Ta; for the neuter plural 

in the predicate here, see note and references^ III. 1* 7. iw to is 

0X^o"» >• ^M 4" '''<''* '''^^ 94ifiov |vAA^y0if, Lat in conaonibus populi. 
Ct Plat Gorg. p. 454. K : ip BiKoffrriptots rt jcol roit ttXAoit ix^^** *>i^ 

p. 455. A. wapnrrdfi9pa, exhibited ; the yerb wapiaro/rbtu is used 

of any affection of the mind. — ~- ical ^4 y9 8i8c({i#r. . . fip^^Ma'* 
8ti, ict.a.. KtU here has a kind of adyeraatiye force and oorresponda 
nearly with letdroi or jcal /i^r (and yet). There is a concealed irony in 

BOOK ni. CHAP. vn. 887 

ttiii answer, and we might supply : you 9peak well, and yet I am pre- 
pared to show, etc C£ Stallb. Plato, Apol. p. 29. B, and see Hartan^ 
L & 147, and Kahn. K Or. H § 727. S. In Latin the particle at que 
ia used in the same way ; see K&hner*s Cic Tuse. Disp. IIL 2. 4 : Qua 
caecitate homines^ quum quaedam etiam praeclara cuperent, eaque nea- 
^rent nee ubi, nee qualia essent^ funditus alii everterunt suae ciyitate^ 
alii ipsi oociderunt Atque ii quidem optima petentes non tarn yolun- 
tate, quam eursus errore fidluntur ; where see EOhner's note. 

i. — Tohs 7ya^cif.. o'Kvrfit.. . xaAicffif ; this form of the Ace. 
is somewhat common in Xenophon, but rare in other Attic writers ; see 

KQhn. Or. ( 67. R. 1 ; and e£ note and. references^ H 2. 14. ifivS' 

povs (ip and v6pos, a ford, crossing), ship-masten^ those who trade upon 
ahipSk hence opposed to ol 4p kyop^ fi9ra0aW6fitPoi. After ^cro- 

fiaWSfiwoif rk Apta is to be supplied in thought 5 ri iKdrropot 

wptd/itvoi wktiowos ftvoSArrai, that they may sell for more [than 
the value] that which they have pur^ased for less^ or, for a large price 
what they have purchased for a small The Oen. is used to express the 
relation of value after verbs of buying^ selling; etc See Kflhn. Or. ) 276. 
8 ; K 182. 10. c. For the use of the subjunctive mode, see note, L 2. 16. 

7« — Ti 8^ ofci 9ta^4p9ir % vh iroicZr ^. . . ^o/Sciir&ai. The com- 
parative particle ff follows Ztaptpup on account of the force of a com- 
parative in that word. It is like &\Ao tlveu, If, aliud esse quam. 
Cf. IIL 8. 6: p&8^y 9ta/p€p6irrtt » . . iofxpipif fioi, {^ 8rfl a§ fiptin^ffa, cl 
TI AyaJ^^y cl8«(i|t; 11. 14: niwicavra ykp woXh Btaipdpti rk aibrii 9Apa, 
% 9p\p iwt^fA^trat, na6pM, et aL ; Stallb. Plat Phaed. p. 288. D. See 

Kahn Lw Or. IL $ 640. Anm. 8. rSv itffKiiT&p,,»robs UtArat* 

*Ai9Knroi s iidKfiTui, those who are exercised, practised (in the palaestra^ 
and hence opposed to •/ iSiflrrm, those who are unskilled, unpractised. 
CC Hipparch. VIIL 1 ; Cyrop. I. 6. 11, where too i«-inrra2 and l^iSrruL 

are antithetical to each other. •& yhp , » . htcvut A^ciy; for the 

force of ydp in interrogatione; see L 8. 10. — roS rp t^Aci 8iaX/- 

ytcbai. Leu, rw roit woKtrais dioA.— — TCf>i«(i^, auperiar fo. 

/iif8^ w^woT^ ,,, fiiiih ffov. The first ;ii|8^ ss n e quidem, notin^ 
deed; the second, nee, nor; cf. note, IIL 12. 6 : o68K . . ov8t Mi|8^, 
and not oM, is used on account of the concessive thought contained in 
the participle. —-^porrfo'aa'i. .. icarairf^pori}JcJ^iy; the firet is 
in the Aor. tense, as indicating a simple fact, and the last in the Pei-f, 
since the action eontinued until the tame in which the declaration was 
made, I e., have despised and yet hold you in contempt Ct note, IIL 


888 NOTES. 

g»— Kai ykp ; see note, 14 9: oM y^ Ktd ia, howeyer, here U 
be joined with ol §rtpot in sense : otheri <dto. CL note, I. 1. 8. The 
ellipsis is to be supplied thus : ov lUvw oi iy t§ iKKKiiaUf, &\Aib iced ovroi^ 
oft iiitf crvyci ip tm ffutfovaiats (§ 3), oi iy ry x6K€i vp^tr^iorrti (§ 7) ru9 

hpb&s \ey6vro»v KoraytXwrtv, ^avfid(u..,tl ; see note, L 1. 13. 

iKtlwovSt refcra to o/ crcpoi. ro6rois Hh, Ac, after » pro- 
tasis, or participle which has the force of protasis^ maj be rendered, oa 
the other hand or whilst; c£ KOhn. L. 6r. IL § '788, and Hermann ad 

Viger. 241. irposcycx^not- Tlpos^iptv^ ruri, is, to oondnet 

one's self toward, demean, or behave to one. Ct IIL 11. 11, and lY. 2. 1. 

9« — ^'fl7a;^/; see L 4. 17. fiii kyp6€t er^avrSy, Cf. CScero, 

Epbt ad Quintum fratrem, IIL 6, where he seems to imitate this pas- 
sage: Cessator esse noli (m^ hwoff^^fiu) et illud ywm&t c^avriw 
noli putare ad arrogantiam minuendam solum esse dictum, verum etiam 
nt bona nostra norimus ; and c£ also a somewhat different explanation 
in IIL 9. 6, and IV. 2.24. —^^^ olv kwoff^&t&fiti roirop, do 

not then neglect this^ from indolence. teal /&^ ; cfl L 4. 17. cf 

Ti Svyar^y... Ixf ir, if it may be profited by you in any tKty. 


1« — 'Apiarlwirov ; see note, IL 1. 1, and I. 2. 60. Instead of the 
Gen. Abs. *Apiorlv, iwixfipovprost we mighty at first, expect the Dat. alter 
kr^KplyarOt but the construction employed bj Xenophon is much more 

forcible. See KOhn. Gr. § 813. 2; L. Or. IL ^ 587. e. rh irpirt' 

pop; the reference here is toll. 1. /i^i wp 6 \6yot iwa\\ax^9t 

icr.X. Lest in some way their discourse be perverted, etc. ; i e., Socra- 
tes was not so careful to secure his own reputation fr>r acuteness in 
reasoning, etc, as he was to inculcate and substantiate the truth. The 
article is used here with ipvKarr6fi€Pot and not with w€W€ifffitpoi, because 
there is an allusion to a distinct class of men, the sophists, in the former, 

but no definite reference in the latter. its &V v^vturfA^pot, i e., 

iff &r knoKpiveupTo TnrttirfAtPot, i^r.X. 

2« — T&p roio^TMp, oToy. .. r^X/Aay. Seiifert says this is not a 
case of attraction, but that ploy is to be considered as a for example, viz. 
Btill the concinnity of the construction roiovretPf oTop is better preserved 
by consideiing it as equivalent by attraction to : r&p roiovr., otop ...% 

byttia,.,r6\fAa iarip; cf. note, IL 9. 8. Sciicrvoi 8j^...<r; see 

note, IIL 7. 2 ; and for the significance of Scijcy. with the Firt see EOhn. 



§811. 11. — ^rov vaiaopTts, of that vhieh mU make it to aoM, 
— avffKp^raro, yif*p ical vocciy; bc. &ircir/>(Karo $irfp Kcd inc. 
Mpiwtff^at, he anawered in the manner in which it was most excellent 
answer. Instead of answering as if good were something absolute, he 
erred it to specifio objects, and thus thwarted the captious design of 
istippua^ and escaped the snare spread for him. In Latin f a c i e n d i 
often used in the same manner with toicZk here, instead of repeating 
lother verb. For the use of Koi after ^tp, see note, L 2. 47. 

S« — ^Apd yt ; see note, IIL 2. 1. irvpcroS iiyadSr, good for 

, fever. The adjective here goyerns the Gen. from the force of a noun 

lontained in it: the remedy of; see B. 132. 18, and note 26. 'AXX& 

A^y, atqni ; see note, IIL 1. 6. cf ri ikjadhi^ ol9a, h fii|8ff- 

rhs iLyab6p itrrty, if I know anj thing good, that is good for no 
thing, i e., in no way useful. Socrates' idea, according to Xenophon, is, 
that nothing is good or useful in itself but only in reference to some end 

or object f^Vt repeated; see II. 4. 1. opT9 8/o/iai, sc. «i8^ 

Mu, to be supplied, iivh icoiyoD, from oTda ; see II. 1. 82. Brandis^ Gesch. 
Fhiloa. IL S. 41, note, supposes that this is the mere fragment of a longer 
conyersation upon the good, but imperfectly recorded by Xenophon. 

i. — Ka\ iroWd, even many thingt • tcod is not strictly intensive, 
^ very, but adds something to the simple answer that might have been 

expected to the question. /i^y oIp, immo, or, immo vero; 

see note, IL 7. 6. 'fit ot6v,..6¥otioi6raTa lyio, some things 

are as dissimilar as possible ; cf. just below ; for the sentiment, cf. § 6, 
bq., also IV. 6. 1, where the conclusion is : T^ xf^^'M^*' ^ KaX6¥ iart 
vpihs h t» ^ xp^^^f^^t i ^0> ^°^ SympoB. V. 8, from all of which, it ia 
evident that Socrates includes the beautiful, Ka\6y as well as the good 
ieyo^Sw, under the useful ; cf. Stallb. Plat Prolog. Hipp. Maj., and Bit- 
ter's Hist. Philosophy, II. Ch. ii. fart /i^y . .. ik¥6fioios, xaKht, 

icr.X., atiothfr, unlike the man who is usell formed for running, is, etc. 
"AAXoY is contrasted with iofbpiint^. tvi for ivtari. 

5«— OvSiy Sia^cp^yrvt... 1^; cl IIL 7. 7. h Ap€T^...A7o- 

h6v»,,KiMX6¥ iariy, for the gender of the predicate, see IL 8. 1, and 

cCje. lircira; see note, L 2. 1. rh alrh...sph% tA ahrd 

,..\4yovTai, are called honorable and good in the same respect and 
in relation to the same things The old grammarians would supply leard 
with T^ alnlf but according to a common idiom, the accusative is put aa 
a more definite explanation of the word with which it is taken ; see 
KQhn. Gr. § 279. 7. In reference to the sentiment^ see Plat Hipp. Hfi> 
p. 295. D. G£ Gorg. p. 474. D. 

340 NOTES. 

6« — Ka\ XP*^ y* >tfv^' ; ^^ partidet «if yt are hen «mplojed te 
introduce something new and unexpected, and are not merely confirma- 
tory. wphs rii kavTwv tpya\ for their own (respective) nae& 

4 /i4r . . . 4 Z'kf the former (i. e., jt^iros) ,.Ahe latter (i. e., hmUy. 

7i — *Kyab^ re ttaX Ktucd; sc ra aird, to be supplied as subject 

from the preceding sentence. r6 t« Xifiov iiyadhPt i. e., food. 

For the constr. of the Gen., see note upon $ 8 above. rh vv^crov 

kya^^F, i. e., fasting, 

8« — O Imlat ; for a full description of the Grecian honae^ see Becker's 

Charielesi Ezcuni L to Scene IIL ^S^o^rif... ^rSiairfi^'^ac ; 

for the construction of the lut with the Adj. see note, L 6. 5 : iis X"^*" 

9« — ^Tsi^reu Z\ 6fio\oyovtt4»ov ; this being conceded (bj those 

wjth whom the converMtion was held). 'E«-ciS^...«'v/i^arcy. 

The Optat here indicates that Socrates was accustomed to resort to this 
illustration of the house, with his pupilf^ or that he often spoke with 

them upon its construction. Cf. note, L 2. 57. waeraiat. For 

the situation and object of the raoris, wapturrds, or wporrisy piazEa, see 
Becker's Chariclei^ Ezc L pp. 208, 9, and 11. 

lOt — 'At 9v¥9\6¥ri fJrcTy, to *peak briefly; lit, in order that 
I may speak comprehensively. For the constr. see B. 140. note 4 ; for 

the Dat of the Part, Kflhn. ^ 284. 10. a. avr6s is sometimes used 

to make a strong antithesis between the one designated by it and others ; 
hence, as here, used for lord or nuister as antithetical to the rest of the 
household. In similar manner it is used of a father as opposed to son in 

Apol. ^ 81. Ct Kahn. Gr. § 808. R. 4; L. Gr. IL ^ 630. Anm. 8. 

ypapal il nal voixiXtai, paintings and stucco-work. See Charide^ 
as above cited, p. 212. 18. Socrates* objection to painting was undoubt- 
edly, that it required tlie exclusion of the light which added to the com- 
fort ai d healthfulness of a dwelling. Naoit . . . jcal fiv/ioit X'^P^'o^ 

. . . ^M^oTf 0Td(n| . . . f fif. Temples and altars in Greece were usually 
built in a thicket and fenced around with a vtpifioXot, Socrates did not 
approve of their being too much concealed, but wished them to be in an 
open or high spot where the view would not be obstructed, as aiding in 
devotion. riib fthy yhp iZ69rat wpov^^^airhai. Some how- 
ever contend that lh6wrat has not reference to the worshippers having 
an unobstructed view, but to the passers by. who may see the temples 
and altars and make their salutations ; see Yitr. L 7 : aedibus sacris— 4n 
eelsissimo loco, nnde moenium maxima pars conspiciatur, arae distribnan- 
tur; and lY. 5, ubi de templis ciroum vias pnblieas aedificatis . agitnr 

BOOK m. CHAP. IX. 841 

— 1^8^ 8) &7ir«ff ^x^^rot irpott4yai, L a, Socrates would haT« 
a retired spot, because the danger of being polluted when entering tb« 
sacred indosare, would be so much less there, than in much frequented 
places. See Smith's Diet : Templum, p. 968. 


!• — 'H kv^pta, is opposed to itiXla, and signifies etiergy of character^ 
as opposed to wakneut. Courage is but a partial representative of it ; 
manlinest (a word of similar origin), in its best and most extended sense, 
is perhaps nearest to it of any English word , and virtus nearly cor- 
responds in Latin. Plato defines it as tcaprfpia rii r^t ^x^^ Lacheai 
p. 192. I>; and he elsewhere describes the man who b truly iu^Zpttos as 
one who fears nothing which ought not to be feared, whilst he fears 
what ought to be feared ; see Lewis Contr. Atheoe, p. 255 sq. Cf. note, 
L 1. 16. In regard to the emphatic position of iv^pla, see note, II. 7. 8. 
The Latin accomplishes the same thing by a circumlocution, with d e ; 

interrogatus de fortitudine, utram, etc 9t9aKrhp ii ^vatK^y; 

for the gender, see note, IL S. 1. irphs rh 8ciir&, in respect to all 

thuigs difficult or perilous. iv rots ainois y6fiois, in accordance with 

the same laws^ etc. 

S« — Uaoaw ^^fftp,..aC^tffbai; c£ the same idea in 11.6.89. 
oCr' Up.., i^iXottp &y ; for the repetition of &y, see note, 1 4. 14 

ip ir4\Tait icol ixoprtots . . . i p t6^ois ...HiayvplCta^oL For 

this use of the Prep, ^i^, see Kuhn.Gr. § 289. 1. (1). (a) ; L. 6r. IL $ 600. 
CI IIL 11. 4. 6pwp — /i7iT4pa xapovtrap ahr^ 4p i<rd^i koX ^c/Mivcff. 
Demosth. de Corjn. p. 279. 165: ip rots SvAoir irapay9v6fitpoL The 
Latin poets have imitated this construction ; see Yirg. Aen. V. 37 : 

Acestes horridus in jaculis et pelle Lybistidis ui-sae. w4\rais. The 

w4Krri was a small light shield, the k<rirls a large one to protect the 
whole body. iiKOPrtots. The itK6priop, Aic«r, javelin, a wea- 
pon for throwing at a distance, whilst 9 6 par a were perhaps more fre- 
quently used for fighting dose at hand. Here, however, &<nr(8af and 
96para are put for Lacedemonian armor in general, whilst v^Xroif and 
hcoprlois characterize that of the Thracians. 

S« — 'Opm... iirl r&p k\k&p rdprmp; for 4w\ construed with 
the Gen. after verbs of understanding, seeing, judging, speakings etc 
•ee KOhn. Gr. § 296, and L. Gr. H. § 611, and cf. IL 8. 2. 

842 NOTES. 

!•— So^iar, wt«2om» L e., in general an aceorate knowledge, disoem* 
ment of our I'elations as moral beings^ and the consequent dnties. It i^ 

aocording to Socrates, tlie foundation of all yirtue; it is yirtue. «r«- 

^pofflvtl from <riv {v^du) and ^pfhv^ that which eaves the soul, hence, 
ioundnen of mind ; it signifies not merely the power of the will oyer the 
passions and appetites^ but also includes the yoluntary submiasion of 
these to the will ; and hence is not onlj a healthy and peaceful state of 
the mind, but a moderation, medium between too much and too little in 
acUon. See Kahn. Tusc Quaest lY. 13. 30 ; Plat Charmidas and Stallk 
Prolog. ; Lewis, Contr. Atheos, p. 851 sq. In contrast with vo^lctp, right 
knowfed(/e here, it seems to have particular reference to right action, and 
hence Xenophon says, that Socrates did not separate the two (5ii6pi^€y) : 
aAA^ rhv Ttt fA^v Ka\d re xal iya^iL ytyw^ffKOvrtk ipria^an 
avToTf, Ka\ thw rh alffXP^ ctSdra cvAai3ci(r&af, vo^iv re 
iral 0-»^0dva fxpipty, but one who knowing the honorable and 
good, practises them, and being acquainted with the bad avoids it, he 
judged to be wise and prudent Ellhner thinks the participles yiywt»- 
ffKorra and €lZ6ra arc repeated in sense, and the following Inff. depend 
upon them, i. e., one who knowing . . . knows how to practise, etc. Cf. 
II. 3. 14: ^ ^fcrcif . . . iSp^eu, ft^ aiaxp^f ^ay^s ; i. e., Ij ^mrtis fy|<u, 
hKvStVf ^^ aiVxf>^r ^oy^r. A more precise construction would require 
the omission of koL rhv before ra eda-xpi^ thus : rhp rA fihv xaXii . ..rk Si 

olaxp^ IC.T.A- ohZ€v y€ fiaWov, jct.A- The construction here 

is: rohs i'wtffrafi4yovs fily h 8c7 wpdrrtu; roioDrrar 8i riummiaf o^t^m 
ttoAAoK ffoipovs re icol iyKparus (sc cA^povas) tlyai tfOfAi(w, ^ iur^fpout re 
wal iucpartis yofiiC^ tlreu iro<po6s re ical iykpartTs (sc aiitppeyat), those who 
know the right but do the contrary, I suppose to be no more wise than 
those who are ignorant (do-o^vi ) and without self-government {ducparus). 
The woi-ds ika6<pavs and iucpartTs are without the aHide, although sub- 
ject and not predicate, because the subject is intended to be indefinite. 
Cf. Oecon. XIL 17 sq. : koI ti^c fioi S^Awo-or, cf oUv r4 itrriy &/icA^ a&rhy 
trra &AAovf voiuv iirtfifXtis. Ov fik rhw Al\ o&ScV 7c /aoAAok, ^ Jkiiovaov 

trra aJtnhv IlAAovi yMvaucohs iroiclr. wikvras ,^ .wpoaipovpiivovt 

4k r&y ivHtx^P^^^^^' "'^^^'^^ vpdCrrciy, icr.X., ehooting from 
thoM they, etc The idea of Socrates is^ tliat the man who possesses true 
wisdom, knows what his own r^l good ia^ and acts accordingly. It is 
impossible for him to act contrary to his own interests and to what is 
right Hence he who does not act rightly is not possessed of ti*ue wis- 
dom or prudence. In reference to the signification of M^xo/i^prnw, tee 
note, L 2. 2.3. 

