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Full text of "A memorial and biographical history of the counties of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura, California ... Containing a history of this important section of the Pacific coast from the earliest period of its occupancy to the present time, together with glimpses of its prospective future; with ... full-page steel portraits of its most eminent men, and biographical mention of many of its pioneers and also of prominent citizens of to-day"

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Ventura Loses Many \ 
Ancient Buildings 

VBNTURA, May Jo.- Three old laud-' 
marks are disappearing this week Leforei 
the Diareh of progress. Almost weelily* 
VeiitiM-a is IosIuk some old time struc- 
ture ou Main street. 

Tlie orit-laal ramarlllo home. bulH of 
adobe about tlie year 1807. siibscqiieutly 
l)eiaiue a part of Chiijatown, aud uow 
being wrecked. On tbe property will be 
erected a grocery store. The second 
adobe being wrecked wa.<i built more 
than fifty years ago. A modern service 
room will be constructed on the proi.- 
erly by the Hartnian Hrothers. The 
third structure wrecked is the property 
■y! C. G. Bartlctt and was recently occu- 
|ii('d as a shoe shop. ) ^ "^(i 




^k Vn ^!MI ^^ ^BF ^SK ^HB^^fwft. TOt ^mI ^^^% 

Coqtainiqg a Historij of this lrr[portant Section of the Pacific Coast frotT[ thie Earliest 

Period of its Occupancy to tlqe Preseqt Time, together with GliiT[pses of its 

Prospective Future; with Profuse Illustrations of its Beautiful Sceqeru, 

Full-Page Steel Portraits of its most Enqiqent Men, and 

Biographical Mentioq of n]aqLj of its Pioneers and 

also of Promiqer|t Citizens of to-day, 

By Mrs, Yda Addis Storke, 

people that take no pride in the noble a3hievement3 of remote an;=3tor3 will never aohisve anything worthy 
to be remembered with pride by remote deaoenianta."— J/rtc««/ay. 



: §arlow-SiBclatr PriBling ^o.,^ 
(Qhicago. $> 






In General— 

First Visit of Whites 9 

First Exploration and Founding of tlie Mis- 
sions 10 

An Invasion 17 

Miscellaneous . 18 

War with Mexico 24 

Dress and Manners 30 

Dana on Santa Barbara 29 

Pioneers and their Descendants 31 


In General — 

Boundary 38 

Exports 39 

Items of Interest, 18o0-'90 39 

Description 52 

Land Grants 54 

Tlie Channel Islands 56 

Climate 58 

City of Santa Barbara 63 

Haley Survey 63 

Miscellaneous Items 66 

Public Library 67 

Natural History Society 68 

Fraternal Orstanizations 69 

Churches 70 

Banks 71 

Court-House 72 

Jail 73 

County Hospital 73 

Railroads 73 

Water Supply 74 

Electric Light 74 

Minor Items .' . . . 74 

The Mission 75 

Schools 76 

Medical Profession 79 

Bench and Bar 79 

Crimes 86 

The Press 89 

Eastern Portion op the County 90 

Montecito 91 

Hot Springs 93 

Summerland 93 

Oarpenteria 94 

La Patera ,,.,,. 96 

Goleta 96 

The HoUister Place 98 

The Western Portion op the County 99 

Lompoc 100 

Ranchos 108 

Los Alamos Valley 105 

Santa Ynes Valley 108 

Ballards 110 

Ranchos 110 

Santa Maria Valley 113 

Ranchos 114 

The Lost Woman 116 

Resources 131 

Hogs 131 

Bee Farming 131 

Fishery 133 

Minerals 123 


In General — 

Origin and Description 136 

Organization 139 

Annals, 1851-'90 130 

Land Grants 134 

Topography 137 

Soil 138 

Climate 140 

The Coast Region 143 

Coast Towns 143 

Cambria 144 

Morro 145 

Town of San Luis Obispo 146 

Arroyo Grande 150 

Other Points — 

Newsom's Hot Sulphur Springs 153 

Pizmo Beach 154 

Ltis Berros 154 

Nipomo 154 

Eastern Portion of the County 154 

San Miiruel 155 

Paso Robles Hot Springs 156 

Templeton 157 

Rancho Santa Margarita 158 

The Southern Border 160 

Salinas Valley 160 

The Painted Rock 161 

Monte Diablo Mountains 161 

Creeks 161 




Horticulture and Viticulture 





. 173 

Rancho Sespe 




An Earthly Paradise, P 
Rancho Camulos . . 

ru City 



Rancho San Francisco 

Western Portion op Ventura 

Ranoho Canada San Miguelito 

Rancho Canada Larga o'Verdo 

Ojai Rancho 





County Officers 

... 177 








Santa Ana Vallev 


The Breakwater Question 

Fraternal Organizations 


. ... 180 

..:.. 181 

Rancho Santa Ana 

S.\N Buenaventura. . . . 




County Hospital 




Government and Business 

Division from Santa Barbara 






Gbnbkal Description— 

Water Supply 

Timber Supply 

San Nicolas Island 




. ... 196 


The Press 





The Year's E.xporls 




Mineral Oils 




Churches of Ventura 

Public Schools 

Eastern Portion op Ventura— 

Santa Clara Valley 

Rancho La Colonia 


Guadalasca Rancho 

Las Posas Rancho 

Simi Rancho 



'.'.'.'.'. 203 













Residence of the first Governor of California. 


Calleguas Rancho 

Mission San Miguel. 

View of Santa Barbara. . . 

...... 62 

Newbury Park 


Central Portion op Ventura 

Rancho San Miguel 

Rancho Santa Paula y Saticoy 


.... 210 


San Buenaventura Mission. 
Residence of A. S. Pietra. . . 
Drying Prunes in the Uppe 
Orange Orchard in the Ojai 

Myron Angel 


J. B. Shaw 

W. W. Hollister 









New Jerusalem 


.. ..218 




Abernethy Bros 366 

Allen, B. G 302 

Alvord, J. B 344 

Anderson, A. L 522 

Anderson, S. D 338 

Angel, Myron 441 

Anthony, C. J 603 

Anthony, G. T 603 

Arata Bros 356 

Argabiite, J. L 663 

Armstrong, W. M 508 

Arnold, C. R 332 

Arnold, RF ,454 

Arnold, H. H 832 

Arnold, Leroy 578 

Arnold. M. H 545 

Atmoie, Malhew 329 

Atwood, E. A 353 

Austin. W. H 607 

Avila, J. V 628 

Axtell, J. D 560 

Bailard, John 282 

Baker, F. W 369 

Baker, H. W 536 

Ball, ElljriUge 410 

Ball, John 60U 

Ballard, E. B 264 

Ballou, S. D 648 

Barber, P. J 553 

Bard, C. L 487 

Bard, T. R 471 

Barker, J. A 677 

Barker, J. L 307 

Barkla, J. S 412 

Barker, Wm 387 

Barnard, A. D 498 

Barrows, F. P ...585 

Barrows, Thomas 519 


Barry, E.S 298 

Bartlett, C. G 378 

Battles, R. E 393 

Bean, E. P 669 

Beattie, James 383 

Beckett, J. F 408 

Beckwitb, F. J 313 

Bet-bee, W. L 3o8 

Benn, VVm 528 

Bennett, E. M 643 

Bennett, Fayette 461 

Bennett, J. R 505 

Bennett, W. C 354 

Bennison, H. G 576 

Benton, A. F 483 

Bish, Harrison 462 

Either, Tyler 623 

Blackburn, D. D 580 

Blancbard, Natban W 459 

Blochman, L. E 409 

Blood, J. A 477 

Blumberg, A. W 292 

Boeseke, A. J 521 

Boll, Michael 518 

Bonestel, C. D 449 

Booth, A. R 347 

Borchard, Jolin 560 

Borland, W. E 626 

Boronda, E 482 

Boyd, A. M 356 

Bradley, Charles 609 

Bradley, John 323 

Bradley. Paul 419 

Branch, F. Z 421 

Branch, J. F (i05 

Brewster, J. C 455 

Bridge, J. H. & H. E 269 

Broughton, U.J 491 

Broughton, W. W 371 

Browne, A. W 384 

Buell, A. W 332 

Bunce, I. H 353 

Burdick, H. J 606 

Burgess, F. P 606 

Byers, P. L 342 

Call, S. B 654 

Call, S.J 645 

Camarillo, A 584 

Canet, A 404 

Canon, W. S 515 

Carle, O. C 557 

Carnes, H. 8 481 

Carr, Robert 425 

Carter, C. E 431 

Cass, James 316 

Casteel, Jesse 610 

Castro, J. C 6.58 

Cavanaugh, T 669 

Cawelti, John .594 

Chaflfee. W. S 484 

Charlebois, P 647 

Cheal, James. ... 523 

Chediston House 523 

Chiesa, F 496 

Clark, C. H 474 

Clark, H. F 467 

Clark, I. M 438 

Clark. Thomas 296 

Cleveland, E. M 548 

Cody, N. T .547 

Coffin, G. W 512 

Cohn, Simon 589 

Col), Jose 5jO 

Collins, J. S 492 

Conaway, J. A 316 

Connelly, A 57.3 

Cook, F. E 00 i 

C..ok,R.D 514 

Cook, W. C 300 

Cotton, A. R 656 

Cox, A. W 407 

Crabb, Alonzo 593 

Crane Bros • 282 

Crane, G. G 304 

Crane, H.G 562 

Crane, J. L 542 

Cravens, T. A 294 

Crawford, J. M 237 

Cummings, J. E 566 

Cunnane, VV. B 272 

Currier, C. J 289 

Dalidet, Jr., P. H 666 

Dally, H.J .533 

Dana, D. A 419 

Dana, H. C 424 

Dana. W. G 56iJ 

Davidson, B 403 

Davis, Charles 570 

Davis, F. C 639 

Day, J. A 622 

Decker, C. H 323 

De la Guerra, Emanuel 654 

De la Guerra, E. B 654 

De la Rosa, ios& 568 

Dennis, A. C ,522 

De Home Bros 392 

Dimmick, L. N ,533 

Dimock, Joseph .-417 

Dimock, H. C 446 

Donlon Bros 580 

Donlon, Jchn 5^8 

Dormer, & Challenor 603 

Douslas, Cyrus 409 

Draper, J. B 614 

Dubbers, Henry 371 

Dunham, F. H 318 

Duval, C. S 284 

Duval, E A 541 

Dyer, A H 4i0 

Dyer, Wallace 417 

Ealy, R. J 318 

Earn, F. A 352 

Earls, J. F 436 

Eastin. L. F 646 

Edd3', W. M 594 

Elliott, Nathan 363 

Emerson & Co 342 

Estrada, Joaquin 672 

Estrada, Nicolazo. 437 

Evans, James 509 

Evans, W. A 397 

Exline, Levi 376 

Faeb, Ambrose 378 

Fagan, Michael 335 

Fandrey, Joseph 486 

Farrelly, P. F 357 

Faulkner, C. P 582 

Faulkner, G.W 559 

Fernald, Charles 674 

Fernandez, E 678 

Field, F. F 619 

Fisher, I. K 534 

Fisk, Rufus 575 

Fluegler, Emil 666 

Flynn. M ichael 410 

Ford, H. C 485 

Forrester, L. L 436 

Forrester, P. A 6.")8 

Foxen, W . D 667 

FrankI, Leopold 277 

Franklin, B. H 280 

Freire, M. P 478 

Frink, C. H 301 

Frost, F.D 642 

Gagliardo, O. B 354 

Gally.B. W 586 

Garcia, Mrs. Julian 608 

Garcia, Philemon 514 

Gardner, C. O ooi 

Garrett, Russell 661 

Garrison, A. M 336 

Gates, L. D 5:^1 

Gerry, Waite ,5.=)2 

Gilger, C. T ,587 

Gisler, S. L ji04 

Glass, J. H 3,5,5 

Goodyear, J. D 544 

Gordon, A. L 594 

Gosnell, T. B '411 

Gragg, G.T 071 

Graham, J. W 001 

Graham, Z 568 

Grant, K P !'.'.. 549 

Graves, Ernest 672 

Graves, J. M 405 

Graves, Murphy .540 

Graves, William 655 

Gregg. V. A '^sos 

Gregory, D. S 607 

Green, J.E 546 

Greenlee, D.M 600 

Green well, W. E ,595 

Greer, Mrs. E. A 603 

Gries, J. K 465 

Grimes, Brice 319 

Gruenliagen Bros 270 

Guiberson, S. A 315 

Gutiei rez, A. G 526 

Gutierrez, B 510 

Haines, Abner 633 

Hall, C. L..'. 537 

Hall, E. B 590 

Hall, E.P 507 

Hall. E.S 445 

Hardisnn, Harvey 434 

Hardison, L. A 321 

Haidisou, W. L 620 

Harkey, J. S 511 

Harloe, Marcus 394 

Harris. Joseph 510 

Harris, R. R 383 

Harrold, E. W 307 

Harrold, Michael 583 


Hart, Reuben 


Lamy, Louis 

Murphy, P. W 

Muscio, Abram 

Myers, J. R 











Larzelere, C. W 

Law, S. L& Co 

Lazcano, Alonzo 

Lazcano, Bernardo 

Lazcano, Mariano 

Le Blanc, J. B 

Lee & Rice 

Lee, R, E 

Leedham, E 









Hathaway, F. C 


Haydock, R. B 

Hayne,W. A 

Nance, T. C 

Nelson, Andrew .. 

Newby.J. F 




Hendricks, J. W 

Henning, J.S 

Hepburn & Terry 

Herbst, J. H 

Nichols, A. J 

Nichols, G. B 

Nichols, M.S 

Nicholson, E. H 

Nicoles, E. R 





Herrera, Dolores 

Higgins,P. C .. 



Levy, Leon 

Lewis, Henry 

Lewis, W.S 

Lewty, David 

Liddle, James 






Norcross. D. C 

Norton, Thomas 

Nott, Samuel 

Nuttall, R. W 

O'Hara, William 

Old, Henry W 


Higuera, T. B 

HiUard, Fred 

Hill, Jesse 







Hill, J. G 

Lillingston & Perry . . 

Lima, J. P 

Linbarger, L 

Lindner, J. D 

Lloyd L M 


.'!.'.'.'! 432 


Hill, R. W 

Hill, Samuel 

I-Iobart, Joseph 

Hobson, P. J 












. ...340 

Oliver, L. G 

Ortega, J. C 

Orton, R 


Hodges, T.E 

Hogg, S. T 

Hoit E. M 

Hollister, John H 


Long, G. H 

Long, John 

Loose, August 

Low, C.P 

Lucas, W. T 

Lugo, Bernardino 

Maddo.x, B, F 

Maggi, G.R 

Mallagh, W 

Mallagh, a P 

Mancilla, V 

Maris, W.S 

Marks, Joshua 

Martin, Andrew 

Manderscheid, G 

Maulhardt, Jacob 

Maulsby, O. W 

McCabe, G. W 

McClure, J. F 


McDonnell, John 

McFerson,J. C 

McGee, W.J 

McGlashan, J 

McGrath. D 

McGuire, L N 

















.'.'.'.'!. 503 

v. .!.468 







Patter, L. L 



Hollister, Joseph H 

Petersen, H 


Holt Herman 

Pezzoni, Antonio 

Phillips, C. H 

Pico, B 

Pico, Z. A 

Pierce, B. B 


Horstman, A. F 

Hosmer, Thomas 





Hudiburgli, LN 








Hudson, A. J 

Pippin, W. T 


Irwin, John 

Jack, RE 

Poland, Henson 

Polley, H 

Pomeroy, F 

Porter, Arza 


. ...579 



James, D W 

Prell, J. G 

Price, J. M 

Proctor, G. W 

Pyster, John 

Quarnstrom, John 

Quintana, J 

Quintana, Pedro. . . . 



Jamison, W.C 

Jatta, J. N 

Jeflfreys W M 






Jenkins'& McGuire 

Jesse, J. V 

Jewelt, Henry 

Johnson, C. H . 

Johnson, G. W. F 



























Ransom, John 

Ready, P. P 


Johnson, H. H 

MoGuire, Wm 

McHenry, Patrick 

McKee, James 

McKeeby, L.C 

McKevett, C. H 

McMillan, Peter 

McNulta, Thomas 

McPhail, A. F 

Mears, John 

Mehlman, H 

Merritt, C.W 

Meyer, J. F 



.... 453 





.... 338 




Ready, W. E... 


Johnston, W. F 

Jones, E. M 

Jones, W.S 

Kaiser, Joseph 

Kaltmeyer, G. E 

Kamp, H. L 

Redrup, C. G 

Reed, A. S 

Reed, John 

Reed, N. H 

Reilly, W. H 

.... 416 


. ...370 


Rice, J. C 



Kays, J. C. 

Rice,J. H 

Rice, T. A 


Keller, J 

Kellogg, F.E 

Kellogg, P. E 

Kelsey, J. B 

Kennedy, J L 

Kilson, G. E 

Kimball, C.N 

Richardson, Frederick.... 

Richardson, G. M 

Richards, G.W 

Richards, J. T 

Richards, W. D. F 

Riley, C. C 

Riley, W. S 


. . . .423 




Miller, D.S 

Moody, J. P 

Moore, E.E 

Moore, F. A 

Moore, S. T 

-More, T. R 

Moreno, F.P 


... .662 
. ...310 


.... 513 



Kirkpatrick, R. R 

Krill, F. A 

Kiihlman.J. H 

Roach, W.H 

Robbins. G. W 

Roberts, George 



. . . .454 


Robinson, Richard 583 

Robinson, S 644 

Robinson, Thomas 420 

Robison,T. J 509 

Rochin, J. M 364 

Rogers, A. C 564 

Rogers, J. W 286 

Root, Orville 616 

Ross, W. L 418 

Rotsler, G. P 311 

Rucker, G. F 425 

Rucker.Z.T 426 

Ruffner, Joseph 395 

Ruiz, Gabriel 269 

Rundell, Eli 490 

Ryan, W. H 474 

Rynerson, A. C 585 

Salzman, H. W 415 

Sanborn, E.P 341 

Sauer, G. F 668 

Saulsbury, Thomas 437 

Saunders, C. L 430 

Saunders, W. A 390 

Saunders, Z. W 604 

Scarlett, John 588 

Schiefferly, J. J 664 

Scott, John 645 

Seaton, J. H 512 

Sedgwick, Charles 490 

Sessions, O. V 466 

Sewell, G. G 543 

Sexton, Joseph 591 

Shackelford, Otto 354 

Shackelford, R. M 374 

Sharon, Thomas 573 

Sharp, J.M 520 

Shaw, J. B 633 

Sheldon, C. H 539 

Shepherd, W. E 427 

Sheppard, S. A 504 

Sheppard, T. A 587 

Sherman, C 613 

Shick, J. W 432 

Short, J.M 324 

Short, W. N 410 

Show, W. C 491 

Simmler, J. J 516 

Simpson, John 387 

Simpson, V. A 458 

Sittenfeld, A 294 

Skellenger, L 310 

Smith, D. A 457 

Smith, Frank 321 

Smith, G. C 617 

Smith, H. B 265 

Smith, N. B 397 

Smith, N. D 339 

Smith, R. D 266 

Smith, Solon 531 

Snow, H. K. Jr 352 

Snyder, J. D 518 

Soule, C. E 444 

Sparks, I.J 393 

Spanne, John 385 

Spence, John 428 

Sperry,H.A 673 

Sprout, W. P 598 

Squier, O. P 299 

St. Clair, C. L 655 

Steele, E. W 525 

Steele, Sebern 377 

Stevens, R. K 278 

Steward, Marvin 498 

Stiles, H.M 468 

Stock, Frederick. . 327 

Stoddard, Henry 599 

Stone, George 627 

Stone, W. R 439 

Storke, C. A 537 

Stowell, E.A 646 

Stowell, George 412 

Streeter, W. A 494 

Summers, Henry 406 

Surdam, R. G 632 

Sutton, R. S 293 

Sweet, J. W 610 

Swift Brothers 272 

Taggart, Edwin 541 

Tailant, E. C 592 

Taylor, G. O 618 

Taylor, James 659 

Taylor, W. H 845 

Tebbetts, G. P 492 

Thompson, C. A 301 

Thompson, John 656 

Thornburgh, M 440 

Tognazzini, A 273 

Townsend, J. B 604 

Toy, Daniel 401 

Truitt, D. T 388 

Tucker, B.F 381 

Tutt, E. R 388 

Twitchell, F. C 574 

Utter, M. S 56? 

Vance, J. R 471 

Van Gorden, Geo 658 

Van Gorden, Ira 571 

Veneble, McD. R 524 

Von Schroeder, Baron 479 

Walbridge, O. C 452 

Walden, G. R 464 

Walker, Alfred 618 

Walker, James 462 

Ward, A 611 

Ward, F. P 440 

Warden, L. M 625 

Wason, Milton 528 

Webb, H.P 630 

Webster, Gaius 261 

Webster, L. T 287 

Weill, Isidore 382 

Welch, G.C 337 

Wells, M.T 628 

Wells, 8. T 572 

Wells, Timothy 348 

Whitaker, W. S 278 

White, F. M 630 

Whitney, B.P 601 

Whitney, S. E 626 

Wigmore, J. & A. A 508 

Wiley, B. T 396 

Wilkinson, J. M 396 

Willett, Jacklin 401 

Williams, B. T 451 

Williams, E. B 309 

Williams, H.L 273 

Williams, Julia F 298 

Williams, J.F 503 

Williams, T. J 423 

Williamson, A 879 

Willoughby, J. R 502 

Wilson, A. C.J 327 

Wilson, I. L 670 

Wilson, J. C 344 

Woodberry, W 662 

Woolever, A 631 

Wolff, M.L 460 

Young, C. J. . 
Young, J. V. N. 

Zeller, W. M 






known to have been made to the waters 
washing the shores of the three present 
counties composing our group, was that of 
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and his sturdy men, 
in his two vessels, the San Salvador and La 
Victoria. Having enjoyed the shelter of the 
"land-locked and very good harbor" at San 
Miguel (San Diego), touched at Santa Cata- 
lina and San Pedro, and sailed past Santa 
Monica, they discovered, on Tuesday, Octo- 
ber 10, 1542, a great valley, opposite which 
they anchored, seeing on shore some villages 
of peaceable Indians, with whom they traded 
and whom they called " los pueblos de las 
canoas," because these people had a great 
many canoes. These towns were in 35° 20', 
being near the present San Buenaventura, 
the valley that is now called Santa Clara. 

Here the Spaniards remained four days, 
taking formal possession, and communicating 
as best they could with the natives, who 
came off in fine large canoes, each carrying 
a dozen or so of n^en, who averred that other 
whites, like unto these visitors, were in the 
interior, and who told of maize growing in 

their own valley. Fishermen were these In- 
dians, dressed in skins, and living largely on. 
raw fish and agaves. Leaving this anchor- 
age on Friday, October 13, the Spaniards 
passed, at some seven leagues distance, two 
large islands about four leagues long each, 
and about four leagues from the mainland. 
There were many cabins and trees along the 
coast, and continually the ships were boarded 
by natives fi*om their canoes, who pointed 
out to the navigators and named the villages, 
whose, names were certainly strange enough 
to the ears that then heard them — Xiicu, 
Bis, Sofono, Alloc, Xabaiigua, Xotococ, Po- 
toltuc, Nacbuc, Misinagua, Misesopano, El- 
qnis, Coloc, Quelqueme, Mugu, Xagua, An- 
acbuc, Partocac, Susuquey, Quanmu, Gua, 
Asimn, Aguin, Oasalic,Tucumu, and Incpupu 
On the 15th they passed an island fif- 
teen leagues long, very populous, with six 
villages, which they named San Lucas (now 
Santa Cruz). Two days later they were in 
latitude 34° 28', abreast of the present Gav- 
iota Pass, where the natives ate no maize, 
went clothed in skins, and wore their very 
long hair tied up with cords placed within 


tlie hair, from which dangled many small 
daggers of wood, bone and flint. Still north- 
ward, passing many points and capes, now 
and then the mouth of a river emptying into 
the sea, and everywhere evidences of a numer- 
ous population. Past San Simeon Bay and 
Laa Piedras Blancas (between which now 
stands San Luis Obispo), and on up the coast 
to a little northward of 40°, whence they re- 
turned southward, until, on November 23, 
they were once more at their old harbor on 
San Miguel Island. And here they remained 
for nearly two months, and re-named the 
island Juan Podriguez, for their stanch cap- 
tain, who lound a grave there; for on Janu- 
ary 3, 1543, Cabrilio died from the results of 
a broken arm, aggravated by the exposure of 
the voyage. At his instance, urged while 
dying, the expedition once more sailed north- 
ward, under Bartolome Ferrelo, and reached 
about 44°, then returned, reaching their 
home port, Navidad, on April 14. 

And it was sixty years before the whites 


isited these shores. 

Then, in 1603, came Sebastian Vizcaino, 
commanding an exploring fleet of three Span- 
isli vessels. It would seem that he knew 
naught of the discoveries of Cabrilio; for to 
all the points of interest he gave new names, 
mostly from the saint claiming the day of 
their discovery. And it must be said that 
many of the names applied by Vizcaino are 
those in use to-day. After exploring, re- 
cuperating, and re-naming San Diego, and 
also San Clemente and Santa Catalina Isl- 
ands, they came to t'a regular row of isl- 
ands from four to six leagues distant from 
each other." Vizcaino was the first to note 
the parallelism of this chain of islands with 
the coast of the mainland, and lie it was who 
gave to the intervening broad passage the 
name El Canal de Santa Barbara. Being 
anxious to reach northern latitudes whilst 

the favorable winds should last, Vizcaino did 
not anchor here. He had, however, a visit 
from an Indian who appeared to be the king 
of tbe coast, who came off in a boat with four 
paddles, and urged tlie visitors to lard. 
Noting the absence of women in the vessels, 
he offered ten for each man! But on to the 
northward went Vizcaino, as far as Cape 
Mendocino, and the rest of his voyage has 
no local connection with the scene of the 
present writing. 


It will be remenibered that the Mission of 
San Diego was not yet formally founded, 
when the concmandant, Gaspar de Portola, 
zealous for the extension of the territories to 
be dominated by the missions, set forth 
northward, to reach Monterey Bay by a coast 
route. His party comprised sixty- four per- 
sons, who left San Diego July 14, 1769.* 

Just one month later they "crossed from a 
point near the month of the Santa Clara to 
the shore farther north, where they found 
the largest Indian village yet seen in Cali- 
fornia. The houses were of spherical form, 
thatched with straw, and the natives used 
boats twenty-four feet long, made of pin^ 
boards tied together with cords and covered 
with asphaltum, capable of carrying each ten 
fishermen. A few old blades of knives and 
swords were seen. Some, inhabitants of the 
Channel Islands came across to gaze at the 
strangers. Previonsly the inhabitants had 
bartered seeds, grass baskets and shells for 
the coveted glass beads, but now fish and 
carved bits of wood were added to the limited 
list of commercial products. Thus more food 
waa oflered than could be eaten. This fine 
pueblo, the first of a long line of similar 
ones along the channel coast, was called 


Asuncion, and \Yas identical in site with the 
modern San Buenaventura." 

Proceeding on northward toward Monterey 
Bay in 17(J9, the route of Fortola and his 
command, from the middle of August through 
the first week of September, followed tlie 
coast of the Santa Barbara channel westward, 
through a dense population of the natives, 
gathered into many large villages or ranche- 
rias. These Indians showed unfailing hospi- 
tality. All along this way the Spaniards re- 
mained in sight of the Channel Islands. On 
August 18 they came to a settlement which 
they called Laguna de la Concepcion, wliich 
was near the present Santa Barbara, it being 
supposed that this city indeed occupies the 
exact site of that aboriginal village. The 
Spaniards stayed not here, but marched on 
northward, and here, as in San Buenaventura, 
the project of settlement was left in abeyance 
for some years. 

Before returning to San Diego this expe- 
dition pushed northward to San Francisco 
Bay. Of their passage through the district 
at present under consideration, traces still 
survive, in the way of names applied by 
them then, as La Gaviota, Los Osos and El 

Although of the present group the most 
northern county was then the territory most 
remote from San Diego, the first base of 
operations, it was nevertheless to receive the 
attention of the Spaniards eai-lier than either 
Ventura or Santa Barbara. 

The mission and presidio of San Carlos 
Borromeo de Monterey having been founded 
in June, 1770, the colonists there found 
themselves, in May, 1772, almost destitute 
of provisions, owing to the delay in arrival 
of the supply vessels. Late in this month 
Captain Lages took thirteen men to the Can- 
ada de los Osos (Gulcli of the Bears), where 
they staid for three months hunting bears. 

whose meat supplied the presidio and the 
mission until the arrival of the ships. 

When this succor at last came, the presi- 
dent, going southward, resolved that on tlie 
way he would establish one of the new mis- 
sions at this famous caiiada, where there was 
abundance of game and good laud. Accord- 
ingly, on September 1, 1772, Padre Junipero 
raised the cross and said mass, thus founding 
the Mission of San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 
which he left in charge of Padre Cavalier, 
with five soldiers and some Indians. The 
natives, no doubt gratefully bearing in mind 
Pages' exploits among their ursine neigli- 
bors, were well disposed toward the new- 
comers, whom tliey assisted by their labors, 
and by contributions of seeds to the com- 
missary. Perhaps the father, too, derived 
some solace and encouragement from their 
readiness to accept the rite of baptism for 
their children. 

In Palou's report on the missions, for- 
warded to Mexico at the close of 1773, San 
Luis Obispo is stated to liave but twelve 
converts. " It is," so says the report, '• hard 
to attract the people here to the mission. Tiie 
population is very numerous, and of friendly 
disposition toward the missionaries; but as 
the Indians, having plenty of deer, rabbits, fish 
and seeds, are better supplied with food than 
are the Spaniards, they cannot be controlled 
by self-interest. Moreover, as there is no 
rancheria close by. they do not stay in tile 
vicinity of the mission. The buildings here 
are somewhat less extensive than at some of 
the other establishments, but there is plenty 
of fertile land, well wooded and well watered, 
and there has been a small crop of beans and 
corn even this first year." By 1780 San 
Luis had some 2,000 bushels surplus of 

K was not until April, 1782, after the 
founding of the missions of San Carlos, San 


Antonio, San Gabriel, San Francisco and San 
Juan Capistrano, and the beginning of pue- 
blos and presidios, that further measures were 
taken toward the settlement of these districts. 
Then, indeed, there came up thitlier the 
largest expedition as yet seen in California, 
comprising, besides the officers, seventy sol- 
diers and their families. Coming from San 
Gabriel, they reached March 29, the first 
rancheria on the Santa Barbara channel, that 
village which had been called Asuncion in 
1769 by Portula's party, and which had been 
selected long since as a suitable site tor a 
mission. Here, near the beach, and in close 
vicinity to the native huts of straw and tule, 
shaped in conical fashion, the cross was duly 
raised beneath its arbor-like shelter, and, on 
the 31st, the mission was formally founded 
and dedicated to the " seraphic doctor," Gio- 
vanni di Fidanza. Padre Junipero Serra 
himself it was who preached the dedicatory 
sermon. There were present many natives, 
who expressed much pleasure in the estab- 
lishment of the mission, to the building of 
whoso edifices they cheerfully lent their 

The facilities here were good for irrigation, 
also for procuring good building material. 
By April 12 of that year, there had been 
completed an enclosure of 40 x 50 varas (a 
vara is 33J inches) of palisades four varas 
high, having two ravelins, a gate and a small 

Padre Cambon remained until May in 
charge of the new mission; then Padre Fran- 
cisco Dumetz and Padre Vicente de Santa 
Maria arrived there as regular ministers. 
Notwithstanding the cordiality of the natives, 
only two adults received the rite of baptism 
during 1782. 

The first marriage ceremony performed 
at the mission church was that of MariaCon- 
cepcion Martiel, of Alamos, Sonora, Mexico, 

and Alejandro Sotomayor of Fuerte, Mexico, 
Padre Dumetz officiating, on August 8, 1782. 
The first baptism was that of Jose Cresencio 
Valdez, son of Eugenio Valdez Espanol, on 
April 27, 1782. 

About the middle of April, leaving a ser- 
geant and fourteen men as a guard at the 
newly founded mission, the governor and the 
president with the rest of the party journeyed 
on up the coast to establish the presidio of 
Santa Barbara. 

The site chosen was probably that which 
Portolii's expedition of 1769 liad called La- 
guna de la Concepcion. Here work was be- 
gun at once, and on April 21, Padre Serra 
formally established the fort, with the saying 
of mass and the chanting of an alabado (a 
hymn of praise; a Te Deum). The fort was 
constructed on an eminence, near some 
springs and a lagoon. The palisades were of 
oak from the neighboring timber, and the 
first enclosure was sixty varas square. This 
stockade was replaced later by a solid wall, 
around an area eighty yards square. The na- 
tives were friendly, and their labors here were 
repaid with food and clothing. The chieftain 
of the native town here had authority over 
no less than thirteen rancherias, and his sup- 
port was of great valne to the settlers. So 
favorably did matters progi'ess here, that 
soon irrigation works were constructed, and 
farming was begun on a small scale. 

The founding of a mission here was long 
postpotied, owing to the enmity of the secu- 
lar authorities toward the friars; but at last, 
1786, more than two years after the death of 
the devoted Padre Junipero, the president 
with two friars of recent arrival went to the 
presidio and made preparations for the formal 
founding of the mission, the tenth to be es- 
tablished in Alta California. Thus, on De- 
cember 4, 1786, the cross was raised and 
blessed, and the mission dedicated to Saint 


Barbara, Virgin and Martyr, the patroness of 
artillerymen in the Spanish army. The cere- 
monies were not completed at this time, as 
Fages, the governor, was absent, and he liad 
ordered operations to be suspended until his 
arrival. If he had meant to impede the pro- 
ceedings of the clergy here, he appeared to 
think better of it upon reflection, and, after 
his arrival, the first mass was said by Padre 
Paterna, a sermon was preached by Lasuen, 
and thus was completed the founding of la 
Mision de Santa Barbara, Virjen y Martir. 
The first baptism was on December 31, and 
the rite was administered at the presidio, as 
the rains prevented the erection of buildings 
at the mission itself for the time. However, 
a church 18 x 90 feet was completed in 1789, 
and by the end of 1790 there were numerous 
mission buildings, well built of adobes, and 
roofed with tiles. By this time, the number 
of baptisms here had reached 520, and tiie 102 
deaths left 438 neophytes at that date. At 
this time, Santa Barbara mission owned 296 
head of large, and 503 head of small, stock, 
and the agricultural products amounted to 
about 1,500 bushels. 

Yet the mission had poor resources, and 
owing to this lack of means to support the 
Indians, only voluntary converts were admit- 
ted at first 

The formal founding of the third of the 
channel missions took place on December 8, 
1787, this day being selected as being that 
dedicated to " Our Lady of the Immaculate 
Conception." Tliis because it had been deter- 
mined to consecrate this new. mission to that 
service, and it was accordingly called " de la 
Purisima Concepcion." The mere act of 
founding accomplished, this mission was left 
alone until March, 1788, when a detachment 
returned thither to prepare buildings. By 
August, 1788, there had been enrolled seven- 
ty-nine neophytes. The site of this mission 

was changed somewhat later, as will be 

There were in the Purisima district over 
fifty rancherias, or Indian villages. 

At this time, the white population of Santa 
Barbara presidial district was about 220, or 
360, including Los Angeles. The natives 
were employed as hired laborers, and they did 
their work well. The neophytes of this en- 
tire district, including San Gabriel and San 
Fernando, numbered at this period nearly 

The presidio had eight guns, all but one of 
brass, from one to six pounds of caliber. 
Half of these were distributed amono- the 
missions, but they were not in use, as there 
was no hostility among the Indians, and the 
foreign disturber as yet appeared not. 

At San Buenaventura, Padres Dumetz and 
Santa Maria had continued as ministers 
throughout this decade; and so zealous were 
they that the lukewarmness of the Indians 
was overcome, so that the neophytes increased 
from twenty-two to 388 within this period, 
besides 115 who died as converts. The large 
stock had now increased from 103 to 961, 
the small stock from forty-four to 1,503; and 
the crops for 1790 were over 3,000 bushels. 
The natives hereabouts continued friendly; 
but, in view of the great number of them, it 
was deemed prudent to maintain here a larger 
guard than at the other missions. However, 
this •' large guard " would seem to have been 
absurdly inadequate to hold in check the 
hordes of Indians, had they chosen to be hos- 
tile, for the force numbered now fifteen, and 
now only ten men. 

On November 10, 1798, Vancouver an- 
chored at Santa Barbara, where he was court- 
eously received by the commandant, Goycoe 
chea,and hospitably entertained by the padres, 
who saw the importance of a favorable im- 
pression to be made upon visiting foreigners. 


The Englishman pronounced the appearance 
of the place " far more civilized than any 
other of the Spanish establishments, * * * 
the buildings regular and well constructed, 
the walls clean and white, and the roofs of 
the houses covered with a bright red tile." 
" The presidio," he wrote, " excels all the 
others in neatness, cleanliness, and other 
smaller though essential comforts; it is placed 
on an elevated part of the plain, and is raised 
some feet from the ground by a basement 
story which adds much to its pleasantness." 
When Vancouver sailed on the 18th for San 
Buenaventura, he carried a passenger — Padre 
Santa Maria, who took that opportunity of 
making a visit to the neighboring mission, 
at the same time that he combated, by the 
force of his own experience, the prejiidice 
and fears of the Indians, .as against foreign- 
ers. The padres were very hospitable and 
courteous toward this traveler. 

Padre Antonio Paterna, the founder, and 
a pioneer of 1771, died in 1793, at Santa 
Barbara mission. 

On January 10, 1794, took place the first 
public execution, when Yguacio liochin paid 
the penalty for murder. Death was inflicted 
upon him by sliooting, tliere being no hang- 
man in the province. 

The English merchant ship Phoenix 
touched here in August, 1795. Communi- 
cation with the outside world had now begun 
to increase with each succeeding year. 

In Febi-uary, 1798, died Captain Jose Or- 
tega, former commandant of Santa Barbara. 

During thisdecade the number of neophytes 
increased from 438 to 864. Horses and cat- 
tle had multiplied from 296 to 2,492, and 
sheep from 503 to 5,615. The crops in 1800 
were 3,000 bushels, although the crop three 
years earlier was 5,400 busliels. During this 
period many improvements in building had 
been made at the mission. In 1791 were 

added three tool houses and a guard-house; 
in 1792, two large stone corrals. In 1793— 
'94 was erected a new church, built of adobes 
and plastered, with tiled roof; its ground 
space was 28x135 feet, and it had a brick 
portico, and a sacristy 15 x 28 feet. In 1794 
were built a granary and a spinning room, 
set on stone foundations; also an enclosure 
48 X 135 feet, for a cemetery ; also a sheepfold. 
In 1797 a corridor with brick pillars and tile 
roof was added, on the side of the quad- 
rangle nearest to the presidio, and another 
alongside the spinning room; four new rooms 
were completed for the friars; and beams of 
pine were placed wherever alder and poplar 
had been used for that purpose. In 1797 
were completed several rooms for granaries, 
store-rooms, and ofhces. In 1799 were built 
for the neophytes nineteen adobe houses, 
each 12 x 19 feet, plastered, whitewashed, and 
tile-roofed; also an adobe wall nine feet high 
was carried 1,200 yards around the garden 
and vineyard, and a warehouse was built. In 
1800 were built thirty-one more adobe 
houses in a row, the three remaining sides of 
the square were completed, and measures were 
taken for the construction, from brick and 
mortar and stone, of a reservoir for drinking 
water. In 1800 sixty neophytes were en- 
gaged in weaving and its attendant processes. 
Others were taught carpentry, and otiiers 

The same priests remained in charge of 
San Buenaventura until 1797, when Padre 
Dumetz was succeeded by Padre Jose Fran- 
cisco de Paula Senan. The only notable 
event of this decade would seem to have been 
a fracas between the Christian Indians and 
the unconverted, in which the former, while 
they had several men wounded, were victo- 
rious, killing two chiefs of the pagans, and 
taking six or seven captives. The authorities 
punished impartially the leaders on both 


sides, one of the neophytes being put to labor 
in irons. 

By this time, although there had been 412 
burials among the converts, tbe number of 
neophytes had increased to 715; and, although 
the population here was less than at any 
other of the older missions, San Buenaven- 
tura in 1800 had more cattle and raised more 
grain than any other place in California. 
There were 10,013 head of cattle and horses, 
and 4,622 sheep; and the crop of 1800 was 
9,400 bushels, the smallest crop being 1,500 
bushels in 1797, while the average yield was 
4,800 bushels. Wheat was little grown until 
1798, when this became the chief crop, reach- 
ing over 8,000 bushels per year. 

The buildings here were superior in con- 
struction, having been rebuilt after the old 
ones had been swept away by fire. The 
church alone, of the mission quadrangle, was 
not complete. It was begun about 1793, and 
completed during the decade, being built of 
stone. Vancouver, who landed here Novem- 
ber 20, 1793, pronounced this mission of 
" a very superior style to any of the new 
establishments yet seen." •' The garden of 
Buena Ventura far exceeded," he wrote, 
" anything 1 had before met with in these 
regions, both in respect of the quality, quan- 
tity, and variety of its excellent productions, 
not only indigenous to the country, but ap- 
pertaining to the temperate as well as the 
torrid zone; not one species having yet been 
planted or sown that had not flourished. 
These have princijjally consisted of apples, 
pears, plums [sic], figs, oranges, grapes, 
peaches and pomegranates, together with the 
plantain, banana, cocoa-nut, sugar-cane, in- 
digo, and a great variety of the necessary and 
useful kitchen herbs, plants and roots. All 
these were flourishing in the greatest health 
and perfection, though separated from the 
seaside only by two or three fields of corn, 

that were cultivated within a few yards of 
the surf." 

San Luis Obispo reached its maximum of 
population, 946, in 1794, but it had, in 1800, 
the considerable number of 726. from 605 in 
1790. At this date, the cattle and horses 
had increased to 6,500 head, and sheep to 
6,150. There were raised this year 2,700 
bushels of grain, the average number being 
3,200, while in 1798 the harvest was 4,100 
bushels. This mission raised no barley. 

During this decade had been completed an 
adobe church, with portico and tile roof, a 
house for the ministers, a guard-house, work- 
room, and barrack, and a mill run by water- 
power. The huts of the natives there were 
j well built. 

This mission was fortunate in receiving a 
miller, blacksmith, and carpenter, sent hither 
to impart instruction. 

In 1794 there was at San Luis a certain 
excitement, resulting from the eftbrts of sev- 
eral gentile chiefs to incite a revolt among 
the Indians hereabouts. Those at Purisima 
were approached by agents of the malcon- 
tents, but the neophytes scorned the presents 
offered for the purpose and were so loyal to 
the Spaniards that five of the unruly In- 
dians were delivered over for punishment. 

For a long time there had been entertained 
by the authorities of the church a project to 
found a series of new missions to lie between 
the old ones, and as nearly as might be equi- 
distant from each two of them, all of these 
to be situated somewhat farther inland than 
those of the original chain. Practically, the 
sites had been chosen by the friars; but for 
form's sake, the priests made, in 1794-'95, 
an exploration, in conjunction with the mili- 
tary. After this, and some preliminary cor- 
respondence, the five new missions were 

On June 11, 1797, was founded San Jose; 


on June 24 San Juan Bautista, and on July 
25, San Miguel, being the third of the new- 
missions, and the only one with which we 
have to deal in the present chapters on this 

San Miguel was founded by Padre Lasuen 
and Friar Buenaventura Sitjar, on a site 
which the natives called Vahia or Yatica, and 
the Spaniards Las Posas. It was between 
San Luis Obispo and San Antonio, Padres 
Sitjar and Horra, generally called Padre 
Concepcion, were appointed ministers. The 
founding was attended by a great number of 
Indians, iifteen of whose children were pre- 
sented for baptism on that day; and this good 
disposition seemed to continue, for by the end 
of 1800 there had been baptized 385. The 
other missions had contrilnited a few head of 
stock, which by the end of the decade had in- 
creased to 372 large and 1,582 small animals. 
The total product of crops for these three 
years was 3,700 bushels. The church was 
built of wood, with a mud roof, and it con- 
tinued in use for some years. 

In 1801 the safety of the whites of Santa 
Barbara was jeopardized, from a singular 
cause. An epidemic of lung disease had been 
causing great mortality among the Indians, 
when a neophyte claimed to liave seen in a 
dream or trance, Chupu, the deity of the 
channel natives, who announced that all the 
baptized Indians would fall victims to the evil 
unless they would renounce Christianity and 
perform certain rites to Chupu. The natives 
of most of the channel rancherias hastened to 
comply, while the padres remained in igno- 
rance of the movement; and it is not quite 
clear what withheld the fanatics from pro- 
ceeding to attack the Spaniards. 

On September 17, 1804, was founded tlie 
nineteenth of the Alta California Missions, 
dedicated to Santa Ynes (Saint Agues), Vir- 
gin and Martyr. As far back as 1795 

the Spaniards had made explorations for a 
mission site here. The spot chosen was 
called by the Indians Alajulapu (rincon, a 
corner or nook). Mission work here was 
begun with the baptism of twenty-seven 
children, and the enrolling of many catechu- 
mens, among them three captains or chiefs. 
By the end of the year Santa Ynes had 225 
neophytes, but at least half of them came 
from other missions. The church here was a 
very poor one in this decade. The crops here 
averaged 2,700 bushels yearly, and by 1810 
the live stock numbered 8,200 cattle, 420 
horses, 61 mules, 11 asses, and 2,300 sheep. 

At this time was agitated the question of 
founding a mission on one of the Channel 
Islands, but an epidemic of measles carried 
oif over 200 of the natives, and the president 
had to admit, moreover, that the facilities of 
lands and the water supply were unfavorable 
to the project. 

At Santa Barbara, daring each year from 
1801 to 1805, from thirty to lifty adobe dwell- 
ings for the neophytes were biiilt, and their 
numbers reached 234, they being enclosed 
on three sides by an adobe wall, constructed 
in 1802. Other erections of this period were 
three large warehouses, a major-domo's house, 
a tannery, and several other buildings, one 
of whicli was 120 feet long. Meanwhile, at 
the Indian rancheria of Mescaltitlan, by the 
Spaniards called San Miguel, six miles from 
Santa Barbara, there had been built an adobe 
chapel, 66x27 feet, a stone prison building, a 
reservoir of masonry, a fountain, arranged 
with washing places for the laundresses, a 
pottery, and more than a score of adobe-built 
dwelling houses. 

Inl805-'6, the presidial company at Santa 
Barbara was increased from iifty-nine to sixty 
men by the process of recruiting, and there 
were tliirty-tive invalided soldiers, mostly 
living at the presidio. Tiie total white 


population, including Santa Barbara, San 
Buenaventura, Purisima, Santa Ynes, San 
Fernando, San Gabriel, Los Angeles and the 
ranchos (all these points were under the 
military jurisdiction of Santa Barbara pre- 
sidio) was 825, having gained 150 during the 
decade. "Without Los Angeles and the ran- 
clios, there had been an increase to 460 from 

The greatest number of neophytes at San 
Luis Obispo, 854, was reached in 1803, but 
by the end of the decade it had declined to 
713. Altliough the smallest of the old mis- 
sions, excejjting San Carlos, this was far 
above the average in the production of live- 
stock. Its agricultural results were less satis- 
factory. The friars there were somewhat 
noted for their' discouraging treatment of 
foreign vessels. 

At San Miguel, this period was character- 
ized by the death of Padre Pujol, and the 
violent illness of two other priests, all sup- 
supposed to have been poisoned by the 
neophytes. There was also some trouble over 
the defiant attitude of Cuchapa, one of the 
Indian captains, who was, however, subdued 
by judicious treatment. 

A great loss was sustained at San Miguel 
in 1806, in a lire which destroyed that por- 
tion of the mission buildings used for manu- 
facturing purposes, with the implements and 
a large quantity of raw material, including 
(vool, hides, cloths, and 6,000 bushels of 

In population San Miguel grew from 
362 to 973, the greatest gain of the decade, 
except at San Luis Key and San Fernando. 
Its death rate was only forty-nine per cent, of 
the baptisms. This had more sheep than any 
other mission save San Juan Capistrano. 

The chapel at Santa Barbara presidio liad 
its walls badly injured by an earthquake in 
March, 1806, and just two months later, the 

edifice was almost totally destroyed by' a great 

At intervals through this decade, no little 
local excitement was wrought up over three 
criminal cases of a repulsive nature, and by a 
case of alleged blasphemy. 

The channel was visited during this period 
by the Hazard, the Lelia Byrd, the O'Cain, 
and the Albatross. There were in this 
presidial jurisdiction, which included San 
Gabriel, 6,500 neophytes (round numbers), 
the gain over the previous decade being 2,500. 

By 1810 the numerical decline of the 
neophyte population had begun; although 
there was an actual increase from 864 to 
1,355, this was a considerable drop from 
1,792, the figure which had been reached in 
1803. Santa Barbara by this time led all the 
other missions in the Avhole number of bap- 
tisms for the decade, and in the highest num- 
ber for one year. The large stock of this 
mission had increased from 2,492 to 5,670; 
there were 1,390 horses and mules in 1810. 
The small stock increased from 5,615 to 
8,190. The average crop for the decade was 
of 6,216 bushels per year; at one time there 
were produced 10,150 liushels. 


On October 6, 1818, the American brig 
Clarion brought to Santa Barbara the news 
that there were being fitted out at the Sand- 
wich Islands two privateers, carrying collect- 
ively fifty-four guns and 250 men whose 
purpose was to make a cruise on this coast. 
Commandant Guerra at once despatched 
messengers at all speed to Governor Sola at 
Monterey, and to the friars of the southern 
missions. Sola at once issued orders that aU 
church vessels, ornaments, and other articles 
of intrinsic value, should be packed up and 
sent to points of safety inland; the women 
and children made ready to retire thither also; 


provisions and ammunition prepared for at- 
tack; live-stock driven inland; soldiers and 
settlers summoned for defense at their re- 
spective presidios, as well as the native 
archers; sentinels and couriers stationed at 
convenient points; and, in fact, every prepa- 
ration made for resistance, at the same time 
that all precautions must be taken to prevent 
the expected vessels from effecting a landing 
upon any pretense. The missionaries, too, 
were officially notified of tlie expected attack, 
and earnestly recommended to co-operate with 
the commandants. 

Taken all these prudent measures nearly 
two months elapsed without sign of hostile 
approach, and Sola ordered the civilians dis- 
missed to the attention of their own affairs. 
Guerra and some others considered this 
relaxation premature, in which the events 
sustained them; for on November 20, the 
dreaded vessels were descried appruaching 
Monterey. The account of the ravages there 
committed by their crews is not strictly 
germane to the subject of these pages. Suf- 
fice it to say that, after destroying all they 
could in that quarter, and losing three of 
their men — one an American — as prisoners, 
the two ships came southward, the news be- 
ing brought by a returning corporal and six 
men whom the prudent Guerra had sent up 
tore-enforce Monterey. The marauders landed 
at the Rancho Refugio of the Ortegas on De- 
cember 2, the family having abandoned the 
place on their approach. Here they killed 
cattle, and plundered and fired the buildings, 
while they were watched by Spaniards as- 
sembled at Santa Ynes, who captured, from 
an ambush three of the " pirates." Sailing 
hence the two ships anchored at Santa Bar- 
bara on December 6, and Bouchard, the com- 
mander, sent ashore with a flag of truce a 
letter to the commandant, promising to leave 
the coast without further hostilities after an 

exchange of prisoners. Guerra replied, avow- 
ing his positive yearning to fight, but con- 
senting to consider the other's proposition, 
" from feelings of humanity," and to forward 
the letter to the governor. Further urgency 
from Bouchard impelled Guerra to consent 
to an immediate exchange, but, on coming to 
the point, he found that but one prisoner was 
offered for three. To Guerra's indignation 
on this score, Bouchard averred that he had 
but one captive, and this one, when delivered 
over for Bouchard's three useful men, proved 
to be a drunken vagabond named Molina, 
who had stumbled into the arms of the in- 
vaders while they were at Monterey, and who 
was a nuisance to the community! Besides 
his chagrin at this victimizing of the wily 
Bouchard, poor, plucky, sincere Guerra had 
to bear the blunt of Sola's reproaches for con- 
senting to terms with the cheating rascals. 
Perhaps the worst of the matter, however, 
after all, touched Molina, for. he was sen- 
tenced to six years in the chain gang, after 
100 blows on his bare back. Bouchard, after 
some lingering, finally disappeared on De- 
cember 12 from Santa Barbara, and the 
troops at this point were then hurried south- 
ward, to assist in the defense of San Diego 
and the other southernmost missions, and 
Guerra himself followed. 

This invasion was the principal event of 
the decade. In April, 1820, there were ru- 
mors of the arrival of four insurgent vessels 
from Chili, and orders for protectionary 
measures were again issued, but these fears 
proved unfounded. 


During this decade, the total white popula- 
tion of all this district had increased from 
460 to 740. This included forty-five men of 
the company brought to Alta California by 
Portilla. The presidio contained sixty-six 


men, besides its officers, and twenty-seven to 
thirty-one invalids. With the Los Angeles 
contingent, there was a total of 1,355. The 
neophytes had diminished 100, being now 
6,400. The padres had granted the land of 
the San Julian Rancho as a loan, and it was 
stocked with some 650 tithe cattle, for a 
source of meat supply for the soldiers. This 
proved very successful. 

In 1812 occurred the severe series of 
earthquakes that so seriously damaged many 
of the missions. At Santa Barbara the shocks 
began about December 21 and lasted several 
months, during which time the people, who 
had abandoned their dwellings, lived in the 
open. Several buildings were ruined and 
others damaged, both at the presidio and the 
mission; springs of asphaltum were opened; 
the mountains cracked, and the general signs 
thoroughly justified the alarm of the people. 
The other events were not numerous; a few 
Indian expeditions were made, and a certain 
element of excitement was introdiiced by the 
foreign vessels and the other hunters, now ar- 
riving with more frequency. Times were very 
dull throughout the province, and here as 

In 1818 a chapel was built at the presidio, 
of wood, with a tiled roof, and it was even 
proposed to remove the whole presidio to 
another site, in consequence of the damage 
from the earthquake. A primary school for 
girls, taught by a woman, was opened here 
in 1817, and a lady at the mission adminis- 
tered medicines to the sick at the presidio, 
whose cemetery was not used for interments 
after 1818. About this time, too, there was 
a controversy regarding a piece of land be- 
tween the mission and the presidio. 

At the mission extensive repairs were 
made on the old church to remedy the earth- 
quake's damage, and also a new church was 
begun in 1815, for which Captain Wilcox in 

the Traveler went to bring the timber from 
Santa Cruz Island. On September 10, 1820, 
this edifice was consecrated, the ministers 
having the assistance of three visiting priests, 
with Governor Sola acting as sponsor in the 
presence of the commandant, soldiers, and 
citizens. This ceremony was celebrated by a 
banquet and general festivities. The church 
was described as "of hewn stone and mortar, 
with walls very strongly built with good but- 
tresses, a tower of two stories holding six 
bells, a plaster ceiling frescoed, marbled col- 
umns, and altar tables in Roman style, one 
of them having a pulpit. In the front an 
image of Santa Barbara in a niche, supported 
by six columns, and at the extremity of the 
triangle the three virtues, all four of the fig- 
ures being of cut stone, painted over in oil. 
The floor of bitumen, polished; sundry dec- 
orations in the church and the sacristy. All 
being attractive, strong and neat." 

With the downfall of the Spanish rule in 
Mexico, California became a province of the 
Mexican empire, to which the oath of alle- 
giance was taken on April 13, 1822, at Santa 
Barbara, four days after the news was form- 
ally announced in junta (council) at Monterey. 
Shortly thereafter, Francisco Ortega was 
chosen elector de partido from Santa Bar- 
bara and five missions, to elect a deputy to 
the court at Mexico. The election sent Sola 
to that office. 

On September 13 of this year, the Ameri- 
can schooner Eagle was seized at Santa Bar- 
bara. For several years she had been on this 
coast engaged in smuggling. While at this 
port her crew attempted to seize the San 
Francisco de Paula, formerly the Cossack, 
there lying at anchor, on the plea of an ir- 
regularity of sale. In towing this prize out 
of the harbor, the Eagle ran herself aground, 
and was captured with the aid of the garrison 
men and cannon. Por some time the vessel 


could not be floated, but she later sailed as 
the Santa Apolonio, having been bought, it 
seems, by the Santa Barbara padres, when 
both vessels and their cargo were sold at auc- 
tion after confiscation. They brought about 
$3,000, which, pending instructions from 
Mexico, was directed to be nsed for the good 
of the province. It would seem, however, 
that in those days existed the same affinity 
as at present between dollars and lingers, as 
seven years after, investigations were still 
making to ascertain what had been done with 
this money. 

Duhant-Gilly, who wrote of the place in 
1827, said: "The presidio of Santa Barbara 
is, like that of Monterey, a closed square, 
surrounded with houses of a single story. 
Kear the northwest corner rises an edifice a 
little more prominent than any other, and 
ornamented with a balcony. It is the resi- 
dence of the commandante. At the opposite 
corner, protecting the way to the shore, it 
was evidently the intention of the Californian 
engineers to build a bastion; but to believe 
that they had succeeded would be great good 

By this time the port was often visited by 
foreign vessels, trading for hides and tallow. 
Some grain and vegetables were raised by 
the inhabitants. Most of the commerce was 
carried on by foreigners, with whose methods 
the Californians were unable to compete. The 
only manufactures were coarse woolen cloth 
and hats produced at the mission. Native 
wine and brandy might have been produced 
with profit but for the free importation of 
foreign liquors. 

In 1826, Father Luis Martinez built on the 
beach and launched, at Avila Landing, now 
in San Luis Obispo County, a two-masted 
vessel of about seventy-five tons' burthen, in 
which he nsed to ship to Monterey grain and 
other products, which he sold so profitably 

that in a few years he had become wealthy, 
and he tlien went to Lima on Captain Wil- 
son's vessel, carrying his golden doubloons 
quilted into a queer leathern tunic, which he 
wore, for the greater safety of his fortune 
and his person. But this golden coat of mail 
was so heavy and uncomfortable that he had 
to confide its contents to Captain Wilson, 
who cared for it safely throughout the voyage. 

About 1828 there was built at Santa 
Barbara a schooner of thirty-three tons, built 
for Carlos Carrillo and Wm. G-. Dana for the 
coasting trade and otter hunting 

Santa Barbara participated to a consider- 
able extent in the dissensions of local mag- 
nates, as Alvarado and Carrillo, from 1836 
to 1838; and from this cause proceeded the 
battle of San Buenaventura, on March 27, 
1838, in which the church walls were some- 
what injured. Santa Barbara favored Al- 

During the decade 1830-'40, the white 
population of this district grew from 630 to 
900, while the Indian population fell fi-om 
4,400 to 1,550. These figures were exclusive 
of San Fernando, although that point was 
legally within this jurisdiction. The presid- 
ial organization was still kept up here, Jose 
de la Guerray Noriega being its captain, and 
after 1837 its regular commandant. The 
force was something like eighty. 

From 1821 to 1829, the presidial force of 
Santa Barbara stood at about sixty-six men 
and twenty-six invalids; in 1830 there were 
about eighty souls, all told. Tiie white pop- 
ulation at the presidio had gained little in 
the decade, being now about 500; the whole 
presidial district, including the missions, 
with Los Angeles and its ranchos, had, 1,790, 
a gain of 435 during the decade. Mean- 
while, the neophyte population had declined; 
having lost 2,000, there were now 4,400 
Indians. Durina; this decade. Southern Call- 


fornia, includincr the two districts, San Diego 
and Santa Barbara, had increased from 1,800 
white population to 2,310, while the neophyte 
population, from 11,600 fell ofE to 9,600. 

There were at this time resident in the 
district at least ten foreigners, — i. e., whites 
not Mexican or Spanish. 

The Barbarenos were qnite conservative, 
and shunned the various " plans " of opposi- 
tion. They took no part in the revolt against 
Victoria in 1831, and their partisanship of 
Alvarado, as against Carlos Carrillo, one of 
the most popular of their own men, once 
secured through the influence of de la Guerra 
and Duran, they were always loyal in their 
adherence to his cause. 

There is considerable vagueness of defini- 
tion between the municipal and the military 
jurisdiction at this period, as the records were 
not preserved. 

It is notable that, of some twenty ranchos 
granted to private owners in this decade, 
none of the titles were lost in subsequent 
litigation. The neophytes of this mission 
decreased from 711 in 1830 to 556 in 1834, 
the year of secularization, and by 1840 they 
were only 250. Stock continued to gain 
during the earlier lialf of this period, and 
nntil the last the crops were good. The mission 
buildings here were in better repair than at 
the other establishments. Writing in 1846, 
Sir James Douglass placed Santa Barbara as 
a larger town than Monterey, and estimated 
the annual output of hides and tallow at $25,- 

At San Buenaventura there was a per- 
ceptible check in the falling ofi' of neophyte 
population. In 1884 there were 626 in this 
section. Live-stock continued to increase, 
and crops continued good. Even after 
secularization there was a loss of only about 
fifty per cent, in herds and flocks, while there 
was an increase still in horses, then as now a 

special product of Ventura. By this time 
there were some 500 Indians left in the dis- 

At Santa Ynes there were frequent changes 
of ministers. Down to 1834 the decrease in 
neophytes was about fifteen per cent, there- 
after about twelve per cent, imtil 1840, when 
there were 180 Indians in the community. 
This mission held its own in live-stock down 
to secularization, and then showed a decided 
gain. The church property was valued at 
$11,000, other property at about $45,000, 
and the debt was reduced two-thirds, so that 
this was the most prosperous of the Southern 
missions. It was not secularized until 1836. 

At Purisima the neophyte population 
diminished little until 1834, when there were 
407 Indians; but by 1840 they had run down 
to 120. In possessions there was a decrease 
throughout the decade. The value of the 
Purisima estate about 1835 was approximately 
$60,000. Secularization was done here early 
in 1835. 

At San Luis Obispo there was little loss 
of neophytes down to 1834, when there were 
264, which after secularization in 1835 ran 
down to 170 by the end of the decade. 
Agricultural matters were not flourishing, 
and the live-stock diminished about one-half 
in the last lustrum. The possessions were 
valued at $70,000 in 1836, and at $60,000 
three years later, alter which the decline was 

At San Miguel the neophyte list feU ofi" 
from 684 to 599, in 1834, and to about 350 
by 1840. Crops ran down but little until 
after secularization in 1836, and there was an 
actual gain in cattle. The inventory at the 
transfer showed a valuation, exclusive of 
church property, of $82,000, which by 1839 
had dwindled to $75,000. None of the lands 
here passed to private ownership during this 
decade, and the establishment had several 


ranches, with the corres;^ionding buildings* 
and two large vineyards. At these ranches, 
as well as at the mission, dwelt the Indians. 
Owing to their contiguity and intimacy with 
the Tulares, they were sometimes refractory; 
yet the real decline here liardly began beiore 

Santa Barbara shared in the notoriety of 
the Graham affair in 1840, in that ten for- 
eigners resident here were arrested under 
Governor Alvarado's order, on the pretext of 
intended revolt against the authorities. 

January 11, 1842, was marked by the ar- 
rival of Bishop Garcia Diego, who came to 
take up his residence at this, the best pre- 
served of the missions. He was received 
with enthusiastic demonstrations. 

A report on the southern missions, dated 
February, 1844, states that " Santa Barbara 
has left 287 neophytes, whom she supports 
with the greatest difficulty; that Purisima 
remains with some 200. unprovided with lands 
to sow, or other property provision than a 
moderate- sized vineyard; that Santa Yiies has 
264 neophytes, and the wherewithal to support 
them; while San Buenaventura is in very fair 
condition, with sufficient resources ;" these 
two last named being the only ones of the 
eleven secularized missions not utterly ruined. 

Bishop Garcia Diego cherished a Utopian 
project of establishing at Santa Ynes an ec- 
clesiastical seminary, and he applied for and 
on March 16, 1844, obtained a grant of six 
leagues of land, subsequently augmented. On 
May 4, he formally founded the college of 
Maria Santisima de Guadalupe de Santa Ynes. 

In May Governor Micheltorena declared 
the roadstead of Santa Barbara open to the 
coasting trade. It is probable that the dif- 
ference was one of formality merely. 

In the strifes and struggles between local 
personages, Micheltorena and Alvarado, the 
Picos, the Carrillos, and all the rest of their 

associates, Santa Barbara figured inevitably 
to some extent, by virtue of her importance 
as a town, and the strong individuality and 
influence of some of her citizens. But here 
as elsewhere the characteristic conservatism 
of the Barbareflos was conspicuous; moreover, 
these matters, besides being far too cumbrous 
to be treated in detail in a work of restricted 
magnitude as the present, were of little real 
importance in the development or building 
up of the section. 

By 1845, Santa Barbara had about 1,000 
white population, and about the same number 
of ex-neophyte Indians. At the presidio 
were enrolled between thirty and forty men, 
with ten to fifteen on actual duty. Captain 
Jose Antonio de la Guerra y Noriega, that 
conspicuous character of early days, retired 
from the commandancy in 1842. Municipal 
affairs were managed by judges of the peace 
or by alcaldes, and the records are meager 
and unimportant. Visits from trading ves- 
sels now were frequent, and the hospitable 
and amusement-loving character of the Bar- 
bareflos made this a favorite stopping-place. 
Travelers were sure to comment upon the fea- 
tures of social sviperiority here over other coast 
points. Sir George Simpson wrote in 1842: 
" Santa Barbara is somewhat larger than Mon- 
terey, containing about 900 inhabitants, while 
the one is just as much a maze without a plan 
as the other. Here, however, anything of the 
nature of resemblance ends, Santa Barbara in 
most respects being to Monterey what the 
parlor is to the kitchen. Among all the set- 
tlements as distinguished from the rascally 
pueblos, Santa Barbara possesses the double 
advantage of being both the oldest and the 
most aristocratic. The houses are not only well 
finished at first, but are throughout kept in 
good order; and the whitewashed adobes, and 
the painted balconies and verandas form a 
pleasing contrast with the overshadowing 


roofs blackened by means of bitumen, tlie 
proclnce of a neighboring spring." 

At the mission there were 260 Indians at 
the end of this half decade, the community 
being broken up in 1845. At Santa Ynes 
the estate was restored to the management 
of the padres in 1843. The ex-neophyte 
population in 1845 was 270. From 12,000 
in 1841, the live-stock decreased to 2,000 in 
1845; and the whole value of property de- 
clined to $20,000 from $49,000, or even 
more. This estate was rented in 1848 to 
Jose M. Covarrubias and Joaquin Carrillb for 
$580 per year. 

At Purisima the remnants of the property 
were turned over to the padres in 1843, hav- 
ing been in charge of the manager of Santa 
Ynes during the preceding year. From this 
time on, there was no resident priest. In 
1844 most of the 200 remaining Indians died 
of small-pox, so that there were not over fifty 
left in 1845, when the Purisima Mission, 
barring the church property, was sold for 
$1,110, the purchaser being Temple, though 
the title was made out to J. K. Malo. During 
the same year, Santa Barbara was rented to 
N. A. Den and Daniel Hill for $1,200, San 
Buenaventura to Arnaz and Botello for $1,630, 
and Santa Ynes to Covarrubias and Carrillo 
for $580. There is no further record con- 
cerning this mission, which appears thence- 
forward to have been entirely abandoned. 

The end of San Luis Obispo as a mission- 
ary establishment came witli an order of the 
Governor in Jiily, 1844, for the complete 
emancipation of the Indians and seculariza- 
tion of the mission. Accordingly a regular 
pueblo was formed, the town lands compris- 
ing all the vacant mission lands near, and 
distribution being made to the ex-neophyte-. 
However, no claim for pueblo lands was ever 
entered by the town. In December the ex- 
mission buildings, having the curate's house 

and some reserved for public uses, were sold 
for $510''to Scott, Wilson and McKinley. 

After 1842, San Luis had spiritual charge 
of San Miguel. The administrador found 
himself unable to control the Indians, and 
Governor Alvarado instructed him to aban- 
don the effort. By 1845 all the property had 
disappeared, save the buildings, and these, 
valued at $5,800, were ordered sold at auc- 

On July 16, 1844, San Luis Obispo was 
formally secularized and converted into a 
pueblo; its buildings were devoted to public 
uses, barring the missionary house, to con- 
tinue as a parsonage; the ditches remained 
free for the use of all ; and to the pueblo were 
given two adjacent orchards and a league of 
land at La Laguna. At the same time, San 
Miguel received the vineyard called La Vina 
Mayor (the Greater Vineyard). The United 
States Courts confirmed this grant in later 

The lessees of Santa Barbara Mission prob- 
ably kept possession during 1846, 1848, and, 
although Den's title was confirmed by the 
Land Commission, it appears to have been 
practically annulled by later litigation. 

On Jime 8, 1846, San Buenaventura M'as 
sold to Jose Arnaz for $12,000. The title of 
Arnaz as purchaser was not recognized dur- 
ing the transition period of 1846-'48, and in 
1848 he was supplanted even as lessee, Isaac 
Callaghan obtaining a lease from Colonel 
Stevenson. Tliere was a long litigation over 
Arnaz's title, which was finally con tinned. 

On June 10, Santa Barbara was sold to 
Eichard S. Den for $7,500. 

On June 15, 1846, Santa Ynes was sold 
for $7,000 to Joaquin Carrillo and Jose Ma- 
ria Covarrubias, who kept possession until 
after 1848, — this under their le.ise, however; 
their title by purchase was afterwards de-; 
clared invalid. 


In 1845 San Luis Obispo Mission was sold 
to Scott, Wilson and McKinley for $510. 

They were not disturbed in their possession, 
and their title subsequently was declared valid. 

San Miguel was subject, spiritually and 
temporally, to tiie powers that were, in San 
Luis. It is known that this mission was sola, 
July 4, 1846, to Fetronilos Rios and William 
Keed. The latter had lived here since 1745 
or earlier, and in September, 1847, the Gov- 
ernment gave orders that he be left in pos- 
session, the title to be left for later settlement. 
In December, 1848, Reed's home was visited 
by a party of iive American tramps, formerly 
soldiers, whom he entertained for some days 
with a hospitality characteristic of the man. 
He was, however, unwise enough to let them 
know that he had in his possession a consid 
erable sum of gold, he having recently re 
turned from the mines where he had sold a 
flock of sheep. The dastards set out appar- 
ently to continue their journey, but, going 
only to Santa Margarita, they returned at 
night to the ex-mission, and basely murdered 
all its inhabitants, heaping the corpses all in 
one room, and plundering the place of the 
gold and its other valuables. The victims 
were William Reed, his wife Maria Antonio 
Vallejo with her unborn child, Josefa Olivera, 
a midwife who had gone thither to attend 
Mrs. Reed, Jose Ramon Vallejo, brother to 
Mrs. Reed, a daughter of the Reeds aged fif- 
teen, a son of two or tin-ee years, a 
nephew of four, a negro cook, an Indian 
servant over sixty years old, and his five- 
year-old nephew. When the news of this 
awful crime reached Santa Barbara a force of 
men set out in pursuit of the murderers, 
whom they overtook on the present site of 
Summerland (see "Bench and Bar.") One 
of the members, after being fatally wounded, 
shot and killed Ramon Rodriguez, who had 
rushed single-handed toward the marauders; 

one jumped into the sea, swam out beyond 
the kelp, and was drowned; and the other 
three, named Joseph Lynch, Peter Quin and 
Peter Raymond or Renner, were captured 
and taken to Santa Barbara, where they were 
executed on December 28. 


A very small part indeed, comparatively 
speaking, was that taken by Santa Barbara in 
the important occurrences of 1846-'47, which 
resulted in the conquest of California by the 

On May 13, 1846, was issued a call for a 
consejo general de los pueblos unidos (gen- 
gueral council of the united towns) to meet 
at Santa Barbara on June 15, to discuss the 
actual and the impending situation, and to 
deliberate on the future. This council was 
to consist of the governor and eighteen dele- 
gates from the respective towns, together 
with certain representatives from the eccle- 
siastical and the military element. It was 
freely rumored that the object of this con- 
vention would be to invoke English interfer- 
ence between Mexico and the United States; 
but on June 3 the Assembly suspended the 
action of the hando or call. 

Equally futile was the proclamation, sum- 
moning to a patriotic resistance the Mexican 
Californians, which Pio Pico issued from 
Santa Barbara on June 23, on learning of the 
takingof Sonoma. The Barbarenos would seem 
to have been practical, progressive and cautious. 

On August 4 or 5, Stockton, on his way 
down the coast, touched here and i-aised the 
American flag, leaving also a garrison of ten 
men under a midshipman, thus formally put- 
ting Santa Barbara under the rule of the 
United States. These men were taken away 
on the Congress on September 7, being re- 
placed somewhat later from Fremont's bat- 


When Gillespie's tactless and overbeai'ing 
rule in Los Angeles brought about there an 
uprising, which resulted in his abandoning 
the field and inarching ta San Pedro, tlie 
Calitbriiians, having disposed of the Los An- 
geles garrison, set about dispossessing those 
of San Diego and Santa Barbara. Accord- 
ingly, about the first of October, a small 
force under Manuel Garfias demanded the 
surrender or parole of Lieutenant Talbot and 
his nine men. These were yonthful but ex- 
perienced mountaineers, and to avoid pai-ole, 
they toolv to the open; for a week they kept 
in sight of the town, which they hoped 
migiit bd retaken by a man-of-war. Then, 
being hard pressed by the Californians, who 
fired the brush to drive them out, they 
crossed the mountains and reached Monterey. 
After the flight of this garrison, the Ameri- 
cans living at Santa Barbara were arrested, 
and some were sent to Los Angeles as pris- 
oners, but most were paroled. In December, 
1846, and January, 1847, John C. Fremont 
with his battalion rested here for a week, on 
the way to Los Angeles and Cahuenga. 

On April 8, 1847, companies A, B and F, 
of Stevenson's regiment, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Burton, arrived at Santa Barbara, 
where Com]iany F remained during its term 
of service. The other two left on July 4 for 
La Paz. Captaiu Lippitt remained in charge 
of this post. 

Toward the close of 1847, there were 
apprehensions of attack upon the Americans 
at Santa Barbara under Captain Lippitt, and 
the Governor, Colonel Richard B. Mason, 
went thitiier, where he was satisfied that the 
strain of feeling, if any, was caused by the 
improper conduct of some of the Americans 
composing tiie garrison. 

In April, 1848, during the organization 
of forces to fight Indians, it transpired that a 
plot was on foot to direct these bodies toward 

wresting from the Americans the towns of 
Santa Barbara and Los Angeles. 

At this time, while popular excitement and 
official fears were both wrought up, the affair 
of " tlie lost cannon " happened, materially 
increasing the feeling of insecurity. This 
was a brass gun — some say a six-pounder, 
some .-ay of twice that caliber — which had 
belonged to the Elizabeth. It was left on 
the beach, while awaiting trans-siiipment to 
Monterey, to be placed on the fortifications 
there. It disappeared on the night of April 
5, and all efforts to find it were unsuccessful. 
Some said it had been carried on a cart 
toward Los Angeles; others averred it had 
been put aboard a vessel; the authorities 
inclined to connect its disappearance with 
flying rumors of revolt, and to believe that it 
had been sequestrated by the Barbarenos, 
with a view towards turning it against its 
former owners. Local officials and promi- 
nent citizens were very indignant at this dis- 
trust, but the gun was not forthcoming. 
Therefoi'e Governor Mason imposed a mili- 
tary fine of $500 upon the town, to be paid 
pro rata by all its inhabitants; the whole 
sum to be repaid to the town on discovery 
of the guilty individuals, or proof that they 
were not residents of Santa Barbara. A list 
of property-holders was made out, and each 
was assessed his portion of the $500. This 
caused great excitement and indignation, and 
not least among the American residents; the 
alcaldes offered their resignations, which 
were, however, not accepted; a company of 
dragoons was sent for fi-om Los Angeles to 
enforce the payment of the fine. Still, while 
some paid, others would not do so, and so 
much of their property as was necessary to 
satisfy their assessments was seized and sold 
at public auction. It afterward transpired 
that five men had dragged away the gun with 
the aid of a yoke of oxen, and buried it in 


the sand, at a spot that they could not re- 
locate. Their idea may liave been one of 
pecuniary profit, or they may have designed 
to use the piece in a possible uprising against 
American rule. Be that as it may, no less 
than three streets of Santa Barbara still bear 
tlie names of men in commemoration of this 
event: — Mason, Quinientos [Five HiindredJ, 
and Canon Perdido [Lost CanonJ streets. 

Not only in the nomenclatures of streets 
did the Barbarenos indicate the impres- 
sion left by this affair: the first seal of the 
city had emblazoned in its center the picture 
of a cannon encircled by tlie words " Vale 
quinientos pesos " — it is worth $500. This 
seal was used from 1851 to 1860, when a new 
one was devised, leaving out this emblem. 

The military governor of California in 
1850 returned to the prefect of this district 
the $500, with instructions to employ it in 
the construction of a jail. The city author- 
ities endeavored to obtain the money from its 
depository, and place it in the city treasury; 
but the prefect stated that, as he held the 
money in trust for a specific purpose, and was 
ready to pay it over when, but not before, the 
city was ready to build the jail. The city 
attorney was instructed to begin a suit against 
the prefect to recover the money, and he 
accordingly did so. As the District Judge 
was a family connection of the defendant in 
the action, the case could not be tried here, 
and so was transferred to San Francisco. 
The papers relating to the matter were un- 
accountably lost, the trustee of the fund died, 
and as no new siiit was instituted against his 
estate the fund was never recovered for the 

In the year 1858, a heavy rain caused the 
pent-up waters of the Estero to cut through 
the sand-bank separating it from the ocean, and 
the mystery of the lost cannon's whereabouts 
was solved as it was now discovered protrud- 

ing from one of the banks of this new chan- 
nel. Some of the native Californians com- 
pleted its disinterment, and hauled it in 
ti'iumph up State street to de la Guerra. It 
was uninjured, clean, and bright. It was 
sold for $80 to a Jew, who sent it to San 
Francisco and sold it at a lai-ge profit for old 
brass. Thus Santa Barbara displayed no 
little inconsistency, in failing to retain and 
preserve here a relic of such memoi-able im- 
portance in local history. 


For fifteen or twenty years before Ameri- 
can occupation, the general conditions were 
much the same, save in a political sense, as 
they were for fifteen or twenty years after 
that period; as the reader and the traveler of 
the present day find tliose conditions full of 
picturesqueness and romance, it is desirable 
to give herein some account of the manners, 
customs, and usages of those times. 

At this period, Santa Barbara was, next to 
Monterey, the most important town in the 
territory. Here, as a general thing, paused 
en route for Monterey the governors sent up 
hither from Mexico, to rest and to learn 
something of the duties of their office. These 
and other visiting magnates usually were 
guests of the de la Guerras, the Carrillos, 
or the Ortegas, these being the principal 

Here was the center of trade for a hundred 
miles around, and hither tended all roads and 
all riders. 

The houses were generally built in the 
shape of a parallelogram, sometimes of adobe 
walls only, sometimes a framework of tim- 
bers, filled in with adobe. The simplest 
form was a habitation of one room, with bare 
walls and clay floors. Houses of the better 
class had a species of piazza on one or more 
sides. Thatch roof were sometimes used, 


although tiling was the preferred material; not 
seldom the rafters were crossed by rods or 
tules, covered with a layer of mud or of as- 
phaltum. Generallj' the door, window-frames 
and rafters constituted the only wood about 
the structure. The walls often were white- 
washed. The best of the houses were built 
after the Spanish fashion around i^^^atio or 
court, containing plants and sometimes a 
fountain. The floors were sometimes boarded, 
but more frequently were of earth. Some of 
the wealthier inhabitants had glass to their 
windows, but a grating was the more general 
rule. The kitchen was apart, in a separate 
shed or hut. The houses had no fire-places. 

In the poorer houses, the only furniture 
would be a handniill or a metall for grinding 
corn, and a few pieces of pottery or ironware 
for cooking purposes, tlie beds being com- 
posed of rawhides spread on the ground, and 
perhaps a hammock. Sometimes there was 
a table, and stools or benches. Joints of a 
whale's vertebrse were often used for chairs. 
Some had beds of poplar, lined with leather, 
and fitted with pillows, sheets, and blankets. 
Where there was linen, the slips were fre- 
quently used over silk, and enriched with 
drawn-work. After 1824, some of the richer 
families had rather handsome furniture — • 
mirrors, bureaus, and tables inlaid with shell, 
etc., brought from Peru or China. 

Up to 1834 the chief features of men's 
costumes were: Short and wide breeches, 
fastened at the knee above deerskin, boots, 
made like gaiters or leggings, and held up by 
gaily-embroidered garters or by bunches of 
riljbons; a wide and loose waist-coat, usually 
blue, open at the lower part to show the 
silken sash, generally crimson, or indeed, the 
two or three sashes with which the men often 
swathed themselves ; over this a blue jacket, 
trimmed with big metal buttons. A silk 
handkerchief was knotted about the throat. 

another on the head; and the hat was wide- 
brimmed, low-crowned, and fastened by a 
string or loop passing under the chin. The 
hair was in a queue. 

Women of the middle class wore che-nisea 
with short sleeves, richly embroidered and 
trimmed with lace, a muslin petticoat flounced 
and belted with scarlet, shoes of velvet or 
satin, a cotton rebozo or headscarf, pearl neck- 
lace and earrings, and the liair hanging down 
the back in one or two braids. Others, of 
the higher class, dressed in the English style, 
wearing, instead of the rebozos, rich and costly 
shawls of silk, satin, or Chinese crape. The 
skirts were so narrow as to impede freedom 
of step in walking. 

When the Rijar-Padres colony arrived, they 
brought new fashions. The bretiches were 
replaced by calzoneras, a kind of trousers, 
whose outside seams were left unjoined, to be 
closed by means of buttons and button-holes. 
The hair was cut short in the back, but left 
quite long in the front. 

The women now exchanged their narrow 
skirts for more ample draperies, and coiled 
their braids on the crown of the head, 
around a comb. All women of means and 
position wore hose, as it was deemed immod- 
est to let more than the face and hands re- 
main uncovered. The poorer women, and old 
women in general, wore no gown over the 
petticoat, and on the waist a chemise with 
sleeves falling below the elbow. The neck 
and breast were covered by a black kerchief, 
of silk or cotton, doubled cornerwise, the 
corner being fastened at the back, the two 
points passing over the shoulders, and cross- 
ing, being fastened at the waist by pins. The 
more humble women retained and wore con- 
tinually the rebozo. Shoes had points turned 
up at both toe and heel. 

The dress of the Barbarenos is described as 
having consisted of " a broad-brimmed hat. 


usually black, with a gilt or figured band 
around the crown, and lined with silk; a short 
jacket of silk or figured calico, the European 
skirted body-coat never l>eing worn; a shirt 
usually open at the neck ; a waistcoat, 
when worn, always of rii-h quality ; the 
trousers wide, straight, and long, usually of 
velvet, velveteen, or broadcloth; occasionally 
knee-breeches are worn with white stockings; 
shoes of deerskin are used; they are of a dark 
brown color, and being made by the Indians, 
are commonly much ornamented; braces are 
never worn, the indispensable sash twisted 
9,round the waist serving all their purposes; 
the sash is usually red, and varies in quality 
according to the means of the wearer; if to 
this is added the never-fai ling cloak, the dress 
pf the Californian is complete. The latter 
article of dress, however, is a never-failing 
criterion of the rank or wealth of its owner. 
The caballero. or gentleman aristocrat, wears 
a cloak of black or dark blue broadcloth, with 
as much velvet and trimming on it as it is 
possible to put there; from this, the cloaks 
gradually descend through all grades until 
the primitive blanket of the Indian is reached. 
The middle class wear a species of cloak very 
much resembling a table-cloth, with a large 
hole in the center for the head to go through; 
this is often as coarse as a blanket, but it is 
generally beautifully w^oven with various col- 
ors, and has a showy appearance at a distance 
There is no working class amongst the Span- 
iards, the Indians doing all the hard work; 
thus a rich man looks and dresses like a 
grandee, whilst even a miserably poor indi- 
vidual has the appearance of a broken-down 
gentleman; it is not, therefore, by any means 
uncommon to see a man with a line figure 
and courteous manner, dressed in broadcloth 
or velvet, and mounted on a noble horse, 
completely covered with trappings, who 
perhaps has not a real in his pocket. 

and may even be suffering from absolute 

Thei-e was one feature peculiar to the women 
of Santa Barbara, all of whom wore a camorra 
— a black silk kerchief, folded into a band 
about two inches wide, tied around the fore- 
head and into a knot under the nape of the 

Wealthy women wore diamond rings, pearl 
or golden necklaces, and ear-hoops or rings, 
and other jewelry. 

At this time, almost the only means of 
communication between ranches or settle- 
ments was by horse; and no race in the world, 
perhaps the Bedouins not excepted, were 
better riders than the Californians. Horses 
were constantly kept standing saddled at the 
doors of stores and dwellings, and walking 
was a means of progression in great disfavor, 
even for the shortest distances. Tailing the 
buU, lasso-throwing, and many other feats of 
strength and skill were practiced by the 
young Californians. They were great lovers 
of sport and amusements, and races, dances, 
etc., were improvised upon the slightest in- 
ducement. The guitar was almost the only 
musical instrument, although a few harps 
were introduced during the last few years be- 
fore American occupation. 

The arrivals of the trading ships were 
events among these people. The vessels had 
a cabin fitted up as a shop or salesroom, and 
thither flocked the housewives, to buy domes- 
tic utensils, trinkets, and fabrics, often of the 
very finest, to be paid for by the head of the 
house in liides and tallow. As payment on 
a cash basis hardly even entered into the 
transaction, the rancheros keeping a running 
account with the traders, these latter practi- 
cally had the simple-hearted provincials at 
their mercy, all the more that the price of 
wares was rarely asked before or at the time 
of purchase. 


Terbaps tlie most graphic description of 
the country and its people is tliat given by 
Ricbard Henry Dana, in bis '-Two Years 
Before tbe Mast," wbicb is an account of bis 
voyage to, and sojourn on, tbe coast of Cali- 
fornia, in a trading vessel, 1836-'88. Ac- 
cordingly some extracts are given. 


The biv, as it was cotamonly called, the canal [chaa 
Del] of Santa Barbara, is very large, being lormed by 
the main land on one side [between Point Concepcion 
on the north and Point San Buenaventura on the 
south], which here bends like a crescent, and by three 
large islands opposite to it and at a distance of some 
twenty miles. 

These points are just sufficient to give it the name 
of a bay, while at the same time it is so large and so 
much e.Kposed to the southeast and northwest winds 
that it is little better than an open roadstead; aed the 
whole swell of the Pacific Ocean rolls in here before a 
southeaster, and breaks with so heavy a surf in the 
shallow waters that it is highly dangerous to lie in 
near to the shore during the southeaster season, that 
is, between the months of November and April, 

Two points run out as the horns of the cresent, one 
of which, that to the westward, is low and sandy, and 
that to which vessels are obliged to give a wide berth 
when running out for a southeaster; the other is high, 
bold, and well-wooded. 

In the middle of this crescent, directly opposite the 
anchoring ground, lies the Mission and town of Santa 
Barbara, on a low plain, but little above the level of 
the sea, covered with grass, though entirely without 
trees, and surrounded on three sides by an amphi- 
theater of mountains, which start off to a distance of 
fifteen to twenty miles. The Mission stands a little 
back of the town, and is a large building, or rather 
colleclion of buildings, in the center of which is a high 
tower with a belfry of five bells. The town lies a little 
nearer to the beach — about half a mile from it^and is 
composed of one-story nouses, built of sun-baked clay 
or adobe, some of them whitewashed, with red tiles on 
the roofs. I should judge that there were about a 
hundred of them; and in the midst of them stands the 
presidio, or fort, built of the same material and appar- 
ently but little stronger. The town is fi.iely situated, 
with a bay in front and amphitheater of hills behind. 
The only thing that diminishes its beauty is that the 
hills have no large trees upon them, they having been 
all burnt by a great tire which swept them oflf about a 
dozen years ago, and they have not grown again. The 

fire was described to me by an inhabitant as having 
been a very terrible and magnificent sight. The air of 
the valley was so heated that the people were obliged 
to leave town and take up their quarters for several 
days upon the beach. * * * We lay at a distance 
of three miles from the beach, and the town was nearly 
a mile farther, so that we saw little or nothing of it. * 
* * We were pulled ashore in the boat, and took our 
way for the town. There everything wore the appear- 
ance of a holiday. The people were dressed in their 
best, the men riding about among the houses, and the 
women sitting on carpets before the doors. Under the 
piazza of a pulperia two Imen were seated, decked out 
with knots of ribbons and b )uquets, and playing the 
violin and the Spanish guitar. These are the only in- 
struments, with the exception of the drums and 
trumpets at Monterey, that I ever heard in California, 
and I suspect they play upon no others, for at a great 
fandanf/o, at which I was afterward present, and where 
they mustered all the music they could find, there 
were three violins and two guitars and no other in- 

Inquiring for an American who, we had been told, 
had married in the place, and kept a shop, we were 
directed to a long, low building, at the end of which 
was a door with a sign over it, in Spanish. Entering 
the shop we found no one in it, and the whole had an 
empty, deserted air. In a few minutes the man made 
his appearance and apologized for having nothing to 
entertain us with, saying that he had had a fandango 
at his house the night before, and the people had eaten 
and drank up everything. " O, yes!" said I, " Easter 
holidays!" "No," said he, with a singular expre=sion 
on his face, "I had a little daughter die the other day,and 
that's the custom of the country." At this I felt some- 
what awkwardly, not knowing what to say, and wheth- 
er to offer consolation or not, and was beginning to 
retire, when he opened a side door, and told us to walk 
in. Here I was no less astonished for I found a large 
room, filled with young girls, from three or four years 
old up to fifteen or sixteen, dressed all in white, with 
wreaths of flowers on their heads, and bouquets in their 
hands. Following our conductor among these girls, 
who were playing about in high spirits, we came to a 
table at the end of the room, covered with a white 
cloth, on which lay a coffin about three feet long, with 
the body of his child. The coffin was covered with 
white cloth and lined with white satin, and was strewn 
with flowers. 

Through an open door we saw in another room a 
few elderly people in common dress, while the benches 
and tables, thrown up in a corner, and the stained 
walls, gave evidences of the last night's "high go." 
Feeling like Garrick, between tragedy and comedy, 
an uncertainty of purpose, I asked the man when the 


funeral would take place ; and, being told that it would 
move toward the Mission in about an hour, took my 
leave. To pass away the time, we took horses and 
rode to the beach. * * * From the beach we re- 
turned to the town, and finding tliat the funeral pro 
cession had moved, rode on and overtook it, about half 
way up to the Mission. Here was as peculiar a sight 
as we had seen before in the house, the one looking as 
much like a funeral procession as the other did like a 
house or mourning. The little coffin was borne by 
eight girls who were continually relieved by others 
running forward from the procession and taking their 
places. Behind it came a straggling company of girls, 
dressed, as before, in white and flowers, and including, 
I should judge by their numbers, all the girls between 
five and fifteen in the place. They played along the 
way, frequently slopping and running altogether to 
talk to someone, or to pick up a flower, and then run- 
ning on again to overtake the coffin. There were a 
few elderly women in common colors, and a herd of 
young men and boys, some on foot and others mount- 
ed, folhiwing them, or rode or walked by their side, 
frequently interrupting them by jokes and questions. 
But the most singular thing of all was that two men 
walked, one on each side of the coffin, carrying 
muskets in their hands, which they continually loaded 
and fired into the air. Whether this was to keep off 
the evil spirits or no I do not know. It was the only 
interpretation that 1 could put upon it. As we drew 
near the Mission, we saw the great gate thrown open, 
and the padre standing on the steps with a crucifix in 
his hand. The Mission is a large and deserted-look- 
ing place, the out-buildings going to ruin, and every- 
thing giving one the impression of decayed grandeur. 
A large stone fountain threw out pure water from 
four mouths into a basin befure Ihe church door; and 
we were on the point of riding up to let our horses 
drink when it occurred to us that it might be conse- 
crated, and we forbore, Just at this moment the bells 
set up their harsh, discordant clangor, and the pro- 
cession moved into the court. I wished to follow and 
see the ceremony, but the horse of one of my compan 
ions had become frightened and was tearing off toward 
the town, * * * and I was obliged to leave the 
ceremony and ride after him. 

A very apposite phase is illustrated by the 
following description: 

Great preparations were now being made on shore 
for the marriage of our agent, who was to marry Doiia 
Anita de la Guerra y Noriega y Carrillo, youngest 
daughter of Don Antonio Noriega, Ihe grandee of the 
place, atid the head of the first family in California. 
Our steward was ashore three days making pastry 
and cake, and some of the best of our stores were sent 

off with him. On the day appointed for the wedding 
we took the Captain ashore in a gig, and had orders 
to come for him at night, with leave to go up to the 
house and see the fandango. 

At 10 o'clock the bride went up with her sister to 
the confessional, dressed in black. Nearly an hour 
intervened when the great doors of the Mission church 
opened, the bells rang out a loud discordant peal, and 
the bride, dressed in complete white, came out of the 
church with the bridegroom, followed by a long pro- 
cession. Just as she stepped from the church door, a 
small white cloud issued from the hows of our ship, 
which was full in sight, the loud report echoed among 
the hills and over the bay, and instantly the ship was 
dressed in flags and pennants from stem to stern. 
Twenty-three guns followed in regular succession, 
with intervals of fifteen seconds between, when the 
cloud blew off and our ship lay dressed in colors all 
day. At sundown another salute of the same number 
of guns was fired, and all the flags run down. 

The bride's father's house was the principal one in 
the place, with a large court in front upon which a 
tent was built, capable of containing several hundred 
people. Going in, we lound nearly all the people of 
the town— men, women and children — collected and 
crowded together, leaving barely room for the danc- 
ers; for on these occasions no invitations are given, 
but everyone is expected to come, though there is 
always a private entertainment within the house for 
particular friends. The old women sat down in rows, 
clapping their hands to the music, and applauding the 
young ones. 

The music was lively, and among the tunes we rec- 
ognized several of our popular airs, which we, no 
doubt, have taken from the Spanish. In the dancing 
I was much disappointed. The women stood upright 
with their hands down by their sides, their eyes fixed 
upon the ground before them, and slid about without 
any perceptible means of motion; for their feet were 
invisible, the hem of their dresses forming a circle 
about them, reaching to the ground. They looked as 
grave as if going through some religious ceremony, 
their faces as little excited as their limbs, and, on the 
whole, instead of the spirited, fascinating Spanish 
dances which I had expected, I found the California 
fandango, on the part of the women at least, a lifeless 
affair. The men did better. They danced with grace 
and spirit, moving in circles around their nearly sta- 
tionary partners, and showing their figures to advan- 
tage. A great deal was said about our friend Don 
Juan Bandini, and when he did appear, which was 
toward the close of the evening, he certainly gave us 
the most graceful dancing that I had ever seen. He 
was dressed in while pantaloons, neatly made, a short 
jacket of dark silk, gaily figured, white stockings and 


thin morocco slippers upon his very small feet. His 
slight and graceful figure was well adapted to danc- 
ing, and he moved about with the grace and dainti- 
ness of a young fawn. He was loudly applauded, and 
danced frequently toward the close of the evening. 
After the supper the waltzing began, which was con- 
fined to a very few of the "gente de razon," and was 
considered a high accomplishment and a mark of 
aristocracy. Here, too, Don .Juan figured greatly, 
waltzing with the sister of the bride;(Doiia Angustias, 
a handsome woman and a general favorite) in a vari- 
ety of beautiful figures, which lasted as much as half 
an hour, no one else taking the floor. They were re- 
peatedly and loudly applauded, the old men and 
women jumping off iheir seats in admiration, and the 
young people waving their hats and handkerchiefs. 

The great amusement of the evening — owing to its 
being the carnival — was the breaking of eggs filled 
with cologne or other essences upon the heads of the 
company. The women bring a great number of these 
secretly about them, and the amusement is to break 
one secretly upon the head of a gentleman when his 
back is turned. He is bound in gallantry to find out 
the lady and return the compliment, though it must 
not be done if. the person sees you. A tal), stately 
Don, with inimehse gray whiskers, and a look of 
great importance, was standing before me, when I 
felt a hand upon my shoulder, and, turning round, 
saw Dona Angustias (whom we all knew, as she had 
been up to Monterey and down again in the Alert), 
with her finger upon her lip, motioning me gently 
aside. I stepped back a little, when she went up be- 
hind the Don and with one hand knocked off his huge 
sombrero and at the same instant with the other broke 
the egg upon his head, and, springing behind me, was 
out of sight in a moment. The Don turaed slowly 
around, the cologne running down his face and over 
his clothes and a loud laugh breaking out from every 
quarter. A great many such tricks were played, and 
many a war of sharp manojuvering was carried on 
between couples of the younger people, and at every 
successful exploit a geuecal laugh was raised. 

Another of their games I was for some time at a lo-s 
about. A pretty young girl was dancing, named 
— after what would appear to us an almost sacrilegious 
custom of the country — Espiritu Santo, when a young 
man went behind her and placed his hat directly upon 
ber head, letting it fall down over her eyes, and sprang 
back among the crowd. She danced for some time 
with the hat on, when she threw it o(f, which called 
forth a general shout, and the young man was obliged 
to go out upon the floor and pick it up. I soon began 
to suspect the meaning of the thing, and was after- 
ward told that it was a compliment, and an offer to 
bfcome the lady's gallant for the rest of the evening, 
and to wait upon her home * * * 

These fandangos generally lasted three days. The 
next day two of us were sent up town and took care 
to come back by way of Seiior Noriega's and take a 
look into the booth. The musicians were ajain there 
upon tUeir platform, scraping and twanging away, 
and a few people, apparently of the lower classes, 
were dancing. The dancing is kept up at intervals 
throughout the day, but the crowd, the spirit, and the 
elite, come at night. The next night, which was the 
last, we went ashore in the same manner, until we got 
almost tired of the monotonous twang of the instru- 
ments, the drawling sounds which the women kept up 
as an accompaniment, and the slapping of the hands 
in time with the music in place of castanets. 

