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Leland Stanford, 




September i6, 1893, and February 12, 1894. 




Ee$olved fry the Senate (the House of Repreaentativee ooneurring). That there 
be printed of the eulogies delivered in Congress upon the Hon. Leland 
Stanford, late a Senator from the State of California, 8,000 copies, of which 
2,000 copies shall be delivered to the Senators And Representatives of that 
State, and of the remaining number 2,000 shall be for the use of the Sen- 
ate and 4,000 copies for the use of the House, and of the quota of the Sen- 
ate the Public Printer shall set aside 50 copies, which he shall have bound 
in full morocco with gilt edges, tbe same to be delivered when complet-ed 
to the widow of 'the deceased ; and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby 
directed to have engraved and printed at the earliest day practicable a 
portrait of the deceased to accompany said eulogies. 



Biographical sketch of Senator Stanford ^ 

Faneral ceremonies at Palo Alto 15 

Address of Rev. Horatio Stebbins, d. D 22 

Proceedings in the Senate. 

The anuoonoement of his death 27 

The resolutions adopted 29- 

Address of Mr. White, of California 29 

Mr. Dolph, of Oregon 32 

Mr. Peffer, of Kansas 39 

Mr. Mitchell, of Oregon 42 

Mr. Daniel, of Virginia 44 

Mr. Stewart, of Nevada 59 

Mr. Vest, of Missouri 63 

Mr. Perkins, of California 6& 

Proceedings in the House of Representatives. 

The resolutions adopted 79 

Address of Mr. Tracey, of New York 80 

Mr. Hilbom, of California 81 

Mr. Sibley, of Pennsylvania '. . . 87 

Mr. Blair, of New Hampshire 97 

Mr. Wheeler, of Alabama 101 

Mr. Pickler, of South Dakota 106 

Mr. Bowers, of California 114 

Mr. Wise, of Virginia 116 

Mr.Loud, of California 121 



Leland Stanford, a Senator from California, died at his 
residence on the Palo Alto estate, California, a few minutes 
before midnight, Tuesday, Jane 20, 1893. His health for some 
years had not been good, but there was no intimation of his 
approaching end. Daring the day he pursued his accustomed 
avocations; took his usual drive around his stock farm and 
visited some neighbors; made no complaint of feeling indis- 
posed, and retired to rest about 10 o'clock. Shortly before 
midnight Mrs. Stanford, who occupied an adjoining apartment^ 
was awakened by a movement in Mr. Stanford's room. He 
had thrown off the bedclothing and maile an effort to rise. 
She 8x>oke to him and received no response. His breathing 
was unnatural and stertorous, and in a few minutes he passed 
away peacefully and apparently without pain. 

Leland Stanford was one of the most wonderful men 
this country has produced, and the story of his career is inter- 
esting and instructive from his boyhood to his death. He was 
born at Watervliet, N. Y., 8 miles from Albany, March 9, 1824 
He was of English stock, though with Irish blood on the 
father's side. His father, Josiah Stanford, a native of Massa- 
chusetts, had removed to New York with his parents when 4 
years of age. His mother was Miss Phillips, whose parents 
had moved from Massachusetts to Vermont and from Vermont 
to New York. 

Josiah Stanford lived for many years at a farm called Elm 
Grove, on the road from Albany to Schenectady, and was an 


6 Biographical Sketch. 

intelligent, industrious, and x)rogressive farmer, who also pur- 
sued the business of a contractor, built a portion of the turn- 
pike between Albany and Schenectady, constructed roads and 
bridges in his neighborhood, was an alert business man, a 
public-spirited citizen, and was an early and enthusiastic 
advocate of the construction of the Erie Canal. 

In 1829 the legislature of New York granted a charter for a 
railroad between Albany and Schenectady, and Josiah Stan- 
ford was one of the principal contractors for building this 
road. A railroad was an attractive novelty in those days, and 
this road passed so near the home of the Staufords that Leland 
Stanford passed his holidays in watching the work, and 
even at that early day acquired a knowledge of railroad con- 
struction that was of service to him in later years. The 
conversation at the home of Josiah Stanford was elevating 
and inspiring. His visitors were men engaged in the con- 
struction of large works, who were alive to the great possi- 
bilities of future development of transportation routes and 
were not daunted by the magnitude of any project. Among 
the subjects of discussion in those days and by those men was 
the project of a railroad to Oregon. Lelanb Stanford was 
present at one of these discussions. << Young as he was when 
the question of a railroad to Oregon was first agitated," it is 
written, "Leland Stanford took a lively interest in the 
measure. Among its chief advocates at that early day was 
Mr. Whitney, one of the engineers in the construction of the 
Mohawk and Hudson River Railway. On one occasion, when 
Whitney passed the night at Elm Grove, Lbland being then 
13 years of age, the conversation ran largely on this overland 
railway project, and the effect upon the mind of such a boy 
may be readily imagined. The remembrance of that night's 
discussion between Whitney and his father never left him, but 
bore the grandest fruits." 

Biographical Sketch, 7 

Men have risen to the highest stations in this country whose 
boyhood was passed in mach humbler homes than that in 
which Leland Stanford spent the years of his youth. Most 
of our great men have come from the farmhouse, and such 
homes, however humble, are free from the squalor and cramp- 
ing meanness to be found among the homes of those of similar 
condition in older civilizations. Hope is the heritage and 
opportunity the reward of every boy of courage bom in such 
suiTOundings. Garfield said he felt like taking off his hat to 
every lad he met. Who knows to what heights such a one may 
attain in this country where no classes exist to bar progress, 
where education is free, where opportunities are unbounded! 
Lelanb Stanford received the education of the farmer boy. 
He inherited good physical and mental qualities, and was 
reared in a home where there were no idlers, where there was 
little luxury but no want, where labor was honored and each 
had his task appointed for him to do. He worked on the farm 
with his father and his brothers, rising as early as 5 o'clock 
of a winter's morning. He attended the common schools until 
he was 12 years of age, and for three years received instruc- 
tion at home. 

He thlBU assisted his father in carrying out a contract for 
the delivery of a large quantity of wood. This was his first 
business venture, as he was in some manner a partner in the 
enterprise and received a share of the profit with which he 
paid for his tuition at an academy at Clinton, N. Y. He had 
determined to study law, and entered the office of Wheaton, 
Doolittle & Hadley, at Albany. After three years of study he 
was admitted to the bar. 

Mr. Stanford had determined to locate in the West, and 
after visiting various places he finally selected Port Washing- 
ton, Wis., as best suited to his purpose, and there established 
himself in 1848, and entered at once upon the practice of the 

8 Biographical Sketch. 

law. This town, now of 1,700 population, waB then consid- 
ered by many to be the port of the lake region having the most 
promising fatore and destined to eclipse sach rivals as Mil- 
waukee and Chicago. Mr. Stanford was a successful lawyer, 
and enjoyed, in the estimation of the community ,» a lucrative 
practice. His earnings for the first year were $1,260. 

In 1850 he paid a visit to Albany, and while there married 
Miss Jane Lathrop, the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant 
of Albany, whose family were among the earliest and most 
respected settlers of that city. Mr. Lathrop was bom at 
Bozrah, Conn., and accompanied his parents on their removal 
to New York, when he was about 7 years of age. He was a 
man noted for his kindly deeds; was one of the founders in 
Albany of the orphan asylum, and was treasurer of that 
institution and director to the time of his death. 

Mr. Stanford retunied to Port Washington with his wife 
and continued in the practice of his profession at that place 
until 1852, when a misfortune happened to him which changed 
the course of his life and proved to be a blessing in disguise. 
This was the total destruction by fire of his office with all of 
its valuable contents, including his law library, which was one 
of the best in the State north of Milwaukee. 

Tidings of the discovery of gold in California had come to 
the East and occasioned great excitement. Five of the seven 
sons of Josiah Stanford had gone to California, and the destruc- 
tion of his office at Port Washington determined Leland 
Stanford to follow them. Mr. Stanford closed out his 
affairs in Wisconsin, took his wife to Albany, where she was 
unable to persuade her father to let her accompany her husband 
to share with him the hardships of life in a new country, and 
where she remained for three years, attending with all the 
devotion of a loving and sympathetic daughter to every want 
of her father through a long illness to his death in April, 1855. 

Biographical Sketch. 9 

Mr. Stanfobd sailed from New York, made the journey by 
way of Nicaragua, spent twelve days in crossing the Isthmus 
and thirty-eight days in the entire trip. He arrived at San 
Francisco July 12, 1852. He visited bis brothers, who were 
^i^g^R^ ill ^ genera) merchandise business at Sacramento, 
and soon after entered upon a mercantile career at Cold Springs, 
Eldorado County. The following spring he opened a store 
at Michigan Bluffs, the central business point of the Placer 
County mining district. 

This period of the life of Mr. Stanford was passed amongst 
the privations, the hardships, and the excitements of a typical 
pioneer mining camp, the recollection of which never faded 
from his memory. In an address delivered in the Senate March 
25, 1892, upon the life and character of his late colleague, 
Hon. George Hearst, who was a pioneer of California, Mr. 
Stanford said : 

The true history of the ArgoiiAats of the nineteenth century haa to be 
written. No poet has yet arisen to immortalize their achievements in 
verse. They had no Jason to lead them, no oracles to prophesy success, 
nor enchantments to avert dangers; but, like self-reliant Americans, they 
pressed forward to the land of promise, and traversed thousands of mUes 
where the Greek heroes traveled hundreds. They went by ship and by 
wagon, on horsebacl^ and on foot, a mighty army, passing over mountains 
and deserts, enduring privations and sickness ; they were the creators of 
a commonwealth, the builders of States. 

Mr. Stanford also engaged in mining operations and pros- 
pered in them and in his business to such an extent that in 
1855 he purchased the business of his brothers in Sacramento. 
Tlie same year he proceeded to the East and brought Mrs. 
Stanford to California and established his home in Sacra- 

Mr. Stanford was now firmly established. The house in 
Sacramento soon ranked among the leading business estab- 

10 Biographical Sketch, 

lishments of California and the management of its affairs 
developed a capacity — heretofore untried — for dealing with 
large affairs. 

It was not long before the political life of Lbland Stan- 
ford began. The Republican party was organized in Cali- 
fornia in 1856; he was one of its founders in that State, and 
gave it his enthusiastic support. He was not at the first on 
the popular side. At the next election after the birth of the 
Bepublican party in California he was its candidate for State 
treasurer and was defeated. 

In 1859 he was the candidate for governor, received 11,000 
votes, and was again defeated. In 1860 he was a delegate at 
large to the Bepublican National Convention and was an ear- 
nest and influential advocate of the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln, with whom he formed a warm and lasting friendship. 
At the request of President Lincoln he remained in Washington 
several weeks after the inauguration. He enjoyed the confi- 
dence of President Lincoln, who frequently consulted him as 
to the surest methods of preserving the peace and loyalty of 
California and its adherence to the Union — a question then 
filled with doubt and which caused much anxiety to the Presi- 
dent and his advisers. 

Mr. Stanford was again made the Bepublican candidate 
for governor in 1861, and after a bold, vigorous, and thorough 
canvass was elected, receiving 56,036 votes against 32,750 votes 
for Mr. McConnell, Administration Democrat, and 30,944 votes 
for Mr. Oonness, Douglas Democrat. It was a critical period 
in both State and national affairs when Lbland Stanford 
was inaugurated governor of California, but he was firm and 
X>olitic and prevented the outbreak of any disturbance. During 
his term the militia was organized, the evils of sqnatterism 
abated, a State normal school established, and the indebted- 
ness of the State reduced one-half. If Leland Stanford had 

Biographical Sketch. 1 1 

no other claim to remembrance, his services as war governor of 
California would caase his fame to be handed down to future 

The part taken by Mr. Stanford in the construction of the 
Central Pacific Bailroad is better known than any other portion 
of his career. As a boy he had listened with interest to the 
conversations between his father and Mr. Whitney as to the 
possibility of the construction of a railroad to Oregon, and in 
after years kept himself informed on the subject and of articles 
relating to it which were published in the newspapers. During 
his voyage to California with Mrs. Stanford, who was sick, he 
said to her: '< Never mind; a time will come when I will build 
a railroad for you to go home on." He did not originate the 
idea of a Pacific railroad — ^he executed it. In 1860 he heard 
of the examination which Theodore D. Judah, an engineer, 
had made of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to determine a 
practicable rout« for a railroad. Not long afterwards he had 
a conversation with C. P. Huntington, a hardware merchant 
of Sacramento, on the subject of a railroad from California 
to the East. Another meeting was held and a third, at which 
Mark Hopkins was present. The result of these conferences 
was a determination to look further into the feasibility of the 
project. Mr. Judah, an engineer of ability, energy, and intre- 
pidity, and an enthusiastic believer in the possibility of build- 
ing a railroad across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, was called 
into consultation. As the resiilt of the information furnished 
by him and that obtained from others it was determined to 
send out Judah, with the necessary assistants, to make a 
preliminary survey, and a frind was raised for this purpose. 
This was the beginning of the great corporation. The men 
who started this mighty enterprise were all merchants of 
Sacramento, except Theodore D. Judah, the engineer. They 
were Leland Stanford, CoUis P. Huntington, Charles 

1 2 Biographical Sketch. 

Crocker, Mark Hopkius, and James Bailey. The physical 
difficalties were considered by many engineers to be insur- 
mountable; others thought that if the road could be built at 
all the cost woald be so great that the necessary funds could 
never be secured; but great as were the physical difficulties 
the financial difficulties were not less appalling. 

Incorporated in 1861 under the general law of the State of 
California as the Central Pacific Railroad Company, the project 
was still in a condition giving little hope of success until the 
passage by Congress of the act of July 1, 1862, entitled "An act 
to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from 
the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, and to secure to the 
Government the use of the same for postal, military, and other 
purposes.'' This act incorporated the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company and granted to it "for the purpose of aiding in the 
constinictiou of said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure 
the safe and speedy transportation of the mails, troops, muni- 
tions of war, and public stores thereon," every alternate section 
of public land, designated by odd numbers, to the amount of 
five alternate sections x)er mile on each side of said road "not 
sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, 
and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have 
attached at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed." 
Mineral land was exempted from the operation of the act. The 
Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to issue to the com- 
pany, upon the completion and equipment of 40 consecutive 
miles of the railroad and telegraph, bonds of the United States, 
payable thirty years after date and bearing interest at the rate 
of 6 per cent per annum, to the amount of $16,000 a mile, and 
at $32,000 and $48,000 a mile for certain sections through the 
mountains. These bonds were to constitute a first mortgage 
upon the property of the company. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California was 

Biographical Sketch. 13 

authorized to construct a railroad and telegraph line from the 
Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco or the navigable 
waters of the Sacramento River, to the eastern boundary of 
California upon the same terms and conditions in all respects 
as the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The Central Pacific 
Railroad Company was required to complete 50 miles of its 
road within two years after filing assent to the provisions of 
the act and 50 miles annually thereatlker, and was authorized, 
after completing its road across California, to continue the con- 
struction of a railroad and telegraph line through the Terri- 
tories of the United States to the Missouri River, or until it 
met and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad. 

By act of July 2, 1864, these provisions were materially 
amended; the time for designating the general route, for filing 
map of the same, and of building the part of these roads first 
required to be constructed was extended one year; the Cen- 
tral Pacific was required to complete annually 25 instead of 50 
miles and the whole line to the State line within four years. 
The land granted was increased from five to ten alternate sec- 
tions within the limits of 20 instead of 10 miles on each side. 
It was provided that only one-half of the compensation for 
services rendered for the Oovemment should be required to be 
applied to the payment of the bonds issued by the Oovern- 
ment in aid of the construction of the road. When a section 
of 20 instead of 40 miles was completed bonds might be issued 
to the company. The provision for the withholding of a por- 
tion of the bonds authorized by the act of July 1, 1862, until 
tlie completion of the whole road was repealed. Spe<;ial pro- 
vision was made for the issue of bonds in advance of the com- 
pletion of the sections in the regions of the mountains — the 
most costly and difficult part of the line. But the most impor- 
tant provision of the act was the one authorizing the company, 
on the completion of each section of its road, to issue its own 

14 Biographical Sketch. 

first-mortgage bonds to au amount not exceeding the bonds of 
the United States and making the bonds of the United States 
subordinate to the bonds of the company. 

The work of construction was begun upon the Central Pacific 
Eailroad January 8, 1863, when Lbland Stanford, president 
of the company, turned the first shovelful of earth, and in May, 
1869, the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad com- 
panies united at Promontory Point; and Leland Stanford 
drove the last spike in the line of railroad connecting the Pacific 
and the Atlantic oceans and binding together the eastern and 
the western sections of the country. 

Space does not permit the recital of the difficulties that 
were met and overcome by the builders of the Central Pacific 
Ballroad in carrying to completion their mighty undertaking. 
A just conception of the difficulties of a great enterprise can 
not be formed by one who considers it for the first time after 
it has been successfully accomplished. The lack of interest 
in communities that were to be benefited, the unwillingness of 
the financial leaders of California to invest in the enterprise, 
the opposition of hostile interests were never overcome; but 
with a courage that never faltered and an ability that rose 
equal to the difficulties as they presented themselves this 
quartette of wonderful men — Stanford, Huntington, Crocker, 
Hopkins — persevered until they had conquered success. It 
was a gigantic enterprise managed by men of remarkable 
ability, the peculiar ability of one in a particular sphere of 
action supplementing the peculiar ability of another in another 
sphere and all working in harmony for the common purpose. 
From the beginning to the end, however, the master mind and 
the master will were those of Leland Stanford. 

Upon the doubtful chance of success these men ventured 
the moderate fortunes which they possessed. Leland Stan-* 
FORD realized a colossal fortune, but with the attainment of 

Biographical Sketch, 1 5 

great wealth his labors did not cease. He continued to be the 
president of the company until 1885. The management of this 
great cori>oration and of the connecting lines which it acquired 
kept him constantly employed. In addition to the work of the 
railroad Mr. Stanford had the care and direction of his 
extensive landed estates. He became the largest land owner 
in California. His home was on the Palo Alto estate of 7,200 
acres, and he also owned the Gridley farm of 20,000 acres, and 
the great Vina ranch of 55,000 acres. ThesA places he im- 
proved to such an extent that they became among the most 
valuable and productive tracts of land in the world. 

Mr. Stanford was very much interested in the development 
of the trotting horse, and owned the famous Electioneer, sire 
of many of the fastest horses in Anferica, among them being 
Sunol, 2:08J, and Palo Alto, 2:08f. 

The great sorrow of Mr. Stanford's life came in 1884, when 
his only child, Leland Stanford, jr., died. He was a youth of 
great promise and many attractive qualities, the idol of his 
father and of his mother. While traveling in Europe with 
his parents he was attacked with a fever and died at Florence, 
Italy, March 13, 1884, in the fifteenth year of his age. He 
died in the flower of youth, but his memory is perpetuated for- 
ever in the noble institution of learning which bears his name. 

The Leland Stanford Junior University is situatM upon 
the Palo Alto estate, in Santa Clara County, Cal., and is 
distant about 30 miles from San Francisco. November 11, 
1885, Leland Stanford and Jane Lathrop Stanford, his 
wife, united in founding aud endowing a university for both 
sexes to be called the Leland Stanford Junior University, to 
be located at Palo Alto. The estates granted included the 
Palo Alto farm, the Oridley farm, and the Vina farm, aggre- 
gating 83,000 acres of land. The total endowment of the uni- 
versity in land and money was estimated to be $20,000,000. 

1 6 Biographical Sketch, 

The univerBity has for several years beeu iu successfal 
operation and is destined to become one of the foremost 
seats of learning in the world. In manificenee of endowment 
it is unrivaled in the history of the world. In addition to 
its endowment fnnd it has a legacy of wise counsels from 
its founder. He enjoyed the uncommon privilege of living 
to witness the realization of the oherished idea of his old 
age and of seeing the university, the monument of the affec- 
tion which he bore his son, take a place among the leading 
universities of the world. He saw it fully organized and 
equipped, its halls thronged with students, its reputation 
firmly established, its usefulness and its influences extend- 
ing year by year. Who can measure the results of such a 

The Leland Stanford Junior University opened its doors in 
October, 1891, with over 500 students. There are in attend- 
ance the current year over 700. 

From the inception of the idea of founding the university, 
through every stage of its development, and through every 
I)eriod of its operation, Mrs. Stanford has been the earnest, the 
enthusiastic, the helpfal friend, and to her is committed the 
task, left in part uncompleted by her husband, of still further 
widening its inflnence and increasing its usefalness. 

In 1885 Mr. Stanford was elected a member of the Senate. 
He took his seat March 4, 1885, and was reelected for the term 
ending March 3, 1897. Mr. Stanford was not very conspic- 
uous in the debates in the Senate, though he took an active 
interest in the work of the body and was an influential mem- 
ber of a number of leading committees. His name will 
forever be associated with the Land-Loan bill, which he origi- 
nated and presented to the Senate. His addresses on this 
measure have been quoted in works on i)olitical economy in 
every language of civilization. The bill proposed, in brief. 

Biographical Sketch. 1 7 

that mouey should be issued upon laud to half the amount of 
its value, and for such loan the Governmenl. was to receive an 
annual interest of 2 per centum. Mr. Stanford frequently 
stated that if the measure were adopted it would, in time, raise 
revenue enough to pay the entire expenses of the Government, 
and would thus take thetariff question out of politics entirely. 
It had no connection, however, with what is known as the Sub- 
Treasury plan, which proposed the issue of money to be loaned 
on perishable products. 

The high estimates formed of the value of Mr. Stanford's 
services as a Senator are set forth in the appreciative addresses 
of his associates in Congress which are contained in this vol- 

' S. Mis. 122 2 


The funeral of Leland Stanford took phice Saturday, June 
25, 1893, at Palo Alto, Cal. The body lay in the room in 
which he died — a room in the second story of his late home — 
until a short time before the commencement of the ceremonies. 
Only a few of the most intimate friends of the family were 
admitted to the house. 

The body had been placed in a black-covered casket and 
removed to the library of the dwelling, where it remained until 
half past 1 o'clock, when the funeral procession was formed. 
The pall-bearers and intimate friends of the deceased assembled 
at the house. The body was borne to the place of funeral by 
the eight engineers oldest in point of service in the Southern 
Pacific Company. Ranged along the pathway were the two 
hundred employes of the Palo Alto stock farm. 

The funeral ceremonies were held in the open air in the 
quadrangle of the Leland Stanford Junior University build- 
ings. At one end of the Spanish court was a platform upon 
which the casket rested during the services. Chairs and 
benches, part of the furniture of the university, were placed 
upon the asphaltum pavement in front of the platform for the 
accommodation of visitors. 

Clinging to the sandstone walls and reaching to the tiles- 
that roof the arcade were growing ivy and passion vines. The 


20 Funeral Ceremonies at Palo Alto. 

collection of flowers was one such as probably has never been 
equaled on such an occasion. A van draped in white and 
laden with magnificent specimens of the floral wealth of Cali- 
fornia was taken to the quadrangle and ranged in front of the 
platform which served as a chancel. These offerings were 
from various societies and organizations with which Mr. Stan- 
ford had been associated, and showed that sorrow for his 
death pervaded the whole community. There were oflferings 
from the Loyal Legion, the Union League Club, and the Stan- 
ford Parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West, from the 
employes of the Southern Pacific Company at San Francisco, 
from the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and from the 
Ladies' Auxiliary of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. 
**To Labor's Friend," "Our Friend," were the inscriptions on 
the gifts from these organizations. A floral horse was the 
offering of the employes of the Palo Alto stock farm. It was 
a likeness of a favorite mare of the dead Senator. Most woii- 
derfdl and unique of all was the gift of the railroad employes. 
It was a locomotive and tender iu flowers, fashioned to repre- 
sent one of the first locomotivcvS used on the Central Pacific 
Eailway. Formed of roses and lilies and sweet peas and 
yellow pansies was the locomotive, and the tender of peas of 
darker hues, while yellow pansies represented tlie brass work 
on the engine. 

