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concerning some branches of the 




People who never look back on their Ancestors 
Will never look forward to Posterity 

Think of your Ancestors and emulate them 
wherein they deserve emulation 





I am aware of the iiicoiupleteiiess and inijperfections of this 
account of the Hawkins family, but have caused it to be printed 
for distribution, with the liope tliat my work may be the basis of a 
more complete and satisfactory history by some member of the 
family who may be atforded better facilities than have been ac- 
corded myself for a satisfactory work. 

I especially suggest to such persons that the records of Car- 
diff and other places in Wales be examined to trace the Hawkins 
family. Some of William Hawkins' family went over to Wales. 

Indianapolis. Indiana. JOHN P. HAAVKINS. 


The Hawkins Family of Devonshire, England. 

The following' inforiuation is derived from an account of the 
Hawkins family contained in a book. "The Plymouth Armada 
Heroes," by ^liss Mary W. S. Hawkins, Buckfastleigh, South 
Devon, England, a descendant of Sir John Hawkins, Admiral: 

Margaret Hawkins, daugliter of Hawkins, mar- 
ried William Amadas, Sergeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII. Joan 
Amadas, the only child, married John Hawkins, P]s(]., probably 
a c<nLsin. living at Tavistock (Devon). 


Williaui, Captain R. N., Lord of the ^Manor of Sutton Valle- 
tore (or Vawter) ; Mayor of Plymouth, 1532; M. P. for Ply- 
mouth, 1552. He established English trade with the South Seas. 

Henry, Clerk in Orders; deceased 1554. 

Agnes, married Walter Trelawney, of St. Germans. 

William Hawkins. Captain R. N., married Joan Trelawney. 


William, :\Ia.vor of Plymouth 1567-8, 1578-9, 1587-8: com- 
manded the 'MJriffin" in the fight against the Spanish Armada; 
died October 7th, 1589. 

John (the Admiral), born 1532; Treasurer and Comptroller 
of the Navy ; Port Admiral of Plymouth ; Admiral in the Armada 
victory ; Member of Parliament 1571-2 ; died at sea off Porto 
Rico, November 12th, 1595, after forty-three years of service. 
The genealogical table of Miss Hawkins gives a detailed statement 
of the children and near descendants of Sir John. 

William Hawkins (brother of the Admiral), married, second, 
jNIarie Halse. 


William, R. N.. son of first wife. 


Francis, born 1584. 


Nicholas, born 1582: baptized at St. Andrew's, Plymoiith. 

AVilliam, born February 29th, 1587. (He had two sons named 
William, both mentioned in his will.) 



Mary, married 1601. 

The above children were probably all born at Plymouth. 
Their descendants have not been traced by Miss Hawkins, and 
I do not know that any effort has been made by anyone to trace 

Referring to the above Nicholas, there was also a Nicholas, 
grandson of the Admiral, born at Slapton, March 31st, 1639. 
There was a Robert Hawkins, of Biddeford. descendant of the 
Admiral, whose will, made in 1680, mentions his wife. Jane, and 
his brothers, Nicholas and Thomas. Tlu^ name Nicholas seems 
to have been used in the families of both William and the Ad- 

In the Spring- of 1895 I Avas in Raleigh, North Carolina, and 
called on Mrs. William Hawkins, who resided there. The Haw- 
kins family of North Carolina left Virginia and settled in North 
Carolina about 1735. Their emigrant ancestor. Philemon Haw- 
kins, came to Virginia in 1715, and many circumstances go to 
show that he settled near to an ancestor of mine, John Hawkins, 
of King William. The North Carolina family and my branch of 
.the family have, for many generations, carried "Philemon" as 
a family name. I was very kindly welcomed as a relation by 
Mrs. Hawkins, and she informed me that the colored maid in 
presenting my card to her remarked: I never saw the gentle- 
man before, but he is a Hawkins." and Mrs. Hawkins, whom I 
had never previously met, was of the same opinion as to my re- 
semblance to her branch of the family. She informed me that 
the maid could not read, so she could not have known my name 
from the card. The incident would also show that a strong 
fanlily resemblance exists among the Hawkins of North Carolina. 

In 1893 I sent my photograph to J\Iiss Hawkins, of Devon- 
shire (a descendant of the Acbniral). She did not acknowledge 
receipt of it for some time, and excused the delay because of the 
recent death of her father. She remarked of the photograph, 
"which is rather like my father, and he was considered so like 


our portrait of Sir John." The fact of this likeness is confirmed 
and emphasized by the following incident : 

In the Fall of 1897 I was in London, staying at a house fre- 
quented by English people. One day a gentleman in the house 
was introduced to my wife, and he remarked that on his arrival 
the previous day he sn\v General Hawkins in the hall and was 
greatly startled for he was the exact image of a friend of his, 
a Mr. Hawkins, of Devonshire, recently deceased. This was the 
father of ^liss Hawkins above referred to. 

I afterwards made the acquaintance of Miss Hawkins, and 
was struck with her likeness to my sister, Margaret Speed. Be- 
tween this sister and myself there has always been a strong re- 

During the i)ast sunnner, VM'2, 1 was was at Northtield, ^lass., 
and was there introduced to a ]\Iis.s Chapman, who informed me 
that she was of English birth. I asked lier what part of England 
she came from. She said Devonshire. I then asked her if she 
knew any Hawkins people there. She said yes, had gone to 
school with them and added, "and you look just like them." 

Dr. Edward Everett Hale, the celebrated author, one time 
Chaplain of the United States Senate, wrote me June 26th, 1896, 
that he had a Hawkins descent through John Bouchier Sears 
(deceased IS-IO), who married Elizabeth Hawkins (of the Ad- 
miral's family). As the Admiral was born in 1582, Elizabeth 
must be of 'a date at least one genei-ation ()revi()us to him. Dr. 
Hale said: "We think we find a likeness l)etw('('ii the l)ust of 
Hawkins and (me of my sons. Arthui- Hale." 

I elsewhere mention that my nephew, i\ustiii P. Speed, noted 
a mai'ked resemblance between myself and a stranger to him, a 
descendant of Captain John Hawkins, Conunissary of Provi- 

To recapitulate s(^mewhat: It appears that there is a family 
likeness between many members of the different branches of the 
Hawkins family in America, embracing the Hawkins family of 
North Carolina, which claims descent from Sir John, the Ad- 
miral; the family of (Jeneral W^illiam O. Butler, claiming de- 
scent from William, a brother of the Admiral ; the family (^f 
Dr. Edward Everett Hale, having a probable descent from an 
ancestry previous to the Admiral (a member of the same resem- 


bling a picture of the Admiral) : my own family, that has always 
claimed to be of the same family as the Admiral, members of 
which in the present <>eueration show a likeness to descendants 
of the Admiral and also a likeness to the North Carolina family, 
the William 0. I^utler family (Captain John Hawkins, Com- 
missary of Provisicms"). and a likeness to the Nathan Byrd Haw- 
kins family, of Portland, Indiana. 

The family of Captain John Hav.kins, Fifth ^laryland ; that 
of North Carolina, and my own family, have had for several gen- 
erations the name Philemon as a family name. This would in- 
dicate a similar origin. The Maryland family claim descent 
from William, brother of the Admiral. Captain John Hawkins, 
Fifth ^Maryland, claims ancestry from an emigrant to Maryland 
in 1650, and Captain John Hawkins. Adjutant Third Virginia 
Regiment, had an ancestor emigrant to Maryland the same date. 
They doubtless had the same ancestor. 

It may be affirmed as a rule in heredity that where a number 
of individual organisms, animal or vegetable, clearly resemble 
one another, they must have been derived from the same stock, 
and in the case of the Hawkins families here mentioned, though 
their actual kinship to .John or William has not yet been traced, 
yet it may be assumed as a certainty that the father of these 
brothers, William Hawkins, Captain Royal Navy, who married 
Joan Trelawney, and tlu^ Admiral were ancestors of my branch 
of the family, and of those branches mentioned in this writing. 
and of other branches not here named, now living in the United 

It may be assumed that there is some physical trait in my 
family that has been transmitted through ancestors for a period 
of now four hundred years. It is a wonderful example of the 
force of what may be termed a centripetal heredity; the more 
remarkable because I am not aware of any special peculiarity or 
mark in those of my blood that might be expected to reappear 
from one g:eneration to another. l)ut sure it is that our family. 
M^hether in England, Massachusetts. North Carolina. Indiana, 
Virginia, or Kentucky, has maintained a distinctive feature in 
looks that impresses others with their similitude, and this in op- 
position to the natui'al tendency or forces of diverse climates and 


environments that make foi- variation and the ol)literation of 
orio'inal eharaeteristies. 


John Hawkins was born at Plymoutli, Devonshire, in 1532; 
was well edneated. particularly in mathematics and navigation, 
and commenced his career as a navigator at an early age, making 
voyages to Spain, Portugal, and the Canary Islands. 

It was during these voyages that he learned about the West 
Indies (all of them belonging to Spain), and learned tliat negroes 
were in demand at San Domingo and that they could be procured 
on the (Guinea Coast. He formed a company of traders, and 
with three ships he sailed in 1562 to Sierra Leone, where he 
loaded with a cargo of negroes and sold them at different ports 
in San Domingo. 'Phis was followed by other like voyages and 

Hawkins has been stigmatized as the first one to introduce 
slaves into America, but such is not the case. Charles Fifth au- 
thorized the importation of negroes into the West Indies as early 
as 1517 (forty-five yeai's before Hawkins' expedition), and in 
1551 he otfered foi- sale a license for the importation of seventeen 
thousand negroes. Up to 1562 the slave trade had been a mo- 
noply of the Spaniards and Portugese, but after Hawkins In'oke 
into this monopoly it was engaged in by other English subjects, 
under the protection of the English Government, and under 
treaty rights, and was not discontinued but maintained by the 
English Government up to 1807, when it was abolished after an 
existence of almost two Imndred and fifty years. 

It may be noted that in all the early narratives of these times 
there is no intimation that there was any wrong connected with 
it. It was a period wlu-n the elect chose to consider that God 
had given them the heathen for an inlieritance. and human rights 
had so little influence in the minds of many good men that even 
religious schismatics and heretics were judged as proper subjects 
for slavery, as witness the folio-wing letter from Cotton Mather 
in 1681, the original of which is in the possession of the ^Massa- 
chnsetts Historical Society : 
"To the Aged and Beloved John Higginson : 

"There be now at sea a ship (for our friend Elias Holcroft. 


of London did advise nio by the last packet that it would be some 
time in August) called the Welcome, which has on board a hun- 
dred or more of tlie heretics and malignants called Quakers, with 
William Peun, the scamp, at the head of them. 

"The General Court has accordingly given secret orders to 
Master Malachi Haxett, of the brig Porpoise, to waylay said 
Welcome, as near the end of Cape Cod as may be, and make cap- 
tives of Penn and his ungodly crew, so that the Lord may be 
glorified and not mocked on the soil of this new country with the 
heathen worsliip of these people. 

"Much sj)oil may he made by selling the wliole lot to Bar- 
badoes, where slaves fetch great prices in rum and sugar, and 
we sh.dl not only do the Lord great service by punishing the 
wicked, but shall make great gain for His ministers and people. 
Yours in the bonds of Christ, Cotton Mather." 

The Jolni Higginson to whom the letter was addressed was 
a Puritan minister at Salem, Mass.. a i)illar of the churcli and <'n 
active opponent of the Quakers. Having due regard for the 
times in which he lived. Cotton Mather was a good man •, but was 
not a Christian beyond his day and generation, and no doubt he 
advised selling the Quakers into slavery as more merciful than 
burning them. But the idea is repellant and it is pitiful to have 
his record and John Higginson 's associated with Eum and 

The following is a further example of a habit of thought, at 
a period a little more than one hundred years ago. 

Ezra Stiles, a clergyman and educator, — 1727-1795, — Presi- 
dent of Yale College, accounted, at home and abroad, as the most 
learned and accom;plished divine of his day, when a parish min- 
ister at Newport, Rhode Island, writes this in his diary of one of 
his parishioners late deceased. 

"God had blessed him with a good estate, and he and his 
family have been eminent for hispitality to all and charity to 
the poor and afflicted. At his death he recommended religion to 
his children, and told them that the world was nothing. The 
only external blemish on his character was that he was addicted 
to the marvelous in stories of what he had seen in his voyages 
and travels, but in his dealings he was punctual, upright and 
honest, and (except the fly in the ointment, the disposition to 


tell marvelous stories) in all other tilings he was sober, of <^ood 
moral character, respected and beloved by all. so as to be almost 
without enemies. He was forward in all the concerns of the 
church and congregation, consulting its benefits and peaceably 
falling in with the general sense, without exciting quarrels, par- 
ties, etc., and even when he differed from his brethren, he so 
differed from them that they loved him amidst the difference. 
He was a peaceable man and promoted peace. 

"He was for many years a Guinea Captain, and had no doubt 
of the slave trade." 

But Stiles does not refer to this as constituting a "tly in the 
ointment." This was written in 1773. but in 1785 Dr. Stiles 
speaks of the .slave trade as "a most iniquitious trade in the souls 
of men."" He would fix n have noted it as a very large tly in the 
ointment, twelve years having given him a new light and lan- 
guage to express his abhorrence. 

Sir John Hawkins died in 1595. Dr. Stiles was of the sixth 
generation from that date. It reqtiired two httndred years of 
Christian progress to give him a conscience to denounce the 
traffic. The world moves ahead by slow evolution, and it is not 
in the line of fairness or good judgment to harshly condemn the 
historic characters of any age for being permeated with, and 
infltieneed by, the ideas of their times, and so acting in unison 
with their environments. 

English contemporary writers say of Sir John Hawkins: 
""He was graceful in his youth, and a grave and reverend aspect 
as he advanced in years; a skilful mathematician, with a thorough 
Iviiowledge of maritime affairs : of an almost unbounded capacity 
for work: an upright administrator who for forty-eight years 
was in the active service of his country; submissive to his su- 
periors and courteous to his inferiors, extremely aff'able to his 
seamen and remarkal^ly loved by them; merciful, forgiving, and 
faithful to his woiyI : the ablest seaman of his day, and the best 
shipwright that England had ever produced: nf all the Eliza- 
bethan galaxy, the most nearly to approach the t.vpical English- 
man : a very Avise, pious, vigilant, trtie-hearted man ; the very 
solidity of his virtues, the very greatness of his deeds have caused 
tluin to be inadeqtiatelv esteemed. His populai'ity among his 


neighbors was great, and he was three times elected a mennher 
of Parliament." 

It may l)e termed an assumption of self righteousness for this 
generation to enter judgment, according to present standards for 
Christian conduct, against the noted worthy Puritans, Cotton 
]\Iathcr and John Higginson,- — the pious and kindly parishioner 
of Ezra Stiles. — or tlie renowned Sea Captain. — a hero of the 
Armada victory. — Admiral Sir John Hawkins. 



The earliest record that I have discovered of my branch of 
the Hawkins family in America is in a grant of land to John 
Hawkins, of King William County, Virginia, in 1731, and in 
Deed Book A, Page V46, Spotsylvania County, Virginia, record 
of a Deed to him of four Inuidi'cd acres of land on the Pamunky- 
on both sides of the mouth of Terry's Run. or (jigging River. 
This John Hawkins is again mentioned as recently deceased, in 
Deed Book D, Page 17. Spotsylvania County, November 16th, 
1742, where it appears that his wife's name was Mary, and the 
following children were mentioned : 

Joseph=Jane ; died 1769. 

Philemon=Sarah Smith, about 1743 -, died 1779. 

Elizabeth^George Smith (a brother of Sarah). 

Phoebe^Charles Smith (a brother of Sarah). 

Mary=Taliafero Craig; died 1804. Parents of the Baptist 
preachers, Lewis and Elijah Craig. 

The will of Joseph Hawkins is recorded in Deed Book D, 
Page 525, Spotsylvania County, March 30th, 1769, wherein he 
mentions his wife, Jane; his children, John, Joseph, Lucy and 
Sarah. His brother Philemon was one of the witnesses. 

Elizabeth Hawkins I have no certain knowledge of. It is 
prubabU that the Frances Smith who married the Rev. Elijah 
Craig w^s her daughter. It will be noticed hereafter that a 
George Smith -ind many of the Craig or Hawkins connection 
were present on the 3rd of July, 1784, at a church meeting at 
South Elkhorn. It is also probable that he and his wife were of 
the "Traveling Church." 

Phoebe Hawkins: I have had some correspondence with ]\Ir. 


Juhu Phiiemuu Smith, uf Sharpsburg', Md., aud he iufunns me 
that he has an Uncle Philemon Smith in Gaithersburg, ]\Id., who 
says he often heard his father speak of his Aunt Sally Hawkins. 
The father of John Philemon Smith was John Hawkins Smith, 
and his grandfather's name was Philemon McElfresh Smith. I 
have no doubt that my correspondent is a descendant of Phoebe 
Hawkins. The records of Spotsylvania or Orange County would 
probal)ly show the facts. 

Philemon Hawkins and Sarah Smith (her father was Stephen 
Smith) were my ancestors. In the records of Spotsylvania 
County is the foHowing, under the heading of "Colonial 

( >rder Book, 1749-1755. 

"l*hilemon Hawkins, Gentleman, commissioned to be Captain 
of a Company of Foot: took the oath February 5th, 1750." 

It was the custom in Virginia to divide each County into 
Military Djistricts, each District raising a Company. The entire 
force of the County being under the command of a CoJonel. 

Commencing July 21st, 1755, lie was enrolled as Captain in 
the Second Virginia Regiment commanded by Col. William 
Byrd. in the war between Great Posetam and France, in 1780. 
His hell's Avere granted a warrant by the State of Virginia for 
8,000 acres of land for his services as Captain. This warrant, 
according to Kentucky records, was entered by Elijah Craig. 
Any female descendant of Philemon Hawkins is entitled to mem- 
bership in the Society of Colonial Dames. Philemon Hawkins, 
as the most distinguished of his family in those early days, is 
entitled to be honored by those of his blood by perpetuating the 
name of Philemon through future generations. The name seems 
to have been in the family in the old country. jMaryland records 
show a Philemon Lloyd Hawkins as an emigrant from Wales. 

Philemon Hawkins' will is recorded in Book 2. Page 334, 
Spotsylvania County. May Hth, 1779. He mentions his children 
as follows : 

John, born Auuust 2i>th. 1744; married firet. Margaret Jam- 
eson, 1767 : second, Sarah Johnson, April 13th, 1771. 

Joseph, no record. 

Frances (or Frankie), married Richard Thomas. 

Philemon, married Catharine Craig, daughter of Lewis Craig. 


Lucy, iiuiri'ictl .Jt'i'ciiiiah Ci'jii^. Lewis and -jeremiali were 
sons of Taliaferro Craiii' and Alary Hawkins. 

The above John ILnvkins was my i^reat grandfather. My 
great grandiHothci'. Margaret .Jameson, died September 12th, 
1770. His will, made October 80th, 1804, was probated Septem- 
ber. 180H, at (Jeorgetown, Ky. The cliihlren mentioned in his 
will were as follows. (The first iwo are children of Margaret 
Jameson.) : 

Jameson, born August 21st, 1768; mari"ied Ruth Ann Threl- 

Philemon, born July 13th, 1770; married Elsie Lewis, De- 
cember 3rd, 17!*!>. 

Peggy, married Harry Cave. 

Sally Smith, married Thomas P. Thomas (a cousin). 

Nancy, married William Cason. {A grandson of Nancy. John 
D. Cason, lives in Pomona, California.) 

John, married Joanna Harrison. 

Fanny, married General Philemon Thomas (a consin) ; his 
second wife. 

Betsey, married William Faulkner. (A son or grandson was 
Alexander — "Sandy" — Fanlkner, celebrated as the author of 
the "Arkansas Traveler," who died about 1861.) 

William, married Lydia Todd Francis; was born July 10th, 
1784 ; died July 8th, 1845 ; was at the battle of New Orleans. A 
descendant married her cousin, John D. Cason. The family 
of William moved to Howard County, Missouri. 

Lucinda, married Davis subsequent to 1805. She 

had two daughters; they moved to Missouri about 1825. 

Katy Hawkins. I have no record of her. 

My great grandfather, John Hawkins, emigrated to Kentucky 
in 1788, stopping first at Bryans Station. Two or three years 
afterward he moved to Scott County and settled on a farm near 
Georgetown, on the Frankfort road, in tlie neighborhood of the 
"Great Crossing" of the Elkhorn. He and his wife, Sarah, are 
buried on the farm. The large stone house built by him is still 
standing; an addition of brick is built in front of it, so that it 
is not visible from the road. The graves are in an enclosure, — a 
stone wall, — about fifty yards to the rear of the house. The 
farm was purchased by him from Patrick Henry. They were 


niemliei's of the ''Great Crossing" Baptist Church. I have no 
record that woukl identify this John Hawkins as a soldier of the 
Revolution, but my irrandfather Jameson Hawkins always said 
that his father bore an honorable part therein : that he was an 
officer, and that on one occasion, in a tight in the woods, he lost 
an epaulette. ^ly grandfather was tifteen years old at the close 
of the War. and liad intimate personal rehitions with, his father 
for more than twenty years after the close, and as he was a per- 
son of unusual intelligence and .strict veracity, there is every 
reason to believe his statement as true, and as according to his 
own knowledge. 

Francis (or Fraukie) Hawkins, who married Richard 
Thomas, had the following children : Philemon. David, Row- 
land. Thomas P., and five daughters. A daughter, Sally, mar- 
ried a Harrison: another daughter, Lucy, married a son of Cath- 
erine Craig and Philemon Hawkins. Philemon Thimias became 
distinguished in Louisiana as a politician and a miliary man ; 
his first wife Avas Mary, a daughter of LcaWs Craig; he was in 
Kentucky as early as 1791. probably much before that date: was 
a member of the Kentucky Legislature. 

Referring back to Joseph, the brother of my great grand- 
father. John Hawkins, I have no record of him. but my cousin, 
Sally Hawkins Long (now deceased, and to whom I am indebted 
for much family history) once wrote me: "Our grandfather. 
Jameson Hawkins, had three cousins who at one time lived in 
Boone County. Ky. Joseph and Thomas Hawkins and their sis- 
ter. ]\rrs. Sally Fornian or Firman. The first two died in Ken- 
tucky. Sally moved to Boone or Callaway County. ^lissouri, 
with her two sons. Joseph and Ben. I rememlier them well." 

"Tliomas never married. Cousin Joe had no children, hut a 
great deal of brains, money and piety. " ' I think it very probable 
that these cousins were the cliildren of Joseph, the brother of my 
great grandfather. John. 

Jameson Hawkins, my grandfather, married Ruth Ann Threl- 
keld, October 1th. 1786. She was born. December 5th. 1766, in 
Culpeper County, Virginia. He died at Indianapolis, Septem- 
ber 16th. 1810: she died December 29th. 1852: both are buried at 
Crown Hill Cemetery in the lot of a grandson, Nicholas ]McCarty. 

Jameson Hawkins emigrated with his father to Kentucky in 


1788; moved afterward to Boone County to a farm near Bur- 
lington, and for several periods represented that County in the 
Kentucky Legislature : he was a person of good physique, well 
read, an impressive speaker, and for numy years an exliorter in 
the Baptist church, hefore heing regularly ordained in 1830. 
Plis wife, Ruth Ann Threlkeld, was the daughter of John Threl- 
keld and Nancy Johnson. John Threlkeld was a soldier in the 
War of the Revolution; belonged to Captain ^Mercer's Company, 
Third Virginia Regiment. The name is printed "Thraikill" in 
Satfell, an erroneous and not an unusual spelling, and very much 
as pronounced. He returned from the War, but died soon after 
reaching home, — about 1780, — from sickness incident to the 
service. His father was Henry Threlkeld. who died in 1776. 

My great grandmother, Nancy Johnson Threlkeld, had three 
brothers, — Andrew, William and John. Her children were, 
Jesse, Ruth Ann (born 1766), IMargaret, Sarah. William (born 
1769). Margaret married William Cave, born in Orange Coun- 
ty, Virginia, about 1740, and came to Kentucky with the "Trav- 
eling Church." He was the son of Benjamin Cave, who fre- 
quently represented that County in the Assembly. In IMay, 
1785, he helped to form the "Great Crossing Church''; about 
1795 he moved to Boone County; died in 1806. A son or grand- 
son, John Cave, lived in our family in Covington, Indiana, and 
was a clerk in my father's store; died about 183-1. I do not know 
if others of that family are still living. Sarah married William 
Rodgers. William mai-ried Sally Burt. A son of the latter was 
killed at the battle of New Orleans. Her mother was Hannah 
Greene. A letter from Mr. Cyrus Threlkeld, of Uniontown. Ky., 
informs me that after the death of her husband, Nancy Johnson 
(Threlkeld) moved to Kentucky in company with Toliver Craig, 
Jr.. her uncle by marriage, her brother, Andrew Johnson, and 
others. It would therefore appear that my great grandmother 
was of the notable band, members of the Spotsylvania Baptist 
Church, that aceomjianied Lewis Craig, their pastor, in his emi- 
gration t(i Kentucky in 1781, for the name of Toliver Craig, Jr., 
is in the list, — (a very incomplete list), — of those who, starting 
from Virginia in October, 1781, endured the hardships of a win- 
ter march to find a home in Kentucky, where they could rest 
secure from the persecutions they had endured. For an account 


of this march see "The Traveling' Church." a paper read before 
the Filson Club of Louisville, Ky. And in this connection is to 
be noted that Deed Book I. Page 684, Spotsylvania County, Vir- 
ginia. August 11th, 1781. shows that Philemon Hawkins, Cath- 
arine Craig, his wife, and his mother. Sarah Hawkins (my great 
grandmother) sold the farm on which they lived on the Panuui- 
key, and it is extreiiiely prohalilc that these also were of the 
"Traveling Church." 

It will be borne in mind that Catherine was a daughter of 
Lewis Craig, the pastoi- of the church. There is record of this 
Philemon Hawkins and liis wife. Catharine, being in Kentucky 
as early as 1784. several years liefore my great grandfather, Jolni. 
came in 1788. They are mentioned as membei-s of the (Ireat 
Crossing Church. Scott Comity. July 30th, 1784. The Sarah 
Johnson who married John Hawkins as his second wife was a 
sister of Xancy Threlkeld. so that Jameson Hawkins and Ruth. 
Ann Threlkeld were step-cousins, but no blood kin. After the 
death of her husband. Catharine Craig married King. 

The children of Jameson Hawkins (my grandfathei- 1 and 
Ruth Ann Threlkeld were as follows : 

John (my father), born August 15th. 1787; niariictl Eliza- 
beth Waller at or near Paris, Ky., January 81st. 1816: died 
October 11th. 1841, at Crawfordsville. Ind. 

Gabriel, born at Bryan Station. Ky.. DcM-embcr 4th, 1788: 
married Elizabeth Bradford, October 24th. 1818: died August 
1st, 1886, at Lexington, Mo. 

Elijah, born October 7tli, 1796: married Sophia Bradford, 
September 11th. 1814; died August 30th. 1841, at Hannibal. :\ro. 

Philemon, born January 24th, 1792 ; died September 26th. 
1858; marned, first, Mary White, April 8th, 1824; second. Sina 
Arnold, :\Iarch 20th, 1836; third, Lydia Elston. August 11th. 
1853. Children: Canby. I^orn April 10th. 1859=Elnora Polk, 
born September 22nd. 1880. Children : Vesa Polk, born August 
27th, 1883=Clarence P. Xewcomb, born June 6th. 1906, lives 
at Basela Las Ainas County, Colorado. Canby Hawkins lives at 
Weston, ^rissouri. 

^largaret. born October 26th. 1798: mari-ied Nicholas Mc- 
Carty July 27th, 1828, in Boone County. Kentucky: died July 
]8th. 1878. at Indiaiuipolis. Ind. 


Moses, born Janiuu'v, 1795; married Ann Everett; died De- 
cember 3()th. 1858, near Hannibal, IMo. 

Sarah Ann, born ^lareh 8th, 1797; unmarried; died Novem- 
ber 3rd, 1862. 

Sally, born November, 1788; died February 10th, 1811. 

Philemon Hawkins, the second son of John Hawkins and 
Margaret Jameson, who married Elsie Lewis December 3rd, 1799, 
died in Boone County, Ky., November 2nd, 1825, and was buried 
at Middle Creek Church, Boone County. She died December 
10th, 1851. Soon after the death of her husband she moved to 
Missouri and settled in Ralls County, where, and in adjoining 
counties, some of her descendants now live. I am indebted to 
her grandson, John F. Hawkins, of Hawkins Station. Mo., for 
valuable information concerning the family. Some of Phile- 
mon's children remained in Kentucky. One of them, Fanny, 
the oldest daughter, married Benjamin Bledsoe; they lived in 
Mason County. Sally Bledsoe, a daughter, married Archibald 
Alexander; they moved to Boone County, Ind., and lived on a 
farm near Jamestown, and were always called by us "Cousin 
Alexander." She was a dear friend of my father, a very re- 
ligious woman, a member of the Christian church, and highly 
esteemeti by all who knew her. 

Archibald Alexander used to represent Boone County in the 
State Legislature; they had a son, Paxton, who married and 
raised a family ; a daughter of Pavton married I. H. Brill, Pitts- 
boro, Ind. ; a son lives in Mound Citv, Mo. ; the latter has what- 
ever Alexander records there may be. Another daughter (Bled- 
soe) married John Magee; there were two children by this mar- 
riage, one of them the mother of Dr. M. P. Robinson, of Lexing- 
ton, Ky., and his sister, Mrs. D. T. Ambrose, of the same place. 

Another of the children (Bledsoe) married Abernethy; 

they left two sons, John and George Abernethy, who live in Cov- 
ington. Ky. Lesly Worthington. of Marysville, Ky., is also a 
descendant of Philemon Hawkins, through Fanny Bledsoe. 

John Hawkins, who married Joanna Harrison, died in Boone 
County, Ky. ; one of his children, Jameson, lives near Pruetts 
Station, Ky. A daughter, Nancy, married Ben Moore; lives at 
Dover, Ky. Sallv married Thomas Nelson; some of their chil- 


dren are married and live in Kentucky. Some of William Haw- 
kins' descendants live in Howard County, ]Mo. 

Gabriel (son of Jameson Hawkins) moved at an earh^ date 
to Lexington, Mo., and died there in 1836 : he was a private in 
Captain Uriel Sebrees' Company Kentucky Militia; enlisted 
August 7th, 1812. and saw service in Canada, being engaged in 
one or moi-e battles: he had the following children: William, 
Sally (married Long). Gabriella. 

Cousin Sally knew much of the Hawkins family which she 
had received by tradition and through her knowledge of the 
dift'erent members, and was an amiable and interesting eorres- 
pondeuT on family matters. She gave me many clues to facts 
that are embraced in this history. Probably without her assist- 
ance it would never have been written, for I conunenced my 
search iu almost entire ignorance of data. The family of Uncle 
Gabriel were refined and every way interesting: none is now 
living, and no descendants. 

Elijah (son of Jameson Hawkins) married in Scott County. 
Ky., to Sophie Bradford Septemlier lltli, 1811: moved to Han- 
nibal. 3I(>.. in the year : died there August 30th. 1841: he 

was a Sergeant in Capt. Uriel Sebrees" Company Kentucky 
Militia in the War of 1812: enlisted August 17th, 1812: was in 
one or more battles in Canada. I have seen the ^Muster Rolls of 
Capt. Sebrees' Company in the Auditor's office. Treasury De- 
partnu'ut, Washington. It may be of interest to state that at that 
time the pay of a private soldier was six dollars : the pay of a 
Sergeant was eight dollars per month, — with rations and cloth- 

The following are the children : 

Eleanor Barbee, married Younger Pitts: some of their chil- 
dren live in Liberty. ]\Io. 

Jameson Fielding, born February 11th. 1819 : died 1885 : mar- 
ried in Scott County, Kentucky. March 28th, 1841, to Sarah Ann 
Smith, Avho was born January 10th. 1824, and died September 
8th, 1894. 

Benjamin, married and died in Tennessee: liis chiUb-en live 

Elijah, nuirried Priscilla Ann Hall : their clu'ldren live near 
^Mexico, ^lo. 


George William, married Ann Eliza Priest; children live 
near London, Mo. 

Sophia Frances Catharine, l)orn January 28th, 1832 : living 
in Hannibal, ^lo. -. married James I. ^Marnell December 22nd, 
1853 ; he died June 17th, 1870 ; their children : Daniel Elijah, 
born March 5th, 1855; one child, Frank. Edward John, bom 
March 6th, 1858 ; died 1885 : married Lucy Smith. 

Francis Hawkins, born August 13th, 1867 ; married Lizzie 
Jeffries, January 13th, 1898. 

Robert Overton, born August 31st, 1869 : married Georgie 
Hawk, June, 1895. 

Anne Laura, born December 1st, 1837 ; lives in Hannibal. 
]\[o. ; married October 28th, 1858. to James W. Frazer. who 
died . 

The children of Jameson Fielding Hawkins and Sarah Ann 
Smith were: 

Elijah, born January 26th, 1842, who married ]\Irs. Belle I. 
Coffin; one child. Joseph ]\IcAlpin (born 1889) ; live near Los 
Angeles. Cal. 

Thetis Clay, born ]\Iarch 20th, 1844; married William H. 
Hatch, April 4th, 1861 ; one child, Sarah Rodes, born ]\Iay 7th, 
1866; live near Hannibal, j\Io. 

Col. Hatch was born near Georgeto^Ti, Ky., of New England 
parentage. His father was a graduate of Bowdoin College ; his 
mother was Mary Reed Adams, coiniected with the Adams family 
of Braintree, INlass. Col. Hatch served in the Confederate Army 
as Ass't Commissioner for the exchange of prisoners. He was 
a Member of Congress from the Hannibal District for sixteen 
years, during which time he served on the Connnittee of Agri- 
culture, part of the time as Chairman. He was influential in 
causing the enactment of laws fo)' the benefit of agriculture, and 
so devoted to such interests that he was familiarly called "Farm- 
er Hatch." He was a good citizen, a good lawyer, an agreeable 
gentleman, and of unblemished reputation. He died December 
23rd, 1895, at his country home, "Strawberry Hill," that he 
loved so well, and Avas buried in the Hannil)al ceiuetery. 