We heard some talk about "caballos" and 
"carrera," and seeing the people streaming off in one 
direction, we followed, and came upon a level piece 
of ground just outside of the town, which was used 
as a race-course. Here the crowd soon became thick 
again, the ground was marked off, the judges stationed, 
and the horses led up to one end. Two fine-looking 
old gentlemen — Don Carlos and Don Domingo, so- 
called — held the stakes, and all was now ready. We 
waited some time, during which we could just see the 
horses, twisting aound and turning, until at length 
there was a shout along the lines and on they came, 
heads stretched out and eyes starling, working all 
over, both man' and beast. The steeds came by us like 
acoupl" of chain-sbot, neck and neck, and now we 
could see nothing but their backs and their hind hoofs 
flying through the air. As fast as the horses passed, 
the crowd broke up behind them and ran to the goak 
When we got there we found the horses returning on 
a slow walk, having run lar beyond the mark, an . heard 
that the long bony one had come in head and shoulders 
before the other. The riders were light-built men, had 
handkerchiefs tied around their heads, and were bare- 
armed and bare-legged. The horses were noble-looking 
beasts, not so sleek and combed as our Boston stable 
horses, but with fine limbs and spirited eyes, 


At each of the California missions a com- 
pany of soldiers was stationed. In Santa 
Barbara the soldiers occupied a square called 
the presidio. This was about 250 yards 
square, surrounded by a high adobe wall, in- 
side of which were a church and buildings, 
constructed of adobe, roofed with tiles, and 
used for shelter by the soldiers. This church 
was standing until 1853, when a portion of 
the roof fell; the adobe walls, being thus 


to rain, soon crumbled away. A part 
of one of the buttresses still stands near Santa 
Barbara Street, west of Canon Perdido Street. 

A portion of the Californian population of 
Santa Barbara are descendants of tbe soldiers 
of this garrison, who married natives; others 
are descendants fi-om immigrants from old 
Spain and other parts of Europe, from Mex- 
ico, South America, and the United States. 

It is generally conceded that the leading 
Spanish family in Santa Barbara has been that 
of de la Guerra, often wrongly called Noriega, 
from a misapprehension of the Spanish cus- 
tom by which the children of a family add 
their mother's patronymic with the prefix 
'"y" ("and") after their father's; this, how- 
ever, is a matter of compliment to the 
mother, and the father's remains the lawful 
family name. Thus the founder of this 
family, from its mother bein^a Noriega, was 
called" de la Guerra y Noriega, while his 
children, whose mother was a Carrillo, wrote 
their name de la Guerra y Carrillo. 

Don Jose de la Guerra y Noriega was 
born in 1776, at Novales, province of San- 
tander, Spain, of an honorable amily, whose 
coat of arms carries their record back to 
the time of the Moors. The house where 
he was born still stands, an imposing edifice 
of Novales, over a centnry old, with the 
family arms cut in stone over the two great 
gateways; it covers a block of land in the 
principal town of the province. 

Young de la Guerra was sent out to a kins- 
man, a wealthy merchant in Mexico, but he 
Boon sought and obtained a cadetship in the 
royal army, and in 1800 was appointed ensign 
in a company stationed at Monterey, Cali- 
fornia, where he joined it in 1801. In 1804 he 
married Dona Maria Antonio, daughter of 
Don Eaymundo Carrillo, then commandante 
of the presidio of Santa Barbara; and in 1806 
he was sent hither as the company's lieu- 

tenant. In 1810 he was appointed Ilabilitado 
General fi-om both Californias to the Yice- 
Koyal Government in Mexico, and, proceed- 
ing toward the capital with his family, he 
was captured at San Bias by the Mexican 
patriots, then in revolt against the govern- 
ment of Spain, he escaping with his life, 
while the other men captured with him were 
assassinated. The revolution had deprived 
him of his oflice; therefore he started back to 
California; and, performing on the way mili- 
tary service which gave him a better footing 
with the government, he was appointed in 
1811 to the command of troops stationed at 
San Diego, where for several years he dwelt 
with his family. In 1817 he was appointed 
captain and commandante of the troops and 
Santa Barbara, and here was bis home there- 
after, with a brief interregnum, when he went 
to Mexico again as Habilitado General. He 
was continued in office as captain and com- 
mandante until 1828, when he was sent as 
deputy to the Mexican Congress; but, on 
reaching the capital, he found his seat con- 
tested, and his opponent triumphed. Don 
Jose now renounced politics and engaged in 
farming and stock-raising on a large scale, 
favored by the secularization of the missions. 
Within a few years he was owner of eight of 
the principal ranches of the district, including 
Las Posas, Simi, Conejo, San Julian, and 
others. The ability, integrity, and kindness 
of this man made him a power among his 
neighbors, his advice and influeuce being 
almost without limit. He was always an 
arbiter in misunderstandings among his own 
people, as well as between these and the for- 
eigners who soon came into the country. 

His wife, Maria Antonia Carrillo, was re- 
garded as one of the most charitable and 
benevolent women of the age. 

This worthy pair had seven sons and four 
daughters, and a brief resume of their mar- 


riages and descendants will show the impor- 
tant part that this family has continued to 
plaj in local history, as well as the fertility 
of the race. 

The eldest son, Jose Antonio de la Giierra 
y Carrillo, married Concepcion Ortega. 
Their children were : Jose Antonio, Jose 
Earaou (graduated at Georgetown, District 
of Columbia), Guillermo and Alejandro, 
sons; Dolores, Catarina, Lola, Cristina, and 
Juana, daughters. 

Second son, Juan, was considered the ablest 
in the family, but died early; was educated in 
England, being graduated from three colleges. 

Third son, Francisco, married Ascencion 
Sepiilveda, and by her had a son, Francisco, 
and a daughter, Maria Antonia. His second 
wife was Concepcion Sepiilveda, sister of the 
former wife; by her he had Juan, Osboldo, 
Jose Hercules, Pablo, and Hanibal, sons; and 
Anita (Mrs. F. W. Thompson), Herlinda, 
Rosa, and Diana, daughters. 

Fourth son, Pablo, married Josefa Moreno, 
and had Francisca (Mrs. T. B. Dibblee), 
Delfina (one of twins), Herminia,|and Pau- 
lina, all daughters. 

Fifth son, Miguel, married Trinidad Or- 
tega; their children were: Gaspar, fJlpiano, 
and Leon, sous, and Maria (Mrs. Taylor), 
Josefa, Olympia, Joaquina, and Paulina, 

Sixth son, Joaquin, was for a time sheriff 
of Santa Barbara County. He never married. 

Of the daughters of Jos^ de la Guerra y 
Noriega, Teresa, the eldest, married William 
E. P. Hartnell, of England, and by him had 
twenty-two children, as follows: Guillermo, 
Juan, Alvano ,Nataniel, George, Franco, Ben- 
jamin, Teresa, Matilde, Anita, Magdalena, 
Auielia, and others whose names cannot be had. 

The second daughter, Maria de las Augus- 
tias, was married to Manuel Jimeno of Mex- 
ico, who was subsequently secretary to several 

of the governors of California, and intimately 
connected with land matters after seculariza- 
tion of the missions. Maria had Manuela, 
Maria Antonia, Augustias, Carolina, daugh- 
ters; and Jose Antonio, Porfirio. Santiago, 
Enrique, Belisario, Juan and Alfredo, chil- 
dren by this marriage; and by her second 
marriage to Dr. Ord, of the United States 
navy, one daughter, Eebecca Ord. 

The third daughter. Ana Maria Antonia, 
married to Alfred Robinson, of Boston, 
Massachusetts, had James, Alfredo, Miguel, 
and another James, sons; Elena, Maria, An- 
tonia, and Paulina, daughters. 

This lady was the bride referred to in 
Dana's account of Santa Barbara. Alfred 
Robinson came from Boston in 1829, on the 
ship Brooklyn, owned by Bryant, Sturgis, 
and others. He was for many years engaged 
in mercantile business, and was the first ao-eut 
of the Pacific Steamboat Company in 1849. 
The first son, James, for whom the youngest 
was named, died at West Point when seven- 
teen years old. 

The fourth and youngest daughter of Don 
Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, named Antonia 
Maria, married first Cesario Lataillade of . 
Spain, by whom she had Cesario, Jr., and 
Maria Antonia; contracting a second mar- 
riage with Caspar Orefia of Spain, she had 
Anita, Serena, Rosa, Acacia, and Teresa, 
daughters; and Leopoldo, Dario, Orestes, 
and Arturo, sons. This lady, Mrs. Orena, 
was considered the greatest beauty of the de 
la Guerra family, or even of the coast. 

One of the sons of Don Jose was Don Pablo 
de la Guerra, a member of the first constitu- 
tional convention of California, who, in his 
life-time, was severally Senator, District 
Judge of. the Fourth Judicial District, and 
Lieutenant Governor of the State. He was 
a courteous, intelligent, upright n\an. He 
died February 5, 1874. 


His predecessor as District Judge was Don 
Joaquin Carrillo. Judge Carrillo was the 
first County Judge of this county, and was 
elected to the district bench in 1852, and 
served in this capacity eleven years. He 
neither spoke nor understood the English 
language; all proceedings in his court were 
conducted in Spanish. His mind was broad 
and easily grasped and mastered the most 
subtle and complicated cases. He based his 
decisions upon the principles of equity, rather 
than law. Don Joaquin Carrillo was a warm 
friend of the Americans. He died February 
19, 1868, beloved and lamented. 

Another of the prominent families, whose 
members are now counted by the hundred, 
was founded by Don Kaymundo Carrillo, 
one of the first commanders of the posts of 
San Diego and Santa Barbara. He married 
Tomasa Lugo, daughter of one of the oldest 
soldiers stationed at Santa Barbara. They 
had four sons and one daughter, Maria An- 
tonia, already mentioned as the wife of Jose 
de la Gnerra y Noriega, and mother of the 
de la Guerra y Carrillo family. 

The first son of Kaymundo Carrillo, Carlos 
Antonio, married Maria, sister of Governor 
Castro, and by her had sons : Jose, who 
married Catarina Ortega; Pedro, who married 
Josefa Bandini; Jose Jesus, wedded to Tomasa 
Gutierrez; and daughters, Maria Josefa, who 
married William G. Dana; Encarnacion, wife 
of Thomas Bobbins; Francisca, wedded to 
Alpheus Thompson; Manuela, married to 
John C. Jones; Maria Antonia, spouse of 
Lewis C. Burton; and two other daughters, 
who died young — in all ten children. 

Anastacio, Carriilo's second son, married 
Concepcion Garcia. Their children were: 
Raymnndo, who married Dolores Ortega; 
Francisco, dead; Luis, married to Kefugio 
Ortega; Guillermo, whose wife was Manuela 
Ortega; and daughters, Micaela, dead; Man- 

uela, married to Joaquin Carrillo; and Sole- 
dad, dead. 

Domingo Carrillo, the third son, married 
Concepcion Pico. They had sons: Joaquin, 
married to his cousin, Manuela Carrillo; 
Jose Antonio, who married Felicitas Gu- 
tierrez; Francisco, whose wife was Dorotea 
Lugo; Alejandro, dead; Felipe, dead; and 
daughters, Maria, wife of J. M. Covarrubias; 
Angela, married to Ygnacio del Valle; and 
Maria Antonia, dead. 

Jose Antonio Carrillo, the fourth son, 
married Estefana Pico. His daughter was 
Luis (or Lewis) Burton's second wife, mother 
of Ben Burton. 

The Ortega family was of the sangi'e asul, 
or blue blood of Castile, Spain. Some of 
this family emigrated to Guadalaxara, Mex- 
ico, and the founder of the California branch 
was for a time commandante of a cavalry 
company at Loreto, in La Baja, or Lower 
California, where were born to him, Captain 
Jose Maria Ortega, and his wife, Antonia 
Carrillo, seven children: Ygnacio, Jose Ma- 
ria, Jose Yicente, Francisco and Juan; and 
Maria Luisa and Maria Antonia, daughters. 

Ygnacio Ortega married Francisca Lopez, 
and had sons: Martin, married to Ynocencia 
Moraga; Jose Vicente, who married Maria 
Estefana Olivera; and Antonio Maria Jose 
Dolores, Jose de Jesus and Joaquin, who 
did not marry; also daughters. Pilar, spouse 
of the doughty Santiago Arguello; Soledad, 
wife of Luis Arguello; Maria de Jesus, mar- 
ried to Jose Ramirez; Concepcion, who mar- 
ried Jose Antonio de la Guerra; and Cata- 
rina, wife of Jose Carrillo. 

Jose Yicente, second son of Captain Or- 
tega, was the founder of the Refugio Rancho, 
which is still possessed by the family. 

Juan Ortega, tlie fourth son, married Ra- 
faela Arrellanez. Their children were: Enii- 
dio, married to Concepcion Dominguez; and 


daughters, Maria, wife of Guadalupe Her- 
nandez; Buenaventura, wife of Joaquin Cota; 
Maria Antonia, wife of Pedro Dejeme; and 
Maria de Jesus, who married Fernando Tico. 

Jose Vicente, son of Ygnacio, and grand- 
son of Captain Ortega, married Maria Este- 
fana Oil vera, daughter of Ygnacio Olivera, 
of Los Angeles. The Oliveras were of old 
Castilian stock, with chivalric ideas of court- 
esy and honor. Diego Olivera, who died a 
few years since, wore the old-time garb, with 
silk stockings, shoes with jeweled , buckles, 
and the sword to bear which he had hered- 
itary right. It bore engraved the time- 
honored Spanish motto — "iV^c me saques sin 
razon, no me emvaines sin, honor (" Draw 
me not in unjust cause, sheath me not with 
honor dimmed"). This Diego Olivera was 
brother to Maria Estefana, who gave her hus- 
band children as follows: Two sons named 
Luis, who both died joung; Manuel, who 
died somewhat later; Pedro, and one daugh- 
ter, Rafaela Luisa, -ndfe of Daniel Hill. 

Daniel Hill and his wife, Rafaela Luisa, 
had children as follows: Rosa, wife of Nich- 
olas A. Den; Josefa, wife of Alexander S. 
Taylor; Susana, wife of T. Wallace More; 
Maria Antonia, wife of H. O'Neill; Lucre- 
cia, died young; Adelaida, Helena, daugh- 
ters; and Vicente, Jose Maria, Juan, Tomas, 
Ramon, Enrique and Daniel, sons. 

The Cotas were another important family, 
allied by intermarriage witli various names 
which appear on the page of history. At 
least two women of this family are deservincp 
of mention here, they being also grand- 
daughters of that Corporal Antonio Maria 
Lugo who came up from Los Angeles to 
assist in repulsing the "pirate" Bouchard, in 
1818. Maria Los Angeles Cota de la Torre, 
daughter of Don Pablo Cota, ensign of the 
Santa Barbara company, and of Doiia Rosa 
Lugo, was born at Santa Barbara in 1790. 

At thirteen years of age she was married to 
Don Jose Joaquin de la Torre, cadet and 
commissary at Monterey, and afterwards sec- 
retary to Governor Sola. She died at Mon- 
terey in 1877, aged eighty-seven years, after 
seventy-four years of married life. She left 
three sons, three daughters, forty-three grand- 
children, thirty-four great-grandchildren, and 
several great-great-grandchildren. 

Maria Ysabel Cota de Pico was born at 
Santa Barbara, May, 1783. At nineteen 
years old she married Jose Dolores Pico, one 
of three brothers who came to California 
with the first Mexican colony as officers in 
the military service of the Spanish Vice- 
royalty in Mexico. Her husband died in 
1827, after fifty years of military service. 
Of this marriage were born thirteen children, 
who, with their cousins, the Castros, children 
of their father's brothers, and allies by mar- 
riage, were all powerful in the affairs of gov- 
ernment in California at the time of the 
American invasion. This lady was over 
eighty-six years old when she died. Her 
descendants numbered over 300, including 
one of the sixth geueration; nearly all live 
in this State, and they bear the names of the 
most prominent native families,' as well as of 
many leading American citizens intermarried 

with them. 1152322 

Raymundo Olivas, born in Los Angeles in 
1801, came northward in 1821. He was the 
original grantee of the San Miguelito or Cas- 
itas Rancho, granted in 1840. Pie and his 
wife had twenty-one children. In 1883 he 
had under his roof in Ventura County, he 
then being nearly eighty and his wife sixty 
years old, forty-three descendants, of whom 
eighteen were their sons and daughters. 
Moreover, a daughter living at Santa Cruz 
had already done somewhat toward sustain- 
ing the family record, in presenting the 
country with ten children. 


There were other eminent families, bears 
ing the names of Del Valle, Arnaz, Camar- 
illo, etc., although the Del Valles, a notable 
family, now belong properly to Ventura 

Among the pioneers not of Spanish or 
Mexican blood were the following: 

Joseph Chapman, of Massachusetts, cap- 
tured from Bouchard's privateer in 1818; 
settled for a time in Los Angeles County 
with the Lugos; married Gruadalupe Ortega, 
of Santa Barbara; he built and lived in the 
adobe house still standing in the rear of the 
Episcopal church; died in 1848, leaving 
many descendants. 

Captain James W. Burke, a native of Ire- 
land, arrived here from Lima in 1820, and 
settled permanently in 1828. 

William E. P. Hartnell, an Englishman, 
came here in 1822. He was a notable linguist; 
was Government translator at Monterey, and 
translated the statutes into Spanish. He 
married Teresa de la Guerra, daughter of 
Don Jose, and they had twenty-two children, 
of whom a number are still living in this 
county and San Luis. He died in 1854. 

Captain Thomas Robbins, a native of Nan- 
tucket, came here in 1827. He owned the 
Rancho Las Positas y Calera, adjoining Santa 
Barbara. Died in 1857. 

Captain William G. Dana came from Bos- 
ton in 1827. He lived mostly at his rancho, 
Nipomo, in San Luis County, where he died 
in 1857, and where are still living a number 
of the twenty-two children borne him by his 
wife, Maria Josefa Carrillo. 

Alfred Robinson came hitlier from Boston 
in 1829, on the ship Brooklyn. He married 
Ana Maria Antonia de la Guerra; was the 
first agent of the Pacific Steamship Com- 
pany in 1849, and was for many years a 
leading merchant. He is a gentleman of 
intelligence and reiinement, and generally | 

esteemed. He still lives in San Francisco. 
He is the author of a work, "Life in Cali- 
fornia," published in 1846, and now quite 

Robert Elwell, of Boston, arrived in 1825. 
He was favorably known by all the old citi- 
zens. He had a pithy way of expression. 
One of his sayings was the following: "In 
politics, I am a Whig; in religion, a Uni- 
tarian. I am also a Freemason, and if these 
won't take a man to Heaven, I don't know 
what will." He died in 1853. 

Daniel A. Hill, of Billerica, Massachusetts, 
came from the Sandwich Islands to Monterey 
in 1823, and settled in Santa Barbara the 
following year. He was the original grantee 
of La Goleta Rancho, where he died in 1865. 
He left a large family, who, with their 
descendants, still reside in Santa Barbara 

James Back, of Boston, Massachusetts, 
arrived from the Sandwich Islands in 1829. 
His descandants still have a home here. 

Captain Alpheus B. Thompson, of Bruns- 
wick, Maine, arrived hero from Honolulu in 
1834. As merchant and ship-master he did 
business here many years. Three of liis 
children, C. A. Thompson, A. B. Thompson 
and Mr?. E. Van Valkenburg are now residents 
of this vicinity. A. B. Thompson was for 
twelve years the County Clerk of Santa Bar- 
bara County. Captain Thompson died at 
Los Angeles in the year 1870. 

Augustin Jansen, of Belgium, arrived here 
from Mexico in August, 1834. He has been 
County Assessor of this county, and a mem- 
ber of the common council of Santa Barbara 

Julian Foxen arrived in 1828 from En- 
gland. He was a man of notable character. 
He died on his rancho, the Tinaquaic, in 
February, 1874, leaving many descendants. 

Lewis F. Burton, of Henry County, Ten- 


nessee, came here in 1881, and engaged in 
otter-hunting, and later he conducted a 
mercantile business in Santa Barbara for 
more than thirty years. He was nearly 
killed by robbers, in the early days, near the 
site of the present Port Harford, but was 
nursed back to health by the ladies of the 
Carrillo family, one of whom he married later 
on. He died in 1880. 

Captain John Wilson, of Scotland, who 
came hither via Peru in 1830, was long a 
merchant here. He died in 1860 at San Luis 

Francis Ziba Branch, of New York, came 
here from New Mexico in 1833. He engaged 
in mercantile pursuits; died in 1874 at San 
Luis Obispo. 

Isaac J. Sparks, of Maine, came overland 
in 1832. He was a merchant, and the first 
postmaster appointed; he built the first brick 
house in Santa Barbara, erected in 1854, 
which now forms a part of the old Park 

James Scott, of Scotland, came here in 
1830 with Captain Wilson, and was his 
partner in business. He died in 1851. 

George Nidever, of Arkansas, came over- 
land in 1834, reaching Santa Barbara in 1835 
He was a mighty hunter. He it was who 
rescued "the lost woman" from San Nicolas. 

Captain John F. Smith, native of France, 
came in 1883 via the Sandwich Islands, built 

the first wooden dwelling in Santa Barbara, 
still standing near the gas-house. He died 
in 1866. 

Nicholas A. Den, of Waterford, Ireland, 
arrived in 1839. He was the grantee of the 
Rancho Dos Pueblos. He married a daughter 
of Daniel A. Hill. He died in 1862, leaving 
ten children. 

John C. Jones, of Boston, came hither in 
1835 from Honolulu, where he had been 
United States Consul. He married Manuela 
Carrillo, whose wedding portion was one-half 
of Santa Rosa Island, which he, with A. B. 
Thompson, a brother-in-law, stocked with 
horses, sheep and cattle. He removed with 
his family to Boston, and died about 1850. 

Albert Packard, a New Englander, arrived 
via Mazatlan about 1845, and lived here for 
many years, being well-known as a prominent 
lawyer and a wealthy orchardist. He still 

Henry J. Dally, of New York, reached 
Monterey in 1843, and removed to San Luis 
Obispo in 1848, and to Santa Barbara in 
1853. He was an otter-hunter. 

Wm. A. Streeter, a New Yorker, came 
here via Peru in 1843. A wheelwright by 
trade, he ofiiciated as a dentist and a physician, 
and was and is skillful at almost every kind 
of practical mechanics. He still lives, en- 
gaged in various and versatile sorts of handi- 





After the signing of the treaty of peace 
between the United States and Mexico, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1848, the establishment of the new 
government was pushed forward as speedily 
as practicable. One month after the adoption 
of the Constitution, the first Legislature met 
at San Jose, which was made the capital. 

The act subdividing the State into coun- 
ties, and appointing the county-seats therein, 
approved February 18, 1850, contained pass- 
ages as follows: 

" Section 1. The following shall be the 
boundaries and seats of justice of the several 
counties of the State of California until other- 
wise determined by law. 

" Section 2 created San Diego County. 

" Section 3 created Los Angeles County. 

" Section 4. County of Santa Baeuaea. 
Begiiming on the sea coast, at the mouth of 
the creek called Santa Maria, and running 
up the middle of said creek to its source; 
thence due northeast to the summit of the 
Coast Range, the farm of Santa Maria fall- 
ing within Santa Barbara County; thence 
Ibllowing the summit of the Coast Range to 
the northwest corner of Los Angeles County; 
then along the northwest boundary of said 
county to the ocean and three English miles 
therein; and thence in a northwesterly direc- 
tion, parallel with the coast, to a point dne 

west of the mouth of Santa Maria Creek; 
thence due east to the mouth of said creek, 
which was the place of beginning, including 
the islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, 
San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and 
all others in the same vicinity. The seat of 
justice shall be at Santa Barbara. 

" Section 5. County of San Luis Obispo. 
Beginning three English miles west of the 
coast, at a point due west of the source of the 
Nacimiento River, and running due east to 
the source of said river; thence down the 
middle of said river to its confluence with 
Monterey River; thence up or down, as the 
case may be, the middle of Monterey River 
to the parallel of thirty-six degrees north 
latitude; thence due east following said par- 
allel to the summit of the Coast Range; 
thence following the summit of said range in 
a southeasterly direction to the northeast 
corner of Santa Barbara County; thence fol- 
lowing the northern boundary of Santa Bar- 
bara County to the ocean, and three English 
miles therein; and tlience in a northwesterly 
direction parallel with the coast, to the place 
of beginning. The seat of justice shall be at 
San Luis Obispo." 

A subsequent act, defining the boundaries 
between Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo 
Counties was passed May 13, 1854. The 
northern line of Santa Barbara County was 
declared to be from where the eastern line 


intersected the southern line of Township 
10 north, San Bernardino base; thence west, 
on 'said township line to the Santa Maria 
River, thence down said river and down the 
creek which divides that part of Guadalupe 
Rancho known as La Larga from that known 
as Oso Flaco, to a point in the Pacific ocean 
opposite the mouth of said creek. 

The act passed March 2, 1850, providing 
for the holding of the first county election, 
and that passed March 23, 1850, providing 
for general elections, applied to these as to 
the rest of the newly designated counties. 


from Santa Barbara from March to Septem- 
ber, 1847, amounted to $27,780. 

In the summer of 1848 the United States 
steamship Edith went ashore on the coast be- 
tween Point Sal and Point Arguello. There 
were assertions that she was purposely 
wrecked, as some of the crew were eager to 
leave service and go to the newly discovered 
gold mines. The wreck was sold to Captain 
William G. Dana, owner of the great Nipomo 
rancho, who entertained at his house the 
officers and the crew until arrangement could 
be made for tbeir transportation to Monterey, 
then the State capital and headquarters on 
this coast for the army and navy. 


The first supply of public money for Santa 
Barbara County was obtained for licenses for 
selling liquor and merchandise. Tiie treas- 
urer's account began August 23, 1850. An 
accounting was made January 4, 1851, when 
he was charged with State taxes, $5,507.18; 
county taxes, $2,753.59; total, $8,260.77. 
The total of credits was $5,667.53, leaving 
for salaries, etc., $2,593.24. 

Apropos to the subject of licenses, there 
would seem to have been some thirst-insi>ir- 

ing property in the climate of Santa Barbara 
at this period, for, of the fifty licenses issued 
from August, 1850, to February, 1851, 
thirty-two were for the sale of liquors. It 
should be said, however, that the sales were 
mostly to foreign customers, for the native 
Californians of that day were not excessive 
drinkers, but it is surprising to see how many 
of the aristocratic old families took out 
licenses to sell liquor. 

It is said that the three lustrums from 
1850 to 1865 were a period of great peace 
and order in , Santa Barbara. No place in 
California, nor even in all the United States, 
it is declared, with an equal population, was 
more free from crime than was this city at 
that period. The county jail served as the 
place of incarceration of all the town prison- 
ers, as well as those of the county; yet, as 
we are told, more than half the time during 
those fifteen years the jail door stood wide 
open, the edifice being without an occupant. 
Many of the new-comers had intermarried 
with the natives, and these relations served 
to bind the diverse elements together in har- 
mony. There were occasional strifes over 
the possession of land outside of the city, 
such as always occur in a new country, but 
these were not frequent in the earlier times, 
for land was not considered worth enough to 
warrant dispute. 

It was, however, inevitable' that owing to 
a not unnatural friction, should be occasional 
passages which caused strained relations be- 
tween the Californians and the Americans. 
For instance, two men coming up the coast 
to buy cattle were murdered near the San 
Gabriel Iliver by one Zavaleta and another 
native, who came to Santa Barbara to spend 
the money taken from their victims. The 
murderers were recognized by description, 
and were arrested l)y the sheriff, Valentine 
Hearne, aided by a number i)f citizens. Some 


of the native families, inchiding that of Cap- 
tain de la Guerra, protested against the treat- 
ment of the men, as based on insufiicient 
evidence, and inspired by race prejudice. 
Hence considerable ill-feeling was engen- 
dered. An escort of twenty-live men was 
made up to accompany the accused back to 
Los Angeles, and a semi-ofKcial demand, ac- 
companied by a menace, was made for a sup- 
ply of horses to be furnished for the purpose, 
by the citizens of Santa Barbara. The men 
were tried, and confessed the murder in de- 
tail, pointing out the burial place of their 
victims, 80 that they were Jmng by the people 
of Los Angeles. Notwithstandiftg this justi- 
fication. Dr. Den and the de la Guerras were 
so much displeased with Hearne for having 
arrested the men, that they withdrew from 
his bond, and so forced him to resign his 
office of sheriff. It is said that W. W. Twist, 
his successor, was not even an American 

Again, trouble arose from the dissatisfac- 
tion of American newcomers with the system 
of large holdings of land by the natives, and 
from such a cause arose one of the celebrated 
cases of the county. John Vidal, a member 
of Games' Company in Stevenson's Regi- 
ment, had rented for a time a tract of land 
on the Arroyo Burro, a small creek emptying 
into the sea near Santa Barbara, and when 
his lea^e expired, he claimed the land under 
the pre-emption laws as Government land. 
Suit being brought in the respective courts, 
the land was adjudged the property of Dr. 
Den, of whom Vidal had rented, and the 
sheriff (Twist) was ordered by the court to 
evict Vidal and put Den in possession. 
Vidal was known to have many friends 
among the gamblers, and the attempt to disturb 
him was considered very dangerous. When 
the sheriff called out a posse to execute the 
writ of ejectment, the people began to take 

sides, and Vidal's friends gathered upon the 
disputed territory, some say merely in 
friendly union, others declare to fortify and 
hold the place at all hazards. The sheriff 
enlisted some 200 men, engaged a surgeon, 
and secured a small cannon to be used, if 
necessary, in demolishing the fortifications. 
At this juncture, Vidal and a few of his 
companions rode up to the assembled force, 
whether with hostile intent or in the hope 
that the issue might be determined by 
amiable parley. Two of his companions 
lassoed the cannon, and made as if to drag it 
away, upon which pretext Twist tired upon 
them, and at once the light became general. 
One of Vidal's companions rushed at Twist, 
and attempted to plunge into him a long 
knife, which was deflected by a rib, so that 
the wound was not dangerous. Vidal was 
shot, and fell from his horse, but, although 
terribly wounded, he lingered under Dr. 
Brinkerhoff's care for fourteen days, unable 
to speak, even regarding a ring he wore, 
which he evidently wished to leave to some 
one. Twist soon recovered. These were the 
only serious casualties which occurred, 
although a running fight lasted for some 
minutes. By advice of their leading men, 
the Californian citizens remained within 
doors that day, and Pablo de la Guerra pro- 
ceeded to the spot with a flag of truce, and 
persuaded the Vidal adherents to submit to 
the legal authorities. The next morning, a 
ship-of war anchored here, having been des- 
patched from Monterey to enforce order if 

The land in dispute was afterward pro- 
nounced public ground, although Vidal had 
practically acknowledged Den's ownership by 
possession, by his payment of rental for it. 
Vidal appears to have been largely a scape- 
goat in the matter, as he was a man of some 
worth. He was justice of the peace when 


killed, and had been associate justice with 
Joaquin Carrillo. 

The feverish excitement, the disorganized 
condition? of society, and generallawlessness, 
naturally led to a vast deal of gambling, 
drinking and other vices, as well as systems 
of outlawry, — practically highway robbers. 

One gang, which flourished in the early 
'SOs, had its headquarters at the Los Alamos 
and Purisima Ilanchos. It was headed by 
Salomon Pico, a connection of" Don Pio and 
General Andres Pico; and this prestige of 
blood no doubt greatly facilitated the gang's 
operations, by procuring shelter, protection, 
aid, and warnings of danger, from the jiow- 
erful ranclieros. The ostensible occupation 
of this set was driving and trading in stock, 
and the consequent irregularities of move- 
ment greatly facilitated the siippression of 
strangers who came thither, well supplied 
with money, to purchase cattle. Many were 
the disappearances noted of such individuals, 
and after years brought to light many skele- 
tons, on which were signs of violence telling 
of robbery and murder. 

Jack Powers was another bandit, and one 
of the most remarkable and most successful 
of the epoch. He had been a member of 
Captain Lippett's Company F, Stevenson's 
Kegiment, and is said to have enjoyed at one 
time a good reputation and standing. After 
being mustered out, he took up the career of 
a gambler, in which he was very successful, 
and when Salomon Pico's band was dispersed. 
Powers brought its remnants together under 
his own leadership, and for a time they ter- 
rorized the section for a period of about touv 
years. He was deemed the best rider in the 
State, — no slight compliment, as the Califor- 
nian boys were very like unto centaurs. 
Powers once at San Jose rode for a wager 150 
miles in fourteen hours, changing steeds at will. 
This skill as a rider, and his command of 

good horses, made him appear fairly ubiqui- 
tous, as was reputed to be Joaquin Murieta. 
Powers had a gray mule, which, it was said, 
would carry him 100 miles in twelve hours. 
He was once in Santa Barbara within ten 
hours after he had committed a rubbery near 
San Luis Obispo. Many anecdotes are told 
of Powers' exploits. 

Another of the fraternity of ''holy terrors" 
was Patrick Dunn, who had the name of be- 
longing to Powers' gang. Dunn, while in- 
toxicated, shot a stranger, a passenger from a 
steamer; the murder, done in the square be- 
fore the de la Guerra House, was witnessed by 
several ladies of that family. But such was 
the terror of incurring the enmity of the gang, 
that only the court's solemn assurance of 
protection could induce them to testify. 
Whilst the trial was in progress, the judge, 
the district attorney and the sheriff, each 
received a warning that they would be killed 
if they prosecuted the case, and no doul)t 
murder would have been done in open court, 
had not six deputies been sworn in, with in- 
structions to shoot instantly Powers and Dunn, 
at any attempt to interfere with the proceed- 
ings. Dunn pleaded justifiable homicide in 
self-defence, and after a trial of twenty-one 
days, the jury disagreed. A similar result 
followed a second trial, held at Los Angeles. 

Dunn was again tried for an attempt at 
murder, he having loaded a double barreled 
shot-gun to kill one Martin, who had ofEended 
him. Both barrels snapped without effect, 
but Dunn was sentenced to State's prison for 
a term of years. It became known that 
Powers had determined to rescue Dunn on 
his passage from the jail to the boat, and 
twenty-five men were sworn in as deputies, 
with instructions as before, to shoot both 
Dunn and Powers upon any attempt at a 
rescue. Powers, so Russell Heath, the sher- 
iff, assured him, would be the first to fall. 


The deputies followed the van containing the 
prisoner from the jail to the shore, where he 
was transferred to the lighter without inter- 
ruption, although Powers and his friends, 
about thirty in number, had assembled at the 
beach on horseback. Powers left California 
about 1850, and went to Mexico, where he 
was shot. Dunn died in Arizona in 1866. 

Up to 1856, the mail facilities for Santa 
Barbara were very sketchy; Lewis T. Burton 
was the first postmaster. When the Panama 
steamers began to touch here, they carried 
letters between this point and San Francisco, 
but the mail-bag was treated with so little 
consideration that it was oftpn wetted in 
transit between the steamer and the landing, 
and on one occasion several gallons of water 
were turned out of the bag, along with the 
letters and papers. The dispatching of the 
mail was treated as a matter of little moment, 
and the letters received for distribution were 
kept in a candle-box, where each could help 
himself to his own — or his neighbor's — mis- 
sives. In March, 1856, William Carey Jones, 
in a letter addressed to the Postmaster-Gen. 
eral, set forth the disadvantage and detriment 
suffered from this lack of postal service, cited 
the superior means of intercommunication 
enjoyed under the Spanish rule eighty years 
previous, and advocated the establishment of 
a regular weekly mail, to be carried by cour- 
iers, between Monterey and San Diego. 
Within a year or two, the overland stage, 
carrying mail and passengers, was established 
by the United States Government, at a cost 
of about $500,000 per annum. It was de- 
signed to open a line of settlements from 
Texas to California, in the interest of the 
Southern States. Few passengers took this 
route, and as the schedule time was but little 
less than by steamer, the large Eastern niail 
continued to be transferred by the main lines 
of passenger travel. The stage route lay 

through the coast counties, and afforded their 
people the long-needed facilities. The war 
1 of the Rebellion scattered the stock, and put 
an end to this line. 

At a little after 8 a. m., on January 9, 1857, 
was felt the premonitory shock of one of the 
severest earthquakes ever felt in California. 
The morning was clear, snnny and cool, witli 
no forecast of the temblor whose shocks 
continued at intervals until the next day, 
their force extending from Point Concepcion 
to Los Angeles. The most violent alarm was 
felt by the people at Santa Barbara; but, for- 
tunately, there was no loss of life, and but 
little damage to property beyond cracking- 
the walls of some of the houses. The reser- 
voir at the mission rocked so violently that 
the water slopped over at each of its sides so 
plentifully as to set quite a stream running; 
and near the hot springs great boulders were 
detached from the cliffs and rolled into the 
valley. At San Buenaventura, the mission 
church was badly injured, the roof partly 
falling in, and the belfry suffering consider- 
able injury. The tower of the Point Concep- 
cion light-house also was much damaged. 

The Gazette died this year, the plant being 
sold to parties who removed it to San Fran- 
cisco. It is believed that no file of this paper 
was preserved. 

The whole tax rate for this year was $1.62i 
on the $100. In September there was in 
the county treasury $8,724.77|, the largest 
sum yet known, and the supervisors took the 
subject in hand, fixing the treasurer's bonds 
at $20,000. The system of accounts in this 
department was very obscure and imperfect, 
and it is said that the amounts on the stubs 
of the warrants gave the only clue to the con- 
dition of the funds. There seems to have 
been a pretty continual agitation on this sub- 
ject during this period, and inspections were 
ordered made of the books of the auditor 


also. The same trouble ran into the succeed- 
ing year. 

The whole number of votes cast at the 
county election in 1858 was 319. The total 
of tax rates for this year was $1.52 J on 
each $100. A road tax of $2.00 was levied 
on every man between twenty and forty 
years old. It was now orJered that one- 
sixth part of all taxes raised be set apart 
as a hospital fund. 

On June 17, 1859, Santa Barbara was 
visited by a hot, sirocco-like wind from the 
northwest, which began about 12 m., and 
blew furiously until about 3:30 p. m., killing 
birds, rabbits, lambs, etc., blasting fruit, 
scorching the leaves on the wind ward side of 
trees, and sending the mercury up to 136° F.. 

In 1860 Santa Barbara shared in the split 
in the Democratic party on the slavery ques- 
tion, and the electoral ticket was divided. 
It was this year that San Buenaventura be- 
came ambitious of planning the town plat 
after regular, and laying out a street in front 
of the mission, between it and the oi'chard. 
After some controversy, this was carried 
into effect, and the line main street of the 
town, which serves as its base line, dates 
from this beginning. 

In 1861 there was a general resolve to 
discharge the heavy debt incurred by pre 
vious mismanagement and extravagance, and 
a law looking to that purpose was enacted 
by the Legislature, by the expressed wish 
of the people. The tax rate for this year 
was $1.90 on the $100. An appropi-iation 
was made by the Legislature of $15,000 
for the construction of a county road, bids 
were made, and the contract was awarded 
to T. Wallace More; but he, after some little 
time, declared his inability to complete the 
undertaking, and suit was brought against 
him for the performance of the contract. 
The question was ultimately compromised, 

The elections passed ofi' very quietly this 
year, perhaps because of the absence of a 
newspaper to incite violence of political 

Santa Barbara shared in the excessive 
rains that fell all over California in the 
winter of 1861-'62, and many changes were 
wrought in the way of changing the beds 
of rivers, filling up estuaries, etc. Until 
this season, the estuary of the Goleta was 
a sort of harbor, accessible to small crafts, 
which might have been made into a safe 
harbor of refuge from storms, but this sea- 
son's freshets filled it with sand and gravel 
from the mountains, beyond the hope of 
clearing. In other places, the swollen streams 
swept out channels through the iolsas, or 
miry lagoons, in which they had terminated. 
The appearance of the country was also 
much changed by slides in the mountains. 
At San Buenaventura there was a slide along 
almost the whole face of the hill where ran 
the aqueduct, and the canal was so nearly de- 
stroyed as to require rebuilding. Many 
cattle perished this winter, but they were 
hardly missed, as stock was even over-abun- 

The taxes for 1863 footed up to $2.52 
on ths $100. The election of this year 
showed a notable increase in tbe population, 
as indexed by the nun^ber of voters. The 
salaries of the county judges, the sheriff, 
and the county clerk were fixed this year, 
respectively, as follows:— $1,000, $1,000, 
and $500 per annum, It was about this 
season that the enormous increase of the 
herds had brought down beef to a price that 
hardly repaid the killing. The loss in the hard 
winter of 1861-'62 was speedily recouped, 
and the droves had now attained propor- 
tions that demanded diminution. Farticu 
larly in the southern counties was this result 
made necessary, for here the distance from 


the markets, the long drives thereto over 
closely-grazed country, the inevitable shrink- 
age contingent upon the journey, and the in- 
ferior quality of the beef after the drive, all 
tended to depret^s greatly the value of this 
product. This led to the institution of a 
matanza, or species of wholesale slaughter, 
which reached, it is asserted, far toward 100.- 
000 head. The slaughter-works were situated 
on the seashore between Santa Barbara and 
Carpenteria, that the refuse might be swept 
away by the tide. The carcasses were put 
into steam baths, and subjected to such heat 
that the flesh fell from the bones and became 
a mass of jelly and fat. This was put into a 
mighty press, and every particle of the tallow 
extracted; the jelly went to the manufacture 
of glue, the horns were sent East to be made 
into combs and other such matters. The cake 
or pressed meat was fed to hogs, so that every 
portion of the beef was utilized. Yet, not- 
withstanding this economy and the low price 
paid — §5 per head — the enterprise was un- 
profitable to its projectors. 

In 1864 began the development of mis- 
fortunes arising from various causes. The 
excess of cattle and low prices of beef; the 
number of mortgages incurred as lands were 
changing owners; the purchase of goods, often 
superfluities, on the credit system, to be paid 
for with heavy interest — all these factors en- 
tered into the conditions. Mortgages on 
ranches were given as security for compara- 
tively small debts, and they were seldom re- 
deemed. As land was held at about 25 cents 
per acre, an indebtedness of a few thousand 
dollars not infrequently laid a mortgage 
on a rancho of eleven leagues, or 44,000 
acres. In this manner the Santa Clara del 
Norte, the Las Posas, the Simi, and other 
fine ranchos were alienated from their orig- 
inal owners. The sum of $20,000 or less 
would have saved to the mortgageor the ran- 

chos Simi Las Posas, Conejo; San Julian and 
Espada, aggregating 200,000 or more acres. 
Nearly all the principal rancho-owners this 
year asked and obtained considerable reduc- 
tions on their assessments. 

The whole number of votes cast in this 
year's election was 429. 

To add to the general drawbacks of this 
year, the great drouth created terrible havoc, 
compared to which that caused by the floods 
had been trifling. 

This drouth, though severe throughout 
the State, was much more disastrous in the 
southern counties than elsewhere. The conn, 
try was overstocked with cattle, and the dried 
grass was eaten ch.'se to the ground before 
the time came for the usual rainfall. Then 
a little rain fell, early in December, but bare- 
ly enough to lay the dust in Santa Barbara. 
December and January passed with no more 
rain. The grazing grounds were absolutely 
bare, and there was no grass nearer than the 
snow-watered valleys over the Sierra, across 
the rainless desert. The cattle were unfit for 
a day's drive, far less 400 miles. There was 
no remembrance of a season without rain, but 
this season felt not those of either winter or 
spring. The cattle died daily by hundreds, 
and the whole country was strewn with their 
heat-dried carcasses. The assessuient-roll of 
1863 had showed over 200,000 cattle in Santa 
Barbara alone, and this probably was not 
more than two-thirds of the real number; yet 
when the grass sprung up under the welcome 
rains of the vvinter of 1864-'65, there were 
less than 5,000 cattle left to graze upon it. 
The great herds were gone, and the reign of 
the cattle kings was over. Their possessions 
were for the most part hopelessly mortgaged, 
and within the next five years had passed from 
their hands. It was sensationally reported 
during the drouth that the people of the 
southern counties were reduced to subsisting 


upon the flesh of cattle that had died of star- 
vation, and that famine was imminent. The 
people of San Francisco promptly raised 
:$3,000 and forwarded food and delicacies by 
steamer. This generosity was greatly appre- 
ciated, although it was not needed, as there 
was no destitution which could not be relieved 
in the district. 

As regarded county politics, Santa Barbara 
was democratic; but owing to the influence 
exerted by a few of the leading families, 343 
of the votes cast were in favor of the Repub- 
lican presidential electors. A representative 
of one of these families, Antonio Maria dela 
Guerra, raised a company of native cavalry, 
about 100 strong, which, although they did 
not reach the field of most active fighting, 
did excellent service on escort and scout duty 
on the frontier, their expert horsemanship 
eminently fitting them for work in the rough 
country where they served. 

In this year the oil interests attracted much 
interest and immigration, of which account 
will be given elsewhere, under the respective 

The assessment roll of 1865 showed many 
changes, old names disappearing, and being 
replaced by new. The total assessments on 
real estate were $520,591; on personal prop- 
erty, $227,594; total, $748,185, this being 
nearly $300,000 more tiian in 1860. 

In 1866, the supervisors deliberated upon 
the practicability of building a new jail, as 
recommended by a report of the grand jury, 
which condemned that in use; the decision 
was that the state of the exchequer did not 
admit of the requisite expenditure. It is a 
noticeable feature that the record of this de- 
liberation was spread upon the minutes in the 
Spanish language. The tax rate established 
this year was $2.43 on the $100. 

Up to this time, the irregularities prac- 
ticed at elections were the source of much 

dissatisfaction and inconvenience, admitting 
as they did, of great fraud in voting. In one 
instance, a whole tribe of Indians was voted; 
in another, a Panama steamer list was copied 
entire, and a precinct known to contain but 
twenty voters was made to give returns of 
160. The new law, which went into opera- 
tion this year, provided for the inscription 
upon the great register of the name of every 
voter, together with particulars of his birth, 
or naturalization,age, residence, and business, 
such as to identify him fully; and it was 
further provided that each should be restricted 
to voting in his own precinct. Most of the 
smaller precincts were abolished, this meas- 
ure also tending to obviate many sources of 
fraud and error. 

The supervisors here at this time were 
seldom in touch with the other county officials, 
now one and now another of whom fell under the 
supervisorial displeasure. This year it was 
the district attorney who fell under the ban 
of their displeasure, and his office was by 
them declared vacant, after some previous 
differences of opinion had been followed by the 
demand that he file new bonds for an addi- 
tional $10,000 for the collection of the delin- 
quent taxes, and his refusal to comply. The 
contest was somewhat long as well as acri- 
monious, ending in the district attorney's 
continuance in office. Yet the board of su- 
pervisors, which, by the way, contained a 
majority of native Californians, would ap- 
pear, reviewing the events, to have had right 
and reason on their side. 

The total tax rate for 1867 was $3.08 on 
the $100; the proportion of school tax, 35 
cents, shows that provision was being made 
for the public schools. The whole county 
vote at this year's election was 624, being a 
considerable increase on the last vote. At 
this time Thomas R. Bard was elected to 
the board of supervisors, a circumstance 


notable in that it marks the entrance into 
public official position of men trained to 
business habits, who would give personal at- 
tention to official matters instead of referring 
them to a commission. 

It may be said that tlte ensuing year of 
1868 marked a new era in the history of 
Santa Barbara, a revolution in all its condi- 
tions. The drouth of 1863-'64, and its con- 
sequent iinancial disasters, caused the breaking 
up of many of the great ranchos, whose land 
was now put on the market, at prices some- 
times as low as 25 cents per acre; this at- 
tracted a large immigration, whose members 
instituted many industries hitherto unknown 
here. It was found that much of the land was 
highly appropriate to the cultivation of wheat, 
under proper care and attention; and this 
staple, which had been produced in but small 
quantities, for tlie manufacture of a little 
flour of inferior grade for home consumption, 
was now raised in great quantities, sufficient 
for heavy exportation. Here arose the need 
for a new development; to ship it, there was 
need to lighter the wheat to the vessels, at 
risk of great loss in the surf. Hence, wharves 
were projected and constructed to facilitate 
commerce in this product. 

Up to this time, all ships touching at Santa 
Barbara anchored a mile or two from the shore, 
whence their freight was transferred by surf- 
boats. Thus the goods, as well as the mails, 
were liable to injury or loss. The passengers, 
too, were carried ashore from the boats on 
the backs of sailors. This method of land- 
ing was considerably modified wlien, in the 
summer of 1868, the Santa Barbara wharf 
was constructed by a company of citizens. 
This structure extended beyond the surf only 
under the ordinary conditions of winds and 
tides, and only lighters could approach it 
with safety, no vessel of more than 100 tons 
making fast to it. The stairs were unrailed, 

and the surf sometimes broke upon them, 
and this cause and seasickness often occa- 
sioned considerable difficulty and even danger 
to the passengers lauding, one lady falling 
into the water, whence she was rescued with 
much exertion. As the towns along the 
southern coast were already competing for 
immigration, a Los Angeles newspaper took 
occasion to remark of this that passengei-s 
for Santa Barbara were dumped into the sea, 
to swim ashore or drown! The Santa Bar- 
bara Post, just established in this year, took 
the statement au serieux, and denied it with 
much acrimony! 

With the utteiances of the newspaper, 
politics, whose fire for some time had lain 
dormant, kindled anew, and a Bepublican 
meeting, held in September of this year, was 
called the largest assemblage which had as 
yet met in Santa Barbara. 

The total vote of this year wa^ 729, having 
almost doubled since the breaking up of the 
cattle ranchos. 

The gi-and jury of June, 1868, reported 
§2,490 in the city treasury, and a total county 
debt of $37,006.24; this body had gone some- 
what deeply into official matters, and they 
reported finding systematic fraud practiced 
in the city government; that the records 
were kept in Spanish; that but one of the 
five trustees spoke English; tliat within the 
past two years 7,000 acres of the public 
lands had been granted away for less than 
$6,000; that these lands had not been granted 
for settlement or improvement, but for spec- 
ulation; and that some of the members ot 
the council were implicated. The recorder's 
books showed conveyance to one man of 900 
acres for $888, when lands of a similar class 
were selling for $6 per acre. At least one- 
third of the members of this honest and 
energetic jury were native Californians. 

The road fund now amoiinted to a respect- 


able sum, and its disbTirsement was generally 
judicious and proper. Koad districts were 
formed, and competent road- masters ap- 
pointed. Private road enterprises also were 
undertaken. Among these were the Santa 
Ynes turnpike road, organized August6, 1868, 
and the Tulare Turnpike Road Company^ 
organized December 15, 18G8. 

A number of Protestant churches were or- 
ganized this year, as will be set forth under 
the respective headings. 

The Ranchos Zaca and Corral de Cuati, 
containing 17,760 acres, were sold for $26,- 
TOO, and 900 acres of thj Santa Paula tract 
were sold for $13,000. 

Eighty new buildings were erected this 
year; $70,000 worth of lumber was used, 
and 600,000 brick. The estimated increase 
of property in the county was $1,000,000. 
The acres assessed were 1,154,106|; real es- 
tate and improvements, $695,565.48; per- 
sonal property, $478,229.72; total value. 

In 1869 the assessed value of real estate 
was $755,864; personal property, $626,267; 
total, $1,482,131. Of livestock, there were 
5,057 horses, mules and asses; 11,094 cattle; 
and a great quantity of small stock. The es- 
timated population was 8,600, of which 700 
was subject to road tax. In September of 
this year, William H. Seward visited Santa 
Barbara and addressed the people. This year 
was stigmatized by an unseemly newspaper 
war between local editors, calculated to con- 
vey but a poor impression of the refinement 
and discretion of the citizens. The whole 
vote of this year numbered 1,172. The rates 
of assessment, provided by law to be based 
on a cash value, this year gave rise to a vast 
deal of complaint, land being assessed so low 
that the great rancheros paid but nominal 
taxe^, while the levies on land improvements 
and stock, being the largest itenis on the roll. 

carried rates that bore heavily on their own- 
ers, thus virtually laying a penalty on the in- 
dustry which created these improvements. 
Land was sold in hundreds of instances for 
five, ten, or twenty times its assessed value, 
and in at least one case, a tract which had 
paid taxes on a valuation of $275 per acre 
sold for $100 per acre. Such was the re- 
sistance offered to this abuse, and such the 
stir created through the press, that in 1870 
assessments on large tracts were nearly double 
what they had been. 

During these years, from 1868 on, there 
was an almost continual agitation over the 
question of securing a railroad for Santa 
Barbara; and editorials, railroad meetings, 
and applications for charters were rife. As 
a concession to symmetry, the facts and de- 
tails necessary to a proper exposition of this 
subject will be given in another chapter. 

In 1870, the census report gave as 7,987 
the population of Santa Barbara, which then 
included Ventura. 

On September 25, 1871, was held a special 
election for State Senator from the Second 
District, to fill the vacancy caused when 
Paoheco resigned, he having been elected 
Lieutenant Governor, 

The total tax rate for 1871 was $2.08^; 
road poll tax, $2. 

The First National Uoid Bank was organ- 
ized in March, 1872; prior to this, Mortimer 
Cook, the president of this new bank, had 
been conducting a private banking house, the 
pioneer estbalishraent in the county, of that 

The election of November, 18T2, was the 
last held previous to the division of the 
county, Ventura being set off, -January 1, 
1873. The town of Santa Barbara now reg- 
istered more votes than had existed in the 
whole county twenty years earlier. At that 
time there had Ijeen but one school district. 


with some sixty piipils, as against some 
twenty at this period; while against the one 
little store kept by Lewis T. Burton in tliose 
earlier days, there were now many flonrishing 
commercial houses. 

The law creating Ventnra Conntj went 
into effect January 1, 1873; thus from this 
date on the history of the two connties re- 
quires separate treatment. Some little con- 
fusion in tlie board of supervisors arose from 
this division, but the matter was adjusted. 
From the same cause arose the need to redis- 
trict Santa Barbara County, and three town- 
ships were accordingly determined. 

The elections this year were the occasion 
of a good deal of enthnsiam, " smashing the 
machine" being the active principle to a large 

The tax rate was $1.47; the assessment roll 
bore: real estate and improvements, $3,637,- 
364; personal property, $1,415,200; money, 
$33,000. This total of $5,085,564, the board 
of equalization augmented by a sum which 
raised the iigures to $5,223,094. The in- 
crease in valuations from the preceding year 
was $626,014. 

In the days of the discovery of gold, and 
the consequent mining fever, not only had 
the newcomers passed by the southern portion 
of the State to the rich mining districts be- 
yond, but also many dwellers here were drawn 
there, to settle and remain in the larger cen- 
ters of wealth and population to the north- 
ward; and this section was left comparatively 
deserted. Thus Santa Barbara had lain 
slumbering peacefully in her balmy golden 
sunshine, remote, unheralded, difficult of ac- 
cess, until a whisper began to float beyond, 
of the delights and virtues of her climate. 
Then came now and again a weary seeker 
after health, that greatest of boons and bless- 
ings, and each one spread the fame of the 
land to others. And with some of these way- 

fai-ers in 1872 came that prince and pioneer 
of boomers, "California" Nordhoff, whose 
rapturous articles on the charms of this coun- 
try awoke to interest myriads of readers all 
over the United States, and even Europe. 
Then, with the great influx of newcomers, 
the prices of property were run up to fabu- 
lous prices, and the climate and other attri- 
butes of the country, were " puffed " beyond 
all truth and reason, ad nauseam. Once the 
tide of immigration set in, the hotel accom- 
modations were entirely inadequate for the 
visitor.-? who came pouring in by scores from 
every steamer, and, although the citizens en- 
deavored to prevent extortion, overcharges 
and abuses were very common. From this 
cause arose various rival schemes for hotel 
buildings. " The Seaside Hotel Company," 
formed in 1874, proposed to purchase the 
Burton Mound property, comprising about 
eighteen acres, and there erect a hotel which 
should eclipse all others on the coast. Dur- 
ing the agitation of this project the citizens 
in the rival, upper portion of the town, also 
started a hotel project, which they pushed 
with so much vigor that the Arlington is the 
present visible result, while the " Seaside 
Hotel " is still on paper only. 

Nearly all the wharves were erected within 
a few years after the first great immigra- 
tion. The Santa Barbara wharf was the 
first built. The franchise for the San 
Buenaventura wharf was granted to J. 
Wolf son, January 1, 1871; the Hneneme 
wharf to Thomas R. Bard, C. L. Bard and R. 
G. Surdam, August 4, 1871; the Gaviota to 
W.W. Hollister, Albert Dibblee and Thomas 
B. Dibblee, November 6, 1871; and Point 
Sal to G. W. Foster, August 4, 1872. 

The summer of 1874 witnessed a novel 
kind of political canvass. The Legislature 
had passed a law authorizing each municipal- 
ity to determine for itself whether saloons 



should be licensed in the towns. By an ap- 
parently concerted movement, the ladies of 
the State undertook to secure the prohiliition 
of license, and they organized entertainments, 
dinners, etc., and carried on a spirited canvass, 
inducing thousands of drinking men, even, 
to vote against license. The ladies of Santa 
Barbara displayed quite as mnch energy as 
tliose of other sections, and giant meetings 
were held in the county-seat and elsewhere. 
The city election resulted in a majority of 
119 in favor of no license. At Montecito the 
meeting was characterized by great feeling 
on both sides; the liquor dealers sent thither 
a great quantity of liquors, which were given 
away freely and openly, notwithstanding the 
law prohibiting the sale or other disposal of 
liquors on election day. The " no license " 
party carried the day by a majority of one. 
At the Patera, 97 out of 128 voters were in 
favor of no license. The business of liquor 
selling went on much as before; various 
persons were tried for illegally selling liq- 
\iors, but they were dismissed. At last a 
case from another county was appealed to 
a higher court, and the law was declared 
unconstitutional, on the ground that the 
Legislature had no right to delegate its 
powers to another body or municipality. 
"When the news of the decision reached Santa 
Barbara the saloon-keepers held a joiliti cation 
with bonfires, speeches, and other demon- 

Santa Barbara was full of enterprising and 
brilliant plans at this period. The movement 
to form a new county from the third town- 
ship, the wise and wholesome effort to secure 
the construction of a sewer system, and at- 
tempts to build a woolen factory, and foster 
various manufacturing institutions, were 
among the chief plans. 

The year 1874 witnessed the building of 
the Arlington Hotel, at a cost of about $80,- 

000; the three-story Odd-Fellows' Hall, cost 
$20,000; City Hall, cost $8,000; Presbyterian 
Church, cost $15,000; new St. Vincent's 
School on the rnins of the old building, cost 
$15,000; Tebbetts' three-story building, cost 
$13,000; John Edwards' dwelling, cost $8,- 
000; Charles Pierce's two-story store, $8,000; 
Russel Heath's stores, $8,000; and T. Henry 
Stevens' two-story brick dwelling, which cost 

The assessment roll for this year showed 
values of $6,010,309, with sixteen taxpayers 
on $16,000 and upwards. 

In the winter of 1874-'75 there were severe 
storms, one of which flooded a part of the 
city — 2.75 inches of water fell within seven 
liours — while Stearns' wharf was somewhat 

In August, 1875, Santa Barbara had six 
wholesale and retail grocery stores; nine 
retail; four dry goods stores, one clothier; 
three wholesale and retail boot and shoe 
stores; two manufacturing boot and shoe 
stores; ten fruit, candy and vegetable stores; 
three of hardware; thirteen saloons; one ten- 
pin alley; five billiard rooms; two banks; two 
auction and commission merchants; five real 
estate and house agencies; two warehouses; 
seven hotels; three restaurants, various 
private boarding and lodging houses; four 
barbershops; three bathing houses; sixteen 
laundries; two paint shops; four furniture 
stores; eight meat-markets: four drug stores; 
four tobacco and cigar stores; five livery 
stables; four wholesale sugar stores; one ice 
cream and oyster saloon; three saddle and 
harness shops; four jewelry shops; three 
grocery and liquor stores; three book stores; 
two crockery and glass stores; six millinery 
and dressmaking establishments; three tailor 
shops; two sewing-machine agencies; two 
clothing, boot and hat stores; two brick 
yards; three lumber yards; three sash and 


door factories; three planing mills; one flour- 
ing mill; one candy factory; one cigar factory; 
three carriage and wagon shops; four black- 
smith shops; two architects and builders; one 
marble- worker; three daily and four weekly 

The Santa Barbara County Bank was opened 
in November of this year. 

In 1875, all Santa Barbara mourned over 
the death of Father Jose Maria Gonzales, the 
superior of the Franciscans on this coast, 
whose missionary career had lasted two gen- 
erations. He was a saintly man, beloved by 
all denominations. 

In 1876, the county jail was built. The 
Centennial celebration drew forth much 
enthusiasm. The political campaign of this 
year was a very closely contested one. 

In 1876 the city of Santa Barbara alone 
cast a total of 789 votes, whereas in 1850 
the whole vote of the county, which then 
included Ventura, had been only about 300. 
During this year, a remarkable enthusiasm 
over Spiritualistic doctrines existed among 
many citizens. 

During 1876 the western portion of the 
county began to agitate the project of form- 
ing a new county, to be called Santa Maria, 
the scheme coming to naught, however. 

The season of 1876-'77 was termed a dry 
season, although the drouth was far less 
disastrous than that of 1863-'64. Grain 
liardly sprouted, and most of the fields thus 
sown remained brown all winter. Many 
sheep died, and more were driven away and 
never brought back; it is estimated that the 
flocks diminished one-half at this time. 

Because of the dry season, for want of rail- 
ways, or by reason of the general hard times, 
real estate here depreciated vastly^-some 
good judges say as much as $2,000,000, and 
lands of every description were placed on the 
market at one-half the figures of two years 

earlier. The improvements of 1877 were 
estimated at $192,000. 

On January 1, 1877, a violent storm of 
wind and rain prevailed for about an hour, 
during which a house was blown down, and 
a portion of the debris fell upon and killed a 
son of W. F. M. Goss, an estimable youth of 
eighteen or twenty years. 

The total tax rate for 1877 was $1.85 on 
the $100. The assessment roll for this year 
held $4,187,175. 

On January 19, 1878, occurred a very 
severe storm, which destroyed nearly all the 
light shipping in the harbor, driving some 
of it through the wharf. This storm injured 
nearly all the wharves on the coast. The old 
wharf at Santa Barbara was demolished, and 
some 155 feet of Steai-ns' wharf destroyed. 
The debris from these wharves destroyed all 
but about 100 feet of Smith's wharf at Car- 
penteria. The Bennett Bath Houses, built 
some six years before, were carried away, 
causing a loss of some $1,300. Much damage 
was done in the district by freshets, cloud- 
bursts, etc. The steamers could not land 
during the storm, and for some time there- 
after, whilst the wharves were under repairs, 
passengers and freight were landed by re- 
course to the old system of lighters. 

About this period there was some little 
agitation over the tax keeping of the county 
records, and investigations were ordered, and 
made, showing great disorder and confusion 
in the keeping of the accounts. 

The total tax rate for 1878 was $1.65 on 
the $100. 

This year was marked by J. C. Benton's 
ofl^er to exterminate the squirrel pest by 
means of a wholesale an inexpensive poison- 
ing; in this Mr. Benton succeeded far beyond 
the general expectation, and the board of 
supervisors carried on the work. 

At this time, communication north and 


south from Santa Barbara was had only by 
way of the Rincon and along the shore, 
wliere the water, at high tide dashing against 
the cliffs, often cut off connection. It had 
been found difficult to secure the opening of 
other roads in the county. The Sycamore 
Caiion road had been located for some time, 
but some parties whose lands were crossed 
by it, positively refused to have the road 

In September, 1878, a public demonstra- 
tion was held in honor of the opening of the 
Casitas Pass road, which, while it was in 
Ventura County, and built by the sale of 
Ventura bonds, was greatly to the benefit of 
Santa Barbara County. Indeed, complaint 
was made later that Santa Barbara profited 
more than Ventura. 

In 1879, there were inscribed in the great 
register of this county 2,384 voters. 

In the ta.\ list of 1880 appeared 128 names 
of citizens paying taxes on $5,000 or up- 
wards. It was remarkable that among these 
there were hardly a dozen of the old families 
who, twenty-live years before, had practically 
owned the county. 

The summaries for this year showed valua- 
tions as follows: value of city and town lots, 
$489,350; improvements on same, $515,580; 
real estate other than city and town lots, 
$2,785,554; improvements on same, $339,- 
920; money, $38,634; personal property, 
$1,306,834; total, $5,507,727; deductions on 
account of mortgages, $769,668. The total 
tax rate for this year was $2 on the $100. 
About 50,000 acres were cultivated, yielding 
214,937 bushels of barley; 198,293^ bushels 
of wheat; 60,000 bushels of corn; 20,000 of 
potatoes; 80,931 of beans; 714,700 pounds of 
wool; 125,000 pounds of butter; 256,000 of 
honey; l^esides a multitude of other products. 
The population, by the census of this year, 
was 9,522. 

There were three parties in the field at this 
year's election. Republicans, Democrats, and 
Workingmen; the last never gained much 
foothold in Santa Barbara. The road fund 
this year amounted to $10,000. Official 
mileage was now established. 

In March, 1881, was held an art loan ex- 
hibition to raise money for public purposes, 
and many rare and valuable treasures were 
presented for exhibition. This enterprise 
was not only pleasing, but pro^table, netting 
$500. A floral and citrus fruit fair was also 
held this spring. About this time was 
opened a cannery, to furnish a market for 
fruits which otherwise would decay and 

The bean crop of Santa Barbara County, 
which in 1880 had been 85,273 bushels, in 
1881 amounted to 87,000 bushels, and the 
following year to 146,700 bushels. 

The tax rate for 1883 was $1.69 J on the 
$100 for State and county; the city tax 
eighty-five cents. The board of equalization 
this year raised Santa Barbara's assessment 
roll twenty per cent., the increase aggregat- 
ing $1,134,300. 

In 1884 the county had outstanding bonds 
amounting to $46,500; cash in the treasury, 
$34,318.75; county property-, about $85,000. 
The county clerk's estimate gave the county 
this year at least 2,600 voters, this, by the 
usual process of rating, giving a county pop- 
ulation of about 13,000 people. By 1886 
it was estimated at 16,529, a gain in six 
years of 7,007, or seventy-three per cent. 
It must be remembered, too, that this in- 
crease was prior to the presence of the rail- 
road, which subsequently brought a vast 
immigration with the opening up of the ex- 
tensive tracts of farming country. Of the pop- 
iilation perhaps one-fifth is of Spanish de- 
scent, the rest Americans, largely from the 
middle western States. 


The school census of June, 1885, reported 
3,777 children of school age, and 1,294 
under live years old; total, 5,071. There 
were forty-four school districts. 

The State and county taxes collected in 
Santa Barbara in 1885 were $140,967.96— a 
decrease of some $800 from the preceding 
year. The total valuation of Santa Barbara, 
after the addition of the fifteen per cent., 
was $9,635,803. 

Santa Barbara carried off the first premium 
for county exliibits at the State fair at Sacra- 
mento, in 1885. 


In describing the topography of Califor- 
nia, the following comparisons have been 
frequently and very appositely instituted to 
give an idea of the general characteristics: 
The coast of the State is some 750 miles 
long, in the latitude corresponding to that on 
the Atlantic coast of a strip extending from 
northern New Jersey to the seaboard of 
Georgia. This distance may be divided into 
three fairly equal parts, the first point from 
the northward down marking the situation 
of San Francisco, and the next toward the 
south falling at the spot where the coast 
makes a sharp eastward turn and thence has 
a general direction almost due east and west 
for a distance of aboiit seventy miles. This 
knee-like bend contains the county of Santa 
Barbara, the aforesaid east and west line 
forming the county's southern coast line and 
boundary. This trend it is, too, in a great 
measure, that insures to Santa Barbara her 
delightful peculiarities of climate. This 
county has the shape of an irregular parallel- 
ogram, extending from this corner or knee 
of land bending in the Pacific to where the 
coast line resumes its general southeasterly 
direction below Ventura. The county is 
about seventy miles long by forty-five wide, 

and it comprises about 2,000,000 acres, of 
which about one-third is arable land. Most 
of its fertile valleys contain prosperous 
towns, and are rapidly settling up. This de- 
velopment has been greatly assisted by the 
branch line of the Southern Pacific Railway, 
which, connecting with the main line at New- 
hall, continues up the coast and affords facil- 
ities for travel and shipments. 

The arable land of Santa Barbara is for 
the most part composed of either alluvial 
soil or adobe. The alluvial, which is found 
mostly in the lower levels, is very deep and 
fertile. When underlaid with clay, it pos- 
sesses great powers of resisting or enduring 
drouth, the clay acting as a hard pan to re- 
tain the moisture instead of allowing perco- 
lation, as is the case with a gravel substratum. 
This soil produces in rich abundance all the 
year around all manner of garden vegetables 
and deciduous and citrus fruits. Patches 
of this soil are found on the mesa and hill- 
side lands which are especially adapted to the 
growth of the olive and grape. 

The adobe soil is generally black, and of 
considerable fertility, albeit hard to work, on 
account of its clay-like consistency. To pro- 
duce the best results this soil needs intelli- 
gent cultivation and irrigation. It is best 
adapted to wheat, barley or flax. 

This county contains no arid, sandy or 
desert tracts. The valleys are threaded with 
streams from the canons; reveral of these 
water-courses, such as the Santa Maria, the 
Santa Ynes, and the San Antonio, being of 
sufficient importance to take the name of 

The timber supply of this section is some- 
what deficient. The live oak grows rather 
abundantly, furnishing pleasant parks on the 
high lands, and in the thicker growth in the 
low lands and canons valuable supplies of 
wood for fuel. The mountain sides are 


clothed with a dense growth of chapparal 
(low brush) consisting of buckeye, sumacli 
and a nnmber of bushes peculiar to this 
country. Redwood also is found, and some 
say mezqiiite, although the present writer 
believes that this mimosa is not found on the 
hither side of the Colorado River. 

The summits of the San Rafael Range, in 
the eastern part of the county, and- the 
northern part of Ventura, is clothed in 
patches, sometimes covering 100 or 200 
acres, with a fairly thick growth of fir, pine 
and cedar, the latter species, which grows 
lower down than the pine, being a scrub 
cedar, particularly valuable for posts and ties. 
The Santa Maria and Santa Ynes are the 
principal rivers, the former being the longer 
and carrying the greater volume of water. 
It rises in the Sierra Madre del Sur, and the 
San Rafael mountains, draining by its branch 
the Cnyama, the southern slope of the for- 
mer, and by the Sisqnoc the northern slope 
of the latter, and it flows into the Pacific 
about seven miles north of Point Sal. The 
Tepusque, Los Encitos, C<inoncito, Agua 
Sacado, and Potrero are small tributaries. 

The railroad bridge across the Santa Ma- 
ria River is 1,982 feet in length. 

The Santa Ynes rises in the Santa Ynes 
mountains, in Ventura County, and flows 
westerly, draining the south slope of the San 
Rafael and the north slope of the Santa Ynes 
range, and reaching the ocean five miles 
south of Purisima. Its feeders ai'e the Sal 
Si Puedes, Zaca, Alisal, Alamo Pintado, 
Santa Cruz, Caballada, Los Laureles, Indio, 
Mono, Agua Caliente, and a few others. 

The southern slope of the coast mountains 
waters the valley below through the Rincon, 
Carpenteria, Santa Monica, Paderon, Toro, 
Ficay, Hot Springs, Cold Stream, Mission 
Creek, Maria Ygnacia, San Jose, San Pedro, 
Carneros, Tecolote, Armitas, Tecolotito, Dos 

Pueblos, Las Varas, El Capitan, Refngio, 
Hondo, Costa, Molinos, Las Cruces, Agua 
Caliente, Santa Anita, San Augastin, Rodeo, 
Canada Honda and the San Antonio and 
Cosinalia creeks. Of these mountain streams 
the Rincon, Carpenteria, Mission, El Capi- 
tan and Dos Pueblos are the most important, 
flowing into the sea in ordinary yeare, while 
most of the others shortly after leaving the 
foot-hills partially or wholly disappear during 
the dry season. There are in the county 
several small lakes and lagoons, the Guada- 
lupe and the Zaca being the largest. 

Over the Santa Ynez mountains run sev- 
eral horseback trails and two good wagon 
roads, through the Santa Ynes and Gaviota 
passes. The greatest elevation of the San 
Marcos Pass is 2,240 feet. It is reached by 
following up the San Jose, descending the 
mountains on the north side, along the Los 
Laureles by what is known as the Fremont 
trail. The Gaviota Pass lies along the Las 
Cruces, crossing the mountain on the old 
Spanish grant of that name at an altitude 
of 1,500 feet. One horseback trail starts 
from the foot of Montecito Valley, follows 
up the Ficay to its head, and then bears a 
little northeast to the Najalayegna Canon. 
Another crosses the monntain by Cold 
Stream Caiion, near the head of this valley. 
A good trail also ascends the Pedregosa, the 
east branch uf Mission Creek, to near its 
source, where it divides into two forks. 

Much of Santa Barbara County is hilly or 
mountainous; the Santa Ynes, a low range of 
mountains, follows the trend of the coast 
across the southern part of the county, and 
the Sierra de San Rafael, a higher range, 
strikes throngh the center of the connty, and 
extends almost to its northern limits. These 
mountains, with the foothills and spurs, im- 
part to the whole country a rugged and 
diversified aspect. 


Separated by these ranges are tlie four 
large valleys of tlie county, from wliicli 
branch out a number of smaller and tribu- 
tary valleys. These four main valleys, be- 
ginning at the south, are: Santa Barbara, 
Santa Ynes, Los Alamos and Santa Maria. 

Between the Santa Ynes and the sea lies 
the unparalleled valley of Santa Barbara 
proper, forty-five miles in length, with an 
average width of perhaps three miles, and an 
area of 86,400 acres. Although this is the 
smallest in acreage of the four chief valleys 
into which the county is divided by the con- 
figuration of its surface, yet it is the most 
important, by reason of its natural character- 
istics, which have attracted the largest popu- 

For its rare advantages of climate and its 
wonderful fertility, it has become famous all 
over the world. This valley extends from 
the Eincon to Point Concepcion, and it com- 
prises the Carpenteria Valley, from the Ein- 
con to a small spur of the Santa Ynes, called 
Ortega Hill, a distance of nine miles; the 
Montecito, from Ortega Hill to the city 
limits; the city of Santa Barbara, spreading 
beyond its two miles square; and eight 
miles beyond, on the Patera, the village of 
Goleta. Still following the same broad 
avenue, are found the great ranchos of Dos 
Pueblos, Nuestra Senora del Refugio, and 
those owned by Hollister and Cooper; then 
comes the Gaviota Pass, and a few miles past 
it. Point Concepcion, where the Santa Ynes 
range runs boldly into the Pacific, forming 
the terminal wall of this valley. 

Beyond the Santa Ynes range, and between 
it and the San Rafael, opens the lonely Santa 
Ynes Valley. Tlie Santa Ynes River here 
runs almost due west from its mountain 
sonrce, watering a vast extent of farming 
lands and passing through the broad Lompoc 
Valley before it empties into the sea, be- 

tween Point Concepcion and Point Purisi- 
ma. This valley contains the towns of Santa 
Ynes and Lompoc. 


After secularization, land in abundance 
could be had for the asking, and large tracts 
were given to the heads of families. The 
policy of the Mexican govern nent had been 
to limit each holding to eleven leagues, 
which would contain something above 48,000 
acres. The wide territories required for 
stock-raising caused this to be considered a 
small tract, and many families acquired 
several times that much, whether by ex- 
change, purchase, or government favor. For 
instance, the Noriegas at one time owned no 
less than 200,000 acres. The following list 
from HoflFman's report on land cases shows 
the ownership of many of the old grants, 
some dating back to 1790, though mostly 
made subsequent to secularization. In the 
case of lands lying in other counties, they 
are included here because they were assigned 
to members of families living in Santa Bar- 

Eancho Mpomo, granted to "William Dana 
(meuiber of Carrillo family), April 6, 1837. 
Acreage, 32,728.62. 

The Lompoc, granted to Jose Antonio 
Carrillo, April 15, 1837. Acreage, 35,- 

San Julian, granted to George Rock, 
April 7, 1837. Acreage, 48,221.68. The 
claim was purchased and the title perfected 
by Jose de la Guerra y Noriega. 

Guadalasca, granted to Ysabel Yorba, May 
6, 1846. Acreage, 30,593.85. 

Simi, or San Jose de Gracia, to Patricio 
Xavier and Miguel Pico, in 1795, by Gov- 
ernor Diego de Borica; claim revived by 
Alvarado to de la Guerra, April 25, 1842. 
Acreage, 92,841.35. 


to Carlos Antonio Carrillo, !Novem- 
ber, 1833; six leagues. In the trial this 
number was pronounced fraudulent, and dos 
(two) was substituted. 

San Buenaventura to Fernando Pico, March 
24, 1845; 29.90 acres. 

Guadalupe to Diego Olivera and Teodoro 
Arellanez, March 21, 1840. Acreage, 30,- 

Cuyamato Jose Maria Eojo, April 24, 1843. 
Confirmed to Maria Antonio de la Guerra 
and Cesario Lataillade; 22,198.74 acres. 

Huerfano (San Luis Obispo), granted to 
Mariano Bonilla; confirmed to Francis Branch 
(member of the Carrillo family). 

Tequepis to Joaquin Yilla; confirmed to 
Antonio Maria Villa; 8,919 acres. 

Sisquoc to Maria Antonio Caballero, June 
3, 1833; confirmed to James B. Huie; 35,- 
485.90 acres. 

Santa Rosa Island to Jose Antonio and 
Carlos Carrillo, October 4, 1843. Acreage, 
about 60,000. This island was given to 
Jones and Thompson, who married into the 
Carrillo family. 

Canada Larga de Yerde to Joaquin Alva- 
rado, aboiit 2,220 acres. 

Punta de la Laguna to Luis Arellanes and 
E. M. Ortega, December 24, 1844. Acre- 
age, 26,648.42. 

Conejo to Jos^ de la Guerra y Noriega, 
by Governor Sola, October 12, 1822. Acre- 
age, 48,674.56. 

Arroyo Grande or San Ramon (in San 
Luis Obispo) to Zeferino Corlon, April 25, 
1841; confirmed to Francisco Branch, who 
married one of the Carrillos. 

Ojai to Fernando Pict), April 6, 1837. 
Acreage, 17,792.70. 

Rancho (name unknown) to Teodoro Arel- 
lanes, January 22, 1846. Small. 

Mision de San Diego to Santiago Ar- 
guello, June 8, 1846. Small extent. 

Island of Santa Cruz to Andres Castillero, 
May 22, 1839. About 60,000 acres. 

Mision Yieja de la Purisima to Joaquin 
and Jose Antonio Carrillo, November 20, 
1845 ; 4,440 acres. 

Corral de Cuati to Agustin Davila; con- 
firmed to Maria Antonia de la Guerra Latail- 
lade; 13,300.24 acres. 

Tequepis to Tomas Olivera, April 7, 1837; 
confirmed to Antonia Maria de Cota; 8,- 
900.75 acres. 

La Laguna to Miguel Avila, November 8, 
1845; confirmed to Octaviano Gutierrez; 
18,212.48 acres. 

Tinaquiac to Yictor Linares, May 6, 1837 
confirmed to Wm. D. Foxen; 8,874.60 acres 

La Calera or Las Positas to Narciso Fab- 
regal, May 16, 1843; confirmed to Thomas 
M. Robbins and Manuela Carrillo de Jones; 
3,281.70 acres. 

Todos Santos to Salvador Oslo, November 
3, 1844. This tract contained 22,200 acres; 
another tract on the Cosumnes, granted at 
the same time, to the same party, contained 
26,640 acres. These tracts were confirmed 
to William E. P. Hartnell. 

Canada de San Miguelito to Ramon Rodri- 
guez, Marc 1 1, 1846. Acreage, 8,880. 

Alisal to William E. P. Hartnell, January 
26, 1843; Acreage, 2,971.26. 

La Zaca to Maria Antonia de la Guerra 
Lataillade, 1838. Acreage, 4,480. 

Lomas de la Purificacion to Agustin Jans- 
sens, December 27, 1844; contained 13,320 

Las Posas to Jose Carrillo, May 15, 1834; 
confirmed to Jose de la Guerra y Noriega; 
26,623.26 acres. 

San Marcos to Nicolas A. Den, June 8, 
1846. Acres, 35,573. 

One square league to Marcelina, Au- 
gust 16, 1843; confirmed to Maria de la 
Guerra Lataillade. 


San Francisco (partly in Santa Barbara 
County) to Antonio del Valle, January 22, 
1839; confirtned to Jacob Feliz. 

Las Huertas confirmed to Maria Antonia 
de la Guerra Lataillade; granted Jnly 26, 
1844; 13,000 varas square. 

Los Alamos to Jose Antonio Carrillo, 
March 9, 1839. Acres, 48,803.38. 

Santa Clara del Norte to Juan Sanchez, 
May 6, 1837; 13,988.91 acres. 

Calleguas to Jose Pedro Ruiz, May 10, 
1847; 9,998.29 acres. 

San Miguel to Raimundo Olivas, July 6, 
1841; 4,693.91 acres. 

La Liebre to Jose Maria Flores, April 21, 
1841; eleven square leagues. 

three square leagues to Jose 

Ramon Malo, April 12, 1845. 

Santa Rosa to Francisco Cota, three and a 
half leagues, granted Jnly 30, 1839; and a 
subsequent addition November 19, 1845. 

Purisima to Ramon Malo, December 6, 
1845; 14.927.62 acres. 

Ex-Mision San Buenaventura to Jose Ar- 
naz, June 8, 1846; confirmed to Poll. 

Camulos to Pedro C. Carrillo, October 2, 
1843; 17,760 acres. 

Nojogui to Raimundo Carrillo, April 27, 
1843; 13,522.04 acres. 

Santa Ana to Crisogono Ayala and others, 
April 14, 1837; 21,522.04 acres. 

to Juse Chapman, 4,440 acres. 

1838; confirmed to Guadalupe Ortega de 

Dos Pueblos to Nicolas A. Den, April 18, 
1842; 15,535.33 acres. 

Canada del Corral to Jose Dolores Ortega, 
November 5, 1841; 8,875.76 acres. 

La Goleta to Daniel Hill, June 10, 1846; 
4,440 acres. 

Temescal to Francisco Lopez, March 17, 
1843; 13,320 acres. 

Nuestra Seilora del Relugio to Antonio 

Maria Ortega, August 1, 1834; 26,529 acres. 

Jesus Maria to Lucas Olivera, April 8, 
1837; 42,184.93 acres; two-thirds confirmed 
to Lewis Burton. 

San Carlos de Jonata to Joaquin Carrillo, 
September 24, 1845; 26,631.31 acres. 

Mision Santa Ynes to Jose Maria Covar- 
rubias and others, June 15, 1846. This 
claim was rejected by tbe commissioners. 

Pueblo de Santa Barbara to the Common 
Council; granted in 1782; claim filed Feb- 
ruary 1, 1853; rejected by commissioners 
August 1, 1854; confirmed by District Court 
March 1, 1861. 

Island of Catalina to Thomas Robbins, 
July 4, 1846. 

Santa Paula y Saticoy to Manuel Jimeno 
Casarin, April 1, 1843; 17,733.33 acres. 

Casinali to Antonio Olivera, September 
12, 1840; 8,841.21 acres. 

College Rancho or Canada del Pino; 35,- 
499.37 acres. 

Santa Barbara Mission to Richard S. Den, 
June 10, 1846. 

Mission lands allotted after secularization: 
San Buenaventura, 36.27 acres; Santa Bar- 
bara, 37.83 acres; Santa Ynes, 17.35 acres. 

By the methods already cited, some of the 
influential families obtained territory enough 
for a small kingdom. Thus the Carrillo 
family had twelve grants, the Castros twenty, 
the de la Guerras twelve, Fosters eight, Li- 
mantour eight. Murphy thirteen, Ortega 
nine, Pacbeco eight, Rodriguez seven, San- 
chez twelve, and Vallejo fourteen. 


"An enterprising party named Cabrillo 
headed tbe first special excursion party to 
Santa Barbara and its islands, that was only 
345 years previous to our present boom, but 
there is a record to the fact that the old sea- 
rover and his crew of buccaneers were as well 


with the country as are tlie tourist 
parties of to-day. Sailing under direction of 
no special hotel syndicate or real estate 
monopoly, Cabrillo and his companions made 
free to choose their own winter quarters in 
the fairest spot on all the coast, an island 
opposite to where our city now stands." 
Such is the humorous beginning of a paper 
on the Channel Islands, written in 1887 by a 
Barbarefio, referring to the two-months so- 
journ of the pioneer explorer, Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo, and his men, on San Miguel, in the 
winter of 1542-'4:3. We have already read 
how Cabrillo there died, and was buried; also 
how Sebastian Vizcaino sailed up hither, 
sixty years later, and named the channel, and 
renamed the other points of interest. A.nd 
from that time down to the present, these is- 
lands have been conspicuous features in the 
landscape, objectively and subjectively. 

Until their examination by the Coast Sur- 
vey, nothing accurate was known of the num- 
bers, position, extent, or peculiarities of the 
islands ofl' the coast, from San Diego to Point 
Concepcion, but the chart published by this 
body shows clearly the beautiful parallelism, 
to which Vizcaino first called attention, be- 
tween these islands and the adjacent main- 
land. The four islands Anacapa, Santa Cruz, 
Santa Rosa and San Miguel, with the rocks 
extending from the last named, have their 
longer axis parallel to the trend of the shore- 
line, which is the general direction of the 
Sierra Santa Ynes, immediately behind it. 
Cortez Shoal, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, 
and John Biggs' Rock, have their longer 
axes Tiorthwest by west and parallel to each 
other, while Santa Barbara Island is the pro- 
longation of the longer axis of San Clemente. 

Navigators, in making the Santa Barbara 
channel from the northwest, readily note the 
neighborhood of these islands through thick, 
foggy weather, by the peculiar odor of the 

bitumen which issues from the bottom or the 
shore some eight miles west, and floats upon 
the water, working against the winds far be- 
yond Point Concepcion. Vancouver was tha 
tirst to call attention to the presence of this 
bitumen. Sir Edward Belcher, in October, 
1839, also remarked the phenomenon. 

The current among these islands runs 
southward as far as San Nicolas. On the 
Cortez Shoal it frequently runs against the 
northwest wind at the rate of nearly two 
miles per hour; while again it has been found 
to run nearly as strong in an opposite direc- 

Santa Cruz, lying almost in front of the 
city of Santa Barbara, at twenty-five miles 
distance, contains 52,760.33 acres, and its 
mountains rise to 1.700 feet in height. It is 
owned by a French company, who devote it 
to sheep-raising. There is no settlement on 
this island, beyond the rancho-houses. Santa 
Rosa contains 52,696.49 acres, and rises to a 
height of 1,172 feet. It belongs to A. P. 
More, and is used for sheep-raising. San 
Miguel, the most western of the group, is 
seven and a half miles long, two and a half 
wide, and contains 15,000 acres. It belongs 
to the United States Government, and is held 
in reserve, being unsxirveyed. Waters and 
Schilling occupy it by possessory right, for 

Santa Cruz is irregularly shaped, having a 
rough surface, with a few tracts of level lands. 
The owners have a fine wharf, with a harbor 
safe in all but northeast winds. The climate 
is much the same as on the main land, though 
the ocean winds are stronger. Citrus and 
deciduous fruits will do well here. This was 
formerly the resort of great numbers of seal, 
but continued slaughter has almost extin- 
guished them. Santa Cruz was used by the 
Mexican Government only as a penal colony 
— a sort of Botany Bay, whose few tenants 



were yet a constant menace to their main- 
land neighbors. 

Santa Cruz was afterwai-d given by Mex- 
ico to Castiilero, in reward for his discovery 
of quicksilver at New Almaden. He sold it 
to the sheep companies. Occasional niatan- 
zas, or systematic slaughters of stock, are 
held here. 

More than half of Santa Rosa is adapted to 
tillage. It is nearly quadrilateral in shape. 
In 1834 it became the joint property of Car- 
los and Jose Antonio Carrillo, and was given 
as a dowry to the two daughters of Carlos, 
who, on the same day married J. C. Jones 
and A. B. Thompson. 

The grooms raised sheepon the island, with 
great success. After some family litigation, 
Santa Rosa became the property of A. P. and 
P. H. More, and is now owned by the former. 
The natural grasses are of very line quality, 
and the humid atmosphere keeps them green 
throughout the year, so that the sheep busi- 
ness is here conducted under particular 

One of the most notal)le events in the 
history of these islands was the wreck here, 
in the early days of the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company, of their steamer Winfield 
Scott. It is said that her wreck was visible 
beneath the water for twenty years there- 

These islands, with their cave dwellings, 
their kitchen-middens, their battle-gi-ounds, 
and their obscure history, are full of interest 
to the ethnologist, the archasologist, and the 
antiquarian. Cabrillo described the inhabi- 
tants of the Channel Islands as fairly white, 
with florid complexions. 

Accounts vary as to the extinction of these 
people. Some authors opine that they were 
extirpated by the inhabitants of Russian- 
America, who used to come to these islands 
to hunt the sea-otter, and who are known to 

have slain, even during the present century, 
all the male inhabitants of San Nicolas, whose 
effects and women they appropriatetl. Again 
it is suggested that a famine reduced the 
natives to the necessity of preying upon each 
other, to their extermination; or else that 
they were fallen upon by the cannibalistic 
inhabitants of the islands of the western 
Pacific. Some appearance of probability is 
given to this theory by the state of the 
human bones found on the island, many of 
which have been cracked, as if for the pur- 
pose of extracting the marrow. On the other 
hand, the idea of a famine is counteracted by 
the existence on the rocks of shell-fish enough 
to sustain a population of thousands. There 
are, however, many indications of a terrible 
drouth experienced hero at some time, and 
the inhabitants may have perished for lack of 
fresh water. 


Of Santa Barbara, as of other portions of 
Southern California, it must be said that the 
terms " rainy season " and " diy season " are 
in some measure a misnomer, as conveying 
too extreme an impression. Dr. J. P. Wid- 
ney's suggestion of " rain season " is more 
apt, as signifying the period during which 
rain does fall, as distinguirhed from the 
time of the year when it does not fall. It 
is practically true that from April to No- 
vember no rain falls, yet even during these 
months there have been known occasional 
showers. From November to April the 
rainfall occurs, iu Santa Barbara averaging 
seventeen inches per season. The rains are 
not continuous, but distributed, coming in 
heavy storms, with days or often weeks of 
Intervening delightful weather. "While there 
is no regularity alxmt the rains, no two sea- 
sons being alike, there is usually a heavy 
rain about the first of December, followed by 
another heavy storm about the beginning of 


January, then others scattered through Janii- 
•ary, February and March, with the final or 
" clearing up " storm about the first of April. 
February and March are the real spring 
mouths of Santa Barbara. Then the results 
of the rains are fully apparent, the flowers of 
the plains and canons are in season, the foot- 
hills are brilliantly grass-clad, the streams 
are full, and nature appears in her l)righte8t, 
gayest aspect. 

The rainfall for 1867-'68 was 25.19 inches; 
for 186S-'69, 15.77 inches; for 1869-70, 
10.27 inches; for 1870-'71, 8.91; for 1871- 
'72, 14.94; for 1872-'73, 10.45; for 1873- 
'74, 14.44; for 1874-'75, 18.71 inches. 

In 1872 there were only thirteen days 
when the mercury rose above 83°. The 
highest temperature was 86°, and the lowest 
40°. In 1875 the mercury rose above 83° 
only seven times; the highest was 88°, and 
the lowest 38°, this last being the register 
for seven o'clock a. m. on January 24. 

Observations made from June to Decem- 
ber show the mean temperature of the sea 
water to be 64°, the thermometer being sunk 
four feet below the surface of the water, where 
it is twenty feet deep, at the point one-third 
of a mile from land, and at 11 a. m. Obser- 
vations made at the same time show the 
mean temperature of air in the shade to have 
been 71°. 

In 1885 there were thirty-one days in 
which the mercury rose above 80°. These 
were distributed through seven montiis, of 
which two were December and February. 
There were only thirteen days when it did 
not fall at night below 60°, and these were 
scattered through three months, including 
December. There was but one night in the 
year when the mercury fell below 40°. In 
1885 there were thirty-one days in which 
rain fell, but only nine of them could be 
called rainy days, since, in the remaining 

twenty-two it rained only in the night, or in 
brief showers during the day. 

In 1886 there were twenty-three days, dis- 
tributed through seven months, in which the 
mercury rose above 80°, and thirteen nights 
when it did not fall below 60°. The great- 
est height of the mercury during this year 
was 85°, and the lowest point reached was 
35°. The mean temperature for January 
was 55°; for July, 66.3°; for October, 58.3°. 
The mean temperature for the three winter 
months was 56.81°; for the three summer 
months, 65.51°; for the three autumn 
months, 59.46°. Thus it will be seen that 
the difference between the mean of January 
and that of July was 11.30°, and between the 
mean winter and mean summer tempera- 
ture 8.7°. 

In 1886 the mean temperature of the 
warmest day in the year was 73.5°, this fall- 
ing in January; of the warmest day in Au- 
gust, 72°; the mean of the coldest day, being 
in February, was 45°; the highest tempera- 
ture reached was 85°, in January, February, 
and August; the lowest was 35°, in January. 
The annual average temperature was 59.6°. 
The total rainfall was 13.86 inches. 

In 1887 the mean temperature of the 
whole year was 59.7° ; while that of the three 
summer months was 64.4°, a difference of 
less than 5°. The means of the three warm- 
est days were 79°, 71°, and 74°, in June, 
July and October, respectively. There were 
during this year twenty-six days in which 
the mercury registered more than 80°, and 
of these only six were in the summer. On 
the warmest night of the year the tempera- 
ture fell to 65°, and there were but fourteen 
nights in the whole year when it did not fall 
to or below 60°, and of these, four were in 
the summer. The mean temperature of the 
coldest day was 47.5°, in November. The 
three hottest days being in May, June, and 


October, readied respectively, 86°, 95°, and 
91.8°. The three lowest fell in January, 
February, aud December, reaching 37°, 37°, 
and 38°. 

There was a total rainfall of 17. 0^ inches, 
being .72 above the average for the last 
twenty years. Rain fell on twerity-fo-ur days. 
Of 289 days observed this year, 214 were 
recorded as clear, forty as fair, and thirty- 
iive as cloudy. 

Such statistics as these refer more particu- 
larly to that portion of the country sonth of 
the mountains; that is to say, Santa Barbara 
Valley. In the northern valleys there is 
jnore wind, and the mercury falls lower and 
rises higher. During seven months, l>egin- 
ning with March of the year 1888, the low- 
est mean in the Santa Maria Valley was 57°, 
in April; the highest, 63.5°, in July — a dif- 
ference of only 6.5°. In the Santa Yncs 
Valley the mercnry has fallen to 18° and has 
risen to 100°. Even these valleys, however, 
are generally equable, and tiie more marked 
changes they do undergo prove an attraction 
to many persons liking variety. 

There is a table of comparisons often sub- 
mitted, as illustrative, to those knowing the 
Eastern resorts, of Santa Barbara climate. 
This says; — January at Santa Barbara is 
equivalent to May at Nantucket; February 
to May at Atlantic City; March to May at 
Norfolk; April to May at Portland; May to 
May at New Haven; June to May at New 
York; July to May at Philadelphia; August 
to May at Washington; September to May 
at Brooklyn ; October to May at New London; 
NovcTnber and December to May at Portland. 

These climatic conditions naturally and in- 
evitably make Santa Barbara one of the most 
healthful sections in the world. The expe- 
rience of the years has fully attested this, 
and the fame of this climate has gone 
throughout the world. Even from the earliest 

period of Spanish settlement here, these 
phases have been noted. 

During the mission period, the deaths in 
proportion to baptisms were less at Santa 
Barbara and Purisima than at any other of 
the missions, thus attesting the healthfulness 
of this region. 

In the spring of 1798 the ship Concepcion 
brought hither several cases of small-pox, and 
the passengers were pretnaturely released 
from quarantine, against the orders of tlie 
Governor, who, it may l>e said en passant^ 
was raging in consequence. He threatened 
to hang the commandant should the disease 
spread; hut, happily for that functionary as 
for the community at large, the excellently- 
healthful climate protected the people from 
this scourge, and infection did not spread. 

The census returns for 1870 show that in 
Santa Barbara County, which then included 
what is now Ventura, the total of deaths from 
consumption that year was five out of 7,984 
population, or one in every 1,567. The 
deaths from all causes were but sixty-three, of 
which but one-twelfth were from consump- 
tion. The deaths from this disease in Mas- 
sachusetts are one in every 283, in New York, 
one in eveiy 379; in Florida, one in 1,433. 
The ratio of deaths in Massachusetts is 
17.7 in each 1,000; in New York it is 15.8 
in the 1,000; in Florida 12.1 in 1,000; in 
Santa Barbara 8 in 1,000. 