5* — T^y 9tKaioauyriy xal riiy &\kTiy waaay Ap^r^y vo^iaw 
c7yai, K.T.A. The reasoning in this somewhat obscure passage is briefly 

BOOK m. CHAP. IX. 848 

as follows : Juatioe and every other virtue is wisdom, for every thing just 
and virtuous is honorable and good ; but he and only he who knows the 
honorable and the good (i. e., the wise man, the a'o<^6s) prefers and does 
that which is honorable and good. But that which is just and virtuous 
is honorable and good ; therefore justice and every other virtue is wis- 
dom. It must be acknowledged that we should expect the Oreek of the 
hist clause : ^irc2 . . . irpdrrerat, to run thus : ivtl oZv rd re SUcua mU t^ 
&XXa rdMTOf & ApcrJ Tpdrrereut JCoAiC re ical ir/cAd iffriv. But it may 
perhaps be supposed that Xenophon was in fault in this instance, in com- 
municating the precepts of his master. See Kuhn. in h. 1. ^&r 

iyx^ip&^it'f for the Opt ct iyxfipo7€p; see note, L 2.2, S^Aor 

cTrai, tri,,.ffo^la 4<rri for the more usual tri ao^ cfi|; see note, 

I. 1. 13: ^aytphiff jctA. 9tKaio<rivi^ Ka\ ^ AXAif wa<ra &f>cr^. 

The article, it is well known, is frequently omitted even with the names 
of specific virtues and vices ; ct note^ L 2. 28 : aat^poaini ; lY. 6. 7 : 
vo^icu The article is inserted before itpvrii on account of &AAi| ; of. Plat 
Protag. p. 823. A : 9iKato<r6ms re xai r^s &AXi|s iroXiriie^t ^cr^t, and B : 
i¥ 9k 9iKato<r6¥p koI ip ry iWy iroAirucy ^cr^ 

6t — Maw taw ye, inaaniltf, Mawla, according to Socrates, is the anti« 
thesis of o-p^io, and is accordingly an ignorance, want of practical under- 
standing of the virtues, such as temperance, justice^ fortitude, etc. r^ 

gives emphasis to the contrast between fuuda and 4F0f^la. o v . . . r ^ r 

aw€wiarfifA0ff6wiiw fiawiaw iwdfii^f. The distinction hera made 
between hMnriarinwffvwJi and fMwla is that the former signifies ignorance 
in genera], such as the world takes cognizance of; the latter, ignorance 
of virtue, which arises from self-ignorance, rh iywotiw ka»r6w. Ignorance 
of sel^ of the metes and bounds of one's own ignorance, is according to 
Socrates the lowest state of degradation and nearly allied to insanity ; 

Ritter, IL p. 49 ; cf. also note, lY. 2. 24. jcol ^^ & o78e 8o|<C^eir. 

The position of ^^ before the relative is emphatic, and the phrase is 
equivalent to icol fi^ & olSei^, hXiC & /i^ elSey ; see Kahn K 6r. II. ^ 866. 
Anm. 8. For the omission of the subject with o?8e, and also with the 
infinitive 8a(aCcir, c£ Stallb. Plat ApoL p. 29. B : 4 '^^^ t^Mv^m *l94w€u 
(ifia^la) & ovK otH^w (sc. rb). The same idiom is also found in Latin ; ct 
e. g., De Orat I. 8. 30 : neque vero mihi quidquam praestabilius videtur, 
quam posse dicendo tenere hominum ooetus^ mentes allicere, vol un tales 

impellere quo v e 1 i t , unde autem velit deducere. & fikw ol irAci- 

trroi iiywoovat, rous 9trifAaprriK6Tas ro^rwWf ic.rA., for robs 
^itifutpTtiK^as rointow^ &, x.r.A. In the following wonls : roi^t 8ii|/iapn|- 
Kiras, &w o2 voAAoi yiywticKovo'i, there is an attraction of the relative on 
account of the omission of the demonstrative. 

344 KOTES. 

8* — ^^Arvx^aif .. . cdrvx^At'o^c^'Pttl^tt"- For the eoncreto 
ugnification of abfttract nouns in the plural, see 1. 1. 11 : itpJeymus. The 
last two words are here used in their usual signification and not as in 

§ 14. q. v. iyittfidwovt. CC with the definition of envy here 

given, Cic Tusc Disp. lY. 8. 17 : Invidentiam esse dicunt aegritudinem 
Busceptam propter alterius res secundaa^ quae nihil noceant invidenti ; 
nam si quis doleat ejus rebus secundii^ a quo ipse laedatur, non recta 
dicatur invidere, ut si Hectori Agamemno ; qui autem cui alterius oono- 

rooda nihil nooeant, tamen .enm doleat his frui, is inyideat profecta 

^Xi^(ovr...ird[0'x<<y a^4 enyy is a characteristic of little minds 
(of fools). 

•• — Ti ffi| for 5 ri ifif ; see note, I. 1. 1. Uvat wpd^owras 

T& fiwkrtv To^Twr, po appljr themselves to the doing of something 
better than these things^ The Fnt Part here denotes purpose,. see B. 

144 8. Uwat,,, vxoKd (t i r , no one has leisure to pass from things 

better to things worse, etc The latter verb is frequently followed bj a 

simple infinitive; cf. Cjrop. II. 1. 9; YIII. 1. 18. rovror k^x^- 

Alas abr^ 000*1}! jcoirAf ...vpcCrrcir, he, unce he had no leisure^ 
did, etc, L e., one who is engaged in something that is profitable, haa 
no time to turn aside to that which is profitless^ and leisure should ao- 
eordinglj be devoted to that which is useful This sentiment is more 
distinctly expressed in L 2. 57 : rt^ fur kyab6r n woiovrras ipyd(€a^al 
Tff 1^ iral ipy^as iya^hs «7yai ■ robt 9h Kv0f6arras ff ri XAA« won^m 
irol iiti(fiiuo¥ wotovtrras iifyobs awttcdKtL The inculcation of such senti- 
ments as these, one would think, was a very indirect way of " corrupt- 
ing the youth.** 

1^ — Bao't\§is ; for this form of the Aoc, see note^ IL 2. 14. 

ivh ru9 rvx6vr9tWt by the multitude, or, by any one whoever, 

quibuB libet. ofr8i rob* ...^{airar^o'arras, neither those 

who have obtained it by lot, force, or .fraud. AXA&rovs ^irio-ra- 

fi/rovs &px*'''» '^ ^* ^^7 alone are in truth kings who know how to 
rule. Since knowledge is the only and the true foundation of all right 
action, and alone secures both individual and general well-being, the 
conclusion was natural, that it was necessary in order to constitute one 
a real king. 

II.*— 'Ov^r«...6/ioAo7<^o'cic : Opt indicating repeated action; 

see L 2. 57. Ifr re yijt... iv t$ rijt ; for the omission and use of 

the article, see note, L 1. 9. rbr. .. ^Tia-rc(/ticror, used Abe., 

Lat peritus; as in IL 1. 28 ; IH 5. 21, et al. ^p iilIv ahr^\ 

ilfAprai iwtcracdai ^iri/i«Xc»<r;^a<, ... cl Z\ /iii, icrJk After 

BOOK m. CHAP. IX 845 

iryttKua^att there aeeniB to be an ellipuB of robs ifFifif\ofi4ifous, (Seiffert 
■ajB of ipx'^'^'^) depending upon IvtScdcFcvcr, i. e., if thej think thej 
know how to manage these thingis thej themselTea manage them. Plat 
Protag. p. ^11. D. reeemblee this passage.* When two clauses are intro- 
duced by *t fiJkv,.,*! 8i fij^, there is frequently an ellipsis of the apodoeia 
of the first enunciation, but oftenest when the idea is a general one, like 
iraXdf lx«<t «^ ; cf« nL 1. 9, and see Kflhn. Gr. { S40. 1. (c). "hp in- 
stead of CI is found in II. 6. 87. The idea of the whole passage is : In 
navigation, he who is skilled in the art» is leader, and others obey him ; 
•o in all other conditions of life ; men who have any business that re- 
quires care, if they suppose they have skill in it; manage it themselvei^ 
but if not; they yield themselves obediently to those who have. 

\%M — ^EZ...X^7ei; see note, T. 2. 57. C^ftiv^^tf'crai, will 

suffer loss; we in other cases find the form, (iifu^rrat, as in Demoeth. 
OL IL (vulg. L) pw 17, ad init : CofiUifftff^tu. 

1S« — ^T^y 84 AwoKrtivorra — ; Pre& Part denoting repeated 

action. its frvx«> ^ it happens, in any manner, i. e., lightly, 

moderately. — o9r« answers to ravra woiovrra in the antecedent 

14«— E&yf»a(far, a living well, good conduct The common mean- 
ing of the word was prosperity, good fortune, sa tWvxlay, but Socrates 
did not so understand it, as he says : rh fAa^6irra re jcal /At Acr^o'ayrcC ri 
c8 troMijr Mbvpa^tap pofjdCof. Eurvx'a is accidental good fortune, and 

€vwpa^ia, success as the result of science and industry. 11 a i' /tip 

• 8r ro^rarrcor, icr.K. I suppose r^xf"* («^«'xf«') »nd wpa^w, 
(t^pa^lop) to be entirely contrary (different). Upon /i/y o9r, see IL 

7. 5. iih C'n'rovpTa,., fiadiwra; participles involving a sub- 

ject» see note; L 8. 8: Arr^ftcyer. ^— c 8 vpdrrtir, to live well, 
bene vivere. 

1ft. — Kal. .. 94; see note, L 1. 8: fcoicfiyot 91 robs rk ywtp' 

ytick tt mpdrropras, those who live well in agriculture ; L e., those 

who have knowledge of and rightly practise it XP^^^t^^^ oi9h% 

useful for nothing ; d IL 7. 7 : ob9^p xp^^^f^ 


846 KOVES. 


1« — Tks rix^^* ix^^^*^\ ^ upon the ugnification of Ix'v. 

note, I. 6. 13. tcaX r octrois. After iJO<k ii^v kcS, we frequently 

fiad auother koI which b nearly redundant^ as in oompariaonB. See L 1. 

6; 6. S. SiaA^yofTo; eee note, I. 2. £7; and for the sing. Tun 

after a plural, see note, L 2. 62. citcAJ^wr fiir. To this particle 8« 

at the beginning of ^ 6 correoponda. Uaffdffiop, a distinguished 

painter, but it should seem from his ignorance, a mere jouth when this 

eonversation was held; see Fiske*8 Man. p. 414. ypa^iK^ ivriw 

fl §lKaa-la, ic.r.A. ; is painting the imitation, etc? Contrary to the 
general principle, the subject is here without the article, because it la 
general in its signification ; and the predicate has it^ because it is iu- 
tended to be specific^ perhaps Scumicwt. See Kahn. 6r. § 244^ R. 1 ; 
L. Gr. II. $ 494. 

8« — '0\a T& irdfiara icaX&, bodies bfatUiful in all their parts. 

rotovfitp 7&p. See note, I. 4. 9. 

St — Ti ydp; see note, 11.6.2. rh rcit^av6raroif,,,k'Koii»' 

^c<(r3c r^ff ^vx^r ^&or, do you imitate the state of mind which is 
the most winning, ete.? According to Plin. XXXY. 36. 19, the painter 
Aristides first expressed in his paintings that which the Greeks «all %bi^ 

T^r ^'I'X^'- ^ «68€ fiiftfirdv, or is this not imitable! wAs 

yiip* The latter particle refers to a suppressed negation : certainty noL 

avfi^^trplay. Pliny saya^ XXXV. 10: (Parrhasius) symme- 

triam picturae dedit^ primus argutias yultue^ elegantiam capilli, yenu- 
statem oris, confessions artificum in lineis extremis palmam adeptus, eta 

£r ah ttwas, sc. r&p KotKmPt «.rA^ ^ 1. For the form tiros, see 

note, II. 2. 8. 

4« — ^Ap* oJy ; see note, II. 6. 1. ytyvtrat ip kv^pAvip t6 

re ^i\o^p6ws,,,fi\4irttr. The verb ylyrtrm here signifies: is 
found in, has place in ; hence the use of the preposition iv before or- 
bp^^ The article t6 with tlie In£ might follow it even in the signifi- 
cation : to happen, come to pass. C£ Demoeth. de Coron. p. 287, 177 : 
liffi Tott iy ^ fiats ^porovai rk hfiirtpa t^ ftrov yivi^rai rh wafi^ii' 

aid(9<rbat irtpl rw HiKoittr. 6/iott»s is to be taken with lix*"' 

rk irp6smwa I to present the same &ce, appearance. By the separation 
n'om the words which it qualifies, 6/ioic0s is made emphatic ; see Kflhn. 
Or. § 348. 9. 

S* — ^(^ "T&tf ax'nt^dr9tw...krbp^itttr, through the mien, bear* 
hig of men ooth when they are standing, eta Sia^afrci, middle 

BOOK UL (2EAF. X. 847 

tignificatioD common in Xenopbon : appears^ is exhibitecL Of. ^ in4pa 

^iHpatpti, Anab. IIL 2. 1 ; IV. 2.1; 3.9; Cyrop. IV. 6. 14. tA 

KaXii, . . libii ; there is as much good philoeophy as moralitj in the wish 
that Socrates insinuates here, that Parrhados will devote his pencil to the 
illostration of the honorable, beautifol, and lovely in human character, 
rather than the reverse. 

6* — *A\\otovs, different; L e., so that a 9pofi96s may be easily di»> 
Unguished from a raXawrfis, etc ; cf. IV. 8. 2 : oit^^y hXKot^npop 8<«- 
fiioht ^ rhp ffiMpocr^tr XP^^^* '^^ idea. may be: in different attitudes 
or circumstanoeSk as contending, running, eta The former seems prefer- 
able. rb (mriKhp ^alr^a^ai, a life-like appearance, 

7« — T^ TC birh rS»p trxilM'^'*'^^ tcarairw^fitpa, «.r.A., those 
parts drawn down, etc, by the positions of the body (in wrestling), etc 
wibap^rtpa, more fiUing^ or, f7U>r« p/«aMfi^ (as more in accord- 
ance with nature). 

8. — ^EiK^f yovp\ see note, L4. 8; III. 3. 5, and 2. ArctAii- 

rixk rh ififiara &vciJcairr/oy ...i^ 6^iv fiifn^ria. The change 
from the impersonal to the personal construction will not escape the 
student's notice. 'ArciAifriicA (as menacing^ predicate as the position of 
the artioie shows ; so tb^patpoiitpwp ; c£ note, L 4. IS. 

9t — *Zipyaafi4povt; see note, I. 2. 10. Nijj riip ^Hpap; see 

note, L 5. 6. ica\6p yf,,.rh c0/iif/u^ beautiful indeed is your in- 
vention. ' KaK6p is emphatic both by position and by the addition of y4, 

r^ rii fA^p 9t6fi€Pa o-Jc^iTT^r. . . (nrevcC^eii', icr.K., on this 

account^ that th9 breast-plate protects those parts. . . that need proteo* 
tion, etc In respect to this unusual construction, r^ . , , ff^K^rdCttp, cC 
Ph&t Oorg. p. 490. C : r^ fi^p tpx*^^- 

10* — ^noXvTffXco'r^poiff, of more expensive materials. Thp 

Z\ pv^lJk6p, In respect to 8c, cf. note, I. 3. 13. Fv^fiSt, when applied 

to a breast-plate, must denote relative adjustment of parts, due proportion. 

ir6repa fiirpip ff ara^fi^ 4irt9tiicp6vPt whether showing 

(to the purchaser) the proportion by measure or weighty etc ta-ovs 

.,,6tioiovs, equal in all their parts . . . similar. Cf. Hellen. VII. 1. 88 : 
&s r^f voAiTffJat ivoiUpus ip roif Xtrots kaI ifioloif ; 1. 1 : its 8^oi M lott 
Uott jca2 Sfioloit riip avfifuix^^ ^^^^ * ^^^^' ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ » Thuc IV. 106 ; 

V. 27. *AXX& pii,.»woiu; sc i^>fi6rropTas. The insinuation, that 

he might not make his breast-plates fitting (cfye hpiUrropras voicFf). im- 
mediately calls forth this strong asseveration. 

848 NOTES. 

11. — 2^fiiara.,.rk fikp.,,rk 9\ ; tee note and referenoM^ IL 1. 4. 
-^—&sv*p ica\ kpft6TroifTa, i. e., Atrcp arol kpfUrrorrm worn vhf 
^^ipoKo, o0r« Ktd 9tpvbftop wciA v^6w\ for ml in oompAiiiona^ ae€ 
note, L 16. 

IS<— ^Afvcp \w *l ^a/i|t,; I e., fiircp &y ^^ttis, «' fains. Sa^ 
an ellipsU b not unoommon with firrcp ^^ ; see EOhn. L Gr. IL § 466L 
Ty tf'f \6y^t " according to what jou aay.*' 

It* — tX Ti fx*"f *^ note, L 0. IS. r^y a&rir vra^fiAw 

txorr§s, although they haye the same weight ^iccAnfi^/roi Th 

0dpot.,.Th fihp,.,rh Si, icr.A., haying their weight divided, a part 
being borne hj the shoulder^ a part^ etc. The participle ^p^iuvop ia 

to be mentally supplied, and hence the use of the preposition ^L 

iKiyov 9 tip, almo9i; used adverbially for its oAiy., ic.t.X., so ^A^tv^ 
woWov, etc., are sometimes used without Scry. CC Aristoph. Clouds^ L 

722, and see K UO. n. 4, 150. m 18 ; Eahn. Gr. i 341. R. 3. vpos- 

biifiari, an appendage. The weight is so distributed upon the different 
parts of the body, that it seems like an appendage, a part of the body 
itaelf rather than a burden. 

14* — Attri Si* iwtp, ir.rA., the very thing; on account of which, etc. 
AtrT6t stands for that which is especiaUy the subject of discourse, s ahrh 
roi^o, hoc ipsum ; see Eflhn. L. Gr. II. § 630. Anm. 6; Gr. § 808. 8. 
■ SiA ravra ; i. e., itik rh vouclKovs itaU iwi^p^covM droi. 

15« — *KKpi /Be if b^paK^s, breast-plates, accurately adjusted to tiie 
body. — ^Afrrkf ...tpCto \4ytiSf you yourself say the very thing 
I mean. — — — ital wipv ipb&s aroS^x9i *od you fully undentand 


1* — BcoS^rii. In regard to the Heterae of Athens^ with whom 
Theodote may be classed, see Becker^s Charidea^ Exc. to Scene, IL pu 194 
sq. For the Nom. after ipofta cTroi, see Kfihn. Gr. $ 266. R. 1 ; L. Gr. 

IL § 606. Anm. 1. ofat cuptipai ry vtlbopri ; i. e., roia^nft 

oUarif, fitrc trwupot r^ Tttbopri ; for the construction of the infinitive^ 
see note, L 4. 6. This phrase characterixes the profession of Theodote. 

Kp9iTTop,..x6yovt beyond description in words; cC L 6.11: 

(XoTTop rris i^tat. So below : •( ykp 9^ iueo6atur( 71 rh Xiyov Kpwrop 
IvTi KorofuiAfip, for not indeed to those merely hearing; is it ]>ermitte(l 

BOOK m. CHAP. XI. 849 

to know tk at which is beyond the power of description. Avtiica- 

0ofi4povt ; the Mid. yoioe: representing for thenuelvet, hints at the 
object of the artists in making copies of her, i e., for nse as models ol 

human beantj. oTt, for the more nsual icoi rolrois. iavrrit 

{tf-aataXfit 'x®** '^^ genitive lavr^t depends npon 5o-a, partitiyelj. 
With JcoX«#t Ifxo** htiJituofvuw is to be supplied : it might be decorous to 
exhibit Cf. II. 1. 21 and 82. Others^ however, render : Quaecunque 

haberent pulchriiudinis commendationem. ^Iriov ttv tfij l^ea- 

irofi4vovt,ssUtfm ftr 94oi {^fuis) bfoffofiivovs. The idea expressed by 
)c< is implied in the verbal in -riop, and hence the following Aco. This 
eonstniction is somewhat frequent in Attic writers. See $ 2 : ra^rrip 
iliuf x^^ iKT4op, it is meet that she should give us thanks ; cf. with the 
preceding elause : iifAas 9ti /loAAoy 8fo8^ X^'^ lx«''««<^ rairifp 

llfiuf. See also KQhn. L. 6r. II. } 687. Anm. 4. Ob ykp 8^ ; see 

note^ I. 2. 14, and II. 4. 1. oIk &r ^bd^oir* ...kKoKov^ovv 

TMs,, Follow me at once, '*Quin statim sequimini;" for the 
eonstruction, see Kflhn. Gr. $ 279. 4; ct note, IL 8. 11. 

2« — HaveaiJiivov 8i roS ^vypcC^ov; sc ypis^avros, to be sup- 
plied from ^«7pi^t^ ^ Ivffi tk 6 (wyffdipos ixa6ir€ero ypdn^as, 2p*; 

cf. note, IL 6. 1. 

S« — ^n\f(« &^ffX40'«Tai, she will receive greater advantage; ct 

note, I. 1. 8; L 2. 61. ^ic 8^ ro^rv¥,,,bMpairnitabait ths 

natural consequence v^ that we shall paj coui't to, honor her and she be 

honored. 9l.,,%x*^f '^v h4ot\ for the use of modes here^ see 

note, IL 2. 8. 

