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family Ristory 

f)ugb L. f>odge, jVI.D., LL.D. 


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Presented by "^2.^^ &o\v^^rcX"S. C)-^ O C\(l^ 

CS 71 .H623 H6 1903 ^ 
Hodge, Hugh Lenox, 1796- 

Memoranda of family history 



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Family History 

Dictated by 

Hugh L Hodge, M.D., LL.D, 


The Earnest Solicitation 


His Daughter 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Princeton Theological Seminary Library 


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Introductory Statement 

The following pages comprise family history and remiDisceuces as 
dictated by father to Harriet Woolsey, brother Lenox's wife, at intervals 
during the last years of his life. The precious manuscript is now the 
property of Lenox's sou, Hugh Lenox Hodge. With his permission 
and assistance, and with the cooperation of my brothers, I have prepared 
it for the press. Places left blank I have been able, in most cases, to 
till from entirely trustworthy sources ; but some arc necessarily left unsup- 
plied. The utmost care has been taken to secure accuracy as to dates; 
and where an evident mistake occurs in the manuscript, the true date is 
put in brackets. It was inevitable that sentences given by dictation 
should occasionally need to be rewritten ; but it will be found that the 
text as now given is a faithful reproduction of father's work. The 
thread of the narrative, moreover, was often broken, and there were 
sometimes repetitions. An effort has been made to produce a continuous 
story by bringing the separated parts together, and by the omission of 
what had been already narrated. A few footnotes have been added 
where an explanation seemed to be necessary, or where additional infor- 
mation could be given. To these footnotes I have added my initials to 
distinguish them from the rest of the work. 

Edward B. Hodge 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 1, 1903 

Family History and Reminiscences 

Dictated by out Father^ Hugh L. Hodge, M.D^ LL.D. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth centnry, William Hodge, of 
Scotch-Irish descent, lived in the north of Ireland, during the reign 
of William of Orange in England. 

William Hodge died, according to the old Bible record, in 1723. The 
record reads thus : "My father, William Hodge, S^^' Dyed the 14th of 
Janr-. 1723, about nin a cloak att night." Another record runs thus: 
"My mother Dyed the 15th of 8r-.* 1730, Margret hodge, about 11 or 
12 of ye Clock at night." 

There was, according to this old Bible, a son William, born in the 
old country in 1704, the 24th 9r (November, old reckoning).* A sec- 
ond son, Hugh, was born July 28th, 1706, and died 1711, five years 
of age. A daughter, Elizabeth, was born the 28th of March, 1709, 
and died 1711, aged two years. Andrew Hodge was born the 28th 
of March, 1711, and Hugh Hodge, the second son of that name born 
to William Hodge, was born January 11th, 1713. Jane Hodge was 
born February 15th, 1714, but of her subsequent history we have no 

Then there are, besides these, in the family Bible, notices of Mr. 
John Wormley and of his daughter, Nellie; the latter of whom was 
born in 1755, and died in 1773. The names of Elizabeth and William 
Duncan also appear, of whom there is no other record, unless it be 
this: "My father died Thursday, 6th of November, 1740, about ten 
o'clock in the morning." It does not appear what connection these 
had with the Hodge family, unless it is possible they were the descen- 
dants of Jane Hodge, of whose marriage and death there is no record. 

The'se children of William Hodge were all born in Ireland, and it 
does not appear that either he or his wife ever came to America, al- 
though my cousin, the late John Ledyard Hodge, was under the im- 

*In England, from the 14th century until the change of style in 1752, the legal and 
ecclesiastical year began March 25th. — E. B. H. 


pression that they died in America, and were buried in Bucks County, 

About the period of, or during the year, 1730, when Mrs. William 
Hodge, Sr., died, the three brothers, William, Andrew and Hugh, emi- 
grated to America, and settled in this city of Philadelphia as mer- 
chants. From these are descended those relatives of ours in this 
country to whom we are so much attached. 

William Hodge, the oldest of the three brothers, was born in 1704: 
in the north of Ireland. He married, and his first and only child, 
Mar}^ was born November 6th, 1737, and the child's mother died seven 
days after, on the 13th of November, 1737. The old Bible has the 
following touching entry: "Marrey Hodge Borne Novr. ye 6th 1737. 
Hure mother Marrey Hodge Dyed ye 13th Ditto & do." At the foot of 
the page in the family Bible, where all valuable writings seem to have 
been kept in those days, is a receipt for the mother and child : "Eecit 
for Elixir Paragorice to Eest them to Sleep." 

Mary Hodge, for whom the mother gave her life, was married, when 
twenty years of age, to Mr. William West. "Marrey Hodge was mar- 
ried to William West ye 18th of August 1757, one Thursday evening." 

The descendants of William and Mary West are numerous. 

John, one of William and Mary West's sons, had several sons and 
daughters; among others William, John, and Frank; the last a ph}'- 
sician who died unmarried in 1869. Another son is Captain West, 
who is still living (1872). Two sisters are also still living and un- 

Captain West, who is still living (1872), has two sisters, who are 
also still living and unmarried. 

One of the daughters of William and Mary West married Mr. 
I'razier, and had several children, among whom were William, Falbro, 
and John, many of whose descendants survive. William and Nalbro 
are also still living. Their eldest sister married a Mr. ISTesbit, and 
lived and died in Alabama. The youngest sister married Mr. Cabot. 
]\Ir. and Mrs. Cabot and their children are still living. A second 
daughter of William and Mary West married a Mr. Conyngham. 
This couple were the parents of Judge Conyngham, of Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., and of Mr. Conyngham, of Xew Orleans; also of Mrs. Peters, late 
of Georgia. 'J'wo others, single ladies, still live in Philadelphia. 

The descendants of Mrs. Peters and of Judge Conyngham are nu- 
merous. It appears also from a statement of Mrs. William L. Hodge 
(Sally Bayard), that there was another daughter of William and Mary 


West who married a Mr. Stewart, who settled in Baltimore, where his 
-descendants still live. 

Andrew Hodge, the third son of William Hodge, Sr., was born in 
1711 in the old country. After coming to America and establishing 
himself in Philadelphia he married Jane McCulloch in 1739. Jane 
had a brother, Hugh McCulloch, an elder in the Second Presby- 
terian Church of Philadelphia, and a man of much influence. He 
was very positive in his opinions even whpn science was opposed to 
him. He never would render assent to the declaration that the earth 
moves round the sun, maintaining that it was contrary to his own 
■observation as well as to the authority of the Bible in which Joshua 
is represented as commanding, not the earth, but the sun, to stand 
still. His character is said to have been imbibed by our family : "Oh, 
there is McCulloch blood" being quite a saying among us. 

This Mr. Hugh McCulloch had a son who settled in Baltimore, 
Where some of his descendants still survive. He, like his father, 
Hugh McCulloch, was a man of strong opinions. He entered the 
Eevolutionary Army, and was advanced to the rank of Colonel. When 
war was declared with England in 1812 he could not be restrained 
from entering the volunteer corps of the Baltimore militia, and with 
them encountered General Eoss at the battle of North Point. He 
there received a shot which caused a fracture of the thigh. Notwith- 
standing this severe fracture in his old age he recovered and lived for 
many years on his farm near Baltimore. Here I and my brother 
■Charles, when we were lads, were taken by mother to pay him a visit ; 
of which visit we have very pleasant recollections. 

A daughter of Hugh McCulloch married Dr. Burkhead, of Baltimore, 
.and they had several descendants. Another daughter married Colonel 
Anderson, and there are descendants from this union also. Colonel 
Anderson was a man of education and talent. Mrs. Anderson was the 
mother of Mrs. John Lapslcy, and also Mrs. Penninsrton Shcwell, and 

.also of Mrs. , who married and settled in Kentucky. 

Mrs. Shewell died without children. 

' Mrs. William L. Hodge informs me that Dr. Ashbel Green's third 
wife was a McCulloch, and Dr. Green's son, Jacob Green, a lawyer of 
Princeton, married also a McCulloch, the niece of his step-mother. 

These must have been the daughters of another son of Hugh McCul- 
loch, of whom there is no record. Mrs. Jacob Green, above alluded to, still 
survives, and her daughter is married to the Eev. Samuel Dod, of the 
■"Stevens Institute of Technology," Hoboken, New Jersey. 


^ye now reiurn to Andrew Hodge, who married Miss McCuUoch. 
He and his wife had a large number of children : Margaret, -born 
1740, married to John Bayard of Maryland; Agnes, born 1742, mar- 
ried to Dr. James A. Bayard; John Hodge, William Hodge, Andrew 
Hodge, Hugh Hodge, and Jane Hodge, born 1757, married to B. 
Phillips of England; Mary, born 1761, married to Major Hodgson; 
James Hodge, and others who died in childhood. 

The eldest child, Margaret, was born, as mentioned above, in 1740. 
Her husband, John Bayard, of Maryland, afterwards settled in Phila- 
delphia, where he lived for many years and became an officer of the 
grade of colonel in the Eevolutionary Army. After the death of his 
wife, Margaret Hodge, he married a daughter of the Eev. Dr. Kodgers,. 
of Xew York,* and, after her death, a Mrs. White, with whom he 
lived at Xew Brunswick, N. J., where he died at an advanced age. 
His children were those of his first wife, Margaret Hodge. One of 
these was Mr. Samuel Bayard, afterwards Judge Bayard, who lived 
at Princeton, N. J., was an elder in the Presb}i;erian Church, and 
treasurer of the college. His wife was Miss Pintard. Their daughter, 
Susan Bayard, died at fifteen years of age. Their son, Samuel 
Bayard, Jr., is now living at Camden, N. J. He married Miss^ 
Dashiell, of Cincinnati, 0., by whom he had one son. General 
Dashiell Bayard, a bold cavalry officer in the late War of the 
Eebellion, who was killed by a cannon shot at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Samuel had also three daughters, two married and one still single. 
Lewis Bayard was a clergyman of the Episcopal Church, and married 
a Miss Rhea, by whom he had several children. 

Another son of Samuel Bayard, Sr., was married, and had several 
children. He resided in Jersey City, and died there. 

A second daughter of Samuel Bayard, Sr., was Julia, who married 
Mr. Washington, a resident of the State of Virginia. There she 
lived and died, leaving one daughter, Augusta. This daughter married 
a Mr. Wirt, son of Attorney General William Wirt, of Maryland, 
and she is living at her home on the Rappahannock River, Virginia. 

The third daughter of Samuel Bayard, Sr., was Caroline, who' 
married the Rev. Mr. Dod, professor of mathematics in Princeton 
College. Caroline's husband died, leaving her in restricted circum- 
stances. Her eldest daughter married Edwin Stevens, of Hoboken, 
N". J., who died some three years ago, leaving his wife in possession 

*In the "Life of Charles Hodge" (p. 5) it is said that James A. Bayard, son of 
John and Margaret Bayard, married a daughter of Dr. Rodgers.— E. B. H. 


of the family mansion at Hoboken, and the mother of a family of 
five or six children. One daughter, handsome and interesting, died at 
Eome, at six years of age. 

Two other daughters of Mrs. Dod married in succession Mr. 
Richard Stockton, son of Mr. Richard Stockton, of Princeton, many 
years Senator of the United States. Caroline, the older of these two 
daughters, and the first wife of Mr. Stockton, died leaving several 
children. Susan, the younger of the two, and the second wife of 
Mr. Stockton, still lives, and fehe also has several children. The 
fourth daughter of Mrs. Dod married Mr. Walker, a lawyer of 
Washington, son of Robert J. Walker, once Secretary of the 
Treasury at Washington, and Governor of Kansas during the trouble 
which there existed before the late Civil War. 

Mrs. Dod had also three sons. The eldest, Albert, married a Miss 
Mackintosh, who did not live long. ]£e served as an officer in the 
late war, and was at the battle of Chattanooga. A second son was 
Samuel B. Dod, who married Miss Isabella Williamson Green, 
daughter of Jacob Green, and granddaughter of Dr. Ashbel Green, 
President of Princeton College. This IMr. Dod settled as a clergy- 
man in Monticello, IST. Y., and afterwards at Wilkes-Barre, Pa. He 
now is President of the Board of Trustees of the "Stevens Institute 
of Technology," at Hoboken, jST. J. 

The third son, Charles, was an officer on the staff of General W. Scott 
Hancock in the late Civil War, and died while so employed. (For 
further information about the descendants of John Bayard and 
Margaret Hodge see p. 10.) 

The second daughter of Andrew Hodge, Agnes Hodge, married Dr. 
•James A. Bayard, of Delaware (No. 1), the twin brother of Colonel 
John Bayard. 

One of their children, Mary Bayard, died single. Another, John 
Hodge Bayard, who was, I believe, a physician, died in Cumberland, 
Md. Still another son was James A. Bayard (ISTo. 3), a lawv-er, who 
devoted himself to politics, and represented the State of Delaware 
in Congress at the time of the contested election respecting Thomas 
Jefferson and Aaron Burr for the Presidency of the United States. 
He has the credit of having given the casting vote by which Mr. 
Jefferson was made President. He was afterwards Senator from 
Delaware, and in 1814 signed, in conjunction with Clay, Albert 
Gallatin and others, the treaty of Ghent, which terminated the War 
of 1812 with Great Britain. He was soon afterwards attacked with 


a severe iuflanimation of the throat, and died August, 1815, a few 
days after his return from Europe, in his home at Wihnington, Del.* 

His eldest son was Eichard Bayard, who studied law and married 
Miss Carroll, of Carrollton, Md. He also became later a member 
of the United States Senate. In course of time he moved to 
Philadelphia, and died in the spring of 1868, leaving a wife and four 
daughters and one son. 

Miss Caroline Bayard was the second child. She never married. 
Her death occurred at Wilmington, Del., December, 1871. 

James A. Bayard was the second son of James A. Bayard (No. 2). 
His wife was a Miss Francis, of Philadelphia, who died a few years 
ago, leaving several children. He succeeded his brother Eichard as 
Senator from Delaware, but later retired from public business, and is 
living at Wilmingion. He has the great satisfaction of seeing his 
son, Thomas Bayard, taking his place as Senator in the ITnited States 
Congress. He has also two daughters, Mrs. Lockwood and Mrs. Kane. 
James A. Bayard (No. 2) had a third son, whose name was Edward, 
who married Miss Walworth, daughter of Chancellor Walworth, of 
XeAV York. He studied law, but turned afterwards to the study of 
medicine, and is now a homoeopathic physician in New York. 

A fourtli son was Henry Bayard, who married Miss Dixon, of 
Victoria, Pa., where Mr. Bayard was engaged in the iron business. 
He and his wife survive, and have a family of children. 

Having thus given some account of the Delaware Bayards 
(descended from James A. Bayard and Agnes Hodge), we now 
return to take up the story of the descendants of John Bayard (twin 
brother of James A. Bayard), who married Margaret Hodge, elder 
sister of Agnes. 

One of the sons of John and Margaret Bayard, Mr. Samuel Bayard, 
who l)ecame treasurer of Princeton College, has already been 
mentioned (see page 8). 

Another son was Andrew Bayard, a merchant, and afterwards an 
auctioneer in Philadelphia. He was subsequently the first President of 
the Commercial Bank and also of the first Philadelphia Savings 
Institution, now situated at the corner of Washington Square and 
Walnut Street. 

Andrew Bayard married Sarah Pettit, daughter of Colonel Pettit, 
of the Eevohitionary Army. His eldest child was Sarah Pettit 

♦The death of Mr. Bayard is ascribed by Sally Bayard Hodge, not to inflammation 
of the throat, but to necrosis of the breast bone.— E. B. H. 


Bayard, who married my cousin, Mr. William L. Hodge, and is still 
living in Washington, D. C. 

His second child was John Bayard, a merchant, who died 
unmarried in the month of October, 1869. 

Tlie third child was Elizabeth Ingersoll Bayard, who married 
John S. Henry. She is now a widow, living in Germantown, Pa. 
She has three sons, Alexander, Charlton and Samuel, and two 
daughters, Sarah, married to the Eev. Samuel Clark, an Episcopal 
clergyman, residing at Elizabeth, ]S[. J., and Theodosia, who lives, 
unmarried, with her mother. 

A third daughter of Andrew Bayard and Sarah Pettit was 
Theodosia Graydon Bayard, who did not marry. She lives with her 
sister Mrs. Henry, of Germantown. 

Mr. Bayard's second son was James Bayard, who was educated as 
a lawyer in the office of his cousin, Joseph E. Ingersoll. He was at 
one time a member of the House of Eepresentatives of Pennsylvania. 
He married Miss Mary Backus, daughter of Mr. E. F. Backus, of 
Albany. Her mother was a daughter of Colonel Samuel Chester, of 
Connecticut. They now live in Locust Street, above Sixteenth Street, 

A fourth daughter was Anna Maria, who married Dr. Stewart, 
and died a few years afterwards, leaving two children, one. Bayard, 
who died in infancy, the other, Thomas, who is living at Washington 
Square and Seventh Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Andrew Bayard's third son and youngest child is Charles 
Pettit Bayard. He became a merchant and afterwards a broker, and 
has lived many years in Germantown. He married Miss Adeline 
McKean. daughter of Judge Joseph McKean, and granddaughter of 
Governor IMcKean, of Pennsylvania. They had several children, 
Charles, Anna Maria, James, William and Caroline. 

I have now traced the descendants of Andrew Hodge and his wife, 
Jane McCulloch, through their two older children, Margaret and 
Agnes. The oldest son ivas John Hodge, of whom I know nothing, 
except that he was born in 1747 and died in 1770. 

The next child urns William Hodge. He was born in 1750, and 
was educated as a merchant. My cousin, John Ledyard Hodge, 
speaks of his uncle William as being known abroad as "the handsome 
American." He became a secret agent of the United States Govern- 
ment at the time of our Eevolution. He had authority, as the agent 
of the United States, to send arms and ammunition to America from 


France. A vessel was stationed for this purpose in the harbor at 
Brest, and Mr. Hodge worked secretly in Paris. 

The movements of the vessel excited the suspicions of the British at 
Brest, and complaint was made to the government at Paris. Orders 
were accordingly sent for the seizure of the American vessel on the 
charge of violating neutrality laws. The execution of these 
orders, which were several times repeated, was evaded by various 
devices, such as altering the color and appearance of the vessel, so 
that it eventually escaped. The accusations of the British officers, 
however, were directed so distinctly and emphatically against Mr. 
Hodge that the French Government felt compelled to arrest him 
and commit him to the Bastile. A secret intimation, meantime, 
was given to the superintendent to treat him with all kindness. In 
actual fact, therefore, he lived on the fat of the land, all of his 
wants being abundantly supplied, and in due time he was liberated 
through the intercession of oar government. He subsequently 
returned to America, where he died, unmarried, in 1780. 

Andrew, the fifth child of Andrew Hodge and Jane MrCulloch, was 
born in 1753, and was educated practically with the expectation of 
his becoming a lawyer. He entered the Kevolutionary Army, however, 
and served as a captain at the battles of Trenton and Princeton. He 
afterwards became a merchant in Philadelphia, and married Anne 
Ledyard, half-aunt of the author and traveller, and by her had several 
children. His oldest son was John Ledyard Hodge, who was brought 
up in Mr. Eobert Ealston's store, and went as supercargo with Mr. 
Ealston on several voyages to the West Indies and the Mediterranean. 
He afterwards settled down as a co-partner with a merchant at 
Marseilles, and became quite rich. As he was of a social character, 
and exhibited considerable talent, united with an excellent memory, he 
became very acceptable to the French inhabitants and to the 
authorities. In after-life he gave very interesting anecdotes of his 
various friends and acquaintances in Paris as well as in Marseilles, 
many of whom were in high literary as well as political positions 
during the time of the First Napoleon. He served on the staff of 
one of the French generals in the Army in the ISTorth of Spain, during 
the Napoleonic invasion, and was in the siege of Barcelona. 

He suffered much yjersonally while detained in that city during the 
prolonged attack upon the place by the English and Spanish forces, 
being at times so badly off as to eat rats. After his liberation, and 
upon a review of the state of his ad'airs at Marseilles, be retired to 


Tunis, in Africa, where he spent many years in mercantile business. 
Here he had many friends among the English and Americans, and 
had much influence with the governor. Here, too, he indulged his 
taste for reading, and also collected many valuable and rare medals 
and coins, said to have been collected from the ruins of old Carthage 
and representing many of the old emperors. These were afterwards 
given to his nephew, J. Ledyard Hodge, and some few to his niece, 
Theodosia, by whom they were arranged in the form of a bracelet. 
Many years afterwards he returned to Philadelphia, and recommenced 
his mercantile pursuits, which were not, however, prosecuted very 
vigorously. Nevertheless he had considerable property. Through his 
personal influence with leading bankers during the troublesome times 
between 1830 and 1840, he contributed to Ihe interests of his brothers 
William and Andrew at New Orleans. By President Pillmore he was 
appointed Consul at Marseilles, and remained there during his 
administration, and also during two or three years of the administra- 
tion of Fillmore's successor, President Pierce. At the port of Mar- 
seilles Mr. Hodge exercised extensively his social disposition, kept 
an open house, especially for Americans, and was visited, of course, 
by all the commanders of our public and private vessels, upon whom 
he had frequently the opportunity of conferring favors. These visita- 
tions were the more numerous from the fact that the time was that 
of the Crimean War, so that large numbers of transport vessels, as 
well as men of war, stopped at Marseilles. 

Among other incidents was the arrival of Kossuth, the Hungarian 
patriot, who, after his liberation from Turkey, came to this port. 
Much disturbance was caused, and Mr. Hodge had much trouble 
in resisting the plans of Kossuth, and in preventing any breaches of the 
peace. They had a sharp controversy, which was carried on by letters, 
which were afterwards published, affording probably the first evidence 
that the aims of Kossuth were not always correct and praiseworthy. 

At the termination of his Consulship Mr. Hodge returned home, 
but did not resume business. Sometimes he was to be found in 
Washington, sometimes with his sister, Mrs. Sands, and sometimes 
travelling through different parts of the country. A greater part of 
one winter he spent in Texas and Mississippi. Subsequently he 
spent a winter with his sister in New York, and afterwards, as his 
health was becoming poor, his winters were spent in Philadelphia, as 
he was attached to the place of his birth, and hopeful that he would 
be permitted to die there. This desire of his heart was granted, and 


his death occurred in Philadelphia on the 4th of February, 1870, 
about two months before the conclusion of his eighty-sixth year, Mr. 
John Hodge never married, but everywhere he was very popular, 
having fine conversational talent, abounding in humor and in 
anecdotes, especially concerning the great men in Europe. He had 
seen and read a great deal, and his memory was very retentive. His 
manners were very polite and polished, but accompanied by so much 
cheerfulness of mind and heart as to dissipate any impression of 
stiffness or reserve, while his impulses toward his family and his 
friends were always affectionate and generous. 

The next child of Andrew Hodge, Jr., and ISTancy Hodge (Anne 
Ledyard) was Jane, who was born in 1786. She grew up a handsome 
and intelligent girl; but, owing to a shock of electricit}', her nervous 
system was much injured. She became afterwards subject to cataleptic 
turns, which recurred at intervals during her long life. She married 
Dr. Eobert H. Eose, a very intelligent Scotch gentleman of great 
cultivation and taste. He purchased a large tract of wild land in 
Susquehanna County, Pa., and erected a handsome house on the 
border of Silver Lake, where he exerted for many years a great 
influence, contributing largely to the comfort and cultivation of the 
numerous settlers who followed him to that locality, giving them, 
among other things, the use of a large library. His name is preserved 
in that of Montrose, a town not far from his home at Silver Lake. 

Jane became the mother of several children. The oldest was Ann, 
who married William Main, at that time a civil engineer. He 
subsequently moved to Philadelphia, where he has occupied almost 
to the present time the position of recording secretary and treasurer of 
the Board of Education of the Presbyterian Church. Ann had three 
children. Alice, the eldest, died of consumption at twenty years of 
age. The next Avas William, a civil engineer and assayer, now living 
in Colorado. He marri(;d Miss Eillel:)rown, belonging to a New 
England family, now resident, however, in South Carolina. The 
third was Annie, who married Mr. Giles, descended from a Virginia 
family. His present residence is in Minnesota, to which State his 
wife's parents have now resorted. 

Dr. Rose died many years ago, l)ut liis wife, Jane, lived until 
February 8th, 1800. She was eighty years of age at the time of her 

Another child of Andrew Hodge, Jr., and Nancy Hodge (Anne 
Ledyard) was William Ledyard Hodge, born in January, 1790. 


Owing to the circumstances of his father his early education was 
much neglected; but, being a man of great talent and excellent 
memory, he improved every opportunity by reading and attention 
to business, so that he became, not only only an excellent merchant, 
but a man of extended influence, especially by the use of his pen. 
He settled as a merchant in Philadelphia, and for a time was very 
prosperous. He married Sally Pettit Bayard, eldest daughter of 
AndrcAv Bayard. Soon afterwards, however, he failed in business, 
and went to Marseilles. He returned to America after a few years 
and entered into business in New Orleans, where his younger brother 
x\ndrew liad acquired a large fortune. In the troublous times attend- 
ing the failure of the United States Bank he again failed. He then 
became the editor of the New Orleans Bulletin, which he carried on 
with credit until the election of General Taylor as President of the 
United States. Soon afterwards he received the appointment of 
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury under the Honorable Thomas 
Corwin, and for a time was Acting Secretary. 

At the end of the administration of Mr. Fillmore, who succeeded 
General Taylor, Mr. Hodge continued his residence in Washington, 
doing business as an agent. He was subject to occasional attacks of 
gout, and about the year 1865 or 1866 it made serious inroads upon 
his health. His heart became much diseased in 1867. Dropsical 
symptoms supervened, and he died on the 22d of January, 1868. He 
had just completed his seventy-eighth year. He had seven children. 
The eldest is Anne, now wife of Eear Admiral Eodgers, of the United 
States Navy. Three or four children were born to William Hodge 
in France. Two were twins, and died early. The next was a son. 
Bayard, a beautiful and intelligent child, who died very suddenly 
of scarlet fever in Philadelphia. x\nother was Sarah, who died at 
two years of age of convulsions. The next daughter was Theodosia, 
wlio was born on the 4th of July, 1832. She still survives, a very 
intelligent and cultivated woman. The next and last child was John 
Ledyard Hodge, a young man of much talent and promise, who 
Avas born in 1834. He received his collegiate education at Princeton, 
studied law at the University of Virginia, and was licensed to practice 
that profession in Philadelphia. Hero he remained until the War 
of 1861, when he entered the Paymaster General's office in Washing- 
ton, where he continued to live after the conclusion of peace. He 
married a Miss Wilson, whose father lived on the Eastern Shore of 


Another child of Andrew Hodge, the second, and N^ancy Hodge, 
(Anne Ledyard) was Andrew, who died in infancy. Another was 
James, who was educated for the Navy. He died some years after- 
wards at Norfolk, Va. A daughter, Ann, was born in 1794, and 
was married, in May, 1819, to her cousin Austin Ledyard Sands, of 
New York, by whom she had several children, four of whom survive. 
They are Dr. Austin Sands, now of Newport ; Samuel Sands, a broker ; 
William Sands, a merchant or broker, and also Andrew Hodge Sands, 
a lawA^er. The three first-mentioned are married, and Samuel has 
a large family of children. Mrs. Sands still lives, the last of her 

Another child of Andrew Hodge, the second, and Nancy Hodge, 
Avas Andrew, the second Andrew of this family. He was born in 1797. 
He was educated, like his brothers, in Mr. Ealston's counting-house, 
made two or three voyages to Canton, and afterwards settled as a 
merchant in New Orleans, where he acquired a large property, becom- 
ing an extensive land-owner in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas and 
Mississippi. He also became very influential as President of the 
Bank of New Orleans. He became involved in the pecuniary troubles 
of 1835 and 1836 and 1837, etc., and retired, after losing most 
of his property, to a sugar plantation on one of the bayous of 
Louisiana. Here he so far succeeded as not only to support himself, 
but to leave a small property at his death, which occurred in 1857, 
when he was in his sixtieth year. 

The last child of Andrew Hodge, the second, and Nancy Hodge, 
was Austin. He had the misfortune to be afflicted with curvature of 
the spine, accompanied by large abscesses, seriously threatening his 
life until he was sixteen years of age, when he recovered with the 
usual deformity. The disease existed in the lumbar vertebrse. He 
attended somewhat to mercantile business, and spent some years in 
Marseilles with his brother John. In course of time he returned to 
America, and died m the city of New York of consumption, when he 
was about twenty-eight years of age. 

The next child of An^Jtrew Hodge, the first, and Jane McCulloch, 
was Hugh Hodge. He was their sixth child. His birth occurred in 
1755. Ho received a classical education, entered Princeton College 
as a student, and was graduated in 1773. He was among the 
original members of the literary society at Princeton, known as the 
American Whig Society. His diploma from this society is now in 
the hands of his son, and is probably one of the very few extant. 


Immediately after his graduation at Princeton he conmienced the 
study of medicine as the pupil of the then eminent physician, Dr. 
Cadwalader. On the breaking out of the War in 1775 his medical 
studies were prematurely arrested; nevertheless he sustained an 
examination and was admitted as a surgeon in the Army.* 

He was captured by the British at Fort Washington, N, Y., but, 
through the interposition of General Washingion, he was liberated on 
parole. Circumstances then compelled him to enter into mercantile 
business with his brother Andrew. He again, however, returned to the 
practice of medicine; and, about the year 1789, he became acquainted 
with Miss Mary Blanchard, of Boston, with whom he became united 
in marriage in 1790. ■!■ 

He speedily obtained an influential practice in the city, and had 
a prominent part to play during the terrible epidemic of yellow fever 
in 1793, and again in 1795. His constitution became impaired by 
the exposure which was incident to his labors on these occasions, and 
he suffered from frequent attacks of jaundice and other lymphatic 
complaints. Under their influence his strength failed, and he died 
on the 14th of July, 1798, at the age of forty-three years. He left 
his widow with two children. His first child, a daughter, was the 
first victim of yellow fever in 1793. His second daughter and a 
young son also died in 1795. 

The accounts of the yellow fever as it prevailed through the winter 
of 1793 are most terrible. The extreme temperature exceeded every- 
thing remembered by the oldest inliabitant. 

"Great flocks of pigeons flew daily over the city, so numerous in 
their flight as to obscure the sun. They were shot from numerous 
high houses, and the markets were crammed with them. They 
generally had nothing in their craw besides a single acorn. The 
superstitious found out that they presaged some evil, and, sure 
enough, sickness and death came." Think of a desolation that shut 
up nearly all of the churches. The pastors generally fled, and their 
congregations were scattered. The few that still remained assembled 
in small circles fox religious exercises; not, however, without just 

*"In Committee of Safety, Philadelphia, February 7th, 1776, Dr. Hugh Hodge, having 
been examined by the surgeons and physicians appointed for that purpose, was recom- 
mended by them as a proper person to be appointed surgeon to a l)attalion, therefore. 
Resolved, That the said Hugh Hodge be appointed surgeon to the third battalion of 
troops to be raised." 

"December 2nd, 1776. Resolved, That Mr. Joseph Redman, Jr., be appointed Sur- 
geon, and Mr. Hugh Hodge, Jr., Surgeon's mate to Colonel Bayard's Battalion of 
Militia of the City of Philadelphia." 

tin 1793 Dr. Hugh Hodge was made a member of the College of Physicians. 


fears that their assembling might communicate the disease from one 
to the other. Xo light and careless hearers there appeared, and there 
was no flippant preaching to indulge itching ears. All was solemn 
and impressive. A feeling possessed the minds of the little congrega- 
tion that they would not all meet again on a like occasion. Death, 
judgment and eternity occupied the attention of all who assembled. 
Look which way you would through the streets and you saw the 
exposed coffins on chair-wheels, either in quick motion or waiting to 
be taken. The graves were not dug singly, but in pits, which might 
receive many. Men saluted each other as if doubting to be met 
again. Such was the greatness of the calamity at this time. 

What is now Washingion Square, on Walnut Street, between Sixth 
and Seventh, was a Potter's Field, and its "final Golgotha" was after 
the yellow fever of 1795. Then the City Councils forbade further 
interment, but not until 1815 was it made into the beautiful square 
as we now see it. 

During the fearful epidemic described alcove, Dr. Hugh Hodge and 
his family lived in their accustomed place in Water Street. In this 
locality dwelt all the householders of Front, Water and the side 
streets up a short distance westward. The merchants of those days 
lived under the same roof with their stores, as in Holland now. 
After 1793 people began to change their domiciles from the water 
side; and it may give an idea of the change to state that, "when Mr. 
Markoe built his large double house out High, now Market Street, 
between Ninth and Tenth, in the front centre of a fenced meadow, 
it was so remote from all city intercourse that it was a jest among 
his friends to say that he lived on High Street next door but one 
to the Schuylkill Ferry." In Front Street, adjoining to Elfreth's Alley, 
were Callendcr's grand houses. Then, four doors above, came Wain's 
double house. Opposite was Drinker's, and at the corner of Drinker's 
Alley, next door northward, stood Henry Pratt's house. Next door to 
this was Dr. Hodge's, with Hodge's wharf running out directly in 
front. A few years later, in 179G-98, Mr. Morris purchased the 
whole square extending from Chestnut to Walnut, and from Seventh 
to Eighth, for £10,000; a great su]n for what, until then, had been 
the capital. It was used by the Norris family as a pasture-ground. 

Its original elevation was from twelve to fifteen feet above the 
present elevation of the adjacent streets. With such an extent of 
high ground in ornamental cultivation, surrounding what was virtually 
a palace fronting on Chestnut Street, luunan grandeur must have 


achieved a signal effect. Immense sums of money were expended. 
Arches, vaults and labyrintlis were numerous. The house exhibited 
four sides of entire marble surface, and much of the ornamentation 
was in expensive relief. He had provided, by importation and other- 
wise, the most costly furniture, all of which, in time, together with 
the marble mansion itself, had to be abandoned to his creditors, who, 
by slow and patient labor, pulled it down. Some of the underground 
labyrinths were so deep and massive as to have been left as they were, 
and in some future age may be discovered to the great perplexity of 
the quid nuncs.* The materials thus taken down were sold in lots; 
and the square, being divided into building-lots, and sold, much of 
the material was brought into use. 

Mr. William Sansom soon procured the erection of his "row" on 
Walnut Street, and many houses also on Sansom Street. Thus, by 
building ranges of houses similar in appearance, a uniformity was 
produced, often since imitated, but never before attempted in our city.' 
Near the northwest corner of Sixth and Walnut Streets was a 
little ice-pond for skaters. On the southeast corner of Seventh and 
Chestnut Streets, where Wain's house was afterwards erected, stood 
an old red-painted frame house, looking strangely to the eye by being 
elevated at its ground floor fully fifteen feet higher than the common 
level of the street. On the northwest corner of Seventh and Chestnut 
Streets was a high grass lot, enclosed by a rail fence, extending half- 
way to Eighth Street. Except one or two brick houses at the comer 
of Eighth Street, you met not another house this side of the Schuylkill. 
In 1790, the year of Dr. Hugh Hodge's marriage, John Nancarro, a 
Scotchman, had a furnace under ground for converting iron into 
steel. It stood at the northwest corner of Ninth and Walnut Streets. 
There was also a furnace above ground at the northwest corner of 
Eighth and Walnut Streets, having a large chimney tapering to the 
top. There a curious fact occurred, which, but for this record, might 
puzzle antiquaries at some future day ; raising in their minds, perhaps, 
the question whether the aborigines had not understood the art of 
fusing iron. The fact was this : A great mass of five tons of iron 
bars, which was in the furnace, was suddenly converted into a huge 
rock of steel by reason of a fissure in the furnace, which let in the air 
and consumed the charcoal, whereby the whole ran into steel equal 
to four or five tons. Some houses of very shallow cellars have since 
been erected over the place, and all are quite unconscious of the 

*See "Life of Robert Morris," Desilver, PubUsher, 1841. 
tFather afterwards mentions living "in Sansom's Row." 


treasure -wliich rests beneath. It was an open lot when so used by 

In 1800 the names of the streets were changed. Eor example, 
"Bloody Lane/*' so called because a murder had been committed there, 
was changed to "JSToble Street;" "Garden Alley" was changed to 
"Coombs Alley/' as Mr. Coombs was a tenant on the Front Street 
corner; "Cedar Street" was changed to "South," because it was the 
southern limit of the city; "Sassafras" was changed to "Eace," because 
it was once the road to the races out there; "Mulberry" was called 
"Arch," because of an arch or bridge across that street at Front 
Street; "High Street," which had been so named because it was the 
highest elevation from the river, was changed to "Market," because 
the markets were there. "King Street" was changed to "Water," 
because of its nearness to the Delaware Eiver; "Valley Street," which 
had been so named because of its situation between two hills, was 
changed to "Vine;" "Wynn Street," named for Thomas Wynn, was 
changed to Chestnut; "Pool Street," so named as leading to Dock 
Street water, was changed to "Walnut."" 