Jane Woodson, born December 24th, 1845 ; married Febru- 
ary 24th, 1870, Francis L. Hewett. 

William Benjamin, born November 11th, 1847; married 


October Ttli, 1874. Elizabeth F. Viley, of Lexiiiiiton. Ky. Chil- 
dren: Mary Viley, born April 15th, 1876; Elijah Philemon, 
born 1878; married ^larie Hardin, April, 1906. 

Betty Viley was l)orn in Payette County, Kentucky, March 
5th, 1851 : was educated at (Jeoruetown Female College and 
Hocker College; died December l21st, 1906. She was a fine Chris- 
tian character and lovely in all the relations of life, and thcmght 
of her is affectionately associated with the sentiment. "Of such 
is the Kingdom of Heaven." 

Jameson, born Novembei' 1st, 1849; married Julia V. Offutt, 
1879. 'J'hev live near Bonners Ferry. Idaho. Their children: 
William B., Sarah Valinchi. Ellen, Lee, Elijah Rodes. 

Lucretia Jane, born November 23rd, 1851. 

Asa Smith, born Ai)ril 28tli, 1854. 

John Rodes, born September 21st, 1856 ; man-ied Nellie Fort, 
July 3rd, 1902. 

Sarah Ann, boi-n March 14th, 1859. 

Mary Ellen, horn A[)ril 13th, 1861. 

George Thomson, boni August 20th, 1863; married Sallie H. 
James, November, 1885. Children: Rodes Hatch, George 

, Laura Frances, born October 7th, 1866. 

Katharine Hawkins, horn Boone County, Kentucky, Septem- 
ber 22, 1800; married -John Parker. March 11. 1824; died De- 
cember 14, 1868. John Parker was born December 3, 1797; died 
February 24, 1855. He was connected by descent with the Tudor 
family of England. Children: 

Ruth Ann, born -Jaiuiary 24, 1825; married Washington 
Black, March 3, 1842; died . Children: Susanna, mar- 
ried William Griffin; Margaret, married Samuel Kealing; Emma, 
married William Staub ; Laura Bell, married Eli King ; Ella 
May. married Edward Goth; Kittv Elizabeth, married Warren 

Emerine, married Benjamin F. Rogers. Children : Kath- 
arine Parker. Levi, Helen Hutchinson. John Franklin. 

Margaret Frances, married John Dury. One child, died. 

William, born April 21, 1802; married Henrietta Hofifman: 
died August, 1854; one child, ^lary Ruth, born December 17, 


Jane Hawkins, born in Boone County, Kentucky, January I, 
1804; married Wilford J. Ungies, July 9, 1826; died November 
11, 1837. Wilford J. Ungies was the son of John Ungies. of 
GeorgetoW'U, Ky. His wife was Delphia Asbury, daughter of 
Henry Asbury and jMildred Taylor. Mildred was the daughter 
of Captain Richard Taylor and Sarah Strother, and hence was 
the sister of President Zacharv Taylor. This Henry Asbury was 
the brother of Francis Asbury, the first American Methodist 

Children : Lucretia, born August 26, 1829 ; married Thomas 
Freeman; died June 29, 1908. Two children, Jennie H. and 
Margaret L. 

William II., born April 6, 1831 : married Laura Lawhead. 
June 6, 1861; died November 25, 1900. Three children: Kate 
Eliza, born July 22, 1862; married Richard S. Malony (one son, 
James R Malony; a daughter, Kate U. ]\Ialony) ; William H.. 
Jr., born ]\Iay 18, 1865 ; married Cecelia Stephenson. August 28. 
1905; died July 6. 1912 (one son, born July 15, 1908) ; Fannie 
Laura, born December 29, 1872 ; Maude Campbell, l)orn Febru- 
ary 16, 1874 (no surviving children). 

Margaret Ann, born February 7, 1832; married William 
Gayle, September 6, 1851 ; died June 22. 1908. Children : Mary 
Ann Gayle, born January 31, 1859; married Epperly (one cliild, 
Eliza) ; Kate Ungies Gayle; born December 25, 1867; Jane Haw- 
kins Gayle, married Beard (one child, William Gayle Beard). 

Emma Ungies, born 1834; married Lewis Walker Thompson, 
February 9, 1859 : died 1870 (surviving son, Lewis Wilford 
Thompson, is a mini.ster of the Church of Christ at ^lidland. 
South Dakota). 

Frances, born February 24, 1806; married Dr. Corydon Rich- 
mond, October 6, 1836 ; died October 5, 1871, at Kokomo, Ind. 

The father of Corydon Richmond was John Lambert Rich- 
mond, born in Chesterfield, N. Y., April 5, 1775. His wife was 

Laura Sprague , born January 27, 1787. He died 

October 12, 1855; she died October 26, 1855. John Lambert 
Richmond was ordained in 1806 as a Baptist minister; was a 
graduate of the Ohio Medical College, 1822. Corydon Richmond 
was born in Onondago County, New York, November 22, 1808 ; 
studied medicine in his father's office and attended lectures at 


the Ohio ^Medical College, 1831-32 ; was assistant surgeon U. S. 
Vohmteers, 1863-65, stationed in Nashville, Tenn., on hospital 
duty; died October 1, 1906. 

Children: Louise W., born July 15, 1837; married Josiah 

M. Leeder, November 20, . Children : Franeis I., born 

June 17, 1860 (married Dec. 14, 1881, to Fanny B. Pate) ; Fred- 
erick I)., born April 25, 1864 (married April 25, 1889, to Eliza 
J. Hall; died August 21, 1898) ; James Richmond, born May 9, 
1867 (married at Plevna. Kansas; name of wife and date un- 
known); Sarah Jane, liorn January 24, 1842; married August 
28, 18<i0. to Joseph C. Anderson; the latter died I\Iay 19, 1866. 
Children : Fanny C, born June 29, 1861 ; married June 29, 
1887, to J. RoUin M(^rgan. Children: Edgar A., born May 26, 
1888; died May 28, 1888; Cecil Bazel, born May 19, 1890; died 
June 17. 1907; Louis Rollin. born March 4, 1896; died March 5, 
1897. ]\laude A. Anderson, born January 15. 1863; married 
October 20, 1881, to James B. Johnson, wlio died April 23, 1909. 
Children: Edith, born August 15, 1882; married April 2, 1912, 
to William Ranch; P^rances, born August 6, 1884; married April 
27, 1912, to Luther K. Bell; Nina, born March 16, 1886; died 
April, ]909; Margaret, born December 13, 1888; May, born May 
11, 1891; Joseph Richmond, born August 11, 1893; Ruth, born 

April 10, 1897; James W., born January 25, 18 . Edgar 

Richmond Anderson, born January 26, 1865 ; married Laura 
McClung April 11. 1888. Children : Julia, born March 2, 1892 ; 
Loraine, born August 12, 1893. 

Lucinda, born August 9, 1809; married Isaac N. Sanders 
January 1, 1828; died at Iowa City, February 8, 1887. 

Isan" Newton Sanders, born October 23, 1806 ; died Decem- 
ber 8. 1893. 

Children : 

John James, born November 13, 1827 ; died September 4, 

W^illiam Jameson, boi'u July 29. 1829; died March 16, 1912. 
Eliza Ann, born March 23, 1832 ; died December 25, 1864. 
Moses Tully, born October 10, 1833; died October 19, 1874. 
Margaret, born October 6, 1835. 
Pamela Jane, born May 24, 1838. 


Ida Ruth, bom July 15. 1842 ; died :March 5, 1900. 
Elvira Louisa, born September 5, 1847. 


John Hawkins was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, in 
1787. and was about one year old when his father moved to Ken- 
tucky, where he first settled at Bryans Station, and afterwards 
near Georg-etown, where he lived until after 1805, and then 
moved 1o Boone County. 

John Hawkins was a friend of Colonel Eichard M. Johnson 
(of Teeumseh fame), who lived near Great Crossing. Colonel 
Jolmson wanted him to study law in his office, but my father 
had other views for liis future. He belonged as a private to 
Captain James Ellis' Company, 16th Kentucky Militia, in the 
War of 1812. from September 10th, 1814, to March 9th. 1815, 
when he was discharged at ]Malden, now Amlierstburg, Canada, 
eighteen miles below Detroit. He paid in full for his serv- 
ices and allowed $5.06 for travel pay for 330 miles to liis home 
in Boone County. — which in those days was certainly a lieggarly 
allowance. The Government is more generous to the soldier in 
modern days. 

It seems, according to family tradition, that he remained at 
Detroit some time after his discharge, engaged in arranging the 
accounts of the paymaster, and there was such delay in reach- 
ing his home, so long after he was expected, that his family gave 
him up for dead, and when he one day made his appearance, un- 
announced, in the door-yard of his home, my Aunt JMargaret, 
who was the first to see him, fell down in a swoon. 

During the time I was stationed at Detroit (1869-73) I be- 
came acquainted there with Miss Jane Dyson, who, as soon as I 
was introduced to her, inquired if I was any kin to "Jack" 
Hawkins who was an intimate friend of her mother while he was 
in Detroit during the War of 1812. She said that as a little girl 
she had often sat on his knee. I told her that "Jack" Hawkins 
(I remembered that his people all called him "Jack") was my 
father, and she said that her mother liked him greatly and had 
many reminiscent stories of him, that he was a fine talker, a 
great story-teller, and was mtich endeared to them. These were 
the characteristics of my father all his life. 



While ill service my fatlier was a private, at the same time 
the muster-roll of his Company, which I have seen in the Au- 
ditor's otifice at Washington, shows that he was "on extra serv- 
ice as Assistant Paymaster." The duty naturally detached him 
from his Company, but I noticed that the Company muster-roll 
continued to be made out in his hand-writing. He wrote a good 
hand, and I presume clerks were scarce in those times. My 
father was at the time of his enlistment, twenty-seven years old, 
and considering his education, intelligence and social position 
in Boone County, should have been an officer instead of a pri- 
vate: but. unfortunately for him. lie wrote well and was cleri- 
cally exact, and such talent was in demand for making and 
keeping in order the Company records. I have known frequent 
cases where good hand-writing has settled a person in a clerical 
position where there was little or no promotion, when at the same 
time he had capacities that ought to have placed him in a line of 
promotion to an important control -. so that I have come to the 
opinion that a ^(xxl hand-writing very often works to one's in- 

However, it was that he served his time as a private during 
the War. yet I remember that when we lived in Crawfordsville 
the people promoted him. and in their daily intercourse ad- 
dressed him as ''Major" as a tribute to his honorable personality. 
Before the War my father was a student at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He did not graduate, and when quite young, a mere 
boy, entered on the vocation of school teacher. For a time he 
taught in Bourbon County, and there made the acquaintance of 
my mother, Elizabeth Waller, and they were married January 
31st, 1816. 

He moved to Indianapolis in 1820. and kept a tavern on 
Washington Street near to where now stands the Washington 
Hotel, afterwards known for many years as "Drake's Hotel." 
He was a member of the Baptist Church in Boone County, and 
was transferred to the church at Indianapolis. June. 18'27, and in 
]\Iarch, 1829. he is mentioned in the records of the First Baptist 
Church as one of the Trustees. He is mentioned as making an 
address at the celebration July 4. 1822. 

I was born in Indianapolis September 29th. 1830. and six 
months afterward my people moved to Covington, Fountain 


County. Avhere by father kept a store, engaged in general trade, 
and part of the time up to 1835 managed his farm three miles 
from Covington, on which we lived occasionally. About 
1836 we moved to Newtown, some fifteen miles distant. The dis- 
turbed financial conditions of the country was then causing de- 
pression in every variety of business, which ultimately brought 
about tlie loss of most of my father's possessions, which were 
large and various. 

While living in Covington, in 1832, there occurred an elec- 
tion for President of the United States. The "National Repub- 
lican" party nominated Henry Clay for President and John 
Sergeant for Vice President, and my father was a member of 
the State Electoral ticket. He was not a political orator, but 
was well informed on public affairs, and had clear ideas and a 
forceful, logical manner of expressing them. 

The educational advantages of NewtouTi being quite limited, 
my father, about 1837, decided on moving to Crawfordsville, a 
place noted even then for its good schools and its superior class 
of people. He was there engaged in mercantile business, asso- 
ciated with his brother-in-law, Isaac N. Sanders; but hard times 
were abroad in the land, and their business was a failure, and 
Mr. Sanders moved to Iowa, after which my father was prin- 
cipally engaged in carrying on his thousand-acre farm in Foun- 
tain County, which he continued until his death, at Crawfords- 
ville, in October, 1841. 

My father was only fifty-four rears old when he died, but I 
remember his face as seamed witli nuniy wrinkles. Exposure 
to the weather in his many journeys on horeeback, and intensity 
of thought on account of his business troubles, induced a look 
of age that did not belong to his ;years. He departed this life 
friendly with and respected by all who knew him. 

My mother, Elizal^eth Waller, survived my father three and 
one-half years. At his death she gathered up the remnants of 
family property and managed to keep her household together. 
She was a pious woman, and loved the Methodist Church, which 
she joined when only twelve years of age, and as a Methodist 
she greatly disapproved of holding slaves. It was on account 
of her great desire that it was determined to leave Kentucky 
and settle in Indiana, she insisting that she was opposed to 



brinying- up her children iu a Slave State. She knew all about 
the institution, her father being well-to-do and o\\'niug a num- 
ber of servants. Her religion was a great comfort to her, for 
she believed in the sustaining interpositions of a kind Providence 
to guide and protect her in her daily life, and she always felt 
that the Bible promises to the righteous were fulfilled to her. 

It was my father's daily custcmi to have family prayers, and 
she continued the custom with her children, and she often re- 
tired to a private room for prayer. The Bible was her constant 
eompanion. 1 do not remember ever seeing her read any other 
book, though in early life she was doubtless a general reader, 
for she was unusually well informed and choice in her language, 
and observant in the deportment that characterizes a well-bred 
Avoman. She was kind to the poor and sympathetic to the sick 
and those in trouble. I remember one summer she made a con- 
siderable (|uantity of currant wine, but not a drop of it went for 
home indulgence. All was bestowed on the sick and comfortless. 
Pier thoughtfulness embraced every case of wretchedness that 
came her way. and she would ever be ready to go out of her way 
to find it. 

The renuiins of my father and mother \\ere removed to In- 
dianapolis, and now rest in Crown Hill Cemetery. 

Children : 

Louisa, born December 25. 1818. will be noted with her hus- 
band. General E. R. S. Canby. She Avas a very religious woman, 
was a member of the ^Methodist Church, and was perhaps more 
like her mother in her devotional character than any other of 
her children. She was always eager to assist others, and often 
overcome and made unhappy through her sympathies. The 
eldest of the family, she felt in great force the responsibilities 
that the position imposed on her, and she was untiring in meet- 
ing them. She continued to be a ^Methodist all her life, but dur- 
ing her later years was also attached to the teachings of Sweden- 
borg:. Their spirituality appealed to her devotional nature, and 
she experienced great comfort in them. 

Miriam, born in Kentucky. ^lai-ch 26. 1820 : married Dr. 
John I. Speed April 17. 1839: died January. 1863. Was 
a woman of cultured and refined tastes, a student of good litera- 
ture, and a judicious thinker. In conversation .she was earnest 


and animated, and in this more than any other of her sisters 
showed her southern France ancestry. If she had been a man 
she would have done things and achieved fame, for she had a 
mind for great alfairs. She was a good wife, a good mother, and 
an ornament to womanhood. Dr. Speed was an excellent physi- 
cian: a clear thinker and of a refined taste in English literature; 
an honest man and fearless in the expression of his judgment 
in matters of right or wrong. 

Children : 

Mary Rose, born February 22, 1841 ; died February 8, 1888 ; 
]\Iaria Louise, born June 6, 1851 ; died March 5, 1890 ; married 
Thomas C. Moore j\Iay 5, 187o. Children: Miriam Rose, born 

March, 1876: married William A. Whitehead October 17, ; 

one child. Miriam Louise, born July o. 1909. Louise Duane 
Moore, born October 30, 1877. 

Margaret, born in Indiaapolis. lud., January 13, 1825: died 
at Louisville, Ky., April 15, 1901. Had a combination of the 
admirable qualities of Louisa and ]N[iriam. Cultivated and pious, 
kind as a neighlior. aiid every one loved and respected her for 
her sterling character and sympathetic nature. Whenever she 
made a trip away from liome her travel was full of incidents 
and occupied her in weeks of iiai-rative after her return home. 
She would become acquainted witli almost every stranger into 
whose company she might ])e thrown, and if traveling on a steam- 
boat she knew every one aboard, and gained tlie confidence of 
all from the Captain down to the cook and cabin-boy. Her sym- 
pathetic nature drew all to her. and I used to say that she ought 
to write a l)0ok after every return from a bit of travel. It would 
have been full of strange and interesting personalities, embrac- 
ing alike the high in stati(ni and the most humble workers. 

Her husband. Thomas S. Speed, was the son of Thomas Speed, 
of near Bardstown, Ky.. w ho at one time was a ]\Iember of Con- 
gress from his District. He was a farmer, a Whig, and a zealous 
protectionist for home industries. I have heard that on the eve 
of his departure for AVashington, as he stood before the fire at 
home waiting for the carriage, he remarked that he was proud 
that all the clothing he then was wearing, from his coat to his 
shoes, were of material from his farm and fashioned at his home. 
He was classical in his tastes and was possessed of an excellent 



library of the best Englisli writers. Thomas S. Speed, the son, 
resembled much the father, iu his quiet equanimity, his adherence 
to what he thought to be right, and was an advocate of whatever 
was for the good of his community and his wider community, — 
the State. In his early life he was of rather delicate constitution, 
and a martyr to rheumatism ; but after he had passed sixty years 
his infirmities left him, and he was enabled to derive from living 
an enjoyment that was increased by the feeling that he had suc- 
cessfully raised a family of children that were a credit to his 
fatherly example. 

He was a good Bible scholar, was an Elder iu the Presbyterian 
Church, and often represented it in the meetings of Presbytery. 
He was twice married; his first wife was Sarah Sparhawk, by 
whom he had two children, AVilliam and Thomas. The latter, 
now dead, was a lawyer in Louisville, and for many years held 
the position of Clerk of the United States Court of that District. 
He was a most lovely man. a clean thinker, a good writer, and 
always to be found on the side of truth and justice. We was a 
good representative of a good father. When he died I felt that 
I had lost a good friend. 

Children : 

Spencer Hawkins, born December 19. 1S46 : died . 

Austin Pea^^ born August 9. 1848 : married December 17, 
1874, Georgia A. ilcCampbell. Children: Goodwin Speed, born 
March 29, 1876: nuirried .Millie Houston Hays, August 15, 1909. 

Horace, born January 25, 1852 ; married, first, Jessie St. John 
Adams, November 23. 1892. She died :\Iay 25. 1894. Married, 
second. Mi-s. Matilda .McAllister, August 12. 1895: one sou, Ho- 
race Austin, ])orn August 25, 1897. 

Richard Canby, born June 25, 1855 : died June 19, 1907 : mar- 
ried Emma L. Fullenweider, ]\Iay 12, 1880. Children : David 
Thomas, born July 7. 1881 : died April 7, 1897 : William, born 
February 12. 1884: :\Iargaret E., born Jime 22, 1887: :Mary 

Louise, born January 8, 1891; Georgia Austin, born ; 

died September 7, 1893 ; Emma Canby, born July 22, 1900. 

Louise J., born June 8, 1863. 

Edward Waller, b(n-n 1826 : died 1848. 

:\laria, born 1828: died 1848. 

Frances Ann, born 1829: died 1907. 


John Parker, born September 29. ]880: married Jane B. 
Craig October 10, 1867. 

Thomas S. Speed and his wives are buried in the reserved 
cemetery plat on tlie farm where he was l)orn, near Bards- 
town. Ky. 


As bearing on the history of the Statford County Wallers, 
is the following furnished by the Rev. H. I). Waller, an Episcopal 
minister of Flushing. N. Y., a grandson of Dr. Thomas Waller, 
Portsmouth, Ohio The record may be of use in further research, 
as it was collected by him from wills and parish registers : 

Charles AValler (1), married Susannah . Children: 

Chai'les (2), Edward, William, Hannah Webb. Sarah. 

Nothing positive is known of the antecedents of Charles Wal- 
ler (1). He lived in Essex County, Virginia. His will was 
proved in that county, A. D. 1725. From tliis will now on file 
we learn the names of his children and the name of his wife. 
He leaves half of his land in Stafford County to his son 
Charles (2). 

Charles Waller (2), married Elizabeth . Children: 

John (3), Margaret, Charles, (Posthumous child), Mary, Sukey, 

Charles Waller (2) was Justice of Peace in Stafford County 
in 1745. The Parish Register gives date of his death as Decem- 
ber 4, 1749. His will, dated December 2, 1749. was proved in 
Stafford County December 12, 1749. From this will we learn 
the names of his wife and children, and that another child was 
expected. He leaves the land where he lives at Aquia Creek, 
Stafford County, to his son John. He speaks of ^lary. Sukey 
and ]\Iilly apart from the others and as "my daughters." This 
leads me to conclude that they are children hy a foi-mer mar- 

John Waller (3), married ]Mary ^latthews. Children: 

William, born December 24, 1751: died January : Sarah, 

born June 12, 1753 : Edward, born December 10. 1755 : Jolui. 
born December 27, 1758: Thomas, born Septeml)er 14, 1774: 
Elizabeth, Susannah, Hannah. 

From Parish Register I learn that John Waller and ^lary 



Matthews were laarried July 4. 17-31. From same source I learu 
dates of birth of four oldest children. 

^\"illiam died witliout issue: Sarah died ^^'ithout issue: Ed- 
ward's daughter Elizabeth married John Hawkins: Thomas was 

my grandfather: Susannah married Sterne: Hannah 

married, first. Charles Porter, and then Fielding- Coppage. 

The Charles Waller with whom I start of course cannot be the 
Charles Waller who came in the ship Abigail in 1620. 

The earliest documentary record of Wallers in Stafford Coun- 
ty is 1669. when grant of land. 800 acres, was made to Gerrard 
^Mastei-s and William Waller. This land passed to his son Wil- 
liam in 1689. The will of this second William Waller of ''Staf- 
ford l^laiitation." was proved on ^lay 12. 1703. His heirs were: 
Wife Elizabeth, son William, daughter Elizabeth. 

The connection between these people and the Charles Waller 
with whom I start cannot yet l)e established. 

The following account of the Waller family is derived prin- 
cipally from a letter from George Allen Waller, of Portsmouth, 
Ohio, under date of January 19, 1894. 

Edmund Waller, the poet, was the son of Robert Waller, Esq., 
Buckinghamshire. England. Edmund's mother was a sister of 
John Hampden, a cousin of Oliver Cromwell. The poet's wife 
was ]\Iary Breaux. and they had the following children : Ben- 
jamin, William. Stephen. Charles, and five daughters. Charles 
Waller emigrated to America about 1650 and settled near the 
mouth of Acquia Creek. Avhere he married Susannah and reared 
a family. (There is tradition that he resided a while in Essex 
County before settling in Stafford County.) One of his sons, 
William, married, first. ]\Iary Allen, daughter of George Allen 
and Mary Witliers. Their children were William and Edward. 
Second, he nuu*ried ]\Iargaret Waller: one daughter, ^largaret. 
Third, T'rsula Withers: children: John Waller, born 1732; 
died December 31. 1784 (my great grandfather), commissioned 
Lieutenant Troop of Horse April 5. 1757 and 1763 : Allen With- 
ers. Charles. George, James, and three daughters, Hannah, Anne 
and Frances. George moved to Henry County. Virginia, and a 
letter written July 13, 1889, by George E. Waller. M D.. of 
^Martinsville. Henry County, says: 

'■^Iv great grandfather. George Waller, was born in Stafford 


County, Virginia, and moved to Henry County before the Rev- 
olutionary War. He was a Colonel in the Revolution. i\Iy 
grandfatlier, Edmund Waller, was a Colonel in the War of 
1812." He also says that the name of Allen appears in his 
branch of the family. 

John Waller married Mary Mathews, daughter of Thomas 
^lathews. They had four sons: Edward (my grandfather): 
John, born 1757 ; William, and Thomas, born September 14, 
1774. Four daughters : Sarah, Elizabeth, Susanna and Hannah. 
William died young. John married Mary . He en- 
listed in the Continental Army and served through the Avar; with 
his brothel- Edward he emigrated to Kentucky in 1785, and set- 
tled first at ^laysville, thence to near JNIillersburg, Bourbon Coun- 
ty, which County he represented for two terms in the Virginia 
Assembly. He raised a number of children, who settled in Da- 
viess County, Indiana, where some of the family still reside. But 
John AValler remained in Kentucky and died at the home of his 
sister, Hannah Coppage. He had four sons: George Allen, 
John, Christopher Columbus, and F.fhnund. and four daughters, 
one named Jane. 

Sarah Waller ne^'er married. She died near Falmoutli, Ky. 
Elizabeth married Colonel James ]\IcClelland, of Bourbon Coun- 
ty. They had one daughter, Patsy 0. E., who married Mr. ]\Iiller, 
of ^lillersburg, Bourbon County. Susanna married Mr. Stearn, 
of Stafford County. They had four sons and one daugliter. 
Hannah AValler was twice married. First, to Charles Porter; 
they had three children, Wesley, Edward Waller, and Mary. 
Second, to Fielding Coppage; six children, William. Baldwin. 
jMilton, .Miriam, Susanna, and Fanny. 

Dr. Thomas Waller (brother of my grandfather, Edward 
Waller), was born September 14, 1774: was educated at William 
and Mary College ; emigrated to Kentucky abotit 1796, and after- 
wards (1801) moved to Portsmouth, Ohio, where he died Jtily 
23, 1823. He married, in Kentucky, Elizabeth Macfarlane, of 
Cumberiand County. Pennsylvania, in Jantiary, 1800. Her 
father, Andrew ]\Iasfarlane, was Captain of a Pennsylvania Com- 
pany in 1he War of the Revolution, and died near Philadelphia. 
They had nine children : ^largaret, Mary, William, Thomas, 
Elizabeth, Hannah, John, Susanna, and George Allen. Margaret 


married Captain Francis Cleveland, a eivil enoineer, the eldest 
brother ol President Cleveland's father-, no children. 

Mary married Washing-ton Kiniiey. They had eight children : 
George AVashington, Elizabeth. Charles, Aaron, Ellen. Alfred, 
William, and Thomas AValler. Elizabeth (the last named) mar- 
ried Samuel R. Ross: children: Anna (living in Portsmouth, 
Ohio), George and Thomas Waller ^ive in Cleveland). 

George Allen Waller, born August 24. 1817 : married Jane 
Davey October 6. 1847: died November 27, 1900 (83 yeare). 
The Portsmouth morning- paper contained the following an- 
nouncement : 

"The death of George A. Waller causes deep regret. One of 
the most venerable citizens, universally honored and respected, 
the comnumity was shocked to learn of his unexpected demise. 
Air. Waller was one of the oldest pereons born in the city of 
Portsmouth. Since 1817. — over 83 years. — his life has been iden- 
tified with tlie city he loved so well, and for wliose interests he 
always ^o intelligently and devotedly strived. Public-sprited 
ahvays. in his y(nuiger years the soul of activity and progress, 
ho did nnich to advance the welfare of his home city. Somewhat 
broken in health of late yeai-s. and weighed with the natural in- 
firmities of age, he Avas not so active as of old, but his heart was 
in every move that made for the betterment of the River City. 
A man of force of character, of marked individuality, yet to those 
who knew him best he was a juan of singularly loving traits, and 
he will carry with him the affection of all wlio knew him. The 
story of his active life is full of honor and honest achievement, 
and his inemory will long be cherished in the hearts of our people 
and preserved in the annals of our city." 

The following are the children of George A. AValler : AVil- 
liaiii. Clara. Henry Davey. and George Allen. AA^illiani is a law- 
yer: he and Clara reside in Portsmouth: George Allen is fore- 
man in a steel mill in Pittsburgh: Henry D. is Rector of St. 
George's Church. Flushing. Long Island, a man full of energy 
and good works, and loved for his many amiable traits. 

Thomas AValler Kinney married his first cousin, Aliriam Cop- 
page, and some descendants live in Rush County, Indiana. 

Dr. Tliomas Waller was a physician, and held a high place in 
the estiitiaTion of the peo])le of liis community. James Keyes, a 


local historian of I'ortsiiiouth says of him: "Dr. Waller had 
more friends and fewer enemies than any man in the county." 
Dr. Hempstead, in an address I)efore the Medical Society said 
that Dr. Waller was "tienial and witty, and a perfect specimen 
of the old Virginia gentleman." Dr. Waller possessed a ring 
wliieh he prized highly as once belonging To the wife of the poet; 
it is still in the family. 

John Waller, my great grandfather, according to family tra- 
dition, was a Captain during the Revolution. The names of 
Allen Waller and John Wallei- appear as members of a patriotic 
committee appointed by the Freeholders of Stafford County, 
July, 1774, "for the purpose of transacting business relative to 
the liberties of the people." (Ford's Archives, Vol. 1, 4th series, 
page 617). Allen Waller, probably son of Allen, l)rother of my 
great grandfather, Ensign 8rd Virginia Reg't, February 26, 
1776. (Ford's Archives, Vol. 25, otii series, page 322.) 

There is also tradition that Edward Waller was an officer in 
tlie War of the Revolution. There is record in lleitman's His- 
torical Register that p]dward Waller (Virginia) was Major of a 
Virginia State Regiment in 17(S0. A letter to me from Mr. Heit- 
man, August 24, 1893. says: "Permit me to state that in the 
case of Major Wallei- the very incomplete data was obtained 
from an old list in the Treasur\' Dei)artment of persons who 
rendered military services in the State of Virginia, other than 
of the Continental line, and mIio were applicants for land under 
the Act (*f the Virginia Assembly of October, 1771). It is evident 
that he must have been in service at least from some time in 1779 
to June, 1781. 

There is a Waller family living at Wide Water, Stafford 
County, descendants of AVithers Waller ( brothei- of my great 
grandfather, John, and Catharine Conway). Their son, Withers 
Waller, married Anne Eliza Stribling; they have a most inter- 
esting and cultivated family. I once made them a visit at their 
home, and was most hospitably entertained, and will always as- 
sociate them with the pleasing memories of my life. One of the 
daughters, Mildred Pickett, furnished me most valuable ma- 
terial for an account of the Waller family. 

Edward Waller's will, probated January Court, Bourbon 
County, Kentucky, 1792, provides that his mother shall have the 


use of what property was left him from his father's estate; also 
the protits of the same in Statford County during her life, and 
at her death to return to his estate. As Dr. Tliomas ^Yaller was 
living with his mother in Virginia at that time, and as he came 
to Kentucky about 1796, it is probable that Marv ^lathews died 
a little previous to that date. 

There is a noted branch of the Waller family belonging to 
Spotsylvania County, Virginia. The reputed emigrant was Joliu 
Waller, born 1617, came to America about 1635. There is tra- 
dition that he was a very wild young man. and was induced by 
his family to emigrate in order to draw him away from the temp- 
tations to which, he was exposed in England. This is probably 
a slander, for his descendants have been a credit to the name, and 
from 1722 four generations hlled the office of Clerk of the Court 
of Spotsylvania County, all of them gentlemen and of good 

There is record in Virginia that John ami William Waller 
received July 2. 1669, a grant of 800 acres of land in Stafford 
County. Virginia. Prol)ably John and William were brothel's. 

I have seen a detailed genealogy of the Wallers of Spotsyl- 
vania, in which is stated that John Waller, the emigrant of 1635. 
whose wife was ^Lary Key. was a grandson of the poet: but he 
could nor have been a grandson nor even a son, for the poet was 
born 1605: married, firet, Anne Banks (1628. died 1631), by 
whom he had one daughter: his second wife was ]\Iary Breaux 
or Breese, whom he did not marry until after 1639. and by whom 
he had a large family, sons and daughters. It is therefore cer- 
tain, considering records, traditions and other circumstances. 
That the Spotsylvania Wallei-s are not descended from the poet, 
l)ut ai-e of the same family. Both families may claim an inheri- 
tance of credit pertaining to the distinguished soldier of Agin- 
court. Sir Richard Waller, who there captured Charles. Duke of 
Orleans, who afterward became King of France. 

There is an interesting story connected with this capture. 
That Sir Richard entertained his captive at his home in Kent 
(luring twenty-four years, awaiting ransom : that as a result of 
his kind treatment a warm friendship sprung up between them, 
and after his return to France the Duke caused to be rebuilt the 
somewhat decaved familv mansion at Groombridge. He also 


requested the Kiiiiiht to assume as his erest, in remeinbrance of 
him, a tree in full leaf, bearing on one of its branches a shield 
displaying' the tieur de lis — the Arms of France. 


(The Scotch pi-onunciation of tlie name is "Jimmyson.") 

The Jamesons in America have all come from a common an- 
cestry in Scotland, which had its origin in a Highland Clan, — 
"The Clan of (iunn", — in the counties of Sutherland and Caith- 
ness. The Gunns were fierce and warlike, and of Norse descent. 
MacKames (or Mac James. ^lasJanuns. MarKamish, MacKeamish, 
which are all the same) is the oldest separate name of the 
clan. By giving the Ga4ie prefix '"Mac" its English meaning, 
"son." and translating Kames oi- Kamish into its English equiv- 
alent of James, we have the name of '\Ja»iesoii'' as the primitive 
appellation of the Clan Gunn. The arms of the Clan Gunn are 
thus represented : 

Argent, a galley of three masts, her sails furled and oars in 
action; sable fiags, gules, within a border azure, on a chief of the 
third, a bear's head of the first muzzled of the second between 
two mullets of the field. 

Crest, a dexter hand wielding a sword proper. Motto: "aut 
pax aut bellum. " Badge, Juniper. 