At the corners of the platform stood Norfolk Island pines, 
and in appropriate arrangement were white Easter lilies and 
fiweet-pea blossoms and anemones and roses, red and white. 

Amid such surroundings, in the open air, in the shadow of 
the university which he had so munificently endowed, tho 
funeral services of Leland Stanford were held. The 
audience numbered thousands. Men known throughout the 
State were noticeable in the company assembled, men known 
by their prominence and success in politics, men who directed 

Funeral Ceremonies at Palo Alto. 21 

departments of the great railroad of which Leland Stan- 
ford for nearly thirty years was president, men who were at 
the head of the professions, men who direct great commercial 
enterprises. Nor were the men who toil absent. 

The casket containing the remains of the deceased was 
borne to the platform by pall-bearers selected in accordance 
with the wish expressed by Mr. Stanford. They were the 
engineers of the Southern Paeific Company oldest in point of 
service. They were Sands Clark, C. W. Collins, George Col- 
lins, B. Kelly, W, M. Lacey, J. G. Ressinge, J. E. Saulpaugh, 
and William Scott. The honorary pall-bearers were Col. C. F. 
Crocker, Stephen T. Gage, X. T. Smith, W. W. Stow, A. N. 
Towne, David Starr Jordan (president Leland Stanford 
Junior University), Lloyd Tevis, W, W, Montague, Harry L. 
Dodge, Charles H. Cummings, Justice McFarland, Judge 
McKenna, Judge F. E. Spencer, B, F. Lieb, A. L. Tubbs, Dr. 
C. W. Breyfogle, Dr. W. H. Harkness, B. tJ. Steinman, Frank 
McCoppin, William E. Brown, and John F. Houghton. 

Mrs. Stanford was escorted by her brother, Charles Lathrop, 
and was accompanied by H. C. Nash, Dr. and Mrs. Taylor, ex- 
Igenator and Mrs. Felton. 

Senators White, of California, Dolph and Mitchell, of Oregon, 
had been appointed by the Vice-President, by telegraph, to 
attend the funeral as a committee of the Senate. 

The casket was opened and thousands looked upon the face 
of the deceased. 

The burial service of the Protestant Episcopal Church was 
read by Right Beverend William Ford Nichols, bishop of the 
diocese of California, and the scriptural lesson by Eev. Eobert 
C. Foute, D. D., rector of Grace Church, San Francisco. " I 
heard the voice of Jesus " was sung by the choir. Bishop 
Nichols read a prayer and Mrs. Maromer Campbell sang '* O 
Sweet and Blessed Country." 

22 Funeral Ceremonies at Palo Alto, 

Rev. JBLoratio Stebbins, d. d., pastor of the First Unitarian 
Chnreli, San Francisco, then delivered the following address; 

Address of Db. Stebbins. 

Deab friends, kind neighbors, and respected fel- 
LOWCiTizKNS — beloved all! Thin great concourse of 
people, from all conditions of human life, gathered within 
these youthful walls of youthful learning, at an unaccustomed 
hour and in an unaccustomed place, attests that a conspic- 
uous figure has been withdrawn from the earthly scene. 

The occasion is not for eulogy nor biography. The events 
of his life, from the farm on which he was born, through early 
struggles to the splendors of worldly success, and the last, 
simple human scene in the dying chamber, are known to us all ; 
and it would be impossible for eulogy, whatever eloquence it 
might employ, to strike a note of applause or sketch the scene 
of action in colors that would be new, or give new impulse to 
the general estimation in which he was held by his ibllow men. 
For thirty years he has been tbe cynosure of all eyes — a par- 
ticular star in the constellation of earthly success — and no 
voice of eloquence or power raised at his bier to- day woulU 
throw any new light on the scene or change the opinion of a 
single mind. It was Mr. Stanford's lot to stand at the focus 
of many contentions, and to be praised or blamed with that 
decision which is characteristic of interest or passion rather 
than of reason or intelligence. With these contentions and 
judgments, which time only can read aright from the imperfect 
records of good and evil, I am not concerned. 

In every life, high or low, rich or poor, there is a track of 
light that reveals the inner idea, the momentum and gravita- 
tion of the man. Among mixed causes he obeys a final 
law like that in the universe of worlds that keeps the stars 
from wrong. Mr. Stanford's powers as a man consisted in 

Address of Dr. Stebbtns, 23 

that combination of the common faculties of human nature that 
gives good sense and what is called long-headeduess, united 
with sincere human sympathies. He came to the table-land of 
life among the terrible splendors of a new era of the country. 
His star was in the horizon. For him the earth turned, suns 
rose and set, winds blew, waters flowed, and the Nation's 
grief and weeping History opened wide the gate of oppor- 
tunity. Opportunity! — the tide m the affairs of men which, 
taken at the flood, carries on to fortune. No man can be rich 
by his own simple industry. Time, events, and circumstances 
must favor and take him under their great protection. The 
line between the man and his opportunity can be drawn by no 
hand but that in which all creatures live. 

And here we come where we touch the very nerve and quick 
of a man's being. How does he behave in the kingdom of 
what he calls his ownf How does he handle his property, 
which war, or famine, or a nation's glory helped him to win! 
Does he fling about his power as the chartered libertine of 
self-will or voluntarily abdicate in favor of a higher law! A 
truly noble being never uses power as power, but as increased 
UBsponsibility. Here is the moral germ of all possession, which, 
by little and little putting forth its eternal strength, like a 
seed 'twixt blocks of granite, moves the foundations of the 
world, transforming the nature and power of property from 
age to age. 

Mr. Stanford's reputation and influence will not rest on any 
public office that he ever held; neither on his having been a 
central figure, amid extraordinary circumstances, in founding 
one of the great corporate properties of the country; but on 
the use he made of that portion of the great property that 
belonged to him. That is the keynote of his character aft it 
will go down to coming generations. It would be idle, of 
course, to contend that he was not influenced by the ordinary 

24 Funeral Ceremonies at Palo Alto, 

motives of men or did not pursae the ordinary methods of 
business. But what effect did ine ripening process of life and 
experience have on his mind in regard to his property? What 
was the final moral effect and outcome of it all! 

The moral crisis in Mr. Stanford's life was the death of his 
son — fair boy, on whose counterfeit in yonder hall the youth 
of coming time shall look, and learn that 't was his translation 
that reared these walls and illumined these skies with intel- 
lectual light. That event o'erclouded Mr. Stanfobd's heart, 
and drew the sunbeams out of the day. But, strange paradox 
of human experience, darkness reveals light ! And the convic- 
tion is borne home to every thoughtful heart that there must 
be light to make so deep a shade. Tltai darkness was cleft by 
celestial beams, opening to his vision a wider day. The past, 
the present, and the future Hashed on his mind, illumined his 
being, and the vision of the sacred lyrist dawned before him 
as he looked down the vista of the future: 

See a long race thy spacious courts adorn ; « 

See future sous and daughters yet unborn, 
In crowding ranks on every side arise, 
Demanding life, impatient for the skies. 

Mr. Stanford conceived education as the theme of the 
world — the business of God. Education ! A vague expression, 
often, in the common mind, but which, in its complete and in- 
clusive sense, is that ^^ process of the suns " by which God is lead- 
ing forth mankind and enchurching His spirit in the mind and 
heart of the race. It was this alliance with the Eternal Will 
that fascinated his imagination and affections. In conversation 
with him I congratulated him on the fair promise and happy 
auspices of the young university. He replied: ** We feel [he 
alfaysused the plural, thus including that womanly heart from 
whose fountains his life had ever been refreshed] that we have 

Address of Dr. Stebbins. 25 

good ground for hope. We are very happy in our work. We 
do not feel that we are making great sacrifices. We feel that 
we are working with and for the Almighty Providence." For 
this I praise and honor him; and in honoring and praising him 
I praise and honor Ood, who so manifests Himself to the chil- 
dren of men. This is Mr. Stanford's name above all riches, 
and this his fame throughout all generations. 

Dear lady, let me not intrude — but I should not be true to 
this occasion, nor to this great company, all whose hearts bear 
you up in kind sympathy and beseeching prayers, that you 
may be made strong to discharge the great resi>onsibilities that 
rest upon you through him, did I not exhort you, in all love 
and gentleness, to take counsel of what you know to be his will, 
and of your own heart enlightened by that wisdom that cometh 
from above. Put on garments of praise, and let a song of 
reverent joy rise from all your sorrows. 

Bearers — men of iron hands andiron hearts! — gen tie down 
your strength a little as you bear his body forth — 't is a man 
ye bear — and lay it softly in its last, strong resting place^ 

Such honors Ilium to her hero paid ; 

And peaceful slept the mighty Hector's shade. 

The services ended with the singing of the hymn ^'Lead, 
Kindly Light." 

The casket was then borne by the veteran engineers to the 
mausoleum which Mr. Stanford had erected and in which are 
three tombs, one for himself, one for his wife, one for his son 
whose remains were removed from a temporary tomb and 
placed by the side of those of his father a few days after the 
latter's interment. Wide open stood the great bronze doors 
of the mausoleum and in front of them the casket was placed. 
The choir sang softly "Abide With Me,'' and Bishop Nichols 
read the part of the 'service appointed to be read at the grave. 

26 Funeral Ceremonies at Palo Alto. 

The benediction was said, the casket was carrieil into the* 
granite mausoleum, and the bronze doors of the tomb closed 
on all that was mortal of Leland Stanford. 

To the inscription on the marble slab on the tomb tlie date 
was added : 

Leland Stanford passed into immortality 
June 20^ 1893. 



Monday, August 7, 1893. 
The Seuate having met in pursuance of the proclamation of 
the President requiring the convening of Congress, and neces- 
sary business relating to organization having been transacted, 
the following announcement was made: 


Mr. White, of California. Mr. Presidenli it becomes my 
painful duty to announce to the Senate the death of my late 
colleague, Leland Stanford. I shall hereafter request the 
Senate to set apart a day for such remarks with reference to 
his memory as may be deemed proper. At present I shall 
content myself with moving that, as a mark of respect to the 
memory of the deceased, the Senate do now adjourn. 

The motion was agreed to; and (at 12 o'clock and 25 minutes 
p. m.) the Senate adjourned until to-morrow, Tuesday, August 
8, 1893, at 12 o'clock m. 



Saturday, September 16, 1893. 
The Senate met at 12 o'clock m. 

The Chaplain, Rev. W. H. Milburu, d. d., offered the fol- 
lowing prayer: 

O Eternal God, as we are gathered to commemorate the life 
and services of a late Senator upon this floor whose noble gift 
for education marks an era in the history of beneficence, we 
pray that the influence of his illustrious example upon the peo- 
ple of our whole country may lead them to cease piling great 
masses of idle and useless stones as monuments of the famous 
and lamented dead, but convert them into houses of use and 
service for the benefit of mankind, and thus for the honor and 
glory of God. 

Comfort and console the bereaved widow, and grant her 
length of days and fullness of health and strength to complete 
the organization and endowment of the university, that it may 
stand to the latest times a monument to her husband, herself, 
and their beloved son, thus working from age to age benevo- 
lence, and education, and ennobling example. We pray 
through Jesus Christ, our Saviour. Amen. 

Mr. White, of California. Mr. President, 1 desire to offer 
resolutions which I send to the desk. 
The Vice-Pbesidbnt. The resolutions will be read. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 29 

The Secretary read the resolutions, as follows: 

Resolved^ That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow of the death 
of Leland Stanford, late a Senator from the State of California. 

Resolved, That as a mark of respect to the memory of the deceased the 
business of the Senate be now suspended, that his associates may be 
enabled to pay proper tribute to his high character and distinguished 
public lervices. 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate these resolu- 
tions to the House of Representatives. 

The Vice-President. The question is on agreeing to the 
The resolutions were unanimously agreed to. 

ADDRESS OF Mr. White of California. 

Mr. President : Another member of this body has passed 
from among us, his term of office not accomplished. It is meet 
that we who have been his associates should record our sor- 
row and pay fitting tributes of respect to his memory. I shall 
not enter upon an examination of the life and services of the 
late Leland Stanford. I am apprised that other Senators, 
long his companions here and elsewhere, desire to signalize 
their regard by a review of his career. It may not be amiss, 
however, for me to contribute a brief expression. 

Senator Stanford was thoroughly identified with the inter- 
ests of California. His relations to that State and to her prog- 
ress will' be fully detailed by my able colleague and others 
who are to follow me. He was not only twice ejected to the 
Senate of the United States by the California legislature, but 
he was also chosen by the people to the high station of gover- 
nor. He was thus honored at a time when it was necessary 
that strong and wise counsel should prevail, and the history 
of our Commonwealth discloses that Governor Stanford was 

30 Address of Mr, White^ of California^ on the 

not only loyal, but that his policy was such as to win the 
applause of all well-disposed men, regardless of party afiUia- 
tion. He had faith in the American Union, and conducted 
his administration in accordance with his belief. In the 
pursuit of the objects which he desired to attain. Senator 
Stanford was diligent, painstaking, and unremitting. 

His successes were due, I think, largely to his determination 
to win the object of his aspiration. His firmness did not 
beget arrogance, and the possession of wealth did not impair 
in the slightest degree his kindly characteristics. The lead- 
ing part which he took in constructing a transcontinental rail- 
road system and in carrying on the vast interests connected 
with railroad corporations on the Pacific coast is fUlly known 
and needs no elaboration or extended presentation. The 
crowning effort of his life — strikingly at variance with the 
conduct of the average millionaire — was the contribution of 
his means to the cause of education. While many doubted 
his ability, as they doubted the ability of any individual, to 
sustain the stupendous burden which he undertook at Palo 
Alto, matters have so progressed as to justify the conclusion 
that he and his estimable wife did not overestimate their 
capabilities. This bestowal of his fortune demonstrated Mr. 
Stanford's philanthropy. 

The plan which he outlined for the practical teaching of the 
youth of his country proved that he appreciated the neces- 
sities of his fellows. Owing to the impossibility of overcom- 
ing the intervening distance, I was the only representative of 
the Senate at his interment. While participating in the 
impressive ceremonies which there took place 1 soon observed 
that, although there were no invitations issued, there were in 
attendance a vast number of the older citizens of California — 
a remarkable representation of the pioneer element. Many of 
those who had passed through the storms of more than one 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 31 

third of a century and who had participated in the active con- 
tentions of early California life stood by the bier with moist- 
ened eye. Some of them had differed from Senator Stanford 
in politics and some had opi)osed him in other respects, but 
all were emphatic that he was a man whose heart was no less 
reliable than his brain. If the expressions of these most com- 
petent witnesses could have been perpetuated, they would 
have constituted a far more eloquent tribute to his memory 
than anything which will be uttered in this Chamber. He was 
laid to rest in that beautiful principality, bewildering in its 
charms, which he had selected for his home. 

Senator Stanford was not without his trials. The loss of 
the son whose name the university carries was a blow that a less 
determined organization would have failed to resist; and while 
in this Chamber those who were associated with him utter 
words of regretful sentiment, let it not be forgotten that his 
companion and truest friend, the partner of his cares and his 
oys, still survives; that upon her shoulders is cast the burden 
of carrying out the great projects which she and her husband 
designed, and to which they consecrated their later years. 
That she has the power, and that she will realize their antici- 
pations, no one who is acquainted with her or at all familiar 
with her attainments for a moment doubts. I know that the 
sincere and undivided condolence of this Chamber goes out to 
her, and she can rest in assured possession of the sympathy 
and good will of her countrymen. 

Senator Stanford's death was not altogether unexpected. 
His once robust constitution yielded to the pressure of business 
and time. His transition to another world is but an additional 
notice to us all suggesting the inevitable. 

As the amber of the clouds 

Changes into silver gray, 
So the light of every life 

Fades at last from earth away. 

Address of Mr. Dolph^ of Oregon^ on the 

Address of Mr. Dolph, of Oregon. 

Mr. President: The history of this country affonls many 
examples of brilliant success in every branch of human 
endeavor; biogn^aphies of those who from humble beginnings, 
unfavorable surroundings, and adverse circumstances have 
arisen by force of their native powers, their self-reliance, and 
patient industry to the most exalted positions, to the control 
of great industrial establishments, to the highest usefulness 
and distinction in science, art, and literature. Among all 
these examples, which show the possibilities of the American 
youth under our form of government and our industrial and 
educational systems, there is probably not a more conspicuous 
example than that of the late Senator Stanford, and there 
have been few men in this country the story of whose lives 
truthfully written would be more fascinating. 

Like myself he was born and reared upon a farm in the State 
of New York. In labor upon a farm he laid the foundation of 
bodily vigor, acquired habits of industry, and learned the value 
of money; and in the district school he laid the foundation of 
an education. His advantages were not superior to those of 
thousands of other boys of his age. The difference in their 
careers was not caused by their early advantages or training 
or their opportunities, but by the difference in themselves. 
To Senator Stanford's ambition, his moral character, his good 
judgment, his enterprise, energy, and industry must be mainly 
attributed his success. Like many ambitious young men, as 
a stepping-stone to something else he taught a country school. 
Knowing that the legal profession had often proved a means 
of political preferment and a road to wealth, he read law and 
was admitted to the bar. 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 33 

When gold was discovered in Oalifornia and the great rush 
to tbe New Eldorado began/Mr. Stanford joiued the immigra- 
tion to that State to seek his fortune there. It is unnecessary 
to trace his career in his new home step by step. The qualities 
which had before enabled him to steadily advance toward for- 
tune and position enabled him to embrace the better advan- 
tages oflfering there. They also attracted the attention and 
commanded the respect of the practical and enterprising pio- 
neers of the new State, and his nomination and election as 
governor of the State naturally followed. 

Neither Mr. Staj^obd nor his associates were the first to 
propose a transcontinental railroad. What others had dreamed 
of they undertook and accomplished. It was an undertaking 
which by its magnitude appalled more timid men. The enter- 
prise proved to be a great success. The faith and courage of 
its promoters were rewarded and the foundations of great 
fortunes laid. ' 

The wealth thus acquired made the subsequent career of 
Mr. Stanford possible, enabled him to promote and control 
great enterprises for the development of his State, to liberally 
patronize the arts and sciences, to scatter broadcast the bless- 
ings of charity, and to accomplish the last crowning act of his 
life, the founding and endowment of the great university that 
bears the name of his deceased son. His knowledge of the 
value and use of money, and his power of rightly judging men 
and measures were largely acquired by his early experiences 
and struggles, and were the efficient means which enabled 
him to accumulate his great wealth. It would be idle to deny 
that unusual opportunities were oi>ened up to him, which 
enabled him to reach the topmost round of success, but too 
much of the results of his life should not be attributed to his 
opportunities. Some men seek out and create opportunities. 
Senator Stanford did so. 
S. Mis. 122 3 

34 Address of Mr. Dolph^ of Oregon^ on the 

He carved out for himself a place which any man might 
envy.. At a time when it required courage and enterprise to 
cross a continent through a wilderness and desert, encounter- 
ing hardships and dangers, he left the civilization of the older 
States and cast his lot with the pioneers of the Pacific coast. 
In that new country, where the foundations of civilization and 
of a great State were being laid, his good judgment, his enter- 
prise, his interest in his fellow-men and in public affairs soon 
made his presence felt and enabled him to greatly aid in the 
establishment of organized society. 

In the important x>osition of governor the same qualities 
which had brought him to the front and made him a leader of 
men made his administration successful and enabled him to 
embrace the opportunities offered for the development of his 
State and the advancement of his private fortune. No one but 
a self-reliant, enterprising, public-spirited man would have 
ventured upon the great and hazardous undertaking of con- 
structing a railroad across a continent, over almost impas- 
sable mountains, and through trackless deserts. The success 
of the great enterprise justified the expectations of its pro- 
moters and proved the soundness of their judgment. 

But it is not the fact that Mr. Stanford was governor of 
Oalifomia during the war of the rebellion and saved his State 
to the Union, or that he was one of the promoters of the great 
corporation which built the pioneer railroad across the conti- 
nent and bound together the Atlantic and Pacific with bands 
of steel, or that the people of California twice honored him 
with an election to the United States Senate, that makes his 
name to-day a household word and causes his praise to be on 
every tongue, and that will perpetuate his memory through 
coming years. It is the fact that he came to fully recognize 
the claims of humanity upon those endowed with great wealth 
and to regard his wealth as a trust, to be managed and used 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 36 

for the glory of God and the good of his fellow- men. His char- 
acter was like that described by Shakespeare when he\^ote: 

For his bounty 
There was no winter in't; an autumn 'twas 
That grew the more by reaping. 

The calls upon him for aid to religions, educational, and 
charitable institntious and to individuals were so numerous 
and constant that it is not improbable that sometimes his 
liberality was imposed upon and his benevolence misapplied, 
but in the main his charities were bestowed worthily and 
with good judgment 

Of his career in this body I need not speak at length. He 
was never intrusive or self asserting. He was willing to leave 
the work of the Senate mainly to other and younger hands. 
Although largely occupied with other cares and duties, and 
especially with the plan for his great university, and afflicted 
with bodily infirmities, the interests of his State in Congress 
were never neglected. His counsel was always valuable, and 
his kindness of heart, his benevolence, and his love for 
humanity, which was manifested in all he said and did, made 
his presence among us a blessing. Coming to the Senate at 
an advanced age, without previous experience in legislative 
bodies, with other great cares and responsibilities, and with 
enfeebled health, he did not assert himself or take that com- 
manding position in the Senate which he would naturally 
have done if he had entered that body at an earlier period in 
his life and when in the full vigor of manhood. 

Confessedly, the idea of founding and endowing a great 
university grew out of his great bereavement in the loss ot 
his only son. The stricken parents appear to have transferred 
the solicitude, time, and labor which had before been given to 
the promising object of their affections to humanity. 

The declaration of Senator and Mrs. Stanford, made while 

36 Address of Mr. Doiph^ of Oregon^ on the 

their hearts were still freshly bleeding ou accoant of their 
great. affliction, that ^Hhe children of California shall be our 
children," was almost sublime. 

How grandly was this declaration made good. IIow better 
could the children of California — yea, the children of the 
entire Union, of this generation and generations to come — 
have been made the beneficiaries of his great wealth than by 
the founding and munificent endowment of a great university, 
at which the children of the poor as well as those of the rich 
might have an opportunity to secure such an education as 
is usually only within the reach of the wealthy, a university 
which is destined to be enduring and to exert an incalculable 
infiuence for good upon the future of this country. 

Senator Stanford devoted his time and his strength to the 
last to the great scheme of his life. With failing strength, 
with increasing infirmities, with the evident consciousness 
that the closing scene of earth for him could not be far distant, 
with serenity, with patient, painstaking industry, the whole 
plan and all the details of the great university were constantly 
in his mind and received his x)ersonal attention. His great 
desire was to leave the great undertaking in as advanced a 
condition as possible. 