Dr. Hodge's two sons, Hugh Lenox and Charles, were left in early 
infancy to a widowed mother, and with slender means of support. 
This intellectual and gifted woman was, however, equal to the 
emergency. By untiring energy and self-abnegation she not only 
contributed to the necessities of her children, but secured to them a 
good classical education, and they completed a full course of instruc- 
tion in the College of New Jersey. 

She came to Philadelphia with her brother John, it is 
possible as early as 1785, when she was about twenty years 
of age. She was introduced to our family by letters to my uncle. 
Colonel Hodgdon, and thus it was that she became acquainted with 
my father, who was then engaged in mercantile business with his 
Ijrother Andrew Hodge; a business which proved unfortunate, and 
a cause of delay in the marriage of my parents. Indeed, my father 
was occasionally absent from Philadelphia, going sometimes to the 
West Indies. My mother's situation was probably very lonely, for 
father, in a letter to his sister, Mary Hodge (afterwards Mrs. Hodg- 
don), urges with much feeling that she should be as attentive as 

♦Watson's Annals of PhilRdelphifi, Vol. ii, page 426. 
tWhatever changes were made in 1800 In the names of streets, there nevertheless 
remained on the signs for more than half a century afterwards such old names as 
•High St.," "Mulberry St.," Sassafras St.," as I very well remember.— E. B. H. 


possible to Miss Blanchard. At this juncture of affairs my grand- 
father, Mr. Andrew Hodge, died, and my father then determined to 
resume his profession, and was married in 1790 by the Eev. Dr. 
Ashbel Green. My father was then about thirty-five years of age, 
and my mother twenty-five. They went to housekeeping in Water 
Street, below Eace, next door south of Mr. Henry Pratt's house 
and stores. My grandfather, Andrew Hodge, owned three buildings 
on the east side of Water Street, bounded on the east by what is now 
termed Delaware Avenue. The wharf and dock in the rear of the houses 
were also in his possession, and went by his name until near 1840. 
The most southern of the three houses my grandfather and grand- 
mother lived and died in, and by his will my grandfather left it 
to his son Andrew. The northern house, which my father lived in, 
was owned by Captain James Hodge, his brother. The building 
between was a large store, and became the property of my father. 
My uncle Andrew occupied the family house after the death of his 
father Andrew. At this time Philadelphia was very small, and a 
large number of wealthy and influential families still had their resi- 
dences in Water Street, which was narrow and in every way dis- 

My father was very much favored, and soon obtained a most 
excellent practice. I have often heard my aunt Mary Hodgdon 
speak of his fine appearance and pleasant manners, so that he became 
a favorite with his patients, many of whom were members of the 
Society of Friends, then so numerous in Philadelphia. .The late 
Mr. Thomas Biddle, who died a few years ago, confirmed this account 
to me, saying that he had a strong recollection of my grandfather as 
well as of my family. In 1866 I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Jona- 
than Meredith, whose early life was passed in Philadelphia, but who 
lived later in Baltimore, where he died in February of this year (1872) 
at the age of eighty-nine. He al>50 had a distinct remembrance of my 
father, who was family physician to his parents then residing in this 
city. He often trundled his hoop as he carried messages to my father's 

In 1791 my mother's first child was born. It was a daughter, and 
was called Elizabeth. She was a healthy, promising child, but was 
suddenly taken sick in August, 1793. The s}anptoms of her disease 
were novel and peculiar ; so much so indeed that Dr. Benjamin Eush, 
who was called in consultation, thought it might be hydrocephalus. It 
proved, however, to be yellow fever, of which she became the first 


victim in the terrible epidemic which then commenced in this city. 
Various suggestions have been made as to the origin of the pestilence. 
It may be well, therefore, to state that my mother has told me that 
the children of different families were accustomed to play in a store 
belonging to Colonel Hodgdon on the wharf, a few doors south of 
our residence. At this wharf a vessel had lately arrived from the 
West Indies, and had discharged upon the premises a large quantity 
of damaged coffee, the effluvia of which was very unpleasant. The 
disease spread in every direction. My sister's nurse, a hand- 
some, healthy young girl from Wilmington, died. My father 
and mother did not take it immediately, but subsequently had it in 
a moderate degree. Indeed very few families escaped entirely, and 
very many valuable members of society perished; among others Dr. 
Hutchinson, a friend of my father's, and grandfather of the present 
Dr. Hutchinson, of Philadelphia. My father had seen the so-called 
yellow fever in the West Indies, but thought that the disease in 
Philadelphia was of a different type. This was the opinion also of 
the late Dr. Mongez, a French physician, who practiced in San 
Domingo, in the West Indies, but succeeded in escaping from the 
terrible massacre of the white inliabitants there, and arrived with his 
friends, Drs. La Eoche and Matthews, about the middle of the 
epidemic in 1793. Dr. Mongez told me very emphatically that he 
never saw yellow fever in San Domingo such as he observed in 
Philadelphia. Dr. Mongez and his confreres, however, profited 
much by their reputation of having seen very much of the disease. 
My mother has informed me that in some highly inflammatory cases 
my father had employed the lancet prior to any of his contemporaries, 
and before Dr. Push had recommended this agent. It is well known 
that Dr. Rush l)ecame the great advocate for the lancet in almost 
every period. He became famous also for his powders, consisting of 
ten grains of calomel and ten grains of powdered jalap, which was 
so frequently given that they received the cognomen of Dr. Rush's 
"ten pound ten." 

My mother's second child, Mar}^, was born in 1792, and her 
third child, Hugh, in 1794. Wlien the latter was about a year old, my 
mother, after an absence of many years, paid a visit to her home in 
Boston. Unfortunately, Mary was soon afterwards taken sick with 
the measles. Of this circumstance she was informed by an excellent 
letter written by my father. She immediately left Boston in the mail 
stage, and after travelling three days and three nights, arrived at 


her home, to find, not only that ]\Iary was dead, bnt that Hugh also had 
died of measles, so that she was again childless.* 

My father's health also was beginning to suffer, for, although not 
disabled, he had frequent bilious attacks with s3^mptoms of jaundice. 
Still, however, he pursued his avocations, although with less spirit 
and energy on account of the debilitating infiuence of these com- 

Their fourth child, Hugh Lenox, was born on the 27th of June, 
1796. The next year my father was persuaded to move from Water 
Street, which since the fever of 1793 had become deserted and given 
up to business purposes. He took a house on Arch Street, above 
Fourth, which belonged to Mr. Thos. Stewartson, who was his next door 
neighbor on the east. The house was the third door from Christ 
Church burying-ground. The most easterly house was occupied by 
Mr. Sansoni and the next by Dr. Magaw, an elderly clergyman of 
the Episcopal Church, and at that time quite an invalid. With these 
families we became intimately associated, and of my early days in that 
neighborhood I have pleasant recollections. Two doors to the east of 
us lived also Mr. Edward Thompson and his wife, with whom also 
an intimacy ensued, and they were very kind to me. Mr. Thompson 
became a wealthy tea merchant. He was the father of John Thompson 
and of Mrs. Joseph Xorris and Miss Addie Thompson; both of these 
daughters being now living. The eldest son died in early manhoorl. 
John, who married a Miss Stockton, in Princeton, became a Senator 
of the United States from Xew Jersey. He died a few years ago. 

Directly opposite to us on Arch Street lived Samuel Hazard and 
his wife, who were intimate friends of our family. Mr. Hazard was 
an excellent and influential man, and given up to literary pursuits. 
He was an elder in the Second Presbyterian Church. His daugh- 
ter, Betsy, married a Mr. A^ermilye, afterwards the Eev, Mr. 
Vermilye, the associate pastor of the Eeformed Dutch Church, in 
New York. Samuel Hazard, the eldest son, died in Germantown, in 

'-Gi the death of this child there is an aUusion in a letter which Mrs. Blanchard 
writcp to her sister, Mary's mother, dated Wenham, October, 1815. Speaking of the 
less of her own daughter, Lucy, she says:— "I used to tell her of what you were 
called on to sufffer, and a kind of sympathetic scene occurred while here we passed 
those sultry days which seemed to Increase your gloom. Lucy was sporting before 
us, and, as was her wont, recalled the parting looks of your little Mary. You said 
that, when you were setting out, she followed you to the door, and, though not used 
to cry at parting, and not aware of so long an absence, yet so it was that the tears 
came into her eyes as she stood in the passage holding the little clean slip which to 
her, and to her cousin Lucy, was a cure for common sorrows. I often related this tender 
scene, even while we supposed your children were living, and, having heard of the 
sad event, I thought your cup must be full of bitterness." 


his eight3--sixth jear. His second son, Erskine Hazard, was a partner 
of Mr. "\Miite, and they were pioneers in the coal business; being the 
first to open the coal mines in Mauch Chunk. Erskine Hazard died 
some years ago. His widow still lives in the city, and there is a 
son, who is engaged in the iron business. 

^ly brother, Charles Hodge, was born December 27th, 1797. Old 
Mrs. Hannah Hodge always inquired for that strange-named child, 
Charles, as it was a new name in the family record. 

My father's health continued to decline, and the following June, 
1798, he became seriously ill, and on the 14th of July, after great 
suffering, he died. His death was chiefl}^ owing to inflammation and 
spasms, excited by biliary calculi. My mother was thus left a widow 
with two infant children and with small resources. Colonel Hodgdon 
became the administrator of my father's propertj^ which, however, 
amounted to little more than a few professional fees. 

By my grandfather's will my father. Dr. Hodge, was virtually 
entitled to the income from the store on Water Street, one-third of the 
proceeds of the wharf and one-third of the country residence on Mud 
Lane, now Montgomery Avenue, and also one-third, or one-half, of the 
house and grounds on Frankford Turnpike, not far from the toll-gate. 
The management of this property was in the hands chiefly of the 
administrator, Colonel Hodgdon, but part of it was in the hands of my 
uncle, Mr. Andrew Hodge. The property in the country brought no 
income of any consequence. The rent of the stores and wharf 
amounted to a moderate sum at the time of the death of my father, 
and for a few years afterwards, until the commencement of the 
troubles with Great Britain, when they were diminished, and in time 
destroyed, by the non-intercourse and embargo laws, and afterwards 
by the War of 1812. The flrst year after my father's death his 
widow remained at housekeeping, but was fortunate in having the 
assistance and companionship of two young ladies, nieces of my 
father. Miss Margaret Bayard, afterwards Mrs. Harrison Smith, of 
Washington, and Miss Anna Maria Bayard, afterwards Mrs. Samuel 
Boyd, of New York. 

Mother later rented the front room in the second story of her house 
to the Eev. Jacob J. Janeway, then lately installed as collegiate pastor 
of the Second Presbyterian Church with Dr. Green. In the fall of 
1799 my mother sold most of her furniture, and my uncle, Mr. 
Andrew Hodge, with his wife and children, took possession of the 
house, my iiiotlicr reserving the front room in the third story for 


herself and her boys. This arrangement continued very satisfactorily 
until the fall of 1803; the previous winter of 1802-03 having 
been passed in Norfolk, Va., with our uncle Thomas Blanchard, 
and the summer at Wenham, Mass., with our uncle, Mr. Samuel 
Blanchard. On her return mother took a house at the north- 
west corner of Eighth and Arch Streets. The building ?till remains, 
although converted into a grocery store. This winter, or the winter 
succeeding, mother received as an inmate our cousin, Jane Bayard, 
the only daughter of John Murray Bayard, and afterwards wife of 
Dr. Alexander Stevens, of New York. At this time we boys began to 
go to school, first to a school for boys and girls; and somewhat later 
I went to a school taught by a Mr. Getty, on the north side of Arch 
Street, between Front and Second Streets. I have a vivid recollec- 
tion of breasting many a northwest wind, and often a northeast storm 
in my trips to school twice a day. My mother, although thus devoted 
to the support and education of her children, became interested in 
the welfare of others. She, with the first Mrs. Robert Smith, daughter 
of Mrs. Ehea, and Miss Olivia Sproat, the daughter of old Dr. Sproat, 
pastor of the Second Presb5i;erian Church, were among the founders 
of one of the earliest benevolent institutions of this city, institutions 
which have since so greatly multiplied. The society was termed the 
^'^Female Association," for the relief of widows and single women in 
reduced circumstances, of whom there are always a great number; the 
death of friends and relatives leaving them, after lives of comfort, 
with slender means of support. My mother was very zealous in this 
work, taking an active part in every effort. One of these efforts I 
remember well, when she insisted upon having a small building 
arranged for making soup upon a large scale, where also groceries 
and other necessary articles were collected at wholesale prices and sold 
at cost, or distributed freely to the destitute. My mother often per- 
sonally attended to the distribution of these provisions. I remember 
trudging with her through snow-paths many squares to this building, 
which was imperfectly warmed, to spend an hour or two in these 
useful and self-denying labors. 

This society has adopted other measures since that time, and now 
labors on, after seventy-three years of good works, a benevolent and 
successful enterprise ; all of the founders having gone to their reward. 

In 1805 my mother moved to No. 22 Sansom Street, half-way 
between Seventh and Eighth, on the south side, a house recently 
built. It was a very comfortable and pleasant dwelling, with a 


southern exposure to tlie yard, and with a row of poplar trees 
intervening between the houses in Sansom Street and those in Walnut 
Street. The yard was a convenient one, and my mother adorned 
it with grass and flowers. The house, with its office front, was built 
in what is now considered an old-fashioned manner. There was one 
stair-case, running up between the front and l)ack rooms, so that all 
the rooms in the house, except the front parlor, occupied the whole 
width of the house. There was a basement kitchen and a cellar. In 
this home several happy years were spent. 

I commenced my classical studies at the Grammar School of the 
University of Pennsylvania, under the care of ]\Ir. Thompson, who 
had for his assistant the Rev. Mr. Wylie, afterwards a doctor of 
divinity and a professor of languages. Mr. Thompson was also him- 
self advanced in time to the dignity of a professor's chair. The 
school was held in a large and handsome building, which had been 
erected for President Washingion by the State of Pennsylvania during 
the sessions of Congress in Philadelphia. The President, however, 
never occupied the house, for the reason that, before its completion, the 
seat of government was moved to Washington in the District of 
Columbia. The site of this building is the same as that now occupied 
by the University buildings on Ninth Street, below Market. This 
was an interesting portion of my life, for I was not only imbibing 
the first rudiments of classical learning, but forming those intimate 
associations with other boys, which often tend for weal or woe in 
after-life. Providentially my associates were pleasant, and many of 
my boyish companions have since occupied some of the highest stations 
in the professions, and also in the government of the country. I may 
mention among the acquaintances which have been perpetuated for 
years those formed with the Hopkinsons, Darrachs, Biddies, Merediths, 
Ingersolls, Hays, Gratz, Lewises, et al. A large number of these are 
dead. Some, however, still survive, and have passed their three-score 
years and ten. My brother Charles went to school to a Mr. Johnson, 
a very bright, social and enthusiastic Englishman, who made the boys 
regard him as a friend and companion rather than simply as a pre- 
ceptor. My brother was a great favorite with him. He contracted, 
as was his uniform custom throughout life, intimate friendships. 
Among others whom he made his friends at this time were Mont- 
gomery Dale, Polx-rt Griffith, brother of the present Mr. Edward 
Coleman, and Louis Turnbull, afterwards Chief Engineer of the 
United States Military Burea\i, and serving with General Scott in the 


Mexican War. I also became intimate with these same young men, 
as well as their teacher, Mr. Johnson. When we were still quite 
young Mr. Johnson obtained permission to take several of us on an 
excursion in the summer season to Baltimore and Washington. Such 
an expedition was to any one a great exertion in those days when 
there were no canals and no railroads. We left Philadelphia in a sloop 
for Xew Castle and then crossed the Delaware isthmus to Elkton on 
the Chesapeake. Thence we went by vessel to Baltimore; a journey 
which consumed no Httle time. Baltimore was then very small, 
occupying merely what is now called Lower Baltimore, and consisted 
only of a few narrow streets on the Bay. All the top of the hill, 
now ornamented by beautiful houses and a fine monument commemor- 
ating the repulse of the British, was a handsome park owned by Mr. 
Howard. Washington was then quite new as a city, and it was a 
dreary place, notwithstanding the existence of the White House and 
the first Capitol, which was destroyed by British soldiers. A few 
small brick houses on broad avenues remain impressed on my memory. 
I paid a visit to my cousin, Mrs. Harrison Smith, who had been 
married and had lived in Washington since 1800 ; her husband being 
the founder and editor of the National IntelUgeiicer. 

My mother, on moving to Sansom Street, to assist her income, took 
as inmates Mrs. Ehea, and also her daughter, Mrs. Higginson. Mrs. 
Ehea was then quite old. She was the mother of the first Mrs. Eobert 
Smith, to whom we have above alluded. Mrs. Ehea's daughter, who 
had married a Mr. Higginson, of Boston, was now a widow, devoting 
herself to the care of her aged parent. She was remarkably cheerful 
and pleasant as a companion, and very intelligent. As she had 
many friends in Boston, my mother and she had common sympathies 
and acquaintances; hence our home was very pleasant, and probably 
the happiest portion of my mother's life were those few years spent 
in Sansom Street, where she had much social intercourse and many 
excellent friends, Avhose number was enlarged by her connection with 
the Female Association, the members of which met often at our 
house. The secretary of the association at this time .was Miss Gratz, 
then a young lady, a Jewess, who always lived in strict conformity to 
her profession, but who, nevertheless associated intimately with her 
Christian friends. She became, afterwards, I think, the first secretary 
of the Philadelphia Orphan Asylum, a position which she retained 
for nearly fifty years. She was exceedingly dignified in her carriage 
and deportment, very cultivated and refined, and, of course, very 


much respected and beloved. She lived until about two years ago, a 
single lady, and died at the advanced age of eighty-six or eighty-seven 

About a year after we were established in Sansom Street, a 
Miss Faires, another friend of my mother's, contributed much to the 
social company, as she was very cheerful and pleasant, and had many 
acquaintances. She was not young; nevertheless she attracted the 
attention of my mother's excellent friend, Mr. Eobert Smith, who 
had been a second time left a widower. The courtship went on very 
easily, and even to us boys was quite amusing. Two of Mr. Smith's 
young daughters often paid visits to their father. The eldest was 
Mary, who still lives in Clinton Street, unmarried. The other was 
Ellen, the second wife of Mr. Griffith. She died in 1870. Her husband 
still lives in Clinton Street. The consummation by marriage of this 
intimacy between Mr. Smith and Miss Faires occurred in December, 
1807. They were married in the front room of the second story of 
our house, whicli had been retained as a parlor and drawing-room. 
This was the first wedding which I ever witnessed. The parties drove 
off in a snow-storm to the residence of the bride's husband, a large, 
handsome house in Front Street, below Walnut. 

We boys were now growing rapidly, and it was time for my brother 
to commence his classical studies, and to leave his friend and teacher, 
Mr. Johnson. The question became a subject of much anxiety to my 
mother how she could carr}^ on our education, especially as the income 
from our grandfather's estate had now become very trifling owing to 
the disturbance of our intercourse with England. Having heard of 
a good school in Somerville, IST. J., where board and tuition were 
moderate, she accepted an invitation from our excellent friend and 
cousin, Mr. John M. Bayard, the father of my cousin, Jane Bayard, 
to visit him and his wife at their place on the Millstone Eiver, N. J., 
four miles from Somerville. She left home during some pleasant 
days in March, 1810, and had to travel the whole way by stage. This 
was in itself fatiguing, but unfortunately a severe frost ensued before 
her return, and the roads were exceedingly rough, so that the journey 
proved too severe for her. She became seriously ill; and, as her 
complaint was supposed to be of an hepatic character, she took 
mercury, as was then customary, by the direction of Dr. Wistar, to 
insure salivation. Tliis sickness was a very serious event for her, 
occurring, as it did, at this particular crisis of our affairs. She 
slowly recovered, but her health had been impaired. She managed, 


however^, to get her boys ready for school, and we were sent, for 
the first time in our lives, away from the superintendence of our 
devoted parent. I was hardly fourteen, and my brother was nearly 
twelve. We left early in May by the "Swift Sure" mail coach run- 
ning to New York. This coach usually occupied one day in getting 
to Somerville, IST. J., where the New York passengers spent the night, 
hoping to reach their destination by supper-time the next day. We 
were detained, however, by a severe storm, and did not arrive 
at Somerville until the next morning. May 10th, 1810. After our 
departure mother gradually recovered her health, and soon broke up 
housekeeping. The following summer she, with our cousin, Mrs. 
Andrew Bayard, passed through Somerville on her way to Schooley's 
Mountain, hoping by this change of air to renovate her strength. 
Mother afterwards returned and spent some weeks with us, boarding 
at a small hotel, kept by Mr. Meldrum. His daughter. Miss Meldrum, 
was very attentive to our mother, and very kind to us children. 
Mother returned to Philadelphia for the winter, and there took 
private lodgings. She again visited us in the summer of 1811, and 
spent some time at ]\Ir. Bayard's at Millstone. 

She had the supreme gratification of living long enough to see 
both of her children married and settled in their several professions, 
in which they occupy important stations. The younger son, Charles, 
entered the theological seminary at Princeton about four years after 
its foundation, and in 1821 was ordained a minister of the Gospel. 
In 1820 he was appointed an instructor in the seminary. In 
1822, when little more than twenty-four j^ears of age, he was 
appointed, by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, a 
professor in the same institution, as colleague of Dr. Archibald 
Alexander and of Samuel Miller, his former teachers; men who were 
among the most honored clergymen of the Presbyterian Church. 
This position he has ever since occupied with great credit to himself 
and usefulness to the seminary and the Church. 

Hugh Lenox, the elder son, was born June 27th, 1796, General 
Washington being President of United States at the time. Soon 
after his birth his parents moved from the bank of the Delaware 
to the south side of Arch Street, between Fourth and Fifth, and the 
third door east of Christ Church burying-ground. This was in 1797. 
In July, 1798, the family were still residing in this house; Mrs. 
Hodge having had for her companion during the winter Miss Margaret 
Bayard, afterwards Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith, and also Miss Maria 


Bayard, afterwards Mrs. Samuel Boyd, of New York. Dr. Jacob 
J. Janeway had recently been elected co-pastor of the Second Presby- 
terian Church as the associate of Dr. Ashbel Green, and he occupied 
one room of the Hodge house as his study. The following year Mr. 
Andrew Hodge moved into the house; my mother and the children 
oecup3dng the front room in the third story. In December, 1802, 
Mr. Thomas Blanchard, my mother's brother, took our family to 
spend the winter at Norfolk, Va., where he was living, having married 
a Miss Amy Newton, a sister of George Newton, afterwards President 
of the United States Branch Bank, and of Thomas Newton, for 
many years a representative of that district in Congress. My mother 
returned to Philadelphia the folloAving season, and then took us to 
Salem, Mass., for a visit. Her brother, Mr. Samuel Blanchard, who 
married a niece of Timothy Pickering, at one time Secretary of State 
under Washington, resided on a small estate at Wenham. This 
was in 1803. Soon after our return to Philadelphia my mother took 
the house, still standing in 1872, at the northwest corner of Eighth 
and Arch Streets. She then had for inmate Miss Jane Bayard, the 
only child of John Murray Bayard and Margaret Bayard. She had 
come to Philadelphia to complete her education at the then cele- 
])rated school for young ladies, taught by Mr. Samuel Jaudon, who 
was an elder in the Second Presbyterian Church. This young lady 
afterwards, in 1814, became the wife of Dr. Alexander H. Stevens, 
of New York, for a long time one of the most distinguished surgeons 
of that city. 

From the first introduction of my brother and myself to cousin 
Jane Bayard to the time of her decease we were always treated by 
her in the most sisterly manner. My school da3^s now commenced. 
My first introduction was- to a school for girls and boys, where my 
cousins, Miss Sally Bayard and Miss Elizabeth Bayard, went. Soon 
afterwards I went to a school for boys, taught by a Mr. Getty, between 
Second and Third Streets. In 1806 or 1807 we moved to No. 22 
Sansom Street, on tlie south side, between Seventh and Eighth. My 
mother had living with her a friend, Mrs. Ehea, Mrs. Susan Higgin- 
son, and lier widowed daughter, afterwards Mrs. Thomas Atley. Soon 
afterwards Miss Faires also came to live with us, but in a short time 
she was married to Mr. E, Smith, then a wealthy merchant in Front 
Street, and an elder in the Second Presbyterian Church. 

After we took up our sojourn in Sansom Street I attended, as I 
have already stated, the classical school of Mr. Thompson in the acade- 
my of the University of Pennsylvania. 


In the spring of 1810 my mother determined for many reasons, 
chiefly prudential, and largely in view of the fact that her health had 
become considerably impaired, to break up her establishment and place 
us boys at an academy in Somerville, N. J. The village was on high 
ground, very healthy, and on the line of the "Swift and Sure Mail 
Coach Line" to ISTew York, and near the confluence of the Millstone 
and Earitan Eivers, about ten or twelve miles west of New Brunswick. 

A letter written in 1810 by Mr. Frederick Blanchard, Mrs. Hodge's 
nephew, speaks of going to Somerville to see the boys. "My choice 
of the Swift Sure Mail Line of stages for the purpose of seeing your 
boys in Somerville cost me much fatigue and some delay. The country 
was inundated l)y the rain and all the bridges carried away and the 
woods destroyed, so that it was not until the end of the third day 
after leaving Philadelphia that with much exertion and every kind of 
conveyance, ox-cart, horse and wagon, etc., that I reached New York. 
I had only a few moments to pass with them. I could only judge of 
their personal appearance and first address, and with these, I can 
say with much sincerity, I was extremely pleased, beyond even what I 
expected. They were not less pleased with the letter I brought them. 
I left New York on Sunday, and arrived in Boston on Tuesday." The 
school in Somerville was taught by the Eev. Mr. Boyer, a gentleman 
of some reputation as a teacher, very kind to the boys, and having the 
happy faculty of interesting them in their studies. I now for the 
first time felt the importance of mental improvement. It was indeed 
at this time that I made up my mind that I must either study or 
starve, and in this frame of mind I entered seriously upon the study 
of the classics. Our social relations were very pleasant. We boarded 
with a Mr. and Mrs. Vandeveer, a very excellent and respectable fam- 
ily. Mrs. Vandeveer was a sister of Mr. Theodore Frelinghuysen, 
afterwards the distinguished Senator from New Jersey, and President 
of the New York Bible Society. In the fall of 1810 our domicile was 
changed, and we boarded with Dr. Stryker, then the leading physician 
of the place. He occupied the position of Brigadier General of 
Militia, and became a Senator in the Legislature of New Jersey. He 
lived to be ninety years of age. His family consisted of a wife and 
several daughters, with whom our intercourse was very agreeable, 
forming the subject of pleasing reminiscences even to the present day. 
Many intimate friends were also made in this school, with whom 
intercourse was continued for many years at Nassau Hall, Princeton. 
I finished my course of study in the fall of 1811, at fifteen years of 


age. It became necessary that I should have further advantages pre- 
paratory to my entering college. My brother remained at Somerville 
and I went to Xew Brunswick to secure private instruction in mathe- 
matics from Prof. Adraine of Eutgers College, IST. J., then called 
Queen's College. Prof. Adraine was a gentleman of great reputation. 
I was kindly received and aifectionately entertained by Judge Kirk- 
patrick, then Chief Justice of New Jersey. The family consisted of 
three daughters and two sons. The only survivor is Mary Ann, the 
widow of the Eev. Dr. Howe, of New Brunswick. Miss Fanny Mar- 
tell, a French lady from the West Indies, was also an inmate of the 
Judge's house and a teacher to the children. I also took lessons in 
the French language from her. I was happy, although I sorely missed 
my brother; it being the first time we two boys were ever separated. 
The winter passed pleasantly and usefully and I was to enter col- 
lege in the spring of 1812. My mother's health being somewhat re- 
stored she took a house in Witherspoon Street, Princeton, directly op- 
posite to the college, and, in order to give her children the advantages 
of a collegiate course, she took into her family four additional boys, 
all of them being relatives and connections. They were our cousin, 
Alexander Hodgdon, of Philadelphia; Nicholas Bayard, son of Dr. N. 
Bayard, of New York, my cousin, and two Masters Ward, stepsons of Mr. 
N. Ba3'ard, who had settled in Savannah, and married Mrs. W.,a widow 
who was connected with the Macintosh family of Virginia. This ar- 
rangement lasted for a year, when the Ward boys returned home to 
Georgia, Alexander Hodgdon to his father's house in Philadelphia to 
pursue mercantile business, while Mr. N. Bayard took rooms in the 
college dormitory. Their places in the house were then occupied by 
Mrs. William Bache, the widow of Dr. Bache and sister of Caspar 
Wistar; the latter a distinguished professor in the University of 
Pennsylvania and President of the American Philosophical Society. 
At this time Mrs. Bache had three children, Sarah, Benjamin Frank- 
line, and Catherine. Sarah was about fourteen or fifteen years of age, 
well-grown and handsome, full of imagination and exceedingly en- 
thusiastic, taking the deepest interest in everything which happened 
to occupy her attention, and becoming therefore a most agreeable 
companion. No wonder, therefore, that she attracted the attention 
and love of my brother Charles, young as he was. The result was that 
nine years afterwards they were married by the Eight Eeverend Wil- 
liam ^\Tlite, Bishop of Pennsylvania, the first bishop of the United 
Colonies. Mrs. Bache's son, Benjamin Franklin, so named for his 


great-grandfather, Benjamin Franklin, philosopher and politician, 
was then, in 1813, about twelve years of age, a boy of much talent 
and great peculiarities. He was put to a grammar-school and entered 
college. There, however, he was much dissatisfied. Under these cir- 
cumstances he allowed himself to be persuaded, although not without 
a good deal of remonstrance, to take a long voyage at sea before the 
mast. On his return he was found very willing to become a student 
and return to college. After graduating he studied medicine and 
became a surgeon in the United States Navy, where he obtained great 
influence, and was gradually promoted to the highest post. He was 
finally placed in the Navy Yard in New York. He had always mani- 
fested a great devotion to practical chemistry and pharmacy; and 
hence under the patronage of the government he established a very 
large laboratory at Williamsburg, where were made all the phar- 
maceutical preparations of the United States Navy. The excellence 
of the preparations, and the pecuniary saving to the government, were 
so apparent that during the late Civil War their distribution was 
extended to the Army. Although upon the retired list in 1871 he 
still exerts a great influence at his home in Brooklyn. 

The third child, Catherine, was only seven years of age. She was 
then in delicate health, and has been much of an invalid during the 
whole of her life. She never married. Her home is in Philadelphia, 
where she lives in the enjoyment of many attentions from her relatives. 
My mother was thus estabhshed with her children in the classical 
town of Princeton. My brother entered the preparatory school of 
Mr. Fyler, where he remained six months under this most excellent in- 
structor, and was able to enter the sophomore class of the college in Sep- 
tember, 1812. I entered the sophomore class May, 1812, after due exami- 
nation, at the commencement of the second term. The president of the 
. college at that time was the Eev. Stanhope Smith, D.D. He was a son- 
in-law of the celebrated John Witherspoon, who was his predecessor 
in office and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Smith 
was always celebrated for his fine appearance, his refinement of man- 
ners, his talents and acquirements, and his chaste and fervid eloquence. 
At the time of our entering college he was old and infirm; yet his 
appearance was very venerable, and his instructions exceedingly im- 
pressive and valuable. I shall always remember his lectures, or 
rather, as they may be called, conversations, on the principles of moral 

College boj's, it may be said, were just like those of the present da}^ 


I was now commeucing a new life, with new objects in view, all of 
an intellectual and scientific character, with new associates who had 
been gathered from all parts of our Union, especially from the South- 
ern States. With many of these stu(Jents I formed intimate friend- 
ships; as with ]\Ir. Walker from Georgia, Mr. Barrow from Missis- 
sippi, and William and Eobert Dunbar from the same State. 
One of my intimates was William M. Atkinson from Petersburg, Va. 
He was educated as a lawyer, but subsequently became a Presbyterian 
clergyman. He had a brother, the Eev. John Atkinson, who was 
also a Presbyterian clergyman. Another brother was Bishop Atkin- 
son of the diocese of North Carolina. My other Virginia friends were 
Henry Carringion, afterwards General Carrington, and Jno. B. 
Dabney, a young man already at that time displaying much in- 
tellectual power and cultivation. He afterwards became a judge of 
the Virginia Court. These are all dead. The pleasure of my as- 
sociation with these gentlemen was enhanced by the fact that they 
were all members of the American Whig Society of the (College; a 
society which has always contributed greatly to the intellectual devel- 
opment of the niembers and to the formation of liberal ideas. 

If I became a hard student it was due to a realization of my oy\'n 
deficiencies and inexperience, and to the fact that my ambition was 
excited to obtain a high position in my class ; a feeling which must be 
ascribed in a large degree doubtless to the wish I cherished to satisfy 
my thirst for knowledge, but also largely to a desire to please my 
mother who had made such great and painful sacrifices for her cliil- 
dren. I was also stimulated by a sense of necessity. I took com- 
paratively but little exercise. My studies were pursued in my bed- 
room, which was in the attic of a two-story house. Others slept in 
the same room, and there was no proper ventilation. A small sheet- 
iron stove warmed me, and my only light was from the burning of a 
small oil-lamp with a single wick, Avhich served to contaminate the 
air, already vitiated by the respirations of several people. It was 
indeed often the "midnight oil" that was expended, even to a later 
ho\ir, into the watches of the night. Although this was for a long 
time borne with impunity, still the natural result, as will appear here- 
after, showed itself in the inevitable deterioration of health. 

The summer passed away usefully and pleasantly. The fall of 
1812, however, brought great changes to Princeton. The resignation 
of the venerable and beloved Stanhope Smith was accepted by the 
trustees, who a})poiiited as his successor the Eev. Ashbel Green, D.D., 


who had been for some twenty-five years pastor of the Second Presby- 
terian Church in Philadelphia. To me this was a gi-eat event, as 
Dr. Green had been the untiring religious instructor of my youth. He 
married my parents and baptized their children; and now we boys, 
after a separation of only two years, were again happily placed under 
his surveillance. 

This autumn was also memorable in the establishment of the first 
theological seminary of the Presbyterian Church in America. At a 
meeting of the General Assembly in the May previous it was resolved 
to establish the institution as something absolutely necessary for the 
interests of religion in this branch of the Church. The Assembly de- 
termined that it should be located at Princeton, and elected Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander as its first, and for a time its only, professor. The 
Rev. Samuel Miller, D.D., was, however, soon afterwards appointed 
as his colleague. 

As no building had been provided theological students resided in 
the college, where their influence proved most advantageous over the 
minds and conduct of the students. They not only administered to 
their moral and religious education, but won their esteem and affec- 
tion by assiduously waiting upon them during their hours of sickness 
and suffering throughout an epidemic of dysentery. 

In the manner already related I passed my junior and senior years 
at college with great advantage, making constant and increasing pro- 
gress in the various subjects of literature and science which were suc- 
cessively presented to my mind. At length the final examination came 
on, always the time of varied interest and excitement to most members 
of the class who aspire to any distinction, and even to those who had 
no such aspirations, especially as they might belong to either the 
American ^Vliig or Cliosophic Society, the rival literary institutions 
of the college. 