4* — TioXvr^Xws ic9KQtrikJiii4wfi¥, K/rJu The decency and com- 
fort, and even splendor, which Socrates found in the house of Theodote^ 
does not prove that this was the general condition of the women of her 
class. Indeed the astonishment; indicated bj him, shows that he ex- 
pected to find a very different state of things Cf. Charides^ pw 198, 9. 
— ;^ffpairc(f, eultu, ornaments; others render it: attendance or 

train of servants, like l^fpaircUvas. oh ry Tvxo6<rif, tphteh ia noi 

9%dgar, or poor ; connected in sense with io^^i as well as b^ptarti^ 

Ct 1. 1. 14. 'AW* &pa, but then, or, but perhapa. The Apa retains 

in a degree its conclusive force and also indicates wouder. The idea is : 
if you have not land, which surprises me, I conclude you have a house, 
etc. These particles are often used in dialogue where one brings an 
objection which has somewhat the nature of an inference from what pre- 

oedes; cf. Kahn. L. Or. IL f 757. b. olitla vpot69ovs ^xovern, 

% house Aimishing a revenue, rent 'AX\& /c^, htUyet... noL — ^- 


Xc<paT/x^<'<> Berrants who engage in mechanical employmenU^ many 
of whom were owned by the wealthy Athenians — -^oSrof ftot fii0g 
ivri ; for rovro, ic.rA^ by attraction ; see Eflhn. Gr. § 240. 8, and note^ 
L 2.42. 

6« — KpciTToy hi9»v,..^i\*tp &7^Xi}y jceicr^tf'^^at ; L e.: ajpcrr- 
t6p iori ^tkuif iiy€\iiy iccicr^^i^flu ^ himp kyiknv ; for the use of the PerC 

Ten^e, see note and references^ L 2. 49. ^vi r/y^rci t ; for the mean* 

ing of tills word, see note, III. 5. 12. 

6* — -'Errav^a ifiwdap; et § 8: elf ravra iijodwrwr^t, 13m 
adyerbe tv^ iv^JA^, imavdu are used both with Tcrbe of rest and mo- 
tion ; see Kahn. L. Gr. II. § 571. Anm. 8, and c£ Anab. II. 8. 19: M» 
3curiAc&t k^iKcro ; Isocr. Panegyr. p. 46. 80 : irraS^a Kvrnpvyuw Ixe^o^- 

7. — Ou yap Zh\ see note, I. 4. 9, and IL 4. 1. bripiv€iw\ 

the future of the verb bjipw is in Attic writers for the most part of the 
Mid. form ^pdcofiai, but the active form of the Port ^tpdtrtty oceors in 

Anab. IV. 6. 24; Cyrop. L 4. 1ft. bripSfT€s...r€xt'^Covaiw. 

We may either consider the subject as implied in the verb here^ or infer 
ihe noun ol ^p^vrai from the participle. 

8« — ^'Ori ficy ykpt icrA. Cf. a similar passage, Gyrop. L A. 40. 
— ^^fc ToO ^aytpov Tp4xovrMS &iro^ c ^7 c<y, that they flee has- 
tily (running) from, etc. Ct for the construction of rp4xopr€S, the parti- 
eiple in tlie Nom., note, L 2. 1. jcar & ir^Sat ; see note, IL 6. 9. 

10* — *Eif /iip...xtpt'wXtK4fi9Potf, This reply by the collocation 
of the words, answers the implied doubt^ (I e., whether she had any net 
at all,) in the previous question : you have one I think, and one that 

clings around (embraces) very well. rhp 8^ rpv^mvra^ a wanton 

lover. Tpv^u, originally : to live delicately, and, to be licentious, wan- 
ton. It is worthy of notice, that Socrates, by attributing to Theodote 
many of the offices of an honorable love, places before her the contrast 

between her present mode of life and that which she might follow. 

ixivKi^avhait Aor. tense, to designate an action done for once ; that 
is, to visit a friend, if a friend ever happens to he sick. The variation 
from the present tense, which designates continued action, to the Aor. 
when temporary action is brought to view, is worthy of notice here both 
in the infinitives and participles : birolix^a^^ &ToicX</ciy, ivtaKty^^tUt 
avvii<r^yait i')rifi(\6fityoyy rpv^S^vrOf iifi^wrHivarros, irpd^arros ; and c£. 
TL 7. 7 ; IV. 4. 4: irpofiktro /xaWor ro7s r6fjLots 4/Jifi4vo»r &irol^aF€<y, 

fl xapeofofiwy Crjy. Ktx*'-P^<^^^^t icr.X. For the Perf. here, see 

Kahn. Gr. $ 265. R. 6, and note, I. 2. 49 : Zt^ia^au ^iXttw 7 c fi i^v; 

ef. note, I. 4. 6: htrti&p y€ fiiiy, 5ti iipftrroi.u.lyairtl^tiu 


oeeaiue friends are pleaaing to yon, I know th&t you oonciliiite them, 
not only by word but by deed. Airy^ and Ijf^yw oorrespond respectiyely 
to fLoAoicMt and c^roiicws, indicating not merely the blandishments bnt 
the advantages of friendship. 

IK — tlloXlr Zia^4pti rh Kark ^itriv rt xal 6pd&s ky^p^v^ 
wpos^tptfT^aif it makes much difference, (is of much importance,) to 
demean ourselves towards men according to nature and rightly. In re- 
ference to liiap4p€tt cf. in. 12. 5: wo\h 9ia4>fy€i &s fit\rurra rh irufjui 

lx«iy; And, for the meaning of -wpos^ipwhai, cf. IIL 7. 8. r^ 3i}- 

piov, used in reference to man, as in L 3. 18. The change from the 
Opt with Ikv : tKois hf to the indicative irrlv is worthy of notice. 

1S» — Tohs ^povrl(ovrds trov roiavra ii^iodw. The verb 
&(ioDk, which when it signifies to atk, demand, is followed by ku. Accua. 
with the Inf. as in Anab. 1. 1. 8 ; Hellen. II. 4. 42. et al., like other verba 

of similar meaning, takes here two accusatives. ota voiova-tp ait' 

Toif.../ic\4(rci as will be least trouble to those doing them. 

ISt — Tk vapk ctavrris ; cf. § 14: r&y wop* ifioL The latter is the 
natural construction, and explains the former which is a mingling of two 
constructional i e., 9upoio irapiL (rcavr^s ra xapk atavr^ as in the phrase : 
ol in rijf hyopas iv^puxoi iaco^iryovinv. C£ III. 6. 11. 

ll« — ^npof^epoir, sc rh irapii ffeavrj), {txofiifAvfiaKots, sa 

rSw irap^ trtavrfif c£ § 13. &t KocfuurdTrii S/itkif koI t^ ^oT- 

ytff^cu, JC.T.X., by the most decorous intercourse and by appearing as 
wishing, etc T^ ^aivftrbai Dat of means together with ^/xiX/o.— ^ 
txafkilivfiCKQi^., .Z^i^^wtri, The wisdom of tlib advice in respect 
to accomplishing the end proposed, is unquestionable, and the spirit of it 
might well be applied to other and worthier objects. Ruhnken com- 
pares Alciphron. EpisL XL 1, 40: iiiya tS»v kraipowrwv itrri ff6^urfia 
&«1 T^ waphy r^f iixo\a6<r€vs dircpri^cfi^raf reus i\trl<ri 9iaKpaTt7y roht 
fyaarksf ic.TA. Terent. Heaut IL 3, 126. hac arte tractabat virum, 
ut illius animnm cupidum inopia incenderet In respect to the Nom. 
fiov\ofi4yri, see note, L 2. 1. 

IJu — ^Tl ody oh...iyivov ffvy^npariis r&y ^l\my; why will 
you not forthtnth become, etc. This use of the Aor. in urgent request^ 
indicating the wish that the desired object were already accomplished, 
is somewhat frequent with rt ob and rl oZy ov ; see Kfihn. 6r. ( 256. 4. 
(e), and cl III. 1. 11. . 

l^r^^liia wpdyfiara iroWk Ka\ ZiifiSffta. By 9rifi6<ria as 
eontrasted with Viia irpdypMra, Socrates designates political employments 

862 K0TE8. 

tpecifieallj, bat m he did not engage in political life {rk wpXtruA e^ir Jhpmr 
rt), but &AAaut woKnueohs iwoi§t, L A. 15 ; he probably intends to use fhB 

phrase in a general way to designate the busy life which he led. 

^(Aai, lit, fetntUe frUmUt playfully used for bis disciples who learned 

^Tpa re jcol iir^fiks from him. Ct, with IL 6. 11 sq. U/rwei ; the 

future is sometimes used for the present when there is an implied oondi- 
tion, as here ; who would not permit me to be away, if I were disposed 
to enter your service. *See K^hn. Gr. f 255. 8 ; L. Or. IL § 44& 4. 

17« — ^Zxicrnroi ydp; do yon ihenf Tdp, oondnsiye, ct with L S. 
10: o& 7d(p;— — 'AvoAX^Sw^or. This man was entirely devoted to 
Socrates, and was one of those of his friends, present at his last triaL Gf. 
Apol. § 28 : 'AiroAA^8«pof dwidvfiriTiis iiJkw I^XUP*'* aibrod {rod XtMtpirovs\ 

&XX«f 8* e&^di|t. r6p9€ ; when the demonstraliye pronoun is nsed 

with a proper name, the latter does not take the article ; see K&hn. Qx» 

§ 246. R. 1. (b) and references; L. Gr. IL ( 488. Anm. 'Aprta^4' 

rifir ; see note, IL 6. 1 ; Symp. I. 3; IV. 44: Swicp^rct oxo^^C^p 0trr- 

8ia/A<p«vffK 6 4/3i}i^cr; for the termination '^tr, see KOhn. Gr. 

i 235. 3, and R. 1. 2. 

18* — Xpfiffop, lend, iw\ ao\, ag<untt you, L e., for taking or 

charming you; cf note, I. 8. 11: /^* oft, jc.rA. ikp /i^ rit ^c- 

Xttripa ffov fp9op f; Socrates here as in § 16: ^fXai, humorously 
applies to hb disciples the language used of harlots. Thus frSey rrc^s 
was the common fonnnla for excluding one lover when another was pre- 
sent; cf. I^ucian Dial Meretr. XIL p. 810: AWjcActira ik^^pra, "EpZcp 
irtpot, tiirovca; VIIL p. 800: ^ci8^ tk iXd6pTa tot^ &WjrXc«rt* 
KaAAu£8i|r yiip (p9op Ijp, 


!• — TAp lvp6prtp ripdt one of his disciples.^— y /or r«. 
mal, JC.TA., lit, both young and having, etc, i. e., <dthough young, etc, 

10 are sometimes employed in Latin. I8i«riic«f ...r^ 

vA/ia fx*<f • •• *1''^^^'- '^^ noon I^tc^s^ designates a private 
person, one who has no professional knowledge, and hence unskilled, 
unpractised, and here, one who does not practise gymnastics, neglects 
bodily exercise. So in IIL 7. 7 : o/ iSiwrai is antithetical to rots iiffiaf 
ToTf, where see note. Cf. Plato as quoted by Weiske, Vol. VIIL p. 420 : 
cS rh cS/JM lx«rirol /lii UtatrtK&t 4^ fa^Xms. 'l9iurtK&s rd ^Afia 
Kx^uf, to have a body unpractised in athletic exercise^ and hence feeble. 


•icklj. In respect to the oonstruction of t^ v&im kok&s, tdivriK&t lx'<^i 
cf. IIL 13. 1 : rh tr&fia icdxiov txovri\ Oeoon. L IS: 6rre. . . kJlkiov /«)» 

T^ c&fui txoif kJmiw tk tV ^^xh^i KcdctoK 8i Thp oiKoy, *l8icSri7% 

/liw; the eopti'ast implied in the fiw solitarium is rod 9h Siowciir;^ 
iwtfitKofAou or it may be expressed in English by a paraphrase : I am 
indeed unpractised in gymnastic exercises ; this does not pertain to my 
coarse of life ; I give my attention to intellectual pursuits ; cf. I. 1. 1 

7f fihv...ypu^, Ob94if y€ /AaWop, sc {8ic6n}s *t You are not 

more an ^t^nir, L e., not leas an ^\i|T^f than those 'who are about to 
contend in the Olympic games^ r&y iw '0\v/tvlf ^cA., #r.rA. The idea 
here is : You have as much need to accustom yourself to Ao-jci^o'if rov 
a^fiarof as the literal iurmfral rwv *OXvfiirtup. For when your country 
calls you to her defence in war you must be there. And you will as 
much need strength and activity of body as the combatant in the Olym- 
pic games. hv 'AdfirctToi ^iiaovviw, lit, which the Athenians 

place, i &, institute. The language is derived from the Games. So in 
Virg. Aen. y. 66: Prima citae Teucris ponam certamina dassis. — ^ 
r^X^^^^'t BC &7wra b4irrts: quam fors tulerit, as in §2: ii» 

S« — At* abrh tovto, on account of this very thing : sc rV toS 

O'^fUKTot Kax^&fu^- i^f^ oStm rvx«(ri, if ihey shall to chance, wy 

9ov\t6orrts rhv Xotwhv fiiov ; i e., if it shall so happen. Cf. Hellen. VIL 

2.84; lY. 1. 84; Anab. II. 2. 17 ; IIL 1. 3. iKriaaprts iviAf 

vAc(m r«y jhrapx^rrwy ovroit, sometimes paying more for their redemp^ 
tion than they really possess, they, etc 

S« — Tdy iviTtiilw r^s icaxc{'a' ro^rwr, L c, these mise- 
ries which follow the neglect of physical exercise ; L c, poverty, dis- 
grace, captivity, slavery, ignominy, death, etc. The word iwirtfAttor is 
well chosen to indicate that these evil- are of the nature of punishment 
for neglect of the physical powerc Ka\ tkiiv,,,y§, atqui certe. 

iroAX^ Uto ital iiZlm\ these adjectives are in the predicate, 

agreeing with the implied antecedent of &, and -rhy iwifuXd/itvoy is the 

Aocus. subject of lhron4yuy. ro^rt^y; sc r&y rris Kax^^tat hrvrtr 

filmy. 6yitiy679poy ; sc rl, a change of gender which has fre- 
quently been noted. 

4t — TiLyayria,,.1i. So If, than, is used after iyarriety inlY. 5. 8: 
rify lyKpdrtMy rAy lyturrlmy ^ r^y hcpairtay — edrtay cTvcu. See KQhn. 
Or. § 328. 2 ; L. Gr. II. $ 640. Anm. 8, and cf. note, IIL 7. 7 : 8ia^/pci 
,,,9l, r6y re Xonr^y i9(oy... leal To7f loiirvy TcutfL The con- 
trast here strictly requires the pronoun in the first dause : aibrot re . • . 

354 KOTS8. 


cc2 TMf imarrm^ wmH. TIm eoatmt of the rU n XmvW film with tht 

time after death, probabi j gare rise to the prewnt oonstmelioiL 

kf^pfikf, here, wealth, means of Unng; c£ note, IL 7. 11. 

S« — ^'H r^Xir.. .iktf-icc? Sif/Aoa^^f rk wphs r^w viXf/ier, ov 
Bute does not poblicljr institate the praetaee of those things that pertaiii 
to war. A difference is here auggested between Athens and Sparta. In 
the former place, education, and hence gymnastic esercisea^ were not 

demanded hj law, as in the latter, bat only by Oistom. ^vi|&cX<t- 

c^at, to be cared for. oiBh 4w tX\^,..o{fl\ iw rpd^ti, jcrJL 

The first eM«sne quid em, not eren, the lasts nor. 'AAAy «Ml 
Aywri, is contrasted with wkt/wcht kyitp, the sobjeet of the preceding 
paragraph. It should be noticed that oh94...oM are never properly 
nsed as parallel with oiht . . . o(h'§ : neither . . . fior. See KOhn. Or. § S21. 

R. 7 ; L. Gr. IL $ 744 2. voKb Zia^dpti, it is iar better. There 

is howeyer an ellipsis of the contrasted clause with this word, as well as 
with interest in Intin: voXir Z»ap4pti &s fitXriara rh «-»/ia lx<v icml 
itf K^jcio'ra. Of. note, IIL 11. 11, and Bomem. Cyrop. IL S. 4. 

-'Eirfl... r(t e6ic o78cr. The sentence begins as if it were to 

proceed with wiyrts laaauf ; such changes are not unfrequent especially 

with enunciations introduced by &rrt ; d Efthn. L. Gr. IL § 828. 1. 

nal X^dfi, fcrX. The effects of the neglect of physical culture 

upon the mind, here enumerated by Socrates^ are but too well and too 

often yerified in the fate of those of studious habita iroXXicit 

«■oX^olf ; for similar instances of paronomasia in Greek, d Kulm. 
L. Gr. IL i 866. 2. 

7> — K al T^j^ c&ff{(ay. There is generally supposed to be a trajeo- 
tion of the koI, which is to be rendered with wphs rk ivarria, K.rJL 
This position may have been chosen to bring out more clearly the con- 
trast expressed in the wpi^s . . . ytyrofAdtmw ; cfl a trajection of icof in lY. 
7. 7. A more natural explanation of this passage is perhaps^ to consider 
the Kaf as in its proper place with the meaning of also or even, and icol 
T^¥ ff6«{{ay xF^^^t"^^ *^^^ "-^-^ ~ soundness of body should even be use- 
ful, etc. icafroi, atqui, or, at vere, not quanquam. 

8.— T^...7ty pa era I ; sc. riWL Kfthn. Gr. $ 288. R. 8 ; L. Gr. IL 
^ 414. 6. There is also an old form of the Aor. of this verb yupaytu; 
of. Kilkhn. Gr. ^ 161. 8 ; L. Gr. L § 186. p. 190. Thus Thomas Mag. p. 
78. ed. Ritsch., says: Fiyparai koI icarayi^punu apxcuSrtpov o/ 8* 0<rTc* 

pw yiipaaat Kid Karayyipatrat. i^4Kti aurdfiara yiyvtadai, 

oome nut of their own accord, L e, without practice. 



!• — UpQfftiTt&v ripa x^^P*^^'t ^^ ^^ formula of greetiDg: 
nposu'w. x^P^^'^f ^® ^°^ ^® ^^ instead of the Ace in Hellen. IV. 1. 

81 : iiXKii\ois x^^P^^^ irposuwow. Of. Efihn. 6r. ^ 285. 1. (1). y%Ko7- 

09 1 abgurd, ikypoiKoripwi. This adverbial ending, properlj 

belonging to the positive, is however somewhat frequently found in com- 
paratives ; see Eahn. 6r. § 85. R. ; H Gr. L § 827. 8, and cf. Yenat 
Xrn. 8. fi€tC6iws ; de Rep. Lac I. 5. xo^tmrtpcts. H. 7. (5). ^uiyor4pMs ; 

Sjmp. IV, 3. ^x*^'^^'! ^® ^® ^V^ ^ ^' ^poT4pc»s, et al. Siaitci- 

,«/v9» ircptcrvx^'t "rcUher churlishly diapoaed,** Blckie. Avvci; 

an anacoluthon for Xvirfiy, to answer to 6pyl(€tr^etL 

2* — *AKovtitp6st a physician of the age of Socrates^ and his friend. 

See Plat Phaedr. p. 227. A- ; p. 268. A. B. ; Symp. p. 176. B. ira^- 

aaa-^ai iffbiopra, that he should cease eating; i. e., before satiety. 
The subject is here implied in the participle ; see note^ L 8. 8. So in : 
(rfitip&T9p6p ^tn Zii^9iP irawrdfitvop, 

S* — Ilap' lavT^, with him, i. e., at his house. ^vxp^''*-* 

fisrc \ovffairbai, cold' for bathing; so the Latin: frigida ad 
lavandum. The adjective in the positive with Srrc is used for the 

comparative with Ij firrf. See B. 139. m. 66. ix^^^''"'^*' iripopr^s', 

see I. 2. 47. M& rhp At* ; sc ohK Ax^'>'^^ ^^® negative being im- 
plied in the preceding inteiTogatlon ; see note, L 4. 9. rtba^naxa, 

&s rii4o9t, i.e., rt^a^fioKOt tri othtts rfiicas yp^^^^"** ^ ^' ^^ used for 
tri o5rwr in Plat Crito, p. 43. B; ^avfxdCv aAtrbapifitPOi, &s ^94 vs 

Ko^t^tis; see Kahn. Gr. $ 829. R. 8 ; L. Gr. XL ^ 771. 8. 4p 

'Ao'kXiiviov ; sc pt^; so with *Afjupiat>dou; see EQhn. Gr. $ 868. b ; 
L. Gr. XL i 474. b., p. 118. 

At — *Ak6Kov^op, his footman, an attendant who followed his master 
in public ; as really a part of the family, as the master himself, and 
hence, lilse a proper name, without the article. 

5* — Ofjcoi, at home, i e., in Athens. iropcv^fteyor, ircpi- 

war^ffas; for the anaphora here, see I. 1. 18. ixTtipats ; the 

idea is : if you would just extend these walks that you make about the 
city in a direction toward Olympia, and continue them five or six days^ 
you would arrive there without having walked more than if you had 

been at home. — x<*/^'^^''''P<'*'***M^^^<"'- '^^ adverb fuiWop 
may be, though it is not often, joined to a comparative to giv^ it force 
AS in II. «. 248 : ^irtpoi yitp /aSXAok, much more easily ; cf. Kfihn. Gr. 