The following extracts relative to the 
healthfnlness of Santa Barbara are taken 
from a paper written by the late Dr. S. B. 
Brinkerhof}', who practiced medicine here 
from 1852 to 1880: 

Sanla Barbara is protected from northern blasts by 
the Coast Kaiige of mountains, which average from 
3,000 to 4,000 feet in height. Tlie heat of summer is 
tempered by gentle breezes from the sea, the average 
summer temperature being less than 70°. The average 
winter temperature is 55°. The changes in the seasons 
are scarcely perceptible in temperature. Frosts are of 


care occuirence, aad disagreeable fogs seldom prevail. 

riiera are but comparatively few days in the entire 
year wtiea one caauot be out of doors daring the day 

without discomfort. The nights are always cool and 
sleep-invitiag. * * * The softness and general 
uniformity of the climate, its freedom from dampness 
and sudden changes, the opportunities for diversion 
and recreation, render Santa Barbara pre-eminently a 
desirable place of resort for persons suffering from 
bronchial and pulmonary affections. Although many 
persons suffering from these complaints have come 
here too late to receive any permanent relief from the 
restorative effects of climate, yet the greater portion 
<3f cases which have come under my observation have 
been permanently relieved, and many, in a surpris- 
ingly short space of time, have been restored to 
health- The climite of Siata Birbara possesses ele- 
ments of general healthfulness in an eminent de. 
gree, and perhaps, also, some latent peculiarities in 
its favor too subtle for ordinary observation. I may 
instance the following facts in this connection: Dur- 
ing the eighteen years of my active practice here I 
have never known a single case of scarlet fever or 
■diphtheria. I have known of only three cases of 
<lysentery, neither of which proved fatal, and of only 
three cases of meiubranous croup. The epidemics 
and diseases incident to childhood, which in other 
parts of the country sweep away thousands of chil- 
dren annually, are here comparatively unknown- 
Cases of fever and ague I have never known to orig- 
inate here, and persons coming here afflicted with it 
rai^ely have more than two or three attacks, even with- 
out the use of anti-periodics. I have known instances 
of smallpox at three different times; in each of the 
first two instances occurring several years apart, the 
disease was confined to a single case, and was con- 
tracted elsewhere. Neither of these cases proved 
fatal. In the year 18S4, when this disease prevailed 
so extensively and proved so fatal throughout the 
State, there were two cases of the disease, contracted 
elsewhere and developed here, which proved fatal. 
Three other persons residing here contracted the dis- 
ease at this time, all of whom recovered. Although 
no unusual precaution was taken to prevent the spread 
of the disease, it was confined to the cases mentioned. 
Yet hundreds of the native population, either from 
ignorance or prejudice, had never been and would not 
suffer themselves to he vaccinated. In tlie years 
18O9-'70, when this disease in its most virulent form 
prevailed so generally throughout the State, not a 
single case occurred at Santa Barbara, although in 
daily communication with other parts of the State by 
stage and steamer. 

Some ten miles from Santa Barbara, in a westerly 
direction, about one and a half miles from the shore 

is an immense spring of petroleum, the product of 
which continually rises to the surface of the water, 
and floats upon it over an area of many miles. * * 
Having read statements that, during the past few 
years, the authorities of Damascus and other plague- 
ridden cities of the East have resorted to the practice 
of introducing crude petroleum into the gutters of 
the streets to disinfect tlie air, and as a preventive of 
disease, which practice has been attended with the 
most favorable results, I tlirow out the suggestion, 
but without advancing any theory of my own, 
whether the prevailing westerly sea breezes, passing 
over this wide expanse of petroleum-laden sea, may 
not take up from it and bear along with them to the 
places whither they go, some subtle power which acts 
as a disinfecting agent, and which may account for 
the infiequency of some of the diseases referred to, 
and possibly for the superior healthfulness of the 
climate of Santa Barbara. 

Dr. M. H. Biggs, for many years resident 
in Santa Barbara, in his report to the State 
Medical Society on the " Vital Statis- 
tics and Medical Topography of Santa Bar- 
bara," corroborated the testimony of Dr, 
Brinkeriioff, saying: "There are no mala- 
rious fevers. Persons who come here afflicted 
with fever and ague rarely have more than 
two or three attacks. They soon become 
well, often without the use of anti-periodics. 
The climate seems sufficient to cure the mal- 
ady. During a residence of over eighteen 
years I have seen only one case of membran- 
ous croup, and heard of two others. There 

is no disease endemic in Santa Barbara 

nothing but what can usually be referred 
either directly or indirectly to some indiscre- 
tion in eatitig or drinking or unreasonable 

Dr. Thomas M. Logan, ex-president of 
the American Medical Association, and sec- 
retary of the State Board of Health, made a 
statement in favor of Santa Barbara as a 
suitable ]>lace for a State sanitarium. In his 
first official report, published in 1871, is ex- 
pressed this opinion: 

" The secretary informed the board that he 
had been occupied of late in visiting several 


localities in the southern part of the State, 
noted for salubrity, as San Rafael, Santa 
Cruz, Montery, San Luis Obispo, Santa Bar- 
bara and other places. * * * While 
most of the localities named are possessed of 
climatic elements adapted to different stages 
and characters of pulmonary diseases, that of 
Santa Barbara appeared to present that happy 
combination of the tonic and the sedative 
climate which would seem to render it suit- 
able to a greater variety of phthisical affec- 
tions, and at the same time better adapted to 
the different stages of cachexia than any 
other place visited." 

Elsewhere Dr. Logan wrote as follows: — 
" In vain, heretofore, since my appointment 
to the responsible position of Health Officer 
of the State, have I sought for such a com- 
bination of sanitary qualities as are now 
presented. * * * As to the climate of 
Santa Barbara it will be seen that, although 
lying in about the same latitude as Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, yet it is totally different, 
and that the isothermal line would be deflected 
toward St. Augustine, Florida." 

In short, the testimony alike of physicians, 
tourists and invalids attests the delightful 
and healthful qualities of the climate here. 
Even the present winter, afHicted with a 
cough of several years' standing, pronounced 
by physicians sure to result fatally, has found 
it almost quite disappear in a residence of 
two months here, with 2:)ractically no medic- 
aments, and even without the exercise of 
precautions against cold, etc. 


From Point Concepcion the Santa Ynes 
mountains follow eastward the line of the 
coast, at a little distance from the shore. 
The mountains rise rocky and rugged, 3,000 
to 7,000 feet high, and the strip of land be- 

tween these and the sea, two to five miles 
wide, slopes gently toward the south, is 
thoroughly protected on the north, and is 
composed of very rich soil, which has re- 
ceived the wash of the hills for ages. Seven 
or eight miles to the westward runs a range 
of hills, which behind the town reach their 
greatest height, of 500 to 600 feet. Their 
level tops form the mesa — table or plateau 
land. From the surf- bound beach, the land 
rises gradually toward the northwest until it 
is 350 feet above the sea at two miles inland. 
Thus the town lies on a southeastern slope 
shut in and protected on the north and north- 
west by a range as high as the Green Moun- 
tains, and on the south and southwest by the 
mesa. Thus the trade winds cannot reach 
this place; the close vicinity of the sea pre- 
vents the heats of summer from reaching the 
degree attained at inland points in this lati- 
tude and the neighboring mountains absorb 
dampness and give tone to the atmosphere. 

The topography of Santa Barbara is not a 
little baffling to the stranger, who, accus- 
tomed to regarding the Pacific Ocean as the 
western boundary of this continent, distrusts 
his own senses when he sees the sun rising 
out of that body of water. While the general 
trend of the coast from Ventura to Santa 
Barbara is straight westward, just at this city 
it curves outward, and for a short distance 
runs southwestward, the city being laid out 
on this southwest curve, with its streets at 
right angles to that part of the beach west of 
the wharf. State street runs almost directly 
northwest from the ocean, while the cross- 
streets extend almost due northeast and south- 
west. This arrangement of the streets was 
determined by the Spanish settlers who pre- 
ceded American surveying, and the "bias" 
arrangement, confusing as it at first is, has 
some manifest advantages over the arrange- 
ment of most cities, planned with the points 



of the compass. As the city lies on a slope, 
the streets should properly take the direction 
that most facilitates drainage. Then, a house 
whose corners, rather than its sides, are 
toward the cardinal points of the compass, 
receives the sunlight in each room sometime 
■during the day, as would not happen in 
houses set "square on." 

The few buildings here previous to 1850 
were placed without regard to regularity or 
to tiie location of their neighbors, and there 
were no streets. The iirst grant of which 
the archives, such as they are, contaio a 
record, was made February 14, 1885. Pre- 
vious to this, the commandante gave verbal 
permits to occupy small lots, the right continu- 
ing as long as the occupancy; and tliese rights 
were generally respected as valid prior to 
1851. Most of the lots of land iu the central 
portion of the city were granted during the 
period from 1846 to 1850, while the old 
ayuntamiento system of town government 
was continued, with the offices of prefect, 
alcalde, regidores, and siadico. In 1851 
the town council passed a resolution that no 
title to a town lot eliould be deemed valid 
unless it should be recorded in a book kept 
for that purpose. This book contains the 
record of 196 lots, varying in size from a few 
varas to 150 varas square. (A vara is thirty- 
three and one-half inches.) Tiie descriptions 
of the land were for the most part given with 
60 much vagueness and unoertainty as to give 
rise to many lawsuits. 

Four leagues of land were confirmed to the 
mayor and common council of the city of 
Santa Barbara, by the United States District 
Court, and, the appeal having been dismissed, 
the decree of the Federal Court became final. 
The final survey was approved April 8, 1870. 
A patent for these four leagues was issued by 
the United States on May 31, 1872. 

It is difficult to speak with any degree of , 

certaint}' as to special proceedings prior to 
1850, since the archives of that period are 


The city of Santa Barbara was laid out into 
streets and blocks in 1851, when the town 
council directed Captain Salisbury Haley to 
make a survey and a niap of the town. The 
intention was to have each block 150 yards 
square, and each street sixty feet wide, except 
State and Carrillo streets, which were to be 
eighty feet wide. At that time the value of 
land was not great, and the surveyor gave 
good measure, and that not always exact. 
The streets were straight, and cut each other 
at right angles, but the blocks were not all 
alike. In the year 1871 most of the old 
Haley stakes, set to make the survey, had 
disappeared, and the council instructed the 
town surveyor, James L. Barker, to retrace 
the Haley survey, and this retr.icing was 
adopted by ordinance, and this confirmed or 
ratified by the Legislature. There was, how- 
ever, some contention for the exact measuring 
of the blocks, which had the eifect of changing 
the location of most of the streets. Near 
State and Carrillo streets, this difference is 
but a foot or two, but near the outskirts of 
the city, it amounts to as much as ten or 
twelve feet iu one direction, and is about 
forty feet in the other. 

Subsequent to the Barker survey, W. H, 
Norway was authorized to make another 
survey, beginning at the initial point, and 
making the blocks all similar, of the size 
before stated. The resulting discrepancies 
are the cause of litigations still pending and 
unadjusted. There are numbered on the 
map 369 whole blocks, ten more fractionally 
numbered, and still more fractional blocks 
not numbered. The blocks being 450 feet 
square, ten of them are reckoned as making 
a mile. The nomenclature of the streets is 


highly suggestive of the city's picturesque 
early history, iDany of whose events are thus 

As elsewhere seen, no less than three of 
the streets take their names from the episode 
of " The Lost Cannon." The first street at 
the northeast of the city is called San Buena- 
ventura, from the then village of that name, 
thirty miles away, which was the nearest to 
this town when the street was christened; 
Pitos street was thus named because there 
grew the reeds from which were made pitoa 
(flutes or whistles); Punta Gorda, Irom its 
running into a cape-like bluff; Yiidio Muerto, 
from some Indian found dead thereabouts; 
Cacique, from the title of the tribal chiefs of 
the Indians; Yanonali, from the name of a 
famous old Indian chief who lived there; 
Montecito, from its leading to the beautiful 
valley bearing that name. Carpenteria street, 
too, was named from its running the route to 
the present settlement of Carpenteria, twelve 
miles east of this city; and this spot in its 
turn took the name (Carpenter Shop) from 
the presence near its creek of a shop of that 
sort. Gutierrez street was so called after 
Don Octaviano Gutierrez, a noted member of 
the town council. Haley street was named 
after Salisbury Haley, who made the famous 
" Haley Survey" in 1850; and Cota, Ortega, 
and de la Guerra streets after the respective 
families of these names. Carrillo took its 
name from Don Joaquin Carrillo, the District 
Judge, whose house fronted upon it; Figueroa 
was named after Jose Figueroa, Governor of 
California during the Mexican rule; his bones 
lie in the vault of the Mission church here. 
Micheltoreua for Manuel Micheltorena, Gov- 
ernor in 1842; Arellaga from Jose Joaquin 
Arellaga, Governor in 1792-'94; Victoria for 
Manuel Victoria, Governor of this depart- 
ment in 1831; Sola from Vicente Sola, Gov- 
ernor from 1815 to 1823. Anapanau was 

named for an Indian chieftain who held sway 
from Santa Ynes to San Fernando; Valerio 
for a renowned Indian robber who dwelt in a 
cave in the Santa Ynes mountains; Yslay 
comes from the fruit of a tree used as food by 
the Indians. Pedregoso means stony, and. 
the street is thus called because cut through 
by the creek named Arroyo Pedregoso (Stony 
Gulch). Mission street takes its name from 
its proximity to the mission of Santa Barbara. 
Of the streets which run southeast and 
northwest, Salinas was so called because it 
runs into a salt bink or pond; Canada, from 
its running into a ravine; Soledad (a soli- 
tude), because that part of the town was un- 
inhabited and solitary when the name was 
applied to it. Voluntario (volunteer^, because 
it runs into the hill wherecju was enc<imped 
Fremont's volunteer battalion; Alisos (syca- 
mores), from the trees of that variety there 
growing; Milpas (sowed tields), from the 
sowing patches of the Indians in that locality; 
Nopal, from the prickly-pear cactus there 
growing in abundance; Quarentena, because 
at its foot some vessels were put into quaran- 
tine; Salsipnedes ("Get out if you can"), 
from the gulches and ravines crossed by it, 
which rendered travel on this street a serious 
business. To Canal street was given the 
name from its being the first on that side 
extended to the chaimel; Laguna, because it 
traverses a system of lagoons; Jardines, or 
Garden, street is so named for that it cuts 
through the gardens of Captain de la Guerra 
and others. Santa Barbara street has a name 
of obvious origin. Anacapa street points 
toward the island of that name. State, the 
principal street, takes its name from the com- 
monwealth of California. Chapala was so 
named in honor of a town and a lake near 
Guadalaxara, Mexico, from which came some of 
the early emigrants to Santa Barbara. De 
la Vina, or Vineyard street, was laid out 


through a vineyard planted in 1802 by Gov- 
ernor Goycoschea. Baiios (Baths) street was 
so called from its leading to that part of the 
beach most used for bathing. Castillo or 
Castle street led to ihe hill on which stood an 
old Spanish fort, mounted with cannon. Kan- 
cheria comes from a cluster of Indian tents 
that formed a native village at that point. 
San Pascual street commemorates the field of 
a battle fought between the American forces 
and the Californians in 1846. San Andres 
(Saint Andrew) is claimed to honor Andres 
Pico, who figured conspicuously iu that bat- 
tle. Chino street is said also to derive its 
name from the Chino Rancho, in that same 
district. Gillespie street was named from Lieu- 
tenant — afterwards Captain — Gillespie, who 
figured in the American occupation; and 
Robbins street took its name from Captain 
Robbins, who owned the Rancho Los Positas, 
to which this street extends. 

The situation of Santa Barbara is particu- 
larly favorable for effective sewage, the slope 
of State street being at no point less than 
nineteen feet in the mile. This street is 
sewered throughout, starting with eight-inch 
pipe and terminating with twelve-inch. This 
line, which is two miles long, is terra-cotta 
to the wharf, whence it is iron pipe, extend- 
ing 1,000 feet into the sea. Chapala street 
is sewered from Gutierrez to Yslay, a dis- 
tance of fifteen blocks; and de la Vina has 
three blocks of sewer, and Pedregosa also is 
sewered ti-om Santa Barbara to State street. 
All this is after the Waring system. 

From State street run two storm conduits, 
extending in two directions, to the creek and 
to the Estero; their cost was $20,000. 

The city has a Fire Department, partly 
paid and partly volunteer, comprising one 
steam and one hand engine, two hose-carts 
with 2,000 feet of hose, and one hook and 
ladder company. Tlie quarters are in the 

City Hall building. The number of mem- 
bers is about thirty. The fire alarms are 
given according to wards. 

The watering of streets is provided for 
with four water-carts, and also a patent street- 
sweeping machine operates on State street. 

Santa Barbara contains, besides the institu- 
tions and practitioners elsewhere mentioned, 
six large hotels, three surveyors, about twenty 
private boarding-houses, three restaurants, 
eight dry-goods houses, twenty grocery and 
general merchandise stores, three feed stores, 
two imrseries, one florist, one tea and coffee 
store, two feed, lumber and planing mills, 
three fruit stores, three confectionery stores, 
five bakeries, two fish dealers, seven meat 
markets, three wholesale liquorhouses, twenty- 
one saloons, iowv hardware stoi'es, five drug 
stores, one foundry, four furniture and up- 
holstery shops, three second-hand stores, four 
tailor shops, two men's clothing stores, four 
shoe stores, three stationers, two curiosity 
and shell stores, two Chinese fancy goods 
stores, eight or ten Chinese general merchan- 
dise shops, one crockery store, four milliners, 
five jewelry stores, seventeen feed and livery 
stables, four house decorators, six painters, 
eight carpenters, nine blacksmith and carri- 
age sliops, eight barbers, four photograpliers, 
seventeen insurance and real-estate offices, 
one skating rink, one theater building, one 
gas company, one ice company (stock im- 
ported from Truckee), four saddle, harness 
and leather goods shops, one luggage trans- 
fer company, four tobacconists, and numer- 
ous gurneys, hacks, omnibxises, etc. 

The Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital Asso- 
ciation, mainly composed of ladies, have con- 
tracted for a cottage hospital building, to cost 
when completed $12,000 to $15,000. The 
contract was made in November, 1889, and 
the work as thus far completed comprises a 
two-story building with attic, ninety-one feet 


front, in which twenty-live or thirty patients 
could be accommodated, besides the offices, 
etc. The outlay thus far, for grading, bridge 
(across irrigating ditch), building, etc., has 
been $7,735.29. The funds have been raised 
partly by donations, partly by a local Trades' 


From the United States census returns for 
the year ending June 1, 1870, are taken the 
following statistics: 

Population of the town, 2,970; number of 
births, 131; deaths of children under one year 
of age, 9; ratio of births to deaths, 14^ to 1. 
Total number of deaths, including, adults, for 
the same period, 23; percentage of deaths 
for the whole population, 1 in 136, or ^^j,- of 
1 per cent. Population of the county, 7,987; 
number of births for above period, 285; total 
number of deaths of children under 1 year 
of age, 15; ratio of births to deaths, 15| to 1, 
or nearly 16 to 1. Total number of deaths 
in the county, 64, two being accidental; per- 
centage of deaths in total population, 1 in 125, 
or ^\ of 1 per cent. 

In 1871, the letters of Charles Nordoff, in 
Harpers' Monthly Magazine and other East- 
ern periodicals, directed the attention of 
Eastern pleasure and health seekers to Santa 
Barbara and its vicinity. Then followed 
from 1871 to 1875 a great influx of immi- 
gration to this county. Blocks in the city 
of Santa Barbara, which in 1870 found a 
slow sale at $100, rapidly appreciated in 
value, until they readily brought $5,000 and 
$6,000. The city was transformed from a 
Mexican village of 1,500 population to a 
charming town, with all the characteristics of 
New England villages except as to climate. 
Lands in the county which theretofore had 
been used exclusively for grazing, now be- 
came farming and fruit lands. From this 
period dates the beginning of the olive and 

the walnut culture; almond trees were exten- 
sively planted; corn and barley were produced 
in large quantities. The cultivation of the 
bean was begun in Carpenteria and La Pa- 
tira. The failure of the Bank of California, 
in 1875, brought all this advancement to an 
end, and the county slumbered until the boom 
of 1887. 

In June, 1886, the Southern Pacific Eail- 
way Company formed an auxiliary corpora- 
tion entitled the Southern Pacific Branch 
Kailroad Company, and began the construc- 
tion of a railroad from Soledad in Monterey 
County, then the terminus of the Northern 
Division of said company, to Saugus, a station 
near Newhall, on the Southern Pacific main 
line. For several years a steady advance in 
the values of real property had been going on 
in Los Angeles and adjoining counties. The 
construction of this branch line extended this 
impulse in prices to the counties of Ventura, 
Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. A 
general advance sometimes trebling and 
quadrupling the original price was had along 
the line of the Newport road. A jjeriod of 
building activity sprang up; the population 
of these counties was rapidly increased. New 
hotels and business houses were constructed 
in all the principal places — the Rose and the 
Anacapa at Ventura, the Arlington at Santa 
Barbara and the Ramon in San Luis Obispo. 
Ventura town laid many miles of concrete 
sidewalk, and generally graded and improved 
its streets. State street in Santa Barbara was 
paved with bituminous rock for a distance of 
two miles, at acost of $180,000. In August, 
1887, the railroad ceased construction, and 
immediately, presto, change! a sudden cessa- 
tion of activity took place. Property, which 
liad rapidly changed hands, now became slow 
of sale, and a considerable drop in prices oc- 
curred. Building operations largely ceased 
and furtlier improvements were not attempted. 


Recently, under promises of a speedy resump- 
tion of work upon tlie railroad, financial 
affairs have assumed a better aspect, and a 
more healthful feeling has been given to 

During the boom of 1887 there were re 
corded twenty-eight sales ranging from $10,- 
000 to $250,000, which alone aggregated 
$1,679,000. There were, further, about 
$500,000 worth of property covered by bonds; 
and at the lowest estimate $3,000,000 in sales 
of smaller figures than those just given; thus 
during seven months of that year over $5,- 
000,000 changed hands. 

During the same period of seven months, 
at least $500,000 were expended in improve- 
ments, buildings, etc. 

The Santa Barbara postofiice is of the sec- 
ond class; its staff comprises a postmaster 
(salary $2,300) and three assistants. The 
total receipts of the postal account average 
$8,000 per annum. The registry business 
comprises about 3,000 pieces yearly. Tlie 
money order business, domestic and interna- 
tional, and postal notes, paid, for 1890, are 
estimated at $35,000; postal money orders 
and postal notes issued approximate $25,000 
per annum. There are in this ofKce 675 
boxes, of which perhaps eighty per cent, are 
rented at 75 cents per quarter. 

Santa Barbara has had free postal delivery 
since July 15, 1890, there being three car- 
riers, at $600 per year. 

The city officials of Santa Barbara, Sep- 
tember, 1890, are as follows: Mayor, P. J. 
Barber; Councilmen, Jos. B. Wentling, 
Frank P. Moore, M. F. Burke, C. E. Sher- 
man, H. B. Brastow; Police Judge, "W. H. 
Wheaton; Assessor, A. Davis; Treasurer, 
Ulpiano Yndart; City Attorney, Thomas Mc- 
Nulta; Tax Collector, W. S. Maris; Clerk, 
F. N. Gutierrez; Surveyor, Engineer and 
Street Superintendent, John K. Harrington; 

Janitor and Fire Engineer, J. T. Stewart; 
Marshal, D. W". Martin; Night Watchmen, 
G. J. Fulliugton, Thomas Knightly; School 
Trustees, C. A. Storke, George F. Trenwith, 
and J. T. Johnston. 

The old graveyard adjoining the Santa 
Barbara Mission must have received 6,000 to 
10,000 dead into its narrow limits. 

Soon after the coming of the Americans, a 
site for a new cemetery was chosen on the 
hillside, immediately north of the town. The 
town plat, when surveyed, was found to in- 
clude portions of this ground ; and as the city 
was built up about it, much complaint was 
made of the interment of bodies there, and 
further use was prohibited by a city ordi- 
nance. This was, however, disregarded by 
the then president of the Mission, and so the 
grand jury took up the q>iestion, in Septem- 
ber, 1873, and burials here were then discon- 
tinued. Thomas Hope donated a tract of 

acres in a district lying about five miles 

from Santa Barbara, toward the Patera, and 
this is the present Roman Catholic burying 


The first movement toward the et-tablish- 
ment of a public library originated with the 
order of Odd Fellows, which organization had 
procured a collection of books, and main- 
tained for a time a library under their own 
auspices. Circumstances arose which caused 
the discontinuance of this library, and the 
books were removed from circulation and 
stored away for a considerable time. 

Under the regulations of "An Act to Es- 
tablish Free Public Libraries and Reading 
Rooms, approved by the Legislature of Cali 
fornia, April 26, 1880, the city council, in 
session of February 16, 1882. adopted a res 
olution to establish such an institution, and 
five trustees were accordingly voted for at the 
next election of city officers, T. B. Dibblee, 


James M. Short, O. N. Diinmick, W. E. 
Noble, and S. B. P. Knox being elected. 

After a number of preliminary meetings 
g. permanent organization was effected, Dr. 
S. B. P. Knox being elected permanent presi- 
dent, and James M. Short permanent secre- 

The custodians of the former Odd Fellows' 
Library donated all the books, etc., which had 
belonged to that institution, and which were 
formally accepted by the trustees of the 
Santa Barbara Free Public Library. 

The books so delivered comprised 2,921 
volumes; to these, during the first year, were 
added by purchase 300, and by donation 252 

A set of very liberal rules and i-egulations 
were adopted, and Mrs. Mary Page was 
elected librarian. 

The library at present contains 5,740 well- 
selected volumes, and it issues 3,974 cards, 
each representing a drawer of books. Fiction 
represents tlie greatest demand from readers, 
and next come travels, history, and miscel- 
laneous works. The rooms are comfortably 
fitted, and every care is taken to provide for 
their profitable use by readers and students. 
Mrs. M. C. Rust, the present librarian, has 
been the incumbent for the past few years, 
and Mrs. F. C. Lord her assistant. Both 
ladies are attentive, courteous and capable in 
tlie discharge of their duties. 


In December, 1876, this society was or- 
ganized with a list of twenty-one members 
and the following officers: President, Rev. 
Stephen Bowers; Vice Presidents, Mrs. Ell- 
wood Cooper, H. C. Ford, L. JS". Dimraick; 
Treasurer, Dr. Mason; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Mrs. H. G. Otis; Recording Secretary, 
Miss Abbie L Hails; Curator, Prof. Al- 
phonse Bel. 

The objects of the society, as set forth in 
its constitution, are, "The increase and diffu- 
sion of knowledge of the natural sciences, 
by the establishment of a museum, the read- 
ing and publication of original papers," etc. 

For the first two years of its existence, the 
society met in the Santa Barbara College 
building. Its property at this time consisted 
of a few specimens, contained in one case, 
and a few books and pamphlets. Removing 
hence, the society occupied until 1883 a place 
in the public library, owned by the I. O. O. 
F. During this period, little progress was 
made. In 1883 a new impetus was given by 
the ti-ansfer of about 1,200 volumes of Gov- 
ernment publications, which had been in 
charge of the Santa Barbara College. Funds 
were now donated by the citizens for the pur- 
chase of necessary furniture and book-cases. 

In 1884 the society removed from rented 
rooms to two fine rooms adjoining the Free 
Public Library, liberally offered by the pro- 
prietors of the Clock Building. During this 
year, from the proceeds of an entertainment 
given by the citizens, there was purchased a 
collection of archaeological specimens, valued 
at $300. 

For many years, large numbers of fine 
ethnological and archteological specimens, im- 
possible to replace, had been unearthed and 
carried from this section by Government ex- 
peditions, agents of foreign museums, col. 
lectors for institutions in other States, acd 
innumerable individuals collecting for specu- 
lation. The Natural History Society has 
done energetic and most desirable service in 
checking this movement, and in collecting 
and preserving for the use of this section 
relics thereunto appertaining. The museum 
and library have been steadily increasing, by 
donations and by jnirchase. This society's 
library is a depository — and the only one 
south of San Francisco — of all the publica- 


tions issued by the United States Govern- 
ment, exceedingly useful as works of reference. 
These rooms are accessible to all during the 
piiblic library hours, but books may be taken 
out only by members of the society. 

The museum contains: In entomology, 
299 species; ornithology, 85 mounted birds, 
6 nests, 132 eggs; mammals, 5 species, 
mounted; conchoiogy, about 900 species ma- 
rine and fresh- water shells; Crustacea, 12 
marine specimens, numerous corals; reptiles, 
33 species, in alcohol; botanical, marine algfe, 
330 species; flowering plants, about 2,000 
mounted specimens, 80 miscellaneous vari- 
eties; geological, 69 fossils, corals, crinoids, 
fish, shells, and insects; minerals, over 500 
specimens; Indian relics, over 700 varieties, 
very interesting; bound volumes, 2,053; pam- 
phlets and parts of volumes, 8,534; a large 
painting, by Henry C. Ford of "the Grizzly 
Giant," Sequoia gigantea; a stone chair used 
by the Incas of South America, found near 
Guayaquil; numeroxis photographs and curios. 

The present oflicers of the society are: 
President, H. C. Ford; Vice Presidents, L. 
G. Yates, James W. Calkins, Mrs. A. A. 
Boyce; Treasurer, Mrs. Mary A. Ashley; 
Corresponding and Recording Secretary, L. 
G. Yates; Curator and Librarian, Mrs. C. F. 
Lord; Publication Committee, H. C. Ford, 
"L. G. Yates. 

The society lias a membership of over 
forty-five, of whom, however, not very many 
are active members. It is proper to note 
that Henry Ciiapman Ford, president of the 
society, is a painter of some distinction, and 
that to his devotion and enthusiasm are due 
his charming etchings and studies in oil of 
the old missions, being the only jnctures in 
existence of the entire chain of those his- 
toric structures, now mostly fallen to ruin. 

Dr. Lorenzo Gordiii Yates, corresponding 
and recording secretary, has been iionored by 

election as a Fellow of the Linnean Society 
of London, a distinction enjoyed by only six 
citizens of the United States. Dr. Yates 
assisted by John Gilbert Baker, F. R. S., of 
the Royal Herbarium at Kew, is about to 
publish a list of " All Known Ferns," which 
will be a valuable contribution to fern knowl- 

The librarian and curator, Mrs. C. F. Lord 
is most energetic, assiduous, and efficient in 
her duties, and courteous in her treatment of 
persons visiting the rooms. 


The fraternal organizations of Santa Bar- 
bara are as follows: 

Santa Barbara Lodge, N"o. 192, F. & A. 
M.: E. G. Dodge, W. M.; W. B. Squier^ 

Magnolia Lodge, No. 242, F. & A. M.: B. 
F. Thomas, W. M.; R. D. Smith, Secretary. 

Corinthian Chapter, JSTo. 51, Royal Arch 
Masons: J. W. Hiller, High Priest; A. B. 
Williams, Secretary. 

St. Omar Commandery, No. 30, Knights 
Templar; Sir P\ M. Casal, E. C; Sir J. II. 
Austin, Recorder. 

Santa Barbara Lodge, No. 156, 1. O. O. F. : 
D. O. Kelly, N. G.; T. R. Da we. Secretary^ 

Channel City Lodge, No. 232, 1. O. O. F.: 
C. S. Sawyer, N. G.; W. H. Stafford, R. S.' 

Santa Barbara Encampment, No. 52, I. O. 
O. F., organized December, 1875: J. M. Hol- 
loway, C. P.; Fred Forbush, Scribe. 

Santa Barbara Lodge, K. of P., No. 25 
organized in 1876: S. W. Ireland, C. C; A. 
Davis, K. of R. and S. 

Castle Rock Lodge, K of P., No. 151, or- 
ganized in 1886: L. Brooks, C. C; J. L. 
Hurlbut, K. of R. and S. 

A. O. U. W., Lodge No. 172, organized in 
1881: J. T. Johnson, W. M.; W. IL Myers, 


Santa Barbara Parlor, No. 116, Native 
Sons of the Golden "West: W. H. Maris, 
President; C. J. Murplij, Secretary. 

Branch No. 39, Young Men's Institute: 
L. F. Ruiz, President; Rudolph Wakurka, 

Young Men's Christian Association and 
Free Reading Room, organized April, 1888. 

Starr King Post, No. 52, Department of 
California, G. A. R. : H. M. Van Winkle, Post 
Commander; F. A. Rowan, Adjutant; A. 
Davis, Quartermaster. 

Starr King Woman's Relief Corps: Flor- 
ence Salada, Mrs. E. J. Thompson, Secretary. 

Marguerite Chapter, No. 78, O. E. S.: 
Mrs. N. M. Axtell, W. M.; Eli Rundell, 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union: 
Mrs. H. D. Vail, President; Mrs. M. F. 
Clapp, Secretary. 


With the advent of Americans, other than 
Catholic churches were speedily organized in 
the county. As early as 1854, Rev. Adam 
Bland, Presiding Elder of the Los Angeles 
Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
held services here, and thus this denomina- 
tion may he called really the pioneer of Prot- 
estantism in this county, although not the 
first to organize. 

The circumstances were adverse to organ- 
ization up to 1868, when the Rev. R. R. 
Dunlap was appointed to the charge of the 
community embracing Santa Barbara, La Pa- 
tera, Montecito, Carpenteria and San Buena- 
ventura, although there was no organized 
society in any of these places. In 1868, Rev. 
P. Y. Cool was appointed to the service, and 
succeeded in organizing a church with eight- 
een members, and building a parsonage and 
chapel. The first worship was conducted in 
the court-house, then called the Egerea House. 
. The native population were much opposed to 

having Protestant service in the town, but 
oifered no violence, although resorting to an- 
noying disturbances, such as causing the 
squealing of hogs and the howling of dogs to 
interrupt the service. The public school- 
house also was at one time used for holding 

On July 17, 1869, the contract was let for 
a new brick church which cost $5,824.75, 
which was dedicated December 5, 1869. At 
the end of Mr. Cool's three-year pastorate, 
there were sixty-one members and parishion- 
ers. When the present incnmbent, E. W. 
Caswell, was appointed, September, 1888, the 
charge numbered 210 members and parish- 
ioners, with an average attendance of 128 
Sunday-school scholars. 

21ie Parochi-il Churc/i (Catholic) of Santa 
Barbara was built in 1853 by the Franciscans. 
In 1855 Bishop J. Amat arrived and took 
possession. In 1865 the church was burned, 
and rebuilding was begun in 1866. The first 
pastor was V. R. B. Rajo, who remained in 
charge only ten months, being succeeded by 
Rev. F. Torrentian, who was in 1887, in his 
turn, succeeded by V. R. F. James Vila, the 
present incumbent, who has the entire charge, 
wholly independent of the mission, the friars 
having nothing to do with the administration 
of the parish. Father Vila is assisted by 
Father M. G. G. B. F. Cesari. 

Trinity Church.— In March, 1867, Rev. T. 
G. Williams having been sent to Santa Bar- 
bara by the bishop, a meeting of Episcopa- 
lians was held, a board of trustees elected, 
and a church incorporated under the name 
of " Trinity." Services were held regularly 
in the old brick school house until Christ- 
mas-day, 1869, when, a brick church having 
been built, the first Protestant place of wor- 
ship in the county was opened. The interior 
of the church at that time was unfinished. 
This church was used continuously up to 


1887. late in 1886, in anticipation of the 
speedy arrival of the railroad, and the conse- 
quent probable great increase of the congre- 
gation, movements were taken to secure 
larger quarters. Wm. R. Broome donated a 
valuable lot, and a handsome building was 
thereupon erected. Although the edifice was 
not yet complete, on Easter Sunday, 1888, 
Rev. Dr. John Bakewell held the first service 
therein, to a congregation of over 500 persons; 
and on July 29, Rt. Rev. Bishop Kip, as- 
sisted by the Dean of the diccepe, formally 
opened the new church, under the old name 
of " Trinity." Tliis church has now (October, 
1890) been without a pastor since August. 

St. MarFs Episcopal Church was organ- 
ized in the spring of 1876, with Rev. Robert 
Scott as pastor. A suitable edifice was built, 
but it was sold to the Baptist congregation 
when St. Mark's re-united with Trinity 
Church, from which it was an oflTshoot. 

The Congregational Church had services 
here as early as 1866, when Rev. J. A. John- 
son preached his first sermon in the court- 
house. At the close of the service, a resolu- 
tion was adopted, asking him to remain in 
the town and organize a church society, which 
he did. In 1867 a permanent society was or- 
ganized. Mr. Johnson's ministry closed in 
1869. In 1870 a new brick church was ded- 
icated, built at a cost of $9,000 on a lot do- 
nated for the purpose. The present pastor, 
Rev. C. T. AVeitzel. was installed in 1887. 

Tlie Presbyterian Chiirch was organized 
in June, 1869, under Rev. Thomas Frazer, 
with an enrollment of nineteen members, 
many being ex-members of the congregation 
organized by Mr. Johnson. Rev. H. H. 
Dubbins was the first pastor, and the next. 
Dr. Phelps, who ii. creased the congregation 
to nearly 100. In 1874 was built a church 
costing $15,000. The present pastor is A. 
H. Carrier. 

TheSaptist Church was organized in 1874. 
The first pastor was H. I. Parker. In 1875 
this congregation purchased tlie old Presby- 
terian chapel, and in 1882 St. Mark's (an ofE- 
shoot from Trinity), which is still their place 
of worship. Rev. Alex. Grant is the present 

The Unitarian Church was organized about 
1880. The present place of worship is a 
chapel on State street, near which is building 
a handsome new stone chapel for this denom- 
ination at a cost of $28,000. Rev. Philip S. 
Thacher is pastor. 

The Christian Church was organized here 
in 1888. Rev. T. D. ti-arvin is pastor. Serv- 
ice is held in the old Trinity chapel. 

The Holiness Church was organized in 
1884. The pastor is J. A. Foster. 

The Faith Mission was established in 
1884. Mrs. E. J. Scudder is pastor. 

In 1889 a very handsome church was built, 
a ta cost of $16,000. In 1887, the East 
Santa Barbara Methodist Church was organ- 
ized, a lot was purchased, and a new church 
erected, at a cost of $2,100. 

The Methodist Church, South, was organ- 
ized in 1889, and a church building is being 


The First National Bank is the pioneer 
financial institution of this county. It was 
organized in 1873; its president being Mort- 
imer Cook, and the other oflicers the present 
ones. In 1876 was completed the present 
bank block at the corner of State street and 
Canon Perdido, an imposing three-story 
brick structure. 

This bank at present controls a system of 
safe deposit vaults also. 

The oflicers are: J. W. Calkins, president; 
Hugh D. Vail, vice-president; A. L. Lin- 
coln, ashier; H. P. Lincoln, assistant 


The Santa Barbara Cor.nty National Bank 
was organized in July, ISTo, as a State insti- 
tntion, being then known as the Santa Bar- 
bara County Bajik, with a paid up capital of 
$50,000. In Febrnary, 1880, it was reorgan- 
ized under the National Banking Laws, tak- 
ing its present title. About the end of 1886 
its capital was increased to $100,000. Its 
statement for August, 1887, sliowed an 
increase in business of nearly $200,000 over 
that shown in December, 1886. The ofMcials 
of the bank are as follows: William M. Eddy, 
president; John Edwards, vice-president; 
Eugene S. Sheffield, cashier; Charles A. Ed- 
wards, assistant cashier. These officei's are 
the same in charge since the beginning, save 
the assistant casliier, lately added. 

The Santa Barbara Savings Bank was in- 
corporated September, 1886, opening its doors 
for business in December, 1886, with a capi- 
tal of $50,000. In October, 1887, it was 
merged in the Commercial Bank, incorporated 
August, 1887, which commenced business 
October 1, 1887. Its officers at organization 
were: John H. Redington, president; E. B. 
UaU, vice-president; W. B. Metcalf, cashier. 
The present officers are: George S. Edwards, 
president; E. B. Hall, vice-president; W. B. 
Metcalf, cashier. This bank expects to occupy, 
by January 1, 1891, its own new edifice, now 
building on State street. 


was built in 1872. For years past, constant 
complaints had come in from successive 
grand juries of the total inefficiency of the 
court-house and jail, from which prisoners 
could escape almost at will. The murderer 
of Abadie had thus escaped, after some 
$1,700 had been spent for guarding him. 
After many delays on the score of deticiency 
of funds, tiie board of supervisors requested 
the legislature to pass a bill authorizing the 

issue of bonds, not to exceed $50,000, bear- 
ing interest at seven per cent, per annum, 
23ayable in thirty years from date. The bill 
was passed, and plans called for, that of P. J. 
Barber being selected from among tlie many 
offered. From the many bids received, that 
of Edward R. Fogarty, for $16,825 for car- 
penter work, was accepted, and two bids of 
Stevens and Joyner, for $16,595 and $1,922, 
for regular and for supplementary mason - 
work, respectively. The corner-stone was 
laid on October 5, 1872. The architecture 
is pure Corinthian in order. The edifice has 
a cupola, and a surmounted dome, with lan- 
tern finish. The general plan has the form 
of a Greek cross. The material is brick and 
iron, upon a stone foundation. Originally, 
and for many years, the jail was situated in 
the basement of the main building. Be- 
sides the court-rooms and judges' chambers, 
the court-liouse contains the offices of all 
tlie county officials except the recorder. 
The building cost some $60,000. Within 
the last few years there has been placed in it 
a tine steel lined vault for the safe-keeping 
of the county's treasure and court records, 


was built in 1876, at a cost of about $9,000. 
It is 28 X 36 feet, and contains an office, sitting- 
room, dining-room, kitchen, pantry, closet, 
and hall. In the second story are three large 
cells for female prisoners, the main entrance 
to which is through a wrought-iron skeleton 
door. The prison part of the jail is 28 x 31 
feet over the ground, and one story high. 
The floor is of stone, save in the ])risons, 
where it is of three-eighth inch steam-boiler 
iron, overlaid with wood. Entering through 
the iron door, one reaches the hall, which is 
six feet wide, and rnns the full length of the 
building. This hall is made of iron bars, 
three fourths of an inch square, set on end, 


three inches apart, between the floor and the 
ceiling, with iron doors at the left and right, 
opening into the cells, eight In nninber. Tiie 
doors are opened by levers from the main 
hall. The cells are seven feet long, six wide, 
and eight high. During tlie day, tlie pris- 
oners have the freedom of the hall, being 
locked up at niglit. The ceiling, floor, parti- 
tions, and doors of the cell, are all made of 
the boiler iron aforesaid. 


(for these establishments are combined in 
one), is situated just outside the city limits 
on the east. The grounds cover an area of 
about ten acres, sufficing for the raising of 
fi-uits and vegetables in a garden and orchard 
attached to the premises. The board of 
supervisors each year appoints a county phy- 
sician and a hospital superintendent, and 
nurses are employed as needed. There are 
at present one female and about twenty male 
inmates. The percentage of females seeking 
assistance here is small, owing to the same 
reason which accounts for the fact that the 
character of the inmates is rapidly changing; 
formerly they were mostly acute cases, but 
now they are mainly clironic. This is because 
very many of those received here are either 
tramps, or sick persons who reach Santa Bar- 
bara with means of support for a few days 
only, after which they become objects of 
charity. Dr. S. B. P. Knox, who is the pres- 
ent incumbent, has been county physician 
for some eight years in all, at one time filling 
the ottice for six years in succession. 

Besides the inmates of the poor farm, the 
county has some forty pensioners, mustly of 
Spanish-American blood, who live at their 
own dwellings, or with relatives, and receive 
a montldy allowance of $4, $6, or $8. 


From time to time movements have been 
made in Santa Barbara to secure the running 
of railways, of various lines, through this 
section. Meetings had been held, resolutions 
adopted, and njemorials drawn up, but all to 
very little, in fact to no, purpose. 

Only when it was clear that self-interest 
was thoroughly warranted, when further de- 
lay would positively divert an important and 
desirable revenue into other channels, when 
the rich products of this section guaranteed 
freight shipments to warrant extortions, the 
railroad at last condescended. 

On the afternoon of Friday, August 19, 
1887, the first regular psssenger train pulled 
into Santa Barbara, with a large number of 
visitors from Los Angeles, Ventura, and 
other neighboring cities. At the same time 
arrived a special excursion train from San 
Francisco, with a load of railway officials and 
other parties interested in Santa Barbara. 
Altogether, it is estimated that about 5,000 
people visited the city during this railway 
jubilee celebration. Tlie hotel accommoda- 
tions proving inadequate, the houses of the 
citizens were thrown open in generous hospi- 
tality to the visiting strangers, who were met 

the station, with bands and 


and driven about the city. In the evening 
was given at the Arlington a grand banquet, 
at which sat down fifty of tlie guests, with 
fifty of the leading citizens. Also there 
were read many letters and telegrams of re- 
grets from prominent State officials and 
railway magnates. Speeches and toasts were 
offered, and congratulations on this event for 
Santa Barbara. The next day, Saturday, 
August 20, there was a grand parade at 10 
A. M., in which participated tlie public or- 
ganizations of Santa Barbara and other 
points in the county, as well as many features 
of individual representation. The procession 


was headed by the Presidio Band, of San 
Francisco, and the local bands followed at 
intervals. One of the most interesting feat- 
ures was the illustration of tlie successive 
stages of progress in land transportation — 
the pack-mule, the stage coach of 1860, and 
the Pullman car of 1887. Many of the de- 
signs displayed upon floats in the procession 
were developed in the flowers for which this 
section is justly famous. At noon, the pro- 
cession moved to Burton Mound, where the 
Santa Barbara ladies served a complimentary 
luncheon to the citizens and the visitors, 
after which this large and enthusiastic thmng 
listened, before adjourning, to other speeches. 
At difl"erent periods efforts have been 
made to secure from Congress appropriations 
for a breakwater at Santa Barbara, but all 
such movements liave been tentative or ini- 
tiatory only, and leading to no practical 


of Santa Barbara is purveyed by the Mission 
Water Company, incorporated in 1872, 
which in the following year made through 
its pipes and mains a regular service. For 
this purpose the living springs of Mission 
Canon have been tapped, and the waters of 
Mission Creek utilized. There are two res- 
ervoirs, whose total capacity is some 4,000,- 
000, that of the storage reservoir being 
3,000,000 and of tlie distributing reservoir 
750,000 gallons. The distributing reservoir 
is about 200 feet above the highest, and 325 
feet above the lowest, portion of the city, 
thus giving sufficient pressure to throw a 
stream over the highest building in the city. 
There are in use several miles of distributing 
pipes, four to six inclies in diameter. 


Since November 1, 1887, Santa Barbara 
has been municipally lighted by the electric 

system. There are two towers 150 feet high, 
each having four 2,000-candlc power lamps, 
and twenty-eight masts sixty and eighty feet 
high, each with one 2,000-candle-power 
lamp. State street is thus lighted through- 
out its entire length, and the rest of the 
lamps are distributed about the city. This 
system costs the city about $500 monthly. 
Besides the city lights, there are in use over 
sixty arc -lights of l,200candle-power, and 
a large number of incandescent lights of va- 
rious powers, used for the lighting of mer- 
cantile houses, iiotels, and other private 


The telephone office at this city was 
opened July 10, 1886, with a list of thirty- 
five subscribers, now increased to 149, all 
within the city limits. 

There are in Santa Barbara County post- 
offices as follows: Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, 
Lompoc, Los Alamos, Guadaloupe, Summer- 
land, Stuart, Sisquoc, Serena, Santa Maria, 
Santa Ynez, Nojoqui, Montecito, Los Olivos, 
Goleta. Carey, Carpenteria and Ballard's. Of 
these, the first five are money order offices, 
that at Santa Barbara having international 

The Santa Barbara county officials at pres- 
ent date, September, 1890, are as follows: 

District Court Commissioner, Charles Fer- 
nald; State Senator, E. H. Heacock; Assem- 
blyman, C. A. Storke; Superior Judge, R. 
M. Dillard; County Court Commissioner, 
S. W. Bouton; Clerk, F. L. Kellogg; Offi- 
cial Court Reporter, C. F. Reynolds; Re- 
corder, C. A. Stuart; Sheriff, R J. Brough- 
ton;' Under Sherifl", R. D. Smith; Au- 
ditor, J. T. Johnson; Tax-Collector, M. 
F. Burke; Treasurer, E. S. Sheffield; Sur- 
veyor, A. S. Cooper; District Attorney, W. 
B. Cope; Assessor, Frank Smith; Deputy 


Assessors, J. L. Barker, Santa Barbara; C.J. 
Young, Lornpoc; B. M. Smith, Carpenteria; 
George Smith, Los Alatnos; Scliool Super- 
intendent, G. E. Thurmond; Public Admin- 
istrator, W. B. Hosmer; Coroner, A. M- 
Ruiz; Supervisors — Thomas Hosmer, H. G. 
Crane, A. M. Boyd, D. T. Trnitt, A. W. Cox- 


As the Mission (now a college of Fran- 
ciscans) is one uf the most notable features 
of the place, from its historic associations, 
and for its present picturesqueness, a brief 
recapitulation of its history here will liardly 
be superfluous. On the feast of Santa Bar- 
bara, Virgin and Martyr (December 4), 1786, 
on the site occupied by the present edifice. 
Very Reverend Father Ferrnin Francisco de 
Lasuen, President of the Missions, and suc- 
cessor to Padre Junipero Serra, raised the 
cross and founded the Mission, being assisted 
by Padres Antonio Paterna and Cristobal 
Oramas. On December 15, Padre Lasuen 
celebrated mass and preached in a hut or 
booth, built for the occasion from boughs or 
branches of trees. At this service was present 
the Governor, Pedro Fages, accompanied by 
a few soldiers. In the year 1787 were built 
a house for the priests, 36 x 15, and a church 
or chapel, 30 x 15, having adobe walls three 
feet thick, and temporary roofs made of 
heavy rafters, across which were tied long 
poles or canes, over which was spread a layer 
of mud or clay, the whole then thatched with 
straw. In tiie following year, the Fathers, 
with the 200 Indians tiien living at the Mis- 
sion, began the manufacture of tiles, with 
wliich they then roofed the buildings. 

By tlie year 1789 the first church was 
razed, as too small, and a new one, 85x15, 
was erected, as also many new houses for 
dwellings for the Indians of tlie Mission, by 
this time numbering nearly 500. 

In 1793 was begun, and in 1794 was fin- 
ished, the third church of this Mission, a 
large adobe structure, 127|x25J, containing 
six chapels and a large sacristy. It had a 
brick portico, walls well plastered with mor- 
tar, and tile roof. In this year died Rev. 
Father Antonio Paterna, the first minister of 
this Mission. 

As the Indians here now numbered 782, 
and were increasing rapidly, it became neces- 
sary to form a village and give a separate 
liouse to each family; and so, in 1798, there 
were erected nineteen houses for as many In- 
dian families; and during the years follow- 
ing an average of thirty-five new houses per 
year, so that by 1807 the Indian village con- 
tained 252 houses and as many families. In 
1806 was built a reservoir of mason-work, 
116 feet square by seven feet deep, to collect 
water for the gardens, orchard, etc., and this 
tank is still in existence, used for water 
storage by the water company. In 1808 was 
built in the space before the Mission an orna- 
mental stone fountain and lavatory, still ex- 
isting and regarded as a "show" feature. 

During the latter part of December, 1812, 
the severe earthquake shocks which then oc- 
curred so damaged all the Mission buildings, 
and particularly the church, that it was 
deemed expedient to take this down and 
build another. From this period, then, dates 
the fourth and present Mission chiirch, which 
was begun in 1815, and finished and conse- 
crated in September, 1820. Its dimensions 
are 170 feet long, forty feet wide, and thirty 
feet from floor to ceiling. The walls, nearly 
six feet thick, are of large cubes of cut sand- 
stone, plastered over, and they are strength- 
ened by heavy and massive stone buttresses 
along the sides and at the angles, thus making 
it the strongest of the Mission edifices. 

Hitherto Upper and Lower California had 
been under the spiritual jurisdiction of the 


Bishop of Sonora, Mexico. But in 1835 the 
Mexican Congress which revoked the decree 
of 1833 and gave back to the Missions the 
property of which they had then been de- 
spoiled, decreed also that the California 
provinces should have a special or local 
bishop, whose interest wonld be devoted ex- 
clusively to the welfare and advancement of 
this section. Such a prelate was not assigned, 
however, until 1840, when Pope Gregory 
XVI. elected Right Rev. Francisco Garcia 
Diego y Moreno, a Franciscan father, who 
was solemnly consecrated to the bishopric 
October 4, 1840. On January 11, 1842, he 
arrived at Santa Barbara, and amidst great 
rejoicings took possession of the diocese, 
selecting the Mission as his residence, and 
thus making Santa Barbara the Episcopal 
city. The bishop died at the Mission, April 
80, 1846, and Very Rev. Jose M. Gonzalez 
Rubio, O. S. F., became administrator of the 
diocese, surrendering his charge in 1850 to 
the Right Rev. J. S. Alemany, who had that 
year been consecrated Bishop of Monterey, 
and who in.l885 became Archbishop of San 

The Mission nnder its present aspect is 
still very picturesque, although at close range 
something of its charm is lost through the 
results of " restoration," which has destroyed 
the creamy, time -mellowed tints of the sur- 
faces, and imparted a certain obtrusive and 
common-place setness to its appearance. 
Nevertheless, in its architectural fitness, in 
its dimensions, and in its situation, lying as 
it does on a commanding site, where it is 
sure to catch promptly the attention of the 
traveler, whether by land or by sea, the Mis- 
sion bears strong witness to the taste and 
judicial discrimination of the Padres. The 
building has a very oriental aspect, what 
with its long arcade and two twin towers. 
Within, the organ loft is at one end, and the 

high altar at the other. In the vault beneath 
reposes the mortal part of the first Bishop of 
the two Californias, Francisco Garcia Diego, 
above whose tomb hangs his antique hat. 
This vault was recently reopened to receive 
the body of the venerable Father Sanchez, 
who had ministered here since. 

At tlie left of the church is a wing 130 
feet long, with the pillars and arches of its 
corridor well preserved. On one side is the 
old olive orchard, and scattered near are the 
remains of many now ruined buildings of 
industrial use in the days of the Indian con- 

This probably went to decay less than any 
of the other missions, and it was, further- 
more, put in repair for the celebration of the 
centennial of its founding. On this occasion, 
December 4, 1886, visitors from all parts of 
the State came hither. 

Masses and services are held regularly at 
the mission, which is in charge of Rev. 
Joseph O'Keefe, who is accompanied by 
some three or four fathers, and about a 
dozen lay brothers. 

Visitors to the mission are courteously re- 
ceived. Ladies are prohibited from entering 
a certain one of the gardens. 


It would appear that the first beginnings 
of public instruction of Santa Barbara were 
such rudiments as were imparted by one Jose 
Manuel Toca, a grumete, or ship-boy, from 
one of the transports. This required a re- 
muneration of $125, of which each soldier 
paid $1. By the governor's orders, the first 
feature of tliese presidio schools was the 
teaching of Christian doctrine, then reading 
and writing. Toca taught from the close of 
1795 to 1797, when he was called on board 
ship, being replaced in school by another 


A primary school for girls was opened by 
a woman in 1817, but it would seem to have 
closed rather speedily. 

During the last years of the decade 1810- 
'20, a school was maintained, with Diego 
Fernandez as teacher, on a monthly salary of 
$15; but in 1828 not one pupil was in attend- 
ance, and the alcalde was directed to enforce 
compulsory ediication. 

Up to 185(5, the English language was not 
taught in the common schools, owing to the 
opposition offered thereto by the Spanish 
element of the population. But in that year, 
the county superintendent, George D. Fisher, 
aud the school commissioners, Hill, de la 
Palma y Mesa and Huse, held an examination 
of teachers, at which applied Pablo Caracela, 
Mr. Baillis, Victor Mondrau and Owen Con- 
nolly, the two latter of whom were there 
authorized to teach school for one year, at a 
monthly salary of $75. Through the failure 
of the county superintendent to report, it is 
said for lack of mail facilities, one appropria- 
tion of the State school fund was lost; and 
an attempt was made in the Legislature to so 
remedy the matter that Santa Barbara might 
receive her quota. In objection it was urged 
that Santa Barbara had no school-house, and 
that the English language was not taught 
there at all. Accordingly, the teaching of 
English was this season begun, and after 
some difficulty the quota due Santa Barbara 
was paid over. In 1854 there bad been 
levied a school tax of five cents on each $100, 
and this fund provided for increased facilities 
and accommodations. In a letter to the 
school board from Owen Connolly, teacher 
of the first and then only school tauglit in 
English, he asks for an increase of salary, 
based on the floiirishing condition of the 
school. It numbers, he says, seventy -eight 
pupils between the ages of four and fifteen 
years, half of whom Were young ladies (age 

not stated!) one-third were Americans, tlie 
rest of Spanish or Mexican blood. The 
studies were orthography, penmanship, read- 
ing, arithmetic, geography, grammar and 
analysis, of both English and Spanish. 

In 1879 there were thirty school districts 
and 2,976 children of school age. 

For the year ending June 30, 1884, the 
children of school age were 3,445 ; school dis- 
tricts, forty. 

With the increased jiroportion of Anglo- 
Saxon population, they here as elsewhere 
arranged for the maintenance of that great 
necessity, good public schools, and the system 
has steadily advanced in the county to its 
present proportions. 

The School Department of Santa Barbara 
County is now composed as follows, as pre- 
scribed by the new State- constitution of 
1879-'80: The County Board of Education 
consists of the county school superintendent, 
ex officio its secretary, and four others, two of 
whom must be teachers holding the higliest 
grade of certificate. This board prescribes 
the course of study, the list of text-books, 
and list of books for school libraries; and it 
holds semi-annual examinations, in June and 
DecembeT, of teachers for the county schools. 
Every autumn is held a county institute, 
which every teacher is required to attend, 
unless excused by the superintendent for 
sufficient reasons. 

There are three grades of schools, namely, 
primai-y, grammar grade and grammar 
school course, that receive State appropria- 
tions; and a high school, located in the city 
of Santa Barbara, and supported by county 
tax. The city in the autumn of 1887 con- 
tained five public-school buildings, accom- 
modating twelve primary, five grammar and 
one high school. There was then an enroll- 
ment of 1,031 pupils, taught by twenty 


The school census of Santa Barbara for the 
year closing June 30, 1886, shows as follows: 
Total nnmber school census children, 3,844, 
divided as follows: white boys, 1,987; white 
girls, 1,888; negro boys, four; negro girls, 
six; Indian boys, four; Indian girl, one. 
Under live years old there were 1,495 white 
and three negi'o children. The county then 
contained four Chinese children under seven- 
teen years of age, four deaf and dumb and 
seven blind children. 

The births during the year were 129 boys 
and 115 girls; total 244. 

The number of children who attended 
public school during the year were 2,650 
white, seven negro and two Indian. 

There were 136 attending private schools. 

In November, 1887, there were in the 
county forty-six school districts, supplied by 
about seventy teachers. The number of 
children enrolled, between five and seventeen 
years of age, was 3,948, as against 2,696 in 
1886. The total of appropriations during 
that year for school purposes was $46,990.20, 
and the amount paid for teachers' salaries was 

There are at present in Santa Barbara 
County fifty- three school districts, with 
eighty-six incumbent teachers, of whom sixty- 
one are women and twenty-five men. The 
ladies receive an average salary of $61, the 
gentlemen of $75. There are 4,429 children 
of school age in the countj, of whom are en- 
rolled 3,648, comprising 1,800 girls and 
1,848 boys. The average daily attendance is 

For the school year closing June 30, 1890, 
the State apportionment for this county was 
$42,840, and the county apportionment, $27,- 
791.45. From this total of $70,631.45 the 
amount paid for teachers' salaries was $50,- 
247.50; for school buildings, $15,895.06; for 
school libraries, $994.96; for apparatus, $1,- 

045.45; for rent, repairs and contingent ex- 
penses, $12,440.16. Total of expenditures, 
$80,123.13. The school bonded indebtedness 
in the county is $81,450. 

The county owns school-houses and furni- 
ture to the value of $143,300; the school 
libraries contain an aggregate of 8,936 vol- 
umes, valued at $10,080, and the apparatus 
supplied to the schools is worth $5,730, thus 
placing the valuation of school property at 

The County Board of Education at present 
is composed of School Superintendent G. E. 
Thurmond, T. N. Snow, Miss Josephine 
Rockwood, Mrs. Ida M. Blochman and Hol- 
ton Webb. 

There are in the city of Santa Barbara 
1,680 census children, of whom 1,228 are en- 
rolled in the schools, the average attendance 
being 840. The number of teachers is 
twenty-four. There are five school buildings 
of plain but substantial style, the valuation 
of buildings and furniture being $50,000. 
The corps of teachers numbers a city super- 
intendent and twenty three assistants. 

St. Vincent's College was established 1858, 
by the Sisters of Charity, noble, unselfish 
and energetic women, who have conducted it 
very successfully up to the present. Early 
in its career St. Vincent's possessed an ex- 
cellent four-story brick building, which was 
destBoyed by fire March 15, 1874, the loss 
being about $20,000. This calamity, as it 
veritably was to Santa Barbara, was soon re- 
paired by the erection of the present build- 
ing on the site of the burned structure. The 
institute is now a tine three-story brick edi- 
fi".ce of composite architecture, where the Sis- 
ters teach all common brandies of instruc- 
tion. Only girls are received here. 

The Santa Barbara College was instituted 
in 1869, by a joint-stock company of the citi- 
zens, and an edifice (at present the San Mar- 


COS Hotel) was built at a cost of about $85,- 
000. It had an efficient corps of teachers, 
qualified to lit pupils for a business life or 
for the university. It had an average of 
perhaps eighty pupils. It suspended opera- 
tion about 1878. 

There are now in Santa Barbara three pri- 
vate schools besides St. Vincent's, viz.: the 
Collegiate School, Miss Thayer's School for 
Girls, and the School for Girls kept by Pro- 
fessor Alfred Colin and Madame Colin. 


In the early days the care of the sick was 
of lay origin; that is, by domestic remedies, 
mainly herbal, and in not a few instances 
borrowed from the superstitious rites of the 
aborigines. Surgical operations, too, were 
performed mostly after a rough and amateur- 
ish fashion. As late as June, 1846, Fran- 
cisco de la Guerra wrote to the Governor 
that for the want of good medical men in 
the country he had been under the necessity 
of employing the surgeon of a British man- 

William A. Streeter, as stated elsewhere, 
practiced here as a physician, albeit not 
regularly qualified, from 1845 forward. 

Dr. Nicholas A. Den had arrived here as 
early as 1836, but it would appear from Don 
Francisco's expressed want that Dr. Den did 
not at once begin to practice, nor is the date 
of his embarking in this profession obtain- 
able by the present writer. 

Dr. Samuel Bevier Bririkerhotf, who ar- 
rived here in 1852, soon became a general 
favorite practitioner, and when he died he 
probably knew as many family histories and 
family secrets of the section as a father con- 
fessor, besides having opened or closed the 
gates of life to a vast number of the com- 
munity. Up to the time of his death he 
was a successful practitioner. 

Among the earlier physicians who came to 
Santa Barbara were: Drs. Alexander Perry; 
Wallace, who came in 1850; Shaw, who 
practiced with Dr. Burr is, who came hither 
from Mexico; English, Freeman, Ord (a di- 
rect dscendant of George IV. of England 
and Mrs. Fitzherbert), Biggs and Bates (in 
partnership about 1873), Winchester (came 
about 1873), S. B. P. Knox, Logando (came 
about 1875), etc. 

There are at present about twelve regular 
practicing physicians in the city of Santa 
Barbara, and five practitioners of the homeo- 
pathic school. In the outside towns there 
are ten practicing physicians, as follows: At 
Carpenteria, three; at Santa Maria, two; at 
Santa Ynes, one; at Los Alamos, one; at 
Lompoc, two; at Los Olivos, one; all these 
being of the allopathic school, save one 
homeopath at Carpenteria. Most of the'physi- 
cians in the city belong to the State Medical 
Association, but there is no county associa- 
tion, although various efforts have been made 
to establish one. 


The following account of the bench and 
bar of Santa Barbara County and the 
Second Judicial District in the early days 
was kindly prepared for the present work 
by Judge Charles Fernald : 

"The bench and bar in newly organized 
communities must always be an interesting 
subject to all readers, professional and lay as 
well. The well-being of the community in 
general depends largely upon the character 
of the bench and the bar, at all times, under 
our system of government. The rights of 
person and property find their surest guar- 
anty in the character of both. Accordingly 
we have striven to ascertain, as best we may 
at this late date, just how the courts were 
organized, and the character of the judges. 


magistrates, attorneys and counsellors prac- 
ticing liere from the adoption of the consti- 
tution and the organization of the courts 
from 1850 to the election and inauguration 
of Abraham Lincoln in 1861. 

"The judicial system of the State under 
the judicial act of 1850 and 1851 was radi- 
cally difTerent from that adopted by the new 
constitution of California in 1879 under the 
influence of the "sand lot," as it has been 
called. The former was much more simple 
in structure, and we can but think a careful 
comparison of the two will show the old 
system very much more effective in its scope 
and practical operation. We have not space 
here to analyze and compare the two systems, 
and it is not our purpose to do so. 

" The act of April 11, 1851, provided for 
the organization of a Supreme Court, con- 
sisting of a chief justice and two associate 
justices, to be elected by the people. The 
State was divided into eleven judicial dis- 
tricts, and provision was made for the term 
of six years for the election of a district 
judge for each district, embracing one or 
more counties according to population. The 
first district embraced the counties of San 
Diego and Los Angeles, and the second the 
counties of Santa Barbara and San Luis 
Obispo, Santa Barbara County at that time 
including in its territory the present county 
of Yentura, cut off" from Santa Barbara in 
1872, by an act of the Legislature. The act 
of 1851 also provided for the organization of 
a superior court of the city of San Fran- 
cisco, and for a county court for each of 
the counties of the State, with original and 
appellate jurisdiction, and for the election of 
appointment of county judges to preside 
over said courts. Also for a court of ses- 
sions for each of the counties, over which 
should preside the county judge and two 
associate justices, to be appointed by the 

judge, or to be chosen by the justices of the 
peace of the county when elected. 

"The term of district judges was for six 
years and of county judges four years. The 
district court, the county court and the 
court of sessions exercised substantially the 
same jurisdiction as the superior courts now 
do under our present judicial system. The 
county judge also acted as surrogate or 
probate judge, and the court of sessions 
was charged with all of the duties of the 
present boards of supervisors for each 

"As we have had occasion to say elsewhere 
in speaking of the character of the immigra- 
tion to this State in 1849-50, we now repeat 
here what is undeniably true, that there came 
to the State in those early days the excellence 
and culture of the older States east of the 
Mississippi River. It would be difficult to 
point to a more able body of men, taken 
altogether than those assembled at Monterey 
in 1850 to frame a constitution for the State 
of California. Such men as William M. 
Gwin, Winfield S. Sherwood, Henry W. Hal- 
leck, L. W. Hastings, Jacob R. Snyder, 
Charles T. JBotts, Henry A. Tefft, Thomas 
O. Larkin, Rodman M. Price, J. McHol- 
lingsworth, Myron Norton, Edward Gilbert, 
Benjamin S. Lippincott, Thomas M. Ver- 
meule, Louis Dent, Abel Stearns and the late 
Pablo de la Guerra. There were other able, 
experienced men — merchants, lawyers and 
farmers. The average age of these men was 
about thirty-three years; many of them were 
less than twenty-seven years of age. 

"And it has been a matter of frequent 
assertion that the first Legislature of the 
State of California contained more able men 
than any succeeding one. 

"The first judge of the district court of 
ihe second judicial district, embracing, as we 
have stated, the counties of Santa Barbara 


and San Lnis Obispo, was Henry A. Tefft, a 
native of Washington Connty, New York. 
At the date of his appointment he was twen- 
ty-six years of age and resided at Nipomo, 
San Luis Obispo County. He served but 
one year as district judge, having perished 
at the steamboat landing at San Luis Obispo 
in the winter of 1851-'52, in endeavoring to 
laud from the steamer in an open boat during 
a heavy storm. 

" Henry Storrow Carnes, still living in 
Santa Barbara, was appointed by the gov- 
ernor of the State to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Judge Tetft. Carnes held 
the office until the general election in Novem- 
ber, 1852, at which election the late Joaquin 
Carrillo was elected by the people for the 
balance of the term. Carrillo continued to 
hold the ofhce until the year 1863-'64, when the 
late Don Pablo de la Guerra was elected for 
the term of six years. De la Guerra held 
the office until his death in 1873. "Walter 
Murray of San Luis Obispo County, was ap- 
pointed by the governor to Mnish the unex- 
pired term. Judge Murray died in June, 
1875, and Eugene Fawcett was then ap- 
pointed by the governor until the next suc- 
ceeding general election. Judge Fawcett 
was afterward elected to the office and held 
the same until the adoption of the new con- 
stitution in 1879. 

"The first county judge of Santa Barbara 
County was Joaquin Carrillo. He held the 
office from the date of the organization of the 
court in 1851 until his election as District 
judge in November, 1852, at which time he 
resigned the office of county judge, and the 
Hon. Charles Fernald was then appointed by 
Governor Bigler as his successor." 

" Judge Charles Fernald arrived in Califor- 
nia in 1849, and in Santa Barbara in 1852. A 
native of Maine, Judge Fernald had acquired 
much of his legal training at Dorchester, 

Massachusetts, where his favorite recreation 
had been to attend the court of Chief Justice 
Lemuel Shaw. In attendance upon noted 
cases, he had had the great privilege of listen- 
ing to such lights of the bar as Webster, 
Choate, Benjamin R. Curtis, £. R. Hoar, 
W. R. P. Washburne, etc., etc. Judge Fer- 
nald was elected without opposition, by the 
people, at every judicial election thereafter 
until 1861, and held the office until the be- 
ginning of 1862, at which time he resigned 
to enter upon the active practice of his pro- 
fession. At the time of his appointment 
to the position of county judge, Judge' 
Fernald was scarcely twenty-two years of age, 
but he possessed the rare advantage of a 
thorough and proper training for the dis- 
charge of the duties of the office, which few 
young men then competing here possessed. 

"At the resignation of Judge Fernald, Gov- 
ernor Downey appointed as his successor the 
late J. M. Covarrubias, who held the office 
until the ensuing general election, when the 
late Hon. F. J. Maguire was elected; and he 
continued to hold the office by election up to 
the time of the adoption of the new constitu- 

" From every point of view, the character, 
integrity and ability, the Bench was an able 
one, and the records of the Supreme Court 
show that the decisions of the judges of these 
courts were rarely, if ever, reversed. And 
when it is considered that during that period 
some of the most important principles of law 
of real property, the construction of the new 
constitution, the statutes relative thereto, 
and the rules of the civil law and of the civil 
law as adopted in Spain and Mexico, were 
often involved and at issue, it will be ad- 
mitted that this is high praise. 

" At the date of the organization of the 
above named courts there were here and at 
the bar from the beginning men of descent 


and training ; among them was Edward 
Sherman Hoar, a sen of the Hon. Samuel 
Hoar of Concord, Massachusetts ; he was 
a graduate of Harvard and one of tue 
brightest intellects of all that gifted family. 
He was the confessed leader of the bar 
of Southern California. Next must be 
mentioned Augustus F. Hinclunan of New 
Jersey, also a graduate of Harvard and a class- 
mate of Mr. Hoar, a man of varied learning, 
culture and acquirements. Judge Fernald 
having been thus early appointed to the 
Bench, practiced at that time only in the 
Federal courts, up to the time of his resigna- 
tion in 1862. Next came James Lancaster 
Brent, a native of Maryland and brother of 
the attorney-general of that State, an ac- 
complished orator and advocate, as well as 
a learned lawyer. Brent resided at Los An- 
geles and was associated with Jonathan R. 
Scott, a giant physically and mentally, who 
came from St. Louis, Missouri. Although 
resident at Los Angeles, they often appeared 
before the courts of Santa Barbara and San 
Luis Obispo counties. Benjamin Hayes, a 
resident of Los Angeles, and afterward judge 
of the first judicial district for many years, 
often appeared in the courts of this county 
prior to his election as judge. Myron Nor- 
ton, one of the leaders of the bar of Los 
Angeles, was often called here in important 

" Then came L. C. Granger, who recently 
died in Chico, Butte County, a man of rec- 
ognized ability and learning. William J. 
Graves, who came from St. Louis, Missouri, 
to San Luis Obispo, became well known 
throughout the State as a man of marked 
ability at the bar, and deeply learned in the 
law; he was a worthy competitor of the able 
men before mentioned. Well worthy of 
mention comes Russell Heath, now living at 
the Carpenteria, who came to this State and 

settled in this county about the beginning of 
1851, Mr. Heath was a native of Little 
Falls, Herkimer County, New York, being a 
lienal descendant of General Heath, of Rev- 
olutionary fame. He made the journey to 
California overland on horseback through 
Northern Mexico. From the time of his 
arrival here, early in 1851, at about twenty- 
three years of age, he took a prominent 
position at the bar. He was appointed by 
Judge Fernald, tlien presiding judge of the 
oourt of sessions, to the important position of 
district attorney in January, 1853. He dis- 
charged the duties of the office judiciously 
and with great intelligence. In 1856 a strong 
man was needed for sheriflF of this county, 
and Judge Fernald selected Mr. Heath for 
that position, whicli he held until 1854, and 
his administration was strong and gave great 
satisfaction to the people. Since that time 
Mr. Heath has creditably represented this 
county in the State Legislature two terms. 

" Early in 1852, Eugene Lies appeared here 
as one amongst the most versatile at this bar. 
He was born in the city of New Orleans, of 
French parentage. Early in life he was taken 
to Paris, where he was educated and trained 
to the har. Returning to this country, his 
parents settled in New York, and young Li^s 
was admitted to the bar in that State, whence 
he came directly to Santa Barbara County, 
and here commenced his professional career, 
achieving pronounced success. In 1859-60, 
he was elected to the Legislature of this State, 
and at the close of the session of that year lie 
took up his abode in the city of San Fran- 
cisco, attaining immediate recognition as 
among the ablest of the bar of that city. He 
was an accomplished linguist, an able lawyer, 
and a successful advocate. With him was 
associated in practice here and at San Fran- 
cisco Albert Packard, of Rhode Island. Mr. 
Packard had early come to this State and set- 


tied in Los Angeles. He was recognized as 
a man of nnusnally strong intellect. Then 
last, but not least, must be mentioned Charles 
E. Huse, from Newburyport, Massachusetts. 
He was a graduate of Harvard, where he took 
a course of study for the ministry, afterwards 
adopting the profession of law, becoming a 
painstaking, laborious and zealoTis practitioner. 
There were many others who occasionally 
appeared in our courts, such as Parker H. 
French, the late D. S. Gregory, and until his 
death recently Superior Judge of San Luis 
Obispo Coiintj; Hon. Francis J. Maguire, af- 
terwards County Judge; E. O. Crosby, who 
had been a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, and Walter Murray, of San Luis Obis- 
po, a laborious, reliable and successful prac- 
titioner up to the time of his appointment to 
the bench, as before stated. 

" All of these men were lawyers of marked 
ability and learning, and compared favorably 
with the members of the bar in any part of 
the State. And, while later on in the '70s 
men like Fawcett and other able young men 
came to the bar here, we feel warranted in 
expressing the opinion that the men we have 
named were altogether exceptional in point of 
ability and learning. They had to deal with 
new questions and principles in settling the 
law in many of its branches, and well their 
work was done, as the reports of their cases 
in the Supreme Court will abundantly show." 

The machinery of government of Santa 
Barbara County went into working in August, 
1850: Joaquin Carrillo was county and pro- 
bate Judge. The first case brought before 
him regarded the estate of James Scott, de- 
ceased, who had been a partner in trade of 
Captain Wilson. The will was approved, and 
N. A. Den and Pablo de la Guerra were ap- 
pointed appraisers. 

When Henry A. Tefft took his seat as 
judge of the Second Judicial District August 

5, 1850, John M. Huddars acting as Clerk, 
Eugene Lies, of New York, was admitted to 
practice, and he was sworn in as interpreter 
and translator. Jose Antonio de la Guerra y 
CarriUo having been judge of the Court of 
the First Instance, the records of that court 
were demanded from, and refused by, the 
Alcalde Joaquin de la Guerra, perhaps to 
show contempt for this new court which su- 
perseded the old authorities. 

The court ordered made a county seal, de- 
scribed as follows: 

" Around the margin the words. County 
Court of Santa Barbara County., with the 
following device in the center: A female fig- 
ure holding in her right hand a balance, and 
in her left a rod of justice; above the figure 
a rising sun, and below, the letters CAL. 

The first district attorney was Edward S. 
Hoar. He returned in 1857 to his old home 
at Concord, Massachusetts, it is said that 
the clerk of this court was a mighty hunter 
and fisherman, and that he was wont to carry 
about in his coat-pocket the memorandum 
book which contained the only court records 
kept for some months. Judge Fernald pro- 
nounces this story apocryphal, however. 

The first sheriff was Jose Antonio Rodri- 
guez; he was killed early in 1850, on the 
present site of the gas wells at Summerland. 
He was leading a party of some fifty men in 
pursuit of those who murdered the Reed 
family at San Miguel, in San Luis Obispo 
County, and, disapproving of the reluctance 
of his followers to close with the murderers, 
Rodriguez dashed forward and tore from the 
saddle one burly fellow, who thereupon raised 
himself upon his knees and killed the sheriff 
with a shot-gun. One of the miscreants 
plunged into the sea and swam out beyond 
the kelp, where he was drowned; the others 
were captured, tried, and shot at Santa 


The next slieriif was named Heavy. He 
was waylaid and shot on the Santa Ynes 

J. W. Burroughs was the first county clerk, 
auditor, coroner, and justice of the peace. 
His deputy was A. F. Hinchman, now of San 
Francisco. Nicholas A. Den was made fore- 
man of the first grand jury, but the names of 
the other jurymen were not recorded. A 
better record was kept of the next session, 
held April 7, 1851; the following persons 
were empaneled: Antonio Arellanes, John 
Kays, Rafael Gonzalez, Octaviano Gutierrez, 
Manuel Cota, Raimundo Olivera, Estevan 
Ortega, George Nidever, Augustus F. Hinch- 
man, Jose Lorenzano, Juan Rodriguez, 
Ygnacio Ortega, Antonio Maria Ortega, 
Guillermo Carriilo, Edward S. Hoar, A. F. 
Hinchman, Jose Carriilo, Lewis T. Burton, 
Augustin Janssens, Joaquin Carriilo, Vi- 
cente Hill. Eight individuals were fined 
$25 each for not answering to their names on 
this panel. The grand jury found indict- 
ments for murder against Guadalupe Sanchez 
and Francisco Figueroa, and offered a com- 
plaint against the jail as unfit for use. In 
the case of the People vs. Francisco Romero 
et al., the witnesses were discharged, and the 
sureties relieved, as the defendants had es- 
caped from custody, because of the jail's in- 

The roll of attorneys of Santa Barbara 
County shows the following names: 

J. L. Barker, A. T. Bates, I. R. Baxley, 
S. W. Bouton, J. J. Boyce, R. B. Canfield, 
J. G. Deadrick, Charles Fernald, William 
Gallaher, G. H. Gould, E. B. Hall, F. Leslie 
Kellogg, Thomas McNulta, Walter H. Nixon, 
A. A. Oglesljy, Joseph J. Perkins, S. S. 
Price, A. E. Putnam, J. T. Richards, C. A. 
Storke, W. C. Stratton, J. W. Taggart, B. F. 
Thomas, C. A. Thompson, J. B. Wentling, 
H. G. Crane, W. N. Haverly, C. F. Carrier, 

J. F. Conroy, W. P. Butcher, W. C. Gam- 
mill, Grant Jackson, W. S. Day, E. R. Mc- 
Grath, Eugene W. Squier, Walter B. Cope 
and Paul R. Wright, all of Santa Barbara; 
B. F. Bayley and W. W. Broughton, of Lom- 
poc; S. E. Crow and Caleb Sherman, of Santa 

Many of these are not now engaged in 
active practice. 

Among those now actively engaged in the 
practice in the center of the county, promi- 
nently stands Hon. Charles Fernald, whose 
biography is given at length elsewhere. 

J. J. Boyce is a native of Utica, New 
York, where he was born April 28, 1852. 
He entered the law office of Seymour & 
Weaver, upon arriving at majority, and pur- 
sued for a time the study of law. He came 
to Santa Barbara in 1876, and resumed his 
law studies under the instruction of Judge 
Fernald. He was admitted to the practice of 
law by the Supreme Court, in 1878, and has 
since been actively engaged in tiie practice of 
his profession at Santa Barbara. 

R. B. Canfield graduated from Columbia, 
in 1862, and studied law in the law school 
attached to his alma mater. He came to the 
Pacific Coast in 1865, and. spent three years 
in the mines in Nevada. In 1868, returning 
to New York and resuming his legal studies, 
he was admitted to the New York State bar, 
in 1869. In 1876 he came to Santa Barbara, 
where he has since resided. Mr. Canfield 
was married in 1873 to Mrs. Davidson. Mr. 
Canfield is a keen lawyer, with a judicial 
brain. He is quiet and unobtrusive in his 
habits, and does not seek notoriety. By ap- 
pointment he has for a year or more presided 
over the Superior Court of this county, and 
has won golden opinions from his constituency. 

Ephraim B. Hall is a native of Virginia, 
born in 1823. He has occupied in his native 
State many offices of great trust and respoas- 


ibility. At one titiie he was Attorney Gen- 
eral of the State, and at another judge of the 
nisi prius courts of the county in which he 
resided. He was also a loyal member of the 
convention that passed the ordinance of se- 
cession, by which Virginia attempted t o 
sever its relations with the sister States. He 
is now declining the active business of the 

Thomas McNulta was born in New York 
in 1845. He possesses to a large degree the 
confidence of the community. He was ad- 
mitted to the Illinois bar about 1871, and 
for several years parcticed law with his 
brother, Hon. John McNulta, at Blooming- 
ton, Illinois. Coming to Santa Barbara in 
1874 he soon became a prominent member 
of the local bar. He has, at various times, 
held the office of city attorney and district 
attorney, and has had charge of many im- 
portant cases. He is an eloquent speaker, 
somewhat inclined to be impetuous. 

B. F. Thomas was born in Missouri, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1846. Fie studied law with ex- 
Congressman TuUy, of San Jose, and was 
admitted to the bar January 13, 1874. His 
first labor in a legal \vay was at Guadalupe 
in this county. In 1875, Mr. Thomas be- 
came district attorney and filled the ofiice 
with credit. He is a slow thinker, but of 
great industry and perseverance, by the aid 
of which he has become a prominent mem- 
ber of the local bar, and has secured a 
lucrative practice. 

Jarrett T. Richards was born in Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania, in 1842. After 
spending three years in Europe in classical 
study, he returned to his native land, and 
entered Columbia College Law School, where 
he graduated in 1866, receiving a special 
prize of $150 for a thesis on municipal law. 
After graduation he went to Erie, Pennsyl- 
vania, where ho alternated the practice of 

law with editorial work. In 1868 he came 
to Santa Barbara, and formed a law partner- 
ship with Hon. Charles Feruald. He has 
been mayor of Santa Barbara and city at- 
torney. In 1879 he was nominated for As- 
sociate Justice of the Supreme Court, but with 
his ticket was defeated. Mr. Richards is a 
strong and classical writer. His mind is em- 
inently judicial, and he is probably better 
fitted to act as a judge than as a pleader. 
His advice is much solicited. 

W. C, Stratton was born in New York 
December 14, 1826. He was a resident of 
New Jersey from 1849 to 1856, coming to 
California in the latter year. In 1858 he 
was elected to the Legislature by the Dem- 
ocrats of Placer County, and then became 
Speaker of the House. From 1860 to 1870, 
he was librarian of the State Library. In 
January, 1873, he came to Santa Barbara, 
and was for several years attorney for the 
city. Mr. Stratton has a lucrative practice, 
which he has obtained by thorough study of 
his cases. He is a good jury pleader, and 
coming into court with his cases thoroughly 
understood and properly prepared, he gen- 
erally is siiccessful. 

W. S. Day was born in Smith County, 
Tennessee, on the 14tli day of March, 1848; 
was educated in the common schools of Illi- 
nois. Began the study of law in 1872, at 
Jonesboro, Illinois, under Judge Monroe C. 
Crawford, and was admitted to practice before 
the Supreme Cwurt of Illinois in June, 1874. 
He then practiced law in the city of Jones- 
boro from 1874 to 1888, holding during that 
time the positions of State's Attorney and 
member of the Legislature. He removed to 
Santa Barbara in June, 1888, and at once 
formed a partnership with Paul R. Wriglit, 
an old and respected attorney of the city of 
Santa Barbara, under the name of Wright & 
Day. Mr. Day is a clear, metholical thinker, 


and has in liis short resilience at Santa Bar- 
bara added to his previous excellent repu- 

S. S. Price was born in Morristown, New 
Jersey, on the 27th day of January, 1840; 
was educated at Lombard College, at Gales- 
burg, Illinois, and was studying law at Jersey- 
ville, Illinois, at the outbreak of the war. 
He enlisted in^Company F, Fourteenth Illi- 
nois Infantry in 1861, and followed the 
fortunes of that regiment until the battle of 
Shiloh, ir. which he was badly wounded, 
necessitating his discharged. Having par- 
tially recovered from his wounds, he renewed 
his legal studies at the Law School of 
Michigan University, where he graduated in 
the spring of 1865. Opening a law office in 
Salem, Missouri, he practiced for three years 
and more in Dent County, and then moved 
to Falls City, Nebraska. From 1869 until 
1883 he was actively engaged in legal pur- 
suits at Falls City, and moved to Santa Bar- 
bara in 1883. His old wounds having dis- 
abled him from active practice, his work in 
Santa Barbara has been that of an adviser 
and counsellor rather than advocate. In 
1886 he was elected District Attoi'ney. 

Walter B. Cope is a son of Hon. W. W. 
Cope, of the Supreme Court Commission. 
Walter B. Cope came to Santa Barbara a 
few years since, and at the last election but 
one he was chosen for District Attorney. 
The election of November, 1890, has placed 
him upon the bench of the Superior Court of 
this county. 

Since the dispersion of the bands of out- 
laws gathered during the disorder of the 
transition period Santa Barbara has been, 
all things considered, reasonably free from 
crime. There have been notable cases, but 
these were of individual, rather than public, 

bearing. The most conspicuous crimes com- 
mitted hereabouts were the following: In 
January, 1864, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson Corliss 
were murdered, and their bodies consumed in 
their dwelling; the criminals were not dis- 
covered. Later in that year, Samuel Barth- 
man was robbed and murdered, and his body 
concealed in the woods between Lompoc and 
La Purisima. His murderers were discovered 
and brought to justice. In June, 1868, one 
Bonilla, a young man of twenty years, shot 
to death Mr. Domingo Abadie, a respected 
and prominent citizen, in a qiiarrel Bonilla 
was sentenced to thirty-five years' imprison- 
ment. In January, 1874, William Shedd, a 
cruel and intemperate hiisband, stabbed his 
wife to death, and then blew his own brains 
out. Perhaps the most flagrant case was the 
murder of John C. Norton, a rancher on 
Hincon Point; Norton's wife h:id an intrigue 
with one Jack Cotton, a farm-hand of her 
husband, and the two killed Norton and 
buried him in the sand-hills. Then, giving 
out that he had died in Los Angeles, they 
disposed of his property and left the country 
together. The crime was discovered, and the 
guilty pair captured in Nevada, and returned 
to Santa Barbara for trial, being sentenced 
to imprisonment for life. 

There have been a few murders of minor 
notoriety, the perpetrators in some cases re- 
maining undiscovered. There was, too, early 
in the '80's, a good deal of excitement over 
the stage robberies committed in the western 
portion of the county by Dick Fellows. He 
was a man of education, who from confine- 
ment wrote very good articles for publica- 
tion. His characteristics and the desperate 
efforts he made for liberty aroused much 
sympathy for him, notwithstanding which 
he was sent to prison. 

The crime, the case par excellence of 
Santa Barbara, was 




This was one of those criminal cases which 
become causes ceUhres tliroughont the State. 
Theodore M. Glancey, a native of Illinois, 
came to California in 1873, and was for a 
time editor and general manager of the Los 
Angeles Herald. Resigning this position, 
he bad removed to Placer County, and here 
and in Sutter County be was engaged in the 
journalistic profession. After a few years 
he was tendered the editorship of tbe Press 
at Santa Barbara, and, accepting, he removed 
liere, conducting the P^'ess with the same 
devotion to truth and duty that had marked 
his career hitherto. He was a veteran of 
the civil war, a man of nerve, and true to 
bis convictions. He was, further, a man of 
liberal education, with legal training, and 
just views of mattei-s in general. He was 
polite and urbane in manner, notwithstanding 
the positive character of bis mentality. 

Clarence Gray came to this county in 1870, 
and was immediately recognized as its natural 
leader by the lawless element composed of 
the roughs, tbe gamblers and disorderly 
parties in general. While there were not 
more than 200 of these characters, they were 
formidable, holding in many instances the 
balance of power. Gray had a bad record, so 
far as it was known. It was asserted that 
his real name was Patrick McGinnis, and it 
was understood that be tjad been closely con- 
nected with tbe Molly Maguire assassins 
in Peimsylvania, which State he had been 
obliged to leave. He was reckless, unscrupu- 
lous, audacious, brilliant, enterprising, witty 
and obtrusive, being ready always to thrust 
himself into notice. Ostensibly a lawyer, his 
knowledge of tbe law consisted mainly of an 
understanding of its defects and weaknesses, 
whereby he became the natural defender of 
violators of the law. Like all men of that 
class, he relied iipon personal prowess for 

security in bis personal rights, and be bad 
committed personal assaults on many occa- 
sions. It is said that be had been arrested 
more than twenty times for breaking the 
peace. While nominally a Catholic, he beat 
a Catholic priest to insensibility for a reproof 
justly administered, and was fined therefor. 
When a fire occurred in the Press office, he 
was. so strongly suspected of having caused 
it that he left the State for a year or two, 
but returned and resumed his former career. 
On one occasion the Republican party nom- 
inated him for District Attorney, and, in con- 
sequence of bis bad repute, a public meeting 
was beld to consider the means of defeating 
bis election, which, it was deemed, would 
endanger the safety of tbe community. 
Nevertheless, so strong was tbe lawless party 
that be came within seven votes of election. 
When the new constitution was adopted in 
1880, the country was in doubt whether the 
officials elected the previous year should com- 
plete tbe usual terms, or whetber a new set 
would be elected. Pending tbe decision tlie 
Republicans beld a convention and nominated 
candidates for tbe supposed vacancies, among 
thein Clarence Gray for District Attorney. 
When the Supreme Court decided that no 
election was necessary that season, the Press, 
of which Mr. Glancey was editor, comment- 
ing upon the reasons for satisfaction tlierefor. 
said : " Not the least of these in this county 
is tbe fact that tbe Republicans here will be 
relieved of tbe necessity of defeating the can- 
didate for District Attorney. The nomina- 
tion was disgraceful in every respect, and 
while it is extremely disagreeable for earnest 
Republicans to take sucb a course in a presi- 
dential year, there is no difference of opinion 
among tbose who have the good of the party 
at heart. They are convinced that all such 
candidates should be beaten, and Republican 
conventions taught, if they do not realize it 


already, that tlie decent people of Santa Bar- 
bara County will not submit to baving the 
officer for the administration of justice 
chosen from among the hoodlums and law- 
breakers." While this language was moder- 
ate, compared to what had been printed many 
times before, Gray's friends urged that it was 
a gratuitous insult, as no election was to take 
place, and Gray set about finding the party 
responsible for the article. Meeting John P. 
Stearns in Judge Hatch's office, he inquired 
if Stearns was responsible, and was met with 
a prompt " I am, sir!" Nevertheless, some- 
thing, possibly the number present, in- 
duced him to defer shooting until a more 
convenient season. Later, he met Stearns at 
home, but again postponed his proposed pun- 
ishment. On the evening following the issue 
of the article, Gray met Glancey, and in- 
quired if he was responsible for the article 
in question. Glancey replied in the affirma- 
tive, whereupon Gray drew a revolver and 
attempted to shoot, when Glancey cauglit his 
wrists, saying, " Yoia shall not draw a revolver 
on me; I am unarmed." A bystander sepa- 
rated them, but Gray again leveled his i-evolver 
and tired at Glancey whilst retreating through 
the door of the Occidental Hotel; the ball 
took fatal effect, striking Glancey in the 
wrist, and thence passing into the abdomen, 
and out near tlie hip. Glancey's vitality en- 
abled him to walk to a hotel in the same 
block, where he fell. Gray meanwhile fol- 
lowed him, endeavoring to obtain another shot. 
Glancey was attended by three physicians, 
but was past help, and died the next day. 

While the law-let's element justitied Gray's 
deed, the better portion of the community 
emphatically denounced it. The press of the 
State, too, condemned the dastardly act un- 
eqiii\ucally, as did the pulpit unitedly. 

Yet hardly were the funeral ceremonies 
over before Gray's friends were planning an 

active defense, $4,000 were raised to employ 
counsel, and all the technicalities of the law 
were invoked to delay or thwart justice. 
Although he had uttered numerous threats 
that Stearns or Glancey must die before night, 
Gray pleaded self-defense and sought to prove 
by witnesses that Glancey made the first 
attack. The jury failed to agree, and the case 
was transferred to San Mateo County, where 
Gray was found guilty and sentenced to 
twenty years' imprisonment. Eminent legal 
talent was employed in this trial. One most 
censurable feature of the case was that Gray 
was permitted many privileges seldom granted 
to persons on trial for high crimes, in that he 
was allowed, during his term of incarceration, 
to visit processions, shows, etc., and to visit 
and dine at the houses of his friends. His 
partisans made application for a new trial, 
whicli was granted on such singular grounds 
as to become historical. This feature is ex- 
plained in the appended statement of Justice 

" The trial commenced on the first of 
June, 1881, and terminated on the morn- 
ing of the 12th of the same month, about 9 
o'clock, when the jury rendered the verdict, 
and were discharged. As soon as the jury 
was complete, they were, by the order of the 
court, placed in charge of the sheriff, and 
instructed as to their duties. They remained 
in charge of the sheriff, not being allowed to 
separate until they were discharged on the 
morning of the 12th. After the jury was 
complete, and before the cause was submitted 
to them, on the afternoon of the 11th of 
June, about 5 o'clock, a period of about eight 
days, four five-gallon kegs of beer were 
brought into tlie room at the Tremont House, 
where the jury was kept by the sheriff, of 
which about seventeen and a lialf gallons (of 
the beer) were drank by them; that during 
the same period a two-gallon demijohn of 


wine was brought in and drank by them; that 
during the same period some of the jurors 
drank claret wine, amounting to three bottles, 
at their meals; while some of them drank 
whiskey at their meals; that all this drinking 
was done before the case was submitted to 
them on the afternoon of the 11th of June; 
that on the 11th of June, during the noon 
recess, two of the jurors procured each a flask 
of whiskey; that one of the jurors (Price, the 
foreman) drank nothing; that all the drink- 
ing by the jurors was without the permission 
of the court, or the consent of the defendant, 
or of the counsel engaged in the cause, and, 
in fact, without the knowledge of either of 
them ; that all the beer, wine, and whiskey 
drank were procured by such of the jurors as 
desired it of their own notion and at their 
own expense; that the verdict was agi-eed on 
about 8:30 o'clock on the morning of the 
12th. Further, the evidence affords strong 
reason to suspect that one of the jurors drank 
so much while deliberating on the verdict as 
to unlit him for the proper discharge of his 
duty. * * * Yfyy the reason above 
indicated, the judgment and order are re- 
versed, and the cause remanded for a new 

This conchision was concurred in by Jus- 
tices Myrick, McKinstry, Eoss and Sharp- 
stein. The third trial of Gray occurred in 
the same county, in December, 1882, and it 
resulted in his acquittal. 

Tiie summer of 1890 has been stigmatized 
by two very flagrant murders — that of 
" Billy " Kays by Eduardo Espinosa, in a 
street brawl, and the unprovoked slaying of 
Mary Dezirello, an innocent and worthy girl, 
brutally shot by a worthless fellow named 
Kamon Lopez, in revenge for her refusal to 
accept his addresses. The wanton and das- 
tardly character of this crime so aroused the 
citizens that Lopez was taken to Los Angeles 

to avert a lynching. These two murderers 
are now on trial. 


The first newspaper in this county was 
the Santa Barbara Gazette issued weekly 
by Wni. B. Keep and R. B. Hubbard, prac- 
tical printers. Its first publication was on 
May 24, 1855. During the first six months 
one page was printed in Spanish fur the ben- 
efit of citizens of Spanish descent. Old resi- 
dents declare that it was edited as ably as 
any provincial paper in the State, and that it 
did great credit to the intelligence and the 
enterprise of its publishers. Its circulation 
was limited, as was the population, and it 
maintained only while it had the publication 
of legal notices. A law was passed by the 
Legislature which substituted for advertising 
the posting of public notices, in writing, in 
three public places, thus rendering unneces- 
sary publication of such notices. Therefore 
the proprietors of the Gazette sold out to 
Torres & Fossas, who printed in Spanish one 
side of the sheet. Democratic in politics, and 
in English the other, of Whig proclivities, 
thus aiming to suit all tastes and all parties. 
After one year the publishers removed with 
their plant to San Francisco; but they con- 
tinued to issue the Santa Barbara Gazette, 
as well as the San Luis Obispo Gazette 
and the Monterey Gazette, all alike, except 
in the headings. These papers were sent for 
distribution by every mail, which arrived by 
steamer, and only twice a month. The mail 
was carried from Santa Barbara to San Luis 
Obispo on horseback, as no stage roads then 
existed, and vehicles could not go up the 
coast. Thus the news was usually somewhat 
stale before reaching the subscribers. The 
Gazette continued, printed in San Francisco 
and brought here for distribution for about 
a year, when it ceased publication. 

The next newspaper was the Santa Barbara 


Post, first issued in May, 1868, printed and 
published by E. B. Boust. After about a 
year, one-half of this paper was sold to Joseph 
A. Johnson, who became one of its editors. 
He afterwards purchased the other half, and 
changed the name tu the Santa Barbara Press, 
July 1, 1869. It is said that the efi'uits of 
Mr. Johnson did more to build up this 
county and diaw population to it than the 
labors of all the other men combined; and 
that he added millions to the value of property 
in this county. The Daily Press was first 
issued July 1, 1871. The Press passed into 
the hands of H. G. Otis, and soon declined 
sadly. After many vicissitudes this paper 
has finally been established on a satisfactory 
basis, and it is now issued as both daily and 
weekly, by the Press Publishing Company, 
"Walter H. Nixon managing editor. This is 
the third oldest newspaper in Southern Cali- 
fornia. It is not a party organ, but is Re- 
publican in politics. 

The Santa Barbara Times was established 
in the interest of settlers, its first number 
being issued January 30, 1870. After various 
changes, it was absorbed by the Press in 1874. 