The arrangement for ascertaining the relative standing of each 
candidate was in those days by no means so precise as at present. No 
wonder therefore the faculty had difficulty to determine who was 
entitled to the first honor. In fact, they were so embarrassed that 
they made no decision, but very politely gave the coveted position to 
no less than four young men, leaving it thus to the pleasure of the 
candidates and their friends to determine who really deserved the 
honor. The recipients of the first honor, under these circumstances, 
were Mr. Saunders, afterwards a clerg}mian; Mr. Jno. B. Dabney, 
afterwards a judge; Hugh L. Hodge, subsequently a medical profes- 


sor, and Bloomfield Mcllvaine, who entered the legal profession, was 
married, and had every prospect of taking the highest position in law, 
but in a few short years died of an acute disease. He was a brother 
of Bishop ]\lcllvaine of the diocese of Ohio. Mr. Saunders delivered 
the Latin Salutatory Oration. I spoke upon the subject of Moral 
Science, and Mr. Mcllvaine delivered a very eloquent Valedictory, 
which procured much admiration. During the delivery of Mr. Mc- 
Ilvaine's oration an incident occurred which I cannot help recording 
as connected with one of the great characters of our country, and as 
exhibiting the character of the youthful speaker in a very creditable 
light, proving him to be both ready in conception and happy in exe- 

Our commencement was held towards the close of the War of 1812 
with Great Britain, and soon after the decisive victories of Lundy 
Lane and Chippewa. The hero of these battles was Col. Winfield 
Scott ; at the time of the commencement Brigadier General. He was 
seriously wounded in the shoulder in one of these engagements, and, 
being thus upon the wounded list, was making slow journeys from 
the lakes to his home in Virginia. He had just arrived in Princeton, 
and, although very Aveak and emaciated, he accepted an invitation to 
sit upon the stage with the president and trustees of the college. He 
Avas received, as he entered the building, with every demonstration of 
enthusiasm, manifesting the gratification of the audience at the pres- 
ence of the hero. The degrees having been conferred on the members of 
the class, Bloomfield Mcllvaine arose to deliver the Valedictory. He 
first addressed his fellows, then suddenly turned to General Scott and 
directed his remarks to him in strongly complimentary style and witb 
much eloquence and feeling. The General, as he afterwards con- 
fessed, was more taken by surprise than if he had been attacked by a 
whole regiment of Britishers. He attempted to rise more than once, 
l)ut finally was forced by his strong emotions and his weakness to 
remain quiescent. Years afterwards he informed me that few atten- 
tions had ever given him so much and such lasting gratification. This 
was in SeptemlKT, 1814. 

Various reasons have been given wliy tlie termination of a college 
course should be termed a commencement. The best explanation is 
that the youth, having finished the usual curriculum of study, must 
now commence the real business of life with all of its anxieties and 
with all the attendant uncertainty as to the future. Hitherto he has 
gradually been led on by others, step by step, in the constant succession 


of academic and collegiate studies, with ver}^ little thought as to their 
bearing upon his future and as to his own character and his further 
progress in the world. He has been acting rather as a child. !N"ow 
he must begin the business of manhood, and must choose his profes- 
sion and business, and be thrown upon his own talents and energy for 
whatever success he may afterwards attain. Xow others may advise 
and assist, but he himself must be the actor and assume the responsi- 
bility of the action. My choice of a profession seemed to be a matter 
of course. My father, whose name I bore, and my mother, whose 
aims for her children were high, had long expected that I would follow 
in his steps. Indeed, it seemed to be a necessity. I did not regard 
myself as suited for any other profession, and business vras never in 
accord with my taste or views. The medical profession, therefore 
being determined upon, my mother wrote to my father's friend and 
hers. Dr. Caspar Wistar, asldng the great favor that he would receive 
me as a student, of course without fee or reward: she had none to 
offer. To this proposition Dr. Wistar most kindly and readily as- 
sented, although he had, in a degree, retired from practice, and de- 
clined to receive any other student, thus placing me under peculiar 
obligations, which I and my children should ever gratefully acknow- 

My mother remained at housekeeping at Princeton for another 
year until my brother could complete his college course. 

In November, 1814, I left in a stage coach for the city of Philadel- 
phia. It so happened that an old chaplain of the War of the Revo- 
lution, as well as of the War of 1812, was sitting behind me in the 
coach, and, discovering immediately that I was to become a medical 
student, horrified my inexperienced and sensitive nature by informing 
me that henceforth I should be obliged to imbrue my hands and arms 
in human blood with as little concern as if it were cat's blood. I was 
indeed inexperienced, and, I may add, diffident and sensitive, so that 
I shuddered at the idea of mixing with the world of men, and of 
entering upon the business of life with all its responsibilities. 

In Philadelphia a residence was provided for me by my uncle, An- 
drew Hodge, in the old domicile on Arch Street, between Fourth and 
Fifth Streets, where I spent a year, receiving the attention and en- 
joying the comforts extended to me by the family, espcially by my 
excellent aunt Nancy and her daughter, Ann, now the widow of J. 
Austin Sands, of New York. 

I immediately reported myself to Dr. Wistar. He introduced me 


to Mrs. Wistar, then young and handsome, and exceedingly kind and 
affectionate. She made me feel at once at home, and the blessing 
which her home and her presence afforded she continued to extend 
to me for many years afterwards until all was terminated by her death. 

The lectures at the university were commencing, and I took my 
matriculation ticket, and with it the tickets of the professors of Ana- 
tomy and Chemistry, which Dr. Wistar thought sufficient for my first 
year in addition to Practical Anatomy. In this last I had some privi- 
leges, as I was admitted to the private rooms of Dr. Wistar, then 
under the direction of Dr. Davis, who was most materially assisted 
by Dr. Edward Shippen, a grandson of Prof. Shippen, a predecessor of 
Dr. Wistar and one of the founders of the University of Pennsylvania. 

These privileges proved very advantageous as giving me the op- 
portunity of being present at all the preparations for the public lec- 
tures, and I was therefore the better able to understand them when 
dtlivered. During the interval of the lectures I was much occupied, 
not only in study, but in various other ways, making myself useful to 
Dr. Wistar. By his politeness also I was furnished with a ticket to 
the Pennsylvania Hospital. This was also an advantage, as it gave 
me personal acquaintance with the leading surgeons and physicians 
of the hospital and of the city. Dr. Philip Syng Physick, Professor 
of Surgery ; Dr. Dorsey, his nephew ; Dr. Thomas Hewson, Dr. Joseph 
Parrish, and Dr. Joseph Hutchinson, were then, or soon afterwards, 
surgeons. Dr. Parke, then quite old, and Dr. Otto and Dr. T. C. 
James, were the physicians. In those days it was customary for 
medical students to be bound as apprentices for five years to the 
Pennsylvania Hosuital. The advantages were very great, as to them 
were assigned all the duties of resident physician and apothecary, and, 
in addition to the privileges thus enjoyed, they were furnished with 
excellent board and lodging, and also with all the tickets necessary 
for their instruction at the University. 

There were three of such apprentices at the hospital. The youngest 
of them was in charge of the apothecary shop and of the putting up 
of prescriptions. The second in age was termed a dresser, and acted 
also as librarian. To the oldest was assigned the duty of prescribing 
for the medical and surgical wards. This last position was occupied 
in my time by Dr. John Ehea Barton, nephew of Prof. Barton of the 
University. He was a man of great tact and industry, who knew 
how to profit by his advantages, and thus laid the foundation for the 
great eminence which he afterwards enjoyed as an operative surgeon. 


Dr. Benjamin H. Coates was dresser. He was a gentleman of a 
peculiar type of character. He afterwards became a practitioner well 
known for his talents and for his extensive and varied knowledge. 
There was at the time of my attendance at the hospital a vacancy in 
the apothecary's department, and I anxiously hoped to be sustained 
by the patronage of Dr. Wistar and his friends and to have obtained 
the situation, which would have been very desirable under the cir- 
cumstances. The appointment was, however, given to Warbeck Miller, 
a young gentleman from Alexandria of much talent and prepossessing 
manners. I soon became intimate with him, and to his friendship 
was much indebted for my improvement, during the time that I was 
on duty at the hospital. His career was short. In a few years he 
became consumptive and soon died, bringing by his death great loss 
as well as sorrow to his friends in the profession. Although I was 
disappointed in my hope of becoming a resident at the hospital, yet, 
through the kindness of both Dr. Coates and Dr. Miller, I had the 
privilege of staying several weeks at the institution during the sum- 
mers of 1815 and 181C, acting as their substitute while they were ab- 
sent from the city for recreation. This arrangement proved greatly 
for my advantage. 

Nothing special occurred during the winter of 1815 in a medical 
point of view. Politically the countr}^ was electrified by the great 
victory of General Jackson on the 8th of January of that year over 
the veteran troops of Great Britain that had lately fought in the 
Spanish Peninsula. The following February the delightful news of 
peace with England came, and great were the rejoicings manifested 
ou every hand. There were processions, the firing of musquetry, and 
the illumination of the whole city. James Madison was President 
at the time. 

The medical students of those days had few opportunities of im- 
provement during the intervals of lectures except in the offices of 
their instructors, where but little was to be gained, and by walking 
the wards of the hospital. Hence the students were often listless, 
while the prescribing physicians and surgeons imparted very 
little instruction, and that only on prescribinsf days, Wednes- 
days and Saturdays. By the advice of Dr. Wistar, however, 
I went every day; and thus became more familiar with the course of 
duty, especially as I assisted very much in the care of the patients. 
Dr. Wistar introduced me also to Dr. Nancrede, a young physician 
just returned from Paris fraught with the latest teachings in that 


capital. He was one of the vaccine pli3^sicians of Philadelphia, and, 
as vaccination was still a novelty in our country. Dr. Wistar was 
anxious that I should be acquainted with the phenomena attending its 
use. Hence I went Avith Dr. Nancrede as his companion and pupil, 
and afterwards acted as his substitute among the lanes and alleys, 
and in the suburbs also of the city, where now houses are thickly 

The session of 1815-16 at the University would, under ordinary 
circumstances, have commenced . in IsFovember. But there was no 
teacher for the Practice of Medicine, as Dr. Barton, who had eighteen 
months previously been elected successor to Dr. Rush, was then a 
great invalid. His strength rapidly declined, and he died in Decem- 
ber, I think, jSTo new appointment was made that winter, but lec- 
tures on the Practice of Medicine were delivered by the professors in 
addition to those of their own chairs. 

Tliat winter the position of Demonstrator of Anatomy was filled 
by a very promising young man, Mr. Bertram, who had attracted Dr. 
"Wistar's attention by the accuracy of his anatomical knowledge. He 
proved, however, inadequate to his important duties. The assistance 
ably given in this department by Dr. William E. Horner made amends 
for his deficiencies. Dr. Horner was gradiuited in 1811 and en- 
tered the United States Army. He had just returned from the mili- 
tary hospital near Buffalo when he came and settled in Philadelphia. 
He was a most admirable dissector, very precise, industrious and per- 
severing, so that he made himself a necessity to the school. 

During this winter I took more tickets at the University, but still 
did not enter upon a lull course. The summer was passed very much 
as the previous one had been spent; except that, owing to my con- 
nection with Dr. Nancrede, I saw some patients among the poor, and 
occasionally ventured to prescribe. In May, 1816, Dr. Chapman, of 
Virginia, who had l)een practising in Philadelphia for some twelve 
years, and who had been ])rofessor of Materia Medica since 1813, was 
translated to the vacant chair of the Institutes and Practice of Medi- 
cine. He proved to be a brilliant and successful teacher, as he was also 
a good practitioner. He became very popular, contributing therefore 
greatly to the existing prosperity of the medical school. During many 
years its reputation was at its height, supported, as it was, by such dis- 
tinguished men as Wistar, Physick, James, and Chapman (Nat Chap- 
man, the boys called him). 

Having laid the foundation of mv medical studies T now became 


seriously engaged in the study of the practical branches ; my views, as 
well as my knowledge, being rapidly developed under the instruction 
of our excellent professors. My employment during the summer of 
1817 was so far varied that I now walked the wards of the Philadel- 
phia Hospital, or Almshouse. The mass of buildings thus termed 
were then on Spruce Street, and were enclosed by a high brick wall 
extending from Tenth Street to Eleventh; there being open lots be- 
tween the Pennsylvania Hospital and the Almshouse, which were 
used as pasture-lots for cows. Wliat is now Clinton Street in part is 
built on the Almshouse lots. 

As I expected to be graduated in the succeeding spring, I took the 
precaution of preparing m}' thesis during the month of August. The 
subject was "The Digestive Process." My endeavor was, by some 
observations and facts which I enumerated, as well as by many ap- 
proved arguments, to sustain the idea, received from Dr. Physick, that 
the essential part of the process of digestion was effected during the 
progress of absorption, or, as perhaps it may be termed, endosmose. 

The course of lectures for the 3'ear 1817-18 began under the hap- 
piest auspices. The building for the medical department had been 
greatly enlarged and improved, and the number of medical students 
was probably never greater. A sad trial, however, awaited me, as well 
as the school and the profession. Dr. Caspar Wistar, so long revered 
and beloved, and whose influence had been so manifestly for the good 
of the school, died on the 22nd of June, 1818, after a short and severe 
attack of congestive fever. Great as was the loss to the University, 
it was still greater to me personally, as on him alone I depended for 
professional support and advice in the prosecution of my studies and 
in preparation for my life-work. The future was therefore now very 
dark to me. Six weeks after this mournful event, and after the usual 
examinations, I was graduated as a Doctor of Medicine, in conjunc- 
tion with many of my friends, not a few of whom survive to the present 
moment. One of them is my excellent friend, Dr. George B. Wood, 
from Salem, ]^. J. He had wished to become a pupil of Dr. Wistar, 
but, as this could not be, he entered the office of Dr. Joseph Parrish, 
a former pupil of Dr. Wistar, and at this time enjoying an extensive 
reputation and practice. Dr. Wood and myself were always together, 
sitting on the same l)ench, taking notes of the same lectures, belonging 
to the same examining, or quizzing, club, and now introduced at the 
same time to the privileges of the medical profession. The friendship, 
thus begun, still continues to old age, and has been marked by other 
coincidences which will hereafter be mentioned. 


How I was to live, and what I was to do, were the questions which I 
had now to solve. How was I to make the knowledge I had acquired 
practically useful to myself and others? This was certainly a most 
interesting and important question. I had as yet no income from our 
grandfather's estate. The income indeed had been arrested during the 
War of 1812, and the debts which had accumulated during our univer- 
sity course would probably sweep away the whole of the principal. My 
mother was still laboring for her own support and for that of her chil- 
dren. Indeed, money had to be borrowed to pay for my last course of 
lectures and for my graduating fees. Notwithstanding all these 
discouragements and restrictions I had a strong desire to spend a 
year in Europe for my professional improvement. Through the 
kindness of my cousin, William Hodge, then a young and thriving 
merchant in Philadelphia, a way seemed to be opened for the ac- 
complishment of my purpose. It was suggested that I should go 
on a voyage to Calcutta as surgeon on a merchant-vessel. This 
was then quite a common arrangement. The necessary money 
could be borrowed from the insurance office on what were called 
respondentia bonds; a profit, if any, to be paid to the borrowers. 
The deductions, however, such as insurance, interest, etc., were 
considerable. Still, as we would have nothing to pay for com- 
missions on freight and purchase and transit of goods, there was a 
fair prospect of securing a sum which would afterwards enable me 
to visit Europe. 

Several months passed before the arrangement could be made; 
but finally I sailed from New York, on the 8th of September, 1818, 
in the ship "Julius Csesar." She was commanded by Captain 
Charles Marshall, an experienced sailor reared among many trials; 
a manly, cheerful, and excellent seaman. I may add that he be- 
came very successful as a captain, and afterwards as owner, of the 
celebrated packet ships from New York to Liverpool. He died some 
years ago, numbered among the rich men of New York. His life was 
quite a romance. Mr. Foster, our super-cargo, was a most up- 
right and excellent man._ He had made frequent voyages to India, 
and was still under the necessity of leaving wife and children in 
order to secure for thejn a proper support. I shall always feel 
indebted to him for his constant, unwavering attentions, and the 
almost paternal care wbicli lie extended to me in these my first 
wanderings from home. Onr other companion in the cabin was 
a Mr. Shelton, a young clerk from New York, and Mr. Oswald 


Guest, of a Quaker family, whose mother, Mrs. Guest, is still living. 
He returned to Philadelphia, and entered into business, but did 
not survive very long. The voyage was to me very pleasant, not- 
withstanding all the disagreeable incidents of occasional storms and 
calms. I enjoyed greatly the motion of the vessel, the alternate 
pitching and rolling; and I took great interest in the wonderful 
management of the ship, now sailing pleasantly and with delightful 
breezes, anon struck by a heavy squall, or strained in every timber 
by a violent tempest. Of course the time was tedious. Day after 
day there was the same routine, and nothing was visible but sky 
and water. I however immediately adopted a plan of having an 
occupation for every hour. Meals, of course, were punctually 
served at the regular watches. After breakfast, until noon, studies 
and writing, chiefly upon medical subjects, occupied the time, until 
all rushed to the deck, about midday, to learn the altitude of the 
sun, and afterwards, with the assistance of the chronometer, and 
sometimes in favorable eonjimction by means of the sextant, mea- 
suring the arc of the heavens to determine our latitude and longi- 
tude, and, of course, the distance run. In this way we formed an- 
ticipations for the future, always vain and usually ending in disap- 
pointment. We had a good run in a southeast direction towards 
the Azores: a very pleasant sail through the northern trades; but, 
alas, slow was our progress through the equatorial regions. We 
experienced hot suns, no winds, calm after calm, for nearly forty 
days until we reached the southern trades. By these we were, of 
course, taken again across the Atlantic, approximating South 
America, passing between that continent and the island of Trini- 
dad, of which we had a delightful view. We passed near to it 
at sunrise on a beautiful clear morning, while a moderate breeze 
was blowing just sufficient to ruffle the clear waters of the deep 
ocean. This was the first land which we had seen since we left 
New York, and it gave us great pleasure to observe the outlines of 
its valleys and cliffs with the ever-varying tints reflected from the 
beams of the rising sun, which at this early hour was occasionally 
shut out from view by the intervening rocks. The wind now fresh- 
ened and we spread sail again and sped across the Atlantic to the 
Cape of Good Hope, which, however, we did not see, as we passed 
too far to the south. We arrived at this longitude apparently at 
the termination of a fearful storm, for we found the sea greatly 
disturbed. A very strong westerly gale was blowing directly in 


opposition to the strong current which always sets west from the 
Indian Ocean to the Atlantic. The waves, or seas, for that is their 
proper name, were indeed very high, so that sailing was now dan- 
gerous. The great anxiety of the captain was evident. ISTothing 
could persuade him to leave the deck where he kept a watchful eye 
upon every lurch of our frail bark and upon every rope and spar. 
Mr. Foster, who had made many voyages, said he never witnessed 
longer or deeper seas. As we were going directly before the wind there 
was nothing to steady the vessel. She therefore rolled, first to larboard, 
then to starboard, into the water ; rising upon the mighty waves, then 
dipping down apparently to the depths below, when again suddenly 
her prow would rise, seeking the top of another wave. After a few 
hours the Avind moderated somewhat, so that the apprehension of 
danger was dissipated. Still, however, we continued our eastern 
course with the wind to (from?) the west, and in the same st^de as he- 
fore; the vessel rising and pitching with the monstrous seas, rocking 
alternately from side to side; our mast describing a large segment 
of a circle. Thus we sailed on in the Indian Ocean for some seven- 
teen days when again the cry "Land ho !" was heard. The land 
sighted was the Island of Saint Paul, far south of the East India 
islands and about the longitude of Java. 

The captain thought it best to make up his "easting," as we were out 
of season with respect to the monsoons in the Bay of Bengal. These 
blow at this season from the northeast, and are therefore head-winds 
to the voyager to ports on the bay. The head of our vessel was now 
turned to the north. We eventually came in sight of the Island of 
Sumatra, famous for the cultivation and export of black pepper. 
When still in sight of the island we experienced a shock as from a blow 
upon the bow of the vessel. We all concluded that it was the shock of 
an earthquake; but, as it was felt but once, and as the way of the 
vessel was not interrupted, the true cause remained hidden. In the 
course of the voyage we had seen many large whales, and possibly we 
may have Ijecn struck by one of these monsters. We had planned to 
stop at Madras, on the Coromandel coast of Hindustan, so that our 
course was nearly northwest. Another fearful storm was now 
encountered entirely diverse from the former. The vessel hove to 
under her storm-sail, while the fierce wind, dashing amid the rigging, 
made every rope a whistle, and the sea, to use the sailors' language, 
"was kept down by the violence of the gale." This all took place 
in Bengal Bay. A few days afterwards we arrived in sight of Hindu- 


Stan, and we cast anchor a short distance from land at Madras 
roads. There was no harbor; only an open roadstead. Hence the 
strong easterly storms. The danger of being wrecked in particular 
seasons is exceedingly great, and this coast is therefore avoided by 
seamen. The day of our arrival was very beautiful. Under a clear 
sky, and with a gentle breeze, moderate undulating seas broke their 
waters, partly upon shoals, and partly upon the mainland. The 
whole appearance of Madras was exceedingly attractive. The waves 
rolled in upon a fine, hard, sandy beach, while, about three hundred 
yards from the water, there extended as far as the eye could reach, 
what appeared to be a magnificent row of buildings, many of which 
were ornamented with handsome corridors and lofty porticos with 
columns much of the Grecian order. Some of these were the public 
buildings, the Custom House, the Post Office, etc. A large propor- 
tion, however, were the stores of the wealthy English merchants, the 
lower parts of which, termed "go-downs," were devoted to goods, and 
the upper parts to the transaction of business. These upper parts 
were tastefully furnished, and generally contained at least one large 
room where collations were regularly served for the refreshment of 
the occupants and also of visitors. Few of these gentlemen-merchants 
reside in the city. Their homes are scattered for miles south of 
Madras in sight of the beautiful ocean, and a most excellent road ex- 
tends to St. Thomas's Mountain, hardly visible in the distance. We 
found these country residences of the merchants all detached, each sur- 
rounded with cultivated ground of more or less extent. Hither they 
retired about five o'clock in the afternoon for their domestic and 
social pleasures. The background of the city of Madras was not very 
inviting. There were wide streets and low houses, doubtless made 
of brick and plaster. Here for the first time I saw Asiatic cholera. 
Our ship had hardly anchored before the bronze, olive-colored boatmen 
appeared about the vessel. Generally they came singly, each in a 
small canoe. These canoes appeared like little logs upon the water. 
They were governed with much dexterity by a single paddle. The 
men soon came up offering fruit and vegetables for our refreshment, 
themselves needing, and presenting therefore, in that warm, delightful 
climate, no other dress than a piece of muslin about the loins. 
Myself and some of my companions took lodgings upon the shore. 
The approach to the land was quite narrow. The boat which we 
engaged was a very long double-ender, and very deep; probably four or 
five feet deep. The seats were divided for our tawny oarsmen, the 


oars being necessarily very long, for the boat was high out of the 
water, x^s we approached the first shoal, over which the sea was 
furiously breaking, the natives broke out into one of their songs, 
and with much effort dashed the boat in a straight line, crossed 
the breakers, and soon landed us high upon the sand. 

We were greatly attracted by the beautiful dress of the upper-class 
natives. The white turban ornamented the head, a short-gown of 
muslin covering the breast and arms, over which was often thrown 
gracefully a shawl; around the waist apparently numerous yards of 
muslin were entwined, reaching in folds below the knees. The feet 
were generally protected by light slippers. This simple light muslin 
dress, contrasting with the olive complexion of the Hindu, gave to 
the wearer a dignified, imposing appearance. There were always 
many small children playing about. Their games and wrestlings 
and teasings were so like what I had seen at home that I had to 
exclaim that, after all, human nature is the same everA^where. 

Our stay at Madras extended only to two days, our super-cargo 
having given orders for goods to be delivered on our return. We 
again set sail to the north in the month of January, 1819. We were, 
of course in opposition to the northeast monsoon, and hence our 
progress was necessarily slow: and, as tacking was necessary, we 
went by a very zig-zag course. The weather and the temperature were 
delightful. The number of our company was augmented by the 
presence of an Englisli captain, whose manners were genteel, and 
his experience and information extensive. Hence he was able to 
contribute much to our pleasure. In about three weeks we reached 
the mouth of the Hoogley Eiver, which is one of the larger of the 
several streams which mark out the delta of the famous river Ganges. 
Here we took our pilot, who was, I believe, an American. He had 
some twenty years' experience in his business, but, like all the white 
inhabitants of India, he still anticipated the pleasure of going home. 
The ascent of the river was easy, and, after receiving oranges, 
bananas, etc., from the natives, our vessel was safely moored in a 
parallel line with others at Calcutta. al)out 120 miles from the bay, 
about five months after leaving New York. Calcutta, the great centre 
of English India, is located on flat, barren land in the delta of the 
Ganges; no high ground l)eing anywhere visible. It is on the east 
side of the river. Some distance from the city is the magnificent Fort 
William, surrounded by a large esplanade, which is kept in beautiful 
order. The fort itself is in every respect well-ordered. A fine boulevard 


with trees serves for driving and other recreations toward the close 
of the day, while the ears of the passers-by are regaled by excellent 
music from the military band. It may here be remarked that those 
who blow upon wind-instruments in this climate seldom last more 
than two or three years. The southern part of the city we found 
occupied by the EngHsh. Their houses had generally a very imposing 
appearance. They were buih of brick and roughcast, with stone floors 
and flat roofs. Many were ornamented with colonnades, bay windows, 
etc. The palace of the Governor-General of India is an imposing mass 
of buildings, surrounded by handsome grounds. The streets of the 
city are very wide and smooth, made of pounded brick. The dust 
is kept doA\Ti by constant wetting by the water-carriers, who were 
continually parading the avenue with their goatskin water bags. 
Tanks are to be seen at frequent intervals; the water being confined 
by walls of masonry, occasionally broken by wide stairways going 
down to the water's edge. We found these tanks very numerous in 
the country. They were doubtless filled during the rainy season, and 
maintained, not only for drinking-water, but for the preservation of 

All the northern and most extensive part of Calcutta was given up 
to business and to the native population. The houses of the Hindus 
are very small and simple and on narrow streets. The houses of the 
wealthy Englishmen are large and showy, as stated above, and all, 
or nearly all, of a dull yellow or cream color. The houses of clerks 
of the departments are very similar to our own, being built in rows, 
often three stories in height. The business houses generally intervened 
between the English and the native portions of the city, and were 
intermingled, as we saw them, with houses of every kind. They often 
combined the store-house and the dwelling-house. The one wliich we 
occupied, for example, was a large quadrangle, perhaps sixty by 
seventy feet in size. One half of this lot in front was surrounded 
by a high wall, through which was a gateway, the only means of access 
to the house. On either side of this yard was a piazza, and there 
were low, one-story buildings in the rear. These were for our 
numerous servants, and for protection to the palanquins. The build- 
ing occupying the back part of the enclosure was of two stories, the 
lower one being as broad as the whole lot. It was termed a "go- 
down;" that is a storehouse where goods were stowed and where 
business tranactions were accomplished. The second story was much 
narrower than the lower, so that some ten or twelve feet extended from 


either ?ide of the story, wliile the depth extended nearly to the depth 
of the huikling. In front of this was a veranda to which was attached 
the staircase from below. Over the second-story was a flat roof, with a 
parapet wall, to which, as is customary in the east, resort was had in 
the evening for purer air, for retirement, and even for exercise. The 
interior of the second story was composed of one long room from the 
front to the rear, constituting the dining-room, parlor, etc. On either 
side were three rooms, so that our party of five were very comfortably 
arranged, each with his bed-room. Very little wood-work was per- 
ceptible. The floors were all covered with mortar, and then again 
with mats. The ^^nndows were the usual size, and furnished with 
outside Venetian shutters. The bedsteads had generally high posts, 
so as to furnish a support for a canopy and for gauze curiains; 
mosquito bars being here an absolute necessity. 

The native shops were generally congregated in rather narrow streets, 
contiguous to each other. They were termed "bazaars." Here almost 
every want could be supplied, although much tact was necessary to 
procure a good article at a reasonable price; the honesty of the seller 
being by no means proverbial. A few women, and these only of the 
lower class, were visible. We often met them carrying an infant 
on the hip. 

As soon as our ship was fairly moored, about the 5th of 
February, the cabin passengers disembarked. I previously 
thought that it would not become a freeman and an Ameri- 
can to be carried on men's shoulders; but, when on shore, 
under a burning sun, where there were no horses or carriages 
visible, I had little hesitation in throwing myself into a palanquin 
to be carried with considerable rapidity by four men to our new 
dwelling. Indeed, I must say that I found it decidedly the most 
pleasant and luxurious mode of travelling I ever enjoyed. The 
palanquin is an oblong, rectangular box, about six feet long, with 
sliding doors upon either side. It stands on four legs about eighteen 
inches from the ground. On the interior the bottom is covered by a 
morocco mattress with morocco pillows, square in form, and supported 
by a strap from one side to the other in an oblique position so as to 
sustain the head and shoulders of the traveller. The rest of the body 
and the limbs are extended on the mattress. There are small windows 
of glass to let in light in case it should be necessary to close the 
doors. At each extremity of the palanc|uin, about a foot from the 
roof, a broad and rounded bar projects, convex upon the upper and 


lower surfaces^ and about tAvo feet in length. These rest upon the 
shoulders of the bearers, two of whom take their places in front and 
two in the rear. In this way they stand close to each ether so that 
they execute what is called the lock-step ; the left limb of each moving 
forward simultaneously, and then the right limb in a similar manner. 
This is done with great precision and rapidity, so that they often 
travel at the rate of five miles an hour with a kind of wriggling, or 
pacing, motion, without any rising or falling of the shoulders. Con- 
sequently, the occupant of the carriage is never jolted. To complete 
this luxurious arrangement there is always a fifth man, or head- 
bearer, who trots alongside bearing a tall bamboo parasol, ready to 
cover the traveller when passing from the palanquin to the house. 
Each of us five gentlemen therefore had his five bearers and his own 
palanquin. The head-bearer was also regarded as our constant 
attendant in the house, and took charge of the bed-room, keeping the 
mosquitoes off in the day-time by means of small brushes, and 
tucking in the mosquito-net at night, being very careful that not 
one of these blood-thirsty creatures should get within the precincts 
of the bar. 

One night, after I was safely tucked in, the bearer came with 
home letters, and I found it hard work to get out of my net. 

The peculiar superstitious feeling of the Hindus did not permit 
them to wait upon us at table where animal food was presented. 
They themselves live almost exclusively upon rice and curry, occasion- 
ally indulging themselves in the luxury of some small fish. Under 
these circumstances we were obliged to employ Moormen, who were 
Mohammedans, doubtless the descendants of the former conquerors of 
Hindustan. There were fine-looking men, thinner and taller than 
the Hindus. Their complexion was rather lighter than theirs. Their 
dress of muslin was similar, but they seldom wore a shawl. Three or 
four of such men as these constituted our waiters and cooks. The 
cooking process must have been skilfully executed, for it produced 
very savory results, and all without the u*ual appurtenances of a 
kitchen fire; a little brazier of lighted charcoal taking its place. 
Our table was provided with the usual supply of vegetables; but, in 
addition, and almost without failure, with curried rice and chicken, 
the excellency and the utility of which can be comprehended only by 
those who have visited the East. The curry was also presented to us 
occasionally in the form of soup. It was very hot in every sense and 
bore the name of "^mulikotawney." It would generally produce an 


internal and external warmth, followed by profuse perspiration, which 
does not seem to be injurious, but, perhaps, rather useful in a climate 
which is so exhausting. 

During the month of February the weather was most delightful. 
We had a clear sky and a cool atmosphere, resembling our mildest 
weather in October. There was never, therefore, a necessity for fires, 
and during the whole winter the European does not require glass 
for his windows or woolen clothing for his person. The natives, 
however, shiver somewhat from the cold, having no other covering 
than their thin muslin short-gown, or ofteuer a muslin shawl. Our 
bearers were furnished with a white muslin turban and the usual 
belt over the loins and hips. Besides this they had a piece of muslin 
which performed the double duty of protecting them from the 
insects and from the weather, Wlien they were called to action the 
shawl was immediately rolled up, and rather tightly wrapped around 
their loins; by which action an ocular exhibition was given of what 
is intended by the phrase "girding up the loins." Thus equipped they 
would be ready to travel with rapidity under a tropical sun, and ap- 
parently with entire impunity. How they could endure what they did 
was not a thing easily explained. Their skins were always soft and 
moist ; but there was seldom any profuse perspiration, even after a 
five-mile run. 

The weather began to get warm in March, and toward the equinox 
the change became more pronounced. This is the season on the ocean 
for storms, hurricanes and tj'phoons; and during the same wonderful 
period the change is accomplished by which the northeast monsoon, 
which gave tranquil and delightful weather, ceases, and the south- 
west monsoon begins its course of six months duration, during which 
tempestuous weather is often experienced. 

The months of April and May were excessively hot. It would 
not fully express the actual fact to say that they were warm. The 
thermometer was often at 106 or 110 degrees in the shade, and 140 
in the sunshine. In oup rooms at night it would rise to 95 and 98 
degrees. All nature withered ; all signs of vegetation disappeared ; 
the clay soil became hardened and cracked. The native people seemed 
to endure it; but tlie foreigner became listless and exhausted. He 
had to confine his labors to the early and later parts of the day; 
while no one who possessed a few sous would venture out of doors 
<?xeept in his palanquin. The effect of the heat upon my own person 
was peculiar as well as exhausting. At first the effect was not 


unpleasant, as my perspiration and other secretions, as well as my 
appetite, were good. Gradually, however, I seemed to wither and lose 
my appetite. My mouth became clammy and dry. There was little 
or no perspiration of the skin, while my hepatic and other functions 
were equally torpid. Of course, I became emaciated and listless, 
but without any positive disease. Under these circumstances my 
professional duties gave me the greatest anxiety. I had charge of 
various bilious and other tropical diseases; and, in addition, was 
alarmed by being called to cases of malignant cholera; a disease the 
name of which had hardly reached Europe or America, but the 
ravages of which have since been so fearful in every part of the 
world; while the nature of the disease and the proper treatment are 
still the subject of the most anxious scientific inquiry; an inquiry 
resulting in great discrepancy of opinion. 

Among the first observers of the complaint in India were the 
French, who noticed it toward the Island of Ceylon, and from its 
fatality termed it "mort de chien." 

It was not, however, until the year 1817 that it prevailed, to the 
great consternation of the inhabitants, at Calcutta and throughout 
India. Deaths were exceedingly numerous, and nothing availed to 
arrest the progress of the disease. The following year it was less 
general and less severe; and now, in April, 1819, although there was 
no epidemic, numerous sporadic cases of cholera appeared. My own 
ship's company, and those of other Americans were among the 
sufferers. Although I had the opportunity of consulting the recent 
publications on the subject, yet I had no experience with the com- 
plaint. Accordingly I called into consultation Dr. , an 

elderly English physician, who had been very attentive to Americans 
in Calcutta, and who, as I was surprised to find, had attended lectures 
at our University in Philadelphia. Some of our sailors died; others 
recovered. I providentially, notwithstanding all my labors among the 
others, escaped sickness. The weather continued very hot, although 
now and then there was a slight thunder-shower ; and I looked forward 
with desire to the time of our departure. 

Our church privileges were considerable in Calcutta. There were 
large and handsome Episcopal churches, and a very handsome Scotch 
Presbyterian church, where every worshipper was supplied with a 
comfortable armchair. The chairs were arranged in pews so-called; 
marked, however, by no enclosure, but simply by a rail; while the 
whole congregation were fanned by two large punkas. But my 


favorite place was a small Baptist church; doubtless the original 
dissenting chapel in Calcutta, the pulpit of which was occupied by 
the celebrated Dr. Carey, who, in early life brought up as a shoe- 
maker, became one of the first missionaries to India. This was at a 
time when the East India Company did not countenance the propaga- 
tion of the Christian religion. Hence, Dr. Carey had to establish 
himself and his co-laborers at Serampore, some twelve or fifteen miles 
up the river and under French domination. Here he set up a Baptist 
school and university, and had the honor, I believe, of being the 
first to translate the Bible into the Hindu language. 