To the casual observer it would appear as if Senator Stan- 
pokd's early dreams had become realities, his hopes had 
reached fruition, and his ambitions had been gratified, and yet 
all of us know how little he prized worldly i)ossessions, worldly 
honors, and worldly successes. How, when the idol of life, his 
promising and beautiful boy, was taken from him and his 
fondest earthly hopes perished, all his possessions became to 
him like apples of Sodom. 

The career of our late associate is not only an example worthy 
of emulation by American youth, but worthy to be followed by 
those whom fortune has blessed with wealth. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 37 

Men with large wealth have comparatively large duties. 
Happy is the man blessed with great wealth who recognizes his 
responsibility to Ood and his moral obligations to his fellow- 
men and who embraces the opportunites presenting themselves 
to discharge those obligations. In the great effort to alleviate 
human suffering, to educate and elevate the race, to advance 
moral reforms, to make the masses comfortable, intelligent, 
virtuous, and independent, the wealthy are rightly expected to 
lead. It is a blessed as well as solemn thing to possess more 
power for good than other men, and fortunate is the man pos- 
sessing an abundance of that which is calculated to minister 
to the weal of the race who welcomes and embraces opportu- 
nities to bless mankind. 

The duty of benevolence, however, is not confined to the 
rich. The less favoi*ed by fortune have responsibilities and 
duties in proportion to their means. The poor may dispense 
charity as well as the rich. The giving of silver and gold alone 
does not constitute charity. The kind interest, the words of 
sympathy and encouragement which always accompanied Sen- 
ator Stanford's gifts were more grateful than the gold itself. 
All can contribute something to make the world better and 
mankind happier. 

A nameless man, among a crowd that thronged the daily mart. 
Let fall a word of hope and love, unstudied from the heart ; 
A whisper on the tumult thrown, a transitory breath, 
It raised a brother from the dust, it saved a soul from death. 

With wealth which could command everything which human 
heart could desire, and which enabled him to scatter blessings 
as flowers scatter fragrance; full of honors, representing the 
great State of California for a second term in the United States 
Senate; engaged in carrying out the crowning act of his life for 
the benefit of his fellow-men, our brother was transported, 
probably in an instant, from the scenes of his earthly posses- 

38 Address of Mr, Dolph^ of Oregon^ on the 

sions and activities to the spirit world. Happy those who, like 
him we moum, are content to tread the path of duty and do 
faithfully and well the work their hands find to do in this 
world, and, trusting to a merciful Creator for the next, wait 
the end with serene hope and confidence. 

The realm of death seems an enemy's country to most men, on whose 
shores they are loathly driven by stress of weather; to the wise man it is 
the desired x>ort where he moors his bark gladly, as in some quiet haven 
of the Fortunate Isles \ it is the golden west into which the sun sinks^ and, 
sinkiugi casts back a glory upon the leaden cloud-track which had darkly 
besieged his day. 

By the death of our brother we are again reminded of the 
unalterable decree which dooms all flesh to the grave. We are 
compelled to pause amid the rush of worldly pursuits and the 
clash of worldly controversies to consider the end of man. We 
behold everywhere about us the succession of birth, life, and 
death. Nature tells of no escape from the inevitable law of 
our being, and affords no ground for hope for th6 future. 

Generations of men appear and vanish as the grass, and the countless 
multitudes that throng the world to-day will to-morrow disappear as the 
footsteps on the shqre. 

If it were not for the hope that is inspired by revelation of 
a resurrection and future life, how desolate and gloomy would 
be the grave, how empty iand fruitless would human life 

Our departed brother was a Christian man. His faith was 
simple and unfaltering and was the mainspring of his philan- 
thropy. Religion was a common and favorite theme with him. 
He regarded God as a merciful father and mankind as a great 
brotherhood. His gifts to aid Christian institutions and Chris- 
tian efforts were numerous and princely. He died in a firm 
belief that he should awaken in the spirit land to behold his 
God and embrace his loved ones gone before. Happy indeed 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 39 

i8 the possessor of such faith — a faith which enables him to 
say with the poet : 

There is no death ! But angel forms 
Walk o'er the earth with silent tread; 
They bear onr beet-loved things away. 
And then we call them ''dead/' 

Our brother has gone from us forever. He will have no farther 
part in all that is done ander the sun. He sleeps the sleep that 
knows no waking, near the great institution he so liberally 
endowed. The great scheme that absorbed his energies in 
later years will be carried on by others. 

Thousands of young men in coming years, aided by his wise 
benevolence, will there equip themselves for life's duties, and 
his benevolence, through them, will be transmitted to later 
generations. The students in after years enjoying the ihiits of 
his liberality will stand with reverence at his tomb and repeat 
his praises. The fruitftil vineyards and orchards at Palo Alto 
will bud, blossom, and yield their fruitage; the flowers will 
come in the springtime to scatter their fragrance; generations 
will come and go; time will change the very face of nature; 
but nothing will disturb his repose. He has solved the great 
mystery of life and death. 

Though dead, his works live after him, and will live and 
exert their influence for good to the latest generations. 


Mr. President: My earliest information concerning the 
man Leland Stanford came through the public press in the 
way of news reporting the operation of great business enter- 
prises in which he was engaged in regions bordering on the 
Pacific Ocean. 

40 Address of Mr. Peffer^ a/ Kansas^ an the 

It was at a time when the trangportation system of the 
country was developing with wonderftil progress and other 
strong minds in other sections were building and managing 
other great railway lines. These skillful carriers in a few 
years constructed the most stupenaous traffic connections ever 
known among men. Mr. Stanford was recognized as the 
peer of any among these master builders. His standing was 
attested not only by his work as a carrier, but as well by bis 
growth in personal fortune and by his prudent management 
of a large private business. 

In that view of him I regarded him simply as one among 
many strong men seeking wealth and the i>ower and influence 
which comes with success. 

If there were no object other or better than the gratifica- 
tion of avarice, the accumulation of riches is a most ignoble 
pursuit, and we can not tell what motives impel men to action 
until we see what disposition they make of their opportuni- 
ties. It was then too soon to measure the full stature of this 

Early in the year 1890 1 saw him in another and a wider field, 
acting on a higher plane, where there was more room for the 
play of his intellectual powers. He was a member of the 
American Senate, charged with the responsibilities of legis- 
lation for a mighty people. Having begun in private life 
devising means for the distribution of movable projierty — 
the products of labor — among the people in different places, 
nothing was more natural or logical than that when he 
entered public life he should begin a. study of means for the 
diffiision of the values of labor's work. As in his private 
capacity he had builded great traffic lines to carry property 
long distances, so when he entered the field of politics he saw 
the need of improved and enlarged facilities for the easy and 
quick exchanges of the value of property through a more 
general and less expensive means of passing from hand what 
the people agree in their laws shall represent values. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 4J 

It was in this grand work that I saw him the second time — 
not by physical sight, bat through the eyes of the press. He 
introduced a bill in the Senate to increase the circulating 
medium and to afford money to borrowers at low rates of 
interest. From his own experience and from his observations 
among men, he saw that through the destroying power of usury 
the profits of labor were being rapidly absorbed by compara- 
tively a few persons, and he saw also that this process must 
be arrested if we would preserve our liberties and perpetuate 
the Republic. As a plain business proposition he saw that 
there was but one reasonable way to effect that result, and he 
presented his plan to the country in a short speech in this 
Chamber advocating his land-loan bill. 

My personal acquaintance with him began after I became a 
member of this body, and it soon ripened into a friendship 
which I am pleased to state in this presence waxed warmer . 
and stronger as it grew older. 

As the years of his life passed behind him and as the shad- 
ows of evening began to gather about him his sympathy with 
the poor and toiling masses of his fellow-men grew stronger 
and stronger, until it became a ruling passion, and here is 
where he rose to the full stature of a noble man. Having 
amassed a vast fortune, his real estate embracing over 80,000 
acres of choice California lands, being in receipt of a large 
annual income, he was moved to devise means whereby others 
beside himself, and those who most need assistance, should 
share with him his good fortune. 

And, what is more and better, his plan involved the opera- 
tion of good influences moving out through the education ot 
young men and women whose early training, traditions, and 
troubles would probably always keep them close to the common 
people. The Stanford University will send out among the 
people evangels of good will, sowing that others may reap. 

42 Address of Mr. Mitchell^ of Oregon^ on the 

And here, Mr. President, is where we see the best, the noblest, 
the grandest work of Leland Staiopobd. He went down to 
the grave honored by his fellow-citizens becaase in private life 
and in pnblic station he had been capable, faithftd, and true. 
Bat the brightest gems his memory wears are the prayers and 
tears of the poor whose lives his kindness made happier and 

And to the woman who knew him best and loved him most, 
let me say that there is no higher plane for her sex, no more 
fimitfbl ambition, no rii>er field for action than to be the life 
partner and the coworker of a man that is doing good to his 
fellow-men. Mrs. Stanford, in the darkness of her sorrow, 
enjoys the sympathy of millions who would gladly bear her 
burdens. May the evening of her life be brightened by rays 
from the other shore, where the morning of a new day awaits 
her coming. 


Mr. President: It is not my purpose to attempt any 
extended eulogium over the late distinguished Senator. To do 
that would require a carefully prepared statement of his life 
from birth to death, from humble poverty to that of vast 
wealth, from jovial schoolboy days to unusual triumphs as a 
financier, statesman, philanthropist. All this belongs properly 
to the historian, not to us here or now. 

In justice, therefore, to the name and memory of the distin- 
guished dead, I must not attempt at this time to do more than 
add a word of tribute to that which has been already so well 
said to the memory of our late distinguished colleague and 
friend; one highly esteemed and loved by all, and whose name 
and the remembrance of whose genial, courteous nature and 
kindly acts, whose record as a statesman and philanthropist. 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 43 

will live as a part of the history of America, so long as that 
history shall endure among the annals of time. 

The history of the life of Leland Stanford, late a Senator 
from the State of California, is pregnant with lessons of 
instruction, filled with food for meditation. It presents a 
conspicuous exemplification of that phenomenal success in 
different spheres of life — social, business, political — the 
attainment of which is possible by every American youth 
possessed of intelligence, industry, and integrity. 

Leland Stanford, we are told, was a farmer's son. He 
was not a product of the city. He was reared on a farm. Nor 
did he, although of excellent lineage, ever claim any part of 
his success in life as due to ancestral distinction. 

In his youth and early manhood he breathed the pure air of 
country life. His early habits were formed under the benign 
influence, and his character molded under the beneficent direc- 
tion, of poor but intelligent parents, whose lives in the country 
regions of New York spoke but one language, that of humble 
deportment, genuine integrity, a spirit of energy and philan- 
thropic development, and absolute fidelity to every |>ublic and 
private trust. 

It is from beginnings such as these that have sprung the 
master minds which have left their impress on the pages of 
our nation's history, as statesmen, military heroes, financiers, 
scientists, philanthropists, and as great leaders in every depart- 
ment of life. To such an ancestry, to such an education in 
early life, could Leland Stanford look back with an enthu- 
siasm of pardonable pride, but never more so in all the mag- 
nificent successes which attended him in his eminently suc- 
cessful life, in what may properly be termed his triumphant 
career as a financier and statesman, than when he had reached 
the acme of that career. Then, doubtless, more than ever 
before his mind reverted with conscious pride to his humble 

44 Address of Mr. Mitchell^ of Oregon^ an the 

hoine, his primitive country life^ where, amid the perfumes of 
the wild flowers and the songs of the babbling brooks of his 
country home in the green fields of the beautiful Mohawk, he 
silent his boyhood days. 

To no titled ancestry, to no long line of hereditary heroes, 
was our late distinguished colleague comx^eUed to trace his lin- 
eage or attribute the credit of his remarkable successes. He 
was an American. To this alone, coupled with unusual intel- 
lectual attainments, his integrity, his industry, his organ- 
izing power, is he indebted to the fame that is his, and that 
will be his, perpetuated through his magnificent benefactions, 
while the State and the country in which he lived and of 
which he was a conspicuous part continue to endure. 

It is not that Leland Stanford was possessed of great 
wealth that he was commended while living to the kindly consid. 
oration of his fellow-men, nor for this reason is it that his name 
and memory are now embalmed in the affections of his coun- 
trymen. Oreat wealth concentrated in one individual is 'a 
mighty power, either for good or evil. In some men, as with 
Senator Stanford, it develops all those grand elements of 
human nature the influence of which brought into active 
operation diffuses benefactions in all directions, while in 
others it transforms its possessor into a miser, whom one lex- 
icographer characterizes as ^^one who is wretched through 
covetousness; one who lives miserably through fear of poverty 
and hoards beyond a prudent economy; a person excessively 
penurious;" and another, as ^<a man who enslaves himself to 
his money." 

It is due to the memory of the distinguished dead to state 
that as he increased in wealth and advanced in years his mind 
seemed constantly occupied in contriving how he could, either 
through the instrumentality of the great means he possessed 
or in his x)08ition as Senator, benefit the weak, the poor, the 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 45 

lowly. He did not aspire to perpetuate his name by erecting 
useless mausoleums of brick, or stone, or marble commem- 
orative of some mere sentiment, or link it with those of the 
rich, the great, the powerful. On the contrary, the rising 
generation, the youth of the land, the great masses of the 
explain people," who constitute the toiling millions of our 
country, had his first and best thought, and to the promotion 
and preservation of their best interests he dedicated his intel- 
lectual powers, as also millions of his wealth. 

Whatever may be thought by some of the practical utility 
of his financial scheme, which he so earnestly and ably advo- 
cated and which was approved by millions of his countrymen, 
for the loaning of money by the United States direct to the 
people at a low rate of interest, taking mortgages on farms as 
security, all will now agree it indicated in unmistakable terms 
a philanthropic spirit, an earnest desire to aid, through the 
instrumentality of what he regarded as constitutional and 
proper governmental influence, not the great moneyed institu- 
tions of the country, not the vast corporations of the land, 
with several of which he was prominently identified in a busi- 
ness way, but rather the gi*eat masses of producers, the farmers, 
the planters, and the wage- workers of the country. In his 
capacity as Senator, legislation having for its purpose the 
minimizing of illiteracy, the promotion of the education of the 
rising generation, the advancement of Qur people to a higher 
degree of intelligence, received his constant, earnest, and 
efficient support. He wa« an ardent advocate of national aid 
in the establishment and support of common schools. He 
believed with Lord Kames, who, in his " Elements of Criti- 
cisms,'' said : 

In the first seven years of our life we acquire a greater number of ideas 
than ever after. 

46 Address of Mr. Mitchell^ of Oregon^ on the 

And ;witli another celebrated philosopher, who declared 

The education a child receives in the first five years of its life is of more 
importance than all after education and has more influence in forming the 
child's character. 

He was, moreover, the promoter and able advocate of legis- 
lation having for its purpose the organization of cooperative 
associations, the main purpose of which was to enable those 
who had but little capital and could control but little to reap, 
through such cooperative organizations, the legitimate benefits 
and honest fruits which naturally flow froip aggregated capital 
properly employed. 

Although prominently identified with several corporations 
carrying millions of capital and the interests of which were 
liable at times to be materially advanced by pending national 
legislation, the truth of history requires it to be said that in 
the legislative career of Senator Stanfobd in the Senate of 
the United States never once was his voice raised in advocacy 
of any such legislation, and to no vote of his can be attributed 
any aid to legislation of that character. 

Senator Stanford was in disposition and character excep- 
tionally modest, reserved, retiring. His great wealth, his 
prominence in connection with those great enterprises of 
physical development, the transcontinental railroads, the mag- 
nitude and national effect of which commanded the admiration 
of the world, instead of clothing him with a haughty and aris- 
tocratic air, seemed to stimulate within him those elements of 
true manhood which, under all conditions and at all times, 
recognize real personal integrity and worth as the touchstone 
of true perit, irrespective of all considerations of wealth on 
the one hand or poverty on the other. 

In private conversation Senator Stanford was most inter- 
esting, attractive, and instructive. Thoroughly versed in 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 47 

historic literature, with a philosophic turn of mind, a heart 
whose kindly influence ever found expression in every word 
and look and act, one never returned from an evening spent 
in the company of that exceptionally good man, as I have for 
many years believed him to be, without a feeling that it was 
an evening spent in such manner that one was wiser and bet- 
ter for it. 

The people of the great West — of that vast region lying 
between the Rocky Mountains and the waters of the Pacific, 
with all its present elements of greatness and power, and 
unspeakable possibilities as to the future — have much reason 
to sincerely deplore, as they do sincerely mourn, the death of 
Leland Stanpobd. To him and his business associates do we 
feel indebted in a large degree for that physical development 
of our country which has brought us into close social and busi- 
ness connection with the civilization of the East, and made us 
more nearly and directly a constituent part of the grand civil- 
ization of the American Republic, which to-day commands the 
respect and admiration of mankind. Through the forceful 
enterprise of Leland Stanford and his associates the great 
mineral deposits of those distant regions, which have added 
thousands of millions of gold and silver to the national wealth, 
to say nothing of other great industries of that magnificent 
region, have been developed. 

The grand old poet Horace, in his vanity, proclaimed his 
own greatness and the perpetuation of his name by his works 
when he said: 

Pve reared a monument, my own, more durable than brass, 
Yea, kingly pyramids of stone in height it doth surpass. 
Rains shall not fall nor storms descend to sap its settled base, 
Nor countless ages rolling past, its symmetry deface. 

But, Mr. President, what are the benefactions which poster- 
ity has reaped from the monument reared by Horace centuries 

4$ Address of Mr, Mitchell^ of Oregon^ on the 

ago, and to which he so beaatifoUy attracted the attention of 
mankind, and the glories of which have been perpetuated by 
his own enlogy, to those conferred on posterity by the nmnifl- 
cence of oor distinguished dead at Palo Alto ? There, by a gift 
unequaled in its munificence by that of any philanthropist 
that ever lived in America or in the world, have been laid the 
foundations and erected the stately columns, and endowed with 
all the professorships and paraphernalia properly pertaining to 
it, an institution of learning, a grand university, on a scale far 
excelling any other, that will forever hand down to the remotest 
generations not only the names of Lbland Stanford and his 
beloved, talented, and philanthropic wife, but also that of his 
only and idolized son, Leland Stanford, jr., whose name the 
great university bears. 

What, Mr. President, can I say in addition to what has 
already been said to indicate my estimate of the character of 
our late distinguished colleague? He was a man of kind and 
generous heart He was far above the average in those grand 
qualities which go to make up a man of affairs. He was conspic- 
uous as a leader and organizer of men in the mighty march of 
material development of the far West and in the onward 
progress of the civilization of the age in which we live. He 
asserted himself as a master mind in the legislation of his 
time — both State and national. As governor of his State 
during the exciting and troublous period of the war, as Sen- 
ator in the United States Senate from the great State of 
Oalifornia, as financier and philanthropist, his record is meri- 
torious in the highest degree, wholly free from blot or blemish, 
and absolutely unassailable in any respect whatever. His 
name is prominently coupled and will forever remain with 
the construction of the first transcontinental railroad of the 
country, which connected the civilization of the East with that 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 49 

of the West. Indeed, he was one of the promoters and 
builders of that great enterprise. 

Andy Mr. President, while we here to-day commemorate the 
virtues of and pay tribute to the memory of our late distin- 
guished colleague, our personal friend, let us not forget the 
widow in her desolation. Far away on the shores of the Pacific, 
surrounded, it is true, by all the comforts and luxuries which 
wealth and social distinction can bring, sits to-day in her 
widow's weeds, in gloomy solitude, overwhelmed with a sorrow 
that can not be measured by either tongue or pen, the once 
happy bride of forty-three years ago, now the disconsolate 
widow of three months ago. 

First came the remorseless reaper, and beneath the sunny 
skies of Italy, far away from home, snatched from loving 
parents the sole child, the idolized son on whom so many high 
hopes, the outgrowth of parental solicitude, were centered, and, 
without request or consent, bore him away to "that undiscov- 
ered country from whose bourne no traveler returns;^ and 
then, scarce before the darkening shadows of this inexpressible 
grief had lifted their gloom from the home life of our distin- 
guished friend and his faithful companion, the remorseless 
enemy with stealthy tread again returns with seeming determi- 
nation to assert in unmistakable terms within that household 
the primacy and power of that supreme intelligence which 
controls the affairs and determines the destinies of men, and 
in the silent hours of night, with no word of warning, closes 
forever the eyes of our late colleague, the loving husband of a 
wife already overwhelmed with sorrow. To that widow to-day 
in her deep sorrow goes out the sympathy of the Senate of the 
United States. We want her to understand, to fully realize, 
we do not fail to comprehend the depths of her grief, and that 
our sympathy for her in her great affliction is heartfelt and 

8. Mis 122 4 

W) Address of Mr. Daniel^ of Virginia^ on the 

We wiBh her to know that we, with her, believe that beyond 
thiH vale of tears, when the sorrows and griefs of parting in 
this life shall forever fade away, that in the eternal and perfect 
home of the Elysian fields, in that " undiscovered country " 
upon whose hidden shores the eyes of mortal man have never 
yet rested, there will in the dawning future be a reunion of 
kindred spirits, a joyful, gladsome meeting of father, mother, 
husband, wife, child, and that such reunion, in the grand econ- 
omy of the Great Architect of the Universe, will be but the 
beginning of a life of eternal joy. 

ADDRESS OF Mr. Daniel, of Virginia. 

Mr. President: The late Senator Leland Stanford, of 
California, was a great man, and one of the most remarkable 
characters that this country has produced. His career was 
on a gigantic scale, like the natural features of oar imperial 
domain, and like the mighty facts of our marvelous history. 

His story from the time he went to the West, an adventurous 
young man seeking his fortune, to the time when he became a 
great railroad builder, governor, Senator, and a very Croesus 
in possessions, reads like an Arabian tale <' in the golden prime 
of good Haroun Al Baschid." 

There was nothing small about him. Of massive frame, 
massive head, and massive mind, he was also a man of great 
heart. And great and beneficent works remain as his enduring 
monuments. Like George Peabody and W. W. Corcoran, he 
was a philanthropist. To give was to him a joy — to give 
quickly, to give often, and to give much. " The Lord,'' we are 
told, " loveth a cheerful giver," and such was Leland Stan- 
ford of California. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 51 

Senator Stanford deserves the name of patriot. He was 
the governor of California during the most strained and excited 
period of its history — the civil war. In his conduct of that 
office he exhibited his breadth of mind and demonstrated that 
breadth of mind can never be separated from breadth of heart. 
Instead of harshness and severity, he applied to the disturbed 
conditions of public sentiment, arising from conflicting views, 
the ameliorating influences of moderation, kindness, and 
friendly counsel. He brought men together who were indulg- 
ing in vehement and inflammatory utterances. He pointed 
out to them that they could accomplish no good by a queru- 
lous 9nd incendiary course; that if they became bitter and 
venomous toward each other they would be no nearer the 
accomplishment of their ends, but would poison the society of 
the State for many years to come. And he succeeded by his 
firm, temperate, and generous course in abating the miseries 
of internecine strife and preserved his people in the harmonies 
of friendship. 

Senator Stanford was a firm and strong Republican. He 
was one of the pioneers of the Republican party. He believed 
in its doctrines, he had faith in its mission, and he seemed to 
to me to love his party with a sort of ideal affection. Yet 
this enthusiasm for party creeds and party leaders found no 
expression in harshness, hatred, or narrowness of opinion or 
action. He would differ from his party when he thought the 
occasion justified it, both as to measures and as to men. He 
did not look upon his opponents as enemies. He appreciated 
the genius of their action and the influences of their inviron- 
ments and education. He knew they were as sincere as he 
was; he acknowledged their rights to differ with him and his, 
and he always retained their respect and confidence. 