The Tartan is one of the most beautiful of all the Scotch 

The earliest records of my Jameson fandly, as far as traced, 
are as follows: 

James Jameson, St. Anne's Parish, Essex County, Virginia; 
qualified as constable December 17, 1717; married Margaret 

. His will, dated and probated in 1786, mentions cliil- 

dren : 

Thomas , died 1768 ; born in P^ssex County, St. 

Anne's Parish. 

James, born 1720; married 1742, ^lary Gains; died Decem- 
ber 6, 1766. 

David, married Mildred Smith; died 1798. 

The above David Jameson (uncle of Margaret, my great 
grandmother) was a graduate of Princeton College; a merchant 
at Yorktown ; in 1777 was a member of the Privy Council ; in 


1780 Lieutenaut (n)verm)r of Viruiiiia : in 1782 was a lueiuber 
of the State Senate. 

Thomas Jameson-, the name of wife not known: children were 
as foUow s : 

James, born in Ciilpeper Comity : married Lucy Hackly. 

Thomas. Iiorn INIay 3. 17-13: married Juditli B. Hackly: died 
August 13. 1827. 

^Margaret, born 1747: married John Hawkins, my great 
grandfather. ^larch. 17(i7: died September 12. 1770. 

John, born 1751: married, iii'st. Raehael Berrim, 1785; 
second, Elizabeth Davenport : died November 20, 1810. 

David, born August 18. 1752: luan-ied ilary ^Mennis: died 
October 2. 1839. 

AVilliam, born 1785. 


Thouias: Emigrated to near ?Jount Sterling. Mcnitgomery 
County, Kentucky. Among his grandchildren were Pamela 
Bledsoe, born February 11. 1814: married. December 24. 1833, 
Henry S. Lane: died in Washington. D. C. December 22. 1842; 
buried in the Congressional Cemetery. We knew her well in 
Crawfordsville, Ind., and she was intimate in our family. We 
had a great affection for her. She was a good Christian, amiable 
and intelligent. Henry S. Lane was an orator, once United 
States Senator and Governor of Indiana. I think he was a cousin 
of Pamela Jameson ; was born 1811 ; died 1881, at Crawfords- 

Another granddaugliter of Thomas was Willy Belfield. born 
January 6. 1816: married ]\Iay 1. 1837, Walker Bourne; died 
October 26. 1893. Among their hve children is James Milton 
Bourne, a lawyer and a conscientious genealogist, living in Louis- 
ville. Ky. I am greatly indebted to him for much information 
concerning the Hawkins and Jameson families. Without his 
assistance it is doubtful whether 1 would ever have obtained 
exact knowledge of them and kindred families. 

John Jameson : Was a graduate of William and ]\Iary Col- 
lege. Virginia; was Clerk of the Court of Culpeper County for 
ihirty-eieht years, up to his death in 1810. July 7, 1774, was 
Clerk of the fleeting of Freeholders of Culpeper County that 


met "to consider the most effeetunl methods to preserve the 
riglits and liberties of America." The resolutions were signed, 
'.'John Jameson, Clerk." (Ford's Archives. Vol. 1, p 522.) In 
1775 he was an officer in the Minute I\Ien under Stevens, and was 
in the action at- Great Ridge, near Norfolk. June 13. 1776. He 
was elected by tlie Virginia Convention, Capt. 3rd Troop 
of Horse, receiving forty-eight votes. His competitors received 
seventeen, eighteen, nine, four, three, and two votes. The votes 
show pretty well his high standing as a man and as a patriot 
among those who knew him. March, 1777, he was promoted to 
Major 1st Continental Dragoons; 1778, was wounded in action 
near Valley Forge; was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, Au- 
gust 1, 1779, and served to the close of the war. 

Col. Jameson was commanding at Tarry Town when Andre 
was captured, and delivered to him, and has been blamed by 
some historians for communicating the facts to Arnold, who was 
thus enabled to escape to the Britisli man-of-war. His reporting 
the matter to Arnold, his commanding officer, shoAys only that he 
was not suspicious of him, and as a good soldier not critical of 
him. Arnold's treason was not suspected and confirmed only 
after his flight from West Point. 

William Abbott, in his book. "The Crisis of the Revolution," 
published in 1889, says: "John Jameson, of a distinguished 
Virginia family, was born in 1751. At the time of Andre's cap- 
ture he was Lieutenant Colonel in Sheldon's crack Connecticut 
regiment, the arms and accoutrements of which had been brought 
from France. The fact of his transfer with advanced rank from 
a Virginia regiment to a crack Connecticut regiment to which he 
was probably a stranger, speaks highly of his reputation as a 
soldier of established good reputation." 

After the war Col. Jameson resumed his duties as Clerk of 
the Court of Culpeper County; he was a member of the Society 
of the Cincinnati, and of the Masonic Lodge, Alexandria, Va. 
He was buried on his farm, two miles north of Culpeper. A 
suitable stone marks his grave. 

Mr. James M. Bourne says: "My father. Walker Bourne, 
was born in Culpeper County in 1790. He told me that he had 
often seen Col. John Jameson and his brother, David; that John 
was a six-footer, blue eyes, black hair, and one of the finest look- 



ing men he ever saw." A descendant in Cnlpeper has an oil 
portrait of him, reproduced in '"Tlie Jamesons in America." 

Col. David Jameson, brother of John, was Ensign in the 
]\rinute ]ilen and carried the celebrated "Rattle Snake Flag": 
was at the battle of Great Ridge. In 1780-81 he was for eighteen 
months in the Southei-n Campaign as a Lieutenant in Stevens" 
Brigade : for a long period he was High Sheriff of Cnlpeper 
County. His biographer says of him: "He was a good soldier 
in war and a good citizen in peace, and leaves at his death a rep- 
utation without blemish." 

The descendants of my great grandfather and [Margaret 
Jameson have been previously noted. 

For an extended account of the Jamescm family, see "The 
Jamesons in America," by E. O. Jaineson, of Boston, printed by 
the Rum ford Press, Concord. X. H. 

Culpeper County, \'irginia, seems to have been the home of 
several branches of the Threlkeld family. The time when rhe 
family emigrated to America is not known to me. There were 
Threlkelds in Virginia. Knig Geora-e County, before 1695. The 
name is common in the north of England, especially in X'orthum- 
berland County. In the records of England, the time of Henry 
Seventh, there was a nobleman of the name Launcelot de Threi- 
keld. who owned large estates. He died without male heirs and 
his estates were left to his three daughters. This must have been 
done by the special favor of the King, setting aside the male 
hell's existing through t)ranch lines. Whether the act was legal 
or not. I do not knofl-, but the tradition in my own family is that 
a large estate in England was due the family, and this tradition 
is cherished in other branches of the family that I have com- 
municated with, and so I have concluded that the Threlkelds on 
this side of the Atlantic belonged to Sir Launcelot 's family as 
collaterals, and brought A^ith them the memory of their branch 
being deprived of their proper inheritance when Sir Launcelot 
gave all his estate to his daughters. The name Threlkeld is a 
compound of two words. Thorald-Keld. Keld meaning a spring: 
thence the word Thorald's Keld, or Threlkeld. Sir Launcelot 's 
descendants belong now to the oldest nobility of England, but 
the name is no longer noble. 


The earliest record I have of my family is in Deed Book H, 
pages 403-4-5, Culpeper Coniiiy, Virginia, showing that 405 acres 
of land were patented to Henry 'I'lirelkeld Jnne 2, 1760, and on 
the 17th day of ^larch. 1777. the same land was sold to Henry 
Balanger by John Threlkeld and his wife, Xancy (my ancestore). 
Will Book B, Cnlpeper County, Virginia, pages 182-83. August 
19, 1776, shows that John Threlkeld was the administrator of 
Henry Threlkeld. 

This John Threlkeld was a soldier of the American Revolu- 
tion, Captain John F. Mercer's company. 3rd Virginia. His 
name is there spelled "Thrailkill," a connnon mistake of spell- 
ing the name by those who spell it as it is often pronounced. 
( See Saff ell 's Records of the American Revolutionary War, page 
276.) After a period of service he returned home and died soon 
after his return of disease contracted in the senace. 

The following testimony bears upon the validity of this record 
of his service : 

"Statement to Whom it ]\Iay Concern: I am the great grand- 
son of John Threlkeld of Culpeper County, Virginia. My father. 
Green Threlkeld. was his grandson. William Threlkeld. father 
of Green Threlkeld, was son of Jolni Threlkeld. a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War. W^illiam Threlkeld was in his fifteenth year 
when the war ended, being born February 3, 1769. ^ly father 
was thirty-three years old when he, William Threlkeld, died, 
J\Iareh 22. 1842. I was sixty years old when father died. De- 
cember 16, 1895. His mother, Sally Threlkeld. lived with us 
until the 22nd of October, 1859, when she died. I have heard 
them talk repeatedly of John Threlkeld having been a soldier 
of the Revolution. Father (Green Threlkeld) was ten years old 
when his grandmother, ^nfe of John Threlkeld (formerly Nancy 
•lohnson). died, and said he had often heard her speak of her 
husband's services, so that I feel sure of the fact of such service, 
as much so as any other matter of history, either verbal or 
written. (Signed) "CYRUS W. THRELKELD. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 10th day of June, 
1910. (Signed) "WALTER WILHITE, 

"Clerk Owen Co. Court. 
[SEAL.] "By B. L. Hancock. D. C. 

"Owen Countv Court. Kentucky." 




When the emigrant William Galas ehanged the spelling of 
liis name to Gallis. he did a wrong to his French ancestry and de- 
prived his descendants of a family inheritance. He did what he 
had no right to do. and I have tlierefore taken the responsibility 
in the following to resume the proper family name. "Galas." and 
J think that when foreigners coming to this country have changed 
their names in spelling in order to make them more American a 
subsequent generation has the undoubted right to resume the 
original name. 

The family tradition is that our ancestor was a French Huge- 
not. and I am confirmed as to the truth of the tradition by cor- 
respondence and other circumstances. I have had some corres- 
pondence with Edward G. Galas, of Hopkinsville. Ky., who in- 
formed me that when a boy French was spoken in his father's 
family as their native language, and that nis father said the 
proper spelling of the name was "Galas," which is in French 
pronounced the same as Gallis. It is easy to see how the spelling 
became changed, Avhich is not an unusual occurrence with foreign- 
ers who take citizenship in an English-speaking community. 
Spelling according to pronunciation. 

Edward G. Galas above mentioned was the grandson of Wil- 
liam Overton Galas, an officer in the Gontinental line, who was 
distinguished as an engineer officer at the siege of Yorktown. 
He served nearly eight years : was at the battle of ^Monmouth. 
where he was badly wounded: was a member of the Gonvention 
of 1788 : represented Garoline Gounty for seventeen years in the 
Virginia Assembly: died 181-4. This branch of the Galas family 
has its record in Louisa Gounty. Virginia, as early as 17*48. Mr. 
E. G. Galas informs me that his family tradition is that the 
founder of this family was a ship carpenter. This is also the 
tradition of my emigrant ancestor Galas of Westmoreland Goun- 
ty. There is record in the Glerk's office. Westmoreland Gounty. 
of the will of "William Gallis," ship carpenter, dated Novem- 
ber 5, 1747. (This was fifty-two years after the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes.) 

The record of AVestmoreland Gounty as received by me is in- 
complete. My ancestry, as far as I have it. is as follows : 

Thomas IMcFarland, Gople Parish. Westmoreland Gounty, 


Virginia=Elizabetli : his will, dated and recorded Sep- 
tember 17, 1755, mentions a daughter Jane. 

"William Callis." will dated 1747, recorded 1750, begins: 
'' 'I, William Callis, ' ship carpenter of Cople Parish, Westmore- 
land County, Virginia," mentions Jiis wife, Sarah, and the fol- 
lowing children, viz : Jolm, Francis, Ambrose, Thomas. William, 
James, Richard. 

There is also will of a William "Callis. '' of Cople Parish, 
whose wife was Mary Overton. The children mentioned are Gar- 
land and William Overton. Will dated and recorded 1758. 

Francis, son of the ship carpenter^=Jane McFarland; among 
his children was Sarah Callis, born December 14, 1762 ; married 
Edward Waller in Westmoreland County, Virginia ; died at In- 
dianapolis ^larch 20, 1848. The will of Francis "Callis" was 
dated 1769 and recorded 1770 in Westmoreland County. In it 
he mentions a brother, Robert. 

The Louisa County family has the same ancestor as myself 
in the William Callis, ship carpenter, whose will was made in 

It may be of interest to record here that the Parish Register 
of Ongar, Essex County, England, has the following entries: 
"Christened: Anne, daughter of William Calys, 20th December, 
1558." "Married: Jolm Palm and Anne Calls, March 12th, 

These persons, Calys (Calls) were doubtless of the family of 
Callis (Calas), emigrants from the seafaring Hugenot region of 
Western France, of which La Rochelle was the headquarters, and 
that furnished many good sailors to help man the English fleet 
in its encounter with the Spanish Armada and on other occa- 

Several years ago, while in France, I visited with my wife, 
who is of Hugenot descent (Faneuil). the city of La Rochelle, 
and from there went over to the Isle de Re, where by previous 
appointment I made the acquaintance of the Protestant minister 
of the Island, Theophile Calas. We passed a very pleasant day 
with him and his agreeable wife and lovely children. They took 
us over the Island in a carriage, had us dine with them, wished 
us to remain with them, and in every way treated us as relations, 
though he had no record or tradition concerning his family emi- 


gration to America. As T remember, his family belonged to 
Bordeaux. He and his wife have traveled much, and he has 
written two books of his travels, whieh he presented to me. They 
speak good English and are refined, cultured people. Our inter- 
course with them has been cherished by us as one of the most 
agreeable incidents of our European travel. 

AYhile in Paris I purchased a very interesting book, "Jean 
Calas et Sa Famille. '" containing the Court record and other 
accounts relative to his trial and execution in 1762 for the mur- 
der of his son. He Avas a Htigenot, a small merchant of Toitlouse. 
of unblemished character, and everything connected with his trial 
was an outrage on justice. I presented the book to the library 
of Wabash College. The affair created a profound sensation 
throughout Protestant Europe. I do not know what connection 
there may have been between the family that lived in Toulouse 
in 1761 and my emigrant ancestor who niade his Avill in 17'47, 
but noting it serves to give the probable place from which our 
ancestor came. It is interesting to here state that three of my 
cousins have strong French characteristics, complexion and man- 

Edward Waller's will was made in Bourbon Cottnty, Ken- 
tucky. June 15, 1791: probated Janttary Cottrt. 1792. He was 
]\Iajor of the Stafford County ^lilitia during the Revohitiou. 
Children as follows : 

]\Iiriam, born ]May 1. 1787 : married Joseph Hays Jtily 12, 
1809 : died October 1, 1819. 

Elizabeth, born October 21, 1789 : married John Hawkins 
January 13. 1816: died :\Iay 15, 1815. 

Edward, born July 19, 1791 : married Elizabeth Garrard Ed- 
Avards 1817. daughter of Senator John Edwards and ]Mary Gar- 
rard, and a granddaughter of Governor Garrard. I think he 
died at Weston. ]Mo., after 1818. There were two daughters, one 
Sarah, married Richardson: another Kate, married Thomas F. 
Purnell; descendants of the latter live at Austin. Tex. 

Sarah Calas=second, Luke Hanson, November 13, 1795: he 
died Jtnie 28, 1819. Children: 

Pamela, born August 7. 1796 : died . She never mar- 
ried, btit lived with Iier sister. Caroline, and was an intiuential 
member of her familv in the care of her children and their re- 


ligioiis oiilture. "Aunt P, " as she was called by all who laiew 
her, was beloved by every one and was as near to being an angel 
as is possible for mortal to be. 

Julia, born March 20, 1799=,John Finley ; died July 10, 189-1. 
Finley had poetic tastes, published a book of poems among which 
is "The Hoosiers Nest," which had great popularity, being 
humorous and sonunvliat a discription of pioneer days in Indiana. 

Maria, born ^larch 6. 1802 ; married, first. Dr. Kenneth A. 
Scudder, who died ]\Iarch 6, 1829 ; second, Dr. Charles ]\Ic- 
Dougall, Surgeon U. S. Army, April 15, 1830. 

Mahal a, born February 1, 1801 ; married, first, Henry Porter, 
July 7, 1828, who died in 1842 ; second. Bishop Edward Ames, 
of the ]\Iethodist Episcopal Church. 

Caroline, born December 1, 1805; married Alfred Harrison, 
April 1, 1827 ; died November 20, 1862. 

Alfred Harrison was born m Tennessee December 18, 1802 ; 
died July 19, 1891 ; married, April 1, 1827, Caroline Hanson. 


1. Mary Frances, born January 28, 1828; died April 26, 
1866; married John C. S. Harrison April 9, 1851. Children: 
Francis Hanson, born August 30, 1856 ; Benjamin, born Sep- 
tember 28, 1859 ; George Washington, born February 22, 1862, 
who married Sarah Elizabeth Crotlin June 19, 1894 — one child, 
Edwina Cleves, born July 12, 1897 ; Julia Calas. born October 
8, 1863. 

2. Desdemona, born August 31, 1831; died January 17, 
1912; married John D. Howland September 1, 1856. Children: 
Louis, born June 13, 1857; Caroline H., born March 30, 1859; 
Hewitt Hanson, born October 8, 1863. 

3. James Henry, born July 21, 1837; died July 6, 1908; 
married Margaret IMcCutcheon January 3, 1860. Children : 
Edward Hanson, born August 30, 1861 ; married Ellen Howard, 
1898— one child, a daughter; Hugh H., born August 18, 1863; 
married Nancy W^elch, August 18, 1903. 

4. Hannah Douglas, born May 15, 1841 ; died September 9, 

5. Julia Calas, born February 16, 1843 ; died August 1, 


6. Edward (Jfillion. born Sept(Miil)er 23. 1849: married 
Aurelia Harrison. 

Alfred Harrison emigrated to Iiidiaiia|)olis at an early date 
of its settlement, and for many years was a prosi)erous mereliant 
and banker and beld in high esteem as a reliable business man. 
He was a zealous Methodist and a great admirer of John Wesley. 

During the Civil War he was a friend and strong supporter 
of Orovernor ^Morton, especially in his financial efforts for rais- 
ing money to equip and care for the soldiers. When the Con- 
federate prisoners from Fort Donaldson wei'e in camp at Camp 
^lorton. near Indianapolis, he l)ecanu' much interested in them, 
and did all he could to alleviate the ccmditions of hardship that 
always attend captives. He worked hard at this benevolence, 
with all the ardor and energy that Mas a part of his nature. He 
was a consoling friend to them in this beneficent labor, and I have 
no doubt but that many prayers from the poor captives ascended 
to heaven, calling for blessings on his head. "I was sick and in 
prison and ye visited me" was the incentive to his action. 


Mr. Howland was born in Baltimore. ^Id.. 1818. Moved to 
Indiana in 1836; moved to Indianapolis. 1857. and practiced law 
for several years, associated with the Honorable Lucius Barbour; 
was appointed Clerk of the U. S. District Court in 1863. and was 
in that position till the close of his useful life in 1877. He had a 
large and friendly acquaintance among all classes of people, and 
his sudden death from paralysis produced a wide-spread sorrow ; 
all who knew him felt his loss as that of a friend. The Bar, the 
U. S. District Court, and Christ Church, of which he was a mem- 
ber and a long time vestryman, called special meetings and passed 
resolutions of sympathy for his family, and voiced the public ap- 
preciation of his lovely character, eulogizing him for his literary 
culture, his professional attainments, and his eminently Christian 

The three children of ^Ir. Howland inherit in an eminent de- 
gree his literary tastes and refined culture. Caroline and Hewitt 
inherit also in manner and appearance characteristics that mark- 
edly indicate their Hugenot origin, being great grandchildren of 
Sarah Calas. 

46 gen. john p. hawkins— reminiscences 
Mccarty family. 

Nicholas .McCartv, who married Margaret Hawkins, was born 
in Moorefield. Harding County, West Virginia, September 26, 
1795. His father was Humphrey iMcCarty, who married Susanna 

(probably Cliinn or Downman). I have no knowledge 

as to the parentage of Humphrey, but referring to Hay den's 
"Virginia Genealogies." page 87, the names "Humphrey" Pope 
and Nicliolas Minor appear as executors in trust of the will of 
Captain Daniel McCarty, of the parish of Cople. Westmoreland 
County, Virginia, probated iMay 27, 1724. Associated A\dth them 
were three other executors. The will disposes of a large estate. — 
lands, houses, slaves, jewelry and plate, — of great value. 

Humphrey Pope was Justice of Westmoreland County in 

"Nicholas" IMinor was Justice, 1680-95. One of the same 
name was Captain of the Virginia forces, 1758, and Justice of 
Loudon County, 1770. 

Among the children mentioned by Captain Daniel McCarty 
was Major Dennis McCarty, of Cople Parish. The will of the 
latter v\^as probated in Prince William County January 20, 1712. 
In it he mentions his kinsman, "John ^Vlinor. " His children 
were : 

Daniel, wlio married Sinah Ball in 1748 and died in 1792. 

Thaddeus, married Chinn. 


Sarah, married George Johnson, gentleman, an eminent law- 
yer of Fairfax County, member of the House of Burgesses in 
1765, author of the Stamp Act Resolutions offered by Patrick 
Henry. A grands(m lives in Alexandria (1889). 

"Susanna'' Chinn, married Joseph Shearman in 1768. 

Catherine Chinn, married Francis Christian July 6, 1750. 
Billington McCarty was one of the witnesses. This Billington, 
who died in 1771, married Elizabeth Downman. The Downman 
and Chinn families were closely related. 

Thaddeus ]\IcCarty married Chinn, sister of Cath- 
erine. Referring to Sarah IMcCarty, who married George John- 
son, I know that Nicholas McCarty luul two cousins of the name 
of Johnson, who lived in Cincinnati. Ohio. These may have been 
descendants of Sarah Johnson; furthermore, the probabilities 


are that the name "Humphrey" came into the ^IcCarty family 
from ' * Humphrey ' " Pope, the executor mentioned : that the name 
"Niehohas" came from "'Nicholas" Minor, another executor, 
and that "Susanna" came from "Susanna" Chinn. and further 
that Nicholas ]McCarty was of the ^NlcCarty family honorably 
mentioned by Hayden in his Genealogies. 

The ^McCartys of Virginia have a distinguished ancestry and 
inost reputable connections by marriage, including the families 
of Ball, Lee, Fitzhugh. Corbin. Tayloe, Chinn. Do^^^lman. ]Mason, 
Billington. and others of similar social standing and political 

The following editorial appeared in the Indianapolis Journal, 
^lay 18, 185-1, on the death of Nicholas McCarty : 

■ ■ This excellent man is no more. He died yesterday morning, 
after a .short illness of congestive fever. Death could have se- 
lected no man in our community better prepared to die, or whom 
we were less prepared to lose. In all the relations of life, private 
and public, he was alike esteemed. He was a kind husl)and and 
father, a careful and honorable business man. a public-s{)irited 
citizen, and an honest and wise legislator: few men have in so 
long a life made so few enemies or aft'orded so little cattse for 
enmity. His death is the loss of a friend to all who knew him. 

''Th-'re will be a meeting of the citizens generally, to take 
proper action in regard to this bereavement, this afternoon at 
tAvo o'clock, at tbe Baptist Chttrch. ^leridian and Maryland 

Ptirstiaut to the above notice a meeting of tlie citizens was 
held. — Samuel ^lerrill. President ; D. ^lagttire. Secretary. — and 
the following resolutions adopted. 

"Resolved. That in the departure of our fellow citizen, 
Nicholas McCarty. Ave realize the loss of one who since the early 
days of the city has deservedly ranked as a most wortliy. gen- 
erous and A'alttable man. and who by his att'ectionate heart, clear- 
ness of mind, and strict integrity of purpose has warmly en- 
deared himself to all who kncAv him. His hand and heart were 
ever at command for the need of the afflicted, and his cotinsels 
and sympathy Avere extended Avhere they cotild be tiseful. Avith 
unaffected simplicity and modesty. 

"In the important public trti.sts committed to him as Com- 


missioner of the Canal fund, as Senator of this County during 
three years, and other engagements, he manifested remarkable 
judiciousness and ability, and liis memory will always be cher- 
ished by the community with the highest regard. 

Nicholas ]\IcCarty was the architect of his own fortunes. Left 
without means, he entered on work at an early age, and suc- 
ceeded l)y" industry, honesty, and intellectual ability, in securing 
a considerable property. At the same time, having in mind his 
early struggles, he was sympathetic and lielpful to others, liberal 
with his means and judicious in his advice. He was emphatically 
a business man, and had no political ambitions, but he was a 
Whig and ardent in the support of Whig principles, and as 
Indiana was at that period an almost sure Democratic State, he 
was on several occasions forced by the voice of his party to accept 
nominations for high offices, — hoping to gather votes for him 
from the oppositicm on account of his well-known character for 
honesty and other conmiendable attainments. 

He was, in 1847, nominated for Congress, and in 1852 for 
Governor of Indiana, but was unsuccessful at both elections. 
The Democratic vote was too much in the majority for any man 
to overcome. 

I have heard him in public speaking, in which he had great 
facility ; he reasoned well and had facts at his command, and had 
the happy faculty of story-telling, which he interspersed with 
his logic, and so carried his audience along with him "from grave 
to gay, from lively to severe." Instructioji, laughter, and enjoy- 
ment attended his "speakings." 

A most important part of Nicholas McCarty's family was 
my "Au)it Mag," who for so many years was his devoted wife 
and faithful assistant. She was a good Christian and an excel- 
lent housekeeper, and every one who knew her loved her for her 
amiability and respected her for her strong character. She was 
always averse to her husl)and being engaged in political cam- 
paigns, but when he had to accept a nomination her whole heart 
and feelings were enlisted in his success. She was eminently a 
home lover, and her great enjoyment was in hospitality and hav- 
ing her friends around her. My earliest associations are con- 
nected with her loving sympathy and gracious kindness, which 
were continued to me to the end of her long and useful life. She 


belongred to a family of sisters distinguished for their strength 
of mind and hn'ely dispositions, — inheritance from their excel- 
lent mother. Ruth Ann Threlkeld. The following are the chil- 
dren : 

Susanna, horn Auuust 18. 1831: died August 30. 1873: mar- 
ried Res*. Henry Day. Decemher 19. 1857 : two children. Henry 
]\IeCarty and ^largaret ]\IcCarty. 

Margaret Ruth, born August 30. 1832: married J. C. S. Har- 
rison. October 2, 1867: two living eliildren. Nicholas ^McCarty. — 
who married Nancy Elston, — and Cleves. 

Dr. Day was the pastor of the First Baptist Church. Indian- 
apolis, from 1862 to 1876. when he was compelled l)y ill-health to 
give up his work. He was an able preacher, and a wise and faith- 
ful leader. His administration had the efficient and sympathetic 
support of his devoted and zealous wife. She loved the Church, 
its principles and all its ass(_)ciations. and g'ave it the aid of her 
strong, intelligent and loving pei*sonality. 

Nicholas, born February 8. 1834. 

Frances Jane, born November 18. 1837: died December 8, 

AVhen Dickens evolved from his imagination the character of 
Little Dorritt. he ascribed to her the peculiar attractions that all 
of Fanny McCarty's friends may find embodied in her, — pa- 
tience, self-effacement, sympathy, and kind interest in others 
were attributes that she used and drew upon daily in her inter- 
coui'se with others. She never had a thought for herself that 
might be allowed to interfere with a good deed that a human 
being could stand in need of. She lived a life of usefulness and 
was an example of constant c^miability and active goodness. The 
following notice of her death was given in the Indianapolis News : 

"Throughout her life Frances ^IcCarty retained the simple, 
helpful kindness that belonged to the neighborhood days of little 
Indianapolis. As she grew older \\ ith a growing city her charity 
grew broader, and it was said that she assisted every charitable 
undertaking in the city. It is not merely that she was one of the 
splendid women of the older generation of citizens that her loss 
will be widely felt, her life was a rare gift to humanity and she 
recognized her dedication to its service, and those who have been 
benefited by her good deeds cannot be numbered. Her charity 


was the oiit^o of synipathetie love and desire to help others. She 
"WHS a comfort to tlu^se in distress and was never idU' in well 
doing. ' ' 

At a meeting- of the congregation of the First Baptist Cluirch, 
called to honor her memory, one of the speakers fittingly said of 
her: " Slie iived up lo licr opporiuintics for good." 


Maria Griffith Hanson, born May 6, 1802 ; died August 18, 
1876 ; married Dr. Kenneth A. Scudder, November 20, 1828, who 
died March 6, 1829; married, second, Dr. Charles Willing Byrd 
McDougall, April 15, 1830. Six children : 

Henry Livingston, born July 30, 1832 ; died August 3, 1834. 

Georgianna ]MeDougall, ijorn ]\Iay 1, 1835; died December 
9, 1905. 

Charles McDougall, born October 12, 1837; died :\Iay 7, 1838. 

Josephine Maria, born June 18, 1839; died . 

Frances Pamela, born August 7, 1842. 

Thomas Mower McDougall, born May 21, 1845; died July 
3, 1909. 

Gcorgiaiia McDougall, married John Adams, IT. S. A. Six 
children : 

Charles IMcDougall, born April 5, 1855. 

Thomas Patten, born November 19, 1856. 

John, born M'ay 15, 1858 ; died October 14, 1905. 

Francis Joseph, born December 16, 1858. 

Georgiana McDougall, born December 16, 1861. 

Ennna Portis, born October 20, 1863. 

Josephine Maria, married David Hillhouse Buell, U. S. A., 
September 28, 1861, who died July 22, 1870. Two children: 

David Hillhouse, Jr., born June 19, 1862. 

Violet Maria Josephine, born February 13. 1866 ; married 
George Merriam Hyde, January 11, 1899. who died April 11, 

Josephine Maria, married, second, Oliver Prince Buell, De- 
cember 20, 1875, who died April 7, 1899. 

Frances Pamela, married Lawrence Sprague Babbitt, October 
22, 1861, w^ho died October 15, 1903. One child : 


Echviu JJuiT IJahhitt. liorn -liily '26. 18(52: nini'ric'd Emma 
Fenno, November 5, 1881. 

Thomas Mower, married Alice ^larin Sheldon. ]\Iav 21, 1872, 
who survives him 1913. 

Children of Georgiana McDoiKjall Adams: Charles ^leDou- 
gall Adams, married Ellen Shoke. 

Thomas Patten, married Katherine Twd children: 

Jane Duross, born April 10. 1907. 

Georsriana ^McDonjjall. born Septeml)er 7. 1908. 

John, married Ida Helh^ Kinsella. June 24. 1891. Two chil- 

Edgar A. Klel)ber. live children: 

John Adams. Jr., born ^March 12. 1894. 

Oliver David Buell, born December 14. 1896. 

Lawrence Babbitt, born December 14, 1896. 

Francis Joseph, born Au;iust 8, 1898. 

Charles Thomas Diekson. boi-n Xovembei" 2. 1905. 

Francis Joseph, married Alice Agnes Conrad. October 28, 

Georgiana MeDougatJ Adams, mairied Conde Fallen. Feb- 
ruary 18, 1886. Eleven children : 

Charles McDougall, born April, 1887. 

Conde de Sales, born February 2, 1888. 

Esther Janet, born November 9, 1890. (Married DeWitt 
Clinton Noyes, October 19. 1910. One child: Isabelle Beberidge.) 

Georgiana ]\IcDougall. born September 16, 1892. 

Anne Elizabeth. Ixn'ii Septembers. 1894. 

Louis Auguste. l)(>i-n May 22, 1896. 

Emma ]Mary. born December 20, 1898. 

Frances Josephine, born June 7. 1899. 

Louise Augusta, born August 7, 1900. 

Thomas Adams, born February 10, 1902. 

]\Iontrose Benedict, born February 4. 1906 : died February 
10, 1906. 

Dr. Charles ^McDougall was l)orn in Ohio about 1807. died in 
Fairfield. Virginia, July 26. 1885. Was appointed Assistant 
Surgeon U. S. Army. July 13, 1832. He served in the Black 
Hawk War in 1833. being attached to the ^Mounted Rangers. 
Served in Florida in the war with the Seminoles in 1841. Sur- 


geon at Military Academy, West Toint. 1846 to 1848. Served 
in New ]\Iexieo as ]Medieal Director. ^Medical Director of the 
Army of the Tennessee under General (irant fnmi April to Sep- 
tember, 1862. From latter date was ^Medical Director at New 
York till the close of the war. AVas brevetted Brigadier General 
for faithful and meritorious service during the war. Was re- 
tired February 22, 1869. 

Wherever Dr. McDougall was stationed he had many friends 
in and out of the Army. He was an excellent surgeon, and had 
a high reputation among his professional brethren. He was 
genial and attractive in his social relations and all who knew 
him held him in high regard for his sterling, manly qualities. 


Among the descendants of my great, great grandfather, John 
Hawkins, King William County, Virginia, is the distinguished 
Craig family of Virginia and Kentucky, descended from Talia- 
ferro Craig and Mary Hawkins (born 1716). This Taliaferro 
Craig (born 1710) was the son of John Craig, emigrant, who by 
traditioii was descended from John Craig, of Edinburg, Scotland, 
a colleague of John Knox, minister of Holy Rood in 1562, and 
in 1567 proclaimed the banns of matrimony between Queen Mary 
and Bothwell. The name Taliaferro is pronounced as if spelled 
' ' Toliver, ' ' and is sometimes written the latter way. 

Taliaferro Craig and his wife lived in Orange County, Vir- 
ginia, until September, 1781. when they moved to Kentucky with 
the ' ' Traveling Church, ' ' of which their son Lewis was the pastor. 
Taliaferro Craig is described as of fair complexion, rather below 
medium height, and of a kind and amiable disposition. He died 
in Woodford County, Kentucky, in 1795. His wife died January 
6, 180-1, aged eighty-eight years. She was buried at Great Cross- 
ing Church near Georgetown, and her son Eli.iah is buried by 
her side. Her tomb is marked, "The mother of many faithful." 
Her children are as follows : 

John, married Sally Page. He was the first representative 
sent by Kentucky to the Virginia Assembly. Was in conunand 
of the garrison at Bryan's Station when it was attacked by the 
Indians under Girty in August, 1782. 