I made two or three little excursions from Calcutta. One of these 
I made with much interest. It was made for the purpose of visiting 
a young Brahmin, a man of great intelligence and much cultivation, 
who had published several tracts in English, as well as in his native 
language, on religious subjects, which were indeed so excellent that 
he was reputed to be a Christian, I found him at his country-place, 
about five miles out of town, and spent a very pleasant hour with 
him. He was a handsome-looking man, of rather light olive com- 
plexion. He conversed very easily in English, but soon dissipated all 
hope in my mind of his being a convert. He claimed everything for 
the ancient Hindu religion, even the origin of Christianity, intimat- 
ing that Christ was a Brahmin; but still repudiating the idea that 
idolatry was part of the religion of his people. He represented it as 
tolerated for the sake of the ignorant, but not enjoined. He main- 
tained the existence of one universal Spirit, who was everywhere and 
in everything; assuming thus a pantheistic position, as it seemed to 
me. One high compliment, however, he paid to Christianity. He 
said it was far superior to any other religion in its moral precepts. 
These precepts, he declared, he intended to translate and publish for 
the benefit of his countrymen; a task which he afterwards executed. 
I am sorry to add that this interesting and valuable man, after a 
visit in England for the second time, became the victim of smallpox. 

Another excursion was down the River Hoogley, some eight miles 
to the Company's Botanical Gardens. It was a pleasant excursion, 
as we passed by many English country-seats, where the level country 
was broken by artificial hills, covered, even in the dry season, with 
green grass, kept alive by constant irrigation. The Gardens were 
very famous, as they were extensive and costly. It was the effort 
of the Company to have, if possible, specimens of trees from all parts 
of the world. This design was, of course, but partially carried out. 


As the weather was very hot at the time of my visit, vegetation was 
not thriving. I was gratified, however, to see the celebrated Banyan 
tree, under whose extensive horizontal branches even regiments of 
cavalry may be sheltered; the branches being supported by occasional 
projections rooted in the ground beneath. Still another excursion was 
up the river to Serampore, the seat of the Baptist institutions above 
alluded to. On the opposite side of the river was the Company's 
menagerie, where the animals were accommodated in really spacious 
apartments. A large royal tiger especially arrested my attention. 
On our passage up the river we were called upon to witness one of 
those horrible immolations, known as the suttee, or burning of a widow 
with her dead husband; a practice even then common in India, but 
since prohibited by the British authorities. The funeral pyre was 
erected close to the river, and around it the poor woman was con- 
ducted with various ceremonies amidst the harsh and noisy music 
of drums and kettles. She made no resistance as she was laid upon 
the pyre, where she was immediately concealed from view by the 
light brush-wood which covered her, and which was at once fired on 
all sides. The hope was felt that she was suffocated with the smoke 
before she could have felt the flames. 

On the 4th of June, 1819, just before the rainy season was 
anticipated, our moorings were loosed, and with joy and gratitude our 
vessel was directed down the river. It was a beautiful clear day; 
the atmosphere was delightful, and the wind and tide were favorable 
for our descent. Not many hours afterwards the tide changed, and 
I became a very interested spectator of the velocity and power of the 
flood-tide in the Ganges. At this season of the year the southwest 
monsoon drove all the waters of the Bay of Bengal to its upper, 
or northern, extremity. The wind was trifling, but no ship seemed 
capable of withstanding the impetus of the waters. The vessels 
dragged their anchors, although they were buried deep in the mud. 
Our vessel retreated before the torrent in opposition to our two large 
sheet-anchors. Still no accident occurred, and the next morning 
found us at a safe anchorage in a cove on the inside of Sangur Island, 
a place of low jungles full of tigers, where our pilot had thrust us to 
escape the effect of a severe gale of the night previous. Soon after- 
wards we had the pleasure of seeing a very large three-decked Com- 
pany's vessel. She had just escaped the storm, which had driven 
her from the bay up the river. This vessel, in addition to her usual 
number of officers and men, had on board the Marchioness of Hastings, 


wife of the Governor-General, accompanied by a large number of 
young ladies, whose appearance was pleasant, especially as months had 
elapsed since we had any intercourse with ladies of our own race. 
These girls were said to be visitors to India, that they might discover 
their brothers or cousins who had preceded them to this heathen 
land. The weather being now pleasant, we rounded Sangur Island 
and pointed our vessel to the south, but against a head-wind, as the 
southwest monsoon was blowing. Our course, therefore, was tedious, 
and the sea became tempestuous. Our ship, no longer buoyant, but 
heavily laden with saltpetre and piece-goods, rolled badly in the 
seas. Sudden squalls would arise, and, occasionally, as we landsmen 
thought, threaten to capsize us. Nevertheless, we made our way slowly 
to Madras, and in a few hours took on board the goods formerly 
ordered. We then fairly set off homeward, but still with head-winds 
and stormy seas, so that by the time that we had gotten well into 
the Indian Ocean our vessel was evidently strained, especially in her 
upper works. The pumps did not indicate much water in the hold, but 
sea-water was beginning to ooze between the planks at the stern of 
the vessel, and appeared upon our cabin floor. This indication, in 
professional language, was bad; and, as it might increase, and as 
we were still to expect storms off the Cape of Good Hope, it was 
determined, after a regular consultation held by the proprietors in 
the cabin, to bear off more to the westward, and make for the Isle of 
France. This change of course was accompanied by more favorable 
weather and winds; and, after many days, one very beautiful, sun- 
shiny morning, we caught sight of this fair island on its eastern 
aspect. As the port of St. Louis, its best, and almost only, harbor, 
is on the west side, we had to describe the semi-circumference of the 
island. As our charts were not minute, and as we had no books to 
direct us, the question was agitated whether we should go round by 
the north or by the south. The captain decided to take the southern 
course, which we afterwards learned was not usually followed, as 
dangerous reefs were supposed to exist. Ignorant of danger we 
enjoyed a beautiful sail under a delightful wind along the coast of 
the rocky and picturesque isle. Toward evening we made the outer 
bay of Saint Louis near sundown, and then sailed toward the city, 
the lights of which could be seen at a distance in the twilight. We 
hoisted our flag for a pilot, and repeatedly fired our gun, but got 
no response. It was now dark, and the captain gave orders for veer- 
ing the vessel, standing out to sea till morning under easy sail, and 


we all quietly retired for supper. This was hardly ended before the 
ship struck and shivered, so that our glasses upon the table were 
shaken. Then she stood still, and we all rushed to the deck and 
found the vessel grinding her keel upon a coral bank. The cause of 
the accident evidently was that, although the vessel was headed to 
the west, a strong current had carried her too much to the south. 
The agitation on board was great, and for the first time our excellent 
captain lost his self-command. He soon afterwards recovered him- 
self, ordered the sails back, and sought in this way to drive the 
vessel sternwards; but aU without effect. A boat was then ordered 
over and manned in order to drop an anchor, and by this means draw 
the ship away from the rock which we had struck. Unfortunately 
the boat proved to be leaky, and could not be kept afloat, even when 
men alone were on board, much less if the anchor were taken in. 
We had thus no other resource than occasionally to fire a gun for 
assistance. Our situation seemed to be constantly more precarious, 
as it was evident that the tide was falling, and rocks, before not 
visible, appeared above the surface of the water. Our vessel was 
evidently higher from the water as the tide receded, and there was 
danger, therefore, of her falling over upon her side, in which case 
she certainly would have filled. Happily, however, this did not 
occur. The wind was fortunately bloAving from off shore, so 
that there was very little sea. Such was our unpleasant condition for 
four hours, during which we were kept in a state of considerable 
anxiety. At length the flood-tide came in ; the rocks about us were 
again submerged; the vessel was once more in deep water; and 
suddenly the shout was heard, "She moves !" True enough, the ship 
was moving, and all were in ecstasy. No leak was detected. The 
captain ordered the jib to be hoisted. The vessel was turned 
from the rocks, and, with her prow directed to the west, we hastened 
on our course with glad, and I trust, grateful hearts. 

In the morning we turned landwards, took a pilot, and were soon 
safely moored in the inner port, a very picturesque spot, surrounded 
by high hills, at the foot of which lay the town of St. Louis. 

The vessel was placed under the direction of the United States 
Consul. After a regular survey it was not deemed safe to continue 
our voyage without examining the ship's bottom. As there were no 
docks at this port, it became necessary to remove all of her cargo, 
and take down the upper mast that she might be brought down upon 
her side on the land. It was found, after all, that no serious injury 


had been sustained. Part of the false keel was found to have been 
ground off, and this, of course, had to be replaced, and all her 
upper works, which had been strained in previous storms, had to be 
caulked and painted. This was a tedious process, occupying six weeks, 
and, as part of the cargo had been damaged, it was sold to the amount 
of twenty thousand dollars. Under these circumstances we took a 
house on shore, and passed our time very pleasantly. The weather 
was beautiful, cool and refreshing. We walked and rode amidst 
the valleys and the hills and along the shore, penetrating as far as 
the old stone church described in the romantic story of "Paul and 
Virginia." We found this building greatly dilapidated, with grass- 
grown steps, and probably unused. 

We were shown two small monuments in a gentleman's garden, 
separated from each other by a water-tank. These were said to be 
commemorative of the two romantic lovers, and we cut off portions 
of bamboo as mementos of our visit. Just north of St. Louis is 
a beautiful valley which appeared to be shut in by the sloping sides 
of three mountains. It was employed as a kind of plaza, or prome- 
nade, where we had an opportunity of seeing the inhabitants on 
{Sundays and holidays in their best attire. They were chiefly French 
and Eoman Catholics, as the island had been settled and 
governed by France, as the name implies. It was, however, at 
the time of our visit, in the possession of the English, whose civil 
and military officers were often seen, and also the regiment of soldiers 
who occupied the forts. 

At the Episcopal Church on Sunday a body of troops, without 
arms, were always present. They conducted themselves with great 
apparent devotion. 

Standing on a hill I observed with great pleasure the regular 
march of these men in close column as they advanced with movements 
so nearly simultaneous that there seemicd to be one instead of many 

At the Isle of France also I had an opportunity for the first time 
of beholding slavery, which had been introduced into the island under 
French domination ; and, although the government was now in pos- 
session of the English, the mind and the conscience of these people 
had then not been illuminated by the eloquence and moral power 
of a Wilberforce. 

iSTot only were the most menial services performed by slaves, but 
the labor of beasts of burden was often executed by them, and we 


not infrequently saw them at work in chains. A large cart, for 
example, filled with stones, which required at least two horses for its 
removal, was pushed and dragged by human beings attached to the 
shafts, wheels, etc. Water-carriers were sometimes seen with iron collars 
around their necks, an iron chain binding two of them together. This 
was probably a punishment. Human nature, however, wonderfully 
accommodates itself to circumstances. By my evening rambles in 
the quarters of these negroes I found there was at least as much merri- 
ment and dancing to the sound of the violin as among their English 

The time of our departure at length came. The ship was again 
floated, her masts rigged, and her sails spread, more buoyant than 
before, as part of her cargo had been sold. On a fine day, about 
the middle of September, 1819, I bade farewell to the beautiful port 
of St. Louis. We made a good offing for fear of hidden rocks, taking a 
direct course to the south, leaving Borneo (Bourbon?), another French 
island, upon the right, and the cliffs of the Isle of France astern. We 
were greatly favored by wind and weather, finding once more, how- 
ever, a rough sea south of the Cape of Good Hope; so rough indeed 
that water frequently was flowing on the decks from the stem 
nearly to the stern; and we then rejoiced that, in consequence of our 
former mishaps, the vessel was not so deeply laden as when we left 

Some days after leaving the Cape in the South Atlantic we spoke 

the ship , which had left Calcutta only a few days 

after we did; so that, while we were safe and comfortable for six 
weeks in the Isle of France, she was buffeting the storms off the 
Cape with the loss of some of her masts and rigging. 

A few days brought us to the southeast trades, which drove us 
rapidly to the north, and allowed us to take a distant view of the 
Island of St. Helena, at that time the prison of N^apoleon Bonaparta 

There was no necessity of crossing and reerossing the ocean, our 
course being north-northwest. We were sailing beautifully, the weather 
was delightful, and, having reached the latitude of Cape Hatteras, we 
•expected in two or three days to be in the Delaware. But disappoint- 
ment will occur upon the ocean. Strong northwest wands directly 
ahead rendered the taking in of sail necessary, and drove us to 
the northeast along the edge of the Gulf Stream, where storm after 
storm occurred, preventing headway. We were much at the mercy 
of the current for a time, and, to the best of our reckoning, were 


carried off near by the shoals of Narragansett. The sea, disturbed b}^ 
winds and currents, was very irregular, and we were, therefore, 
exceedingly uncomfortable. It was cold and rainy besides. 

On Saturday, the 18tli of December, we were greatly favored in 
being able to take a pilot off the Delaware, and to effect an anchorage 
within the Capes at the "Buoy of the Brown." I say greatly 
favored, for outside the storm raged fearfull}^, and the unfortunate 
vessel we spoke in the South Atlantic was driven upon the New Jersey 
coast, near Long Branch, where the captain and super-cargo, who were 
my patients and companions in Calcutta, perished, as well as most of 
the crew. As for us, we rode out the night in safety, and weighed 
anchor. There was a comfortable pilot-boat going up the river, and 
myself and Mr. Guest and Mr. Foster embarked on board of her, 
and arrived at the Navy Yard early on Sunday. I jumped to the 
shore with alacrity and with joy, but still excessively anxious, for 
nearly twelve months had elapsed since I had heard from home. 
Where was my mother? I did not dare to go to her house, but took 
my way to my uncle Andrew's, the old homestead on Arch Street, 
where my arrival created much surprise. I was glad to find that all 
my relatives were well, and that, although we were four months 
after our time, they had not had many evil forebodings respecting 
us. My mother was well, but had changed her abode. 

In 1815, upon the graduation of my brother from college, she had 
once more resumed housekeeping in Philadelphia, and established 
herself in Tenth Street, below Chestnut. The following year, how- 
ever, she removed to another house in Sansom Eow on Walnut Street, 
below Eighth. She there had Miss Susan B. Smith and Mrs. Gray- 
dou, the widow of Alexander Graydon and sister of Mrs. Andrew 
Bayard, as her companions : while Mr. Eichard H. Bayard, my college 
classmate had opened his .office in the front room. I was often 
surprised at the energy manifested by mother, and the spirit she 
maintained amidst all the reverses and anxieties which accompanied 
her various positions, not only discharging so admirably her various 
duties to her children, but those which she owed to the various institu- 
tions with which she was connected; ever enjoying the society of her 
friends, and taking a deep interest in civil and political affairs. 
Her patriotic feelings, imbibed in early life in the cradle of American 
liberty and on the knees of General Warren, never deserted her. She 
took broad and large views of subjects, deprecated the contentions and 
virulence of parties, and was a great admirer of the institutions of 


her country, especially as developed and enforced by President Wash- 
ington. The contrary policy, introduced by Jefferson, she could not 
admire, and regretted exceedingly the disposition then manifested to 
encourage the immigration of foreigners to this country, who were 
without morals or education, foreseeing the evils which must result 
from such an admixture with republicanism, often saying that she 
would not live to see, but that I would, the bad effects of this adultera- 
tion. The evil has grown upon us, and is still increasing, inasmuch as 
the full right of American citizenship is given to those who are 
not only ignorant of our institutions, but who cannot read or write, 
or even understand our language. Nothing but a moral and religious 
education of the masses can act as an antidote for the poison which 
now infects the body politic of our beloved country. 

In a pecuniary point of view the results of the voyage were 
unfortunate. The mercantile world had much collapsed. The goods 
I brought were not all salable ; and, when the interest and the insur- 
ance were paid to the officers upon their bonds, little or nothing was 
left. The cherished thought then of a European visit, with all its 
advantages, for which such risks and sacrifices had been made, had 
to be abandoned. And so it came to pass that, without professional 
patronage, and with an empty purse, I had to undertake the duties 
of my profession. Still I had my mother, she was everything; as 
full of energy and spirit, although physically not as strong as formerly. 
I was very kindly received by the heads of the profession, and I had 
many friends. I secured the house Xo. 181 Walnut Street (now 
No. 715), part way between Seventh and Eighth, to which we removed 
in a few weeks. It was the third occupied by us in that row. I 
took the front room as my office, and began practice in the year 
1820. Mrs. Graydon and Miss Smith remained with us. Soon after- 
wards they were joined by Mrs. Ingersoll, another sister of Mrs. 
Bayard, and mother of Charles and Joseph Ingersoll, then leading 
lawyers in the city. Soon after taking possession of my office I was 
complimented, and, of course, encouraged, by visits from Chapman, 
Dewees and others of my teachers, and afterwards by invitations 
to their social parties. There are turning-points and incidents in 
every man's life on which his happiness and fortune seem to turn. 
One such turning-point in my life was the unexpected visit of a 
young physician whom I barely recollected as senior pupil when I 
commenced the study of medicine, and who afterwards went to Europe. 
This was Dr. Edward Barton, a man of great intellectual capacity, 


refinement and cultivation, who had been very carefully educated in 
Connecticut by the Abbd Tisserant. To me he was always remarkably 
affable and pleasant, proving to be one of my best friends, He was 
naturally, however, very reserved, and, although generally much liked, 
somewhat satirical in dealing with the faults and weaknesses of 
others. He was also the subject of much morbid feeling. This was 
partly owing to the circumstances in which he was placed. He was 
the son of Lord Bolingbroke, who had married a well-educated and 
excellent German lady, by whom he had three sons. These were sent 
over to America for their education under the Ahh6 above mentioned.* 
I find in an old book, "Memoirs of Eminent Physicians," the 
following : "Edward Barton was under the immediate care and super- 
intendence of the Abb^ Tisserant, a French gentleman of uncom- 
mon attainments and exemplary piety, and of peculiar sweetness of 
manner and disposition. To the parental care of this accomplished 
scholar Barton was indebted for an excellent foundation in classical 
learning, which was built up with singular success. After the usual 
course of academical instruction, he passed some time, with great 
advantage to himself and with usefulness to others, at the Roman 
Catholic College in Baltimore, where his classical education may be 
considered as having been completed. His views relative to the busi- 
ness of life were directed to the profession of medicine. He attended 
a course of lectures delivered by Dr. Smith at Hanover, N. H. He 
came to Philadelphia, and, as an immediate pupil of Dr. Physick, 
passed through the course of medical studies required by the Univer- 
sity, receiving his degree with peculiar favor and approbation from 
his instructors. Soon after he graduated Dr. Barton went to Europe, 
and there devoted himself assiduously to the attainment of knowledge 
which he could easily command in Great Britain and France. 
He returned to the United States in a few years, and settled in Phila- 
delphia for the purpose of practicing physic and surgery. When his 
ambition was most ardent, and his prospects most flattering, it pleased 
God to visit him with a pulmonary affection, from which he and his 
friends apprehended his speedy dissolution. Under the advice of his 
friend and preceptor. Dr. Physick, he sailed from Philadelphia on 
the 4th of August, 1831, for Lisbon; and from that port he went 

♦Note by Mrs. H. Lenox Hodge: — "Lord Bolingbroke married this German lady, 
and afterwards deserted her, and married in England a lady of wealth and rank. 
Leing off and on in America, he left his three sons here. On one of these occasions 
he lived for some time in Elizabeth, N. J., and my grandmother, Abby Howland 
Woolsey, knew him, and mentions him afterwards in her letters from England." 


to Genoa; at which place his eyes were closed in death by strangers. 
He was in a sick room vigilant, tender, untiring, faithful to the last. 
His mind was of too lofty a character to sufEer him to avail himself 
of adventitious circumstances to obtain the favor of the community. 
He scorned even the appearance of seeking to earn that favor by any 
other means than by his merit. We will venture to assert that the 
impressions which he made upon the hearts of those who enjoyed his 
friendship will never be efEaced." Dr. Chapman wrote in a note to 
this: ''He was a man of no ordinary talent, highly cultivated by a 
liberal education, of great proficiency in his profession, and with an 
exquisite sense of honor which 'feels a stain like a wound.' "* 

Colonel Chester, of Wethersfield, was the guardian of Lord Boling- 
broke's sons, and hence in this city the colonel's son-in-law, Charles 
Chauncey, paid great attention to young Barton, and made him the 
physician of the family as assistant to Dr. Physick, Under the 
patronage of Mr. Chauncey, and also of Mr. Tangu, an Englishman, 
and the Librarian of the Philosophical Society, Dr. Barton 
obtained an excellent social position, and made a favorable com- 
mencement of his professional business. Such was the friend so 
unexpectedly offered to me. As I had nothing to do, I immediately 
accompanied him in his visits as Dispensary Physician, thus increasing 
my practical knowledge. 

Another compliment I received was from my excellent friend, 
the widow of my late preceptor. Dr. Wistar, who adopted me as her 
physician and friend; a valuable relationship which I sustained for 
many years until the time of her death. This event served also to 
bring me into intimate connection with another of my former 
teachers. Dr. Thomas C. James, a most excellent and erudite pro- 
fessor in the University, who always extended to me professional 
confidence and friendly attentions; so that here also I eventually 
obtained the position of family physician. Under such circumstances 
as these I commenced the practice of medicine in my native city with 
much spirit, and even with hopeful aspiration for the future. I 
became a candidate as physician for the Southern Dispensary, then 
situated in Catharine Street, between Third and Fourth. This was 
at a time when there were no cars, cabs or omnibuses in the city to 
get to the place. A vacancy having occurred in the fall of 1820, I was 
appointed as physician, and immediately entered upon the duties 
incident to the position. The district was then the most southern 

Philadelphia Journal of Medical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 5. 


in the city, extending westward from the Delaware. It comprised, in 
name at least, the most degraded portion of the city. The work 
which I thus undertook proved almost too arduous and exposing. In 
the latter part of November I was taken sick with typhoid fever, 
which confined me for a month or six weeks, during which I was 
attended most assiduously by Dr. Edward Barton and Dr. Physick. 
I did not return to my duties in the Southern Dispensary, having 
received a more eligible position as physician to the City Dispensary, 
located, as it still is, in Fifth Street, opposite Independence Square, 
and next door to the building occupied by the Mercantile Library. 
My district was the best, extending from Chestnut to Vine Street, 
while westward from the Delaware I occasionally went as far as what 
are now Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets. The work which I thus under- 
took was family business, and therefore much diverse from what I 
had hitherto been more familiar with in hospitals, almshouses, etc. 
For three months every year I was extensively engaged in this out- 
of-door practice, while, at other periods, with less practical work to do, 
I had time for study, reading and recreation. In the early autumn 
of 1820 my friend. Dr. William E. Horner, the prosector of the 
Anatomical Chair, was appointed Assistant Professor of Anatomy to 
Dr. Physick. He was married to Miss Elizabeth Welsh, daughter of 
Samuel Welsh, a thriving merchant in Philadelphia. The following 
summer of 1821, Dr. Horner determined to visit Europe for his im- 
provement, and requested me to take charge of his anatomy class, 
which was also under the instruction of Dr. Chapman and Dr. Dewees. 
It was familiarly known as "Chapman's private class." In May, 
therefore, I made my first essay in teaching, carrying it on until the 
last of September. This experience, of course, was serviceable as 
giving more precision to my studies, and more confidence in myself. 
About this time the health of my excellent friend. Dr. Barton, was 
rapidly declining. Dr. Physick, as detailed above, advised him to 
abandon his business, and resort to the southern part of Europe. He 
sailed, therefore, for Lisbon, as the voyage was then favorable. His 
complaints, however, became aggravated, and it was with difficulty that 
he reached Genoa, where he died among strangers. One of my own 
friends, Mr. Ashbcl G. Ralston, paid him every kind attention, and later 
forwarded his effects to me, as he had expressed a desire that his 
medical library and personal property should come into my possession. 
This loss to me was very great. Prior to Dr. Barton's departure he 
had introduced me to Mrs. Emily Phillips, who was intimate with 


Mr. Charles Chauncey, and indeed with all the Chester family, who 
were originally from Wethersfield, Conn., where Mrs. Phillips herself 
was born. This lady had taken Dr. Barton not only as a physician, 
but almost as a son. She was a lady of great intellectual culture, 
warm imagination, and a very nervous temperament, and yet possess- 
ing admirable judgment and prudence ; traits not often united in the 
same person. She lived with her husband in New Orleans, but was 
on a visit to her friends North. He died, and their small property 
nearly disappeared. She had, however, nimierous friends, and through 
them was introduced to Dr. James Brown, then professor in a medical 
school at Lexington, Ky. Dr. Brown immediately committed to her 
care his only daughter, Susan Brown, now Mrs. Ingersoll. This child 
was then a girl of eleven or twelve years of age. She was placed at the 
school of Madame Segoigne, which was then in high repute. Mrs. 
Phillips boarded in the family, and was charged with. the maternal 
superintendence of her protege. 

On the departure of Dr. Barton, from Philadelphia, Mrs. Phillips 
gave me her confidence and affection, to which I have been most 
deeply indebted. Her devotion to me continued for many years, and it 
was only terminated by her death, which occurred at Wethersfield, 
Conn., which M^as the place of her birth. 

Nothing of importance occurred during the succeeding year, 1822. 
I might mention, however, that Dr. William Gibson, Professor of 
Surgery, invited me this year to join him, with the late Dr. John 
Rodman, in the formation of a private medical class. This invitation, 
for some prudential reasons, I thought best to decline. My ac- 
ceptance would probably have interfered with a much more advan- 
tageous offer, made to me the next year, to which I will now refer. 
In March, 1823, Dr. Chapman, who was always very popular, finding 
that his private class of pupils had greatly enlarged, determined to give 
them a more extensive and efficient course. He accordingly organized 
the class into a Medical Institute, and, in addition to the original 
teachers. Chapman, Dewees and Horner, he selected Dr. Samuel 
Jackson to be lecturer on Materia Medica; Dr. John Ball to be 
lecturer on the Institutes of Medicine, and Dr. John K. Mitchell to 
be lecturer on Chemistry. In the May following my excellent friend, 
Dr. Horner, called upon me and offered me, in the name of Dr. 
Chapman, the position of Lecturer on Surgery. This was indeed 
a surprise ; and, to myself at least, it is no wonder that I hesitated, as I 
had not devoted special attention to this branch, and as I was not in- 


tending to be an operative surgeon. I took a few days to consider the 
question and, having received some encouragement from Dr. Horner, 
especially as to the onerous character of my duties, I determined to 
accept the proffered position. This was the second important turn- 
ing-point, or incident, in my life; as, had I declined this offer, I 
should probably never have been a teacher, and might not have suc- 
ceeded as a practitioner. My mind and my time were now fully 
occupied in preparatory studies for my lectures, and in their 
preparation, as I wrote them out in full. I once more experienced 
the exhaustive effect of mental labor. Still, as I had exercise out- 
of-doors, no evil consequences resulted. My success as a teacher was 
better than I anticipated, especially as I found, after some experience 
in study, that, as Dr. Horner, expressed it, I knew more than the 
students, and realized the important truth that to teach is the best 
way to learn. 

Another event of great importance occurred to me in September of 
this year, 1823. A vacancy occurred in the medical department of the 
Almshouse Hospital, in Spruce Street, above Tenth, in consequence 
of the sudden death of one of our most promising physicians. Dr. J. 
B. Lawrence. By the influence of my friend, Dr. Chapman, and also 
especially of Dr. J. K. Mitchell, I received the appointment of attend- 
ing physician; a very responsible and arduous position. This proved 
to be particularly so during my first year of duty; for there was an 
endemic in the hospital of typhus fever, in consequence of the intro- 
duction of German immigrants, who had just arrived, suffering from 
ship-fever. The atmosphere of the house became impregnated, so 
that comparatively few escaped the poison. Even the nurses and 
resident students were affected, and one of them died. The mortality 
in the house was great. 

One peculiar advantage of my position at the Almshouse, in addi- 
tion to that of mere practice, was the privilege it gave me of acting 
as clinical teacher. The practice at that time was for the student to 
accompany the physician through the wards, where it was his 
business carefully to examine the symptoms and the history of the 
case, and thence to deduce the pathology, and to state the indications 
for treatment resulting. This practice was very improving, and neces- 
sitated, what to me was very desirable, the habit of extemporaneous 

In 1824 ( ?), as it was impossible for me to lecture upon the principles 
of surgery and also upon the operations during the short session. Dr. 


Thomas Harris was appointed lecturer upon operative surgery. He was 
originally from Chester Count.y, but was now a leading surgeon in 
the United States iSTavy^ and had become a resident of Philadelphia. 
He married one of my cousins, Jane Hodgdon, and afterwards became 
chief of the Medical Bureau of the Navy, and was stationed at 
Washington. After the death of his first wife he married Miss 
Hettie McPherson, granddaughter of the late Bishop White. She 
was a lady of much talent and character, exerting great influence in 
the social circles of Philadelphia. The Medical Institute, thus rein- 
forced, continued to exercise an excellent influence upon medical 
students, whose time, instead of being lost in the summer season, 
became fully occupied with attendance upon lectures and at the 

My private practice increased, although very gradually, and the 
pecuniary reward was very small. 

No further incident in my professional course of special moment 
occurred for several years. My friendship, however, for Mrs. Phillips 
became more intimate, and about this time her protege, Miss Brown, 
left school and went with her uncle, Mr. Tames Brown, to Paris. Mrs. 
Phillips was therefore only occasionally in Philadelphia at this time, 
but she favored me with frequent epistles replete with good thoughts 
and good feeling, and enlivened with imagination and culture. In 
the last of July, 1827, I made an arrangement with my cousin, James 
Bayard, to recreate ourselves a few weeks in an excursion to the 
l!>Jorth Eiver and Niagara. I rceived a letter from Mrs. Hammond, 
of Westchester, N. Y., stating that Mrs. Phillips was very ill at her 
house and exceedingly anxious to see me. I therefore anticipated my 
proposed departure, and went to New York. Procuring a vehicle I 
went about twelve miles into Westchester and drove to the beautiful 
mansion of Mr. Hammond, where everything was very delightful and 
luxurious. I was then introduced to Mrs. Hammond, the daughter 
of Mr. John Aspinwall, Sr., of Flushing, N. Y. She was a tall, fine- 
looking woman at this time, very dignified and lady-like in her 
appearance, her stateliness perhaps a little augmented by a cus- 
tom, not very uncommon in those days, of wearing a white 
turban. She was to me very polite. After I had visited my friend 
and patient, and contributed to her comfort, I was taken into the 
parlor, and dinner was soon announced. I was introduced to Mr. 
Hammond, and to his daughter, Mary Hammond, and also to 
Margaret E. Aspinwall. After our repast was finished the young 


ladies took me iu charge, and we strolled in the garden and on the 
lawn, wliich extended down to the East Eiver. Beginning at the 
northern extremity of the lawn was Throgmorton's Neck, which 
stretches out into Long Island Sound. It is now (1873) owned 
and occupied by the United States as a fortress. This most delightful 
visit was terminated by a solitary and dark drive back to the city. 
I had learned from Mrs. Phillips that she had been long intimately 
acquainted with Mrs. Hammond, and with her brother, Mr. John 
Aspinwall, Jr., of New York, and also with his wife, who was Miss 
Susan Howland. Indeed her friendly intercourse had extended to 
most of the Howland family, especially to Mrs. George Woolsey and 
Mrs. James Eoosevelt, with whom she had become acquainted at 
Norwick, Conn., as the family of Howlands have long resided in 
that place. Of course, Mrs. Phillips took a great interest in the 
daughter of Mr. John Aspinwall, always speaking of Margaret in 
the most exalted manner; a circumstance which confirmed my pre- 
possessions in her favor. 

I met Mr. Bayard in New York, and together we ascended the 
noble Hudson Eiver by steamboat, admiring its picturesque scenery 
as we went, and arriving at Albany the next day. As Mr. Bayard had 
some acquaintance with the family of Stephen Van Eensselaer, the 
patroon, he ventured to introduce me to his house, where we spent 
a pleasant afternoon and evening. The building was very large and 
commodious. I think it was but two stories in height, but the hall 
and rooms were of great size, and adorned with scenery paper, so 
that these, and indeed the whole building, had an antiquated, and 
to me a very novel, appearance. 

Miss Catherine A^an Eensselaer was then there in all the elegance of 
young womanhood, and greatly admired by innumerable suitors. She 
afterwards married Gouverneur Willcins, and still lives as his widow. 
There were no railroads in those days. Mr. Bayard and myself took 
easy stages from Albany, and spent a pleasant afternoon at the beau- 
tiful town of Waterford. We visited also the falls on the Mohawk. 
These have furnished water-power for several mills. In a short time 
we found ourselves at Utica, a handsome, well-arranged town, with 
wide and shady streets. It was not at that time a large place. We 
took a stage to Trenton Falls, where we spent a night in an excellent 
and famous hotel. The next morning we descended into a ravine 
of the precipitous stream, which for nearly two miles tumbles over 
high rocks, and sometimes down into deep caverns, while in other 


places it spreads itself out like a broad and quiet lake, bounded on 
either side by banks 1800 feet high, covered with beautiful verdure. 
The explorer had to make his way with great care and precision, 
occasionally by means of artificial stairways, occasionally by natural 
steps, slippery and dangerous, as below there were often deep whirl- 
pools of water. At other times the course was very easy. It was 
often completely overhung by rocks, where we had plenty of time for 
musing on the combined beauties and romance of this ever-varying 
specimen of natural scenery. Leaving TJtica, and still travelling in 
stage coaches, we stopped at Eochester and Auburn, where we visited 
the prison, and also at Syracuse, where we observed the great salt- 
works. We eventuall}^ arrived at Buffalo, the great city of Western 
New York, then a very busy place, but now increased in an enormous 
degree. Niagara Falls was, of course, soon seen and viewed in 
various aspects from below, from above, from the American and from 
the British side, from the little row-boat crossing the river, and 
also from Goat Island, which divides the American from the British 
Falls. In those days there was no "Maid of the Mist," and no 
wonderful railroad bridge to facilitate the movements and to increase 
the admiration of the traveller. To Niagara Falls we must apply the 
word "grand," while we must speak of Trenton Falls as romantic 
and beautiful. I had to hasten home in the shortest possible time 
to resume my professional duties on the 1st of September as teacher 
and practitioner. I should have mentioned, perhaps, that the class of 
the Medical Institute were kept together during the winter by the 
lecturers, who reviewed for the benefit of the class the lectures delivered 
at the university at their examinations or "quizzes." I took the subject 
of surgery, which was then taught at our school by Prof. Gibson. 