856 NOTES. 

^ 289. R. 1. A much more froqnent nae of it ii^ after Bereral worda, to 
call to mind the comparatiTe^ and, as it were, repeat its Bignificanee ; eo 
in Sjmpoa. L 4: olfuu ohf xo\h &y r^r icareuriccv^y fioi \afirpor4paw 
4mif^watf u iufipderiP iKKtKo^apfitvois rat tfa^x^f ... 4 iar^pitv ictKoafti^fiiros 
ttri fiaWopf ^ ti arpantyois K(d Imrupxois, In Buch cases as this faSx- 
Kov ^ introduces a clause that is to be considered as supplementary to 

the main thought vpot^opiiaw vfn^p^ fiif, to act ont one dojf 

mxmer ; for the Dat of measure or excess^ see KClhn. Gr. $ 285. 1. (3). (e) ; 
Ij. Gr. IL 4 400. 8. So just below ; rb tk /u^ V^p? wKtloims, more bj 

one day ; && than is commonly consumed in the journey. vcfac- 

ripm rov iitrpiov; c£ note, L 6. 11: lAcrrrorT^r i^lat, 

6* — Uap^rd^fi, lit, was stretched out^ but here, weary, (atiguedy 
cC Cyrop. L 3. 11 : la»f vaparMlraiiu rovror, &tw€p vZrof ifik wa^artfptt. 
flat Symp. p. 207. B: {rk dripia) r^ Xtft^ ropartu^fiwa. Lysid. pu 
204. C: iiuf y ourot icol <r/ii«p^r XP^'^'^ wwitarpl^ croi, waporad^erui 

^h vov hco^if ;^afiik kiyoirros; where see Stallbaum's note. r^ 

//Ailrioy; before these words fi6pop is to be supplied. Herbst com- 
pares Anab. L 4. 18 : IXcTor, Zrt ob x^od* cZtos 6 rora^t itafiarhs 
y4¥wro rc^, ci /a^ r^c, kwk xKotourtVf and Sauppiua adds III. 2. 13 ; 
VL 22. See Bos' Ellipses Gr. p. 307, where many examples are given. 

kK^kov^ds; see note, (5. fiaWop Si, even more, or, rather. 

C£ Cyrop. V. 4. 49; Plat Lach. p. 196, G; Stallb. ad Phileb. p. 58, et aL 
— ilvKii/i4pov.,.kv9phs; Gen. after a genei-al word understood 
in the predicate with sTmu, running ; lit a man exercised in the Palaes- 
tra, Atrmfr^t ; and then, one who is liberally educated. It is thus anti- 
thetical to wait ; since slaves were not allowed to take part in the exei^ 
cises of the Palaestra at Athena. 


It — Acirroy. This word here deugnates an entertainment where 
each one brought his own provisions ; hence sometames called ScivMr 
kwh vwvplios, because the provisions were brought in baskets. Where 
each guest contributed to the expewte of the feast it was called Ijpopsr. 

See Smith's Dictionary Deipnon, p. 343. ^4poi9v\ Opt to denote 

repeated or customary action ; see note, L 2. 57 ; ^4povrwt firat follows 
and then ^pofi4¥Mp, So we not unfrequently find ^cpccy where we 
might expect p4pw»at, as futrdhp ^4ptw for lua^v ^4p€vhat ; cC Stallb. 
Plat Lysid. p. 208. A, and Kuhn. Gr. II. §398. 3. jjtrxdwQWf 

BOOK UI. CHAP. 2iy. S67 

r4; it is qaiU doubifal whether this ri should be added. It is not 
found ID the Mas. but might have easily been omitted in consequence of 
the precediDg -ro. ~— ^ra^oyro.. . i^wyovyrcs ; see ECLhn. Qr. 
§ SIO. 4. (f ). 

S« — %irov ; here, hread, though lit, wheat-flour, as Kx^ira was the 

flour from barlej; Smith's Diet 8ito», 6r^0¥, antithetical to vlrov; 

see note, L 3. 5, and Boeckh's Boon. B. L eh. 17. p. 101, 2. — -— A^yov 
&nrof vff/>l 6poft4r«nf, i. «., Kiyov irros, 4^' of)* ijpyy iicaffrow 6wofta cfi|. 
Tills clause is parenthetical, A^«v Srros Ji>eing in the Gen. Aba. For 
the use of the Prep. M with the Dat see Kiihn. Qr. $ 206. IL (d); 
Lb Gr. n. § 612. In like manner we find: 6»ofid(Mir, koKw ti iwt rwu 
Plat Sophist p. 218. C : JUvv 7^ 8^ vh tckyit ' o^rov W/»i roHpofM /i^ror 
fx^P^*'' icoii^ * T^ 8^ fpyop, ^* f Kokovfitv, kKdr^pot rdx' ^ <8(f vap' iifup 
avTtHs lfxo<M<i^> Parmenid. p. 147. D : MKourroif rAv hwoiiirmv oltK M run 

coAfit. iwl wol^ worh; see note, L 1. 1. 7^^ b^ ; cf. note^ 

IL 4. 1. 0(f ykp oZy; see note, IIL 6. 12. 

t«— T5 Sy^ow abrh, lit, meat itself, i. e., alone, solum, as in ( 2: 
rh 84 J^ror oinh ««;»* 0^6. See KQhn. Gr. ^ 808. R. 4 ; L. Or. IL ^ 68a 

Anm. 8. airic^tf'fwt ; the life and habits of an athlete. This pas- 

lage is well paraphrased by Emesti : Si qnis opsonium edit sine pane, 
non quod athleta est nee ex athleticae yitae consuetudine et lege, sed 
Yoluptatis causa, poteritne is w^o^yos dici I ffx<*^S 7* ^ (scarce- 
ly), I e, according to Suidas ss ov8' 8x«f, oMo^t, or, fipaStitf, Of. IV. 

2. 24; 4. 25. iw9cdlwp, sc. rl Sojcct that; what do you think of 

hira who with little bread eats much meat f rois 3c ti . . . voXo- 

Kapwiap; c£ note, IL 2. 10. 

4> — Tlapariipt7r\ l^i| rovrop of wKviffiop. O/ vXijo'^oy is in 
apposition with d/itit implied in wapanipure. We should use a vocative 
in English ; cC KOhn. Gr. ^ 269. 2. (b). Cf. as quoted by KOhn. Hellen. 
IL 8, 54: 6/Act( 8i \a06pT§s koI itw«yay6pT§s ol (vScira ol Zu rk 4k 
r^^rtfp wpdairrr§, Cyrop. VL 2. 41 : ifuis 8i 0/ ^yt/iSptt vfAs 4/i^ 
v4mt ffvpifidWtrt. Also Eriiger, Anab. IIL 1. 46, and Stallb. Plat 
Hip. Maj. p. 281. A ^— ry irlr^ ^^V« ^ ^V ^'f'V vtr^ XF^^c* 
Tai. 'fif is implied here; cf. note, IL 1. 12. Athenaeus thus para- 
phrases this clause : 2 irap6pTttt ▼'' I/imp t^ fi^p ipr^ its ^y xi^'"* ^^ 
8' K^v &s ipr^, 

i, — *Apa yipotr* & y... 2 if «*'«< ^ «» '^'''•^t ^uld there be a prepa- 
ration of food, more expensive or more contrary to the art of making 
viands, than that which, etc. — ^p o ^ ir 1 c 7t a 1 ; for tlie verb with 
an Ace. of kindred meaning, see Kflhn. Gr. § 278. 1. 2. ii4p ye 

868 NOTES, 

the particle y4 here refers to the whole daooe, and indieateB that it if 
introduced as an argument for the preceding declaration ; much like yd^ 
For this signification, see Uartung, Gr. Partik. L S. 890, 1, and references 
there : C/rop. XL 2. 2 ; Plat Symp. p. 215. C, et aL 

6« — Tohs Hpio-ra iiticrafidifovs ; we may supply r^w in^vwodaw 
or consider iwtar. as used Aba, as in IIL 9. 11. For the uae of the Art 

with the subject here, see IIL 1. 8. rhy cva ^w/tbv lyl j^y vpo- 

wifivtiw. The article giyes a distributive character to the phrase: to 
accompany each piece of bread by a single, eta C£ Kfihn. 6r. § 244^ 6 ; 

L. Or. n. ^484. 5rff fiii waptlri wo\\d» The Opt is perhaps 

here employed to correspond with the following Opt Si^roir* iv ; c£ IV. 
2.20: SiSyacTo yap &y, 4v^rc 0o6Koiro, koX ipdms ravra voicir ; 
fi'fl is employed, because trt has a conditional as well as a temporal sig- 
nification, and is in that respect nearly equivalent to ct. 

7» — ^T^ cv»x<'^'^<((t «c.rA., in the dialect of the Athenians^ synon. 

with iffdUty: rh tiwxfio^^ai iadUtp ivriv. rb Z\ cS rporafc- 

0-i^ai...4v2 rf ravra ^0-3icir, icrA.; the cl is added, that we may 
eat^ etc ; L e., the cS is added to give the word the signification of eat- 
ing those things that injure not^ eta The Prep. M indicates end or 

tUiign, &srM.,.rh tvmx^iv&ai • • • hftrtdu so that he applied the 

word f ^x* ^ those who made a proper use of food. 



!• — Kal «l t^trptttt ^v^avofi^y^t even iff oTf although^ Koiv^p. 
For this use of koI ft and the distinction between it and c2 mi, if aim, 
see KQhn. 6r. 4 340. 1; L. Gr. XL ^ 824. Cf. Stallb. Pkt Apol. p. 52. A 
Bornem. Cyrop. IIL 8. 69 : Mcrplur ai<r^tMy6fitros, of moderate capcuaty 
Bs fjLtrplay da^triy tx^"* ^^* Thucyd. 1. 71 : fy^fity Z* hy iBiKoy ouScr 
oiiT€ vphs ^t&y Y&y 6pKlftP, othf vphs kvbp^ttp rmp cdtr&ttMOft^yvp, whidi 
the sclioliast interprets by ^powifjMP. Cf. also the absolute use of intel- 
ligere in Latin ; Cic. Brut XLIX 188: an alii probantur a raultitu 

dine, alii autem ab iis^ qui intelligunt. Sirovovy xal iy ir^ 

ovy^ wneresoever and in whatever business (they may be). In like 
manner absolutely or with' a verb implied, the Latin compounds, ubi- 
sunque, quicunque, etc., are used; o£ Ovid. Am. IIL 10. 5: Te^ 

^ - BOOK IV. CHAP. I. 859 

Deft, mnnificam gentes ubicunqne loqnuntar h. e. nbicaii' 

que sunt iroScxoMcvout ^icf7yoK, lit, approying of bim, and 

then following his instructions ; cf. L 2. 8. For the use of ^xclyoy, see 
note, L 2. 3. irai(uy...a-'wov9iCMy, sportive ,,. seriom, 

2. — "^^71. . .Ay, he would say; for the signification of Ay, c£ note 

upon L 1. 16. z riyot ipay, verbs denoting an affection of the mind 

govern the genitive. Euhn. ( 274. 1. a. For the idea, cf. note, II. 6. 28 : 

9m rh iptfTuchs tityau puytphs 8* iy..-,4^i4fi€yos; not desirous 

of those well endowed in person with beauty, etc ; see note, IL 6. 7 : 9ri\oy 

cZmu. fpay; see note^ IL 1. 22. olf rpos4xoity...i hy 

/idl^oity. In indirect discourse, the Optative \b often used after a pre- 
ceding preteifte or historical present tense^ where the subjunctive or 
indicative would stand in direct discourse ; and in such cases Ay may be 
compounded or aasociated with any of the relatives or relative oojjuno- 
tlons, i^ in the direct discourse, the subjunctive would have been em- 
ployed. In direct discourse the form here would have been al iyeAai 
^^o-cii funifioyt^ovffiy & hy fid^tiaiy, jcrA. ; i. e., quickly learn what they 
attend to and retain in mind what they may have learned. See Kahn. 
6r. i 845. 4, and R. 4 ; L. 6r. II. § 845. 3, and cf. II. 7. 7 ; Anab. L 6. 
9: yofiiCtty, Siry fA^y tiy darroy Hk^oi roaolmp kwapacKwaffrordp^ ficuri- 
\tt fxaxM^cu; YII. 2. 6: 4 'Aya^ifiios rf fihy 'Apiordpx^ iirirr4k\9i 
(Pres. hist.) 6r6<rovs 8^ *^poi 4y Buiayri^ r&y K6pov trrpariwr&y uwo- 
XtXttfifidyovs, iarMe^oi, fiy7itioyf69iy,..4iridv/i97y; the arti- 
cle is to be supplied here from the preceding Infin. rov . . . ftay^dy§y, etc 
Itf-Tiy, it is permitted, or, one can. 

S« — Ob rhy aitrhy 8^. Tliis position of 8i in the fouilh instead 
of the second place in the enunciation, is not without example ; cf. Anab. 
y. 2. 2: us roht ApiXxLs 8^ wpo^futs liyoy; Hellen. VL 4. 17 : xol robs 
W hpxiiis %k tirre icara\u<pd4yTas axoKov^uy iietX^uoy; De Re Equ. 
y. 9 : Kol r^r ^h yaurrtpa 8i 6yay Kdbapffty. This position seems to be 
owing to the close relation of the preceding words, which make, as it 

were, but one. At least this accounts for it in most cases. iwl 

wdyras $e<, he %oas not accustomed to approach all, etc The imper- 
fect denotes customary action ; and the phrase is nearly equivalent to : 
rpos^ipfffbai rivt (IIL 7. 8. note), yet with the accessory idea of ap- 
proaching. ^6c*t iiyadoht, good in respect to nature, or en- 
dowed with a good nature So ff^vfitytcrdrovs rais ^x^* in § 4i 
The dative here denotes that in respect to which, etc ; see KQhn. Gr. 
{ 284. 8. 10, and c£ Anab. IIL 1. 42 : reus ^vxcur §^ufi€y*ar§poi''^&y re 
fwxmy, ic.r.X. ; the partidle t4 corresponds to ical before rAy Kvy&y, 

360 KOTXS. 

With 9vfficabfieTOTdro»s and ^iwA., ytytrofUwovs is to be supplied and 

rendered like the In£ after iwiBtua^vtnf. rks /i^v i^x^^^^^^t 

tome beinff trained. The rdv which according to the usual coDBtroetioD 
would answer to the one here, with the 8^ below {kncy^iyovs 8^X ^ 
omitted and implied in the participle yti^fidpos; cf. Euhn. Lk Gr. IL 

i 782. Anm. 1. infay^yovs, antith. to &X'^*^^<Vi ^gP^ ^ i^ ^om- 

posiUon shows : untrained. The same word is applied to horses in m, 

8.4. kplffrat yty¥€ff^ai; the change to the In£ from the Part. 

yvywotiiFovs is lets strange here^ after ^iSciirr^Mr, since the verb from 
which that participle is deriyed, in the sense of teach, is more frequently 
followed by the infinitiye ; see note» H 8. 17. 

4«— >^*E{«p7a0'riic«r^rovf Sp &y iyx^tp^ff^'tf^^^^Otn^MA 
note, IIL 1. 6. With iyxetp&eri the yerb i^9pyd(€ffdai is to be supplied 
from the preceding adjeotiye i^tpymmKmrdrws, Sauppius^ compares 
in. 9. 5: olb'ff rohs fail hrurratU^ovt i^waa^ai wpArreip, k^kk koI H^ 

4yX*^P^^^^ (sc irpdtrTciyX afUiprdMU^. 8i^...jcaic& ipyd^ow^ 

r«i. In respect to the change from orofto obliqua to reeia; see Kohn. 
Jm Gr. IL § 860. 

S. — *E^p4ifov \4ymw, he inetrueted them by eaying, Ef rit 

•f«rai ; the indicatiye in cratio obiiqua is not unfrequent when a thing 
is intended to be represented as a fac^ or as passing before the eyes ; 
d. Kahn. Gr. $ 845. R. 6, and note, I. 1. 18. 


It — ^This conyersation with Euthydemua^ and chapi lY. of this same 
book, are frequently referred to, as a specimen of the manner in whidi 
Socrates was accustomed to reason with the arrogant and self-conceited 

persons whom he met; see especially lY. 4. m^7« ^poyova^ip 

iwl ffopiat who pride themselyes on account of their wisdom. 

ifs vpot9^4ptro; for the vgnification of this word, cf. note. III. 
7. 8; the imperfect tense, denoting customary action, as frequently. 

Zu^viiifiotf; see L '2. 29, and Plat Hipp. Minor, with Stall- 

baum*s Prolegomena.^— r^r jcaA^v, au appellation frequently giyen 
to the learned 'men of Athens; cf. Plat Phaedr. p. 278. £: 'WoKpirriw 
T^y icd\6y; Phileb. p. 11. C: *i\ii0ot 6 Ka\6t; Protag. extr.: KoAAff r^ 
Ka\^ ; Xen. Hellen. II. p. 470. C : Kptrta r^ koX^ ; and in Latin, Cic 

TuBci Disp. I. 40. 96: Pi-opino hoc pulchro Critiae. ypAfifiara, 

« truyypdfi/aara, avyywypatifUva, books of extracts, precepts, and examples, 

BOOK lY. CHAP. U. 861 

■dected from other authors.-— — 0*0^1 0'r fir rwy ^bBoKt/ftrdrmw 
here refera to former prose writers as contrasted with iron^xMy, and not 
to "the Sophists" specifically; see Grote*s Greece, Vol, VIIL p. 480. 

4k roitruv, hence, or, on thb account. iia^4ptir r&v 

^XiKietrmp iie\ tro^ltfi the more usual construction would be with- 
out the preposition hrL The idea here is similar to that in : fi(yet ^po- 

9w M eo^l^ iKwiBas ; see note, 1. 1. 11 : hfdyKois. vp&rop 

lilv; the idea in these words is resumed bj kot* i^x^' H^ ^ ^^® begin- 
ning of § 8, and the going with his disciples {rmw fitb* iaurov riyat ^x*"') 

is contrasted with the going alone (jUros ii^^w) in § 8. 81^ yc^- 

rrira «0vw els r^y ityophp elst6»Ta; l e^, he was not yet twenty 

years old; see note, lU. 6. 1. Ka^t(opra els; sometimes yerbs 

of rest involye the idea of the motion that preceded, and may hence be 

followed by fit. feg, toaa aeautamed to go, Impf. r&p fie^ 

Aavrov riyaf, certain of those with him, his disciples. 

8* — ^Kal wpwrow fi^y; to which wdXiy 8^ in § 8 and iw^l S^n^ 6 
eorrespond. — vp^f imeipop ik'ro$\4wetp; in like manner we say 
that children look to parents (for support), and people direct t?teir eyes to 
rulers (for counsel, succor, etc). CL in Greek § 80 : rovro wphs e'e diro- 
fi\4rtt §t fAoi idekiiffais tuf i^nyho'a/fdeLu 'AwofiKdweip is also followed 
by cir ; as in Hellen. VL 1. 8 : 4i vii warpU els a^ &roi9X^rci ; Anab. YIL 

2. 88: cif AAAorp^oy rpoMeCay iatofix4wwp, Kiveip, move or draw 

into conversation. C£ Stallb. Plat Lysid. p. 223. A raf...rf- 

Xvas*. . VPovZaievs. ^wevZaies t^p r4x^^^=^*^^^* ''^^^ '''^X^VV, 
e£ 4 6. The subject of yiypeadat (rtpds) is implied in <nrov9alovs. The 
words T&t fihp hklyou i^las r^xpea form a strong contrast with t^ ik 
wpoetrrdpoi ir^Ac4»f. ^— &v& ravrofidrov, by oneV own natural en* 
dowments, by nature; like ^{Mrei in IV. 1. 8. C^ § 4 and 6 ; Plat Alcib. 
L p. 118. C : Adyerai {6 UepucKiis) , . . oOk iith rauTOfJtdrov vo^s yeyep4pcu 
iikkit ToAAots ical ao^oTr <rvyytyop4paL So in Demosthenes, Coron. p. 296L 
205 : rhp aJSn6itarop ddtwrop bs natural death. 

3. — ^T^t vvptipias, the session, assembly, L e., at the ^pioiroutop. 

Eif^iZrifios o&Toff\; proper names with the demonstratives 

o&rof, iKupot, Mf and emr6» do not take the article ; see Eflhn. Gr. ^ 246. 
8. (6) ; L. Gr. II. § 488. Anm. For the use of the demonstrative 1 with 

o&rots this here, see Kiihn. Gr. ( 95. (c). 4p qXcicff y*p6ii§pos, 

when he shall arrive at the age of manhood. 'HAiir(a is used, icar' ^{ox^r, 
for manly age, I e,, from eighteen to fifty. —^r^f v^Acwr X6yp 
WMfil ripos vp or <3c( 0-17 s, the State giving the opportunity of speak- 
ip& if e,, proposing a consultation. A6yop, or, yr^/ias wport^4pti^ 


862 K0TE8. 

mm the office of the wpMpi, who, when the people were aaMmUed. 
called oat : rtt kyop§6§ut 0o6Xrru ; 

4t — 'Zfivrmikipmp, need abeolutelj without an object; ct not^ 

IIL 9. 11 and references. rdrawria, bc iwoin^u, {contra fed,) to 

be iUppUed from the preceding. context rh 9 6^ at, m; f^fuidvir^ai. 