There was published by Jolm P. jMorton & Co., Louisville, 


Kv., niemoi'ial i)rc)eeedinos at Brvaii's Station, in hoiioi* of the 
defenders of the Station. The names of those in the fort, so far 
as known, are stated, among them Toliver Craig and his wife, 
Polly Hawkins (who had arrived in Kentucky with "The Trav- 
eling Chnreli"" in the previous mid-winter, after enduring great 
hardships) : also Toliver Craig, Jr., and many others of Craig 
and Hawkins connections. The Memorial is greatly interesting 
and should be in the possession of all who are kindred to those 
families. Among the children of John Craig inside the station 
was Sally, who married John Bush ; a son of this marriage was 
•John D. Bush, of Covington, Ky.. born ^larcli 27. 1795: died 
October 4, 1871. ]\Iy father and others of our family kept up a 
cousinly intercourse with them for many years. He was a good 
man and has many descendants. 

Another daughter of John Craig, Betsv. married 

Johnson. Joyce married — Faulknor. It was a son of 

this marriage, William Faulknor, who married Betsy Hawkins, 
daughter of John Hawkins and Sarah Johnson, from whom was 
descended the '"Arkansas Traveler."' 

Lewis, born in Oi-ange County, Virginia, about 1737: died 
in 1828. He was the pastor of a Baptist Church in Spotsylvania 
County, Virginia, which moved in the Fall of 1781 to Kentucky; 
he died in Bracken County, aged eighty-seven : his wife was 
Elizabeth Sanders: their dauuhter. jMary. nuirried General Phile- 
mon Thomas, her cousin. 

Toliver, Jr., married P^lizabeth Johnson, sister of my great 
grandmother, Nancy Threlkeld : came to Kentucky with the 
''Traveling Church," and was of the garrison of Bryan's Station 
when it was beseiged. 

Elijah, born about 1743: died in 1800: married Frances 
Smith, probably a cousin, daughter of George Smith and Eliza- 
beth Hawkins. Elijah was a celebrated Baptist preacher. He 
moved from Virginia to Scott County, Kentucky, in 1786, where 
he laid out the town of Georgetown, named after George Wash- 
ington: he was zealous and enterprising in business as well as in 
preaching: established the first fulling and paper mills in Ken- 
tucky, and also the first schools in which the classics were taught. 

Jane married John Sanders; was tlie grandmother of George 


N. Sanders, a noted politician durinu the Presidency of James 

Benjamin, born in Cnlpeper County. Viruinia. ]\Iarch 80. 
1751 : married Nancy Sturmau. Among his tlescendants are 
A. G. Craig, Vevay, Ind., and George C. and Edward Eggleston. 
-well-known writers of essays and some charming books. 

Jeremiah married his cousin. Lncy Hawkins, daughter of 
Philemon Hawkins (died 177!)) and Sarah Smith. Lucy was 
one of the noted women at the defense of Bryan's Station (Jere- 
miah was also of the garrison) ; also her four children, Elijah. 
Polly, Franky, and Hawkins. 

Elizabeth married Richard Cave, a noted and eloquent Bap- 
tist preacher. He died in Woodford County. 

Joseph, born in 1742; married Sally Wisdom; he died in 1819. 

Sally married ]\Ianoah Singleton. 

There was living in St. Louis, ^lo., before the Civil War and 
perhaps subsequently, an artist. George C. Bingham. He in- 
formed me that he was related to the Craig and Hawkins families, 
but I do not remember that he gave me the line of connection. 
His paintings had much merit, and engravings of them had great 
popularity. One of them was ' ' The Jolly Flatboatman ' ' ; an- 
other "Lighting a Steamboat Over a Sand-bar in the ^Mississippi 
River." Some of his paintings are in the ^lercantile Library^ 
St. Louis. He was a genial, pleasant gentleman. A son. Rollins 
Bingham, lives in Kansas City. 

Mrs. John C. Shirley (of Craig descend), of Anchorage. Ky., 
has collected a large amount of data concerning the Craig family, 
and is preparing it for publication. The book will be the history 
of a family remarkable for its talents and varied usefulness. 


The name of Canby appears, — frcmi a search recently made. — 
to have been confined to the County of York, England, in the 
16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The earliest notice occurs about 
the year 1581, when George Canby is recorded as Church War- 
den of Eekington. The latest name mentioned is that of Richard 
Canby, gentleman, buried at Walton-upon-Deane, December 1. 

In the greater part of the notices of the family, individual 



members are styled "gentlemen. "" The town of Thorne, York, 
appears to have been the principal dwelliuo' place of the family. 
The Registers of the parish abound with entries of their baptisms, 
marriages and burials, from the year 1664: to 1709. The earliest 
notice of "Arms" of Canby of Thorne (a fess ermine) appears 
in a map of "Arms of Yorkshire families,'' by one Francis 
Houghaiii. an AruLS painter, without date but early in the 17th 
century. In 1781 it belonged to John Warburton, and is now 
among his collection in the British ^Museum. It is noted in the 
collection under the head of "Thorne" that Edward Canby, 
gentleman, paid one pound, two shillings and sixpence for a copy 
of the map. 

The ancestor of the L"anl)y family ni America was Thomas. 
He came to America in 1688 ( liis father is supposed to have been 
Benjamin) in company with his uncle and guardian. Henry 
Baker. Thomas was then sixteen years old. They settled in 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, where were many Quakers, and 
from association he became a Quaker. In 1693 he married Sarah 
Jarvis (Sarah has become a family name among the Canbys), 
and moved to a farm in Bucks County, which was part of a grant 
from AYilliam Penn to Richard Lunch. Sarah Jarvis died here 
in April, 1708. and he married the second wife in 1709. He had 
nine children by the first wife and eighi hy the second. (He 
\\"as mari'ied a third time, but no children.) 

He died at Salisbury in 1742, aged seventy-five years. He 
and his descendants served Buckingham Meeting (Quaker) as 
Clerks from nearly its establishment, for about one hundred 
years, and also served the Quarterly Meetinus in th(^ same co- 

One of the sons of Thonuis Canl)y and Sarah Jarvis was Ben- 
jamin, and he or one of his descendants moved to Baltimore. ^Id.. 
and may be known as tlie Baltimore Canl)ys. from whom Gen. 
Canby is descended. 

^Ir. Edward T. Canby. of AYilmington. Del., informe me that 
his branch of the family is descended from ()liver. a half-brother 
of Benjamin, who settled in Wilmington during the lifetime of 
his fathi'r. ^Ir. Canby furnished me a book for information en- 
titled. "Tlie History and Anti(|uit:ies of Thorne." published by 


J. Mason, of Thorne, Yorkshire, in lS7;i wiiieh make frequent 
mention of the Canbys. 

It is probable that the name was originally Catnbay, and that 
the family was French. It is state'l. which I heard many years 
ago, that Doctor I. T. Canby was accosted on the street in Balti- 
more by a French priest, who asked him if his name Avas Cambay, 
saying that he resembled people of that name he had known in 
France. As the French pronunciation of "m" before "b" is 
much like that of "n," one can readily see how the name Camhaij 
would easily be changed by English-speaking people into Cauhy. 

General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby, oldest son of Doctor 
Israel T. Canby and Elizabeth Piatt, was born at East Bend, 
Boone County, Kentucky, November 9, 1817. As a Lieutenant, 
General Canby had the respect and confidence of his brother 
ofificers, and no name stood higher in his Regiment (of which he 
was Adjutant) for the qualities that contribute to the character 
of a gentleman and a good soldier, and during all his career there 
existed in all circles that knew him a satisfaction as to his fitness 
for any position to which he might be called. He was of a gentle 
and commanding presence, and fashioned mentally and physical- 
ly very nuich after the pattern of (Jeorge Washington, more so 
than anyone I have ever known of. The l^iographer of General 
Canby, in Appleton's Encyclopedia of American Biography, 
closes his history as follows: 

"General Canby was a remarkable instance of an officer of 
high rank and universal popularity, without enemies in his pro- 
fcvssion. He was so upright that he was rarely criticised by his 
brother officers, save by those who gave him reason for official 
displeasure. He had ambition only to perform his duty; was 
always satisfied, — or appeared to be, — with any position to which 
he was assigned, and never engaged in any of those squabbles or 
intrigues foi- preferment which deface the record of many able 
soldiers. He had a singular power of inspiring implicit confi- 
dence among those wOio served under liis command. His assign- 
ment to any department, where through lack of zeal or incom- 
petence on the part of a commander, afi'airs had drifted into con- 
fusion, was the signal for the inauguration of order and disci- 
pline. The time-honored but often misapplied phrase, "An 
officer and a gentleman,' admirablv descril)es this soldier of tlie 


Kepublie. He was tall and athletic, courteous iu manner, but 
rather reserved and silent. — the itleal of a thoughtful, studious 
soldier. ' ' 

He lost his life on tlu' 11th of April. 187o. in the lava beds 
of Northern California, where, as Commander of the "Depart- 
ment of the Columbia, ' ' he was endeavoring to pacify the Modoc 
Indians, and was murdered at a Council which he attended with- 
out a guard, dispensing with it in order to show his good will and 
confidence in their sincerity. 

The following is a narrative of the sad occttrrence : 


Portland. Oregon, April 17. 1873. 
(Memorandum. ) 

Brevet ^Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby. Briga- 
dier-General United States Army, commanding the Department 
of the Cohtmbia. was treacherously nntrdered by ]\Iodoc Indian 
Chief, Captain Jack, and Ellen 's Man. at 1 :12 P. :\[., the 11th 
instant, at the coinicil tent, in the edge of the Lava Beds, three- 
fourths of a mile east of Camp, near the south-west corner of 
Tule Lake, California, while engaged in a Peace Conference. 

General Canbv left Portland February 8, — accompanied by 
an Aide-de-Camp, 2nd Lieutenant Harry R. Anderson, 4th Ar- 
tillery. — for the ]Modoc country, under instructions to confer in 
person with the Peace Commissioners upon the ]\Iodoc cpiestion ; 
and was thus cruelly and basely slain while ' " endeavoring to med- 
itate for the removal of the 3Iodocs from their present rocky 
fastness on the Northern border of California to a Reservation 
where the tribe could be maintained and protected by the proper 
civil agents of the Government." 

The Peace Commissionere were Mr. Alfred B. ^leacham of 
Oregon, the Reverend Doctor Eleazar Thomas of California, and 
]\Ir. Leroy S. Dyer. Indian agent at the Klamath Agency, — ac- 
companied by Frank Riddle and his ^lodoc wife, Tobe. as in- 

The Indians present were Captain Jack, Schon-chin John, 
Ellen's ]\Ian (or George), — brother of Shag-nasty Jim. — Black 
Jim. — half-brother of Jack. — Shag-nasty Jim, Hooka Jim, Boston 
Charley and Boaiis Charlev. 


Boston and Bogus passed the previous night in Camp-Boston, 
breakfasting with Dr. Thomas, and aeeompanied tlie party to the 
council tent, located near the trail. 

At 11 :06 A. M. the party started for the tent, in single file, 
in the following order, viz : General Canbv. Dr. Thomas, and 
Boston Charley (mounted), some one hundred and fifty yards 
in advance: Dyer (on gray horse). ^leacham (on sorrel horse), 
Tobe (mounted), Eiddle and Bogus Charley. General Canby 
and Dr. Thomas were unarmed. 

The proposition for a "talk" came from the ^lodocs; and it 
was agreed that General Canby, Colonel Gillem, ]Mr. Meacham. 
Dr. Thomas and Mr. Dyer, should meet Captain Jack and four 
Indians, all unarmed, at the council tent. Colonel Gillem was 
sick and unable to attend. 

General Canby took out, under his arm. a box of cigars, 
handed one to each Indian, and all Avere smoking, except Dr. 

After a shaking of hands all rcnind. they seated themselves 
for the council near by a small fire of sage brush, on the opposite 
side of the tent from the Camp. General Canby on the right 
nearest the tent, upon a stone: on his left Meacham: still to his 
left and a little in the rear Dr. Thomas : and close to Dr. Thomas 
and slightly in front Tobe. lying down, between ^Meacham and 
Thomas. Opposite to and facing General Canby. Schon-chin 
John : on his right Captain Jack : and still to his right Bolnis and 
Boston. Dyer was to the front and a little to the right of Gen- 
eral Canby and to the left and rear of Schon-chin John, holding 
bis horse. Ellen's ]\Ian, Hooka Jim and Shag-nasty Jim were 
seated ar another small fire to the right and rear of Boston 
Charley. Black Jim walked around fire and council tent, — did 
not sit down : Riddle was near his wife. 

The "talk" then commenced; General Canby, ]\Ir. Meacham. 
Dr. Thomas, Captain Jack and Schon-chin John making briei' 

Mr. Meacham in his official report saj's: "Since our arrival 
at the Lava Bed, the Commission, together with General Canby. 
had labored hopefully, and had apparently gained several points 
over the Indians looking to a peaceful solution of this question. 
Until Friday morning. 11th instant, we had thwarted all their 


schemes of treachery throuiih the fidelity of our interpreter. jNIrs. 
Riddle, a j\Iodoc woman. On that morning terms were agreed 
upon for a meeting satisfactory to Dr. Thomas and General 
Canby. though not to Mr. Dyer, nor myself or the JModoc woman. 
General Canby remarking that they dare not molest us because 
his forces commanded the situation, and Dr. Thomas said where 
God called him to go he would go, trusting to His care. The 
meeting was held according to time and place agreed npon. 
Canby, IMeacham. Thomas and Dyer, and eight armed instead of 
five unarmed Indians, as was agreed upon. The 'talk' was short, 
the IModoc chiefs both saying that unless the soldiers were with- 
drawn from the country no further talk could be had, up to that 
point the Commission re-affirming that the soldiers would never 
be withdrawn until the difficulty was settled, and still extending 
the offer of amnesty, a suitable and satisfactory home, and ample 
provision for their welfare in the future. The reply from both 
cliiefs was, 'Take away your soldiers and we will talk about it.' 

"General Canby assured the Indians that he was here for the 
protection of both parties, and to see that the Commission faith- 
fully fulfilled their promises." 

Immediately after Schon-chin John had "spoken," and while 
Riddle was interpreting his "talk," Captain Jack rose up. 
stepped aside, behind Dyer's horse, and cocked a pistol. Just 
then Barncho and Sloluck suddeidy appeared from a ridge of 
rocks some one hundred yards to the left and rear of the Com- 
missioners, bearing two or three muskets each, followed shortl.v 
after by Steamboat Frank and Scar-faced Charley, also armed. 
Captain Jack returned to within a few feet of General Canby, 
and exclaiming "A-ta" (all ready) snapped |iis pistol in the 
( General 's face. In an instant he re-cocked his pistol and fired. 
General Canby fell, severely wounded. At once all was con- 
fusion. General Canby sprang up and ran past Dyer's horse, 
crossing tlie trail, towards the Camp. At the distance of thirty- 
five paces from where he had been seated, he threw up both 
hands and fell backward, shot dead by Ellen's Man. Both l)ul- 
lets penetrated his head. He was ihen stripped naked by this 
Indian tnd his clothing and valuables removed. 

Doctor Thomas was killed by Boston Charley, by a pistol-shot 
in the breast and a gun-shot in the head. He was stripped by 


Boston and Steamboat Frank. After receiving' the wound in the 
breast and while upon his knees supporting himself with his 
right hand, he said to Boston, "Don't shoot again, Boston, I 
shall die anyway." Boston replied, ''God dam ye, may be so 
you believe what squaw (Tobe) tell ye, next time," and shot him 
through the heart. 

Schon-chin John attacked Meaeham, and, assisted by Shag- 
nasty Jim and Blank Jim. pursued and shot liim while running. 
Boston, attempting to scalp liim, was deterred by the Modoc 
woman (Riddle's wife) exclaiming, "The soldiers are coming!" 
Meaeham received five wounds, from gun-shot and knife, and 
was left for dead. He was partially stripped. 

Dyer and Riddle attempted to escape toward Camp, the 
former followed and shot at by Hooka Jim and Black Jim, and 
the latter by Ellen's ]Man, Shag-nasty Jim and Barncho. After 
running about one hundred and fifty yards, Dyer turned upon 
his pursuer. Hooka Jim, with a small pocket derringer, when 
the Indian retreated. Mr. Dyer and Riddle escaped unluirt. 
Tobe was knocked down by Sloluck, but not uijured. 

The attack was seen from the signal station on the bluff west 
of the Camp and information innnediately conveyed to Colonel 
Gillem. The troops advanced promj^tly at the double-quick step, 
but on arriving at the scene of the massacre the murderers had 
fled to th.eir "strony-hold" in the Lava Beds. 

The remains of General Canby have been brought to this 
city, Portland, Ore., en-route to Indianapolis, Ind., and the fun- 
eral will take place at 11 o'clock A. M., on the 18th instant. 

At the special request of Mrs. Canby there will be no military 
or other display on that occasion. 

The ceremonies will be conducted quietly and privately, in 
the presence of the immediate friends of the family only, at her 
residence, corner of Eighth and Salmon Streets. After the serv- 
ices the remains will be removed to Armory Hall, and Avill lie in 
state from 12 o'clock A. M. to 4 o'clock P. M. ; thence the remains 
will be taken to the vault in the Lone Fir Cemetery on the east 
side of the river. 

Twelve enlisted men, selected from the detachments at Fort 


Vancouver and Vancouver Arsenal, will be sent to Portland, as 
body-bearei"s for the remains. 

Brevet ^Major-General Robert S. Granger will have charge of 
all the arrangements for the funeral. 

The following named citizens and officers have been designated 
to act as pall-iiearers: 

His Excely. (iov. L. F. Grover Lieut. Colonel Rufus Saxton 
Judge ^I. P. Deady Surgeon George E. Cooper 

^Nlayor Philip Wa.sserman Major David Taggart 

Ben Holladay. Esq. Surgeon R. H. Alexander 

J. B. ^Montgomery. Esq. Major H. Clay Wood 

Henry Failing, Esq. Major William A. Rucker 

C. H. Lewis. Esq. Major Henry M. Robert 

B. Goldsmith. Esq. Captain Henry W. James 


Official : Assistant Adjutant General. 

The following order was issued by the General connuanding 
the Army : 


GENERAL ORDERS Washington. April 14. 1873. 

No. 3. 

It again becomes the sad duty of the General to announce 
to the Army the death of one of our most illustrious and most 
hon(n"ed comrades. 

Brigadier General Edward R. S. Canby. commanding the 
Department of the Columbia, was, on Friday last. April 11. 
shot dead l\v the chief" Jack."" while he was endeavoring to 
mediate for the removal of the ]Modocs from their present rocky 
fastness on the northern border of California to a reservation 
where the tribe could be maintained and protected l\v the pi-oper 
civil agents of the Government. 

That such a life shotild have been sacrificed in such a catise 
will ever be a source of regret to his relations and friends: yet 
the General trusts that all good soldiers will be consoled in know- 
ing that General Canby lost his life "on duty" and in the execti- 
tion of his office, for he had been specially chosen and appointed 
for this delicate and dangerous trust by reason of his well-kn(nvn 
patience and forbearance, his entire self-abnegation and fidelity 


to the expressi'd wishes of his (Jovernnient. and his larjie experi- 
ence in dealinii' with the savage Indians of America. 

He had already completed the necessary military prepara- 
tions to enforce obedience to the conclusions of the Peace Com- 
missioners, after which he seems to have accompanied them to a 
last conference with the savage chiefs in supposed friendly 
council, and there met his death by treachery, outside of his 
military lines, but within view of the signal station. At the 
same time one of the Peace Commissioners was killed outright, 
and another mortally wounded, and the third escaped unhurt. 

Thus perished one of the kindest and best gentlemen of this 
or any country, whose social e(iuall('(l his militarv virtues. To 
even sketch his Army history woukl pass the limits of a General 
Order, and it must here suffice to state that General Canby began 
his military career as a cadet at West Point in the summer of 
1835, graduating in 1839, since which time he has continuously 
served thirty-eight years, passing through all the grades to 
Major General of Volunteers and Brigadier General of the 
Regular Army. 

He served his early life with marked distinction in the 
Florida and Mexican wars, and the outbreak of the civil war 
found him on duty in New Mexico. wli(^re, after the defection of 
his seniors, he remained in conunaud and defended the country 
successfully against a formidable inroad from the direction of 
"'exas. Afterward transferred east to a most active and im- 
portant sphere, he exercised various high commands, and at the 
close of the civil war was in chief command of the Military Divi- 
sion of the West Mississippi, in which he had received a painful 
wound, but had the honor to capture Mobile and compel the 
surrender of the rebel forces in the southwest. 

Since the close of the civil war he had repeatedly been chosen 
for special connnand by reason of !iis superior knowledge of law 
and civil government, his kiiown fidelity to the wishes of the 
Executive, and his chivalrous devotion to his profession, in all 
which his success was perfect. 

When fatigued by a long and laboi'idus career, in 1869 he 
voluntarily consented to take connnand of the Department of 
the Columbia, where he expected to pujoy the repose he so much 
coveted. This ^lodoc difficulty arising last winter, and it being 



extremely desirous to end it bv peaceful means, it seemed almost 
providential that it should have occurred in the sphere of Gen- 
eral Canby's command. 

He responded to tlie call of his Government with alacrity, 
and has labored with a patience that deserved better success, — 
but, alas ! the end is different from that which he and his best 
friends had hoi)ed for. and he now lies a corpse in the wild 
mountains of California, while the ii^htning tiashes his requiem 
to the furthermost corners of the civilized world. 

Though dead, the record of his fame is resplendent with noble 
deeds well done, and no name on our Army Register stands 
fairer or higher for tlie personal (puilities that connnand the uni- 
versal respect, honor, affection, and love of his countrymen. 

General Canby leaves to his country a lieart-broken widow, 
but no children. 

Every honor consistent with law and usage shall lie paid to 
his remains, full notice of which will be given as soon as his 
family can be consulted and arrangements concluded. 
By- Command of General Sherman: 


Official : Assistant Ad.iutant General. 

Louisa Hawkins and General Canliy were married at Craw- 
fordsville. Ind., in 1839, soon after his graduation from West 
Point, and she at once entered upon the career of a soldier's 
wife, going with him first to Florida, and subsequently accom- 
pianying him in all the many changes of location usual in our 
Army life during a perod of thirty-live years. She was a de- 
voted wife, a sympathetic friend, and always on the lookout for 
eases of distress and misfortune, where her kind nature M'as 
prompt to render all the assistance tluit was in her power. 
Wherever she was, or whatever the conditions around her, she 
sought to do good. 

Soon after the close of the Civil War T was travelling in 
the State of Texas, and stopping over one night at San Antonio. 
I occupied a hotel ro(Mn in company with a gentleman whom I 
did not know, and who came to the room after I had gone to bed. 
He was quite friendly and talkative, and told me some of his 
adventures in "Sibley's Brigade." when it marched into New 
^lexico to wrest that territory from the Union : that after Sibley's 


retreat many of theiii were left sick or wounded in hospital, and 
spoke of ]\lrs. Canby, her attention and kindness to them, and 
how she enlisted others in lier works of mercy, and closed his 
praises of her by saying- that they all felt snre she was in sym- 
pathy with their cause. I tiien told him that slie was my sister, 
and that Christian sympathy, and not api)roval of their cause, 
was the motive of her kindness. 

The following letter to the Secretary of War from R. 0. 
Fairs. Flatonia, Texas, dated January 11, 1893. was referred to 
me for answer : 

Dear Sir — Will you be so kind as to give me the address of 
the widow of General E. R. S. Canby. She endeared herself to 
Sibley's Brigade (C. S. Vols.) by her kind treatment of our sick 
and wounded while in New INIexico, 1862. I wish to show her 
we still entertain kind remembrance and esteem for her, by in- 
viting her to our reunion. 

The remains of General Canby and his wife now rest in 
Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Ind. A suitable monument 
marks the spot. 

There is an excellent oil portrait of General Canby in "Cul- 
lum Hall," West Point, N. Y., painted by Macdonald, of the 
Ddstrict of Columbia. 


Philemon Thomas was the most eminent man of my branch 
of the Hawkins family born in America, and for that reason I 
have thought it proper to have his picture as the frontispiece of 
this book. As his two wives were Hawkins stock, and he a Haw- 
kins, it may be expected that his descendants, living, I believe, 
principally in Louisiana, should show Hawkins characteristics, 
mental and physical, more pronounced than could usually be 
found among those of the blood bearing the Hawkins name. It 
is not unreasonable to hope that these characteristics may be 
altogether those that are praiseworthy and a credit to the family. 

Philemon Thomas w-as the grandson of John Hawkins, plan- 
ter. King William County, who died about 1712 ; was born in 
Orange County, Virginia, in 1761. ?Ie received a common school 
education, and though but a boy, served in the War of the Revo- 
lution and did good service in the field in the Carolinas. His 


father was Richard Thomas, who married Frances, daughter of 
Philemon Hawkins (who died in 1779). 

The children of Richard and Frances were: Richard. Phile- 
mon, David. Rowland. Thomas P,. and five daughters: Sally, 
married Harrison : Isabella, married Bledsoe ; Chaney, married 
Stephen Bowles: Lucy, married a son of Philemon Hawkins and 
Catherine Craig: Joanna, married Jones. Richard married 
Elizabeth Bowles, Thomas P. married Sally Smith Hawkins, a 
cousin (daughter of John and Sarah Hawkins, of near George- 
town. Kv.) : David married ]\Iiss Bowles. Rowland married p]liza- 
beth. eldest sister of Benjamin P. Thomas, a cousin. 

Philemon Thomas married, first, ]\Iary. a cousin, daughter 
of Lewis Craig. They moved to Kentucky before 1791 (at this 
date he was a member of the Kentucky Legislature, and during 
his memberslii]) liis wife died). His second wife was Fanny 
Hawkins, a cousin, daughter of John Hawkins and Sarah John- 
son. He lived on a farm near ^linerva. ^lason County, now 
Bracken. His father and mother lived on a farm near bv, where 
they died and were buried. — a farm adjoiriing the Bledsoe farm. 
1 have in my possession a little book entitled. "Cliristmas in 
Kentucky. 1862.'' by Elizabeth Bryant Johnson, of Craig an- 
cestrx : an authoress of talent who lives in Washington, D. C. 
She presented me with the book in 1894. and informed me that 
"Ashley Hall." where the scene is laid, in ^lason County, was 
the former home of Philemon Thomas, and was Iniilt l\v him 
near the close of the 18th century. 

The mansion, two stories, stands upon a gentle elevation: a 
high, square portico is at the front, opening into a grand hall 
thirty feet wide and sixty feet long, into which opens rooms on 
both sides: on each side of the front antl hack doors of the hall 
are long, narrow windows, also "fan windows" above the doors: 
the hall was also lighted from a dome over the center of the 
mansion : the rear door of the hall opened upon a wide porch 
extending the full length of the building: two large fire-places 
with high mantels adorned the hall and gave a sense of comfort. 
Among the furniture were two "rockers" which were brought 
from Virginia by the original owner among his other effects: 
on the back of each a silver plate, inscribed "Hickory: Quaker: 
A'irgiiiia : 1785." A few old portraits were on the wall, one. full- 


length of the original owner of Ashley Hall, in the uniform of 
a Continental officer, and his hride. The mantels were of ebon- 
ized wood; over one were ti'ophies of the chase, over the other 
were four crossed swords ; one from Yorktown. one from Tippe- 
canoe, one from New Orleans, and one from Monterey. 

I do not know the date that Phik'uioii Thomas sold liis farm 
and moved to Louisiana, but it must have been subsequent to 
1806. for he was one of the executors of his father-in-law. John 
Hawkins, whose will was probated in September, 1806. ^Irs. 
Nancy ]\Ioore. of Dover, Ky., a granddaughter of John Hawkins 
and Sarah Johnson, informed me, under date of ^Eay 24, 1894, 
that she thinks lioth his wives were buried on the farm. 

At the time he emigrated to Louisiana the district he went to 
was known as "West Florida," and under the Spanish Govern- 
ment, which continued in possession after the cession of Louis- 
iana and had a fort at Baton Rouge. The emigrants to this 
district were largely from the United States, especially Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and the South Atlantic States. These soon 
became discontented under Spanish rule, and an insurrection 
was organized (1810-11) under the lead of Philemon Thomas; 
an armed force was raised and Thomas was elected commander, 
and proceeded at once to attack the fort, and it fell into the hands 
of the insurgents, who organized a Civil Government. He served 
as a Member of Congress for two sessions, — 1831-35. His life 
was full of interest and much adventure, and it is to be hoped 
that some of his descendants may some time engage to write it. 
His descendants by his wives, IMary Craig and Fanny Hawkins, 
live principally in Louisiana. Mrs. A. D. Iludgins. a great grand- 
daughter living at Dutch Town, Ascension Parish, has furnished 
me valuable information. Some other descendants are the fam- 
ilies of Allen, Bridges, Burnet, Harbin, Gayles. and Childs. of 
Baton Rouge; William Thomas, of llouma, Terre Bonne Parish, 
and Richard Rowland Thonuis. of New Orleans. 
' Philemon Thomas was in religion a Baptist, and a Whig in 
politics, and, in accordance with his general character, was 
zealous in his beliefs. He was at the Battle of New Orleans, 
commanding tlie militia of the Baton Rouge district; but, as he 
was a political enemy of General Jackson, whom he detested, he 
was not made conspicuous hy him in his report. In 1812 he was 


the AVhig- candidate for Governor of Louisiana, opposed to Clai- 
borne, Democrat, but was defeated mainly through a trick of the 
opposition. After .serving as a ^Member of Congress he lived 
a quiet life at his home in Baton Rouge, and died November 8, 
1847. aged eighty-three years. 

A porti'ait (if him hau'^s in the Senate Chamber of the State 
Capitol. The original of his picture accomj)anying this booiv 
belongs to 'Sim. A. D. Hudgins. 

General Th.omas deserves a recorded history among the 
heroes and builders of the Anierican Nation. The Louisiana 
State University at Baton Rouge has tiles of local papers from 
1832 to 1861, and considerable macerial for his life could prob- 
ably l)e found in tliem 


There is [Maryland record that l*hilemon Lloyd Hawkins and 
Edward Lloyd came to Charles County, Maryland, from Wales 
in 1650. There is also record that Henry Hawkins, St. Mark 
County. [Maryland, made a will December '24. 1662. probated 
August 15. 1673. It mentioned his brother, Philemon Lloyd, 
who was named as executor; also Edward, son of Philemon 
Lloyd Hawkins. Does not seem to have any male children. 
There is Revolutionary record of John Hawkins. First Lieut. 
Irth Battalion of the [Maryland Flying- Camp. June to December, 
1776: Fii'st Lieut. 5th [Maryland Line, December. 1776; Captain. 
February 29, 1777 ; retired on account of ill health, January 1, 
1781. He was from Queens County, and died 1782 at his home 
a few months after his resignation. 

A letter from [Mrs. Eleanor Chatard. of Washington, D. C 
a descendant of this John Hawkins, informs me that the tradi- 
tion in hei" family is that they are descended from a brother of 
the Admiral. Sir John Hawkins. 

The heirs of this Captain John Hawkins [x'titioned the 2-lth 
Congress for bounty land and half pay due him (Senate Bill 
117). The petitioners were Daniel [McKim. George Williams. 
Elizabeth R. Williams. William A. Pattei*son and Frances Pat- 
terson. l\v their attorney. George Templeton. It is almost con- 
clusive that the Adjutant Third Virginia. John Hawkins, and 
Captain John Hawkins. Fifth [Maryland, had the same or near 


kin ancestrv of 1650, and that the Maiyhmd families, the North 
Carolina family, and my own family, all having the name Phile- 
mon and belonging to different dates of emigration, had the same 
ancestry in the old country, and it is probable that a seareli in 
Wales would show much matter of family liistory. 


Moses Hawkins was appointed a Captain in the 14th Regi- 
ment, Virginia Line, February 24, 1777, and was killed at the 
battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777. I do not know his re- 
lationship to my branch of the family, but from the fact that 
my grandfather, Jameson Hawkins, named one of his sons 
"Moses," I judge they were nearly related, and he was prol)ably 
descended from Joseph Hawkins, son of John (of King William), 
who died about 1742. The will of Captain Moses Hawkins is 
recorded in Book 2, page 522, Orange County, Virginia. He 
left a widow, Susanna, whom he married in Orange County in 
1770, a daughter of William Strother, four children, viz : 
Sally, William Strother, Lucy, and Moses. The witnesses to the 
will, made April 16, 1777, are James Hawkins, Sarah Hawkins, 
and Benjamin Hawkins. In 1785 the children were mentioned 
as under ten years of age. 

On the 17th of July, 1784, a warrant. No. 3326, for land was 
issued to William Strother Hawkins, heir-at-law to Moses Haw- 
kins, in consideration of the latter 's three years' service as Cap- 
tain in the Virginia Continental Line. 

I have had some correspondence with Mr. J. R. Darnell, a 
descendant of IMoses Hawkins, through his son, William Strother 
Hawkins. Mr. Darnell mentions as of his family, descended from 
Moses Hawkins, Mrs. Annie Miles, of Frankfort, Ky., and Mrs. 
Mary Sterling Payne, of Hopkinsville, Ky. 

A search of the records of Orange County prior to 1777 
might show the parentage of Captain IMoses Hawkins, and it is 
probable that John Hawkins, who married Gabriella, daughter 
of Gabriel Jones, the "Valley Lawyer,"' has the same ancestry. 


Richard Gentry, of Kansas City, Mo., in his very interesting 
book, "Tlie Gentry Family in America," gives his descent from 


Nathan Hawkins, of Spotsylvania County. Viriiinia, born in 
1716. and says: "It is generally believed and almost certain 
that this branch of the family is descended from William Haw- 
kins, a famous sea captain, who was the father of Sir John Haw- 
kins and William, his brother." Mr. Gentry has reason to be 
proud of his (n-ntry name, and in his iirefaoe gives this good 
ad\'ice : 

"My iujuncton to the parents of the family is to Educate, 
Educate. Educate. Every bright and promising young Gentry 
should have a college education, and each one can secure it if 
both parents and children are inspired by a worthy ambition and 
a proper amount ol self-denial. More of our boys should be 
prepared for the military schools at West Point and Annapolis, 
Avhere they will have a free education and be given an honorable 
position in the service of their country. If the parents of this 
generation will pay more attention to higher education, we will 
have more great men in the next generation to shed honor and 
glory upon the family. 