During this winter of 1827-28 my correspondence with Mrs. 
Phillips was continued, and through it I was introduced to a knowl- 
edge of many of her personal friends, and indeed learned much of 
the history of the Rowland and Aspinwall families. Hence, I was 
gratified to receive a note of introduction from her to several members 
of these families, who were a])cut to visit Philadelphia. Mr. James 
Eoosevelt and his wife (Miss Harriet Howland that was), and Mr. 
Samuel Howland and his wife (Miss Hone that was), having 
determined to visit our city, they invited Mrs. John Aspinwall, Mr. 
Howland's sister (Susan Howland) with her daughter, Margaret, 
to accompany them. They left Jersey City in their own carriages in 
the month of Mav, 1828, and made easv drives through New Jersey, 


crossing the Delaware at Trenton, and after two or three days arrived 
here, and took lodgings at Head's Mansion House, on Third Street, 
near Spruce, a private hotel, but one of great reputation through the 
country. The Mansion House itself had been the residence of Mr. 
and Mrs. Bingham, who were among the wealthiest citizens of Penn- 
sylvania, and whose establishment had been very large and costly. 
Mrs. Bingham herself was the centre and leader of fashion. The 
grounds originally belonging to this house extended from Third Street 
to Fourth, and from Spruce Street north some four or five hundred 
feet, and were filled with beautiful trees. The family had died off: 
the grounds were covered with buildings; but the beautiful mansion, 
with its noble hall and white marble staircase and extensive rooms, 
still existed to be occupied by strangers. Now (1872) this also has 
been entirely swept away, and the space is filled with houses, which 
are comfortable, but of small dimensions. Of course, I and my friend, 
Mr. James Bayard, were not slow in profiting by my letter of intro- 
duction, but presented ourselves promptly at the Mansion House, and 
were not remiss in our subsequent attentions. We accompanied our 
friends in their various excursions to private and public institutions, 
and soon felt ourselves to be intimately acquainted. We regretted, 
therefore, to hear, at the conclusion of a sojourn of some two weeks, 
that the hour of their departure was approaching. Not many weeks 
after I took the opportunity of visiting Mrs. Aspinwall and her 
daughter in Bleecker Street, New York, where I became 
acquainted with the rest of the family. As Mr. and Mrs. 
Aspinwall and Mrs. Phillips contemplated an excursion through 
New York in the month of August I most gladly accepted 
an invitation to accompany them. The party consisted of 
Mr. and Mrs. John Aspinwall and their daughters, Margaret and 
Emily, together with Mrs. Phillips and myself. We left New Y^ork 
in the beginning of August, stopped a night at West Point, then went 
to the Catskill Mountains, then to Lebanon Springs by the way of 
Hudson, then to Albany, Utica, and once more to Trenton Falls. As 
1 was in this way brought again into intimate association with tlie 
elder daughter, Margaret, I could not but give a most cordial endorse- 
ment to all that my friend, Mrs. Phillips, had said about the excel- 
lencies of character and the attractive qualities by which she was dis- 
tinguished. T was therefore most truly gratified that she accepted 
my offer to join our fortunes for life. After the visit to Trenton 
Falls Mr. and Mrs. Aspinwall left us to visit Niagara, and I became 


the protector of the other ladies. We accordingly retraced our steps 
to Albany, and proceeded thence to the neighborhood of Poughkeepsie 
that we might visit "Eosedale," formerly the seat of Mr. James Koose- 
velt; but now occupied by his son, Isaac Eoosevelt, who, a year pre- 
viously, had married Mary, the third daughter of Mr. Aspinwall. I 
had thus what was, under the circumstances, a very exciting, as well 
as a most interesting visit. New attachments were formed with the 
sisters in Mr. Aspinwall's family which have since been strengthened 
by years of affectionate interest in each other's welfare; attachments 
which still remain unbroken. Here this eventful journey terminated. 
I returned to my mother in Philadelphia, and resumed my hospital 
duties, my lectures, and my practice, in the month of September. But 
naturally my mind and thoughts were much in Kew York, and com- 
munications in those days were slow. Still I was able occasionally to 
visit Mr. Aspinwall's house, and was glad to have an early day ap- 
pointed for our marriage. This very important event in my life was 
accomplished at 31 Bleecker Street, New York, at the residence of 
Mr. Aspinwall, on the twelfth of November, 1828. The ceremony 
was performed by the Eev. George Upfold, then rector of St. 
Thomas's Church, at the corner of Broadway and Houston 
Street, who afterwards became Bishop of Indiana. He died recently 
at an advanced age. There was on this occasion a crowded room of 
relations and friends. Alas, how few remain! Of the older mem- 
bers of the family not one. The next day we went to Westchester to 
visit aunt Hammond for a few days, and, on our return to New York, 
were entertained by different members of the family. About the 24th 
of November we left New York for Philadelphia, accompanied by 
sister Emily. We took the steamboat from the city very early in the 
morning for New Brunswick on the Earitan, and went thence by pri- 
vate coach to my brother's house in Princeton, where we arrived in 
time for dinner. At Princeton we remained for a day or two, and 
on the 27th of November came to our house in Philadelphia, where I 
had the gratification of introducing my mother to her new daughter. 
My cousin, Theodosia Bayard, on my mother's invitation, spent the 
evening with us. 

Our residence at 181 Walnut Street had undergone several changes. 
The two sisters, Mrs. Ingersoll and Mrs. Graydon, had taken apart- 
ments in the neighborhood, and the house had been, in some good mea- 
sure, refurnished. This was accomplished by the use of the little money 
which remained in my mother's possesssion, the last remnant of my 


grandfather's estate. Everything was very plain but comfortable, and 
in such circinnstances we were destined to spend some pleasant years, 
from 1828 to 1836. On the day following our arrival, according to 
the customs of those times, I received my male acquaintances to a 
noon-day collation on the 28th instant; and early in the following 
week Margaret held a reception, and was favored with a large number 
of visitors, to most of whom she was of course a stranger, but many of 
whom she retained as valuable friends. During the subsequent months 
of the winter we were frequently entertained at evening parties. Sis- 
ter Emily remained with us many weeks, and Margaret herself paid a 
visit to New York about mid-winter, crossing the Delaware at Market 
Street in a small "wherry-boat" on the ice. 

After my engagement with Miss Aspinwall mother had gone to 
make a visit to our cousin, Mr. Samuel Boyd, in New York. She 
was now introduced to the family of Mr. Aspinwall, with whom she 
was evidently much gratified. Her quick perception detected the 
excellencies of their character, and their practical acquaintance with 
the duties of life. She returned home for the re-organization of our 
house, preparatory to my marriage, which was celebrated, as 
above related, on the 12th of November, 1828. She gave 
up the whole house to us, retiring to the front room of 
the third story, saying and feeling that the great work of 
her life was accomplished, for her children were both mar- 
ried, and were both engaged prosperously in their respective profes- 
sions. Few mothers have manifested more self-denial, and more 
spirit and energy than did this devoted parent to her fatherless chil- 
dren, and that under very adverse circumstances in a city where she 
had none of her own personal relatives, but where she secured, not 
only the admiration, but the love and confidence of her husband's rela- 
tives and a wide circle of devoted friends. She survived my marriage 
three years and five months in very tolerable health, free from anxiety 
and trouble, and greatly enjoyed the company and attentions of her 
new daughter. Two of my sons were born during this interval, in 
whom she took the greatest interest, and to whose comfort, and also 
to the comfort of their mother, she greatly contributed. The mother 
and the daughter had a mutual respect the one for the other, and 
rejoiced in a connection so intimate and so fruitful in blessing. 

As might be expected, my professional influence was augmented by 
my marriage. My practice, which had always been sufficient as to 
quantity, but deficient as to profitableness, now increased in value- 


month after month; ahnost insensibly, it is true, but positively and 

In the year 1829 new duties and new anxieties came to us, for on 
the second of September of that year my eldest child was born, and 
was named Charles Blanchard. The previous summer had been very 
oppressive, so that, under the circumstances, Margaret suffered more 
than usual: indeed, for a few weeks she was seriously ill, erysipelas 
having come on her face and head. Nevertheless, she did very well, and 
was soon aide to perform all her maternal duties to her first-born. The 
child was small and had an unusually pallid and white complexion, but 
was renuirkably healthy, never suffering under the usual trials and 
pains of infancy. In March, 1830, however, my own health began to 
decline. I had a few sick days in the last of the month. These were 
followed by a complete suspension of the functions of the liver, so 
that I became perfectly jaundiced. This did not entirely incapacitate 
me for duty; but the disease produced its usual effects; great inertia 
of mind and body, loss of appetite, etc. As medicine did not seem 
to have much effect I visited my brother at Princeton to try the ef- 
ficacy of change of air and exercise, including working in the garden, 
etc. As a result of this treatment my strength increased, and I re- 
turned to Philadelphia the last of May. Soon afterwards the jaun- 
dice began gradually to diminish, and in a few weeks entirely van- 
ished, owing perhaps to the use of the fresh vegetables of the season, 
and especially strawberries. June and July proved very warm, and, 
as my practice was increased, and as I had no vehicle, I was much 
exposed to the sun, and exhausted by fatigue. The result of all was 
a serious attack of remittent fever, which kept me confined the whole 
month of August. I had to send to Kew York for Mrs. Hodge, who 
had gone thither Avith her infant to escape the heat of the summer. 
In September I found myself greatly emaciated and weak, with an 
enlargement of the spleen. I then left the city, travelling with my 
cousin, Mr. Andrew Bayard, then also quite an invalid, in a carriage 
to New Brunswick, and thence up the North River to West Point, 
where I joined my sister, Emily Aspinwall. Finding myself, how- 
ever, again very miserable I rapidly returned home. The cool weather 
of the autumn gradually revived me, and I entered once more upon 
my professional duties, which were then continued for a number of 
years without intermission or sickness. 

In December, 1830, my friend. Dr. Thomas C. James, resigned his 
position as obstetric physician at the Pennsylvania Hospital, and I 


was immediately selected as his successor. In consequence of this new 
appointment I resigned my position as attending physician at the 
Philadelphia Almshouse, where I had labored for seven years. 

About this time also I became a communicant in the Second Pres- 
bi'terian Church (Mr. Sanford being then pastor), to which my 
parents and grandparents had been devoted. This Second Presby- 
terian Church resulted, in a great measure from the preaching of 
the celebrated missionary, George A^^iitefield. Many of his hearers, 
and some persons also who belonged to the First Presbyterian Church 
on Market Street, worshipped in the old Academy on Fourth Street 
near Arch. It was termed the Whitefield Chapel. They were soon regu- 
larly organized as a church.* A lot of ground was afterwards bought 
at the northwest corner of Third and Arch Streets, and a building 
with a steeple of brick was erected about the year 1745, the Eev. 
Dr. Gilbert Tennent being pastor. My grandfather, Mr. Andrew 
Hodge, and my great-uncle, Mr. Hugh Hodge,t were among the origi- 
nal trustees. Colonel John Bayard, who was my imcle by marriage, 
and whose wife, Jane, was a daughter of my grandfather, Andrew, 
also became a trustee. The building was situated east and west, a 
large front door 1)eing on Third Street, and the steeple at the opposite, 
or west extremity ; so that the general aspect was very similar to that 
of St. Peter's Church at the southwest corner of Third and Pine 
Streets. I have distinct recollections of the appearance of this church 
al)out the beginning of the present century. A very large and 
high mahogany pulpit, with a stair-case on either side, was 
placed on the north side of the church, and over it was a large 
sounding-board, which, to my youthful imagination, suggested much 
danger to the preacher. In front of the pulpit was a high mahogany 
desk for the precentor, whose duties at that time were performed 
with great earnestness and zeal by Mr. Eastburn, who was afterwards 
ordained as an evangelist. In this station he proved exceedingly 
useful and ])opular, especially among sailors; and to his efforts we 
are indebted for the first mariners' church in Philadelphia and 
probably in the United States. There was a middle aisle in front 
of the pulpit, which, of course, was comparatively short, running 
from north to south to the long aisle from east to west. Most of 

♦The date was December, 1743. 

t Mr. Hugh Hodge's name does not appear in the list of original trustees in the 
charter granted by Thomas Penn and John Penn; but later (March 3, 17S0,) In "An 
Act for re-establishing the Charter of the Second Presbyterian Church in the City of 
Philadelphia, &c."— E. B. H. 


the aisle was paved with brick; but nearly one half toward the 
pulpit was covered with the tombstones of the former pastors, Tennent, 
Davis* and Finley,* who were there buried in accordance with an old 
usage. It is much to be feared that these old and venerated stones 
have been lost or stolen through neglect. The pews also were of 
the old pattern. They were high, of simple wood, painted white, 
and surmounted by a mahogany rail. As the aisle in front of the 
pulpit was curved, there was a corresponding curvature in front of 
the two pews at the head of the middle aisle; hence, these pews 
were triangular, having one long seat and one short one at right 
angles. There were many square pews also, especially on the southern 
side of the building: one of these in particular was called the 
Governor's, or President's, pew. It was situated directly opposite the 
pulpit in the middle aisle against the Arch .Street wall. It was 
surmounted by a wooden canopy, supported by two carved wooden 
columns. There is still in possession of the church a small glass 
chandelier which was purchased from the effects of General "Wash- 
ington, and tradition says that it hung in this pew. My first recol- 
lections of this chandelier were after the altering and rebuilding 
of the church in 1809. There were galleries on three sides of the 
church, which were comparatively short on the east and west 
extremities, while the one on the south side opposite the pulpit 
was long. The main door of the church was on the east side on 
Third Street. There was a smaller door on Arch Street toward the 
west end, corresponding therefore to the western aisle. There was 
another small door on the north side near Third Street. This 
opened upon a wide passage extending west from Third Street. On the 
north side of this passage was a high row of buildings occupied partly 
for stores, a carpenter shop, etc., and partly by our congregation for 
a lecture-room. On the western extremity of this building was a 
school-room, to which I once went as a pupil. The tower was on 
the west end of the church building. It was made of l)rick and 
was surmounted by a wooden spire, and there was a room under 
the tower occupied as a carpenter shop. Dr. Ashbel Green, former 
colleague of Dr. Sproat, was the senior pastor of the church, and 
Jacob J. Janeway was his colleigue. The sexton was Mr. Lesley, a 
cabinetmaker, and the chief undertaker of the church. The church 
building stood some distance back of the legal line on Arch Street, 

* This name does not appear in the list of pastors. The epitaphs of Gilbert Tennent, 
Samuel Finley and James Sproat are preserved. — E. B. H. 


SO that there was a very broad pavement; and on every Sal^bath 
morning, as soon as the services had commenced, iron chains were 
drawn across Arch Street and Third Street to arrest the passage of 
vehicles, that the congregation might not be disturbed. This privilege, 
which was granted in those days very respectfully to our own and 
other churches, was afterwards Avithdrawn as trespassing upon the 
rights of the masses. In 1S08 complaints were made respecting the 
stability of the spire of our steeple. These complaints Avere con- 
sidered to be well-founded, and the sjjire was taken down. As 
the congregation was then very prosperous it was determined to 
remodel the whole building. Accordingly the structure was entirely 
demolished, except the north, soutli and east walls, and in its recon- 
struction the space formerly occupied by the steeple was taken into 
the main building, which was thus greatly enlarged. The old and 
venerable mahogany pulpit with its appurtenances disappeared, and 
a neat wooden pulpit, ornamented with some carving, with a stair- 
case on either side and a precentor's desk in front, now occupied the 
west end of the building. The middle aisle was now the long aisle 
of the church, extending east and west. The pews also were modern- 
ized, being much lower and furnished with cushions. The galleries 
were reversed, so that there were now two long ones and one short 
one, the last being at the eastern extremity. Glass chandeliers for 
candles, including General Washington's, appeared at regular inter- 
vals, while candelabra were affixed to the pulpit. Churches in those 
days were very seldom warmed. Little foot-stoves, or hot bricks, 
enveloped in carpeting, were often brought in by servants for the 
comfort of the elderly and the invalid. Just about this time stoves 
were introduced into our church, with their long, black pipes, extend- 
ing nearly the whole length of the building and under the galleries. 
Wood was burned at that time, and much inconvenience was some- 
times produced from the droppings of a dark fluid from the joints 
of the pipes. The whole interior of the building was painted white, 
and had a very pleasant, cheerful look. The Avindows were large 
and numerous. The exterior of the edifice was now roughcast, of 
a dull light color, which gave it a neat appearance. But, after all 
that could be said for it, the church, as reconstructed, was a long, 
narrow, barn-like affair, without ornaments or architectural pre- 
tensions of any kind. 

The congregation re-entered their building in 1809, a large, 
prosperous and united body of people. The eloquent Dr. Green 


was much beloved, and although often weak and nervous, always 
attracted large assemblies, Avhile his less admired, but excellent 
colleague, Dr. Janeway, was heard with respectful attention. The 
church was, however, destined to sustain a great loss by the removal 
of their senior pastor to the presidency of the College of New Jersey 
at Princeton, to which situation he was elected in June, 1812, upon 
the resignation of the venerable Samuel Stanhope Smith. 

The duties of the congregation were too onerous for Dr. Janeway, 
so that an assistant became necessary. Under these circumstances 
Mr. Thomas II. Skinner, then about twenty-two years of age, was 
called to this important position. He was a young man of great 
talent and piety, exceedingly enthusiastic under the impulse of a 
warm imagination and a strong desire to do good. His style of 
preaching, which was very eloquent, was exceedingly diverse from the 
grave and didactic soundness to which this church had been 
accustomed. His voice and his manner corresponded to the intensity 
of his feelings, and he poured forth in tones of fervid eloquence, 
not only the blessed invitations and promises of the gospel, but 
also the terrible threatenings and denunciations of the law, not 
infrequently broaching sentiments which were thought to be not 
quite orthodox, and which were afterwards denominated "new school" 
doctrines. The excitement therefore was great, and at the time I 
left college, in 181-t, was approaching its crisis. The old elders 
of the church, and a large number of the congregation, were so 
decidedly opposed to his preaching that Mr. Skinner eventually 
resigned his place and retired with twelve or fifteen families to a 
building on Locust Street, above Eighth, where the Musical Fund 
Hall now stands. His popularity greatly increased, and he became 
so strong that his friends succeeded in erecting a handsome building, 
which still exists in Arch Street, above Tenth. Here Dr. Skinner 
was so much favored as to organize a strong and devoted church, 
which, notwithstanding some reverses, owing to change of pastors, is 
now exceedingly prosperous under the pastoral care of Mr. Withrow. 
Soon after this event Dr. Janeway resigned his office in the church 
and was elected a professor of theology in the new theological semin- 
ary at Allegheny City, while Eev. Mr. Sanford, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
became pastor of our church. He was a young man, and acquired 
much reputation as a speaker and pastor. He had lately been married. 
His coming was full of promise, and his preaching was generally 
very acceptable, so that the church was well attended, and for a 


time eYer3i:hing seemed to be doing very well. Nevertheless;, a secret 
dissatisfaction exisited among a j)ortion of the congregation as to the 
teachings and doings of the new pastor, while enthusiastic devotion 
prevailed among the rest. Most lamentably this division extended 
to the elders and leading members of the church, so that much dis- 
sension resulted, and efforts were made both to remove and to retain 
Mr. Sanford. Such a state of things could not continue. Finally, 
the friends of the pastor, led by such excellent men as Alexander 
Henry and Matthew Bevan, determined to withdraw, while Mr. 
Robert Ealston, Mr. Charles Chauncey and others of equal importance, 
adhered to the old church. But before the unnatural and unfor- 
tunate separation was accomplished, the Rev. Mr. Sanford was taken 
ill and died, and many of us trusted that the party feelings engendered 
would be allayed by this solemn dispensation of Providence. It is 
mournful, however, to record that this was by no means the case. 
The feelings of l)oth parties had become too much excited for recon- 
ciliation. Consequently, when the funeral services of Mr. Sanford 
had been performed in the church, all his friends, amounting to nearly 
one-half of the congregation, retired and organized themselves into a 
new church, and soon afterwards erected a commodious building at 
the southeast corner of Eighth and Cherry Streets. They procured 
as pastor the Rev. John McDowell, who for some twenty or thirty 
years had been a most acceptable and successful pastor at Elizabeth, 
JST. J. The Second Church, thus reduced in numbers, obtained the 
services of the Rev. C. C. Cuyler, an influential clergyman of the Dutch 
Reformed Church, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y.* 

In the course of a year or two it was deemed expedient to dispose 
of the property at the corner of Third and Arch Streets, and to erect 
a new building in Seventh Street, south of Arch, on the east side. 
The front of this building was of marble, and the interior very chaste 

*0ne of the Innovations of Mr. Sanford to the old quiet habits of the Second Churcli 
was bis practice of calling upon all new members to stand up when their names were 
read and to give their assent to the great gospel principles of the Church and to 
enter into covenant with the people. In those days also it was customary at the 
administration of the Lord's Supper to have narrow tables, covered with white cloth 
and furnished with benches, extending down the aisles. To these all the communi- 
cants resorted while the elements were passed along. When some retired to their 
pews others took their places, so that two and even three tables were often thus filled, 
at each of which addresses were made by one or more clergymen. Formerly, more- 
over, it was customary on the Friday evening previous to the communion to dis- 
tribute little lead tokens to each communicant, and it was the business of the elders 
to collect these as each table was filled, and before the elements were distributed. 
This practice, whatever may have been its utility, had been abandoned by our Church. 
1 inyself, however, well recollect its regular enforcement. 


and commodious. The pulpit was built, somewhat in the form of a 
mausoleum, of pure white marble on a platform about a foot high. It 
was about fifteen feet long, and about five feet high, a complete paral- 
lelogram, at the middle portion of which was another piece of marble, 
five feet in length and two or three feet in height, surmounted by the 
cushion, in front of the pulpit, while below there was a communion- 
table of mahogany, somewhat carved and ornamented and covered with 
a slab of black marble. In the rear of the pulpit and in the recess was 
a tablet of white marble in memory of the first pastor, Gilbert 

It is a painful fact to state that neither of these two congregations, 
although thus well furnished with new buildings and new pastors, 
was at all prosperous. After many years Dr. McDowell was com- 
pelled to resign his position; and it is only within the last few years 
that the congregation has been much increased. It is now thriving 
under the care of Eev, Alexander Eeed. In Seventh Street we 
lingered and dwindled in numbers from deaths and removals under 
the care of the Eev. Dr. Cuyler, and, after his death, under the Eev. 
Dr. Shields, now professor in the College of New Jersey. 

In 1865, upon the retirement of Dr. Shields, the Eev. E. E. 
Beadle, who had been a missionary in Syria, and a pastor in New 
Orleans and also in Hartford, Conn., became our pastor. He had 
made a great reputation, especially as an earnest and eloquent 
preacher; a reputation which he fully maintained upon his arrival 
in Philadelj^hia. The church improved very much, but not with 
sufficient rapidity to satisfy the mind of our pastor, to say nothing of 
many of our people. The cause was attributed to the removal of 
influential Presbyterians from the eastern to the western part of 
the city. Hence, after much discussion, it was determined to sell 
our present church building and erect another in a more promising 
situation. The sale was soon effected by auction, and we, therefore, 
most unfortunately had no place to go to, and, what was a still more 
unfortunate circumstance, there was the greatest difference of 
opinion as to what would be a suitable location. We made a 
temporary engagement at Horticultural Hall, on Broad Street, above 
Spruce; a place which proved to be very uncomfortable, and did 
not therefore in any way contribute to harmonize our sentiments. 
After considering various propositions, we determined to purchase the 
lot at the corner of Twenty-first and Walnut Streets in the autiunn 

* This tablet is to the memory, not only of Gilbert Tennent, but of George WMte- 
field as well, "to whose evangelistic labors the church owes its existence."— E. B. H. 


of 186?. But even tliis resolution, although supiDorted by a hand- 
some subscription for the lot, did not quiet our troubles. Early in 
January, 1868, some of our most influential people were anxious 
to accept a proposition to merge ourselves with the congregation in 
Arch Street, above Tenth. This was again the source of great 
difference of opinion and debate. The congregation being nearly 
equally divided on the subject, an appeal had to be made to the 
Central Presbytery of Philadelphia, who almost unanimously refused 
to sanction the proposed union. Notwithstanding this decision, it 
was impossible for some time to settle upon a locality for the church. 
Various points were suggested, examined, and voted upon, and it 
was not until the 22d of June, 1868, that a decisive vote was given 
in favor of the lot on the corner of Twenty-first and Walnut Streets. 
The ownership of the lot had by this time changed hands, and we 
had to give $7000 more than would have been required in the fall 
of 1867; and moreover, although a very large majority of the 
opponents still adhered to the old church, still we lost several of 
our most influential and wealthy families. Nevertheless, the deter- 
mination to go forward in what seemed to us a great and important 
work for the cause of religion in general, and especially for Presby- 
terianism in this section of the city where a church was very much 
wanted, and where a population, cultivated and influential, was 
rapidly increasing, was rewarded by the obtaining of subscriptions 
amounting to some $33,000. A highly architectural plan was pre- 
pared by Mr. Henry A. Sims, and ground was broken on 
the 26th day of March, 1869, and since that time we have steadily 
persevered under many discouragements and difficulties in the prose- 
cution of our work, until now, in February, 1873, the walls have been 
erected, the roof has been finished, and the work is so far advanced 
that we hope to enter the building before termination of the 
coming spring. In November, 1868, with a view to securing a 
regular attendance of our meml^ers, and to increase our numbers, we 
commenced the erection of a plain building on the southern extremity 
ot our lot. To this building we transferred our old pews, gas-fixtures 
and part of the pulpit, and secured in this way quite a home-like, 
though humljlc, place of worship, which we occupied with mutual 
congratulations on the 17th of January, 1869. This experiment has 
been quite successful, inasmuch as our income is now sufficient for 
our annual expenses, including $4000 for the salary of our pastor, and 
there have been so many additions to our membership that seats can 


hardly be pro\dded for them. We trust, therefore, that a very good 
nucleus has now been formed, under the blessing of Providence, for the 
resuscitation of the old Second Presbyterian Church to its former 
influence and usefulness at home and abroad. 

My own health, after my illness in 1830, was quite good, 
and my practice was constantly increasing, and as the fa- 
tigue of walking had, under these circumstances, become 
great, I determined, although my income was still small, to 
procure a gig; a two- wheeled vehicle for one horse. It so 
happened that our arrangements were just completed on the 12th 
of August, 1831, and on that day my second son, John Aspinwall, 
was born; his brother Charles being not quite two years of age. He 
was apparently a stronger child than his predecessor, and did very 
well, although for six weeks he had the icterus infantilis. His 
dear mother was also very well. 

Tn the spring of 1832 I was destined to experience my 
first great affliction. My mother, who had been somewhat of 
an invalid for some two or three years, as she suffered from 
a slight bronchial affection, became unexpectedly very ill early 
in April, 1832. She had been subject to wandering pains, generally in 
her limbs, which were of a gouty character, attended with slight 
depositions in some of the finger joints, and occasionally wdth more 
or less distress in the region of the stomach. She had taken a slight 
cold, which for two or three days did not seem to be of any import- 
ance; but this was, to my surprise, followed by pulmonary congestion 
and mild delirium. She died April the 14th, after an illness of a few 
days, too soon for my brother even to reach her from Princeton. 

On Friday morning, the 14th of April, she was evidently sinking, 
and toward two o'clock she fell asleep without suffering and without 
anxiety. She had long felt that her work was really done. She 
had made a good profession, not only as a faithful communicant in 
the church, but by a constant self-denying devotion to the duties of a 
life emphatically consecrated to the welfare of others. To her her 
sons are indebted for their education, and for all the influence for 
good which they may have exerted or which they may yet exert. 
Truly they are blessed in having had such a parent. 

She was interred in the Presbyterian burying-ground in Arch 
Street, above Fifth. The funeral services were conducted by her 
pastor. Dr. Ashbel Green, by whom she was also married. Dr. Green 
had moreover baptized her children, and delivered an eulogium over 
the grave of her husband. Dr. Hodoe. Her mother's maiden name 


was Himt, and she was probably of English descent. Her father's 
name was Joseph Blanchard. He came doubtless of French ancestry, 
descended, I suppose, from the Huguenots, who were exiled from 
France. Her early years were spent in Boston. She was born in 
that city in November, 1765. Her youthful experience, therefore, 
was amidst the excitements preparatory to the rebellion of the 
colonies against the authority of Great Britain. Of course, the 
opportunities for education were few. These few, how^ever, were 
well employed, for she early manifested a great love for reading. 
This taste was indeed so strong that she often retired from the fire- 
side circle, and in a cold room, in a Boston winter, envel- 
oped in a blanket, would read and commit to memory pas- 
sages from Pope and Dryden, many of which she could still 
repeat even in the latter portion of her life. Her family 
physician was the celebrated Dr. Joseph Warren, afterwards Major 
General Warren, of Bunker Hill memory, and one of the first 
martyrs in his country's cause. Her recollections of him were 
very vivid. He occasionally came to see her, as she suffered 
somewhat from weak eyes. On such occasions she would be taken 
upon his knees, not so much, however, to receive medical attention as 
to hear him discourse on the exciting controversies of the day, as he 
early devoted himself with enthusiasm to the cause of the colonies. 
He boldly uttered his denunciations against the Parliament of 
England to crowded audiences of Americans and English in Faneuil 
Hall, even when the galleries were filled with the red-coats of the 
British Army. On one occasion, in her father's parlor, Warren was 
advised by his friends to be less severe, as otherwise he would doubt- 
less be imprisoned. He cooly turned up the ruffles at his wrist, and 
stretching forth his arms exclaimed: "These were never made for 
fetters.'^ So it proved, for no one ventured to disturb him.* 

» Notfi by H. W. H. 

It is sometimes interesting and curious to observe in the lives of people points in 
the road where for a moment two paths touch and diverge again. In Dr. Warren 
there is a slight meeting of the Hodge and Aspinwall families; for this gentleman, 
so kind a friend and so honored a physician in the childhood of father's mother, was 
also a kinsman of William Aspinwall, M. D., who was a relative of father's wife, 
Margaret Aspinwall. He was born in Brookline, Mass., on the 23rd of May, old style, 
1743. His ancestors emigrated from England about the year 1630 with some four thou- 
sand others. Peter Aspinwall first settled at Dorchester, and afterwards at Brookline 
about the year 1650. William was a descendant of this Peter. He completed his edu- 
cation at the hospital in Philadelphia, where he received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine in the University of Pennsylvania. About the year 176S he returned to his 
native village and commenced the practice of medicine, being the first physician who 
settled in the place. At the commencement of the Revolutionary War, Under an 
enthusiastic impulse to espouse the cause of the country he applied for a commission 


My mother never gave me many details of her early life; but it 
would appear that her parents died when she was young. Her 
brothers and sisters, mostly married, and she came to Philadelphia, 
at twenty or twenty-two years of age, with her brother, Mr. John 
Blanchard. Another brother, Mr. Samuel Blanchard, married a 
niece of the Hon. Timothy Pickering, who was a colonel in the 
Kevolutionary Army, and afterwards Secretary of War under Wash- 
ington. Mr. Blanchard settled himself on a delightful farm at 
Wenliam, near Salem, Mass. He had three children, Henry, Francis 
and Lucy. Henry devoted himself to a sea life, and never married. 
Lucy married Mr. Orne, of Salem, but died without children. Prancis 
married a sister or niece of Mrs. Colonel Gardiner, who died, leaving 
one child, who was brought up by Mrs. Gardiner. Francis himself 

in the Army, but his kinsman and friend, Dr. Joseph Warren, afterwards Major-Gen- 
eral Warren, persuaded him from this pursuit, and induced him to serve his country 
in the medical department. Accordingly Dr. AspinwaU received the appointment of 
surgeon in General Heath's Brigade, and soon afterwards that of Deputy-Director of 
the hospital at Jamaica Plains, by the recommendation of General Warren. On the 
memorable day of the battle of Lexington Dr. AspinwaU was a volunteer and was 
personally engaged in the conflict. He bore from the field the corpse of Isaac Gardi- 
ner, Esq., whose oldest daughter he afterwards married. Dr. AspinwaU had the body 
of his revered friend carried to his house and buried at midnight in order that the 
number of our martyred citizens might, as much as possible, be concealed from public 

Dr. AspinwaU erected hospitals for inoculation in Brookline, and perhaps no prac- 
titioner in the United States ever inoculated so many persons and acquired such skill 
and celebrity. He had made ample accommodations for enlarged practice, and estab- 
lished what might have been justly deemed a sure foundation for prosperity, when 
the vaccine inoculation was introduced. He well knew that, if this method of protec- 
tion from smallpox possessed the virtues ascribed to it, his schemes of fortune and 
usefulness from inoculation in his hospital were ruined, and his anticipations of 
wealth would be blasted. Nevertheless, as an honest and faithful physician, he gave 
the new method a fair trial, promptly acknowledged its efficiency and relinquished his 
own establishment. The following account is given in the "Medical Intelligencer" of 
that time:— "I had invited all the elder physicians of Boston and the vicinity of Cam- 
bridge to see the first vaccine pustules ever raised in the new world. They gave 
them the ordinary inspection of an unusual eruption on the skin; all but Dr. Aspin- 
waU, whose attention was riveted on the pustule, its areola and efflorescence. He 
came the second time and viewed the inoculated part in every light, and reviewed 
it, and seemed loath to leave the sight of it. He seemed wrapped in serious thought, 
and said repeatedly, "This pustule is so like smallpox, and yet is not smallpox, that, 
should it on scabbing take out a portion of the true skin so as to leave an Indelible 
mark, or pit, behind, I shall be ready to conclude that it is a mild species of smallpox 
hitherto unknown here.' Some time afterwards I gave him a portion of the virus to 
make his own experiments with. To crown the whole of his remarkable conduct he 
some time afterwards took all those of my family whom I had vaccinated mto his 
smallpox hospital and there tested them, and then said to me and to others :-'This 
new inoculation of yours is no sham. As a man of humanity I rejoice in it, although 
it will take from me a handsome annual income.' He died on the 16th of April, 1823, 
of natural decay, having nearly completed his eightieth year. Dr. AspinwaU was 
endowed with a strong intellect and a resoluteness that shrunk from no labor or du.y. 
He was a fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and also Justice of the Peace 
throughout the Commonwealth." 


died of consnmjjtion about the year 1811 or 1812. His daughter 
aTterwards became the wife of the Honorable Eobert Winthrop. 
She lived some yearS;, and died leaving two or three children. (See 
letter of Miss Pickering.) Two of these children are living, I 
Lelieve, and one was educated as a law3^er. This young gentleman 
married, and spent some time in Europe. Another brother of my 
mother's, Joshua Blanchard, lived in Boston. As far as I know, 
he had two daughters. They were both married in succession to Mr. 
Winslow. Several children were the issue of the first marriage. 
One of the sons brought his wife on a visit to Philadelphia. Her 
health was bad, and they went to spend the winter in Barbadoes. He 
afterwards wrote me a very pleasant letter, giving an excellent 
description of the climate and productions of this island, and of 
the benefits which his wife derived from her winter there. 

About the year 1860 I had a visit from one of his sisters, Miss 
Winslow, a remarkably cheerful and pleasant woman, possessing 
evidently a Avarm and affectionate heart. She exhibited no little 
delight in seeing a son of her l^eloved aunt Mary. She informed me 
that her uncle, Mr. John Blanchard, was at that time living at 
Boston, seventy-five years of age, the only one remaining who retained 
the family name. I had a correspondence with him respecting the 
family history. 

Mr. John Blanchard, my mother's brother, married in a manner 
disagreeable to her, and this event with other circumstances of an 
unpleasant character, destroyed their intimacy. Some of his grand- 
children are still living in Philadelphia, My mother's youngest 
brother was Mr, Thomas Blanchard. He, rather early in life, went 
to Norfolk, Va., and there married a Miss Amy Newton, whose 
brother, Thomas Newton, was for many years a member of Congress. 
Another brother, George Newton, was president of the United States 
Branch Bank at Norfolk, Mr, Blanchard had several children, Charles, 
Henry, Alfred, Edward and Carey, and one daughter, Georgianna. 
I believe his children were all born in Norfolk. Soon after their 
birth Mr. Blanchard, out of pecuniary considerations, established 
himself near Natchez, Miss., where he soon afterwards died. Charles 
and Henry were lawyers, but died early. Their father's widow, Mrs. 
Amy Blanchard, found liersclf with this family of children, and witli 
very limited resources. She was remarkably quiet, but Judicious, and 
filled with energy and spirit. After selling off her plantation in 
Mississippi, she purchased land in Louisiana, on the Red Eiver, near 


Alexandria, then a very wild country, so that the land was very 
cheap. She was greatly prospered, and became quite wealthy before 
her death, which occurred in 1837 or 1838. The three elder sons died 
before the family left Mississippi. Edward entered the United States 
Navy, and many years afterwards married a French lady, and settled 
at jSTatchitoches, in western Louisiana. He died suddenly from an 
accident, leaving several children. Mrs. Amy Blanchard's daughter, 
Georgianna, married a Captain Wilkinson, U. S. A. He soon after- 
wards resigned and settled at Alexandria, La. They lived for several 
years, and when they died left several sons and daughters, who were 
taken care of by their uncle, Carey Blanchard. One of these daughters 

married a Mr. , of Louisiana, but died early, leaving 

however, three or four children. Two of her boys, grandchildren 
of Georgianna, have visited Philadelphia lately, and are now being 
educated in Virginia. Their father has been married again, and 
still lives in Louisiana. A second daughter of Mrs. Wilkinson's died 
during the Avar, and a third daughter is living, I believe, in Balti- 
more, whence she wrote me a letter some two years ago. The younger 
son of my uncle, Thomas Blanchard, Mr. Carey Blanchard, succeeded 
his mother on the plantation near Alexandria, La., where he brought 
up a family of children. He had the misfortune to lose one wife 
after another. His last, and fourth wife, was of French extraction, 
a widow with three children, and possessing considerable property. 
He was married to this fourth wife in 1860, and immediately after- 
wards paid a visit to the ISTorth, staying a week with us at our home 
near Germantown that summer. He returned to Louisiana in the 
fall, but died two or three years afterwards during the war. I have 
heard indirectly that his widow is still living with her children on 
her own plantation. I have not had for a long time any direct news of 
many (any ?) of the family in Louisiana. Carey Blanchard in Louisiana 
and John Blanchard in Boston were the last of my mother's nephews. 
In 1860 John was still living in Boston, a bachelor, seventy-five years 
of age. I have reason to believe that he is now dead, although I 
have received no direct information upon the subject. 