Senator Stanford was not sectional in his feelings. However 
much he was imbued with the ideas of the North, in which he 

52 Address of Mr. Daniel^ of Virginia, on the 

was bom, and with the ideas of the West, of which he became 
the adopted son, he really felt toward all the {leople of this laud 
as if they were his coautrymen, entitled to his consideration 
and to his friendly interests iu their behalf. I haveoften heard 
him talk about the social problems which we have before us, 
the problems of labor, and money, aud transportation, and 
especially of the race problem, of which he saw much in 
California, and of which he knew much as it affects the South. 

I think he understood the Southern situation as well as any 
man could who has never lived in that section. I think he sym- 
pathized with the delicate conditions there to be dealt with as 
much as any man could who was not one of the vicinage, and I 
know that it was his earnest hope and desire that time and 
nature, the great healers of wounds and the great builders of 
things that last, might be left to work out the problem that 
the Southern |)eople have to contend with. Especially was 
be distressed at the idea of rude measures being adopted. He 
knew that the conception of them sprung from irritated minds 
and from misconceptions of i)os8ibilities. He knew that they 
would result in intensifying the evils which they would vainly 
seek to correct. He knew that in the social constitution, as 
in the physical constitution, of man, there are diseases and per- 
turbations which no physician can reach, either with com- 
pounded medicines or with the touch of surgical instrument, 
and that rest and nutrition and cheerful words are often the 
only remedial agents. 

Senator Stanford's mind was of a very peculiar order, 
and his experiences so different from that of the ordinary roan 
that his conversation was singularly striking and interesting. 
He loved to relate reminiscences of his early history aud his 
observations of men and things in different parts of the world. 
He was a most acute observer of men and affairs and a great 
lover and student of nature. Geological formations of the 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 53 

earth attracted his attention, and he would quickly observe 
indications and features which an ordinary man would pass by 
unnoticed. He knew all the trees in the parks around Wash- 
ington. He could tell them from the bark or leaf, and he knew 
the qualities and uses of the woods which they produced. He 
watched the courses of the birds and the habits of animals, 
and, indeed, the philosophy of his life seemed to me to be 
gathered more directly from nature than that of any man I 
have ever known. 

While he was college bred and had the general information 
that comes firom the perusal of current literature, he did not 
rely so much upon books as upon observation and experience. 
He was not a severe student of constitutions or statutes, but 
whatever question arose he seemed to grasp it in its relation 
to men and things and to construe it upon lines of thought 
connected with the development of affairs and the betterment 
of conditions. 

He was a great believer in education, and it was the frequent 
subject of his conversational dissertation. It is related that 
when he contemplated the establishment of Stanford University 
that he and his wife together visited a distinguished college 
president in New England and asked what amount it would 
take to endow such a great institution as he described to him. 
After studjring over the matter the college president answered, 
<< About five millions of dollars." He turned to his wife, 
standing by, and remarked simply, <' Don't you think we had 
better make it ten millions, my dear?" 

He had an inventive and creative intellect. He was the 
originator of the use of the cable in street-car transportation 
in San Francisco, and invented the grip first employed to com- 
municate the force of the cable. I have heard that he was 
also the inventor of the sand-blast, a process by which carv- 

64 Address of Mr, Daniel^ of Virginia^ on the 

ings 1q stone are quickly made without the use of the chisel. 
The idea of it occurred to him from noticing how the twig of 
a tree, sheltering a stone from sands blown against it by the 
winds left its projected shape upon the stone behind it; and 
he conceived from this observation the use of the sand blast 
in art, fashioning the plan on the workings of nature. 

He also originated the use of the instantaneous photograph, 
employing it to ascertain the exact movement of the horse in 
action, and deducing from its observations principles which 
he applied in the breeding of horses on his stock farm. 

Senator Stanfobd was a wonderfully successful man. He 
seemed to possess the successful temperament. He foresaw 
the movements of population, the trend in tlie growth of cities, 
the great possibilities of uninhabited territory, and he applied 
his knowledge in great concerns with as much ease as ordinary 
men apply theirs to the trivial details of daily existence. He 
mastered the details of whatever enterprise he undertook, and 
he spared nothing to accomplish the ends he aimed at. He 
would spend money as profusely as a potter would spend clay 
to make the mold of an ideal. 

Having conceived that an electric motor might be applied 
to sewing machines, and thus enable housewives and poor 
workingwomen to accomplish much where they now accom- 
plished little, a friend observed him one day as he gave $2,000 
to an inventor who was trying to work out the idea, and he 
remarked at the time: ^^ This is the thirtieth man to whom I 
have given a like sum to develop that idea." 

He had remarkable fondness for the horse, and he had faith 
in the capacity of his development to greater accomplishments 
than any recorded, and before many years had passed by he 
was the head of the American turf, his trotting horses and his 
thoroughbreds alike breaking all records. Nor was his prcc 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 55 

dilection a mere faucy of the mind or resource of amusement. 
To give thousands or tens of thousands for a horse he desired 
he counted as nothing. In results he made money and accu- 
mulated fortunes upon the expenditure of fortunes. He could 
have talked of evolution with Darwin and given him many a 
useful hint and valuable experience. 

There was something peculiarly soft and tender in his domes- 
tic life. He and his beloved wife were a noble pair well mated, 
and walked the ways of life together, sharing all its joys and 
sorrows in mutuality of love and counsel. Bereaved as she is 
now, she has the sympathy of countless hearts who share her 
sorrow. "Great men,'' said Lord Bacon, "have no continu- 
ance." And to him befell the fate of being bereaved of his only 
son. He sought to fill the void in the father's and mother's 
heart by building a great university to be called after his son, 
and to be a monument to his memory, in which other youths 
might be trained and educated. And in years to come the 
ingenuous youths of our country by scores and thousands will 
gather at the shrine of learning which he has established, the 
fruit of the affection which he cherished for his dead boy. 

His interest in his employes was father-like. He believed in 
high wages, but he sought on all occasions to impress upon his 
employes the importance of saving and becoming independent. 
He was a kind and true friend and a genial companion. He 
was singularly simple in his manners, generous in his hospi- 
tality, and unostentatious in his dress, habits, and social ways. 
While he moved amongst scenes of splendor which might have 
won the envy of a Monte Gristo and dispensed hospitality like 
a prince of the Orient, he did it with an unconscious simplicity 
which gave to his life an unspeakable charm. 

Quiet and composed as he always seemed, one would scarcely 
conceive from his dignified appearance what tremendous energy 

56 Address of Mr. Daniel^ of Virginia^ on the 

and fire lay beneath the sereue surface, bat when aronsed to 
the inspiration of a great undertaking he displayed the con- 
centrated forces and rapid movement which bespeak the quali- 
ties of a general who reads necessities of battle and hurls every 
element of strength on the turning point. I am told that in 
driving even he would often put his horses to their utmost 
si)eed through long journeys, at once testing their qualities and 
displaying the nervous energy and passion of their driver. 

In the Senate he was not amongst its great debaters or 
speakers, but he served his State and country with fidelity and 
ability. He was amongst the wise counselors, and his influ- 
ence was always felt for judicious and patriotic ends. He 
had some ideas which he was never able to impress upon his 
associates as being practicable, amongst them his idea of lend- 
ing vast amounts of money upon land. I have talked with him 
for hours and hours upon repeated occasions on that theme, 
and he often urged me to adopt his views and advocate them. 
I could never see that they were practicable, and with all my 
resi^ect for him and desire to meet his wishes I could not, of 
course, comply with his request. 

Tet let me say that beneath the difficulties which present 
themselves to such an idea as he had formed, there are in it 
germs of truth and wisdom such as are found in the first 
evolutions of invention, which, in a later and riper day of the 
world's history, may be developed into much that is attainable 
and good. His germinal idea was to put a fixed value on 
property, as there is a fixed value upon money, and to make 
the possession of property, which is taxed at a certain value, 
the assurance of the transmutation of that property into other 
forms of property when necessary or convenient ; as the world's 
population shall increase, and as financial refinements and 
facilities shall be developed, there will be found in this idea 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 57 

much to build upon, and in the end probably some ripe con- 

He was an enthusiastic believer in the power and glory of 
this country and a great dreamer of its benevolent mission. 
He always advocated more money for our restricted financial 
conditions and the restoration of bimetallic money, to which 
this laud had been accustomed for well nigh a hundred years. 
In this he departed from the views of many capitalists, whom 
he thought somewhat narrow in comprehension of their own 
permanent interests, and indicated, as I fancied, his Sjnnpathy 
with the struggling masses of humanity. 

I can not say that I was ever intimate with Senator Stan- 
ford, though as a member of the Committee on Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, of which he was chairman, I was often thrown 
in familiar intercourse with him, and enjoyed with him many 
days and hours of agreeable companionship. In the refined 
courtesies which bespeak the gentleman I have never known 
"him to be surpassed. No word that he ever uttered, either in 
private conversation or in public debate, could offend the sensi- 
bilities of any citizen of our country. 

Of a robust constitution, it might have been expected that 
his life would have been prolonged beyond the threescore and 
ten of man's allotted time, but he died at Palo Alto, his Cali- 
fornia country home, on June 21 last, ere he had quite attained 
his seventieth year. 

In common with all who knew him, I shall cherish of him 
the most agreeable recollections. The world is better that he 
lived in it, and many a heart that has been made happy by his 
generosity felt a pang of sorrow when he died. The fear of 
death is doubtless implanted in the human soul, because Ood 
and nature have uses for the living and work for them to do 
which they should not lay down undone; but when we see that 
death is universal it should afflict us with no mortal dread. 

68 Address of Mr. Daniel^ of Virginia^ on the 

Well has the late laureate of England described the succes- 
sive stages of nature, from the bud to the firuit, from the fruit 
to decay : 

Lo! iiKtbe middle of the wood 
The folded leaf is woo'd from out the bad 
With winds apon the branch, and there 
Grows green and takes no care. 
San-steeped at noon, and on the moon 
Nightly dew-fed; and taming yellow, 
Falls and floats adown the air. 
Lo ! sweetened with the summer light, 
The fuU-jaiced apple waxing over mellow, 
Drops in a silent antumn night, 
All its allotted length of days. 
The flower ripens in its place- 
Ripens and fades and falls, 
And hath no toil 
Fast rooted in the soil. 

SuchytoOyis human life — like the fruit, waxing over-mellow 
and returning again to the earth, from which it sprung. 

So, now that our kind, good friend has passed awa,^, we 
should not veil his bier in tears. He had lived his life; he had 
done his work; lie had found happiness, such as it may be 
permitted mortal to possess or that earth could give; and, 
what is most, he had conferred much happiness and benefaction 
upon others. It was said of old that it was easier for the 
camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man 
to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Whatever may be the 
temptations that assail the rich and powerful, surely one who 
earned to give as he did and who only treated power as 
opportunity of good should find no impediment toward the 
highest destiny which may await hereafter the spirits of the 
just. Even as the sparks fly upward, it would seem to me only 
in accord with the eternal harmonies of the universe that his 
spirit, in quitting its earthly tenement^ should find rest in the 
bosom of his Father and his God. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 59 

Address of Mr. Stewart, of Nevada. 

Mr. President : Senator Stanford was my friend. I 
enjoyed his friendship for more than forty years. He was a 
strong character, of the best American type. In his childhood 
and early youth he possessed the best possible advantages 
which our country afforded. He was raised on a farm, where 
he had an opportunity to observe, and did observe, the source 
of wealth, prosperity, and civilization. He knew as a boy 
land, soils, and crops, and the means of utilizing them. He 
became familiar with animals and their use; with trees, plants, 
and birds. He learned the use of tools and implements of 
husbandry. He realized early in his eventful life that the 
storehouse of nature is abundantly supplied with all things 
necessary for the good of man. The book of nature was his 
guide. Literature and science, which illustrated that book 
and revealed its hidden mysteries, most interested him. He 
fully comprehended the great truth so often expressed by him, 
that t^e earth and the elements are abundantly sufficient to 
supply the ever-increasing wants of man. 

He was a utilitarian, and dedicated his career to the creation 
of wealth by developing the resources of the West. In his 
youth he had witnessed the marvelous development of the 
interior of the great State of New York by means of the Erie 
Canal and other internal improvements. In his early manhood 
he saw, while a resident of Wisconsin, the magic effect of rail- 
roads upon the progress and development of the great Missis- 
sippi Valley. When he made his home in the golden State of 
California he was possessed of the spirit of enterprise and 
equipped with knowledge of affairs. He at once devoted his 
energies to utilizing the resources of that new and undeveloped 

60 Address of Mr. Stewart^ of Nevada^ on the 

The Pacific coast was then a fiEur-off region. It took longw 
to cross the uninhabited plains and ragged mountains which 
intervened between the East and the West than is now required 
for a voyage around the world. A Pacific railroad to unite the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans was a dream of the distant future. 
It was only a dream. No man ever hoped to realize that dream 
in his own generation. The war of the rebellion forced upon 
the attention of the country the isolated and defenseless posi- 
tion of the region of the Pacific, but the people of all sec- 
tions shrank firom the mighty undertaking of binding the 
two sections together with iron bands, thus cementing the 

Five resolute men in the little town of Sacramento, in the 
interior of California— Lelanb Stanford, G. P. Huntington, 
Mark Hopkins, E. B. Crocker, and his brother, Charles 
Crocker — brought upon themselves the gibes and jeers of 
the thoughtless multitude by the organization of a company 
to construct a Pacific railroad. The project to scale the dizzy 
heights of the Sierra and Bocky Mountains, to traverse the 
dreary plains, supposed to be uninhabitable deserts, with a 
railroad of unlimited cost, was treated with ridicule and con- 
tempt by nearly every man of wealth in the State of California. 
The press of San Francisco, the metropolis of the Pacific coast, 
denounced the project as a wild scheme of visionary cranks. 

The five men who projected the enterprise, unaffected by the 
opinions of others, pressed on with supreme faith and undaunted 
courage. They appealed for encouragement and aid to the 
State of California and the counties immediately affected by 
the road, and obtained some assistance by guaranty of credit; 
but the work was too great for local enterprise. They applied 
to Congress, and, in cooperation with enterprising men of the 
East, secured legislation which enabled them to complete the 
work, realize the object of their ambition, lead the way to the 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 61 

developmeut of the empire of the West and to the creation of 
a cordon of States from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

The promoters of this great enterprise are all dead but one. 
Mr. C. P. Huntington, the now president, who was vice-presi- 
dent and financial manager of the company from beginning to 
end, is the only survivor. 

Leland Stanford was governor of California during the 
rebellion, and was counted one of the great war governors. He 
wa« the right man for the time and place, and contributed 
largely in encouraging and maintaining loyalty to the Union 
and preserving peace and good order on the Pacific coast. 

We knew Senator Stanford here after his great labor had 
injured his health and deprived him of the physical vigor 
which had distinguished him as a man of great affairs; but 
his judgment was unimpaired. His knowledge of business and 
of the legitimate functions of government made him a safe 
adviser and a useful and valuable member of this body. His 
kind heart, generous nature, and deep sympathy for the masses 
endeared him to every member of the Senate. No Senator 
who entered the Chamber was greeted more cordially or appre- 
ciated more highly than Senator Stanford during all the time 
he took part in the counsels of the Senate. Every suggestion 
he made, every speech he delivered, and every bill he intro- 
duced had for its object the good of all the people. 

But it was as a private citizen that his desire to benefit 
his fellow-man was most conspicuously exemplified. Mrs. 
Stanford, who survives him, is also a conspicuous character. 
They had an only son, a youth of great promise, around whom 
their hearts were entwined and in whom their hopes were 
centered. Some years ago he was taken from them. They 
were left childless, so far as their own blood and lineage were 
concerned; but they did not remain isolated from the world. 
They made, by adoption, the children of the i)eople their own 

62 Address of Mr, Stewart^ o/Nevaday on the 

children, and dedicated their lives and fortane to the youth of 
their coantry, both those now living and those who come after 
OS. They devoted their joint energies with renewed hope and 
vigor to the establishment of a university for the education of 
youth of both sexes in all branches of science, learning, and 
literature which contribute to the elevation of the race and to 
the development of the resources of nature from which the 
wants of man are supplied. Their devotion to this great object 
did not render them unmindful of the poor and unfortunate, 
and they lost no opportunity to confer unostentatious charity 
and relieve want to the extent of their power. 

Mrs. Stanford is left alone to carry out the grand enterprise 
which they jointly undertook some years ago, when it was 
agreed that the survivor, whichever it might be, on the death 
of the other, should continue during life to i)erform the work 
of both. Mrs. Stanford is now devoting her life to placing 
the Leland Stanford Junior University upon a firm and 
enduring basis. The death of her beloved sou, in whose honor 
the university is named, and the loss of her husband and 
coworker, would discourage a woman of less faith and hope 
than she possesses. But the confident belief that her husband 
and son would approve of her good work gives her strength 
and courage which nothing else could bestow. 

During the long residence of Senator Stanford in California 
as war governor, United States Senator, and private citizen he 
eiyoyed the love and respect of the people. Bitter rivalries 
and political strifes, which are always attended with jealousies 
and heart-burnings, never broke the sympathetic chord which 
bound him to the people of California. But the respect, love, 
and affection which his good deeds inspired have at all times 
secured for him a warm place in the hearts of his fellow-men. 
The labors of Mrs. Stanford will be aided and assisted by the 
profound sympathy and kindly feelings not only of the people 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford, 63 

of the Pacific coast, but also of all the people of our common 

The life of Senator Stanfobd is not only valuable for the 
good he did while living, but the beneficial effects upon the 
present and coming generations of the example his life has 
furnished can not be overestimated. The lives of the great and 
good men who have preceded us shape and mold our destiny; 
and as time rolls on those who now act well their part will also 
contribute to mold the character, shape the institutions, and 
improve the conditions of generations yet unborn. We can 
say of Senator Stanford : '< Well done, thou good and faith- 
ful servant. You have contributed your full share to make 
others happier and better.'^ We extend our heartfelt sym- 
pathy to his sorrowing widow, who, while she mourns, has the 
consolation of knowing that the memory of her deceased 
husband is cherished and respected by all the people of the 
great country which he loved and served so well. 

Address of Mr. Vest, of Missouri. 

Mr. President: I knew Governor Stanford very well. 
He was chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Orounds, of which I have been a member since I came to the 
Senate. During the latter years of his life disease and grow- 
ing infirmity brought him very close to the younger members 
of the committee. His personality was always exceedingly 
interesting and unique. He had a very peculiar mental organ- 
ization. His mind seemed to work very slowly and with great 
deliberation, but it had that highest attribute of mentality, 
the power of analysis. I studied him from time to time with 
much interest and curiosity. The secret of his great success 
in life seemed to lie in his tenacity of purpose and inflexi- 

64 Address of Mr, Vest^ of Missouri^ on the 

bility of opinion when once formed. It amoanted almost to 

After once having come to a conclosion he adhered to it with 
almost fanatical devotion. He was farther removed than any 
man I ever knew from agnosticism. He had no sort of sym- 
pathy with the cowardly philosophy of the agnostic, which tries 
to solve the great problems of life and eternity by simply 
saying ^^I do not know." He was a Christian in the highest 
and best sense of the term. He believed in the religion of 
humanity, and trusted implicitly his welfare here and hereafter 
to the Sermon on the Mount. 

Teach me to feel another's woe, 

To hide the fault I see ; 
That mercy I to others show, 

That mercy show to me. 

He brought the sunshine into thousands of darkened hearts 
and homes, for this was the inevitable result of the belief he 
had in the eternal truths of the Christian religion. 

In the latter part of his life he devoted all his energies to 
two great ideas. First, his system of currency and taxation 
based on real estate, with which I never had the slightest 
sjrmpathy. Like the Senator from Virginia [Mr. Daniel], I 
listened to him for hours upon this question and could not but 
admire his earnestness and force, but they never produced 
with me the slightest conviction. 

His other great idea, to which he devoted all his energies, 
was the founding of a vast educational institution. I shared 
for some time after I first became ac(|uainted with him in the 
popular error that this was simply a sentiment allied with 
deep love for his dead boy in whose grave he had placed his 
heart. I found in conversation that I was mistaken. 

In speaking to me about this great university and explain- 
ing its plans, he said that he had hesitated long between 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford, 65 

devoting his fortune to a vast hospital or to a university; but 
that he had come to the conclusion that his duty was to endow 
this educational institution in the interest of humanity and of 
the American people, '^for," he said, and it made a great 
impression upon me, 'Mn a country with our autonomy and 
universal suffirage the safety of the Republic must rest upon 
the educated intelligence of the people." I called his atten- 
tion at the time to the fact that in this he agreed with Mr. 
Jefferson, who, in one of his letters to a friend, explained that 
the crowning honor of his life and the crowning work of all 
his labors had been the founding of the University of Vir- 
ginia, because, in almost the same language, he said ''upon 
the educated intelligence of the American people must rest 
the hope of future generations." 

I had occasion in the same conversation to call Gk)vemor 
Stanfobd's attention to this language and to the emphasis 
which Jefferson gave in writing his own epitaph to his idea of 
the necessity of education for a republican people like ours. 
Jefferson had been a member of the house of burgesses of 
Virginia, governor of the Commonwealth, minister to France, 
Vice-President of the United States, twice elected President 
of the Republic, and yet in that epitaph upon the obelisk which 
he caused to be erected over his grave none of these titular 
honors are found. 

Here lies Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, 
of the statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and father of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. 

In his own estimation he crowned his long and illustrious 
career, as did Leland Stanpobd, with the erection of a 
university which should set free the imprisoned intellect held 
down by the iron band of i>overty and circumstances. 

Mr. President, there are two incidents in the public career of 
Oovemor Stai^fobd that made upon me and others who sym- 
S. Mis. 122 5 

66 Address of Mr, yest^ of Missouri^ on the 

patbized witb me a profound impression. As my friend from 
Virginia has said, he was a great man, because that man is 
essentially great who can throw off the prejudices of education 
and locality and rise to the necessities of the race to which he 

One touch of nature makee the whole world kin. 

And a man who recognizes this has in him the elements of 

I trust that I infringe upon none of the proprvBties of the 
occasion in alluding to these two incidents, well known to my 
brother Setiatora 

Governor Stanford first attained celebrity and a national 
reputation as the war governor of California. He was an 
intense Union man. He had not the slightest sympathy with 
what he called the crime of the rebellion. He knew little of 
the Southern people except historically. He did his duty 
faithfully to the cause to which his opinions and feelings 
brought him, and during the darkest hours of that cause. 

When the nomination of Lamar was sent to the Senate for 
associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States a 
determined effort was made to defeat it. Party lines were 
attempted to be drawn and sectional feeling was attempted to 
be aroused. Governor Stanfobd, in a conversation with me, 
gave his reasons for favoring that con Qrmation. He said : '< No 
man sympathized more sincerely than myself with the cause . 
of the Union or deprecated more the course of the South. I 
would have given fortune and life to have defeated that cause. 
But the war has terminated, and what this country needs now 
is absolute and profound x)eace. Lamar was a representative 
Southern man and adhered to the convictions of his boyhood 
and manhood. I respect such a man. There can never be 
pacification in this country until these war memories are oblit- 
erated by the action of the Executive and of Congress.'! 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 67 

Again, when the force bill was pending and when the most 
determined efforts were made to draw him to the support of 
that measure, for the reasons which he had already given in 
reganl to the Lamar nomination, he deliberately and positively 
opposed that measare upon the ground, as he stated to me, that 
its drastic operation would renew the bitterness of feeling in 
the Southern States which had existed during the war. 