I fully sympathize with tliis injunction of ^Ir. Gentry, and. 
as I am probably the oldest living member of my family and its 
connections, being now in my eiohty-third year. I can asstime 
the lil)erty of commending it to the serious thought and action 
of all bearing the Hawkins name or connected therewith. 


Captain John Hawkins. Third Virginia Regiment. Conti- 
nental Line, was Regimental Adjutant September, 1777. to ]\lay, 
1778 : was promoted to a Captaincy succeeding Valentine Pey- 
ton, killed at Charlestown. According to Paxton, he was de- 
scended from Ralph Hawkins, who settled in Charles Coimty. 
Maryland, about 1650. ^Maryland records show there was a 
Ralph Hawkins (perhaps the emigrant), of Anne Arundel 
County, who made his will in 1669 : probated in 1675. 

A daughter of this John Hawkins married John Adams 
AVashington Smith, of Fauquier County. Virginia. One of his 
descendants is Courtlandt Hawkins Smith, son of Francis L. 
Smith, Alexandria. Va. The American Monthly ^Magazine, pub- 
lished at Washinoton. D. C. bv the Daughters of the American 


Revolution, contains in the May nuiiil)er. 1895, an article on the 
Adjutant, by a descendant, JMaryaret Vowell Smith, of Alex- 
andria. Va., in which it is stated that Captain Hawkins was born 
in Charles County, Maryland, in 1750, and died in Fauquier 
County in 1905. 

The heirs of the Adjutant petitioned the 27th Congress 
(1832) for back pay due him, but the Senate Committee made 
an adverse report on the petition, with leave to withdraw papers, 
and they were receipted for by Francis L. Smith. 

Heirs of Captain Hawkins named Hord once petitioned Con- 
gress for the loss of a horse by the Captain. These heirs lived 
in ^Missouri. Petition presented by Mr. p]dwards, a Representa- 
tive from Missouri. Petition rejected. 


In connection with John Hawkins, of King William County, 
and his son, Philemon, it is of interest to note that a Philemon 
Hawkins, born in England in 1695, emigrated with his wife, 
Eleanor (nee Howard), to Virginia in 1715, and settled in 
Charles River Coimiy in the neighborhood of Todd's Bridge, 
near relatives who had preceded him. (Such is the record or tra- 
dition familiar to his descendants.) 

The Register of the Land Office at Richmond. Va., informs 
me that this Philemon Hawkins had patents of land granted him 
in King William County; two patents in 1719 and two in 1725, 
in that part of King William that is now King and Queen -. that 
Todd's Bridge was in King and Queen over the JMattapony 
River. The probabilities are, almost to a certainty, that my an- 
cestor, John Hawkings, of King William. >vas the relative near 
Todd's Bridge who had preceded the emigrant of 1715. The 
fact of their near residence in King William, and that the de- 
scendants of both families have, through several generations, 
carried the name Philemon and continue to carry it, shows be- 
yond reasonable doubt their near relationship, and that their 
ancestry in England was the same. 

Philemon, the emigrant, died in 1725, and about 1735 his 
widow and children, Philemon, John and Anne, moved to North 
Carolina, where many of their descendants now live. I heard 
mention in my family many years ago, before the subject of 


family genealogy had any interest for me, that my grandfather. 
Jameson Hawkins, when a young man made a visit to his rela- 
tives in North Carolina. 

In political and social life and in good eitizen.ship the North 
Carolina family has been a credit to the Hawkins name. The 
family and its connections have been important factors in their 
State history. 


The emigrai]t ancestor of the Portland family was Samuel 
Hawkins, who. with three brothers, Joseph, Benjamin and John, 
emigrated from Wales in 1685 and settled in ^Matthews County, 
Virginia, on the York River. Another brother came in 1791, and 
died soon after. John moved to Massachusetts. The youngest 
son, Samuel, born in 1712. settled in Shenandoah Cottnty. From 
this son Sanmel are descended the following children : 

Susan, married (General John Sevier, first (iovernoi- of Ten- 

Rebecca, married John Crockett. 

Jane — Col. Joseph Campbell: moved to Tennessee. 

Sally — Dr. Graham, of Winchester. Ya. 

]\Iary — John Byrd. 

The sons were : 

Joseph, who inherited the Virginia estate. 

Benjamin — settled in Ohio. 

Richard — went to Tennessee with John Sevier. 

Samuel — great grandfather of Nathan Byrd Hawkins, born 
in 1762: died at Eaton. Ohio, in 1814. from wounds received 
in the War of 1812. 

Nathan Byrd Hawkins recently called on me at Indianapolis. 
the first time I had ever seen him. I was struck with his great 
resemblance to my cousin, Janieson Hawkins, of Hannibal, ]\Io., 
son of my uncle. Elijah Hawkins. :\Iorton S. Hawkins, a sou of 
Nathan B. Hawkins, bears a strong resemblance to Sally Hatch, 
a granddaughter of Jameson Hawkms. A picture of ^Irs. Caro- 
line Hawkins Clarke, published in the News of Indianapolis, 
much resembles my Aunt Nancy Hawkins, a sister of my father : 
according to my remembrance of her. the expressions of face are 


The tradition in the Hawkins family of Porthmd is that 
David Crockett, hiniter, soldier, member of Congress, was a son 
of Rebecca Hawkins. When Crockett emeroed from ()l)scurity 
and became a conspicuous figure in public life it was the culmina- 
tion of an influential and useful career that had pertained to him 
in whatever neighborhood or among whatever people he had 
lived. His life from the beginning had been onward and up- 
ward, and was the outcome of a heredity derived from an an- 
cestor (probably William Hawkins; many generations anterior 
to him, and his education as hunter, soldier, and foremost man 
among men in whatever locality he might he, led him on grad- 
ually to a final promotion into the roll of famous men. 

The career of Crockett furnishes a remarkable illustration of 
the verity of Galton's theories on Heredity. "The principles 
of hereditary descent whicli permeates the characteristics of 
races and species, as displayed in the animal and vegetable king- 
doms, is a fundamental law of life, and man as a part of the an- 
imal kingdom is no exception to this law, his natural abilities 
being derived by inheritance, under the same rules and limita- 
tions as are the forms and physical features of the whole organic 
world. ' ' 


This John Hawkins was of Hanover County, Virginia. His 
grandson, Edmund Waller Hawkins, of Newport, Ky., informs 
me that he lived eight or ten miles from Hanover Court House, 
in the neighborhood of "The Slashes," where Henry Clay was 

^Ir. J. Russell Hawkins, of Frankfort. Ky., a grandson of 
John Hawkins, prepared a carefully written account of him, so 
far as known, which is in the posses.«ion of his daughter, Mildred 
Hawkins. His tradition is that John Hawkins was third or 
fourth descendant from Captain William Hawkins, R. N., the 
father of Sir John Hawkins, and like him a distinguished ex- 
plorer and navigator; that he came to America about the year 
1743-44 with his three sisters and with the family of Colonel 
Thomas Langford. a British naval officer, and after stopping a 
short time at Norfolk. Va., they commenced an exploration of 


the country and settled in the County of Hanover on Little 
River, a branch of the Pamnnkey, about forty miles nortlnvest 
of Riclniioiul. Very soon thereafter Jolui Hawkins married 
]\[ary. a dauiihter of Colonel Langford. One of his sisters mar- 
ried Elijah Morton in 1745, another married Anthony Waddy 

about the same time, and ;i thiril sister married . 

The name of tbis tbird sister was not known to ^Ir. Russell Haw- 
kins, but it was prolial)ly ^lildred. and that she married John 
Thomas. There is record in Orange County. Virginia, Deed 
Book, March 1771: "John Thomas conveys to John and Joseph 
Hawkins in trust for the purpose of paying his debts, and for 
tlie sob' suppoi't and maintenance of his wife, ^Mildred Tbomas. 
certain buuls, negroes and otber personal property."" There is 
further record in June. 1778: Joseph Hawkins, of Spotsyl- 
vania, and Milly Thomas, of Hanover County, convey 151 acres 
of land to Lewis ^Nlills, of Orange County." John Hawkins 
named one of his daughters ^Mildred. 

A further probability is that Joseph and John were brothers. 
Tbey seem to have liad close business associations for many years. 
Tliere is record in Virginia State papers, Vol. 8. page 129, March 
19, 1776: '"A warrant to Joseph Hawkins for use of John Haw- 
kins for two hundred ])ouiids upon account of Commissary of 
Provisions to the Army."" Tlie Hoard ui issuing the warrant 
seems to have understood and officially recognized the close per- 
sonal or business relations existing between John <ind Josepli. 
On the 2-4th of the previous montb. Febmiary. is recortU'd : "A 
warrant to John Hawkins for five liun(lr"(l pounds on account 
of Connnissary of Provisions."" 

Captain Hawkins seems to have been acting for several years 
as a Commissary un_der a Virgina State Commission, l)ut finally, 
at a pei'iod when the Ai-my A\as suffering for lack of supplies, 
he was appointed l)y Conai-ess as Commissary, on the urgent re- 
quest and recommendation of Governor Patrick Henry, (rirar- 
diii. in his History of Virginia, Vol. 4, Page 329, says: "To 
the genius and exertion of Mr. Hawkins during the short time he 
lived after his appcuntment to the Commissary Department by 
the Board of War. much was also due. That gentleman had dis- 
played in the discharge of his duties the most indefatigable ac- 
tivity. Nature and observation had fitted bim for that sphere 


of usefulness; his iniiid pervaded tbe whole State, and the effect 
of his services outlives him. lie died near Riehniond in May 

A dauphter of Captain Hawkins. ^liklred, married Percival 
Butler, a distinguislied soldiei- of I'ae Revolution. A son of Mil- 
dred was General William 0. lUithr. of Kentucky, a soldier of 
the War of 1812 and the Mexican War. a statesman and a poet. 
He was the author .)f ''The Boatman's Horn," and other short 
poems, in whicli he shows a love of nature and a tender fancy, as 
is evidenced bv the following extract : 

O Boatman wind that liorn again. 
For never did the listening air 
Upon its lambent bosom bear 
So wild, so soft, so sweet a strain. 

Then Boatmau \\ind that horn again. 
Though much of sadness marks its strain, 
Yet are its notes to sorrow dear. 
As oft they wake fond ]\lemorv"s tear. 

He was a brave soldier, a successful lawyer, and an educated, 
quiet gentleman. He was born in Jessamine County, Kentucky, 
in 1791; died at Carrollton, Ky.. in 1880. Francis P. Blair. Jr.. 
wrote a history of his life in 1848. He left no children. 

Captain John Hawkins had a son, Martin, concerning whom 
the following adventure is related: That be was fishing in the 
James River, and having caught a large sturgeon and having 
him near shore, he .lumped into the water and thrust his hands 
into his gills to land him, but the fish closed his gills on his 
hands and made for the deep water, where for some time there 
was a lively struggle for the mastery. Finally ^lartin landed 
the fish on the opposite shore. I have heard this story all 
my life as the wonderful performance of a relative; it is well 
known among all of the Hawkins name having relationship to 

Referring to Colonel Thomas Langford, the retired Navy 
officer who came to America with Captain John Hawkins, the 


following' is of interest. The will of Sir John ll;iwkiiis. Admiral, 
approved in 1596. has the following' elanse : 

"To my servant, Roger Langfoi'd. :iii annuity of twenty 
pounds during such term as he shall he employed in going 
through my aecounts with Her ]\Ia.jesty, whieh accounts I willed 
him to follow hy the direction of my wife and of my son, Richard 
HaAvkins." ( In this will he leaves his cousin. Sir Francis Drake, 
whom he had educated, "^ly best jewel, which is a cross of em- 
eralds.") This \y\]\ is here noted as showing a very long-time 
association between the Hawkins and Langford families. 

A brother of (General Butler was Richard Parker, who mar- 
ried ]\Iiss Bullock. Their daughter married John W. ^lenzies, 
a ^lembei" of Congress from Kentucky. 1S61-68. afterwards a 
Judge in tlu' Covin.g't(»n District. The only daughter of this 
marriage, Fanny, mai'ried Zcnophcn Hawkins, a grandson of 
^Martin of the sturgeon adventure. 

The relationship of my branch of the Hawkins family to tiiis 
John Hawkins cannot be doubted. It caiuiot be traced l)y me, 
though the links in the coiniection were well known to the gen- 
eration preceding me. A letter to me Innn one of his descend- 
ants, ^Irs. Fi'aiK'is Hawkins, of Springfield, ^lo.. says: "All I 
know is from my grandfather, Richard P. Butler, a son of ]\Iil- 
dred Hawkins and Percival Butler. I know he claimed kin with 
the two ^[rs. Speeds, and could trace it up wUhout a tlaw in the 
record. One of tlie vivid and delightful memories of my cliihl- 
hood is a visit to cousin ^Margaret Speed, near Bardstown. I 
will never forget the grapevine swing and hei' nice boys, Haw- 
kins and Austin."" 

Colonel ^larshall (.'reene, a well-known historian and essay- 
ist, of Maysville, Ky. (wliose first wife was Ann Eliza Butler, 
a granddaughter of ?ilildred Hawkins: liis second wife, Patty 
E. Craig, a descendant of John Hawkins, of King William), 
writes me that he has heard General William (). Butler say that 
his family was related to the Hawkins family of North Carolina, 
and that Polly Craig (^lary Hawkins), the mother of the Baptist 
preachers. Lewis and Eii.iah Craig, was of the same family. 

In the Spring of 1892, a short time after commencing my 
search into family history, I was informed of a Zenophon Haw- 
kins, living in Springfield, ]\Io.. to whom I wrote, giving some 


account of my liranch of the family and requesting such of his 
family history as he could give, at the same time sending my 
photograph. His wife. Francis Butler Hawkins, answered my 
letter. In her letter she says: 

"I remember ^Irs. John Speed very well. I always called 
her 'Cousin iMiriam"; also Cousin ^largaret (^Irs. Thomas 
Speed). Have often heard of ]\Irs. Canliy, and there was another 
sister, Fanny, whom I have never seen. I am your kinswoman 
by blood and by marriage, being a lineal descendant of ^Mildred 
Haw^kins and Percival Butler through his third son, Richard (P), 
my loved and honored grandfather, whose name I cannot men- 
tion without a feeling of adoration. Your photograph bears a 
strong resemblance to him, and I was much affected to see his 
aspect re-appear, through heredity, in so distant a relative." 

Referring to Captain John Hawkins (of Norfolk or Hanover 
County), she says: "I know he had two cousins known in the 
family as Uncle Jack and Uncle Phil, who went South, one to 
Carolina and one to Mississippi." (Part of this statement is 
erroneous; both Phil (Philemon) and Jack (John) with their 
sister, Ann, emigrated to North Carolina : after a while John re- 
turned to Virginia.) As further evidence of relationship be- 
tween my branch and the family of Captain John Hawkins, I 
have heard my sister, Miriam Speed, mention a relationship to 
General William 0. Butler : also have heard that my father, when 
in Lexington, Ky., as a student in Transylvania University, knew 
personally as relatives some of the family who lived there. 

Another fact circumstantial as to the relationship is that, 
about 1838, my sister, Louisa (Mrs. Canby). returning to Craw- 
fordsville from a visit to Kentucky, brought Avith her two boys, 
brothers, Antoine Domineuil and Ross Hawkins, sons of Little- 
bury Hawkins, a descendant of Captain John Hawkins. Commis- 
sary of Provisions. They lived with us for several years and 
were students at Wabash College. I do not remember the link 
of relationship, which was remote but well understood, and they 
always called my father "Uncle Jolm" and my mother "Aunt 
Eliza." Their father was then living in Texas, where he died 
about 1840. 

A further indication of family relationship is that John Haw- 
kins, of Georgetown (my great grandfather), had by his second 



mavriage, among other children, a son named William, born in 
1784, who married Lydia Todd Francis. One of his sons was 
named " Littlebury. ' " A stranger one time entered the office of 
my nephew, Austin P. Speed, of LoiiisviHe. Ky.. and. as he ap- 
proached, he was struck by his resemblance to me. He intro- 
duced himself as I. Russell Hawkins, of Frankfort. Ky. This 
Russell Hawkins was a descendant of John Hawkins, Conmiis- 
sarv of Provisions. 




U. S. ARMY. 

■'I have had playmates, I liave had eonipanions- 
All, all are gone, the old familiar faces." 

"When Time, who steals our years away. 
Shall steal our pleasures, too; 
The memory of the past will stay, 
And half our joys renew." 

"Now go, write it before them on a tablet, 
and note it in a book, that it may be for the 
time to come, forever and forever." : : : 

It has been said that the life of any man, faithfully por- 
trayed, will have some points of interest to the general reader, 
and in the following pages, narrative of a moderately eventful 
life, it may be hoped that the reader will lind some presentations 
that will repay him for the perusal. Every individual has ex- 
periences and a poitite cle lutc "that are not shared l)y any one 
else, and for that reason, especially in cases of those in public 
life, it is worth while they should be noted in print, and thus in 
a measure contribute to the enlightenment of the present genera- 
tion and to the records of Historv. 


I was born in Indianapolis. Ind.. Septenil)er 29. 1830. and 
about six months thereafter my parents moved to Covington, 
Ind., a town that was supposed to have a great future, being in 
the midst of a rich agricultural eottntrv and on the Wabash 
River. Cities at that date, before the advent of railroads, eould 
only grow on navigable waters, and Co\'ington had a direct water 
route to New Orleans, the then emporittm of all the western 
region embracing Pennsylvania, Ohio. Indiana, Kentucky. Illi- 
nois. ^Missouri and other localities. Railroads were then almost 
an unknown factor in tlie development of lands, places and 
peoples, and so it was that my father, lookinu- toward the future, 
turned his back on Indianapolis and made his home in Covington, 
where he entered into btisiness as a merchant, and at the same 
time purchased a fann of a thousand acres three miles from 
town, and did a large business as a farmer. 

But the expectations that Covington was to be an important 
commercial place and a large city v.ere never realized, and it is 
at this time an unimportant town of about two thousand inhab- 
itants. There was then living there a ntimber of families of cul- 
ture, and of importance in the futury history of Indiana, among 
them. Jeft' Evans, a noted politician ; David Wallace, who be- 
came Governor of the State (father of General Lew Wallace), 
and Edward A. Hannegan. a United States Senator and noted 
Democrat. Among others I remember Ednnmd A. Hovey. Pro- 
fessor at Wabash Colleue, who ttsed to come often to Covington 
to preach and lecttire. I remember him as addressing' the chil- 
dren in Sunday-school. He used to stay at otir home on tliese 
visits, for though my parents were not Presbyterians, they had 
open hands arid hearts to all who were laboring for Christian 

The schools of Covington being of an inferior qtiality, my 
sisters, Louisa and ^Miriam. Avere sent to the Georgetown Female 
College. Kentticky, to be edtieated, and were there several years. 
When Lottisa returned after finishing her education, we were 
living on our farm, and there being no school nearby, my father 
prevailed on her to open a little school on the farm in a log school 
house, where I have my first remembrance of a school. I was 
perhaps then four years old and my remembrances are not all 
pleasant of the school hours spent there. It was distasteful to 


me and I wanted to lie at home. ]\Iost persons would have sim- 
ilar recollections of tlie tiresome restraints of school hours when 
at that age. 

Associated with my father in business was his brother-in-law. 
Isaac Newton Sanders, who had married his sister, Lucinda. My 
remembrances of her are most pleasant. She was a good cook, 
a bountiful provider for her family, nnd my visits to her home 
were always made happy with something' good to eat. Perhaps 
it was somewhat in accordance with the common saying that 
food away from home always tastes good, and in accordance with 
the adage, "Change of pasture makes fat calves." 

Just across the street from us in Covington lived David Wal- 
lace, then Lieutenant Governor of Indiana. His wife was taken 
sick and died after a short illness. My mother, during her ill- 
ness and afterwards, took charge of her house and cared for the 
brothers, William, Lewis and Edward. They were cared for as 
of our family, and General Lew once speaking to me of that 
period of his life, said my mother was good in her care of them 
and gave them the same whippings she applied to her owai chil- 
dren. After Mrs. Wallace's death and the house was vacated, it 
was the frequent habit of the boys. William and Lew, and my 
brother, Edward, to go over to the house and play on the porch 
and in the garden. One day when thus engaged, William and 
my brother being on the porch, my brother was attracted by a 
figure in the nearby room passing by the window. He called out, 
"William, look! look!" The figure smiled at William, passed 
on and vanished. He said, "It is my mother." All this occa- 
sioned a little commotion, and Lewis hearing it came rushing to 
the porch from the garden, crying out, "I want to see my 
mother ! ' ' but she had passed on. I have often heard my brother 
tell the story in all seriousness. Pie firmly believed that he saw 
Mrs. Wallace, and in recent years General Wallace spoke of the 
occurrence as I have always heard it. 

I remember well the time when the Wallace boys were domi- 
ciled in our home, and when Governor Wallace had arranged for 
their removal elsewhere I remember a carriage arrived to take 
them on their journey. They were called in from their play and 
made to wash their feet and put on their shoes. It was cus- 
tomary at that period, especially in the West and South, for 


boj^s and girls to go barefooted in the sunnner. a custom at- 
tended with many inoonveniences and pains to tlie feet, throngh 
injuries intiieted by stray nails, taeks and broken glass, and I 
can easily bring on the "'shivers" by calling to mind my suffer- 
ings. But boys would go l^arefooted. in spite of parents' objec- 
tions, and they endured the penalty with dogged resolution — to 
continue in th(^ practice. It is fortimate for present childhood 
that the custom has no longer its vogue, but lias been relegated 
into obsoleteness with other barbarities that humanity has passed 
through in its struggle for existence and toward a more com- 
fortable life. 

When I was about five years old we moved to Xewtown. a 
small place about fourteen miles from Covington, where my 
father made a venture in business in company witli his brother, 
Elijah, whose son. Jameson, came and lived with us as a clerk 
in the .store and to look after his father's interests. But the 
business was: a failure : bad credits and hard times were against 
success, and after a couple of years of trials the l)usiness failed, 
and the as.sets reached near the zero mark. Cousin Jameson left 
us and went to join his people at Hannibal. ^lo.. where he became 
an influential citizen, with many varying fortunes in business. 
He was a man of wonderful vitality, optimistic in his expecta- 
tions, and seeing a fortune within his grasp in whatever venture 
he might be engaged. 

My first attendance at real school Avas at Xewtown. The 
teacher, Ben Flathere. was severe and T thought cruel. The 
fingers of his right hand were twisted and crooked with rheuma- 
tism, but this did not interfere with his use of the rod. and he 
seemed to lay it on the back of an unfortunate boy with eager 
delight. I then thought that he was determined to show that a 
lame hand was no bar to his masterful usefulness. "Whipping 
was at that time considered as absolutely necessary for impartincr 
knowledge and for bringing up a child in the way it shotTld g^o. 
The teacher stood in loco pareniis so far as bodily correction was 
involved, but there was a total lack of affection to temper it. 

From Xewtown we moved to Crawfordsville, because of the 
college and other good schools located there. The popular school 
there for boys and girls was kept by ^Nlre. ^Maddox, who tattght 
the usual primary branches, also painting and music. She was 


an accomplished woman and a strict dseiplinarian. A daughter 
had married ^Ir. Samnel Wilson: another daughter. Lucy, was 
an assistant in the school. Sl\e ;)fterwards nuii-ried William 
MacDonald, of Attica. I have most pleasant recollections of her 
as she was kind to help me in my lessons — and sympathized with 
me when I was kept in after hours for some neglect in behavior 
or recitation. 

]\Iy father made a new start in business, in partnership with 
his brother-in-law, I. N. Sanders, Imt, like other experiences of 
the kind, it proved a failure. ]Mr. Sanders was given the rem- 
nant of the stock of goods, with which he moved to Iowa, and 
my father took over the debts for settlement, and in doing so 
lost about all his property, the loss culminating about the time 
of his death, in the Pall of 1841. jMv father had not the ti'aining 
or methods of a business man. 

After my father's death my mother gathered up what rem- 
nants of property were left, and held her family together till 
her death, in April, 1845. In the meantime, anxious for the 
education of her children, sending them to the best schools then 
existing in Crawfordsville. Two years after her death I became 
a student at Wabash College, where I remained till appointed 
to West Point IMilitary Academy by John Pettit, ^lember of Con- 
gress from our district. 

I always felt under great obligations to him for this appoint- 
ment, and have been informed that lie followed my career in the 
arm3^ with great interest and approval, especially as to the part 
I took in the Civil War, and expressed great satisfaction in the 
fact that he had selected me for the appointment. I never saw 
him again after my first interview^ with him seeking the appoint- 
ment, and have regretted the fact rhat I could not have thanked 
him as a mature man for what he did for me when a boy in set- 
ting me out in an honorable career. 


Of life at West Point I will say little. It was a four-year 
course of hard physical and mental experiences, made up of con- 
tinuous tasks in either drill, study or recitations. Mathematics 
was difficult for me, but I did tolerably in language and English 
studies, though not sufficientlv well for a good standing to coun- 


terbalanee the lack in mathematics, especially in the studies 
where drawings and descriptive geometry were involved. It 
interests me here to note that one of my classmates was Phil 
Sheridan. One day when we hatl progressed a little in descrip- 
tive geometry I was complaining to him of how hard I found it, 
that planes and lines in space were hard for me to see. He ex- 
pressed his great pleasure in the study, that it was very easy to 
him, that all he required for a study of the lesson was to care- 
fully read the synopsis, then shut his eyes and his brain would 
trace out planes, lines intersections and all relative positions. 
He had a topographical mind, and it was of use to him in after 
years in developing him into the brilliant Ceneral that he be- 
came. It has been s;iid tluit a General should have such ;iii ini- 
aginatiim that he could see through a stone wall, which means 
that he should have a topographical mind, a mind that sees things 
in space. l)eyond siglit. and out ol' reach. Having knowledge of 
Sheridan's talents in this i-espect. I once asked General (jrant. 
and on another occasion General Geoi-ge H. Thomas, as to how 
they succeeded at West Point in descriptive geometry and the 
studies involving it. They both said that such parts of the 
student course were extremely easy for them, and I have conse- 
quently deduced the theory that a cadet to whom the descriptive 
course is difficult or unattainable is not good nuiterial for a 
general officer, certainly not for one to command an army, though 
he might possibly do to connnand a brigade, and nothing higher. 
I do not wish to be understood as meaning that a -descriptive 
mind will tit one for command, but the lack of it should bar one 
from a high position in the army. 

It has been said that the first battle of Bull Run. planned 
by Barnard of the Engineers, was the best planned possible, 
and that it was the poorest executed that was ever fought. I 
will venture the assertion that the records of West Point would 
show that the ccmimander at that battle stood low or mediocre 
in his class in descriptive studies, and those correlated to or 
involved in them. I know that once dtn'ing his army service, 
having to decide tipon the plans of a dwelling house, he cotild 
not understand ih.erefrom the relative positions of rooms, doors 
and windows. 

The Adjutant General of a corps that was part of Sherman's 


eominand in his "^iMrch to the Sea" informed nie after the war 
that his eoi-ps commander was in a confused state of mind dur- 
in,i>' th(^ entii-e mai'ch, as to the I'ehitive positions of the parts of 
his command to each other, and of their relationship to other 
commands. This officer had commanded a corps previously in 
another field of operations and on one oceasion had placed his 
corps in such a position that the enemy, seeing that one of 
liis flanks was badly placed en ait\ came down upon it with a 
smashing force and put it to rout. The '.nifitness of this officer 
for so large a command was organic and irremediable. Nature 
had not endowed him with a mental vision, and T have no doubt 
that at West Point the problems of "Descriptive" were unattain- 
able to him, excepting in so far as he could memorize them for 
a recitation. But memory alone cannot be a substitute for the 
coup d'oeil necessary for the connnander of a large body of 
troops. Grouchy at AVaterloo is another instance of failure to 

It would seem that this faculty of mentally seeing an object 
not presented visually is very necessary for the surgeon, and a 
medical student who may not have skill in demonstrating a de- 
scriptive problem of geometry should not venture into surgery 
as a si)ecialty, and indeed should keep clear of it as far as pos- 
sible in practice, for he is recpiired to see in his mind veins, 
arteries, muscle, etc., etc., and theii- relationship, while they are 
hidden from his actual sight, just as a General, in order to have 
his forces in hand, must have a view of their relationship to each 
other not only at the commencement of a battle, but during the 
progress of the tight, keeping in his mind the ever varying 
changes brought about by each change of position in any part of 
his command. Slieridan and Grant were endowed with such 
gifts in an eminent degree, and much of their success was owing 
to this possession. 

I knew Sheridan intimately at the Point. He was always a 
gentleman, full of good, sound sense, and correct in everything 
that engaged his attention. I remember him well in the Riding 
Hall. He rode with his whole body, as full of action as the horse 
he was on, and when he used his sabi-e to cut at the heads it was 
done as if the head of an enemy was being encountered and he 
was determined to cut it off. I can see him now, with his flushed 


face, his cap fallen back on his neck and held in place by the 
chin strap, eager in look and excited by the ride. He so im- 
pressed his friends ])y these characteristics that they were re- 
minded of the famous ride celebrated by Cowper. and humorously 
called by liim "John Gilpin." 

I graduated at AVest Point in June. 16o'2. and was assigned 
a Brevet Second Lieutenant to the tHh Infantry, was granted a 
leave of absence till the latter part of September, which I spent 
principally at Indianapolis. Bardstown and Louisville, Ky. The 
headquarters of my regiment ^\as at Jetferson Barracks, near 
Saint Louis, and late in September I took a steamboat at Louis- 
ville en route to Saint Louis. On the boat I made the acciuaint- 
ance of ]\Irs. Grant, wlio was going to her old home in the coun- 
try near Saint Louis. We became good friends, and she told 
me how she and (irant l)ecame engaged — not through any direct 
declaration, but one day he took ofit his class ring and put it on 
her finger. She accepted it and said she knew it was "all right." 
She had with hei- an infant who was afterwards General Fred 
Grant. When we arrived at Saint Louis I took charge of her 
baggage and procured a carriage to take her to her home, and 
arranged for the stoi-age of some household property that she 
had with her. General Grant (then Captain Grant) had gone 
with his regiment — the 4th Infantry— to the Pacific Coast, and 
in course of time resigned and re.ioined his wife at Saint Louis. 

]\Iy orders required me to report to the Colonel of my regi- 
ment, Newman S. Clark, headquarters at Jefferson Barracks, by 
a certain date, and after securing quarters at the Plantei-s and 
remaining there a few days I went to Jeffersonville Barracks 
and reported to my Colonel, and he at once issued orders for me 
to proceed to Fort K(>ai*nev. (Jregon Route, and report to the 
commanding officer. Cai)tain Wliarton. In order to do this I 
preceded to Fort Leavenworth liy steamboat, where I met Lieut. 
Hugh B. Fleming, of my class, who was en route to Fort Lar- 
amie. The Post Quartermaster outfitted us with a six-mule team 
to carry our baggage antl camp equipage, and a riding mule for 
each of us. and after a delay of one or two days we started on 
our journey across the planis. We had an escort of four soldiers, 
for the trip was tlirougli an Indian country. Xeither Kansas 
nor X^eln-aska was oi-^anized as a Territorv. and as Indian title 


to the land had not been extinguished in the conntry west of the 
^Missouri Kiver, it was not open for white settlement. No white 
men were allowed there except some Indian traders in the vicin- 
ity of Indian villages. 

Our journey to Kearney was uneventful ; we made it in nine 
days, travelling leisurely and making early camps, not meeting 
a human being on the way. The road was that usually taken by 
emigrant trains for Oregon and California that outfitted from 
western places such as Liberty and Independence, Mo., and was 
as plainly marked as any road between two well settled towns in 
our country. It has often been called the Oregon Trail, but 
"trail" does not express the well beaten road that it was, for it 
had been travelled over for many years, first by the wagons of 
Indian traders, and afterwards by the thousands of emigrants 
to California and Oregon, and even before them pathways had 
l)een made bv wild animals along the streams and crossing from 
one stream to another. These pathways were made along the 
lines of least resistance, those offering the least obstruction to 
travel. It has been said of Fremont that he was the "Path- 
finder," but tlie wild animals, the Indian and the fur trader had 
long preceded him. He travelled over beaten and well-known 
paths. I remember, apropos of the word "trail," that it was 
not in use at that time among us who lived at Kearney. 

Keai'ney was officially designated as "Fort Kearney, 0. R, " 
or ' ' Oregon Route. ' ' There was also an Oregon Route on the 
north side of the Platte River. This was travelled by emigrants 
outfitting from Council Bluffs, lovra, and was the favorite route 
for the Mormon trains en route to and from Salt Lake City. 
These JMormon trains were well conducted and orderly. They 
treated the Indians well and seldom had any trouble with them 
or among themselves. There were frequent troubles with other 
trains, and our commanding officer was often called upon as 
umpire to settle disputes among the emigrants. He had no 
power to enforce his decisions, but Ids position in that wilderness 
gave him a prestige like unto the ruler of a satrapy, and he gen- 
erally brought about a reconciliation between the contending, 
dissatisfied ones that sought his intervention. The Indians, those 
living in the vicinity of Kearney, were the Pawnees, and occa- 
sionally roving war parties of Sioux and Cheyennes visited the 


Post. They Avere at war constantly with rhe Pawnees, and our 
connnauding- officer tried hard to mal^e peace between them. 
The Pawnees, beino; much inferior in strength to the other's, were 
fully impressed with the advantages that peace would have for 
them, but the great obstacle in the way was the fact that the 
Pawnees did not raise horses, and if peace existed they would 
have uo means for supplying their needs. The Pawnees were 
perhaps the most expert iiorse thieves of all the Indian tribes, 
and their occupation in this line would be gone if the Siouxs 
were no longer their enemy, and so their war parties continued 
to raid each other, and the meeting of these war parties with the 
overland emigrants was often the occasion of depredations more 
or less serious. 