The summer of 1832 was rendered memorable by the invasion of 
cholera maligna. It had prevailed for some weeks or months in 
England, and its first appearance in America was at the north of 
the St. Lawrence. The profession as well as the public became much 
interested and excited. A committee of physicians, among whom were 
Dr. Jackson and Dr. Meigs, were sent to Montreal to study the com- 


plaint and the means of prevention and cure. Our public authorities 
facilitated our wishes. Comfortable and airy rooms were secured in 
all parts of the city, and the numerous appliances requisite for a 
hospital were provided. About the third week in July the disease 
suddenly appeared, and in a rather singular manner. Many of the 
earliest cases occurred in the Almshouse Hospital, where I was pre- 
scribing physician, and the various modes suggested by the English 
doctors were adopted with no very favorable results. My tour of duty 
having expired on the 1st of August, I was fortunate enough to 
procure the apj)ointment to one of the city hospitals, situated on 
the Delaware Elver, in Penn Street, below Pine, where I had as my 
assistants Drs. Smiley, Uselma Clarke,' Musgrave, and Edward 
Peace, one of my former pupils. I had also a great many private 
patients, so that I became much employed and greatly interested in 
the management of this dreaded complaint, having always a strong 
confidence that it should usually be successfully combated by remedial 
measures, provided a collapse was not complete. The inhabitants 
generally behaved very well. Many of the wealthy left the city, but 
a large number boldly remained to render themselves useful, so that 
among the lower classes much distress was hunted out and alleviated. 
Children were often found without protection, father and mother 
having both died. Several ladies procured subscriptions for opening 
a refuge for these poor unfortunates, and my college friend, Benjamin 
W. Eichards, who was then Mayor of the city, gave them a home for 
their asylum on Library Street, above Fourth, opposite the present 
Custom House. The Committee of Supervision were Miss Margaret 
Keppele (afterwards Mrs. John Latimer), Mrs. Charles D. Meigs, 
Mrs. H. L. Hodge and Miss Jane Phillips. These ladies were very 
devoted, and had the great satisfaction of not only preserving the 
health, but doubtless the lives of these fatherless children. 

It may be recorded that no cholera occurred in the institution, 
and a few who were brought in sick were transmitted to some of the 
hospitals. The epidemic, and, of course, the alarm of the citizens, 
subsided l)y the last of September or the 1st of October, though a 
few sporadic cases were seen during the course of the winter. The 
usual congratulations were extended, and the city authorities passed 
a vote of thanks to the medical profession, and presented a silver 
pitcher to each of the physicians of the cholera hospital as a more 
lasting memento of their respect. 

The succeeding year, 1833, passed as usual. I was once more 


favored by the birth of another son, James Bayard, who was born 
on the 12th day of December, 1833, a strong, vigorous child, whose 
future development corresponded to these early beginnings. 

In 1826 the health of Dr. Thomas C. James having somewhat 
failed, Dr. William P. Dewees was appointed as his colleague in the 
University; an arrangement which proved very satisfactory to the 
profession. In the winter of 1833 or 1831, Dr. James was so 
enfeebled that he resigned his professorship, and soon afterwards he 
died in the month of June. Dr. Dewees, who had been always a 
strong, healthy-looking man, suffered also during the spring from 
some congestion of the brain. The debility resulting left it doubtful 
whether he would be able to carry out the duties of the professorship 
now vacant. He, however, retired from the city for several months, 
and in a great degree recovered by the succeeding autumn. He was, 
therefore, elected by the trustees to fill the vacant chair. The duties 
of the appointment he managed with some effort to perform during 
the following winter, but it was necessary for him to recruit in the 
summer of 1835. The death of Dr. James and the bad health of 
Dr. Dewees left an opening in their branch of the profession for 
young aspirants. Dr. Charles D. Meigs and myself were benefited by 
these events, so that our social and professional influence was en- 
hanced. At the opening of the session of the medical course it was im- 
mediately apparent that Dr. Dewees was actually incapable of lecturing, 
owing to disease of the brain. He made but one attempt, and then his 
resignation, now unavoidable, was immediately made. Dr. Meigs 
and myself were the chief candidates, and the question so vital to 
our interests had to be decided in a few days. The friends of each 
of us were, of course, very active. Among the Board of Trustees 
our supporters were alike influential. I avoided all personal solicita- 
tion, leaving the canvass entirely to my friends. The election early 
in ISTovemljer was in my favor. This was very gratifying, as I thus 
ascended to the highest seat in this department of the profession. At 
the same time I felt overwhelmed with a sense of the labor and 
responsibility which it involved. As the lectures had already com- 
menced, it became necessary, three days after my appointment, to 
deliver an introductory discourse. This period was spent, therefore, 
under the influence of much anxiety and excitement, as much was 
expected of me, and I was not prepared to do myslf justice at so 
short a notice. I was enabled, however, to perform this duty and to 
pass through the whole course of lectures, to say the least, without 


any decided failure, being encouraged by partial friends and tlie 
attentive interest manifested by my pupils. Tbis winter, however, in 
a pecuniary point of view, was a loss rather than a gain. It was then 
customary for a new professor to pay to the trustees an entrance fee 
of six hundred dollars. In the present case, however, an additional 
burden was imposed, for the medical faculty had promised Dr. 
Dewees that the whole proceeds of the course, after the expenses 
were deducted, should be paid over to him on condition of liis resigna- 
tion. Although this condition of affairs was known beforehand, yet 
neither Dr. Meigs nor myself, as candidates, could in any degree 
demur. I had, therefore, to labor without pecuniary reward, and at 
the same time was subjected to great expense for the entrance-fee and 
for other objects. My cousin, Mr. John Hodge, assisted me in 
this emergency by an advance of money, and, as both Mrs. Hodge 
and myself had learned to practise economy, we were enabled to 
provide for all necessary disbursements. In consequence also of my 
appointment as professor, confidence in me was increasing, and my 
practice was correspondingly augmented. Hence, I learned to cherish 
brighter hopes, and with renewed alacrity went forward to meet the 
necessary labors and anxieties of the future. My most excellent friend 
and counsellor, Mr. Charles Chauncey, to whom I was chiefly indebted 
for my appointment as professor, strongly advised me to change my 
domicile, believing tliat a more imposing residence would increase my 
influence, and that I would be able gradually to meet the pecuniary 
responsibility thence resulting. As this large house, on the northwest 
corner of Nintli and Walnut Streets, which covers two lots and 
includes two large offices, had been recently vacated by Professor John 
Coxe, who had built it, Mr. Chauncey strongly advised me to pur- 
chase it. I yielded to his judg-ment, although it was contrary to my 
own opinion and prudent plans, inasmuch as nearly the whole of 
the purchase money had to be borrowed. I could not but take into 
consideration the possible failure of my ability to work, involving a 
complete loss. Although this purchase has apparently resulted 
favorably, yet even at tliis late hour of my life I remain doubtful 
whether it was a wise measure. On the 29th of June, 1836, after making 
many repairs and some alterations, some of them of an expensive 
character, we entered our new residence. We left the house in Sansom 
Row with many regrets, for there we had been very comfortable and 
happy with comparatively few responsibilities. There we passed the 
first happy years of our marriage; there three of my children had 


been born, and there also I had laid the foundations of my pro- 
fessional success. There also my mother lived with me for twelve 
years, four of which were after my marriage, and there she died, 
after enjoying the great satisfaction of seeing me, in some degree 
at least, reap the fruit of all her anxieties and the labors and self- 
denials which she had endured for her children. Her work was done. 
She left her boys happily married, blessed with children, and with 
every prospect of domestic and professional prosperity. 

Our mutual happiness was again augmented this summer by the 
birth of my fourth son, Hugh Lenox, on the 30th of July. 

Of course, my children had to remain in town during the summer, 
but our whole family continued well and enjoyed their new home, 
where the rooms were large and where consequently they had plenty 
of room indoors, while the garden afforded them the opportunity for 
play and exercise. 

No important event occurred during the succeeding year, but I 
was destined to suffer another bereavement early in 1838. My first- 
born son, Charles Blanchard, although rather thin and pallid, had 
never been sick, but was active, cheerful, intelligent. Without 
apparent cause he became unwell, with feverish symptoms and dis- 
order of the digestive organs. , My friend. Dr. Chapman, paid him every 
attention, but without effect; and, after a sickness of eight days, the 
child died on the 16th day of March from hypercatharsis, and we 
have reason to believe that a perforation of the bowel had occurred. 
The trial was very great to his mother as well as myself. As he 
was the eldest, we necessarily looked to him, not only for our own 
comfort in times to come, but for the good influence which we 
trusted he might exert over his younger brothers. Still, while suffer- 
ing thus, without murmuring we bowed to the will of God. The 
mother's health continued good, and on the 14th of June she gave 
birth to our fifth son, William Henry. He was a delicate-looking 
child, but nevertheless, like all my children, quite healthy. 

The year 1839 and part of 1840 were passed in the usual manner; 
but in July, 1840, as the summer was warm, and as my son William, 
now upwards of two years of age, had not finished his first dentition, 
and was weak and miserable, we determined to spend a few weeks at 
Cape May for the sake of the sea air and the bathing. All of the 
party were much revived by this change. William recovered his 
appetite and his animation, ils to myself, although I had never 
been able to bear cold batliing, I ventured into the ocean two or 


three times; at first witli apparent impunity; but after the last 
bathing I had a chilh Immediately after my return to Philadelphia, 
after a visit of ten days, I became quite ill with inflammation of the 
larynx and lungs, for which, as was then customary, I was bled and 
blistered, so that for four or five weeks I was kept at home for the 
first time since my severe illness of 1830. I recovered and was very 
well, so that in September I was actively employed in practice, and 
I was able to lecture during the following winter. Owing to my 
position at the University I had by this time obtained considerable 
reputation in distant places, especially in the South and Southwest, 
from which we drew a large number of our medical students. Hence, 
a very pleasant, and even lucrative, practice resulted. I had a large 
number of ladies from Maryland and from Virginia, as well as from 
farther South, who came for my professional care in succession, and 
with many of these I formed close and abiding friendships. This 
interesting part of my professional experience continued rather to 
increase until November and December, 1860, when it came to an 
abrupt termination by the political dissensions which terminated in 
the Civil War of 1861, by which the minds and hearts of the people, 
especially in the South, liave been so embittered. 

Another epoch occurred in our family history in the winter succeed- 
ing my illness, marked by the birth of my son, Edward Blanchard, on 
the 5th of February, 1841. He was a strong, plump boy, and proved to 
be of fair complexion, and, as he grew, he had more bloom in his 
cheeks than his predecessors. 

Our family of boys had grown rapidly, and the elder sons com- 
menced school with the Misses Donaldson, who kept an excellent 
primary school in Walnut Street, above Eighth. They were sisters 
of Captain Donaldson. Of course, the boys occupied much of their 
mother's attention, who in the most quiet manner always exerted a 
decided influence for good over all their thoughts and actions. 
Her authority was supreme, and yet so quietly exercised as to insure 
the respect, and to awaken at the same time the love of her children. 
They were fortunate also in having a most judicious and excellent 
nurse, Mrs. Betsy Harding. "j\Iammy Betsy," as she was called, 
began in early life to take charge of children, and pursued the practice 
of nursing unremittingly, with the exception of a short interval 
during her married life. She was a Scottish woman, and always 
maintained the respectful manner and sober dress characteristic of 
persons of her station in Europe, but which is too frequently laid 


aside b}^ immigrants to America. She had nursed in a large number 
of the most cultured families in our city, and also in Washington (Bal- 
timore?). I first saw her about the year 1824, when she was taking 
care of the eldest child of my late friend, Dr. J. K. Mitchell, and in 
the spring of 1834 or 1835 she came to us when my son Bayard was 
about five, or seventeen, months old. From this time on she was the 
only child's nurse we had, as her health was generally good, and she 
was unremittingly, and even anxiously, devoted to the innumerable 
wants of her charge. 

About 1860 or 1861, when even our youngest child was well grown, 
Mammy Betsy was becoming infirm from years, and her sight 
also became somewhat dim. We gave her to i»nderstand that she must 
always regard our house as her home, and that the children over whom 
she had so tenderly watched would always be happy in making her 
comfortable and in seeing that her every want was supplied. The 
force of habit was strong in lier, and she always felt gratified in the 
belief that her superintendence of the boys' wardrobe, etc., was quite- 
important. She never became, however, a burden upon the family, 
or indeed at all helpless. Early in September, 1869, she had a severe 
bilious attack by which she was completely prostrated, and on the 
8th of September she died. Two of her proteges were still absent 
in Europe. These were my sons William and George. Her funeral 
was attended by her former patroness, Mrs. J. K. Mitchell, her son 
Weir, and her daughter Elizabeth Mitchell, and many of Mammy 
Betsy's old friends.* 

She was interred in Monument Cemetery, on Broad Street, in a 
lot which I owned. A marble stone was placed at the head of her 
grave, on which was inscribed her name, her age, which was eighty-four, 
the day of her death, and the words : "Faithful unto Death." This 
was a just tribute to one who had so well served her generation in 
what is too frequently called an humble sphere, but which is really 
one of the greatest importance and usefulness. 

Although Betsy was old and infirm, I and my children sincerely 
mourned her loss, and were exceedingly grateful for all the blessings 
which she bestowed upon our family. The following notice was 
published in the daily papers: 

"Died.— On the 8th of September, 1869, Elizabeth Harding, in the 
eighty-fourth year of her age. She was a native of Scotland, but 
came over to this country in 1796 when she was still very young. 

*The funeral service was conducted at the house at the corner of Ninth and Walnut 
Streets by Aspinwall and Edward, the two ministerial sons who were at home.— E. B. H. 


She was earl}- married, but was soon left a widow, having also lost her 
only infant. The work to Avhich she devoted her life was the care 
of children, and in fulfilment of this service she lived successively 
in many of the most influential families of this city and Baltimore. 
A number of those she watched over in infancy have lived to occupy 
important stations in society, both professional and political. During 
the thirty-four years i^receding her death she lived in one family. The 
children whom she brought up thoroughly engaged her thoughts and 
affections. In the discharge of her duties to them she was discreet, 
judicious and attentive, sedulously watching over her tender charge 
night and da}^, displaying affectionate interest, and securing the 
j)erfect confidence of hgr employers. Her sense of propriety was a 
conspicuous feature of her character, constantly exhibited in her 
dress and manners as well as in her conversation. 

"She always manifested a devotion to religion, and in her declining 
years her solace and hope were found to be resting exclusively on 
her Eedeemer. We may safely say of her, 'She hath done what she 
could,' and must believe that she has received the welcome declara- 
tion, 'Well done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy 
of thy Lord.'" 

In the next three or four years after the birth of my son Edward 
in 1841 no event of importance transpired in my family or profession. 
There were a few cases of cholera maligna to be heard of now and 
then; but, with the exception of one or two cases, they did not 
happen in my practice, and no alarm was created. Indeed, with 
exception of the cholera epidemic in 1832, our city has been wonder- 
fully free since 1820 from endemic diseases. Of course, there were 
small visitations of scarlatina and measles ; but they were very seldom 
of a malignant type. It must be confessed that in the summer 
season the deaths of infants are always numerous, a circumstance 
which must be ascribed to the coml)ined influence of a hot atmos- 
phere, ill-ventilated apartments and gross errors in diet. On the 
whole, our rate of mortality, especially among adults, was com- 
paratively small. 

My practice had now become very engrossing, sometimes oppressive ; 
but the income derived from this source, and also from my pro- 
fessorship, had nearly, if not quite, enabled me to pay off the heavy 
mortgage upon my house, so that I began to feel more like a free 
man, and to hope that my wife and children would have at least a 
moderate support in case that I should be disabled. 


After a much longer interval than usual, my seventh and last 
child, George Woolsey, was l)orn on the 20th of May, 1845. He was 
a little, delicate child. Still, he enjoyed good health until the summer 
of 1846, when, unfortunateh^, a necessity for weaning occurred. No 
diet seemed to suit him, and with very little positive disease he 
became greatly emaciated and very fretful and irritable, taxing 
the patience and good-nature of his excellent Mammy Betsy. He 
gradually recovered when the cool weather began, and ere long 
became as vigorous as his brothers. In the summer of 1845 Mrs. 
Hodge took her infant to her friends in New York, and Mammy 
Betsy and the other children were boarded at Princeton, where Mrs. 
Hodge soon afterwards joined them. As my family were too numerous 
to travel about in the summer season we engaged a stone building for 
our summer residence in Fisher's Lane, near the main street of 
Germantown, the first house east of the cemetery. The house was old- 
fasliioned, but very comfortable. There was about an acre of ground 
attached to it, well shaded with trees, and with a stable in the rear. 
As I had procured a little coach and had two horses, one of which 
was kept out of town, Mrs. Hodge and the children enjoyed some 
pleasant drives. I also procured a pony for the elder boys, which, of 
course, proved very useful, while at the same time it afforded great 
enjoyment. I had taken the precaution previously of having the 
boys in succession instructed in horsemanship. Hence, although 
many minor accidents occurred at various times, they never sustained 
any serious injury. From May to the last of September the time 
was spent very advantageously and pleasantly in a region of country 
which has always been famed for the healthful character of the atmos- 
phere. Wliile the schools were still open the elder boys went regu- 
larly into town by the railroad cars, which passed then a few rods 
from the house, and returned by three o'clock to dinner. July and 
August were given up to recreation. They had their excursions into 
the woods and lanes, while, in addition to the pleasure derived from 
riding and driving, they had that which was afforded them in the care 
of their dogs and rabbits* 

My own practice at this season was to visit Fisher's Lane at irregu- 
lar intervals, very seldom spending a night out of town. But still I 
enjoyed very good health, so that my business was not interrupted. 

*There were two stables in the rear of the one-acre lot on Fisher's Lane. One 
of these was appropriated to the horse and pony, "Fairy," while the other was a cow- 
stable, which we boys used for our own purposes ad Wdtum. — E. B. H. 


Nevertheless in the summer of 18 — , I was persuaded for the first 
time to take a lioliday in iVugust, so far at least as to spend my 
afternoons and evenings in the country, carrying with me my books 
and papers when I went. This, therefore, was quite a recreation to 
mind and body, and brought me more directly in contact with 
my children, especially as they also at this time were free from 
their schools. Our location at Fisher's Lane was the more pleasant 
from the fact that my cousin, Mrs. Henry and family, lived within 
four minutes' walk of our house, and Mr. and Mrs. James Bayard, 
with Mrs. Bayard's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Backus, soon afterwards 
took a house next to ours. 

In 1847 my eldest son, Aspinwall, being now sixteen years old, was 
prepared for college, having received his classical education at the 
Grammar School of the University under the superintendence of the 
Rev. Samuel Wylie Crawford, a most excellent teacher and a good, 
upright man. His discipline was strict, and had been severe. It 
was said now to be much moderated, and the boys regarded him, 
not only with veneration, but also with affection. As my brother 
and myself had graduated at Princeton, where my father and uncle 
had also been taught, I was quite desirous to send my boys to that well- 
established college. Nevertheless I could not tolerate the idea of 
exposing my children to such temptations as college life implies at 
a time when their principles had hardly been formed or strengthened. 
Home influences, especially that of their mother, I deemed of para- 
mount importance. Aspinwall was, therefore, entered in the collegiate 
department of the University of Pennsylvania, the Rev. John Ludlow 
being then provost. Of course, he began at the Preshman class, 
and hence had to remain four years. 

In 1851 he received his degree of Bachelor of Arts, and determined 
to devote himself to the ministry. I advised him, however, to give at 
least a year to general studies and to the languages. As he did not 
seem to be very strong, and as his uncle Edward and aunt Emily 
Woolsey were in Europe, I determined tliat he should join them 
abroad. He did so, and travelled with them for a few months through 
England. On their return to America in the fall x\spinwall settled 
himself in Paris in the house of a Protestant clergyman, and after- 
wards went to Switzerland and Italy. In these excursions he met 
with several of liis uiotlier's family, Mrs. Charles Woolsey and her 
daughters, Mr. Robert Howland, and also young Mr. Joseph How- 
land, who was then travelling with his father, J\lr. Samuel Howland. 


Aspinwall also, while abroad, made the acquaintance of Miss Lottie 
Morse, whom he afterwards married, she having been for some time 
at Geneva under the instruction of Dr. Caesar Malan. Leaving such 
pleasant friends he made his way to Berlin to pursue his studies in 
German, but, as he was without friends or companions, in the follow- 
ing spring, being quite homesick, he returned to America before a full 
year was ended. It gives me pleasure to mention that his uncle, Mr. 
William Aspinwall, insisted on bearing the whole expense of this 
trip to Europe. 

During the next few years, following 1847, there was little 
or no change in our family history. The boys rapidly de- 
veloped mentally and corporeally, and greatly enjoyed their 
studies and amusements. This seemed to be especially true 
of my son Bayard. He was of a bright, healthy, florid 
complexion, had grown quite tall, with a well-developed bony 
and muscular system. _ He was full of animal spirits, but of 
excellent morals, with strong religious tendencies, securing the appro- 
bation of his teachers at the Sunday-school of St. Andrew's Church, 
and also of the rector, the Eev. William Bacon Stevens, D.D., now 
Bishop Stevens. All our bright hopes of him, which were great, 
were destined to a speedy and sudden destruction. About the 5th or 
6th of Decemlier, 1850, after retiring to bed, apparently in best 
health and spirits, he was awakened about two o'clock in the morning 
with a chill. This was followed by some fever with much delirium. I 
immediately sent for my friends. Dr. Caspar Morris and Dr. Samuel 
Jackson, who sedulously attended him, but without being able to 
detect the precise character or cause of his complaint. On the third 
or fourth day an eruption appeared of a peculiar type in the form of 
numerous well defined spots of a purplish color, upon the breaking out 
of which the dehrium ceased, and he was comparatively comfortable. 
On the morning of the eleventh, however, he was seized suddenly 
with intense pains, especially in the right temple. A few leeches 
were applied with other remedies, and the pain greatly diminished, 
but his delirium returned and gradually increased. Before one o'clock 
he became comatose, with an effusion of tears from the eyes. A 
short time afterwards he expired. So my bright boy passed away 
upon the morning of the 11th of December, one day prior to the 
termination of his seventeenth year. I can only describe this affliction 
as overwhelming. Time has softened, but not destroyed it. His 
poor mother, who had constantly watched him during the night, kept 


up to the last; but then her nervous system was disturbed, and she 
required immediate and constant attention. Bayard's funeral occurred 
on the l-ith of December in the presence of his companions at college 
and of our family friends. Dr. Stevens, Dr. Henry A. Boardman, and 
our then new pastor. Dr. Shields, conducted the services. His remains 
were the first to be deposited in my lot at Laurel Hill, which I had 
purchased several years previously, and to which I now translated 
the remains of my son Charles. At the time of his decease Bayard 
was a member of the Jimior Class of the University, where he had 
secured the esteem of his teachers and the love of his companions. 

The following year my son, Hugh Lenox, then fifteen years of age, 
became a member of the Freshman Class of the University of Penn- 

My health continued good, notwithstanding the fact that an- 
other decade* had passed, until February, 1853, just before the close 
of the lectures, when I had a very severe catarrh, and some fever, so 
that my voice was in some measure lost. Nevertheless by a little active 
treatment there was a rapid solution of the complaint, and I was able 
to finish my course. 

I now thought it best to change my summer residence at Fisher's 
Lane for a more elevated and airy position, and accordingly rented 
from Mr. George Carpenter a very comfortable house at the corner 
of Gorgas's Lane and the Township Line Eoad, a mile east of 
Germantown, opposite to Mr. Carpenter's large establishment. The 
house was about forty feet square with a basement story. There was 
a long parlor on the south side, and a dining-room and a servants' 
room, or pantry, on the north. In the second story there were four 
good bed-rooms, with a wide hall extending the length of the house, 
and also a bath-room. In the third story there were six rooms. 
The middle room on the north was occupied by a tank supplied with 
excellent water by means of a ram at a spring at the bottom of a hill 
behind the house. The roof was flat, and the whole was surmounted 
by a square cupola with two windows on each side, from which there 
was an extensive outlook, especially to the south, where, it was said, 
that the city, some eight miles off, was visible. This place proved to 
be a pleasant resort to the boys, and was occupied as a study upon 
occasions. The plot of ground occupied ten acres, the house being 
situated toward the centre, facing the Township Line Eoad. The 

•Father seems to allude to the fact that the few illnesses from which he suffered 
seemed to come at intervals of ten years.— E. B. H. 


front portion was reserved partly for grass and partly for the cultiva- 
tion of corn or potatoes. Behind was a garden of flowers and vege- 
tables; the garden extending also toward the south side of the lot. 
There was quite a convenient stable for horses and carriages, and 
also an ice-house. Xear-bv was a delightful small grove of trees, 
providing a pleasant retreat even during the noon time of a sum- 
mer's day. Altogether we were delightfully situated, and were per- 
mitted to enjoy this retreat during nine successive summers. 

My brother-in-law, George Woolsey Aspinwall, who assisted me in 
procuring this house in Gorgas's Lane, was then in very delicate health 
in consequence of a severe pneumonic attack. From this attack he 
but partially recovered, and determined to sail around Cape Horn 
to Panama in a new steam-vessel. This nlan was frustrated, however, 
by his being wrecked at sea. Some of the passengers were lost, but 
the greater portion were taken up by a foreign vessel, and arrived, 
after great suffering, in an exhausted condition at JSTew York, Mr. 
Aspinwall's disease was thus confirmed. IvTevertheless he made a 
voyage to Havana, and afterwards went to Europe. He returned to 
Philadelphia the last of May, and took a house in Germantown, near 
the main street. But he did not long survive, his death occur- 
ring June 19, 1854, when he Avas in his fortieth year. He 
left a wife, formerly Miss Annie Coleman, and two children, 
Georgina, who was nine years of age, and Edward Coleman, two 
years old. My brother Woolsey was a tall, fine-looking man, with 
a well-developed frame. He had always been very healthy, and was 
remarkable for his cheerfulness, and even sprightliness, of manner. 
He was exceedingly -amiable, possessing a very loving heart, attaching 
himself greatly to his friends, and, of course, drawing them very 
closely to himself. To me personally the loss was very great, as he 
had been a dear, affectionate brother to me as well as to his sister. 
As he lived in Philadeljihia, and had been for a time an inmate of 
our house, our mutual interest in him became very strong. It seemed 
mournful, as well as mysterious, that such a young man should have 
been cut off so early in his career when there was every prospect of 
his attaining influence and becoming a most useful member of 

In 1853 my son William, being then fifteen years of age, followed 
the example of his brothers, and entered the Freshman Class of the 

My professional duties had gone on without any serious interrup- 


tion, and, although occasional!}' oppressive, were discharged without 
an}'' great inconvenience. A serious trouble, however, was gradually 
coming upon me. Although I had always been near-sighted, a cir- 
cumstance which necessitated the use of spectacles since I was four- 
teen years of age, nevertheless my sight was, within proper focal 
distance, clear and accurate. About the year 1848 or 1849 a little 
dulness of vision was perceived, which almost insensibly increased, 
so that reading was becoming an effort. Hence, when I was called 
upon in March, 1850, to deliver a valedictory address to the medical 
class, it was necessary that my manuscript should be coj^ied in large, 
round letters that I might read it correctly. This was the last time 
I ever delivered an address from manuscript. Nevertheless this defect 
of vision increased so gradually that for years it did not seriously 
impede me in the discharge of my professional duties, as I managed to 
read print, to write prescriptions and even compose with pen in hand 
my work on "Diseases Peculiar to Women." The latter part of this 
work was finished, in August, 1860, with considerable difficulty, so 
far as my eye-sight was concerned, and this was the last effort which 
I could make with my pen. With the assistance of my son Lenox, 
now a practising physician and surgeon, this work was carried through 
the press and published in November, 1860. 

In my valedictory address to the graduating class in March, 
1850, I gave a short notice of the resignation of Dr. N. 
Chapman, Professor of the Practice of Medicine, and ex- 
pressed the high sense always entertained of his great excel- 
lency both as a practitioner and as a teacher. A large propor- 
tion of the reputation of the University was due to the two eminent 
professors of the Practice of Medicine, Dr. Eush and Dr. Chapman; 
both of whom were exceedingly popular with the students. This 
popularity was due to their eloquence and their urbanity, as well 
as their talents and attainments. They were diverse from one 
another in most respects, and advocated theories which can hardly be 
said to have borne the test of experience. These men, nevertheless, 
had crowds of admirers. Dr. Eush was very enthusiastic and dogmatic, 
and made, therefore, a great impression upon the minds, and, of 
course, upon the opinions and practice of the young men. His 
grand doctrine of morbid excitement, leading even to the maintenance 
of the unity of disease, was enforced with so much earnestness and 
sincerity that even minds of much cultivation were carried away in 
sympathy with their teacher. He was among the early professors of 
the University, having been associated with Dr. Morgan and Dr. 


Shippen, the founders of the Medical Department. He became pro- 
fessor of the Practice of Medicine on the resignation of Professor 
Kuhn. He contributed greatly to the reputation which our University 
had acquired toward the beginning of the present century. He died 
at his residence on Fourth Street in May, 1813. An immense crowd 
attended his funeral procession to the place of interment in Christ 
Church Burying-Ground, at the corner of Fifth and Arch Streets, 
manifesting in this way their great regard for him personally, as well 
as their admiration of him, not only as a physician and a professor, but 
also as one of those noble patriots who signed the Declaration of 
Independence in 1776. 

Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, who enjoyed a great reputation as a 
botanist, and who had been for some time professor of Materia Medica, 
succeeded Dr. Kush in the practical chair. His health, however, was 
very delicate, and, after vainly attempting to recruit, he died in 
December, 1815. This was in the middle of the course of lectures, 
and the deficiency in the course of instruction upon the practice of 
medicine, thus created, was partly supplied by the remaining pro- 
fessors, who discoursed on various practical subjects. Dr. Chapman, 
who, since the death of Dr. Eush in 1813, had occupied the chair of 
Materia Medica, was now appointed to be the successor of Dr. Barton. 
I was among the pupils who had the pleasure of attending his first 
efforts in this department during the winter of 1816-1817, and the 
winter of 1817-1818. We soon found that the hour of his dis- 
courses had the charm of novelty. He had not entirely abandoned the 
opinions he had received from his teacher. Dr. Eush, but had greatly 
modified them by promulgating his own peculiar views as to morbid 
irritation and sympathy. These opinions, although now regarded as very 
superficial and unsatisfactory, certainly had one advantage. They 
were practical, and enabled the young physician to enter the sick 
room with more confidence in himself and his profession than was 
otherwise possible. His course as a teacher was long and successful, 
extending really from 1807 to 1850. During the latter part of his 
career his strength and even his mental power had become weakened. 
His resignation was, therefore, offered and accepted, and he after- 
wards lived in great retirement, both mind and body gradually failing, 
until he died early in July, 1853. He was buried on the 4th day of 
that month in a vault connected with St. Stephen's Church, on Tenth 
Street. He left behind him the reputation of being probably the best 
practical physician Philadelphia had ever enjoyed, and numerous 


friends to -whom he had become endeared b}' his social qualities and 
excellent humor. 

About this time the profession had to lament the loss of Dr. 
William E. Horner, who had been made the professor of Anatomy 
upon the resignation of Dr. Physick in 1831, and who^had obtained a 
great reputation as a practical anatomist. His steady industry and 
perseverance, as well as his ability, in this department has a standing, 
and, we trust, a permanent memorial, preserved in the University 
under the name of the Wistar and Horner Museum ; a large portion 
of this being a collection by his own hands. It was generously 
bestowed by him in his last testament to the school which it so much 
adorned. The value of this gift is estimated at $10,000, and it has 
rendered our anatomical museum far sujjerior to anything in the 
United States, and made it a rival even of some of the most ancient 
museums of Europe. An organic disease of the heart in its large 
blood-vessels gave him great distress during the last year or two of 
his life. The immediate cause of his death, however, in March, 1853, 
was peritonitis. He was always one of my best friends. I had 
become very intimate with him toward the close of the session of 1815- 
1816. He had been a surgeon in the war with England, and at that 
time entered the practical rooms of Dr. Wistar, to whom, and to his 
successor, Dr. Physick, his labors became more and more important, 
so that in 1820 he was made adjunct professor of anatomy, and after- 
wards full professor. As formerly mentioned, he was associated 
with Dr. Dewees in the teaching of Dr. Chapman's class, and when this 
had become organized as a Medical Institute, he requested me to be 
associated with him as a teacher of surgery in May, 1823. An 
intimacy thus continued and strengthened was prolonged during his 
life, and I must always regard him as one of my best benefactors. 
Dr. Leidy was immediately elected successor of Dr. Horner in the 
anatomical chair. 

My health, which had been very good since 18-10, had a trifling in- 
terruption in February, 1853, owing to cold afEecting chiefly the 
larynx, causing loss of voice. This seemed to be quite unfortunate, 
as I was much engaged with lecturing prior to the termination of the 
course. A good bleeding, however, with some adjuncts, enabled me to 
resume my duties in a lew days. 

In 1855 my son Edward, being fourteen years of age, was entered 
in the Freshman class of the University, the same year that his brother 
Lenox was graduated as Bachelor of Arts. 


At the Comniencement Lenox delivered the Greek Salutatory 
Oration, having taken the first honor in his class. After some re- 
flection he intimated his wish to study medicine. To this proposition 
I gave my assent, although with a nervous apprehension on the sub- 
ject for fear that he might be called upon to encounter the anxieties 
and responsibilities to which I had been subjected. I had many years 
previously formed the opinion that almost every young man should 
follow the bent of his inclinations, or rather his taste, in determining 
his occupation for life; for I felt confident that, in every business, 
demanding for its successful pursuit devotion of mind and heart, such 
zeal could hardly be expected unless the work was voluntarily under- 
taken. Nevertheless I thought that such desires should never be 
formed, or at any rate indulged, until after a complete college edu- 
cation, which, while it enlarges one's knowledge of literary and scien- 
tific pursuits, at the same time matures the judgment and gives a 
wider view of human affairs. As already intimated Aspinwall thus 
entered, upon the study of theology, and eventually my son William 
also, who was graduated at the University in 1857, after deliberating 
the matter in his own mind for a year, entered the theological semi- 
nary at Princeton in 1858. 

Lenox immediately commenced in the fall of 1855 to attend medical 
lectures at the University, nominally as my student, but receiving in- 
struction from Dr. Henry H. Smith and several others, kindly ex- 
tended to him in my behalf. He received his medical diploma in the 
spring of 1858, and in the fall of that year enjoyed the privilege of 
becoming an interne of the Pennsylvania Hospital, where he had a 
term of service more than usually long. 

Edward was graduated in college in the summer of 1859, being a 
few months beyond his eighteenth year. He also took the first honor, 
but being rather young he did not commence his theological studies, 
to which his attention was turned, until 1860; so that both he and 
William had the advantage of a year for reading and studying prior 
to their theological course. 