The Santa Barbara Index, established by 
Wood & Sefton, was first issued August 31, 
1872. It was subsequently sold to William 
F. Russell. 

The Santa Barbara News, established by 
Al. Pettigrove and Miss Nettie La Grange, 
was issued as a daily. May 3, 1875. Mr. 
Pettygrove siibsequontly became the sole 
owner, and continued the publication until 
it was merged in the Press, May 15, 1876. 

A small sheet styled the Santa Barbara 
Trihu7ie was issued weekly for over two years, 
by a lad of twelve years, named Walcott. Its 
publication was suspended at last, owing to 
the ill-health of its youthful conductor, whose 
enterprise and ability attracted considerable 

In January, 1878, Fred. A. Moore started 
the Democrat, a weekly, which discontinued 
issue after some six months, when Mr. Moore 
started the Independent, as a weekly, with 
Warren Chase as editor. In 1879 Mr. Moore 
bought out and consolidated with his paper 
the daily and weekly Advertiser. He sold 
the Independent to G. P. Tebbitts, who still 
continues its publication. The Independent 
was first issued as a daily in 1884. In poli- 
tics it is nominally independent, albeit with 
Democratic proclivities. 

The ^Yeekly Herald was established in 
April, 1885, by Messrs, Felix Lane and S. W. 
Candy. In 1886, Mr. Lane became the sole 
proprietor of this paper, which he conducts 
at present. The Herald is the only avowed 
organ of the Democratic party in this county. 

Outside of Santa Barbara, there are issued 
in the county the following journals, all 
weeklies: The Reconstruotor, at Summer- 
land; Argus, Santa Ynes; Progress, Los 
Alamos; Times, and also Graphic, Santa 
Maria; Record, and also People's Journal, 

The Ortega hill is a lateral spur from the 
mountains, perhaps 600 feet high, projecting 
into the sea so boldly as to make difficult the 
building of a road around it. The beach below 
the hill is passable at low water, but at high 
tide the surf dashes against the rocks, cutting 
off the passage. This was a point of dre id 
to the earlier boards of supervisors, for they 
were continually called upon to repair the road, 
this then being the only avenue of commu- 
nication with what is now Ventura County. 
The road was built along the edge of the 
bluff, and every rain would so damage it by 
landslides, etc., as to necessitate costly re- 
pairs. Many thousands of dollars were ex- 


peaded before the completion of the fine 
grade around and over the hill. This was 
also a serious stumbling-block to the railway 


To the eastward of Santa Barbara lies a 
tract of .land extending easterly to tlie Ven- 
tura County line, a distance of some fifteen 
miles, with a breadth of seven or eight 
miles, from the channel on the south of the 
summit of the Santa Barbara Range on the 
north. The face of this section is diversified 
by hills, plains and valleys, and it compre- 
hendri some of the most valuable agricultural 
lands in California. 

Beginning some four miles east of Santa 
Barbara is the district of Montecito, one of 
the most favored sections imaginable. All 
that productive soil, benignant climate, pure 
water and the most striking scenery to be 
produced by the juxtaposition of sea, and 
vale, and mountain — all that such elements 
can contribute to the charm of a section has 
been bestowed upon Montecito. 

This valley of the "Little Wood " is not 
large; its length, parallel with the coast, is 
about seven miles; and its width, between 
shore and mountain, three-quarters of a mile 
to two miles wide. Northward are the Santa 
Ynes mountains, of panoramic beauty; east- 
ward the hills between this and the Carpen- 
teria Valley, and westward the hills running 
down to the shore between the Montecito 
and Santa Barbara. Southward, beyond, the 
sweep of water, the Channel Islands lie, 
with glimpses of the open sea glinting be- 
tween them. 

This, as has often been said, is a valley of 
homes, nestling among the groups of live- 
oaks that give its name to the district. 

The first American settler in this valley 
was Newton M. Coats, who arrived in 1858. 
A full fiood of tillers of the soil and tnen of 

leisure have followed after. Messrs. Dins- 
more, Hayne, S Bond and Robert W. Smith, 
who bscame residents here in 1867-'68, are 
among the oldest and most prominent 
settlers. This has come to be one of the 
show spots of Southern California. The bulk 
of the improvements have been made by 
men of leisure and means, wlio have brought 
their families hither to form attractive homes 
amidst the rare charms afforded here by the 
attractions of balmy climate, fertile soil and 
picturesque and romantic scenery and sur- 
roundings. In the eastern part of this sec- 
tion is the San Ysidro Rancho, belonging to 
Johnston & Goodrich, from which an annual 
yield of about 300,000 oranges and 100,000 
lemons finds a ready market. Down the 
valley, towards the ocean, is the old Coats 
Rancho, fertile and heavily timbered, now 
the property of Messrs. Sperry and Crocker, 
who are making upon it extensive improve- 
ments, planting orchards, etc. The " Hunter 
Place" contains one of the finest general 
orchards iu the section. At '■ Inglenook," a 
pretty red cottage shows through the 
branches of a fine olive grove, in profitable 
bearing. Along the Hot Springs avenue is 
a succession of tasteful dwellings with care- 
fully-tended grounds. Among these are: — 
the Gould mansion, with its hedged grounds, 
its leafy oaks and rippling streams; the Hall 
cottage, with clustering vines and its smooth 
lawns, commanding a broad outlook down 
the coast; the Magee homestead, where 
stands Montecito's famous grape-vine; the 
high, many-gabled Anderson villa, and above 
it a residence of true Southern aspect, as 
well it may be, since here lives Colonel 
Hayne, of the celebrated Southern family of 
that name; across from Colonel Hayne's is 
the fine collection of palms and other hand- 
some plants of the Sawyer — formerly the 
Bond — place, where thrive in great luxuri- 


ance many rare shrubs and trees. West of 
the avenue, on a broad ridge which divides 
the valley into two parts, often distinguished 
as " Upper " and " Lower " Montecito, stands 
prominently in an orange grove the comfort- 
able home at "Eiven Eock," the Stafford 
place. On a knoll toward the sea is the 
dwelling of N. K. Wade, commanding a 
superb view on all sides. In the '• Upper " 
Montecito, west of Mr. Stafford's place, are 
the dwellings of Messrs. Stoddard and 
Stevens, and above them, toward the moun- 
tains, the picturesque home of Mr. Eaton, 
full of artistic treasures collected at home 
and abroad. 

The situation and climate of this valley 
in many respects resemble those of tlie cele- 
brated Riviera of Italy, except that the 
mistral, the chilly afternoon wind, does not 
blow here. Frost is a very rare visitor in 
tliis valley, and tender exotics thrive well 
here. There are many fine collections of choice 
plants in this valley, embracing vines, shrubs 
and trees of the Eastern States, as well as 
rarer specimens from the old world. South 
America, and the Pacilic Islands. The 
banana here ripens fully, the oranges raised 
here are particularly juicy and delicate of 
flavor, while figs, nectarines, lemons and 
apricots are exceptionally fine. Strawberry 
plants bear abundantly throughout the year, 
and have been known to bear fruit in thirty 
days from planting. The odors of fragrant 
flowers develop exceptionally, and the manu- 
facture of perfumery is a potential future in- 
dustry. Twenty or more varieties of palm 
are grown here, including the " Toddy 
Palm," the Coquito, various dracoenas, the 
«' Umbrella Palm," "Thatch Palm," "Eoyal 
Palm," wild date and otliers. Pomegranates, 
yuccas, guavas, alligator pears, chirimoyas, 
etc., all grow here as if in their native hab- 
itat. This valley has, even in the dry sea- 

son of summer, a notably fresh and green 
appearance, diie to the large number of non- 
deciduous trees and shrubs. Although irri- 
gation is seldom used liere, except for citrus 
fruits, yet the water supply is ample. A 
local company brings down water in pipes 
from the Hot Springs stream, and the sub- 
terranean flow is large, wholesome and easily 
obtained by sinking wells. 

The famous " Big Grape-vine" of Monte- 
cito grew on the domain of Dofia Maria 
Marcelina Feliz de Dominguez, who died in 
1865 at the advanced age of 107 years. 
Dona Maria Marcelina disclaimed all knowl- 
edge of those romantic but apocryphal 
stories which assign as the origin of tliis 
monster plant a shoot given by a lover to his 
sweetheart for a riding switch, and planted 
by the girl. The great vine was nearly four 
feet six inches in circumference, and six feet 
to the lowest branches. It spread over an 
area of about an acre, and bore several tons 
of grapes yearly — it is said sometimes as 
much as six tons. It was about sixty years 
old. From the deprivation of its accustomed 
share of water it died, and in 1876 it was 
taken up and conveyed to the Centennial Ex- 
hibition at Philadelphia, where it was left 
on show as one of the products of California. 
On the same estate as the former " big vine," 
is another, somewhat inferior in size, but 
still of very large growth, which attracts 
many visitors. It is said to have been a 
cutting of the former vine. 

Lying as it does contiguous to the sea, 
Montecito possesses the attractions lent by 
bathing, boating and fishing; on the other 
hand, the close vicinity of the mountains 
give delightful excursions along winding 
canon roads and up picturesque trails. The 
San Ysidro, the Cold Spring and the Hot 
Springs, all are canons of many attractions. 

This section has a station, Montecito, on 


the railway, four miles south of Santa Bar- 


The Montecito Hot Springs are about six 
miles from Santa Barbara, beyond Montecito, 
up quite a steep ascent of the mountains, at 
about 1,450 feet above the sea. 

It is said that while California still ap- 
pertained to Mexico, and this, as a province, 
to the crown of Spain, a commission sent out 
by the government to examine and report 
upon all the mineral waters then known to 
exist in Mexico and the Californias, reported 
most favorably upon the properties of the 
Montecito springs for the curing of cutane- 
ous diseases. As to their later discovery, the 
story goes that in 1855, Mr. Wilbur Curtis 
was wandering in search of some spot which 
should restore his health, broken in the rough 
life of the mines, when he chanced upon a 
party of Indians encamped at the moiith of 
this canon. Telling them of his condition, 
they took him to these springs, and one 
veteran of over 100 years old told how he 
had bathed here and drunk since childhood 
from the waters, to whose virtues he ascribed 
his longevity. Mr. Curtis drank, bathed, and 
was healed; and with the genuine American 
practicality, lie took up a claim, foreseeing 
that this property would be of great value in 
the future. From a blanket camp, through 
the progressive stages of a tent, a hut, a 
cottage, the evolution has progressed to the 
present conditions, provisions and building 
materials being carried for years over a rough 
trail, which has now been widened into a 
good stage road. Gushing from crevices in 
the solid rock, on the premises are some 
thirty mineral springs. Some of- these are 
sulphurous, others saline and chalybeate,Tang- 
ing in temperature from 99° to 120° Fahren- 
heit. Seven of the principal springs are used 
for drinking and bathing purposes. 

These waters are of great value in the 
treatment of rheumatism, gout, joint affec- 
tions, Bright's disease, liver trouble and blad- 
der irritation; being antacid, considerable 
benefit may be derived from the waters in 
dyspepsia, and acid conditions of the blood 
and urine. Perhaps the greatest benefit 
accrues from bathing in the sulphurous and 
saline waters, especially in syphilitic and 
scrofulous contaminations, grandular enlarge- 
ments, and chronic skin diseases. The waters 
much resemble the famous Hot Springs of 
Arkansas. Of late, the arsenical spring has 
been developed, with excellent results. 

There is now at this resort a good hotel, 
well managed, with the modern comforts and 
conveniences, and particular attention is paid 
to the opening up of trails, etc., to the end 
of affording diversion and exercise for the 
guests and patients. 

Dr. Brinkerhoff wrote, regarding these 
springs: " I do not regard the use of these 
waters by any means as a panacea for • aU 
the iUs which flesh is heir to,' but for the 
cure of certain diseases they are unmistakably 
efficacious. I have known some cases which 
seemed to defy all powers of medication, 
cured in a surprisingly short space of time 
by the waters of these springs, advisedly used 
as a beverage and for bathing purposes. The 
indiscriminate use of them may be dis- 
advantageous, and even positively injurious, 
and before resorting to them patients sliould 
always consult some experienced physician as 
to their proper use." 

Some two miles beyond El Montecito is 


Summerland is situated six miles from 
Santa Barbara, on a portion of the old Ortega 
Kancho. It lies between the sea and the 
Santa Ynes mountains. Some 1,050 acres of 
this rancho became the property of H. L. 


Williams, who, after the subsidence of the 
boom of 1886-'88, laid out 160 acres in town 
lots, and, by means of judicious advertising, 
collected here a colony of citizens of Spirit- 
ualistic belief, who have organized quite a 
thriving community. Most of the 160 acres 
has been sold, mainly to mechanics, carpen- 
ters, etc., who have found ample employment 
in the little hamlet, as building has been 
lively. Some sixty houses have been built, 
and the population is now about 300; at the 
recent election some forty-one votes were cast. 
There are now three stores of general mer- 
chandise, shoes and groceries, one blacksmith, 
one restaurant and bakery, one public school 
with some thirty pupils, a public librarj', a 
postoffice with two daily mails, express office 
and railway ticket office. The water supply 
here is lifted by a hydraulic ram to a reser- 
voir on a hill, giving some 200 feet pressure ; 
the water being piped free to every house in 
the colony. 

A very strong impulse has been given to 
the interest felt in Summerland through the 
discovery here in June, 1890, of natural gas, 
in wells tapped near the beach and just above 
the railway. There are now some nine wells 
burning, the gas fi-om which is used in Sum 
merland for domestic purposes, illuminating, 
fuel, etc.; and the Summerland Gas Company, 
recently organized, expects to bring the gas 
into Santa Barbara within two months. 

Summerland has also fine industrial re- 
sources in the shape of the presence on the 
tract of large beds of superfine brick clay, 
sewer-pipe clay, limestone, gypsum, and sand- 

These elements, taken in conjunction with 
the possibilities for manufacturing attbrded 
by the natural gas product, offer for Summer- 
laud a bright commercial future. 

Farther down the coast from Summerland 
lies the fruitful district of 


The central and more thickly settled por- 
tion of Carpenteria Valley is twelve miles 
east of Santa Barbara. This valley was a part 
of the pueblo lands of Santa Barbara, appor- 
tioned out by the prefect to the people, who 
used these lands as temporales, or fields for 
the cultivation of summer crops. No titles 
to the soil were given until after the coming 
of the Americans. 

From the point dividing the Montecito and 
Carpenteria, the beach curves gently to the 
bold, rocky point at Rincon, giving to the 
whole valley a southern exposure, it being 
practically enclosed, moreover, from point to 
point, by a deep semicircle of mountains, up 
which open picturesque canons. Sea and 
mountains bound a sheltered corner contain- 
ing about ten square miles of deep and fertile 
soil, mostly alluvial. 

There are also mesa or upland and adobe 
soils, though in small quantities. The adobe 
soil is found in inconsiderable tracts, being in 
patches all through the bottom lands. It is 
difficult to work, but, when properly treated, 
very strong and productive.. 

Thus this valley does not border a stream, 
but fronts the ocean, extending for eight or 
nine miles along the beach, giving an area of 
8,000 to 10,000 acres. These peculiarities 
of situation give the climate here character- 
istics quite different from other sections. 

The annual rainfall is about the same as at 
Santa Barbara. The usual winter tempera- 
ture is about 600, and the summer tempera- 
ture about 650. The climate is agreeable and 
healthful. There is some fog in summer, 
but it originates from the sea, and is of that 
character called " high fog." It is not insa- 
lubrious, and it is considered beneficial to 

The name of the valley, Carpenteria (Span- 
ish for carpenter-shop), is derived from the 


existence, in early days, on the bank of one 
of the streams here, of a workshop of that 

In the early history of this valley it was 
deemed an unsuitable locality for horticult- 
ural pursuits, as the existing streams could 
not be uiade available for irrigating purposes. 
Experience showed that the soil, deep and 
loamy, by proper cultivation could be made 
to retain so much moisture as to render arti- 
ficial irrigation unnecessary. 

More recently it has been discovered that 
the water supply is enriched by the existence 
of artesian water. A weak flow was obtained 
at seventy feet deep, and an abundant flow at 
ninety feet. A number of these wells have 
been sunk, and the new town of Carpenteria 
is in this manner supplied with pure and 
cheap water. To the colony grounds on the 
foot-hill slope between Carpenteria and Fen- 
Ion, a supply of mountain water will be piped. 

Carpenteria is divided for the most part 
into small farms; and so wonderfully rich is 
the soil that a few acres will support a fam- 
ily. The low foot-hills at the ba;e of the 
mountains are sometimes cultivated to their 
very summits. All the best of the canons, 
being mostly Government land, have been 
taken up. The chief product of these canon 
faVms is honey, the bees thriving on the wild 
flower-food of these sections. On mesas and 
rolling lands are produced great crops of hay, 
and wheat and barley produce heavily. 

The Lima bean is one of the staple and most 
profitable products. This crop alone has 
averaged for some years past 800 tons an- 
nually, this being worth $60 per ton, de- 
livered at the wharf, has brought in a revenue 
of $-48,000 per annum. 

Almonds and walnuts are extensively raised 
also, the walnut grove of Mr. Jli'ssell Heath, 
comprising nearly 180 acres, being the largest 
in California, and producing as high as 3,000 

bushels in a season. The same gentleman is 
a large grower of red peppers, which yield as 
high as $1,000 in a year. Among the other 
crops are common and castor beans, corn, 
potatoes, squashes, flax and barley. 

As in most parts of Santa Barbara County, 
there is produced here a great variety of 
fruits, as apples, apricots, blackberries, figs, 
nectarines, olives, pears, peaches, peanuts, 
plums, strawberries and walnuts. 

The products of this section are shipped 
partly by rail, and partly over the Carpente- 
ria wharf, the property of the Smith Brothers, 
built in 18—, since which time it has expe- 
rienced many mishaps, having been rebuilt 
after at lea&t one severe storm. The wharf 
proper is 800 feet long, reaching water deep 
enough for any vessels navigating on this 
coast. Large and commodious warehouses, 
with a railway connection to the sea end, ren- 
der shipping over it safe and easy. Until the 
advent of the railway, great quantities of 
lumber were imported, mostly for building 
and fencing. 

A postofiice was established at Carpenteria 
in 1868, or about ten years after the original 
settlement here by Americans. The First 
Baptist Church was dedicated June 1, 1873. 
The town of Carpenteria is well laid out, the 
lots for residence purposes being of 50 feet 
frontage by 140 deep, and business lots 
30x140 deep. The railway traverses the 
settlement. The town itself is somewhat 
scattered, the buildings being rather widely 
interspersed amimg the fruitful orchards. 
Contiguous to the railway station there is a 
tract of twenty acres, subdivided into town 
lots, and one block from the line is an elegant 
hotel, combining the Eastlake and Queen 
Anne styles, which cost $10,000. There are 
ill the valley congregations of the Baptist, 
Methodist and Presbyterian churches, and a 
branch of the Holiness Band, lodges of Knights 


of Pjtliias. and Good Templars. There is a 
capacious hall for public meetings or general 
absemblages, and tliere are three school- 
houses, two general merchandise stores, two 
saloons, a butclier shop, two blacksmith shops, 
etc., besides two rail way stations. Several new 
small towns have been projected in this valley. 


This term is the general designation of the 
district lying to the west of Santa Barbara, 
and comprising all that portion of the valley 
between the city and the Rancho Canada del 
Corral. Westward from Santa Barbara, the 
first grant is the Calera, or Las Positas, of 
3,281 acres, made to Narciso Fabregat in 
1843, and confirmed to Thomas M. Bobbins 
and Manuela de Tines. "Westward of this 
lies the Rancho Goleta, of 4,440 acres, and 
beyond that the great Dos Pueblos grant of 
15,535 acres, while still farther westward is 
the Rancho Canada del Corral. 

Since the influx of Americans these grants 
have been broken into smaller tracts, farmed 
in a progressive manner, and there is not in 
California a more productive region than the 
Patera. This name, by the way, means '■ the 
place of ducks," and was applied from the 
number of that species found upon \heesteros 
or lagoons of this section. The greater por- 
tion of this region is mesa, that is to say, 
bench or table-land, of the greatest produc- 
tiveness. These mesas begin at the western 
extremity of La Patera in a series of low plains 
or plateaus, some fifty or sixty feet above sea 
level, and rise to a height of 600 to 800 feet 
as they approach Santa Barbara. To the west- 
ward, a line of low hills starts from the Santa 
Ynez mountains, and trends toward the coast, 
west and southwest, completing the inclosure 
of the valley. 


Goleta (a schooner) was the name given to 
a rancho of 4,440 acres, granted to Daniel 

Hill in 1846, by Governor Pio Pico. The 
soil of large portions of this and other 
ranchos is of the richest adobe, carrying an 
uncommon amount of subsoil moisture, 
probably from the existence of a subsoil 
pervious to water whicli allows the npward 
passage of the moisture from lower depths, 
whence it is constantly drawn by capillary 
attraction. This peculiarity insures this sec- 
tion against the failure of crops in dry 

The little town or village of Goleta was 
laid off in 1875. As recently as 1877 it 
contained only a church, a school-house, post- 
office, store, "lumber-yard and blacksmith 
shop. At the last general election 116 votes 
were cast at Goleta, which is the polling 
place for the precinct, whose whole popula- 
tion probably is about 750. There are now 
two churches, Methodist and Baptist, and a 
number of sliops, business places and dwell- 
ings. The school now requires two teachers, 
has a fine reputation, and about eighty pu- 
pils in daily attendance. The community is 
strongly temperance in principles, and for 
many years tolerated no saloon. There is 
one now running, but nearly a mile distant 
from the village. Goleta is seven and three- 
fourths miles west of the Santa Barbara 
])ostoffice. The town site consists of 250 
acres, situated in the southwestern part of 
the old grant. The shipping is chiefly done 
over the Goleta wharf, about one mile south 
of the village, a commodious structure, fully 
equal to the requirements. This valley orig- 
inally contained dense forests of live-oak, of 
which a good many still dot the region, as 
also do sycamores. There still remain large 
supplies of wood in the little canons and 
alongthe foot-hills. The varied Goleta soil 
l)resents a con-esponding degree of eclectic- 
ism in its products. The main valley soil, 
with its peculiarity of moisture already 


noted, its remarkable depth and richness, 
produces, without irrigation, a surprising 
variety of farm and orchard products. Ap- 
ples, peaches, pears, prunes, lemons, figs, 
loquats and English walnuts rarely fail to 
yield abundant crops. 

Almost every variety of garden vegetables 
grows luxuriantly. This district is especially 
famous for its enormous squashes, which are 
continually awarded the premiums at the 
county fairs. One prize squash weighed 
over 270 pounds. Another was so large 
that, when it was bisected, the eighteen-year- 
old daughter of the farmer who grew the 
mammcth was placed in the cavity, and the 
halves were closed about her! This incident 
having given rise to a fable to the effect that 
eighteen-year-old maidens are sometimes 
found in Goleta squashes, it is said that a 
lively demand grew up among bachelor 
farmers for seeds of this remarkable and de- 
sirable variety of "garden truck!" The best 
lands hereabouts will produce ten or fifteen 
tons of squashes to the acre, twenty or thirty 
tons of beets, or one ton of beans. Until 
quite of late, farmers considered beans the 
most profitable of the crops, but now they 
find that other products yield better returns. 
A few have tried pampas grass culture with 
very satisfactory results, one crop amounting 
to 250,000 plumes, selling at $40 per 1,000, 
which realizes as high as $1,600 per acre. 
Dairying, too, appears to pay better than or- 
dinary farming. But the most promising 
industry seems to be the culture of the En- 
glish walnut, of which the natural home 
seems to be this valley. One six-year-old 
orchard brought its owner $30 per acre, 
while from orchards of fifteen to seventeen 
years old as much as $200 per acre is real- 

At one time several years' experiments 
proved that tobacco could readily be pro- 

duced in the Goleta region, one farm yield- 
ing 60,000 pounds per annum, or 5,000 
pounds to the acre. The San Jose vineyard 
is one of Goleta's notable places, containing 
2,400 vines planted by the Mission Fathers 
nearly a century ago, and at least an equal 
number planted by Mr. James McCaflFrey, 
the present owner, of late years. This vine- 
yard has produced an average product of 
8,000 gallons of excellent wine yearly. The 
Santa Barbara nursery, owned by Mr. Joseph 
Sexton, is perhaps the chief show-place of 
Goleta, from the character of its stock, 
which includes forty acres of useful and 
ornamental trees, hundreds of rose-bushes, 
some 200 species of pinks and carnations, 
and many beautiful floricultural specialties. 
The San Antonio Dairy Farm also is a con- 
spicuous feature of Goleta, and a source of 
good revenue. 

Goleta is on the former site of an Indian 
village, the residence of the aboriginal 
princess Ciacut. The antiquarian has found 
here grounds for delightful revels, and about 
ten tons of Indian relics found in this local- 
ity have been shipped to the Smithsonian at 

In the cliiT rocks adjoining the wharf is 
found asphaltum in vast quantities, and of 
the pnrest quality. The deposit is in fissures 
and pockets. During the past twenty years 
probably 30,000 tons of asphaltum from this 
place have been shipped, going mainly to 
San Francisco, and bringing from $12 to $20 
per ton. 

The Dos Ptieblos Rancho was granted to 
Nicholas A. Den, but he dying the property 
passed to his widow, who was a daughter of 
Daniel Hill, and to her family. Through 
recent subdivisions this rancho is now in the 
ownership of the Den heirs, tlie estate of 
John Edwards, G. 0. Welch, S. Kutherford, 
L. G. Dreyfus, the Tecolote Land and Water 


Company, the Hollister estate, Elwood 
Cooper, C. A. Storke, J. W. Swett, Mrs. S. 
Tyler, W. W. Stow, and W. N. Koberts, the 
last two under title through Daniel Hill, of 
the Goleta, to whom N. A. Den sold during 
his lifetime. About two-thirds of the original 
rancho is arable land. Mr. G. C. Welch sold 
to Mr. J. H. Williams some 700 acres of the 
old Den place, including the home rancho- 
house, where he has founded the seaside 
town of Naples. 

Six miles beyond Goleta is the famous 
Rancho Elwood, owned by Elwood Cooper. 
Ground was broken here in 1870, and by 
1878 Mr. Cooper had planted 200 vines, 400 
assorted fruit trees, including apple, peach, 
plum, cherry, etc., 200 fig, 3,500 olive, 4,000 
English walnut, 12,500 almond, and 25,000 
eucalyptus. This tree, it may be said, was 
introduced into Southern California by Mr. 
Cooper, whose rancho is bordered by splendid 
rows thereof, comprising about fifty varieties, 
whose growth is almost marvelous. It is 
estimated that they aggregate 1,000,000 
trees. Mr. Cooper's acreage was formerly 
2,000, now reduced to about 1,700. This 
place is a veritable botanical garden, contain- 
ing over 1,000 species of trees and plants 
from all over the world, from the various 
climates of the temperate and the tropical 
zones. For, althougli slight frosts fall here 
in winter, they are not sufficient to injure 
the most delicate plants. While this soil is 
excellently adapted for citrus-fruit growing, 
only enough for family use is raised of these 
varieties. An interest which has been pro- 
moted lately is tlie raising of Japanese per- 
simmons, a fruit which grows finely here, 
and which, as it contains more sugar than 
most fruits, is when properly cured a very 
palatable and wholesome article. The prin- 
cipal market for this product is Chicago, as 
also for nuts. Of the 12,500 almond trees 

already mentioned, only about one-half now 
remain, covering 200 or 300 acres; and while 
the yield per tree is not great, the aggregate 
is a good many tons of almonds per year, 
and as these nuts bring a high price, even a 
small crop pays better than grain-growing. 

Of walnut trees, which must be planted 
on the best soil, there are about 3,000, which 
are very prolific. Of walnuts and almonds 
together, some twelve or fourteen car-loads 
are raised annually. Of olive trees there are 
about 8,000 in various stages of bearing, 
which will yield, when all come into bearing 
fully, 50,000 bottles of oil. The yield from 
the crop now on the trees is estimated at 
25,000 bottles. This is a crop which pro- 
duces in alternate years, requiring rest for 
the trees between crops. Mr. Cooper's oil is 
considered among the best made in this State 
or in Europe, and it is sold all over the United 
States. To the perfecting of this branch Mr. 
Cooper has given most careful study of 
foreign methods, and the results of much 
exercise of inventive genius on his own part, 
many of his appliances being of his own de- 
vising. Mr. Cooper's profits are greater be- 
cause the location of his orchards and his 
careful methods of cultivation do away with 
the need for irrigation. The soil here is a 
sandy loam, adobe, clayey, and deep canon 
soil or alluvial detritus. It may be said 
further that here is perhaps the largest and 
most varied collection of flowers and orna- 
mental shrubs and plants to be found any- 
where on the Pacific coast, outside of public 
parks or ornamental grounds. As indicating 
the fecundity of yield, it may be said that 
from one Sicily lemon tree here no less than 
5, OOOlemons were picked in one season. 


includes about 3,200 acres of the old Dos 
Pueblos grant, lying about twelve miles west 


of Santa Barbara, about five-sixths of it being 
rich, arable land, adapted for most agricult- 
ural pursuits. The tract extends one and one- 
half miles along the highway, and has a depth 
of over three miles back to the mountains. 
Through it run three streams of living water, 
ample for irrigation. The soil is mostly 
made up of detritus from the mountain range, 
and it is of exceeding fertility. This prop- 
erty is approached by a broad highway from 
Santa Barbara. Colonel William Wells Hol- 
lifeter bought this property in 1869-'70 from 
the executors of the Den estate, and forth- 
with instituted notable improvements, upon 
which was expended a great sum of money, 
altiiough probably very much less than the 
rumored sum of $400,000. The business 
center of the property was located at " t1\e 
Lower House," where the laborers were lodged 
and boarded, and the dairy was situated. 
Two miles distant from this, through an ave- 
nue lined with lemon trees, was situated 
" Glen Annie," the family residence, so 
named in honor of Mrs. Hollister, being sit- 
uated at the head of a beautiful little canon, 
traversed by the Tecolotito (Little Owl) Creek. 
The native timber on this estate is princi- 
pally live-oak, with smaller quantities of syc- 
amore and willows, and the beautiful Cali- 
fornia laurel. The forage is burr-clover, 
red and white clover, and alfileria. The 
planted trees are eucalyptus, pepper, many 
varieties of acacia, palms, walnuts, etc. Fruit 
culture on this estate was carried to an ad- 
vanced degree. Irrigation was practiced only 
with the citrus fruit trees, the water being 
piped some eight miles through the adjacent 
mountain streams. Under Colonel Hollis- 
ter's wise administration, this estate was 
maintained in model condition, but since his 
death, his heirs have permitted it to run 
down, owing to continued litigation, which 
menaced its possession; and in effect, after 

fourteen years or more of litigation, a re- 
cent decision has adjudged the ownership 
of this property to the Den heirs, owing 
to an informality in the probate sale. 


For convenience and for geographical and 
social reasons, this district will be regarded 
as comprising the following ranchos, wholly 
or in part: Lompoc and Mission Yieja de 
la Purisima, Punta de la Concepcion, the 
west half of Nuestra Senora del Eefugio, 
San Julian, Canada de Salsipuedes, Santa 
Rosa, Santa Rita, Mission de la Pur- 
isima, and the southern half of Jesus Maria. 
It has a coast of thirty-seven miles, extend- 
ing from La Gaviota Pass or Landing west- 
ward to Point Concepcion, and thence south- 
ward to Point Purisima. At Point Concep- 
cion, the Santa Barbara Mountains, which 
protect the Santa Barbara Valley against the 
cold winds from the north, terminate ab- 
ruptly in the Pacific; and the west coast 
valleys to the northward of this point are 
exposed to the full force of the trade winds, 
which, particularly at night, supply much 
moisture for the crops of summer. The 
climate here is accordingly cool and bracino-, 
stimulating the system to labor, and promot- 
ing healthful sleep. The interior valleys 
are less subject to winds and fog, and they 
are warmer in the day, and cooler at night. 

Utitil within the last twelve or fourteen 
years, the only use made of all this section 
was for the raising of live-stock, and the 
only population consisted of the few herd- 
ers and vaqueros necessary to look after 
the stock. The number of acres of arable 
land in this district is estimated at 35,000, 
in a total of 223,487.45. The chief pro- 
ducts are wheat, barley, beans, corn, pota- 


toes, mustard, flax, honey, butter, cheese, 
wool, hogs, cattle, horses, and sheep. In 
1881, this district supported 817 horses, 
3,253 cattle, and 95,703 sheep. The anniial 
production of wool is about 650,000 pounds. 
The soil is rich and productive, but re- 
quires early seeding and deep and thorough 
cultivation. Fruit culture is successful in 
the valleys which are sheltered from the 
strong and continual trade-winds of the 


The Loinpoc Colony Lands embrace all 
the territory of the Loinpoc and Mission 
Vieja de la Purisima ranches; the title is 
by United States patent. These lands bor- 
der for seven miles on the Pacific Ocean, 
and extend back from the coast about twelve 
miles. The original Lompoc rancho, con- 
taining 38,335.78 acres of land, was granted 
by the Mexican Government to Jose Anto- 
nio Carrillo, April 15, 1837, and the Mission 
Vieja to Joaquin and Jose Antonio Carrillo, 
November 26, 1845, this containing 4,440 
acres. Carrillo sold the Lompoc to the 
More Brothers, they to Hollisters, Dibblees 
anl Cooper, who sold to a joint stock com- 
pany 46,499.04 acres, of which about 24,000 
acres are plain land Thj main valley con- 
tains 16,000 acres. The Santa Ynez River 
runs westerly through these ranches, and 
for some twelve miles forms their northern 

The name Lompoc is from the Indian for 
lagoon or little lake, probably at first two 
words — Lum Poc. This was modified by the 
Spanish to Lompoco, whence the present 
name. The history of Lompoc colony 
proper begins only as far back as 1874, 
when a company of California farmers and 
business men organized a joint-stock com- 
pany, under the auspices of the California 
Immiii;rant Union of San Francisco, and 

bought from HoUister & Dibblee the Lom- 
poc and Mission Vieja ranches, giving 
$500,000, payable in ten annual installments. 
The capital stock was divided into 100 shares 
of $5,000 each. In the deed was placed a 
clause of an iron-clad nature, providing 
against the manufacture or sale, upon the 
lands to be acquired in the colony, of any 
intoxicating beverages. The lands were now 
surveyed, and divided into tracts of five, ten, 
twenty, forty and eighty acres. For a town- 
site was reserved a tract one mile square, 
nine miles from the coast, and near the cen- 
ter of the valley. The water supply was 
sufficient for a population of 25,000. 

On November 9 were held the sales of lots, 
amounting to more than $700,000 for city 
and farm tracts, leaving unsold about 35,000 
acres, for which the company were offered 
$370,000 by the former owners. Building 
and farm operations were immediately begun, 
and within two months eighty families were 
occupying their new homes. A new county 
road was now built, connecting Lompoc with 
La Graciosa. Lompoc put forward a claim 
to be made the county-seat of a proposed new 
county, to be formed from a portion each of 
San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara. 

By 1875 the town was fiourishing. It 
supported a newspaper — -the Record, started 
April 10 — a physician, a justice of the peace, 
and a notary public. There was a Sunday 
school of 100 members. Communication 
with the outside world was had by means uf 
a tri-weekly stage. About this time it tran- 
spired that one Green, a druggist, was retail- 
ing liquor contrary to the terms of the land 
sales, and some 200 of the most reputable 
men and women assembled, and, first search- 
ing but vainly, for liquor in the other business 
houses, they proceeded to Green's drug store, 
and prepared to destroy his stock of liquors. 
Green resisted, and threatened violence, but 


submitted when it was intimated that the 
besieging party might proceed to a lynching 
settlement. The matrons then broke up the 
barrels, casks, etc., spilling the liquor, and 
then withdrew to their homes. This affair 
caixsed a great sensation, of more than local 

The first marriage in Lompoc was that of 
Jesse I. Hobson and Miss Ljndia Spencer, 
July 25, 1875. 

During this year Father McNally agitated 
the question of building a Roman Catholic 
Church at Lompoc; and so successful were 
his efforts that Protestants and Catholics 
alike gave liberally, especially the old ran- 
ches. Thus the church was soon built; it 
was christened -'La Pnrisima," and in its 
tower was placed one of the bells from the 
old neighboring mission of La Purisima. 

The first school in Lompoc was opened on 
May 3 by Kev. J. W. Webb, who was Grand 
Secretary of the order of Good Templars in 
Southern Califoruia. The census of this year 
found 225 children in Lompoc school dis- 
trict. On October 16 the town voted an ap- 
propriation of $3,000 to the school-house 
fund. On the first anniversary of its found- 
ing, the colony contained 200 families, and 
good church and school facilities, although 
the school-house, whose fund was raised by 
the sale of bonds, was not built until 1876. 

In June, 1876, Lompoc was visited by the 
severest storm ever known in that section. 
The Lompoc Record stated that the waves 
ran twenty feet above the wharf. At Point 
Sal a $20,000 vessel was driven ashore and 
totally wrecked. The Lompoc wharf at Point 
Purisima, thirteen miles up the coast from 
Lompoc, was completed this year. (In the 
summer of 1884 this wharf was extended 
sixty feet, the rest of it -was repaired, and a 
new warehouse, 50 x 100 feet, was built.) 

Not one name of a pro|)erty owner in this 

district was in the delinquent tax list this 

The events of 1878 were: the building of 
a $600 bridge across the Santa Yncz at Lom- 
poc, completed February 4; and a revival of 
the question of county division. Although 
nothing came of it, there was much discus- 
sion over this subject, as the section found it 
very detrimental to do business with so dis- 
tant a center as Santa Barbara. By this time 
certain unfavorable conditions had produced 
a state of depression in the affairs of this 
section. To assist in tiding over the juncture, 
tiie original owners volunteered to remit cer- 
tain portions of the moneys still due them 
from the purchasers; Colonel flollister, hold- 
ing five-twelfths, and Albert Dibblee and 
Thomas Dibblee each holding two-twelfths 
of the company's indebtedness, remitted all 
of the accrued interest for three years and 
two and one-half months, from the time of 
purchase, October 15, 1874, to date, January 
1, 1878; also Mrs. Sherman, P. Stow, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack, each holding one-half of 
the indebtedness, remitted one year's interest, 
the whole rebate amounting to $130,000, 
lifting a heavy burden from the colonists. 

In 1880 Lompoc contained 200 inhabitants. 
There were Methodist, Roman Catholic, 
Christian, Cumberland Presbyterian, and 
South Methodist church organizations, the 
three first named owning church structures. 
There was a good school-house, a public hall 
30x60 feet, a public bbrary, three hotels, 
a Good Templars' library, a fifty-horse-power 
steam flouring-mill, and about thirty business 
establishments. There were societies of Odd 
Fellows, Good Templars, Knights of Pythias, 
and Patrons of Husbandry, also a literary and 
musical society and a uniformed brass band; 
two justices of the peace, two constables, two 
doctors, one lawyer and one notary public, a 
daily mail, and express and telegraph offices. 


The population of tlie colony lands was 
now 1,400. The territory was divided into 
six school districts, each having an ample 
school building. Moreover, a pnblic park of 
five acres had been set apart for the general 

Regarding the entire acreage this year 
planted as 100, the percentage of the various 
principal crops was as follows: wheat, .36-, 
barley, .36; mustard, .10; beans, .7; corn, .6; 
hay, 4.; flax, .-J; potatoes, .|. 

In 1881 the liquor question once more 
came to the surface, producing the usual 
effect of strong waters — uneasiness and dis- 
order. In April there was an exjplosion in 
the Lorapoc Hotel, caused by the loading with 
gun-powder of wood to be consumed in the 
store. Tliis had once before happened while 
the hotel was under the management of a man 
who sold liquors, but who, after the explosion, 
closed out his business and left the town. 
Against the traflic the local paper inveighed 
most bitterly, like all the citizens, and public 
meetings were held, numerously attended 
and full of enthusiasm. At last, toward mid- 
night on May 20, a large bomb was thrown 
into George Walker's saloon, it being known 
that no one was in the building at the time. 
So large was the bomb, and so violent the 
concussion, that Mr. Walker discontinud the 
business in Lompoc; the sides were thrown 
out, the second floor and the roof crushed in, 
and in fact the building was quite demolished. 

Lompoc was very proud of two celebrations 
held this year. The first, on May 9, was the 
eighteenth anniversary of the Knights of 
Tythias of San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara 
auk Lompoc, on which occasion there were 
processions, literary exerci.'^es, picnics, a bar- 
becue and a grand ball. The Fourth of July 
was also celebrated in an attractive manner. 

Lompoc now has a daily mail, a bank, 
express and telegraph oflfices, six organized 

churches with fine congregations, and the 
usual number of business houses warranted 
liy a population of 2,000. The schools of 
this colony are considered among the best in 
the State. They emi»loy twelve teachers. 
The town school is especially well conducted, 
and will soon be raised to a high-school grade. 

The town is laid out in rectangular blocks 
800 x 500 feet, the streets being eighty and 
100 feet wide. The blocks are bisected by 
an alley twenty feet wide, and the lots are 
25x125 and 25x140 feet. The business 
houses are substantial, and the dwelling 
houses are mostly of the latest design. Plans 
have been submitted and bids advertised for 
a new public hall, 50 x 130 feet, which will 
cost some $6,000, and will be the tinest hall 
in the county. An election has been called 
to vote bonds for a $10,000 school-house. 
The present year will witness building in the 
town and valley to the amount of $150,000. 

The town is incorporated, and it owns its 
own water supply. 

There is a project, too, of putting in an 
electric light plant. 

Lompoc now contains five general mer- 
chandise establishments, aggregating about 
$50,000; two hardware, of SIO.O'OO and $20,- 
000; one shoe store, $1,000; one furniture, 
$5,000; two drug stores, $4,000 each; one 
jeweler, $7,000; two lumber-yards and plan- 
ing mills of $25,000 and $20,000; two hotels; 
two tailor shops; two fruit stores; two saloons; 
two large livery stables; two harness-shops; 
two barber shops; four large blacksmith 
shops; two butcher-shops; two physicians; 
one dentist; two lawyers; and four real-es- 
tate dealers. 

The grazing lands are excellent, and there 
is a large business done in live-stock. At 
present this valley has no railroad facilities. 
To the shipment of the section's products, 
there have been built three wharves — one at 


Loinpoc Landing, Point Piirisima, thirteen 
miles away, and at Point Arguello, fourteen 
miles distant, and one at Gaviota twenty- 
four miles distant. Passenger travel is by 
stage via Gaviota or Los Alamos. 

The census for 1885 showed Lompoc to 
have 195 boys, and 232 girls, or 427 chil- 
dren, of school age. 

The wheat crop of Lompoc and Santa 
Maria Valley for 1885 was aboiit 100,000 
centals. The average yield was the best in 
tiie county — about five sacks per acre. 
Santa Maria Valley yielded about three sacks 
per acre. 

In 1886 Lompoc reported a grand aggre- 
gate of domestic exports from that region to 
the value of $337,000. This was produced 
by 400 families, thus giving each $815, be- 
sides the products consumed at home. Of 
the crops raised, English mustard yielded 
1,250 tons, of $75,000 gross value; beans 
40,000 sacks, wortii $50,000; wheat, $40,000; 
barler, $78,000; cheese and butter, $25,000; 
eggs and poultry, $15,000; beef cattle, $20,- 
000; hogs, $15,000; horses sold, $12,000; 
100 tons honey, $7,000. 

An iinusually industrious and intelligent 
class of people has been attracted to Lompoc 
by the fame of the colony's high moral char- 
acter. This causes this district to be re- 
garded with particular favor for family 

Adjacent to this colony are many large 
ranches which will be subdivided and placed 
on the market in homestead tracts at an early 
future date. 

Lands of the greatest fertility in this valley 
can be bought for $125 per acre. Grazing 
lands sell for $10 to $40 per acre. 

The land of Lompoc Valley is a rich alhi- 
vial soil, and it is very productive. Artesian 
wells supply water for irrigation where 
necessary. Thus the country tributary to 

the town is adapted to agricultural and graz- 
ing purposes. Here 3,700 pounds of beans 
have been raised upon a single acre, and bar- 
ley has been known to yield 100 bushels to 
the acre, eighty bushels being not uncom- 
mon. The English yellow mustard is an im- 
portant product. It is sowed in May, and 
harvested in July, yielding 1,800 to 2,200 
pounds to the acre, worth 2^ to 3^ cents per 
pound. The wild mustard grows so large 
and in such profusion that men have earned 
$2.50 per day cutting it for market. Wheat, 
corn, rye, potatoes, liax, and fruits are also 
grown, and the output is simply enormous. 
Bee-keeping also yields a considerable revenue 
to augment the sum total. 

The apples from Lompoc were awarded at 
the New Orleans Exposition the first silver 
medal over all the other sections of the Pa- 
cific States and Territories. 

The Santa Rita Rancho, granted to Ramon 
Malo by Governor Pio Pico, April 12, 1845, 
contained "three square leagues, a little more 
or less," the patent issued June 25, 1875, 
calling for 13,816.05 acres. The Santa Rita 
Valley, which opens northeasterly from the 
Santa Ynez, is in part a sobrante (remainder) 
from the Rancho de la Purisima. In early 
years it was used exclusively for grazing, 
and at that time supported a small settlement, 
which was the scene of many a bloody en- 
counter. It is owned at present mainly by 
Jesse Hill, and is used mainly for grazing, 
although it is farmed somewhat, and has 
several smaller owners. 

East of Santa Rita lies the Rancho Santa 
Rosa, a magnificent estate, well watered by the 
Santa Ynez River, am.ply supplied with live- 
oak for fuel, and with a deep, rich soil, which, 
even to the hill-tops, affords the richest pas- 
turage. In 1881, there were grazing here 



17,000 sheep, seventy-eiylit cattle, and twenty 
horses, with feed for several tliouiaudo more. 
Upward of 5,000 acres of valley and foot- 
hill lands are arable. From twenty acres of 
wheat have been harvested 1,100 bushels of 
grain, even witli great loss in harvesting. 
About 100 acres are farmed to hay. The 
wool clip in 1880 amounted to 120,000 lbs., 
sold at 22^ cents per pound, from twelve to 
thirty-five men being employed in this in- 
terest, at different seasons of the year. This 
rancho is now owned by J. W. Cooper. 

The Rancho Caiion de Sal si Puedes is so 
named from a canon winding through it, so 
tortuous as to deserve the Spanish name, 
" Get-out-if-you-can." Prior to 1874 it passed 
into the possession of Hollister & Dibblee, 
who used it for sheep grazing. It is accred- 
ited by the United States patent with 6,656.- 
21 acres. It is now the exclusive property 
of the Hollister estate. 

Tiie Rancho San Julian, of 48,221.68 acre- 
age, was granted to George Rock, April 7, 
1887, and the claim was purchased and its 
title perfected by Jose de la Guerra y Nor- 
iega. It is singularly diversified and attract- 
ive in its topography, being made upof rolling 
hills and dipping valleys, watered by running 
brooks and numerous living springs of pure 
water. Its largest and loveliest valley is the 
Canada Sau Julian, a branch of the old Pu- 
risima Mission, where the padres used to 
make wine. The soil is deep, rich, strong, 
and productive to the tops of the hills, the 
giass being thick, deep and dense. The lead- 
ing trees are the live-oak, willow, sycamore, 
inanzanita, and madrono. In 1881, there 
were estimated to be 70 horses, 575 cattle, 
and 64,703 sheep, upon the San Julian and 
the Sal si Puedes ranchos. The natural in- 
crease of flocks in this favored seccion is little 
short of marvelous. The San Julian Rancho 
now belongs to T. B. & A. Dibblee. 

About three miles east of Point Concepcion 
begins the coast line of the Rancho Punta 
de la Concepcion, comprising the ranchos La 
Espada and El Cojo, and including an area 
of 24,992.04 acres, belonging to P. W. 
Murphy. The coast line extends north- 
westerly about twenty miles, the interior 
boundary of the rancho lying nearly parallel 
to, and about three and a half miles distant 
from its coast line. In the northern part, 
this rancho partakes of the general character 
of the Lompoc lands, being chiefly mesa and 
low valley hill lands; in the southern portion, 
near Point Concepcion, it is composed of very 
ragged and picturesque outlines. The body 
of the land adjacent to the point is, in a fair 
year, good pasture, being a part of the 
Rancho el Cojo, famous for its rich grazing 
and fine beef. Some cereals are raised in the 
northern part of the rancho, but cattle-raising 
is the principal business. This rancho is 
characterized by that bold promontory, some 
220 feet high, situated where the coast trends 
suddenly from east and west below to a line 
almost at right angles north and south. 
This point, whose position is given by the 
Coast Survey as latitude 34° north, longitude 
120° west, has been termed the "Cape Horn" 
and the '• Cape Hatteras " of the Pacific, on 
account of the heavy northwesters here met 
on emerging from the channel, the climatic 
and meteorological conditions also changing 
with remarkably sudden and sharp definition, 
so that vessels coming from the eastward 
with all sails set, are at once reduced to short 
canvas on approaching the cape. This point 
was discovered by Cabrillo in 1542, and 
called C ])e Galera, which name was after- 
ward changed to the present. The view from 
the headland is extended and magnificent. 
It bears a lighthouse, whose lantern, 250 feet 
above the water, can plainly be seen in clear 
weather from the Santa Barbara hills, forty 


miles away. The light shown is a white 
revolving half-minute flash, of the tirst order 
of the Fresnel system. This light was built 
on land supposed to belong to the Govern- 
ment, but which proved to be a part of the 
grant purchased by the Murphys. After 
much delay as to repairs, etc., because of the 
insecurity of title, the United States in 1881 
purchased from the owners for $10 000 a -title 
to the lighthouse buildings, etc., and thirty 
acres of laud adjoining. At Point Arguello, 
about twelve miles north of Point Concep- 
cion, the Sudden Wharf was built in 1881. 
About three miles from Point Arguello, on 
the Espada Rancho, there are hot sulphur 

The Rancho Nuestra Senora del Refugio, 
containing 26,529 acres, was granted to 
Antonio Maria Ortega, August 1, 1834. It 
has a coast-line of about twenty miles, and 
from the coast an average depth of three 
miles. The rancho is divided into two nearly 
equal parts by the Gaviota Pass, about sixty 
feet wide, the only natural gateway into the 
Santa Barbara mountains between the San 
Buenaventura River and Point Concepcion. 
This pass is an important outlet for a wide 
scope of country behind the mountains, in- 
cluding most of the western portion of the 
country. Its landing at Gaviota is good and 
safe, having the substantial wharf, 1,000 feet 
long (built by Hollister & Dibblee in 1875) 
to accommodate a large shipping business. 
And, in effect, a large business is done here, 
principally in live-stock, wool, general mer- 
chandise, sacked grain, miscellaneous farm 
and ranch produce, and lumber. This wharf 
is about thirty-eight miles from Santa Bar- 
bai-a, and twenty-eight miles from the 
Lompoc wharf A peculiarity of this locality 
is a strong off-shore wind, which somewhat 
interferes with the landing of sailing vessels, 
while, in consequence of the strong blast 

always coming down the pass, no vessel is 
ever thrown against the shore. The scenery 
hereabouts is very picturesque. 

The topography of the Rancho de Nuestra 
SeHora del Refugio is very similar to that of 
the San Julian. It is mainly utilized as a 
sheep rancho. 



next valley is Los Alamos. It is 
by an arroyo of the same name, which 
rises in the San Rafael Mountains, and, some- 
times sinking out of sight, empties into the 
sea between Point Piirisima and Point Sal. 
This is a long valley, being in its broadest 
part scarcely more than two miles wide. It 
contains but one town, Los Alamos. 

Lying between the Santa Ynes and the 
Santa Maria Valley, stretches this valley, 
some twenty-five miles long by two miles 
wide. It is drained by an arroyo of the same 
name, which flows almost due west, some- 
times with sinks below the surface. This 
district comprises the ranches of La Laguna, 
Los Alamos, Todos Santos, north half of 
Jesus Maria, Casmali, the hill lands of Point 
Sal, and adjoining Government lands. Tiie 
total area of these ranches, as shown by 
the United States patents, is 149,305.60 
acres. Until a comparatively recent date, 
cattle and sheep raising were the principal 
industries, but now immense quantities of 
wheat, barley, beans, hay, hogs, bricks and 
lime, as well as horses, cattle and wool, are 
shipped annually. The grazing interests on 
May 1, 1881, were represented about as fol- 
lows: horses, 495; cattle, 1,400; sheep, 50,- 
000. There are in this district about 40,000 
acres adapted to tillage. The soil is mixed, 
the greater portion being iieavy loam, partic- 
ularly in the valley proper. There is also 
adobe and sandy loam, with bits inclining to 
a shaly character. The rainfall is somewhat 


less than at Santa Barbara, varying from 
seven to tifteen inches. The temperature is 
very equable, averaging 65° the year around. 
The hottest weather comes here in September, 
when the record occasionally reaches 95° to 
115°, though these extremes are very rare, 
and of brief duration. The sea-breeze tempers 
the climate notably. Save for trees in their 
first year, there is no necessity for irrigation, 
but an inexhaustible supply of surface water 
is obtained by digging ten to twenty feet. 
These wells afford the domestic supply. The 
perfection of the crops here is attributed to 
the great depth of soil, the nearness of water 
to the surface, and the protection from dry- 
ing winds afforded by the hills. The hill- 
sides afford good feed in all seasons. Wheat, 
barley, corn, beans, flax and hemp are the 
staple products of the soil; flax and hemp 
grow so luxuriantly as to promise an impor- 
tant revenue, not only from the fiber but 
also the seed. The yield of wheat in 1880 
was 115,000 centals, and the acreage is con- 
stantly increasing, the yield being twenty to 
forty bushels to the acre; barley averages 
twenty- five to sixty bushels to the acre; hay 
reaches three and a half tons to the acre in 
an ordinary year. Butter and cheese also 
are produced. 

The prosperity of this section is evinced 
by the excellent condition of all improve- 
ments, public and private. Roads kept in 
good order, fences, dwellings, barns, and out- 
buildings all of the best kind, are an index 
to the status of the community. 

Within this district are three sea-shipping 
points, distant as follows from the town of 
Los Alamos: Point Sal, twenty-five miles; 
Chute Landing, twenty-two miles; Lompoc 
Wharf at Point Purisima, twenty-five miles. 

La Laguna Rancho lies at the head of this 
valley. It was granted to Miguel Avila, No- 
vember 3, 1845, and confirmed to Octaviano 

Gutierrez, the United States patent calling 
for 48,703.91 acres. This rancho has suffered 
many decimations. It is traversed by the 
county road. 

The Rancho Los Alamos was granted to 
Jose Antonio Carrillo, March 9, 1839, con- 
sisting of 48.803.38 acres. The United 
States patent was issued September 12, 1872. 
It embraced about one-third of the entire 
valley. A heavy lawsuit has made this 
rancho conspicuous. On the original tract 
were pastured on March 1, 1881, 300 horses, 
500 cattle, and 25,000 sheep. 

Todo^ Santos Rancho originally contained 
22,200. It was granted to Salvador Oslo, 
November 3, 1844, and confirmed to William 
E. P. Hartwell; the patent calls for 10,722.17 
acres. The live-stock here on March 1, 1881, 
was 50 horses, 200 cattle, and 3,000 sheep. 

The Rancho Jesus Maria was granted to 
Lucas Olivera, April 8, 1837, containing 
42,184.93 acres, and the southern two-thirds 
portion was confirmed to Lewis T. Burton. 
Some 10,000 acres of this land is adapted to 
cereals. Its stock on March 1, 1881, consisted 
of 40 horses, 500 cattle, and 10,000 sheep. 

The Casmali Rancho was granted to An- 
tonio Olivera, September 12, 1840, it con- 
taining 8,841.21 acres. It has a two-mile 
coast line, and extends some six miles into 
the interior. It produces some cereals, but 
stock-raising is the main interest. On March 
1, 1881, there were here 25 horses, 150 cat- 
tle, and 6,000 sheep. The black sand of the 
shore is mined for gold, in a small way. In 
1875 was made an unsuccessful attempt to 
colonize this rancho. 

Point Sal is at the' extremity of a promi- 
nent cape that projects into the Pacific from 
the Government lands lying between the 
Casmali and the Gaudalupe. It is about 
twenty-four miles from Los Alamos, and 
twenty-one miles from Lompoc. For some 


years freight was discharged here by lighter 
through the surf. Then, after the rejection 
of several petitions, a wharf was built in 
1874; it was carried away by a storm in 
1876; was rebuilt the next spring, and 
washed away again the following winter; 
then, being rebuilt, it still remains. 

The coast here is bold and rugged, rising 
twenty to 100 feet above the water. At the 
point is a laguna, some three miles long, cov- 
ering about 3,000 acres, which is a great re- 
sort for water-fowl, many of which are shot 
for their feathers. 

Owing to dissatisfaction with the admin- 
istration of the Point Sal wharf, a stock com- 
pany was formed, and a chute landing 
constructed near by, where there was a shel- 
tered and safe anchorage. The first grain 
was received for shipment in 1880, and 
13,000 tons of grain were handled here the 
first two years. In this time, it is said, the 
chute landing saved to the farmers its full 
first cost, in freight and wharfage. After 
some years this wharf was bought out by a 
steamship company, for the purpose of 
forcing the traffic over another landing, 
already established by the company. 

Adjacent to the mouth of Los Alamos Ar- 
royo is Lompoc Wharf, built in 1876. 

The name Los Alamos means " The Cot- 
tonwoods," which trees were conspicuous by 
their absence, upon this rancho. In 1867 
John S. Bell bought from Josd Antonio de 
la Guerra y Carrillo that portion of the 
rancho whereon the town now is situated, 
which, for some ten years thereafter, he de- 
voted to the raising of sheep and cattle. In 
1873 the stage route which hitherto had 
passed through the Tiniquiac rancho was so 
changed as to run through Los Alamos, and 
then buildings wore erected for a barn and 
eating-house for passengers._ 

In 1876 John Purkiss buillat Los Alamos 

the pioneer mill of Santa Barbara County, 
and during the same year, C. D. " Patterson " 
tested the farming capabilities of the region 
with such success that the future of the val- 
ley was assured from the agricultural stand- 
point. A store and a hotel were built, and 
in 1887 Mr. Bell, together with Dr. J. B. 
Shaw, who had now acquired a portion of 
the rancho, laid out the town of Los Alamos, 
and built a steam fionring-mill. In 1882 
Mr. Peter Conyer built a public assembly 
hall. Dr. Shaw donated a lot, and a fine 
school-house was built upon it. In October, 
1882, the Pacific Coast Railway reached the 
place, and built a fine depot and water tanks, 
and established a telegraph line. On Janu- 
ary 24, 1884, was issued the first number of 
a newspaper, the Los Alamos Herald. By 
this time the town had eight business houses, 
shops and stores, and 100 dwelling houses, 
all occupied. 

There are now in Los Alamos two large 
general merchandise houses, two good hotels, 
one drug store, two livery stables, two black- 
smith shops, one barber shop, several carpen- 
ters, one paint shop, one hardware store, one 
meat market, two laundries, one steam roller 
llouring-mill, one brewery, one stationer's 
shop, one lumber yard, one harness shop, one 
millinery shop, several saloons, a money-or- 
der postofiice, an express office, and one 
practicing physician. 

The public shool-house is a fine $5,000 
building, containing two departments. The 
Methodist congregation has a fine brick 
church, which is used also by the Presbyte- 
rians. Each of these denominations has a 
resident clergyman. 

Los Alamos has the usual number of 
justices, constables, notaries, insurance 
agents, etc. There is also a live weekly 
newspaper, the Progress. The population is 
about 500. 



Los Alamos is on the line of the Pacific 
Coast Railway, between San Luis Obispo and 
Los Olivos. 

There is here an abundant rainfall, insur- 
ing good crops every year, the quantity of 
water falling here exceeding that in most 
other localities. No irrigation is required 
for crops. This section abounds in living 
springs, and good water can be obtained 
almost anywhere at a depth of ten or fifteen 

Not least among the advantages is the fact 
that good live-oak wood can be obtained here 
in any quantity for but little more than the 
price of cutting. There is also plenty of 
game in this vicinity. 

On July 28, 1886, the schooner Columbia, 
with a cargo of 100,000 feet of lumber and 
3,000 posts for i\\& Lompoc Lumber Com- 
pany, went ashore in a fog, at the mouth of 
Los Alamos Creek, and was a total loss. 
Most of the cargo, being strewn along the 
beach, was saved. 


The Santa Ynes is the largest of the five 
valleys, including an area of 120,000 acres of 
farming land and 280,000 of pasturage. 

The Santa Ynes Valley is in the form of a 
horseshoe. The San Rafael Mountains on 
the north and the Santa Ynes range on the 
south meet at the eastern extremity of the 
valley, which they divide from the narrow 
strip of land in the vicinity of Santa Barbara. 
These mountains meeting form the toe of the 
horseshoe, where rises the Santa Ynes River, 
which runs westward through the whole val- 
ley, emptying into the Pacific a few miles 
north of Lompoc. The western end of this 
valley is open to the Pacific, which largely 
accounts for the delightful climate of this 
section, the western trade winds being felt all 
the length of the valley. This valley may be 

divided into two parts, the upper or Santa 
Ynes Valley proper, and the lower or Lom- 
poc Valley. The former comprises the fol- 
lowing large ranchos: San Carlos de Jonata 
or Buell, Corral de Quati, De Zaca, Canada 
de los Pinos or College Ranch, San Marcos, 
Tequepis, Nojogui (often misspelled Nojo- 
qui), Los Prietos y Najalayegua, Las Lomas 
de la Purificacion, and part of Las Cruees; 
in all about 223,185 acres, of which at least 
50,000 acres are adapted to agriculture and 
horticulture. There are also Government 
lauds obtain-^d from Mision Santa Ynes, and 
comprising the Alamo Pintado, some 6,000 
acres in extent. Most of the soil is a rich, 
gravelly loam, which is very easy to culti- 
vate, and which, when kept loose by cultiva- 
tion, retains suflicient moisture to keep fruit 
trees of all kinds, and vines, to grow entirely 
well without irrigation through the dryest 
season. Some of the rich bottom lands of 
this district will raise the finest of summer 
crops, of corn, beans, etc., without irrigation. 

The whole valley is magnificently watered 
by the river and by tributary creeks from the 
mountains on both sides. Good well water 
is had almost everywhere at ten to 100 feet 
below the surface, and there is no doubt that 
on a great portion of the land artesian water 
can be had at little depth. The entire valley 
is l)eautifnlly wooded with scattered oaks and 
sycamores. White, red, and green chestnut 
oaks (Qnercus lobata, rubra, and demiflora) 
are found, the white oak supplying the 
farmers with fence posts at very small cost. 
Along the creeks are found the alder, the bay 
or sweet laurel, and the willow. A species 
of pine is found in the San Rafael moun- 

The valley is reached from Santa Barbara 
by the San Marcos Pass over the mountains, 
this route being forty-five miles; or else 
through the Gaviota, a natural pass or defile 


tbrougli the Santa Ynez mountains, it being 
sixty miles by this way. 

This valley hitherto lias been so difficult of 
access, and the removal of crops to market 
has been so expensive, tbat the farmers' 
profits have been small, and land has been 
heldvery low. 

Until recently, this valley was used exclu- 
sively for grain, great quantities, of a very 
fine quality, being raised annually. There is 
no rnst or blight found here, and wheat has 
yielded thirty to fil'ty bushels to the acre. 
Barley also yields exceedingly well. 

Some years ago, Mr. A. Hayiie, Jr., of 
Montecito, became satisfied that the Santa 
Ynes, particularly the Alamo Pintado, other- 
wise Ballard's Valley, was thoroughly adapted 
to the culture of the olive. This idea was 
based on the gravelly nature of the soil, and 
the extreme dryness of the climate, the 
absence of the fogs felt on the coast obviating 
the ravages of the olive's worst foe, the black 
scale. Accordingly, in 1884 he set out 
5,000 young trees just below the old Mis- 
sion. Two years later they bore fruit. Mr. 
Hayne, with the Messrs. Gould, of New York, 
has since planted another orchard of 5,000 
trees; Mr. Ben. Hayne planted 2,500, and 
now olive culture has become the leading 
industry of the valley. Next in importance 
comes vine-planting, the vineyard of Mr. 
Louis Janin having demonstrated that the 
raisin grape will do splendidly anywhere in 
the valley and on the foot-hills. 

Apricots, nectarines, apples, pears, peaches, 
quinces, and the small fruits thrive well, and 
are remarkable for the fineness of their flavor. 
Prunes do excellently well in the valley, and 
no doubt their curing will shortly be added 
to the local industries. 

The sugar beet promises to do well, and a 
sugar factory is within the probabilities for 
the near future. 

There are four settlements in the valley; 
the town of Santa Ynes, lying in the middle 
of the College Rancho; Ballard's Station, and 
Childs' Station, on the San Carlos Jonata 
Bancho, and Los Olivos. 

The road on the southern slope of the 
Santa Ynez mountains was built by the late 
J. A. Brown at a cost of $18,000, or $3,000 
for each of the six miles of the road. 

The Atlantic & Pacific Railway is survey- 
ing the San Marcos Caiion, through which 
this road passes, where it is designed to make 
a tunnel two miles long. 

Santa Ynez is the town founded in 1882, 
distant from San Luis Obispo eighty miles, of 
which seventy-five are traversed by the Pacific 
Coast Railway running to Los Olivos, whence 
the remaining five miles are by stage. 

The town supports two hotels, two or three 
stores, two livery stables, six or seven saloons, 
and a blacksmith shop, and it has a number 
of sightly cottages and other dwellings. 

The Santa Ynez Land and Improvement 
Company has a tine oifice here. 

There is a baud consisting of fifteen mem- 
bers, which discourses good music. 

Santa Ynez has one of the finest school- 
houses in the county. It is a two-story 
wooden structure, just completed at a cost of 
$6,000. It is eligibly situated on a com- 
manding site. 

Santa Ynez is the Spanish fior " Saint 

The Rancho Las Cruces is of divided 
ownership. It is a tract of about two leagues 
(8,888 acres), lying north of the summit, and 
on the main county road to Gaviota Landing. 
Stock-raising is its chief industry. The so- 
called town of Las Cruces is three and one- 
half miles from Gaviota Wharf, north of the 
pass, forty-two miles from Santa Barbara. It 
consists only of a postoffice, a store, and half 
a dozen surrounding dwellings. Less than a 


mile distant are the Las Cruces Hot Sulphur 
Springs, the principal one of which flows a 
volume of about ten inches, at a temperature 
of 90°. The Tulare Indians used to fight 
hereabouts with the coast tribes, their war- 
fare ranging down as late as American oc- 
cupation. On one occasion they raided the 
adobe rancho house of Las Cruces, shooting 
the walls fiill of arrows, and carrying off the 
horses of sixteen Californians, besieged within 
the dwelling. They were pursued, the horses 
retaken, and all but one of the Indians slain. 

Within two miles of Ballard's, and five of 
Santa Ynes, stands the young town of Los 
Olivos, started in 1886-'87. It is supported 
by the surrounding farming country with its 
rich yield of wheat and barley, and the 
numerous young fruit and olive orchards. 
The population of this little town is about 
150. There is one hotel (another was burned 
recently), two general merchandise houses, 
one drug store, two bars, two blacksmith 
shops, one livery stable, one lumber yard, a 
railroad station-house (of the Pacific Coast 
Railway, south from San Luis Obispo), post- 
office with daily mail, express otfice, one 
church, one school-house with one teacher, 
and accommodations for four departments. 

About five miles from Los Olivos, and ad- 
joining Santa Ynes, is the Indian reservation 
called Zanja de Cota, where live nine Indian 
families, dv thirty to forty souls, remnants of 
the Santa Ynes Mission Indians, who live by 
farm labor, fishing, etc. 

This little town was laid out in 1881, by 
George W. Lewis. It is in the Santa Ynes 
Valley, three miles from the old mission of 
Santa Ynes, and four from the Santa Ynes 
College. A fine wheat-growing region sur- 
rounds the town, having yielded an average 
of twenty centals to the acre of as good 

wheat as is found on the coast. A large 
irrigating canal runs through the place, and 
its many advantages promise a flourishing 


The Rancho San Carlos de Jonata, other- 
wise known as " the Buell Ranch," is a tract 
of land of almost square shape, comprising 
26,634.31 acres, lying on the north bank of 
the Santa Ynes. It is estimated to contain 
10,000 acres of fine, rich, sandy loam soil, 
well watered by the Shasta Ynes and numer- 
ous creeks. This rancho is owned by H. 
I. Willey and others. This is used for graz- 
ing, although the lowlands are good grain 
lands, suitable for corn, wheat, barley and 
beans. The northwest portion, known as 
Red Rock, contains large bodies of asphaltum 
as yet undeveloped. 

The Rancho Corral de Cuati was granted 
to Augustine Davila, and confirmed to Maria 
Antonio de la Guerra y Lataillade, 13,300.24 
acres — United States patent 13,322.29 acres. 
The main county road runs from north to 
south through its eastern portion, the dis- 
tance to Gaviota being twenty miles, and to 
Los Alamos eight miles. The surface is 
rolling hills, mostly tillable, but used chiefly 
for grazing. This rancho, together with 
LaZaca, carried in 1881 the following stock: 
horses, 20; cattle, 1,114; sheep, 3,400. 

The Rancho La Zaca was a grant of 4,480 
acres, made to Maria Antonio de la Guerra y 
Lataillade in 1838 — United States patent 
4,458.10 acres. Its chief industry is stock- 
raising. At the head of La Zaca Creek is 
Zaca Lake, a beautiful sheet of water of 
about 100 acres area, 2,000 to 3,000 feet 
above the sea. 

The College Rancho, otherwise Rancho 
Cafiada de Los Finos, is owned by the 
Roman Catholic Church, being under the 
control of the bishops. It was a grant of 


35,499 acres. The rancho is a nearly square 
tract of land, on the north bank of tlie Santa 
Ynes. Two living streams, the Santa Agata 
and the Canada de Los Finos, flow through 
it. The elevation above the sea is about 596 
feet. Its shipping points are Gaviota Pass 
and Los Alamos, each about sixteen miles 
distant. Some 15,000 acres are rich, arable 
lands, especially adapted for wheat-growing. 
This land has produced about 1,600 pounds 
of wheat to the acre. This rancho is the 
site of the old Santa Ynes Mission, now 
fallen into disuse. One mile from the mis- 
sion is the College of Our Lady of Guada- 
lupe, organized to educate missionaries for 
the conversion of the Indians. On this 
rancho is the town of Santa Ynes, already 

The Rancho San Marcos is a tract of nearly 
circular form, comprising 35,573.10 acres, 
granted to Nicholas A. Den, June 8, 1846. 
By the San Msrcos toll-road the nearest 
point to Santa Barl)ara is twelve miles dis- 
tant. Its surface is very rugged, therefore 
stock-raising is about the only industry prac- 
ticable. Quail, pigeon, deer, bear, California 
lion, trout and other game is very abundant 
in its wild fastnesses. This rancho is owned 
by the Pierce Brothers. 

The San Marcos Sulphur Springs are 
found seven miles northwest of Santa Bar- 
bara. They have a temperature of 120° F., 
and are used locally for skin diseases, etc. 

The Rancho Jequepis was granted to Joa- 
quin Yilla and confirmed to Antonio- Maria 
Villa. It is a tract of 8,919 acres, divided 
into two nearly equal portions by the Santa 
Ynes River. The surface of this rancho is 
much broken, and is used almost entirely for 

The Rancho Los Frietos y Najalayegua 
was originally granted to Francisco Domin- 
guez by the Mexican government, with very 

indefinite boundaries. Owing to the rugged 
and mountainous character of the land em- 
braced within its confines, the rancho was 
considered of very little value and was not 
presented to the land commissioners for con- 
firmation. Finally falling under the control 
of Thomas Scott, he secured the passage of 
an act of Congress securing the title to said 
grant in 1866. Then followed several years 
of litigation, during which the grant owners 
tried to secure a location of the grant on the 
south side of the Santa Ynes mountains and 
adjacent to the pueblo lands of the city of 
Santa Barbara. Many settlers who had 
located on these lands, attempting the secur- 
ing of title to them as pre-emptors and 
homesteaders, contended that the grant 
should be located north of the Santa Ynes. 
In the midst of this contest the development 
of the quicksilver interests north of the 
mountains gave promise of great results; and, 
influenced by this consideration, the grant 
owners consented to a location of the grant 
to the northward of the mountains. This 
was consequently done, and patents were 
issued accordingly. 

The Rancho Las Lomas de la Purificacion, 
lying south of and across the river from the 
College Rancho, was granted to Agustin 
Janssens, December 27, 1844, and contains 
13,320 acres under United States patent. It 
is owned by the heirs of the T. W. Moore 
estate. This is chiefly grazing land. By 
San Marcos toll-road, which traverses the 
rancho, it is twenty-two miles from Santa 

The Rancho Nojogui (in general wrongly 
■written Nojoqui) adjoins the Rancho de 
Jonata, from which it is separated by the 
Santa Ynes River. It was granted to Ray- 
mundo Carrillo, April 27, 1843, containing 
13,522.04 acres — United States patent, 
13,284 acres. This rancho is finely situ- 


ated in and about a well-watered canon, and 
along the county road leading through the 
mountain to the Gaviota Pass and Las 
Cruces. It is well watered by the Santa 
Ynes and its tributaries. It is owned by the 
Pierce Brothers, and the heirs of Dr. de la 
Cuesta. It contains excellent farming and 
grazing lands. The principal crops are 
wheat, flax and barley. Najogui is about 
eleven miles from Gaviota, twelve from Los 
Alamos, and forty-six from Santa Barbara. 
On the Canada Najogui, about five miles 
northeast of Las Cruces, and about 1,009 
feet above the sea, are the beautiful falls of 
Eajogui, leaping down 700 feet, which have 
been compared to the storied falls of Minne- 


The Santa Maria Valley occupies the 
northern part of Santa Barbara County, ex- 
tending from the Pacific ocean to the Sisquoc 
range of hills, thirty-five miles eastward; 
and from the San Luis Obispo county-line on 
the north to the low range of hills separat- 
ing this valley from that of Los Alamos. 
From Guadalupe, the main valley extends 
easterly twenty miles, and its continuation, 
the Sisquoc Yalley, stretches still farther 
southeastward, the extreme eastern end fork- 
ing into the Sisquoc hills on one side and the 
Foxen caiion lands on the other. The valley 
here is bordered on the north by the Santa 
Maria hills, and on the south by the clay 
mesas. The county near the coast is skirted 
by a range of low, fertile hills, mostly in- 
cluded in the Casmalia, Laguna and Guada- 
lupe land grants. All the drainage of the 
Santa Maria and Sisquoc rivers falls into the 
Santa Maria Valley. These streams drain 
an enormous country — a region that has 
twice the average rainfall of the same char- 
acter of liilly land from Los Angeles to San 
Diego. Large and swift streams as they are 

in winter, they sink in summer. Besides 
this water-supply, and the posdbilities of 
artesian irrigation, the abundant crops of this 
valley, particularly near the coast, are nurt- 
ured by the heavy mists and fogs prevalent 
during the summer months. 

This valley was named from an Indian 
called Santa Maria, and the title at first re- 
lated to but a small part of it, but it was 
later extended to the whole valley and 
stream. The greatest dimensions of the 
valley proper are about twenty-five miles 
long by twelve wide at the upper, and nar- 
rowing until it averages about four miles. It 
includes the Guadalupe, Punta de la Laguna, 
Tepusquet, Sisquoc, and Tinaquiac ranchos, 
their total acreage, as per the United States 
patents, being 123,590.77, at least 65,000 
acres being tillable land. Ten years since, 
these ranchos carried some 13,950 head of 
sheep, 3,860 cattle and 879 horses, grazing 
then being the chief interest. 

The town of Santa Maria is about twelve 
miles from the coast, twenty-nine from San 
Luis Obispo, and eighty-four from Santa 
Barbara. It was first settled in 1867, by 
Mr. B. Wiley, who, after investigation of the 
title, located a quarter-section each for him- 
self and three other gentlemen, who were 
followed during the next two years by some 
half-dozen others. The first well was dug 
by Mr. Wiley; it was twenty-four feet deep 
and curbless, but it lasted for some four 
years. The first house in the valley was 
built by Mr. Prell. The first birth was that 
of Thomas Miller, May 17, 1869. The first 
funeral was that of Mr. liosenburg, who 
accidentally shot himself in the summer 
of 1869. 

The first settlers put in large fields of 
grain. There was much trouble and threat- 
ened violence over the actions of the specu- 
lators with school-land warrants, who lo- 


cated over the claims of actual settlers that 
had made valuable improvements. 

Tha winters of 1869-'70 and 1870-'71 
were very unprosperous, owing to drouths, 
to damage done by occasional heavy storms, 
and by grasshoppers. The year 1871 
marked the beginning of fruit-raising here. 
The settlement, notwithstanding all oppos- 
ing elements, waxed so strong and populous 
that the town of Central City (now Santa 
Maria) was laid out in 1875. The first hotel 
was built this year, and several shops, etc., 

In 1877 was organized a Union Sunday- 
school, and in 1878 the Methodist Episcopal 
church was builK The first public school was 
opened in 1881, the church building being 
used for a time. In September the town 
issued bonds for a two-story school-house, 
worth S1,000, and within one year there 
were eighty pupils enrolled. In 1882 was 
started the Santa Maria Times, independent 
in politics and devoted to local matters. 

The present population of the town is 
about 1,000, while the surrounding country 
is thickly settled. The voting precinct con- 
tains some 1,500. The town is neatly laid out^' 
in squares, the principal streets, 100 feet wide, 
running east and west, crossed at right angles 
by subordinate ones, eighty and sixty feet wide. 
Some of these streets are planted with shade 
trees, and the approaches to the town are all 
beautiful drives. The streets are crowned 
and graveled, some having concrete, and some 
plank walks, and they are kept sprinkled. 
The chief business thoroughfare is Main 
street, 120 feet wide, in which are many sub- 
stantial business buildings. The town covers 
an area three-quarters of a mile square. The 
water is partly supplied from wells, and in 
part by two water companies, the water being 
forced by steam-power pumps to large reser- 
voirs, at about fifty feet altitude, whence it is 

piped for distribution. There are in the town 
three good assembly halls, a Presbyterian, a 
Christian and a Methodist Church, a free 
public library and a fine $12,000 brick school- 
house, with four teachers in as many depart- 
ments. Fraternal societies are represented 
by organizations of Masons, Odd Fellows, 
Good Templars, Knights of Pythias, Chosen 
Friends, Native Sons, Grand Army and 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
There is a fine band, " The Fairlawn," of 
twelve pieces. 

In September, 1883, Santa Maria suflFered 
from a severe tire, consuming several business 
houses, at a loss of $5,000, of which $2,000 
was covered by insurance. Again, in June, 
1884, another fire here destroyed $29,650 
worth of property. 

There are in Santa Maria two practicing 
physicians, two attorneys, one dentist, two 
drug stores, three general merchandise houses, 
one grocery, one hardware store, one jeweler 
one stationer, one saddle and harness shop, 
one shoe store, two bakeries, three confection- 
ery and fruit stores, five real-estate offices, 
one butcher shop, four blacksmith shops, two 
barbers, four painters, one fine patent-roller 
flour-mill, with a daily capacity of about fifty 
barrels, one lumber yard, two furniture stores, 
one bank, one newspaper, — the Santa Maria 
Times, — four millinery stores, two tinshops 
one photograph gallery, one merchant tailor, 
one toy and notion store, one steam barley- 
crushing mill, three large hotels, four restau- 
rants, one large lodging-house, five saloons 
and three livery stables. There are two large 
nurseries, that of T. A. Garey having some 
300,000 trees, while another nursery has sold 
40,000 to 50,000 trees this year. Still another 
has 50,000 trees. Within half a mile of the 
center of the settlement, there is a half-mile 
race track, and a prettily planned park of ten 


This town is the distributing point for an 
area reaching fifty miles to the eastward, 
twenty toward the south, ten to the north, 
and westward to the coast line; also for the 
mines, seventy-five miles distant. 

A through line of railway is greatly needed, 
and the people are anxiously looking forward 
to the completion of the Southern Pacific 
Coast Line. 

The main industries of this valley are: 
dairying and stock-raising in the hills and 
lands toward the coast and about the Gauda 
lupe region; wheat, barley, oats and corn in 
the central and upper parts of the valley and 
the mesas; beans and potatoes from the line 
of the railroad westward; eastward from the 
railway fruit-raising is rapidly becoming an 
important industry, apricots, prunes, and 
Bartlett pears being the varieties mostly cul- 
tivated. At the western end of the valley, 
the potato, bean, and summer crops are 
steadily encroaching on the dairy tracts. The 
upper valley and surrounding hills will be 
largely planted to fruit. Citrus fruits will 
grow well in the more sheltered valleys and 
canons. In 1880 the average yield of wheat 
on valley lands was twenty centals (33 J 
bushels) per acre; on mesa land, 17 centals or 
28^ bushels; the average yield of barley was, 
on valley land, 25 centals, or 41§ bushels; 
mesa land, 20 centals, or 33^ bushels. The 
whole wheat and barley crops amounted to 
about 625,000 centals in this valley in 1880, 
this being rather above the average yearly 

As special illustrations of the products, it 
may be mentioned that Mr. Isaac Miller has 
twenty -five acres of apricots, five years old^ 
and fifteen acres of French prunes, four years 
old, witl) 108 trees to the acre. In 1889 he 
sold thirteen tons of dried apricots, at $200 
per ton. This year the trees were loaded 
almost to breaking, and the crop of prunes 

brought $8,000, while the apricots, sold at 16 
cents per pound, produced $7,000. 

The prunes yield very largely, and, dried 
with their pits in, bring 5 cents per pound. 

The district of La Graciosa, otherwise 
known as Fruit Vale, eight miles south of 
Santa Maria, being composed of rolling hills 
and small valleys, has mostly been converted 
into orchards. Here are planted hundreds 
upon hundreds of acres of peach, plum, nec- 
tarine, walnut, and orange trees, — in short, 
almost all known fruits. Here may be seen 
walnut trees ten feet high, two years old. 

The Guadalupe Rancho of 30,408.03 acres, 
was granted by the Mexican government to 
Diego Olivera and Teodoro Areilanes, March 
21, 1840. The claim was confirmed in 1857, 
and in 1870 a patent was issued for 43,680.85 
acres. It has a coast line of ten miles, and 
extends eight miles back from the coast. 
Tiie first farming here was done in a small 
way in 1867, by John B. Ward, who married 
a daughter of Estudillo, then owner of the. 
rancho. He built a road from Point Sal to 
the rancho, nine miles distant, in considera- 
tion of a tract of land at the former place, 
voted him by Congress, for the construction 
of a road from Point Sal to Fort Tejou. As 
there was already a natural route between 
Fort Tejon and Guadalupe, Ward claimed 
the land and secured a patent for it, at the 
time when the Point Sal landing was first 
built. In 1872 was founded the town of 
Guadalupe, situated in the extreme north- 
western corner of this county, about seven 
miles from the coast, ninety-five miles from 
Santa Barbara, and twelve miles from Los 
Alanaos. The climate here is cool, bracing 
and healthy. This little town made consider- 
able growth up to 1882, when tiie building 
of the Pacific Coast Railway stimulated the 
development of Santa Maria, at the expense 
of Guadalupe, which thereafter lost ground 


markedly. The present population is about 

The soil around Guadalupe is mostly a deep 
black adobe, whicla yields large returns. 
Wheat succeeds only on the extreme upper 
end of the tract. Barley has produced 100 
bushels to the acre, and beans yield a more 
prolific crop even. Corn is an unreliable fac- 
tor. Vegetables, including pumpkins and 
potatoes, score a marked success, but melons 
are a failure. The air here is too bleak for 
fruit-raising, and orchards fail unless pro 
tected by wind breaks, usually of cypress or 
eucalyptus. Stock-raising is a great indus- 
try, owing to the excellent watering and the 
freedom from noxious weeds or plants, en- 
joyed by the pasturage of this rancho. There- 
fore it is regarded as one of the best dairy 
ranges in California, and occupied largely by 
Swiss dairyman, who milk a vast number of 
cows, their products selling at an advance of 
one or two cents a pound on the prices of 
butter from the upper coast; several tons are 
shipped thence weekly. Good water is found 
here within two to sixteen feet of the surface, 
and artesian wells 110 feet deep yield as much 
as ten gallons per minute. 

The Rancho Punta de la Laguna lies im- 
diately eastward of the Guadalupe, further up 
the Santa Maria Valley, being an irregular 
strip of territory, ten miles by seven miles in 
extent. It was granted to Luis Arellanes 
and E. M. Ortega, December 24, 1844, when 
it contained 26,648.42 acres, extending a lit- 
tle way into San Luis Obispo County. - Like 
the rest of the valley it was once a great 
grazing region. The soil is mostly a sandy 
loam, on which the cereals and all kinds of 
vegetables grow to perfection. The best of 
water is procured from wells twenty to sixty 
feet deep. 

The Rancho Tepusquet was carved out of 
Government land surrounding it on all sides 

but the southeast, where it joins the Sisquoc. 
It contains 8,900 acres under United States 
patent, lying in the upper part of the Santa 
Maria Valley. It consists of low, rolling 
hills, the approaches to the lofty Sierra de 
San Rafael lying to the eastward. While the 
cereals are cultivated to some extent, stock- 
raising is the principal industry. The sur- 
face is rugged, and there is a stream afibrding 
ample water-power for manufacturing enter- 
prises. Once the property of the Foxen 
Brothers this rancho now belongs to the 
Ontiveras family. 

The Rancho Sisquoc lies at the very head 
of the Santa Maria Valley, extending back 
into the hills eight or ten miles. It com- 
prises 35,485.90 acres of land, mostly rolling 
country. The cereals are produced, but stock- 
raising is the chief interest. This property 
belongs to the Stone estate. 

The Rancho Tinaquaic is nearly rectangu- 
lar in shape, measuring three by five miles, 
lying at the head of the Santa Maria Valley, 
it contains appropriately two leagues of land. 
It is traversed by the main county road. This 
rancho, which is now the property of the 
Foxen heirs, was originally granted to Victor 
Linares, May 6, 1837, and confirmed to Will- 
iam D. Foxen, the title calling for 8,874.60 
acres. Its surface is hilly, but large tracts 
are sown to grain yearly, although stock- 
raising is by no means superseded. 

The Rancho Cuyama, now belonging to 
Haggin & Perkins, and to Gaspar Oreiia, was 
granted to Jose Maria Rojo, April 24, 1843, 
and confirmed to Maria Antonio de la Guer- 
ra and Cesario Lataillade, whose heir is Mr. 
Orena. Its acreage, as by the United States 
pale!it, was 71,620.75 acres. In the spring 
of 1881 it was estimated to support 3,000 
cattle. The Cuyama River, the northern 
boundary of the county, cuts this rancho into 
two nearly equal portions. Thus, lying in 


the extreme northern portion of the county, 
aad separated from the rest thereof by the 
hicrh Sierra de San Rafael, this isolation is 
so complete that even the returns of the elec- 
tions are received from this district more tar- 
dily than from any other in the county. The 
only industry here is stock-raising. 


The purpose of a historical sketch like the 
present would fall short without an account 
of " the Lost Woman of San Nicolas," apper- 
taining as it does to the history of both Santa 
Barbara and Vetitura counties. 

This story has often been told, too fre- 
quently with embellishments and exaggera- 
tions which only serve to diminish the force 
of the simple facts, which certainly are suffi- 
ciently romantic, dramatic, and even tragic. 
The Alaskan Indians were in the habit of 
making to the channel islands periodical 
visits, to secure otter and other pelts, making 
fierce war upon other hunters who should 
seek to follow the same field. Supplied as 
they were with fire-arms, they were savage 
and powerful, dangerous even to the whites, 
and far more so to the natives, armed only 
with stone weapons. 

Of the island of San Nicolas a party of 
these Indians took possession, and slew every 
male of the thick population upon it, keeping 
possession of the women. When the otter- 
hunting season was over, the Alaskans de- 
parted, leaving these women to what fate 
might befall tliem. About the middle of the 
year 1835 the padres made arrangements for 
the succor and removal of the surviving 
women, by Isaac J. Sparks and Lewis T. Bur- 
ton, American otter hunters, settled at Santa 
Barbara, who had chartered the schooner 
Peor es Nada ("Worse is Nothing") for the 
purposes of their calling. With a crew com- 
posed mainly of Kanakas, tliey sailed to San 

Nicolas, and assembled the Indians upon the 
beach, ready for embarking. One of the 
women then signified by signs that her child 
had been left behind, and she was allowed to 
go to fetch it. She delayed some time, and 
meanwhile a strong wind sprang up. The 
water about the island is quite shoal, and be- 
comes very rough in a storm, and there is no 
sheltering harbor, so that the schooner dared 
not tarry, but ran before the wind, leaving 
the woman behind. The vessel arrived safely 
at San Pedro, where the Indians were landed, 
some being taken to Los Angeles and some 
to the Mission of San Gabriel. The captain 
of the vessel designed to return to the island 
as soon as possible to fetch away the woman. 
But, being ordered to San Francisco, she cap- 
sized there, and, there being now no craft 
large enough to attempt the passage of the 
channel, no attempt was made to rescue the 
woman, and after some years it was generally 
believed that she must have perished. 

In 1851 John Nidever, with a man named 
Tom Jeffries and a crew of Indians, had oc- 
casion to visit San Nicolas. Landing on the 
lower end of the island they shortly found 
on the bank near the beach the footprints of 
a human being, probably made during tlie 
preceding rainy season, as they were deeply 
impressed in the ground, now very hard and 
dry. The size of the tracks indicated they 
were made by a woman. After walking some 
distance, the men discovered on rising ground 
about 200 yards back from the beach three 
structures of human creation. Standing about 
a mile apart, these enclosures were circular in 
shape, six or seven feet in diameter, with 
brush-built walls, five or six feet from the 
ground, on stakes of driftwood stuck into the 
earth, pieces of dried blubber, apparently 
placed there a month or two before, and in 
good condition. Other than the meat there 
was no sign of recent occupation of the 



enclosiires. A wind came on, which in 
creased to a gale sliortly after the men had 
regained their vessel, and as soon as practi- 
cable, which was not for eight days, they 
left the vicinity of the island. 

In the winter of 1852, Nidever, accom- 
panied by Charles Brown and a crew of 
Indians, made a second visit to the island, 
in quest of otter, of which he had seen 
great numbers on his former visit. Land- 
ing at the old place, they walked toward 
the head of the island, where the woman, 
if still alive, was likely to be found, as fish 
and seal are more plentiful, and water better 
and more abundant in that quarter. The 
huts were seen as before, the old blubber 
seeming to have been replaced by fresher. 
About half a mile from the head of the island 
and extending across it, was a flat, low and 
sandy; and here, thought the men, the woman 
must be living, as the ground to the north 
and eastward was high and windswept. 
Aftersearchingforsome time, without finding 
a trace of the woman, the men decided that 
she must have been devoured by wild dogs' 
of which they had seen a number, resem- 
bling the coyotes, but black and white in 
color. When just about to return, Nidever 
noticed in the crotch of a small tree a bas- 
ket, covered over with sealskin, which, on 
being examined, proved to ctmtain a care- 
fully-folded dress made of the skins of shags, 
cut in square pieces and sewn together; a 
rope made of sinews, and divers small ar- 
ticles such as needles made of bone, abelone, 
fish-hooks, etc. Brown compassionately pro- 
posed to replace the basket where they had 
found it, but Nidever shrewdly preferred 
to scatter the articles about the spot, as 
their replacement on a future visit would 
prove the woman'.s existence and presence 
there. Accordingly this was done, and the 
men returned to their schooner. For some 

days they were busy hunting, and then a 
gale forced them to make off without re- 
newing the search. 

In July, 1853, Nidever once more re- 
turned to San Nicolas with Brown and four 
Mission Indians, this time with the inten- 
tion of making a thorough search for the 
missing woman. After selecting a camp, 
they followed the shore to the head of the 
island, which Brown rounded; and some dis- 
tance down the other side he found fresh 
tracks of the woman, which he followed up 
from the beach and over the bank, losing 
them on the lidge where the ground was 
covered with moss. The following day, 
going to the sandy flat before mentioned, 
they organized a regular search, for some 
time without results. Brown followed the 
track he had found the previous evening, un- 
til he found a piece of driftwood, apparently 
dropped by the woman ; and farther along the 
ridge he discovered three huts, made of brush, 
disposed over the ribs of a whale, set in the 
earth. These tenements were, however, open 
on all sides, and tall grass grew within them, 
proving the long time that had elapsed since 
their occupation. Ascending to one of the 
highest parts of the ridge he gazed about on 
all sides. Most of the searchers were in sight, 
and far away he could see moving a small 
black object which he at first took to be a 
crow. On walking toward it, he discovered 
that this was the Indian woman, whose head 
and shoulders just appeared above the rim of 
an enclosure like those already clescribed. 
Close to her were two or three dogs 
like those the men had seen already. They 
growled at Brown's approach, whereupon 
the woman uttered a sort of yell, and 
they slunk out of sight. The woman was 
sitting cross-legged on some grass within the 
enclosure, whicii doubtless served her for a 
bed. She wore a sort of gown, made of shag- 


skins cut in squares and sewed together, with 
the feathers pointing downward. The gar- 
ment left her neck and shoulders bare, reach- 
ing to her ankles. Her hair was thickly matted 
uponher head, being yellowish-brown in color, 
probably from exposure to the weather The 
ends seemed to have rotted off. She was en- 
gaged in stripping tlie bhil)ber from a piece 
of sealskin held across her knee, using a knife 
rudely fashioned from a piece of iron hoop. 
A fire was smouldering within the enclosure, 
and close by was a large heap of bones, which 
would denote that for a long time this had 
been her domicile. 

The woman appeared much interested in 
the movements of the men who were scour- 
ing the flat below; every now and then she 
would shade her eyes with her hand and 
direct a loLg and steady gaze upon them. 
And all the while, from the time Brown first 
came within hearing distance, she kept up a 
continual talking to herself. 

As the men drew near, Brown motioned 
to them to spread out in such shape as to 
surronnd her and intercept her, should she 
attempt to escape; then, just before the 
others reached her little camp. Brown, whom 
she had not yet seen, stepped around in front 
and in sight of her. To his great surprise, 
instead of exhibiting signs of fear or distrust, 
she received him with an air of welcome, 
bowing and smiling with mingled cordial 
politeness and dignity. Her self-possession 
and ease was considered by her discoverers 
remarkable. As each man came up he was 
greeted in the same manner, and she con- 
tinued to talk unceasingly. But although 
the Indians of the schooner's crew could 
muster several native dialects, not a word of 
her speech understood they. 

"When the men were all seated upon the 
ground around her, she took from a grass- 
woven bag some of the bulbous roots called 

by the Californians cacomites, and another 
species of root, and having first roasted them 
upon the fire, she offered them to the men, 
who found them very palatable. 

Wishing to convey her on board the 
schooner, the men tried to inform her by 
signs of their intentions; but while she 
seemed pleased with their company, and 
gave no reason to apprehend that she would 
try to escape, she seemed to not comprehend 
their intentions until they signified that she 
must gather up all her food stores. Then, 
indeed, she obeyed with the greatest alacrity, 
and seemed anxious to preserve everything 
capable of sustaining life, thus pathetically 
demonstrating the sharp experiences she had 
undoubtedly undergone during her eighteen 
years of solitude. Carefully she collected 
and placed in a large cora, or basket, such 
as was generally used by the Indians of this 
coast, the considerable quantity she possessed 
of the dried blubber of the seal and sea ele- 
phant. She even insisted upon carrying away 
a seal's head so decayed that the brains were 
oozing from it; and when all else was ready 
she took a burning stick from the camp-fire. 
The men distributed her effects for carriage, 
and all set forth toward the vessel. She 
trotted along at a good pace, and presently 
led them to a spring of good water which 
issued from beneath a shelving rock near the 
beach. Here w^ere more pieces of dried 
blubber, hung on stakes beyond reach of the 
dogs and foxes; and here, too, further pathetic 
evidence of the privations she had suffered, 
in the shape of bones stored away in the 
crevices of the rocks. It was clear that when 
food M-as scarce, her resource was to come 
hither and suck the scanty nutriment remain- 
ing in these bones! All these matters were 
respected and preserved by the men, who 
thus gained the poor, deserted creature's con- 
fidence. Near the landing was another spring 


whicli the woman would seem to have used 
for bathing, as she stopped to wasli her face 
and hands in it 

She readily obeyed the signaled instruction 
to step into the boat, in whose bow she 
kneeled, holding to the sides; and on reach- 
ing the vessel she hovered in the vicinity of 
the stove, another indication of the hardships 
she had suffered on the island. From the 
first she preferred to her own the food given 
her by her rescuers. 

Brown immediately contrived for her a 
petticoat of bed-ticking, which, with a man's 
shirt and necktie, composed a new wardrobe, 
of which she was very proud, continually 
calling to it the attention of her companions. 
While Brown was engaged iipon her skirt^ 
she made signs that she wished to sew also; 
and being given a needle and thread, she 
could not iinderstand, imtil she was taught, 
how the needle was threaded; but she iised 
the needle deftly, mending with infinite 
patience the many rents in an old cape, very 
torn and tattered, which one of the men be- 
stowed upon her, and which she repaired into 
a garment quite serviceable in cold, rough 
weather. In sewing, she thrust the needle 
into the cloth with her right liand, pulling 
it through, and drawing the thread tight 
with her left hand. 

The men on the next day moved ashore, 
where they remained for about a month, 
otter-hunting. They constructed lor the wo- 
man, at a short distance from their camp, a 
shelter similar to their own; and here, she 
remained very well contented, evincing no 
disposition to leave them, but assisting in 
the work of the camp, bringing wood and 
water at need, and wandering about the 
island, talking and singing. 