Life at Kearney was exceedingly monotonous. It was a one 
company Post, the commander of the company, Captain Wharton, 
being the Post Commander. Our society consisted of Captain 
Wharton and ^Irs. Wharton. Lieut. E. G. Marshall, and the sur- 
geon, R. H. Alexander. The latter two and myself formed a 
mess of very modest appointments Our mess room was a sod 
house covered with soil, and when it rained the leaks were in- 
numerable. Our supplies were furnished from the Commissary. 
We knew nothing of poultry, as there was none to be had. Beef, 
pork and buffalo meat were the staples. Buffalo were numerous 
in the vicinity, and for economy we subsisted largely on that 
meat, though it could not be compared in cjualitv with beef. 
When the proper season arrived for their appearance the buffalo 
could be seen grazing Avithin a mile of the Post, and it was a 
common thing for a hunter to go out from the Post followed by 
a fottr ?mule team to bring in Uie meat, and I remember that 
once a buft'alo was killed in the Post right in front of the soldiers' 
kitchen. He had been driven in by Ihe chase and have been 
bewildered by tlie surroundings of the houses he encountered, 
so very dift'erent from his accustonred expanse of wide, unob- 
structed plain. 

We had a nrail froirr Iirdependence. ]Mo.. once a month, and 
were always eager for its arrival. It brought our letters from 
home and piles of newspapers. What we read was always 
'"news" to Its. bttt in reality was "staleness." It can be im- 
auiued that in such a .small world we became tired of it and nf 


each other, and when conditions were no longer tolerable we had 
recourse to a hunting party to where the buffalo were known to 
be, generally within a day's trip. So with a six-mule team and 
an escort of three or four soldiers we would set out for our hunt 
and spend about a week among tlie buffalo. By that time we 
would become tired of camp life and return to our Post and the 
comforts of a house and cleanliness of living, and for a while 
after we expressed our feeling that "Kearney was not such a 
bad place after all. ' ' 

The possibilities of Nebraska soil liad not then been developed, 
and we did not think much of its capabilities. Some attempts 
were made in raising vegetables, sometimes successful and often 
failures, by reason of drouth or ravages of grasshoppers. The 
sununer of 1853 we had a very promising Post garden, but about 
ten o'clock one day the grasshoppers came, and before night our 
garden was a desolation, every green thing eaten up by them. 
They appeared to have a destructive appetite for anything in 
their way. Onion bulbs were eaten down into the ground, and 
red peppers were as ravenously consumed as any other plants. 
On the morning referred to, it was reported that a herd of buf- 
falo were grazing in the foothills nearby, and Lieut. Heth (after- 
wards General Heth), with a mule team and several soldiers went 
out for a killing. I stood on the back porch of my quarters and 
saw the party proceed to and disappear in the foothills. Soon 
after their disappearance I saw a cloud appear just about where 
they had entered the foothills, and I wondered how any of the 
party could have been so careless as to set the grass on fire. The 
cloud rapidly approached the Post and soon I perceived that it 
■was a cloud of grasshoppers that were alighting around me, soon 
covering my person and biting, if allowed to remain on me. One 
that alighted on my hand was allowed there while I examined it, 
but not for long, for it commenced to make a meal of me, digging 
into the cuticle sufficient to make a sore place. A person who 
lias never seen a swarm of grasshoppers cannot imagine their 
multitude, their hunger and power to ravage. Nothing was 
saved from our garden, and it was too late in the season to re- 
plant, so we were indeed a mournful community. These grass- 
hoppers were subsequently a great drawback to the prosperity 
of Nebraska, and liave appeared several times. One season their 


ravages were so great that the people were iu danger of starva- 
tion, and Congress appropriated a considerable sum to purchase 
food for distribution among the unfortunates. Of late years 
their visitation has ceased, and it is to be hoped they will never- 
more appear. 

Lieut. ^Marshall was Quartermaster and Connnissary of the 
Post and was excused from duty with the company, and so I 
was the only tactical assistant to the company commander, who 
gave into my hands pretty much everytliing pertaining to police, 
drill and guard duty, and in these duties I Avas allowed almost 
free scope. The troops were reciuired to provide the Post with 
wood CLit from the Islands near the Post in the Platte River. I 
was assigned to the duty of managing the wood train. I accom- 
panied the teams to the woods, super^nsed tlie loading of each 
team, and largely increased the amount each team should haul, 
with the result that, as I was told, Kearney had never before 
been so well supplied with fuel. The trouble had been that for- 
merly each teamster wanted to favor his team and ob.jected to a 
load to the full capacity of the team. I doubled the loads, and 
without injury to the teams. 

The Army has, since the first settlement of our country, been 
the pioneer in advance of our people in the forward movement 
of occupying the land, as Indian title may have been extin- 
guished, and the privations or hardships attendant on this pio- 
neer position have, in the minds of army officers, been associated 
with and attributed to the natural outcome from climate or soil. 
Consequently the Army has usually undervalued its pioneer sur- 
roundings, usually condemning them as in comparison with what 
they were accustomed to in older, settled localities. I remember 
one day we were discussing the rapid progress of the State of 
Iowa, its rapid increase in population, and one of us ventured 
the wonder as to when Nebraska, especially that part near us. 
v.'ould be settled, and was answered that it would be settled when 
the Almighty had no other place where a white man could go. — 
and that was about the opinion of all of us. Nebraska is now 
among the prosperous States, its hills and valleys settled by 
thriving communities, and railroads coursing along its many 

In the Fall of 1854 I was promoted to be a Second Lieutenant 


ill the Second Infantry, and was ordered to my coiiipany then 
stationed at Port Ridgeley. Minn. The Assistant Inspector, 
General Oscar P. Winship, was at Kearney returning from his 
inspection of Posts further west, and I took advantage of his 
escort and proceeded with him to Port Leavenworth, where I 
took a steamboat for Saint Louis, and from there went by rail to 
Galena, 111., which had a line of steamers running to Saint Paul, 
Minn. Arriving at Saint Paul I reported in person to the com- 
manding otticer at Fort Snelling, Major T. W. Sherman, who 
provided me with transportation to Fort Ricigeley. I carried 
with me a small supply of groceries which I had purchased in 
Galena. At tliat time all supplies for the upper Mississippi 
River came from Saint Louis or Galena. Minnesota was sparsely 
settled and did not raise enough for home consumption. There 
was no conception that Minnesota was to become the lieadquarters 
of the tlour business for the United States, and it was a long 
time before the improved method of treating Spring wheat and 
grinding it into first-class flour was discovered. 

Fort Ridgeley was situated on the Saint Peters River, about 
120 miles from Snelling. The Post was established as a protec- 
tion against the Sioux Indians. The settlers were few and with 
small means, but they were coming in rapidly and taking up 
homesteads. Our garrison consisted of three companies of the 
Second Infantry, — Captains Hayden, Sully and Steele. The 
latter did not join till Spring, and in the meantime I had 
command of the company, the First Lieutenant being absent, 
I believe, on recruiting service. Then, as now, there was great 
complaint in the Army because of the many officers absent from 
their companies, and at this period the Secretary of War, JeflPer- 
son David, issued an order stating that the place of duty of a 
captain of a company was with his company, and directing that 
in future a captain would not be placed on any permanent de- 
tail that would separate him from his company. I do not know 
how long the order remained in force. It has, however, not been 
observed for many years, and now captains appear to be as 
eligible as lieutenants for detail away from their companies. 

Among the Sioux of the plains there was a chief whose 
sobriquet was "The ]\Ian Afraid of His Horse," and in recent 
years there was a captain in the army who remained away from 


his company by special detail for many years, in fact never saw 
it. and he was given the humorous title of "The Captain Afraid 
of His Company." There should be a strict rule to keep all 
captains with their companies. The service suffers because of 
absentee captains, the command of the company often devolving 
on a Second Lieutenant, perhaps one without any experience. 

Captain Steele, my company commander, while a Second 
Lieutenant in the ^Mexican War. was brevetted a Captain for 
gallant service at Conturas and Chapultepec, when he volunteered 
for the party "The forlorn hope." or as the French character- 
ize it, "Lcs Enfants jjorhis." We were very proud of Captain 
Steele in otir regiment. He was an accomplished officer, and. 
when he died, in 1868, his epitaph, as written in the liearts of all 
who knew him, Avas "sans pear et sans reprocJn ." 

Another officer of otir regiment was Nathaniel Lyon, respected 
by all for his intelligence, zeal and honesty. His work in Saint 
Lotiis in organizing Union regiments saved ]\Iissotiri to the Union 
cause. He loved his country and what little property he pos- 
sessed through years of close economy he willed to the United 
States in grateful remembrance for the advantages that had 
been bestowed on him by his country in educating him at West 
Point, and its favorable acknowledgment of his services in va- 
rious positions of trtist. At the time that Lyon was in command 
at Saint Louis, in the very early stages of the difficulties in Mis- 
souri, the Governor of the State and General Price had an inter- 
view with Lyon and tried to arrange with him for recognizing 
the neutrality of the State, which had been agreed to by Lyon's 
predecessor. General Hai*^'ey. But Lyon stoittly resisted the 
continuance of the compact and upheld the right of the Federal 
Government to send its forces to any locality in the Union and 
use them to maintain peace or punish those in revolt. Colonel 
Frank Blair, a lawyer and a skilled politician, accompanied Lyon 
at this conference, with the expectation, as he aftemvards said, 
that he would have to do the talking and meet the points made 
by Governor Jackson and General Price in their claims for State 
supremacy. Btit Lyon was so ready and exhaustive in his laying 
down the reasons for maintaining Federal authority tliat ^Ir. 
Blair had nothing to say. Lyon showed a complete knowledge 
as to the proper relationship of State and Federal authority". 


About this time a company oJ: Secession State troops made a 
lodgement near the arsenal wliere Lyon was in command, and 
commenced an earthwork. Bvit as soon as they were perceived 
Lyon sent tliem word to "get out of there" or he shoiild turn 
his cannon on tliem; that he would not allow a Fort Sumpter 
affair to be re-enacted, where the rebels had been allowed to 
erect batteries near to and in plain sight of the fort, preparatory 
to firing on it. 

I remained at Ridgeley till August, 1857, when the com- 
panies were relieved and ordered to march across the country to 
Fort Pierre, on the upper Missouri River. We were relieved by 
companies of the 10th Infantry, and went into camp near the 
Post. In the meantime I had been assigned to the position of 
Quartermaster for the march and proceeded to Saint Louis to 
arrange for the transportation of the troops across to the Mis- 
souri; but after considerable delay there I could not have satis- 
factory arrangements made, and returned to Ridgeley. While 
at Saint Louis on this duty I wah one day in Colonel Sumner's 
office, the Depai-tmental Connnander. when there came into the 
office William Kearney, a resident of Saint Louis — a son of Gen- 
eral Stephen Kearney. He came to pay his respects to Colonel 
Sumner as an old friend of his father, and in course of conversa- 
tion spoke of the disastrous hard times then prevailing, and how 
all kinds of business depression existed. He said that he was 
very sorry for "Sam Grant," then living near Saint Lewis; that 
he was seeking employment, but could not find anything; that 
he had expectations of obtaining a position as a street car con- 
ductor, but had been disappointed. Less than four years after 
this (jrant was a Brigadier General in connnand of an important 
army, and his career was thereafter invariably onward and up- 
ward, till he achieved the highest position that an admiring and 
grateful people could liestow upon him. 

Returning to Fort Ridgeley, I at once proceeded to organize 
an ox team for our transportation, purchasing the oxen in the 
neighborhood. Many of these were simply unbroken steers, but 
after a while we had them in tolerable condition for work. We 
had soldiers for drivers, most of them inexperienced, ])ut they 
were zealous to master this new duty, and before long had their 
teams well in hand. Spare oxen were taken along to relieve 


those that might become foot-sore or broken down. These were 
driven in a herd beliind the train. It was the custom when a 
broken down ox was relieved of his yoke to turn him over to the 
Subsistence Department and have him slaughtered and issued 
on arrival at camp, and it was often an expression of the soldiers 
on seeing an ox relieved from his yoke. "Bye's, we are going to 
have some fresh beef for supper." 

Our nian-h was commenced on the "iSth da\ of August. I 
never worked so hard before or since: was up by three o'clock 
m the morning, and often did not get to sleep till after ten p. m.. 
busy rearranginu- Teams and attending to repaii's. The country 
was full of sloughs and tlieir crossing was often difficult. Lieu- 
tenant Geo. D. Ruggles. our ad.jutant. had charge of the pioneer 
pai-ty that preceded the train, equipped with shovels and grass 
scythes. Grass was abundant near the sloughs, and the business 
of the pioneers was to cut grass in quantities and spread it over 
the soft places, and in tins way we usually made the crossing 
without difficulty or nuich delay. Lieut. Ruggles became very 
prolicient and skilled in this duty and soon arrived at a perfect 
knowledge as to the numagement of his party. I'sually the badge 
of an army pioneer has been a miniature axe or hatchet, but for 
our party it would have been a scythe and shovel, handles crossed. 
We had for guide a French voyageur. who kmnv the i-oute and 
the location of streams and water holes. There was no beaten 
road: our way was the trackless prairie, and it v»as wonderful 
the knowledge our guide liad in safely locating our daily line of 
march. The weather was delightful, nishts i-ather cold, but the 
days were often hot. I I'cniember well the hottest day of our 
march was the third day of October, crossing the "Cote Prairie.'' 
[More men straggled, more oxen gave out. than on any day of the 
march. Most of the water buckets fell to pieces, and it was a day 
of universal uneasiness for man and beast. 

Arriving at Fort Pierre, we rested the train for a couple of 
days and then took up our line of march for Fort Randall, which 
we accomplished in a few days. It was late in the season, there 
were no quarters for us, and we camped in the bottom and went 
to work to "hut" ourselves, building log cabins for officers and 
soldiei*s. I remember my cabin was quite small — twelve feet 
square — that was all T needed. Chairs to sit in were few. and 


we had to content ourselves with small boxes and half barrels. 
The winter was a severe one, and the deep snow made it difficult 
for going about. Drill Avas almost impossible, and there were 
few excursions to dispel the monotony. I had a few books and 
spent nuich of my time in reading. I messed with Captain 
Steele. He was a good provider, and so far as our table M^as 
concerned we fared exceedingly \\eU. The sutler's store was 
our club house, and so was the headquarters for sociabilit3\ I 
remember a raffle that was held thei-e. Lieut. John Pegram, 
about to leave for the East, put up his liorse for raffle, valued 
at three hundred dollars. The sutler won the horse, and as soon 
as it was declared in his favor he commenced moving toward 
the rear of his store, saying, "Well, fellows, I will turn out the 
whiskey." At this Captain Steele jumped up from his seat and 
exclaimed vigorously, "No you don't! You have got a three 
hundred dollar horse from us. Wliiskey won't do. You have 
got to turn out the champagne." The sutler acquiesced and the 
raffle ended to the satisfaction of all present. 

The tempei-ature for a long time was several degrees below 
zero, and when at length the cold abated and the thermometer 
reached zero, we used to assemble in front of the commanding 
officer's office and rejoice in the mildness. The reappearance of 
sun and clear sky were welcomed as a blessing. 

The following June — 1858 — my company was sent back to 
Kidgeley. The baggage was shipped by steamboat via Saint 
Louis, and I was detailed to take charge of the shipment and 
care for the laundresses (soldiers' wives) who were sent by 
steamer. At Saint Louis I transferred to an Upper Missssippi 
steamboat for Saint Paul, and in due course delivered my 
charges, l^aggage and women, at Fort Ridgeley, where we spent 
the winter, performing the usual routine service pertaining to 
garrison duty. During part of my service at Ridgeley I was 
the Post Adjutant, and in making inspection of the men at guard 
mounting in cold weather it was my custom to notice the noses 
to see if any man was being frozen, and in such case I would 
warn him, "Your nose is freezing." He would at once step to 
the snow bank in front, rub his nose Avith a handful of snow and 
then resume his place in ranks. The cold was often so intense 
that a nose or ear would liecome A\liite with freezing, and the 


soldier, innocently ignorant of his condition, hatl to be informed 
of it. 

Late in the summer of 1858 we were ordered to proceed to 
the Red River of the north with two companies and establish a 
new Post at a point on the river near where now is the town of 
Breckenridge. General Scott named the Post "Fort Abercrom- 
bie, " in compliment to Colonel Abercrombie, who conducted the 
march there from Ridseley, and commanded it till winter set in. 
As at Randall, we had to l)nil(l log huts for our winter protec- 
tion, and l)y the time severe cold weather came we were fairly 
housed. The neighborhood of the Post was well timbered, and 
logs suitable for cabins were al)undant. The ro(!fs of the cabins 
were covered with earth made into juortar, a warmei" covering 
than if of boards or shingles. We were told that all the country 
about us was subject to spi-ing Hoods aiul inundations fi-om the 
overflow of the Red River. This river has its rise near the head- 
waters of the St. Peters, and runs almost due north, emptying 
into Lake Winnipeg. It follows that, whi^n the sjiring thaw ar- 
rives to melt the snows, the first thawing commences in the south, 
gradually proceeding to the north as warm weather advances, 
so that the accumulated waters are obstructed by the ice dams 
northward, and overflow of tlie country is inevitable. We found 
this to be the case the following Sprinn'. The rising waters soon 
deluged our huts which were ))uilt in the bottom and drove us 
to the higher banks. There were such adverse reports made of 
the conditions that late next Fall the Post was ordered to be 
abandoned, and I was left tliere temporarily to ship, tlie stores 

In the meantime I had been appointed Regimental Quarter- 
master, and ordered to Saint Louis, the headquarters of the regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Fi'ancis Lee. I proceeded there, 
but did not remain long, as there was no duty for me to per- 
form, and I was ordered to return to ]\[innesota and assigned to 
Fort Ridgeley as Post Quartermaster. I may now recall that 
in the midst of the winter spent at Abercrombie I made a trip 
to Saint Paul, travelling by way of Otter Tail Lake and Fort 
Ripley. I had two soldiers with me. and a ^Ir. Woodbury. We 
had a six-nude team and camped on the way, there being scarcely 
any settlements convenient on the route. The weather was cold 


when we started and became worse. At Otter Tail Lake the 
people said we conld never get through and advised our lying 
over, but I had reliance on the endurance of our party and 
pushed on, encountering no greater hardship than was endurable. 
Our greatest danger was that the nniles might freeze during a 
night, but no accident occurred. I look back on that trip as the 
most dangerous I have ever inade in cold weather. Arriving at 
Ripley, we were soon cared for, Mr. Woodbury and myself being 
hospitably received by Mrs. Alexander J. Perry, wife of Lieut. 
Perry. This was my first meeting with that good woman, and 
our acquaintance lias been long continued with occasional breaks 
dependent on the changes incident to the service. My trip to 
Saint Paul was for the purpose of cashing some official cheques 
of the War Department, which having been accomplished I re- 
turned to Abercrombie by way of Sauk Rapids and Alexandria. 
The weather had abated by this time and our .journey was made 
without apprehension or difficulty. 

I spent the winter of 1858-9 at Ripley as Post Quartermaster, 
and in the Spring was ordered to Jefferson Barracks. Dixon 
S. Miles was then colonel of the regiment, a man of fine intellect, 
a good soldier, and the most agreeable Post Commander I ever 
served under. He understood thoroughly the details of army 
service and knew when to give orders and when to refrain from 
giving them. As a consequence he was on good terms with all 
his officers and his administration went along smoothly with 
great satisfaction to all under him. He received brevets for gal- 
lant services in the Mexican War and was killed at Harper's 
Ferry in 1862, where he had been assigned to the command with- 
out sufficient troops for its defense. He had applied for rein- 
forcements without success. His defense of Harper's Ferry was 
almost that of a "forlorn hope." Vale! vale! my old colonel. 
You deserved a better fate, ;ind were a victim to the disastrous 
mismanagement which at that period seemed to control the move- 
ments of the army in tliat part of Virginia. 

I want to state here that when, late in the previous Fall, I 
went to Saint Louis, I took my horses, a pair, with me by steam- 
boat ; but when I was ordered back to Minnesota the river had 
frozen over and I was obliged to leave them. A friend, Genera' 
D. M. Frost, kindly offered to have them cared for on a farm 


several miles north of Saint Lonis, where they were placed. On 
returning- to Jefferson Barracks in the Spring, I sent for my 
horses and they were brought through Saint Louis down to the 
Barracks, where they were occasionally turned out to pasture. 
They took advantage of this to jump over the fence and leave. 
The day after this was discovered a man was sent in search of 
them and traced them around to the west of Saint Louis, and 
they were finally found at the farm where they had spent the 
winter. It was a remarkable case of animal instinct that led 
them to the farm in a roundabout way. travelling far from any 
route they had ever been on. a large city intervening between 
them and their goal, recpiiring them to go half way around it. 
guided only by the general direction. Avhich must have been well 
fixed in their minds. 

It was pleasant serving at JelLcrson Barracks. We had fre- 
(luent intercourse with the people in Saint Louis and in our 
r.eighborhood. Among those who contributed most to our enjoy- 
ment was Henry T. Blow and his family. They all came one 
summer day to our Post and made a picnic on the grounds and 
invited our people, officers and wive;;, to share in their festivity, 
and we had a very delightful time. It seemed to be a reunion 
of the several branches of the Blow family, and everyljody en- 
joyed the occasion. This was to me the beginning of an ac- 
quaintance with Henry T. Blow and his charming family that 
subsequently developed in_to intimate friendship, and I was often 
a visitor to their hospitable home near Carondolet. and to this 
day have a most grateful recollection of their kindness and 
sympathy. The eldest daughter, Susan T.. was a person of tine 
intellect, a conscientious student in whatever might interest her, 
and ambitious to excel in all that pertained to mental research. 
She became interested in education, especially in the methods of 
Froebel. and has published valuable treatises on the subject. If 
she had been a man she would have achieved renown in wluitever 
pursuit she might have engaged. 

Toward the close of summer our headquarters were removed 
to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, and we proceeded by steamboat to 
Omaha, where we procured transportation to Kearney. ^ly life 
at Kearney was a very busy one. I was Quartermaster, Commis- 
sarv. Police Ofticer, attended comnanv drills and tauiiht the 


bayonet exercise to the non-commissioned officers of the Post. 
I do not remember ever to have been so constantly driven in my 
work. During this winter there was great excitement consequent 
on the election of Mr. Liiieoln. There was no newspaper pub- 
lished at the Post, but we iiad a telegraph station and the officers 
subscribed for the dispatches, which were received daily and 
read to tlie officers assembled in the commanding officer's office. 
The reading sometimes gave rise to disputes among the officers, 
some being from the North and some from the South. These 
disputes did not lead to any bitterness or enmities; we all felt 
that we were in the hands of fate and that everything portended 
a revolution of which no one could foresee the ending or conse- 
quences. It was an especially unliappy time for the northern 
officers, for they saw that everything was drifting to disunion 
and the Government doing nothing to assert its authority. In- 
deed, it seemed as if the President, Mr. Buchanan, did not ap- 
preciate that he had any authority, and chaos ruled wliere gov- 
ernment jurisdiction was in question. 

When Sumpter was fired on and 75,000 volunteei's called out 
by President Lincoln, we received orders for the Second Infantry 
to go to Fort Leavenworth, where we remained for a short time, 
and from there proceeded to Jefferson Barracks. Our Colonel, 
Dixon S. Miles, was from ^Maryland, but was not infected w^ith 
the doctrine of secession, and while many officers from the slave 
States were sending in their resignations he remained staunchly 
loyal and declared that he would "stand by the old flag as long 
as one star or one bar of the gridiron remained," which he did, 
ending his life in its defense at Harper's Ferry in 1862, as I 
have said. 

In June we were ordered to .join General Paterson's army 
near Chambersburg, Penn. This was just previous to the crossing 
of his army into Virginia at Williamstown. The command 
crossed, but no sooner had it crossed than we were ordered to 
Washington, D. C, where it was the intention to form a brigade 
or a division of Regulars. After a short service with my regi- 
ment in Washington I was detached for special duty and re- 
ported to Captain George Bell, Commissary at Alexandria, who 
had a large depot of supplies tliere. and who outfitted me with 
a train loaded with rations for ^IcDowell's armv, then on the 


Lieut, of Artillery — Killed at Bull Run. 


march toward Bull Kim. I had thirty or more wagons which I 
conducted to the army and issued the contents to a portion of 
the army. There were other officers who were also engaged in 
charge of provision trains. The Chief Commissary of that arm>, 
in his report after the hattle of Bull Run, says : 

"Owing to the necessary number of wagons not lieing fur- 
nished in season, to uninstructed and many wortldess teamsters 
and green teams, and to some of the roads being liad. only one 
of the trains — that in charge of 1st Lieut. J. P. Hawkins, 'Jnd 
Infantry, A. C. S., — was able to overtake the army on the morn- 
ing of the 18th. It. with ninety head of beef cattle, by travelling 
all the previous night, arrived at Fairfax Court House on the 
morning stated, before the army had taken up its march." 

The importance of the arrival of this train is evident from 
the fact that Orders Xo. 10, issued by General ]\IcDowell at 
Fairfax Court House, July 18, after directing the movements of 
the army, added: "The above movements will l)e made after 
supplies have been received.'' The stores in my train intended 
for Miles' and Hunter's Divisions were divided out to the entire 
army, enabling it to take up its lino of mardh. But whether the 
early arrival of my train was of ultimate advantage is doubtful. 
]\[y opinion of the troops when I reached them was that they 
were tired out and not lit for a hght. A longer waiting for com- 
plete rations would have given tliem rest, and better legs, and 
better heart for marching and maneuvering. 

Having delivered my supplies, I returned to Alexandria and 
loaded up again in ail haste, for the army was scantily supplied, 
and again conducted my train toward the scene of histilities. 
This was the day that the battle of Bull Run was fought, and 
early in my progress toward the Held I met retreating soldiers. 
All belonged to organizations that, in their language, had been 
"cut to pieces." They seemed bent on saving themselves. I 
could not believe that we had been beaten badly, and kept my 
train en route, supposing that the main body of our army would 
remain and rest at Centerville. But the General in command — 
McDowell — thought it best to take his troops back to Washing- 
ton, and about sun down I received orders to take the train back 
to Alexandria, which I did without accident, travelling the 
greater part of the night, and put it into park at Alexandria 


and tlien retired to my tent, where I had a h)n<i' sleep and was 
waked np in the afternoon by my wa^on master, who informed 
me that the train with its supplies had been ordered to Wash- 
ing-ton, and had gone. I found out years afterwai'ds that the 
order had been given liy Quartermaster (leneral ^leigs, in order 
to save the train, — an unnecessary order. I was responsible for 
the stores in the train, and accounted for them by a sworn state- 
ment, giving the facts. The Quartermaster General had no right 
to give such an order, but all was confusion then, and perhaps 
everj'body felt like doing sometliing. I'here was really no head, 
no one to look uji to for efficient work. Bull Run was one of that 
kind of battles where both sides were about equally punished, and 
the side that remained on the field could claim the victory be- 
cause the other side first put into execution the idea of retiring 
from the contest. It was a well-planned battle as arranged for 
by the Chief Engineer Barnard, but l)adly fought l\v the Gen- 
eral in command — INIcDowell. 

I remained detached froin my regiment for a considerable 
period, on duty in the defences of Washington, looking after 
the organization of the Quartermaster's Department, especially 
in the matter of transportation. During this time I was otfered 
the position of Captain in the Quartermaster's Department, but 
declined, and shortly after this was appointed Captain in the 
Subsistence Department. This severed my connection with the 
Second Infantry, and the commanding officer of the regiment, 
Colonel Hannibal Day, gave me a pleasant send-off in the shape 
of an order complimentary of my services in the regiment, as 
follows : 

"Headquarters 2nd Infantry. 
"Washington, D. C, Aug. 10th, 1861. 
"General Order No. 18. 

"The resignation of Lieut. Jno. P. Hawkins, R. Q. M. 2nd 
Infantry, is hereby accepted, to take effect from this date. The 
Lieut. Colonel commanding the regiment takes this occasion to 
acknowledge his high appreciation of the merits and services of 
Lieut. Hawkins, and to express his regret that the regiment is 
to lose one whose promptitude and exactness in the execution of 
his duties entitle him to its gratitude and respect, but at the 


same time congratulates him upon his appointment as Captain 
in the Commissary Department, and has no doitbt that he will 
earrv into that position the same zeal and efficiency that he has 
manifested during his entire connection with the Second In- 
fantry. By order of Colonel Day, 

••JA:\IES McMILLAX. Ad.jutant." 

Soon after receiving my appointment in the Subsistence De- 
partment I was ordered to report at Saint Louis to General Fre- 
mont, conunanding the Department of the ^Missouri, and was 
assigned to duty as assistant to ]\[ajor Haines, who was tlie Chief 
Commissary of the Department and also Purchasing Officer, 
having a large depot in Saint Louis for the supply of the many 
troops of that command. When General Halleck succeeded to 
the command I was appointed an Inspector in the Department, 
my duty being to travel around to the posts and camps and in- 
vestigate the methods of administration at the various stations. 
I had much to do in the way of advising and correcting, for most 
of the officers were without experience, though I found all were 
zealous in the performance of duty and wanted to do what was 
right. I made many pleasant aecjuaintances among them, and 
on a recurrent visit I often found that the officer had a memo- 
randum of questions relative to duty, made from day to day, 
awaiting my return. 

One of the places visited by me was Paducah. Ky., com- 
manded by General C. F. Smith, where I found everything in 
excellent condition, and on my return to Saint Louis I made a 
written report to General Halleck. aiul in concluding it said 
that though it was not strictly in mv line of duty to make note 
of other than subsistence affairs, yet I coidd not refrain from 
mentioning tlie general air of efficiency that characterized mil- 
itary matters at Paducah. and that it was the best conditioned 
Post that I anywhere visited. General Smith at this time was 
encountering opposition from some of his subordinates, led by 
an officer of rank second in conunand who wanted to oust liim 
so that he might succeed him. Smilh Avas accused of bad halnts 
and general misconduct in liis administration, and the malcon- 
tents, through newspaper correspondents and otherwise, had be- 
seiged tlie War Department for his removal. Just at this time 
my report was made to Halleck, and he sent a copy of it to the 


War Uepartnient. Long aften\'<irds 1 was informed l)y an officer 
of the Adjutant Oeiieral's Departiiieiit in Washington that my 
repent saved General Smith. — that his accusers were informed 
that a General whose administration was reported by a discreet 
officer as the best in the Department could not be displaced by 
irresponsil)le clamor, and so General Smith lived down the ac- 
cusation against liim, and the capture of Fort Donelson was 
largely due to the gallant manner in which he led his troops to 
the assault and capture of the main key of the enemy's defense. 

Cairo was another Post tliat I visited, and where 1 first met 
General Grant, then conunanding a District, and formed a most 
agi'ceable acquaintance with him and his stall'. (Trant had the 
faculty of making his conunand run along smoothly, but as yet 
had not met the opportunity to sht)w the metal he was made of. 
About this time I met Fred Steele, w'ho had been made a Briga- 
dier (jJeneral and w^as in command of troops at Pilot Knob. 
Steele had been a life-long friend of Grant, and speaking of 
him to me said : ' ' Grant is a heap bigger man than the people 
conceive him to be. and he will show it if he has a chance." 

I spend the winter of 1862 at Saint Louis when not travelling 
on inspections, and lived at the Planters House. Captain Phil 
H. Sheridan w'as also at the Planters, and I saw a great deal of 
him. He was then secretary of a Board that was investigating 
and auditing the contracts and expenditures of General Fremont, 
which w^ere thought to be extravagant. Sheridan was not then 
optimistic as to the outcome of the war, and was doubtful of our 
success. Once in expressing to me his doubts he said that history 
had no example of the quelling of an insurrection supported as 
was the Southern Confederacy by a whole people in arms. Per- 
haps he was correct in his appeal to history. Sheridan was a 
Roman Catholic, and about this time I was approached by a 
Saint Louis gentleman, a Roman Catholic, who wanted that 
Sheridan should raise a Catliolic Irish Regiment in Saint Louis 
— Sheridan as Colonel, he as Lieut. Colonel of the regiment. He 
wanted me to speak to Sheridan al)out it. which I did, but Sheri- 
dan at once said that he would liave nothing to do with raising 
a regiment under religious or racial inHuences. I hardly ex- 
pected any other answer, and informed the gentleman, wiio said 
he regretted the refusal because thei'e was a good opening for 



such a retiiment and that so far the Catholic Irish had been back- 
ward in volunteerinu ■. that the J)\uch liad taken the front place 
and the Irish had stepped aside. Sheridan was a man of good 
judgment and gentlemanly sensibilities, and naturally declined 
an exclusively racial or religious association that would in a way 
be peculiar and give him a prominence out of accord with his 
mode of thought and life-long educational and social relations. 

Early in February General Grant's army captured Forts 
Ileui-y and Douelson. and ^^oon thereafter I made an inspection 
at Donelson. Returning to Saint Louis I found that there was 
an uneasy feeling at Halleck"s headquarters about (irant and the 
condition of his army, i-eports having reached there that (rrant 
and his stalf were induluing in excessive drink and that the army 
was in a stale of demoralization. There was inclination to l)elieve 
these reports, because no report of the battles had reached head- 
quarters, though fre([uently called for. Grant had made reports, 
but they were held back by the telegraph operator, who after- 
wards proved ti» lie a rebel spy. I was closely ([uestioned as to 
the condition of things and stated that, so far as I coidd see, 
everything was going on right and Grant's army doing well. 
Halleck was greatly incensed against (xrant for not sending re- 
ports, and had reported him to Washington and had been au- 
thorized to put him under arrest. Halleck did not proceed so 
far. but relieved him from the conuuand and assigned General 
C. F. Smith to it. In fact, Halleck was so unjust as to refrain 
from giving Grant any credit for the captures he had made, and 
he stated in my presence that the credit was due C. F. Smith 
and Colonel MacPherson. Chief Engineer. Halleck showed his 
unjust bias in this statement. It was mere guess work, no re- 
ports having yet been received. 