CI ( 8 : ^¥Xarr6fit¥o0 oh fUrop rh /uAw ri napk rw leerpmw, iiXkk mJt 

6. — 'Kpik60%i9. . . Itr, it would 6« JUting; nearly ajnonTmons with 
aform of «]p^iy. — «al retr fiovKofidpoit wapk r^t wSx^mt 
tmrptmhp tpyw Xa/Sf7y, those also who wish to receire^ etfO. PhjB- 
eians were appointed bj the State and received a 'salAry from 'the pnblie 
treasaiy ; ct Boeckh's Oeoon. L 21, and Weiske ip b. 1. CC SchoL to Aris- 
toph. Acham. 1029: Aii/toatf x"P*''^'^f^*'^^ Urrpoi KtX ht/aia^im vpoSm 
l&«^vffver. — — ^vir^Sc'or y\ nseftd indeed, y4asyov¥; eC notc^ L 
2. b4. ^-^^ /la^efp, . .fietinbfiK4pa» ; for the difference of ttgnifiea- 
tion in the Pre& and Pert, see note^ IIL 1. 4. — — ir t/iiw kwmiw- 
Zvpeimp, '^haiarding experiments upon jovl," — ^Packard in b. L Ct 
Plin. H. N.; cited hj Sdmeid. XXIX. 1: Diacant (medici) perieolia 
noetris et experimenta per mortes agnnt 

•• — ''H Si| n^p, K.rJL, There is little doubt that this refers to a time 
subsequent to the interriew above alluded to^ and indicates the result 

of Socrates* previous efforta. He had now gained his ear. rept- 

fidkXeo'^at, lit, to throw around, here, acquire (for himtell^ Hid. 

voice). Sav/ia^rhp ydp. There is an ellipsis here: oUt Ip&As 

iroicif ^vkarrS/iepof o&r^t ri fft^c^ftoi. Still we may give the idea 
substantially in English or Latin by an affirmative particle: turdy, sane 

or, profecto. — &f wpex^ffrmra, most assiduously. wapk 

rots ap ( <r T o f f . . . ttpoL 'Aptarott is in the predicate and attracted into 
the Dat by the antecedent rols, and the whole phrase is contrasted with 
jKod' i«uro6t, alone. -'■'^ it t ohx hp, , ,yep6fiep0i; l e^ P9ii^C^pr9s, 
trt ohtc hp tiW^t ii^UKoyw yipeturre, or, oix ttp tfXXn r . . . ytple&m ; cC H. 
2. 18. 

¥• — Katroi yt; see note, L 2. 8. ravna iK^tpatp. Tavn 

according to general usage refers to the nearer thing (8vrar«»r... A/- 
yip, it.TA.X and lietlpmp to the more remote (•/ fiw\4fi§PM Ki^apiCap, 
icT.A.). v§p w\tt6pmp...lxdrrovt, icrA, lit, /«i0er succeed al- 
though more devote themselves to them, i e., fewer in proportion to the 
number, etei 


g, — oZp 18 here ooDolonTe, and forms a transition to something new 
— — &co^orToi Eb^vZiiiiou; this is contrasted with the vpo^v/ii^cpo» 
htovorra that follows. Upon the perfect signification of heo^, just below, 

see note, IIL 5. 26. rf 6yri, really, in truth, ypd/ifiara; 

see § 1. ffvyrix** i cf. } 1: avv€t\ry/i4voy ; i 10: avX\4yus. 

9»~N^ rJ^r'Hpar ; see L 5.5. wpo9i\ov...'tia\\op; cC 

notfl^ IL 1.2. iL^rtivai r^9 o'o^taw, to pnrsae^ engage in the 

pnrtnit o( wisdom. 


1^ — Ait^ttiwri^tp 6, ctA.; t£ IIL 6.4. ''Apa /i^ ; these par- 
ticles presuppose a negative answer ; e£L8. 11. *A\\k /lii ; cf. IIL 

11. 4k rovTo Set. TovTo is accusative here. See B. 181. N. 4. The 

more usual constr. is the Dat of the person and Gen. of the thing. Wool- 
sej, Gor(^ p. 491. D. sajs : Sc7 sometimes takes the Ace of the thing when 

that isa pronoun. OCicovw, certainly, . . . not — — &^TpoA^70f >* 

astronomus as &a'rpoXo7(aaB astronomia. Still dtfrporoM^a was 
in use ; see IV. 7. 5. In like manner Latin writers even in the golden 
age of the language, use astrologusandastrologiaforastronomus 
and astronomia, which were employed in a later age. See Andrews' 

Ik Lex. h. V. fa^^9obs...wdvv 1|k^^^ovs 6irras, This Jndg^ 

ment of the rhapwode* applies only to the age of Socrates and to the phi- 
losophers ; their offices were highly valued in an earlier age. For an 
account of them, and their services, and the depreciation of them by 
Socrates and others, see Grote*s Hist of Oreeoe, Vol. IL Part I. ch. 21. 
pi 184sq. 

!!• — Oh 8 4 Tov — ; these particles strictly presuppose a negative 
answer to the interrogation, but are of course used ironically here, as in 

IL 8. 1. iSaa-iAiic^, sc rix^* **\hA kingly art,** i. e. the science of 

government ravra', for this Ace. see Kflhn. Gr. ^ 279. 7. Example. 

— fcal /AdCXa. .. jcal obit oJ6p rt 71, most certainly (I have thought 
upon it), and it is not indeed possible, etc ; ical . . . 7« extend the answer 
to the question, or, introduce something in addition to the simple answer, 
and hence, are in place here. Cf. IV. 5. 2 : 2pa xaXhy . . . pofi[{n$ thfoi . . 
tKttf^tplap; *Of oX6w riyt fidKirra, 1^. 

12* — Tovro icartlpyairai; rovro, sc. 9lKaiov ffrai, have yoi 

attained to this, L e., to be justt o&Scv^t. . . Sficaiof ; ct note, I 

5. 6, and L 7. 4: AXwrircAh AW^oirc. '*Ap' oSy ; see note, IL 6. 1 

— '^o'Ti fi4tfTot; see note, IL 6. 2. — M ^ o3r...o6 9^¥afAai 
M-h ovr ... 06 Bvyifuu, am I then not able, Ac. In reference to the eo&' 
itmction, see Kahn. Gr. § 844 5. (d) ; L. Gr. IL i 779. Some MsSb aqd 

864 NOTES. 

Edd. liare the Sabj. HvtoftM instead of the indioftttye. But the Icttei 

•eems preferablei as Euthjdemcis speaks with strong confidence. 

Kal.. . r& r^t d8iK(af ; L e., oi fiSroif r& liii Zauuoffinrns fpyti Urufuu 

It* — *'Epravi^oT, Some editors read iyrav^ sapposing the former 
to belong to the lonio Dialect, but Stallbaum, Plato Phileb. p. 2S, dies 
MTeral examples of the use' of irravAoi in Attic Greek, as Plat ApoL pu 

B8 ; Aristoph. Xubes 814, et aL Ef r(. . . rps tScir, if it seem to 

Tou iker€ t« need of theee thingt aUo, L e^ in addition to other facilities aa 
indicated by «pot in wposZtuf. 

lit — A^Xor 5ti, f^iy; see note, III. 7. 1. ofiJir ^fiip rovrmf 

KtUerau The Dat here denotes in the opinion or judgment of; see Ktihn. 
^ 284. 8. (lOX (a) ; L. Or. II. i 681, d. Cf. IV. 6. 4 : i Spa r^ vcpl to^ 
bteift if^fUfM el^t 6pdAs hif iifi7w tiwtfiiis ifpiff/Uwos cfii; CC in Lat« Tsei- 
ius' Annal. L 42: cive^ qui bus tarn proiecta senatus auctoritas^ i. e., 
quorum iudicio. At ly^r 7^^ (no), for that vould be terrible, a com- 
mon ellipsis befora yi^ 

]5« — ^Kal ^iXo, sc ^^o/tfw. K\4wTp re ical apwJi(fi for 

the distinction in meaning between these words, see note, IIL 6. 11. 

wp^t rji h^iKtf il^^Ka/iew. This \b tL eonetrttetio praegnant for: wp^ 
r^y &8iicf«v ibiiKa4i*¥, Arrc km^m vphs o&rJL See Kahn. Or. ^ 300. 3 ; 
L. Or. IL f 621. cf. 17 : iror^pvdi r^ hwdrriv rtwnpf ^vo/uri but a 
little after, irp^i r ^ y Siieaioo'^rivy et ratiW^ratr^vAT^nir voi beT49mi 
«/r rh a^r6, rovro oS ror4pm€r§ <^«Woy; *^d^Kafiev is a more rare 
form in Attio Or., for €^c/Acy, see KOhn. L. Or. I. § 203. 

16* — Ilp^t fi^p rehs vaXc/A^ov r...T0ia5ra voiciy; c£ CjfTOpi. 
I. 6. 81: 9iApt(9 9h roirmr Hi re wpht robs ^ikovs voiqrfor, xal A 
vp^t To6r ^x^P^^'' T\at, Phaed. p. 113. £.: vp^t war4pa 1l pofr^pa 
W hpyns filaiip ri vfMC(ayr«f, and StallK Plat Repub. VIII. p. 659l A 
— AirXo^o-rarofr tTirai, vholly free from guile; the subject here 
maj be riWl, although Eiihner says: vrpanry^p. 

17* — ^Aiax^^^'iirat lavr^y, commit suicide; the yerbs Smxpi- 
r^oi and Korrnxfine'^^ with the meaning to kill, are construed with the 
Accusative. See E&hn. Or. ^ 285. (2^ and examples ; Ij. Or. IL § 585. 

Anm. 8. C£ Thuoyd. I. 126: KtAt(ofA4pevt 94 riwas , . ,liMXf^vejrro, 

«rX^^]y % kpTiffxf ; see note^ IIL 6. 11. 

l^-^Kw avrek, in all thingt. ikparil^tiiai rh elpfifA4pa; c£ 

note, I. 2. 44; itportdefuu — Ami y4 roi, certe quidem; see not& 
UL 4 la 

BOOK ly. CHAP. u. 866 

It.-— Socrates here ftrgnes for the sake of curing the vanitj of 
Eatfaydemus; and in apparent contradiction of his principles^ as else- 
where laid down (et IIL 9. 4 sq. ; IV. 6. 6), since he separates know- 
ledge and action, and makes vu-tue consist in mere theoretic knowledge, 
instead of action founded on knowledge, I e. voluntary and intelligent 
action. He however probably intends to speak only in a comparative 
manner, and to say, that the man who is Mvra ^tMfMvov is 8i«ai^«* 
par than one who is tutorrOf but yet is not Hkcuow. According to his 
notion, virtue is knowledge, but he who knows^ both approves and 
practises the right See a more full explanation in Bitter's Hist Philosi 
Vol. IL ^tl sq. — - cl^ff^dw /toi, lei U be eaid 6y fitf, L e., Iveniure to 

to* — ^'Or^Tff $o6Xoiro; cf. note, IIL 14. 6: Srii fiii irapfiV-^*" 

air it, i. e., ypd/^iy iral hne/vyw^KMof. r^ Sticaia; emphatic by 

position; see note, U. 7. 8. Paiwoiiai', sc. roOro \4yaty, I teem 

to say that, eta This verb is contrasted with the following Zoici^ I 
think ; cf. note, L 4. 6 : oh Zoku, . . touctvau 

21. — ^pd(t9v...^pi(if ; for this pleonasm of the Part with a 
finite tense of the same verb^ defining more accurately the action, see 
Kuhn. L. Gr. H. § 675. 8. So it is employed in IV. 6. 8 : 6 robs p6ftovs 
revTous c28&s ff28(£i| &r ; 6: op^iit ^m rorc ipa 6pi(olnt^a 6pf 
(6ti9ifot, icT.X. For other examples, see Stallbaum's Plat Hipp. Maj. 

p. 292. A. XoyifffihPf reckoning, computation. rorh fiiy... 

ror^ 8i, like work /iiy...«'ori 8i. The same formula is also used in 
UI. 10, 14, and in the poet as quoted in L 2. 20, et al. 

S2.-^Ap* oiv; see note, IL 6. 1. *AXV Up a, but perhape : 

see note, IIL 11. 4. Stobaeus has *AXX dipa; cf. the reading in IIL 8. 2. 
— 068i 9i* Ir roCrvif, by none of these thinge, £utbydemus» 
evidently somewhat impatient at Socrates' captious questions, answers 

him a little tai-lly. Cf. note^ L 6. 2. &XX& «ral rohvavriov, 

BC. 8i& r^v T&v roto^up ffo^loM rov 6y6futrot roirov rvyxdytw. For the 
construction of robvcunioyt see IL 6. 4 

S8«~-^ (Ao0-o^c(y ^t\ovo^iav,to investigate the reasons of things; 
^iKoifo^eiy signifies frequently : to discover by careful investigation ; 
here with ffiriPi I euppated 1 wu pureuing a eourte of investiffotioH. ■ 
irutBtv^ripai rii xpos^iKopra; Pass, verbs, which in the Act gov-' 
em two accusatives, frequently retain the Ace of the thing or effect ; c£ 

Kflhn. 6r. § 28L 2; L. Or. IL i 562. Anm. 5. Bik nhp rk vpo^ 

vf voi^Hfi/ya, by the aid of previoue labor. The Accus. is probably 
used here where we might expect a Gen. to indicate a defect in hia 

366 KOTXS. 

preyions ttadiea. Lit on aeeount of, etc ohl\ rh ipmr^fL^wot 

iivoieplw^v^at, jcr.A., Dot a^le to answer when interrogated oonoem- 
ing that which it is necenarj to know, eta For the conatr. of r^ 
4fatTAfiL hroicply§er^ttt, iee Kiihn. L. Gr. IL § 547. 2. fin. Twfy here for 
the more usnal v«p< ; aee Kahn. Gr. § 298. K ; L. Gr. IL $ 608; and e^ 
ApoL i 14 : Htpdnwnof . . . irc^ iiuv ; below, lY. S. 12 : vpowMhui 
Mp rShf ftthXdrrmp, and so very frequently in the orators. 

%U — Zls Atk^ohs Z^ IjZii ycivoTc k^licov; the Z4 here refen 
this question to the words of Euthjdemns: ftAAi^y iShv ovScaJok Ifx^vr^ 

fcr.X., but have jou, etc. In respect to v^orc, see note, IL 2. 7. 

rh Tp&i^t cavT6p. The idea contained in this inscription upon the 
temple at Delphost ascribed to the Delphic God, was adopted by Socra- 
tes as the basis of all philosophical investigation. The original author 
of it was either Thales or Chilo. Socrates* view of its import is thus 
given by Ritter, Hist Philos. IL p. 57: ''This self-knowledge was re- 
garded by Socrates not merely as a knowledge of one's own ability oi 
inability to know certainly, but he also referred it to the cognition ot 
man's moral value, and thus it appears to come back again to the well 
known saying, that Socrates had called down philosophy from heaven, 
and forced her to inquire into the good or evil of humanity.* Cf. § 25, 
26; Plat Phaedr. p. 229, SO; where Socrates is made to say: Ov Zvpw 
fud vw Korii rh AtK^uehw ypdftfut yp&rcu ifuan6v; Charmid. p. 1^4. D. ; 
Protag. p. 848. B, and Stallbaum's note; Cic Legg. L 22; Tusc Dispu L 

22. 62, and Kfihner's note. ohZ4v 0-01 rov ypd/i/iaros ifidKtf 

irtp. Ct Plat Apol. p. 24. C: oOScf ro^^ vAvort ifiiXiffftp; p. 25. 
G : oMp (Toi /nt/jJkriict, and see Kahn. Gr. § 274. R. 1. Tpdfifjtmt here s 
inscriptio. -^-^ iravr^V 4irivK6irtip, $srts cfiyi ; also in § 25: 
6 iavrhp iirurKf^dtitPOS, 6wo76s iim vphs r^p hf^pmwlpjip xpc(ay. For this 
contraction, see Kahn. Gr. § 847. 8, and c£ note, L 2. 18. The same 
idiom is not uncommon in Latin and English, yhp 8^ ; c£ note^ IL 4. 1 

25«— ^H 8tris,...4 iavr^p iiriirKt^dfitpos ; the subject is re- 
sumed by th? article after the long intervening relative clause intro- 
duced by Anrcp; c£ note^ L 2. 24, ad fin. 

20« — ^'E^cv^^^at iavTwp, lit to deceive, but here — ;i^ ciStnu 
kainols ; so Zir^twiiipoi is followed by the genitive in f 27. The geni- 
tive here comes under the general relation of separative genitive; cC 
Kahn. $271. 2; L. Gr. II. § 618. 8. c3 -wpArrowtp ...KaK&s vpAr^ 
T9tp. The verb is here as very frequently taken in an ii trans, sense: 
^reinpro9perity,,,adoer9Uy. Ka\.,,lv»Aii^poi,,,9i9k\ li\ K.T.X. 

BOOK lY. CHAP. n. 867 

The repetitioQ of lud denotes a kind of comparison, both . . . imd alao , 
Kiihner explains them bjQt...ita. Soa participle is sometimes joined 
to a preceding finite Terl>» as in Anab. IIL 8. 2: tx^otfu Ir 9p6s ^r acU 
roht ^^pimrrat wirroa tx*^* which Krflger ezpkins ai eqairalent to : 
Hx^ifu airr^r (rt) Kot e/ ^*pdw9¥T9t virrcf. 

27i — Ol Si fih %i94rts; se. kcanoOt or rifp loarrdr Z&mifiv. -^-^^ 
Zr.€^9virfiivok r^r kavr&w Svirtificws; see note, § 26 yp^t 

re ro^f liAX. ardpAirovt aai rSWa. The idea is: ss thej are 
ignorant of themselvci^ in like manner are they of other men, and of 
hnman afihink In respect to the omission of w^t with the Isst danse^ 
c£ ApoL $ 1.— ^-ro<r aeaico«r vcpirlrrotfo'i ; for the Dat. here^ ct 
note^ L 2. 63. 

t8* — ^Evirvyx^^^i'^c' ^* a.r.A., succeeding in what^ eta OT 
TM S/ioiox r o^ro 1 1.. '. JcpArrai, thoee who are like them in charac- 
ter ; or as others suppose, are eqoallj prosperous. Te^oir is to be joined 
with xpArroi, and not^ as Pome haye done^ with S/isioi. In reference to 

T^...r^, see note, L 1. 14. xal irpotirravbal re. Some for r4 

write yi here ; others mark r4 as sospicioos^ and still others give to mH 
...W the questionable explanation: etiamque or praetereaque ; 
but all these methods of interpretation seem objectionable. There is 
midoubtedlj an anaooluthon, and the sentence would naturally be 
arranged thus: icol wpoirrturl^al t§ jSo^Xarrai loinrdr ro^ovf, ical r^ 

St. — KaK&s l\ alpo^fi9W9i, choosing badly, I e., what shall be 

done, rem agendam. oTr &y ivix^tpliiritrtr kv^rvyx^' 

rorrcff, £uling in whatever they undertake. 4p ahr9ts roirott, 

in respect to these very things, sc. off &ir ^irixcip4«'w<y iar^nryx^rr^t. 
"-^(flfiiovpral T§ Kal K9\d(oprai, i. e, they are fined and pun- 
ished. The two words, Cn/uovp and icoXifciF, are frequently found to- 
gether; the former designates a punishing by loss or detriment, as in 
money or possessions, for something done contrary to law ; the latter, a 
punishing by words, blows, eta for the, purpose of producing amend- 

ment rfiir w6Ktmw Srt. Xl^cvr here precedes the conjunction 

Zrt for the sake of emphasis, L c, the contrast of the many occupying States 
(w6ktmy) with single individual See Kahn. Or. § 848. 8 ; I4.Gr.IL 
§ 864. 8, and cf. Thucyd. I. 144 : rovreit kwoKpiv^woi Awovifii^ttfitr, 
M§yap4at pikp Sri idffcfitp iyop^ jrol Xi/a^^i xF^*^* Ibid.r clScroi 
S^XP^***'* ^* '''4fP fityivT»p KipZipmp Zrt kcI, , .lUyunmrtfuX 
w9piylyp9PTtu, A similar construction in interrogative sentences has also 
been noticed in IL 7. 8. 

868 KOTSS. 

to. — ^Af .. . ZoKovw ; the participle la Dot Ace. ab& here as in L f 
20 ; 8. 2; bat the object of the yerb U!^i: know thoa that it eeema ea 
tirelj to me, etc. The phrase is nearly equivalent to ladt Smmut |cm 
C£ KQhn. L. Gr. IL § 678. Anm. Bat thia construction is not frequent 
Such Terbs as ciS^i^oi, Mffroff^atf rotty, ^X*'^ 7>^M^>^ ^tc. are oftener fol* 
lowed by a Gen aba. with &s; cf. Euhn. Gr. § 312. R 13; L. Gr. IL 

$672. rovro wphs oh &ro/9Xciri», this I expect from you, look 

to you for; c£ } 2. cI...<d«X^0'ait hp ; c£ L 8. 4, 5. This 

form of the Opt is not unfrequently found in Xenophon ; Hellen. I. 3. 
21: wottioatfp; 19: tr^at; 4» 12: roA/i^irai; 17: iciySvirc Jo-oi ; lY . 8. 2: 
iantyytiXais; Y. 4. 84: Htu¥icai€P ', YLl. 9: a(ii60'aicr; 10: vot^^Aucir; 
8.9: Uraiw, 14: 3A#ai; 4. 36: wpdlmw; YII. 1. 84: first voXc/c^ 
orffioy, and then #5cX4(rcucy and ^dU'aicy; 5. 24: fion^vmw, Cyrop. I. 8. 
11: t^ai%\ II.4. 21, etal 

81« — HJivrtat wov ytyjfAoictis, are yon perhapt entirely ao> 

quainted with, etc; cf. note, III 6. 15. cL. . oKo,. . . ftr cfiir; 

eee note, I. 2. 28. rii afria...T^ fitp.,.TiL 8); see note, IL 

1.4. T^ bytaiiftiw ^ipopra, &7ad&...xaiedl, those which con> 

tribute to health, to be good, etc. *A7a5<i and kokA, are in the predicate. 