When the woman was found, she had in 
construction several vessels for carrying water, 
they being really unique. They were woven 

of grass, in shape somewhat like a demijohn, 
although wider in the mouth, and lined with 
a thin coating of asphaltum, which she ap- 
plied with some ingenuity. Putting into the 
basket several pieces of the asphaltum, which 
was foiind along the beach in gi-eat quanti- 
ties, she threw upon them some heated peb- 
bles, and when these had melted the asphalt- 
um, she would distribute it evenly over the 
inside by giving the basket a rotary motion, 
throwing out the surplus and the pebbles. 
These baskets were water-tight, and very en- 
during. She worked upon them fitfully, a 
few minutes at a time, patting one aside to 
take up another. 

One rather touching trait of her character 
is illustrated by the following occurrence. 
The men one day killed a large female otter 
which was with young, and when they were 
about to throw it into the sea, as they usually 
did the bodies after skinning, the woman, in 
her mute way, protested. She took out the 
young otter, which was nearly to be born and 
covered with fur, and when it had been 
stuffed it looked quite natural. Of this little 
creature the woman made a sort of doll, sus- 
pending it from the roof of her shelter, where 
for hoitrs she would swing it, all the while 
talking to it in a kind of sing-song. 

After about a month's successful hunt, 
Nidever's party embarked for Santa Barbara. 
Not long after they sailed there arose a 
furious gale, which threatened to engulf the 
little vesseh Then the woman made signs 
that she could calm the wind, and, kneeling 
down with her face toward the quarter whence 
it blew, she commenced to make prayers or 
incantations, which continued a long time, 
and were renewed at intervals during the 
storm When the wind abated and patches 
of clear sky appeared, she pointed in triumph 
to these tokens of good weather, as who 
should say, "See what I accomplished!" 


The shore was neared early one morning, 
and it was evident that tlie woman had never 
seen this nor any of the ordinary appearances 
and sights of a settlement. It was hard to 
tell whether pleasure or wonder predominated 
in her when tliere passed on the sands a 
Spanish cart, drawn by an ox team. Every 
feature of it was delightful to her, and she 
imitated with curious gestures the rotary 
motion of the clumsy wheels, talking, laiigh- 
ing and gesticulating, all at the same time. 
When landing had been made, she was much 
taken up with a horseman who came to the 
beach, and her courage was shown by her 
readiness to touch this great unknown, and 
to her doubtless fearful, creature. After 
touching both horse and man, she turned to 
her captors, and proved that she grasped the 
situation by straddling over her left thumb 
the first two fingers of her right hand, while 
she moved her hand to imitate the galloping 
of a horse, shouting the while with delight. 

The woman was taken to Nidever's house, 
where his wife cared for her; and soon the 
news spread that the lost woman of San 
Nicolas Island was found. Her case had ex- 
cited great interest among the warm-hearted 
people of the region, who had discussed in 
the safety of their homes for many a year the 
possibilities of her still surviving on that 
desert sea-girt isle, with wild beasts for her 
only companions. And as the years went 
by, it was generally believed that she must 
surely be dead, devoured, in all likelihood, 
by the wild dogs. The padres of the mission 
had interested themselves for her, and had 
off"ered a reward of $200 for information that 
should lead to her recovery. 

And now the lost was found, and was here 
within the limits of civilization. Hundreds 
flocked to Nidever's house to see her. Among 
others came the Fathers, Sanchez, Jimeno 
and Gonzalez, the latter of wiiora in particular 

had earnestly insisted upon the probabilities of 
her survival. But none could communicate 
with her, save by the imperfect sign language, 
although the padres knew all the dialects of 
the coast. From Santa Ynes, from Los 
Angeles, and from other places Indians were 
brought to see her, but they too found not 
one word in common with her. Every one 
showed her the greatest kindness. Nearly 
every one would give her a present of money, 
of clothing, or of trinkets, all of which she 
would at once give to her friends, or to the 
children who visited her. The Panama 
steamers were touching at Santa Barbara in 
those days, and the passengers were always 
eager to see this poor savage heroine. She 
would often put on her best dress of feathers, 
and for their gratitication perform move- 
ments which might be called dancing. She 
soon became very expert in conversing by 
signs, and thus related the history of her 
adventures, relating that when she went back 
after the child, she wandered a long time 
without finding it; that when she concluded 
that the dogs had eaten the child, she lay 
down and cried for so long a time that she 
sickened, could not eat, and became too weak 
to walk; then, recovering somewhat, she 
began to walk about and to eat. Often she 
had seen vessels upon the sea, but none ever 
came near to take her away, so that in time 
she became reconciled to her fate, and her 
monotonous life of hunger, cold and the fear 
of wild animals. She was supposed to have 
been about fifty years old at the time of her 
rescue. Her face was smooth, although the 
skin on her body and limbs was badly 
wrinkled. It was gathered from her signs 
that at the time when she was left on the 
island she had two children, one a nursing 
babe, the other some years older. 

The woman was much attached to the 
family of Mr. Nidever, who in turn were 


fond of her. Mr. "N"idever repeatedly refused 
large sums which were offered him as an 
inducement to her public exhibition in San 
Francisco. It was only a short time before 
her death that her protectors succeeded in 
making her understand their wish to learn 
some words of her language, and the follow- 
ing comprise about all the terms they 
gathered from her: a hide, "tocah;" man, 
"nache;" the sky, " toy gvvah;" the body, 
" puoo-chay." 

With regard to practical matters, she was 
like a child, and childish was her want of 
control over her appetite. Being excessively 
fond of fruit, slie would eat it at all hazards, 
and this self indulgence produced a dysentery 
which terminated I'atally, in spite of careful 
attendance and nursing. During her illness, 
it was thought that she might be relieved by 
a diet of seal's flesh, to which she had been 
so long accustomed; and accordingly some 
was procured and roasted for her. But she 
laughed and shook her head over it, passing 
her finger over her worn-out teeth, to indicate 
that they were too old and spent for such 
use. It was about four months after her 
rescue that she died. She was buried by the 
padres. Most of her trinkets, including the 
finer of her feather dresses, were sent to Kome. 

It may be wondered that the woman should 
have been left so long for want of a boat to 
fetch her from the island; but it must be 
remembered that when the Boston ship 
Monsoon visited Santa Barbara in 1839, the 
captain of the port had no boat in which to 
make his ofiicial visit. Chagrined by the 
situation, he petitioned for a boat, which the 
government accordingly provided for him. 

The resources of Santa Barbara county 
have been pretty thoroughly indicated in 
connection with the respective sections, save 

in the directions set forth hereafter, as fol- 
lows : 

With reference to hog-raising in this 
county, an estimate of the possibilities may 
be formed from the following extract from a 
paper by Mr. L. Babcock: "Hogs can be 
raised here with little trouble after you are 
prepared, as we do not have any or but few 
storms during each year, and no fatal diseases 
such as cholera. Neither have we any tri- 
chinae in the bacons on this coast. On 
May 19, 1881, I purchased 120 acres of land 
in the Lompoc Valley, all fenced and im- 
proved ready to go into the business of rais- 
ing and preparing hogs for the market. I 
also bought 600 head of hogs, big and little, 
and the growing crop, at a cost of $13,066. 
I raised grain on 100 acres of the ranch. 
On the last of August, 1881, sold to Sherman 
& Ealaiid, of Santa Barbara, 302 head of 
hogs. They received them on the ranch and 
paid me $1,962.50. In September, 1882, I 
shipped to San Francisco 323 head of hogs 
off the same ranch, and sold them for $3,- 
801.26, and after deducting all expenses of 
driving, shipping, commission, etc., I got a 
net return of $3,282.63. And I have 100 or 
more still on the ranch." 


In 1860 or '61, a party named Miner — he 
who built the first frame house in Santa Bar- 
bara — imported eight or ten swarms of bees, 
which sold readily for $50 per swarm. In 
December, 1873, Mr. Jefferson Archer 
brought hither some forty-five stands of bees, 
and went into apiculture exclusively. The 
industry increased to such an extent that at 
the close of the season of 1880 there were in 
the county about 3,800 stands of bees, yield- 
ing a product of over 128 tons or 256,000 
pounds of extracted honey. 


While that portion of this county adapted 
to profitable honey-raising is small, com- 
pared with the territory devoted to this in- 
dustry in some other counties, the quality ot 
honey produced is unexcelled. The honey- 
producing plants are abundant; the mountain 
redwood, sumac, grease-wood, coffee berry 
and the various sages, all in their respective 
seasons, supply the raw material to the hum- 
ming, busy workers. This is an enterprise 
yielding large returns from limited capital; 
it is by no means uncommon to derive a 
profit of over 400 per cent, from single 
swarms, and almost as high a figure has been 
realized from an entire apiary. With a fair 
season, a good swarm will yield 150 to 250 
pounds of extracted honey in a season, besides 
its increase of one or two swarms in a season, 
the increase not seldom reaching to five and 
even ten swarms in one season. One apiary 
of 400 stands in the county produced during 
the season of 1884 no less than 730,000 
pounds of pure strained honey and 2,000 
pounds of beeswax. Apiculture suffers oc- 
casional drawbacks; an insufficient rainfall 
lessens or cuts off altogether the honey yield, 
and a general drouth affects bees as it does 
cattle and other stock. 

Santa Barbara Channel and its adjacent 
waters are especially rich in good fishes. The 
ocean temperature here is particularly mild 
and equable, never falling below 60° nor rising 
above 66° F., thus resembling the Mediter- 
ranean, which produces many of the finest 
market fish in the world. 

This temperature, the calmness of the 
waters, and the quantity of marine vegetation 
nourished therein, make these parts the 
natural home of the finest tribes. 

In 1881 David S. Jordan and Charles H. 
Gilbert were sent by the United States Gov- 

ernment to the Pacific coast to investigate 
the fish interests of this section. They found 
Santa Barbara Channel one of the richest 
points on the coast, and the results of their 
investigation surprised even those best ac- 
quainted with the wealth of these waters. 
In their report the following fishes are men- 
tioned as abundant in this locality: 

Herring: c.hupea mirablis. Euns during 
the winter. Is like the Atlantic herring in 
size and general character. Is marketed, 
dried and salted. 

Sardine: Clupea sagax. Two species — the 
larger " American " sardine, sometimes reach- 
ing a length of nine inches, and a smaller 
species, exactly the same as that of the 

Barracuda: Sphyraena argentie. The fa- 
vorite fish of this part of the coast. Runs 
four or five months during the summer. 
Averages under ten pounds' weight. When 
dried, is an excellent substitute for codfish. 

Albaeore : Orcynus alalonga. Average 
weight, twelve to fifteen pounds. Very good 
food fish. 

Spanish mackerel: Sarda chilensis. Aver- 
age weight eight to ten pounds. Used for 
the most part dried and salted. 

Pompano: Stromaticus simillimus. Aver- 
ages one-half pound weight; length eight 
inches. Scarce in winter. 

Yellow-tail or white salmon: Seriola la- 
landi. Weight forty to fifty pounds. Length 
four to five feet. 

Smelt: Atherinops affinis. About one'foot 
in length. 

Flying fish: Exocoetus californicus. Length 
about fifteen inches; weight about one and 
one-half pounds. Excellent food. Appear 
toward the middle of summer. 

Mullet : Mugil albula. Fifteen inches long. 
Flesh coarse, but good food when taken in 
clear water. 



Rock cod: Serranus maculofasciatus. Fif- 
teen inches long; weighs two to three pounds. 

Kelp salmon: Serranus clathratus. Eight- 
een inches long; weight iive pounds. 

White sea bas.s : Alroctosciuin nubile. 
Length about four feet; weight under fifty 

White-lish: Dekaya princeps. Length two 
feet; weight ten to fourteen pounds. When 
salted is excellent. 

Conger eel: Mursena tnordax. Length 
about live feet; weight fifteen to twenty 
pounds. Flesh very fat. Excellent food. 

The local market for tish is not large, and 
a very few fishermen supply the local needs 
and such small exportations as have been 
made. But the fish interest could be made a 
source of important revenne by the develop- 
ment of some practical plan for exportation, 
for which purpose a number of the species 
named above are eminently suitable. The 
white-fish, the barracuda, and the herring are 
particularly adapted for preparation and ship- 
ment, and it must be noted, too, that the 
herring is here brought into natural contact 
with his regular post-mortem element, olive 
oil. Thus a sardine cannery hereabouts 
would seem to be an inevitable outgrowth of 
these natural provisions. 

(From the State Mineralogical Report.) 
Ou the San Marcos Rancho there is said to be a lode 
that assays well in both gold and silver. Gold-bear- 
ing rock has also been found on the Buel Rancho, 
near Los Alamos. Placer claims have been worked 
at Pine Mountain, also at the headwaters of Zaca 
Creek, and at several places in the San Rafael Moun- 
tains. A very few colors of gold are occasionally 
found in the creeks running from the Santa Ynes 
Range. Gold-washing has also been carried on upon 
the seashore; the most successful operations were at 
Point Sal, in the northwestern corner of ihe county. 
Point Sal is situated upon the southern bank of the 
Santa Maria River. Gold-washing has been intermit- 
tently carried on here by the Point Sal Mining Com- 

pany. The gold is found in streaks of black sand 
from three to four feet below the surface of the beach. 
They run from one inch to two feet in thickness, 
usually being about one foot, and from thirty to forty 
feet in length. The bank of the beach runs north and 
south, the streaks of sand east and west toward the 
ocean. Beneath the black sand is blue clay in some 
places, and sandstone in others. The richest deposits 
are found on the sandstone where it is worn into 
ridges, being favorable to the concentration of the 
gold. The sand is run into a hopper, where a stream 
of water carries it over amalgamated plates. About 
twenty-five tons of this sand yielded $137. 

On the Jonila Rancho, near Los Alamos, rock con- 
taining gold and silver has been found. This at last 
induced William Buel to explore the formation of his 
rancho by running a tunnel over 400 feet. This tun- 
nel, which is situated a little over 1,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, is run in a southwesterly direction 
through a sedimentary formation, which dips to the 
sea at an angle of about 45° * * * Here and 
there throughout the tunnel are a few seams and 
pockets of clayey matter, which are said to show a 
few colors of gold. * * * The tunnel does not ap- 
pear to be following any vein. 

Copper is said to exist in paying quantities on the 
southern bank of the Santa Cruz River, where it was 
worked by the old padres; also at several places in 
the San Rafael Mountains. 

Quicksilver is said to exist at Los Prietos, nine 
miles north of Santa Barbara, on the upper waters of 
the Santa Ynes River, in considerable quantities. It 
is claimed that e great deal of the ore will average 
from two to three per cent. The Eagle Quicksilver 
mine was also worked in 1867, by Captain Samuel 
Stanton, on the Cuchama River, in the San Rafael 

Float rock containing galena is said to be found at 
the mouth of Dry Creek Canon, on the Buel Rancho, 
near Los Alamos; also on the Spinnocia Rancho, 
about twelve miles east of Santa Ynes, in the San 
Rafael Mountains. 

Manganese occurs in the San Rafael Mountains, 
about seven miles north of the town of Santa Ynes. 

Coal has been found at several places in Santa Bar- 
bara County, notably in the Loma Palomd, head of 
Santa Ynes Creek, Montecito Hot Springs and at the 

Limestone is widely distributed in the county, but 
as yet has been burned only for local use. It is found 
upon Moore's Rancho, a few miles west of Santa Bar- 
bara. Immediately north of Mr. Moore's house, dis- 
tant about two miles from the seashore, are the foot- 
hills of the Santa Ynes Range, spurs of which run 
down nearly to the water's edge; these are composed 



of sandstone, varying from coarse to fine. At one 
point they are traversed by a vein of calcite about 
(our feet wide, running neaily east and west. 

The gypsum deposits of Santa Barbara occur upon 
the southern side of Point Sal, and can be reached by 
road either from Guadalupe or Santa Maria. Point 
Sal gypsum mines lie back in the mountains about 
one and one-half miles from Point Sal Landing. They 
occur as a vein having a head wall and foot-wall of 
clay slate. There are six openings on this property 
from which gypsum are taken. * * * The finest 
quality of the material is said to be obtained in the 
upper workings. The other openings are of less im- 
portance, and no gypsum at present is taken from 
them. The lower vein can be traced for about two 
miles. This mineral can be mined and placed on 
board the vessels at Point Sal for about |2 per ton. 

There are several mineral springs in ihis county, 
but few of them have as yet become places of resort. 
At Montecito the water from the springs reaches 117° 
Fahrenheit. On the Santa Ynes Mountains, near 
Santa Barbara, there is another hot spring; also in 
the Santa Marcos Canon, where the water is said to 
reach a temperature of 130° Fahrenheit. In the canon 
and ihe Cuyama Valley are also spring^. 

There are, so far as known at the present time, 
no oil wells producing anything in Santa Barbara 
County, though several have been sunk there. But 
there are great deposits of asphaltum and other 
bituminous matters at several localities in the county. 
" El Rincon " Creek, some three or four miles east of 
Carpenteria, is, for siome litile distance near the coast, 
the boundary line between Ventura and Sauta Bar- 
bara counties. At Rincon Point, on the shore just 
west of El Rincon Creek, the railway company has 
recently done some heavy grading in the construction 
of their road. Amongst other unalteied rocks here, 
which dip toward the north, they have cut through a 
heavy body of bituminous shales, which coniain a 
sufficient quantity of bituminous matter, ^o that, when 
once ignited they continue to burn for a long time 
like the waste heaps from a coal mine. 

The Rancho of Mr. P. Clark Higgius, mentioned 
as the "Carpenteria bed," is only about one mile east 
of the new Carpenteria railway station. The bluffs 
here fronting the sea-beach are fifty to seventy-five 
teet high. The lower portion of them consists of 
tertiary rocks, out of which the petroleum oozes. * 
* * Anywhere within one quarter of a mile or more 
back from the edge of the bluffs it is no uncommon 
occurrence for the plow to turn up bituminous 
matter. * * * 

The outcrop of asphaltum and otlier bitumiuous 
matters in the bluffs e.xtends for a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile along the shore and to witliin halt 

a mile or less of the new railway station at Carpen- 
teria. * * * This bitumen is very dirty, but might 
possibly be used for street pavements. 

On Ortega Hill, about six miles east of Santa Bar- 
bara, and near half way between there and Carpen- 
teria, Mr. H. L. Williams has drilled a well. The 
locality is within 500 or 600 feet of the seashore, and 
250 feet above high tide. Mr. Williams here went 
down 455 feet. * * * The shale is very close, and 
contains neither water nor oil. The sand above was 
free from water. But the oil which it contains makes 
it act like a quicksand, and it rose 100 feet in the 
pipe. * * * In attempting to draw the casing, in 
Older to substitute drive pipe (or it, the casing parted 
in the upper sand and they could not get the lower 
part of it out, and were therefore obliged to abandon 
the hole. Then they swung the derrick around about 
ten feet, and started another one. 

Just northwest of Ortega Hill, in the Montecito 
Valley, two little creeks join, and just below their 
junction there is a small outcrop of asphaltum in the 
bank. * * * 

At the foot of the hills, cm the shore, a quarter of a 
mile east of the well, the rocks are exposed at low 
water, and it looks as if there were an anticlinal fold 
here. There is also some seepage of oil from these 
rocks, and Mr. Williams states that after a slight 
earthquake shock one night, in 1883, a jet of oil "as 
large as a man's arm " spurted out here for a little 
while, but did not last long. Considerable gas also 
escapes from these rocks. Their strike is about east 
and west. Mr. Williams' wells are just about on the 
line ot the anticlinal axis in these rocks, while the 
old well at the foot of the hill is on the north 
side of it. 

A little over one mile east of here a low bluff makes 
out a short distance into the sea, and there is also some 
seepage of oil. There are also said to be extensive 
seepages in "Oil Cafion " and one other caiiou in the 
Sauia Ynes range of mountains, some three miles in 
an airline northeast from Ortega Hill. 

In 18K5 the "Santa Barbara Oil Company" sunk 
two wells some 500 or 600 feet deep in " Oil Canon," 
at a point 1,400 or 1,500 feet above tide. There was 
much gas here. But at last, either by accident or 
malice, the tools were lost in one of the wells, and 
the work was abandoned. * * * 

Moore's Lauding is near the village of Goleta, about 
seven miles west of the city of Santa Barbara. East- 
erly from the landing, for a distance of a mile of so 
along the shore, the bluffs are forty to seventy-five 
feet high, of light gray sandstone, * * in which there 
are enormous quantities of asphaltum, which occur 
in all imaginable forms. There are occasional well- 
defined veins of it, from the tliickness of a sheet of 



paper up to two or three feet thick, which extend for 
short distances through the heavy-bedded sandstone, 
and then run out completely. Again it occurs in 
heavy masses twenty or thirty feet and more in diam- 
eter. In some places very heavy beds of it run 
nearly parallel with the stratification of the sandstone, 
while on the other hand many of the small -ceim of it 
cut straight through and across the bedding at all 
angles. Most of it is largely mixed with sand and 
pebbles; but there are large quantities of it which 
look very pure. No liquid oil is visible here, nor any 
soft pitch either, except what is washed up in small 
flakes by the surf on the beach from beneath the 
waters of the sea. 

Something like a mile to the west of the landing 
there is a place in a creek in the salt marsh where a 
good deal of gas bubbles up ; and two or three miles 
farther southwest is Salinas Point, which projects 

some distance into the sea, and about half a mile out- 
side of which is one of the large and famous petro- 
leum springs beneath the ocean. The depth of the 
water where this spring issues was asserted by one 
man to be only about fifty feet, but by another to be 
fifty fathoms. The latter is more probable. About 
eighteen miles off shore here in the channel, and 
some two miles north of the island of Santa Cruz 
there is also said to be another very large oil spring 
under the water. 

Mr. H. C. Hobson, of San Luis Obispo, states that 
there are very large quantities of asphaltum on the 
Sisquoc Rancho, in the northern part of Santa Bar- 
bara County, on one of the upper branches of the 
Santa Maria River. Sisquoc Creek joins the Santa 
Maria River at Fugler's Point, some fifty miles south 
of San Luis Obispo. 




San Luis Obispo was one of the original 
twenty-seven counties created by act of Leg- 
islature, approved February 18, 1850. The 
boundaries of this county, as described by 
. section 5 of this act, were as follows: "Be- 
ginning three English miles west of the 
coast at a point due west of the source of the 
Nacimiento River, and running due east to 
the source of said river; thence down the 
middle of said river to its confluence with 
Monterey River; thence up or down, as the 
case may be, the middle of Monterey River 
to the parallel of thirty- six degrees north lat- 
itude; thence due east following said parallel 
to the summit of the Coast Range; thence 
following the summit of said range in a 
southeasterly direction to the northeast corner 
of Santa Barbara County; thence following 
the northern boundary of Santa Barbara 
County to the ocean, and three English miles 
therein; and thence in a northwesterly di- 
rection, parallel with the coast, to the place 
of beginning. The seat of justice shall be at 
San Luis Obispo." 

The area of the county, as originally de- 
lined, contained about 3,250 square miles. 
This territory was but sparsely populated; 

the census for 1850 gave a total population 
of 336. The only occupied sections were 
the large ranches, where were found but the 
dwellings of the proprietors and their em- 
ployes. The only focus of population was 
at the Mission of San Luis Obispo; this was 
the central point of the district, before the 
creation of the county; here was the seat of 
justice for the surrounding region, and here 
were held elections. But even here there 
was no assemblage of houses beyond the 
mission buildings and a few neighboring 
adobe structures. 

This county has about ninety miles of 
coast, extending along the Pacific Ocean, 
northerly and northwesterly, from opposite 
the mouth of the Santa Maria River to where 
the Sixth Standard South, Monte Diablo Base, 
enters the ocean, or to a point about ten 
miles northwest of the Piedras Blancas. 

Soon after California became a possession 
of the United States, this coast was surveyed 
under the suprevisiou of Prof. A. L. Bache, 
of the United States Coast Survey, the first 
report on the survey being published in 1852. 
The surveys have been continued under the 
charge of Prof. George Davidson, whose vol- 
ume, published in 1869, entitled " Coast Pi- 
lot of California, Oregon, and Washington,' 


is the authority for many of the present state- 

The coast of this county has a natural di- 
vision into two distinct sections, one of which 
extends from Point Sal, in Santa Barbara 
County on the south, to Point San Luis on 
the north. This division is an indentation 
called San Luis Obispo Bay; north of Point 
Sal the mountains fall back, and the shore is 
formed of sand-hills. The general trend is 
north, until the coast commences sweeping 
westward to form the bay of San Luis Obispo, 
and the shores become high and abrupt. 
From Point Sal to Point San Luis the dis- 
tance is about seventeen miles in a north- 
westerly direction, the beach running 
somewhat east of north for about fifteen 
miles, when it curves to the northwest, west, 
south, and southeast, in a line of ten miles, 
forming San Luis Obispo Bay. 

A few miles north of Point Sal the Santa 
Maria River, emptying into the oceaUj forms 
the division line between this and Santa 
Barbara County. A few miles north of this 
is the Oso Fiaco, and midway of the beach 
the Arroyo Grande empties, having received 
near its mouth the Pizmo and Arroyo Verde 
creeks. The San Luis Creek enters the 
northern side of the bay. 

The tirst or lower division of this coast is 
called Pizmo Beach. Landing was formerly 
effected here in fair weather by means of 
small boats, and lines through the surf. As 
increasing agricultural interests demanded 
better facilities, the Pizmo wharf was here 
constructed in 1881, extending through the 
surf to deep water, opposite the Pizmo 

On San Luis Obispo Bay the Coast Sur- 
vey made the following report, published in 
1852, and republished in 1867: "This bay 
is an open roadstead, exposed to the south- 
ward, and even during heavy northwest 

weather a bad lateral swell rolls in, render- 
ing it an uncomfortable anchorage. The 
landing is frequently very bad, and often im- 
practicable, but the best place is the month 
of the creek, keeping the rocks at its month 
on the starboard hand. Fresh water may be 
obtained at a small stream opening on the 
beach half a mile west of the creek. In the 
coarse sandstone bluff between these two 
places are found gigantic fossil remains. 

" Off Point" San Luis, wiiich forms the 
southwest part of the bay, are some rocks, 
and in making the anchorage vessels should 
give this point a berth of half a mile. * * * 
The distance from this rock to the mouth of 
the creek is a mile and a half. * * * Four 
fathoms can be got about a fourth of a mile 
from the beach. In winter, anchor far enough 
out to clear Point San Luis if a southeaster 
should come up. During southerly weather 
landing is frequently effected at the watering 
place when impracticable at the creek." 

In the ante-wharf days, landing was ef- 
fected here as elsewhere by means of boats 
and lighters, and the disembarking was often, 
when the swell was heavy, very dangerous, 
as only those places were selected which were 
accessible to teams or pack trains on the shore. 
In 1860, a small wharf was built at a spot 
called Cave Landing, and here passengers 
and goods were landed. In 1869 a larger 
structure, called the People's Wharf, was 
built at the Avila Beach. Here vessels and 
steamers could make fast to discharge and 
receive cargo. This wharf was exposed to 
the violence of the ocean during southwest 
storms, preventing landing, and more than 
once breaking away the structure. 

It was observed that vessels remained more 
securely farther to the westward, where the 
waves broke less heavily; but here the beach 
was very difficult of access, high, rocky bluffs 
coming to the edge of the water. Here Mr. 


John Harford and others resolved to con- 
Btruct a landing, and accordingly in 1872 
work was begun, to quarry a way for a rail- 
road, and build a wharf to deep water. By 
1873 the enterprise was so far advanced that 
shipping was received and goods transported 
over the railway, then operated by animal 
traction, to a point accessible to teams, a dis- 
tance of some two miles. Such was the ori- 
gin of Port Harlbrd, which now has a wharf 
1,800 feet long, with warehouse and offices 
upon it, and a large hotel at the land end. 
Vessels of up to 3,000 tons' burthen touch at 
this wharf regularly, and it is constantly 
crowded with business. Passengers and 
freight are conveyed to San Luis Obispo 
and other towns by the Pacific Coast Railway, 
whose trains run out upon the wharf twice 
a day. 

The second division of this county's coast 
is an irregular shore line, extending north- 
ward from Point San Luis to where the 
Santa Lucia Range abuts upon the coast, at 
the northern extreme of the county. Con- 
cerning this section, the Coast Survey's report 
says: — 

" To the northwest of the bay of San Luis 
Obispo rises to a great height the Monte de 
Enchon, which is readily distinguished in 
coming from the northward or the southward. 
* * * From Point San Luis the 
coast trends in a straight line west-northweet 
for eight miles., and close along the shore of 
this stretch are several large rocks. Thence 
the coast trends abruptly to the north, to the 
high, conical rock called El Morro, distant 
eiwht miles — these two shores forming the 
seaward base of Mount Euchon. From El 
Morro the shore line gradually trends to the 
westward, thus forming a deep indentation 
or bay, designated as Estero Bay on the 
Coast Survey chart. Behind El Morro are 
several lagoons or streams, where a harbor 

for light- draft vessels could be made at com- 
paratively small expense, and the high land 
etreats for souie distance, leaving the shore 
low and sandy, while the north shore is rug- 
ged and guarded by rocks. The northwest 
point of the bay is called Punta de los Este- 
ros, on the old Spanish charts, distant thir- 
teen miles. A line joining these points 
shows that the bay is about five miles deep. 

" In this bay is the landing of Cayucos 
where Captain James Cass, in 1873, built 
a substantial wharf, witii tramway, ware- 
houses, etc. 

" From Point Los Esteros to the western 
point of anchorage of San Simeon, the coast 
runs nearly straight northwest by west for a 
distance of fifteen miles. The shores are not 
so bold as to the southward or northward, 
and the mountains fall back, leaving a tine, 
rolling country of no great elevation, and 
well suited to agriculture. We have seen 
wild oats growing here over six feet in 
height — not one or two stalks, but in acres. 

San Simeon Bat. — " This is a small, ex- 
posed roadstead, but affords tolerably good 
anchorage during northwest winds. * * * 
The indenta'ion of the shore line forming 
the bay trends between northwest and north 
for half a mile, and then sweeps away to the 
westward about a mile and a half, gradually 
taking a southeast direction. The land be- 
hind the bay is comparatively low and gently 
rolling, the high hills retiring well inland. 
The high hills behind this shore are 
marked by redwood trees along their crest 
line, and upon some of their flanks. * * * 
It was in this bay that the steamship Pioneer, 
in 18 — , put in leaking badly, was driven or 
dragged upon the beach, and after being 
abandoned by the underwriters was got off 
and carried to San Francisco. 

" In making this harbor from the north- 
ward vessels must sight the Piedras Blancas 


("White Rocks) foiir miles west, three-quar- 
ters north of the southwest point of San 
Simeon. They are two large, white, sharp- 
topped rocks, and nothing else like them is 
found on this part of the coast. When the 
outer rock bears north-northwest about two 
miles distant, it bears a very striking resem- 
blance to a lion oouokant. The geographical 
position of the outer and larger rock is, ap- 
proximately, latitude 35° 39' north; longi- 
tude, 121° 15' west. * * * From 
Piedras Blancas the coast trends northwest 
half west for a distance of fifty-seven miles, 
in an almost perfectly straight line." 


In the division of the State into Assem- 
bly and Senatorial districts, San Luis Obispo 
was allowed to elect one Assemblyman, 
and San Luis Obispo and Santa Bar- 
bara counties were united in a Sena- 
torial district to elect one Senator. Don 
Pablo de la Guerra of Santa Barbara was 
sent out as Senator, although it was claimed 
that more votes were cast for Captain Will- 
iam G. Dana, of San Luis Obispo. Henry 
A. Tefft was the first Assemblyuian from this 
county. Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo 
composed the Second Judicial district, in 
which court was ordered to be held in the 
more northern county-seat, beginning on the 
first Monday of March, of July, and of Octo- 
ber, in each year. At the election held April 
14, 1850, J. Mariano Bonilla was elected 
County Judge; Henry J. Dally, Sheriff; 
Charles James Freeman, County Clerk; Joa- 
quin Estrada, County Recorder; John Wil- 
son, County Treasurer and Collector; Joseph 
Warren and Jesus Luna, Justices of the 
Peace. The statute creating the courts au- 
thorized the Court of Sessions to order elec- 
tions to fill vacancies, and also to fill vacancies 

pro tern. Here as elsewhere the court con- 
sisted of the County Judge and two Justices 
of the Peace. The first session, held in July, 
1850, appointed Francis Z. Branch, Assessor; 
William Hutton, County Surveyor, and Will- 
iam Stenner, Harbor Master; also Stephen 
Purdie to fill the office of County Recorder, 
resigned by Joaquin Estrada; and in August, 
when Purdie in his turn resigned, his suc- 
ceisor, S. A. Pollard, was appointed. There 
were in this county several incumbents of 
the ofiice of Jues de Camjyo (Judge of the 
Fields or Country), a feature adapted from 
the old Spanish regime. This ofiicer had 
supervision over the ownership, branding, 
driving, and killing of cattle, and other ques- 
tions relating to this subject, and in those 
counties containing the great stock ranges 
his functions were very important. 

The first mention of any other township 
than that of San Luis Obispo is in the rec- 
ords of the Court of Sessions which appointed 
these judges of the fields and prescribed 
their duties. Here reference is made to the 
township of Nipomo, and to that of the Third 

At the election held in 1853 there were 
cast 137 votes in San Luis. 

After a meeting of the board of supervi- 
sors, August 3, 1859, which added three 
more precincts to those already existing, the 
county contained election precincts as fol- 
lows: — San Luis Obispo, Paso Robles, Ar- 
royo Grande, San Miguel, Costa, and Es- 

For a number of years all the proceedings 
of the Court of Sessions of San Louis Obispo 
were conducted in Spanish, and all the ac- 
counts, and such records as were kept, were 
entered in that language, which alone was 
spoken by the great majority of the people, 
and by those who composed the oflicial corps 
and the juries. 



In the early days an act of I he Legisla- 
ture provided for public advertising in this 
county, requiring that all public notices 
should be posted at the houses of three speci- 
fied citizens of the county. 

The total vote here at the first election 
under American rule was twenty-nine. The 
first after the constitution was adopted was 
forty-five. At the election of 1851 for gov 
ernor, San Luis Obispo gave eight votes for 
the Democratic, and fifty-eight for the Whig^ 
candidate, this being the lowest vote polled 
in any county in the State, whose whole vote 
was 46,009. This county continued Whig 
for some years. 

During the 'GOs the inequitable assess- 
ments on lands caused great dissatisfaction 
in San Luis Obispo as elsewhere, and, a test 
case having been carried through various 
courts, it was declared that the action of the 
Board of Equalization, in increasing the as- 
sessments, was unjustitial)le in law. The 
taxes were therefore paid according to the 
original asesssment. The assessed valuations 
this year were : real estate, $177,711.60; 
personal property, $311,121.25; total, $488,- 
832.85. The tax rate was $3.85; total tax, 
$18,598.90. There was in the county 
treasury a total of $4,881.50. 

During the decade of 1850-'60 San Luis 
Obispo County was indeed " a dark and bloody 
ground," where the peaceable and law-abiding 
citizen was far enough from finding security 
and protection. In 1853a gang ofeightorten 
men committed murders and robberies here- 
abouts, and then left for Los Angeles, where 
they were captured,' five paying the supreme 
penalty for their crimes, and the rest escaping. 
For the next five years, hardly a month 
passed without the disappearance of some 
traveler, or the finding of one or more bodies 
of men slain for plunder. 

The murder of George Fearless in 1856, 
presumably by Jesus Luna, unpunished; the 
murder of the two Frenchmen, Obiesa and 
Graciano, on the Nacimiento, in December, 
1857, by Jack Powers, Pio Linares, and the 
Huero Eafael, who all escaped justice; the 
cold-blooded murder at San Juan Capistrano 
of the French rancheros, Baratie and Borel, 
and the abduction oF Mnie. Baratie by eight 
men who had enjoyed their hospitality, are 
among the most flagrant cases of those days. 
Of these criminals six paid the forfeit of their 
lives, either by hanging at the hands of the 
law or by shooting by their pursuers. 

These crimes were of unspeakable detri- 
ment to San Luis Obispo County. A deputy 
United States surveyor was at the time en- 
gaged in surveying the public lands, and 
dividing them from those comprised in the 
Spanish grants, many choice locations thus 
being found available for settlement. Fur- 
tiier, many of the old ranchos were changing 
hands. The San Simeon rancho had been 
sold to a Spanish gentleman named Pujol, a 
part of the San Geronimo to oTie Senor Castro, 
the Blackburns of Santa Cruz had gathered 
about them on the Paso Robles quite a colony 
of Americans, and the Frenchmen Borel and 
Baratie were cultivating the San Juan Capis- 
trano rancho when they their untimely 
end. Naturally enough, the evil fame of these 
atrocities spread far and wide, and deterred 
from immigration many worthy people whose 
advent would have contributed greatly to the 
development of the section. 

Opposite the priests' house, in Monterey 
street, the padres had erected a whipping- 
post, whereon to punish refractory Indians. 
After the coming of the Americans, they still 
used it as a means of punishment, up to 1854 
or 1855. It was made of stone, with a base 
two and one-half feet square, and four feet 
high, from which arose a cylindrical column. 


some eighteen inclies in diameter, and six 
feet high, all well cemented and smooth. 
On the top wasastone sun-dial, which marked 
the time for the padres, who were very scan- 
tily supplied with clocks and watches. 

It is stated that one sheriff here whipped 
a Mexican, for a heinous crime, so severely 
that the creature died in consequence. 

As late as 1862 there was in San Luis no 
watchmaker, and all time-pieces to be repaired 
had to be taken to San Francisco. 

In 1864 the Steele Brothers made a cheese 
eighteen inches thick, and over twenty feet 
in circumference, with a weight of 3,580 
pounds. They presented it to the Sanitary 
Commission, who placed it on exhibition at 
the Mechanics' Institute Fair in San Fran- 
cisco, and then sold it for the benefit of sick 
and wounded soldiers, it bringing over .$3,000. 
In September, 1883, a tire at Corral de 
Piedra destroyed 260 tuns cf hay, and build- 
ings, harness, etc., to the amount of about 
$5,000, uninsured. 

In October, 1883, was organized a local 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 

A tire at San Luis during this month 
burned portions of several buildings, includ- 
ing part of the Cosmopolitan Hotel, causing 
losses to the amount of $8,000. 

In December, 1883, the town had a popu 
lation of over 3,500. 

The unusually rainy season of 1883-'84 
caused great damage here as elsewhere in 
Southern California; landslides, destru-ction 
of roads and bridges, and some loss of life en- 
sued from the excess of waters, with delayed 
mails and traffic incidental. 

In January, 1884, the community was 
much exercised over the murder of Francisco 
Correa, shot in a lonely spot. It was gen- 
erally supposed, and all the circumstantiaF 
evidence tended to prove, that he was killed 

by his step-son, Jose Correa; but, although 
the young man was taken into custody several 
times, it was found impossible to convict him. 
In March, 1884, the sheriff, with a posse, 
captured a gang of counterfeiters and their 
mint, on San Bernardo Creek, they having 
been on the books of the authorities for some 

In the closing days of March, 1884, a severe 
hail-storm caused such deposits of frozen 
drops that a regular siege of snow-balling 
followed — a thing unprecedented in the ex- 
perience of many native born here. 

In the spring of 1884 work was begun on 
the " Andrews " Hotel, the contract being for 
$62,497. The site was valued at $20,000, 
and other costs brought the value of the com- 
pleted building up to $100,000. The An- 
drews was in its day the largest California 
hotel outside of San Francisco, excepting the 
Del Monte. This large, fine, elegantly fur- 
nished structure stood near the court-house. 
It was the property of an incorporated com- 
pany, being named for Mr. J. P. Andrews, 
one of the syndicate, who was at that time 
president of the San Luis Obispo Bank. It 
contained 112 rooms. It was open to guests 
in June, 1885. 

In July, 1884, was organized the Gentle- 
men's Social Club of San Luis Obispo, with 
forty members. The oflicers were: C. II. 
Phillips, president; Wra. L. Beebe, vice-presi- 
dent; J. A. Goodrich, secretary; J. P. An- 
drews, treasurer; J. M. Fillmore and K. E. 
Jack, directors. 

In August, 1884, died on board the steamer 
Los Angeles, Judge W. J. Graves, of conges- 
tion of the brain, superinduced by over ex- 
ertion in reaching the steamer. Judge 
Graves, the recognized head of the bar of San 
Luis Obispo, was a pioneer, having arrived 
in California in 1849, and in 1852 in San 
Luis, where he had, with an interval of a few 


years, resided ever since. He was an ex- 
Assemblyman and ex-State]Senator. Appro- 
priate resolutions of respect and regret were 
adopted by the local bar. 

On September 27, 1884, JefE Drake, who 
kept a saloon about four miles from the town, 
shot and mortally wounded in his bar-i-oom 
one man, and wounded another so as to cause 
loss of one arm. 

The flouring-mill was converted into a 
roller mill in September, 1884. 

During 1884 about $8,000 worth (or from 
30,000 to 40,000) of fruit trees were planted 
in the Estrella region. 

Early in November, 1884, the Mission Dis- 
trict school-house was burned, a loss of 
$6,000, with $3,000 insurance. This was the 
second attempt by incendiaries within a few 
weeks to destroy the building, in which 
burned many valuable books, records, etc. 

Of the Southern California counties of 
San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, 
Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis 
Obispo, this county in 1884 stood first in the 
yield of wheat and oats, the average yield 
there being twenty-four and sixty bushels 
respectively to the acre; and in the yield of 
barley second, with an average product of 
thirty-six bx;shels to the acre. 

In 1884 San Luis County contained twelve 
road districts, six judicial townships, and five 
supervisional districts. 

In the spring of 1885 the fine new steamer 
Santa Rosa was put on the service of the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Company. 

On the night of Tuesday, January 13, 1885, 
a fire destroyed the costly and elegantly fur- 
nished residence of Mr. Ed. Smith, in the Los 
Tablas Valley, the net loss being about $15,000. 

In the early part of July, 1885, two men 
were killed and four wounded on the Estrella 
plains, in a shooting affray growing out of 
an old feud. 

On August 16, 1885, Dr. J. P. Mooklar 
shot and killed Robert C. Lo^vrie at San 
Miguel, in a quarrel while under the influ- 
ence of liquor. This was one of the causes 
celebres of the county. 

In November, 1885, occurred the phenom- 
enal storm wlierein eleven inches of rain 
fell, of which nine inches came within 
twelve hours. Through the washing away 
of roads and bridges, the railroad, breaking 
of telegraph lines, and stoppage of travel, 
trafiic and the mails, damages were done 
amounting, in the city alone, to some $20,- 
000. About 200 feet of Pizmo wharf 
was washed away by the breakers. 

In December, 1885, the population of San 
Luis County was estimated at 17,500; of the 
city, 3,000; and of tiie school district of San 
Luis, 3,500. The rate of taxation for State and 
county was $1.50. and for city purposes $0 50. 

During 1885 260 passengers came from 
Los Angeles to Port Harford by steamer. 

San Luis County in 1885 stood twenty- 
second in school rank among the fifty-two 
counties of the State, and received from the 
State School Fund $4,807.84. 

In 1885 there were collected and paid to 
the county treasurer of San Luis Obispo, 

In 1885 an ice factory was constructed at 
San Luis Obispo. 

In 1885 the Methodist congregation made 
various additions and improvements to their 
church edifice, at a cost of about $1,000. 

The Young Men's Home Association was 
organized in 1885. 

The postmaster's annual report for 1885 
showed a total of 2,959 registered pieces 
handled, the gross receipts of the oflice being 

In January, 1886, the new mission school- 
house was completed, to replace the structure 
burned in October, 1883. 



On March 19, 1886, died Charlotte L., 
wife of Myron Angel, the well-known jonr- 
nalist and author of San Lnis Obispo. Her 
funeral was most largely attended. 

On March 31, 1886, Peter Hemnie, a resi- 
dent of the county since 1851, and his 
eighteen-year-old son, shot and killed, in 
their garden at Arroyo Grande, Eugene 
Walker and his wife. The cause was a sense 
of injury over the deprivation of a small 
piece of land which Hemnie had fenced in as 
part of his pre-emption claims, but which 
iiad been patented by Walker. The citizens 
of the outraged community that night 
formed a party, took the murderers from 
custody and hanged them from the timbers 
of the railroad bridge. 

On Sunday, April 18, 1886, the Andrews 
Hotel caught lire from a defectiv(> joint in a 
terra cotta chimney, and in less than three 
hours it was but a mass of embers. The 
loss in the hotel alone was $75,000, and in 
its furniture $20,000; no insurance. The 
tlames were communicated to neighboring 
buildings, with the result of losses as follows: 
San Luis Obispo Bank building, value $85,- 
000, insured for $10,000; brick building ad- 
joining, belonging to the bank, $10,000, in- 
sured for $5,000; postoffice, belonging to the 
bank, $1,000; Payne & McLeod's livery 
stable, $1,200. Other losses to individuals, 
guests, employes, etc,, brought the aggre- 
gate up to at least $1,600,00, with $19,000 
insurance. The court-house, over 100 yards 
distant, caught fire, and was saved only by 
prompt and great exertions, as was also the 
case with the flouring-mill of Steele & 
Wheelan. The buoyant citizens, within 
twenty-four hours of the burning, had raised 
$31,050 toward the liuiiding of a $200,000 

On July 5, 1886, another large lire, caused 
by the celebration pyrotechnics, consumed 

$10,550 worth of property, which breakages, 
thefts, etc., increased to a grand total of 
$15,150; insurance, $3,700. 

In August, 1886, a Kindergarten was 
opened in San Luis Obispo. 

Tn 1886 there were collected and paid to 
San Luis Obispo's county treasurer $150,- 
125.28 of taxes. 

A board of trade, organized in February, 
1887, expired after about two years' dura- 

In February, 1887, an insane man named 
Dougherty, who had been at large some time, 
being well known in the county, set out run- 
ning amuck with the avowed intention to 
kill his wife and other persons, and he was 
shot down by armed citizens as a protective 

In 1887 " the boom " struck San Luis 
Obispo, and in the week from March 11 to 
17 the prices of real estate advanced fifty 
per cent., in many cases 100 per cent. Build- 
ing received an impetus. 

In the spring of 1888 the steamer Queen 
of the Pacific sunk at Port Harford, owing 
to the entrance of water through an open 
deadlight in a side compartment of the hold. 
She was raised within a few days, and re- 
stored to service. 

The year 1888 witnessed the construction 
of a handsome hall of records, built in an 
elegant, modern style nf architecture, at a 
cost of $14,000. 

It was also during this >'boom" period 
that arrangements were made with the r.oted 
engineer. Colonel George Waring, to make 
plans for a system of sewage. To this pur- 
pose he visited the town and made the plans, 
at a cost of $800 to the municipality. The 
city was surveyed, but no further movement 
was taken in the matter. The fulfillment of 
the plans would have required an expendi- 
ture of $150,000, for which it was purposed 



to vote bonds of the city. The question has 
not yet been submitted to tlie people. 

The report of the county school superin- 
tendent, rendered in June, 1888, showed the 
county to contain 4,149 census children; 
total number enrolled in public schools, 
3,249; average daily attendance, 1,797; aver- 
age number belonging, 1,958. There were 
eighty-six school districts, and 100 teachers, 
who received an average salary of $73 for the 
meu, and $62.50 for the women. There 
were received from all sources for school 
purposes $94,476.74. 

Owing to the lowered rates on imported 
ice, the iceworks was sold, and the plant re- 
moved, December, 1889. 

The scliool census report of June 80, 1889, 
showed a total of 4,402 census children in 
the county; a total enrollment of 3,510; an 
average of 2,284 belonging; and an average 
daily attendance of 2,097. There were now 
105 teachers, supplying eighty-nine districts. 
The average salary for men was $75, and for 
women $62.50. The total receipts for school 
purposes was $79,869.84. 

The assessment roll for 1889 was made up 
as follows: Keal estate, $9,068,636; im- 
provements on same, $725,564; city lots, 
$1,316,108; improvements on same, $677,- 
566; improvements on land of others, $84,- 
891; mining claims and improvements, 
$1,825; money and credits, $97,215; telegraph 
and phone lines, $9,922; personal property, 
$2,358,429; total, $14,340,256. 

This increase of about $600,000 over the 
roll of the preceding year was not due to the 
increase of values, but to the addition to the 
roll of about 60,000 of pre-empted lands, etc. 
The acreage of wheat this year was 96,385; 
oats, 4,246 ;°barley, 48,360; corn, 765; hay, 
25,780; acres table grapes, 432; wine grapes, 
426; number vines, 514,835; number fruit 
trees. 38,325. 

The tax levy for 1889-'90 for State and 
county purposes is $1.42 on the $100. 

In January, 1890, natural gas was discov- 
ered on the Tar Spring Kancho. As yet, it 
has not been developed. 

The total rainfall from October 8, 1889, to 
May 11, 1890, was 38.71 inches, a very un- 
usual quantity. 

Tlie auditor's report, at the close of the 
last fiscal year, June 30, 1890, showed the 
county's money to stand as follows: 

Gold $28,27400 

Silver 3,59484 

Currency 5,658.37 

County Warrants paid during the month 108.75 

Certificates of Deposit 25,000.00 

Total 163,035.96 


The land grants in San Luis- Obispo 
County, according to geographical position, 
ranging from north to south, are as follows: 

Piedra Blanca, eleven leagues; grantee and 
confirmee, Jose de Jesus Pico; surveyed and 
finally confirmed by natural boundaries; pat- 
ented October 9, 1876, for 48,805.59 acres. 
Subsequent owners, Juan Castro, heirs of 
Mariano Pacheco, Peter Gillis, George Hearst, 
and others. 

San Simeon. One league. Grantee, Jose 
Ramon Estrada; confirmee, Jose Miguel 
Gomez. Patented April 1, 1865. Contains 
4,468.81 acres. 

Santa Rosa. Three leagues. Grantee ai.'d 
confirmee, Julian Estrada. Survey includes 
13,183.62 acres. Patented March 18, 1865. 

San Geronimo. Two leagues. Grantee 
and confirmee, Rafael Villavicencio. Patented 
July 10, 1876, and then surveyed; 8,893.35 

Morro y Cayucos. Grantees, Martin Oli- 
vera and Vicente Feliz. Confirmee, James 
McKinley. Patented January 19, 1878, and 


surveyed; 8,845.49 acres. Subdivided and 
sold ill farms and dairy ranches. 

San Bernardo. One league. Grantee 
and confirmee, Vicente Canet. Surveyed 
and patented April 1, 1865; 4,379.42 acres. 

Sail Luisito. One league. Orantee and 
coutirmee, Guadalupe Cantua. Patented 
March 18, 1860, and surveyed; 4,389.13 

Canada del Chorro. One league. Grantees, 
James Scott and John Wilson. Confirmed to 
John Wilson. Surveyed and patented March 
29, 1861; 3,166.99 acres. 

Huerta de Romualdo or El Chorro. 
Grantee, Romualdo, an Indian; confirmee, 
John Wilson. Confirmed by District Court 
of the United States, February 9, 1857; one- 
tenth of one square league, or 117.13 acres. 
Patented April 13, 1871. 

Canada de los Osos, y Pecho, e Yslay. 
Gi'antees, Victor Linares, Francisco Badillo, 
James Scott, and John Wilson. Finally con- 
firmed, surveyed, and patented to John 
Wilson, September 23, 1869; 32,430.70 

Potrero de San Luis Obispo. Grantee 
and confirmee, Maria Goncepcion Boronda. 
Finally confirmed, surveyed and patented, 
July 1, 1870; 3,506.33 acres. 

SantaFe. Grantee, Victor Linares. Con- 
firmed and surveyed. Patented August 19, 
1866; 1,000 varas square; 156.76 acres. 

La Laguna. One league Mission land. 
Confirmed to Archbishop Joseph Sador Ale- 
many and patented; 4,157.02 acres. 

San Miyuelito. Three leagues. Grantee 
and confirmee, Miguel Avila. Patented Au- 
gust 8, 1867, and surveyed; 22,135.89 acres. 

Corral de Piedra. Seven leagues. Grantte 
and confirmee, Jose Maria Villavicencio. 
Surveyed and patented October 29, 1867; 
30,911.20 acres. 

Pismo. Two leagues. Grantee and con- 

firmee, Isaac J. Sparks. Surveyed and pat- 
ented, November 16,1866; 8,838.89 acres. 

Arroyo Grande or San Ramon. One 
league. Grantee Zeferino Carlon; Confirmee, 
Francis Z. Branch. Patented and surveyed 
April 10, 1867; 4,437.58 acres. 

Santa Manuela. Grantee and confirmee, 
Francis Z. Branch.- Patented August 22, 
1868, and surveyed; 16,954.83 acres. 

Bolsa de Chemisal. Grantee, Francisco 
Quijada; confirmee, Lewis T. Burton. Sur- 
veyed and patented August 27, 1867; 14,- 
335.22 acres. 

Nijpomo. — Eleven leagues. Grantee and 
confirmee, William G. Dana. Patented De- 
cember 14, 1868, and surveyed. 37,887.91 

Suey. Five leagues. Grantee and con- 
firmee, Ramona Carrillo de Wilson. Pat- 
ented August 10, 1865, and surveyed; 24,- 
497 acres of this ranclio are in San Luis 
Obispo County, and it also contains 23,737.77 
acres in Santa Barbara County. 

Uuasna. Five leagues. Grantee and con- 
firmee, Isaac T. Sparks. Patented January 
23, 1879, and surveyed; 22,152,99 acres. 

Santa Maria., or Tepusquet. Two leagues, 
partly in Santa Barbara County. Grantee, 
Tomas Oil vera. Confirmed to Antonio Maria 
de Cata and others. Patented February 23, 
1871, and surveyed. 8,900.75 acres, of which 
2,950 are in San Luis Obispo. 

The land grants lying on the east side of 
the Santa Lucia Range are as follows: 

Santa Margarita. Four leagues. Grantee 
and confirmee, Joaquin Estrada. Surveyed 
and patented April 9, 1861; 17,734 acres. 

Atascadero. One league. Grantee, Trifon 
Garcia; confirmee, Henry Haight. Surveyed 
and patented June 18, 1860; 4,348.23 acres. 
Lies west of Salinas River, between the 
ranchos Santa Margarita and Asuncion. 

Asuncion. Ten leagues. Grantee and con- 


finnee, Pedro Estrada. Patented March 22, 
1866, and surveyed; 39,224.81 acres. 

Paso de Rohles. Six leagues. Grantee, 
Pedro Narvaez; confirmee, Petronilo Rios. 
Patented July 12, 1866, and surveyed; 25,- 
993.18 acres. North of the Asuncion, and 
west of the Salinas River. This rancho has 
the Paso de Robles Hot Springs in its north- 
ern part. 

Santa Ysahel. Four leagues, 17,774.12 
acres. Grantee and confirmee, Francisco Arce. 
Surveyed and patented May 21, 1866. Lies 
east of Paso de Robles and the Salinas River. 

Cholamie. Six leagues, lying partly in 
San Luis Obispo, and partly in Monterey 
County. Grantee, Mauricio Gonzalez; con- 
firmee, Ellen E. White. Patented April 1, 
1865, and surveyed; 26,627.10 acres. 

IIuer-Huero. Three leagues; 15,684.95 
acres, to which Flint, Bixby & Co. added 
31,160 acres of Government land. Grantee, 
Jose Mariano Bonilla; confirmee, Francis Z. 
Branch. Patented August 9, 1866, and sur- 
veyed. Lies between the Salinas and Estrella 

Mission San Luis Obispo; 52.72 acres, 
comprising the present church buildings, and 
land covered by the city of San Luis Obispo. 
Property of the Roman Catholic Church, 
confirmed to Archbishop Joseph Sadoi Ale- 
many. Patented September 2, 1859. 

Lot in Mission San Luis Obisj>o, contain- 
ing one acre, confirmed to John Wilson. 

1 Cuyaina. Grantee, Jose Maria Rojo; 
confirmee, Maria Antonio de la Guerra and 
Pesario Lataillade. Patented July 20, 1877, 
for 22,193.21 acres. 

^ Cuyama. Grantee, Jose Maria Rojo; 
confirmed to the heirs of Cesario Lataillade. 
Patented January 10, 1879. 

Guadalupe. Grantees and confirmees, 
Diego OH vera and Teodoro Orrel lanes. Pat- 
ented June 30, 1866; 30,408.03 acres. 

Pimta de la Laguna, containing 26,- 
648.42 acres. Grantees and confirmees, Luis 
Arrellanes and E. M. Ortega. Patented Oc- 
tober 2, 1873. 

The Cuyamas, two-thirds of the Guadalupe, 
and the Punta de la Laguna^ excepting about 
700 acres of the last mentioned, lie within 
Santa Barbara County, but the United States 
maps place them in San Luis Obispo County, 
with which they are often reckoned. 

Besides the large granted tracts, individual 
purchases have been made of Government 
land, whose extent in the aggregate exceeds 
the grants made under the Mexican system. 
Among these are the following: 

Las Chimeneas., containing 20,000 acres, 
situated near the head of the San Juan River, 
in the soutliern part of the county. 

La Panza, extending twenty-two miles 
along the San Juan River valley; 31,000 acres. 

L]l Saucito, in the western part of the 
Carriso Plains; contains 2,560 acres. 

La Cometa, lying northwest of La Panza, 
containing 36,139 acres. 

San Juan, comprising 39,780 acres, on 
the San Juan River, north of La Panza. 

California, comprising 18,155 acres, lying 
west of the San Juan. 

Estrella, containing 25,140 acres, on the 
Estrella River, near the junction with the San 

Sacramento, of 15,900 acres. 

Whim Rancho, in the southwestern part 
of Carriso Plain; 30,000 acres. 

McDonald Tract, comprising 57,386 acres, 
lying in Carriso Plain and Carriso Valley. 

Schults and Von Bergen Tract, 21,000 
acres, in the Carriso Plain. 

Marrow Tract, 33,000 acres, in the upper 
portion of the San Juan Valley. 

St. Remij, consisting of the Arroyo Grande 
Rancho of 4,437.29 acres, and 1,500 acres 
lying at the head of the Arroyo Grande. 


Among the great land-owners before the 
beginning of American rule, were William 
G. Dana, John "Wilson, John M. Price, Fran- 
cis Z. Branch and Isaac J. Sparks, of the 
foreign element, besides many native Cali- 


San Lnis Obispo, classed as one of the 
southern coast counties of California, has 
as its western boundary the Pacific Ocean, 
and for its eastern the Monte Diablo Range, 
which separates the county from the Tulare 
Valley, this boundary fallowing the summit 
of the mountains in a trend northwest and 
southeast; the northern boundary is a direct 
east and west line; the southern follows the 
Santa Maria or Cuyama River. Thus the 
general shape of the county is a parallelo- 
gram, averaging sixty-five miles long by fifty 
wide, with a total area of 3,250 square miles. 
The county lies between the thirty-fifth and 
thirty-sixth degrees of latitude, and the 
longitiide runs from about 119° 20' to 121° 
20' west from Greenwich. The territory is 
rolling, and traversed by several ranges. The 
chief physical feature is the Santa Lucia 
Range, running almost parallel with the 
coast, and dividing the county into unequal 
parts, of distinctive characteristics. West of 
the Santa Lucia lie* about one-fourth of the 
county, the mountains toward the south 
trending eastward, continuing to a junction 
witii the Monte Diablo Range, and dividing 
the Cuyama from the headwaters of the Sali 
nas and San Juan rivers. From Estero Bay 
the Mount Buchon Range extends about 
twenty miles southeastward, 1,200 to 2,000 
feet high; it is cut through by the San Luis 
and Arroyo Verde creeks. Between these 
ranges is a succession ot detached buttes, as 
the Mission and Bishop's Peaks, having an 
elevation of 1,500 and 1,800 feet. This 

butte range on the southeast gradually runs 
into low, scattered hills, while on the north- 
east it terminates in Morro Rock, in Estero 
Bay. Westward to the ocean from the Santa 
Lucia flow very many small streams, such as 
the Sau Corcopero, Santa Rosa, Toro, Old 
Creek, San Luis, Arroyo Verde, Arroyo 
Grande, and others, beside the numerous 
branches. These streams are marked by 
many canons, with valleys of considerable 
exteut, which, as well as much of the hill 
lands, are very fertile. The Salinas River 
flows from south tu north through nearly tiie 
whole extent of that portion of the county 
east of the Santa Lucia. Its tributaries are: 
from the west, the ISanta Margarita, Atasca- 
dero, Paso Robles and San Marcos creeks; 
from the east, the Estrella and its branches, 
the Huer-Huero, San Juan, and others; the 
San Juan in its turn receiving the Carriso, 
La Panza, Montezuma, French, and other 
small streams. These smaller streams gen- 
erally are so nearly dry as to fail to reach 
the main water courses. This region gener- 
ally has very fertile soil; it is mostly hilly, 
and in the southern portion mountainous, 
and is well wooded in oaks and pines. The 
extremes of heat and cold here are greater 
than in the district west of the Santa Lucia. 
East of the San Juan Creek is a high, tree- 
less basin, called the Carriso Plain. It is 
forty-five miles long by eight to ten wide. 
It ranges from 1,000 feet elevation in the 
center to 1,300 at the extremes. The drain- 
age goes to the central depression, which 
during the dry season is a great bed of salt, 
one to two miles wide and five miles long. 
This becomes a lake in "wet" years. The 
stock-raisers for miles around liave long re- 
sorted hither to salt their flocks and herds. 
Very densely salt water is obtained by sink- 
ing some four feet. For a few miles north 
of this lake the soil contains some little 



alkali, but most of tlie plain is of fine agri- 
cultural possibilities. 

This land was mostly bought up some 
years aiio by capitalists of San Francisco, 
with a view to speculation, J. M. and R. H. 
McDonald, 1. Glasier, Schultz & Von Bergen 
owning about 50,000 acres, 47,000 acres, and 
21,800 acres respectively, while large tracts 
were held also by Haggin & Carr and others. 
The following description of the geographi- 
cal divisions of the county is from a report of 
tlie State mineralogist: " The Santa Lucia 
Mountains, which are the westerly-lying 
ridge of the coast range, strike northwest and 
southeast across the entire length of this 
county, the other branch of the coast range, 
though more broken, occupying its easterly 
portion. Between these mountain ranges, 
and flanking them on the east and west, occur 
many valleys and much low hill land, con- 
stituting the principal agricultural districts 
of the county. "Wild oats and the native 
grasses grow abundantly all over this county, 
making it one of the best grazing regions in 
the State. As a consequence, large numbers 
of cattle and sheep, the most of them im- 
proved breeds, are pastured here. 

" The cereal crops and fruits of most kinds 
are also largely produced, both the soil and 
the climate being highly favorable to their 

"The county is watered by the upper tribu- 
taries of the Salinas River, flowing north; 
San Simi Creek, running southwest and 
emptying into San Luis Bay; and by the 
Cuyama River, flowing across its southern 
border, and forming in part the dividing line 
between this and Santa Barbara County. 
The timber here consists chiefly of oak, 
madrono and manzanita, with a little scrubby 
pine on the mountains. 

'•The trend of this range is north 46° west 
Tlie general altitude is 2,500 to 3,000 feet, 

but in the south there are peaks rising as 
high as 7,000 feet. The strip of land be- 
tween the western base of the foot-hills and 
the sea is five to flfteen miles wide. 

"The aspect of this range, as seen from the 
west, is of precipitous and forbidding moun- 
tains; in reality, the mountain-wall is broken 
by many inlets, which follow little streams, 
such as the Arroyo Grande, Lopez Creek, 
Corral de Piedra, San Luis Chorro, Morro, 
Van Ness, Santa' Rosa, Old Creek and others, 
opening into delightfully fertile valleys. 
Those valleys on the northeastern side of the 
range are much higher than that of San Luis 
Obispo, which is 190 feet above sea level, 
while Santa Margarita Valley is nearly 800 
feet higher, and the Cuesta is 1,350 feet 
above the sea. 

" These mountains viewed from the east 
appear more accessible, being made up of 
many detached buttes and lateral spurs, 
interspersed with deep, romantic canons, 
broad valleys and verdant pastures. This 
region is well covered w'ith noble white oaks 
of wide spread, together with a smaller 
variety scattered among nut pines on the 
ridges; laurel, balm of Gilead, Cottonwood 
and sycamore in the canons, and live oak and 
chemisal on the mountain sides. 

" On this slope the Salinas River and its 
branches take their rise, the principal tribu- 
taries being the Santa Margarita, Atascadero, 
Paso Robles and Nacimiento." 

The county, owing to the direction and 
character of the Santa Lucia Range of moun- 
tains, is naturally divided into two sections, 
the western and eastern — the coast and inte- 
rior. Conforming to this division are the 
two distinctions of soil, elsewhere noted, 
which make the general character of the east- 
ern and western portions of the county diver. 


gent. Lying open to the sea, that portion 
between the Santa Lucia Range and the 
Pacific enjoys the refreshing coolness of the 
ocean, has a greater rainfall, and enjoys many 
advantages peculiar to itself as compared with 
the eastern portion of the county, while on 
the other hand the latter enjoys a climate 
and warmth that must give it some pre- 
enninent advantages over its western counter- 
part. Another more obvious and practical 
distinction is that of the rancho and public 
lands. San Luis Obispo County has a total 
area of 2,290,000 acres. Of this 561,073 
acres are included in the Spanish grants, 
leaving 1,728,926 acres of public lands. The 
grants lie along the coast or on the Salinas 
River, with the greater number on the coast, 
thus leaving the interior portion of the county 
mostly public lands. The grants include 
much of the rich bottom along the streams, 
but by no means all of the good land of the 
county. The thousands of acres of Govern- 
ment land are among the most fertile of the 
State. There are in all thirty-five grants in 
the county, thirteen of the largest of which, 
aggregating 200,000 acres, have been sub- 
divided and sold off in smaller lots or are 
now on tiie market. So rapid have been the 
sales of these lands, that of the three or four 
great ranches placed upon the market in the 
year 1887, but a comparatively small portion 
remained unsold. As the market calls for it-, 
as the increase of taxes and of value render 
it advantageous, the owners of others of the 
very best and largest grants will be forced to 
place them on the market, thus affording 
opportunity for others to secure homes under 
San Luis Obispo's genial skies. The Govern- 
ment land, as already stated, embraces by far 
the greater portion of tiie county. Of late, 
settlers have been flocking in, and the land is 
being rapidly settled up; still there are thou- 
sands of acres of the finest kind of rolling 

land, adapted to mixed farming, stock raising, 
and more especially fruit-raising; the latter 
kind of land being the most valuable when 
lying along the hills or at the foot of the 
mountains. All of the public land that is 
open to settlement can be acquired under the 
pre-emption laws of the United States at 
$1.25 per acre, and San Luis Obispo County 
can heartily say to the intending settler, 
" Come, settle in our midst and enjoy the 
luxuries, pleasures and beauties of our Cali- 
fornia home." To the man of means who 
does not care to undergo the hardships inci- 
dent to taking up land fresh from the hand 
of nature, and by his own stnrd}' labor sur- 
round himself with all the comforts and 
luxuries of a home, there are thousands of 
opportunities to purchase improved farms at 
almost any price to suit his fancy or funds. 
If he desires to follow simple farming, as 
already noted, there are numbeiless oppor- 
tunities to secure the fertile ranch lands that 
are on the market, at from $10 to $50 per 
acre. For grazing purposes the hills offer 
ample room for all, at a cost but little in 
advance of Government prices. ALjng the 
coast some of the finest dairying land in the 
world may yet be had, at from $10 to $14 
per acre. Elsewhere, along the bills or in 
the valleys, can be obtained for fruit-raising, 
the finest farms in the State, at prices which 
of course are high, but considering the return 
on the investment made far exceed the profits 
of grain or stock r.using. Along the creeks 
or on the alluvial bottoms, is to be found a 
great deal of improved gardening lands, vary- 
ing in price from $100 to $500, and the 
famous bean lands of the county, which, 
cleared and ready for cultivation, sell sq 
readily for $300 per acre, but the returns 
from which make it one of the best invest- 
ments in the county. The lands now offered 
for sale are in every particular as good as 


many of the famous orchards and vineyards of 
Los Angeles, San Jose and other famous por- 
tions of tlie State, where land sells at from 
$300 to $1,000 per acre. But this county, 
heretofore shut off from outside communica- 
tion, except by a tedious stage journey of 
200 miles or an equally disagreeable sea trip, 
now offers opportunities at one-tenth of the 
cost of these sections. Here, as there, may 
be found every variation of rjuality and 


The climate varies sligiitly with tlie local- 
ity, as the sea breeze blows direct from the 
ocean or deflected by the hills. The meteoro- 
logical record that has given us the rainfall, 
shows the mean temperature of the four 
warmest months of summer to be 64 degrees, 
and of the four coldest months of winter 51 
degrees, taken at 7 a. m., 12 m. and 9 p. m., 
constituting a climate as equable and salubri- 
ous as man can desire. The thermometer 
seldom measures over 90 degrees, and frosts 
are rarely seen, even in the low, damp valleys. 
The prevailing wind is from the west, often 
causing foggy or hazy mornings. 

There are no extremes of wind, or heat, or 
cold. The desiccating nortliers experienced 
at intervals in almost every section of Cali- 
fornia are never known in this coast region. 
The heaviest winds are those that bring the 
winter rain; and the highest wind known, 
forty-foTir miles an hour, is regarded as a 


of extreme and rare occurrence. The 

heaviest summer wind rarely reaches twenty 
miles an hour, usually ranging from one to 
eight miles. These are from records kept 
through a series of years. 

The physical features of tliis county re- 
semble the State in miniature, with its sea- 
coast, the bordering mountains and valleys. 
the Sierra (Santa Liicia) and the interior 
large valleys and river and mountain ranges, 

giving a variety of climatic conditions. The 
coast climate is modified by the neighbor- 
hood of the sea and the winds therefrom. 
The usual temperature of the water of the 
ocean is about 53 degrees, varying but one or 
two degrees summer or winter. There is 
little change during the year in the tempera- 
ture of the coast sections, the summers of 
wliich are cooler, and the winters warmer, 
than in the region east of the Santa Lucia 
range. While the summer winds are some- 
times uiiplea=iantly strong, as they come from 
across the wide expanse of the Paciiic waters, 
they blow pure, fresh and healtliful, instead 
of bearing malaria from decaying vegetation, 
or germs of disease taken up from agglomera- 
tions of human abodes. Snow sometimes falls 
t)n the mountains, and on the high Carriso plain. 
The meteorological record for 1874 and 
1875 shows that there was a difference of 
only 2.08 degrees in the mean annual tem- 
perature during those two years. Taking the 
record of the four coldest months, it shows a 
difference of only 2.31 degrees in mean tem- 
perature between the two winters; and a 
similar comparison gives but .84 of a degree 
in difference between the mean heat of tlie 
two summers. The same records note the 
greatest difference for the two years to be but 
13.78 degrees. As between the extreme hot- 
test and coldest months of this period, the 
difference was 19.37 degrees. 


Temperature of six coldest months at San 
Luis Obispo, as compared with the most 
noted places in the world, regarding climate: 

San Luis Obispo California.. 

Santa Barbara California. 

Citv of Mexico Mexico . . . 

City of Lisbon Portugal. 

City of San Remo Italy. 

City of Mentone France. 

City of Nice Italy.... 

56 55 
48 45 



The United States Signal Service estab- 
lislied a station at San Luis Obispo, in July, 
1885, and a fire occasioned its removal after 
March, 1886. Tiie following table gives the 
observations for the eight months of its ex- 
istence. The remaining four months are 
always uniformly fair and pleasant: 

w » ° 

® o S 

i ::0 

M g 3 - 



.CO 05 h^ O O O - 

- 1-1 00 ^s o o o CO 


The reports of tlie temperattire, wind, and 
rain, published in the Daily Eepuhlic, whicii 
kept the only complete record in tiie county, 
showed the rainfall for the wet season of 
1886-'87 to be as follows: October, .25; 
November, 1.25; December, 1.06; January, 
1.10; February, 9.62; March, .75; April, 

1.69; May, .40; thus making for the season 
a total of 16.12 inches, and the average 
for the eighteen years past 20.79^ inches, as 
against 21.07 at which, the preceding year, 
stood the average for seventeen years pre- 
vious. As compared with other agricultural 
counties of the State, this was a very favor- 
able showing. The reports for the same 
year showed the following record of rainfall 
from the respective localities: San Francisco, 
18.97 inches; Templeton, 9.51; Paso Robles, 
8.02; San Miguel, 7.05; San Ardo, 6.85; 
Kings City, 6.45; Soledad, 5.88; Salinas, 
8.27; Monterey, 7.95; Hollister, 6.09; Gil- 
roj, 9.06; San Luis Obispo, 13.96; Creston, 
12.74; San Jos^, 9.98; Menlo Park, 8.26; 
Fresno, 4.95; San Diego, 5.60; Stockton, 
5.61; Sacramento, 11.40; Woodland, 8.52; 
Pajaro, 11.12. 


Rainfall at San Luis Obispo as compared 
with other points in California and the United 







Minnesota. . 




Colorado . . . 
Arizona .... 



Wyoming . . 

*San Luis Obispo 

31 07 



7 66 

Monterey ... 

Salinas . . . 

San Jos5 

Chualar .. . 



Dodge City 

North Platte. ... 

19 97 • 

St. Vincent 


Salt Lake City 

16 91 

Helena . . 


13 30 

Boise City 

El Paso 

10 85 



7 .53 

♦Average as taken at San Luis Obispo City I 
last seventeen years. 





; : : : ^: : : 


■ ' ■ '.75 

■ ■ 1.6.5 

■ 2.17 





' " ' .13 






3 56 

.7 b 









■g: iiiis^s^iggl^lls 



ii: ig 





*^i 8 




: . : M 

• Sis 

; ^2; 





: : K>: 

: : o: 










This is a pleasant term for that ill defined 
region which is supposed to border every 
valley, and to extend at a certain elevation 
.along the coast of Southern California. Al- 
most every section of California has its 
"thermal belt," each differing from the 
other according to locality and the latitude, 
for it is certain there are climatic changes 
with the latitude, though slight. Thus the 
foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, and the 
slightly elevated regions of Vacaville, and 
Madison, and winters in the Coast Range are 

in the thermal belt surrounding the Sacra- 
mento Valley, and these are the favorite fruit 
sections of the north. But in those localities 
frosts are quite heavy in winter, which is fa- 
vorable for deciduous fruits, but not quite 
sufficiently severe to be damaging to citrus 
fruits. In such comparison we might say 
that all the coast region of San Luis Obispo 
was in the thermal belt, but it is not so 
estimated. The thermal belt is that region 
where frosts are unknown, where the winds 
do not sweep too severely, where the air is 
unburdened by fogs, and the genial sun of 
summer fructifies and enriches the fruits of 
the earth. Along the coast, throughout this 
County, frost is rarely seen, in many places 
never; and still near ihe ocean grapes do not 
ripen, nor do citrus fruits grow successfully. 
There is here a distinctive thermal belt, such 
as we have mentioned, lying between the 
altitudes of 100] and 600 feet of elevation, 
where not a damp and level valley. Al 
the little ridges of this region lift themselves 
above the frosts of night, aud everywhere all 
delicate plaiits grow without danger. The 
distinctive belt is that lying east and north 
of San Luis Obispo city, skirting the base 
of the hills and extending along the mountain 
side. There, frosts are unknown, and toma- 
toes and other delicate plants furnish their 
flowers and fruits, regardless of the months 
or the seasons. There are the oldest orange 
trees of the country, growing from the seed 
planted as an experiment, and coming into 
bearing when eight years old, producing an 
excellent fruit. With this proof of success, 
others made the trial, and the most delicious 
oranges known now grow in the belt. Wher- 
ever it may be followed, north or south, to 
the elevation of 600 feet, this band of genial 
temperatTire will be foiind, the most certain 
in its products of any portion of our favored 



The coast slope of the range is usually re- 
garded as comprising one-third of the county, 
but this is reckoning from the summit to the 

Between the foot of the range and the 
ocean are a succession of valleys of various 
areas, aggregating about 300,000 acres. This 
is the oldest settled portion of the county, 
was nearly all included in the old Mexican 
grants — now mostly subdivided and sold in 
farms — and until recently was regarded as 
comprising all that was valuable. 

Of these fair valleys are the San Simeon, 
Santa Kosa, the coast borders of Cayucos and 
Morro, the larger mountain valleys of Las 
Tablas, Nacimiento, Old Creek and of other 
streams, the Chorro and Los Osos, Laguna 
and San Luis, Corral de Piedra, Verdi, Ar- 
royo Grande, Ranchita, Los Berros, Nipomo 
and Oso Flaco, winding in and winding out 
among the hills, of greater or less dimensions 
and all lovely and fertile. The scenery is 
varied and picturesque; a few level plains ex- 
tending one or two miles in width, exist, bnt 
the country is undulating and broken, with 
precipitous peaks and rocky projections. This 
unique formation adds attractiveness and 
character to the scenery, and appears to gov- 
ern the climate, so influencing the winds as 
to modify the effects of the cool sea breeze 
of summer, and to cause a greater precipita- 
tion in winter, the rainfall being greater than 
in other southern coast counties, or in the 
agricultural counties of the interior, the aver- 
age for the past nineteen years being 20.79^ 


The most northern of the coast towns is 
San Simeon. The bay of San Simeon has, in 
past years, attracted much attention as a prob- 
able commercial port for the productions of 
the neighboring country. Mr. George Hearst, 

proprietor of the Piedras Blancas JRancho, 
which surrounds the landing, in 1878 in- 
vested a considerable sum in the improve- 
ment of the port. This year also a new 
wharf was built, to replace the old, which for 
some time previous had been inadequate to the 
needs of commerce. The new wharf began 
on the northeastern side of the bay, termi- 
nating at a distance of 1,000 feet, where at 
low tide there is twenty feet of water — a 
depth sufficient for the largest merchant 
steamer. The wharf is excellently built, with 
commodious warehouses for the reception of 
goods. It cost $20,000. The building of 
this structure gave a new impetus to busi- 
ness at San Simeon. This name is applied 
also to the township, which embraces the 
northwestern part of the county, extending 
to the Monterey County line. The township 
embraces the whole of the Rancho Piedras 
Blancas, consisting of eleven Spanish leagues 
(48,000 acres), of which a very large propor- 
tion is cultivable land. While the climate 
is somewhat raw and damp, with fogs and 
winds, it is excellent for dairying purposes, 
the grass being always green, wherefore the 
milk production is of the the highest. Thus 
far, the chief products of this rancho are 
butter and cheese, although the lands are ex- 
cellently adapted for the cultivation of corn, 
oats, barley, peas, and beans. 

To tlie north of this rancho lies the old 
property of Juan Castro, a large tract of 
grazing lands, besides 900 acres of arable 
land of very high order. On this land stands 
the Piedras Blancas Light-house, which is 
100 feet high, built of brick and iron, and 
cost $100,000. It contains a Fresnel light 
of great power, and is one of the marked 
features of the coast. 

On this coast there are a number of whal- 
ing stations — at Monterey, San Simeon, 
Point San Luis, and Point Concepcion. The 


whaling business was begun here as early as 
1864, and it has proved quite profitable. The 
least catch during the season was three whale, 
the greatest twenty-three. The whale bunts, 
conducted in open boats off these rugged 
coasts, is e.xciting but dangerous sport. 


The town of Cambria had its beginning 
about 1866. Its site was claimed as a [)or- 
tion of one of the large grazing ranchos, part 
of whose territory later became known as Gov- 
ernment land. The greater part of the tract 
whereon Cambria is situated is composed of 
undulating ground, rising into low, smooth 
hills, or sinking into valleys fertile though 
small, through which flow numerous stream- 
lets. In 1867 the land now occupied by the town 
was covered by a virgin forest of pines; and 
the lumber from these woods has created an 
industry which has done much to support 
and build up the section. As long ago as 
1869, two saw-mills worked here steadily, 
and the houses of the vicinity have been 
built from lumber of home production. 
Early in the '60's, a copper mining excite- 
ment broke out in this section, leading to 
the establishment, a year or two later, of the 
town of Cambria. In 1867, there was no 
means of communication between the village 
and the county- seat, save by private convey- 
ance. In 1868 a weekly mail service, by 
means of a spring-wagon, was instituted. 
Travel was slight, and passengers few. Within 
a year, a tri-weekly service, with a covered 
stage, replaced this, and now the patronage 
greatly increased, as the comforts of this line 
exceeded those of travel by mustang. 

Although born of the mining interests, 
Cambria survived these, basing its growth 
and prosperity upon agricultural industries. 
School-houses were built, mills were erected, 
stores were opened, and evidences of sub- 

stantial prosperity multiplied. The first 
building in Cambria proper was a store built 
by George E. Long and S. A. Pollard. 

The name of the new town was a subject of 
dispute for some time. Some of the settlers 
favored the name of Rosaville ; others inclined 
to the Spanish term of Santa Rosa; and others 
insisted upon San Simeon, notwithstanding 
there was already a port of that name in the 
county. At last a compromise was effected 
upon the present name. A steady growth 
now ensued in this section, and the port of 
San Simeon became frequented by vessels 
which conveyed to market the products of the 
region. In 1871 was built near Cambria a 
cheese factory, w'hicli consumed daily 9,000 
pounds of milk, manufacturing therefrom 
1,200 pounds of cheese. One feature of the 
early history of Cambria was the co-operative 
movements of the agriculturists for mutual 
benefits, social and commercial. One of the 
phases of this development was the establish- 
ment in 1872, of the " Farmero' and Stock- 
Raisers' Co-operative Store," for the purpose 
of lessening the retail price of articles for- 
merly purchased through middlemen. This 
enterprise had a stock of $40,000, divided into 
2,000 shares at $20 each. In April, 1881, 
the weekly output of butter in the vicinity of 
Cambria was 21,900 pounds. 

The present population of Cambria is about 
300. The town contains three general mer- 
chandise stores, all carrying heavy stocks, 
•' everything from a needle to an anchor," 
two drug stores, one variety store, one stove 
and tin shop, one blacksmith shop, five sa- 
loons, one shoe shop, two carpenter and 
undertaker shops, one butcher shop, one saw- 
mill, one hotel, and one boarding-house. 
There is a public school with two departments, a 
Presbyterian and a Catholic church, telegraph, 
express and postoflice with daily mail. The 
only brick building in the town is the Odd Fel- 


lows' Hall, a handsome two-story structure. 
The town is picturesquely situated amidst 
pine-covered hills, and surrounded by a wide 
expanse of very fertile country. The principal 
industry continues to be dairying, and the 
section is exceedingly prosperous. 

Santa Rosa Valley is six miles long, by half 
a mile to one mile wide, and through it iiows 
the Santa Rosa Creek, a living stream of pure 
water. This valley is quite thickly settled, 
and few farming localities show greater signs 
of prosperity. The rich alluvial soil appears 
adapted to the growth of almost every kind 
of grain, fruit or vegetable. At the head of 
this valley stands Mammoth Rock, a rocky 
promonotory 200 feet high, with perpendicu- 
lar sides, separated from the hills on the north 
by a narrow pass through which the Santa 
Rosa Creek runs into the valley below. It 
seems as if some tremendous force has riven 
the rocky wall, to give passage to the little 
stream skirting the mountain's rocky base. 

Passing down the coast from San Simeon 
Bay, aboiit six miles south, was formerly 
found Leffingwell's AVharf, a good landing 
place for small vessels, which supplied the 
neigiiborliood with lumber and sent out a 
portion of the native products. This wharf 
was washed away in 1881-'82. 

The next landing place is Cayucos, tiiirteen 
miles south of Cambria, an entrepot of con- 
siderable commercial importance, with certain 
advantages as a harbor. In the early days, 
when boats made of skins were used in plying 
between the shore and visiting vessels, those 
light canoes were called cayucos, whence the 
name of the rancho and the town. Captain 
James Cass, who came to this point in 1867, 
and engaged in the business of lightering, 
saw the necessity of a wharf, and accord- 
ingly built one; this proving inadequate, 
it was extended, making a structure 940 
feet long, extending to twenty-one feet of 

water, with a warehouse, store, steamship and 
telegraph companies' offices. Cayiicos is 
now quite a thriving trade center, being sur- 
rounded b}' a rich dairy and farming country. 
The population is 600 to 700, of whom many 
are Swiss. The town was laid out in 1875, 
with streets 100, and eighty feet wide. The 
beautiful belt of land between the beach and 
the hills, reaching to Morro, was surveyed 
into lots of live to ten acres each, to be occu- 
pied as homesteads, and made accessible by a 
beautiful beach road. The region about here, 
known as the Rancho Morro y Cayucos, is 
very fertile and productive. Greatly in its 
favor are its ease of access and its natural 
advantages of climate and water. There are 
hereabouts over 8,000 acres of the best dairies 
on the coast. 

The Rancho Morro y Cayucos was ac- 
quired in clear title by Don Domingo Pijol, 
by a decision of the Supreme Court of Cali- 
fornia. It was subdivided into small farms 
about 1877. Eight miles south of Cayucos is 


This is a small village on the southern part 
of Estero Bay, where a lagoon extends some 
five miles inland from the sea, having a nar- 
row entrance, and forming an excellent har- 
bor for light-draught vessels. At the entrance 
of the lagoon is a wharf, receiving lumber 
from the north and produce from the interior. 
From the ocean in front of the village rises 
the Morro Rock, belonging to the National 
Government, a grand feature of natural scen- 
ery. It is a great cone, rising precipi- 
tously from the water to a height of 580 feet, 
upon a base of about forty acres. It is com- 
posed of trachyte, a valuable building mate- 
rial, which may be quarried here in large 
quantities, and loaded upon vessels with great 
convenience. The ambitioti of Morro is to 
have its promising harbor for light vessels 


perfected, and to become a traveling center 
by means of a road leading directly east to 
tbe Salinas Yalley. 

The Rancho San Miguelito, of 22,136 acres, 
borders on San Luis Obispo Bay, and includes 
the most feasible landing place. It was 
granted by the Mexican Government to Don 
Miguel Avila. In 1867, when Mr. John 
Harford built "The People's "Wharf," the 
town of Avila was laid out by the Avila 
Brothers, and the prospect was fair for the 
growth of a lively village. Busy times pre- 
vailed here for a time, when two lines of 
steamers were contesting for the trade, but 
the construction of the railroad wharf in 
1873, and the transfer to it in 1875 of the 
railroad terminus deprived Avila of its busi- 
ness and its hopes of commercial importance. 

Port Harford is treated elsewhere, and the 
town of San Luis Obispo also is described 


When the county was organized, San Lnis 
Obispo, the only town within its limits, con- 
sisted of a few adobe houses irregularly gath- 
ered about the Mission buildings. There was 
one main road, running southwest and north- 
east, crossing the San Luis Creek about half 
a mile below the Mission, and following up 
the right bank thereof. Except the cultivated 
grounds surrounding the Mission, all was 
open country. That main road became Mon- 
terey street, and the trail north of the Mis- 
sion became Chorro street. The first frame 
building in the county was one built by Cap- 
tain Dana in 1850, of material brought from 
Chili. It fronted on Monterey street, and 
stood near an ancient, large palm tree. 

Siiortly after this. Captain John Wilson 
erected another frame house, a little southwest 
of the Mission, the material for it having 
been brought around Cape Horn. 

The rest of the buildings, in 1850, con- 
sisted of a two-story adobe, quite a pretentious 
building, at the corner of Monterey and 
Chorro streets, used for a restaurant and 
dance hall ; an adobe store built by Beebe & 
Pollard; another adobe store where afterwards 
was the Tribune office; and another where the 
French Hotel stood. 

In 1851, on the site afterwards occupied by 
the Bank of San Luis Obispo, Captain Dana 
erected a large building. Its walls were of 
adobe, its roof of sheet iron; its timbers were 
hauled by oxen from the Santa Rosa Creek, 
and the flooring and doors were brought from 
the Atlantic coast. So grand an edifice was 
this then considered, that it was called " Casa 
Grande." This was the first hotel in San 
Luis Obispo, and it was the scene of festivi- 
ties on all gala days, whether of church or 
state, wliile on the grounds adjoining were 
held the buU-flghts, bear-baiting, and other 
characteristic sports of the times and place. 
The Casa Grande was subsequently used as a 
court-house, serving in that capacity up to 

In August, 1850, William R. Hutton was 
autliorized by the court of sessions to survey 
and lay out the town of San Luis Obispo. 
He was directed to make the main street 
twenty yards wide, and all the other streets 
fifteen yards wide, while the town should 
extend to the limit of the lots. 

The question of the existence of a pueblo 
and the right to pueblo lands was a very im- 
portant one in the eirly history of the town. 
In 1853 the pueblo claim was presented to 
the Land Commission, and in September, 
1854, it was rejected; San Luis Obispo had 
been a recognized pueblo, and as such was 
entitled to the four leagiies of land assigned 
to such entities. But the Land Commission 
rejected the claim, because they alleged there 
was not adduced sufficient proof in behalf of 


it. In consequence of this decision, ana the 
failure to take possession, tlie lands reverted 
to the public domain, and were siirveyed by 
the United States government in 1867. The 
town acquired a title to only 640 acres, in 
conformity with the act of Congress of Aug- 
ust, 1867. The remainder of the pueblo 
lands were acquired by individuals under the 
United States and State land laws. 

In 1862, William C. Parker, civil engineer, 
made a map of the town after Button's sur- 
vey, which included the land northwest of the 
creek, and the streets, nearly, as at present; 
southeast of the creek, there was some culti- 
vated land, and the territory was variously 
marked as " Priests' Garden," " Marsh Land," 
" Corral," etc. 

The streets were not named, and it was not 
until some years later that any except the 
main ones were opened. 

In February, 1871, the town authorities 
received from the United States Land Office a 
certificate of purchase for the town site of the 
town of San Luis Obispo, covering the fol- 
lowing tracts of the United States land sur- 
vey: being parts of sections 26, 27, 34 and 
35 in township 30 south; range 12 east of 
Mount Diablo, base and meridian containing 
552.65 acres. This afforded a sense of gi-eat 
relief to the people of the town, who had felt 
much uneasiness on account of the uncer- 
tainty of title, whereas the United States 
patent would thenceforward give a basis of 
title, either to those in possession, receiving 
title from the town authorities, or to fnture 

The town of San Luis Obispo was organ- 
ized under the laws of California in May, 
1859. Charles H. Johnson was president of 
the board of trustees, and Thomas H. Bouton 
was clerk. Ordinances were passed to pro- 
vide for naming streets, keeping them in 
repair and clean, licensing business, main- 

taining order, etc. But little attention was 
paid to the incorporation, which very nearly 
expired; but when, in 1867, the public lands 
were surveyed, the town authorities found it 
necessary to display greater energy. 

In 1874, under the provisions of an act of 
the Legislature, passed the preceding session, 
town bonds were issued to the amount of 
$10,000, l)earing interest at eight per cent, 
per annum, and payable in fifteen years. 
These bonds were sold for ninety per cent, of 
their par value, and the proceeds were applied 
to the construction of bridges, street-gradincr, 
and other improvements of valuable and per- 
manent importance to the town. 

By an act of the Legislature passed March 
20, 1876, the city of San Luis Obispo was 
incorporated, succeeding to all the rights, 
interests, possessions and liabilities of the 
former town. The limits of the city were 
extended; and provision was made for the 
election of city otlicers, legislative power 
being vested in a common council, consisting 
of five members, the mayor acting as presi- 
dent of the body. 


The city blocks are not regular in size or 
shape, and the streets, as has been seen al- 
ready, foll'jw in various instances the desul- 
tory lines of old-time roads and trails. Mon- 
terey street, so called from being a part of 
the old road from Santa Barbara to Monterey, 
winds past the old mission into the valley of 
the creek, and onward northeastward by well 
gi-aded roads over the summit of the Santa 
Lucia mountains. Tiiis street, for the most 
part sixty feet wide, has recently been widened 
to seventy-five feet in some quarters. Var- 
ious other streets are of uneven width, ranging 
from fifty-five to sixty feet in different por- 
tions of their length, as the widening was 
left to the option of property owners. An 



ordinance passed in 1888 ordering sidewalks 
of cement, bituniinons rock in some streets, 
and of gravel in others, has been largely but 
not fnlly carried out. 

The central addition is a very eligible por- 
tion of the town, lying on a gentle rise at the 
side of San Luis. It consists of some fifty 
acres, divided into nineteen blocks, 450 x 170 
feet, one of which is occupied by the hotel, 
the rest being divided into building lots. 
Edwin Goodall of San Francisco was the pro- 
moter of this enterprise, and the projector of 
the Kamona, but the property was purchased 
in April, 1890, bj the West Coast Land 
Company, who are not putting it upon the 
market, but rather holding it back until there 
shall ensue a season of greater growth and 
prosperity. This is the only portion of San 
Luis having a satisfactory sewer system. 
The Eamona Hotel, owned by the California 
Southern Hotel Company, was opened Sep- 
tember, 1888; it cost, exclusiveof thegrounds 
(that is, for tlie building and furniture), some 
$150,000, and it is a well-equipped and well- 
conducted hostelry. 

There are in San Luis Obispo two school- 
houses, containing twelve school-rooms, ad- 
ministered by eleven teachers. There are 
primary and grammar school courses. The 
city schools have an attendance of about 500. 

The Court school-house, in the northern 
part of the town, is an eight room frame 
building, erected at an expense of about 

The Mission school, in the southern part 
of the town, is a four-roomed brick structure, 
which cost $10,000, to which may be added 
$3,000 for furnishings, etc. 

The San Luis Obispo Thomson-Houston 
Electric Light Company was incorporated 
July 29, 1889, and the circuit was opened 
in October of the same year. 

The city system comprises seven 1,200- 

candle-power masts of about fifty feet height; 
the county pays for one similar mast, and the 
Hotel Ramona for another. There are, more- 
over, between forty and fifty arc-lights and 
some 300 incandescent lights supplied to 
stores, hotels, etc. 

The city system costs the municipality 
$70 per month. 

The value of the plant is estimated at 
$1,500. The arc-dynamo is of 1,000-volt 
current, and the incandescent of 1,200 volts, 
alternating currents. 

The company has four employes in San 

San Luis Obispo has a street railway, 
running between the railway station and the 
flamona Hotel, with two and one-half miles 
of track, and a plant worth $20,500, employ- 
ing ten animals and four people. The com- 
pany is not incorporated; it opened opera- 
tions October 18, 1887. 

The San Luis fire department was organ- 
ized under new ordinances in 1889, and it is 
now in good working order, comprising about 
100 members, divided as follow^s: San Luis 
Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1; Goodwill 
Hose Company, No. 2; Vigilance Hose Com- 
pany, No. 3; and San Luis Fire Engine Com- 
pany, No. 4. The last named company owns 
a steam engine of the Silsby rotary patent, 
purchased in 1889 at a cost of $5,000. 

The sewerage of the town is performed by 
San Luis Creek, which runs through the cor- 
poration and washes away the sewage, the 
water being stored by means of dams for pur- 
poses of flushing. There are sewage conduits 
from that portion of the town about the 
Ramona Hotel, and from a few other blocks, 
leading to the creek. 

In 1886 an arrangement which cost the 
city $800, was made with George Waring, 
the celebrated engineer, to furnish plans 
for a sewage system, and he visited San 


Luis accordingly. The city was surveyed, 
but no further measures were taken. The 
execution of the phans wonld require an ex- 
penditure of $150,000, for which it was pur- 
posed to vote bonds of the city. The matter 
has not yet been submitted to a vote of the 

The hospital system here was organized by 
Dr. W. W. Hays, and by him so conducted 
for some years in an admirable manner. The 
present hospital was built in 1S78. The 
site is some thirteen acres upon a foot-hill 
bench about a mile southeast of the town, in 
what is locally known as " the thermal belt," a 
region free from frost, where the most delicate 
semi-tropical plants can be grown successfully. 
Water from the adjacent hills is brought 
down to a reservoir, 20 x 20 x 6 feet, from 
which the house and irrigation needs are sup- 
plied. The main building is two stories 
high and fifty feet square. The lower story 
contains the reception room, physician's office 
and dispensary, the steward's room, dining 
room, kitchen, and commissary store-rooms. 
Above these are rooms designed for use by 
non-indigent patients. 

There is in the rear a ward with eight beds 
which can be augmented if needful, and in 
an adjoining building is a one-story ward 
47 X 25 X 16 feet, with the necessary closets 
sitting room, etc. 

There lias been constructed lately a new 
ward of seven rooms, 75 x 26 x 16 feet, with 
porch and ten-foot lean-to, which cost $2,900. 

With this addition, the institution can 
accommodate thirty-five to forty patients. The 
present number is fourteen, all male. The 
percentage of female patients is never large. 

The establishment is well sewered, and 
supplied with hot and cold water. 

Driveways curve around the building in 
such fashion as to render the approach a 
pleasant feature. A system of drainage has 

been constructed whereby all the surface 
water running from the earth and the water 
pipes is conveyed away to irrigate the trees 
of the small orange grove. 

The gardens are well kept, being cared for 
by the stronger of the patients; the whole 
place is exquisitely neat and orderly, and the 
inmates show conscientious treatment. The 
system of purchasing supplies, etc., by whole- 
sale, is very economical; and, while the pati- 
ents are furnished abundant, wholesome and 
satisfactory food, their cost to the county is 
said to be cheaper than at any similar estab- 
lishment in the State, amounting to but 
seventeen cents per patient per diem. 

The hospital is under the management of 
Dr. W. W. Hays, county physician, and Mr. J. 
M. Lewis, steward, both most efficient officials. 

San Luis Obispo has two large well 
arranged and ornamented cemeteries, namely, 
the Catholic and the Odd Fellows', the last 
being the Protestant burial-place, under con- 
trol of the Odd Fellows, but having plats 
devoted to the Masons, the Jewish people, 
and the Chinese. A cemetery formerly 
existed near what is now the central part of 
the city; but as the town grew, the two 
present pantheons were laid out, and the 
bodies from old ground removed thither, 
about 1870. The Catholic cemetery occupies 
about six acres, and the Protestant twelve. 
Each contains many fine monuments, and tlie 
inscriptions constitute quite a history of the 
prominent pioni ers, of both the Spanish and 
the American races. 