But, Mr. President, as has been said here, it is not upon his 
public life or his business methods that the fame of Governor 
Stanford will rest. It is upon that charity and kindliness, 
that philanthropy, which marked his career and caused him 
to dedicate his fortune to the interests of humanity, that his. 
memory will go down to succeeding generations. His name 
will be remembered, not only upon the shores of the Pacific 
and in the canyons of the Sierras, but throughout the civilized 
world, when that of every other man in the Senate will have 
faded into oblivion. The world never forgets men who have 
illustrated the true and proper use of wealth, as he has done. 

Some years ago I listened to an eloquent lecturer who 
depicted a shipwreck, where the desperat.e swimmers went 
down battling with the eager waves that dragged them to 
death, and on the shore of the ocean stood a multimillion- 
aire with a vast lumber yard, every plank in which was a life- 
preserver; and yet he gave not one splinter, because he was 
not paid for it. The most despicable character that can be 
known or invented is that of a miser who clutches his gold 
because it is gold and hoards it from intense selfishness. But 
the man who considers himself a trustee of the bounty that 
God hath given him, who succors the poor, the needy^ the dis- 
tressed, typifies the omniscient mercy of that great Being who 
creates and guides all things. 

Governor Stanford has erected before all the world a mag- 
nificent mausoleum in the university founded by his wealth,. 

68 Address of Mr. Perkins^ of California^ on the 

but a more eDduring monament is that of* his good deeds and 
kindly words. If every human being to whom he had done a 
kindness could place one leaf upon his grave, he would sleep 
to-night beneath a mountain of foliage. 

ADDRESS OF Mr. Perkins, of California. 

Mr. Pbesident: In accordance with a time-honored custom 
in the Senate, it seems eminently proper that among my first 
utterances before this august body should be a memorial tribute 
to my distinguished predecessor, Leland Stanford, whose 
seat I am for the time called upon to occupy. 

For eight years past he represented the State of California 
in the highest councils of the nation, and on the 21st of last 
June, at his beautiful country home at Palo Alto, he peace- 
fully passed to that bourne from which no traveler returns. 
The many eulogies which his death have called forth show 
what a large place he filled in the esteem and afifection of his 
fellow-men, and make me painfully aware of my own inability 
to do justice to his merits as a man, his eminence as a citizen, 
his record as a philanthropist, and his illustrious services to 
his country and his kind. 

% Leland Stanford was born on the 9th day of March, 1824, 
at Watervliet, Albany County, N. Y. He came of sturdy and 
honorable English ancestry, identified for two centuries with 
the best traditions of New England life. The father of Senator 
Stanford removed early in the present century from Massachu- 
setts to the State of New York and became a thrifty and highly 
respected farmer and successful railroad contractor. Amid the 
beautiful scenery of the Mohawk Valley, therobustand healthful 
associations of farm life, and such instruction as the neighbor- 
ing schools afforded, the boy grew up strong in body, sound in 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 69 

mind, loving nature, honoring manual labor, eager for practical 
information, and learning to master himself. He was early noted 
for his sterling good sense, his cheerfulness, and kindliness of 
heart. At 20 years of age he began the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1849. In the same year he sought the 
larger opportunities of the great West, removing to Port Wash- 
ington, Wis., where he engaged in the practice of his profession. 
He returned to Albany in 1850 to be married to Miss Jane 
Lathrop, the daughter of a respected merchant of that city, a 
woman of a large?iess of nature and generous impulses corre- 
sponding with his own. Having thus assured his domestic hap- 
piness, he returned to Port Washington with his young wife. 
Two years later he was overtakeii by a calamity which even- 
tually proved to be the turning point in his fortunes and led to 
the eventful and auspicious years that were to follow. A fire 
destroyed his law library and household effects and left the 
young couple to begin the world over again. This event con- 
firmed his half formed inclination to remove to California, 
where his brothers had already established themselves. On 
the 12th of July, 1852, Leland Stanford stepped on the soil 
of the golden State to begin that career which, whether it be 
contemplated from the standpoint of business success, indus- 
trial enterprise, patriotic service, or philanthropic devotion, is 
full of honorable testimony to his worth as a man and a citizen. 
After various attempts at mining and trading in the interior 
counties, Mr. Stanford engaged in mercantile pursuits in 
Sacramento, in partnership with his brothers. In 1856 the 
firm removed to San Francisco, and speedily acquired a reputa- 
tion for honorable dealing and sagacity; and it was here that 
Mr. Stanford laid the foundation of his financial prosperity. 
To this period is also to be ascribed Mr. Stanford's first 
entry into political life. It was a time of intense agitation; 
questions of vital import to the nation and to humanity were 

70 Address of Mr. Perkins^ of California^ on the 

being discussed in Congress aud among the people; political / 
parties were being formed aud reformed. It was impossible 
for a man of patriotic and liberty -loving impulses not to be 
profoundly stirred by the issues and events that attended the 
birth of the Republican party at the outbreak of the civil war. 
Because of the larger mold in which he was cast Leland 
Stanford was naturally a leader of men. In 1857 he was 
the unsuccessful candidate of the party for State treasurer, 
and later received an unsought and undesired nomination for 
governor. He first became prominent in national affairs when, 
in 1860, he attended as a delegate the Republican convention 
in Chicago which nominated Abraham Lincoln. He witnessed 
the inauguration of President Lincoln and for some time after 
remained in Washington, enjoying the confidence of the 
nation's chief, being his trusted adviser with regard to matters 
in California. 

In the meantime the awful struggle for union and liberty 
began, and the war cloud drifted slowly over to the Pacific 
coast. Mr. Stanford returned to his adopted State to find it 
convulsed with the throes of anticipated civil conflict. The 
disunion element was large, well organized, and determined. 
The seductive vision of an independent Pacific republic was 
undermining the loyalty of many. There was urgent need of 
prompt and efficient action on the part of patriotic citizens and 
believers in a United States. 

The events that followed are a matter of well-known history, 
a chapter in the political evolution of California to which its 
loyal people to-day point with justifiable pride. Suffice it to 
say that in the counsels and measures then taken to assure 
the safety of the Union Leland Stanford bore a conspicuous 
part. K Starr King was the eloquent voice of the Union 
sentiment and Gen. Sumner its strong. sword arm, Leland 
Stanford was its faithful standard-bearer aud efficient organ- 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 71 

izer for action. Out of the fusion of political elements in the 
white heat of that hour the Union party came forth with 
Leland Stanford as its candidate for governor. It swept 
the State with a great moral as well as political victorj-; and, 
as if to mark the people's confidence in Mr. Stanfobd, he ran 
6,000 votes ahead of his ticket. In the trying and difficult 
services that followed this popular confidence was vindicated. 
None could question his loyalty to the national idea, his 
courage and devotion to the best interests of the State. The 
partisan passions of that day have cooled, and the wisdom and 
patriotism of California's great war governor are universally 

Kot least among the laurels we lay upon his grave is the sor- 
row of a State for a lost leader, for a wise executive, to whom 
it was so largely owing that no American Commonwealth was 
more loyal to the national idea than California, none responded 
more i)romptly to the appeals of the central Government or 
gave with more lavish and sympathetic bounty to the wounded 
and suflfering soldier. The Loyal Legion of the United States 
utters the popular sentiment when, in a recent circular com- 
memorating its deceased member, it declares: ^^His name will 
go down in history as the war governor of California, Jind that 
distinction was one of his proudest boasts." 

Relieved from public duties at the end of his term, Mr. Stan- 
ford found awaiting him a task worthy of his large adminis- 
trative and executive abilities — the building of the Central 
Pacific Railroad. More and more as the war progressed the 
unfortunate isolation of California from the rest of the country 
had become manifest. There was an increasing demand for 
improved means of communication between the new settle- 
ments on the shores of the Pacific and the populous States of 
the East. A transcontinental railroad was needed to facilitate 
the rapid transportation of troops and war material to aid in 

72 Address of Mr. Perkins^ of California^ on the 

holding in check the hostile Indian tribes of the far West, and 
to develop the possible resources of the vast region which 
stretched an almost unbroken wilderness from California to 
Nebraska. It was an undertaking of unparalleled magnitude 
and audacity, which seemed to antedate the requirements and 
resources of the country by half a century. The tremendous 
obstacles in the way of its successful accomplishment might 
well appall the most sanguine nature, and justified the want of 
confidence with which the scheme was received at home and 
the apathy it encountered abroad. The huge snow-clad chain 
of the Sierra Nevadas, whose towering steeps nowhere per- 
mitted a thoroughfare at an elevation less than 7,000 feet 
above the sea, must be crossed; great deserts, waterless and 
roamed by savage tribes, must be made accessible; vast sums 
of money must be raised and national aid secured at a time in 
which the credit of the central Government had fallen so low 
that its bonds of guaranty to the undertaking sold for barely 
one-third their face value. To men with less foresight, courage, 
and resources of mind and will than Mr. Staxfobd and his 
associates the carrying out of the scheme would have been 
impossible. There is no need to dwell upon the details of this 
great work of internal improvement. Mountains were leveled 
or surmounted, frightful precipices scaled, yawning chasms 
were bridged over or filled with lofty trestlework, the iron 
track was clamped on the freshly upturned soil at the rate of 
530 miles in two hundred and ninety-three days. Bapid com- 
munication between the East and the West was assured, and 
vast territories, including over one-half the domain of the 
United States, were redeemed to settlement, productivity, and 
civilization. Even now, while I am speaking, high up in the 
dome hall of this Capitol of the nation, the artist's hand is at 
work completing the group that encircles the rotunda, depict- 
ing the principal events in the march of our country's prog- 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 73 

re88. This closing link in the circle portrays the driving of 
the last spike of the first railroad that spans a continent and 
anites the Atlantic to the Pacific with bands of steel, and 
inspiring a nation with increased patriotism. It was an event- 
fill day in the life of Leland Stanford, when, on May 10, ' 
1869, at Promontory Point, as president of the Central Pacific 
Bailway, he drove the last and silver spike that marked the 
successfal completion of the work. There met the two indus- 
trial armies, not for the clash of war, but to celebrate the 
benignant victories of peace, the triumphs of the human will 
and invention over physical barriers and rude nature's forces, 
the glorification of intelligent labor and cooperative industry. 

The picture of those two engineers, as they stood at the 
forefront of their locomotives and filled the gap between, with 
their outstretched hands clasped in fraternal greeting, will go 
down to posterity the symbol of a new era of human sympa- 
thy between the Basteru and Western sections of our common 
country, the pledge of their eternal amity and indissoluble 

Mr. Stanfobd's career after that crowning day was less 
laborious, but he continued to fill a large space in the annals 
of his time, and to devote himself with unwavering fidelity to 
the welfare of his country and his fellow-men. In 1885 he was 
elected United States Senator from California for the full term 
of six years, and reelected in 1891 for another term, which, 
alas ! he has not been permitted to complete. His career in 
the Senate is more familiar to his fellow Senators whom I am 
privileged to address than even to myself, his sorrowing friend 
and successor. Without any claims to the gifts of oratory, 
sadly handicapped by severe domestic affliction, and in later 
years by increasing bodily infirmities, his voice was less and 
less often heard in debate. His sphere of influence lay in the 
committee room, in his faithful vote for what he deemed wisest 

74 Address of Mr. Perkins^ of California^ on the 

and best for his constituency and his coantry, in the weight 
attaching to his large experience and eminent pnblic services, 
and his confidential relations with the executive branch of the 
Government. His party loyalty was never doubted, even 
when he ventured to difi'er with it in matters of financial or 
political administration. His memory can not fail to be cher- 
ished by all his colleagues who recall his genial, manly nature, 
who partook of his generous hospitality, or were honored by 
his friendship. 

Possessed of a colossal private fortune, surrounded with 
affectionate devotion in his home, enjoying the highest honors 
his State could confer upon him, with "troops of friends and 
the world's applause," surely no mortal could be more happily 
and enviably circumstanced. But in the inscrutable counsels 
of the Divine power which rules over the fortunes of mankind 
it was ordained that Lelai^d Stanford, at the height of his 
prosperity, should know the deepest grief that can befall a man, 
and bear his full part of the world's common sorrow which 
afflicts the race. In 1884 the awful shadow of death fell upon 
the home of Senator Stanford, and his only child, a youth 
remarkable for his personal attractiveness and lovable disposi- 
tion and the rare promise of his mind and character, wa« sud- 
denly stricken down in death. It was a terrible blow for the 
bereaved parentjs, and those who knew Senator Stanford best 
tell, us that he never recovered from it. It was, however, 
characteristic of the taoble nature of the man that his profound 
diBappointment and sorrow did not degenerate, as is so often 
the case, into a selfish withdrawal from the world, or harden 
his heart against his fellows. It rather intensified his sympa- 
thy for all who suffered distress or need. This is touchlngly 
expressed in what he said of the purpose of his great educa- 
tional schemes: "The children of California shall be our chil- 
dren." " It is our hope to found a university where all may 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 75 

have a chance to secure an edacation such as we intended our 
son should have." In accordance with this generous intention, 
Senator Stanford, together with his wife, the worthy confi- 
dant of his purposes, conceived the noble plan of founding at 
his splendid seat at Palo Alto a great university of learning. 
This institution was to be both an enduring monument to the 
genius and virtues of his beloved son, who, indeed, had origin- 
ally suggested such a disposition of much of his father's wealth ; 
it was also designed as an expression of human affection toward 
his fellow-men. The underlying principle of the Leland 
Stanford Junior University is a union, so far as may be pos- 
sible, of the classical and traditional methods of education 
with those new conceptions of the dignity of the mechanic 
arts, the importance of modern and physical science and man- 
ual-labor training which are leading features in the education 
of our day. Senator Stanford sought to combine in his new 
institution theoretical instruction with practical training, the 
study of the applied sciences and arts simultaneously with 
pure learning and the humanities. The consummation of this 
great scheme of benevolence Senator Stanford did not defer 
till after his death, but rather became the executor of his own 
estate while living. He set about the work himself at once. 
On the 14th of November, 1885, the grant of endowment was 
publicly made by which his first gift of $5,000,000 was secured 
to the new institution. With characteristic energy the enter- 
prise was forwarded. As by magic there arose in the lovely 
valley, sheltered by the green foothills of the Coast Range, 
the great stone quadrangles of the university. Already in the 
fall of 1891 the courses of instruction began. During the past 
two years nearly 1,500 eager students have made the lofty 
cloisters reverberate with the hum of their cheerful industry 
and the effervescence of their youthful spirits. The libra- 
ries and the museums are filled with ardent seekers for the 

76 Address of Mr, Perkins^ of California^ on the 

stored knowledge of the world, the laboratories and work- 
shops resound with the clatter of machinery and the practice 
of the applied sciences and arts. Not only from California 
and her sister States, bat from eastern communities, from 
Mexico and the South American Republics, and from the isles 
and continents of the Pacific Ocean, the flow of students is 
steadily setting in, and the university seems destined to become 
a medium for uniting both Occident and Orient in the bonds 
of human culture and brotherhood. 

Senator Stanford was spared to be present at two of the 
commencements of the school he had founded, the central 
object, with his honored wife, of the reverence and gratitude 
of the great assembly. The contemplation of the results of 
their public spirit and generosity and the affectionate homage 
they received from their fellow-men must have afforded them 
a most exalted form of pleasure and made their last days 
together on earth fhll of peace and blessing. Senator 
Stanfobd appreciated fully that, to quote his own words, 
^^ An institution of learning, however broad its plans and noble 
its purposes, must be a growth and not a creation.'' He made 
no secret of his expectations, however, that in the course of 
time the income from his completed endowment would reach a 
million dollars annually, and suffice for the free instruction of 
ten thousand students. This would make it by far the largest 
gift ever made to science by an individual in human history. 
It will not be out of place, surely, for me to solicit the sym- 
pathy and good will of Senators for the admirable lady who is 
charged with the sole and unrestricted responsibility of carry- 
ing out this great scheme of human beneficence. 

. My tribute would be sadly incomplete if it did not include in 
its brief survey some recognition of the private and personal 
worth of the man it commemorates. The strong will and con- 
tinuity of purpose; the large, calm judgment; the statesman 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 77 

like sagacity and execative force of Leland Stanford have 
perhaps been sufficiently set forth in what others and I have 
already said concerning him. But there were gentler, more 
humane traits in him that well deserve to be remembered. In 
private intercourse he was genial and kindly and the soul of 
hospitality. His innate chivalry of nature was displayed in 
his polite deference to women and high considerations for 
them. He was a suicere believer in the political enfranchise- 
ment as well as equal civil and business rights of women. 
His university at Palo Alto is open to both sexes alike. It 
is a crowning touch of this chivalric spirit that in all his 
public beneficence he linked his wife's name with his own, 
and, dying, left his vast fortune to her sole disposal. His 
quick sympathies were revealed not only by his loyal friend- 
ship and numberless deeds of kindness, but in the love he 
bore the animal kingdom. On his great ranches thousands 
of noble horses found in him a gentle master. His great 
mastiffs at Palo Alto miss to-day the kindly touch of that 
master's hand. He loved the very trees at his country seat, 
and had them shore up the decayed and feeble limbs that 
threatened to fall. His earthly successes were due to many 
fortuitous circumstances in his career and character, but his 
victories over his fellow-men were won through the goodness 
of his heart. The self-sufficiency and cynicism which sb often 
attend wealth and po^er he never knew. He always believed 
in human nature and trusted the people; for, as he said, ^^the 
majority of men desire to do right.'' 

Finally, sir, I may be permitted to say that all his moral 
nature was based on profound religious convictions. WhUe 
making no ostentatious professions of religion, and not a 
member of any church, his mind, liberalized by the reading of 
modem science and philosophy, yet clung to the primal truths 
of Christ's teaching — God, virtue, and immortality. In the 

78 Address of Mr, Perkins^ of California. 

charter of the new university he prohibits sectarian instmc- 
tiou, but requires the teaching of ''the immortality of the soul, 
the existence of an all- wise and beneficent Creator, and that 
obedience to His laws is the highest duty of man.'^ After his 
son's death his thoughts turned with increasing solemnity to 
contemplate the vast issues of the eternal life. 
Like ancient Cato, as reported by Cicero, he might have said : 

Glorious day, when I shall remove from this confused crowd to Join the 
divine assembly of souls ! For I shall go not only to meet great men, l!>ut 
also my own son Cato. His spirit, looking back upon me, departed to that 
place whither he knew that I should soon come, and he has never deserted 

If I have borne his loss with courage, it is because I consoled myself with 
the thought that our separation would not be for long. 

In whichever of its many aspects we contemplate the life of 
Leland Stanpobd, as a successful and honorable merchant, 
as a great chief of industry, as a patriotic war governor, as a 
Senator of the United States, as a wise and generous phil- 
anthropist, he reveals himself as a unique and commanding 
figure in our country's history and a noble type of American 

Peace to his ashes and honor to his memory ! 

Mr. President, as a mark of respect to the memory of 
Leland Stanford, who died while a Senator of the United 
States, I move that the Senate do now adjourn. 

The motion was unanimously agreed to; and (at 5 o'clock and 
25 minutes p. m.) the Senate adjourned until Monday, Septem- 
ber 18, 1893, at 12 o'clock m. 


Monday, February 1J2, 1894. 

Mr. Loud. If there be no further basiness before the House, 
I ask unauimous consent that we now proceed with the special 

There was no objection, and it was so ordered. 

The Speaker. The Clerk will report the special order. 

The Clerk read as follows: 

Hesolvedf Tbat the Hoase has heard with profound sorrow the annonnce- 
ment of the death of Hon. Lbland Stanford, late a Senator ftrom the 
State of California. 

Resolved, That the basiness of the House be now suspended m order 
that fitting tribute be paid to his memory. 

Reeolvedf That as an additional mark of respect the House, at the con- 
clusion of the ceremonies, do adjourn. 

The resolutions were adopted unanimously. 



Address of Mr, Tracey, of New York. 

Mr. Speaxeb: Last September the members of the Senate 
of the United States gave expression to their feeling of pro- 
found regret at the loss of their colleague, the Hon. Lela^nd 
Stanford, and at the same time expressed in the strongest 
terms their admiration of his qualities as a statesman and his 
generosity as a man, and their high appreciation of the great 
services he had rendered to his adopted StatB of California as 
well as the nation at large. Gentlemen who will follow me on 
this occasion, and who were intimately acquainted with him 
in his lifetime, will further enlarge upon these admirable char- 
acteristics of the lamented Senator. 

It is my intention not to make a formal address, but simply 
to call attention to the fact that the late Senator Stanford 
was a native of the town of Watervliet, in the county of Albany, 
the district which I have the honor to represent here. Although 
in early life he left the community in which he had been born 
and went to the West, finally settling in the great Pacific State 
which he afterwards represented in the Senate, it was always a 
matter of special pride to the people of his native county that 
hi& career was so successful, and this pride was enhanced by 
the fact that, although his later home was in so distant a part 
of the Union, he never lost interest in his native place. 

From time to time he came to visit his birthplace, and upon 
those occasions that generosity which was so prominent a trait 


Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 81 

in bis character was freely manifested for the relief of those who 
were in distress, and when at last he was finally taken from us 
he remembered in the most monificent manner bis kinspeople 
who still lived at the old home, and there, as well as elsewhere, 
institutions of benevolence and charity were made the benefi- 
ciaries of his great prosperity. Mr. Speaker, I will not occupy 
further time now, but will give way to my colleagues who have 
prepared more formal eulogies. 


Mr. Speaker: The career of Leland Stanford illustrates 
the possibilities open to the American youth under our insti- 
tutions. By his unaided exertions he was able to link his 
name inseparably with one of the greatest enterprises of 
modem times, to acquire fabulous wealth, to become governor 
of a sovereign State, a Senator of the United States, and the 
founder of an educational institution the scope of which has 
challenged the admiration of the world. His career was cer- 
tainly one of the most remarkable and unique in our history. 
It was romance in real life. 

While the great railroad which spans this continent exists 
he will need no other monument; as long as the university 
which he founded continues to afford the youth of the country 
the facilities for education according to his magnificent plan, 
his name will not be forgotten. 

My intimate personal acquaintance with Senator Stanford 
began with my Congressional service in the second session of 
the Fifty-second Congress. Up to that time I had known him 
otply casually. The discharge of our official duties brought 
us much together, and our acquaintance ripened into a friend- 
S. Mis. 122:^ 6 

82 Address of Mr. Hilborn^ of California^ on the 

ship which is now to me a pleasaut memory. He was a most 
agreeable companiou and a model host. 

I found him always kindly and considerate of the feelings 
of others. He was entirely free from that ofifensive assertive- 
ness which is so often found among persons possessed of great 
wealth or who have long held positions of command. With 
strong convictions, he never offensively obtruded them upon 
others. I never heard Lelanb Stanford speak ill of any 
human being. His charity seemed to cover everybody. 

During the period mentioned his infirmities were so serious 
as to practically confine him to his home, but he lost none of 
his interest in public affairs, and it greatly pleased him to have 
the Representatives from California meet under his roof to 
transact the business pertaining to his State, that he might 
lend a helping hand. And there I saw something of his charm- 
ing home life. Between him and his estimable wife there was 
a manifest companionship of thought and action. 