82* — OhZ\v\ BC./«aAAor ^lyodk tlvoL "Xrpartlas and the fol 

lowing genitives are governed partitively by iajtrwrx^^*% which is con- 
trasted with &vaXf i^lrrcf in the next claoae, taking part tn . . . left 

U — *A\\* 4 y4 Ttfi vo^ia..,kpafi^iffiiir4irtn-iya^dp 
iar I r , but wisdom at least is certainly, etc Cf. note, IIL 4. 10. Hartnng, 
Gr. Plartik. III. S. 866 and examples. Euthydemus might well adduce 
vo^ta as an example which Socrates could not deny to be unquestiona- 
bly good, for in lY. 6. 6 he calls aopiap, the summum bonum, and in IIL 
9. 5, he says that every virtue is co^ia The only way of reconciling 
his reasoning in these different passages i^ by supposing that he did not 
profess to find this oo^la in its unalloyed state, as the supreme, abeolnte 
good, in roan, but only as it ministers to good. C£ I. & 18. Plat Hena 
p. 8, and see Ritter*s Hist Philos. II. p. 78. Thus in order to carry his 
point with Euthydemus he uses iro^ia with a different signification from 
what he gives to it in the other passages referred to, and reasons from 

its consequences. Ti 9 al ;wmm rt 9^1 ; it here indicates transition to 

something new, with astonishment, surprise : what is it you are saying I 
or, how nof Lat a in' tu f itanef or, itane vero f See Ki&ha 

Tusc Quaest L 17. 40. rh» Aa(9a\ow ...oCk iir^iraaf. Id 

referenoe to construction see note, L 2. 18. The article is used to indi 

BOOK IT. CHAP. U. 869 

ttU notorietj: the celebrated Daedalus. For the legend ooDoeming 
Baedaln^ see Ovid. Metam. YIIL 159 eq. ; Hygio. c. 89, 40, and 6rote*8 

Greece, Vol L p. 807 aq. ixtitf^ ; ct note, I. 2. 8. Hahafi'i' 

9ovt, For an account of the legend of Palamedea, his treacherous death 
by Ulysses and Diomede, etCL, see Grote*s Greece, L p. 400 sq. Ct also 

ApoL i 26; Plat ApoL p. 82. ^dopii^9lt»..aw6\\vratt having 

been envied is slain. The present is used on account of the representa- 
tions of the fact in existing well-known poems; see Grote as cited above. 

Zik (To^iay, so just above ; but near the beginning of the section, 

Bik riiw VQ^iar, Where the article is used, it has more particular 
referenoe to wisdom of an individual, and where it is omitted, wisdom 
as a general term. — Up)n fiaat\4u ; cf. note^ HI. 5. 20. 

84* — K I y 8 V y c ^ ff i ; used im personally : it aeenu. We should expect 
•3y or 6pa here ; but a conclusion is sometimes placed emphatically with- 
out a copula; c£ note, IIL 4. 12; Hieron. I. 26; Oecon. XVL 12. The 
idea here is : since you have called in question all of the instances of 
absolute good that I have hitherto adduced, it must be that happiness, 
rh ffvSoittpi^cir, is a good by no means questionable, cf^c fi^ irpos^i' 
cofisw if we shall not add to it^ l e, reckon as an element of it 

89.— Tt^ r£r iv\,, ,&patots wapaK€Kt»fiie6rttp, by those 
who are greatly excited from love to the beautiful. See Stallbaum*s 
note, Plat Phaedr. p. 249. D. In referenoe to the signification of M, see 
Kuhn. Gr. § 296. IL (8); L, Gr. II. i 612. p. 298. In like manner we 

find it used in the phrase: fuu¥€<rbm M riyt. xaKoit wtptwl- 

wrovvi ; ef. note, L 2. 68; IV. 2. 27. 

SY« — T6vs..,fiii Ixavit Ix^'^^c *'* ^ '<< rcXcTy xiyrirat, 
I suppose those to be poor, who have not enough to purchase the neces- 
saries of life; TcActy c/i, to expend upon, here, to procure, provide, aa 
in IL 9. 1 : kpy^piw r^xivtu ; 10. 6 : eU voXh rtXivas 4itrH\awro ^Ixoy, and 

88« — 'Op&ms ydp fic &pafittiif^ffK9is; the clause is parentheti- 
cal, and disturbs the regular sequence of the words in the sentence, which 
would naturally be arranged thus: Kol i^ Ai*, tfii 6 EJ;^., olBa (^pd«f 
ydp fi9 ian^ifurfiffMu) jcol rupdr, C£ IL 6. 21 ; IIL 10. 8 ; Anab. IL 5, 
12 sq.: *AA\& fiiir 4pi» ykp ical TaCra, i^ £r Ix* 'Air/8af ital vh fiovXiiv 
vbai ^lKo¥ 4ifU¥ «7yau * o78a t»^y ykp tfity Mwrobs Kuwjipobs Svrat ; IIL 2. 
11: '^trcrra 94, a^hfurfiffm y^ 5/tas irol robs r&¥ wpcydimy r4v ^firr4pm0 
KtMvmn, K.r.K» C£ note^ IL 6. 21. 

89« — 'AwXws obihy, omnino nihil, nothing at alL rf 

tfvri, really, in faeL 


370 KOTSS. 

t9. — 09ri»* ttaTt^4prtip; c£ note, L 0. 8. i rt tfri/cifcy 

The Dfttarml oollocation of the words id the ■eDtonee would be : 4 Mfu 
(tp €tUpM re 9w Koi, IrmfSc^ii^; but see not«^ UL 5. S. 


It — ^Acicriice^f Kui vpaxriKe^r ical /&iixtt*^<«Fe^f' Tlie man- 
ner in which Socrates made his disciples Xccriico^t (ImXcktuw^) is ex- 
plained in ehap^ YL ; vpamuso^tf in ch. Y. ; |ii|xariico^s^ ch. YIL In 

reference to the meaning of this last word, see L 8. 7. ravra, in 

these things (Aoa of limitation]^ L e., rh.. . Acmico2rf . . . yfyr^c^tu. 

S« — ^A\Aoi,,.9triyov»ro, Whether Xenophon intends to saj 
that others related other such conversations of Socrates to him, which he 
passes by, and merely giyes one which he himself heard, or that they 
related them to others^ is uncertain. Bomemann in h. L says: narra> 
bant vel aliis, yel quod malim, mi hi. This psssage is^ however, con- 
clusive in reference to the hbtorical fiict^ that Socrates held other conver- 
satio.n8 upon his notions of GodL 

I. — Xoi ivriKl^Mp, has it ever yet occurred to you; cf. Mp /mm, 

IV. 2.4. •AAA'...7«; see note, L 2. 12. N^^ Ai\.,h «*; for 

the use of y4 to give emphasis in formulas of swearing, cf. IIL 11. 6, 

and Kahn. Gr. $ 817. 2. §¥§Kd yt r»r ^/itrdpttw i^l^aKfiAw, 

" for all the good our eyes would do us ;** Gi*osby*s Gr. Gram. § 895. y. 
ipawavT^iptopf lit, resting-place, L e., time of repose. For the form 
<»f the word, cf KQhn. Gr. $ 233. 2. (d). 

4« — "Cipas rri$ ri/i4pas, the times of the day, L e. : 6p^pw, futni/i' 
fipioPt 8cUi}r, Icnrcpov. In the signification of hour this word was not 
used in Xenophon's time, probably not until the time of the Astronomer 
Hipparchus (B. C. 140). It is used in reference to the watches of the 
night in I Y. 7. 4. In the same passage &pat /i'tfp6s s rov /Aifphs ra fidpii, 
sc. i<rT«fi4poUf fitffovtnos, and ^Ipoptos. It is, however, far most fre- 
quently employed to designate the seasons of the year, as in § 5 below. 

8i& rh oKortipii c7yac ; cf. note, L 2. 8. dcra^co'r^/ia, 

more obscure, sc. than to allow its single parts flb be distinguished. 
Others however interpret this word actively : too obscure to allow any 

thing to l»e discerned with the eyea &y4i»ripay; the Aor. tense 

mdeC as to time and hence denoting what has been and la Stk 


r9vr» '9o\Kk,,,9pdrr9fiL€P ; bo. such UuDgi m are emtmeratud id 
lY. 7. 4. |ci|»^^s rk fi^pni ; see aboye. 

iv-^Th,,.ikpa9i96pai; sc rt 8oirc7 0-01; and roti i^to^f. 01 Dote^ 

L 4. 12. ravra, refers to voWk , , . tl^paipifttta, and henoe is in 

the ploraL ^iXdp^pmwa; ma^piae erga homines beneyolentiae 

est; Seiffert 

••— "AfTc Ka\; the latter particle corresponding to koI with /uyp^ 
jtfiwr. ^— ^vrc^ffiv; with this yerb the preposition, ^ (with, in 
connection) seems to be implied from the following ffvpw^up. The re- 
yerse, L e., a simple following a compound yerb^ is not onfreqaent 

7«-~*Ev(jcotf^0r fiir ^'^X'vt, ivticovpow Zk ^xdrovst both 
defending against cold and helping in darknesa For /idp ... S^, see note^ 
L 1. 1, and for the goyemment of the Gen. Kahn. L^ Gr. IL § 518. 4k 

iff ffvp9\6pri fiirfiy, in few words, in short; for the constr. 

seeEahn. Gr. $ 284. (lOX and IIL 8. 10. Tircp/id(XXci. . . ^iXar- 

i^ptfwif, lit, excels other things in kindness to man, L e, this is a con- 
spicuous example of the loye of the gods to man. 

8«— T^ 9^,..'Ap4K^pairTOP. This whole passage seems most pro- 
babljr to haye crept into the text from the hand of the glossator ; see 

Knhn. in h. L ir§\4yn **p^^» K-r*^ so that we cross the seas by 

means of it rk fihp a^p^popra rk 9h ^iipaipopra. These 

participles agree with i}Aior and goyern rk fi^p and t^ 8i. Herbst well 

compares this passage with OdjBs. VIL 119 sq. &p Kaiphs 8icX-i(- 

\vb€p, the time of which has passed, I e., which are past maturity. 

fiaWop rov S^ovros, plus aequo; c£ note, L 6. 11. — ^a{ 
ir^Aiir ; the reyerse order wdKip aZ is much more frequent^ see just oe- 
low. If < fc fl y sa appareL 

fa — Kark fiixphp irpoo'tipat, . » xark /iticphp kwi4pm\. A 
similar anaphora is found in Latin : digitorum enim contractio fa cilia 
facilisque porrectio propter molles commissums et artua nuUo in 

motn laborat ; Cie. de Nat Deor., H. 60. 160. fi tr f Kapl^dptip ... 

Ka^iirra/i4povt, so that we insensibly (I e., without noticing it) come 

into either extreme. «l kpa rl,.,%pyop % K.r,Kt whether for> 

sooth the gods haye any other employment than, etc. See Kflhn. Gr. 

% 824 8. (a); L. Gr. IL § 888. c^ and also § T47. Anm. 1. rodrmp^ 

the fayors before enumerated. 

10* — Oh ykp\ see note, 1.3. 10. ical ravra, sc rovra {do. 

^kpbpAwmh Ir ff ira ; a similar idea is found in Oie. Nat Deor. IL 62 


rl,.,1kX\o C^09t the subject of aar«Xaifof.>——^^e} /&2r...i«Kt 
. . . ^ vr»y ; se. iroAadcii' rott ^bpAwwf, There is also an ellipsis of ^ 

after vAc^m. C£ IIL 11. 5. yoyp; cf. note, I. 6. 2. &v^ ro^- 

r«r ff &«** iKtivmwt i. e., from animals than from plants; cC note^ 
L 8. 13. — iroX2r . . . Y^yos &yi^. . . . xp<'>''>'tti. . . C^<ri, a great 
part (race) of men (L e, the nomadic tribes^ the Scythians). For the 

nnmber here, see Kahn. Gr. § 248. 1 ; L. Gr. II. § 420. 2. 8ti %» 

fio6Kt».¥rat, sc xp^'<^*<* 

lit— Toit iLv^pAwots...dwo\aiio/t§w. The change from the 
third person to the first in snch cases^ is not uncommon in Greek or 
English; cf. Plat Gorg. p. 614. E: ct ^^ ji^ptcKo/Attf Bi ^/aUs fafi4wm 
8«ATi» yryov^a rh irAfio, o6 icoray^Acurroir tuf ^v ry &Aq5c(f ccf riwotr- 
TOP iipoiar ik^tuf &r^pAwovs; . And Woolsey's note. 

12. — ^T^ 8^ Kttit «A IC.TA. T^ Is here :n construction with the In£ 

(irwtpyuif)y as with the preceding infinitiveSb 6r^p rwr fi§\\6p'' 

r«y; for the use of trip here see note, lY. 2. 23. ipicra yl» 

yvoiPTo; for the use of the plural verb with the neuter plural subject^ 

■ee EQhn. Gr. ( 241. 4. (b) ; L. Gr. IL { 424. cf yt, since indeed. 

— /»i|8^, cf. L 2. 86. 

18* — ^Ort 94 y§ &Xi}5i| Xiytt .,,tL9 fi^ apaiJi4ypf, jr.r.A. 
Tliis passage has caused much perplexity among the commentators, and 
although somewhat obscure, yet when carefully considered in its oon- 
nection, it does not seem to be so desperate as some appose. After, in 
the preceding sections^ illustrating the special care of the gods for men, 
Socrates, in section 12, alludes to their special kindness ^in imparting a 
knowledge of the future by means of divination. But £uthydemu% 
alluding to the 9aifi6ittoy which Socrates said : lovr^ vnifioivuv B. re -xfih 
wouTy Kol & /&4 L I* 2 sq., replies in tlie way of objection: Sol 8*... 
tri ^iXtK^§po¥f «.rA., the gods seem to be more benignant to you than 
to other men, since without your asking they make known to you what 
it is necessary to do and what not to do. Socrates proceeds in the pre- 
sent section to confute this idea of Euthydemus, and thus substantiate 
the general truth of his argument : This 8ai/itfriuy, of whidi he was ac- 
customed to speak, was not given by the gods as a special favor to him 
alone, but to him in common with Euthydemus and others. And if 
others do not experience its guidance it is because they do not yield the 
fitting obedience and reverence to the gods f|S unsees and spiritual, but 
distrusting them, seek a physical form which can be seen by tlie eyes. 
Thus Hitter. Hist Philos. II. p. 89, says • " He [Socrates] gives the ex- 
hortation to Euthydemus to renounce all desire to beoome acquainted 

BOOK IT. CHAP. Ul. 878 

witli Che forms of the (^i^ and to rest tttiafied with knowing and ador 
ing their works, for then he would acknowledge that it was not idly and 
without cause that he himself spoke of demonical intimations^ By thii^ 
Socrates eyidently gave him to understand, that this demonical sign 
would he manifest to every pious soul, who would renounce all idle 
longing for a visible appearance of the deity.** 'AKri^ refers to the 
words immediately preceding, so. : rh ZtufU^uty trri/ialy^uf ifuA h XFh voicir 

«a2 A /<4 and ffb is contrasted with the subject of X^ym, vh yvAajf, 

you shall know, sc. by your own experience, by like intimations to your- 

selt oCrms iro^^iKr^ovo'iw, sc that their physical appearance 

in divination is not to be expected : /u^ iufo/A^ytw (»f &y T^f /lop^t 

14«— OT r€ ykp HKXot; sc ^tol, omitted because ofrro) ol bfol 
precede. Socrates and hia followers^ Plato, the Stoics^ Cicero and others, 
believed in the existence of deities suborv inate to the supreme deity, 
who were employed as ministering spirits in the government of the 
world. To these allusion is here made. See Kiihn. Libr. de M. T. 
Cioeronis in Philosophiam Meritis. Hambui^, 1825, p. 185-88, and c£ 
Plat Cratyl. p. 255 ; Cic: de Nat Deor. 1. 12 ; et al. Tlie argument 
here to the end of f 14» in three particulars, is designed to show the un- 
reasonableness of skepticism with regard to the gods^ because they are 
unseen: "The best," he would say, "in every species, is unvariably 
unseen, and only noticeable in its effects, and that in like manner the 
soul, which participates in the divine 'nature, and is clearly the ruling 
principle within us^ nevertheless cannot by any means be discerned. 
He therefore who has emancipated himself from all foolish desire to be- 
hold some palpable and substantial shapes of the gods, may soon recog- 
nize the operations of the Deity within him, for the gods have implanted 
in man*8 mind a knowledge of their power.'* Cf. I 4. 16 ; Hitter, Hist 

Philos. 11. p. 58, 9, and references there. iLrpifiri ..Ayiipdra; these 

adjectives qualify itdrra (xaXh ical ityvAd imp). Some editions read 

ky^iparov, azd make all these Adjj. agree with K^irfioy. bar row. . . 

poiifiarot; cf. note, I. 6. 18. oZrot rh fiiytara fi^p wpdr" 

ruv 6 par at, icr.A., he is indeed seen to be the doer, artificer of the grea^ 
est things^ but is unseen in the doing; management of them. T^« seems 
to be used with reference to these things as exhibited before our eyes. 

15i — Tobt 69fip4rat..»rmv t^t&p .. . ntpavwSf , , , UptfiQi, 
Tliese latter nouns are frequently without the article where we might 
expect it, as being the names of objects well known. The student 
scarcely needs to be reminded how often the Old Testament speaks of 
toe lightning and winds as' ministers of GKid. 

874 NOTES. 

fiod, Ampf IT ri. ThoQ. V. 40 : htoftwrn . . . roirra. For this oonstr. of 

the Aoe. lee KQhn. Or. $ 279. 7; L. Or. H ^ 667. o^t' hv clt; 

see notc^ I. 6. 2. 

17* — ^N^fAy ir^\ff«s, in aoeordance with the Uwofthe State; ct 
L 8. 1. — -icarj^ 96wafiip, each one aooording to his ability ; c£ L S. 

8. /cpotr 5coirff dip4ffic9ir!Sat. TUa is a Homerie eonstroctkvD, 

but we frequently find the Dat instead of the Ace. ; see Oecon. Y. 8 : 
Krrc Hx^ip vol ;>toiT i^apivKwbat dforrar. So i^ap€vic9^bmi in 19 : r«^ 
/ftir iv rf wok4ft^ 6pft,.,wfA rw woXt/iucmp wpd^§mw i^apf^Ktvo/ Uw o vt 
Tots t^tott, ofirm voiwr, by 9o doinjf, Part denoting the meaii& 

18* — ^EXXff Iworra istobe Joined in constrndion with rttum, iB.r.A. 
The verb iXkthtttw is usually followed by a participle, but the In£ is 
probably here substituted to avoid the ooneurrence of too many partici- 
ples o& ykp vap* liAX«r y* Kr rts tn^l^u 4K9i(t0w wm^pm- 

rofi| ; i. e., oi; ykp fS»rtt vm^powtbi, €l np* iKKmw ti/ti^m IXvi^oi.— 
ikkms fAoXAor, sa ^tp^porsfif. 