The banks of San Luis Obispo are: The 
First National Bank, founded in 1884, with 
$75,000 capital, as a private enterprise of 
Jack, Goldtree & Co. On March 1, 1888, 
it was changed to the National system, with 
a capital of $100,000, increased March, 1889, 
to $150,000. Its statement for July, 1890, 
showed a surplus of $35,000. Tlie officers 



are J. P. Andrews, president; Wm. L. Beebe, 
vice-president; R. E. Jack, cashier; R. "W. 
MartinofF, assistant cashier. This house does 
a general banking; business. 

The Commercial Bank Avas opened May 14, 
1888. Its paid up capital is $100,000. Its 
statement December 31, 1889, is as follows: 
Assets — cash on hand, $12,104.12; cash on 
call in other banks, $17,457.42; loans and dis- 
counts, $273,427.26; real estate, vault and 
Hxtures, $8,852.21; total assets, $321,841.01; 
surplus, October, 1890, $7,500. 

Liabilities — Capital paid up, $100,000; 
surplus and profits undivided, $4,877.76; 
due banks and bankers, $5,330.21; due de- 
positors, $210,888.04; interest on certificates, 
$750. Total liabilities, $321,841.01. 

The officers are: McD. R. Venable, presid- 
ent; L. M. Kaiser, vice-president; H. Brun- 
ner, cashier. 

In connection with this house was instituted 
in October, 1890, the California Mortgage 
and Savings Bank, capital $250,000. McD. 
Venable, president; L. M. Kaiser, cashier; 
H. Brnnner, manager. 

The Bank of San Luis Obispo has a capital 
stock of $100,000, surplus, $246,392.49. Its 
president is James L. Crittenden, its cashier, 
W. E. Stewart. 


The township of Arroyo Grande was estab- 
lished in 1862 by the board of supervisors of 
San Luis Obispo County. It consists of a 
strip entirely across the southern end of the 
county, comprehending an area of about 300 
square miles, embracing all of that territory 
situated between the Corral de Piedra Creek 
on the north, Santa Barbara County on the 
south, the Santa Lucia Range on the east, 
and the Pacific Ocean on the west. This 
includes tlie valleys of the Arroyo Grande, 
Santa Maria, Cuyama, Huasna, Alamo, Dry 

Creek, Verde, Villa, and other streams. 
In this area are the old Spanish grants 
of Corral de Piedra, Pizrno, Bolsa de Che- 
misal, Santa Manuela, Arroyo Grande, 
Huasna, Nipomo, Punte de la Laguna, 
Guadalupe, Suey, and Cuyama (or parts of 
the four last), aggregating 189,668 acres, be- 
ing the chief area and nearly all the agricult- 
ural land of the township. On the upper 
waters of the Arroyo Grande and east of the 
Huasna grant, and in various nooks and 
corners, were considerable tracts of public 
lands, most of which are now occupied by 
prosperous farmers. 

The first settlement here was when the 
priests of San Luis Obispo Mission estab- 
lished, about 1780, on that portion of the 
Arroyo Grande bottom, afterward farmed by 
W. S. Jones, a garden and plantation, where 
were raised large quantities of corn, beans, 
potatoes, etc., etc., to supply the mission. 

The next settlement was the Rancho Bolsa 
de Chemisal, containing 14,335 acres, granted 
to Francisco Quijada, May 11, 1837. Quijada 
and his heirs transferred the grant to Lewis 
T. Burton, he to F. Z. Branch, and Branch 
to Steele Brothers, who subdivided it in Sep- 
tember, 1873. 

The Nipomo Rancho was granted to Cap- 
tain William G. Dana, about 1838. It con- 
tained over 33,000 acres; it is now owned 
and occupied by his heirs at law. 

The Santa Manuela Rancho was granted to 
Francis Z. Branch, April 6, 1837, and Au- 
gust 22, 1842. It contained 16,954 acres, 
and passed to the hands of Branch's heirs, and 

The Pizmo Rancho, containing 8,838 acres, 
was granted to Jose Ortega, November 18, 
1840. Ortega sold to Isaac J. Sparks, he to 
John M. Price and David P. Mallagh, each 
one-half. Mallagh sold his portion to F. Z. 
Branch, and he to Steele Brothers and others. 


The Corral de Piedra JSancho was gi-anted 
May 14, 1841, to Jose Maria Yillavicencia, 
as containing 8,876 acres, which on May 28, 
1846, was extended bj Governor Pio Pico to 
include " all lands included in map," which 
brought it up to about 34,000 acres. This 
sweeping grant thus absorbed the Mission 
farm on the Arroyo Grande, and the lime- 
works, which were some four miles southeast 
of the Mission church. This grant passed 
into the hands of liamon J. Branch, W. S. 
Jones, John Corbit, Steele Brothers, and 

The Arroyo Grande Ranclio, containing 
4,438 acres, granted April 25, 1842, to Zefe- 
rino Carlon, was by him transferred to F. Z. 
Branch, afterwards passing into the hands of 
Steele Brothers and Wittenberg Brothers, 
who used it for dairying purposes. 

The Huasna Kancho, containing 22,190 
acres, was granted to Isaac J. Sparks, De- 
cember 8, 1843, reverting upon his death to 
his daughters, Mrs. Mark Harloe, Mrs. Amy 
Porter, and Mrs. Harkness. 

Of the Suey Rancho, of eleven leagues, 
granted to Don Mariano Pacheco, father of 
ex-Governor Pacheco, about one-third is in 
this township, and the rest in Santa Barbara 

These vast tracts of land covered almost 
every desirable homestead in the township. 

The dry season of 1864, the trespass act, 
the United States surveys, and the proceed- 
ings of the State Board of Equalization, have 
all proved instrumental in subdividing these 
wide domains and opening them up to im- 
migration, so that, instead of the original 
eight patriarchal holdings, hundreds of 
smaller fertile farms, carefully cultivated, 
now smile and bloom for the maintenance of 
a numerous, thrifty population. 

The Arroyo Grande Valley was first 
opened for settlement in 1867-'68, when a 

blacksmitb shop and a school-house were 
built on the north bank of the creek, on the 
stage road between San Luis and Santa 

The growth of the settlement was neces- 
sarily slow, as the valley was then a tangled 
mass of woods and brush, almost impenetra- 
ble, save by the bear trails running thi-ough 
it, — a sort of semi-wilderness called by the 
Spanish term " monte." 

But the fertility of the soil soon demon- 
strated its merits, and what had been a dense 
and useless thicket became a famous garden- 
spot. The lands were rather high-priced for 
that time, for, while they sold at $15 to $60 
per acre, the cost of clearing averaged $100 
per acre. 

In 1876 Arroyo Grande had a school-house 
two hotels, two well supplied stores, a post- 
office, a livery and feed stable, a wheelwricrht 
and blacksmith shop, butcher shop, laundry, 
two saloons and many dwellings. Manufact- 
ures were well represented in the district. 
Ramon J. Branch managed for the Branch 
heirs the Arroyo Grande flour-mills, with a 
capacity of thirty barrels per diem; and the 
water-power of this mill was used at times to 
run a small circular saw for sawing shimrles 
and small timbers; a steam grist-mill was in 
operation, as also Newsom's tannery, the 
Nipomo lime works, McDougall's asphaltum 
works, and Marsh's smithy and carriage shop. 

A decided impulse was given to the pros- 
perity of this section l)y the building of the 
Pacific Coast Railway and the People's Wharf 
at Pizmo, in 1881, these media of transpor- 
tation giving the producers of the valley- 
competitive advantages in conveying their 
wares to market. 

In 1882 the Arroyo Grande Irrigatino- 
Company was organized, and the two ditches 
thereupon constructed are capable of irrigat- 
ing 5,000 acres of land. 


The climate here is e:;? lleiit, but diversi- 
fied. Tiie larger valleys are subject, to late 
frosts in the spring, but in the fall they are 
exempt to a remarkable degree. The smaller 
valleys are almost free from frost, and from 
extreme heat in summer. 

The soil also has great variety, and there- 
fore is quite eclectic in its products. Wheat, 
barley, oats, corn, beans, jieas, peanuts, 
tobacco, garden ^vegetables of all kinds, ap- 
ples, peaches, plums, apricots, almonds, figs, 
olives, grapes, etc., are grown to perfection. 
In fruits, apricots are a never-failing staple, 
yielding 200 to 250 pounds to tiie tree at 
five years old; apples, 300 to 400 pounds to 
the four-year-old tree; strawberries, 16,000 
quarts per acre; peaches, plums, primes, cher- 
ries, grapes, raspberries, blackberries, olives, 
walnuts, oranges, lemons and limes, all do 
well here. Garden vegetables do exceedingly 
well; on one acre of monte land any one of 
the following items may safely be counted 
upon as a fair yield; 4,000 pounds beans; 
25,000 pounds potatoes; 80 tons beets; 65 
tons carrots; 45 to 50 tons cabbages; 500 
hundred- weight onions; 50 tons squashes; 
12 to 14 tons alfalfa. Squashes weighing 
from 200 to 250 pounds, cabbages weighing 
60 to 95, carrots of 75 poimds' weight, are 
not uncommon productions. 

On September 21, 1886, the people of this 
section met and organized a Fair Association, 
the first in the county. It held its first an- 
nual fair in October, 1886, and the second on 
October 6, 7. and 8, 1887. Among the ex- 
hibits were: — a pear weighing 1 pound 14 
ounces; a cabbage of 94 pounds, and several 
others from 50 to 80 pounds weight; pota- 
toes of 3 to 9 pounds each; carrots three 
feet long; a squash of 217 pounds weight; 
five others aggregating 822^ pounds; a 
muskmelon weighing 20^ pounds; an onion 
of 5 pounds 2^ ounces; corn 15 feet Iiigh, 

ears 2 inches in diameter, 18 inches long, 
solidly filled; five quinces weighing 6 pounds 
15 ounces; 5 pears weighing 9 pounds 3 
ounces; 5 fall pippins weighing 5 pounds 10 
ounces, and many other remarkable products. 

Arroyo Grande furnished all the exhibit 
from this county at the Mechanics' Institute 
Industrial Exhibition of 1887, receiving 
s'lecial silver medal for display, diploma for 
best potatoes, and silver medal for best ap- 
ples; and also the first premium at the Six- 
teenth District Agricultural Exhibition for 
best general display of fruits and vegetables. 

As a general rule, no irrigation is required 
here, but occasionally the application of 
water saves a crop or economizes time in 
working the land. The water supply is de- 
rived from the Santa Maria River, Alamo, 
Huasna, Berros, Arroyo Grande, Pizmo, and 
Carrol de Piedra creeks, and numberless 
springs and brooks. Several of these streams 
are well stocked with trout, and salmon are 

caught often. There is never fear of a >' d 


year" here, and one of the most favorable 
features of tliis valley is its facility of 

The village of Arroyo Grande is pleasantly 
situated on the bank of the creek under a 
range of hills. It is but three miles from 
the famous Pizmo Beach, and almost every 
house in town commands a view of tiie val- 
ley and tiie ocean. The present population 
is about 600 in the village, 1,000 in the dis- 
trict, and 1,500 in the voting precinct. 
There are three churches, Catholic, Method- 
ist and Cumberland Presbyterian, each sup- 
plied with a minister, and the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South holds monthly ser- 
vice in a hall. 

The school is the second largest in the 
county, having a fine large school-house with 
three teachers. 

There are lodges of Masons, I. O. O. F., 


G. A. K., W. R. C, and a Guod Samaritan 
Temperance order. 

There are general merchandise stores, 
mechanics' shops and professional offices to 
the usual number to be found in settlements 
of this rank. A Woman's Reliet Corps was 
organized here in October, 1886. 

Arroyo Grande has a postoffice, telegraph 
office, express office, trains and mails daily 
(excepting Sunday), a newspaper, the Weekly 
Herald, a practicing physician, a pavilion 
and hall, a jeweler and photographer, a tnil- 
linery store, a produce and commission mer- 
chant, two hotels, several general merchandise 
stores, and two butcher shops. 

On September 2, 1890, the Catholic church 
and parsonage here were burned, the loss be- 
ing about §6,000. The tire at one time ap- 
peared to threaten tlie town, and the engine 
was called out from San Luis, but it was not 
sent out, as the call was countermanded. 

NEWSOM's hot sulphur SPEING8. 

Newsom's Springs are situated in a pretty 
little natural park, at the base of a large, 
singularly formed hill of silici-calcareous 
rock, through whose summit runs a strong 
ledge of pure limestone, which it has been 
demonstrated is very valuable for making 
lime. The body of the hill is believed to be 
valuable for making cement. The hot sul- 
phur spring shows a temperature of 100 de- 
grees, and analysis of the water shows silica, 
sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium 
sulphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium car- 
bonate, ferrous carbonate, alumina and sul- 
phate of magnesia, the combination showing 
the medicinal praperties. Considerable gas 
arises from the water, and arrangements have 
been made to utilize it for cooking and heat- 
ing purposes. 

The owner of these springs has surveyed a 
plat of six acres near by, bordering the Ar- 

royo Grande, which he designs to donate to 
the State, with water privileges, on condition 
of the establishment tliere of a technical 

They are reached by rail to Arroyo Grande, 
thence by easy stage or drive from Nipomo. 
The altitude is about 400 feet. The grounds 
and springs are well kept. The ocean beacli 
road affords a superb drive. There is always 
bathing, fishing and clamming. Hotel and 
cottages for guests. 

The climate is almost perpetual sunshine. 
On the place are three principal springs, 
whose waters range in temperature fi-om 40° 
F. to 100° F., flowing some 49,000 gallons 
per hour. The waters are salino sulphureted, 
and have considerable reputation in the treat- 
ment of old, chronic rheumatism, and gout, 
catarrhal affections of the bladder and bowels, 
skin diseases, etc. For uterine troubles the 
hot sulphur douche has been of great benefit. 
There are warm and hot plunge and tub 
bathing facilities. The following is the state- 
ment of an analysis made by Dr. Winslow 
Anderson, 1888: 

Temperature, 100.5° F. 
U. S. gallon contains — 

. 4.10 
. 1.75 

Sodium chloride 

'• carbonate . . 

sulphate 3.92 

Potassium carbonate 15.00 

sulphate 2 90 

Magnesium carbonate 6-41 

sulphaie 2.47 

Calcium carbonate 8.25 

sulphate 76 

Ferrous carbonate 3.98 

Alumina 33 

Silica 2.03 

Organic matter 27 

Total solids 37.32 

Cubic inclies. 

Free carbonic anhydride 14.90 

" sulphureted hydrogen 3.56 


Four miles westward is the 


a stretch of twenty miles of sand along the 
ocean shore, popular as a drive and resort for 
hathing and pleasure. Near this is the sur- 
veyed route of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
and along the beach have been laid out the 
towns of Pizmo and Grover, expecting to 
grow into prominence as coast watering 
places upon the completion of the railroad. 

is a village of recent growth, being in a 
pretty and fertile valley of that name, on 
the Pacific Coast Railway, three miles from 
Arroyo Grande, and the same from Nipomo. 
The land was formerly the property of Mr. 
William G. Dana, and purchased of him by 
Messrs. C. R. Callender and J. W. Smith, 
who also purchased several tliousand acres of 
the Nipomo rancho, laying out the town site 
and subdividing the ranch into farming lots 
of various areas, which are offered for sale. 
These surveys have been made during the 
present year, and a village with several hand- 
some residences, a store of general merchan- 
dise, a postofJice and hotel are there, and re- 
cently an election was held which voted to 
expend $1,500 for building a school-house. 
A block of the village lands has been devoted 
for the purpose of the school. All the neigh- 
boring land is very fertile, and when occupied 
will afford ample support for a pleasant and 
thriving village. 


is a village of recent growth, on the line of 
the Pacific Coast Railway, nine miles south 
of Arroyo Grande. This is upon the Nipo- 
mo grant, made by the: Mexican government 
to William G. Dana in 1838, and recently 
subdivided and in part sold by the grantee's 
heirs. The grant was one of the first made 

in this county, and as may be presumed the 
first selection was an exceedingly choice tract. 
Tlie village is but two years of age, and so 
rapidly is it growing that an estimate of itp 
population is hardly likely to approach accu- 
racy, although it is estimated at 700. There 
are two hotels, two large stores, a newspaper, 
the Nipomo iVe-t^JS, aLd many handsome resi- 
dences. The village is well supplied with 
water liy a system of water- works, with reticu- 
lation pipes through all the houses. 


East of the Santa Lucia Mountains is a 
large area comprising about three-fifths of 
the county, being included in the Salinas 
Township, which by the census of 1880 had 
a population of 1,209, and San Jose Town 
ship, which had 872; thus this district had 
2,081, or about one person to the square 
mile, in a total county population of 9,142. 
Between the Carriso Plain, already described, 
and the Tulare Valley, extends the southern 
end of the Monte Diablo Range, a line of 
low sandstone mountains, generally treeless^ 
trending northwest and southeast, which con- 
stitute the division line between this an'^ 
Kern County. Westward a low ridge sepa- 
rates the plain from the San Juan Valley, 
and one of its branches, Carriso Valley; and 
on the northwest a like barrier lies between 
the plain and the main Estrella River. The 
streams are 200 or 300 feet below the general 
level of Carriso Plain. 

The San Juan is the southern branch of 
the Estrella River, albeit the summer season 
finds only occasional pools in its broad, sandy 
channel. The rains convert this into a verit- 
able river, fifty to 100 yards wide, running 
through small valleys and hills softly rounded, 
clothed in a luxuriant growth of altilaria. 


wild oats, bunch-grass and flowering shrubs. 

This section is a paradise to the stockman, 
being devoted almost entirely to pasturage. 
Nevertheless, its resources would suflace for 
varied industries. There is here much oak 
timber, the soil is very fertile, there are min- 
eral springs, ore-bearing rocks, and diverse 
elements to support a large population. 
. This valley may be considered as including 
the following tracts: That section between 
the San Jose Range and the Carriso Plain; 
the ranches Las Chimeneas and Avenales in 
the southern part; La Panza and the mining 
district in the central part; and La Cumeta 
or Comate, California, and San Juan Capis- 
trano in the north. 

Among the old settlers were: John Gil- 
key, on the Comate, murdered in 1858; Bara- 
tie and Borel, on the San Juan Capistrano, 
murdered in 1858; Philip Biddle, Robert G. 
Flint, .fames Mitchell, Joseph Zumwalt, D- 
W. James and John D. Thompson, all of 
whom located there twenty to thirty-five years 

In the northern portion of this section is 


The Mission of San Miguel Arcangel was 
established July 25, 1797, being the sixteenth 
in order of date in Alta California. Its site 
was in the midst of wide reaches of grazing 
land, on the west bank of the Salinas, just 
below where this river receives the Estrelia. 
The two streams here run through broad 
valleys, where flourish willows, cuttonwoods, 
sycamores, oaks and other trees. 

This Mission is thirty-fonr miles north of 
the city of San Luis Obispo, and some four 
miles south of the county line between this 
and Monterey. 

San Miguel, like most of the twenty-one 
mission establishments, is the site of a flour- 
ishing settlement of later times. This place 

was never quite abandoned, and even during 
the unsettled times of the American occupa- 
tion a few Mexican settlers kept their abode 
in the decaying habitations of the mission 
buildings. Its position on the main — if not 
the only— road, between the northern and 
the southern settlements, gave San Miguel a 
certain importance as a station, where an 
eating-house, etc., were established. The 
population was of course small for njany 
years. On the vote upon the new constitu- 
tion, in 1879, San Miguel precinct cast 
thirty-four votes. About 1876 a certain de- 
gree of activity began here; the old mission 
buildings were fltted up for a hotel, and vari- 
oiis shops and other enterprises were opened. 
In 1877 the population was reckoned at 
thirty, and there were fifteen buildings, in- 
cluding a school-house, postoffice, express 
office, store, blacksmith shop, carriage shop, 
and two saloons. This year was a "dry 
season," and two-thirds of the sheep and 
cattle from this grazing country either died 
or were driven away to more favorable past- 
ures, and a brief revival of prosperity the 
following year was followed by drouths again 
in 1879. 

An excitement arose here in 1881, over 
the expectation of the immediate building of 
a portion of the Atlantic & Pacific Railway 
through the district. 

Since the actual advent of a railroad, San 
Miguel, which is the most northerly town on 
the line in this county, has taken an import- 
ant rank hereabouts, standing as the second 
point in the county, before it fell behind 
Arroyo Grande. Tlie population is now be- 
tween 400 and 500; there is a money-order 
postofiice, a $10,000 school-house, a news- 
paper — the Weekly Messenger — and a very 
full complement of business houses, stores, 
shops, professional men, etc. 

The Bank of San Miguel, on October 26, 


1889, reported its assets and its liabilities 
each as $87,966.51. 

The Episcopal church at San Miguel, com- 
pleted in 1884, cost $1,200, and is a hand- 
some Gothic structure, with a seating capacity 
of 100. It is said to be the handsomest 
church building in the county. 

The Mission church still stands, — an im- 
mense structure, 230 feet long, furty-four 
wide, with a height to the eaves of forty-five 
feet, and walls i^even feet thick of concrete. 
There remains a portion of the wing, once 
400 feet long, and until about a year since 
there still existed the ruins of the former 
dwelling-houses of the neophytes, which 
covered an area of tixire than forty acres. 
The quaint old church on its adjacent ruins 
constitutes a very picturesque feature of the 
village, a vivid contrast of the medieval 
period with the present. The floor of the 
church is of brick, or tile, as is a broad front 
porch. The inner walls are plastered and 
frescoed, to represent a gallery with pillars, 
the colors now appearing as fresh as when 
newly painted. The sacred ornaments of 
this church have survived all the vicissitudes 
and spoliations which the venerable pile has 
suffered. Over the altar in the western end 
stands the patron saint, Michael the Arch- 
angel, life size and handsomely depicted, 
gorgeously arrayed in gold and crimson, hold- 
ing aloft his sword of light, beneath a broad 
banner on which is emblazoned the all-seeing 
eye from which radiate rays of light. To 
the right of the altar stands the brightly- 
painted statue of St. Joseph, holding the in- 
fant Jesus in one arm and bearing on the 
other the shepherd's stalf. Opposite stands 
the statue of St. Francis de Assisi, the 
founder of the order of Franciscan monks, 
under whose charge were established the 
missions of California. Beside the altar is a 
painting of St. John the Evangelist, with 

one foot resting upon a skull. There are 
also other paintings of various sacred sub- 
jects, generally in bright colors, and these, 
with the bright altar ornaments, iorm a vivid 
contrast with the neglect, decay and ruin 
seen elsewhere about the old mission. The 
many rmall pictures hung on the walls are 
dimly seen in the faint light, and the thick- 
ness of the walls keeps the atmosphere gen- 
erally in a chilly, cellar-like condition; the 
windows are few, small and high out of 
reach. Services are held fortnightly in this 


take their name from the rancho on which 
they ai-e found, El Paso de Robles (the Pass 
of Oaks). They are about thirty miles north 
of San Luis Obispo and sixteen miles from 
the Pacific ocean, in the beautiful valley of 
the Salinas Eiver, which the Santa Lucia 
range protects from the cold sea winds and 
fogs. For njiles around the springs stretch 
level plains, now and then broken by low 
hills, and shaded by graceful groups of white 
and live oaks — a charmingly picturesque 
setting for the springs whose curative waters 
have become famous. 

The missionaries and early Spanish pio- 
neers, and the Indians before them, knew the 
health-giving qualities of these waters and 
benefited by them. P'-ior to American occu- 
pation the principal spring had been rudely 
walled in with logs, the better to fit it for 
bathing purposes, this being done before the 
founding of San Miguel Mission. It is de- 
clared that even the wild beasts of the forest 
came to profit by these waters, and stories are 
told of an immense grizzly that was in the 
habit of plunging into the pool nightly, 
adding to the joys of his bath by swinging 
himself up and down by the low-growing 
branch of a great cottonwood that grew near 
by, extending its limbs over the water. 


The Paso de Robles Rancho, including the 
springs, was purchased in 1857 by D. D. 
Blackburn, James H. Blackburn and Lazare 
Godchaux. The springs at that time were in 
the condition in which the missionaries had 
left them, with no sign of improvements by 
the decaying logs of the old abutment placed 
there many years before, while the thickly- 
strewn bear-tracks added to the general air 
of desolation. Fr.)ni such a condition as 
this has grown the present settlement of 820 
population, supplied with an excellent hotel 
and annex cottages, witii postoffice, express 
and telegraph offi^ies, billiard halls, etc., — in 
short all the modern improvements for tiie 
convenience of visitors. 

The chemical analysis of the principal Hot 
Spring, as made by Professors Price and 
Hewston, of San Francisco, is as follows: — 
Temperature, 110° Fahrenheit. One impe- 
rial gallon, of 7,000 grains, contains — 


Sulphureted Hydrogen Gas 4.45 

Free Carbonic Acid Gas 10.50 

Sulphate of Lime 3.21 

Sulphate of Potassa 88 

Peroxide of Iron 36 

Alumina 32 

Silica 44 

Sulphate of Soda (Glauber's Salts) 7.85 

Bi-Carbonate of Magnesia 92 

Bi-Carbonate of Soda 50.74 

Iodides and Bromides Traces. 

Organic Matter 1.64 

The great and distinctive feature of Paso 
de Robles is the Mud Bath, whose .analysis 
is as follows: Temperature, 140° Fahrenheit. 
One gallon, of 7,000 grains, contains — 


Sulphureted.Hydrogen Gas 3.28 

Carbonic Acid Gas 47.84 

Sulphate of Lime 17.90 

Sulphate of Potossa Traces 

Sulphate of Soda 4M] 

Silica 1.11 

Carbonate of Magnesia 3.10 


Carbonate of Soda 5.21 

Chloride of Sodium 96.48 

Organic Matter 3.47 


There are several other springs, such as 
the Sand Spring, the Soda, the Wliite Sul- 
phur and the Iron or Chalybeate Spring. 

Paso de Robles, the town, dates from 
1886. The present population is rated 
at 820. 

The Paso de Robles Rancho has been sub- 
divided, and its lots are now oflfered for sale 
by the West Coast Land Company. 

Lots eighteen and nineteen of the subdi- 
vision were reserved and laid out for the 
town of 


These lots embrace 160 acres, of which 100 
are on a level plateau, twenty or twenty-five 
feet against the Salinas River. This site is 
covered with oak timber, and is one of the 
most picturesque spots in the county. Pre- 
vious to the completion of the railroad to this 
point this region of country was but a vast 
cattle range. In March, 1886, the West 
Coast Land Company was formed with a cap- 
ital of $500,000, and purchased the Santa 
I'sabel and the Eureka ranches, and portions 
of the Paso de Robles and the Huer-Huero 
ranches, comprising a compact and contigu- 
ous body of 63,000 acres of land, equal to 
any in the State for cereals, fruits, vines, 
grasses or almost any product of California. 
This immense body of 500 square miles of 
territory was at once surveyed and subdivided 
into small tracts and the town laid off. It 
was at first called Crocker, which name was 
shortly changed to Templeton. Within 
ninety days after its foundation Templeton 
contained one extensive and two smaller but 
quite respectable hotels, three general mer 
chandise stores and two more in immediate 



prospect, a handsome and well-stocked drug 
store, a very neat structure for the office of 
the West Coast Land Company, a well- 
supplied meat market, a shoeshop, two black- 
smith shops, five saloons, a billiard saloon, a 
large lumber yard, a sash and blind shop, 
several building and painting establishments, 
two barber- shops, a public liall, a postoffice 
with daily mail service and probably twenty- 
five to thirty dwelling houses. The intel- 
lectnal and educational wants of the com- 
munity are provided for by a weekly 
newspaper with a good circulation and adver- 
tising ])atroi)age, and the Templeton Insti- 
tute, with a good pupilage in its primary 
department, and prepared to receive students 
in the higher and collegiate departments. 
The railroad buildings consist of a handsome 
depot and freight warehouse, a turn-table and 
round-house and other appointments of a 
first-class station, provided with telegraphic 
and express facilities. The religious want is 
attended to by an excellent Presbyterian 
clergyman who, with his family, resides in 
the town, and a Sunday-school with a good 
attendance of scholars and teachers is held 
every Sunday in the building of the primary 
department of the Templeton Institute. 

The establishment of a brickyard gives an 
added impetus to building, as clay of a very 
superior quality is abundant almost within 
the town limits, and wood is very cheap. 


has been noted for its fertility since the days 
of its tillage by the Mission fathers. It con- 
sists of a tract perhaps eight or nine miles 
long by two wide, in the form of a valley — 
the bottom lands along the Salinas River. It 
was granted to Joaquin Estrada, and to him 
afterwards confirmed and patented. During 
the Mexican regime it was given up to graz- 
ing. The surroundings were very wild, and 

bears were frequent visitors to the rancho 

The San Jose Valley, once called the 
Rancho San Jose, lies about twenty miles 
east from San Luis Obispo, and southeast of 

the Santa Marjjarita Rancho. It was 


posed that Don Ynocente Garcia had a grant 
for the whole of the land in this valley, to the 
extent of five or six leagues. Later on, he 
decided to ti-eat the place as Government 
land, and recorded possessory claims upon 
the best of the tract, finding that he had only 
applied for the grant, no action having been 
taken upon his petition. The land here is 
fertile, and the climate warmer than nearer 
the coast. Corn beans, etc., are raised uii- 
irrigated. The cultivated land is of greater 
than a townsiiip area; the postoffice is Pozo 
(a hole or well), from the form of the valley. 
On the headwaters of the Atascadero is the 
Eagle Rancho, purchased in 1876 by Mr. A. 
F. Benton, a settler in this county since '69. 
He raided here a great number of hogs, this 
industry being favored by the existence of 
marshy places and oak groves. The many 
grizzly bears, however, were a great obs acle 
to the entire success of this industry. The 
existence of this "big game" gave the rancho 
a great reputation amongst hunters. Among 
others. Baron Von Schroder was attracted 
thitiier, and, after a long sojourn amidst the 
game-infested mountains, he purchased the 
rancho, upon which he has since expended a 
good deal of money, to make of it a country 
resort for himself and his friends. The 
rancho comprises some 500 acres, extending 
through several small valleys, and command- 
ing an extensive range of pasturage, over 
adjoining public and railroad lands not de- 
sirable foi' cultivation. Upon a small knoll 
in the first valley is built a handsome dwell- 
ing, surrounded by drives and avenues lead 
ing to the neighboring falls and grottoes. 


The water supply, difficult to secure at this 
altitude of 1,500 feet, was obtained throui^h 
tunnels, tapping large springs from which an 
abundant supply is had. Perhaps tiie largest 
prune orchard in the world is that upon this 
rancho, which contains something over 200 
acres, growing in a tine rich slate loam. Ten 
tons of dried fruit, grown on these young 
trees three years after planting, took the first 
premium at the Mechanics' Institute Fair for 
1889, in San Francisco, as the best French 
prunes raised in California. It is estimated 
that the yield of this orchard for 1890 will 
reach five tons to the acre, worth seven 
cents per pound, or $700 per acre, four years 
after planting. A short distance from this 
place are the Falls of the Atascadero, where 
the scenery is exceedingly wild and pictur- 
esque. The canon is spanned by a massive 
dyke of serpentine and trachyte, over which 
leaps the stream to a fall of about forty feet, 
in several cascades, of which the highest is 
twenty feet. The stream in very low water 
is about four feet wide, and tiiree or four 
inches in depth. From below the falls the 
rocky banks rise perpendicularly to over 
100 feet, clad in beautiful ferns and shrub- 

As the valley of the Salinas stretches 
northward toward its junction with the Es- 
trella, the mountains sink into rolling hills, 
bearing gi'oves and clumps of oaks, while the 
streams are fringed with willow, sycainore 
and Cottonwood. On the left bank of the 
Salinas are the ranches Asuncion, Atascadero, 
Paso de Koble^', and ex- Mission of San 
Miguel, and on the right bank are the Eu- 
reka, Santa Ysabel and Huer-Huero; the set- 
tlement of the Estrella is on the banks of that 
stream, and the Cholame Rancho is in the 
northeastern part of the county. On the 
western slope, opposite Von Scliruder's, in 
Van Ness Canon, Hon. Frank McCoppin, ex- 

mayor of San Francisco, has a vineyard of 
over 30,000 choice vines, four or live years 
old, bearing heavily. 

Farther S'.>uth, on the western slope, on the 
headwaters of the Arroyo Grande, A. B. II as- 
brouck has a vineyard of over 30,000 vines, 
which produce an abundance of the most 
luscious grapes from which most excellent 
wine is made. There are many other small 
vineyards and orchards throughout the range, 
but the above are mentioned as examples. In 
the many valleys and slopes of this grand 
range these vineyards and orchards may be 
multiplied indefinitely, and with a success 
challenging the most favored or noted region 
of the State, or of the world. 

Hasbrouck's Hancho is located twenty-two 
miles from San Luis, on the main southern 
road to Steele's. The Santa Manuela grant 
of 16,955 acres crosses and occupies a wide 
extent of this valley. Between it and the 
Arroyo grant was a strip of a mile or more 
of Government land, now owned and occu- 
pied by well-to-do settlers. The Arroyo 
Grande grant, of about 4,500 acres of the 
Ranchita, embraces different branches of 
he streini for about four miles, about 1,500 
acres being arable. This was leased by the 
Steele Brothers to Mr. Hasbr'ouck, who oc- 
cupied it for a number of years, brought a 
large area under cultivation, and finally, in 
1883, purchased the land at the stated price 
of $27,000. In 1880, Mr. Hasbrouck had 
bought of A. C. McCleod, the Musick heirs 
and others, a large tract of excellent pasturage 
similar to the Ranchita, where he has made 
his home. Here is the postoffice named Mu- 
sick. The diiry here is a mo lei institution, 
the building appointments being admirably 
adapted to their purpose. The dairy is 
mainly devoted to cheese-making, and sev- 
eral hundred cows are kept, each yielding an 
estimated product of $55.00 per annum. The 


grounds of Mr. Hasbrouck's rancho are 
splendidly kept, and are a noted sliow-place 
in this district. Two miles south of Musick 
rises Mt. Hasbrouck, a cone-like bald moun- 
tain which is one of the highest peaks of the 
Santa Lucia range. 


The Santa Maria Kiver, which in its upper 
part bears the name of Cuyania, forms 
the southern boundary of the county, sepa- 
rating it from Santa Barbara. The Cuyama 
Yalley is an extensive region, stretching like 
a division between two systems of geological 
formations from the Mojave Desert on the 
east to the Pacific Ocean on the west. The 
greater portion of tlie region is unoccupied or 
devoted to grazing, and its resources unknown 
and undeveloped. It opens a feasible rail- 
road route from the high interior to the coast, 
and when such a road is constructed an un- 
doubtedly valuable section will be opened. 
A few streams run from the Santa Lucia to 
the Cuyania, as the Alamo, Huasna, Suey and 
others, and on these are valuable ranches, the 
Huasna grant of five leagues and the Suey of 
the same, being of these, and with the Santa 
Margarita and the speculative purchases the 
principal ones of the county not subdivided. 
North and east of these grants the land was 
all public, there being much yet remaining 
unsurveyed and unoccupied, yet very suitable 
for culture and grazing. Upon the Suey, the 
property of Messrs. Newhall, of San Fran- 
cisco, large quantities of wheat are produced, 
and oranges, lemons and grapes are grown 


Opposite the head of the Alamo, in the 
Santa Lucia range, is the source of the Salinas, 
which runs northwesterly through San Luis 

Obispo and Monterey counties to the Bay 
of Monterey. This collects the waters of 
the greater portion of 'the eastern section 
of the county. A large number of streams 
empty into the Salinas, making it a mighty 
torrent in seasons of heavy rains. 

The region of the Salinas, or that east of 
the Santa Lucia range, comprises about 
1,100,000 acres, of which fully two-thirds is 
vacant, held for speculation or occupied for 
nothing more than grazing purposes. It ap- 
pears almost incredible that such a vast area 
should, at this date, lie an unoccupied waste 
if it is susceptible of profitable cultivation. 
But such things have been in other parts of 
California, and the condition s'lll exists in the 
southeastern part of San Luis Obispo County. 
Until within the last two or three years the 
same condition obtained in the northeastern 
part of the county, but this has been partly 
changed by the incoming of a large number 
of settlers on public lands, and the sub- 
division and sale of the great ranchos of Huer- 
Hnero, Eureka, Santa Ysabel and Paso 
Kobles, influenced by the construction of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad in that quarter. 

The writer has traversed a greater portion 
of this region, and noticed the uniform good 
character of the soil, the abundant herbage, 
the many large trees and density of chapparal, 
or the broad plains ready for the plow, and 
wondered at its lack of occupancy. 

The chief reason, however, why it is not 
thickly settled is, undoubtedly, because of its 
distance from railroad communication. This 
lack will probably be supplied in the near 

The principal valleys of this region are the 
San Jose, Santa Margarita and Salinas along 
the latter river; the Carriso, La Patiza and San 
Juan along the last named stream, the Es- 
trella on the Estrella River, the Iluer-Hixero, 
Cholame, Pala Prieta and other smaller val- 


leys in the north, and the great plains of the 
Estrella and Elkhorn in the southeast. 

Across the Santa Lucia to the eastward is 
the Carriso Plain, already described, in whose 
southeastern part is one of the most interest- 
ing objects in California. This is the anti- 
quarian monument known as 


Conical in shape, it rises abruptly from the 
plain to a height of about 140 feet, on one of 
whose sides is an opening twenty feet wide; 
extending to 120 I'eet on the inner side, 
where it expands to a length of 225 feet, 
forming a grand natural room or hall, open 
to the sky, — a veritable majestic temple of the 

It is evident that this great chamber was 
used by some pre-historic people for purposes 
of worship or of council, as is evinced by the 
strange paintings upon the inner face of the 
walls. These paintings are done in pigments 
ol three colors, red, white and black, still dis- 
tinct after exposure to the weather through 
untold ages. The strange characters and 
figures there depicted with evident careful 
design somewhat remotely resemble the 
hieroglyphics of Egypt or the picture writings 
of Yucatan and other portions of Mexico, 
being homogeneous with the other aborig- 
inal paintings found in various portions of 
Southern California. In other parts of this 
county, as in that of Santa Barbara, are found 
other "painted rocks," of similar origin, but 
none so grand or so interesting as this great 
natural temple of the Carriso Plain. 

This plain is separated from the Tulare 
Yalley by the Monte Diablo range of moun- 
tains, and from the San Juan Valley by a low 
ridge. The small valleys and rounded hills 
here are clothed in wild oats, alfilaria, and 
bunch-grass. This valley has been much 
settled up of late years. 1 


range of mountains runs along the eastern 
boundary of the county, separating it from 
Kern County and the Tulare Valley. A 
range of uplifted sandstone divides the San 
Juan Valley from the Carriso Plain, and 
between the San Juan and the Salinas is the 
La Panza range, quite prominent mountains, 
with gold placers in many of its gulches, 
which are mined with fair remuneration. 
The greater portion of the country is of rolling 
hills, with scattering oaks, giving it a very 
pleasant and park-like appearance. The 
beauty and resources of this section cannot 
be fully described in the limits of this article. 
Throughout the region, wherever tried, 
fruit in many varieties and of the finest quality 
is grown. At the recent county fair held in 
the city of San Luis Obispo, peaches, apples, 
pears and grapes of superb appearance and 
quality, were on exhibition from the vicinity 
of Poza on the upper Salinas. This is an 
elevated region, and the production is an 
evidence that the very best of the most deli- 
cate and valuable fruits can be grown through 
every limit and extreme of the county. 


Southeastward from the old Mission of 
San Miguel, the valley of the Estrella Creek 
stretches toward the mountains dividing San 
Luis from Kern County. This large tract 
until very recently was unoccupied and useless, 
save as grazing ground for a few cattle and 
sheep. Up to the '70's it was regarded as a 
portion of some Mexican grant; then the dis- 
covery was made that this was Government 
land, open to settlement, and, while bare in 
appearance, of great fertility of soil, and well 
adapted to agriculture. Thus a rapid immi- 
gration set in, settlements were made, school- 
houses built, and a vast change effected. 
Good crops were had in 1876 and 1878, and 


by 1880 at least forty families had settled 
upon this wide and fertile tract. In 1887 the 
total acreage in wheat and barley, from Santa 
Margarita on the south to San Miguel on the 
north, and from Paso de Robles to Sheid's, 
was 8,625 acres, of which thirteen-sixteenths 
was wheat. The land here is a rich, sandy 
loam, sparsely covered with nutritious grasses, 
and with live-oak and white-oak trees scat- 
tered at intervals. Water is had at an aver- 
age dejith of thirty feet. 

Las Tablas Creek rises in tlie hills near the 
Hot Springs and flows northwesterly into the 
Nacimiento. The fertile tract along its val- 
ley supports a quite considerable population, 
chiefly engaged in grazing and fanning. 
This region is somewhat elevated, its soil 
mostly a black adobe, very fruitful, and its 
grazing facilities excellent. Mining, too, has 
helped the various settlements in this dis- 
trict, as several important quicksilver mines 
have been located and worked hereabouts. 
Adelaide is the postofEce for this region, and 
the postal facilities are well maintained. In 
schools and churches, also, Las Tablas has 
taken an advanced position. 

Between the Salinas and the Estrella are 
the ranches Santa Ysabel, Hner-Huero, and 
Eureka, aggregating about 70,000 acres. 

The Santa Ysabel consists of 20,200 acres, 
adjoining the Rancho Paso de Robles at the 
northeast. For ten miles the Southern Paci- 
fic Railway runs along and within one-fourth 
mile of its boundary. It is covered with white 
and live-oak timber, although less thickly 
than the Paso de Robles. There are, sub- 
stantially, 16,000 acres of plow land, the 
rest fruit and grazing land. The soil is rich 
and deep, and will produce wheat of the 
finest, barley, oats, corn, all fruits and vines, 
and olives. Wine and raisin-making will. 

no doiibt, be important industries of this sec- 
tion. On this rancho are twenty miles of run- 
ning water, besides numerous living springs- 
Well water is had at ten to forty feet deep. 

The Huer-Huero adjoins the Santa Ysabel 
and the Eureka on the east. It comprises 
8,000 acres of valley, 23,000 acres of level 
and rolling farming lands, and 15,000 acres 
of hill grazing lands. In two years, 34,000 
acres were sold to settlers, mostly of wealth 
and position, and the region is thickly settled. 
Wheat, olives, fruit and vines have been 
planted. About 12,000 acres of this rancho 
are still unsold. 

The Eureka Rancho adjoins Santa Ysabel 
on the south, and Paso de Robles on the east, 
comprising about 11,000 acres, of which 
some 9,500 acres are plow land, and 1,500 
grazing. This rancho has a rich, deep soil, 
and is well watered, and wooded with white 
and live oak. 

These three ranchos last-named were pur- 
chased two or three years since by the West 
Coast Land Company, and have been sub- 
divided and put upon the market by this 
company, which already has founded the 
promising town of Templeton, and settled up 
a great deal of country hitherto unoccupied. 

In the extreme northeastern part of the 
county is the great Cholame Rancho, com- 
prising 26,622 acres, long the property of 
Messrs. R. E. Jack and Frederick Adams, 
who have used it mainly as a sheep range. 
It is similar in its features to the region just 
described, and is a valuable property. It ex- 
tends over the boundary line into Monterey 

As an evidence of progress, the develop- 
ment of the Huer-Huero may be cited. This 
tract of land, comprising about 48,000 acres, 
was regarded as an exhausted sheep range, and 
less than four years ago was sold at $3 an 
acre. Mr. J. V. Webster, an experienced 


horticulturist of Alameda County, purchased 
a large area and soon commenced its cultiva- 
tion. At the county fair, in the middle of 
October, 1888, he exhibited from the land 
grapes of the most choice varieties in large 
bunches. Also fig and peach trees of six feet 
growth in the last six months; samples of 
amber sugar cane, yielding at the rate of 
14"4,000 pounds per acre, and sorghum at the 
rate of 175,000 pounds per acre. Ho also 
exhibited hops of exceedingly thrifty and rich 
growth, flax of good quality, melons, squashes 
and a great variety of products grown without 
irrigation, but with good cultivation. 

This detpil could be carried on to a tedious 
extent, and is only introduced to illustrate 
what can be done on lands called a desert, 
simply because it was the stupid custom to 
follow the expression of some very stupid 

In this region is the little village of Cres- 
ton with two stores, hotel, school, postoftice, 
shops, saloons, and residences, with many 
thrifty farms in the vicinity, all where four 
years since existed only a wilderness. 



San Luis Obispo County with over 2,000,- 
000 acres of land, oflPers to the farmer un- 
eqnaled inducements to pursue his calling 
within its domains, as at least three-fourths 
of that number of acres is adapted to general 
farming, and is particularly suited for the 
raising of grain ; as in other places there are 
certain portions of the county especially 
desirable for grain; in the northern portion, 
and east of the Santa Lucia range, fully 
200,000 to 300,000 acres of land will bring 
to the cultivator thereof a rich return, the 
soil being rich and deep, and though in parts 
mountainous, is mainly composed of good 

rolling and valley lands, embraced within the ' 
districts known as the San Jose Valley, the 
Cholame, and the Ranchos Eureka and Santa 
Ysabel, Paso Robles, Huer-Huero and Santa 
Margarita and Salinas Townshps. 

The country surrounding the city of San 
Luis Obispo, north and south, in the Osos 
Valley, is also a rich, grain-producing region, 
comprising many thousand acres. Tiie aver- 
age yield of wheat is forty-tive bushels to the 
acre and of oats 150 bushels to the acre. 

Around Arroyo Grande and Nipomo, is 
found, probably, as rich land as lies in any 
other portion of the county, and possibly the 
best soil is in these portions. That at Arroyo 
Grande is particularly fine for beans, a very 
remunerative and easily handled product, and 
an industry constantly increasing, the yield 
being in 1886 nearly 105,000 bushels, and in 
1887 in advance of any yield heretofore 
had; the average yield of beans being forty 
bushels to the acre. 

The county possesses one advantage over 
other southern counties which an eastern 
man will appreciate ; we refer to the immense 
water facilities, and moreover the fact that 
irrigation is never needed; from north to 
south on an average of every six or seven 
miles, perennial streams flow to the ocean. 
With the advent of the railroad easy and ac- 
cessible shipping points are had; the towns 
of San Miguel, Paso Robles and Templeton 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad are the 
centers for large agricultural districts, and 
their shipping points for San Francisco. 

San Luis Obis^jo receives from the sur- 
rounding country, shipments by the Pacific 
Coast Railway, which also brings the products 
of Nipomo and Arroyo Grande and the south- 
ern portion of the county to Port Harford, 
where the Pacific Coast Steamship Company 
receives for both north and south. A grow- 
ing industry is the raising of alfalfa, which 


requires a moist, rich soil. Alfalfa is being 
raised all over the county; it requires to be 
cat five times during the year, averaging two 
tons to the acre at each cutting. All grasses 
for feed and general use are raised in abund- 
ance; timothy, clover, etc., are found in many 
portions of the county and grow as luxuri- 
antly as in any portion of the East. 

Potatoes yield abundantly, averaging over 
200 bushels to the acre, equal to the finest 
grown in Utah, varying in price from 80 
cents to $2 per 100 pounds, according to the 
season. They are of large size, white, mealy 
and delicious. 

All kinds of garden vegetables, such as 
beets, peas, beans, tomatoes, cucumbers, tur- 
nips, onions, etc., are successfully and pro- 
fitably cultivated, the crop is enormous, the 
quality good, and the market for all that is 
not needed at home is sure and at paying 

Nearly every farmer has liis garden well 
stocked with all kinds of vegetables. 

Cabbages are raised weighing ninety pounds 
per head; and sweet corn, sorghum, lettuce, 
melons, radishes, egg plant, etc., are notice- 
ably thrifty and superior. The market is a 
consideration not to be overlooked by intend- 
ing settlers, since abundant crops would be 
of little value if no market at remunerative 
rates was to be had close at home, or within 
easy reach by rail. 


While San Luis Obispo County has a wide 
reputation for its dairying interests, its large 
cattle interests, and capabilities as a grain 
county, it stands second to none in adapta- 
bility for fruit-raising. A fruit-raiser is not 
confined to any one particular kind of fruit, 
but if that is his ambition, may raise nearly 
every known species, peculiar to either north- 
ern or southern California, the soil, climate 

and topography of the county combining 
advantages which few counties or other coun- 
tries possess. The finest qualities of apples, 
pears, peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, 
prunes, olives, figs and oranges, and all kinds 
of nuts, — in fact all fruits, as well as berries 
of^all varieties, grow in abundance with but 
ordinary care. 

East of the Santa Lucia Range, a large 
section of the country is specially suited to 
fruit culture; notably around Creston, Tem- 
pleton, Paso Robles and in fact all of the 
Salinas basin and the San Jose Valley. 

In the valley around the city of San Luis 
Obispo, the fruit-raiser reaps a rich reward 
for his labors, especially with nuts, oranges, 
lemons, figs and olives, the latter being a 
very remunerative fruit and growing luxuri- 
antly. The southern portion of the county 
is well adapted to all fruits; especially must 
the valley of the Arroyo Grande be named, 
and it would be hard to say that one portion 
of the county is better than another for gen- 
eral fruit-raising. 

There is a large market for the fruit- 
grower, both at home and abroad, and now 
that the railroad traverses the county the 
Eastern market opens its doors for the recep- 
tion of our fi'uits. 

With a full-grown, bearing orchard, the 
profits are sure and large, fruit always being 
in demand, and the finer the quality, the 
greater the return. 

Within three years after setting out the 
orchard, the grower will commence to reap 
his reward, increasing of course as the years 
roll around. With olives, walnuts and oranges, 
it .takes somewhat longer, it being about 
seven years before the walnut is in full bear- 
ing, about six for the orange, and from five 
to seven years for the olive. 

There is one never failing, ever increasing 
market for the raiser of fruit; namely, the 


canning industries growing continually on 
this coast, which are making the raising of 
fruit a very profitable industry. 

At no far distant day this county will 
assuredly take a high rank as a grape and 
wine producing section of the State; a large 
area of the hill land of the county is peculiar- 
ly adapted for the grape, favored with soil 
and climate for every species of this luscious 
fruit. Heretofore the mission grape has 
been more largely cultivated than any other 
and the success attained with that variety has 
induced local viticulturists to try the other, 
favorite species and with marked success; 
Black Prince, Flaine Tokay, Muscat, Black 
Hamburg, Black Morocco, Zinfandel, Kiesl- 
ing and Frontignan flourishing wherever 
planted. The raisin and wine industries are 
rapidly increasing, and, the profits being large, 
they are bound to increase still more, as there 
is much room for settlers who wish to engage 
in this pleasant and profitable business. The 
principal home market for wines is of course 
San Francisco, where there is a heavy demand 
by the large houses which supply the East 
with California wines, so rapidly growing in 

To show what success San Luis Obispo 
County vineyards have attained we quote the 
following from an article on the subject pre- 
pared by Mr. P. H. Dallidet, Jr., entitled 
'•Specific Instances: " 

" From the information acquired through 
that and other sources in the last twenty years 
in the county, I am of the opinion that the 
wealth of San Luis Obispo County can and 
will be greatly increased by the planting of 
vineyards, because of the certainty and abund- 
ance of their returns. I will endeavor to give 
facts in a few cases of people living at con- 
siderable distances from each other in the 
county, and any one desiring the full parti- 
culars can write to them for further informa- 

tion, and I have no doubt that they will be 
pleased to give it. Mr. W. N. Short, in the 
neighborhood of Temblor Ranch on the 
eastern border of the county, has a young 
vineyard which surprised him by the num- 
bers of bunches each vine yielded on the fourth 
year, the bunches filling well and berries 
growing to perfection. On the Temblor and 
Cnyama ranches, fifty miles apart on the same 
belt, there may be found trees and vines 
growing without attention that do wonders 
in the way of yield. Mr. Gillis, near Ade- 
laide, told me three years ago, that his two- 
year-old vines. Muscats, and wine grapes, 
bore from ten to thirty pounds each, berries 
very large and sweet, with a beautiful bloom 
on them. His place is thirty miles from 
San Luis Obispo in a northerly direction. 
On W. S. Hinkle's farm some three miles 
from this city are some ten vines in arbor 
form, that were literally purple with grapes 
of the Mission variety every year from the 
year 1860 to 1882, yielding three to five tons 
of grapes annually. Mr. Dolores Herrera, 
near Pozo, planted some vines near his house 
that have borne very well, but said Mr. Her- 
rera, ' 1 had a few cuttings left over after 
planting my vineyard; so I thought I would 
experiment, and I theiefore set them out on a 
dry-looking hill about half a mile away from 
the house, and left the.n there to live or die 
as they chose. After some months 1 saw they 
grew nicely: so I pulled up some of them and 
left the others till the next year. When my 
grapes were ripening, I thought of the hill 
vines and went to see if they were yet alive, 
when imagine my surprise on finding from 
three to five bunches on each little vine, each 
bunch weighing from a half to three-quarters 
of a pound of the finest white grapes I ever 
tasted.' Pozo is thirty miles east of us and 
forty miles from the ocean. Mr. E. W. 
1 Howe, near Morro, has a very nice little vine- 



yard which yields good crops of thirty pounds 
and upwards to the vine. 

" F. Gnillerain, just over the mountain to 
the east of us, has a small vineyard set out 
after the manner of his country, that is, the 
vines from two to four feet apart, which bear 
from five to fifteen pounds each, and of part 
of Ms crop he makes a light wine which con- 
noisseurs pronounce to be equal to the famous 
petit vin du Jurat of France. 

" Mr. Hasbrouck has some twenty acres or 
more of vines at the Ranchita which are 
growing very nicely. Mr. Henry Ditmas, of 
Musick, has some boxes of raisins made by 
him on his place that were equal in point of 
size, color and taste to the best San Bernar- 
dino raisins. 

" Mr. P. H. Dallidet, Sr., has a vineyard 
from four to twenty years of age, and he lias 
taken from his oldest vines, which at seven 
years of age had had good care, as high as 
twenty pounds to the vine, and out of eight 
acres of grapes made one season 6,300 gal- 
lons of wine. 

" Hon. Frank McCoppin, Dr. W. W. Hays, 
E. W.and'Hon. George Steele, J. P.Andrews, 
Goldtree Bros., W. H. Taylor and E. A. At- 
wood, all hnve tine young vineyards and or- 
chards. Besidi-'s these gentlemen who are 
large. V interested, there are a great number 
of persons who have from one acre and up- 
wards in full bearing who all say that vines 
are a success with only moderate attention. 
Out of perhaps 150 persons who have vine- 
yards, I know of but two that irrigate, and 
that because they have an abundance of 
water which would otherwise be entirely 
wasted. As it is, they get a good growth of 
wood, whether at the expense of quantity in 
fruit is a question, but certainly, at the ex- 
pense of quality. Of the persons named 
above only Mr. Guillemin irrigates. 

" Having observed closely the yield of 

grapes for a number of years past, I can say 
without fear of exaggeration that vines of full 
bearing age will yield an average one year 
with another of thirty pounds to the vine.' 


The following account is partly extracted 
from the report of the State Mineralogist: 

Gold, silver, lead, copper, quicksilver, 
chromite, gypsum, onyx, silica, salt, lime, 
coal, and petroleum have been found in the 
mountains of this county. Some of these 
have been found in sufficient quantities to 
pay for working, and it is quite likely that a 
careful investigation of the remote mountain 
regions would result in additions to the min- 
eral resources. * * * It is a matter of 
history that gold was shipped from San Luis 
Obispo and neighboring counties prior to its 
discovery by Marshall in 1848. The explor- 
ers of the Pacific Railroad reported gold west 
of Salinas in 1854, though its existence in 
the San Jose Mountains had long been known. 
Gold has been and is still washed from sands 
in the bed of the San Marcos Creek, about 
four miles northwest of Paso Robles, during 
the wet months of the year, yielding, it is 
said, as high as from $3 to $4 per man per 
day. Placer claims have also been worked 
thirty miles southeast of Templeton since 
1870-'71, ground sluicing and panning when 
water has been plentiful, having yielded from 
$2 to $4 per day. 

The placer mines of the La Panza District 
are the best known, and are probably of the 
most importance. They are situated at the 
southeastern part of the San Jos^ range, 
which rises as a formidable mountain joining 
the Santa Lucia, and over $100,000 in gold 
have been taken out. During 1878 there 
was quite a rush to these parts, and prospect- 
ing was carried on in nearly all the gulches 
leading from the San Jose range to the San 


Juan River. The chief interest was centered 
in tlie de la Guerra Gulch, where the most 
mining was done, — even as late as 1882; also 
upon the Navajo Creek, which is a stream of 
constantly flowing water. Some of these 
placers have yielded as high as $4 per day. 
The gold was coarse, pieces worth 50 cents 
or 80 cents being of frequent occurrence. 
Haystack Caiion also has running water, and 
gold. Near the head of this canon are falls 
of twenty feet, where the water descends into 
a basin nearly twenty feet across, and ten or 
twelve feet deep. 

These streams reach the channel of the San 
Juan during very wet weather. Of late years 
tliese mines have not been actively worked, 
chiefly on account of the scarcity of water. 
In the southern portion of the county gold 
has also been found in sands on the seasliore 
in considerable quantity. They are reported 
as yielding from §1.50 to $2 per day to the 
miner, and, as the gold dust appears to be 
renewed by the washing of the sea, the de- 
posits are practically inexhaustible. San Luis 
Obispo is credited with the production of 
$6,200 in gold during the year 1889, as re- 
ported by the director of the United States 

San Luis Obispo, in common with all of 
the California missions, holds to the custom- 
ary legends of rich silver mines having been 
formerly worked within its borders by the 
Indians and old Spanish padres. 

In 1862, during the ;(reat copper excite- 
ment, several copper mines were opened in 
the northwestern part of the county. Green 
Elephant and North Mexican were among 
the most promising. In 1863 copper was 
obtained and smelted in the neighborhood of 
these mines, and shipped to San Francisco. 
Sulphurites, carbonates, and silicate ores are 
widely distributed throughout the county, 
the float rock being often very rich. Cuban- 

ite, a sulphide of copper and iron, is said to 
exist abundantly upon Santa Rosa Creek. 

Quicksilver was discovered in 1872, by a 
Mexican, in the mountains west of San 
Simeon, although it was long known to exist 
in the county by the Indians, who used it as a 
paint, and were in the habit of visiting the 
Santa Lucia range of mountains to procure 
it for that purpose. Over 150 quicksilver 
claims are recorded in the San Simeou dis- 
trict. In 1871 discoveries of cinnabar were 
made at Cambria; also about eight miles 
north of the tirst discovery, near the north- 
east corner of Piedras Blancas Rancho, which 
led to the discovery of the Pine Mountain 
lode, on the summit of the Santa Lncia. On 
this lode eight claims were located, from 
which a large quantity of ore, stated to aver- 
age 2J per cent., has been extracted. The 
Gibson and Phillips claims, the Santa Maria, 
Buckeye, and Jeff" Davis, are all located on 
the same lode. The San Jo^e mines were 
located in 1872 upon the eastern slope of the 
Santa Lucia range. The principal mine 
that has been developed is the Oceanic. The 
original claims, three in number, were located 
in 1874, and are situated on the north side and 
three-quarters of a milefrom Santa RosaCreek, 
and five miles from Cambria. The ledge runs 
east and west, dipping to the north at an angle 
of about seventeen degrees; the vein is said to 
vary from eight feet to thirty -two feet in width. 
At times over 300 men were employed in 
these works. Three furnaces were erected, 
at a cost of $90,000. Good returns were 
made on the capital while the price of quick- 
silver was high, but when it fell to 40 cents 
per pound it was found impossible to produce 
it at a profit, and work was suspended. 

Large deposits of chromite exist in various 
parts of the county, but minitig has been 
principally carried on in the Santa Lucia and 
Buchon ranges. Racklitt"8 mine is situated 


five miles northwest of the county-seat; is 
leased to William Copeland & Co. Devel- 
opments have been carried on here to a liiu 
ited extent during the past year, and between 
100 and 200 tons of the chromite were 
shipped to San Francisco; price paid at San 
Luis Obispo, $9.00. The San Jiian, Castro, 
Primera, El Salto, and EI Devisadero, whicb 
are situated northeast of San Luis Obispo, 
are the property of Goldtree Brothers. These 
mines have not been worked during the cur- 
rent year, there being sufficient chromite al- 
ready on the dump to satisfy the demand. 
The price obtained is $8.50 per ton at San 
Luis Obispo. The principal sliipments have 
been to Germany. William Goldtree states 
that it would not pay to work these mines 
unless $12 per ton could be obtained for 
the average product. The mines are patented. 
G. Jasper is working a mine seven or eight 
miles distant from San Luis Obispo, and he 
ships about 150 tons per year to Baltimore. 
The price obtained is $8 per ton. It is the 
opinion of those conversant with chromic 
mining in the county that a miner could 
only make wages by working his own mines 
at such a ti^ure. 

Several deposits of electru-silicon occur in 
the county, particularly in the vicinity of the 
bay of San Luis Obispo and San Carpojoro. 
The deposits at the latter place have so far 
proved of the greatest value, great quantities 
liaving been shipped for polishing purposes. 
The name of Salinas (saline) was given to 
the principal river of San Luis Obispo and 
Monterey counties because of the saline 
springs along its banks and tributaries. In 
the mountains, about the rivers' headwaters, 
are many salt springs of the strongest brine, 
and large deposits of salt ruck. Black Lake 
is a small sheet of water, half a mile in di- 
ameter and of irregular contour, situated near 
the summit of the San Jose mountains, and 

is so intensely salt as to form a brine suitable 
for the preservation of meat without further 
concentration. The salt deposits of the Car- 
riso Plain appear like a dry lake, being five 
miles in length' and from half a mile to two 
miles in breadth. The salt covers the bed to 
a depth of from six inches to two feet, and 
is sufficiently pure to be used for many pur- 
poses. It is much used for stock, being 
hauled away in wagons to the ranchos, twenty 
or more miles distant. Water intensely salt 
is found at a depth of two or three feet be- 
neath the surface in the vicinity of this 

Limestone is found in many localities in 
this county. In the vicinity of Nipomo 
Rancho is a large body of soft, marly lime- 
stoue, that produces a fair article of lime. A 
good supply of limestone suitable for lime is 
now being obtained in Lopez Caiion, about 
eight miles east of the town of Arroyo 
Grande, and lime burning lias been com- 
menced there with a good pros-pect of suc- 
cess. The immense bed of fossil clams and 
oysters, near the Oceanic mine, and on the 
Santa Margarita Rancho, and the huge Os- 
trea titans occurring in several places, when 
burnt, yielded a fair article of lime, which 
has been used extensively in retorting at the 
quicksilver mines in tliis county. 

Gypsum is found at the headwaters of Ar- 
royo Grande and on Navajo Creek. 

Coal was discovered in tliis county as early 
as 1863 on the beach at San Simeon, by 
William Leffingwell, who used it for black- 
smithing. The San Simeon Coal Mining 
Company was subsequently started by C. B. 
Rutherford, of Oakland. This is said to 
have been the first mining company started 
in the county. The outcrop of the vein was 
two feet in width, and usually covered with 
water at high tide. A shaft was sunk to a 
depth of about 100 feet, at which point the 


coal dwindles to a mere seam, and mining 
was abandoned. Coal has also been found 
in the mountains east of the town of San 
Luis Obispo, but not in sufficient quantities 
to pay lor working. 

There are several varieties of building 
stone in the county. The range of peaks 
which extends from San Luis Peak to Moro 
Rock are composed of trachytic porphyry, 
which is used locally, and of late there has 
been some talk of establishing a quarry 
either at Moro Rock or some of the neigh- 
boring peaks. A sandstone crops out also a 
half mile southeast of Arroyo Grande, and 
extends to Los Yaros Creek. At the latter 
place a quarry has been opened by Hugill 
Brothers. About iifty feet of rock are here 
exposed, which is a light bufi'- colored sand- 
stone, soft when quarried, and can be sawed 
into cubes, but becomes hard upon exposure 
to the atmosphere. This stone has been 
much used for chimneys and foundations in 
this vicinity. A quarry of similar rock is 
said to have been opened by J. S. Rice iive 
miles from Pisnio wharf. 

There is a notable onyx mine five miles 
from Musick, in the heart of the Santa Lucia 
mountains, amidst rugged, precipitous spurs 
and ridges, which make the scenery exceed- 
ingly wild and grand. Here, ten years ago, 
David Musick, while hunting for deer, dis- 
covered the character of the rock, and claims 
were made as for a gold or silver bearing 
vein, as the locality was Government land. 
A company was formed and prospecting was 
done, but the locators, not seeing their way 
clear to develop the mine, presently sold it 
for $250 to J. and F. Kessler, marble-workers 
of San Francisco, who have jealously guarded 
and extended their claim, and, having per- 
fected the title, are now ready to open the 
property. A road is in course of construc- 
tion from Musick along arroyos and over 

ridges to the ledge, being built for the com- 
paratively small sum of $1,300. The sum- 
mit of this ridge is 1,900 feet above sea level, 
the Santa Lucia range here reaching an ele- 
vation of 2,000 to 3,500 feet, and forming 
the watershed of the Arroyo Grande flowing 
southwest, the Huasna flowing south, and the 
Salinas north by west. The surrounding 
country afl"ords good grazing and an abundance 
of live oak and chapparal. 

The onyx ledge runs athwart the ridge 
bearing slightly west of north and east of 
south. Faces of from twenty to forty-tive 
feet in height have been opened on the ledge 
on each side of the ridge, the northern one 
showing a brilliant white mass of rock in 
seams of two to sixteen inches in thickness, 
standing nearly perpendicular. The southern 
opening is about half a mile from the first, of 
similar formation, but showing rock of vari- 
ous colors, of yellow, green, blue, golden, 
white and other shades, giving it the highest 
value for ornamental work. This, Mr. Kess- 
ler claims is the most beautiful and valualde 
deposit of onyx known in the world. The 
ledge is sixteen feet in thickness and the 
opening exposes to view more than a thousand 
tons of the rock. The outward appearance is 
of a rusty, rugged stone, not attractive until 
broken and the lines and waves of the blend- 
ing colors seen. A \'q\\' tons have been drag- 
ged down the mountain in sleds and taken to 
San Francisco, where it was sawed into slabs 
or cut into such shapes as required and pol- 
ished. A piece eight inches square and half 
inch thick, was sold to Gov. Stanford for $25. 
In a rough state it sells readily for $100 a ton. 
The proprietor showed a fragment of eight 
feet in length, by sixteen to eighteen inches 
in breadth and thickness, which he said would 
be worth $300 in San Francisco. This would 
be cut into thirty slabs half an inch thick, 
and polished, and be worth $10 a square 


foot at least, or bring a return ot $3,600. 
Others become valuable according to tlieir 
colors and the forms they are worked into. 
The labor this will employ and the value re- 
sulting is inconceivable. There is now a rage 
for colored onyx in a vast variety of forms, 
— of mantels, tables, counters, pillars, panels, 
frames, ornaments, etc. But the customers 
are among the rich of the East and Europe. 
It cannot be utilized but to a slight extent 
in California. The railroad forbids, and 
the high rates of labor give, an advantage 
elsewhere. The raw material will go by sail- 
ing vessel to Atlantic and European ports for 
$9 a ton. In New York it can be worked by 
labor at $1.50 a day; in France and Italy at 
50 cents a day, and in Belgium at 25 cents a 
day, while in San Francisco such labor de- 
mands from $3 to $4 a day. Thus it will be 
worked abroad, and, what Californians want, 
will pay the railroad $45 a ton and vast 
protits to the employers of cheap labor. But 
Sun Luis Obispo will have the honor of sup- 
plying the beautiful material in its crude 
state and profit on the glory. 

Near the summit on the divide and on the 
line of the onyx ledge is a spring of very sin- 
gular water. It tastes like the water from 
oysters, and a conmon glass full is a strong 
purgative. Bruises, cuts, poison oak and 
other sores are quickly cured by bathing 
in it. For medicinal purposes this water 
appears very valuable, and what it is, is a 

" At and in the immediate vicinity of Port 
Harford there are extensive bodies of ser- 


" On the ' Rancho El Pismo,' about seven 
miles southeast of San Luis Obispo, * * * 
great quantities of all the rocks are saturated 
with bitumen. There are, it is true, places 
where the rock is free from bitumen and | 

other places where the percentage which it 
contains is small. But the greater portion of 
it, where the quarry has been opened, is about 
as lull of bitumen as it can hold, and the 
quantity easily available here is practically 
inexhaustible. A short sidetrack from the 
Pacific Coast Railway runs directly to the 
quarry. [Blasting is required, and the quar- 
rying is oft m perilous, from the clinging for 
a while of a portion of the very tough rock, 
which will afterwards fall suddenly, in pieces 
of many tons' weight, which drop without 
warning. — Y. H. A.] Tiiey are now shipping 
this rock both to Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco for pavements, for which it seems to be 
admirably adapted. 

" At a point about three-quarters of a mile 
from this quarry, there is another large do- 
posit of bituminous sandstone very heavy- 
bedded, on the ' Corral de Piedra' Rancho. 
It is called > Oak Park.' But very little 
work has been done yet at this locality, and 
the exposures are not so good as could be de- 

" Mr. J. J. SchifFerly also has a rancho of 
1,344 acres, about one mile westerly from 
Adams & NichoUs' quarry (these gentlemen 
own the two first mentioned), where most of 
the hills are full of bituminous rock. There 
is probably enough of this material within a 
few square miles in this vicinity to pave all 
the cities in tl:e United States. 

" Mr. A. B. Hasbrouck, who owns a rancho 
called ' Ranchito,' in the Santa Lucia range 
of mountains, about twenty-two miles south- 
east of the city of San Luis Obispo, and on 
the headwaters of the Arroyo Grande, states 
that on his place there are large quantities of 
asphaltum, with some petroleum springs and 
much sulphur water." 

The large deposits of asphaltum and the 
presence of rock saturated with bitumen sug- 
gested the presence of petroleum, and in May, 


1886, Messrs. -Nicholls, Adams & Walker 
undertook the boring for oil in the valley of 
the San Luis Creek, about two miles from the 
ocean. At a depth of 600 feet a body of hot 
sulphur water, accompanied by ^as was struck. 
The boring was continued to a depth of 900 
feet, when an accident occurred that caused 
the further prosecution of the work to cease. 

At this depth the iiow of water is about 
3,000 barrels a day, with a jet of gas burning 
with a ilame three feet high from an aperture 
two inches in diameter. The water has a tem- 
perature of 100 degrees, and tlie "oil well" 
has become the Hot Sulphur Well, and the 
locality improved as a bathing and health 
resort. A hotel and bathing- houses have been 
erected, and, the site possessing many attrac- 
tions, it bids fair to become one of the many 
popular resorts of the coast. 

The boring for oil led the same parties to 
investigating the formation of the rocks in 
the neighborhood, and over a large area it was 
found that certain sandstones were saturated 
with bitumen, forming a rock very valuable 
for paving purposes. 

Througli a region of twenty miles in length 
by four in width, were found many high^ 
rocky projections almost rising into moun- 
tains, largely composed of this bituminous 
rock. These barren ridges, previously re- 
garded as of little value, immediately became 
objects of great demand. A paving material 
of such value, in unlimited abundance 
and of so easy access appears a discovery of 
inestimable value to the world. 

This material is used in paving in San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego and other 
cities, causing a demand at this early day of 
its development of some 3,000 tons a month. 
The consumption of this rock will largely 
increase, creating a very important business 
and become a great source of wealth to the 

The main bituminous rock mines are situ- 
ted in a belt one mile wide and ten miles 
long, extending fro n San Luis Creek to Ar- 
royo Grande, and from five to fifteen miles 
south and southeast from San Luis Obispo. 
About 30,000 tons were mined and exported 
last year. The quantity in the hills is in- 
finite. The chemical analysis of this sub- 
stance is as follows: linely divided sand, 65.- 
917; bitumen, 16.255; iron and alumina, 8.- 
405; calcium carbonate, 8.212; magnesium 
carbonate, 1.003; undetermined, .208; total, 
100. Some seven or eight companies are en- 
gaged in mining this rock. The S. L. O. 
Bituminous Rock Company, it is said, will 
build a wharf about a half a mile south of 
Cave Landing. The company is developing 
the rich mine within 1,500 feet of the pro- 
posed wharf. 

We believe that California has advantages 
second to no State in the Union for dairying 
and cattle raising; the only drawback being 
the high price of labor; but the soil, climate 
and native grasses are all exceedingly favor- 
able, making San Luis Obispo County one 
of the best, if not the banner county for this 

Although one of tiie youngest counties in 
the business, and for many years compara- 
tively inaccessible, it has long occupied the 
second place for productiveness, and now 
claims the first place. 

The rainy and consequently grass season is 
expected in November or December and lasts 
till June — that is, the season for green and 
growing native grasses produced spon- 
taneously, wild oats and volunteer grain 
often being five inches high during the first 
of December. The climate is peculiarly 
fitted for dairying, on account of the feed 
grasses, and general vegetation being con- 


staiitly kept in good condition by the moist- 
ure from the ocean, besides the regular rainy 
seasons, and there being no necessity for 
irrigation; the trade winds make the climate 
warmer in winter, keeping off frosts and 
freezing weather. 

As a result of snch a climate and soil we 
have a luxurious growth of the most nutri- 
tious grasses known on this coast; all kinds 
of small grain, corn, roots, alfalfa, Australian 
rye and orchard and other foreign grasses are 
grown successfully. 

At the commencement of the rainy season 
the native grasses, to-wit, wild oats, alfilaria, 
various kinds of clover and bunch grass 
spring up as if by magic. Later comes the 
alfalfa, which continues green all the year ex- 
cept during the very few frosty nights when 
it is cut down; but the first crop in winter, 
being rank and sour, is cut and used for hay. 
The dairy cows are also fed green corn, and 
later, roots, squashes and hay; the squashes 
will keep nearly all winter if well matured, 
and the carrots and beets may remain in the 
ground till needed, and will keep growing, 
and are often carried over until the next sea- 
son. In that case they will come in for feed 
when the native grasses begin to mature and 
dry, and consequently need something to go 
with them. 

Thus it will be seen that there is no need 
of resorting to silos in order to have the 
proper milk-producing feed the year round. 
The native grasses, when they mature dry and 
remain upon the ground, make a very good 
quality of hay in this climate, and the seeds 
of the burr clover, particularly, are like grain, 
on which the stock cattle and dry cows sub- 
sist during the whole dry season. The num- 
ber of squashes and roots that can be grown 
to the acre is wonderful — from twenty to 
forty tons of green corn, alfalfa and squash; 
from fifty to 100 tons of roots; the writer 

has weiged single mangel-wurtzels that aver- 
aged over 100 pounds, and squashes 270 
pounds. He also made a three-days test of 
the milk from 150 cows while grazing on the 
native grasses, to ascertain the value of the 
milk for butter and cheese. The cream was 
separated from the milk by a Lavel Separa- 
tor, and 17.76 pounds of milk made a pound 
of liutter, eight and three eighths pounds of 
milk made one pound of cheese from the 
press, good solid cheese; thus demonstrating 
the native grasses to be the very best cheese 
and butter producing food. In most locali- 
ties it takes about ten pounds of milk to 
make one pound of cheese, and twenty-five 
pounds of milk to make a pound of butter on 
the average. The above test was made from 
all the milk of 150 cows lor three consecutive 
days, furnishing a test of the most conclusive 

For thirty years there has not been a day 
in which there lias not been made cheese or 
butter in some of the dairies there. When 
put to extra expense, by raising feed, prices 
of produce are higher. By milking the 
year round they keep their best help, dis- 
tribute the calf-raising, keep their business or- 
ganized and their stock in good condition. 
Thus they can dairy profitably the year 

A Holstein cow that was fed bran and 
shorts in addition to grass, and milked twice 
a day, made by actual weight 17,270 pounds 
of milk in one year. It was her first year in 
the county, and she was carrying a calf dur- 
ing eight months of the time. Several of 
two-year-old Holstein heifers, under pre- 
cisely the same treatment, made about 10,- 
250 pounds of milk in one year. It can 
safely be said from the above showing that 
San Luis Obisbo is the banner dairy county, 
and that her cows and grasses can not be ex- 
celled in this or any other State. 


Perhaps, on the 


whole, no better judgment 
he resources of the county 
upon a resume of the ex- 
produced over and above 
home consumption. To 
after given a statement of 
Port Harford for the last 








may be found of 

than that founded 
ports of material 



Other live-stock 

... 1,635.3 


. . 134 8 

those needed for 


the exports from 
four years. 









. . 8 383 9 







. . . 35.8 


. . . 83.0 

306 9 

Other grains 

. . . 197.7 

Other grains . 

. . 203.9 




... 145.1 





... 9,903.0 
.. 1,193.0 
. . . 465.3 

1 524 



... 3,310.9 
190 2 


. . . 635.0 

912 6 


. . . 978.7 



. . . 892.0 

.. 181.7 


. . . 117.9 
100 3 




Other live-stock 

. . . 585.9 



... 1,416.0 

... 1,037.8 
. . . 120.0 


649 8 

. . . 204.6 

Other live-stock 

. . 78.9 

Agricultural implements 

. . . 196.6 



.. 9,189 9 




91 502 7 



San Luis Obispo County 
(1889) via Port Harford, by 
Pacific Coast Steamship C 
mention shipments by other 
from other landings — the fo 

Asphaltum and bituminous rock. 


last year 
s of the 


7 271 3 

nces and 



.. 9,423.6 
237 5 


..; 74.2 
47 4 


Flax seed 

Other grains 

896 3 

. 2,014,800 

... 371.1 









. . 174.9 
383 4 

. 3,998,400 




. 709,800 

Chrome ore 

. 7,835,200 


. . 853.1 



Six luindred and seven steamers arrived 
and departed during tlie year, besides a large 
number of sailing vessels. 

The reports of shipments for 1890 are not 
yet rendered, but the officials estimate that 
the export of bituminons rock will be one- 
third greater than last year. On the other 
hand the excessive rains of last season 
having caused a light grain crop, the aggre- 
gate of exports probably will not exceed that 
of last year. 


After the adoption of the constitution of 
the State of California, the office of county 
judge of San Luis Obispo was first held by 
Don Jose Mariano Bonilla, a native of the 
city of Mexico, who had been judge of the 
first instance under the Mexican rule, and 
sub-prefect and alcalde iinder the military 
government, after annexation and prior to 
the adoption of the constitution. It is re- 
lated ot Senor Bonilla that his keen sense of 
justice was once severely outraged in the 
trial of a case between two Mexicans, in- 
volving the ownership of a horse. Judge 
Bonilla and W. J. Graves were the only 
lawyers in the coiinty, and. Graves having 
been retained by the plaintiff and Bonilla 
occupying the bench, the defendant was left 
without an attorney. This seemed to the 
judge such a hardship that he summoned 
the sheriif to preside over the court, while he 
himself descended from the bench and de- 
voted to the cause of the defendant all his 
ability and energy. That he was thoroughly 
impartial and unbigoted appears fi-om the 
fact that, after due deliberation, he rendered 
judgment for the plaintiff, against his own 

To Judge Bonilla succeeded (elected in 
1850) John M. Price, who also had been 

alcalde. He served less than one year, when 
he was followed by William J. Graves, who 
had been a member of the State Assembly 
and of the State Senate. 

O. M. Brown was next elected to this office, 
taking his seat in March, 1853. He held 
the position for two years, and was succeeded 
by Komualdo Pacheco, a member of one of 
tlie old Spanish-American families, promi- 
nent in California both before and after an- 
nexation. Mr. Pacheco held various import- 
ant offices in the State, including that of 

In 1857 Jose Maria Muiioz was elected 
county judge to succeed Pacheco. Judge 
Munoz was a native Californian, well edu- 
cated in Spanish, but unable to speak En- 
glisli. His opposing candidate was ex-Judge 
Jose M. Bonilla. Judge Munoz held the 
office until 1861, wiien he was succeeded by 
Dr. Joseph M. Havens, one of the pioneers 
of California. 

In 1863 Dr. Havens was succeeded by 
Wiliam L. Beebee, one of the oldest and 
most respected citizens of San Luis Obispo. 
Again Mr. Beebee was elected in 1867, and 
was confirmed in his seat after a protracted 
and expensive litigation, the election having 
been contested by Charles Lindley. 

In 1871 the choice for county judge was 
McDowell K. Venable, who since 1869 had 
held a high position at the bar here. In 
1875 he was the only candidate for county 
judge, and received almost the entire vote of 
tile county. He continued in this office until 
it was abolished by the adoption of the new 

The constitution provided for the division 
of the State into judicial districts, and that 
at its first session the Legislature should 
elect for each district one district judge, wiio 
should hold office for two years from the 1st 
of January succeeding his election, after 


which the judges should he elected at the 
general election, to hold office for six years. 
This court was given original jurisdiction in 
law and equity; in all civil cases where the 
amount in dispute should not exceed $200, 
exclusive of interest; in all criminal cases 
not otherwise provided for, and in all issues 
of fact joined in probate court. 

Henry Amos Tefft was the first gentleman 
elected by the Legislature judge of the dis- 
trict comprising San Luis and Santa Barbara 
counties. He held the office until February 
6, 1852, when, returning from holding court 
at Santa Barbara, he was drowned in San 
Luis Obispo harbor while attempting to dis- 
embark from the steamer Senator. 

The sad death of Judge Tefft left vacant 
the chair of this district court, and to it was 
appointed, in February, 1852, Joaquin Car- 
rillo, then county judge of Santa Barbara. 
This gentleman was a grandson of Ray- 
mundo Carrillo, the first commandante of 
Santa Barbara presidio. Judge Carrillo was 
not familiar with the English language, and 
when cases were tried in that language it was 
necessary to interpret to him the court pro- 
ceedings. Yet the Carrillo family having 
high rank and influence, he was elected with- 
out opposition district judge at the ensuing 
general election, and he continued to hold 
the office until 1863. He was in character 
at once imperious and convivial, as appears 
in an incident related by Mr. D. F. Newsom, 
who was appointed county clerk in 1853. 
Judge Carrillo one day asked Mr. Newsom 
to join him in a social glass, and Mr. New- 
som declined, as he never took wine or liquor. 
Thereupon the judge took umbrage, declaring 
that a man who would not drink was not tit 
to be clerk of his court, and that for the dis- 
courtesy he would remove him from office; 
accordingly the sheriff was called upon to 
furnish a deputy to act as clerk. Now there 

was here no one qualified for this position 
save Mr. Newsom, whose knowledge was of 
the greatest usefulness and importance in the 
public functions, badly organized as gener- 
ally were the offices. Therefore the sherifl 
prt)mptly appointed Mr. Newsom deputy 
sherifl", and detailed him to act as clerk, 
which office he continued to till without op- 
position or comment from Judge Carrillo. 

After the census of 1860 the State was re- 
apportioned into judicial districts, and San 
Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, 
San Bernardino, and San Diego counties were 
grouped into the first district. An amend- 
ment to the constitution hereafter segregated 
the judicial from the political election, ordering 
them to be held at different times. At the 
election in 1863 the candidates for judge of 
the first district weie Pablo de la Guerra and 
Joaquin Carrillo, of Santa Barbara, and Ben- 
jamin Hayes of Los Angeles, the first men- 
tioned being elected. Judge de la Guerra was 
one of the most notable of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can citizens of California. He was born in 
Santa Barbara, his father at the time com- 
manding the presidio of Santa Barbara. 
Don Pablo de la Guerra filled a conspicuous 
role in public affairs in California, both before 
and after aimexati(m. He held at different 
periods the offices of supervisor of customs, 
judge of the first instance, member of the 
constitutional convention, State Senator, 
president of the Senate, and, by succession, 
Lieutenant-governor. He was re-elected to 
the office of district judge until 1869, and 
remained the incumbent until failing health 
compelled his resignation in December, 1873, 
he dying some two months later. 

On the resignation of Judge de la Guerra, 
Governor Booth appointed to t!ie vacant 
position Hon. Walter Murray, who in 1869 
had been a candidate for the position, carry- 
ing San Luis Obispo County, but being 


defeated by the large vote cast in Santa Bar- 
bara County in favor of Don Pablo de la 
Guerra. He was a man of firm convictions, 
immovable principles, and great independence 
of character. Unfortunately, lie survived his 
predecessor but two years, dying at San Luis 
Obispo, October 5, 1875. 

In tlie campaign of 1875 Walter Murray 
was the promising candidate to succeed him- 
self; but, he dying just before the election, 
the next preferred was Eugene Fawcett, of 
Santa Barbara, who continued in this ottice 
until it was abolished by the new constitution. 
He was then, in September, 1879, elected in 
Santa Barbara County to the new office of 
superior judge, created by the new constitu- 
tion; and, taking his seat January 6, 1880, 
he died within three days. 

The new constitution, adopted in 1879, 
entirely reconstructed the judiciary system in 
California, abolishing the district courts, and 
replacing them by superior courts, one to 
each county. In San Luis Obispo, Louis 
McMurtry was elected superior judge on a 
union ticket, defeating the nominee of tlie 
workingmen and new constitution parties. 
Mr. McMurtry at this time had been district 
attorney since 1877. He fulfilled the duties 
of tliis new office with great credit, but was 
shortly stricken with disease, and died Feb- 
ruary 11, 1883. 

Tlie vacancy left by the decease of Judge 
McMurtry was filled by appointment, Gov- 
ernor Stonenian attending the prayers of a 
preponderance of constituents in selecting 
Durrell S. Gregory, to whom had been paid 
the compliment of admitting him to practice 
by special act of the Legislature. Judge 
Gregoi'y had a brilliant reputation in his pro- 
fession, and had served two terms as State 
senator. He had been district attorney in 
Monterey County, and in 1860 he had been 
sent as a delegate to the memorable Charleston 

convention. Judge Gregory discharged the 
duties of this office for some years, and until 
his death, which befell on June 5, 1889. 

Diiring the last few months of his incum- 
bency San Luis County had had a second 
judge in the person of Hon. V. A. Gregg, 
who had been appointed February 8, 1889, 
by virtue of a special act of the Legislature. 
Judge Gregory's office ceased with the expira- 
tion of his incumbency. 

Though the election records of 1850 do not 
mention tlie office of district attorney, O. M. 
Brown, afterward county judge, was ap- 
pointed by the court of sessions to fulfill the 
duties of such office. 

After him, in 1851, was appointed Parker 
H. French, of unsavory record in connection 
with AValker's filibustering expedition to Nic- 
aragua, and other questionable proceedings. 

Hubbard C. M. Ely was elected to this 
office in 1853; and W. J. Graves was elected 
in 1855; and he, being elected the following 
year to the Assembly, was followed by James 
White, appointed by the board of supervisors. 

Walter Murray was elected in 1859, and 
P. A. Forrester in 1861; James White fol- 
lowed him in 1863; and Walter Murray once 
more became district attorney in 1867. He 
was succeeded by Newton Dennis Witt, who 
filled the term. Then, in September, 1871, 
was elected A. A. Oglesby, who was re-elected 
in 1875. After Mr. Oglesby came Louis 
McMurtry, afterward superior judge. He 
was district attorney from 1877 to 1879, 
when Ernest Graves, son of the pioneer, Hon. 
W. T. Graves, was elected by the working- 
men and new constitution parties. Graves 
was. re-elected in 1882. 

Mr. F. A. Dorn is the present district attor- 
ney (October, 1890), the former incumbent, 
Mr. Arthur R. Earll, having died in June, 

In the early days there were few lawyers 



in San Luis Obispo, yet since the organization 
of the county the bar here has comprehended 
eloquent and able lawyers. Among these 
may be mentioned Frederick Adams, Judge 
Robt. C. Bonldin (died December 16, 1879), 
R M. Preston (died in Sonoma County, 
1882), W. H. Spencer, J. M. Wilcoxen, 
Jasper N. Turner, C. H. Clement, J. R. Pat- 
ton, and R. B. Treat, who, with those already 
mentioned, and others now practicing, present 
a fine array of talent. 

There is no regular bar association in San 
Luis County, although there is a good mutual 
understanding among the attorneys. There 
are seventeen lawyers resident at the county- 
seat, and various others in the interior towns. 
The oldest and best known of these gentle 
men are: — Judge McDowell R. Venable, 
Cyrus Wren Goodchild, Ernest and 'William 
Graves, William Spencer and J. M. Wilcoxen. 

San Luis Obispo County contains thirty- 
seven election precincts, ss follows: — Arroyo 
Grande, No. 1, Arroyo Grande, No. 2,. Av- 
enales. Beach, Cambria, Carriso, Cayucos, 
Cholame, Chorro, Corral de Piedra, Creston, 
Cuesta, Estrella, Huasna, Josephine, La 
Panza, Las Tablas, Los Osos, Lynch, Morro, 
Nipomo, Orcutt, Oso Flaco, Painted Rock, 
Paso Robles, No. 1, Paso Robles, No. 2, 
Piletas, San Jose, San Jiian, San Luis Obispo, 
No. 1, San Luis Obispo, No. 2, San Luis 
Obispo, No. 3, San Luis Obispo, No. 4, San 
Miguel, San Simeon, Santa Margarita, 



Virgil A. Gregg Superior Judge 

A. C McLeod Slieriff 

Chas. W. Dana Clerk 

F. A. Dorn District Attorney 

B. F. Petitt Treasurer 

C. A. Farnum Auditor 

J. T. Walker •. Collector 

J. Feidlar Recorder 

J. M. Felts Assessor 

W. M. Armstrong School Superintendent 

G. B. Nichols Coroner 

T. A. Greenleaf Public Administrator 

Geo. Story Surveyor 


J. C. Baker 1st District 

F. F. White 3d District 

P. F. Ready 3d District 

G. T. Gregg 4th District 

J. V. Webster 5th District 


A. F. Parsons Arroyo Grande 

D. M. Meredith San Luis Obispo 

Miss C. B. Churchill Paso Robles 

B. H. Franklin Cambria 

Wm. Armstrong, ex ofl3cio San Luis Obispo 


in the county are twenty-nine, as follows: — 
Adelaida, Arroyo Grande, Avenal, Cambria, 
Cayucos, Cholame, Creston, Dove, Edna, 
Estrella, Goodwin, La Panza, Linne, Los 
Berros, Morro, Musick, Nipomo, Painted 
Rock, Paso Robles, Port Harford, Pozo, 
Root, San Luis Obispo, San Miguel, San 
Simeon, Santa Margarita, Siinmler, Starkey 
and Templeton. 

Of these, seven are money-order offices, 
and the San Luis Obispo issues also inter- 
national money orders. This is a third-class 
office. The postmaster is W. S. Cannon. 
He has two assistants,-— young ladies. The 
semi-annual statement of this office, from 
October 1, 1889, to April 1, 1890, shows 
that the total number of letters and parcels 
handled during that period was 3,613; second- 
class matter sent was 5,934 pounds; money 
orders issued amounted to $12,547.03; money 
orders and postal notes paid, to $12,319.86; 
total receipts for fees, stamps, etc., $3,972.06; 
net income from the office, $1,447.86. 

From May 5 to May 12, 1890, this office 
handled 417 pounds, eight ounces, or 6,477 
pieces of mail, the income amounting to 


The office now contains 352 boxes and 
twelve drawers, and the newly-leased quarters 
could accommodate just twice that number 
should increased population require it. 

The first school in San Luis Obispo, under 
the new regime, was opened in 1850, in a 
room of the mission building, the Spanish 
language being the medium of instruction. 
The teacher was Don Guillermo Searles, born 
in Chili, of English parents. This was a 
gentleman of education, and his administra- 
tion gave satisfaction. The population being 
then very sparse, the one school district 
covered the whole county. Searles' successor 
was Michael Merchant, an Irishman, who 
came thither via Mexico. He taught in 
Spanish. It appears that during his admin- 
istration the county fund failed, and the 
pupils were required to pay $5 per month 
tuition. Mr. Merchant was succeeded by 
Mr. Parker, who, instead of teaching in 
Spanish, and simply repeating the lessons, 
required his pupils to translate from one 
language to the other, they attaining to con- 
siderable progress by the drill. In 1854 Mr. 
D. F. Newsom was the teacher, and he gave 
his instruction in English, and required his 
pupils to translate the lessons into both 
languages. At that time there were in the 
county but forty children able to speak Eng- 
lish. To Mr. Newsom is due the honor of 
having organized the schools of San Luis 
Obispo upon the basis followed until now. 
At this time the assessor was ex-officio super- 
intendent of schools, but little or no atten- 
tion was paid to the department until Mr. 
Newsotii's incumbency. 

The progress of the schools was slow dur- 
ing the first decade, and there was but one 
district i;ntil 1861, when San Simeon district 
was formed where several American faiuilies 

had settled on a small area of Government 
land along Santa Rosa Creek. The two dis- 
tricts comprised the county, the dividing 
line being entirely indefinite. There were now 
735 children of school age, and 230 under 
the limit, that is, a total of 965 children 
under eighteen years old, in the county. Of 
these, sixty-two attended the mission district 
school, and thirteen the San Simeon school 
in 1861. The records are much broken up 
to 1866, since when they are complete. 

In 1870 there were 1,275 children of 
school age in San Luis Obispo County, of 
whom 566 attended the public, and 109 at- 
tended private, schools. In 1880 the total 
number of school census children was 2,752, 
of whom 1,805 were in the public, and 
seventy-eight were in private, schools. In 
twenty years the number of public schools 
here increased from two to fifty-three, the 
corps of two was enlarged to one of fifty- 
nine teachers. In 1863 the appropriation 
from the county for the school fund was 
$613; the county tax rate for this purpose 
in 1882-'83 was fixed at twenty and one-half 
cents on each $100. 

The school reports for June 30, 1890, show 
there are 4,733 census cliildren in San Luis; 
the total enrollment to 3,845; the average 
number belonging, 2,515; average daily at- 
tendance, 2,307. The number of districts 
has increased to ninety-two, with 112 teach- 
ers, of whom the men receive an average 
salary of $75, and the women $63. The 
total amount received from all sources, 
for school purposes, for this year, was 

The districts are all well supplied with 
good school-houses, barring such as come 
under the law of one year's probation. The 
buildings are neat in style, and some care is 
had with regard to the condition of the 
eruunds. The best edifa'ccs are those of San 



Luis, San Miguel (where the main building 
cost $10,000), Paso de Robles, which town 
has lately expended $8,000 upon two build- 
ings, and Nipomo, where the school-house 
cost $5,000. 


During the month of July, 1890, the light 
was shown at the new light-honse on Point 
San Luis Obispo. This is a light of the 
fourth order, showing alternate red and 
white flashes, with thirty seconds interval, 
illuminating 240 degrees of the horizon; the 
focal plane is 133 feet above mean low water, 
and in clear weather the light can be seen at 
a distance of seventeen and one-half miles, 
from the deck of a vessel, fifteen feet above 
the sea. 

The approximate geographical position of 
this light-house is as follows: Latitude 
north 35°, 9', 32"; longitude west 120°, 
45', 42". 

This edifice was constructed from an ap- 
propriation of $50,000, made during the 
Cleveland administration. Its estimated 
cost as per the Government architect should 
be $38,000, but the contractor built it for 
$17,000, at a severe loss to himself. 

The light is shown from a black lantern 
surmounting a square frame tower attached 
to the southwest corner of a frame dwelling 
one and a half stories high, painted white, 
with brown roof, green blinds and lead 
colored trimmings. Some fifty yards east- 
ward stands another similar dwelling; be- 
tween the two, some fifty yards southward, 
is the steam fog-signal house, painted like 
the dwellings, and having two black smoke- 
stacks. The fog signal was put in place 
some weeks later than the light. Stephen 
D. Ballon is light-keeper. 


The Pacific Coast Railway, at that time 
known as the San Luis Obispo & Santa 

Maria Yalley Railway, was opened from 
Avila to Castro, some seven miles distant, 
February 1, 1876. Thence it was extended 
from Castro to San Luis Obispo, operations 
being begun August 16, 1876. The next 
section opened was from Avila to Port Har- 
ford, December 1, 1876; and the next, from 
San Luis to Arroyo Grande, the extension 
being completed and operations begun Octo- 
ber 16, 1881. Then followed the section 
from Arroyo Grande to Santa Maria, June 1, 
1882; thence Santa Maria to Los Alamos, 
October 4, 1882; and from Los Alamos to 
Los Olivos, the present terminus, November 
17, 1887. The total length of the road is 
now 76.1 miles in this county. 


Since the days of the wreck of the iron 
bark Harlech Castle, off Piedras Blaucas, in 
August, 1869, the need of a breakwater at 
Port Hai-ford has been apparent. 

In January, 1850, the citizens of San Luis 
Obispo held a meeting and passed resolutions 
to petition Congress for an appropriation for 
the construction of a breakwater at the har- 
bor. In accordance with the spirit and in- 
structions of these resolutions. Hon. H. Y. 
Stanley, member of the Assembly from San 
Luis Obispo in the legislative session of 
1880 introduced the following resolution: 

"■Resolved, By the Assembly, the Senate 
concurring, that our senators and represent- 
atives in Congress be and are hereby respect- 
fully and earnestly requested to procure an 
appropriation from the general Government,, 
to be expended in the construction of a 
breakwater for the harbor of San Luis Obis- 
po, and to make said harbor a port of entry. 
The Governor of this State is hereby re- 
quested to transmit a certified copy of the 
foregoing resolution to each of our senators 
and representatives in Congress." 


The resolutioa was adopted, but while 
Congress voted many millions for improve- 
ments of rivers and harbors, the breakwater 
of San Luis Obispo was ignored. The port, 
including Port Harford, Avila, Pismo Wharf 
and all points in the bay, was made a port of 
delivery, where ships may discharge foreign 

From this period forward the Luiseilos 
have kept up a pretty persistent clamor for a 
breakwater at Port Harford. Myron Angel 
in particular kept the matter constantly be- 
fore Congressman Markham, a member of the 
River and Harbor committee, as well as the 
representative from the Sixth District. Thus 
it came about that in the session of 1885-'86, 
Mr. Markham obtained an appropriation of 
$25,000 for the aforesaid purpose. This be- 
came ineffective because President Cleveland 
" pocketed " the bill. However, the matter 
had now been presented to Congress in such 
a fashion as to facilitate its revival at a 
future date. 