The loss of their son seemed to have chastened their lives 
and raised them up to a higher plane from which they saw with 
a clearer vision their duties to mankind and to their Qod. ]Sfo 
one could be insensible to the elevating influence of that house- 
hold, and no one who has felt it can ever forget it. 

The portrait of their only son, who had passed away, was 
placed conspicuously in their favorite room and seemed to 
complete the family group. Certain it is that he was always 
present in their thoughts. 

While not a member of any church organization, Leland 
Stanford loved to talk on religious subjects. He firmly 
believed in the immortality of the soul and that spirits which 
were kindred here would be united beyond the grave. The 
momentous question which has been asked by sages and phi- 
losophers over and over, as the ages have rolled by, "If a 
man die shall he live again f ' he had answered, and in his mind 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 83 

there remained no lingering doubt. He looked upon death 
with the eyes of a philosopher and without fear or dread. 

Lelaxd Stanford was a notable man before he was rich^ 
He had made for himself a name while he was yet compara- 
tively poor. He was governor of a great State, one of the 
molders of the sentiment of its people in a great crisis, and 
a leader in his party before he had acquired great wealth. 
He was a marked man anywhere. Wherever he went hia 
bearing challenged attention, suggested power, and commanded 
admiration. Physically he was a typical American — strong, 
rugged, and indomitable. Like Saul, towering above his 
brethren, he filled the full measure of an ideal leader among^ 
the Argonauts of California. To be a leader among such men 
demanded extraordinary qualities. 

The Argonauts of California were the most superb body of 
men who ever founded a state. They were picked men selected 
Irom the whole world. When the news flashed over the civil- 
ized world that there was a place called California, where tbe 
rivers were running down to the sea over a sheen of gold and 
the mountains were studded with the precious metal, there 
were men in all parts of the world — adventurous spirits — 
who at once resolved to go there. 

The question where this mysterious country was — for it was 
not laid down on the maps — or how they were to get there 
appalled them not. They knew it was somewhere on the face 
of the earth aiid man had been there, and that was enough — 
for what man could do they could do. The men who made 
this resolve had courage, brains, health, and youth. There 
never was such an aggregation of humanity on the face of the 
earth as that which was gathered together around the Bay of 
San Francisco in 1848 and 1849, and there never will be again. 

The lame, the halt, and the blind were not there. They 
were young men with the world before them, full of hope and 

84 Address of Mr. Hilbortiy of California^ on the 

ambition, and blessed with health, brains, and energy. These 
men have planted there a civilization which is unique and 
interesting. These were the men among whom Leland 
Stanford became a leader. 

Mr. Stanford, with an innate love of liberty, a keen sense 
of justice, and a humanity which embraced the whole human 
family, naturally detested slavery, and long before the com- 
mencement of the civil war we find him with that small but 
heroic band who formed the Republican party in California. 

It required courage then to be a Republican in that State. 
From the very birth of the party he was one of its leaders. 
In 1857 he was its candidate for State treasurer and in 1859 
its candidate for governor. He was again candidate for gov- 
ernor in 1861, and was elected, leading his ticket by about 
6,000 votes. The war of the rebellion was then in progress 
and his position was a most trying one, but his administration 
was so wise and conservative that he deservedly took high 
rank among that glorious band of war governors whom Prov- 
idence seemed to have raised up for the occasion. 

At the close of his term the legislature bestowed upon him 
the unusual comphment of a concurrent resolution passed by 
a unanimous vote of all parties, in which it was— 

Resolved by the aesembl^ {ike eenaie coneurring)^ That the thanks of the 
people of California are merited by and are hereby tendered to Leland 
Stanpord for the able, upright, and faithful manner in which he has dis- 
charged the duties of governor of the State of California for the past two 

He declined a reelection that he might devote himself to the 
great work of his life — the construction of the transconti* 
nental railroad. To the statesmen and patriots of that period 
the building of a railroad across the continent was something 
more than a mere business enterprise — it was part of a grand 
scheme to preserve the integrity of this Union. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 86 

The object to be accomplished by the construction of this 
road was to bind the East and the West together with bands 
of steel. Without that purpose it would not have been built 
at that time. The isolation of the States on the Pacitic and 
their defenseless condition caused much solicitude during the 
war of the rebellion. They could only be reached by a cir- 
cuitous ocean route. The patriotic purpose was to devise 
means to destroy this isolation, to make communication more 
direct and swift, and to bring that portion of our country in 
closer touch with the older Statea 

During the civil war the gold of California was indispensa- 
ble to meet our obligations abroad; indeed it was the lifeblood 
of our credit. Yet the ships which bore this doubly precious 
treasure, more richly laden than the famous galleons of 
romance, ran the gauntlet of hostile cruisers which infested 
the two oceans they crossed. Arms and munitions of war for 
the protection of our citizens on the Western Slope could only 
reach them by a long voyage around the Horn. 

A railroad built on American soil from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific was as necessary an any military road constructs dur- 
ing the war for the preservation of the Union \ and the same 
patriotic spirit which sanctioned the expenditure of money for 
the one prompted and promoted the construction of the other. 

The project of building a railroad which would cross two 
mountain ranges and a desert plain was a bold and audacious 
one, and would have appalled more timid men. But Lelaj^d 
Stanford and his associates grappled with the enterprise, 
bearing with patience the jeers of the multitude, and brought 
it to a successful conclusion. 

One strong characteristic of Senator Stanford was his love 
for dumb animals, especially the horse. Lovers of that noble 
animal all over the world mourn his death. 

The last time I saw him alive was just before the final 

86 Address of Mr, Hilborn^ of California^ on the 

acUournmeut of the Fifty-secoDd Congress and the close of the 
Harrison administration. He was reminded that a matter of 
great importance to one of his constituents was pending in one 
of the Departments which he had promised to attend to, but 
had not. It was one of the most inclement days of that mem- 
orable winter. There was a blinding and violent snowstorm 
abroad. But without a moment's hesitation he ordered his car- 
riage, went to the Department, and fulfilled his promise. Ko 
special obligation rested upon him to make this sacrifice, but 
a friend was sorely in need of assistance which he alone could 

The day of his funeral was a memorable one in the annals of 
our State. On that bright June day, under that soft Califor- 
nia sky, in the lovely valley which he had chosen for his home, 
in sight of the alreadj^ famous university which he had estab- 
lished, we laid him to rest. No invitations were issued, no 
efforts were made to bring out a concourse of people, but the 
simple announcement that Leland Stanford was dead and 
that his funeral would take place on the 24th of June at Palo 
Alto brought together the most notable body of people ever 
assembled on such an occasion in California. 

From every part of the State came the men who had laid the 
foundation of our Commonwealth and assisted in making its 
history; men who projected the great enterprises for the devel- 
opment of the State ; people interested in education, literature, 
and art were there; the pioneers of the Republican party were 
there; men who had grown gray jn the service of the railroad 
company which he directed were there with tributes of aflfec- 
tion; and thousands were there who mourned the death of a 

Thus went to rest one of the most conspicuous men of our 
times — merchant, governor, Senator, continental railway 
pioneer, and founder of a great university. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 87 

Whatever may have been his share of the weaknesses com- 
mon to our human nature, they are lost sight of in the good he 
accomplished, the result of which will long survive him. 

Address of Mr. Sibley, of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Speaker: For several years during the latter portion 
of his life I had the honor and the pleasure of the close personal 
friendship of Hon. Leland Stanford. Under the shade 
of a wide-spreading oak in a cloudless land, where nature 
seems to bestow her riches and rarest treasures in prodigal 
profusion, it was given me to listen to and learn from this 
truly marvelous man. Some similarity in tastes, a mutual 
love for the soil, its products, its capabilities for support of 
human life, a common admiration for the noblest of the animal 
kingdom, and the enthusiasm that pertains to one a genera- 
tion younger, led him to recount to me his past, to speak freely 
of the present, and on rare occasions to explore the future. 
I never met this man for an hour that I did not have on part- 
ing a higher appreciation of his wisdom, a greater respect for 
his opinions, a warmer admiration for his virtues, greater love 
for his nobility of charaoter, and a truer sympathy with his 

I shall not dwell upon his business career, but in passing 
recount one incident. Looking off to the great Sierra Nevada 
range rising to the heavens as a snow-white, impenetrable 
barrier, he told me the story of the building of the Central 
Pacific road over their mighty summits. He told me how, 
with three other men, none of them rich, they would meet at 
night and talk about the necessity of something faster than 
a pony express from the Missouri Biver to the Pacific, and 
something pleasanter than a stage coach and emigrant trail; 

88 Address of Mr. Sibley^ of Pennsylvania^ on the 

aud then how these four men, whose total means were not 
adequate to build one single mile through some portions of 
the mountains, determined that they would start the road 
and demonstrate to the world the possibility of a railroad 
over the Sierras. Friends laughed at them, even jeered at 
them ; entreated of them not to risk life's earnings in so haz- 
ardous an enterprise. He told me of the trials and discour- 
agements, aud that for more thau two years he did not know 
whether he was worth millions or poorer than a penniless 
beggar. But the work went on to completion, and what had 
been a dream yesterday was an accomplished fact to-day. 

The building of the Central Pacific Bailroad gives the clue 
to the whole life of this man, whose projects were so grand as 
to inspire doubts, and yet when tested found so practical as to 
utterly dispel them. He had faith in himself, and, what is so 
often lacking in great minds, he had a most trustful faith in 

I shall not dwell upon his success in every field of human 
effort to which he brought his master mind, not among the 
least being his success in new lines of breeding and develop- 
ing of the domesticated animals and his success in new fields 
of agricultural exx)eriments. Barely has keen business acumen 
been so closely woven in one life with generous impulse, ten- 
der emotion, and broad human sympathy. 

One day at Palo Alto he showed me the beautiful park in 
the center of which had been started the foundations of a 
home for his only son, who had died some three years before. 
He told me of the boy's character and his ambitions for him ; 
and then we went together to the tomb of the boy, and he told 
amid tears and sobs how since the death of his son he had 
adopted and taken to his heart and love every friendless boy 
and girl in all the land; and that so far as his means afforded 
they should go to make the path of every such an one 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 89 

smoother and brighter; and that with the increase in values 
of property given to the Leland Stanford Janior University 
he hoped that it would yet be able to feed, clothe, and edu- 
cate all the poor but aspiring youth on the Pacific Slope. 

I shall not dwell upon his public and his private charities • 
and the zeal with which his wife entered into every plan for 
the amelioration of the wretched; of the founding of mission 
and orphan schools by Mrs. Stanford, and the great interest 
be always took in her work for their welfare. 

One little digression here in point. My partner and myself 
had purchased a young colt of him, for which we paid him 
$12,500. He took out his check book, drew two checks of 
$6,250 each, and sent them to two different city homes for 
friendless children, and, with a twinkle in his eye and broadly 
beaming benevolence in his features, said: ^^ Electric Bell 
ought to make a great horse; he starts in making so many 
people happy in the very beginning of his life." 

I am not familiar with his early life, but know that in his 
latter years the aim and end of his existence was for the wel- 
fare and happiness of others. The death of his son seemed to 
have changed the whole channel of human existence with him. 
It was the black frost which opened up the rough burr and 
showed the rich fruit within. 

Shall I say he failed to discern the good outside his own 
party! l^o; he ever placed patriotism above partyism; public 
weal above personal advantage. He stood with the people in 
their demands for free silver coinage. He believed in America 
and her institutions, and during his last visit in the East 
stated his individual belief that within ten years, through the 
growth of the beet-sugar industry, America would produce 
more sugar than would be needed for her own people, and 
save to the nation in a single item more than one hundred 
millions annually. 

90 Address of Mr, Sibley^ of Pennsylvania^ on the 

A man of such resoarces, uuderstanding finance and know- 
ing those who controlled the finances of the nation^ he was 
keenly alive to the dangers threatening the i>eople. He gave 
his best powers of thought to the evolution of a system which 
should emancipate the nation's producers from the slavery of 
universal debt and financial fetters. He saw that a nation's 
greatness rested not upon her strong towers, her mighty 
fortresses, frowning cannon, and enginery of' war, but saw 
with keenest vision that the safety of the state lay in the 
prosperity of a iree and contented people, whose strong right 
arms, hopeful hearts, and happy homes should ever prove the 
strongest bulwarks of liberty. The public press with a laugh 
and the aristocracy of finance with a jeer set the seal of 
disapproval upon his latest and mightiest conception for 
American progress and welfare. 

Mr. Speaker, I have stood among the majestic Alps before 
the break of day. The moon had long since sunk to rest and 
darkness shrouded earth with sable curtains so thick that all 
nature seemed wrapped in death's dark folds. Of a sudden, 
in the west, out of the blackness, appeared a glorious vision. 
The topmost peak of a majestic mountain had caught the first 
gleams of the god of. day and wrapped its snowy head with a 
halo of golden glory. Though still dark in the valley, this 
towering peak was illumined. The light and glory still 
descended. The head of a companion peak was irradiated 
with another and marvelous transformation. Peak after peak, 
summit after summit, first the greater and then the less, 
caught the light until firom the dark valley the whole range 
was so transplendent they seemed like long rows of white and 
glittering angel messengers with the halo of God's ineffable 
glory crowning their brows, proclaiming the birth of a new 
day. And soon the promise was. fulfilled, even to those upon 
the plain. The highest peaks had caught but a trifle in 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 91 

advance the warm kisses and golden promises of the full 

And so, Mr. Speaker, there are men who sometimes stand 
so high upon the mountains of truth that overlooking inter- 
vening valleys, lesser altitudes, and minor ranges which 
obstruct the common vision, catch in advance of others the 
prouuse of the sun-crowned day. Shall we who stand in the 
valley doubt him who standeth on the hiU? Shall they who 
stand in the darkness doubt those whose faces have caught 
the light? 

Great minds have seen the promise of the brighter day to 
dawn. To some men it has been given to stand upon the 
Mount of Transfiguration, and there are those who would fain 
even build present tabernacles thereon. Such was our friend. 
He had risen out of the valley of self, and from his height, with 
clearness of perception, saw the coming of a new and brighter 
day. He spoke of a new light, and from his own form reflected 
its glory. 

Such eameat natures are the fiery pith, 
The concrete nucleus 'round which systems grow ; 

Mass after mass becomes inspired therewith, 
And whirls impregnate with the central glow. 

Mr. Speaker, 1 have stood in earth's grandest cathedrals 
where sleep the mighty dead. In Westminster Abbey the 
ashes of Britain's warrior kings beneath the fretted tracery 
securely rest, moved not by the pealing tones or resounding 
echoes of the Minster organ, nor awakened by the harmony of 
the sweet- voiced choir. For their chiefest virtues one single 
slab of marble will suffice. Beneath the mighty dome of St. 
Paul's rests a Wellington, and as we view the spot where all 
held by earth remains no sighs escape, no tears fall. Upon 
the borders of the Seine, under the golden dome of the Chapel 
des Invalides, I have looked with others upon the porphyry 
and granite sarcophagus which hides the ashes of Napoleon. 

92 Address of Mr. Sibley^ of Pennsylvania^ on the 

Aboat the tomb are inscribed the names of his mightiest bat- 
tles; captive flags droop fh)m circling dome; thousands wend 
their way and sliall to view the spot where sleeps world's 
wantonest warrior. You feel no tear drops start, no kindlier 
impulses waken, but you feel a vague, oppressive dread and 
awe. You view it as you might the ruins of some mtyestic 
heathen temple where bestial orgies or human sacrifice had 
long since held sway. 

Leaving the East of the Old World and the New, in a 
sunny valley guarded by the peaks of the Sierra Madres and 
laved by the warm waters of the Pacific, stands a mausoleum 
which bears the name of Stanford. It tells of no mighty 
battles wherein men gave their blood to glut ambition; it 
tells of no devastated nations; no divided families; no 
destroying conquests. It bears only three names — the names 
of Leland Stanford, Leland Stanford, jr., and Jane B. 
Stanford. Two of the three have passed through its portal, 
and the other waits only to round out and perfect the work 
so happily begun by all. No noonday beat of drum, no 
pealing organ, no surpliced choir is heard. 

The footfall of the animals he loved in life, the carol of the 
birds, and the hum of happy industry alone awake the echoes. 
And yet this tomb stands upon consecrated ground; upon an 
estate dedicated to the happiness and welfare of American 
manhood and womanhood. No groined arches hide the sun 
by day or the stars by night, and yet, as I measure it, here 
reposes royalty in its long, last sleep. Truly, if there be any 
attributes of kingship which rule the realm of virtues, this man 
was most of all a king. He was born to conquer and to rule. 
His conquests cost no tears, made no slaves, marred no lands. 
He conquered the obstacles of nature, leveled mountains, filled 
valleys, annihilated distances, overcame time, watered deserts, 
and made them bloom. He conquered greed and sordid self 
and made all his own the portion of etich aspiring youth of the 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 93 

land. He conquered poverty and lack of opportunity for 
thousands living and thousands yet unborn. He saw in the 
form of every friendless boy a son, and learned to be the 
grandest ruler because he learned to rule his own spirit. 

Near his tomb stands a nobler monument than yet has been 
. erected to earth's heroes; a university so broad in its concep- 
tions, so complete in its details, so strongly intrenched in all 
the provisions of endowment, so lovingly designed for human 
welfare, that it stands to-day alone and unique among the 
creations of man. You say he is dead, and I say he has just 
begun to live. Job says: 

There is hope of a tree if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and 
that the tender branch thereof shall not cease. Thoagh the root thereof 
wax old in the earth and the stock thereof die in the ground, yet through 
the scent of water it shall bud and bring forth boughs like a plant. 

Ah, sir, wh«*n some men die they show such works founded 
that they have but set in motion the mighty mechanism of life. 
Scientists tell us that if we throw a pebble in the center of the 
ocean that not one atom of water in all the depths but shall be 
stirred, and that from the ocean to the river, from river to riv- 
ulet and rill, even to every fountain source in all the world its 
influence shall pervade. And so with such a life thrown into 
the ocean of time its influence shall deepen and widen with 
each recurring cycle until it shall touch the immeasurable 
depths, reach the boundless shores of eternity, and rise to the 
very fountain head of God's ever-welling springs of love. 
Though the pitcher be broken and the water spilled upon the 
parched ground, yet the mysterious agency of the rays of the 
midday sun shall in the form of vapor draw it all again toward 
itself, and thus not lost but returning again to earth to bless 
the fields, fill the fountains, and cheer the heart of man.^ And 
so to me seems the life of such a man. Though we say dead 
and swallowed up in earth, yet the spirit drawn by the invisi- 

94 Address of Mr. Sibley^ of Pennsylvania^ on the 

ble powers of Heaven ascends, and shall ascending and de- 
scending, as the angels seen by Jacob in his glorious vision, 
ever return to bless, refilling the parched fountains of human 
existence through never-ending cycles. 

Mr. Speaker, no good life is ever swallowed up in death; 'tis 
merely mooring the storm-tossed craft in a harbor of refuge. 

To die is landiog ou some Bilent shore, 
Where biUows never break nor tempests roar ; 
Ere well we feel the friendly stroke, 'tis o'er. 

And what is this that we term death? Tis but a prolonged 
and unawakened dream. Sleep and death are twin sister 
angels, refreshing from the cares and toils of e^rth. We sleep 
and dream. We close our eyes in sleep and death; we exclude 
the tumult and noise of the day; we forget its sorrows, banish 
its petty ambitions, and divest ourselves of cankering cares. In 
sleep we dream, and only in our dreams do we meet our ideals 
of waking hours. In our dreams alone have we built grand 
castles, whose spires tower to the very heavens. In our dreams 
we have painted a world's masterpiece. In our dreams we have 
rivaled all of earth's artists; have sung a sweeter song than 
waking poet ever breathed. 'Twas in our dreams we touched 
the magic chord and reached the rapturous harmony of heaven. 
In our dreams we overcame wicked giants and destroyed 
devouring dragons. In our dreams, untramineled by earthly 
fetters, the mind marched master of the realms of fancy and 
of thought. In our dreams all knotty problems found an easy 
solvent, and day doubts dispelled like vanishing mists. In 
our dreams our brother's faults were forgotten, and we saw 
alone his virtues, glorious and resplendent in all their beauty. 
In our dreams we were never beaten back, overthrown, nor 
recked the odds. In our dreams earth's cross became a crown ; 
unlimited and limitless the spirit soared, surmounted every 
height, overcame every obstacle, and when, as a prisoner who 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 96 

has dreamed of home, friends, and liberty, came the rude 
awaking, and we found the old surroundings and the usual 
daily burdens to be borne, who has not said that only when 
we slept we truly were awake to appreciate the harmonious 
grandeur of the universe and the majestic sweetness of exist- 
ence! And so with death, the longer sleep, the final putting 
aside the clogs and fetters which contract oui' powers, stifle 
our emotions, and limit our happiness. Who would be awak- 
ened from a blissful dream, and who exchange, once tasted, 
the supernal for the earthly joys? 

There is no Death ! What Beems so is transition ; 
This life of mortal breath 

Is but a suburb of the life elysian, 
Whose portal we call Death. 

And SO our friend has gone forth, not at the summons of 
a great destroyer, but to meet a great deliverer. He has 
exchanged disappointment for certainty, wishing for being, 
limitation for completest freedom. He sweetly sleeps, the 
dream is all fruition, and knows what we term death is 
highest, truest life, which every perfect soul shall taste. 

We do not claim our friend a perfect man or a faultless one; 
but the massive granite covers and hides his every error, 
leaving the virtues free, boundless, and uncoverable. Death 
can only destroy and cover the useless and the bad. The 
man is like the diamond in the rough; the gem is there, but its 
beauty is marred and hidden within the layers of baser earth; 
but' death removes the earthly dross, sets free the matchless 
gem, exposes the hidden beauties, and reveals the marvelous 
reflecting power without one refracting ray. 

What man has not his faults, his human weaknesses, his 
earthly follies! Not' one. But, sir, when debit and credit are 

96 Address of Mr. Sibley^ of Pennsylvania^ on the 

summed up in the great book of life; when the evil and good 
are placed in the balances, held within the hands of infinite 
mercy and exactest justice; when the lofty aspirations and 
noble impulses, the warm human sympathies of such a life are 
set against its frailties and failures, its mistakes and errors, 
who among us that would not, confidently as a child the father, 
trust all to Him who kuoweth and meteth to every man his 
own f Mr. Speaker, Lel and Stanford's tomb needs inscribed 
thereon no epitaph, for his shall remain written in the lives 
and hearts of present and future generations. 

In the fifteenth Psalm David wrote the description of a 
good man, a fi'ee version of which in closing I shall quote, 
as seeming singularly appropriate in its application to our 
departed friend : 

Lord, who's the happy man that may to thy blest ooarts repair. 

Not stranger-like to visit them, but to inhabit there t 

'Tis he whose every thought and deed by rules of virtue moves. 

Whose generous tongue disdains to speak the thing his heart disproves. 

Who never did a slander forge his neighbor's fame to wound, 

Nor hearken to a false report by malice whispered round, 

Whom vice in all its pomp and power can treat with Just neglect, 

And piety, though clothed in rags, religiously respect. 

Who to his plighted vows and trust has ever firmly stood, 

And though he promise to his loss he makes his promise good. 

Whose soul in usury disdains his treasure to employ, 

Whom no rewards can ever bribe the guiltless to destroy, 

The man who by this steady course has happiness insured, 

When earth'9 foundation shakes shall staud by Providence secured. 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 97 

Address of Mr. Blair, of New Hampshire. 