Soon after this interview at headciuarters I returned to 
Grant's command, or rather to his headquarters, for C. F. Smith 
had relieved him. His headquarters were on a steamboat at 
Pittsburg Landing, and Grant had a private interview with me 
in his state room, and I tt»ld him of the state of feeling at Hal- 
leck 's headquarters, and all that I had heard there. As I made 
my statement the tears rolled down his cheeks, but he said very 
little, though sorely hurt and astounded at his treatment. Gen- 


eral Grant was restored to his command on the 13th of March. 
On the 15th of March the f ollowino; order was issued : 

"Headquarters Dist. of West Tennessee. 
"General Orders No. 21. 

"Captain J. P. Hawkins, Inspecting Connnissary of the De- 
partment of the Missouri, having been ordered to report to these 
headquarters for duty, is hereby assigned in the same capacity 
for this district. He will also have general superintendence over 
the Quartermaster's Department for the entire Military District, 
and as such will be obeyed and respected by all commanders, 
assistant and regimental Quarteiiiuistei-s, Connnissaries and act- 
ing Connnissaries of Subsistence. 

(Signed) JOHN A. RAWLINS, 

"Ass't Adjt. General." 

The above order virtually made me Chief Commissary of 
General Grant's army, and as sudi 1 oi'ganized its commissariat 
and arranged for its supplies. 

On March 17 headquarters were established at Savannah, 
about nine miles below Pittsburg Landing. Here we remained 
till the battle at the Landing, April 6, where we often went on 
the steamers. We were then expecting the arrival of General 
Buell with his army, and on the evening of April 5 word was 
given out to the staff officers to be ready at seven o'clock next 
morning to ride out from Savannah to meet General Buell. This 
was a matter of courtesy to him. 

Next morning I was a little late to breakfast and found that 
Grant, Rawlins, Hillyer and perhaps some others of the staff, 
had preceded me. Hillyer linislu'd his brcakfnst and went out 
on the porch. He soon returned and whispered something to 
Rawlins, who immediately got up and went out, closing the door 
behind him; but almost imjnediatel.v he re-opened the door and 
called out, "General Grant. General Grant! Please come out 
here!" His tone was so alarming that we all arose from the 
table and hastened out, where we heard the continuous reports 
of cannon up the river and realized that a battle was on. Our 
horses were ready in front of the house, but. instead of mounting 
them to go out to meet Buell, we led tliem down to the steamboat 
just below the house. The steamer's fires were always banked 


for au emergency, and we vrere soon on (Hir way to Pittsburg 
Landing, where we arrived in due course, and mounting our 
horses rode out to the field where the battle was raging. I was 
by Grant's side on this ride into the hail of bullets, and with 
him that day and the next day, except when carrying orders, and 
during all the time he seemed as cool and collected as he could 
have been if sitting at his desk writing au order. At one time 
during the battle General Grant directed me to learn about a 
body of troops that seemed to be resting not far from our front 
and left. I rode toward tliem and within hailing distance called 
out. "Whose command are you.'" and was answered, ''General 
Jackson's." I answered, "All right." but I knew it was not all 
right, and proceeded on. making an angle away from them. They 
looked after me doubtfully. I knew we had no "General Jack- 
son" command. I had no uniform on nor any insignia of rank, 
and they evidently decided 1 was one of their connnand. 

Abt)ut four o'clock p. m. General Grant sent me by the steam- 
er to Savannah to hurry up some artillery batteries, which, being 
accomplished, I called for a fe^^ moments on General C. F. Smith, 
who was sick and confined to his room. He had received reports 
of disaster to our side, and I relieved his mind greatly by telling 
him that all was going on well at our front. Returning to Pitts- 
burg Landing some time after dark, T reported to Grant, who, 
with ]\IacPherson and other of the staff, had bivouacked just 
outside a log house, and to my inquiry as to how things were he 
said that all was well, that the enemy woidd be attacked at day- 
light and be "put on the jump from the beginning." and this 
was the case. Grant had a wonderful faculty for diagnosing 
conditions — a faculty for appreciating the condition of the 
enemy, and for knowing' the amount of destructive force in his 
own hands. 

The next morning I went with (Jrant <tn to the field. I think 
the fii'st troops we visited were those of Buell, who were engaged 
with the enemy. Buell and ( rrant had a short conference, then 
Buell rode to the front and he and his Adjutant General, Colonel 
Fry. disappeared from view in tiie smoke of the conflict. Soon 
after this in a part of the field near by we were observed by a 
rebel battery, and it opened on us witli grape shot. AYe were 
within short range, and got out of there as quickly as our horses 


could take ns. In the hurry my hat fell otl'. Dr. Hewitt, our 
]\Ieclieal Director, ^\•as of the party, and his orderly jumped off 
his horse, recovered it and presented it to me. I was greatly 
olilioated to him for tlie risk he had taken, and felt like King- 
David did wlien the water was brought him in the cave b}- the 
three mighty men in jeopardy of th(Mi' lives; but I did not decline 
the hat as David did the water. In this adventure MacPherson's 
horse was killed and a shot broke Grant's sword in two. The re- 
mainder of the day was passed along the line of our advancing 
troops, with no special personal incidents to me. Before the close 
of the day the rebel army was in full retreat, leaving their dead 
on the field. 

Aliout a week after this battle General Halleck came with 
his fidl statf and established his headquarters near the Landing. 
With him was Captain Phil Sheridan, acting as Quartermaster 
for headquarters. The roads about the Landing were in a wretch- 
ed condition, and I remember him as engaged at work on them 
Avith a large party of soldiers. Halleck rearranged the connnand 
and set the ai-iiiy en route towai'd Coi'inth. where the enemy had 
assen.ibled in force. The procedure A\as to make a short advance 
daily when practicable and fortify each position. It was a very 
slow work : perhaps a good schooling for the troops, but done at 
great loss of time when we ought to have been engaged in profit- 
able fighting. Oui- force was large enough to have driven the 
enemy at once out of Corinth and made large captures of war 
muniti(His. As it was the enemy made disposition for leisurely 
evacuation, carrying away all his supplies. Halleck has been 
much blamed for his slow advance on Corinth. 

Soon after the Battle of Sliiloh and after the capture of 
Island No. 10 by General Pope, the latter brought his army up 
the Tennessee River to reinforce Halleck, and went into camp 
with it near Hamburg, a short distance above Pittsburg Landing. 
With his command was Gordon Granger, Colonel of the Second 
^Michigan Cavalry, whom I called on a few days after his ar- 
rival. He informed me that he was advised of his appointment 
as Brigadier General, that his coromission had not yet arrived, 
but would soon l)e received; that he would then vacate his com- 
mission as Colonel of the Second ^Tichigan Cavalry, and it was 
in his hands to name his successor to Governor Blair; that he 


Wiintt'd me to take his place as Colonel of th<' i-euiuiciit. Bnt I 
gave no thought to aeeepting it, told (i ranger that I had never 
had any experience in the mounted service, had no inclination 
for it, hut knew a person ^\ ho was well (jualihed for it. naming 
Pliil Sheridan, who had very successfully connnanded mounted 
infantry in Oregon in war against the Indians, and for success 
and gaUantry in that war had heen personally pi-aised hy Gen- 
eral Scott in a General Order. I ;dso told him of Sheridan's 
unimportant duties at llalleck's hcadcpiarters, that aside from 
these duties he employed much of his time in the ti'enches at tlie 
front seeing all he could of the advance and of the enemy, and 
that he prohahly knew more of what was going on in front than 
Halleek or any other person, foi- he had an eye to s(M' and a 
topographical talent to remember- and correlate liis observa- 
tions. — and so Granger recommended Sheridan as his successor. 
He was appointed to the colonelcy and soim after was appointed 
a Brigadier General for liis enterprise and gallantry, especially 
in a successful engagement with the forces of (Jenei-;d C-halmers. 
Some might say that this was the commencement of his distin- 
guished and meritorious career, but such an understanding would 
be erroneous, for its commencement was in his native qualities 
of energy and bravery, assisted and developed l)y his education 
at West Point, Avhere as a cadet he was always correct, observ- 
ing and intelligent, and in his early army life as a Lieutenant 
he performed his duties with his whole heart, interested in them, 
and so his course from the beginning was onward and upward, 
and no special circumstance or opportunity was the impellent 
factor toward the ultimate attainment of his splendid record as 
a soldier. 

After the close of the war I was Sheridan's guest for a few 
days at New Orleans. He ^as then assemliling a large army on 
the Mexican border, and wanted me to take command of an 
Army Corps on the Rio Grand: but I was just recovering from 
a severe sickness, was weak and tired, mv only thought was to 
get up North and recuperate, and so told liim that I could not 
undertake it. So this was the second time during the war that 
I felt compelled to decline an important command. One day 
during my stay with him he said to me. "You ought to have 
taken the Second Micliigan," to whicli 1 answered that I had 


no regret about it, onh' satisfaction, for I conld not have done 
for the regiment nor for myself what he had done. 

After the capture of Corinth I remained there attending to 
the duties of Chief Commissary for tlie Army. In November, 
1862. I was appointed a Lieutenant Cok)nel, and attached to 
General Grant's army, thus giving up my appointment as In- 
specting Commissary. Our headquarters were at Lagrange, 
Tenn., and we were preparing for a move farther South. While 
at Lagrange the large influx of "contrabands" and the diffi- 
culties attending their care became quite burdensome to General 
Grant, and one day he asked me if I knew any one that he could 
appoint to take charge of them and relieve him of their im- 
mediate care. I said I thought I knew a very lit person for the 
work. Chaplain John Eaton, of the 27th Ohio. I had been on 
duty with the 27th Ohio in JNIissouri and after that in Tennessee, 
and knew Eaton to be intelligent and a hard worker, always busy 
for the betterment of the men of his regiment. Grant at once 
turned to Rawlins and told him to issue an order appointing 
Eaton to take charge of the refugee negroes, and to report at 
once for duty. Eaton was a much astonished man when he re- 
ceived the order, but he entered upon his duties with under- 
standing and zeal, and his work in time grew to be an important 
branch of Army administration, wherein lie gained great credit, 
and after the close of the war he was appointed by Grant Com- 
missioner of Education, and held that position wortliily for some 
years. When he was appointed to care for tlie freedmen he was 
almost overwhelmed, and hardly thanked me for the promotion ; 
but in after years he was more appreciative of the benefit to 
him. Wlien we acquired the Island of Porto Rico General Eaton 
felt a great interest in the education of the people tliere. I gave 
him a letter of introduction to General Guy Henry, commanding 
the Island, and he went there to see wliat assistance he could 
give in organizing some school system, (leneral Henry gave him 
such encouragement as he could, but I do not know the subse- 
quent results of his mission. 

From Lagrange we proceeded down to Holly Springs, Miss., 
where I accumulated a large amount of subsistence stores for 
use on our advance. At this time I made the draft of an Order 
which General Grant published, organizing foraging parties, a 


party under eonimand of a Commissioned officer to be detailed 
from each Division, whose duty was to collect provisions from 
the surrounding' country while the army was en route, and turn 
over sucli supplies to the Division Commissary for issue. This 
organization was the first of its kind with our army, based on a 
regular system, (reneral Sherman had a similar organization, 
though his was a brigade organization. It was not long before 
Ave had great need of these forage parties, for the enemy captured 
Holly Springs when Grant's army moved down to Oxford, aijd 
burnt our supplies, obliging the army to depend on the country 
for sucli supplies as the forage parties could collect. There was 
plenty of corn in the country, and the mills were worked day 
and niiiht to izfind it. so there was no hardshij) to th(^ troops by 
reason of our supplies being destroyed; rather the hardship fell 
on the connnunities that supplied tb.e foraging parties. This 
experience opened Grant's eyes to the fact that Mississippi was a 
corn country, and he used this knowledge afterwards in deter- 
mining to break away from his base of supplies and make his 
campaign in tlie rear of Vicksburg. 

I was temporarily in Holly Springs when it was captured, 
having just returned from Oxford where Grant was. The com- 
mand was unexpectedly attacked on the morning of December 
20 by a considerable force of cavalry under Van Dorn. I was 
awakened by the firing, and risng at once and hastily dressing 
saw the conflict going on a little distance down the street. I 
went in an opposite directicm. walking rajudly. and was soon 
met by a cavalry man wlio demanded, pistol pointed at me, who 
T was. I was in civilian's dress. I did not answer him directly, 
but kept moving on, saying I was trying to get away from the 
bullets. He let me pass, but I soon found there was no safe place 
for me, and returned to my domicile, which had been ransacked 
by the rebels who had left it bare. I my watch and over- 
coat, which had be<ni left near iny bed. but remained in the house 
the rest of the day undisturbed. The rebels were on a raid 
farther north and left Holly Springs as soon as they had burned 
the supplies and paroled their prisoners, some fifteen hundred 
in number. The loss of our supplies made necessary a retrograde 
movement, and our headquarters were moved back to Holly 


Spi'iiiiis and thenee by railroad to JMem})liis. wiiere preparations 
were made for tlie eaptiire of Vicksburti'. 

About the last of January oui- liead(|uai'ter.s were established 
at Young's Point, ^liss., nearly opposite Vicksbnrg. We lived 
on the steamboats, and many expei'inients were inauiiiirated by 
Grant for "ettine,' the army in the reai' of Vieksburo'. None of 
the experiments had a show of success and I'csort was finally had 
to making a detour around the fi-ont of Vicksl)ui'ti", which ended 
finally in its capture. 

On the l.lth of April I was appointed a Brigadier General of 
Vohmteers and assigned to organizing the colored troops within 
General (}rant's command, and to the command of the same. 
1'his separated me from his staff as Chief Commissary and de- 
volved on me a new duty of which I knew very little : btit the 
officers selected for raising companies and regiments were as a 
rule a stiperior class of men and entered on their work with 
industrious zeal and efficiency. The clerical work attending 
positions then had to be done by them, the enlisted forces having 
few men that could read or write. This made their duties oner- 
ous, but perhaps after all was an advantage to them, for they 
had to study to equip themselves to perform all the clerical and 
other details connected with their commands. There was never 
better or harder work done in the army than was done by these 
painstaking gentlemen, and when, in the sinnmer of 1865. my 
Division marched through New Orleans, General Sheridan re- 
marked of them that it was the best: command of colored troops 
he had ever seen, and that he had seen a good many of them. 

Milliken's Bend was my headquarters. 1 had a complete 
staff made up of hard-working, intelligent young men. and mil- 
itary instruction to tlie colored recruits pi'oceeded rapidly — and 
so far as drill was concerned they soon presented a very cred- 
itable appearance. After they had been tinder instruction for 
about three or four months there were no white troops that sur- 
passed them in soldierly appearance. On one occasion a general 
officer, Wm. Sooy Smith, stopped over at the Bend just as one 
of the regiments near the steamer landing w^as going through 
the Manual of Arms at evening dress parade. He watched them 
attentivelv and when thev liad finished he remarked, "Well, that 


is the best perfoi'inauce of the ^lannal of Arms that T have seen 
since leaving West Point." 

I did not, however, remain long on duty at the Bend, for I 
had a severe attack of sickness in ^lay and was sent up Xorth on 
sick leave, where I remained till aliout the middle of August, 
and on the ITtli rejoined my command. In the meantime Gen- 
eral Walker had attacked it witli a large force, which was re- 
pulsed after a severe tight. During my absence Ass't Secretary 
of War Dana, writing. June 22. to the Secretary of War from 
the rear of Vieksburg. says: '"Allow me to represent the great 
necessity that some first rate officer witli suitable energy and 
patient in character should be sent here, or found here, to take 
the place of General J. P. Hawkins and conduct the organiza- 
tion of the African forces. Hawkins is sick and very probably 
will not again be rol)ust enough to efficiently resume his duties 
in this climate, and the public service is suffering terribly in 
this most delicate matter in consequence of his absence. I do 
not know here an officer who eould do tlie duty half as well as 
he. so that I make no reconunendation : but none but a man of 
Uic very highest qtialities can succeed in the work." 

Again. General Grant, writing to General 1 la Heck from 
Vieksburg, July 24. 1863. says: '"The absence of General Haw- 
kins has been a great drawback to the perfect organization of 
the black troops. I have no one to fully take liis place." 

It may be proper to remark here that I attempted to return 
to my duties about the middle of Jtme. but had a i-elapse at 
Saint Louis, and retvu-ned as soon as I had strength to do so and 
served in the malarious regions of the South during the re- 
mainder of the war. in a mucli impaired condition of health, 
which was not fully restored till several vears after the close of 
the war. ^ly command remained at the Bend till about Feb- 
ruary. 1864. when we were assigned to the garrison at Vieks- 
burg. where we remained for a year, the principal duty being 
to man the fortifications. 

Among the pleasant people I met there was Captain I. M. 
Wilson, of the Engineers, and his lovely wife, who lived just 
opposite my headquarters. It was my great pleasure once to do 
him a benefit in the way of his advancement in ranlv. and his 
transfer to a lietter location. (Tcneral Canby was staying tem- 


porarilv at Vicksburg' en route to New Orleans, where he had 
been assigned as Commander of llie iMilitary Division of the 
West ]\Iississippi. He asked me if I knew of a suitable officer 
that he could have detailed as his Inspector. I tokl him that I 
knew an officer who could well fill the position, naming Captain 
AVilson. He was appointed to the position at once and gained 
envial)le credit for the manner in which he performed the duties 
of Inspector for a large command. jNIrs. Wilson accompanied 
him to New Orleans. She and Mrs. Canbv. my sister, became 
warm friends — an atfectionate friendship that lasted their entire 
lives. Captain Wilson afterwards became General Wilson, Chief 
of the Engineer Corps, and though now retired from active serv- 
ice so far as official routine is concerned, is still actively employed 
in many things that pertain to religious work and civic better- 
ment. He lives a life of usefulness. 

In February, 1865, my command was ordered to New Orleans 
to take part with the troops that were being assembled for the 
advance on Mobile. We remained in New Orleans only for a 
short time and embarked on steamers for Barancas, where we 
went into camp, remaining there till the 19th of March. There 
was good opportunity here for drill and instruction in siege 
work, making of fascines and approaches. Tlie soil, lieing sandy, 
was easily worked, and the conunand became ([uite skilful in 
such work. 

On the 19th of ]March my connnand was moved over to Pensa- 
cola, taking a wide ford northeast of Barancas. The crossing 
over this bay was a fine sight. I have always regretted not pos- 
sessing a photograph of the event. The command marched by 
company fronts, the tide was low and the water reached about 
the middle of the men, a little more in places. Bayonets were 
fixed, haversacks and cartridge boxes were attached to the rifles 
and carried aloft to avoid wetting. The whole Division was in 
full view as it moved, flags flying, across the water. It was a 
grand sight, unequalled by anything of the kind I have ever seen 
or read of. 

The 20th of the month — IMarch — we commenced our march 
from Pensacola to Blakeley. The road was soft from the inces- 
sant rain, and large pioneer parties were detailed to corduroy 
and to lift the wagons out of the mud into which thev often sank 


lip to the hubs. Our march was oceasioiially (ipjiosed liy rebel 
cavalrv, but our cavalry, about 2.500 strong-, under (ieneral 
Lucas, was active in repuli-ing' the enemy, and there was no delay 
in tile daily progi'ess of the troo]is by reason of the attacks of 
?aiy opposing force. On the first of April, early in the morning, 
we reached Blakeley. a foi-tified ciitpost of [Mobile, and with a 
large force of skii'iiiishcrs in front the entire Division niovi'tl to- 
ward the fcn-t, and in about three hours the enemy was driven 
inside their ritie pits and our line was established within one 
luindred and twenty yards distant from them. There, for eight 
days, ending in an assault, our forces lay before Blakeley. mak- 
ing approaches toward the nuiin w<n-ks. After the assault and 
capture and a short rest. m\ eomniand was sent on steamers to 
]\Iontgomery, Ala., for further campaign, but there was nothing 
more to be done in the way of lighting, for we soon heard of 
Lee's surrender, aiul tlicreafler was a cessation of hostilities. 

After a short stay at Montgomery my command was moved 
to New Orleans and went nito camp there, but soon was ordered 
to Pineville. La., a small place opposite Alexandria, the site of a 
college of which (iiMicral Sherman was pi'esiderit just before the 
breaking out of the war. A milit;n\v district was formed, em- 
bracing westei'u Louisiana and northwest Texas, which I com- 
manded from July "JO to November 8. Tlie dulit^s pei'formc^d by 
me during this period were in the way of preserving peace, as- 
suring the libei'ty of the Freedmen, and atllrming and maintain- 
ing the authority and iurisdictioi^ of the United States in all 
concerns wherein they pertained. As one example of this may l)e 
mentioned the action taken by me soon after assuming command 
in prohibiting l)y a (ieneral Order the enactment of Pai-ish Police 
Pegulations which restricted the lilierty of Freedmen. and pro- 
hibiting their arrest unless for positive offense against hiir. 

Several years afterwards my attention was called to the re- 
port of the Ass't Commissioner of Freedmen concerning this 
Order, wherein he remarks: "This breaks down the last barrier 
to the enjoyment of liberty liy the Freedmen in Avestern Louis- 
iana * * * and to Bvt. ]\Iajor General J. P. Hawkins we are 
indebted foi- tliat which makes the colored man in reality a 
free man." 

I copy the above after the lapse of many years, and I now 


appreciate that though the ordei' was beneticial. vet as a District 
Commander I was wrong; in a military point of view to issue it. 
It was the sole prerogative of the Department Commander to 
initiate or determine admnisti'ati^'e measures that concerned his 
conmiand. ^fv province was to execute them witliin my district. 
The question of permitting parish police i-egulations. aimed only 
at Freedmen to i-estrict their lil)efty of action, when presented 
to me for consideration should have been referred to the De- 
partment Commander at New Orleans, with whom I was in easy 
and frequent communication. During my comnunid the State 
Court was in session at Alexandria, and resolutions were entered 
in the Court proceedings expressing satisfaction at the good con- 
duct of tlie soldiers in their intercourse with the people. 

Toward the Fall I was seized with dengue fever. Avhich re- 
mained with me for some time. On my recovery I was very 
■weak and not fit for duty, and procured a leave of absence and 
v>'ent North to recuperate, and soon after reaching the North I 
resigned my commission as Brigadier General of Volunteers and 
requested to be placed on sul)sistence duty as a Captain at some 
station in the North : but, instead of giving me a Northern 
station, I was ordered to Galvestcm. Texas, as Chief Commissary 
of that Depcirtment. I did not think this was fair treatment. 
I had, during the war, followed the march of the army from 
Saint Louis to New Orleans and oeyond, exposed for several 
years to the malarious influences of camp and climates, and was 
greatly desirous of a change. But I made no protest and went 
to my new department Avithout delay. T think there was prob- 
ably some prejudice or feeling against me in the Commissary 
General's ofifice at Washington, because, in 1863, I had given u]) 
service in my Department and gone into the Volunteers. There 
was quite a feeling in those days among officers of the General 
Staff that it was meritorious to be, as was said, "h)yal to one's 
corps," to stick by it and stay in it. This I had not done and 
my service in the South out of my corps did not count for merit 
(/U the stafl* roster. As concerns "lovalty to one's coi-ps" on 
the part of staff officers, there is no question that as a rule it 
should be adhered to. Tlie orgaiiized staff of an army in time 
of war is indispensable to its well lieing and to its success, and 
our army, durinu' the late Spanish War. suffered by reason of 



the many staff officers leaving their proper duties and goino" 
into the line. This was especially the case with the Inspector 
General's Department. The officers of that coi-ps should have 
been "loyal to their ccu'ps."' It is a corps whose officers are 
never more needed than in time of war, when new troops are 
being organized and new encampments being formed. 

It was early in 18(iH tliat I took up my duties in Galveston, 
and I found the place very agreeable. The days were hot in 
summer, but the nights were pleasant : a deliuhtftil breeze 
would come to its about four o'clock p. m. and n'main all night, 
which was so delicious that often I regretted goins' to bed. be- 
cause in the ttnconsciottsness of slitmber I woitld be no longer 
aware of an exquisite existence, in such a contrast with what I 
would experience when on the hut xnori'ow I had t(^ take up the 
labors of the day. 

I remained at Galveston till the Fall of ISHii. when I found 
that the cumulative effect of living so loim' in the southern cli- 
mate was permanently injuring my health, and I insisted as a 
right to be ordered North. ^ly representations were at length 
favorably considered, and I was ordered on duty in the office ot 
the Commis.sarv General, then General Amos B. Eaton, a most 
meritorious officer of fine disposition and Christian character. 
My service with him was most agreeal)lc : my dttties were the 
auditing of property accounts, and were very pleasant. Gen- 
eral and ]\Irs. Canby were then in AVashington. They had 
formed a sort of club or associatioii in <me house with General 
and ]Mrs. Charles Thomas, and I v/as taken in as a member, 
which made my social life a pleasant one. for through them 1 
became accpiainted with many nice people, some of whom I might 
not otherwise have known. Among them was the Craig family. 
on whom I called with General Canby on New Year's Day, 1867. 
I little anticipated when making the call that my future wife 
was to be allotted iiie from that family. A single step often 
leads in an unexpected direction, involving unforeseen changes 
in one's life. Living in the same house with ^Irs. Thomas, I be- 
came greatly attached to her. and she playfully adopted me as 
her grandson, and when I married she in like manner adopted 
mv wife, and we remained atfectionate friends for manv vears. 


to the eiul of liei- life. We never h<ul ;i l)etter or a more lovable 

On the tenth of October, 1867. I was married to Jane B. 
Craig-, daughter of (reneral II. K. Craig, one time Chief of 
Ordnance, U. S. Army. Our marrj.ige was qnite a notable one, 
for both of ns belonging to Army circles abont all the Army 
officers in Washington Avere present, including Generals Crant 
and Sherman. Grant came in a little late and gave as explana- 
tion that Mrs. Grant liad failed (<! bring in time his dress suit 
to his office. The ceremony took place at the residence of Gen- 
eral Craig, 1812 I Street. The day was fine and everything gave 
promise of a hapi)y event. Avhich lias continued to both of us 
through many years of companionship. ^ly wife has an envialile 
ancestry on both sides of her hous.\ her father being an officer 
in the War of 1812, a grandson of (Jeneral John Neville of the 
Fourth Virginia Continental Line during the War of the Revo- 
lution; his father was Major Isaac Craig, who also had a good 
record during the Revolution. Succeeding generations have 
patriotically served their countiy, one son, Presley 0. Craig of 
the Artillery, lost his life at the hatth^ of Bull Run — a most 
lovely character cut oft' in the prime of his manhood and mourned 
by all who know him. On the mot]ier"s side my wife belongs to 
the Paneuil fannly, Ilugenors that came to America from 
Rochelle. France, soon after the Revolution of the Edict of 
Nantes. My wife now has in her p(»ssession the silver eofi'ee pot 
that belonged to Peter Faneuil, who presented the Hall to Boston. 
Another famdy name is that of B(Hhune, well k'liown in Boston 
and j)rominent in Pi-ench and Seottisli history, as witness Cardi- 
nal Bethnne in Scotland and ^laximilian de Bethune, Dtike of 
Sully, Prime Minister of Henry J'oui'th. 

I make mention of General Shei'niaii being at my marriage — 
and not long after, having occasion to introduce me to someone, 
he added: "He has just married the handsomest woman in 
Washington." I had always thought so and (|uite agreed with 

Early in the Si)ring of 1861) I was r(>lieved from dtity in 
Washington and assigned to duty ;it Cincinnati, Ohio, as pur- 
chasing commissary, w^here I remained till the Fall, when I was 
transferred to Detroit as Chief Commissary of the Department 



of the Lakes. ^Iv duties Avere pleasant, and the society of Detroit 
most aoreeable. Detroit has always been an Army Post from 
the earliest times, and .Vi'my families have been received l)y the 
people with kindness and hospitality. General John Pope was 
connnander of the Depai'tmeut. lie and his excellent wife were 
verv friendly to ns and did iinich towai'd making everything- 
smooth in our pathway. Wliile here, in December, 1869, my 
wife received a teleyram announcing the death of her father in 
Washington. We at once hastened there and remained at the 
home for some ten days, and then returned tc Detroit. After 
my return it occurred to me that, during my absence. 1 had 
almost neglected the fret(uent daily use of my pipe. Travelling 
on the ears my wife was in great distress l\v her bereavement, 
and 1 did not care to leave her alone while I might resort to the 
smoking car, and so I travelled without smoking. And while at 
the home in Washington it was not convenient for all concerned 
for me to smoke, so tliere were at least ten days that I had done 
very little smoking. In thinking about it after my return, there 
occurred to me the fact that the deprivation had not worried me 
any. and the thought came to nie that perhaps it might be easy 
to refrain altogether from smoking, whicli 1 proceeded at once 
to do with perfect ease and success. In about tive or six weeks 
I had a violent attack of dyspepsia and went to the doctor for a 
prescription, telling him that perhaps my trouble came from the 
abandonment of smoking after being habituated to it for tAventy 
years. The doctor gave me a prescriptiou and said that he had 
a brother who abandoned tobacco after many years" use, and 
bragged how easy it was-, but at 'he end of a year the desire 
came back to him so strong that he could not resist it, and now 
he smoked more than ever, and that probably I would do the 
same. I did not wish to follow such an example, for I had. to 
say the least, found it convenient and in many ways agreeable 
not to smoke, and so thinking it over it seemed to me that it 
would be well if I resumed smoking in a very moderate way 
and thtis hal)itnate myself to an infre<pient smoke. Then for 
about a year I made a practice of visiting every Sunday evening 
an old gentleman who roomed above me. taking my pipe with 
me and indulging in a smoke with him while he entertained me 
with some story or narrative. I enjoyed these evenings greatly. 


but at the end of a year, when one, Sunday eveninij', listening 
to one of lii.s stories, I began to feel sick, and suddenly rising 
lold him my condition and that I would hear the balance of the 
story soim- other time, and went at once to my room below. My 
wife was in the ]iai'lor, but I was to*; sick to say a word and went 
(Ml into tlic bcd-i'oom and laid down. She followed me and used 
camphor and cologne to revive me; she said 1 was as pale as a 
ghost, and in fact I never in my life felt moi-e sick. This was 
my last attempt at a social smoke. 1 presume that the tobacco 
had gradually become eliminated from my system, and this last 
smoke was as the smoking by one who had never before smoked 
and the sickness followed as is usual with a beginner. Since 
that time I have been prevailed upon by friendly insistence to 
ti-y a cigar specially praised for its superiority, but have never 
been able to find any good in it so far as concerns aroma or any- 
thing in the way of attraction. I am certainly a thoroughly 
reformed smoker, and I would commend my plan to any one 
who may wish to abandon a habit injurious to many people who 
Itraetice it, — that is, the plan of gradual abstention when entire 
abstaining has proved too difficult. 

While in Detroit, in Api'il, 1878, I received a telegrom an- 
nouncing the killing of General Canby by the IModoc Indians. 
My wife and I pi'oceeded at once to Portland. Ore., \yhere Mrs. 
Canby was, and brought lier home with us. We had a residence 
for the summer in the country near Detroit, and she lived with 
us till notified by telegram fi'oni Indianapolis of the dangerous 
illness of our cousin. Sue McCartv Day, when she hastened to 
see her before her death, which occurred soon after. 

In the Fall I received orders sending me to Omaha. Neb., as 
Chief Connnissary of the Department of the Platte. This proved 
to be one of the best stations that has fallen to me during my 
service, and we made many agreeable acquaintances that have 
been lifelong friends. I was a member of Trinity Cathedral, 
and was honored by being chosen a vestryman, which gave me 
an association with some of the best men in Omaha. I noticed 
a peculiarity in our vestry meetings, that often a business ques- 
tion before us that brought on considerable discussion, appar- 
ently without hope of agreement, by some lapsus would he drifted 
away into some irrelevant matter, and on returning after a while 



to the main question it would be settled soon by easy, harmonious 
action. The line of opposition gave way before the intluence of 
a new process of thouglit. — ^an argument in favor of cultivating 
many lines of thought, and not allowing the mind to dwell and 
settle on one routine of occupation or habit of thought. 

When I entered the Army it went very hard with me 
to separate from friends when the changes of the service in- 
volved the breaking of social ties; but after a while one learns 
by experience that one may reasonal)ly hope that friendly ties 
now broken may be expected to be renewed, that the friends who 
now leave us for service elsewhere may be again restored by the 
i-evolving wheel of time, and so we learn to part, not without 
regret, certainly, bin still with th;- {(elim:' that we will be again 
brought togethei". I found at Onuiha our old friends. General 
A. J. Perry and wife, whom we had known in Washington -. also 
General George D. Ruggles and wife, acquaintances of long 
ago — and when Ruggles was reliev-d he was succeeded by Gen- 
eral Robert Williams as Adjutant (General. ^Irs. Williams was 
an old friend of my wife — iier first husband was Senator Stephen 
A. Douglas — my wife ^\■as her attendant at her marriage to 
Douglas and was the same at her marriage to General Williams. 
She tells tliat. at the commencement of the Douglas wedding, the 
|)riest. calling for the license, was informed that procuring the 
license had been neglected, and there was no license. The priest 
demurred performing the ceremony, but Douglas asked, "What 
is the fine .'" The priest told him, and D(Higlas said. "Go ahead. 
I will pay the fine." He was not going to be delayed by a 
trifling money consideration. 