!• — Ral fp7V ! when these words were written, the author un- 
doubtedly intended to continue the discourse by acal \4y^ but after the 
several intervening clauses explanatory of IjpTfs ^^ find in § 5 : ac«l 

IXfyc 8^. i8/f . . . x^M**^'* ILT.K ; ct 8. 11 : Slmuef 84 (^r SMicpcC- 

rffs), 6rrt /3Xd(rrcir /iir /ii|84 /uKphw Mi|8^ya, v^Acci' 81 rjk fiiytrra r^s 
Xp«M^vr afrry. — r t ft. The particle r^ here answers to jcai before 
8rc ip rait ^KKXtyo-Iair, K.rA, in f 2, and there is a slight anacoluthon^ 
for strict grrammatical accuracy would require the following construc- 
tion : 18^ re . . . xp^M^^^ *a1 Koipp tipxttvai rf . . . w9il^fiwot . . . teal iw 
rait ^iricAi|<r(cur iwivrixrit y9w6fi€Pos e&jc hrirpi^s r^ H/i^ wapk ro^ 
t4fAovt ^^ii^iamabau; but c£ note, XL 1. 80 for changes fit>ni Ptuiic. to 
verb. After t4 with a Part to express a more general idea, xai with a 
verb may naturally enough follow, to add a more particular and em- 
phatic circumstance ; or after fi4p and Part, 8^ and verb, may contrast 

an idea of more importanoe. xark w4\tp..,4p reus ^TpaTtUut, 

domi milit aeque. vapit rolt &AAovr, in comparison with 

others, i. e., beyond, or, more th4m other*, praeter ceteros. 


t»~^napk rohs vi/iovs ^ii^ttrav^at; for a more partioiilar 
Aceoant of the traDflactton-here allnded to^ see L 1. 18^ note and refer* 
encegb ffhp rots pd/iois eontraated with wapii ro^ i^/wvt, and 

•ignit in adkering to thM law9, 

S«— Tot* re ykp p4ots..,9ta\4y€ffl^ai; c£ L 2. 86, and for 

the use of fJi, c£ note, I. 2. 8S. kvayoptiopTwr. , .wposra' 

(cCrrciir. The former Part the present^ because this prohibition was of 
the nature of a law that is to be in force at all times, the latter Aor., as 

done in a specific instance. iKtty^ re acal &\Kois rial. The 

eircomstanoe here refei*red to, is the command of the thirty tyrants 
to Socrates and four others^ to bring Leon of Salamis to Athens^ where 
he had been naturalized and had exiled himself to hirtratemal city, 
fearing that the tyrants might put him to death, as he was wealthy and 
distinguished. Socrates himself says in Plato's ApoL chap^ XX : " Then 
indeed I showed by my actions and not merely by my words^ that I did 
not care (if it be not too coarse an expression) one jot for death ; but it 
was an object of the greatest care to me to do nothing unjust or unholy. 
For that goyemmenti though it was so powerful, did not frighten me 
into doing any thing unjust ; but when we came out of the Tholos^ the 
four went to Salamis and took Leon, but I went away home. And per- 
haps I should have suffered death on account of this^ if the goremment 
had not soon been broken up." Winers* Life, p. 59. C£ Xenoph. Hellen. 

n. a. 39 ; Diog. Laert II. 24. iir\ davdrip ; for the signif. of the 

Prep, iwl here, see note, I. 8. 11. Si& rh irapii robs pS/iovs irpos' 

rirrnffbai, because it had been enjoined upon him to act^ etc. 

4« — T^y &Th McX^TOtf ypa^iiy t^Mvye, *0 ^fOyw signi- 
fies an accueed pertonf and is opp. 6 Bt^xatr, an aeeueer; accordingly 
ypa^p ^f ^fiF, to be accused, is antithetical to ypa^v (Ziiaiv) hdnuy, 
(o prosecute a suit Cf. Plat Apol p. 19. C : m^ **«' ^7^ ^^ McX^rov 
roira&raf tixat ^6yoifiu The use of the preposition vw6 is generally 
explained as arising from the combining and assimilating of two con- 
structions : ^6 rivos ^^uv and r^v ypa/p^p riyos ^t^tty, as in III. 6. 
1 1 : kXcW. r& ix x^P^' ^"^ ^^ perhaps arose from the passive signifi- 
cation of the verbal noun ypa^y, aecuaation made by ; cf. Cyrop. IIL 
8. 2 : liltvdat r$ bwh mdrrww rifi^ ; Thuc II. 66 : iyiyy^rd re \iypf pih^ 
hifuncparta, tpy^ tk bvh rov wp^rev ay9phs hpx^ I Pl^t Symp. 
p. 216. B : ijrrnfih^ rris rifiJit rrjt M r&y woW&y ; Protag. p. 864. A : 
rks ^h ruy iarpmy ^eparetioi ; Politic, p. 291. D : riiy ^h r&y iro\« 
K&y 9vyeurretav. In respect to Meletus, cf. note and reference?, 1. 1. 1. 

xpht x^P^^ '''• fo7s 9ifca(rTaij hia\4yetfl^aif icr.A., 

to implore the compassion of the judges and to flatter and entreat 

876 NOTES. 

them. C£ ApoL $ 4^ and Plat Apol. p. 88. D. E. wmpk rmh . 

w4fiov9 ; thu clause is added beeaose laws had been paned against aA> 
tempting to excite the oompaseion of jadgei^ etei Cf. PoUoz, YIIL 117. 
de Areopagitis : 9pootfud,(€trbai Si ofiic i^^v ov9k elicT((ff0-dai. QaintiL YL 
1. 7 : Atbenis affeetua movere etiam per praeeonem probibebator orator. 

T«r cM^^rwi', Bc. leoiM^m, or we may consider these worda aa used 

abaol.: things that are customary. —^a8{«f kp &fc3flr, i e., St 

fuilmf fty &fc(5ir, #4 K.rX. G£ note, U. 2. 8 and 18. vpotfAcre 

ftaXXor ; cf. note, IL 1. 2. 

(••^Kal IXff 7* 9h otrm t ; and he also spoke in the same manner, 
etnotef 1. 'Iwwtaw rip 'HAsTor. For an aocountof tiiia dis- 
tinguished Sophist; his yanity, ' arrogance, etc:, see Plato's Dialogne^ 
which received his name, with Stallbaum's Prolegomena, and especially 

his note, Hipp. Maj. p. 148. 8iA xp6pov. It appears from what 

follows that this was not his first yisit to Athens. ItlA^av^^i 

Tiva, to haye one taught The Act form is sometimes u»ed in the same 
way, just as in other languages; persons are represented as doing that 
which they canse to be done by othenw See Liddell and Scott's Lexioon 
Qpon this word. — M^ Avopc ly, in construction with r^ as the aab- 

jeet of cfif. 8i icato v t. Alxoiet, that is as it should be^ suitable for 

the offices incumbent upon it ; ss Lat Justus^ which signifies, according 
to Krflger: enm qui est talis, nt recte munere sno funga- 
tur, yioes suas expleat. Cf. Cyrop. IL 2. 26: offrc 71^ tpfuk 84- 
vov Tttx^ ytpon^ &y, fipaHimp Xnmp ip^0p, oin't iiKaiop, kiticmff 
evp9(tvyti4pmp. The word is probably here chosen, in order to place 
this kind of juttitia in contrast with real justice, which is the general 
subject of the conversation.— ^^10- T&...ri»y 8i8a{^rr«r, briefly 
and familiarly, in Lat, doctorum. For this use of the participle, e£ 
IL 1. 6 : kwoKvvAirrttPt kjtX. ; IL 2. 4 : ro&rov yt rw iwoXvcSprmp Mc^yol 
fi^p at 6M; ILjB. 8: r^ 9§oti4p^ rod (rvvfV(/tcXi|0-o^^r9v, indigent! adiii* 
tore ; IIL 8. 2 : Mfi9^ rod wadaorros ; IV. 4. 5 : vdpra futrrk cTmu rAp 

Mo^6prttp, ikp 94 Tif fio6\rirat, as preceded by a verb in the 

present tense, ^aat, but above cl /i4p nt $o6kotro, on account of the 
antecedent preterite. 

€• — 'ZwiffK^vrmp, deriding him. "^ti ykp ff4,.,x4yn 

are you then, yet talking about; etc; r^ is condustve a i^ i t a r . — — 
off fi6pop &fl rk altrk \4y^, kk\k jcal W9p\ rmp aOrmp. Ct 
with this Plat Oorg. p. 490. £: 'Ht Atl rafnk k4yus, Z S^Kparcs. U. 

06 fii^pop 7c, S KoAA/jcAffif, &XA& jcai ircpl rwr a^Ay; p. 49L K 

8(& rh wo\v/ia»ii$ c7i^a< ; see note, L 2.8* 'AiicXci ;' see noteu 

L 4. 7. 


)•— n^rtpor 18 Beldom nsed in a simple interrogation, and wlien it 
IS, the contrasted phrase may be easily supplied. According to some 
commentators the phrase : fj vcpl itpAfi&y . . , olt rk avrh, wvr & «ca2 irp^rc- 
por &To«p(y27 answers to this. But it seems hardly possible. For 
examples of similar constructions of x({rcpor, see Thucyd. L 80 ; Plat 
Fhaed. p. 78. B ; Lysid. p. 205. A, and other passages cited by Borae- 

mann. w6aa ical wo7a JiiaKpArovs iariv, how many and what 

are the letters in the word Socrates ? The same example is employed in 
Plat Alcib. L p. 113: T( 8*, ^ iyi» /i\y fytffuu, woia ypdfifjLaTa 'XotKpd- 
rovf — ; and Xenoph. Oecon. VIIL 14: cfroi h^, 'XvKpdrous iral 6tr6<ra 

ypdfifutra Ktd 9irov tKcurrov rircuereu, fiyircp a 6, Ka\ 4yi>', cf. note, 

II. 2. 2. & oCrt (r6, oCr* hv &XXor oh^tls ^ipair* di^rci- 

vc?y. The verb agrees with the nearest subject since the two subjects 
are regarded as independent of each other. Of. Efihn. 6r. f 242. R. 4 ; 
L. Gr. IL i 482. Anm. 2. 

8* — ^N^ riiF "Hpar; see note, L 5. 6. oIk o78*, Zwtts hp hro- 

Xtt^tiiir ffovt I do not know how I can leave you, before, etc ; a more 
ooortly phrase for I cannot possibly leave you, etc. • 

9t — Oi/K.. .wplv y\ not before certainly, Kflhner and Hartung 
call the y4 here suppletive. Cf. numerous examples of a similar use of it 
with wpiv, in Hartung, Gr. Partik. I. S. 409, 10, and cf. Kfihn. Gr. § 317. 

2 ; Lb Gr. IL § 704. &pfcc< yap 8ri t&p &Wa»if KuraytK^s, 

IC.TA., for it is enough that you laugh at others (sc ifiou 8* oh KoraytKd' 

treiT, you shall not ridicule me), proposing questions^ etc. lit 4%*^^ 

X6yov^ to make a statement yvAfiriy iwo^aiywa^m, give 

your opinion. TySftii is very often without the article in such cases as 
this ; cf. Anab. L 6. 9 ; V. 6. 8 ; 6. 37 ; § 11 below, et al. We, in Eng- 
lish, should use the indefinite an or a possessive pronoun. 

10« — OtfScr ira^ofiai. 02»8^r, by no means, nullo modo, a 
more emphatic negative than o6; et Eflhn. Gr. § 279, R. 10 ; L. Gr. IL 
^ 657. Anm. 4. Ct Cyrop. I. 6. 16 : koI 7^ \4yorr9t o&8iy va^rrai o2 
iy^pcrwoi; Oeoon. XL 28: oMp ft^p o8r waiofuu \4y9tp fuktrwp. In 
like manner nihil is employed in Latin for n o n, especially in such 
phrases as nihil me fallis, nihil te moror, et aL ; see Zumpt^ 

Gr. § 677. 6. iroTof 8^ ffOi...6 \6yos ierlp; what is... your 

explanation of it? ik^tortK/taprdrtpop, more convincing. 

12« — ^xii^at, ihPf,..iip4ffKif, *E^ with the subjunctive freqner.tly 
corresponds nearly with tl followed by the future indicative ; the httter, 
however, implies that the condition will take place, whilst the subjunc- 
tive merely indicates^ that it is supposed or expected by the speaker, to 

878 K0TS8. 

toke plaee ; Me KOho. Or. f 8S9. II R. 2 ; rh wi 

l^ifior 9ltcafw *Iwat ; e£ IL 6. 28. 

lt>— Oft ykp al^l^awo/ial 0-ov. Ti^ refers to a nippreaed dai 
how so f tor, etc ; or we may with Bornemann supplj komAs xSymis ; 

e£ Dote^ in. ft. 21. 4r#i9r...f voiow, K.rJL; for the rather nn- 

nsoal change from the particle of indirect interrogation to the direct^ ace 
note, L 1. 11, and c£ Plat de Rep. III. pi 414. D: obx oUa, iwoi^ r^A^ 
II ve/eiff kiyois xP^I**^^ ^P*h where howeyer some Mas. hare va£f 
riKfaf'\ I>eniosth. de Coron. p. 275. 144: %rts S* if f^if ...Trywrv ^e^ 
T«r T«r vpcryftirifr, ical rfrof tptxa ravra ovrcirircw^^ col tAt 
#«pd[x<^ rvr ^o^art. — — >ro/iovt...7(7r^0'arcfs, have yon known, 
eta; not merdj the Lat. cognoscere but nosse; d note, UL ft. 
26: ^o^ 

14«— Of f 7* ; c£ note, IL 8. 16. ttaX ykp ; the ellipns here to 

which y^ refers^ is : what yon say, i e., that laws are changed, ie no 
groond for disobedience to them ; (for States also undertake wars and 
make peace again). Aii^opow...^; et note^ IIL 7.7. 

ISfl— AvireSp7er ; emphatic by position. — • 68 cv Kw 9id^m 
pop, icrJi^ nulla in re praestantem reliquis ciyitati- 
bus; Weiske. For the idea, cC IH 5. 16; Hellen. YTL 1. 8; de 

RepubL Lac YIIL 1. «eal w6Xit, The noun ir6\a depends upon 

the phrase : obtc oZr^a $ru 

l%t — ^'0/A^ro(i( 7f, IC.T.X.; the idea is: but concord also which 
seems to 'be the g^reatest good of a State, is nothing else than unanimity 

of the citizens in obeying the laws^ r^fiot ... iccirai, the law is 

established; c£ Lycui^g. adr. Leoorat p. 189. Kpivm^t, In icph^sw 

the idea of approring, assenting to, is conjoined with that of judging; 
deciding. Thus in Hellen. L 7, 84, the notion of giving judgment is pro- 
minent: fuf ^^h^ Ivorrat Kplrtuf, and afterwards^ that of approving: 
rh fihf wpdrw fjcpiror r^ EiipinrreX^/iov (yp^/iiit'), icr.A. — at^wf^- 
rai, choose, in order to bestow the prize upon them, in the scenic re- 
presentations at the festivals of Baochusi Concerning the change from 

8fr«r to tro, see note, IL 1. 19. triv Bk Afcoyo/at; these words 

form a strong contrast to robots ,.* ififitwiwrmw, above. e0r* Kp 

v^Xir. .. irsAircv&f (i|, sfr* oTicof . .. oi«i|i^c(i|. "Ar is to be 
supplied in the last clause from the first ; see note, I. 8. 15. 

17« — *191^ . . . rif, any one by himseli^ in private life. »-~ i^rryre 
..ytic^il, lose his cause ... obtain it^ or more lit be defeated.. 
4 **4|uer. Not unfrequently the language of military affiun is limnsfened 

BOOK IV. CfHAP. IV. 879 

to the foram. — r (ri . . . vap a icar ai^ iiri^ai, T/ri depends not npon 
vurrc^cif but upon vapcucttra^^ffdai : to whom would any one prefer to 

oomroit^ etc^ ockcioi... ojw^rai ; c£ note, L 2. 48. rli^c... 

vi^rc^^ctar. . . &yox^ff acr.A. ; the idea is: in whom can the enemy 
have more confidence in making treaties^ etc f The construction of the 
noons i»ox^t ^^i '^ '^^ ^^ analogy of xurrt^tiy vlrriy. 

19« — *Aypd^ovs.» ,p6fiovf. Socrates meant by these "unwritten 
lawi^" those precepts and principles of action, which, given by the godi^ 
are eyery where recognized both by States and individuals ; and conse- 
quently, as universally valid, not t eeding to be written. They also do 
not require arbitrary enactments for their enforcement, since their in- 
fringement invariably brings its own penalty along with it These laws 
are the voice of the deity speaking to the inner sense of every man ; 
some of them are enumerated in § 20 sq. See a more extended expla- 
nation, in Bitter's Hist Philos. XL p. 74, 5, and cf. references there. 

Kuril rabra wotii(oft4povs, received in the same manner. Vo/aI- 
(troi below is employed with a similar signification ; at also note, II. 8. 

16. ol ip^pvToi altrohs H^tyro, The active voice is also 

nsed below : rt&tiKdyai roht p6fiovst and just after : dtovs . . . robs p6fiovf 
toCtovs roif ky^p<&wois dttycu. In the first instance, men who are them- 
selves subject to the laws make them, and hence the propriety and 
beauty of the use of the middle voice. So in ^ 18 : h ol iroXtrtu . . . trw- 
difitvoi i Tff Set voiciv iral &p ar«x«r^^ai, iypdi^avro; IV. 8. 12: jrcd 
p6/tovs Ti^fAt^a irol roXi rcv^^e3a ; IL 1. 14: ol fi^y xoXir9v6fuvoi , , , 
wi/iovs rfdcrroi. . But when the gods or those who are not themselves 
the subjects or not conceived of as the subjects of them, are spoken of as 
making lawa^ the active form is used. So in L 2. 45 : Sea di 6\iyot robt 
iroWohs fi^ WMlfforrts, &AA& Kparovyrts ypdipovtri, irirtpop fiiop ^iiep 
^ fiil ip&fitp cTroi ; Rep. Lac. L 1 : AvKovpyop . . . rhy ^^yra airrois robs 
y6fiovs. In Plato^ Hipp. Maj. p. 284. D, both forms are appropriate!/ 
used, OS, in the last clause, the persons indicated are considered as having 
discarded the authority of law. See Efihn. Gr. $ 250. 1. (a) ; L. Gr. IL 

§895. ol 7c ; c£ note^ IL 8. 15. &tobs ff^fitiy; the active 

form of this verb is seldom used in prose writers. See Liddell and Scott's 
I ex. h. V. 

20»— O&jc^ri ; what you have before said I approved, but now I am 

no longfr able to yield aaseut ti 9 4 ; these particles here indicate 

istonishment ; c£ Hartung, Gr. Partik. L S. 268 ; Efihn. L. Gr. IL § 691. 

Slf — Kal 7&P, sc that is not strange, nil mirum, /or, eta 

kW* oJr, but yet but^ however. C£ Hartung, H. S. 12. y4 roi. 

880 VOTSS. 

gire eropluMS to Sdnrv ; lee Hartnng, Or. Partik. H. 8. 866^ ftod eC lY 

2.83. 6wh rmtf ^^Aw K€iti4rov9, a diis latoa, establiahcd b^ 

the gods; many intraoBitive verbs are somettmeB employed aa {»a» 
Bivee; e£ KahtL L. Gr. II. ^ 392. b. 

28* — Ou ykp tf 2r ; tsc you have well said ; for by no means, etc 
02y is joined in sense with ai> from which, as not unfreqaently, it is 
separated by ydp ; see Hartung, Gr. Partik. II. p. 17. It is naed in a 
similar manner in lY. 6. 3 ; Soph. Oed. G. 984 : ob yhp odp iriyiiirfiat, 
Cf. also^ IV. 2. 10. 

24. — AicSic«iy, sequi, or, sectari. ;^coit ravra vdwra 

ioiKt, all these things are similar to the gods [sc not to men]. Some 
editors have dtlots, and the meaning is then supposed to be : all these 
things are similar to divine institutions, but aside from the abeenoe of 
almost all Ms. authority, the sentiment in its connection is jejune. Others 
render leiirf, decet, oonvenit, but this meaning, although found io 
Homer, does not seem to belong to Attic writers except when followed 
by an Int bs in Plat. Legg. IX. 16, p. 879. C Besides^ the idea which we 
have given, aside from being the natural version of the authorized text^ 
is more ctmgruous with tlie words in f 19: ^tobs oTfuu robs v6fMus roC- 
rovs rots kvbpJtTOis i^filraj, and in § 20 : ^cov ri(fto> cfrai. The reason 
ing which follows is also appropriate : For that in the laws themselves 
the punishment of transgressors is contained, (so that it b not necessary 
to look for it from without^) seemi% etc. — /ScXr/orot ^ xar* iw- 
^pmxor yofio^^rov. . . cTrai, to belottff io l^ialtUion guperior to that 
of man, Ij icard frequently follow a comparative when a relation or 
proportion is to be indicated. See B. 149. m. 7 ; c£ note, I. 7. 4. The 
same idiom is found in Latin. 01 livy, XXI. 29. 2 : atroeius proeliura 
qiiam pro numero pugnantium editur; Cic. de Fin. V. 16. 44: quod 
praeoeptum n»ajus erat quam ut ab homine videretur. 

25. — "AXXa Tjup 8iKa(a»r. *^AXXa, other than, different from. 

For the construction here, see KQhn. L. Gr. II. f 612. 4. i^ffoik 

tipa,.,rb alrh 9tKat6v r9 Ka\ w6fiifiow. The reasoning of So- 
crates is : That which pertains to the laws of God, which are rights 
is lawful (r6fiifiop) and just {iUmor); in divine and human laws the 
same thing is true, (for Socrates had maintained, ^ 12 et al, that in 
human laws p6fu/toy ZUeuov ttvat,) that the p6fjufiw is ZUaiow. Socrates 
accordingly demanded implicit obedience to the laws of the States 
not considering here that the human law might conflict with the 
divine. In Plato's Crito he is made to go even further and ai^e 
that the human law must not be violated even when it comes intc 

BOOK IV. CHAP. V. 881 

eonflict with the law of right Of. that dialogue and StallU Pro 


1« — npaKriKUT4povSf ad agendum idonenm ; cf. note, IV. 
1. 1.— driCpKcir, 18 rejected by some few Ifaei and Stephanus; but 
there does not seem to be sufficient reason for its omission. Thei-e are 
teveral instances of the use of this verb with cTym joined with an adjeo- 
tiye as here with iyadfhif, (the construction is ifofjd(wy aya^hp «7yai iirdp 
X9ur fyjcpircfor,) having the meaning: adesse, suppetere; c£ 
Schneid. de Venat XIII. 17 ; Oecon. XXI. 1 1, and Bornem. Cyropi 
Vni. 8. 20. Entirely different from this are the passages where c7nu 
depends upon iwdpxtiyt which then has the signification of licere ; as 
in Venat XIIL 17 : ftrrf drdpxfiy . . • 3co^iXcir r* thai «al tbirtfius ; 
de Rep. Ath. III. 9 : firrc fxitrroi ^dpx^iP tfifioKparlap ii^w thou — 
vdvrutr f^dXiirra. . . xphs iyKpirtiav, most of all things to tem- 
perance. n<brr«y is neuter and has regard not to the subject but to the 
object iytcpdrtuuf. 