Mr. Speakeb: Senator Stanford was a Colossus among 
men. He came to ns from the Pacific shore and seemed to be 
of the greatness of the far Western world. 

No more impressive personality ever moved about the Halls 
of Congress than Leland Stanford, of California. The 
development of our Western coast was made by an order of 
men who, although they were born and nurtured among us of 
the East, yet took on a certain magnitude akin to grandeur in 
their presence which may have been derived from the vastness 
and tremendous scope of the deeds which they performed and 
their extraordinary natural surroundings. Some of them seem 
like the big trees which survive in their mountains. 

When Mr. Stanford came to the Senate he was past middle 
age, but still vigorous and in the prime of his mental powers. 

His great wealth made him conspicuous in the minds of the 
people, but to those who came in contact with him there was 
no evidence in his bearing that he was himself conscious of 
its possession. I do not believe that he thought at all more 
highly of himself or valued other men the less on account of 
the possession or the want of money. No man was ever so 
little changed in his own nature by its influence. His soul 
was too large to be misled by any adventitious circumstance 
of life. 

His mental powers were very great. He was capable of 
grasping and of analyzing the most difficult problems that 
present themselves in human affairs, and naturally dwelt upon 
those which concern the fundamental interests of humaniby. 
He was a great social philosopher, and few men had so pro- 
foundly studied the questions which concern the general wel- 
S. Mis. 122 7 

98 Address of Mr. Blair ^ of New Hampshire^ on the 

fare of mankind. He had read much, but had thought more, 
and he had a native strength which made the thinking of 
others to him of small importance. What he concladed as the 
result of his own mental operations was likely to be right — 
one of those men who can go anywhere alone. 

He knew intuitively the principles of things, and would sur- 
prise you with wonderful flashes of light manifested in the 
simplest ways and on the most familiar and commonplace occa- 
sions, and in entire unconsciousness that what he was saying 
might be worthy of note. His manner and forms of expres- 
sion were brief and simple, his words most fit, and his mean- 
ing always clear. 

He came to the Senate full of the wisdom of experience in 
dealing with great affairs. He was a lawyer, a business man, 
a statesman, a founder of one of our greatest Commonwealths; 
traveled, cultured, and accomplished ; one of the ripest and 
strongest men of action in that illustrious body. 

He was specially interested in promoting the welfare of the 
common people. Any measure which proposed to increase 
their happiness at once commanded his attention and support. 
The laboring man had no wiser or truer friend, and he gave 
himself to the advocacy of those lines of social and industrial 
reform which, in his judgment, combined conservatism with 
advancement, in that wise proportion which is essential to 
healthy growth and real improvement to society. 

He knew that the great processes of nature are mild and 
gradual as well as irresistible in their operation, and that they 
are irresistible because they are mild and gradual. 

He recognized the destructive power of the earthquake and 
of war, but he did not mistake them for primary causes. On 
the other hand, he comprehended that they are but secondary, 
being themselves consequences of the slow and silent pressure 
of the eternal nature of things, and but incidents in the long 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 99 

train of continuous action whereby the ages accomplish real 

He had that largeness of view which comes from elevation, 
and, in a reverent sense, with him one day was as a thousand 
years and a thousand years as one day. 

So he contemplated the condition of men as revealed in his- 
tory and as he observed it under his own eye and experience 
in this and in other lands. Guided by an acute moral sense 
and controlled by warm and generous sympathies, the deduc- 
tions of his intellect ripened into benevolent and comprehen- 
sive action for the good of man upon a scale which for magni- 
tude and prospective consequences is unsurpassed, if not 
unequaled, by the practical work accomplished in the whole 
history of the race by any other individual uninspired man. 

He clearly saw the possibilities in human nature and that we 
are yet in our infancy. 

The great elemental forces seemed to be revealed to him, and 
he comprehended what they could do with this mysterious 
creature compounded of the earth and the heavens — of inani- 
mate matter and the soul of Ood. He knew not all that we 
can be, but he saw that the possibilities are infinite, and that 
in this state of being it is within the scope of reasonable efifort 
to so far regenerate and transform and elevate the condition 
of man that in this life even there would indeed be a new 
heaven and a new earth. 

His belief in the unseen and spiritual was rather in the 
nature of touch and vision than of deduction from reason. In 
fact, I think that our convictions of another life are weakened 
by speculation and philosophy. If one does not believe what 
his mother told him, and that rather because he feels it than 
because he can prx)ve it, he has no faith. 

Trained in early life to the rigid creeds of the forefathers, 
he grew away from their harsher and nonessential features, 

100 Address of Mr, Blair^ of New Hampshire y on the 

but never lost their essence, which is the fatherhood of GU>d 
and the brotherhood of man. 

To those who knew him intimately Mr. Stanford seemed 
to live in both worlds at once, and to be jterfectly at home in 
either, so far as could be judged by one who could only asso- 
ciate with him in this. But there was an advantage in his 
comprehension of the unseen, for it enabled him to fashion his 
great plans with a view to that other and higher state which 
to him was the unseen only in the sense that it is yet to come, 
and is rather a natural and necessary development than an 
abrupt translation to another and independent condition, and 
by no means necessarily disconnected from future life on the 
planet which is our present sphere of activity. 

In all his anticipations of good to come, the enfranchisement 
and elevation of woman to her proper and equal position with 
man in everything which concerns absolute freedom of soul 
and body was a primary condition. It is clear that he consid- 
ered the mother of greater consequence in the evolution of a 
perfected race than the father, for to the influence of heredity 
she adds that of nurture and control in those early years which 
fix character and determine the course of life. 

In short, he summed up all in education ; and so he built the 
great university. 

There it stands, overlooking the continent and the seas, and 
there it will live and shine, like the sun in the heavens, until 
time shall be no more. 

Mr. Speaker, I leave to others who have a right to perform it 
the loving duty of full tribute to his great life and superior 

I loved him, and I believe that he loved me; but I well know 
that others have the superior responsibility of this occasion. 

He died and is buried. 

The companion who was his equal in life survives to mourn 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 101 

his loss, and alone to accomplish the great purposes which were 
no less hers than his. The line of the succession has failed in 
the earlier exit of that wonderfdl child whose death was the 
birth of the mighty monnment to them all, which shall ]>reserve 
their names in reverent and blessed memory forever. 

The sympathy of the whole nation is with this woman, who 
thns rises above the loss of all that woman loves, so that she 
may fortify and secure to humanity the full possession and 
fruition of the great work, to have accomplished which is more 
than to have founded a dynasty and to have built an empire 
upon the ruins of mankind. 

ADDRESS OF Mr. Wheeler, of Alabama. 

Mr. Speaker: On March 4, 1885, the most distinguished 
and noted men of our land were assembled in the Hall of the 
United States Senate. All eyes were turned toward the desk 
of the Vice-President as a handsome form ascended the steps, 
raised his hand, and took the Senator's oath of office. A well- 
poised head, an expression indicating firmness of character 
and intellectual power, showed the superior type of this cabc, 
dignified man. It was the monarch of the great West — 
Leland Stanford, of California. He was not a monarch by 
election, nor by appointment, nor did he become a monarch by 
hereditary descent; but by God-given and self-cultivated 
powers he rose superior to other men, as the lion becomes the 
monarch of wild beasts and the towering oak the monarch of 
the forest. Cicero and Byron were monarch of words; Alex- 
ander, Charlemagne, and Napoleon were monarchs among 
warriors; and when Leland Stanford joined the Atlantic 
to the Pacific Ocean by completing the great transcontinental 
highway, and more than any other man contributed to the 

102 Address of Mr. Wheeler^ of Alabama^ on the 

development of his adopted State, the world hailed this great 
man as a monarch of material development. 

It was not his marvelous achievements aione that stamped 
him as great among men; it was not because of the golden 
aureole of success which crowned his life work, nor because he 
was the richest among his fellows, having many millions of 
money and vast corporations under his control. There was 
more than all these which caused the world to respect and 
esteem Leland Btanpobd; it was because his was a noble, 
kingly spirit which rose superior to his possessions, vast as 
they were, and made them his servants in the development of 
far-reaching plans for the benefit of humanity. It was not the 
accidents of fortune nor the accumulation of wealth that 
marked him as a successful man, but the individual will and 
masterful mind which enabled him to soar above these acci- 
dents and to realize his best ideas, where men of smaller mold 
would have bowed to circumstances and left their ideas to 
the realms of idle dreams. 

The career of Leland Stanford is an object lesson which 
should be carefully expounded to the youth of our land; and 
it exemplifies perfectly the motto of his great university, whose 
declared object is " To qualify students for personal success 
and direct usefulness." According to this ideal, the personal 
success of the individual is to be gauged by his direct useful- 
ness to humanity, not merely by the dollars and cents he may 
accumulate, though he be fifty times a millionaire. 

His vast wealth was an incident, not an object, in the life 
of Senator Stanford, and he understood better than most 
men the fact that the possession of money is a responsibility 
intrusted to an individual for noble and unselfish ends. His 
donations to the Commonwealth he so ably represented and 
so much loved surpass in munificence any gift ever made by 
an individual for any purpose. 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 103 

Senator Stanford was the product of a farm home, the 
kind of home that has produced all our greatest and best men. 
The farm home is the best training school for boys, and the 
country school, though lacking the artificial conveniences of 
the more pretentious institutions of the cities, is calculated to 
develop individuality of mind and strength of character. The 
birthplace of Senator Stanford was Watervliet, about 8 
miles from the city of Albany. He was the fourth of seven 
brothers. His father, though a plain, unpretending farmer, 
was a public-spirited and enterprising man, taking a deep 
interest and a leading part in the development of his section 
and the establishment of railroads in his vicinity. He foresaw 
the possibilities of future development, but he little dreamed 
of the gigantic enterprises which would be successfully carried 
through by his young son. 

At the age of 18 young Stanford cleared some land for his 
father, realizing some two thousand or three thousand dollars 
by the sale of the timber. This sum he ungrudgingly invested 
in the completion of his education, and applied himself to the 
study of law, realizing that personal success depends upon 
individual development. For four years he practiced law in 
an obscure Wisconsin town. In 1850 he married Miss Jane 
Lathrop, of Albany, and in her he found an ideal helpmeet 
and a congenial spirit. A woman of great intellectual power, 
one of the few capable of controlling the vast acciimulations 
now thrust upon her. All who knew Senator and Mrs. Stan- 
ford can well appreciate the consolation felt by this great 
philanthropist in his last days to know that his loved wife 
would find her greatest happiness in continuing the grand 
and good works he inaugurated. 

In 1852 we went to California and took charge of a supply 
store for his brothers. Here he acquired an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the lives and characteristics of the miners and 

104 Address of Mr, Wheeler^ of Alabama^ on the 

pioneers in that part of the world. He soon became a leader 
in the commanity on account of his strict integrity and calm, 
dispassionate impartiality, as well as the geniality of his 
disposition, which always led him to take the part of the 
downtrodden and oppressed. He was chosen delegate to the 
Republican national convention of 1860, at Chicago, where his 
influence and power largely contributed to the nomination of 
Abraham Lincoln, and while in Washington during the early 
part of Mr. Lincoln's administration he was nominated and 
elected governor of the State of California: While occupying 
this position he cut down the Stat^ debt one-half, established 
the State Normal College, and assisted in inaugurating enter- 
prises which have added very much to the pro^rress and wealth 
of the entire Pacific Slope. 

He might have been reelected, but meanwhile he had com- 
bined with a few other adventurous spirits in the gigantic 
enterprise of a transcontinental line of railway, and the suc- 
cess of the undertaking demanded all the powers of his mind. 
He exercised a general supervision, attending principally to 
legislation, and was looked upon as the controlling influence 
in the corporation. The first appropriation bill for the Central 
Pacific Railroad was signed in 1863. On May 20, 1869, Lelano 
Stanford, as president of the company, drove the golden 
spike that marked the completion of the transcontinental line. 
Later he turned his attention to the agricultural development 
of California, and, having invested in lands to a very large 
extent, he organized the finest stock farms and vineyards in 
the world. Passionately fond of live stock, he conceived the 
idea of applying to the breeding of horses the same principles 
of development he advocated in other directions, and some of 
the horses reared upon his celebrated stock farm at Palo Alto 
are world renowned. 

The death of Leland Stanford, jr., his only and idolized 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford. 106 

son, was a heart-crofihing blow to his parents, who found a 
solace in their bereavement in the endowment and establish- 
ment of the university which bears his name and which forms 
the grandest monument ever erected to a human being, an 
institution more liberally endowed than any in. the world, 
the income of which will in a few years amount to many 
miUions of dollars. 

Centuries will roll by, songs which tell of the glories of war- 
riors and statesmen will be forgotten, monuments erected to 
their memories will crumble to dust; but as long as the placid 
waters of the grand Pacific Ocean wash the golden shores of 
California the name of Leland Btanfobd will be remem- 
bered, cherished, revered, and honored. 

While engaging in these mournful ceremonies the bells are 
'olling the knell which announces to the world that another 
(i^reat and grand philanthropist, George W. Childs, has been 
called to the home of his Father in Heaven. 

In the dim recollection of the distant past I recall a child's 
prayer, much of which expresses yearnings which certainly 
found a place in the hearts of these two men. 

May it not have been that the good they have done was due 
to the teachings of a sainted mother, who during their tender 
and impressible years taught them to kneel by her side and 
utter words like these: 

Father, Divine ! Feed my soul with the bread of Heaven. 

Give me to drink of the water of life that I may grow up in Thine image 
and become in thought, feeling, and action an expression of Thy will. 

Reveal in me day by day those truths which shall teach me to be light 
to the blind, strength to the feeble, and feet to the lame, and may Thy 
kingdom come in me, and Thy will be done through me, in the world, 
now and evermore. 

Certainly these men were ^^ight to the blind," ^^ strength to 
the feeble,'' and "feet to the lame," and how true it is that the 
good they accomplished was the will of God done through them. 

106 Address of Mr, Pickler^ of South Dakota^ on the 

Address of Mr. Pickler, of South Dakota. 

Mr. Speaker: Lbland Stanfobd, whose memory we 
to-day commemorate, will ever remain a remarkable character 
of the nineteenth century in American history. It would be 
very difficult to find a parallel in the life of any prominent 
American contemporary with him. 

I He was an extraordinary man. His success in life may have 
been largely enhanced by his surroundings, but his success 
was in himself. No adverse environment would have pre- 
vented him from attaining large successes where success was 
at all x>o8sible. Many men await opportunities; he created 
them. A far greater number of men fail from neglect to embrace 
opportunities for advancement as they offer themselves than 
fail for want of opportunities. 

Senator ' Stanford not only seized opportunities as they 
presented themselves, but possessed the much higher order of 
ability of reasoning from existing facts and their proper 
manipulation to great future results. His career from a New 
York farm to lawyer, to merchant on the opposite coast of the 
continent, to the governorship of a great Commonwealth, to 
the position of a great railway king, to the United States Sen- 
ate, and to crown all these successes by his magnificent acts of 
philanthropy and kindly dealings with his fellow-men, write 
his fame large, his genius great, his success a wonder. His 
beginnings were not different from tens of thousands of Ameri- 
can youths, but we may seek long to find his equal in the 
achievements of life which the better judgment of mankidd 
calls great. 

With but a limited personal acquaintance with Senator 
Stanford, 1 have for years found much in his history to 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 107 

As the years go by, whatever clusters aroand any portion of 
the history of Abraham Lincoln awakens a kindly interest in 
the breast of every true American citizen, and to have been a 
member of the convention which first placed him in nomination 
for the Presidency, as was the subject of these services, binds 
in pleasing association the memory of these two distinguished 

Leland Stanford was a patriot. He was the war gov- 
ernor of California. His fame would have been secure had his 
career closed with that service. 

Whoever remembers the dark days of the civil war will 
readily call to mind the great anxiety of the North for the con- 
tinued loyalty of that far-away isolated portion of the country, 
the Pacific coast. 

Few places of earth are to-day so far away from us in jwint 
of time as was at that x>eriod the Pacific coast from the busy 
and populated iK)rtion of the Union. This isolation and the 
lack of communication with the far West caused anxious 
thought in the North as to the character of the support that 
might be expected from that locality in upholding the Union 
cause. Moreover, from teachings and sentiments just pre- 
vious to the beginning of the war of certain of her public men, 
there was ground for these fears. 

Mr. Blaine says of California and Oregon at this time: 

The loyal adherence of those States to the National Government was a 
profoand disappointment to the Confederacy. 

Jefferson Davis had expected, with a confidence amounting to certainty, 
and based, it is believed, on personal pledges, that the Pacific coast, if it 
did not actuaUy join the South, wonld be disloyal to the Union, and would 
from its remoteness and its superlative importance require a large con- 
tingent of the national forces to hold it in subjection. 

It was expected by the South that California and Oregon would give at 
least as much trouble as Kentucky and Missouri, and would thus indirectly 
but powerfully aid the Southern cause. 

108 Address of Mr, Pickler^ ofSoutn Dakota^ on the 

The enthusiastic devotion which these distant States showed to the , 
Union was therefore a sarprise to the South and a most weloome relief to 
the National (Government. The loyalty of the Pacific coast was in the 
hearts of the people. 

Mr. Speaker, it was aroused ard intensified by such men as 
Governor Downey, Governor Whittaker, Thomas Starr King, 
and Leland Stanford. 

And in the fall of 1861 the latter was elected governor of 
California, and from this time forward Governor Stanford 
takes place in American history with that illustrious company 
of distinguished men, the war governors of the loyal States of 
the North. 

Eminent in intellect and patriotic in duty, they were espe- 
cially adapted to the great duty imposed upon them. 

And, Mr. Speaker, the great work of these men, the support 
they aiforded the President, and how much the salvation of the 
Union depended upon their services will never be known by a 
loyal people until fuller histories than have yet appeared shall 
be written of John A. Andrew, of Massachusetts; Israel Wash- 
bum, of Maine; William A. Buckingham, of Connecticut; Wil- 
liam Sprague, of Rhode Island; Nathaniel S. Berry, of New 
Hampshire; ErastusFairchild, of Vermont; Edwin D.Morgan, 
of New York; Andrew 6. Curtin, of Pennsylvania; Charles 
Olden, of New Jersey ; Oliver P. Morton, of Indiana; Samuel J. 
Kirkwood,of Iowa; William Dennison,of Ohio; Richard Tates, 
of Illinois; Austin Blair, of Michigan; Alexander W. Randall, 
of Wisconsin; Alexander Ramsey, of Minnesota, and Leland 
Stanford, of California. These will ever be known as the 
war governors of that great struggle. 

As one of the leading spirits and prime movers in initiating 
andbuilding the great Central Pacific Rail way, Mr. Stanford's 
wonderful ability impresses all. 

To the business world he will probably be best known as 
president of this railway company. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 1 09 

It may be said that the times for baildiug this road were 
propitious; that it was regarded of the greatest importance to 
the nation that this line of communication should be estab- 

Grant all this; yet when the stupendous magnitude of the 
undertaking is considered, the great mountain barriers and 
trackless wastes to be traversed, the inconceivable amount of 
money required, the care, trouble, and anxiety connected with 
every branch of the enterprise, when all these are considered 
the mind of the ordinary man is appalled and he can but marvel 
at the enterprise. 

In the beautiful Lafayette Park of St. Louis stands the 
statue of Thomas H. Benton, the veteran Senator of Missouri, 
the workmanship of the distinguished artist, Harriet Hosmer. 
It represents the old Senator addressing the United States 
Senate on his pet scheme, the building of a Pacific railroad. 

The artist represents the old Senator gazing and pointing 
out across the continent westward, while on the die of the x)ed- 
estal below appears the inscription, '^ There is the East; there 
is India." 

Men said that the old Senator was visionary to talk of build- 
ing a Pacific railroad, but we know that in the presence of the 
governors of four States and Territories, on the heights of the 
great Western mountains, twenty-five years ago, Leland 
Stanford, president of the Central Pacific Railway Company, 
drove the golden spike that completed this great iron highway 
across the continent, that united the Orient and the Occident, 
and opened up the first great transcontinental railway in this 
country over which the world's great commerce of the East and 
the world's great commerce of the West might have a safe 
and rapid transit. 

Governor Stanford acquired much of his princely fortune in 
the building of this road; certainly his efforts therein deserved 
a rich reward. 

110 Address of Mr. Pickler^ of South Dakota^ on the 

To be chosen a member of the American Senate is one of the 
highest political honors the world affords, and one that can 
come to but few men, and Gk>yernor Stanford's election and 
reelection to this exalted position is only further proof of his 
never-failing certainty of accomplishing whatever he with 
determination willed to do. 

No man, however, endowed with Senator Stanford's admir- 
able characteristics and traits of character could remain a 

Gheerftil, kind-hearted, generous, energetic, persevering, self- 
reliant, determined, unbending will, unswerving devotion to a 
cause, with physical endurance and superior judgment and 
good sense, nature lavished upon him superb equipment. 

More than all these, he was of high moral character, an 
attribute without which no man ever attains true success. 

Senator Stanford was a natural leader of men. 

Men relied upon his judgment and heeded his words. 

Shortly after entering Congress at a meeting of Western 
Senators and Representatives held to consider the best means 
of promoting the interests of their locality in Congress, I was 
much impressed with Senator Stanford's power to impress 

He was quiet, seemingly reserved, until there had been quite 
a general expression of opinion, when in a gentle but expres- 
sive manner he considered the questions discussed, presenting 
his opinions in a calm and dignified way, and with a cogent 
reasoning that carried conviction as to the soundness of his 

In my estimation the brightest star in the crown of Senator 
Stanford's virtues will be his general kindly regard for his 
fellow-men, with ever a sensitive and attentive ear to all 
requests or petitions of servants, employes, or fellow-citizens, 
and disposition to grant requests and help when worthy causes 
were presented. He loved man because he was brother man. 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 111 

His faith was the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood 

of man. 

Cordially, sincerely, he indorsed the sentiment of Eobert 


What tho' on hamely fare we dine^ 

Wear hodden-grey and a' that ; 

Gie fools their silks and knaves their wine, 

A man's a man for a' that. 

For a' that, and a' that, 

Their tinsel show, and a' that ; 

The honest man, tho' e'er sae poor. 

Is king o' men for a' that. 

Added to his own powers, he to whose life and services we 
to-day pay homage, from his young manhood through life and 
to the end, had the love, counsel, and advice of a talented, 
noble, and true wife. 

A woman of true nobility of character, she was the worthy 
companion of the great man whose cares, anxieties, and suc- 
cesses she so ardently shared. Ever was it truly said of her, 
"The heart of her husband doth safely tru^t in her." 

What a true wife contributes to the successes of a husband 
will be known only when the records of Heaven are spread 
before the eyes of the redeemed. 

' Her kindness to all and generosity of heart kept even pace 
with these attributes of her husband. 

Her large contributions as the chief promoter of the free 
kindergarten in San Francisco are known of the whole coun- 
try; the generous Lady Bountiful of this institution as por- 
trayed in Patsy, that admirable story of Kate Douglas 
Wiggin, so rich in pathos and humor. In no other school in 
this broad land are children of foreign birth and language 
taken and freely taught the language and customs of their 
adopted country. 

In a book older than Patsy, an appreciative people will note 

112 Address of Mr, Pickler^ of South Dakota^ on the 

a true characterization of Mrs. Jane E. Stanford in the old 
and familiar words: ^^ She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; 
yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy.'' 

The overwhelming sorrow of Senator and Mrs. Stanford 
was the death of Leland Stanford, jr. 