My son George entered the collegiate department of the 
University in 1861, having received his classical education chiefly 
af the school of Mr. Faires; the preceptor of his brothers. 
Dr. Crawford, having unfortunately resigned his position at the 
Academy. George received his degree of A. B. in 1865,- and imme- 
diately determined to commence his studies for the ministry at the 
Protestant Episcopal Divinity School, which had lately been estab- 


lished in "West Philadelphia. In the autumn, however, he was unfor- 
tunately taken sick with typhoid fever, which confined him for some 
six or eight weeks. The class with which he was connected at the 
school finished their studies in 1868; but, as I determined to send 
William and George to Europe for recreation and improvement, the 
latter did not at that time take orders. On the 27th of June the two 
boys, in company with their aunts, Mrs. Eoosevelt and Miss Aspinwall, 
sailed in the Yille de Paris for Havre. The party visited Paris, then 
Switzerland, and afterwards the Netherlands and Holland. Their 
aunts returned to Paris to meet other members of the family, and the 
boys afterwards visited Sweden, and then St. Petersburg and Moscow. 
Subsequently they went to Berlin and met their aunts at Dresden. 
Soon afterwards they pursued their course to Vienna, Munich, Verona 
and Venice. The latter part of the winter and spring was spent at 
Eome, whence excursions were made to Naples, Capri, etc. They 
returned north by the way of the Italian Lakes and the Mont Cenis 
pass; the railroad tunnel not being then completed. In May the 
party went to England, and, after spending some weeks in London, 
visited the Isle of Wight, Chester, Salisbury, York, and other places 
of interest. Afterwards they went to Edinburg, the Scottish lakes 
and Glasgow, and from thence they sailed for Belfast, in Ireland, and 
visited the Giant's Causeway, and Londonderry, descending to Dublin, 
to Cork, and to Queenstown, whence they embarked for home in the 
Scotia, arriving in New York on the 14th of September, after an 
absence of nearly fifteen months. The whole time was passed very 
advantageously and pleasantly. They were mercifully preserved from 
accident and disease. They returned immediately to Philadelphia, 
where William became interested in a mission-school in the north- 
west part of the city, which in May, 1870, was organized into a church 
under the name of the Columbia Avenue Presbyterian Church. It 
was situated at the southeast corner of Columbia Avenue and Twenty- 
first Street. A handsome stone chapel was immediately erected, which 
was dedicated on the seventh of December, 1870. William was mar- 
ried on the 13th of April, 1871, to Miss Alice Cogswell Weld, of Hart- 
ford, Conn., and a dwelling-house being erected on a lot next to the 
church, he and his wife took possession on the 7th of December, 1871. 
He has now every prospect of building up a church in this important 

•William took for his first charge what was then known as the Church of 
Red Mills, near Lake Mahopac, in the State of New York. As he was a bachelor he 
put a family in the manse and hoarded with them. The church building was refitted 


George immediately applied for orders in the Episcopal Church, 
and was ordained deacon on the 12th of November, 1869. He was 
first employed as a reader to Bishop Stevens at Holy Trinity Church, 
and then offered his services to Dr. Foggo, rector of Christ Church, in 
the spring of 1870. The following June, as Dr. Foggo was to be 
absent, George was ordained a presb}i:er that he might take full charge 
of the church. In the autumn of 1871, he was appointed assistant 
rector to Dr. Foggo, both of them talcing charge at the same time 
of Calvary Church, which was built as a memorial to Bishop White. 
It was situated at the corner of Margaretta and Front Streets. In 
this position George has continued. He has become engaged to be 
married to Miss Mary D. Powell. He anticipates the consummation 
of his happy prospects on the 23d of April, 1872. 

Having mentioned the choice which had already been made by my 
boys of their professions, I may state here that Aspinwall, after fin- 
ishing his theological studies at Princeton, accepted a call from the 
Presbyterian Church at Mauch Chunk in November, 1856. On the 
14th of May, 1857, he was married to Miss Lottie G. Morse, daughter 
of the Eev. Eichard C. Morse, lately one of the editors and proprietors 
of the New York Observer. He remained at Mauch Chunk for eight 
years. In February, 1866, he accepted a call to Hartford, Conn., and 
on the first of May moved his family to that city. There, after much 
labor and anxiety, he has been favored in having a new building 
erected at the corner of College Avenue and Clinton Street. The 
church is now happily out of debt with every prospect of success. 

My son Lenox, having finished his term of service at the hospital, 
opened his office in my house for the practice of medicine, devoting 
himself chiefly to surgery. He soon became associated with Dr. Ches- 
ton ]\Iorris and with Dr. Boiling in private teaching. Dr. Morris 
presently retired, and Dr. Hutchinson was put in his place. These 
three gentlemen have since continued as co-workers in this important 
business. They have been successful in establishing an excellent sum- 
mer and winter school. Lenox also became an assistant to Dr. Smith 
in the surgical clinic at the LTniversity. The Civil War broke out in 
1861. Out of thoughtful and affectionate consideration for his par- 
ents Lenox did not regularly enter the army, yet on various occasions 

under his administration and greatly improved. Mr. George Lane, of New York city, 
spent some months of the year at a summer home on the lake, and he and his wife 
and daughter did much to brighten William's life at this place. He resigned 
this charge in 1868 in order to take advantage of the trip to Europe described in the 
text.— E. B. H. 


performed duty as a volunteer surgeon, making several excursions 
to the York Eiver during the Peninsula campaign, and before and 
after the battle of Williamsburg. He spent also much time in the hos- 
pitals on York Eiver. In 1863 he had charge in a military hospital 
in West Philadelphia, and, on the invasion of Pennsylvania, in June, 
1863, offered his services to the Surgeon-General of Pennsylvania. 
He was instrumental in establishing hospitals at Harrisburg, and was 
afterward sent on professional services to Shippensburg and other 
places. After the . memorable and decisive battle of Gettysburg 
he was immediately put in charge of a large hospital in the college 
filled with Confederate wounded. The college was not long after- 
wards emptied by the removal of the patients into hospital tents, and 
Lenox returned home in August much exhausted and threatened with 
a serious illness. Normal health soon returned and he resumed his 
professional duties here with his usual activity. In the following 
year (1864), after the terrible battles of the Wilderness, he again vol- 
unteered for Fredericksburg, and, in connection with Dr. Hamilton, 
of Xew York, was put in charge of a hospital in a Baptist Church. 
Lenox, fortunatel}' for his patients, had them located in the audience 
room of the building, which was large and airy, while the patients of 
Dr. Hamilton were lodged in the basement story, and did not fare so 
well. This was Lenox's last military excursion. He came home to 
be employed in the practice and teaching of surgery, acquiring a con- 
siderable reputation among the students, and even among the pro- 
fessors of the LTniversity, so that, in the fall of 1870, without solici- 
tation, he received the appointment of Demonstrator of Anatomy from 
his Alma Mater, lecturing during the winter season on Regional 
Anatomy. In August, 1868, he became engaged to be married to 
Miss Harriet Eoosevelt Woolsey, daughter of the late Charles Wool- 
sey, Esq., of New York, and was married January 7th, 1869. 

My son, Edward, after spending four winters at Princeton, received 
a call to the Presbyterian Church at Burlingion, New Jersey, a posi- 
tion made vacant by the resignation of the Eev. John Chester, who 
had received a call to a church in Washington City. Edward entered 
upon his duties in May, 1864, and has prosecuted them with much 
and gratifying success. In June, 1867, he became engaged to be mar- 
ried to Miss Alice Cogswell Van Eensselaer, but was not married until 
May, 1868. His wife is the daughter of the late Eev. Cortlandt Van 
Eensselaer, D.D., of the Presbyterian Church. 

I now turn again to the story of my own progress. I have already 


intimated that I liad completed and published my work on Diseases 
Peculiar to Women. The second edition of this book was prepared 
and published in 1870. 

The war of 1861 having commenced, my Southern practice was 
destroyed. I had now therefore more leisure, and determined to ful- 
fill a long cherished idea of remodelling and working out in full my 
lectures in the University on Obstetrics. I secured an excellent 
amanuensis in Mr. De France, and commenced reading and writing 
for the purpose in view in May, 1861. I devoted two hours every day 
to this work, and was gratified to find how much could be accomplished 
by this regular devotion of a short period of daily labor. My work 
therefore, was ready for the press in July, 1863. ]\Iessrs. Lea & Blanch- 
ard agreed, in August, 1863, to publish it in one large quarto volume in 
double column, making a book of five hundred pages. It was illustrated 
by handsome lithographic engravings copied from photographs, and also 
by wood-engravings taken from different authors. The preparation 
for the publication of this book occupied my son Lenox and myself, 
with the assistance of the amanuensis, very laboriously for nearly nine 
months, so that the work did not appear until 1864. 

My other publications were of very minor importance, consisting of 
reviews in the North American Medical and Surgical Journal, together 
with papers concerning cases of puerperal fever, observations with re- 
gard to the modus operandi of cold, and also concerning the various 
forms of congestion dependent on irritation, or sedation, or mechan- 
ical causes. In 1833 I published in the American Journal of the Medical 
Sciences my views and experiences of cholera maligna, recommending 
the "evacuating" system, which of late has been improperly called 
"eliminating." My professional duties were subsequently too absorb- 
ing to allow of my resorting to the pen until the last few years, when 
a few papers of mine appeared again in the Medicid Journal in the 
form of reviews, and also two papers on the subject of synclitism ; a 
theme, in my judgment, of great importance. 

The diminution of my power of vision, which, as already men- 
tioned, was first manifest about 1858 or 1859, had been very gradually, 
but steadily, increasing, so that some points of practice had to be 
abandoned, and I began to refuse taking more patients. My lectures, 
too, had to be delivered without the aid of notes; a method which 
I did not find difficult; but it became every year more and more 
troublesome to make the proper illustrations and demonstrations before 
the medical class. Hence, it was necessary, at the termination of the 


course of 1862-63, to offer my resignation to the Board of 
Trustees of my professorship which I had retained for twenty- 
eight years. My resignation was accepted by the Board, who sent 
me a complimentary letter, and bestowed upon me the title of 
•"Emeritus Professor." The class also requested that I should sit for 
my portrait. To this request I acceded, and the painting, executed 
by Mr. Waugh,. was presented by them to the Wistar and Horner 
]\Iuseum. In this Avay my course as a teacher of medicine was 
terminated; a course which began privately in the Medical Institute, 
and was then publicly continued in the University of Pennsylvania. 
The forty years thvis passed among many anxieties and labors, both as a 
teacher and practitioner, were, I venture to sa}^, prosperous, and at 
the same time years of usefulness to the ^jrofession, and also to the 
public. My work at any rate is virtually ended. Nine years, it is 
true, have since elapsed, and it is possible that I may be spared a 
little longer, yet 1 cannot expect to exert much more influence. 
Indeed medical science has changed, and is still changhig rapidly. 
Many new facts have been developed, especially through the medium 
of the microscope and of chemical analysis, and of course new 
hypotheses and new 2)rinciples have aj)peared, very materially altering 
the practice of the profession. Pharmacy, too, by the agents just men- 
tioned, has become almost a new science. Old remedial agents have 
been carefully analj^zed, and their constituents have been j^re- 
sented in a more condensed and active form, while numerous 
remedial agents of the most active and efficient character have been 
discovered, or rather created, by the art of chemistry, often giving 
us control over diseases formerly regarded as incurable, and acting, 
in many cases, as excellent and more valuable substitutes for old 
remedies. The crowning victory is the introduction in this country of 
anaesthesia by Morton, Jackson, and Warren, who recognized this won- 
derful power in ether when administered by inhalation. After- 
wards Simpson, of Edinburgh, after many even dangerous experi- 
ments upon himself and others, established the fact that chloroform 
was even more efficient than ether. Experience has yet to determine 
which is the more valuable agent for the purpose. The power of each 
is complete in suspending all sensil)ility even under the most severe 
operations; but so many deaths have resulted in the exhibition of 
chloroform, and, on the other hand, so few comparatively in the exhibi- 
tion of ether, that piil)lic confidence in this country is given to tbe 


latter, notwithstanding the fact that chloroform is more agreeable to 
the smell, and operates more speedily. 

Margaret E. Hodge died on the 19th of December, 1866. "Blessed 
are the dead which die in the Lord, for they rest f i-om their labors and 
their works do follow them." "The heart of her husband doth 
safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. She 
will do him good and not evil all the days of his life. She worketh 
willingly with her hands. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; 
yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. Strength and honor 
are her clothing. She openeth her mouth with wisdom, and in her 
tongue is the law of kindness. Her children arise up and call her 
blessed ; her husband also, and he praiseth her. Many daughters have 
done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. A woman that feareth 
the Lord, she shall be praised. Let her own works praise her in the 

Memorandum of My Brother Charles Hodge. 

Charles was the fifth and last child of Dr. Hugh Hodge and his 
wife Mary. He was born in Arch Street, the tliird door east of 
Christ Church Cemetery on the 28th of December, 1797. His father 
died in the following July, before his last child was quite six months 
old. Charles's first school instruction was under the direction of 
Mr. Taylor, a warm-hearted, cultivated and enthusiastic Irish gentle- 
man, who always took a great interest in his scholars, and perhaps 
especially in my brother. 

Charles through all his life has had intimate friends. At Mr. Taylor's 
school he was associated with Samuel Morris, Eobert Griffith, William 
Turnbull, Montgomery Dale, and others, whose friendship he retained for 
years. He did not commence his classical studies until we both went to 
Somerville in May, 1810, under the instruction of Mr. Boyer. Two years 
afterwards we moved to Princeton, and for six months attended the 
Grammar-School of the Eev. Mr. Fyler. In the fall of 1812, Charles 
entered college in the Sophomore Class half-advanced, and graduated 
at the College of N"ew Jersey in September, 1815. Here he first 
manifested a quickness in obtaining knowledge without being much 
of a student. He was among the first in his class, being numbered 
among those who obtained the first honor, and delivered the valedictory 
address at the commencement. His three college years were passed 
by him very delightfully, as the acquisition of knowledge was to him 
easy, and consequently he had much time for the indulgence of his 
social propensities. He was exceedingly intimate with Mr. Isaac 
Piatt, and with Mr. Thomas Biggs, both much older than himself; 
men who afterwards occupied important positions as ministers of the 
Gospel. At this time also he formed his acquaintance with Charles 
Mcllvaine, who was in a class below him, and also with John Johns, 
who was his fellow-classmate. During the winter of 1814-1815 there 
was a great revival of religion in the college, and these three young men 
became at that time communicants in the church. The intimacy, thus 
cemented, has continued to the present day, although the three have 
been much separated by place and circumstances; my brother remain- 
ing at Princeton, a professor in the Presbyterian Church; Johns, 
after being rector in an Episcopal church in Maryland, becoming 



Bishop of Virginia; and Mcllvaine being at one time chaplain at 
West Point, at another a rector in Brooklyn, N. Y., and afterwards 
Bishop of Ohio, and now almost senior Bishop in the Episcopal 

The health of my brother, after graduation was not very good, and 
as my mother determined that he should spend a year in recuperating, 
he travelled in Virginia, and afterv/ards went to Boston in company 
with his intimate friend, Mr. Biggs, a very superior man, who was 
for a number of years a member of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions. Mr. Biggs' life was not of long dura- 
tion.* In Boston Charles was quite unwell. He suffered from bleed- 
ing of the lungs, and was put under the care of Dr. Jackson, a 
distinguished physician of that day. In 1816 he commenced his 
theological studies at Princeton in conjunction with his friends, Johns 
and Mcllvaine, the latter being his room-mate.* His course of study 
terminated in the fall of 1819, when he was licensed to preach the 
Gospel. During his residence in the seminary he attracted the 
special notice of Dr. Alexander, who formed a high estimate of his 
■powers, and advised him not to take a position as pastor, but to 
prepare himself for a teacher. He spent the winter, therefore, of 1819- 
1820 in occasional preaching, but chiefly in theological studies, and 
upon the meeting of the General Assembly in May, 1820, on the 
recommendation of Dr. Alexander and of Dr. Miller, he was appointed 
tutor of Hebrew, etc., in the seminary. The duties of this position 
were so well performed that two years afterwards he was recom- 
mended by the same gentlemen, and by the Directors of the Seminary, 
for the position of a professor. He was, in accordance with this 
recommendation, duly elected, and entered upon the duties of his 
office the following autumn. He was now under the necessity of 
becoming a hard student, particularly in the ancient languages. He 
also studied French to a certain extent, and afterwards devoted much 
attention to German. In 1826 it was thought best by his colleagues 
that brother should have the advantage of two years' study in Europe. 
Means for this purpose were provided chiefly by the Lenox family, 
and Charles, after spending about three months in Paris, went to 
Havre and thence to Berlin. He was very kindly received by the 
professors in the German schools of theology, and formed an intimacy 
with Tholuck, then a student, but later a distinguished theologian and 

♦According to the "Life of Charles Hodge," by his son, A. A. H., Mr. Thomas 
J. Biggs was his room-mate the first year, Mr. John Johns the second year, and Mr. 
T. S. Wickes the third year. Mr. Biggs lived until Feb. 9, 1864.— B. B. H. 


professor, with whom constant correspondence has been kept np. After 
a short visit to Switzerland and England brother returned home in 
1828, resuming the duties of his professorship with renewed earnest- 
ness. Before he went to Europe, at the instigation and with the 
support of his colleagues, and with the patronage of other professors 
and the clerg}^ of Princeton, he undertook the publication of the 
Biblical Eepertory. This was a quarterly religious periodical, devoted 
chiefly to notices and reviews of books. It has continued to the 
present day, remaining until 1872 almost entirely under the sole super- 
vision of Professor Hodge. It is now termed the Presbyterian Quarterly 
and Princeton Review, and is conducted by Professor Atwater, of Prince- 
ton, and Professor Henry B. Smith, of the Union Theological Semin- 
ary, IST. Y. The character of this work, as maintained by Dr. Hodge, 
was very high. It was always regarded as representing the peculiar 
views of Princeton Seminar}''. It took, of course, a strong and decided 
part in the various theological discussions and controversies of the 
day, dealing with the interests of the Church in general, and par- 
ticularly with those of our own denomination, especially such as 
characterized the last forty or fifty years. Among these were some 
that issued in events of a very momentous character, involving a 
division among the brethren and a disruption of the Church. These 
controversies have happily ceased. A union having been effected 
between the Old and New School parties, their representatives met in 
May, 1870, in the old First Church on Washington Square, Phila- 
delphia, constituting once more the united General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church. In all the controversies of this period brother's 
paper bore an influential part, and much credit has been rendered 
him for the spirit of candor which has characterized his writings. 
After the death of Dr. Miller and of Dr. Alexander, brother became 
the senior professor in the seminary, and now occupies the chair of 
Systematic Theology. Two of Dr. x\lexander's sons, James and 
Addison, became his colleagues, both of whom have died. For a 
short time also Dr. John Breckenridge, a son-in-law of Dr. Miller, 
was associated with him in the faculty. Dr. Breckenridge returned, 
however, to his labors in the pulpit, and after some years died. My 
brother's present colleagues are Prof. W. Henry Green, Prof. A. T. 
McGill, Prof. Charles A. Aiken, Prof. James C. Moffatt and Prof. C. 
Wistar Hodge. 

Brother has thus labored in the cause of the Church very steadily, 
and, at the same time, pleasantly; and, it may be added, with great 


success. In 1862, the fiftieth anniversary of the seminary was cele- 
brated, and brother delivered a speech upon the occasion, as one of 
the professors, in which he recalled the time, vivid in his recollection, 
when he, as a school boy, seated in the gallery of the church, witnessed 
in 1812 the inauguration of Dr. Archibald Alexander as the first, and 
at that time, the only professor. Ten years later, in 1872, a remark- 
able jubilee was held at Princeton to commemorate the fiftieth anni- 
versary of my brother's professorship. The church, and indeed the 
Avhole town^ was crowded with distinguished men from various parts 
of the country, and a very eloquent address was delivered by the Eev. 
JosejDh T. Duryea on "Theology as a Science." Congratulatory 
addresses were made by Dr. Henry A. Boardman, President Woolsey, 
of Yale College, Mr. Prime, of the New York Observer, and many 
other distinguished Americans, while Professor Porter brought the 
hearty greetings of the Church in Ireland. Numerous complimentary 
documents were also received from Great Britain and other 
foreign countries, all testifying to the superior character of 
Professor Hodge as a teacher and a writer of theology. The event 
was gratifying to all interested; at the same time it wore an air of 
solemnity, and brother occasionally was much overwhelmned by these 
manifestations of confidence and affection. If Prof. Hodge has 
managed to secure, not only the respect, but the love of his pupils, 
it has been on account of the amenity of his manners, his benevolence 
and especially the warmth of feeling which always characterized his 
instructions, especially when he was dealing with subjects of a 
practical character. As an author he is well known through the 
numerous reviews which have appeared from his pen in the Biblical 
Repertory, many of which have been republished in separate volumes. 
He has published besides a history of the Presbyterian Church; and 
also a very valuable practical essay for young persons, issued by the 
American Sunday School Union, and called the "Way of Life." This 
work was written at the instigation of Mr. Packard, for many years 
the indefatigable Superintendent of the American Sunday School 
Union. He was anxious to have a work to place in the hands of 
young people, who felt the need of something more elaborate than 
the common instruction which they received. "The Way of Life" is 
nobly adapted to this purpose. It became exceedingly popular. It 
has been scattered through the country in numerous editions, and 
everywhere favorably received, many young people dating their first 
serious impressions from its perusal. The British Tract Society 


republished it iu full without alteration, and sent it to almost every 
part of the British Empire. Translations have also been made of 
the vrork into the French, German and Hindustani languages, so that 
its influences have indeed been wide and extended. 

My brother's sons have been long anxious that their father should 
prepare his theological lectures for publication. This work he finally 
undertook to do. First everything was to be carefully rewritten, and 
there was necessarily a re-examination of all prevalent theological 
opinions, and also a careful study of the various phases of modern 
infidelity, supported by the most learned mental and physical philoso- 
phers of the age. The work was indeed arduous, hut providentially, 
it has been brought nearly to a conclusion with a success that could 
hardly have been anticipated. Two volumes have been published, which 
have attracted the profound attention of theologians in America and 
in Europe, by whom they have been considered as presenting a clear 
and decided view of theology, and also as containing a very candid and 
powerful criticism upon the various heresies and infidel opinions which 
are promulgated by many learned men of the present day. The 
commendations of the press, representing different denominations 
of Christians, have been very general and very favorable. The third 
and last volume is now nearly completed, and, as brother's health 
continues good, and as his mind is still active, it is to be hoped that 
he will be preserved to perfect, as far as possible, a work which may 
prove the crowning effort of his life's labor. 

In his domestic life brother has been greatly favored. He was still 
a boy in college when he formed an attachment to Miss Sarah Bache, 
whom he afterwards married. On her paternal side she was descended 
from Benjamin Franklin, whose daughter married a Mr. Bache, by 
whom she had many children. One of these was Dr. William Bache, 
the father of Sarah. Dr. Bache married Miss Catharine Wistar, who 
was a sister of Dr. Caspar Wistar, Professor of Anatomy in the 
University of Pennsylvania. Perhaps it will be interesting to state 
that Miss Wistar was a very superior and high-toned woman, and 
lived for many years with her brother. Dr. Wistar, and thus made the 
acquaintance of many distinguished men, both native and foreign, 
whom Dr. Wistar had great pleasure in entertaining. His house 
became the centre of the literary and scientific people of Philadelphia. 
Ho was in the habit of having them meet there on Saturday 
evenings, usually twelve or fifteen in number. The entertainment was 
of the most frugal character, but the society was interesting and 

Family history and reminiscences. Ill 

valuable. As Miss Wistar, and her friend and companion, Miss Eddy, 
were present at these receptions, they had the privilege of enjoying com- 
pany which they found both agreeable and profitable. I have often heard 
her refer to the few years thus spent at Dr. Wistar's as being the most 
gratifying period in her life. It was terminated, however, by the 
second marriage of Dr. Wistar to Miss Elizabeth Mifflin. Soon after- 
wards Miss Wistar married Dr. Bache, and Miss Eddy married Dr. 
Hossack, a pupil of Dr. Wistar's, and afterwards professor of the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York. Mrs. Bache had four children at least. The 
eldest was Sarah, then Benjamin Franklin, then Emma, who died 
at seven or eight years of age, and Catharine, the youngest. The son, 
Benjamin Franklin, of whom additional particulars will be found 
on page 33 of these memoirs, was educated at Princeton, and was 
afterwards graduated as a physician at the University of Pennsylvania. 
He was a man of much talent and considerable cultivation, especially 
in chemistry and pliarmacy. His conversational powers were great, 
and he abounded in dry humor and pleasantry. Still his character has 
been very eccentric, and he has laid himself open to considerable 
criticism. This fact, united with other circumstances, diminished his 
popularity and his influence. Sarah, the eldest child, came to Prince- 
ton in 1813 or 1814. She was then a fine, blooming girl of fourteen 
years of age, abounding in vivacity and intelligence, giving herself up 
to every new object of attention with apparently a total abandonment 
of self-consciousness. Thus free from affectation she became a most 
agreeable and interesting companion. An early attachment occurred 
between my brother and herself, to which allusion is made on page 
32 above, but it was for years kept concealed until the death of her 
mother, which took place in Philadelphia in 1820. Innnediately after 
the appointment of my brother to his professorship he and Sarah were 
married at Cheltenham, at the house of a mutual friend, Judge 
McKean. The ceremony was performed by Bishop Wliite, of Penn- 
sylvania. It so happened that our cousin, Elizabeth Bayard, was 
married the same day to Mr. John S. Henry, son of Alexander 
Henry, of Philadelphia. After my lirother's marriage he and his 
wife took lodgings in Princeton at the house of Colonel Beatty. They 
afterwards took the house at the corner of Nassau and Witherspoon 
Streets, opposite the college. Here their first son was l)orn on the 
18th of July, 1823. He was named Archibald Alexander, in compli- 
ment to liis father's friend and preceptor of that name. Archie, as he 


was always called, was a large, strong, healthy-looking infant, and early 
manifested much intelligence. He received his academic and collegiate 
education at Princeton, and then passed through the theological 
seminary. For a short time he served as tutor in college. Having 
determined to be a missionary, he obtained an appointment to Alla- 
habad in India. Previous to his departure he married Miss Elizabeth 
Holliday, of Winchester, Va., niece of the Eev. Dr. McFarland. He 
sailed for India in 1847. The health of his wife, which had never 
been strong, was wretched during the voyage. After much suffering, 
however, they arrived safely at Calcutta, and eventually at their 
mission station. Alexander's position was to him very satisfactory 
and pleasant at Allahabad, as he found all the surrounding circum- 
stances, especially regarding the American and English population, 
agreeable to his feelings, and he saw before him a great prospect of 
usefulness. His first child was born about the year 1848, and was 
named Sarah, after his mother, but by the natives was called "Bibi,"' 
the Little Lady, a name which she has ever since borne. A year after- 
wards another daughter was born, who was named Elizabeth, after 
her mother, but by the Hindus she was called "Bini," or Sister of 
the Lady, and the name clung to her through life. In consequence of 
these events, and by reason of the great heat of the climate, Mrs. 
Hodge's health became so prostrated that her physician declared it 
impossible for her to remain in India. Alexander, therefore, and his 
family returned to his father's house in America, after an absence 
of three or four years. He soon accepted a call to a small congrega- 
tion in Cecil County, Md., near to the Pennsylvania line, where 
he eked out a scanty support by teaching. He afterwards received a 
call to Fredericksburg, Va., where his position was very agreeable. 
He made friends with all the various denominations of Christians, and 
his preaching attracted much notice. He found time also to prepare 
a theological catechism, which is considered an able work, and gave 
the author a reputation, not only in this country, but also in England. 
When the Civil War broke out Alexander, with his family, made 
his way through West Virginia and Maryland into Pennsylvania, and 
thence to his father's house in New Jersey. He soon received an 
appointment as pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Wilkes-Barie, Pa., 
and afterwards, when a vacancy occurred in the Western Theological 
Seminary at Allegheny, by the resignation of the Eev. William S. 
Plumer, Alexander was made professor of theology in that institution, 
with which he is still connected, enjoying a high reputation as a 


theologian and teacher, as well as a pastor, for he has charge also 
of a congregation. His reputation was much enhanced by the publica- 
tion of an elaborate work on the Atonement. The opportunity for 
issuing this work was afforded by the excited state of the Presbyterian 
Church, when a union was proposed between the Old and jSTew School 
bodies. It was, therefore, extensive^ read. Alexander has since 
published a smaller Ijook with the title, "Presbyterian Doctrine Briefly 
Stated." His wife, Elizabeth, died in 1867, and he was subsequently 
married (Dec. 20, 1869,) to a Mrs. Wood, a widow-lady [whose maiden 
name was Margaret McLaren] . She is a woman of much intelligence 
and of excellent character. She had no children. 

The second child of my brother Charles was Mary, who was named 
for our mother, who made the request that, Elizabeth should be added 
to the name in commemoration of my mother's two daughters, both 
of whom died in early life. Mary was born on the 31st of August, 
1825, an intelligent, interesting girl, and, as the first daughter in 
the family, peculiarly acceptable. In 1848, when she was twenty- 
three years of age, she was married to William ]\I. Scott, of Ohio. 
Mr. Scott had lately been graduated at Princeton Theological Semin- 
ary, and had been called to a professorship in Centre College at 
Danville, Ky. In this place he resided for a number of years, finding 
the society very agreeable, and enjoying a position which was one of 
influence. He afterwards accepted a call to the Seventh Presbyterian 
Church in Cincinnati, and subsequentlj' was made one of the 
original professors of the ISTorthwest Theological Seminary just then 
established in Chicago, 111. His increased labors and the severity of 
the climate in that locality ruined his health. He felt compelled, 
therefore, to resign his professorship, and came to Princeton with 
his family in December, 1861, and there soon died of consumption. 

Mary Scott's first child was born in Danville, Ky., in July, 1849. 
He was named Charles Hodge, after his grandfather. He was, there- 
fore, about twelve years old at the death of his father. He was 
of course, educated at Princeton, and, having graduated at college, 
made up his mind to be a business man. He went accordingly to his 
uncle Alexander at Allegheny, and soon obtained an important posi- 
tion in a Avealthy iron commission house with good jjrospects before 

Mary's second child was John, who Avas a great sufferer from dis- 
turi^ance of his digestive organs, and he died when he was very 
voung. A third son was Hugh Lenox, who received that name iu 


compliment to m^'self. He obtained his academic education at Prince- 
ton ; but, being enamored with the idea of a roving life, he determined 
not to enter college, but, if possible, to be educated as a military 
man at West Point; and at this institution he was entered in June, 
1870, and still anticipates the pleasure of a military life on the 
prairies and the mountains of the West. Mary's fourth son was 
William, so named after his father. He is now fourteen years of 
age, a boy of remarkable intelligence and piety, who, even at the age 
of ten, was number one in a class of twenty-five at Mr. Faires's 
excellent school in Philadelphia. He is now pursuing the study of 
the languages, mathematics, etc., at Princeton; and, although he is 
already fully prepared for college, his entrance has wisely been post- 
poned for another year. 

Mary Scott was greatly favored, on the death of her husband, and 
in the distress attendant upon the restricted circumstances in which 
she was left, b}^ finding a home once more in her father's house. Her 
health, providentiall}^, has been good, and she has constantly laljored 
industriously and anxiously for the maintenance and the education of 
her children. Her labors have been greatly blessed. She is still well 
and strong, looks better and younger than she did many years ago, 
and has the great satisfaction of seeing her children grow up 
intelligent and well-educated, and, therefore, greatly respected. 

My brother's third child was Caspar Wistar. He was born on the 
21st of Feburary, 1830. He was named after his granduncle. 
Professor Caspar Wistar. He, like the other children, distinguished 
himself by his talent, taking high places in school and college, and 
delivering the Latin Salutatory as the first honor man at gradua- 
tion. He had the special privilege of enjoying the personal instruc- 
tion and companionship of Professor Addison Alexander, so well- 
known for his genius and his writings, as well as fo'r many peculiari- 
ties of character, some of which his pupil may have imbibed. Wistar 
studied theolog}^, and, having been licensed to preach by the Presbytery, 
was a short time tutor in the college. He married Miss Mary 
Stockton, daughter of the late Lieutenant Stockton, and grand- 
daughter of the Hon. Richard Stockton, of Princeton. He accepted 
a call to Williamsburg, L. I., and about a year later was settled 
as pastor at Oxford, Pa., where he had the misfortune of losing his 
wife, who died of consumption. On the death of his former teacher, 
Addison Alexander, he was appointed by the General Assembly pro- 
fessor in the tlieological seminary, at Princeton, as a colleague to his 


father, and filling the chair of Xew Testament Literature and Biblical 
Greek. This position he was very unwilling to accept; but it was so 
strongly urged upon him that he could not refuse. He still acts as pro- 
fessor, with reputation acquired for himself, and to the evident advan- 
tage of the students. He has not made use of the press, and main- 
tains a reserve in general as to appearing before the public which has 
always characterized him. After being a widower for five years he 
married Miss Harriet Terry Post, of Huntington, L. I., granddaugh- 
ter of Professor Post, the surgeon, of JSTew York. Unfortunately her 
health proved to be bad, and in nine months after her marriage she 
died of consumption. 

In October, 1869, Wistar married Miss Angle Pout, a fine, healthy, 
intelligent woman, who has made herself very acceptable to all the 
family by the excellency of her character, and by her pleasing manners. 
By this marriage Wistar has two children, the eldest being a boy, 
named after himself, and the second, a girl, named after her mother. 

Brother's fourth child was Charles, who was l)orn on the 22d 
of March, 1832. He grew up to be very intelligent, Ijut, at the same 
time, somewhat peculiar in his thoughts and character, having much 
dry humor, and with a sociable disposition, which led him to make 
acquaintance with everyljody, and somehow always to be more or 
less useful to his many friends. He was more fond, therefore, of 
companionship, of social pleasures and of out-of-door exercise, than 
of study. He did well, however, both in school and at college at 
Princeton, and afterwards as a medical student in Pbiladelphia.* 

After graduating in medicine he was favored by ol^taining a posi- 
tion as Eesident Physician in Blockley Hosintal, Philadelphia, and 
at the conclusion of his term of service determined to settle in Trenton, 
N". J. He there obtained an appointment as physician at the Kew 
Jersey Asylum for the Insane, which was under the care of Dr. 
Buttolph, who married a daughter of Dr. Dorsey, of Philadelphia, 
and granddaughter of J^obert Ralston. Charles was treated with 
great attention both by Dr. Buttolph and his wife. About this time 
he was married and entered upon the practice of medicine in the city 
of Trenton, where he still resides, enjoying the patronage of many 
influential families. He married, in 1S58, Martha Janeway, daughter 
of the Rev. Thomas L. Janeway, and granddaughter of the Rev. 
Jacob J. Janeway, who was for many years co-pastor mth Dr. Ashbel 

^■Charles made his home at father's house in Philadelphia 'luring the progress of 
his medical studies. — E. B. H. 


Green in the Second Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. By this 
marriage there are now six children; two daughters, Alice and Sarah, 
and four sons, Charles, Thomas Janeway, Hugh Bayard and Archibald 

The fifth child of my brother was born in 1834. Brother named 
him after my cousin, Mr. John Bayard, who was settled at Mill- 
stone, four miles from Somerville, N. J., and to whom my brother 
and myself were indebted for innumerable attentions, even of a 
paternal character, and at whose house we passed some of our 
happiest days. John grew up and was a stout, healthy boy, but did 
not display that devotion to study which characterized his brothers. 
As he- manifested, on the other hand, a desire to become a farmer, he 
was sent to spend some time near Salem, IST. J., in company with, 
and under the direction of some cousins of his mother. Afterwards his 
father purchased a farm four miles from Princeton, on the Millstone, 
where he placed John in charge. This experiment was continued for 
some two or three years, but was not successful. John accordingly 
accepted an appointment in a railroad office at South Amboy. John 
is an excellent, conscientious young man, and is making himself 
useful in the church. Up to the present time he has not married. 