I remained in Omaha till 1879, and was then transferred to 
New York City as Purchasing Commissary. This was the largest 
purchasing depot in the United States, and the duties kept me 
^ery busy. I found here my old friends. General and ^Nlrs. 
Perry. He was Chief Quartermaster of the Department of the 
East, commanded by General W. S. Hancock, whom I first met 
in 1852 when he was the Adjutant of the Gth Infantry, the first 
regiment I served with. He was now deep in politics, nominated 
for President by the Democrats. While in conunand at New 
Orleans he is.sued a General Order. Xo. 4(1. which made it plain 
that he was not in accord with thi^ principles of the reconstruc- 


tion policy of the (roverninent. ennneiating certain theoi'ies of 
government that gained for him tl^.e approval and admiration 
of a large Democratic following. Jeremiah S. Black expressed 
the highest praise for its sonnd statesmanship. There was then 
on Hancock's staff General (Jeurge L. Hartsnft', as his Adjntant 
General, a very able man. a good soldier and a good writer. 
When llartsnff died some years after there was found among 
his papers the famous Order No. 40 in Hartsuff's writing, inter- 
lineations and all, so that it would he just to give him some of 
the credit for the Order. I have this story from General Frank 
Darr, who was one of Hartsuff's executors and had access to his 
papers. This may be regarded as a curiosity in American i)ol- 
itics, and for that reason is here recorded. It is not an unusual 
thing for a writer in the course of a piece of writing to engage 
the services of a friend to help him out in a composition where 
he feels that his friend can present the case better than he can 
do it. A notable instance of this is a chapter in "The Vir- 
ginians," by Thackeray. The hitter had heard mucli of the 
])eculiar grandeur of the American woods, and wished to have 
a description of them in his book, but, never having been in 
^America to see them, he felt his lack of power to describe them. 
Washington Irving was then in England and Thackeray appealed 
to him to write a description of them, and the chapter describing 
the beauty and nobleness of an American forest stands — with 
those who know the real authorship — as a moniuiicnl to li'ving's 
power of grand description. 

The latter part of Septeml)er, LSHl, all Federal offices were 
closed, conunemorative of the obseciuies of President (Jartield, 
and taking advantage of this suspension of business I went, in 
company with my wife, to New Rochelle, a place on the Sound 
about sixteen miles from New fork. It was originally settled by 
Hugenots, many of them from Roclielle, France. Our object in 
going there was to look up such records as we could find of the 
early Hugenots, and especially of the family of Faneuil, who 
originally came from old Rochelle. We made inquiries of such 
]iersons as we thought might be able to assist us in our search, 
and were finally infoi-med that a certain person in New Rochelle 
had a ring with the name of Faneuil on the inside. We at once 
went to tlie designated person, who said that he had such a ring. 


and searching' a burean drawer soou jiroduc'ed a gold ring, which 
he placed in the hands of my wife. It had many marks of age 
and hard usage, had been chased, but the chasing nuich worn 
down. She read on the inside. "A. Faneuil. obit Feby 13. 1737: 
aetat 66 arm" (Armiger). She at once recognized it as a 
family belonging, she having record of the fact (see Vol. 2. page 
507, Sargent's "Dealings wiih the Dead") that Andrew Faneuil, 
an uncle of Peter Faneuil, died Febi'uary 13, 1737. and that 
Peter, on the 8th of September, 1737, wrote to his correspondents 
in London to send him '"the handsomest inourning rings." giv- 
ing the inscriptions to be made. These rings were distributed to 
the ditt'erent members of the family. One of these rings was 
till recently in the possession of i\Irs. Blunt, wife of Colonel 
Charles E. Blunt. V. S. Army, inherited from her ancestor. Ben- 
jamin Faneuil — also Mrs. Plawkiiis" ancestor. Unfortunately, it lost while ^Irs. Blunt was at a hotel in Omaha. Xel). The 
ring now before my wife was doubtless the one sent by Peter to 
his brother. Jean, at that time li^^ug in X"ew Rochelle, where 
Peter and his brothers and sisters were liorn. The owner of the 
ring told us that a great many years ago his grandfather was 
ploughing a field on the "Tom Paine" farm, near Xew Rochelle, 
and seeing something yellowish among the clods he picked it up 
and found it to be the gold ring. His grandfather accounted for 
its being there by saying that when he was a boy he and his 
father used to haul refuse from the Faneuil home and distribute 
it over that field. The ring evidently had been lost by someone 
of the family, and after lying hid in the ground for many veal's 
had at come to light to be seen by a descendant of the family. 
The owner was asked the price for which he would sell it. and 
said. "'Twenty-five dollars." a large price for him to get for it, 
liut a small price for us to pay for it. I at once paid the money, 
and ever since my wife has worn it as a finger ring. I suppose 
if she were Japanese she would through it invoke the spirits of 
her Hugenot ancestors. I do not know if tJiere now exists an- 
other of the mourning rings given out by Peter Faneuil. This 
custom of memorial rings to perpetuate the memory of the dead 
is a very l)eautiful one. and it is a pity that it has almost gone 
out of use. The only modern instance of the custom that I know 
of is that John Eandolpli. (^f Koauoke, in his last hours desig- 


luited one oi- more pieces of gold euin to be made into mourning 
rings for certain persons. 

It was my intention when receiving orders for transfer to 
New York to rent a house and be a housekeeper; Ijut the houses 
offered for rent in respectable localities were so large and the 
rents so high that I determined to board, and we selected a board- 
ing house which was recommended by a friend. When I went 
to the place to see about the rooms I was shown into a large 
parlor, magnificently furnished, with every evidence of costly 
appointments, and looking around me I thought if I was the 
owner of it all I would sell and live on the interest of the money 
and not keep a boarding hovise ; but after living there a few 
days we found that there was little satisfaction in the table fur- 
nished us, that everything- served was in a skimpy way. As an 
illustration of this, a friend at a neighboring" table, having been 
helped to some dish by a passing waiter, ate it up at almost one 
mouthful, and hailing tlie waiter on his return called out, "Say, 
waiter, that sample was good; now please bring- me some." We 
could not stand tliis very long and soon left, carrying- with us 
the thought, "All is not gold that glitters." 

We then moved to a hotel, where we had good rooms and were 
comfortable in every way. I remember a little incident at this 
hotel which I have often thought of. After we had been there 
for some time there was a change among the servants and a new 
maid assigned to care for our rooms. She made up the bed mis- 
erably the first day, and the morning after my wife intercepted 
her in the hall as we were going- down to breakfast and asked 
her to delay fixing up our room till her return, and on her re- 
turn my wife proceeded, with the maid's help, to make up the 
bed in a proper manner. After all was finished the woman, in 
a sad tone of voice, remarked, "Well, I don't see how it is that 
you people whose living- does not depend upon your work can do 
it so much better than us whose living depends on it." The 
woman spoke a very true thing as to a fact that has almost an 
universal application — whether the work belong-s to the care of a 
parlor or bed-room or the cooking in a kitchen, education in exact 
work is more prevalent among- the well-to-do than among the 
toilers. The latter are usually habituated to throw off work in 
a hurry — "good enough" seems to be all thev strive for, and not 


"perfection." I once knew, down in Kentucky, a maker of 
split-bottom hickory chairs, who had more orders than he could 
till, and would not emplov any assistants in his business because 
he could not get men to do his work according to his standard. 
His work was jierfect. the joints tiitted accurately, and there was 
no saggini: in any pai't of his chair. lie could not supply the 
denuuid on him. Sometimes I have thought that his disapi)()inted 
or would-be customers would have been glad to get a chair from 
him. even though it were made by a journeyman and a little lack- 
ing as to perfection; yet this world moves forwai'd by having 
high standards in view for our attainment. 

The purchasing duties at New York demanded all my time, 
and the dailv examination of samples for making a purchase was 
trying on my health, especially in the testing of tea and coffee, 
in which I became <iuite an expert. 'Sly nei'ves of taste were in 
ju-imitive condition, not having been injuretl In the haliitual 
use of tobacco or sprits, so that in the examination of foods I 
found that my own judgment was often more acute and correct 
than that of the professional expei'ts with whom I was some- 
times associated. I remember on one occasion I was examining 
butter in tubs in the liest cheese and butter store in New York. 
The salesman would insert his tryer in one tub after another in 
order to find (me without taint, and of best aroma, and it was a 
long time before I would decide on the number of tubs I wanted ; 
frequently the salesman, after smelling the tryer. would pass it 
to me as all right, and I would smell along it and call his atten- 
tion to a place on the tryer that was not got)d. At last he ex- 
claimed, "General. I would give a thousand dollars for your 
nose." AYell. I suppose it would have been worth that, or even 
more, to him in the way of his business. 

The sampling of tea and cotfee was the hardest on my nerves. 
Sometimes I would have an array of twenty-five or thirty cups 
of tea drawn from the samples submitted for purchase, and it 
was my business to compare these samples and select the best. 
I could often eliminate the greater part of them by color. Then 
the few remaining cups would have to he compared by tasting, 
and sometimes it was a very difficult matter to decide as to 
merits of the infusions. I am informed that professional tea 


tasters wreck their health after a few years. It is not a business 
that the system habituates itself to. 

After a four-years' term of duty in New York 1 was ordered 
again to Ouiaha. This was very agreeable to nie, for we had 
many old friends there to welcome us; beside that it was a more 
healthful station than New York, and the duties less confining. 
One of the great wonders of New York at that time was the 
new Brooklyn Bridge, but I never had time to see it, and the 
day I left New York I arose early in the morning and went to 
see it. This reminds me of Surgeon Norris. who was stationed 
in Washington for ten or more years and never had time to visit 
the Smithsonian Institution till the day of his departure. His 
time was demanded, morning, noon and night, by his devoted 
patients. Popularity is often its own reward to the possessor of 
it, and makes severe exactions. 

I found some of my old Army friends on duty at Omaha, 
among them General Crook, commanding the Department; Gen- 
eral Williams, the Ad.jutant General; Dr. Summers, Chief Med- 
ical Officer, and Colonel Ludington, Chief Quartermaster. They 
and their families made the Army society very delightful. There 
was also at Fort Omaha General John King and wife. The latter 
I had known as a young lady — Tilly Davenport — in Detroit, a 
great many years ago when there on recruiting service before the 
Civil War. I have uiet Mrs. King since tlien, the last time at a 
hotel, a summer resoi-t near Boston. She had met with a severe 
accident, a fracture of the hip bone, which liad rendered her per- 
manently lame, but she bore her suffering witli Christian patience 
and met her friends with the same sweet smile illuminating her 
face that liad always characterized her as Tiilie Davenport. 

The duties at Omaha as Chief Commissary of the Depart- 
ment and as purchasing officer were not onerous. Having served 
there before, I knew pretty well the circumstances of each post, 
and keeping them in supplies was easy and I had plenty of time 
for perfecting a method of supply that assisted me in properly 
caring for the posts and rendered easy their administration. The 
difficulty in supplying good food to the Army is the fact that so 
many of the articles to be supplied are very perishable, and in 
consequence often a considerable amount is stale, or at least has 
lost desirable freshness. To avoid this I reipiired the requisitions 


from the posts to be made more freciuently, and for shorter 
periods and for snnill anionnts, — if very perishable, for only a 
month's supply. In this way I soon reduced the amounts car- 
ried at the posts to the minimum consistent with safety, and all 
the supplies were fresh. As an example of this kind of adminis- 
tration I will mention corn meal, which had been supplied on a 
six-months" requisition, and recognizinji' its nature to deteriorate 
I chanued it to a monthly requisition. At the end of about six 
months I received a lettei- of complaint from a post commissary, 
that during the past six months the post had been out of corn 
meal many times and there was great demand for it. I an- 
swered the letter liy telling him that I was endeavoring to keep 
pace with the corn meal consumption at his post, but had not 
succeeded ; that 1 was trying to furnish enough, but not too much 
for current use; that looking over the records in the office of the 
consumption of corn meal at his post for the past year, I found 
that during the first six months (when a liberal supply had been 
lurnished) the ccmsuniption was very small: that ditring the lat- 
ter six months, five times as much was consumed, and that it was 
preferable to run short occasionally of an unimportant article 
than to supply it in large ((uantities at risk of staleness. I never 
more heard of fui'ther coniplaint. Perhaps l)y that time I had 
.judged more acctirately — having more complete data — the 
amoinit needed tnider the new conditions. 

When I Avas stationed in New York I had as chief clerk, 
Thomas Ttdly. whom I found in the office in that capacity. He 
had been in the office for many years, dating back to the Civil 
War. He was a good man in every way and a faithful and effi- 
cient clerk. I brought him with me to Omaha as my chief clerk, 
and he afterwards was with me at Boston and San Francisco, 
and again in New York, and when he died a short time ago I felt 
that I had lost my best friend. He was a true gentleman in 
every thought and action. 

The first time I was stationed in Omaha I had as chief clerk, 
my nephew. Horace Speed, a son of my sister. ]\Iargaret. He 
did good service in that capacty. btit after he had been with me 
abotit three years I told him that I wished him to leave my serv- 
icr- in abottt one year: that there was no promotion for a clerk in 
an Armv office: that he miu'ht be with me for vears and never 


rise higher: that clerks in a civilian office had an opportunity 
for promotion, but not so in the Army ; that he was youno;, of 
good education and good capacity, and that I wished him to 
think over the matter and be ready to adopt some business or 
profession that he might incline to. The result of our conversa- 
tion was that lie decided to study lavr. A friend of his, a young 
lawyer, gave him the privilege of his law library and directed 
him in his study, and in due course he was admitted to the bar 
and went to Indianapolis, Inch, for practice, w^here he entered the 
office of Harrison and Miller, and also the office of John How- 
land, Clerk of the U. S. District Court. In both these places he 
learned nuich of the routine of legal practice. He afterwards 
w^ent to Oklahoma, where he has secured an excellent business 
rmd stands high as a lawyer and an lionest man. I take some 
credit and feel much satisfaction for having started Horace 
Speed in his honorable career. 

During my tirst term in Omalia I was a member of the vestry 
of Trinity Cathedral, and during this second term 1 was elected 
to the place of senior warden. I accepted the office with great 
reluctance, for I felt there were superior men in the vestry who 
could better perform the duties and who had a more permanent 
interest than myself in the future of the cathedral: but the cir- 
cumstances attending my election were peculiar, and I had to 
accept the office and till the position as best 1 could. Trinity 
Cathedral was also a parish church, and during my wardenship 
a new minister was elected. The order of institution into the 
Church requires a certain participation by the senior warden, 
and not being in the habit of appearing before the public in any 
sort of function, I felt great timidity in doing so, and tried to 
prevail on Judge Wakeley, junior warden, to relieve me of the 
performance: but he said no, that the rules required me to do it. 
It was a great trial to me for many reasons. I was present at 
a previous Institution in the Cathedral, and could not hear the 
warden in his part of the ceremony, and it came to me that it 
was certainly the right of the congregation to know that it had 
entrusted its keys to the new incumbent. When, therefore, it 
came my turn to present the keys. I declared the formula in 
quite a loud and ringing tone, somewhat after the manner of an 
Adjutant reading an order or proclamation in the presence of a 


regiment in line. After the ceremony some complimented me 
fo)' the style, saying that it was the most impressive part of the 
Institution. Well. 1 was glad when it was over. 

I remained in Omaha till Dece-nber 1, 1887. when, having 
been ordered to Boston as Purchasing Officer, I was relieved 
from duty. The following is an extract from the Order relieving 

''The Depai'tment Connnandev parts from Major Hawkins 
as Chief Commissary with sincere regret. His careful attention 
to the quantity and quality of supplies, that all may be suitable, 
placed in suitable ([uaiitities Avhen needed, and none lost by de- 
terioration or waste : his ability and readiness to meet the emer- 
gencies of the service as they arise, and liis able and faithful 
management of all the duties in his charge, have rendered his 
services most useful and beneticial in this Department. The De- 
partment Commander extends to Major Hawkins his ])est wishes 
for like success at his next station." 

^ly term in Boston was very agreeable, and as my wife's 
family was frcun there, she had great interest in looking up the 
records and belongings of other days and was very successful 
in her searches into family history in what ])ertained to Bethune 
and Faneuil names. We had the gratification of renewing our 
intimacy with our old friends. ^lajor and Mrs. W. S. Stanton, 
U. S. Army, whom we knew in Omaha during my first term of 
duty there. We also met for tlie first time Mr. Josei))) A. Willard 
and his family. His wife l)elonged to the Faneuil family and 
they treated us with great kindness and hospitality. He was 
(juite an old man. and had been Clerk of the Superior Court of 
Boston for a number of years. — an elective offiee. but he never 
had opposition in a new election. ^Ir. Willai-d di'ovc a pair of 
fast horses, and I often rotle with him. anil thi-ough his courtesy 
I was made to travel pretty much all over and thi-ough the many 
delightful suburbs of Bo.ston. He was a well-read man and 
knew the histt)ries and traditiims of all the places we visited. 
Returning from these rides I felt that I had been on a travel to 
new fields of interest and instruction. We were once invited to 
dine at ^Ir. Willard 's, to meet Miss Frances Willard. the Presi- 
dent of the W. C. T. U. She was a very agreeable person. This 
was when Cleveland was running for President. Miss Willard 


declared herself as for him. said tliat she was or had always 
heretofore heen a Hepubliean, hut now s\\v was using all her 
intiueuee as President of the W. ('. 'I\ 1'. in liis favor, because 
the Repulilican party did not aet according to its convictions in 
neglecting to put a temperance plank in its party platform, and 
that it needed punishment for the neglect. 1 thought it poor 
])olicy and wrong in principle, biting the nose to spite the face, 
and we had some words about it. A person with one hobby is 
not always wise. 

While stationed in Boston the Honorable Artillery Company 
of Lcmdon was the guest, by invitation, of The Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. The Company, 
among other distinguishcti attentions, was honored with a ban- 
quet in Faneuil llall. I was invited to be present and to respond 
to the toast. "Tlie Army and Navy of the United States.'' My 
speech was as follows: 
"Gentlemen of the Honorable Artillery Company of Lond<m, 

and of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of 

Massachusetts, and Honorable (Juests: 

"It is a grand and a beautiful (.ccasion when we as brethren 
sit down together around the festive board in peace and unity 
and in fi-aternal friendship, and it may be hoped and fully ex- 
pected that the nuMnories of this day will always be present with 
us into a far future and help our peoi)les in many reciprocations 
of kindly feeling, and aid in an increasing growth of generous 
acts and .sympathies. 

"As an officer of the Ignited States Army, invited to assist 
in this good fellowship, I think I am speaking the sentiment of 
the Ai-my in saying that the ways of peace are to us the ways 
of pleasantness. Certainly this is so for those of us who served 
through the years of struggle, when clouds were dark around 
and above us, and brother was arrayed against brother in sor- 
rowful conflict, and when peace came none rejoiced more than 
the soldier veterans: peace had been the goal for which they had 
toiled in battle and bivouac, and for which they had so often 
marched through the valley and shadow of death. 

"And now to our peaceful and gentle guests from Old Eng- 
land, our Fatherland, we say Welcome I thrice Welc(mie! to this 
their kindred land, and to our people's hosiutality. and may our 


meetings in future times be as now, witli outstretched hruids and 
kindly greetings. And speaking as we do. a language connnon 
to us all, may we never tind in its vocahulai-y any words of 
harsli or jarring sound, but only those that may eonvey to each 
other as a people the sentiments of love and charity, and such 
as may show forth to the world our appreeiaticm and pi'actice of 
the mutual duties and obligations demanded by a common ( 'lir'is- 

I do not ([uote Uw al)ove as a sample of oratory oi- originality 
of sentiment, but as an indication of my regard for the English 
people, a people at one with us in their form of constitutional 
government, and in their devotion to personal and i)olitical lib- 
erty, the progress of Inunanity, and everything tliat pertains to 
the betternu'nt of mankind. I was brought up in Indiana, then 
the Far West, and stories of British soUliers' bai'barisms in as- 
sociation with their Indian alHes. during the War of 1812, was 
tlu^ talk ai'ound every tireside, and a red coat Britisher was con- 
sidered the superlative embodiment of cruel savagery. And so 
the young were surrounded with an atmosphere of liate toward 
England and things English. But it is a satisfaction now to 
know that these feelings ha\e passed away with the mass of our 
p(M)ple, and a moi'e kindly and brotherly feeling prevails. There 
is nothing enobling in hatred, and it only hurts the one who in- 
dulges in it. The scars of war are always healed in a generation 
or two after thosi' who have participated in it. oi- were cognizant 
of its hardships and many miseries have passed away. New 
interests and new obligations of life favor forgetfulness of j)ast 
unpleasant events, and they are banished fi-om association with 
the daily^ claims of the present. Everv age or period has its 
own burdens, and naturally does not willingly cari-y the burdens 
originated or imposed l)y a previous generation. The motto of 
the ages is well expressed by Longfellow: 

"Let the dead past bury its dead. 
Act, act in the living present, 
Heart within, and Cod o'erhead." 


Also Whittier: 

"For still the new transcends the old 
In signs and tokens manifold. 
* * * the olive waves 
With roots deep set in l)attle graves." 

In the autumn of 1888 I received orders for change of station 
to San Francisco, which was an agreeable change, involving 
larger and more important duties. We found many old Armj^ 
friends at San Francisco, and made many new Army acquaint- 
ances. The administraton of the Commissariat embraced all our 
country on the Pacific coast, but tlie business matters were sim- 
ilar to those I had charge of in my previous experiences else- 
where, so that the duties came easy and I had no pressure in my 
office work and much leisure for the perfecting of a system of 
commissary records that I had l.)een using for several years, a 
system that enabled me with little trouble to have an accurate 
current know^ledge of the condition and amount of supplies at 
each post. 

The commander of the jNIilitary Division was IMajor General 
Nelson A. Miles, a distinguished soldier of the Civil War, whose 
services, in whatever rank or position he has held, have been 
creditable to him and honorable and useful to the country. 

California has many climates, and I think that of San Fran- 
cisco the least desirable; seldom cold enough to require a fire in 
one's room, yet a chilliness in the air is usual; mornings are the 
best part of the day, in the afternoon a chill wind from the 
Pacific sweeps the streets, bringing fog and discomfort with dust 
that chokes. Yet. notwithstanding these drawliaeks on San 
Francisco as a residence, its business location is such that it 
must always remain the great city of the Pacific, even thouR-h 
it be constantly subjected to the apprehension of destruction by 

During our stay in San Francisco we lived first at the Pleas- 
anton Hotel, a very large family house with good rooms and a 
fair table. We liked it very nuieh until the proprietor introduced 
weekly balls that were kept up lill a late hour at night. The 
music and the racket kept us awake, so we sought quarters else- 


where, and found a most excellent place in a family hotel kept 
In .Mrs. Levy. The house was newly built and nieely furnished, 
and just ready for oecupancy. When we told some of our friends 
where we were going, they exclaimed, "Why. that is a Hebrew 
house!" I replied that I had no objection to Hebrews, that they 
had always treated me well, and that there was nnich in them I 
liked, so we went to the new place, and within a month had the 
satisfaction of welcoming there the General commanding the 
Department. ( Jeneral Gibbon ; the Medical Director, Dr. Stern- 
berg: also the Admiral commanding the Pacific fleet. Admiral 
George Brown. — all with their families. When the Admiral 
oame ]Mrs. Levy went down into the city and bought a large flag, 
saying that now she was the "headquarters of everything." The 
flag was hoisted over the building every day and she was a very 
proud woman for the assemblage of so much rank beneath her 
roof. It was certainly an unusual thing, and it made Mrs. 
Levy's house celebi-ated in San Francisco. 

Early in 1892 I was ordered to Governor's Island, New York, 
as Chief Commissar}^ of the Division of the Atlantic. My life 
there was uneventful, the duties being of a routine character. 
The Commissary (Teneral was to be retired in December, and I 
was anxious to be appointed to succeed him. I was ranked by 
one officer, Colonel ^I. R. IMorgan. who had been in the Army 
one year less than myself and who by an accident of the service 
had got ahead of me, and I thought it was no injustice to him 
to obtain the appointment, especially as he did not retire till 
after me. and would naturally succeed me. For this purpose I 
went on to AVashington just before the vacancy was to occur, 
saw the President, the Secretary of War and others, and repre- 
sented my case, and then returned to my post. Having received 
no promises from any in authority. 1 hardly thought I would 
.succeed, but a few days after my return my friends in Wash- 
ington showered me with telegrams announcing that the Presi- 
dent had appointed me, and I at once packed up my belongings 
and went to Washington and entered on my new duties as Com- 
missary General of the Army. AVhen my name was sent to the 
Senate for confirmation, the unusual honor was accorded me 
of confirmation without reference. 

I had considered foi- Jnany years the pros])ect of my being 


Cominissarv (Jeneral. and had thou«iht over certain changes that 
I would like to see made for the benefit of the service, and as 
soon as I was fairly installed into the routine of the office I pro- 
ceeded to elt'ect them. One was the abolishment of tlie ponder- 
ous "Commissary Book" kept at every post as a book of record, 
and the substitiition therefor of a snuill book tliat could be held 
in one hand, with the figures so arranged that they expressed at 
a glance the amounts of stores on hand and the rate of consump- 
tion at the post for any number of jjrevious months. I had used 
the system in the Military Departments and knew it would worlv 
well and easily. The change was welcomed throughout the Army, 
as it enabled the Post Commissaries to make their estimates for 
stores more easily and with more exactness, so that when I re- 
tired in September, 1894, I do not believe there was an average 
of two months' supply on hand at the military posts, — the stores 
were the freshest possible, and condemnation of spoiled stores 
was reduced to the smallest possible percentage. 

Another change introduced by me was reducing the number 
of Abstracts of Issues in use down to a single Abstract. It had 
been the practice from the early organization of the Subsistence 
Department to use a separate Abstract for entering the issues 
made to each variety of organization. For instance, an "Ab- 
stract to Regulars," an "Abstract to Volunteers,'' an "Abstract 
to Indians," an "Abstract to Citizens," etc., etc. By the new 
method all were included in one paper. And further, the cer- 
tificate on an Abstract embraced a recapitulation in writing of 
the totals noted above in figures, a relic of the times when con- 
tractors made issues on ration returns and were paid according 
to the totals as shown by the Abstract, wliich was authority for 
the payment. Repeating the figures in writiiig was a guard 
against the contractor manipulating the figures. This long re- 
capitulation was abolished and a short certificate substituted. 
These changes saved paper, lessened writing, and diminished 
bulk in the returns. 

When I joined my Regiment in 1852, it was a common thing 
to see in the newspapers, advertisements for subsistence supplies, 
signed by the Commissary General of Subsistence. This was a 
relic of early days, and was the practice up to the commencement 
of the Civil War, when the business of procuring supplies be- 


came so large that it had \o he fiitiusted to Subsistence Officers 
ou duty in various parts of the country. The Department thus 
became less centralized, supplies were purchased and sent direct 
to the armies without the intervention of the Connni.ssary Gen- 
eral, and to the great advantage of businesslike administration. 
But at the close of the war the Gommissarv General recovered 
his grip on the routine of his Department, and. as during the 
war. decentralization was favoi'ed. so that when ])eace came the 
extreme of centralization was the rule, and pretty nuich every 
question of supply had to be referi*ed to Washington to be passed 
on there for approval or disapproval. My experience in several 
Departments as Chief Conunissary had convinced me that the 
system of centralization was very faulty, and. soon after taking 
charge of the office. I carried out plans for as complete decen- 
tralization as was practicable, whereby Chief Commissaries of 
Departments were given greater control over supplies, at the 
same time so arranging that proper supervision remained in the 
hands of the Commissary General, to correct mistakes that might 
be committed, and this supervision was made more accurate and 
intelligent than ever liefore. The new system worked admiraljiy. 
The posts were more promptly supplied with stores, and subor- 
dinates were not under a constant heckling process from Wash- 
ington in matters of small detail, and took pi'ide in their duties. 
As a rule those in power wish to centralize and grasp everything 
in reach, and I regard this act of decentralization, whereby I 
relinquished authority, as the best act of my official life. 

Associated with me in the office was Colonel ]\Iichael R. Mor- 
gan, who gave me his able assistance in the performance of my 
duties. Under the circumstances of my going into the office he 
might have declined to do duty under me and applied for a 
transfer to another station. I asked him to remain with me. and 
A\ e talked the matter over. As a matter of course he felt sore ou 
account of my promotion over him. but I felt sure that he would 
be my successor when I retired, and I wished his approval, 
assistance and co-operation in the reforms I had in mind, and I 
take this ()i)p()i'tiuiity to express my appreciation of his able 
assistance, pleasant companionship and Christian-like conduct 
tC'Ward me during my term of office wherein he succeeded me. 
He lias contributed some vahiabh- wi'itings to the public on his 

134 (;en..)()iix p. HAWKINS— reminiscences 

early life in tlic army, and his experiences in the Army of the 
Potomac whih' (m the staff of General Grant as Chief Commis- 
sary. I have not known ;i better man anywhere than Michael 
R. Morgan. In his turn he was retired at 64 years of age, and 
died at St. Paul, Minn., in Sei)temher, 1911. 

On September 29. 1Si)4. by ()i)ei'ation of law, I was placed on 
the retired list. The Secretary of War issued an Order very 
complimentary to me, of which the following is an extract: 

"General Hawkins was gi-aduated at the Military Academy 
in 1852. and served upon tlie Indian frontier fi-om that time till 
the outbreak of the late war. Eor m short period in 1861 lie was 
with General Patterson's army in Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
and innnediately thereafter with (Jeneral McDowelPs army in 
the first Bull Run campaign, and while with it received com- 
mendation for distinguished service. Transferred to the West, 
he served wath the local rank of lieutenant colonel, as Chief 
Commissary of Subsistence, first of the 13th Corps, and later 
of the army connnanded by (Jeneral (Jrant, on the staff of that 
general in both capacities, and was engaged in the battle of 
Shiloh and in the early operations at Vicksburg. Appointed 
brigadier general in 1863, he succeeded to the conunand of a 
division the following year. He was engaged in the campaign 
Q^' Mobile and also in the storming of Blakely, in which the troops 
under his connnand bore a conspicuous and gallant part. Pie 
received the brevets of major for gallant and meritorious services 
during the siege of iNIobile, Ala., and of lieutenant colonel, 
colonel, brigadier general, major general, and also major gen- 
eral of volunteers, for gallant and meritorious services during 
the rebellion. After long service, which carried him to every 
portion of the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific and 
from the British boundary to the frontier of ^lexico, he hecame 
Commissary General of Subsistence with the rank of brigadier 
general in December, 1892. 

"Correct in all the relations of life, dignified and modest in 
deportment, of sterling character, an able officer and gallant 
soldier, the honors which have come to him in his profession have 
been worthily bestowed." 

Having retired, and being footloose, I was not long in deciding 
that the best use I could make of the immediate time was to go 


West and South to look up certain family relatives, and in doing 
this went to Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, New Orleans, and 
Florida, returning to Washington along the Atlantic coast. On 
this return I stopped for a few days at Raleigh, N. C. to look 
up some distant relatives, those of the Hawkins family who had 
emigrated there from Virginia in 1785, and had consequently 
been separated from my branch for more tlian one hundred and 
fifty years. This renewal of family ties was of great interest and 
pleasure to me, for I was welcomed as a relative and treated \\ ith 
gieat kindness and hospitality by the many members of the fam- 
ily I found there. 

Returning to Washington, my wife and I decided to make a 
trip to Eui-opc, and we sailed in June, 1895. made a partial tour 
of. Europe, visiting England, Ireland, Scotland, Prance, Italy 
and (Jermany, rettirning to the United States in (October. 1896. 
We enjoyed England most, wliich, I believe, is the case witli 
most Americans, especially those of English descent. This is 
Uc^.tural, for we read P^nglish hist()r\- and feel an interest in many 
histiu'ical characters and events wherein otir ancestors were 
active participants. On one occasion, applying at a book shop 
for a certain book of local history and engaging in conversation 
with the bookman, he expi'essed his wonder as to why Americans 
habitually showed so nuich knowledge in things F]nglish, and 
that on an average we know more and were more interested in 
English matters than the English themselves. I explained to 
him that the English of history were our ancestors, and wv had a 
partnership in the incidents and localities that they had made 

Rettirning to the United States we re-connnenced housekeep- 
ing in Washington, where we remained till 1899, and then de- 
cided that the best place for oui- permanent residence would be 
at Indianapolis, where I was born and where I had many rela- 
tives and old family friends. And now at last we ai'c settled 
down there, having built us a comfortable home, where we are 
surrounded by goiKl neighbors and blesscnl with much to make 
life agreeable. 

The following is an abridgement t)f my Etat de St'rvice : 

Cadet Military Academy, July 1, 18-18. 

Brevet 2nd Lieut, (ith Infantry. July 1, 1852. 


Second Lent. 2iid Infaiitiy, June 23, 1854. 

First Lieut., October 12, 1857. 

Reoinieutal Quartermaster 2nd Int'antrv, October 1. 1858, 
to August 10, 1861. 

Brigadier General Volunteers, April 13, 1863. 

Captain Commissary of Subsistence, August 3. 1861. 

Lieut. Colonel Commissary of Subsistence, November 1, 1862. 

Honorably Mustered out Volunteer Service, February 1, 1866. 

Major Commissary of Subsistence, June 23, 1874. 

Lieut. Colonel Ass't Commissary General, September 3, 1889. 

Brigadier General and Commissary (Jeneral. December 22, 

Brevet Major General U. S. Army for gallant and meritorious 
service during tlie Siege of ]\Iobile, and in the field during the 

Retired September 29. 1894, 64 years of age. 
1408 North Pennsylvania Street, 
Indianapolis. Indiana, 1913. 

JANE B. CRAIG— 1861 



Jane Bethmie Craig Hawkins departed this life at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., April 13, 1913. My best friend and loving com- 
panion during 45 years of married life : a good wife and loving 
daughter. She cherished the memory of her father and mother 
and it Avas her greatest and frequent pleasure to speak of them 
and of her brother. Presley, whom she adored. They have wel- 
comed her into Paradise and are now happy with each other. 

' ' Is It Well With the Child ? ' ' 
^^T Is Well." 

Mrs. Hawkins was a member of the Board of Managers of 
the "Indianapolis Home for Aged Women" and felt a great in- 
terest in its prosperity, and the comfort and happiness of its 
inmates. I have given to the Home, as a memorial to her, one 
thousand dollars, and, in appreciation of the gift, the Board of 
Managers has resolved that, on the 10th of every October, — her 
wedding day. — it will decorate with loose flowers, her grave, and 
that of our child by her side in Crown Hill Cemetery, and that 
at the monthly meeting of the Board just preceding the 10th of 
October, after finishing current business, it will resolve itself 
into a meeting commemorative of her, when will be read the 
hynni, "Brief Life Is Here Our Portion," to be followed by 
reading or singing "Hark! Hark! My Soul, Angelic Songs are 
Swelling. ' ' 

pR'QtJA'/ vOL'-JG 'JN'VERS'' 

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