In the following Congress, Representative 
Vandever was petitioned to secure an appro- 
priation, and further, the citizens of San 
Luis raised a fund and sent to Washington 
a special emissary. Rev. R. L. Breck, whose 
efforts conduced largely toward the desired 
end. In this manner was definitely obtained 
an appropriation of $25,000. The contract 
was now let and the breakwater begun, $23,- 
000 being expended on the contract, and 
$2,000 on superintendence. 

During the Fifty-first Congress was made 
another appropriation, this time of $40,000, 
for continuing work on this breakwater, 
whose completion will certainly secure to 
San Luis Obispo one of the finest harbors on 
the coast of California. It is designed to 
connect this harbor with the Tulare Valley, 
this being the tide- water point nearest to that 


The pioneer secret society in San Luis was 
San Luis Obispo Lodge, No. 148, F. & A. M., 
which was organized May 16, 1861, by char- 
ter from the Grand Lodge of California. The 
members were Dr. Joseph M. Havens (who 
was county Judge, also Past Master in Ma- 
sonry), Michael Henderson (who was a '49er, 
and one of the oldest Masons in the State, his 
initiation dating from Tuolumne County, in 
1850j; Thompson D. Sackett, Abraham 
Blockman, Walter Murray, James McElrath, 
David F. Newsom, Joseph Riley, Joseph See, 
and James White. During the year, Gov- 
ernor Romualdo Pacheco and seven or eight 
others joined this lodge. The famine years, 
1863-"64, caused such changes in the popu- 
lation that but few of the old members re- 
mained here, and this lodge surrendered its 
charter. Some of the members joined other 
lodges, but San Luis Obispo County was 
without a Masonic organization until early in 
1869, when San Simeon Lodge, No. 196, was 
founded under dispensation, and in October 
under charter, at Cambria. 

The need lor the Cambria Lodge to visit 
the town of San Luis to bury a prominent 
Mason led to the organization of King 
David's Lodge, No. 209, June 21, 1870, un- 
der dispensation, and November 1, under 
charter. This lodge in 1875 constructed a 
fine Masonic hall in San Luis Obispo. 

San Luis Obispo Chapter, No. 62, R. A. M., 
was constituted on April 28, 1883. 

In March, 1870, the Odd Fellows of San 
Luis Obispo organized Chorro Lodge, No. 
168, and the order has instituted a number 
of imposing anniversary celebrations. 

On September 28, 1870, Hesperian Lodge, 
No. 181, I. O. O. F., was organized at Cam- 
bria, with seven charter members. 

The first Rebekah Degree Lodge was 
Morse Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 25, in- 


stituted at Cambria, June 10, 1877. Imme- 
diately following was Friendship Rebekah 
Degree Lodge, No. 36, organized at San Lxiis 
Obispo, July 12, 1877, with twenty-eiglit 
charter members. 

Park Lodge, No. 40, Knights of Pythias, 
the first of the order in the county, was or- 
ganized December 20, 1876, at San Luis 
Obispo, with sev^en charter members, by dis- 
trict officers from Santa Barbara. 

On April 18, lbl78, was instituted Section 
No. 147, Endowment Rank, K. of P. 

Li -Tune, 1873, was founded at Cambria 
the Cambria Grange, No. 25, of California 
Patrons of Husbandry; in September, 1873, 
the grange at Arroyo Grande, and in 1874, 
five granges in this county reported to the 
State Grange. 

San Luis Obispo Lodge, No. 122, I. O. G. 
T., was organized in February, 1878; Corral 
de Piedra Lodge, L O. G. T., in February, 
1883; Obispo Council, A. L. of IL, on May 
9, 1881; San Luis Obispo Division Inde- 
pendent Order of Missourians, on March 8, 
1879; Society of Pioneers, on June 14, 1879; 
the Temperance and Life Insurance Society; 
on May 9, 1870; the San Luis Obispo Agri- 
cultural Society, on March 25, 1875; the 
Order of Chosen Friends, on March 30, 1883, 
and tlie Irish Land League, May 13, 1883. 


San Lui:^ Obispo had been an American 
town for more than twenty years, and a 
county-seat for nearly eighteen years before she 
had a newspaper. This because the ways of 
life there were not such as tended to create 
excitement or foster greed for news. The 
chief interest of the country was in cattle- 
raising, and the section took life and variety 
from the consequent movements of the herds 
and drovers. 

On January 4, 1868, was issued the first 

number of the San Luis Obispo Pioneer, tiie 
first newspaper published in this county. Its 
publisher and proprietor was Rome G. Vick- 
ers, and it was by its own showing " an in- 
dependent weekly journal, devoted mainly to 
the interests and advancement of San Luis 
Obispo County." It was a four-page paper, 
and it appears to have had good patronage for 
a time although it proved a financial failure 
at last. 

The Pioneer inclined to the Democratic 
doctrines, and the Republican element com- 
bined to establish for themselves a party or- 
gan. Thus was issued on August 7, 1869, 
the first number of the San Luis Obispo 
Tribune, also a four-page paper, one or two 
of whose columns were printed in Spanish, as 
the language spoken by a majority of the 
people in the county. The paper was first 
under the proprietorsliip of H. S. Rembaugh 
& Co. In 1871 an interest in it was owned 
by Mr. James J. Ayers, one of the founders 
of the San Francisco Morning Call, now of 
the Los Angeles Herald. He remained but 
a few months with the Tribune. 

The Pioneer lived but about two years, and 
it was succeeded on February 12, 1870, by 
the Democratic Standard, between which 
and the Tribune was waged a warfare of 
words more forcible than elegant. 

On March 20, 1878, appeared the first 
number of The South Coast, a four page pa- 
per dedicated to the interests of the section. 
It was established by Mr. Charles L. Wood, a 
gentleman of considerable attainments. The 
South Coast was issued until August, 1879, 
when its plant was sold to the Southern Cali- 
fornia Advocate. 

Undeterred by the non-success of their 
predecessors, Messrs. C. H. Phillips and 
George W. Mank issued, on August 2, 1879, 
the Southern California Advocate, a folio of 
seven columns to the page. This paper nn- 


derwent variouB changes of proprietorship, 
continuing its issue until its tifty-second 
number, when its subscription list was sold 
to the Tribune, and the material turned over 
to its creditors. 

The Mirror was established by Messrs. 
Doyle & Crenshaw in October, 1880, as an 
organ of the Democratic party. It was a 
large, well-managed folio sheet, issued weekly. 

On January 15, 1883, was issued the first 
number of the Repuhlic, which was the first 
daily published in the county. The weekly 
edition followed promptly. The foundera 
were Messrs. E. F. O'Neil, A. Pennington 
and G. W. Jenkins. 

The county-seat now has two good joiir- 
nals, the Tribune, daily and weekly, edited 

by Benjamin Brooks, being Republican in 
politics; and the Republic, an independent 
sheet, with Democratic proclivities, owned 
and edited by Messrs. Angel & Hughston. 
Both papers are well conducted and contain 
much information concerning the surround- 
ing section. 

Outside of the county-seat there are no 
daily newspapers; and tbe following is a list 
of the county weeklies: the Advance, of 
Templeton; the Moon and the Leader, Paso 
de Robles; the Courier and the Messenger, 
San Miguel; the Herald, of Arroyo G-rande. 

The Templeton Times, the Nipomo News, 
and the Cambria Critic were issued for a 
time, but they have now suspended publi- 



Although quite a number of Americans, 
being traders, sailors, or adventurers, had 
settled in various parts of the territory now 
known as Santa Ijarbara County, none of 
them had located permanently at San Buena- 
ventura up to the time of American military 
occupation, since Santa Barbara, the more 
important town, had superior attractions for 
them. When Stevenson's regiment arrived 
in Southern California, Isaac Callahan and 
W. A. Streeter were put in charge of the 
mission at San Buenaventura. A few years 
later Russel Heath, in connection with Don 
Jose Arnaz and one Morris, established the 
first store within the present county limits. 
In 1850 came C. C. Rynerson and wife from 
the Mississippi Valley, camping at first at 
the mouth of the river San Buenaventura; 
they afterward moved northward. The first 
American farmer was A. Colombo, and Mr. 
Ware was the first blacksmith. Even as late 
as 1857 there were in the whole district but 
two houses of entertainment. One of these 
was a tent on the Sespe Rancho, and the other 
a little hostelry established in rooms in the 
east wing of the ex-mission buildings. It is 
worth while to note here a tribute to the cli- 
mate of Ventura County, paid by John Carr 
and wife, who kept this little inn or tavern. 

They had lived together for twelve years in 
childlessness, but within two years of their 
arrival in San Buenaventura they had pre- 
sented their country with no less than five 
children, products, so they declared, of the 
matchless climate! 

The first lumber-yard was kept by Thomas 
Dennis, but the date of his arrival is not 
given. Very early in the '50's T. Wallace 
More obtained a title to an immense tract 
of the richest land in the region ; he claimed 
over thirty miles along the Santa Clara and 
in other districts, possessions about as enor- 
mous, over which grazed 10,000 head of cat- 
tle. These lands were valued at ten to fifty 
cents the acre. During this period the whole 
Colonia Rancho was sold for $5,000, and this 
price the purchaser finally concluded was ex- 
orbitant. About 1854 W. D. Ilobsou re- 
moved to the Sespe, where he built a house 
and there Lived in 1859. In 1858, the Amer- 
icans resident in San Buenaventura were: A. 
M. Cameron, Griffin Robbins, W. T. Nash, 

W. Williams, James Beebe, Park, W. 

D. Hobson, McLaughlin and one other, 

name unknown. As late as 1860 there were 
but nine American voters in the precinct. 
Chaffee & Robbins, and afterward Chaffee & 
Gilbert, kept the only store in the town for 
many years. In 1860 the Fourth of July 


was celebrated here with a regular procrram 
of exercises, and iniicli enthusiasm was dis- 
played. About this time the Ameiican pop- 
ulation was agm anted by the arrival of John 
Hill, Y. A. Simpson, Albert Martin, G. S. 
Briggs, G. S. Gilbert, W. S. Chaffee, W. A. 
Norway, H. P. Flint, the Barnetts and 
Messrs. Burbank, Hankerson, Crane and 

hi 1861 a postoffice was established at 
San Buenaventura, and Y. A. Simpson be- 
came postmaster. The mail matter received, 
apparently, was not extensive, for it is related 
that on its arrival the postmaster was in the 
habit of depositing it in his hat, and then 
walking around among the citizens to deliver 
the letters. "This," says a previous histo- 
rian, "may be regarded as the tirst introduc- 
tion of the system of letter-carriers in Cali- 
fornia." This year the lirst brick house in 
town was built by W. D. Hobson, who moved 
hither from the Sespe. 

During the winter of 1861-'62, there was 
an excessive amount of wet weather; rain 
fell for sixty consecutive days; all the land 
to a great depth was saturated and reeking; 
live stock was reduced almost to starvation, 
the animals dying in great numbers. Land- 
slides were very frequent, half of the soil in 
certain localities being moved to a greater or 
less distance. Tlie soil would often be dis- 
placed in patches of an acre or more. In the 
town various houses were submerged, or car- 
ried away bodily. The only life lost was that 
of Mr. Hewitt, a resident of Santa Barbara, 
who was drowned while on a prospecting 
tour up the Tiru Creek. Travel was rendered 
almost impossible for twenty days. In 1862 
Messrs. Waterman, Yassault & Co., owning 
the lands of the ex-mission, laid out a town 
there. This enterprise had been projected as 
early as 1848, when Don Jose Aruaz laid out 
here a town site, and advertised the advan- 

tages of the spot in Eastern journals, offering 
lots to those who would make improvements 
upon them. This offer had not elicited re- 
sponse, and the subject had not been revived 
until the project above mentioned. The sur- 
vey made in this instance was rejected by the 
board of trustees after the town was incor- 
porated, and another was substituted. The 
first attempt to incorporate was in 1863, 
when a number of citizens met and drew up 
a petition addressed to the Legislature, ask- 
ing for incorporation. Ramon J. Hill, at 
that time a member from Santa Barbara 
County, opposed the proposition, and the sub- 
ject was dropped for the time. 

The following is given as an accurate list 
of the foreign (i. e., not Spanish or Mexican) 
citizens resident in San Buenaventura in 
1862: Baptiste Ysoardy, who came in 1858; 
Agustin Solari, in 1857; Yictor Ususaus- 
tegui, in 1852; Ysidro Obiols, in 1853; An- 
tonio Sciappapietra in 1862; John Thomp- 
son, in 1862; Oscar Wells, George Y. Whit 
man, Albert and Frank Martin, in 1859; 
Myron Warner, in 1863; William Pratt, 
1866; William Whitney, 1864; Thomas R. 
Bard, in 1865; Henry Cohn, in 1866; Jo- 
seph Wolfson, 1867; Clements, 1868; 

Thomas Williams, 1866; A. T. Herring, 
1863; Henry Spears, 1865; Walter S. 
Chaffee, Yolney A. Simpson, John T. Stow, 
Griffin Robbing William S. Riley, William 
T. Wash, Jefferson Crane, John Hill, Henry 
Clifton, Marshall Routh, George S. Gilbert, 
James Beebe, William H. Leigh ton, Samuel 
Barnett, Sr., Samuel Barnett, Jr., William 
Barnett, W. D. Hobson, Alex. Cameron, Mel- 
vin Beardsley, George Dodge, George S. 
Briggs, Albert de Chateauneuf and Henry 


In 1864 the question of incorporation was 
renewed and accomplished, but it was not 



until thirteen jears later that tlie patents to 
the town site were received from the Goverii- 
nient. This was the year of the disastrous 
"dry season;" the rains of the preceding sea- 
son had not wet the ground deeper than three 
inches, and the feed was therefore a failure. 
From this cause two-thirds of all tlie stocii in 
Ventura famished. 

The beginning of growth and development 
in Ventura is agreed to date back to the sub- 
division into small tracts of the large ranchos, 
thus inducing immigration and settlement by 
small farmers and fruit-raisers. In 1866, 
the Briggs tract was cut up and put on the 
market, and two years later began a general 
influx of Americans, from which directly re- 
sulted an epoch of prosperity which became 
assured with the breaking up and selling to 
actual settlers of the great ranchos of Santa 
Paula y Saticoy and Colonia or Santa Clara. 

The first cultivation of grain in Ventura 
County was by Christian Borchard and his 
son, J. A. Borchard, on the Colonia Rancho 
in 1867. Thirty acres each of wheat and 
barley were sown. The rust destroyed the 
wlieat crop, but the barley yielded eighteen 
centals or hundreds per acre. 

Tlie first Protestant church (Congrega- 
tional) was organized in San Buenaventura in 

Again in 1867 was San Buenaventura 
visited by devastating waters. On Christ- 
mas Day of that year the Ventura River 
overflowed, and the water rose to a depth of 
three feet in Main Street. The lower part of 
the town was submerged, and the safety of 
the inhabitants was endangered. The land 
from the Santa Clara House to the river was 
flooded, and forty-seven women, gathered from 
the imperiled houses, were assembled in one 
small adobe shanty. Some of these had been 
broiight from their flooded homes on horse- 
back, and others had been carried on the 

shoulders of men. This episode gave rise to 
various feats of real gallantry, courao-e, and 
daring. The immediate cause of the freshet 
was supposed to be the melting of heavy 
deposits of snows about the river's source, 
through the agencj- of warm rains falling 
upon them. 

In 1868 came hither Dr. Cephas L. Bard, 
the first American physician in San Buena- 

In September, 1870, San Buenaventura 
and Santa Barbara were placed in telegraphic 

Anticipating the needs and opportunities 
to result from the creation of the new county, 
in immediate prospective, John H. Bradley 
in April, 1871, started the Ventura Signal 
at the proposed new county-seat. Mr. Brad- 
ley was a good and practical business man, 
and an editor of some experience; and so, 
avoiding the political issues not properly 
within the province of a country newspaper, 
he devoted his attention to the production 
and publication of matter relative to the rec- 
ommendations and resources of the section; 
such as would contribute to the advancement 
and advertisement of the region and its 

Contemporaneously with the formation of 
the county, work was begun to provide canals 
to supply water for domestic and irrigating 
purposes. Tlie old Mission water- works, 
which brought a supply from six miles up 
the Ventura liiver, was overhauled and re- 
paired, portions of the aqueduct liavino- been 
destroyed by the excessive rains of 1861-'62. 

Owing to the difliciilties attendino- the 
disembarkation of freight and passengers by 
means of lighters to transport them between 
the vessels and the shore; it became evident 
that a wharf was an absolute necessity to the 
public. Accordingly, in January, 1871, a 
franchise was procured, and work was begun 


lipon the structure, by Joseph Wolfson. The 
beginning of operations was signalized bj' 
formal ceremonies. In August of this year 
the right to construct a wharf at Hueneme 
was granted to Thos. R. Bard, C. L. Bard and 
R. G. Surdam. 

By February, 1872, the Ventura wharf 
was so far completed as to obviate further 
necessity for lightening steamers now dis- 
charging directly upon it. Rates of toll were 
instituted, and an instrument of great public 
utility was lirmly established. 

In May, 1871, was formed the Santa Clara 
Irrigating Company, designed to water the 
fertile lauds of the Colonia Rancho from the 
Santa Clara River. -The canal tlierefor was 
twelve miles long, twelve feet wide, and two 
feet deep, with branches of smaller dimensions. 

In 1871 also surveys were made for "The 
Farmers' Canal and Water Ditch," taking 
water from the Santa Paula Creek, and con- 
veying it some eight and a half miles down 
the valley. 

In December, 1871, Ysabel Yorba sold to 
Dickenson & Funk the Gnadalasca Rancho, 
comprising 22,000 acres, for $28,500. 

In 1872 many property owners refused to 
pay taxes, owing to the abeyance of financial 
settlement between Ventura and Santa Bar- 
bara counties. 

In July, 1872, the first gold was taken to 
Santa Barbara from the Sespe mines. 

On September 16, 1872, the corner-stone 
of the high school building at San Buena- 
ventura was laid. This building was the 
first public building erected in the county. 
The total number of school children in the 
county at that time was 800. 


The inception of the plan for setting off 
Ventura from Santa Barbara County dates as 

far back as 1868. In that year began a new 
era of growtii, increase in population, and 
prosperity in business. This was mainly 
owing to the subdivision into small tracks of 
several important ranchos in the district. 
The sale of these tracts to small farmers and 
fruit-growers brought immigration, the estab- 
lishment of industries, production, and the 
circulation of money. As the country be- 
came populous, the citizens desired local, 
independent government, and so began to 
agitate the project of creating a new county. 
This question was made an issue of the elec- 
tion of 1869, and Mr. A. C Escandon was 
elected to the Assembly tor the purpose of 
furthering the plan, but the measure mis- 
carried in the Legislature, thanks to the 
opposition offered by the northern pait of 
the county. The Venturans were not van- 
quished by this defeat, but continued to carry 
on a vigorous light for division. The Ven- 
tura Signal, established largely with a view 
to that end, was a powerful weapon in this 
struggle, devoting itself to demonstrating tlie 
advantages of such division. It is not un- 
interesting to note some of the statistics 
presented in this discussion. Santa Barbara 
County then had a total area of 5,450 square 
miles, or 3,491,000 acres, of which 1,570,419 
acres were covered by Spanish grants, 1,920-, 
581 acres being public lands, the most of 
which were of an inferior character. The 
proposed new county comprised 20,600 acres 
of improved land and 2,000 acres of wooded 
land, probably of individual ownership, and 
390,000 acres of unimproved land, of private 
holding. It was estimated that the real estate 
was worth $3,018,200 ; personal property, 
$911,000; the total valuation for the projected 
new county being $3,929,200. There were 
2,800 head of horses and mules, 6,000 horned 
cattle, and 7,400 sheep, — worth in the aggre- 
gate, $442,000; the wool clip was 350,00*6 


pounds; there were produced 35,000 pounds 
of butter and 20,000 pounds of cheese an- 
nually, the revenue from farm products beinoj 
$307,000. The new county would contain, 
as per the Signal of February' 17, 1872, an 
area of 2,000 square miles, and a population 
of 3,500, with an assessment roll of $1,200,- 
000, leaving Santa Barbara with 3,000 square 
miles, 7,000 inhabitants, and an assessment 
roll of $2,000,000. 

By the openingof the session of the Legisla- 
ture of 1871-'72, there had been engendered 
so strong a public sentiment as to result in 
organized action, and W. D. Hobson, a prom- 
inent citizen, was chosen and sent to Sacra- 
mento to work for the desired end. So 
successful were the measures now taken that 
the bill, when presented to the Assembly, 
passed with but one dissentient vote; and in 
the Senate it was approved also, March 22, 
1872, and it was ordained to be in force on 
and after January 1, 1873. The boundaries 
prescribed for the new county were as follows: 
Commencing on the coast of the Pacific 
Ocean, at the mouth of the Rincon Creek, 
thence following up the center of said creek 
to its source; thence due north to the bound- 
ary line of Santa Barbara County; thence in 
an easterly direction along the boundary line 
of Santa Barbara County to the northeast 
corner of the same; thence southerly along 
the line between the said Santa Barbara 
County to the Pacific Ocean and three miles 
therein; thence in a northwesterly direction 
to a point due south of and three miles dis- 
tant from the center of the mouth of Rin- 
con Creek; thence north to the point of 
beginning and including the islands Anacapa 
and San Nicolas. 

Contemporaneously with the passage of 
the bill for county division, great activity 
sprang up in Ventura. During the summer, 
the immigration was so extensive that the 

accommodations were insufficient to hold the 
new arrivals. Municipal improvements were 
instituted, new buildings were erected, in- 
cluding a hotel and a $10,000 scliool-house, 
water companies were established to supply 
the needs for irrigation and domestic pur- 
poses, and the county government was organ- 
ized, with the usual complement of officers, 
the county to contain three townships, three 
supervisorial districts, and eight election pre- 
cincts. The townships were: Ventura, Sat- 
icoy, Hueneme; the supervisorial districts 
coincided with the respective townships; the 
election precincts were: San Buenaventura, 
La Caiaada, Mountain View, Sespe, Saticoy, 
Pleasant Valley, San Pedro, and Hueneme. 

The Legislature appointed a board of com- 
missioners, consisting of S. Bristol, Presi- 
dent; Thomas R. Bard, Secretary; W. D. F. 
Richards, A. G. Escandon, atid C. W. Thacker, 
to put into action the government of Ventura 
County. Meeting on January 15, 1873, this 
board issued a proclamation calling for an 
election to be held on the 25th day of Feb- 
ruary following, to elect district attorney, 
county clerk, school superintendent, sheriff, 
assessor, county treasurer, county surveyor, 
coroner, and supervisors. 

The county was divided into three town 
ships, Ventura, Saticoy, and Hueneme, the 
islands of San Nicolas and Anacapa being 
attached to and forming a part of Huenenje 
Township. The voting places were estab- 
lished for the various election precincts, num- 
bering eight. 

As Soon as the county government was 
established, certain changes were made in the 
road districts. 

All the territory in the first supervisorial 
district was made into the San Buenaventura 
road district; the third supervisorial district 
was designated as constituting the Saticoy 
road district, and Mountain View and Sespe 


road districts were united into one under the 
name of Sespe road district. 

The iirst election was held on February 25, 
1873. The Republicans had desired a fusion 
of parties and nominations irrespective of 
politics; but, the Democrats opposing this 
proposition, the usual course was followed, 
the result being a Democratic victory. The 
total vote polled was 630. The officers elected 
were as follows: District judge, Pablo de la 
Guerra; county judge, Milton Wason; dis- 
trict attorney, J. Marion Brooks; county 
clerk, Frank Molleda (dying very shortly, S. 
M. W. Easley was appointed); sheriff, Frank 
Peterson; treasurer, E. A. Edwards; assessor, 
J. Z. Barnett; superintendent of schools, F. 
S. S. Buckinan; surveyor, C. J. DeMerritte; 
coroner, Dr. Cephas L. Pard; county phy- 
sician. Dr. S. P. Guiberson; supervisors, 
James Daley, J. A. Conaway,C. W. Thacker; 
justices of the peace, J. W. Guiberson, W. D. 
Hobson, F. A. Sprague, J. G. Picker, John 
Saviers, R. J. Colyear. 

On April 13, 1873, a final settlement with 
Santa Barbara was effected under the terms 
of the act of Legislature of March 22, 1872. 
The commissioners from Ventura were 
Thomas P. Bard and Charles Lindley, and 
from Santa Barbara, Ul piano Yndart and C. 
E. Huse. Their report was as follows: 

Assets to March 20, 1873 $10,093.87 

Old court-house hdcI lot 3,000.00 

Present unfinished court-house with proceeds 

of bonds 50,000 00 

Interest paid and unpaid on same 1,652 7(5 

Cost of advertising 400.00 

Delinquent taxes collected to date 3,810.78 

Funds for interest on hand 2,098.92 

Total assets 


Bonds of 1856 and subsequent indebtedness. $19,796.42 

Courthouse and jail bonds 50,000.00 

Interest due on same 777.76 

Total indebtedness. 
Excess of assets 

. 1,682.15 

of which the proportion belonging to Ventura 
County was fixed at $581.52. 


The supervisors in May, 1873, ordered the 
issue of $20,000 in interest-bearing bonds, 
to meet current expenses, and advertised for 
bids for the same; they also authorized the 
transcription of such portion of the records 
of Santa Barbara as related to Ventura Coun- 
ty, paying F. A. Thompson $4,000 for that 
service. The county-seat was appointed by 
the creating act to be at San Buenaventura, 
and the question of county buildings at once 
assumed importance, as the rental paid by the 
county for the use of private buildings 
amounted to $1,044 per annum, besides $3 
per diem paid for guarding the prisoners, in 
the abf^ence of a jail building. Hence the 
supervisors appropriated $6,000 of the funds 
resulting from the sale of the bonds, to the 
erection of a court-house, on condition that 
private parties should donate $4,000 and also 
a suitable site for the purpose. 

Bishop Amat, head of the Roman Catholic 
diocese of Southern California, now renewed 
his previous offer of three blocks of the old 
mission garden, on condition of the erection 
within two years of a $i0,000 building. 
These terms were accepted, the $4,000 sub- 
scribed by the citizens, and the court-house 
was promptly built. 

In the autumn of 1873 took place the regu- 
lar State and county election, resulting in the 
seating of the entire Republican ticket except 
the school superintendent. 

By the following enumeration of holdings 
may be seen what radical changes by this 
time had come about in land ownership since 
1868, when the whole territory of the present 
county had been owned by a handful of men 
in great ranchos, largely uncultivated. In 
1873 there were: ninety-five ranchos of 100 


to 200 acres; nine ranches of 200 to 400 acres; 
seven of 500 acres; two of 600 acres; six 
of 800 acres; two of 900 acres; seven of 1,000 
acres; one of 1,100 acres; three of 2,000 
acres; one of 2,500 acres; one of 4,000 acres; 
two of 4,500 acres; two of 6,500, and one 
each of 8,000, 9,000, 10,500, 12,500, 13,500, 
17,090, 23,000, 24,000, 42,000 and 131,083 
acres. Total number of acres assessed, 338,- 
761; value assessed $1,554,951. 

A very sensational tragedy had place in 
the record of this year. At the Colonia 
Rancho, George Eargan, after disputing 
George Martin's land boundaries, shot and 
instantly killed Martin, and he was immedi- 
ately captured and lynched by the neighbors 
of the murdered man. 

In April, 1873, extensive bodies of gyp- 
sum were found on the Ojai Rancho. 

On June 23, 1873, the Ventura Reading 
Club was organized. 

In 1873 Mr. Bradley, on account of ill- 
health, retired from the Signal, Messrs. W. 
E. Shepherd and John T. Sheridan siicceed- 
ing him. 

In January, 1874, was published the first 
report of the county treasurer, which showed 
tiiat the preceding year's receipts were $20,- 
522, and tiie disbursements $5,018, leaving 
a balance of $15,504. 

In 1874 were made extensive additions and 
improvements to the wharf constructed at 
San Buenaventura in 1871. 

On November 23, 1874, the Ventura Lib- 
rary Association was incorporated. 

During 1874 there was a notable advance 
in population and in wealth throughout Ven- 
tura County, and many new and important 
institutions were organized. The Fourth of 
July was here celebrated with a vim and an 
originality perhaps not equaled elsewhere in 
the State. In August, the question of local 
option in regard to the traffic in liquor came 

up in Ventura, but on putting it to a vote of 
the people, the temperance faction was put 
badly in the minority. On September 19, the 
bank of Ventura was founded; on September 
20, the trotting park was opened to racing. 
At the election this year, some attention was 
paid to the nativity of the voters, and the 
population was found to be very cosmopolitan, 
numbering members from almost every 
country. The tax list showed thirty-five 
citizens owning from $10,000 to $187,000 
each worth of property. A notable feature 
of this year's record was the remarkable 
lowering of rates and fares. The jealous com- 
petition between the South Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company and the California Steam 
Navigation Company, brought the fare from 
Ventura down to $3 to San Francisco, and 
$4 to San Diego, while merchandise was 
transported for $1.50 per ton. The shipments 
of produce from San Buenaventura for the 
six months ending May 1, 1874, were: 
wheat, 5,600 sacks; barley, 23,000 sacks; 
corn, 6,000 sacks; beans, 2,100 sacks; wool, 
1,000 sacks; hogs, 300; sheep, 700; petroleum, 
1,876 barrels. 

The winter of 1874-'75 was an exception- 
ally wet one. In one week of January, 1875, 
9y3-ja_ inches fell at San Buenaventura, while 
the fall in the Ojai Valley was tremendous, 
it being estimated that ten inches of water 
fell within twenty-four hours, whereas, even^ 
in those sections where the fall sometimes 
amounts to sixty inches in the season, a fall 
of three inches in twenty-four hours is con- 
sidered excessive. Peculiarly enough, too, 
the excessive fall here was not general 
throughout the State that ssBson. The phe- 
nomenal quantity here was attributable to 
cloudbursts. The rivers, San Buenaventura 
and Clara, were for days at a time impass- 

The year 1875 witnessed the establishment 



of various iustitiitions of the highest impor- 
tance to tlie comfort and advancement of the 
section. The " Monumentals," a lire com- 
pany, was organized, comprising in its officers 
and members many of the most respected 
citizens of San Buenaventura. The Ventura 
Gas Company was also instituted, the city 
appreciating the need of efficient street illu- 
mination; and an impulse was given to manu- 
facturing industry, in the opening of a large 
steam planing-rnill. 

The Free Press was first issued November 
30 of this year, running for a very few months 
as a daily, and continuing as a w-eeiily. 

The diversity in the California field of 
• politics at this time bore its natural fruits 
here as elsewhere. There were three State 
tickets before the people, and Ventura en- 
tered into the canvass with great energy and 
enthusiasm; the Republicans, fearing injury 
to their cause by the disaft'ection of the tem- 
perance people, prepared a ticket to unite 
these two factions. Nevertheless, the Demo- 
crats elected most of their candidates. This 
election took also the sense of Ventura for 
the new Constitutional Convention, at this 
time offered for suffrage. 

It was on April 13 of this year that a final 
settlement of finances was effected between 
this and the motlier county of Santa Barbara, 
under the terms of the act of March 22, 
1872. The commissioners from Ventura, 
Thomas E. Bard and Charles Lindley, 
met with C. E. Huse and Ulpiano Yndart, of 
Santa Barbara, and, making the estimates and 
balancing accounts, they found Ventura en- 
titled to $581.52. 

Early in 1876 -came a disaster for Ventura, 
in the loss of the Kalorama, which was an 
iron schooner-rigged steamer of 491 tons' 
burden, belonging to the Coast Steamship 
Company; she had accommodations for sixty- 
three cabin, fourteen steerage and thirty-nine 

deck passengers. Built in England, and 
purchased for the coast trade, she had been 
since the beginning of 1873 plying between 
San Francisco and San Diego, and way ports, 
alternating witii the Constantino. On Fri- 
day, February 25, 1876, she lay at Wolfson's 
wharf, when, being chafed by the roll of the 
surf, she was ordered to move out to the 
floating buoy. On the way thither, the screw 
fouled with the mooring line, and left the 
vessel at the mercy of the wind, which drove 
her ashore at once. No lives were lost, but 
as she lay on the beach the heavy machinery 
broke loose in her hull and beat her to pieces; 
the loss was $77,500. 

Ventura, always fond of civic displays, cele- 
brated the Fourth of July in this the Centen- 
nial year, with actual pomp. Besides the 
program of parade, orations, music, .etc., a 
dinner was prepared on the grounds for no 
less than 3,000 individuals. At Sespe also, 
there was a spirited celebration. 

There had now been added two more pre- 
cincts (Santa Paula and Conejo) to the origi- 
nal eight in the county, and they polled at 
the presidential election in this year an ag- 
gregate of 1,097 votes. The Hayes elect- 
ors received 608 votes, the Tilden electors 
590; Pacheco, Republican nominee for Con- 
gress received 694, and Wigginton, Demo- 
cratic candidate, 532. There were now 1,400 
names on the Great Register, and an estimated 
population of 7,000, being just double that 
in the county at the date of organization. 
There were now twenty-seven citizens paying 
taxes on $10,000; twelve paying on more 
than $15,000; seventeen on $20,000 to $50, 
000, and one each paying respectively $75,- 
000, $100,000, $150,000, and $200,000. 

The year 1877 was made fairly calamitous 
by a drouth of excessive severity. Great 
numbers of sheep and cattle perished from 
the lack of feed caused by the dry weather, 


and multitudes were saved only by transpor- 
tation to distant pastures where feed was 
plentiful. T. Wallace More, of Ventura, sent 
10,000, and Metcalf & Co., 6,000 head of 
sheep through the Soledad Pass to Elizabeth 
Lake, in Los Angeles County, where good 
grazing was found and great herds of cattle 
were sent by various owners to Arizona. 

On March 29, 1877, the brig Crimea, of 
223 tons, loaded with lumber, while made 
fast to the wharf, parted her lines and was 
beached during a heavy westerly gale and 
sea; loss $9,200. It was reported also that a 
portion of the wharf was washed away. 

On the evening of October 22, Charles 
Bartlett and Walter Perkins walked down 
the wharf to watch the heavy rollers, caused 
by a southeaster. Finally, alarmed by the 
tremendous height of three, the largest they 
had ever seen, the gentlemen decided to beat 
a hasty retreat, and they ran up the wharf at 
full speed. When thej had covered some 
two-thirds of the distance to shore, the first 
of the rollers struck and breached the wharf, 
and at the progress of the wave the piles 
bent down before it like grass-stalks. The 
two fleeing men barely saved themselves from 
being overtaken by the waves, and the wharf 
reeled and rolled beneath their feet as they 
fairly flew along it. 

On December 1, the brig Lucy Ann, of 
199.61 tons, here parted her moorings in a 
northwesterly gale and a heavy sea, and was 
wrecked, with a loss of one life and $6,500. 

These repeated disasters caused the people 
of Ventura to yearn fur a Government appro- 
priation for a breakwater, and they accord- 
ingly entered a petition therefor. In conse- 
quence of their representations. Lieutenant 
Seaforth, of tlie United States Engineers, 
examined the port or roadstead, and made an 
exhaustive report, adversely, however, to the 
construction of the breakwiiter. 

Ventura County made substantial progress 
this year; business was in a prosperous con- 
dition, and manufacturing interests were be- 
ginning to awaken. A substantial brewery 
had been erected, with a capacity of 1,500 
gallons per week. The Casitas Pass road was 
inaugurated this year, under an $8,990 con- 
tract, the expenses being met by the issue of 
bonds for $8,000, which were sold for $8,580 
to Sutro & Co., of San Fraucisoo, thus index- 
ing the solvent condition of the county; the 
assessed value of all taxable property here had 
now risen to $3,270,161. 

The election this year distributed the offi- 
ces pretty evenly between Democrats and 
Republicans. One office was yielded to the 
Democrats with considerable bitterness of 
spirit by the Ventura constituency, who, with 
the Republicans of Santa Barbara and San 
Luis Obispo, had nominated T. R. Bard, the 
reputed wealthiest man in the county, as the 
Republican candidate for the State Senate, as 
against Murphy, a wealthy land -owner of San 
Luis Obispo. Mr. Bard was nominated with- 
out a dissenting voice, and received a hand- 
some majority in his own section, but the 
Democratic vote in the other two counties 
elected his opponent. 

The chief item recorded for 1878 is the 
arrival from San Francisco, in January, of the 
apparatus of a hook and ladder comjiany, 
following the " Monumentals," long the only 
fire company in Ventura. 

The record of public events for 1879 is 
mostly political. This was the year of the 
Workingmen's agitation, so that three tickets, 
partial or entire, were in the field. White 
and Perkins, two of the three gubernatorial 
candidates, addressed the people of Ven- 
tura, as did also Denis Kearney, the agita- 
tor-in chief of the Workingmen ; he, however, 
was not received here with enthusiasm. The 
result of the election was a pretty fair 



distribution of the oiSces among the three 

The progress of matters agricultural in this 
section may he judged from the following 
figures: With a total population of about 
7,000, the assessed valuation of property was 
about $3,394,000, with a cultivated area of 
75,000 acres. The crops comprised: barley, 
86,000 acres; corn, 19,000; wheat, 13,000; 
beans. 1,800) flax. 1,250; alfalfa, 900; oats, 
550; potatoes, 800; canary seed, 285; and 
570 of vegetables, peanuts, tobacco, etc. In 
orchards and vineyards there were 37,000 acres, 
of which 1,500 acres were planted to English 
walnu's, 300 to oranges, 210 to grapes, 75 
to lemons, and about 1,100 to other fruits. 

Early in 1880, the people of Ventura were 
thi'own into violent excitement by an affair 
whose mystery continued unraveled. Miss 
Jennie McLean, an accom])lished young lady, 
a favorite in the community, while alone and 
engaged about household matters, was at- 
tacked and struck down by a terrible blow on 
the head, dealt by some unknown party, who 
heat her into insensibility. Her jewelry was 
not taken, and it was never known whether 
her assailant was man or woman, nor whether 
the object was plunder, jealousy or revenge, 
although Miss McLean was not known to 
have an enemy in the world. The deed had 
the seeming of a frenzy of insanity, rather 
than the act of an ordinary criminal, and it 
is not impossible that it was such, and that a 
connection might have been traced between 
this and an occurrence some three weeks later. 
On June 15, a young man named Mills, 
nephew of Governor A. .A. Low, boarded the 
stage at Ventura, and after traveling a few 
miles it was noticed that he held a new 
hatchet, with which he threatened to kill the 
driver unless he kept out of the way of par- 
tibS who, Mills fancied, were in pursuit of 
himself, in order to take his life. The driver 

was compelled to keep his horses lashed to a 
run for miles, to avoid having his head split 
open. The unsatisfactory passenger, on 
reaching Newhall's Rancho, sprang to the 
ground with his hatchet, and with deer-like 
speed ran to the hills. Some days later he 
was found, being reduced to a famishing con- 

On the 26tli of December, the ill-fated 
wharf met with another misfortune, the waves 
carrying away 200 feet of its outer end, to- 
gether with some freight piled thereon. 

The traffic from this port had now attained 
such proportions that the facilities for trans- 
portation were entirely inadequate. 

In round numbers, San Buenaventura ex- 
ported in 1880, 4,000,000 pounds of corn, 
800,000 of barley, 1,400,000 of wheat, 1,- 
100,000 of beans, and 60,000 of potatoes. 
From Hueneme were shipjied during this 
period about 2,100,000 pounds of corn, 
240,000 of barley, 2,200,000 of wheat, and 
64,000 pounds of wool. From the three 
counties of San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, 
and Ventura, were shipped 1,800,000 pounds 
of wool during this year. 

The events of 1881 were neither exciting 
nor of a nature to make a permanent impress 
upon the community. There were two mur- 
der cases, of a commonplace character, upon 
the docket; there was some animation in local 
musical circles, and there was a temperance 
agitation, which led to the establishment of 
four lodges of Good Templars, with an aggre- 
gate membership of over 300. Also, eighty 
feet of extension were added to the wharf, 
Beyond these, and the Garfield funeral exer- 
cises-, which were of a character truly im- 
pressive, there were chronicled no points 
of especial interest. Assessed valuations, 

Ventura's bean crop for 1880-'81 amounted 
to 35,000 bushels. 


The season of 1882 appeared less prosper- 
ous than many preceding years, to judge by 
the assessment i-oll, whicli showed a diminu- 
tion from that of tlie preceding year, being 
at present $3,171,127. This loss was due 
mainly to the decrease in sheep, of which 
large numbers died in the winter and early 

The State election, held November 7, 1882, 
gave the Democratic candidates slight majori- 
ties, ranging from six to forty-five votes. 
There were cast here thirty-five votes for the 
Prohibition candidate for Governor. 

The assessment roll for this year showed a 
depreciation, enumerating property worth 
$3,171,127 only, while the previous year had 
shown $8,347,787. This was mainly due to 
the loss in sheep, of which large numbers 
died in the early spring. This county pro- 
duced 80,000 bushels of beans in tlie season 
of 1881-'82. 

The delinquent tax list of Ventura for 
1883 was so short, being only one and a half 
columns, that the Signal printed it gratis as a 
matter of news, and the J'^ee Press officially 
at a nominal price. 

Ventura County was awarded the first 
premium for county exhibits at the Mechanics' 
Institute Fair of 1885 in San Fi-ancisco. 

The next succeeding feature of general 
interest, was the construction, in the fall of 
1886, of the Coast Line branch of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, whose advent brougiit new 
life and development to the section. 

The following figures, taken from the 
ofticiaj returns for 1887 of the county clerk, 
county auditor, and county assessor, will serve 
as a basis of comparison of the developments 
of the past few years : 

1885, Total value assessed property, $4,574,208 

1886, " " " " 4,693,698 

1886, " county indebtedness 22,000 

Number acres assessed 449,937 

Real estate, other than town property, $4,050,467 

Real estate improvements thereon, 322,865 

Real estate, city and town property 618,107 

Improvements on same, 245,939 

Total value real estate, 4,668,574 

Total value real estate improvements, 568,304 

Total value personal property, 1,178,694 

Total assessed valuations $6,415,572 

Total county indebtedness, bonds out- 
standing, $-23,000.00 

Cash in county treasury, November 5, 1887, 14,292.14 
Amount thereof applicable to indebtedness, 6,684.79 

Bonds paid January 1, 1888, 8,000.00 

Total county indebtedness, July I, 1888,. . . 14,000.00 

The rate of taxation for 1887 was $2 on 
the $100. 

For 1887 there were siiipped from the 
ports of San Buenaventura and Hueneme 
the following, all of which were produced in 
Ventura County: 






Flax Seed, 

Eng. Walnu 


Bird Seed, 










tanks . 










The estimated population being 7,500, this 
would allow to each of 1,500 families of five 
persons in Ventura County an income of 

For 1888-'89 the San Buenaventura Wharf 
Company's statement sliowed export ship- 
ments of 174,158 packages, and import ship- 
ments of 113,227 packages of merchandise 
and 5,715,140 feet of lumber. 


Over the Hueneme wharf were exported 
during this period 534,757 packages, of 
which 436,539 were sacks of beans, 18,148 
sacks of wheat, 30,302 sacks of corn, and 
32,864 barrels of oil, thus showing the chief 
staples for the year. 

In addition to the above shipments out of 
the county over the Southern Pacific were as 
follows, in pounds: beans, 1,766,700; grain 
1,110,900; potatoes, 147,500; cattle, 160,000; 
sheep. 100,000; hogs, 2,360,000; flour and 
mill stuft; 384,000; bees and honey, 214,300; 
dried fruit, 218,400; green fruit, 1,090,000; 
nuts, 40,800; wool, 402,300; hay, 1,871,000; 
brick and tile, 357,200; stone, 3,176,340; oil, 
41,268,000; asphaltum, 261,500; miscellane- 
ous, 2,861,000. 

Late in 1889 tiie statistics gathered from 
the Southern Mill and Warehouse Company 
showed shipments as follows : Barley, 
2,676,123 pounds; Lima beans, 2,109,090; 
common beans, 756,243; corn, 308,750; wal- 
nuts, 10,000; honey, 74,463; apricots, 145,- 
726; miscellaneous, 300,000. Total ship- 
ments, actual weight, 6,380,395 pounds. 

At the same time there was in the ware- 
house: of barley 2,089,090 pounds; wheat, 
453,010; honey, 54,853; common beans, 
136,839; making a grand total of 9,114,187 
pounds of farm products, from which, making 
a low estimate, the farmers of this vicinity 
must have derived an aggregate revenue of 

The statement of the San Buenaventura 
Wharf Company for the year ending May; 
1890, shows transactions over that structure 
as follows: 44,748 bags corn, 54,692 bags 
beans, 25,370 of barley, 1,393 of potatoes, 
2,737 of wheat, 1,199 of dried fruit, 2,323 of 
walnuts, 86 of popcorn, 83 of almonds, 221 
of peamits, 35 of mustard seed, 9 of garlic, 
1,220 packages of merchandise, 234 of house- 
hold goods, 3,167 cases honey, 90 cases lubri- 

cator, 215 of coal oil, 262 of eggs, 1,207 
empty beer kegs, 1,362 boxes oranges, 1,047 
boxes lemons, 294 boxes raisins, 4 of butter, 
393 green apricots, 607 of apples, 18 of per- 
simmons, 15 of peaches, 38 of nectarines, 104 
of pears, 74 of limes, 20 of prunes, 1,333 
barrels asphaltum, 1,091 of distillate, 6,045 
of crude oil, 322 barrels of empty bottles, 209 
of tallow, 624 tons asphaltum, 89 tons of old 
iron, 527 bales wool, 1,350 bales hides, 153 
bales pelts, 27 bales seaweed, 31 coops live 
fowls, 1 steam engine, 4 horses. 

The imports were 93,563 packages mer- 
chandise, and 261,059 feet of hxmber. 

The value of the wharf warehouses and 
fixtures is placed at $79,000 at this time. 

Some idea of the relative charges on freight 
may be formed from the statement that the 
income of this wharf from all sources' was 
$11,754.43 during the year. 

The Hueneme Wharf Company for 1889- 
'90 shows exports as follows: — 279,613 sacks 
barley, 17,018 of wheat, 34,638 of corn, 396 
cases honey, 13,462 sacks beans, 1,447 bales 
wool, 295 sacks mxistard seed, 223 of wal- 
nuts, 4,824 of potatoes, 519 cases eggs, 1,202 
hogs, 2,117 sheep, 249 boxes butter, 46 coops 
fowls, 489 bundles hides, 122 bundles pelts, 
86 barrels tallow, 29 sacks apricots, 30 of 
onions, 2 of beeswax, 3 of peas; miscellane- 
ous packages, 963. 

Yentnra County at present, October, 1890, 
contains twenty-one election precincts, as fol- 
lows: — San Buenaventura precincts, Nog. 1, 
2 and 3; La Canada, Rincon, Santa Ana, 
Oj^i, Cuyania, Piru, Camulos, Sespe, Santa 
Paula, Nos. 1 and 2, Saticoy, Mound, Pleas- 
ant Valley, San Pedro, Simi, Conejo, Spring- 
ville and Hueneme. 

The postoffices in Ventura County are Ven- 
tura, Hueneme, Santa Paula, Saticoy, Nord- 
hoff, Bardsdale, Camulos, Fillmore, Matilija, 
Montalvo, Newbury Park, New Jerusalem, 



Pirn City, Punta Gorda, SimI, Springville, 
and Timbei-ville. Tbe first five are money 
order offices, and Ventura has international 

There are four banks in Ventura County, 
aggregating paid up capital amounting to 
nearly $400,000. 

The present officers of Ventura County are 
are as follows: — 

E. H. Heacock State Senator 

G. W. Wear (with Kern County) Assemblyman 

B. T. Williams Supreme Judge 

W. H. Reilly Sheriff 

L. F. Eastin County Clerk 

W. H. Jewell Auditor and Recorder 

Orestes Orr District Attorney 

Paul Charlebois Treasurer 

James Donlon Assessor 

C. L. Bard County Physician 

F. M. Patton Coroner 

C. T. Meredith Supt. Public Schools 

J- T. Stow County Surveyor 

A. W. Browne,...^ 

B. W. Dudley.... | 

F. A. Foster 1- County Supervisors. 

C.N.Baker i 

E. H. Owens J 


Stephen J. Field Circuit Judge 

Lorenzo Sawyer Circuit Judge 

Erskine M. Ross District Judge 

George Denie U. S. Attorney 

David R. Kisley U. S. Marshal 

William M. VanDyke Clerk of Circuit Court 

E. H. Owen Clerk of District Court 

Charles L Balcheller 

( Standing Master and 
S" Examiner in Chan. 


William M. VanDyke Los Angeles 

E. H. Owen Los Angeles 

Charles Fernald Santa Barbara 

L. C. McKeeby Ventura 

Charles G. Hubbard San Diego 


Ventura County lies 300 miles southeast 
of San Francisco, and twenty- five miles 
northwest of Los Angeles. It is bounded 

on the west by Santa Barbara County, on the 
north and east by Kern and Los Angeles 
counties, and on tha south by the Pacific 
Ocean. It also includes the islands of San 
Nicolas and Anacapa, lying respectively 
about eighty and eighteen miles from the 
mainland. These islands are resorts for 
seals, sea lions, otter, and aquatic birds. 
They are included in the total area of 1,296,- 
000 acres, divisible into arable land, pasture 
land and mountain land. There are about 
200,000 acres of very rich country, of which 
as yet little over 70,000 acres have been 
brought under cultivation. 

This county contains various fertile val- 
leys, the most important being the Santa 
Clara, Ojai. Si mi, Conejo, and Sespe, besides 
some small mesa and mountain valleys. The 
soil is mainly a rich, dark brown, sandy loam, 
10 to 150 feet deep. The surface is nearly 
level, or but enough diversified to add to the 
beauty of the situation. 


Ventura County perhaps is the best watered 
county in Southern California. The Santa 
Clara River, wiiich rises in the Soledad 
Mountains near the Mojave Desert, enters 
the county at the southeast corner, traverses 
its entire Igngth, furnisbes an abundant sup- 
ply for a large portion of the Santa Clara 
Valley, and is a never failing stream. It 
flows in an easterly direction about sixty 
miles through the southeastern portion of 
the county, and empties into the ocean about 
six miles southeast of San Buenaventura. 

The Santa Clara River takes its rise sev- 
enty miles inland, in the rugged canons of 
the Soledad Pass Hence it flows west by 
south, swelled by several large tributaries, 
mostly coming from the northward. It 
passes through the Santa Barbara range at 
Santa Paula, some fifteen miles from the 


coast, and ends at the seaside in an estero or 
lagoon, which shows no commnnication with 
the sea, save when tlie winter floods tear 
away the intervening bar of sand. At Santa 
Panla this river receives the waters of the 
Santa Paula Creek, formerly called the Mupn; 
east of this, the Sespe empties, and near the 
boundary line, the Piru. 

Tributary to the Santa Clara are the Santa 
Paula, Pirn, Big and Little Sespe, which are 
fine, clear, living streams, furnishing an un- 
failing supply of water for all that portion of 
the county comprised within the original 
grants of Sespe, Santa Paula, Saticoy, and 
San Francisco ranches. The Lockwood, 
Alamo, Hot Springs, and Pine are feeders of 
the Pirn and the Sespe. 

The Ventura River rises in the Santa Ynez 
Mountains, in the northern portion of the 
county, and flows in a southerly direction, 
and through the beautiful Ojai Valley to the 
sea at San Buenaventura, which city it sup- 
plies with pure water and excellent water- 
power. Its tributaries are the Arroyo San 
Antonio, Caiiada Leon, Santa Ana, Canada 
Larga, and Los Coyotes, which water large 
portions of the Ojai, Canada Larga, and 
Santa Ana ranches. 

These rivers are fed by numerous springs 
and mountain streams which run, into them 
from almost all the canons. The Ventura 
River alone furnishes water enough to irri- 
gate, were it necessary, every acre of land in 
the valley through which it flows. This 
river furnishes the water-power to run the 
large flouring-mill at Ventura, which at need 
could be kept running day and night through- 
out the year. 

In that section of country Ij'ing southeast of 
the Santa Clara River in the neighborhood of 
Hueneme, artesian water is obtained at from 
50 to 100 feet, which is a constant flow of 

good, pu 

re water. Besides these there are a 

great many small mountain streams in various 
portions of the county that never go dry. It 
is estimated that the water supply is suffi- 
cient to bring it on every part of farm land 
if it were necessary to do so, but from a 
comparison of the per cent, of farmers, whose 
experience is given elsewhere in this paper, 
it will be seen that irrigation is not necessary 
except in case of a dry season, and excepting 
also for citrus fruits, which some think ought 
to be irrigated. 

It is H peculiarity of this section that no 
irrigation is needed to raise the most abun- 
dant crops, of whatever nature. This may 
be due to the humidity derived from the sea. 
At all events, the fact accounts for the rarity 
of attempts to divert the abundant water 
into ditches, as is done in most other i)arts 
of Southern California. 

Ventura County is well supplied with 
forest timber of live-oak, cottonwood and 
other deciduous and evergreen trees, much of 
it being easily accessible to the various rail- 
way stations in the county. But the greatest 
and most valuable timber consists of the 
great pineries in the remote and almost un- 
known mountain regions in the northern 
part of the county. These extensive pine 
forests contain an immense quantity of val- 
uable timber which some day will be reached 
by roadways and brought to market. When 
that day comes, as it surely will, a rich har- 
vest awaits the lumberman's ax. It is now 
a wild and inaccessible forest, inhabited only 
by the mountain goat and the fleet-footed deer, 
with a smart sprinkling of the more ferocious 
lion and grizzly bear. It is here that nature, 
in its wildest and most chaotic state, holds 
undisputed sway, but with an increased pop- 
ulation in this county will be made to yield 


to the demands of civilization — the demand 
for lumber and other building material. 

The following details are extracted from a 
paper by Dr. Stephen Lowers, in the State 
Mineralogical Eeport. 

"Thecountj inclmles the islands of San 
Nicolas and Anacapa. The former is about 
eighty miles south of Ventura, and the latter 
eighteen miles. The area of the entire county 
is 1,869 square miles, or 1,196,000 acres. 

" The valley of the Santa Clara extends 
along the seashore from San Buenaventura to 
Point Magn, a distance of over twenty miles, 
and extends in an easterly direction across 
the county, narrowing to two or three miles 
on the eastern border. A chain of mountains 
extends from Newhall in Los Angeles County 
westwardly to within about ten miles of the 
ocean, separating the upper portion of the 
Santa Clara from the Simi and Las Posas 
valleys. The chain is narrow and comes to a 
sharp ridge or comb at the top, averaging 
about 2,000 feet in altitude. 

"Thirteen miles north of San Buenaven- 
tura is the Ojai Valley, about ten by iive 
miles in extent. It is divided into two val- 
leys, upper and lower. The latter is 800 
feet above the sea level, and the former about 
1,700 feet. These valleys are surrounded by 
mountains, opening along the Ventura River 
to the south. On the eastern portion of the 
county is the Cornejo Plateau, which is several 
miles in extent and elevated 900 feet above 
the ocean. It is really a succession of hills 
and valleys. The rock exposures here are 
principally trappean and metamorphic. The 
remaining portions of the county are mainly 
mountainous, giving a diversity of soil and 

" It is by far the best watered of all the 
southern counties. The Santa Clara River 
runs through the county in a westerly di- 
rection, reaching the ocean a few miles west 

of San Buenaventura. The Matilaja, San 
Antonio, and Coyote creeks unite and form 
he Ventura River, coming in fVj n tho north, 
and supplying the town of San Buenaventura 
with an abundance of water. The Santa Paula, 
Sespe, and Piru flow into the Santa Clara 
from the north and west, the Sespe having 
its rise in Santa Barbara County. The Lock- 
wood flows into the Piru at the western base 
of the Almo raonntain. The Cuyamo rises 
near Mount Almo, and runs westwardly to 
the county line, some fifteen miles distant. 
The Las Posas Creek waters the Las Posas 
and Simi valleys on the eastern side of the 
county. In addition to these rivers and 
streams, are numerous small creeks and 
springs scattered here and there throughout 
the county." 


" San Nicolas Island belongs to Ventura 
County. It is nearly eighty miles south of 
Ventura, the southesatern end being in lati- 
tude 33° 14' north, and longitude 119° 25' 
west from Greenwicli. 

" The area is about nine miles long and four 
miles wide, containing 32.2 square miles, or 
20,608 acres. Its longer axis is northwest by 
west. What is known as Begg Rock is sit- 
uated on the prolongation of the longer axis 
of the island, bearing northwest, and is seven 
miles distant. Soundings show that there is 
a submarine ridge connecting this rock with 
Sau Nicolas, and that it was probably once 
above the surface. Breakers extend for sev- 
eral miles to the westward, and also for nearly 
two miles on the eastern shore line of the 
island, indicating shallow water. Begg Rock 
is bold and precipitous, rising to the height 
of forty or more feet, and plainly visible 
from San Nicolas. 

"There is an abundance of water on the 


island, but it is slightly brackish; it is entire- 
ly destitute of timber, but evident!}' has not 
always been so. At the present time there 
is not even a bush growing on it except a 
stunted kind of thorn, scarcely two feet high, 
and a few species of the tree cactus. 

" The surface is comparatively level, sufH- 
ciently so to till with little trouble. The 
cultivable land embraces about two- thirds of 
the island's area, and much of it is apparently 
rich and fertile. * * * Coral Harbor, lo- 
cated about three miles from the extreme 
western point, is reached by an opening in 
the rocks, some twenty feet wide. The water 
in this opening is sufficiently deep to admit 
a schooner of twenty tons' burden. 

"The only animals foirad on San Nicolas 
are, a small fox, a kangaroo mouse, and a 
diminutive sand lizard. The fox is little 
Tiiore tlian half as large as the gray or silver 
fox of the mainland. As far as I have been 
able to learn, the species is confined to the 
Channel Islands. Several species of land 
birds are found. Amongst them may be 
mentioned the bald eagle, ground owl, raven, 
crow, and plover. "Water fowl are abundant, 
and among them gulls, pelicans, cormorants, 
sea-pigeons, and others. Beetles, crickets, 
spiders, butterflies, house and other flies are 
met with, but no poisonous or noxious ani- 
mals or insects. * * * San Nicolas Island 
must have once supported a large population. 
In whatever direction one turns, he comes in 
contact with human skeletons, broken mortars, 
pestles, ollas, bone implements, etc., and shell 
heaps. * * * I judge that the natives of 
this island were physically and intellectually 
superior to those inhabiting the other islands 
and the mainland, where, in previous ex- 
plorations, 1 have exhumed several thousands 
of skeletons. Many of the skulls on San 
Nicolas closely resemble those of the Cauca- 
sian type." 


The following account of the geological 
formations of Ventura is by a writer whose 
name the present editor has been unable to 
learn : 

Yentnra County exhibits many interesting 
geological features. On the eastern side is 
a volcanic uplift extending westwardly under 
the ocean forming the island of Anacapa, 
Santa Cruz, Santa Eosa and San Miguel. 
This uplift may be traced eastwardly through 
Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego 
counties, with an outcrop near Yuma, and 
probably extending far into Mexico. In Ven- 
tura County it is composed largely of rhyolite, 
trachyte and vesicular basalt. The moun- 
tains here have been lifted to a height of 
nearly or quite 4,000 feet, their serrated sum- 
mits presenting a rugged outline against 
the sky. 

Another trappean uplift occurs in the 
northwestern corner of the county running 
parallel with the first described, leaving a 
space of over fifty miles between them. It 
is most likely the two are synchronous, One 
of the characteristic rocks of the latter is 
amygdaloid tilled with zeolites of quartz, 
chalcedony, agate, opal, calcite, natrolite, etc., 
and inspissated 1/itumen. 

The mountains on the northern portion of 
the county are composed principally of gran- 
ite rocks, while the characteristic rocks on 
the southern side, as we approach toward the 
ocean, are largely sandstone. 

There are no large areas of horizontal rock 
strata in the county. Formerly tilted, folded 
and plicated rocks of this section bear evi- 
dence of sudden upheaval. But it is evident 
that the lateral pressure that has raised the 
mountains of Yentural County from 2,000 to 
over 9,000 feet above the sea level has prob- 
ably done its work so gradually as not to 
"disturb the flight of an insect," apart from 



the volcanic disturbances above mentioned. 
The nplift is still going on, but so gradually 
and silently as to be imperceptible to the 
casual observer. Along the seashore, and 
indeed all over the county where the older 
rocks are exposed they are found tilted, 
shoved and heaved at every conceivable angle 
of inclination, with alternating anticlinal 
and synclintd fold^;. 

The Santa Clara River enters the county 
on the eastern side and traverses it in a west- 
erly dii-ection to the sea. Three or four 
streams flow into it fr9m the north which 
will be described in due time. One of these, 
the Sespe, heads not far from the Santa Bar- 
bara line and runs in an eastwardly direction 
for some distance, gradually bending south- 
ward through the center of the county. This 
stream seems to mark the division between 
the Cretaceous and the Tertiary periods. At 
least some of the fossils which the writer 
found north of the stream he must refer to 
the Cretaceous, while all south of it belong 
to the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. It is 
probable that all the northern portion of the 
county was lifted from a Cretaceous sea, and 
what now forms the northern boundary of 
the Sespe was for ages the shore line against 
whose rocky ribs the waves of the Pacific 
Ocean expended their fury. The strata 
south of this are at an entirely dift'erent an- 
gle and to some extent different in composi- 
tion, and seem to have been raised independ- 
ently, leaving a fissure between the two 
formations and along which the stream has 
cut its gorge. 

The Piru Creek, running in a parallel 
direction, but several miles north of the 
Sespe, has cut its way through mountains of 
granite, slate and diorite. In some places 
the walls are nearly or quite a half mile 
high and perpendicular, the tortuous bed of 
the stream appearing as a ribbon far below. 

In the southern portion of the county are 
vast beds of Pliocene fossils. They are 
found in the foot-hills skirting the sea shore 
from the extreme southern corner of the 
county to the county-seat, and on the north 
side of the Santa Clara to the Sespe, on the 
south side of the Santa Paula mountains, in 
the Las Posas and Simi valleys, and else- 
where. Joining the town of Ventura the 
remains of the fossil elephant, llama and 
other animals are found. Near Santa Paula 
the remains of an extinct horse [Equiis 
occldentalis) have been found. 

Miocene fossils are found in the Ojai Val- 
ley, Conejo plateau, along the south side of 
the Sespe from its source to its mouth, in 
the mountains east of Santa Paula and other 
places. Among tnese may be mentioned the 
remains of whales, seals, sharks, etc. Indeed 
the entire county, apart from the volcanic 
uplifts referred to and the granitic forma- 
tions on the northern portion, abounds in 
most interesting remains, including hundreds 
of species of invertebrate and vertebrate an- 
imals, many of which are extinct, while 
others are still found in the ocean. This 
county is a paradise for the geologist and 
paleontologist, much of which has never 
been subjected to a thorough scientific inves- 
tigation . 

In this connection we may add that the 
botanist, zoologist, ichthyologist and entom- 
ologist will find an ample field for investiga- 
tion and study in their respective depart- 
ments in this county. 


The climate of Ventura County is difficult 
to overestimate. Near the coast the mercui-y 
seldom falls below 43° or rises above 83°; 
but in some places back from the ocean, in 
the mountains and valleys, it is somewhat 
warmer in summer and cooler in winter. 



Taking it altogether, the evenness of the 
climate is unexcelled. Thermoraetrical ob- 
Bervations, extending over a series of years, 
indicate an average temperature of about 
58°. By careful study of the various places 
in Southern California the reader will per- 
ceive that Ventura County is not excelled in 
point of climate. Near the coast fi'ost is 
seldom or never seen; but several miles back 
from the ocean a little frost occurs in winter, 
yet not sufficiently severe to injure orange 
trees or the most tender vegetation, except 
in rare instances. Large banana trees may 
be seen growing a dozen or fifteen miles from 
the coast. The same kind of clothing is 
worn winter and summer. While nearly all 
kinds of northern and semi-tropical fruits 
flourish here, roses, fuchsias, geraniums and 
many other flowers bloom constantly, and 
strawberries may be procured nearly any day 
in the year. The days are warm but not 
sultry; hence sunstroke is unknown in this 
county. The nights are cool and induce re- 
freshing sleep. For invalids, and especially 
for persons disposed to pulmonary troubles, 
this county offers superior inducements. It 
is seldom that lightning is seen or thunder 
heard, and no tornadoes, cyclones or other 
disturbances of the forces of nature exist 
here. The islands south of Ventura County 
deflect the warm ocean currents from the 
equator, turning them to the very shore line 
and giving a higher temperature than is 
realized some hundreds of miles south, and 
thus securing good bathing the entire yenr. 
For Santa Paula the average temperature 
for winter is about 45° and for summer is 
about 85°. The highest given is 100° and 
the lowest 80°. For Saticoy the average for 
winter 55° and for summer 85° ; the lowest 

given IS 

40° and the highest 100°. Tiie vari 

ations at Camulos are from 25° to 100° and 
and at Nordhoff is 80° to 100°. The average 

at Hueneme is, for winter, about 50° and for 
summer 75°; the highest given is 85° and the 
lowest 88° and for New Jerusalem it is 
about the same. 














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The following is a table showing the aver- 
age rainfall at San Buenaventura, Cali- 
furuia, for the past eigliteen years. And it 
should be remembered that what is called the 
"rainy season" generally includes the fol- 
lowing months: October, November, Decem- 
ber, January, February, March and April. 
During the remainder of the year there is 
usually no rain at all. 



1870-1871 . . . . 
1871 18T2 



5 12 


1880-1881 .... 
1881-1882 . . . . 
1882-1888 . . . . 
1883 1884 



13 81 

1872-1873 . . . . 


1874 18 5 



15 25 

35 74 

187i3-18' 6 . . 





1884 188) 

9 46 

188.1-1886 . . . . 


1878-1879 . . . . 

18:56-1887 . . . . 
1837-18^8 . . . . 




The county is well supplied with churches. 
The Catholics have, besides the old Mission 
at San Buenaventura, which was founded 
more than a century ago, a good chui'ch 
house at New Jerusalem. Each of these 
churches have regular pastors. 

The Baptists have organizations in Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Springville. At the 
latter place there is a house of worship owned 
by an independent Baptist organization. 

The Methodists have houses of worship at 
San Buenaventura, Hueneme, Santa Paula, 
Sespe and Piru. They also have organiza- 
tions at Cienega, Saticoy, Springville, Conejo, 
Fillmore and other j^laces. 

The Presbyterians have houses of worship 
at Ventura, Nordhoif, Saticoy, Santa Paula 
and Fillmore. 

The Universalists have a parish at Santa 
Paula and services at Ventura. 

The Congregationalibts have a house of 
worship in San Buenaventura and Nordhoff ; 
an academy at Santa Paula. 

The Episco2)alians have a church organiza- 
tion and ediiice at Ventura. 

The Sweden borgians have a church organ- 
ization and edifice at Bardodale. 

In addition to the above there are two or 
three union or independent churches in the 
county. All of the churches named above 
are supplied with regular pastors. 


The school system of Ventura County is 
much like that of other counties of the State, 

but quite unlike that of most of the other 
and old States east of the Rocky Mountains. 

The public schools of Ventura County are 
of three kinds or grades: primary, grammar 
and high school; the first being found in 
the sparsely settled portions of the county; 
the second in the more thickly settled, and 
the third or high school only in San Buena- 
ventura. In the primary school instruction 
is given in reading, orthography, practical 
and mental arithmetic, geography. United 
States history, physiology, penmanship, ele- 
ments of book-keeping, industrial drawino-, 
vocal music, practical entomology and the 
rudiments of technical English grammar. 
Grammar schools are established in those 
parts of the county, in the country towns, 
where there are a number of children who de- 
sire to pursue, in addition to the studies of 
the primary grade, such branches as algebra, 
natural philosophy, natural history, and when, 
owing to the increased number of children 
attending school, there are funds enough to 
admit of paying a higher salary to the teacher 
in return for a greater and more advanced 
work. It is proper to remark here, however, 
that in every one of the primary schools of 
the county the teacher is competent to teach 
algebra and such other grammar-grade stud- 
ies, 80 that no pupil is debarred from pursu- 
ing each study if desirable. 

The high school in California or the 
grammar school course — which is a course 
in advance of the grammar school as given 
above — is intended to prepare the pupils who 
graduate from the public schools, havinw 
finished the work of the grammar grade for 
entrance into the State University. This adds 
to the grammar school such branches as rhet- 
oric, advanced English and American liter- 
ature, chemistry and mineralogy. But this 
course can be pursued only in such localities 
as have a representation of pupils sufficient to 


supply a number of teachers, since no one 
person could do the work required in a school 
with all grades from primary to and includ- 
ing the grammar school course; and in gen- 
eral the grade of a school depends upon tiie 
number of children in it. 

By a provision of the State law, all pupils 
who finish the course of study laid out for 
the grammar grade and pass a satisfactory 
examination therein upon questions prepared 
by tlie County Board of Education, are en- 
titled to a diploma of graduation from tlie 
grammar school. This admits them to the 
lowest class in the State Normal School, or 
to the high school or grammar course. 
Completion of the studies in the course, 
upon satisfactory examin'ation, admits the 
graduate to the University of California at 

As another prominent feature of the schools 
it may be observed that each district in Ven- 
tura County draws from the public funds an- 
nually from $30 to $50, to be expended only 
for school apparatus or library books. 

Accordingly we have in this county schools 
which possess valuable, libraries, having in 
the course of the past few years accumulated 
a set of cyclopaedia'-, all rec^uisite books of 
reference, besides complete sets of the poets 
and standard novelists, and comprising many 
works on history, biography and travel. 

As an index of the growth and develop- 
ment of the county, as represented by the 
growth of the schools, there follows a com- 
parative statement of the condition of the 
public schools in each alternative year since 

In 1884 Ventura had twenty-four school 
districts, and school property worth $33,417, 
as follows: buildings, $30,113; libraries, 
$1,932; apparatus, $1,366. There were 
1,667 census children, of whom 1,270 were 
enrolled, with an average attendance of 743. 

The total receipts for school purposes were 
$34,429; total expenditures, $30,677. 

In 1886 there were in Ventura County 
1,889 census children; enrolled were 1,439; 
the average attendance was 911. The value 
of school buildings was $50,800; of school 
libraries, $1,610; of apparatus, $1,500; total 
value of school property, $53,910. The total 
expenditures for schools were $23,399, and 
the total of revenues for school purposes 

In 1888 there were 2,284 census children 
in Ventura County, which had gained ten 
school districts in two years; 1,889 were en- 
rolled in the public schools, and the average 
daily attendance was 1,069. There were now 
school buildings to the value of $64,900; 
libraries, $1,825, and apparatus, $1,410; total, 

There are now in Ventura County forty- 
three school districts, employing fifty-seven 
teachers. The number of census children is 
2,703; number enrolled. 2,244; the average 
attendance is 1,339. The amount received 
from county school tax for 1889 was $11,- 
366; from all sources for 1889-'90, $65,- 
791.42. The total expenditures were $51,- 
457.31. Of tiie teachers in the county, 
twenty are graduaies of the State Normal 
School, and three are from Eastern high 
schools. The average monthly salary of men 
teachers is $75; of women, $63. The total 
value of school buildings in the county is 
$102,050; of school libraries, $2,850; of 
apparatus, $2,955; total, $105,855. During 
the eight years that C. T. Meredith has been 
coimty superintendent of schools, there have 
been built new school-houses in thirty-two 
districts. San Buenaventura has school- 
houses worth perhaps $35,000; the Avenue 
building another worth $6,000; those at 
Santa Paula cost $10,000; at Hueneme, 
$9,000; the Montalvo building cost $5,000, to 


which must be added another $1,000 for 
grounds, improvements, etc., and the Saticoy 
school-house cost $1,500. 

It is rather a renaarkable feature that there 
is a small attendance of the Spanish element 
in the scIidoIs of this county. 



The lower Santa Clara Valley, bordering 
on the ocean, comprises the ranchos San 
Miguel, Santa Paula y Saticoy, Santa Clara 
del Norte, La Colonia, and part of Guada- 
lasca, besides Government lands. Through 
the hills skirting the eastern flank of the 
main expanse break two fine valleys, with 
wooded hills and cultivated dales. The more 
northerly of these contains the ranchos Las 
Posas and Simi; the southern, being El 
Conejo Valley, embraces the ranchos Calle- 
jos. El Conejo, and the upper end of the Gua- 
dalasca. Close down to the channel of the 
Santa Clara on the north come the Santa 
Barbara Mountains, jagged and distorted, 
while to the south, above Santa Paula, they 
are much lower and more rounded, although 
still mostly untillable. The northern slopes 
are set with groves of pine and live-oak; the 
southern are covered with grass, flowers and 
the honey-bearing sage. The principal trees 
along the water courses are sycamore, wal- 
nut, Cottonwood, and some inferior varieties 
of pine. 


The Kancho La Colonia, or Rio de Santa 
Clara, as finally confirmed, comprises a tract 
of about 4:8,883 acres, lying south of Kancho 
Santa Clara del Norte, and north and west of 
the Pacific Ocean, the Guadalasca Rancho, 
and a small piece of Government land. This 
tract was granted in 1837 to eight old 

soldiers, by Governor Alvarado, the record of 
possession bearing date September 28, 1840. 
The commissioners rejected this claim in 
1854, but the grant was declared valid, re- 
versing the former decision, in 1857, thus 
confirming the land to Valentine Cota. 
although it was also claimed by the widow of 
Joseph Chapman, of the Ortega Rancho 

During the '60's many squatters settled 
upon this tract, and its boundaries were 
modi tied by vaiious surveys. It was first 
cultivated in 1867' when Christian Borehard 
and his son settled on the rancho, in an old 
adobe honse formerly occupied by the Gon- 
zales family, of the original grantees, and 
planted crops of wheat and barley, the first 
grain sown in Ventura County, thirty acres 
of each being sown in the spring of 1868. 
The barley yielded eighteen centals to the 
acre; the wheat rusted and was left standing. 
This rancho was so thickly covered with wild 
mustard that two men, in two and one-half 
months, gathered with an old-fashioned 
header, twenty- five tons of mustard seed, 
which sold for 2 cents per pound. This sec- 
tion has been steadily settled, and tliat with 
an iiidustrions and excellent class of citizens. 
"Tom" Scott, the railroad king, who pur- 
chased this rancho from the Spanish owners, 
in 1869 sold it for $150,000 to Thomas R. 
Bard, under whose auspices it has been im- 
proved greatly. The Colonia includes most 
of the Santa Clara Valley, ocean ward. 


Hueneme is situated upon a projection of 
the Colonia Rancho, a point running into the 
sea, some twelve miles south of San Buena- 
ventura, and the same distance north of Point 

The town was started in June, 1870, by 
W. E. Barnard, G. S. Gilbert and H. P. 



Flint. It was declared that the town would 
be overflowed at high tide, and cut off from 
the surrounding country hy the neigliboring 
swamps and morasses. Moreover, tiie pro- 
prietors of the Colonia Rancho claimed tlie 
land, and tried to dispossess the founders of 
the new town. 

The Hueneme Lighter Company began to 
make shipments of lumber in June, 1870, in 
connection with the steamer Kaloraina, and, 
against all predictions to the contrary, 
this enterprise proved eminently successful. 
During the lirnt year 60,000 sacks of grain 
were shipped by means of the lighters. Still 
there were some losses, notal)ly that of some 
costly machinery destined for the oil works, 
and therefore, with a view to the possibilities 
of future traffic, T. R. Bard and R. G. Snr- 
dam obtained the right to construct a wharf 
at this point, and the work wan begun and 
finished within the month, that of August, 
1871. The wharf was 900 feet long, reach- 
ing to water eighteen feet deep. It was con- 
nected by tramway with the shore, where was 
built a warehouse, also corrals for stock. At 
once this wharf was made the medium of a 
very heavy business. The board of super- 
visors fixed the maximum rates of wharfage, 
which was moderate. 

Already in July, 1871, much attention 
had been attracted to the artesian wells 
about Hueneme. One owned by T. R. Bard, 
although but 147 feet deep, threw up such 
an immense volume of water it flooded 
several acres, and flumes had to be con- 
structed to carry away the surplus water. 

The first two houses in this town were 
biiilt iu 1871, by Messrs. Thompson and 
Jiidson. The town was laid out by T. R. 
Bard. The Pioneer Hotel was built in 1871 
by D. D. McCoy, who then removed hither 
from San Buenaventura. 

Shortly after the settlement at Hueneme, 

T. R. Bard, who had purchased the Colonia 
Rancho in 1869, denied that the site of the 
town was public land, as claimed by its 
founders, and to enforce his claim he set a 
party to fence in the proposed wharf site. 
Enraged by this measure, the settlers assumed 
a threatening attitude with regard to the 
fence-builders, and it is probable that blood- 
shed was prevented only by the fact that 
Mr. Bard's party possessed firearms, while 
the settlers were without them. They finally 
dispersed, and later both claimants gave 
bonds for a title to the land when the owner- 
ship should be established by issue of the 
case then pending before the United States 

After this difficulty was adjusted, the new 
town received numerous additions, and with- 
in a year after its founding it had seventeen 
families and forty-eight school census cliil- 
dren. Several stores and a second hotel were 
opened this year. 

In September, 1872, Hueneme contained 
one grocery, one fruit and confectionery 
store, two of general merchandise, one res- 
taurant, two lumber yards, one livery stable, 
one carpenter shop, two blacksmith shops, 
two barber shops, one hotel, and one private 
school. Many vessels were loading or dis- 
charging at the wharf. There were shipped 
this year 86,900 centals of grain. 

On May 5, 1873, was established the 
Hueneme public school district; also road 
districts for the vicinity, and many artesian 
wells were sunk hereabouts during this sum- 
mer. During this year 145,000 centals of 
grain were shipped hence. 

In 1874 Hueneme had become a lively 
town, with several large stores, and most of 
the trades represented. 

The shipments of grain this year were 
198,500 centals. 

In 1877 was established a matanza, or 


slanghter-yard, to kill and utilize cattle and 
sheep which otherwise would probably perish 
during the disastrous season already begun. 

In 1878 were received 264,336 sacks of 
grain, of which 140,217 sacks were shipped 
during the year. Other shipments were: 
4,070 hogs, 32 calves, 53 boxes eggs, 862 
barrels petroleum, 1,228 bales hay, 1,231 
bales wool, 37,735 pounds rock soap, 2,224 
sacks mustard, 1,002 sacks beans, 6,680 sacks 
corn, 50 sacks wheat, 8,893 sacks barley, 190 
tons miscellaneous freight. There were re- 
ceived about 1,000 tons of freight, besides 
800,000 feet of lumber. 

In April, 1879, was organized the Hueneme 
Lodge of Good Templars, No. 236. 

During the year ending March 31, 1880, 
there were shipped from Hueneme 16,888 
sacks of corn, 232,995 sacks barley, 2,012 
sacks flaxseed, 352 sacks rye, 21,479 sacks 
wheat, 3,156 sacks beans, 406 sacks mustard, 
140 sacks oats, 149 boxes eggs, 418 sheep, 
10,035 liogs, 64,000 pounds of wool. 

In view of the growing business, the wharf 
was now extended to a total length of about 
1,500 feet. 

The receipts of the business for that year 
$20,100.92; expenditures, $10,461.96; earn- 
ings, $9,638.96, or about 1 1-6 per month on 
the cost. 

In 1883 Hueneme contained a hotel, 
several business houses, a telegraph office, 
postoffice, wharf and steamship offices, good 
school-house and some twenty-tive dwellings. 
There were four large warehouses, with an 
aggregate capacity of about 300,000 sacks, or 
684,120 cubic feet. 

In the earlier months of 1884, a water- 
spout appeared on the ocean before Hueneme, 
whence it passed to the land, tearing up 
trees, and wrecking to total demolishment 
the house of H. F. Coffman, the occupants 
escaping injury as by a miracle. 

For the year ending March, 1886, the ship- 
ments over the Hueneme wharf were as fol- 
lows: Sacks barley, 121,336; wheat, 53,628; 
corn, 8,291; beans, 2,035; walnuts. 111; 
mustard seed 153; cases honey, 481; bales 
wool, 722J; bales hay, 172; hogs, 5,300; 
sheep, 3, 147 ; lam bs, 599 ; boxes butter, 50 ; cas- 
es eggs, 479; coops live fowls, 72; hides, 213; 
bundles pelts, 70; barrels tallow, 23; sacks 
castor beans, 13; miscellaneous packages, 641. 

Over the Hueneme wharf were exported 
during the year ending March, 1887, prod- 
ucts as follows: Sacks barley, 394,024; sacks 
wheat, 80,174; sacks corn, 23,426; sacks oats, 
12; sacks beans, 1,286; sacks walnuts, 81; 
sacks mustard seed, 1,004; clover seed, 201; 
potatoes, 2,880; onions, 167; bales wool, 
1,352; bales hay, 139; cases honey, 2,803; 
cases eggs, 427; head hogs, 7,005; head 
sheep, 7,443; lambs, 207; boxes butter, 40; 
coops live fowls, 49: hides, 216: bundles 
pelts, 60; barrels tallow, 44; miscellaneous 
packages, 105. 

During the year ending March 31, 1888, 
there was shipped from the port of Hueneme, 
of corn, 12,534 sacks; wheat, 16,073 sacks; 
barley 508,118 sacks; mustard seed, 3,934 
sacks; beans, 1,556 sacks; eggs, 387 cases; 
pelts, 304 bundles; hides, 116 bundles; wool, 
1,023 bales; hogs, 2,249 head; honey, 2,803 
cases; potatoes, 2,597 sacks; sheep and lambs, 
8,339 head; butter, 146 cases; tallow, 26 
barrels; hay, 102 bales; fowls, 158 coops; 
castor beans, 12 sacks: onions, 167 sacks; pe- 
troleum, 1,785 barrels. During this year, 
169 steamers, 23 schooners and 44 steam 
schooners, making a total of 236 vessels, 
touched at this port. 

The town site is almost level, with only a 
sandy beach between it and the sea. The 
climate is mild and the air very pure and free 
from malaria. This is the "euibarcadero" or 
sea shipping point for a large back country. 



The rich agricultural and grazing lands of the 
Si ni 1, Co n ejo and Santa Clara ran chos, the Colo- 
nia Rancho, and Pleasant Valley, lie behind it. 

The Huenenie light-house is situated one 
mile west of the wharf. It is a two-story 
brick structure, combining the Swiss with the 
Elizabethan style. It contains ten large 
rooms, with closets, offices, etc., being de- 
signed to accommodate two families. The re- 
volving light is of the fourth order, red flash, 
with tine French prisTns and concentratorp. 
It is iifty feet above the sea level and is per- 
ceptible from forty miles away. It consumes 
about three gallons of oil per week. A record 
is kept of aU details, time of lighting and of 
extinguishing the lamp, etc. The light was 
first shown December 15, 1874. The suc- 
cessive keepers have been: Samuel Ensign, 
J. A. McFarland and E. H. Pinney. 

Hueneme has post, express and telegraph 
offices and daily mail by stage from Ventura. 
There are two hotels, one school — a $9,000 
building — one church, one weekly newspaper, 
the Herald, three stores of general merchan- 
dise, one for furniture, one drug store, one 
tobacconist, one blacksmith, one carpenter- 
shop, one barber, one bakery, one agricultural 
implement depot, one saddlery and harness- 
shop, one grain, wool, and produce depot, 
one insurance agent, one livery stable, one 
lumber yard, one meat market, one painter, 
one plumber, one stove and tinware house, 
two notaries public, two attorneys at law, one 
physician and one dentist. Here is situated 
the mammoth tank, of 36,000 barrels capacity, 
into which a line of four-inch pipes conveys 
the oil from the wells in the mountains, and 
whence it is piped into vessels built expressly 
for transporting it to San Francisco, San Pe- 
dro, etc. 


This rancho lies in the extreme southern 
part of Ventura, southeast of the Colonia. 

It borders on Los Angeles County about two 
miles, on the coast about eight miles, and 
extends about ten miles into the interior. 
The place is historical, being the siteof Xucu 
or " The Town of the Canoes," described in 
the voyage of Cabrillo, 300 years since, this 
having been the most densely-populated por- 
tion of the coast. In one of the valleys. La 
JoUa, seems to have been a favorite ground 
of the Indians, it being rich in kitchen- 
middens, bones, etc., and having a trail, worn 
deep, from the landing over the hill. The 
Guadalasca was a grant of 30,593.85 acres, 
made May 6, 1846, to Ysabel Yorba, whose 
title was confirmed by the United States Land 
Commissioners. Of this estate, 23,000 acres 
were purchased some years since by William 
Richard Broome, an English gentleman of 
leisui'e, living in Santa Barbara. Several 
thousands of these acres are on the fertile 
Colonia plain, where flowing wells of artesian 
water can be had at 100 to 150 feet deep. 
" The Estero " is tlie termination of the 
Guadalasca Creek, being a basin some four 
miles long, in some parts 1,000 feet wide, 
and deep enough to float large vessels. Near 
Point Magu is a landing for vessels, safe in 
any weather, and considered one of the best 
harbors on the coast. The mountains here 
abound in game, such as bear, deer, Califor- 
nia lions, wild cats, coyotes, rabbits, hare, and 
quail, while the sea is here swarming with 
fine fisb and shell-lish, as in the days when 
sea products here supported the dense abo- 
riginal population. 


This rancho occupies the lower end of the 
Las Posas and Simi Valley, debouching upon 
the great Santa Clara plain. Las Posas, 
embracing 26,623 acres of land, was granted 
to Jose Carrillo May 15, 1824, and confirmed 
to Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, being held 


by him and his heirs until 1876, when it was 
sold to a company, who have kept it undivided 
until the present day, raising wheat, barley, 
corn and stock. 

At the date of sale, the Las Posas and the 
Simi, containing an aggregate of about 125,- 
000 acres, were sold for $550,000, being 
assessed at the same time at but $172,000. 

The rancho is located about twelve miles 
east of Hueneme, within sight of the ocean, 
in the southern part of Ventura County. 
The property is crossed by the proposed Los 
Angeles and Hueneme Railroad, and will be, 
when that road is completed, about fifty miles 
by rail from the metropolis of Southern 
California. Tlie great Simi ranch borders it 
on tlie east, the Calieguas on the south, the 
Santa Clara del Norte on the west, and a range 
of mountains on the north. 

Las Posas could take in every resident of 
Ventura County, give each voter of the county 
ten acres of land, and leave nearly 1,000 acres 
on which to build the towns. Considering 
the fact that this county is as thickly popu- 
lated outside the villages as perhaps any in 
the State, the foregoing statement gives the 
reader some idea of the extent of this great 

Probably 12,000 acres of the Las Posas are 
arable, 13,000 suitable for grazing, and the 
mountain land availing only for bee-keeping. 
It has no timber. The wide fields are mostly 
unfenced. Most of the farming is carried on 
by renters, who raise wheat, barley, corn, and 
beans, grown without irrigation. All the 
grains and semi-tropical fruits succeed here, 
and there are several thousand acres per- 
fectly adapted to the growth of the orange, 
lemon, tig, almond, and apricot. Artesian 
water is easily obtainable. 

On a part of this Rancho, Peter Rice, the 
owner of a farm of 280 acres, has an orchard, 
bearing all kinds of fruit, including oranges 

and lemons, walnuts, figs, grapes, apricots, 
prunes and peaches. 

The sale of the Scott estate lands on the 
adjoining rancho. La Colonia, in Jvily and 
August, 1888, aggregated over $525,000, in 
five days. 


The Simi Rancho is a vast tract of 96,000 
acres, completely walled in by continuous 
ranges of hills and mountains, on all sides 
save the west, where lies the narrow valley of 
the Las Posas Rancho. To the north lies the 
upper Santa Clara Valley, and to the south 
the Couejo Valley, on the south and east be- 
ing also the Santa Susana range, separating 
the Simi from Los Angeles County. The 
Simi was formerly called San Jose deGracia. 
It was granted to Patricio Javier and Miguel 
Pico, in 1795, by Governor Borica. In 
April, 1842, when Alvarado revived, or 
renewed, the claim to ISToriega, it contained 
92,341.35 acres. It contained 114,000 acres 
between sixty and seventy years since. Since 
that time, to settle a dispute a^ to title ^^V of 
the whole, comprising about 14,000 acres, 
were conveyed to Eugene Sullivan. This 
portion, comprehending the homestead of the 
de la Guerra family, now known as the Tapo 
Rancho, lies in the northeast corner of the 
Simi Valley. To Mr. Chaffee were sold 
other 2,000 acres of the Simi, leaving the rest 
in the ownership of Andrew Gray. Of this 
tract, only about 11,000 acres are suitable for 
farming; 67,000 acres are grazing land; and 
20,000 acres are available for bee-raising 
only. The altitude of the valley is about 700 
feet above sea-level. 

Having passed into the hands of "Tom" 
Scott, this rancho, on his death, remained in 
use only for grain farming and sheep and 
cattle raising, as the executors of the estate 
could not dispose of it in small parcels, and 
the heirs seemed not inclined to put it on 


the market. Of late it lias passed into the 
hands of the Si mi Land and Water Company, 
of Los Angeles, who have divided it into 
stock ranges, containing from 1,000 to 10,000 
acres each, at from $5 to $15 per acre, each 
division being supplied with abundant water 
from the living springs which are fonnd in 
almost every part of the Si mi. 

It is understood that there is abundant 
water on Simi for the irrigation of all fruit 
land which will need irrigation. No crop 
ever raised there has ever been irrigated. 
Some of the best fruit land on the rancho 
has flowing water tributary to it which can 
be piped at small expense. This water will 
be supplied as the needs of settlers may 
require. On the ordinary farming lands in 
the valleys water is easily reached by boring 
a short distance, and in many places artesian 
wells can be found. 

The climate of Simi is most desirable, and 
it is destined to become an important health 
resort for persons afflicted with weak lungs 
or throat trouble. The elevation of the val- 
leys average over 1,000 feet above the sea 
level, and the air is pure and dry, at the same 
time the temperature is even and pleasant. 
The ocean breeze begins to blow gently in 
the morning and continues through the day, 
making their air pleasant in the warmest days 
of summer. At the eastern end of the 
rancho is a beautiful oak grove of about 2,000 
acres, which affords a charming place for 
camping and picnic parties, an attraction not 
often found in this part of the State. 

Land on the Simi can now be bought in 
tracts to suit at $5 to $15 for stock ranges, 
and from $20 to $75 for farms and colony 
tracts. At present the nearest railroad point 
is San Fernando, a station on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, twenty miles north of Los 

The Simi Hotel is twelve miles west of this 

point. Visitors can go to San Fernando by 
rail from Ventura or Los Angeles, and thence 
to Simi by four-horse stage. 


The Tapo Rancho, before mentioned as 
having been set off from the Simi, belongs to 
the estate of Francisco de la Guerra. It has 
been established for more than sixty years. 
Lying at the northeastern part of the Simi 
Rancho, only some 1,500 of its 14,000 acres 
are arable, the rest being grazing land. This 
rancho, being protected by a mountain wall, is 
peculiarly adapted to fruit-growing. Superior 
wines and brandies have been made from a 
vineyard here, planted nearly fifty years ago. 


This is a little village located near where 
the ranchos Santa Clara del Norte, Las Posas 
and La Cclonia come together at the west 
end of what is known as Pleasant Valley. 
Past this hamlet goes a great deal of local 
travel. The village has a postoffice, one 
church, one store, one smithy, and a small 
number of dwellings. Adjoining Pleasant 
Valley is the magnificent Calleguas Rancho 
of 22,000 acres, and close to Springvillc is the 
large stock rancho of Gries & Bell. 


This lies over the hills, south of the Las 
Posas, and east of La Colonia (from which it 
is separated by Government lands), north of 
the Guadalasca, and west of El Conejo. 
The extension of Pleasant Valley forms a 
portion of it. This was granted to Jose 
Pedco Ruiz in May, 1847, the area called for 


acres, of which about half 

fit for stock-raising only. The rest is arable, 
producing excellent flax and cereals, corn 
being considered the best crop. Much of 
this rancho contains living springs, which 



appear in many places, but which have not 
been utilized, although irrigating a large sur- 
face, which they render peculiarly suitable to 
fruit-raising. A small vineyard here pro- 
duces wine of excellent quality. 


The Conejo (Rabbit) Rancho was granted 
by Governor Sola to Jose de la Cxuerra y 
Noriega, October 12, 1822. It contained 
48,674.56 acres. It lies east of the Calleguas 
and Guadalasca ranchos, and south of the 
Siini, which also borders it on the east. Los 
Angeles bounds it on the e: st and south. 

It is cradled between the Guadalasca or 
Conejo range south and westward, the Susana 
hills extension on the north, and the Susana 
and Santa Monica mountains on the east. 
The altitude is about 700 feet. The soil is a 
deep and rich black loam. The grazing lands 
are unsurpassed, and the caiions and moun- 
tains afford iine bee-pasturage. In 1872-'73 
H. W. Mills purchased one-half of the Conejo 
grant from the heirs of Captain Jose de la 
Guerra. In 1882 were sold at $5 per acre 
2,200 acres of the Newbury tract, and in the 
same year 6,000 acres above Newbury Park 
were sold to Russell Brothers for $15,000. Of 
this rancho 1,800 acres are fertile and even- 
surfaced. The water here is good. The dis- 
tance of this section from llueneme is twenty- 
five miles. 


In the southern end of Ventura County, 
and in the lower part of the Conejo Rancho, is 
located the town of Newbury Park — or rather 
there is in this beautiful little valley a post- 
office known by that name, at which a score 
or more of prosperous families get their daily 
mail. The postoffice is located in an old 
building belonging to the Russell Brothers, 
on the old stage route from Los Angeles to 

Ventura, about fifty miles from the former and 
thirty from the latter. The inhabitants of 
this locality are farmers living for six or 
eight miles up and down the old stage road, 
and in the " Portrero," a narrow canon lead- 
ing out of the larger valley, hemmed in by 
rugged hills and covered by some of the finest 
forest trees to be found iu Southern Cali- 
fornia. The territory covered by the ranches 
in this vicinity embraces about 30,000 acres, 
mostly devoted to stock-raising. The country 
is diversified, as is the greater part of Cali- 
fornia. Along the roads, which are extra 
good, are here and there pretty farm houses, 
and large barns filled to overflowing with 
farm products. On the hills are fat cattle 
and fine horses. Good fences, good roads 
and good buildings, all speak of thrift and 

The valleys being well covered with large 
oak trees, the drive through them is delio-ht- 
ful. Upon the rancho of A. D. and H. M. 
Russell, embracing 6,000 acres, are kept 500 
head of cattle, 100 horses and 500 hogs. 

W. H. Crolley has a rancho of 2,260 acres, 
which in two years, under his care, has been 
brought— from a property that did not make 
enough to pay taxes— into the most thrifty 
condition, showing what a little care and good 
judgment can do in a short time on Cali- 
fornia soil. He keeps about forty fine horses, 
200 Durham cattle and fifty hogs, besides a 
good quantity of poultry, all of which does 
very well. 

O. A. Wadleigh, from Canada, rents the 
Edwards rancho of 6,400 acres, and is carry- 
ing on the dairy business. He keeps 125 
cows, 150 hogs and a large lot of poultry. 

R. O. Hunt has a splendid little rancho of 
about 1,000 acres, on which he raises all kinds 
of crops and keeps all kinds of stock. He 
raises a great deal of poultry — chickens, ducks 
and turkeys. He says he never saw a place 


where poultry did as well or could be raised 
as easily, or where it would pay as well. 

H. iladsell, from Chicago, and his brother, 
N. D. Hadsell, from Ohio, have a nice little 
farm of 200 acres, on which they raise wheat 
and various other crops with success. They 
are planting frnit trees of all kinds, which 
are making most remarkable growth. 

H. T. Stebbins, from Ohio, who has lived 
on the Conejo for fourteen years, has a charm- 
ing little place of eighty acres, divided into 
tillage and pasture, where he keeps twenty 
horses, twenty-five cattle and 120 hogs, 
besides a liberal supply of fine poultry. Mr. 
Stebbins says he has killed 350 deer on this 
ranch since he has lived here. From his 
porch he looks out upon the rugged moun- 
tains of the Coast Range; the " Triunfo," 
where it is said the Mexicans fought a suc- 
cessful battle with the Indians years ago, and 
up the lovely Potrero Valley. 

Three miles further up is the 8,000-acre 
rancho of " the Banning boys," where 500 to 
1,000 cattle are kept and fattened for market. 

The only means of public transportation 
into this valley are the mail-carts. 


This is the name of an old settlement on 
the Conejo Rancho, some eight or nine miles 
from Newbury Park. It is situated in a 
quiet valley of great fertility, abundantly 
watered, and surrounded by liills whose slope 
furnish fine grazing. There are here a post- 
office, hotel, store, blacksmith shop, tannery, 
Chinese laundry, a good school-house, and 
one or two church organizations. Here lives 
Mr. Borchard, the pioneer grower of wheat 
in Ventura County. He now is engaged in 
general farming, and also makes butter by 
the ton. Game is very plentiful in this 


The Santa Clara Valley, above Santa Paula, 
is narrow and tortuous, with but a meager 
amount of arable land; below, it spreads out 
nearly level, in the approximate shape of an 
isosceles triangle, whose longest side extends 
from San Buenaventura to Point Magu, the 
southernmost point of the county, about 
twenty-four miles; the apex of this figure is 
Santa Paula, distant about thirteen miles in 
a direct line from each of the other points. 
The upper Santa Clara Valley contains the 
Rancho Sespe, occupying its lower and central 
portions, parts of the San Francisco and 
Camulos ranchos, next to the eastern county 
boundary line and Government lands. 

The soil south of the Santa Clara, and 
also the whole valley above Santa Paula, is a 
dark loam of the strongest kind, adapted to 
the cultivation of almost every vegetable, 
grain, fruit and flower. Extending along 
the channel of the Santa Clara, above Santa 
Paula, is a tract of sand about one mile wide 
and twelve miles long. The soil of the lower 
main valley, south of the river, varies from 
sandy to adobe. Grain generally succeeds in 
this valley without irrigation; but the 
climatic conditions are such that the land, 
with proper irrigation, regularly produces 
two crops eacli year. 