Brother's sixth child was Catharine Bache, named for her grand- 
mother, Mrs. Bache. Catharine was educated almost exclusively at 
Princeton, to which place and its inhabitants she is most devotedly 
attached. She is of a very active, intelligent mind, with much humor 
and pleasantry, so that she is a very agreeable companion. She is a 
communicant in the Church, and devotes a large part of her time 
to labors in the Sunday-school, and in furtherance of the various 
benevolent operations of the First Presbyterian Church. Up to the 
present time she has remained single. She was born on the 31st of 
August, 1836. 

Brother's seventh child was Francis, named for Francis Blanchard, 
son of Samuel Blanchard, of Wenham, Mass., and the favorite nephew 
of our mother. Francis was born on October 24, 1838. Of course, 
he also was educated at Princeton, graduating at the college, and 
eventually at the theological seminary. He had considerable difficulty 
in pursuing his studies, as one of his eyes suffered much from 
inflammation, the result of an accident. FIcnce, knowledge was 
acquired in his case very largely from oral instruction. Nevertheless 
he made rapid acquisitions, and, as he had a fine voice and manner, 
he had the honor of being Junior Orator, and of delivering the Whig 


Hall Anniversary Oration. After being educated for the min- 
istry he was settled at Oxford, Pa., in the position previously occu- 
pied by his brother Wistar. Here his intelligence, great amiability 
and devotion to his parishioners, united with considerable eloquence 
of voice and manner, obtained for him much popularity and influence. 
His congregation was augmented in size, and, although chiefly com- 
posed of farmers, they were induced to pull down their old building, 
and to erect a handsome brick structure as a substitute. AVlien 
Frank's brother, Archibald Alexander, vacated the church at Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., (and after Samuel Dod's four years' ministry), a call so 
urgent, and pressed with so much importunity, was presented to Frank 
from this church that, after much hesitation, and with many regrets, he 
left his friends at Oxford, and is now settled at Wilkes-Barrc^. Here 
he has new and admiring friends who are devoted to the comfort of 
himself and famil}^, while he maintains a great popularity as a 
pastor and preacher. He was married in Princeton to Mary, daughter 
of Professor Stephen Alexander, of Nassau Hall. She is the mother 
of three children. They are Louisa Alexander, named after her ma- 
ternal grandmother ; Charles, named for his grandfather, and Stephen 
Alexander, named for his maternal grandfather.* 

The eighth and last child of my brother was Sarah, named for 
her mother, who unfortunately died when this, her youngest child 
was but nine years of age. Sarah's primary education was at Prince- 
ton, but she had the advantage afterwards of going to Miss Haines's 
school in New York City, which was in high repute. She resembles 
her mother perhaps more than any of the other children, both in 
person and in manners, being remarkably cheerful and pleasant as well 
as affectionate. In August, 1866, she was married to Colonel Samuel 
Stockton, grandson of the Hon. Eichard Stockton. About this time he 
retired from the Army and devoted himself to agriculture, having pur- 
chased an excellent farm ("Hay Eidge") about a mile from Princeton, 
being part of the property which had belonged to his ancestors. Soon 
afterwards, owing to the death of Mrs. Ehinelander and Mrs. Harri- 
son, his father's sisters, he became interested in the estate of Com- 
modore Stockton, as he was next heir after these ladies. The affairs 
of this estate were very complicated; and, as a compromise, after 
many judicial decisions, Sainuel agreed to receive as his portion the 
family mansion and farm known as Morven, on Stockton Street. This 

*Three children were born after 3872: Sarah Blanchard; Joseph Henry (Ob. 1884); 
and Helen Henry.— E. B. H. 


property, however, was subject to very heavy mortgages, and these 
became naturally a subject of much anxiety and labor. Samuel has, 
nevertheless, the satisfaction of reserving the house which has been 
occupied by several generations of those whose name he bears. He 
has been enthusiastically devoted to his agricultural pursuits, and 
has already obtained much influence by his talents, his amiability, and 
his kindness, both in Princeton and elsewhere. 

Samuel and Sarah have three children. The eldest, Mary Hunter, 
Ijears the maiden name of her grandmother, now Mrs. Charles Hodge, 
and formerly Mrs. Stockton. The second is Sarah, named for her 
mother. The third is Charles Hodge, named for his grandfather. 

My brother's wife, Sarah, the mother of the eight children above 
enumerated, enjoyed from early years really excellent health. Never- 
theless, she was greatly disturbed l^y nervous feelings and 
apprehensions, and was often tormented with nervous and sick 
headache. About the year 1848 her health was evidently de- 
clining. In the summer of 1849 she went to Kentucky to 
be with her daughter Mary during her first confinement. 
She returned home, with Mary and the infant, in a state of 
much exhaustion. Unhappily she did not recover her strength, and 
on the 25th of December, 1849, she died. Her bright mind and 
imagination, her lively and pleasant conversational powers, and her 
great amiability and warm-heartedness, united with agreeable manners, 
won the minds and hearts of all her relatives and friends. The loss 
of his wife was a sore trial to my brother. His sister-in-law. Miss 
Bache, took charge of his household for some years. Eventually my 
brother paid attention to Mrs. Samuel Stockton, the widow of 
Lieutenant Stockton of the United States N"avy. Mrs. Stockton was 
a daughter of Dr. Hunter, who was for years professor of mathematics 
in the College of 'New Jersey, and afterwards Chaplain in Washington, 
D. C. She Avas also a niece on her mother's !?ide of the Hon. Kichard 
Stockton. She was the mother of two children. Mary, the elder, was 
afterwards married to my brother's son, Caspar Wistar Hodge; wliile 
Samuel, the younger, was married to Sarah, my 1)rother's youngest 

Mrs. Stockton's health, prior to her second marriage, had been very 
delicate. She suffered from cough and from pulmonary hemorrhage, 
and at one time these disorders assumed a serious character. A 
journey to Chicago, Detroit and other places, and a visit to her 
brother. General Hunter, during the summer season, greatly renovated 


her ; and, since her marriage to my brother, she has gained much flesh 
and strength; and now for many years she has had no return of 
cough or hemorrhage. Her health and spirits are good, excepting that 
her nervous system is always easily depressed, and sometimes it is 
greatly prostrated. She has proved an invaluable blessing to my 
brother and his children. My brother's own health has been also 
generally good, notwithstanding his leading a rather sedentary life. 
Pulmonic symptoms which he had whe^n in college are gone. When 
about thirty-six years of age he became quite fleshy. He had a 
severe trial, however, in an obscure disease located in his left lower 
extremity. In March, 1820, after much exercise he would complain 
of aching sensations in his limb, which, on examination, was found 
to be smaller than its fellow. Although the uneasy sensations were in 
■some measure done away with, yet they occasionally returned, pro- 
ducing a feeling of weakness, and strong suspicions were entertained 
that the hip-joint was the source of the mischief. After he had been 
examined by different surgeons, counter-irritants were ordered, includ- 
ing cups, blisters and even moxa, while rest from the use of the limb 
was enjoined. Some benefit appeared to result; and on his visit 
to Europe in 182G he experienced great improvement, which he 
attributed in some measure to the climate, but chiefly to the rest he 
enjoyed from bodily exercise while laboriously pursuing his studies. 
His ability to walk increased so that, prior to his return home in 
1828, he endured with impunity much pedestrian travel in Switzer- 

In 1832, after walking a great deal in New York City, much 
pain in the hip returned, and his friend and relative. Dr. Alexander 
H. Stevens, professor of surgery in New York, said that he must 
immediately go to bed, as he regarded the symptoms as indicating 
the commencement of serious disease in the Joint. This diagnosis 
was confirmed by surgeons from New York and Philadelphia. Perfect 
rest in bed was enforced, and all motion of the joint was prevented by 
splints, which extended from the axilla to the foot. This treatment' 
was supplemented hy mild counter-irritants. Under this practice the 
symptoms were ameliorated. The rest enjoined was continued without 
remission for several years. Indeed, after he was permitted to go 
about upon crutches, he did not adopt a sitting posture, and eleven 
years elapsed 1)efore he was permitted once more to enter the j^ulpit. 
Although thus confined without motion, so that he could not even 
turn in bed, liis general health rather improved, and he gained in 


flesh. At the same time his mind and heart were in good condition, 
and he attended to all his professorial duties; the classes from the 
seminary coming over to his rooms to receive instruction. At this 
time also he prepared his commentary on the Epistle to the Eomans, 
which gave him much theological reputation. ISTo bad consequences, 
therefore, resulted from his long confinement, and there never has l^een 
any jDOsitive development of local disease. His power of locomotion 
seems to he very good; but the limb has remained smaller than the 
other, and is more sensitive, especially to cold, so that extra covering 
is required. Apart from this complaint there has been little to affect 
unfavorably my brother's health. The irregular pains which he 
occasional^ feels about his chest are not of a character to give rise 
to any anxiety. 

At the beginning of Feln'uar}', 1871, after some exposure to very 
severe weather toward the last of January, he became seriously ill, 
with typhoid symptoms. The attack, however, was of a mild character, 
although his brain was somewhat excited and his dreams were dis- 
turbed by the metaphysical questions which he had been lately agitat- 
ing. After a week or ten days of anxiety to his friends he became 
convalescent; but two or three months elapsed before he could meet 
all the demands which his position as professor made upon him. 

He is now in the seventy-fifth year of his age, in the enjoyment of 
excellent health, looking well for his years, and showing himself 
fully capable of exercising his mental powers in the completion of his 
great work on Theolog}'. He is now numbered among the oldest 
inhabitants of Princeton, most of his companions and predecessors 
having died, and an entire new generation of professors and teachers 
having appeared in the college and seminary. He enjoys life, sur- 
rounded, as he is, by devoted families, and receiving attention and 
respect from numerous friends at home and abroad. His domestic 
and professional happiness seems to be complete. May it yet long con- 
tinue ! 

Andrew Hodge, the First— (continued), 
Hugh Hodge. 

Note. — On page sixteen father begins the story of the sixth child of Andrew Hodge, 
the first, and Jane McCuIlough, i. e., of Hugh Hodge, and his descendants. The nar- 
rative now returns to the seventh child of the same Andrew Hodge. 

The seventh child of Andretv Hodge, the first, and Jane McCuI- 
lough, tvas Jane. She was born in 1757, and was married to B. 
Phillips, of England. She and her husband passed most of their 
married life in the West Indies. At her death she left one child, 
who was adopted and brought. uj) 1)y her aunt, Mary Hodgdon. This 
child, whose name was Jane, grew up to be exceedingly tall and very 
delicate. She was, however, a most devoted Christian, an untiring- 
friend and relation. She made herself very useful in the Church, 
and also during the epidemic of malignant cholera in 1832, being 
one of the ladies who took charge of the asylum for poor and neglected 
children, left helpless by this epidemic. She died a few years after- 
wards of disease of the heart. Her avint, Miss Phillips, an English- 
woman, whom we all designated as Aunt Phillips, also lived with 
Aunt Hodgdon, and was a most congenial and excellent character. 
She died suddenly of apoplexy many years before Jane. 

The eighth child of Andrew Hodge, the first, and Jane McCuIlough, 
was Mary. She was born in 1761, and married Major Hodgdon, v/ho 
had served in the Eevolutionary War, chiefly as Quarter-Master- 
General. Pie was originally from Boston, where he was ver}^ intimate 
with Colonel Sargent, with whom he was associated in business. He 
afterwards settled as a merchant in Philadelphia, and for a time was 
prosperous. He built for himself a large house in Arch Street, above 
Sixth, now 604, having Mr. William Montgomery to the west, and Mr. 
Maybin to the east, both of whom built houses similar to his, and 
their families became intimately associated. Major Hodgdon died 
when about seventy-five years of age. Mary, his wife, had remained 
unmarried until after the death of her parents (Andrew Hodge and 
Jane McCuIlough), but devoted herself to taking charge of her 
father's family, her sisters having married. Her father died in 1789, 
when about seventy-eight years of age. Soon after his death her 
marriage with Colonel Hodgdon took place, and she became the mother 



of several children. Her oldest child was Mar}^ Ann, who early 
became a comminiicant in the Chnrch. She remained single, and 
lived nntil about seventy-two years of age. She took care of her 
mother while she lived, and afterwards kept house for her brother 
Alexander. She died of cancer. 

Mrs. Hodgdon's second child was Samnel. He was of a ]5eculiar 
temperament. He entered into mercantile business, was married 
early, and retired to ]\Iontrose, in Susquehanna County, Pa. He had 
several children, became a communicant in the Church, and made 
himself very useful. After the death of his first wife he married 
a sister of Judge Jessup, of Montrose, by whom also he had children. 
Upon her death he married as his third wife a lady from New Jersey, 
who survived him. After this third marriage he transferred his resi- 
dence to Newark, N. J., and afterwards to Germantown, Pa. He 
there died of disease of the heart when about seventy years of age. 
One of his sons, named Henry, lived and died in Kentucky. Another, 
Captain James Hodgdon, was in the mercantile service. He eventually 
commanded steamers running between Philadelphia, Mobile and 
Savannah. Upon the breaking out of the Civil War he was employed 
in the transport service, chiefly in the Gulf of Mexico. He there 
contracted disease of the liver and stomach, of which he died in 
Philadelphia. He married a iJiiss Dana, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., and 
left but one son, who still lives (1873). His widow afterwards 
married Samuel Belton Henry, youngest son of John S. Henry, and 
she now resides with him in "Virginia. A daughter of Samuel Hodgdon 
married a Mr. Urquhart, who lives in Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Another 
daughter married Dr. Messier, of Kentucky, who had a lucrative 
practice there, and during the war occupied an important position. 
Being much interested in chemistry he has since that time estal^lished 
a large chemical manufactory in Connecticut, some ten miles from 
Hartford, where he and his wife are exerting a great influence for 

Another daughter born to Mary Hodgdon was Elizal^eth, who died 
early in life. Jane was the next daughter. She was born about the 
year 1797, and was a girl of much talent, and great vivacity, making 
herself very agreeable to her associates. Of course, under these cir- 
cumstances, she had intimate friends. Among these may be men- 
tioned Matilda Maybin, iVugusta S})erry and a Miss Smith, a very 
handsome young woman who married and died; also, Matilda Henry, 
daughter of Alexander Henry, and afterwards wife of Dr. John K. 


Mitchell. Mrs. Mitchell died only a few days ago. \Y\wn Jane 
Hodgdon was about twenty years of age she married Dr. Thomas 
Harris, of the United States Navy. Dr. Harris was twenty years 
older than herself, a very intellectual man, of a quiet and sedate 
demeanor, but one who exerted much influence, even putside of his 
profession. At one time he had a very large and fashionable practice 
in Philadelphia. This was broken up by chronic disease of the spine, 
so that he became almost incapable of going about. He was largely 
instrumental in establishing the N"aval Asylum on the Schuylkill River 
for sailors; the father of the institution being Judge Southard, of 
Trenton. Dr. Harris was afterwards transferred to Washington, 
where he received an appointment as chief of the ISTaval Bureau, soon 
after its establishment. Some years later, his health being very feeble, 
he was put upon the retired list, and came to Philadelphia, where 
he died of cardioplegia. Jane Hodgdon and Thomas Harris had several 
children. The oldest was William, who studied medicine, and entered 
the United States N'avy, but did not attain much influence. He 
married a lady in ISTorfolk, who afterwards died, leaving him with 
several children. William is still living in Norfolk. His second child 
was Mary, a very fine, intelligent' girl. She married a Mr. Dorsey, 
of Maryland, where she afterwards lived. She had three or four 
cliildren, one of whom only survives. He was taken by his father to 
Virginia, where he entered the Rebel Army, and is still living. Mary 
Dorsey herself died while still young, soon after giving birth to twins. 
Her husljand, Mr. Dorsey, subsequently married into the Mason family 
in Virginia, and went to that State to live. 

The next child of Tliomas and Jane Harris was Elizabeth. She 
married Judge Daniels, of Richmond, Va. He was Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, and was then an old man with a 
familv of children. He was, of course, a gentleman of great influence, 
but the difference of age between himself and his wife was very 
marked. Elizabeth had at least tv/o children, who were brought up 
by his family ; their mother perishing when quite young in consequence 
of her clothes taking fire while she was dressing for a party. 

Thomas Harris, Jr., was another child. He early entered the Navy, 
and was actively engaged in the public service during the Civil War. 
Wlien the war was over he spent most of his time upon the ocean, and 
is now captain of a United States vessel in the South Pacific. He 
married Lucy Jaudon, daughter of Ashbel Green Jaudon, and grand- 
daughter of Daniel Jaudon, well-known as a most successful 


teacher of 5'oimg ladies in this city, and as an elder in the Second 
Presb}'terian Church. Lncy Jaudon had throe or fonr children, and 
lives in Pino Street, above Twenty-first. 

The last child of Thomas and Jane Harris was Charles, who was, 
I believe, a short time in the Navy, and afterwards a clerk in one of 
the Washingion offices. He is now residing in Baltimore. 

The next child of Colonel and Mary Plodgdon was Alexander, who 
is about seventy-four years of age at the present time. He never 
married. He was educated as a merchant, took Tip business in Phila- 
delphia, and for several years was engaged in the same in New 
Orleans. He then returned to PhiladeljDhia, and took up his resi- 
dence with his aged mother and his sister. Since their death, which 
occurred some years ago, he has lived by himself in a house in Spruce 
Street, above Tenth. He was a young man of talents, with an excellent 
memory, having great mental and physical activity. He now owns a 
valuable property in land on the Delaware Eiver, north of Eichmond. 
He has also considerable personal investments. He has taken great 
interest in useful and public affairs. He was President of the 
Columbia and Harrisburg Railroad, retrieving it from many of its 
difficulties until it was eventually absorbed in the great Pennsylvania 
Railroad. He afterwards devoted much time and energy to the 
advantage of the Girard Bank, of which he was a director. He 
was elected a member of our Common Council, and afterwards of 
the Select Branch, and has frequently been honored with a re-election. 
He is constantly employed as a menil)er of the various committees 
of the City Council, such as the Highway Committee, the Finance 
Committee and the Water Committee. In this last office he has 
co-operated very successfully with Mr. Graef, the Chairman and 
Engineer, to whom as well as to Mr. Hodgdon, the citizens of Phila- 
delphia are greatly indebted for the supjDly of good water which they 
are enjoying without any real increase of expense. As a member 
of the Councils Mr. Hodgdon has been very diligent and punctual 
in all his engagements, manifesting a good deal of business talent, 
and showing himself practical and eloquent in resisting, and often 
with success, unnecessar}^ expenditures and fraudulent impositions 
upon the public. In these pursuits he is still engaged with earnestness, 
not manifesting any decline of vigor or any of the infirmities of age. 

The next and last child of Andrew Hodge, the -first, and Jane Mc- 
Cullough, was James. [He was the ninth in number.] He early entered 
the mercantile service, l)ocame a captain and part owner of vessels, 


and was to a certain extent prosperous. About the year 1793 he 
undertook a voyage to the East Indies, and sailed from Philadelphia. 
Since that time no news has come from him except a verbal report 
of a sailor, who states that the vessel was wrecked on one of the East 
India Islands, supposed to be Borneo. He also affirms that Captain 
Hodge and all the crew but himself were surrounded and destroyed 
by the inhabitants. He himself escaped by hiding in some bushes. 
Captain Hodge left some property, which was paid by the under- 
writers on his vessel to Major Hodgdon, the executor of his will. He 
was interested also in the third of the real estate of his father. A 
part of this included a house on the east side of Water Street, 
bounded on the north by the house and stores of Henry Pratt, Esq., 
and on the south by the stores belonging to his brother, Dr. Hugh 
Hodge. My father, Dr. Hodge, rented this property from his brother, 
and lived there until 1797. It was in this house that I and my fathers 
other children were born, with the exception of my brother Charles, 
whose birth occurred while we were living in Arch Street, above 
Fourth, in a house next west of Thomas Stewartson's, to whom it 

Of the three brothers who came over to this countr}^, the youngest 
was HUGH HODGE. He also settled in Philadelphia, first as a regu- 
lar merchant, but afterwards in a dry goods store in Market Street, 
above Second, on the north side, where he earned a very comfortable 
support. He, like his brother Andrew, was a trustee of the Second 
Presbyterian Church (in 1780). He also filled the office of deacon, and 
this position he occupied during the remainder of his life. Hugh mar- 
ried a Miss Harkum, whose maternal ancestors bore the name of Doz, 
and were of Huguenot descent. She was connected with the First Pres- 
byterian Church, then on Market Street, and afterwards with Christ 
Church. Miss Harkum early in life had religious tendencies, but it 
was not until she came under the influence of the celebrated Mr. White- 
field that her religious character was confirmed. It was her habit to 
make every sacrifice to attend the preaching of the great evangelist, 
walking even twenty miles, if necessary, to accomplish the purpose. 
She was married many years without having children. Then a son was 
born, but he soon died. Afterward another lioy was given her, whom she 
called Hugh, after his father. My impression is that he received a 
classical education at Princeton ; but, from the account given me by my 
mother, it would seem that he became interested in mercantile pur- 
suits, and soon after the peace of 1783 he, and many other young 


men, embarked for England to engage in business. The vessel in 
■which he sailed was never heard of.* 

The loss of their only son weighed heavily vipon his parents. They 
nevertheless attended steadily to their occupations, and to their 
religious duties. Mr. Hodge's house became indeed to a certain 
degree a centre where Presbj'terians collected for the purpose of 
worship. This character of the house was maintained by his wife 
after the death of her husband, which occurred in 1783. f Hence, it 
came to pass that Aunt Hannah was soon denominated "A Mother in 
Israel." Her house, and even the yard of her house, was crowded 
with worshippers. She received a great deal of attention from 
clergymen, especially from Dr. Ashbel Green. Soon after the demise 
of her husband she received as an inmate of her house Mrs. Finley, 
the widow of President Finley, of the College of Xew Jersey, who 
was blind. This good lady stayed with Aunt Hannah as her com- 
panion until the death of the latter, when she went to pass the 
remainder of her days in the family of Dr. Jackson, at the corner 
of Fourth and Arch Streets. 

Aunt Hannah survived until 1805, and then, without much suffer- 
ing, she passed away in the eighty-fifth year of her age, leaving a 
record for good long to be remembered in the Second Church. By 
the will of her husband she enjoyed a life-interest in the property; but, 
on her death, all of it, including the house on Market Street, was 
transferred to the Trustees of the College of I^ew Jersey as a per- 
manent fund, the interest of which was to be appropriated to the 
collegiate education of pious young men looking forward to the 
ministry. The fund still remains constant^ productive in accordance 
with the wishes of the giver. 

Perhaps I may add that 1 have some mementos | of my Aunt 

*"My uncle, John L. Hodge, always stated that Hugh Hodge, son of Hugh Hodge 
and Hannah Harkum, graduated from Princeton about 1773, being in the same, or about 
the same, classes with his cousins, Andrew and Hugh Hodge, and that his father sent him 
abroad for a trip, or to complete his education, and that the vessel was wrecked on 
the coast of France, and young Hugh Hodge was drowned. There seems to be no 
reference to a record of him during the time of the Revolution when his cousins, sons 
of Andrew Hodge, all took a more or less active part; and I think that he died, or was 
lost at sea before the Revolution." — J. Ledyard Hodge. 

tAccording to Dr. Ashbel Green, in the General Assembly's Missionary Magazine 
for 1806, the date was 1783; but, in the genealogical tree in the possession of Mrs. J. 
Ledyard Hodge, and on his tombstone, it is given as 1784.— E. B. H. 

I "Henry Wilson Hodge, son of J. Ledyard Hodge, Esq., has a pair of gold link 
sleeve-buttons, marked H. H., formerly belonging to Hugh Hodge, which he often 
wears, and which are almost identically the same pattern as those used to-day, a 
century later."— J. Ledyard Hodge. 


Hannah. Some of her family silver came to my mother. This 
silver, being in a very battered condition, was remelted and converted 
into plate, consisting of a tea pot, a sugar bowl and a cream jug; also, 
two dozen teaspoons, all of which were marked with the initials M. H. 
To me also came as an heirloom a large old-fashioned clock, probably 
made toward the beginning of the seventeenth (eighteenth?) century, 
or perhaps earlier, although it is uncertain when it came into the pos- 
session of my uncle Hugh Hodge. This clock has a handsome mahog- 
any case, a metallic face and a musical arrangement so contrived that 
a tune is jjlayed every hour before striking. It is a most excellent 

I have also an old-fashioned secretary in my office, some eight 
feet high, furnished with large drawers, a writing-desk and a large 
number of pigeon-holes for papers and books, as well as several 
arrangements for the concealment of money and papers. This piece 
of furniture was left by Aunt Hannah to Dr. Ashbel Green. Dr. 
Green's son, Jacob Green, Esq., politely presented it to me after the 
death of his father, who lived until he was eighty-dx years of age. 

With the death of Aunt Hannah came to an end this branch of the 
Hodge family, while the descendants of the two brothers, Andrew and 
William, were, on the other hand, very numerous. 

Memoir of Hannah Hodge, Widow of Hugh Hodge, 


(Written by her pastor, the Rev. Ashbel Green, D.D., for the "Assembly Magazine." 
See the Panoplist, February 2d, for the year ending June, 1807. Philadelphia 

"Hannah Hodge was l)orn in Philadelphia, Janiiar}^, 1721. Her 
father's name was John Harkum, an Englishman by descent. Her 
mother, whose maiden name was Doe or Doz, was a descendant of 
a French Protestant, who fled from France on account of the 
Eevocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. He and other French 
Protestants were principally instrumental in founding the First Pres- 
byterian Church, on Market Street above Second, of which afterwards 
the Eev. Jedediah AndrcAvs was pastor. There was much dissatisfac- 
tion among some of the members concerning Mr. Andrews, so that 
Mrs. Hodge's maternal grandfather and others joined the Episcopal 
Church. Her ov/n parents, however, remained with the First Church. 
Mrs. Hodge became a communicant at the age of fifteen or sixteen; 
but she regarded her true conversion as having occurred under the 
preaching of \^niitefield. At one time she walked twenty miles to 
hear him preach; but in after years she did not approve of such 
excursions. Particulars are given of her conversion and also of 
the trials and actual persecutions to which she Avas subjected in 
consequence of her devotion to religious subjects. Even her father 
drove her and her sister from the house; and these tAvo girls were 
obliged to support themselves by keeping a small store and doing 
needlcAvork. The father, however, before his death, Avas reconciled 
to them, and expressed his regret for his severity. 

"In 1743 the Second Church Avas founded l)y Gill)crt Tennent and 
the converts of \\niitefield, one hundred and forty ))eing received as 
members, among whom Avas the subject of this memoir. In, or about 
the year 1745 she Avas married to Mr. Hugh Hodge, the youngest 
brother of William and AndrcAV Hodge, Avho also Avas himself con- 
verted under the preaching of Whitefield, and Avho became a deacon 
in the Second Church, Avhich position he retained until his death. 

"To support themselves they opened a store on ]\Iarket Street, 



above Second, on the north side. They were married eleven years 
without having children. Mrs. Hodge says : 'JSTor had I ever any 
particular desire for them until one Sabbath when there happened 
to be the baptism of an infant, when it suddenly came to me what an 
honor was conferred upon a mother to train her child for the Lord. I 
then prayed earnestly that this blessing might be given me. My 
prayer was answered^, for, in the course of one year, my child was 
born, presented to the Lord, and taken to himself.' This was a 
daughter. She afterwards had a son, who grew up to manhood, and 
studied medicine. During the Eevolutionary War this son went to 
sea on a voyage of enterprise* 

"The house of Mr. and Mrs. Hodge was the resort of clergymen for 
religious meetings, and prayer meetings were held sometimes so large 
that the people, not only filled the house, but even crowded out into 
the yard. 

"Mr. Hodge died in 1783. His property was left so that the 
proceeds were received by his widow during her life, and, after her 
death in December, 1805, the principal was transferred to the College 
of New Jersey on the condition that the annual income thereof should 
be devoted to the education of pious young men destined for the 
ministry. This endowment is still preserved. 

"After the death of her husband Mrs. Hodge still maintained her 
religious associations established early in life. Her house became 
often the abode of clergymen, and a place for religious conference 
and prayer. 

"(For many years after the death of her husband she continued) to 
supervise her store, now no longer necessary for her sustenance, but 
the instrument of her charities in various directions; for every 
penny that was made in this store was devoted to benevolence. 

"Until within two years of her death Mrs. Hodge maintained 
good general health and much activity of mind and body, although 
with two or three temporary interruptions from congestion of the 
brain. From these attacks, although serious, she wonderfully recovered. 
The last two years, however, she rapidly failed in mind and body, and 
on December 15th, 1805, had an apoplectic seizure, which terminated 
fatally on the 17th, when she was in the eighty-fifth year of her age." 

*My mother afterwards told me that young Hugh Hodge, with a number of young 
Philadelphia merchants, embarked for Europe immediately after the peace of 1783, bul 
that the vessel was never heard of. My cousin, John L. Hodge, thought that he saileC 
in the United States ship "Alliance," and that he was lost in some of her adventurous' 
undertakings. — H. L. H. 

See also Note by J. Ledyard Hodge at bottom of page 126. 



Dr. Green concludes his notice by a very high eulogium upon her 
character. Solid, sterling integrity, and sincere piety, united with 
great humility, the love of truth and abhorrence of hypocrisy, were her 
chief characteristics. This gave her an influence among her Christian 
associates perhaps superior to that of any other individual. 

She made her house the home of the stranger and the orphan ; and 
for the last few years of her life she enjoyed the companionship and 
the friendly attentions of Mrs. Finley, the aged and amiable widow 
of the Eev. Dr. Finley, President of the College of ISTew Jersey. At 
the death of Mrs. Hodge, Mrs. Finley* (nee Clarkson) l^ecame the in- 
mate for a time of the family of Mr. David Jackson. 

Whitefield, under whose preaching Hannah Hodge was converted in 
1739, preached to a crowd of fifteen thousand persons on Society Hill, 
so called as being used by the Free Society of Traders. It had its 
summit on Pine Street and rose in graceful grandeur upon the pre- 
cincts of Spruce Street! An old letter of the time says : "The change 
in religion here is altogether surprising through the influence of 
Wliitefield. ^o books sell but religious, and such is the general con- 

The Second Church at tbat time became housed, according to a 
paper in Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, in the old Academy, a 
building which was originally constructed on subscription money raised 
by the celebrated \^niitefield for the use of itinerant preachers forever, 
as well as for the maintenance of his peculiar views and tenets, then 
called "New Light," the promulgation of which caused his former 
friends in the First Presbyterian Church no longer to hold fellowship 
with his followers. The building was l^egun in 1741, and, when the 
walls were but about four feet high, it was preached in by \¥hitefield 
to a great congregation. It was finished in 1744, faster than money 
had been procured to pay for its erection. Under these circumstances 
Dr. Franklin in 1749 raised seven hundred and seventy-seven pounds 
for t]ie purchase of the property, and it was converted into the first 
Academy in Philadelphia, with the condition that a preaching hall 
should be partitioned off aud reserved to the use of itinerants forever- 
In 1753 (June 10, 1755) it was made the College of Philadelphia, and 
November 27, 1779, the University. Dr. William Smith was inducted 
as first Provost, beginning his labors, however, in 1754. 

*Thp first wife of President Finley (Sarah HaH) was the great-grandmother of 
Samuel Finley Breese Morse, whose inventive genius gave the telegraph to the world, 
•and of Sidney E. Morse, and Richard C. Morse; the last being the father of Charlotte 
G. Morse (Mrs. J. Aspinwall Hodge). — B. B. H. 


The Second Church was then built, Rev. Gilbert Teuuent, Pastor, at 
the corner of Third and Arch streets. The Rev. William Teuuent, who 
came from Ireland, arrived in Ne«^ York (?) iu 1718,='= and iu 1721 
removed to 15eusalem, iu Bucks county. Pa. Soon, however, he settled 
in a Presbyterian church of small consideration at the forks of the 
iS"eshaminy (he had been ordained a Churchman), where he opened a 
school for teaching the languages, etc. There he formed many of the 
youth of early renown, and many of the early clergymen of the Presby- 
terian Church, among whom were Rowland, Campbell, Lawrence, 
Beatly and others. It received the name of " Log College." His four 
sons all became clergymen Gilbert was remarkable for his ardor in 
Whitefield's cause, and the schism he formed in the Presbyterian 
Church. He lived for many years at Bedminster, desci'ibed as 
a neat country-place, having a fine collection of fruit-trees. It was 
at the northeast corner of Brewer's alley and Fourth street, which was 
then considered far out of town. In the year 1755 it was advertised 
as a " very rural, agreeable place." Its proper front was upon the 
present Wood street, formerly called Brewer's alley because of a brew- 
house. Rev. Gilbert ^enuent laid the foundation of the Presbyterian 
Church at the northwest corner of Third and Arch streets, then bearing 
the name of the New Meetiug-House. It was at first without a steeple, 
but an effort to raise one was attempted among the society, and it " fall- 
ing much short," they, iu the year 1753, succeeded to draw a lottery 
and have it finished. The steeple was afterward taken down for fear it 
would blow over It was a very neat and ornamental structure; and 
the Episcopalians, of no mind to see their architectural beauties rivaled, 
gave rise to the satirical couplet : 

" The Presbyterians built a church, and feign would have a steeple ; 
We think it may become the church, but not become the people." 

"When Teuuent lived at Bedminster country-seat he was one day 
overtaken in a storm of rain, and put into the tavern known as ' The 
White Horse,' at the northwest corner of Brewer's alley and Third street. 
Having hitched his horse to the buttonwood tree then there, he went 
into the house; and, while he was seated by the fire drying his clothes, 
lightning came down the chimney and melted the silver buckles on his 
knee-bands and shoes. The people thought him invulnerable as a saint 
of God." 

The ground where the Second Church was built was at one time owned 

* William Tennent "came to America in September, 1716," according to Webster (" History of 
the Presbyterian Cliurch," p. 365). According to Dr. Sprague, "he landed at Philadelphia on 
the 6th of September, 1718" (" Annals of the American Pulpit," Vol. Ill, p. 23).— E. B. H. 


by one Richard Hill, proprietor of the land extending from Arch and 
Third streets to Vine and Fifth streets, which he used as a kind of 
farm ; and, when the Presbyterian church was built, it was spoken of 
as "on Dr. Hill's pasture" (From Watson's " Annals of Philadel- 
phia," volumes 1 and 2). 

" A sketch of the connection of the Hodge family with the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia (as) collected by the oldest survi- 
vor of the family at this time (1870), from early recoHections and 
accounts occasionally given by friends and .relatives of a former genera- 
tion." (This is copied from the paper of Cousin Sally Hodge, wife of 
William L. Hodge, of Washington, and formerly Sally Bayard. ) 

At the time of the formation or collecting of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, Mr. Andrew Hodge, (the first), with his son-in-la^v. Col. John 
Bayard, and his brother, Mr. Hugh Hodge, were among its most able 
and zealous supporters, and contributed largely by money and personal 
influence to the erection of the brick building at the corner of Arch 
and Third streets. Here each built a pew, which, in process of time, was 
transmitted to their successors respectively. A congregation, large for 
that time, was soon collected, and the first Pastor was the Rev. Gilbert 
Tennent, whose descendants remained in the church until within a 
very few yeai-s (say 1860). After the death of Mr. Hugh Hodge, his 
widow, the much respected and venerated Mrs. Hannah Hodge, having 
no children living, proposed to her nephew, Mr. Andrew Hodge, that 
he should take her pew as his, reserving for herself a seat in it, thus 
leaving his father's pew to Dr. Hodge. That transfer could not be 
made without the consent of the trustees of the church, as by the charter 
there must be a sale (in fact, but nominal in this case) to render the 
transfer legal. This was early effected, and the fifth pew from the 
pulpit on the south side of the middle aisle became the possession of 
Andrew Hodge, and the first pew from the pulpit on the north side of 
the same aisle was the property of Dr. Hodge. On his death it rested 
with his widow as the guardian of his sons, then children, and (so) 
remained during her life. It is now the property of Dr. (Hugh L. ) 
Hodge. (Subsequently it belonged to his son, Dr. H. Lenox Hodge, a 
ruling elder in the church. ) 

Gaylord Bros. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

PAT. JAN. 21. 1908 

Princeton Theological Seminary Libraries 

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