9« — Tl9pl riiy,..xpil*^if^vv.,,fi9fivfifi4tfos. The preposition 
wtpi instead of the simple genitive is employed after fi4fiyrifi4yot for the 
sake of distinctness ; tt is especially so used when the verb signifies : to 
make mention of. See KQhn. L. Or. II. ^ 529. Anm. 1, and cf. Hellcn. 

rV. 6. 9: fTfpl ft^y r^t c/p^iojt oMri ifi4fAyriyro. Spa; cf- II. 6. 1. 

&s oX6y r4 yt lAdkivra; see IV. 2. 11. 

t*-^T&y 8i& rou ff^narot ritoy&y. Ai& roii tnifiaros has the 
force of an adjective, as is indicated by the position between the Art 
and noun : phyneal^ or a noun in the genitive <*f the body. So we find 
the simple genitive in Hellen. FV. 8. 22 : oL rov tr^futrot riBoyai ; Apolog. 
16 : ruts rov a^fmrot hrAvfiteus. But such constructions as the present 
with a preposition are also not unfrequent ; cf. I. 4. 6 : rk 8i& arSfAaros 

fl94a; I. 6. 6; II. 6. 6; IV. 6. 11. "Iffttt yhp^ perhaps then. Tdp 

is conclusive; cf. note, L 8. 10. — ^Xc^&«poy yofAl(tts. *Z\9^§poy 
here s i\9vb4ptos, suitable, fitting for a free man, 1 i b e r a 1 e ; different 
from the meaning in the preceding sentence, and antithetical to the 
following iiyt\§^«poyf illiberal e, which in turn differs from the 
same word in the next section.^'- roir f Kttk^ffoyras ; c£ nots^ 
HI 4 4. 


or wpdrrttw ; so in § 6 : ro^t rk /ihf Spivra Km\6orras, rk 9h K^tuvru 
hwyicd(9rrti$. The Latin employs a preposition alter such verbe: ad 
haec oompelli...ab illis retardari. 

ft* — ^no(ovf 5c Tiraf ; what sort off floZof and rts ooDJoined 
give an air of iadefiniteness to the qaestlon. — Xco'v^raf ...Xev- 
Atfar... tevXc^av^ir ; e£ note, I. ft. ft. 

C*— ^H eft ftoicfft vei ; sa {( 06 ftoacff? ««i (^ hcpmrU^ mmX^ip 

4x*tw, tcjrJK^ ^irv\4|«^«* The yerb ^mrX^h^ffir, origiDallj and 

lit, to itrike <mt of, then, to driye oat one's senses by a sadden shock, is 
often used in reference to the effect of any overpowering as well ob sadden 

passion upon the mind. G£ the signit of iltariami in L S. IS. 

ir«<c7ir depends upon ZokmZ 

7« — 2»^/>o0'^iri|t...r(ri...vpor4icc(F, to whom can we say that 
temperance less belongs . . . than to the Aicparci f For the construction 
and signif. of irpos^ircir with the Gen. and Dat see K&hn. Or. ^278. S. 

(b); L. Or. IL § 621. avrk rh iwapria., . fpya iffrlp. The 

construction is: ett^poo^s meX hxpuaiat tpya (subject) ierlw mhrk rk 
irarrta (predicate). For the use and omission of the article see note^ 

IIL 10. 1. Tov... voioCrros. .. efci ri kwbp^w^ kJlkiow tf- 

yai, do you suppose that anything b worse for a man than that... 
which makes him do the very contrary to those who are under self- 
control. Khrk,,,rk ivarrla, direcUy the opposite. 

8« — T)iv iyitpdrttav r&w ^rarrtwr (|, iK.r An is it not reasonable 
that temperance is the cause of directly the oppoute things to men, of 
intemperance. For the constr. see note, IIL 12. 4. Weiske: Non igitur 
consentaneum est^ continentiam efficere contraria iis^ quae incontinentia 
effecit t 

9»-— *E0* Ircp 1169 a, to which alone^ i. e., to nothing else except 
^dirwp answers to w&s: Aoto to, quid itat inamnueha$, or, beeetuoe, 

etc. irffpi/ttc/rarraT, icr.A. C£ this with the sentiment expressed 

by Arete in ILL 80, 83. &ya7icaior(£reir...0'VKcx«^Titroiff, 

those pleasures ii;ost necessary (I e., natural) . . . continuous (i. e., con- 
stantly recurring), such as eatings drinking, sleeping, etc. &|io- 

\6yttt, recte, or, heneste s ^(wj fip^fiiit, just below. So in L 5. ft, 
where it is antithetical to aurxpAs, Ct also IL 1. 20 and IIL 7. 1 . 

10«— Tov na»tiif,,,rov iwifit\ii»^rai. These genitiyes de- 
pend upon kroAMUwru The phrase might be arranged thus: 0/ iyitpcerw 

BOOK lY. CHAP. YI. 898 

rtiS fuAt7w.,,Kcil rod iwi/uXri^wai . . , iiToKaiovau k^* £y, 80; ibi 

T0V KoKms Siouc^o'ai rh iaurov vAfJM, ic.r.\.— — Tpt^rroyrcf abrd, 

in t^ie exercise of these things^ sc. t^ fuAtof ri KoXhr, k.t^ wpof 

^ictiy; see note, lY. 6. 7. xaYcxoM^'^V ^^2 '*'v <rirov8i£(f iv. 

Sauppias saja^ the proposition here seems to denote the place about which 
(locuiB^ circa quern, etc) the desire is exercised and at the same time the 

end or design. CC Kahn L. 6r. II. § 612 ; Gr. § 29(f IL rks iy 

yvrdrm iliowds, pleasures that are at band, oome within one's way, 
in promptu positas, dL note, H. 1. 20. The Ady. here with the 
Art is used aa an adjectiye, as elsewhere. C£ Socrates' reasoning here 
with that in L 6, and II. 1. 

11« — ^Hrropt,.,ri9orAtf; see note, L 5. 1. T/ ykp 9ia^4» 

pffi. Some Mss. read rin for ri ; either is good Greek, and both are 
employed by our author, as well as other Attic writei-a. G£ for the Aoa 
L 2. 60 : i^ii6w§i, ri Zta^ipu fAtufiut i^u^ia ; IL 1. 17 ; III. 7. 7 ; dative^ 
III. 3. 14: voKb &r koI ro^^ 8ic#^acoier rAp tt^Awr. — 8iaX^7or* 
Tat nark y4wii, discriminating according to their kinds; cf. ( 12» and 
Chap. YL ad init For the nse of the Ace, see note, L 1. 9 : k i^tartp 

12. — Kc|l c0rws...8vyar»T^rous. This clause is supposed by 
many to have crept into the text from the margin ; see Kflbn. in h. 1. 

T^ 9m\4y€a^at. The distinction in meaning between iiaX4- 

Tcur and 9taXry€ff^at is strongly marked in this and the preceding sec- 
tion. Cf. note, I, 7. 6. -— ^ jjc rov ffvpi6pras fiovKt^t^dai 9ia- 
\4yopra%, from the circumstance that those who come together for 
consultation, discourse, etc. -r— * 9iaK9KriKtfrdrovs, etpedaUy qttali' 
jSed to tipeak, is derived from the yerb 9ia\4yw&at, by which and 
tioA^ur, the way is prepared for ite use here. By speaking is here 
meant the ability to arriye at the truth of things by discussion, which 
according to Socrates only the tyttpartis could da 


1« — ^AiaXcKTiirwr/povf ; see note at the end of the preceding 

section.— ^{, oa iral rhp rp^ror,. also the manner, i e., ob 

iUpop a&r^y r^p Mvkw^w, kkXh ical rhp rp4vop aln^s. Cf. note^ L 
8. 1. 

884 NOTES. 


*ti94 9m t, tomewhat thm. n^f u here used mnch m the pio- 
Doun rU frequent! J isssLfttin fere. So just below and in IV. fi. 6 
wo26y rt... 6wo76s ri ; eee note, I. 1. 1, and lY. fi. & 

8* — ZlZifs ttSt/ii; see note, lY. 2. 21. o6 ykp oZp; eeenote^ 

IV. 4L 23. 

4* — V^fitfi; ^etabliabed bj lav. — '-^filp, in onr jadgment; for 
this meaning of the Dat, aee note, IV. 2. 14b 

S« — *K9^pA «* 1 f . . . 2p a. For the position of the noun before the 
interrogatlye particle^ see note, IL 7. 8. Men here are eontrasted with 

godsw nab* & Sffi «'«f &XX4A.oiff xp9^«^>*i '^^ aooordaaee 

with which it is in some manner (vc^) necessary for men to have inter- 
course with one another. 9Zroi ; for the pleonastic use of the pro- 
noun here, see note^ IL 1. 19. 

•• — Oi^vhat S«ir fi^ voiciy ; see a similar accumulation of infi- 
nitives in in. 6. Iff, and c£ note. old at ; an Ionic form for oUbu, 

Xenophon perhaps uses two other Ionic forms of this same verb: nlZa* 
rir, Oeoon. XX. 14, and efSa/icr (aL XffiiMw% Anab. IL 4. 6. The wri- 
ters of the age of Xenophon, and especially Xenophon himself did not 
rigidly discard every Ionic form. Some of the Leuoons erroneously say 
that this form is " never used in the clatisic prose writers." See Veitch's 

Irreg. Gr. Verbs, c«8cm. hpbms Kk votc. IIot^ is not here a 

simple particle of emphasis as often with the interrogative pronouns^ 
but s the Latin aliquando, at length; i.e., after so many turnings 

do we come to this definition f 6pi(ot/i€ba 6pt(6tiftfoi; cf. note, 

IV. 2. 21. The similarity of this idiom, which has been several times 
noticed, to a very common construction in Hebrew, cannot laU to occur 
to any one at all familiar with that language. 

T« — "AXXe...!^ f vo^cl tiffip; do you suppose that wisdom is 
any thing else but that by which men are wise t For the change from 
the singular rlr in the preceding clause to the plural, see note, L 2. 62. 

*Ewiirr'fifAfl ipa vo^ta ia-rip; Socrates reasons in a similar 

manner in Plat. Theaet. p. 141. D. The article is omitted with the sub- 
ject; cf. note, L 2. 23. OhZh fiit Ai\,.vokKoarhw, OM be- 
longs with iroXXoffT^y, and the logical order of the words would be : 
M& Ai\ (pLOtyt pud^ woXXoarhr /ifyot avr&tf. For the meaning of the 
word voAAoo-r^y, see note, IIL 1. 6, and for the idea, III. 8. 2-8. 

8. — Th ipa M^^Ai/Aor, ir.rA. It should be distinctly borne in 
mind, that Socrates in all his ai^guments for the yroJUabU, does not treat 
it as the motive or end of action, but the rule. True happiness, he oon- 

BOOK ly. CHAP. YI. 386 

tendi^ u the measure of the good will of the ^^ds to ^en, the interpreter 
of their designs ; bat it is not merely our interest^ but our duty^ to com* 
pi J with the rule of action thus discovered. " In a word,** it has been 
well said, " the great principles of conduct as set forth by his [Socrates'] 
philosophy, are : piety as the motiye, usefulness as the measure, and self- 
command [fyjcpircia] as the means." The Greek Philosophers^ Socrates 
and Plato, by Potter, p. 58. 

9> — ^T^ Z9 KaX'^v.n.wAvra KaXhv 6y, The difficulty of this paa- 
iage has given occasion to varioua ohai^ges of the text by different edi- 
tors; but as almost all the Ms. authority is in &vor of the reading which 
is here given, it la perfaapa better to attempt an interpretation, even if it 
ahall be only a probable on% than to take time in making a new text. 
The most natural explanation seema to be : can we othertoUe {xut Kx- 
Xms), acflrh ^iytAiv, $ 8, (cC HL 8, where it is demonstrated that iraX^jr, 
igyadir, and xfhviiuv are the sameX define the beautiful, or do you name 
that beautiful, if there be any thing beautiful (t Z foriyX whether body 
or vessel, or any thing else, which you know to be in every respect (vp^f 
w^tii beautiful f The explanation of Seiffert accords substantially with 
this: jam vero pulchrum num aliter definire possum us (sa ^ rh kytAiv)^ 
an si quid est, quod scias ad omnia pulchrum esse vel corpus , . . hoc pul- 
chrum appellas ff Another interpretation is however possible, i. e., How 
else can we define the beautiful than, if it is admissible {<tl twrw), or 
(according to others) exempli causa, you call that beautiful, whe- 
ther, etc This is rather favored by a marginal reading in Stephanu^ 
^ tptartw 6pofU(ttp, but on the whole^ seems to do greater violence to 
the Greek, than the former explanation. 

1 0f — ^'A vlpiav. This virtue is more fully discussed in Plato*s Laches 
where we find that Socrates' idea, with which what follows here sub- 
stantially accord^ is : that valor comprises two principal ideas, know- 
ledge and a eonsci^utious regard to what is right and good, which 
enables one to conduct himself properly, especially in all dangerous 
emergencies, avoiding the evil and pursuing the good. Thus when 
Nicias^ p. 195. A, defines Mpla to be rj^y r&¥ 9fiv&y iral ba^^ak4wf ivf 
WT^fi^y iral iv wo\4fi^ ical i^ rots tiXXois twoffuf, Socratea is not satisfied, 
but contends that the valiant are only those, ol iwiardfi^voi roit 9u¥oif 
re leol iwiKiMyoit KaXAt xfiV^^f^ ^ Stallbaum's Prolegomena ad 

Lachetem. r&v icaXMy...c7yai ; partitive Gen., see Kahn. Gr. 

$278. 8. (a). K^UXj<rroir fikp oSr, and Just after: /Acyivra ftir 

• Ir; see note, II. 7. 5. Mh At' l^i| ; cf. note, L 4. 9. N^ 

At* t^ii; sc. o&K &y8pcio( curi, to be supplied from the preceding inter- 
rogation ; cf. note, H. 7. 4. Tj 9h ol,..9t9oin479t; 90, ioKoM 


886 NOTES. 

EHipflM of this kind, vliioli maj be ewfl j comprdMnded without 
being ezpreMed, are eommon in interrogations in Greek as well as other 

11«— O0K &\X&; cCnote,IL'6. 11. robs oTsvs. .. xp^^'dai, 

who are such as toy etc The construction of the infinitive as in L 4^ 6. 
The article is not unfrequentlj used with ofo^ see KOhn. Or« ( 932. B» 9; 
L. Gr. n. ^ 788. Anm. 4. 

lt« — Katk p6fiovs rAw wiK^mp, jbr.A. Aoeording to Soentci^ 
idea, the government of Athens in the time of Aristides and Tbeau/bl^' 
dee was a fiartXtiot a monarehj, beeanse these tnen possessed anpreme 
aathority, bat governed willing sabjects according to the laws ; on the 
other lumd, the government in the time of Pericles and Alcibiadei^ was 
a rvpamfls, a t jrannj, beeanse they governed unwilling snbjedB neoord- 
ing to their own will. — — <« T«r rk pifii/ia iwtr9>*69rmw, 
from those who are obedient to tjie lawii Soerates' preferen^^ for .an 
aristoeratieal form of government here appears: cC Plat Mene'vpw 28& 
Q and Wiggers' Life, chap. YIL 4.— -^k rifni/idrttp, choaen ac- 
cording to their property. 

IS* — Zt..,iiPTih4yot; see note, L 8. 4. ^^ vtp^ row; the prc- 
nonn is masculine, as appears from what followau ~^- ffr o i . . . ^ ; bj 
the addition of rol to the first ^, the disjanctive relation is more marked; 

see Kahn. L. Gr. XL $ 746. 4, and c£ IIL 12. 2; Cjrop. IV. 6. 29 

V9^Ar9pop..,hp ubrhs X^oi ; i. e., tro^^§p6p rtpa clrai, V wyrht 
Xiyoi, % hp 6 XmKpdnis A^c ^irl riip ^wi^tirtp, to the sub- 
ject matter of the disenseion. 

14* — ^T( oZp o&ff... ^rioTKc^^/Aci^a; cf. note^ HL 1. 10. — 
Kabvvtprdpap r&p iiprtirdKmp ; compendious comparison for r^t 

r&p hrr^iriKmp; see note, 11 L 5.4: vphs rohs 'A^palovt. 4 rap a - 

'jf flip tip ; sc. M rV ^^cair. 

15* — *b ir^rc...8ic|/oi. The Opt denoting repeated or customaiy 
action; see note, I. 2. fi7. — Si& rup fidkivra iftokoyovfiSpmp 
iwopt^tro, he carried on his argument bj means of the most evident 
propositionsw So at the end of the section : Zih rStp ZoKo6pTmp rtHs ar> 
dyM^roir Kyttp roht Xiyovs, and in Oecon. XIX. 16: Symp ydp fcc 81* 2» 
iy^t iwtvratuu. For the use of 81^ here, see Kflhn. L, Gr. IL ^ 605. 
p, 281 ; Gr. ^ 291. 1. (b). Socrates' habit of beginning and carrying on 
an argumentation by successive propositions most generally recMved aa 

true, is well known; ct Ritter, IL p. 62. ra^riip rifp kv^d- 

Afiar cTyai A^ydv. To^r is predicate^ and hencc the article with 


A^i^ttAciai The phrase r^v iur^d\tt€» k^ou, is equivalexit to: an argu- 
ment that produces conviction. '0/ti}poF...&yci;^crrai, tcrJi, The 

reference here is to Odjss. YIIL 111: & si d^^oX^wt Ayopc^i. ^— t^ 
Atf'^aA^ P^ropa cTyai, that he should be a persuasive orator. ——> 
tik rmy BoKo^prmy ro7f Siy^pAwots, through those things that 
•re readily acknowledged by men. See above : SiA r&w 6fio?<oywft4tm0 


!•— T^r iavTou ypAfiiip kw9^aip§ro. For the reflexive pro> 

noun with the verbs in the middle voice, see note, L 6. IS. ahrdp" 

ircif ip rait vposfiK66ffais wpd^tirip, jcrA., competent of them- 
selves (without foreign aid), in whatever labors devolve upon them ; i. cl, 
according to the promise made in IV. 8. 1, MVXa^ii^o^f. *Eiti/u\*7ffdeu 
is very seldom followed by an infinitive either with or without an accn- 
■ative, unless the In£ be accompanied by the article in the Gen., or Ace. 
(rare), as in passages like I. 2. 66 ; IIL 8. >1 ; IV. 8. 6, et aL It how- 
ever frequently happens that with verbs, which take noun in the Gen. 
or Dat after them when by themselves, if an Int is added, this noun in 
the Gen. or Hat is changed to the Ace. so as to avoid the repetition of 
the object of the verb ; cf. EAhn. L. Gr. II. } 647. Seiifert compares the 
construction here with the Lat non dubito fore plerosque, and 
similar phrases. clSc^i;; Opt because indicating indefinite fre- 
quency, and preceded in construction by a verb in a past tense. 

8« — M^xp' iroVf how iar, quatenus. Tpdyfiarotf negotii 

ex doctrina et scienlia pendentis; Schneid. avriira, /of example, 

a meaning confined to Attic Greek. It seems to be an elliptical form ol 
expression, signifying strictly : I forthwith (without delaying to select)^ 

take as an example, etc. tpyop &iro3c((a^;^ai, to designate^ 

lay out work, i e., building spots^ or any thing where geometrical figures 
are employed. This seems to be much the most facile and natural inter- 
pretation of this phrase, although various others have been given. 
Kiihner, following the interpretation of Coray, makes the words equiva- 
lent to y^p tpyop AvoSc/ladrdai iiyphp iavr^ Toirjcai mrflpapra, 
or more briefly : yrip kyp!6p kwr^ ipydaaoha^ but it is difficult to see 
what the process here indicated, has to do directly with ytttfitrpla. He 
indeed says that it denotes that which follows the acceptance, trans- 
mission, or division of land, according to correct measurement^ and in 

S88 ' NOTES. 

ezplftnation of tpy^ addnees from Conj: tpyw yitp lun^ ^|«xV ^h^ 
reu ri y^mpyia, iral ahr^ vfiofM h yeYUfpyritiipyi 79 ; ef. IL A 751. fu 28S. 
But it does not seem to ua probable, that Huch an idea should be intro- 
dnoed here. -~— r^r ...7JI1'; the use and omission of the article here 

with yfip and the obvious reason for it cannot escape notice. tta\ 

At ft€Tp9irai 4wiordfi€yoi' &iri ^ rat, and go away knowing (L e., 
would retain in memory), etc: *Ancrcu has here Terj much the signifi- 
cation of the verb in such Latin phrases as : victorem discedere. 

S, — O&K iw9ipos..,Hw. It is evident from such passages as thii 
that Socrates was not unskilled in science, and that the instructions of 
his master in geometry, Theodoras, were not lost upon him. The same 
thing is evident from the ridicule of A