An only child, a beloved boy, the idol of these parental 
hearts, was called away. How strange the dispensations of 
Providence ! 

Around this sou were anchored all earthly hopes and ambi- 
tions of the parents. 

The death of the boy determined the philanthropic channel 
in which should flow the great wealth of the tender-hearted 
parents in the establishment of Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 
versity at the Palo Alto home in Oalifornia. 

Its history, its founding, its design, are household words in 
the nation, being the crowning act of these two great philan- 
thropists, bestowing their great wealth in the erection of a 
lasting monument to the son's memory, coupled with their 
genuine love of mankind, in assisting young men and young 
women of this and other lands in procuring a higher education 
and equipping themselves practically for the battle of life — 
an institution which in all human probability will endure for 
centuries, and whose benign influence will be world;wide in 
its application. 

In the language of the founders of the institution, they 
assert: '4t is our hope to found a university where all may 
have a chance to secure an education such as we intended our 
son should have," and with the sanctifying influences of the 
sorrow for the son, their affection enlarging and reaching out 
tenderly to humanity, they exclaim : " The children of Cali- 
fornia shall be our children." 

Those who know Mrs. Stanford best do not question her 
ability to continue the work, and with a fidelity to the trust 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 113 

imposed ujioii her by her husband aud a love for the institu- 
tion coequal with his the development of the university must 
be the realization of the fondest hopes of both. 

And in the years to come from one class to another of the 
university will be transmitted the story of the lives of the 
founders, their successes, their kindliness, their great wealth, 
their generosity, their devout lives, the death of the son, the 
great sorrow, and the founding of the university. 

The romantic and heroic days of the early Californians and 
their struggles, the life of the early merchant, the governor- 
ship, the transcontinental railway king, the United States 
Senator, and the founding of the university will enter into the 
intensely interesting story of the institution. 

In gentleness will be recounted the love of these parents for 
the son whose name the university bears, that in the Stanford 
mansion in the years after his death his room was ever kept 
ready and in waiting for him, and at nightfall the lamp was 
dimly lighted and bedclothes turned down with loving hands, 
as if awaiting his expected coming. 

The father has joined the son; the mother lingers to com- 
plete the work. 


Mr. Speaker: Knowing that man}'' members desired to 
address the House to-day, I had thought I would keep silent, 
but find that I am unwilling to let the occasion pass without 
adding my humble tribute to the memory of the man whose 
name is so honorably, and inseparably connected with the his- 
tory and fame of Oalifornia. 

Twenty years ago this winter 1 first made the personal 
acquaintance of Leland Stanford. At that time he was 
president of the Central Pacific Railroad Company and I was 
S. Mis. 122 8 

114 Address of Mr. Bowers^ of California^ on the 

a member of the California legislature. That winter a fierce 
political eruption culminated and subsided. Skillful politicians 
invented and engineered to a success a scheme to make the 
then governor of the State a United States Senator. 

In furtherance of this scheme strong appeals were made to 
the prejudices of the people, with, it must be admitted, many 
grounds for complaint. Political parties were for the time dis- 
organized, apparently disbanded. The people almost en masse 
were arrayed against the railroad company, and its president 
and all connected with it were denounced in unmeasured terms 
as enemies of the State, and every member and Senator who 
refused to vote for the independent candidate for United States 
Senator was stigmatized as a tool of the railroad company. At 
that time the section of the State in which I resided had no 
railroads. It was not, therefore, for our interests to fight rail- 
roads. We were very desirous of acquiring a railroad, and 
were using every endeavor to induce railroad builders to come 
our way. I was therefore a railroad man, and it was at this 
time I made the acquaintance of this strong, genial man, an 
acquaintance, and I may say a friendship, which was main- 
tained up to the time of his death. 

The election over, the whole design and purpose of the great 
uprising of the people being accomplished, the Independent 
party disappeared, resolved into its original elements, and in a 
comparatively short time thereafter I saw these same people 
gathered in the legislative hall electing the man they had so 
bitterly denounced, this president of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road Company, to the highest office in their gift, that of United 
States Senator, and at the expiration of his first term reelecting 
him without protest. Such are the changes brought by the 
whirligig of time. 

I do not at this time intend to recapitulate the incidents of 
a life that are familiar not alone to all Californians, but to most 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 1 1 5 

of the people of the United States, and, indee<i, to the world. 
I will only say here that after the passions engendered by bitter 
X)olitical struggles have passeil away, or have been softened by 
time, the people of California find that they are proud of and 
honor the memory of their railroad builder, their governor, 
their United States Senator, and founder of their great univer- 
sity, Leland Stanford. 

Only a man of much more than ordinary ability, only a true 
man, only a good man could have so won the hearts of the 
people of California; so they honor his memory as a man sub- 
ject to the passions, the temptations, and the limitations of a 
man ; but through all these, above all these, they now know 
his heart and purpose was right and noble all the time. 

And this purpose is well expressed in the following lines 
taken from the Sequoia, the university paper: 

Since we last met under the arches of the quadrangle we have lost one 
whose name will ever be held in tender remembrance, not only by every 
student of Leland Stanford Junior University, but by every friend of educa- 
tion. None but those who have felt the divine thirst for knowledge can 
know what Senator Stanford's life has meant to those of us whose educa- 
tion has been a possibility only through his benefaction. For weeks the 
press of the nation has been busy recording again the story of his life. We 
can say nothing of him that has not been better said. His work is written 
in the history of his country. His monuments are many, but the most endur- 
ing will be the lives of future generations, the achievement of whose highest 
possibilities will be a lasting memorial to his name. The best expression 
we can make of our sorrow for his death, of our tender recollection of his 
son, and of our sympathy for his widow, is an active interest in furthering 
their dearest wishes, as far as in us lies, in the elevation of our race. 

But, Mr. Speaker, one is living who shares with the dead in 
this loving memory, and so long as the memory of Leland 
Stanford shall be cherished in the hearts of the people of 
California so long will they honor the estimable woman who 
through all his active life was his helpmeet, sharing in all 
his struggles, disappointments, and triumphs, and now the 

116 Address of Mr, IVise^ of Virginia^ on the 

almoner of his bounties and benefactions, devoting her life to 
completing his work — their work — and securing its blessings 
to all the people. I speak of his noble wife, Mrs. Stanford. 
Honored and loved in her life, when she shall be laid to rest 
by his side her name shall live with his, and so long as the 
remembrance of good and great deeds shall be cherished by 
mankind will the names of these two remain a sweet memory. 

ADDRESS OF Mr. Wise, of Virginia. 

Mr. Speaker: In the death of Leland Stanford Cali- 
fornia lost an honored and useful Senator, the country a dis- 
tinguished and patriotic citizen, and humanity a generous 
benefactor. An impartial view of his career from the cradle 
to the grave leads to the conclusion that he was a man of 
uncommon intellectual vigor and indomitable energy. In the 
contemplation of his achievements the wonder grows that he 
was able to accomplish so much. Starting without the aid of 
influential friends or inherited wealth he carved his way to 
fortune and fame. In the story of his life the ambitious and 
aspiring youth of our country will find encouragement and 

Having received such education and training as could be 
acquired in the common schools of his native county, he 
entered upon the study of the law in the city of Albany, and 
continued in the preparation for the duties of that profession 
until he went, in 1848, to Port Washington, Wis., to begin its 
practice. Little can be said of his career as a lawyer, because 
its duration was limited by the happening of an event which 
caused the abandonment of all aspirations in that direction 
and the change of the current of his life. The destruction by 
tire of his library and nearly all his goods turned his eyes to 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 117 

that splendid Commonwealth on the Pa<5ific with which his 
name is so intimately associated in history. From the ashes 
of that calamity he rose in splendor and strength. 

He was married to Miss Lathrop in Albany in 1850, and in 
1852 became a citizen of California. The slow and irksome 
ways of professional life were abandoned to engage in more 
remanerative employment. The times, circumstances, and 
events were auspicious, and the conditions favorable for 
undertaking and conducting large enterprises to successful 
terminations. California had recently been admitted into the 
sisterhood of States, and was being rapidly peopled by hardy 
and adventurous immigrants, attracted by the descriptions of 
its glorious climate and rich sources of wealth. Bayard Taylor 
spoke of this State as — 

The youngest; fairest far of which onr world can boast. 

In the years succeeding the foundation of the Commonwealth 
Leland Stanford bore a conspicuous part, both in political 
movements and industrial developments. Among such men 
as composed the early settlers of California force and character 
were necessary to the attainment of success. Having the 
qualities which fitted him for direction amid such conditions 
as prevailed in the new State, he forged to the front and became 
a leader. 

I will not say that he made the opportunities for the acquire- 
ment of wealth and distinction, but he had the wisdom and 
courage to seize those which he found. It was by his partici- 
pation in the construction of a transcontinental railway that 
he acquired the greater part of his riches. He was the prime 
mover in this grand enterprise. The idea of connecting and 
binding together the two oceans with bands of steel did not 
originate with him. It had been entertained even before the 
cession of the Golden State by Mexico, and after that event 
the subject received some attention in the American Congress. 

118 Address of Mr, IVise^ of Virginia^ on the 

The advantages to flow from the completion of that great proj- 
ect were apparent to others long before he became an actor 
in the busy scenes of life. As far back as 1832 its accom- 
plishment became the object of the anxious thought of Hart- 
well Carver, of New York. This gentleman spent many long 
and anxious years and many thousands of dollars in efforts to 
promote the scheme, but the times were not ripe for the reali- 
zation of this bright dream. 

The stirring events which culminated in civil war impressed 
upon the nation the supreme importance of rapid communica- 
tion between the Atlantic and Pacific. The difficulties were 
great, and to many seemed insurmountable, but the necessity 
for action produced the firm resolve to overcome all obstacles. 
A long and trackless desert was to be traversed, and the snow- 
capped Sierra stood there like a grim sentinel to prevent the 
passage. This would have seemed an impossible task to any 
but the resolute men who undertook its performance. 

His account of the beginuing of the enterprise is interesting, 
and I will give it in his own language: 

In the year 1860, before Clongress had passed any act looking to the con- 
struction of a transcontinental railroad, a few gentlemen living in Cali- 
fornia met together, and as a result of their meeting concluded to have 
preliminary surveys made over the Sierra Nevada Mountains, to see if it 
were possible to build a railroad across them. Civil engineers had declared 
that it was not practicable to build a road over these mountains. The 
result of that exploration was that a road could be built, and we finally 
organized a company in 1861 having that object in view. 

Mr. Judah was the engineer upon whose advice they de- 
pended in reaching their determination. The leaders in this 
great movement were Lbland Stanford, Collis P. Hunting- 
ton, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins. To them is chiefly 
due the credit for the success with which it was crowned. 

Leland Stanford turned the first spadeful of dirt in this 
work on the 22d day of February, 1863, and its completion 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 119 

was announced at Promontory on May 10, 1869, by his driving 
a golden 8pike with a silver hammer. Notwithstanding his 
connection with the construction of the Central Pacific Rail- 
way and other large enterprises, he found time for attention 
to affairs of state and participation in political contests. 

He was elected governor of California in 1861, and served 
in that position for the period of two years, when he declined 
to be a candidate for a second term. Xo greater praise could 
be bestowed upon him as governor of his imperial State than 
is found in the recital of the fact that the representatives of 
both parties in the legislature united in commending his 
administration as honest, able, and upright. In 1885 he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States and continued a 
member of that body until his death in June, 1893. It is too 
early to speak at length of his career in that exalted position. 
It is enough to say that he was regarded as a strong and force- 
ful Senator, true to all the high trusts committed to his keep- 
ing, and ever faithful in the discharge of all his duties. 

While he did not appear often in debate, he was an impres- 
sive speaker, being always earnest, clear, and direct in the 
presentation of his views. The chief glory of his life was in 
the establishment and munificent endowment of that splendid 
seat of learning which bears the name of the beloved son who 
preceded him to the undiscovered country beyond the grave. 
In the institution of this university for the intellectual, moral, 
and physical development and training of the youth of our 
country, he displayed that broad conception of the value and 
importance of education which commands our highest admira- 
tion. That noble woman, who was the tender and devoted 
partner of his bosom, and who shared his joys and sorrows, 
his triumphs and defeats, joined in this magnificent work, and 
upon her devolves the sacred duty of carrying it into execu- 

120 Address of Mr, Loud^ of California^ on the 

In the following simple words spoken to a friend is disclosed 
the inspiration of their generous and noble benefaction : ^' We 
are happy in onr work. We do not feel that we are making 
great sacrifices. We feel that we are working with and for the 
Almighty Providence." The man whose deeds have their 
foundation in such elevated sentiments must be regarded as 
a model worthy of imitation. He did not use power for selfish 
gratification, but rightly considered that it imposed upon him 
greater responsibility. 

Lkland Stanford was a broad-gauged, liberal, and* patri- 
otic citizen, whose name and fame are dear to his countrymen. 

Address of Mr. Loud, of California. 

Mr. Speakeu: My x)ersonal acquaintance with Governor 
Stanford (for by that title he has been familiarly and, 1 might 
add, affectionately known in California) was limited to the 
ordinary business and social coiM*tesies that usually prevail 
between members from the same State; but no man who has 
resided upon the Pacific Slope can help but feel that he has 
known him intimately and well always. Ilis close identifica- 
tion with the interests and prosperity of the coast, his early 
and prominent work in the ranks of the then struggling Re- 
publican party marked him as a fearless leader of independent 
thought and fearless men. Early in life was demonstrated 
that prominent trait of character which was closely adhered 
to until the end, and it can be truthfully said that whatever 
he believed to be right he never feared to do. In many respects 
he was a benefactor of the human race. His affiliation with 
the Free Soil and Republican ]>arties clearly showed that he 
loved justice, free4om, and mankind more than the plaudits of 
his fellow-men, for in those days to be a Republican was to 

Life and Character ofLeland Stanford. 121 

suffer the scoffs and scorn of the large majority of our Western 

Leland Stanford was not a perfect man. That work 
seems beyond the power, wisdom, or at least the desire of the 
Almighty to create; but in many of the qualities which go to 
make the man he surpassed the large majority of mankind. 
While he created and acquired a great fortune, he never used 
the vast means at his command to oppress those who had 
helped create that wealth. He never sought his fellow-man as 
his prey. The man who held the throttle of the locomotive; 
he who handled the train, worked the brake, laid the rail, or 
shoveled the sand was his comrade, friend, and equal. His 
life, as I have observed it, was one of tender, thoughtful com- 
passion for the man less fortunate in life than himself. Those 
who have associated with him for many years; those who have 
been in his employ had at his hands always received courteous 
treatment, a patient hearing, the result of which was not alone 
a word of cheer, but substantial relief. If a wrong had been 
done, it was quickly remedied upon the lines of justice, equity, 
and generosity. No employe of his had ever been denied the 
sacred right of petition and, higher and above all, redress. 

The events of his life, from the farm on which he was born, 
through early struggles to the splendors of worldly success, 
have been portrayed, and I will not dwell upon them. Suffice 
it to say that he was reared in the school of hardship and 
struggle in which is created the incentive to aspire. 

The exercise of his youth was but an incentive to conquer, 
and he went forth well armed and equipped to meet the battle 
of life. So well fitted was he to march in the very front of 
conquest that he early in life sought the van of civilization in 
the far West, and it was in that field, at a time when the Argo- 
nauts looked for manhood and stability of character, regard- 
less of what his antecedents and early traditions may have 

122 Address of Mr, Loud^ ofCaliforniay on the 

been, that he was early marked as a leader of thought, action, 
and men. I can not better illustrate the conditions by which 
he was surrounded than by reciting a short sketch of his early 
life from the pen of his old associate, Capt. N. T. Smith : 

At this early day, bolh at Cold Springs and at Michigan Bluff, Governor 
Stanford, in an unusual degree commanded the respect of the heteroge- 
neous lot of men who composed the mining classes, and was frequently 
referred to by them as a sort of an arbitrator in settling their disputes for 
them. While at Michigan Bluffs he was elected a justice of the peace, 
which office was the court before which all disputes and contentions of 
the miners and their claims were settled. It is a singular fact, with all 
the questions that came before him for settlement, not one of them was 
appealed to a higher court. 

Lelaxi> Stanford was at this time just as gentle iu his manner and 
as cordial and respectful to all as in his later years. Yet he was possessed 
of a courage which, when tested, as occasion sometimes required, satis- 
fied the rough element that he was a man who was not to be imposed upon. 
His principle seemed to be to stand up for the right at all times. This was 
so well recognized by all with whom he came in contact that when act- 
ing as an arbitrator his decisions were seldom questioned. 

In these early Califomian days, especially in the mining districts, there 
was nothing to restrain men in the exercise of their natural impulses and 
from following out the instincts of their natures. There was no society 
and but little restraint upon the individual. Yet at this time, as I have 
indicated, Mr. Stanford exhibited the same gentle instincts which char- 
acterized his after life. He never indulged in profanity or coarse words of 
any kind, and was as considerate in his conduct when holding intercourse 
with the rough element as though in the midst of the highest refinement. 
This was particularly noticeable to all who met him. 

He was the first Republican in the State of California to be 
elected to a State office, and filled the office of governor for the 
two years of 1861-'63, at which period the passions of men 
were incited to the highest point; reason had almost aban- 
doned even the most conservative men ; friends and families 
were divided upon the great question of a united country; 
bloodshed and riot had been no uncommon event, and was 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 123 

still threatened in almost every hamlet; but his administration 
was conducted in such a firm Just, and honest manner as to dis 
arm and quiet his adversaries. At the same time he merited 
and received the approbation of all Union-loving men, and 
even the admiration of the rebel and Southern element, then 
proportionately so numerous all over the State. This respect 
and admiration he held to the day of his death, and probably 
no man in the State numbered among his friends so many of 
the late secession element as the governor. He was at that 
period what you found him here. 

While a firm believer in the perpetuity of this country as a 
strong, united nation, he understood human nature and the 
motives that control men. Knowing they had been driven into 
the course they followed, from environment, education, and 
association, he well knew that the latent good sense and patri- 
otism of the American in them would, under favorable con- 
ditions, assert itself. He discussed issues calmly with men, 
never governed by passion or prejudice. These great quali- 
ties were the marked characteristics of the man, which stamped 
him as one high in the esteem of all with whom he came in 
contact. I have said before that Senator Stanford was not 
a perfect man, but a man of whom it can truthfully be said : 
He was of great benefit to mankind. At this hour some see 
him as one who had been at the focus of adverse criticism for 
a quarter of a century, but to those who have known him is 
now clear the thought, as it will be in history to come, that 
Lbland Stanford was in more respects than falls to the lot 
of ordinary mortals a great and good man — a benefactor of 
the human race. 

There is nothing more beautiful in life than our custom of 
strewing flowers on the graves of the dead, and no words are 
better uttere<l than those that speak well of them. Some of 
our associates on this floor have regarded as futile our prac- 

124 Address of Mr. Loudy of California^ on the 

tice of meeting in solemn conclave to pay a tribute of respect 
and affection to the departed; yet their words were lightly 
spoken, Mr. Speaker, and did not spring from their hearts; 
for I have seen these same Representatives, sitdng with bowed 
heads and tear-bedimmed eyes; have heard them ntter such 
words as the eloquence of death only can inspire. So, there 
is not one among us here to-day who in his heart begrudges 
the time spent in doing reverence to the dead; for soon comes 
the reflection that some other among us, even in the twinkling 
of an eye, may pass out into the great unknown. 

Mr. Speaker, there is little that I can say of Mr. Stanford's 
life that is not familiar to yon all. From one ocean to the other 
he was known by the people only as a man who had amassed 
great wealth; yet by those of us who knew him well he was 
admired, respected, and loved for qualities of both mind and 
heart; and God's poor among us remember him best of all. 
As one of his fellow Senators well said: <' If each one to whom 
he had done a good deed would lay a leaf upon his grave, 
Mr. Stanford would sleep to-night beneath a mountain of 

Wise philosophers have said that all is vanity. It is, indeed, 
a predominant attribute of human nature. Yet there is love, 
too; there is something in that. 

Mr. Stanford never made a vain or lavish display of his 
wealth, yet he distributed it among the needy with a gen- 
erous hand. He was ambitious to be highly honored among 
men, and it is said even aspired to the highest office within the 
people's gift; yet there was not in him the stern stuff of which 
ambition should be made. He never turned a deaf ear to the 
distressed cries of the jwor. He erected during his life and 
bequeathed at his death a splendid free institution of learn- 
ing; yet it was not his vanity that gave the institution its 
name. It was paternal affection. His grief over the death 

Life and Character of Leland Stanford, 125 

of an only son was so poignant that all hearts were touched. 
The boy was his delight; the pride of the household; the 
object of all bis and the fond mother's anticipations for the 
future; the deserved heir to their millions. Here was in real 
life a pathetic analogue to the story of Dombey and Son. 
And when they laid the youth in his grave the manifesta- 
tion of grief by father and mother touched the hearts of all 
men, for love is found within the portals of the rich man's 
palace as well as in the humblest cottage of us all. 

Mr. Speaker, on every side are reared enduring monuments 
of brass and marble to perpetuate the achievements of men. 
Some of the world's famous and great ones, long since passed 
away, were laid in their shallow graves with all the pomp and 
circumstance that vanity inspires. Martial music and flying 
banners have proclaimed the death of the world's truly great. 
Lives have gone out in a blaze of glory — men renowned in state- 
craft, art, literature, and war. Splendid monuments and pages 
of history commemorate the achievements of a French soldier 
whose genius changed the map of a continent; a man whose 
indomitable spirit overawed the monarchs of all Europe; a 
student of literature, a devotee of art, skilled in diplomacy, 
able in statecraft, selfish, cold, intellectual, and ambitious, he 
sought the bubble reputation even at the cannon's mouth. 
Yet when he was carried to the grave with martial music, 
flying banners, and acclamations from thousands few wept 
for him. 

And so it is throughout life, Mr. Speaker. The character of 
the procession that follows us t<o the grave proclaims the vir- 
tues of our lives. Hundreds of lowly and humble ones wept 
over Mr. Stanford's grave, and yet remember him in their 
prayers; and though the pages of history may record no great 
deeds of his life, yet will he be remembered in the plain and 
simple annals of the poor when others of greater achievements 
and wider fame have long since been forgotten. 

126 Address of Mr, Loud^ of California. 

Who among us would ask more? Tis the sum of life to be 
lovingly remembered by our friends and associates, and I for 
my part would not rest content with laurel merely on my grave 5 
I would rather have a wreath of m^Ttle and immortelles, with 
a tribute of sincere affection — a few simple words — wrought in 
forget-me-nots; a sentiment that recalls to my mind the most 
touching scene of the many witnessed when we met to pay the 
last sad homage and tribute of respect to his memory, eight of 
the oldest engineers, bearing gently and fondly, with bowed 
heads, slow and measured step, with their strong arms and 
hands, all that was earthly of him who had been in life their 
friend, Leland Stanford. 

This was no service or tribute, but the voluntary mark of 
esteem paid by those who had known that in him their confi- 
dence had never been misplaced; atid as they gently laid him 
beneath the granite, the home of all that was earthly, within 
sight of the spot where he had spent so many of his pleasant 
hours; that homestead where he had reared and nurtured the 
light of his life and hope of his declining years — his son— - 
I could almost hear those strong men whisper, "Never more! 
Never more shall we look ux)on his like again." 

And then, in accordance with the resolution previously 
adopted, the House (at 4 o'clock and 15 minutes p. m. ) adjourned. 

MB NOT eiiKoum 





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