Extensive asphaltum and sulphur deposits 
are found in this valley, and oil indications 
throughout it. In the upper part are numer- 
ous irrigating ditches, while there is in the 
Santa Clara River, four miles above Santa 
Paula, abundant water to irrigate all the 
land between the river and the ex- Mission 
hills, Santa Paula and the sea. In the south- 
western part artesian wells furnish an ample 
supply of water. Good water for drinking 
purposes is found only in favored localities, 


although it is affirmed that the best of water 
can be found in veils of more than 100 fee 
deep. The Sauta Clara River and its tribu- 
taries furnish abundant first-class water- 

The range of temperature in the lower 
valley is small, reaching neither hot nor cold. 
In the upper valley the range is greater; at 
Santa Paula snow has been known to fall, 
and the thermometer has registered 108°, 
although such freaks are of great rarity. 
This part of the county has, perhaps, more 
than its share of windy days. Most of the 
towns of the county lie within this district; 
the county-seat is but two miles beyond its 
northwestern point; Santa Paula guards the 
entrance of the upper valley; Hueneme is 
the landing-place, and various other towns are 
found here. 


lies in the extreme western part of the Santa 
Clara Valley. It was- a grant of 4,693.91 
acres, made to Raymundo Olivas, July 6, 
1841. Of this, 2,400 acres are now owned 
by Dixie W. Thompson, who has 1,700 acres 
under cultivation. The surface of the land, 
for the most part, has a gentle slope back 
from the sea, which it borders for about four 


was originally granted to Manuel Jimeno, 
April 28, 1840, he taking possession that 
year. In 1847 Jimeno petitioned the alcalde, 
Pablo de la Guerra, for judicial possession, 
and the neighboring land-owners were sum- 
moned to witness his installation, and to at- 
test the boundaries, which originally were 
described as follows: — "From the Arroyo 
Mupu (now Santa Paula Creek) on the east, 
to the small mountain on the west, and from 
the small mountain (supposed to be Sul- 
phur Mountain) on the north to Las Positas 

on the south." Jimeno was given possession 
of about 30,000 acres. The name of the 
rancho is partly derived from the Saticoy 
tribe of Indians, who made their headquar- 
ters at the springs of that name. (Saticoy is 
said to be the Indian term for "Eureka!") 
The tract is about twelve miles long, extend- 
ing fi-om the San Miguel Rancho to the 
Sespe Rancho, with an average width of two 
miles between the Santa Clara River on the 
southeast and the lofty ex-Mission hills on 
the northwest. Its upper portion overlaps 
the river channel, including a narrow strip 
of the southern slope. Being one of the 
choicest pieces of land in the county, it was 
one of the earliest settled ranches, as it is 
now the most thickly populated sections of 
the county. 

One of the most important events in the 
history of this rancho was the enterprise of 
Mr. George G. Briggs, of Marysville, Yuba 
County, who conceived the idea that in the 
Santa Clara Valley existed such combinations 
of soil and climatic conditions as would con- 
stitute an ideal fruit-growing district, whence 
he could place his fruits on the San Fran- 
cisco market some weeks in advance of aU 
competitors. To this end he purchased of 
the More Brotliers four leagues of land for 
$40,000, and in March, 1862, he planted 100 
acres to fruit trees of various kinds to the 
number of several thousands, the site of this 
great orchard being two miles up the river 
from the Indian town of Saticoy. Carefully 
nurtured for five years, the orchard suc- 
ceeded in all other respects; but, failing to 
mature early, the project was abandoned. In 
1865 the grass was as high as a man's head, 
over the valley, and of 25,000 trees, but a 
few poor stragglers remained in a few years. 
In 1867 Mr. Briggs subdivided the rancho 
and sold it for small farms. In this year 
there were upon this rancho the following 


settlers: — J. L. Crane, who had come to the 
site of Satieoy in 1861; Dr. Millhouse, in 
the Wheeler Canon ; Colonel Wade Hamp- 
ton, in the Canada Aliso; Messrs. Mont- 
gomery, Horatio Stone, Charles Millard, Ed- 
ward Wright, Wm. Garden, Andrew J. Nutt, 
A. Gray, E. S. Woolley, Wm.*" McCormick 
and George M. Ricliardson. 

During the winter of 1871-'72, which 
was a very severe one, much of the stock 
perished, and the prosperity of the settle- 
ment received a severe check. At this time 
the present site of 


was a wilderness, the only signs of human 
habitation being one or two old adobe liouses, 
an ancient barn, and the traces of an irrigat- 
ing ditch — relics of a mission once estab- 
lished there. In 1872 Messrs. Blanchard and 
Bradley laid out some town lots, and built a 
flouring-mill on the Santa Paula Creek, one- 
half mile above the town, whose site is on 
the creek, about one mile above the Santa 
Clara River, in the upper part of the 
rancho. Some half-dozen lots were sold, but 
a]small saloon was the only building erected 
up to the summer of 1875. In June, of that 
year, the valley was more extensively laid 
out. In December there was a snow-storm 
almost unprecedented in that section. 

The drouth of 1877-78 gave a severe 
check to the growth of this place. In the 
fall of 1878 there was sufficient prosperity 
to support a Baptist Church, having a church 
building and a membership of thirteen, 
October of that year -witnessing the second 
anniversary of the congregation's existence. 
^y 1879 there was a membership of 250. 

In 1880-'81 many of the farmers turned 
their attention to the raising of pork, whicli 
staple was then dear, while the wheat and 
barley crops brought very low rates. In 

1880 no less than $40,000 were realized from 
the sale of hogs raised in the vicinity of 
Santa Paula, and twice that sum in 1881. 
The hottest weather ever felt in the town 
was during September of that year, when 
the mercury rose to 100° in the shade for 
several days in succession, once rising 
to 108°. 

Naturally the growth of Santa Paula was 
slow, as long as the only means of travel was 
by staging. But since the extension of the 
line of the Southern Pacific to Santa Bar- 
bara, the increase has been steady. 

The following account of Santa Paula, her 
resources and surroundings, was written by 
Mr. C. J. McDivitt, editor of the Santa 
Paula Chronicle: 

Santa Paula is situated on tiie Southern 
Pacific Railroad, between Santa Barbara on 
the west and Los Angeles on the east, and 
on what will be the main througli line of 
that road up the coast from Los Angeles, and 
the east from San Francisco. It is in the 
Santa Clara Valley, sixteen miles east from 
Ventura and the ocean, and nineteen miles 
from Camilos, the last station eastward in 
Ventura County, on the road to Los Angeles, 
and distant from that city sixty-five miles. 
It is located at the mouth of the Santa Paula 
Canon, near where Santa Paula Creek forms 
a junction with the Santa Clara River, and 
near the center of the county. 

There are four passenger trains daily, two 
each way, giving the people of the valley 
four daily mails and easy communication 
either north or south. The town is located 
jn the midst of a fine agricultural region. 
The -land on every side is capable of the 
highest production of all the cereals and al- 
most all the fruits and nuts peculiar to this 
coast; and all this, with the single exception 
of oranges and lemons, without irrigation. 
The town contains more than 1,000 iiihabi- 




tauts, with a voting population of 400. (The 
last census showed 1,200.) 

Santa Paula is not incorporated, but her 
public-spirited citizens have secured many 
advantages to be imitated profitably by towns 
which boast of incorporation. Private enter- 
prise has placed on a large portion of the 
main street cement sidewalks twelve feet 
wide, and on many of the other streets good 
walks, now of asphaltnin and now of board- 
ing. " The Avenue " is a drive of at least a 
mile long, smooth and well-kept, with its 
trees on either side all its length forming an 
arch-like perspective, and this is kept 
sprinkled through its full length. The other 
streets of the town also are well sprinkled. 

Santa Paula is the headquarters of the 
petroleum oil industry of Southern Califor- 
nia. Here are located the Hardison & Stew- 
art Oil Company, the Mission Transfer Com- 
pany, the Sespe Oil Company, the Torrey 
Canon Oil Company and several parties who 
are operating in a private way and disposing 
of their product to these companies. Here 
the Mission Transfer Company has erected a 
refinery with a capacity of 10,000 barrels of 
crude oil per month, which they manufacture 
into lubricating oils of fine quality for use 
on all sorts of machinery, from the locomo- 
tive to the spindle. The different brands 
are known to the trade under the names 
of engine oil, extra engine oil, car-box 
oil, journal and gear oil, heavy machine 
oil, light machine oil, valve oil, wool 
oil, and black lubricating oil. They also 
manufacture several grades of naphtha; sev- 
eral grades of asphaltum; distillates for 
enriching illuminating gas, and several other 
products. The refinery works cover about 
four acres of ground, and give employment 
to a number of skilled workmen. Inside the 
inclosure there is a tankage capacity of 40, 
000 barrels, and a perfect network of pipes 

running in every direction connecting the 
tanks and works. The erection of the 
refinery was begun in the fall of 1887, and 
the first manufactured product was turned 
out in March, 1888. 

The Mission Transfer Company handles 
the entire product of oil from all the com- 
panies, and owns and uses more than 100 
miles of pipe line in Ventura County, having 
a pipe line connecting every well with the 
storage tanks at Santa Paula. This company 
also has a pipe line from Santa Paula to 
Hueneme, and another to Ventura, on the 
ocean, and so loads vessels at either port 
direct from their own tanks. There is tank- 
age capacity of 100,000 barrels, of forty-two 
gallons each, all in this county, except one 
large tank at San Francisco. In addition, 
this company owns fifty four tank cars with 
a capacity of 5,500 gallons each. 

The companies are now (September, 1889) 
pumping about fifty wells. The daily product 
is near 700 barrels, with a gradual increase, 
and excellent prospects for the future, as they 
are all the time developing new territory, 
have recently struck some good wells, and are 
now at work on several that give promise of 
being good ones. The oil interests give em- 
ployment to 125 men, and pay out in wages 
not far from $10,000 monthly. 

The Mission Transfer Company owned the 
steamer W. L. Hardison, built by them- 
selves expressly to carry the product of the 
wells up and down the coast to a market, but 
it was recently burned at the wharf while 
loading at Ventura. The company is now 
considering plans to replace it with a vessel 
of steel. 

The Hardison & Stewart Oil Company has 
also erected at Santa Paula large boiler works 
and machine shops where all work connected 
with the oil business is done. New boilersiare 
built and repairs made to engines, boilers and 


all kinds of machinery used in this or neigh- 
boring counties. The plant is a valuable one, 
the company having recently put in a tiew 
ten-horse-power Charter gas-engine, which 
uses no boiler, makes the gas to feed it while 
running, and requires little or no attention. 
Work is turned out here which is not obtain- 
able elsewhere in Southern California. 

One of the largest fruit-driers in the State 
is located here. This was built in 1888 by 
an organized company, composed of farmers 
and fruit-growers, at a cost uf $14,000. The 
same year the company handled more than 
500 tons of apricots. When running at its 
full capacity of twenty-five tons per day, the 
drier requires 150 hands to operate it. Both 
hot air and steam are used for drying. In 
1889 over ninety per cent, of the fruit dried 
was of the first quality, bringing the highest 
price in the market. 

The "Santa Paula Water Works" supplies 
the town with good, pure mountain water, 
taken from the Santa Paula Creek several 
miles up the canon. The reservoir, with a 
capacity of about 5,000,000,000 gallon.-, is 
located 200 feet above Main street, giving a 
pressure of ninety-five pounds to the square 
inch. There is a magnificent system of mains 
and pipes running all over the town, and a 
water supply fully adequate to the needs of a 
city of 50,000 inhabitants. This system is 
owned by W. H. Bradley. 

In the Sespe Canon, a few miles east uf 
Santa Paula, are the quarries of the Sespe 
Brown Stone Company. This stone is used 
in some of the finest buildings in the State, 
among others the elegant new building of 
the San Francisco nhroniolp.. The quarries 
are extensive, there being practically no limit 
to the supply. It is of a rich brown color, 
and in color and texture closely resembles 
the noted brown stone of Nova Scotia. It 
has been tried by all tests known to science. 

and is pronounced the finest quality found. 
When subjected to a white heat and dropped 
into water, it turns to granite instead of 
crumbling as other stones have done in large 

While the material interests of the town 
are being developed and business projects 
rapidly pushed forward, the intellectual, 
moral and religious advantages have not been 
neglected. There are four church organiza- 
tions and two buildings, Presbyterian and 
and Methodist. The Presbyterian is the 
finest in the county, having been erected in 
1888 at a cost of $14,000. The pastor is 
Mr. Logan. The Methodist Church, dating 
from 1882, is worth some $5,000. Its pastor 
is Mr. Ashley. The Baptist Congregation 
worships in the Methodist Church and the 
Universalists in Cleveland hall. Mr. Andrews 
ministers to the Universalists. There is no 
Baptist pastor at present. The Roman Cath- 
olics are about to build a church; the ofiici- 
ating priest lives at New Jerusalem. There 
are four well attended Sunday-schools at Santa 

The town ha3 a graded school of four depart- 
ments, each with a large attendance — about 
200. The public school building is a fine 
structure standing in the center of a large 
enclosed square of ground. This school con- 
tains a well- selected library. Here also is 
located Santa Paula Academy, opened Sep- 
tember 16, 1889, for the second term of 
school. This is an elegant and commodious 
building, costing, with the five acres of 
ground upon which it stands, $17,000, all of 
which was contributed by the people in and 
around Santa Paula. While its articles of 
incorporation provide that a majority of its 
directors shall be of the Congregationalist 
persuasion, this school is non-sectarian in 

The land around Santa Paula is well adapt- 


ed to the growth of all kinds of deciduous 
fruits, there being no less than 800 acres of 
bearing walnuts, almonds, pears, peaches, 
prunes, tigs, grapes and many varieties of 
other fruits, together with all the small fruits 
in abundance. These trees make wonderful 
growth in the ricli soil and warm temperature 
of this valley. There are in the grounds of 
W. L. Hardison mulberry trees of live years' 
growth, which measure thirty-two inches in 
circumference, and thirty feet in height, with 
a twenty-five-foot spread to the limbs, and 
from which 300 pounds of choice fruit were 
gathered in one year. Apricot trees on the 
same place, of the same age, are twenty-nine 
inches in circumference, twenty-five feet high, 
and with a twenty-foot spread of limbs. The 
apricots have been cut back each year, the 
mulberries but once, and neither have had 
any irrigation. Both varieties have been 
bearing fruit for three years. Tiiese are by 
no means exceptional cases. The orchard of 
Mr. JS'athan W. Blanchard, one of the best 
and most profitable in the State, is located 
here. In 1889 he sold over $15,000 worth 
of fruits. He has 100 acres of seedling 
oranges and Lisbon and Eureka lemons, which 
always yield the highest market prices. The 
lemons are picked during every month of the 
year. Mr. Blanchard has planted many more 
oranges lately. Tiiis is one of the largest 
orchards in the State, though it is not yet all 
in bearing. 

On Mr. F. J. Beckwith's place, he has 100 
acres sown to Lima beans, which last season 
yielded 2,275 pounds to the acre. Another 
100 acre:^, planted to corn, yielded ninety 
busiiels to the acre. These staples are not 
the exclusive products; all these farms have 
a comprehensive variety of growth, including 
hay, grain, fruits and walnuts. Almost 
within the city limits, , Mr. Warhan Easley 
has a tract of forty acres, from which, last 

season, he realized a net income of $3,000, 
as follows: — 1,200 boxes pears, at fifty cents 
per box, $600; twenty-five tons apricots, at 
$20 per ton, $500; oranges, $100; walnuts, 
$200; peaches, $100; prunes, $100; apples, 
$200; pumpkins, $100; hay, thirty tons, at 
$10 per ton, $300; potatoes, 500 sacks, at 
$1.50 per sack, $750; garden truck, $150; 
total, $3,100. From this was paid $100 for 
harvesting, all the rest of the work beino- 
done by the owner. Besides all this, there 
were raised several tons of grapas, which were 
made into wine. 

From the famous orange grove of N. W. 
Blanchard, which began to pay running ex- 
penses only three years since, the shipments 
from the 100 acres last season amounted to 
twenty-eight car-loads, the sales footing up to 
nearly $15,000. More profitable than his 
oranges is Mr. Blanchard's fifteen-acre tract 
set to lemons, from which he harvested last 
season about 8,000 boxes, at an average price 
of $4 per box. 

Mr. G. G. Sewell, Mr. C. H. McKevett, 
Mr. H. Crumrine, and Mr. J. K. D. Say are 
all equally successful growers of oranges, 
although not so extensively. This whole 
section is, thus far, entirely free from scale, 
or other insect pests. In the grounds of Mr. 
Hardison are to be found Washington Navel 
orange trees which have yielded two boxes of 
fruit to the tree five years from planting, and 
in the grounds of Mr. McKevett and Mr. G. 
G. Sewell are trees which bore so. ne fruit the 
second year from planting. 

Mr. Crumrine has six acres of seedling 
oranges from which he received $2,600 last 
season. This, it shoiild be remembered, on 
ground that was, as late as 1886, considered 
poor for citrus fruits. 

Prunes are becoming an important feature 
of orchards here, and walnuts also are quite 
extensively planted. There are two nurser- 


ies in Santa Paula, one of which has a large 
general stock. 

In the growth, breeding, and improve- 
ment of horses and the raising of line cattle, 
this neighborhood shows commendable en- 
terprise. Tlxere are a number of tine herds 
of cattle and some choice short-horns in this 
vicinity, the foot-hills being particularly 
adapted for pasture lands. There is one 
choice herd of Holstein cattle here hard to beat 
anywhere. The gentleman imported twentj- 
one head of cows four years ago, and has 
sold $11,000 worth from their increase, be- 
sides keeping good the original number. 

The owners and breeders of fine stock in 
and around Santa Paula have the laudable 
ambition to make Ventui-a County and the 
Santa Clara Valley still more famous for 
good horses; and to this end Messrs. F. E. 
Davis, J. K. Gries, W. L. Hardison, and C. 
H. McKevett have organized into an associa- 
tion, procured a track — the Santa Paula 
Driving Park — and put up training stables, 
at their own expense, with no other object in 
view than the improvement of the horses of 
the county. Thej own and keep at the track 
some very fine stallions, among them Black 
Pilot, half-brother of Stamboul, Richwood, a 
Richmond stallion, Eli, and others. 

In the way of business enterprises Santa 
Paula has: — the First National Bank (suc- 
cessor to the Bank of Santa Paula), with a 
capital .tock of $75,000. 

The president is C. H. McKevett; vice- 
president, G. H. Bonebrake; cashier, J. K. 
Haugh; the Petrolia Hotel, which cost $15,- 
000, opened about January 1, 1889; six gen- 
eral merchandise stores; one grocery; two 
cigar and news-stands; two hardware stores, 
of which one has a full line of oil supplies 
not to be found elsewhere in the State; the 
Ventura Lumber Company, which has seven 
yards in the county, unloading at Ventura 

the lumber received from the north, and car- 
rying on a very heavy business; one planing- 
mill, conducted by the same company; one 
fruit-drier of twenty tons' daily capacity; two 
drug stores; one weekly newspaper, the 
Chronicle; two hotels; three restaurants; one 
shoe store and one cobbler shop; one men's 
furnishing shop; two milliners; two real 
estate offices; two practicing physicians; one 
dentist; one furniture store; two livery 
stables; one bakery; two butcher shops; 
three barbers; one harness shop, and two 

In common with other portions of Ventura 
County, Sauta Paula enjoys a very even tem- 
perature from one season to another, with 
more, bright, clear, sunshiny days than is 
usual so near the coast. For the gi-eater part 
of the year the breeze is landward, coming 
up the valley without interruption, cooling 
the air in summer and warming it in winter; 
and with no extremes of heat or cold, the 
town is a delightful place of residence, both 
for the health-seeker and the man of business. 

Saticoy is situated at the lower end of the 
old Santa Paula y Saticoy Rancho, on the 
Santa Clara River, about eight miles east of 
San Buenaventura, nine miles north of Hue- 
neme Wharf, and eight miles southwest of 
Santa Paula. Here are the famous Saticoy 
Springs, with their many bloody traditions 
of the Indian tribes, by whom the springs 
were discovered; the word Saticoy is said to 
mean in the dialect of the Indians who set- 
tled liere the same as the word " Eureka." 
Until the last twenty years, the chieftainess 
Pomposa, and a number of the tribe, ^\ere. 
still living at these springs, and the early 
settlers tell how, even after their advent, here 
were wont to gather annually the remnants 
of the various tribes of Southern California. 



It is declared that at each of these gatherings 
a human sacrifice was made, one of those as- 
sembled being put to death by poisoning. 
To this effect, there were made as many cakes 
as there were guests at the feast, one of the 
cakes containing the fa'al potion. None 
knew which cake held the poison, so that the 
sacrifice was entirely at hazard. 

In November, 1861, J. L. Crane settled 
upon the site of the village, and others came 
in at about the same time. These early set- 
tlers were men of sterling qualities, who 
made the most of their surroundings. A 
school was opened as early as 1868. In this 
year came hither Mr. W. de F. Richard.-', an- 
other of the pioneer settlers. 

While quite a thick settlement was in ex- 
istence, and a postoffice had been for some 
years established, the building up of the town 
proper dates mainly from the advent of the 
railway. The town with its adjacent farms 
covers about eight miles square of territory, 
within which extent are some of the most 
prolific farms and fruit orchards of Southern 
California. Being well watered, and having 
soil of exceptional strength and fertility, this 
famous valley produces crops of extreme rich- 
ness and value. Corn, beans, flax-seed, can- 
ary seed, hops, castor beans, sugar beets, 
hay, etc., are among the fruits of the soil, 
and the product is not infrequently 2,000 
to 3,000 pounds of beans, or 2,000 to 6,000 
pounds of corn, per acre. From the farm of 
M. E. Isham, who has 80 acres in fruit — 
consisting of 500 walnut, 600 apple, 3,000 
apricot, 100 lemon, 300 lime, 500 peach, and 
100 pear trees — were produced last season, 
10,000 cans of fruit, and about 3,000 glasses 
of jelly, which respectively brought $2.25 and 
$1.50 per dozen in Ventura, without casing. 
This, besides a great deal of green fruit sold, 
and about 100 barrels of cider vinegar. On 
the 180-acre farm of James Evans, another 

old settler, were raised in 1878 as much as 
4,400 pounds of shelled corn to the acre, this 
average being reached again in 1884. 

In 1882 Mr. Evans raised 2,200 pounds of 
flaxseed to the acre. His barley hay in 1889 
gave three tons to the acre. These are by no 
means exceptional holdings. As indexing 
the products of this district, a few statistics 
gathered from the shipping clerk at the 
Southern Mill and Warehouse Company will 
be interesting: barley, 2,676,123 pounds; 
Lima beans, 2,109,090; small beans, 750,243; 
corn, 308,750; walnuts, 10,000; honey, 74,- 
463; apricots, 145,726; miscellaneous, 300,- 
000. Total shipments, actual weight, 6,380,- 
395 pounds. 

In addition to above there were in Octo- 
ber, 1889, in warehouse, of barley, 2,089,090 
pounds; wheat, 453,010; honey, 54,853; 
small beans, 136,839; making a grand total 
of 9,114,187 pounds of farm products, which 
at a low estimate must have distributed not 
far from $200,000 among the farmers of this 
prosperous communit}' during the past year. 

Saticoy contains over fifty houses, a beau- 
tiful new church building, a $15,000 school- 
house, three Iiotels, one of which cost $10,- 
000, two dry-goods stores, three grocery 
stores, one drug store, a town hall, a ware- 
house 50 X 300 feet, etc. Good water is ob- 
tainable here in wells ten to seventy feet 

Eastward, and across the river from the 
lower portion of the Santa Faulay Saticoy, is 
the Rancho Santa Clara del Norte, which 
comprises 13,988,91 acres, granted to Juan 
Sanchez, May 6, 1837, and to him confirmed. 
This rancho lies six miles east of the county 
seat, and borders three miles of the Santa 
Clara River It is watered by the Santa 
Clara ditch, and by good artesian wells. 
Three-fourths of this land is tillable, the 
grazing land supports 8,000 head of sheep. 


One vineyard on this raiicho, about twenty 
years old, produces 10,000 gallons of excel- 
lent wine annually, selling at 50 cents per 
gallon. In one orchard of 500 trees, there 
are representatives of every variety of fruit 
grown in this county. Large quantities of 
flax are grown here. 


situated near the northern boundary of La 
Colouia Ranclio, is some two miles from 
Montalvo, and half way between Ventura and 
Hueneme. Its chief attraction is the mag- 
nificent surrounding country. The location 
of the town is favorable, and it will doubtless 
become a good town with transportation facil- 
ities and the dividing-up of the Colonia and 
Santa Clara del Norte ranchos, with the at- 
tendant settling of more ])eople. In the 
vicinity of this town are some very fine 
farms, which yield prolifically. This town 
has two large, well-filled general merchandise 
stores, a church and various other business 


Montalvo is a station five miles east of 
Ventura, on the Southern Pacific Ilailroad, 
It is the nearest railroad station for New 
Jerusalem and for Hueneme, being about two 
miles from the former and seven from the 
latter. At this place is one of the Southern 
Mill and Warehouse Company's large ware- 
houses. Montalvo, although not having the 
appearance of much of a place, is, neverthe- 
less, quite an important little one, being sit- 
uated, as it is, on the railroad, at a point 
where all the travel from the Simi, Las Po&as 
and the southern portion of the county 
crosses to Ventura. The town was laid out 
about two years ago. "Water was piped to 
all parts of the tract, being first pumped 
from a well to a large reservoir on a hill 
back of the town. Two store buildincrs have 

been erected, something like a dozen houses, 
and one of the finest school-hoiises in the 
county, costing $6,000. 

The development of Montalvo has been 
somewhat retarded by the ownership by one 
man, a Santa Barbara capitalist, of 2,300 
acres of land, lying upon the road to Mont- 
alvo and the ocean. This tract, if sub- 
divided, would make beautiful home lots, and 
so induce immigration. This is a great re- 
gion for beans and fruit. 

Mr. Barnett has a place of only thirty 
acres, from which he reaps a large harvest of 
fruits, mostly apricots. When the trees were 
nine years old the twenty-five acres of apri- 
cots produced fifty t(m8 of fruit. The owner 
of this valuable property has recently erected 
a fruit dryer with one of Thomas Pilking- 
ton's turnaces. 

The celebrated Alhambra Grove of sixty- 
six acres is owned by Judge S. E. Thorpe 
from Louisana. This is one of the first apri- 
cot orchards in the county and produces as 
rich fruit as any seen. In 1889 the crop 
amounted to two tons of green fruit to the 
acre; in 1888 it was four tons. This place 
is equipped with all necessary appliances for 
carrying on an extensive business. It is an 
interesting sight to see the fruit as it is pre- 
pared and cured in the improved evaporator. 

A field of 250 acres of beans is worked by 
W. S. Sewell, a native of Iowa. He says his 
beans average 1,400 pounds to the acre and 
his corn seventy-five bushels. 

In this same neighborhood Charles G. Fin- 
ney, Esq., a retired lawyer from New York, 
has an interesting place of 150 acres covered 
with fruit of all kinds. He has 500 bearing 
pear trees. The fruit he sells dry in cans 
and green; he has also thirty acres in walnuts 
in proljtable bearing, also 1,000 White 
Symrna figs, which, not proving what he ex- 
pected, lie feeds to hogs, and finds them ex- 



ceedingly profitable for this purpose. He 
says that the same amount of ground in corn 
will not make one-fit'th the pork these figs 
will. Why not raise figs to feed bogs on? 
He has 5,000 apricots, 120 prunes and other 
fruits, which do well. When Mr. Finney 
came here, fifteen years ago, there was but 
little, if any, orchards between his placi and 
Santa Paula. Briggs of Marysville had 
been here before him and tried to raise fruit 
and failed, and when Mr. Finney started in, 
everybody said lie would fail, but he kept 
steadily on and succeeded, as his place most 
emphatically proves. 


The murder of Thomas Wallace More M^as 
a cause celebre, not only in Ventura County, 
but also throughout the State, and it was 
undoubtedly the most notable criminal case 
in the annals of the county. The victim was 
one of four brothers, who had made extensive 
purchases of the old landed estates of the 
Spanish- American families, acquiring in this 
manner the Santa Rosa Island, the Patera, a 
portion of the Hill estate, the Santa Paula y 
Saticoy, the Lompoc and Purisima Vieja, and 
tlie Sespe. They at one time owned a tract 
thirty -two miles long on the Santa Clara 
River. The murder in question was the re- 
sult of land difficulties over the Sespe pos- 

In November, 1829, Don Carlos Carrillo 
received from the Mexican government a 
grant of the Sespe tract, the extent of which 
is not known, some arguments indicating that 
it comprised only 8,880 acres, or two leagues, 
while other accounts are to the effect that 
there were six leagues granted, this last being 
the territory upon which Carrillo was installed 
by the local government. In 1884 T. Wal- 
lace More purchased Carrillo's grant, sup- 

posing that he was buying six leagues, as he 
paid full value for that quantity, and he 
prosecuted the title to the land, using the 
name of Carrillo as one of the parties in in- 
terest. The Land Commissioners, too, on 
April 18, 1853, had confirmed the grant title 
to " six leagues and no more." 

The (Jnited States, as the adverse party, 
appealed tiie case to the United States District 
Court for the Southern District of California. 
When the plat (diseilo) was brought into 
court, it for the first time was remarked that 
the numbers of the grant had been manipu- 
lated, and it was therefore asserted that, by 
the erasure of the figures, six had been sub- 
stitued for two, thus fraudulently increasing 
the grant. The impression of the old settlers 
in the section was that the original grant had 
been made for six leagues. The smaller 
quantity, however, was that confirmed to 
More by the court, a patent being issued 
March 14, 1872. In 1875 More endeavored 
to purchase the other four leagues, under sec- 
tions 7 and 8, codes of 1866. The settlers 
on the land alleged that the claim had been 
settled in full; that they had for years been 
settled upon the land, and had pre-emption 
claims antedating this law; and they appealed 
to the law of March 3, 1861, section 13, 
which declares that all lands, the claims to 
which have been finally rejected by the Com- 
missioners in manner herein provided, or 
which shall finally be declared invalid by the 
District or Supreme Court, and of all lands, 
the claims to which have not been presented 
by said Commissioners within two years after 
the date of this act, shall be deemed, held and 
considered as part of the domain of the Uni- 
ted States. Mr. More's attorney had made 
application for permission to purchase, to the 
Register of the Land Office; and, on that 
ofiicer refusing the permission, the petition 
was lodged with the Commissioners at Wash- 

V EN TUB A cor NTT. 

ton, where it was pending at tlie time of the 

During several years preceding the murder, 
More often had difficulties witli the settlei-s 
who, to the number of sixty, had established 
themselves upon the land he claimed. Among 
them was one Joseph Bartlett, and him More 
had dispossessed by the sheriff, while the mat- 
ter was in dispute, his squatter's cabin being 
torn down and then burned. The place was 
afterward reoccupied, and the tenant then was 
poisoned, accidentally or otherwise. Of this 
afl'air an account was published in the San 
Francisco Bulletin, couched in such terms 
that More sued the Bulletin Company for 
$100,000 damage for libel. The case was 
tried in Santa Barbara, where the popular 
animus was very strong against More at that 
time, so that, although the jury found a verdict 
for him, they gave him only nominal damages, 
fixed at $150, thus practically sustaining 
the Bulletin, although the evidence showed 
charge of poisoning to be unfounded, and 
the casualty owing to the universal free use 
in the district of poison for coyotes, squirrels 
and other vermin. 

During the years which followed, More 
was endeavoring to perfect his title to the 
land, whilst the settlers, remaining in pos- 
session, had tbrmed themselves into a league 
for mutual defense and assistance. It is com- 
monly asserted, although it has been disputed, 
that the death of More had been decreed by 
this league, as a protectionary measure. The 
fact remains that he was commanded to aban- 
don his proceedings to secure the land, in 
letters of incendiary and menacing character. 

During the unusually dry winter of 1876- 
'77, More, while in company with his son-in 
law, C. A. Storke, engaged in inspecting the 
cutting of a ditch to convey water upon his 
land, was attacked by F. A. Sprague, armed 
first with a shot-gun and then with a pistol, 

with which he twice attempted to shoot More, 
being prevented by Storke and More, who 
turned the shots into the air. For this as- 
sault Sprague was arrested, biit was discharged 
by the magistrate. The attack was not made 
upon Sprague's land, the ditch in question 
tapped the Sespe River below Sprague's land, 
and the tract he held by More fourteen years 
before Sprague settled upon and claimed it. 

Such was the condition of affairs on the 
night of March 23-24, 1877, when More slept 
at one of his rancho houses, where there were, 
besides himself, a iiired hand named Ferguson, 
a Mexican named Olivas, and Jim Tot, a 
Chinese cook. At about 12:30 the barn, 
distant from the house 200 feet, was fired, and 
More, Ferguson and Olivas, being aroused by 
the Chinese cook, rushed forth, to endeavor 
to save the contents of the barn, consisting of 
twelve work horses, tlieir harness, about 2,000 
sacks of wheat, some barley, and several tons of 
hay. These men were joined by one Rami- 
rez, an employe who had slept outside that 
night, and all were engaged in trying to save 
the property, when More, carrying out a load 
of harness, was fired upon by two masked 
men, guarding the gate of the corral, or barn- 
yard, who shot him in the thigh near the 
groin; at this, the employes of More scattered 
toward shelter, and More also ran toward 
cover, but fell, and was overtaken by three 
masked men, who then riddled his body and 
head with bullets, of which three entered his 
head, and several his body. A niimber of 
these shots, after he had fallen, and after he 
had entreated his assailant not to kill him, 
were fired at such short range that his features 
were almost obliterated by powder and smoke. 
After this dastardly deed, the murderers 
turned at the cry of their leader, " Come on, 
boys!" and deliberately left the scene. 

This murder excited the greatest horror 
throughout the State. While the symjmthies 


of the people were with the settlers, the cow- 
ardly and brutal nature of the murder inspired 
great abhorrence. 

The coroner's jury found that " deceased 
came to his death on the morning of March 
24, 187T, by gunshot wounds inflicted by 
divers persons upon the bead and body of 
said deceased, by parties unknown to the 
jury; and that the jury further find and de- 
clare the said crime to be a case of wilful 

Shortly after the murder, a meeting of the 
settlers upon the Sespe was held at the house 
of F. A. Sprague, being convened on the 
evening of March 28, to give expression to 
public sentiment in regard to the lately com- 
mitted crime of murder and arson. At this 
meeting, N. H. flickerson being chairman 
and F. A. Sprague secretary, resolutions 
were passed condemning the action in ques- 
tion, and tendering sympathy and offers of 
assistance and co-operation in detecting and 
bringing to justice the offenders. 

Early in 1878, one Austin Erown, one of 
the Sespe settlers, had some dispute with J. 
T. Curlee, in consequence of which Brown 
sought an interview with the administrator 
of More's estate, and made a statement that 
F. A. Sprague and J. S. Churchill had con- 
spired to kill More, giving details as to par- 
ties involved, time set, etc., this statement be- 
ing given in confidence, as not to be divulged 
to the public until Brown could remove from 
the settlement to a safe place, as he feared 
for his life, having been threatened by More's 
murderers, in event of his disclosing the se- 
cret. In consequence of this movement. 
Brown sold his place, and removed to the 
county-seat, where he was considered safe. 
These and other newly-developed circum- 
stances led to the arrest of F. A. Sprague, J. 
S. Churchill, J. T. Curlee, Jesse M. Jones, 
Ivory D. Lord, Charles McCart, H.Cook and 

J. A. Swanson, ona warrant dated March 2S, 
1878. These parties were brought before R. 
C. Carlton, examining magistrate, April 1. 

About this time, it was learned that new 
evidence had been obtained. N. H. Hickerson, 
being ill and in expectation of death, and be- 
ing informed of Brown's statement and the 
arrest of the assassins, came forward to make 
a statement of a secret weighing upon his 
soul, to the effect that he liad been the re- 
cipient of Sprague's confession of his plan- 
ning and execution of the murder of T. 
Wallace More. 

As yet the stories of Hickerson and Brown 
had not been made public. The detectives 
and prosecutors who had the matter in hand 
brought about an interview with Jesse M. 
Jones, one of the parties implicated. This 
was a young tnan, only twenty-three years 
old, and it was considered that he was a tool 
rather than an active agent in the affair, and 
that, under assurance of protection and ulti- 
mate pardon, he might be induced to turn 
State's evidence. Although Jones had no 
knowledge of the revelations of Hickerson 
and Brown, with whom he therefore could 
not have been in collusion, he told a story of 
the murder, substantially the same as that 
related by Hickerson, save that Jones de- 
clared that W. Hunt was present at the mur- 
der, but not Jule Swanson. 

On the preliminary examination, H. Cook 
and J. A. Swanson were discharged, and dur- 
ing the hearing, Charles McCart and W. H. 
Hunt were arrested as accomplices in the 
murder. In the following June, the grand 
jury was organized, and it returned a true 
bill against F. A. Sprague, John Curlee, 
Jesse M. Jones, J. S. Churchill, Charles Mc- 
Cart, W. H. Hunt, and I. D. Lord. The 
lawyers for the prosecution were : J. G. How- 
ard and Frank Ganahl, of Los Angeles, L. 
C. Granger (acting district attorney), W. T. 


Williams, B. F. Williams, and ]^. Blackstock 
of Yentnra. The counsel for the defense 
were: J. D. Fay, Creed Haymond, and W. 
Allen, from abroad; and J. D. Hines, J. M. 
Brooks and N. C. Bledsoe, local lawyers. 
Engene Fawcett presided over the court. 
The prisoners demanded separate trials, tlins 
entailing heavy unnecessary expense upon 
the county. Hickerson died prior to the 
trial, but his afKdavit was introduced as evi- 
dence. The testimony was complete, not a 
link being wanting, and it appeared that 
even the discrepancies of testimony as to the 
different parties engaged, arose from the fact 
that tlie disguises were donned before they 
came together, so that only two or three knew 
all the persons present. In the case of 
Sprague, the jury rendered a verdict of nmr- 
der in the first degree. Curlee was next 
tried, and found guilty, with punishment 
fixed at imprisonment for life. The jury in 
Lord's case disagieed. These three trials 
had exhausted the material for a jury. On 
August 5, 1878, the death sentence upon 
Sprague was pronounced by Judge Fawcett. 
The court now adjourned for the term, as 
the three trials had extended the July session 
into near the middle of August. Jesse M. 
Jones, the State's witness, had been dis- 
charged fi-om the indictment for more than 
a month, being maintained by the county as 
an indigent witness in a criminal case. He 
was under pressure of poverty, and denied 
access to his wife, by her father, on account 
of his betrayal of his confederates. At this 
juncture, full of discomfort for the present, 
and of dread of a forbidding future, he was 
approached by emissaries of counsel for the 
defense, conducted to the presence of those 
attorneys, and there seduced and suborned 
into retracting his former statements, and 
made affidavit that his former testimony was 
given under compulsion and fears for his 

own safety. Upon this recantation the other 
accused were dismissed, it being impossible 
to convict them without Jones' testimony, 
and even great efforts were made to have the 
sentence against Sprague quashed. This not 
being done, the death sentence was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life. Jones, 
having scoffed at and defied the power of the 
law, was absolutely beyond its vengeance, 
owing to the provisions of the penal code 
making absolute and unconditional the dis- 
charge of an accomplice, that he may become 
a witness for the people; and the improved 
and comfortable financial conditions with 
which he was thereafter surrounded, proved 
what inducements had secured his perjury. 
Sprague spent ten years in the penitentiary, 
was then pardoned out by Governor Stone- 
man, and now lives in Ventura County. 
Curlee, having been granted by the Supreme 
Court a new trial, was dismissed like the 
others, after Jones' defection, and now lives 
in San Diego County, as does Hunt. Church- 
ill, after acquittal, went to Oregon, where he 
probably died, being consumptive. Jones 
lives in San Bernardino County, and scattered 
are the rest whose dastardly deed has left a 
black blot upon the fair fame of Ventura 
County. While the settlers believed that 
they were on Government land, and resolved 
to defend their rights thereto, inspired by 
the God-given love of home, there is no 
doubt that More also believed that he was 
right, being firm in the conviction that he 
had bought six leagues in his Sespe pur- 
chase. As to the rights of possession, the 
present writer does not assume to judge, but 
only to condemn, as ever, the cowardice and 
unfairness of the means employed against 
one man by many. The commission gave 
the disputed land to More's heirs, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, reversed 
this decision; and although two succeeding 


commissions have pronounced in favor of 
the heirs the land is held bv the settlers. 

The Sespe Rancho adjoins the Santa 
Paula y Saticoy on the northeast, extending 
eight miles up tlie Santa Clara, and embrac- 
ing most of the arable land in the valley on 
both sides of the river within those limits — 
an extent of two leagues, or some 8,880.81 
acres. This land encloses but does not in- 
clude a tract of Government land. The title 
to the rancho is hy United States patent. 

The story of this rancho is remarkable, 
involving, in the struggles made for its pos- 
session, episodes of trespass, misdemeanor, 
fraud, arson, attempted homicide and murder. 

The rancho was used many years mainly 
for pasturage for stock, although it possessed 
such remarkable advantages of soil, water 
and climate as to render it an uncommonly 
desirable territory for the production of vege- 
tables, cereals, grapes, citrus and most varie- 
ties of deciduous fruits. The upper portion 
of this rancho contains the noted oil wells. 
The elevation of this tract is some 2,000 feet 
above sea level. 

Among the earliest settlers here were liv- 
ing, in 1861, the More brothers, W. H. IS'or- 
way and Captain William Morris. Their 
nearest American neiglilioi-s, for at least a 
part of the year, were at San Buenaventura. 
The tirst crop of grain was sowed in the 
winter of 1860-61, the More brothers putting 
in about 200 acres of wheat. Jt was har- 
vested by W. S. Chaffee and W. H. Norway, 
Alexander Cameron being the contractor. 
The grain was cut with a reaper and threshed 
out by horses. 

In 1876 this rancho, then owned by T. 
Wallace More, was assessed at $9 per acre, 
whereupon he entered suit to have a portion 
of the taxes refunded. It was maintained 

that the land could be sold for twice that 
sum within twenty-four hours. 

In March, 1877, took place the murder of 
T. Wallace More, the owner of the rancho, a 
full account of this crime being given else- 

This rancho is becoming settled rapidly, 
many people being attracted thither by the 
rare advantages of soil and climate. While 
there are no large towns on this territory, 
not a few villages and centers of population 
are found here. 

La Cienega (Spanish for a marsh) is the 
name of a postoffice which was established in 
1875, up the valley some fourteen miles from 
Santa Paula, and twenty-one miles fi-otn New- 
hall. Near La Cienega is the " Buckhorn 
Ranch," Mr. B. F. Wari'ing's famous place, 
whose owner settled here in 1869, upon 160 
acres, to which, after ten years' litigation, he 
obtained a United States patent. Lying on 
the old stage road, and midway between Los 
Angeles and Santa Barbara, this in time came 
to be a regular eating-place and relay stage 
station, widely and favorably known to the 
pilgrim guild. It took its name from the 
great antlers hung over the gate, trophies 
from many a proud buck brought down by 
the gun of the ranchero. This is a sheltered 
spot, free from frosts, well- watered and 
blessed with a rich soil. In the neighbor- 
hood are many farms where grow plentifully 
grain, vegetables and fruits. 


This is a small town, started by the Sespe 
Land and Water Company, just after the ad- 
vent of the railway. It lies in a charming 
situation, and in the midst of a fruitful 
coiintry, full of profitable farms. About 200 
people take their mail from this office. The 
settlement nucleus has a Presbyterian church, 
a school-house, two hotels, several stores, a 


himber-yard, a blacksmitli-shop, etc. Near 
this was started at about the same time 
another little town called Sespe, but a church 
is about the only claim to importance to be 
seen here. 


In January, 1887, R. G. Surdam, one of 
the founders of Nordhoff, bought of Thos. R. 
Bard, of Hueneme, 1,500 acres of the old 
Sespe grant, and soon thereafter founded the 
now thriving little town of Bardsdale. It is 
in a beautiful valley, appropriately termed a 
"dale," the ground lying between mountains, 
and sloping gently from the range to the 
river. Bardsdale is a little south of Fillmore, 
on the Southern Pacitic Railway, fifty-six 
miles from Los Angeles. It is the only town 
in the Santa Clara Valley south of the Santa 
Clara river. The land here is of a superior 
qnality of soil, and its sheltered position in- 
sures a delightful climate. There is an 
abundant supply of water for domestic and 
irrigation purposes, brought from the Santa 
Clara River, through strong wooden flumes, 
constructed at a cost of some $8,000. Thus 
irrigation can be applied to hundreds of acres, 
planted to barley, potatoes, etc., there being 
at least ten miles of these flumes. As an ex 
ponent of the productiveness of the soil, it 
may be said that potatoes yield easily 75 to 
150 sacks per acre, which rarely sell for less 
than 75 cents to $1.25 per sack. On one 
farm of about 100 acres, the owners, begin- 
ning with a crop of sixty bushels of corn per 
acre, have every year increased the yield 
until it has reached an average yield of ninety 
bushels per acre; in other words, there have 
harvested from this field during the last 
twelve years not far from 90,000 bushels of 
corn, grown without irrigation or fertilizer. 


Three or four years ago Mr. David C. 
Cook, the Chicago publisher of Sunday-school 

literature, came into Ventura County and 
purciiased that portion of the Temescal or Old 
Camulos Rancho which extenJs up the Piru 
Canon. Since then he has added consider- 
able to it, bringing it up to nearly 14,000 
acres and calling it the Piru. This ranch is lo- 
cated on the Piru Creek, including the mouth 
of the stream and a small portion of the Santa 
Clara Valley. As most of the ranch was 
mountainous it was formerly thought to be 
only suitable for grazing purposes, but Mr. 
Cook has already demonstrated that it is valu- 
able for something else. Ho has planted out 
and has growing 400 acres of oranges, 300 
acres of apricots, 180 acres of figs, 200 acres 
English walnuts, 130 acres of olives, 80 acres 
of grapes, 80 acres of chestnuts, 20 acres of 
almonds, 10 acres of pomegranates and 10 
acres of Japanese persimmons. He has in 
his nursery 150,000 citrus trees ready for 
planting tliis fall, and 3,500 fig trees. 

He has laid out eight miles of avenues and 
has ten acres devoted to ornamental shrubs 
and trees. The latter embraces trees, shrubs 
and plants from about every northern and 
semi-tropical clime, and in great variety. All 
this has been done so noiselessly that not 
half the people of Ventura County are aware 
of its having been accomplished. A fine 
stream of water traverses the entire length of 
the rancho, and is entirely utilized for irri- 
gating purposes, which is useful in starting 
citrus and other trees, and also is lielpful 
when some kinds are fruiting. Mr. Cook's 
experiments only indicate the possibilities of 
this wonderful soil and climate. 

As an illustration of what has already been 
said of this county's productive soil, and 
adaptability to fruit raising, one has only to 
make a trip to the little town of Piru City, 
which was laid out and dedicated in March, 
1888. It is located on the Ventura division 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad, thirty miles 


southeast of San Buena Yentura at the junc- 
tion of the Piru and Santa Clara rivers; con- 
tains about twenty buildings including Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church with a membership 
of fifteen; one general inerchsandie store, 
meat market, paint-shop and depot. They 
also have telegraph, express and post offices, 
and their population is now about 100. 


On the line of the railway, forty-seven 
miles northwest of Los Angeles, and in the 
extreme eastern portion of Ventura County 
is that fertile 2,000-acre tract known as the 
Caniulos. This was once a part of the great 
San Francisco Rancho, belonging to-Los An- 
geles County. This portion of the original 
grant was established as placed in Ventura 
when the boundary lines were settled between 
this county and Santa Barbara. The San 
Francisco Rancho was granted in 1841 to 
Antonio del Valle, and upon his death passed 
to liis son, Ygnacio del Valle, who held it in- 
tact until 1866, when he sold all but 1,500 
acres to a Philadelphia company. When he 
acquired the property, in 1861, Ygnacio del 
Valle removed his family to reside on the 
Camulos, Eomewhat improved already. From 
that time improvements here have been con- 
stantly in progress, but the picturesque and 
romantic features of the rancho have been 
preserved. Don Ygnacio died in March, 
1880, leaving a widow and five children. 
The present owners have added 500 acres to 
the original reservation, and the whole has 
been improved until it is now one of the 
most productive and profitable properties in 
Ventura County. This rancho is divided 
about equally into farming and grazing land. 
The pastures raise horses, horned cattle, 
sheep and hogs. All farming on the Camu- 
los is carried on with irrigation, and the 
whole Santa Clara River could be diverted 

into the great ditches running across the 
rancho. Here are grown excellent crops of 
wheat, in quality very superior, also bounti- 
ful crops of barley, rye, oats, corn, potatoes, 
sweet potatoes, pumpkins, melons, and all 
kinds of vegetables, harvested from the same 
land year after year with no indication of ex- 
hausting the soil. 

The vineyard here is of 50,000 vines, which 
for many years have yielded 10,000 to 20,000 
gallons of wine pei- year. From an orange 
grove of 2,000 trees, 1,200 boxes of fruit 
were shipped last season. The returns are 
handsome from 500 walnut trees, as also from 
the oil and pickled olives from a fine grove 
of 1,000 olive trees. Almost every kind of 
fruit grown in the United States is raised 

This rancho was the scene of Mrs. Helen 
Hunt Jackson's novel of " Ramona," and the 
del Valle family have sufl'ered not a little 
from the inconvenient notoriety thus given 
their property, and the consequent invasion 
of inquisitive and often intrusive and un- 
mannerly visitors to the site. In the imme- 
diate vicinity of this rancho there is a large 
settlement of Spanish-Califoruian farmers, 
who employ the most improved implements 
and methods, and raise good crops of corn, 
beans and barley. The next great estate is 


containing about 11,500 acres of grazing, and 
3,000 acres of tillable land, which is divided 
into nearly equal portions by the Santa Clara 
River, and of which about 13,000 acres be- 
long in Ventura, and the rest in Los Angeles 
county. This rancho was granted January 
22, 1839, to Antonio del Valle, and confirmed 
to Jacoba Feliz and others, then containing 
only some 10,000 acres. It now belongs 
mostly to the estate of H. M. Newhall, the 
well-known auctioneer of San Francisco. 


Save at Newliall, in Los Angeles County, 
few houses appear on this rancho, whose 
rough mountains and coarse, wild sage-brush 
and weeds appear like worthless waste land. 
Yet these very brush-lands are admirable 
bee pastures. Here, too, are oil interests not 
yet developed. 


The country drained by the San Buena- 
ventura River is mostly comprised within 
the limits of the following ranchos: — The 
Canada San Miguelito and a part of the ex- 
Mission, both bordering on the ocean; the 
Canada Larga or Canada Verde, and the 
Ojai on the left bank, and the Santa Ana on 
the right bank. 

The vast domain of the ex-Mission Rancho 
was granted as six leagues to Jose Ariiaz, by 
Governor Pio Pico, June 8, 1846. Arnaz 
sold it to M. A. R. Poli in 1850. The claim 
was confirmed May 15, 1855, by the Land 
Commissioner, and finally, on April 1, 1861, 
by the United States District Court. In Au- 
gust, 1874, a patent was issued to the 
grantees for 48,822.91 acres. Poli sold the 
property to the San Buenaventura Manufact- 
uring and Mining Company. He afterward 
died insolvent. This rancho derives its name 
from the fact that a division was made of the 
lands held in the name of the old Mission, 
the church retaining the old orchard and 
36^^ acres contiguous; all lands outside 
these are called ex-Mission lands. At the 
sale of lands for delinquent taxes, February 
16, 1874, the ex-Mission lands were offered 
for sale without a buyer, the taxes amounting 
to $3,168, drawing interest at two per cent, 
per month. This region is one of almost 
continuous settlements, with easy outlets. 
The soil is exceedingly rich to the very crests 

of the hills, and the climate is unsurpassed. 
The lands are agricultural and grazing. This 
territory is luxuriantly covered with wild 
oats, wild burr-clover, and alfilaria. A short 
distance back from the sea are forests of oaks, 
not readily seen save from close at hand. 
The bee pasturage is rich and extensive. The 
oil belt underlies a portion of this rancho. 


This is next northwest of the ex-Mission 
Rancho. It has about three miles of coast 
line. This grant of 8,877.04 acres was con- 
firmed to J. F. Rodriguez and others. This 
rancho consists almost wholly of rich pasture 
lands, raising great numbers of sheep. Very 
little timber is found here. The ocean road 
from San Buenaventura to Santa Barbara 
passes along the beach here. On Govern- 
ment land close by this rancho is a mine of 
so-called rock soap, being an infusorial earth 
resembling marl. It has been exported for 
polisliing silverware, and for use by jewelers 
for burnishing purposes. 


was granted to J. Alvarado, wlio pushed the 
claim to confirmation. It contains about 
2,220 acres, of which all is grazing land but 
about 1,000 acres, whicli are well cultivated, 
and upon which are found fine orchards and 
handsome homes. 


This is a wedge-shaped tract, which was 
granted to Fernando Tico, April 6, 1837, and 
afterward confirmed to him; acreage 17.792.- 
70.' In 1864 this rancho was bought by 
the California Petroleum Company. It was 
then a very wild place; a dozen or more 
grizzly bears were killed in Ojai Valley in 
one winter, and hundreds were thereabouts, 
as well as California lions, wild cats, etc. 



Lion Canon was so named from the great 
number of tliese panthers that it harbored. 
Dr. Chauncej Isbell lived here as early as 
1866, and in October, 1868, Eobert Ayers 
removed thither his family, the first American 
household in the valley, where a few Spanish- 
Californian families were living. In 1870 but 
two houses, one frame, one adobe, were in 
the Upper Ojai. In 1872 this rancho pro- 
duced about 16,200 bushels of wheat, aver- 
aging thirty to forty bushels to the acre. A 
grange was organized here in 1874, and, in 
1875 there were two school districts, the 
Ojai and the Nordhoff. The settlement of 
this section has been most rapid; within four 
years from the time when the inhabitants 
were less than half a dozen it had nearly 
100, forming an enterprising and intelligent 
community. The fertility of this soil is 
hardly surpassed in California; here the 
wheat crop reaches its maximum as to quality 
and quantity. No irrigation is used for the 
small grain crops. Artesian water is obtained 
at Nordhoff, but it rises little above the sur- 
face. On the hills all the usual northern 
farm crops thrive remarkably well, as also 
many fruits, etc., considered semi-tropical in 


Almost in a straight line due north from 
San Buenaventura, from which town it is 
fourteen miles distant, lies the valley of the 
Ojai, shut in by high mountains, that deter- 
mine the amphitheater-like shape whence it 
takes its name (a nest). 

The mountains on the north side take a 
snowy covering in winter, in sharp contrast 
with the slopes of sulphur mountain, covered 
with live-oaks on the south side. Over- 
looking the others rises Mount Topotopa, 
between 5,000 and 6,000 feet high, also snow- 
mantled in the winter. 

The drive to the lower Ojai follows an easy 

grade along a beautiful clear stream where 
trout sport and twinkle. The Upper Ojai, to 
the eastward of the main valley, is reached by 
a steep grade up an oak-covered ridge leading 
out of the lower valley. The soil here is rich 
and fertile, and plentifully watered, and its 
crops never fail. 

Attention was first called to this valley by 
Charles Nordhoff, who visited it in 1872, and 
soon after, in his book on California, gave an 
enthusiastic description of it. 

The lower valley is five miles long, and 
800 feet above sea-level ; the upper is smaller, 
with an elevation of about 1,200 feet. This 
basin is well-timbered, and its soil is very 
productive, giving the large.-t yield in the 
county of wheat per acre. It is also well 
adapted for raising the finest varieties of 
citrus fruits. Mr. Elwood Cooper, the famous 
olive-grower, says that the Ojai is also the 
best olive-growing district in California. 

The scenery here is truly wonderful; the 
softy and balmy air, the park-like groves of 
oaks, their mistletoe, the vines and mosses, 
the bird voices within their leafage, the 
grandeur of the surrounding mountains, the 
cloud eft'ects — all combine to give an inde- 
scribable (tharm to the Ojai Valley. 

But there is another advantage; the 
delightful climate is of great benefit to suf- 
ferers from affections of the throat and lungs, 
and the famous (Jjai Hot Springs in the 
Matilija Canon are possessed of strong cura- 
tive properties. 

The Ojai Hot Sulphur Springs are beauti- 
fully situated in Waterfall Canon, about five 
miles from Nordhoff and fifteen from Ven- 
tura. The altitude at the springs is about 
1,000 feet. The flow is about 50,000 gallons 
per hour, and the temperature ranges from 
60° F. to 74° and 104° F. Several of the 
springs are carbonated and others are sul- 
phureted. The Ojai waters contain: sodium. 


sium and magnesium carbonates and sul- 
phates, calcium and ferrous carbonates, sili- 
cates, carbonic anhydride and sulphnreted 
hydrogen. The waters have a reputation for 
whitening and softening the skin, and im- 
proving the complexion. These springs are 
the resort of many people afflicted with stiff 
joints, rheumatism, gout and skin diseases. 

Almost in the center of this lovely valley, 
and nearly 900 feet above the sea, is the 
village of NordhofE, so named in recognition 
of Charles NordhofPs offices in lieralding to 
the outside world the tnerits of this quarter. 

Mr. R. G. Surdam, if not the first, was 
one of the prime movers in starting this 
flourishing little town, he having bought 
sixty acres, which he laid off in blocks and 
lots in 1874. He gave a one-third interest 
to A. M. Blumberg, on condition that he 
build a hotel. That structure, which at first 
was made of light scantling covered with 
clotli, has developed and grown into quite a 
sightly hostelry, the nucleus of a thrifty little 
village. Nordhoff contains some 300 inhab- 
itants, many of whom are recuperated in- 
valids from nearly every State in the Union. 
There are here two hotels, nestled iinder the 
splendid oaks, two churches, two school- 
houses, two general merchandise stores, two 
blacksmiths, a builder, contractor and lumber- 
dealer, and a butcher-shop. There is a weekly 
newspaper and a postoffice with daily mail. 


Westward from the Ojai are a number of 
broad mesas and thickly-populated uplands, 
which constitute the Santa Ana Valley, on 
whose well-cultivated farms and orchards are 
raised as line fruits as any Ventura County 
produces. This is all a fine grain country, 
where wheat reaches its maximum as to 
height, quantity and quality. This valley is 
a twin sister to the Ojai in its climate, soil 

and resources, and also probably with quite 
as much water and timber, but this valley 
contains less arable land than the Ojai. 

Here is a region of forests; timber of ma- 
jestic size, and an undergrowth of wild oats, 
wild grasses, wild gooseberries, rhododendron 
and honeysuckle, while wild grapes clamber 
over the trees along the creeks and the river. 

A portion of this territory has as great an 
altitude as the Ojai, but it is much lower 
where it approaches the San Buenaventura 
Valley. Above this section the Ventura 
River descends rapidly, passing by cascades 
over highlands, but it flows more tranquilly 
when it reaches the table-like lands of the 
Ojai and Santa Ana ranches. Here it gathers 
volume from the water of the San Antonio 
and Coyote creeks, the former flowing from 
the east, the other from the west; and hence 
forward to the sea it flows with gentle cur- 
rent. All three of these are fine trout 


This tract of 21,522.04 acres was, in April, 
1837, granted to Crisogono Ayala and others, 
and to them confirmed. Tliis lies but two 
miles from the Santa Barbara line, and it is 
the most northerly rancho in Ventura County. 
The Coyote Creek crosses this forest-hooded 
rancho, of which nearly 10,000 acres would 
be good arable land, if cleared of its timber. 
In May, 1875, this rancho was surveyed in 
lots, which were to be sold on terms similar 
to those of the Lompoc colony lands. The 
capital stock of the company was fixed at 
$60,000, in shares of $100 each. Among the 
estimated resources were 6,000 acres of arable 
land, other 6,000 tillable with side-hill plows, 
and 75,000 cords of wood. The temperance 
principle was to be a leading feature of this 
settlement. The project was never carried 
to fulfillment. 





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The capital, or county-seat, of Ventura is 
situated a few miles east of Point Rincon, 
near where the Ventura River empties into 
the ocean. The " Small City," or '* Palm 
City," as it loves to call itself, spreads over 
an area extending to about twenty blocks 
long by six wide. The sea washes the south- 
ern boundary, the Ventura River skirts the 
western, a high hill looms on the northern 
side, whilst the fertile Santa Clara Valley 
stretches out eastward. 

The old town was grouped about the adobe 
buildings and the semi-tropical gardens of 
the mission, and it was long isolated for lack 
of railway communication, being accessible 
only by means of the steamers of the coast 
line, at that time generally small and uncom- 
fortable for purposes of travel. 

This has, however, always been an import- 
ant shipping point. In the mission days, 
when the hides and tallow produced from the 
broad lands ruled by the fathers were car- 
ried hence by Indians and wading sailors, as 
related by Robinson and Dana, and in later 
days when a substantial wharf, large ware- 
houses and frequent service of steamers 
facilitated the export of products from the 
rich tributary country. 

Since the coming of the railway, in 1887, 
San Buenaventura has veritably entered upon 
a new epoch of existence, with a new lease 
of life, and tlie outside world has begun to 
learn somewhat of her resonrces. 

The town is eighty miles distant fiora Los 
Angeles, thirty from Santa Barbara and 300 
by sea from San Francisco. 

Lying u]ion a narrow plain between the 
foot-hills and the sea, the town, like many 
others of the older Spanisii settlements, 
naturally enougli grew along one main busi- 

ness street. When the Americans came 
they spread out across that narrow plain, and 
began also to climb the hills in search of 
places whereon to build homes. Thus San 
Buenaventura to-day has five long streets, 
Front, Meta, Santa Clara, Main and Poli, in 
the order named from the water front back 
which run east and west, parallel to the 
shore, and crossed at right angles by nine- 
teen other streets, running north and south. 
These all have either wooden or concrete 
walks eight and ten feet in width. Probably 
no other towj in the State of the same pop- 
ulation has the same quantity of sidewalks. 
In the last two years Ventura has built 
11,310 feet of cement sidewalks, at a cost of 
$25,188, and 39,104 feet of wooden side- 
walks, costing $32,100, making in all nine 
and one-half miles of walks, at a cost of 
$57,288. Aside from this there are eight 
and one-half miles of graded streets, pre- 
pared at a cost of $38,145. The system of 
sewerage is gcod, there being three miles of 
sewer pipe that cost $20,000. 

Here, as in Parir, France, there are city 
ordinances forbidding the casting down of 
paper, etc., upon the streets, or the throw- 
ing into them of any sort of litter, and these 
precautions, together with the services of 
men employed to do weeding, etc., keep the 
streets and sidewalks of this town in tine 
condition. Provision is made, too, against 
the bane of Southern California during the 
dry season — dust. By an ordinance approved 
in November, 1888, constantly three, and 
occasionally four, sprinkling carts are kept at 
work on the city streets, at a cost of about 
$2,500 per year. 

There is also a good system of sewerage, 
based on the Waring plan, comprising 
17,914 feet of pipe, of diameters ranging 
from six to fourteen inches, constructed of 
the' best vitritied ironstone piping, at a cost 


of $25,000. The sewering is greatly facili- 
tated by the natural slope of the town site. 

Running for several miles northward along 
the border of the Yentura River is a beauti- 
ful valley, or narrow strip of land, called 
" The Avenue." It is laid ofE into small 
farms and villa lots, skirted by hills on either 
hand, and liere live many of Ventura's peo- 
ple, amidst a wealth of fruit and flowers. 
The street which runs through this valley is 
broad, level and very nearly straight, extend- 
ing six or eight miles. It is set with shade 
trees nearly the whole distance, and the 
enterprise of the residents here provides for 
its sprinkling from end to end. This is the 
boulevard of Ventura, and its beautiful bor- 
dering of tasteful houses, and its well-kept 
orchards and gardens, make it indeed an at- 
tractive drive. 

On the avenue grows a monster grapevine, 
about seventy-five years old, whose main 
vine is over three feet in circumference. It 
is trained over framework, and produces an- 
nually several thousand cons of grapes. 

San Buenaventura is a town of the sixth 
class. Its population is 2,350, of which 
about sixteen per cent, consist of the Span- 
ish-American element. 

The assessed valuation of city property for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, shows 
as follows: town lots, $814,385; improve- 
ments, $375,370; personal property, $391,- 
529; money, $18,871; mortgages, $171,103. 

San Buenaventura was incorporated as a 
town March 10, 1866, and re- incorporated 
March 29. 1876. 

The municipal othcers are: A. board of 
town trustees, consisting of J. S. Collins, 
President; and Peter Bennett, C. D. Bones- 
tel, E. M. Jones and J. R. Willpughby; 
Marshal, Frank S. Cook; Clerk, J. F. New- 
by; Attorney, Lloyd Selby; Treasurer, Chas. 
McDonald; Engineer, G. C. Power. 

There is a volunteer fire department, 
equipped with two hose carts and hook-and- 
ladder paraphernalia. There are about forty 

The town hall and library building, in one, 
built in 1883, is owned by the city. It is a 
one-story brick of fifty feet frontage on the 
main street, with a depth of seventy feet 
The construction is such as provides for the 
ready and economic addition of another 

The town hall contains a fine cement and 
brick fire-proof vault of the latest improved 
order, whose capacity is sufficient to make it 
the receptacle of the municipal records and 
documents for at least twenty-five years to 
come. This building is valued at about 

The cemeteries, Protestant, Roman Cath- 
olic and Jewish, are situated on a beautiful 
location in the eastern addition. With the 
exception of the Roman Catholic one, they 
are owned and managed by the municipal 
jurisdiction, the town clerk giving deeds for 
lots, while the sexton reports to the town 

The Ventura postotfice is of the third 
class. The postmaster is Nathan li. Shaw, 
and he has one assistant. The postmaster 
refuses to give any information regarding 
the business of the office, such as is custom- 
arily given to the public press once or twice 
a year; therefore no comparison can be made 
of the relative importance of this with other 
county- seat postoffices. The Postoffice De- 
partment at Washington, at the request of 
citizens here, recently changed the name of 
this ■ postoffice from San Buenaventura to 
Ventura. Much mail and express matter 
designed for this office found its way to San 
Bernardino, and vice versa. Then the name 
was too long to write and too difficult for 
strangers to pronounce. 


For a number of years the town was 
liglited by gas, there being twenty-tive street 
lamps, paid for by the city; but since Sep- 
tember 1, 1890, the municipality has adopted 
the electric light system, of which there are 
two circuits. The gas company still lights 
many stores, offices, etc. 

Ventura has no street railways, but a fran- 
chise to build one has recently been granted. 

In February, 1888, the telephone service 
was introduced, under the management of an 
experienced electrician. Beginning with 
thirty connections, the patronage has steadily 
increased to sixty, and connection will soon 
be made with neighboring towns. The 
service is in great favor here. 

Ventura has in force various ordinances 
highly favorable to public morals, among 
others, one prohibiting boys under sixteen 
years old from being in the streets after 
8 p. M. 

The high-license law has been in opera- 
tion for one year. The license is $600 per 
month, of which one-half goes to the town 
and one-half to the county. 

Located in San Buenaventura, as the 
county-seat, are various county institutions, 
hereinafter described, as the hospital, the 
court-house, etc. 

Within the city limits there is a halt-mile 
race-track, of private ownership. 

There are several excellent hotels, among 
them the Rose, a handsome three-story brick, 
cost $120,000; artistic in furnishing, and 
excellently managed, it is safe to say this is 
the best hotel in Southern California. 

The following report was prepared by Mr. 
J. ¥. Newby, who was for ten years librarian 
of the Ventura Library Association: 

"This association was incorporated Novem- 
ber 23, 1874, with Milton "Wason, James 
Daly, C. G. Finney, L. F. Eastin, G-. S. Gil- 
bert, Jr., C. H. Bailey, J. J. Sheridan, T. B. 

Steepleton and L. C. Granger as incorpo- 
rators. The association arranged for a fair 
and festival, the proceeds of which went 
to purchase books and furniture. All mem- 
bers were required to pay $5 per annum to- 
ward supporting the library, and those who 
did not pay the $5 for membership paid 
twenty-five cents a month for the privilege 
of drawing books. A room was secured and 
some 600 volumes purchased, Mr. J. W. 
Maxwell being the lirst librarian, succeeded 
by Miss Cecelia Perkins. The library was 
kept up until the spring of 1878, when it 
became involved in debt and was closed. 

" In August, 1878, the library trustees, 
Messrs. James Daly, M. H. Gay, C. H. 
Bailey, L. F. Eastin and J. J. Sheridan, made 
a proposition to the board of town trustees 
to transfer the assets of the association to 
the town, provided the town would pay the 
library indebtedness, and agree to levy a 
library tax under a State law allowing incor- 
porated towns to levy a library tax. The 
town board accepted the proposition and 
took charge of the library August 21, 1878, 
with J. F. Newby as librarian, he continu- 
ing to till the position until February 1, 

" The library was a success from the time 
the town took charge of it and levied an an- 
nual tax to support it. New books were 
added two or three times each year, until the 
library now contains 4,000 carefully selected 
volumes. A reading room is attached to tlie 
library, in which one tinds the standard peri- 
odicals of the day. There were over 10,000 
books diawn from the library last year by 
citizens. The town has lately added an addi- 
tion to the library room, and the library now 
has two large, well-lighted rooms. 

"Miss FlorenceVandever, daughter of Gen- 
eral Vandever, is the present librarian, and 
under lier management the place is made 



attractive, as shown bj tlie increased attend- 

"The library is one of the best small libra- 
ries in the State, and is the pride of tiie 
citizens of Ventura. The snccess of the 
library is mainly due to the intelligent and 
constant sujDervision of Messrs. James Daly, 
W. E. Shepherd and Judge S. A. Sheppard, 
and especially to James Daly, who was one 
of the original founders, and since then 
almost continuously one of the trustees, he 
having been untiring in his efforts to build 
up the library and make it a success. 

" The library is open every afternoon and 
evening, and it is largely patronized, the 
Venturans taking great pride in the institu- 

A feature festhetic as well as practical of 
the town is 


A few years ago Mrs. T. B. Shepherd 
of San Buenaventura, possessing a love for 
flowers and rare plants, sought, through a 
system of mutual exchange, to add to her 
collection and at the same time furnish per- 
sons in other parts of the country with such 
feeds and bulbs as she grew at home. In her 
zeal and anxiety to secure for herself some 
varieties grown by Eastern florists, she oc- 
casionally applied to them, proposing to 
furnish from her stock such as they might 
wish ti) propagate. These applications were 
often entirely unnoticed. Peter Henderson, 
however, the noted seedsman and florist, 
wrote her encouragingly and advised lier to 
raise seeds and bulbs for the Eastern market. 
This was four years ago; but, having no 
capital and only a limited experience, her 
progress was necessarily slow. But with a 
courage born of love for the business, slie 
went to work upon about two acres of ground 
adjoining lier residence. As fast as the in- 
come from her sales would permit she would 

order seeds and bulbs from prominent florists 
in Europe and America. Her ground had to 
be prepared and necessary buildings put up, 
and ail from the income of the garden. 
Thus has she worked along, experimenting 
sometimes though rarely failing, until she 
has demonstrated that this country, and right 
here in Ventura, is one of the best places for 
cultivating flowering plants for profit in the 
world. Of all the European plants and bulbs 
she has cultivated, those raised here are 
superior to those raised in their own country. 
Her business has increased until it requires 
the constant attention of two men under her 
supervision, and her sales to Eastern seeds- 
men and florists alone will amount to $2,000 
this year. This atnount does not include her 
sales to individuals and those who purchased 
for their own use, wiiich sales are very con- 
siderable. She values her stock at $5,000, 
and fully expects to realize tliat amount upon 
her next year's sales. Eastern florists who 
would not deign to answer her letters when, 
as an amateur, she applied to them for 
favors, now send her orders for seeds and 
bulbs. She shipped, in one year, on orders 
from the Eastern States, 10,000 calia lilies, 
20,000 Free.^ia refracta alba and 1,750 Canna 
Ehemani. She has already received orders 
for thirty-three pounds of smilax seed, and 
has sent to one order $45 worth of fuciisia 
seed. Mrs. Shepherd states that her business 
is increasing rapidly, and that, as Southern 
California becomes better known for the ex- 
cellence of its seeds aid bulbs, she cannot 
supply the demand, notwithstanding the 
fact that she is now improving and planting 
out Ave acres in addition to the above floral 

It having become noised abroad that Mrs. 
Shepherd was willing to impart to others the 
results of her experience, she has been be- 
sieged with letters, often from psople who 


write from curiosity only. This is obviously 
unfair to tlie lady; for, while she is always 
ready to give information to persons in- 
terested in pursuing this new field of labor 
she has shown to be open to and practicable 
for women, she has not the time nor the 
strength to attend to the merely curious. 


This institution is situated in a central 
portion of San Buenaventura, on the same 
tract as the court-house and other county 
edifices, where theconntyowns one half-block. 

The building has recently been renovated; 
its walls calcimined and cheerful pictures 
hung upon them; the wood-work is clean 
with fresh paint, and carpets are laid on most 
of the passage-ways. In the lower hall is a 
case containing a number of books and 

The office contains a supply of medicines; 
the wards are well lighted, well ventilated, 
commodious, and comfortably fitted. There 
are four wards upstairs and two down, — in all 
about eighteen beds. At present thirteen 
beds are occupied — eleven by men, and two 
by old ladies of neat and tidy appearance, 
disabled by rheumatism from work. 

The kitchen is well kept, and it and the 
pantry seem to be supplied with viands of a 
better quality than is usual in such institu- 

The outhouses are ample and orderly, the 
grounds cheerful with flowers, and the kitch- 
en-garden filled with vegetables. 

This hospital seems less formal and more 
homelike than most refuges of the sort. 

It is under the management of Dr. Cephas 
11. Bard, the county physician, and of Dr. 
Joshua Marks, hospital superintendent. The 
cost of the hospital was $10,000. 

Until within the past few years the poor 
were " farmed out;" then the atention of Mr. 

W. H. Jewett, county auditor and recorder, 
having been called to an act of the Legisla- 
ture of 1882 to provide aid for the indigent 
sick, he looked up the records, and claims 
were made out for $1,800. This being 
allowed, the matter was pressed, and Ventura 
County was found to be entitled to $10,700 
from this source, and the amount was duly 
collected from the respective fund or appro- 


built in 1872, originally consisted of the main 
square building, to which was added, some 
si.x years later, a wing containing an enlarge- 
ment of several offices in two stories, and a 
vault for the storage of records. In 1884 
four rooms were added to the west end. It 
now contains the quarters of the sherifi", 
assessor, district attorney, clerk and auditor 
and recorder, on the ground floor; and the 
court-room and chambers, jury-room, and the 
offices of the county surveyor and school 
superintendent. The treasurer is quartered 
elsewhere. The building is of brick, stuccoed, 
with fittings rather comfortable, although 
somewhat out of repair and antiquated. At 
the time of the present writing, an addition 
is in progress, to contain tlie papers of the 
clerk's officeand and the supervisors. Thecost 
was $20,000. 


erected in 1888, is a substantial brick build- 
ing of two stories and a basement, its wood- 
work being of Oregon pine, sugar pine, 
redwood, and white fir, all the materials being 
of the best quality. The cells, locks, etc., are 
of the most modern and complete designs, 
and the jail is a model of this sort of insti- 
tution. It cost $20,000. 

The valuation of Ventura's coutity property 
as per the rates of the present year, 1890, is 
a5 follows: court-house, $20,000; hospital, 
$10,000; jail, $20,000; records, books, im- 


provements, furnishings, etc., $35,000; total, 


The pioneer bankino; establishment of this 
county is the Bank of Ventura, which was 
founded in September, 1874, with a capital 
of $250,000. Its officers were: L. Snod- 
grass. President; M. Caunon, Vice-Presi- 
dent; H. M. Gay, Cashier and Secretary. 
This bank now has a paid up capital of $100,- 
000; surplus, $50,000. Its present officers 
are: E. P. Foster, President; L. C. McKeeby, 
Vice-President; J. A, Walker, Cashier; A. 
Bernheim, Secretary. 

Tiie bank of William Collins & Sons was 
opened in September, 1887. Tiie following 
is its comparative statement: 


Sept. 1, 1889. Sept. 1, 1890. 

Loana and discounts $173,727.11 $203,076.05 

Bonds 35,.500.00 ;^0,000.00 

Warrants 3,192.96 678..50 

Cash ir),762.60 24,81.168 

Due from Banks 9,929.96 78,341.28 

Real Estate, furniture, fi.x- 

tures 21,000.00 21,000.00 

$257,212.63 $352,911.51 


Capital stock $ 1 00,000.00 $100,000 00 

Surplus and profits 26,719.70 38,116 38 

Deposits 130,140 07 212,708.06 

Due other Banks 352.86 2,087.07 

$257,212.63 $352,911.51 

Reserve fund $38,116.38 

In the city of San Buenaventura there are 
679 census children, of whom 464 are en- 
rolled in the public schools, the average at- 
tendance being ninety-seven per cent, of the 
enrollment. There are some 125 or 130 
children of Spanish blood in attendance. 
There are three departments — primary, gram- 
mar and high schools. The corps comprises 
Professor Black, principal of the city schools, 

and nine other teachers. The school build- 
ings are: the High School-house, which cost 
$30,000; the Poli street building, w^orth $2,- 
500, and tiie Meta street building, worth 
$2,000. Tiie High School was established 
in 1889, by the people voting a special tax 
for the purpose, tlie vote being unanimous 
but for two votes. This department has 
three courses, scientific, literary and class- 
ical, and it prepares pupils for the colleges 
and for the State University. There are 
thirty-three pupils in the High Scliool, of 
wliom eight are seniors, who will be graduated 
in 1891. 


It will readily be seen from the following 
list of the different denominations and their 
churches that Ventura County will rank 
among the first as a churcli-going people; 
and while the compiler has not been able to 
get the whole number in the county, the fol- 
lowing brief sketches of the principal 
churches of San Buenaventura will be found 
nearly correct: 

Catholic. — There are 1,500 Roman Cath- 
olic parishioners in the district of la Mision, 
and 850 in Ventura, where Father Cipriano 
Bubio is pastor, officiating in the old Mission 
church. This sanctuary has been extensively 
repaired, but with consistency preserving as 
far as might be the ancient characteristics. 
The earthcjuake of 1857 caused the roof to 
fall in, lodging in the garret, where it was 
held by the vigas (beams). Thereupon the 
present roof of shingles was put in place. 
Twenty years ago new altars and flooring were 
supplied, and about the same time the pews 
were placed. Within the last three years, 
many modifications have been made, but with 
discretion. The sanctuary, being of insufficient 
space, was raised, and extended to the body 
of the church; and a new chancel railing was 
put in. The main altar was built in 1886- 


'88, and two side-altars in 1889. Since 1885 
there has been a resident priest at New 
Jerusalem, eight miles from Ventura. Pre- 
vious to that. Father John Pujot had offici- 
ated there at intervals since 1875 or 1876. 

Congregational Church. — The Congre^n- 
tional Church was the first Protestant church 
in the county, having been organized in 
1867, at the time the land known as the 
Briggs tract was thrown upon the market 
and opened to settlement, the founding of 
said church being the result of the settle- 
ment of the above mentioned tract of land by 
American citizens. 

There being no Protestant church at that 
time nearer than Santa Barbara, the services 
of Rev. M. B. Starr were secured to act as 
missionary for $1,000, donated by the So- 
ciety of Missions. 

The first members consisted of Revs. Bris- 
tol and Harrison, Eliza A. Shaw, Francis L. 
Saxby, Isabella L. Hobson, Hannah E. Mc- 
Carty, Mary A. Herbert, Matilda P. Barn- 
ard, George Beers, Sarah Beers, Edward B. 
Williams, Elizabeth A. Williams, Amanda 
Baker, Maria A. Wason, Nancy L. Banning, 
Celia A. Simpson, Fanny Williams, W. E. 
Barnard and G. S. Gilbert, the two latter 
persons being deacons, and the latter of these 

A simple and inexpensive church, 28 x 40 
feet, costing but a few hundred dollars, was 
soon erected. The "Ventura Land Company 
donated the lot on which the church was 
built, and the Rev. Mr. Warren, of San Fran- 
cisco, preached the first sermon in the new 
edifice, the Rev. Mr. Harrison occupying the 
pulpit from 'October, 1869, until March, 
1870. Rev. W. E. Merritt officiated from 
July 30th of that year until the following 
October. Rev. S. Bristol preached at inter- 
vals until 1875, when Rev. T. C. Jerome,of 
Illinois, was engaged and remained until 

June, 1876; Rev. R. B. Snell from August 
1, 1876, to January 1, 1878; Rev. Charles 

B. Shelden from January, 1878, to . 

Rev. T. D. Murphy began his services here 
October 26, 1884. 

The church building now occupied was 
finished, furnished and dedicated free from 
debt, without missionary help. May 3, 1885. 
It has a seating capacity for 350 persons. 
An annex, 24 x 30 feet, has recently been 

Mtthodist Episcopul Church. — In 1867 
Rev. R. R. Dunlapwas appointed to the pas- 

torate of Santa Barbara, his char 

ge em 

bracing the whole county, which at that time 
included the county of Ventura. In 1867 
Rev. P. Y. Coole took charge of the western 
district and Mr. DiinJap was sent to San 
Buenaventura and Saticoy, and he organ- 
ized the church in San Buenaventura. In 
1870 Rev. George O. Ashe was sent to this 
circuit and became popular at once. He 
held services in the room which afterward 
became the public reading room. Mr. Ashe's 
family responsibilities crowded upon him. 
He worked during all his spare time at the 
printer's case, thus obtaining but a small pit- 
tance, upon which the average Methodist 
minister in all new countries is supposed to 
keep the wolf from the door. In 1871 the 
Rev. B. Holland was sent to the circuit, and, 
like his predecessors, received a very small 
allowance, but conversions followed his labor, 
part of the converts joining the Methodist 
Church and part joining other churches. In 
1872 Rev. G. O. Ashe was returned to the 
circuit for a second time and much good was 
done during his year. Rev. Adam Bland 
officiated in 1873, and was instrumental in 
building the Methodist Church, at a cost of 
$1,700, the lot upon which the same was built 
costing $400, and when the church was com- 
pleted the society found itself in debt $1,000. 


Mr. Bland seems to liave been tlietirst pastor 
who received a fair salary, he receiving $200 
from the Missionary Society and $500 from 
the people. 

In 1874 Rev. W. A. Knighten became 
pastor, Ventura being set apart as a station 
with a missionary appropriation of $500. 
After arriving at the place, he and otiiers 
concluded that the house rent was so liigh 
that it would be better to build a parsonage; 
consequently the lumber was bought, and the 
house was completed in about six days, most 
of the work being donated. During this 
year the Sunday-school was organized and an 
organ purchased for the church. A ladies' 
"Aid Society "was organized and rendered 
efficient financial aid, paying a large portion 
of the church debt, and -furnishing the parson- 
age. Mr. Knighten was returned for the 
third time. This year was marked with 
financial pi'osperity. During the three years 
that Mr. Knighten was pastor, he had the 
pleasure of seeing the membership increase 
from seventeen to seventy-five. 

Rev. F. S. Woodcock was appointed pas- 
tor by the conference of 1877 and remained 
one year. Owing to the severe financial de- 
pression of that year, the church was consid- 
erably crippled, but maintained its spiritual 
power. In September, 1878, the South- 
ern California Conference held its session in 
San Buenaventura. The sittings were at- 
tended by the people generally and greatly 
enjoyed. At this session Rev. E. F. "Walker 
was appointed pastor, but he became discour- 
aged and remained only ten months. At the 
next session of the conference the Rev. J. A. 
Van-Anda was appointed, and the work of 
the church proceeded. The Rev. J. PI. Peters 
served the church during 1880-'81, and dur- 
ing his pastorate the church enjoyed a good 
degree of prosperity, and reduced its indebt- 
edness. During 1882 Rev. A. N. Fields 

was pastor and had a fair share of success, 
and did good work. Rev. James A. White 
was sent to the charge by the conference of 
1883. Improvements on the church prop- 
erty were immediately commenced. The 
jiarsonage was removed from behind the 
church to the corner of the lot and enlarged. 
The church edifice was dedicated during the 
year. Mr. White remained three years. 
Rev. J. A. McMillan followed in the fall of 
1886 and had a successful year. During this 
year the church debt was entirely paid off. 
He was returned for another year, but owing 
to ill-health was compelled to abandon his 
work at the end of three months, the pulpit 
being supplied until the end of the confer- 
ence year by various ministers. 

In April, 1888, Rev. W. L. Douglass was 
transferred from the New York East Con- 
ference and placed in charge of the church. 

Presbyterian Church. — Rev. T. E. Taylor, 
a missionary to the Sandwich Islands in 1847, 
and founder, in 1852, of the first church for 
foreigners, having returned and settled in 
Virginia CJity, Nevada, was petitioned by a 
number of Ventura citizens to organize a 
Presbyterian Church in this place. He an- 
swered at once, and on Sunday, January 31, 
1869, in the school-house just north of town, 
he met the friends of the enterprise. At the 
close of his sermon ten members were en- 
rolled by certificate, who at once elected as 
elders, M. J. Ashmore, E. B. Conklin and B. 
Lehman. The fi)llowing gentlemen were 
elected trustees: M. J. Ashmore, A. D. 
Barnard, E. B. Conklin, George A. Gilbert 
and S. W. Chaffee. Mr. Taylor was invited 
to remain as their pastor. T. R. Bard gave 
the ground on the northeast corner of Oak 
and Meta streets, 80 x 200 feet, for the 
church building, and by March 27, 1870, the 
present house of worship was finished, paid 
for and dedicated, all in fourteen months 



from the orgauizatioa of the soiety. The 
total cost was $2,511.60. Mr. Taylor found 
it necessary to resign shortly after the comple- 
tion of the church. He was followed for short 
terras by Revs. William Campbell and H. H. 
Dobjns, and November 1, 1873, Rev. Mr. 
Taylor was recalled, continuing his pastorate 
to the close of the year 1876. The parson- 
age on Meta street had been built in the 
meantime, entailing a heavy debt upon the 
young and struggling church. 

Tne year 1877 was wholly given to the 
experiment of a '• union " with the Congre- 
gationalists, the points of which were, that 
for that term both organizations worship to- 
gether in the Presbyterian church, under the 
pastorate, first, of Rev. Mr. Snell, now of 
the Snell Academy, Oakland; second, that 
of Rev. Charles B. Sheldon, of the Anoka 
Congregational Union, Minnesota; but the ec- 
clesiastical, like the domestic step-fathership, 
was not satisfactory to all the parties con- 
cerned. The debt had increased, while death 
and removals had weakened the already feeble 
church. As a result, Sunday, January 6, 
1878, the " union " was, on motion of Mr. 
N. Blackstock, dissolved. No permanent 
supply for the pulpit was secured till July 
1, when Rev. S. T. Wells, of Oakland, amid 
great discouragements, began his pastorate, 
whicli continued for three years and resulted 
in greatly strengthening the church and free- 
ing the property from encumbrance. 

Mr. Wells resignad the pastorate in July, 
1881, but as "honorably retired" continues, 
with his e.Kcellent wife, foremost in every 
good work. Ris successor, Rev. F. D. Sew- 
ard, of New York, carried forward the work 
with rare energy and faithfulness from Octo- 
ber, 1881, until September 1, 1887, when he 
took the field of Synodical Missionary for 
Southern California; and Rev. James M. 
Crawford, the present pastor, was called to 

the church from Grree iville, Ohio. Under 
iti various lealeri the church has steadily 
increased in membership, while the Sunday- 
school and prayer-meetings have shared in 
the prosperity of the congregation. 

The church building, now eighteen years 
old, and by no means attractive in its exte- 
rior, is, inside, not surpassed in the county 
for the cheerfulness and good ta^te of its fur- 
nishings; and thoa.,'h quite a nple for all the 
uses of ths church, is being so fully oecupied 
as to make it evident that more churchly and 
commodious quarter, is only a question of 
the near future. Fro?n a dependent of the 
Presbyterian Board of Home Missions and 
church erection, it has become self-sustain- 
ing, and at the sara3 time a generous con- 
tributor through th=i nine great agencies of 
that church to the world's evangelization. It 
has steadily fostered the work at Saticoy, and 
been largely instrumental in securing to that 
community a beautiful church building, a 
church orgiuizition and S ibbath-school. 

Besides the officers already alluded to, 
Messrs. T. R. Bard, D. S. Blackburn, George 
W. Chrisman, J. L. Kenney, James R. Boal, 
J. P. Cutter, Frank Dennis, E. A. Edwards, 
A. J. Collins and Rev. S. T. Wells have 
served as trustees. Messrs. E. A. Duvall, J. 
P. Cutter, J. C. Brewster, N. Blackstock, 
George P. Waldon, Hon. William Vandever, 
A. D. Seward, L. W. Hare and Luther Skel- 
enger have been elders. 

Rev. James Monroe Crawford, pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Ventura, was 
born in Trimble County, Kentucky, August 
12, 1836. His father, John Crawford, of 
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was of 
Scotch descent, and brought up in the Pres- 
byteriati Church; his mother was Clarissa 
Bell, a native of Culpeper Court-house, 
Virginia, who, from childhood, was a devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


At the time of their marriage they were 
residents of Madison, Indiana, which city 
continued to be the family home, with the 
brief exception of two years spent in Ken- 
tucky, until 1876. The subject of this sketcli 
was the oldest son of tweh-e children; the 
foundation of his education was laid in the 
private ai;d public schools of that city. At 
tlie age of sixteen he was apprenticed to 
learn the pattern-maker's trade, that being 
his father's business. During the three years' 
term of service he had taken a preliminary 
course in theology, aided only by the text 
books and such comments on them as he was 
able to read in the people about him. Ad- 
mitted into the Southeast Indiana Confer- 
ence as an itinerant niinisterof the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in October, 1856, he en- 
tered fully upon the double work of student 
and pastor. 

On September 14, 1858, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Clarissa L. Golay, the 
daughter of Constant and Louisa Golay, of 
Switzerland County, Indiana, both of whom 
were descendents of prominent Swiss families. 

August, 1862, during the gloomiest period 
of the war, he enlisted a full company of 
volunteers from his congregation in Dearborn 
County, Indiana. On their "muster in" as 
Company H, Eighty-third Indiana Volun- 
teers, he was unanimously elected, and Gov- 
ernor Morton commissioned him, Captain; 
two months later he was appointed Chaplain; 
and during the siege of Yicksburg was com- 
pelled to resign on account of wretclied health. 
After live months' rest he resumed his work. 
While closing his term as pastor of Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, having fallen a victim to insomnia, 
he gave up active service, spending the next 
six years in a fight for life and health. It was 
at the close of that period, with returning 
health, that he severed his ecclesiastical con- 

nection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and united with the Presbytery of Indianap- 
olis. Tlie cause of the change was no griev- 
ance, neither a want of appreciation of 
Methodism, nor disappointment as to liis 
private ambitions; but rather a conviction 
that had sprung up early in his ministry and 
strengthened each year that both the teach- 
ings and methods of the Presbyterian Church 
would be more helpful to his Christian expe- 
rience and add largely to his ability to make 
full proof of his ministry. 

Mr. Crawford was called immediately to 
the pastorate of the Sixth Church, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, and thence to Greenville, 
Ohio, and from the latter church to this, 
September 1, 1887, of which he continues 
pastor at this writing. Of their family of 
eight children, three died in early childhood; 
three are yet with them; two, Edward S. and 
Louisa, are in the East, the former as foreman 
of the pattern department of the Malleable 
Iron Works, Indianapolis, Indiana, and the 
latter, as wife of Kev. Berthold Seeholzer, a 
minister of the North Ohio Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Episcopalian. — During the summer of 
1887, an informal meeting of four or five 
persons interested in the Episcopal Church 
was held at the residence of Judge L. C. Mc- 
Keeby, to consider the propriety of organ- 
izing such a church in San Buenaventura. 
As a final result of the preliminary confer- 
ence, the Rev. A. G. L. Trew, Dean of the 
Diocese, visited Ventura on the 7th of De 
cember, 1887. 

Services of the Episcopal Church were held 
in the house of worship of the Congregation- 
alists, who kindly placed their edifice at the 
service of the Episcopalians for the purpose. 

A mission was organized under the name 
of St. Paul's, and the announcement made 
that the bishop had appointed Rev. F. R. 


Sanfoi'd, of Connecticut, as missionary rector 
thereto. January 15, 1888, the first regular 
service was held in Odd Fellows Hall. 

At this time there were but live communi- 
cants of the church. On Easter Sunday of 
1888 solemn confirmation service was ad- 
ministered to a class of fifteen adults, and the 
church thus strengthened began preparations 
for a church building. 

A most eligible lot on the corner of Oak 
and Santa Clara streets was purchased, and 
the present church edifice was erected, being 
opened for services in December, 1889. 

Tiie church property is valued at not less 
than $8,000, the lot having cost $8,000. 

Rev. W. A. M. Breck, the present incum- 
bent, began his rectorship in May, 1890. 

The membership comprises tiiirty com- 
niunciants, besides the uncomfirmed. 

Since his arrival, Mr. Breck has instituted 
services at the mission stations, JSordhofF, 
Santa Paula and Hueneme, there being fif- 
teen communicants at the last mentioned 
place, eight at Santa Paula, and six at Nord- 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
was organized in Ventura, July 29, 1888, 
under the ministry of Rev. J. W. Allen, 
presiding elder of the San Luis Obispo Dis- 
trict, Los Angeles Conference, and Rev. D. C. 
Browne, pastor of the Trinity Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, Los Angeles. 
There were thirteen charter members, and 
five more were added by the end of the con- 
ference year October 2. 

Rev. D. C. Browne succeeded Rev. J. W. 
Allen as presiding elder of the district, and 
was also appointed pastor of the church at 




year, from October, 

1888, to October, 1889, twenty-five were ad- 
ded to the membership, and the churcii, led 
by Hon. L. M. Lloyd, secured tlie build- 
ing of a house of worship, on the corner of 

Main and Kalorama streets. The ciiurch 
services this year were held in the Young 
Men's Christian Association Hall. 

On September 30, Bishop R. K. Hargrave. 
with appropriate services, laid the corner 
stone of the new church building. Rev. J. 
M. Neems was appointed to the pastorate by 
Bishop Hargrave,October 6,1889, and entered 
at once upon his work. The services were 
held in the Hare school building on Main 
street, from October, 1889, to May, 1890. 
May 4. 1890, the church held their first serv- 
ice in their new building, in the Sunday- 
school room, with much rejoicing. And on 
July 27, following, they entered their beauti- 
ful auditorium with grateful hearts to Him 
who had so wondrously led them in this work. 
During the year, from October 6, 1889, to 
September 11, 1890, fifteen were added to the 
membership, and the church building was 
finished and furnished at a cost of $7,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 
Ventura, while not strong in either numbers 
or wealth, yet has thus far met all claims 
against it, and looks to the future with hope- 
ful hearts, believing that He whose hand hath 
led them thus far will lead tliem on. 

Christian Church. — Charles Bradshaw be- 
gan to preach in July, 1870, at Pleasant 
Valley. There were a few members who 
continued to meet occasionally until Decem- 
ber 25, of the same year, when the church was 
organized with fourteen member? at Pleasant 
Valley. The following were the charter 
members: Charles Bradshaw and wife, J. S. 
Harkey and wife, Martha White, Fanny and 
Laurence White, William Cagle, D. W. Gil- 
bert, Mrs. Gilbert, S. Wallbridge, and Amy 
and Ollie Wallbridge and Mrs. Bear. The 
church continued to meet for three years, 
when a land decision occurred adverse to the 
settlers, at the end of wiiich time there were 
about fifty members. 


As most of them were deprived of their 
homes, they began to scatter until there were 
only a few left, but they continued to meet 
until the summer of 1876, when all had left 
but three. 

In October, 1876, Elder G. R. Hand came 
to Ventura and engaged to preach for one 
year. The church then reorganized with 
thirty members. Rev. Hand preached until 
May, when he left and went East. The mem- 
bers continued to meet and worship until the 
spring of 1879, at the school-house. From 
1875 to 1883 there were no meetings of the 
church. About July, 1883, Rev. J. S. Har- 
key, who has been elder of the church ever 
since the first organization in the county, 
called the membership together, and they cov- 
enanted to meet and worship together, and 
they have been doing so from that time until 
the present. They are now Good 
Templars' Hall on Main street. There has 
been added since the organization up to the 
present time by letter, confession and obedi- 
ence, forty-eight members. There are, as near 
as can be ascertained, between fifty and sixty 
members in the county. Elder F. W. Pattee, 
formerly from Pasadena, is now preaching 
on the first Lord's day in each month. The 
chixrch meets every alternate Sunday for 
social worship in the above named hall, 
and a Sunday-school meets every Sunday 
in the same place, at two o'clock. It has 
about fifty scholars and teachers enrolled, 
with Miss Annie Linn as superintendent. 

A lot has been donated to the church at 
the western end of the town, and the congre- 
gation hope soon to erect a suitable house of 
worship upon it. 

T. M. C. J..— The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association of San Buenaventura was 
organized in September, 1887, with sixteen 
charter members. It has now a member- 
ship of sixty-four. The president is J. S. 

Collins; vice-president, Dr. C. F. Miller; 
treasurer, J. C. Brewster; and general secre- 
tary, Moore Ilesketh. The rooms are in 
Collins' Block, Main Street, and are comfort- 
ably furnished, being open daily, Sunday ex- 
cepted, from 8:30 a. m. to 10 p. m. The as- 
sociation is liberally supported by the Chris- 
tian and business people of the town. It 
has already a building fund, and is now 
endeavoring to secure a suitable lot on which 
to erect a permanent home. During the nine 
months of its existence it lias helped a num- 
ber of young men to better and purer lives, 
and is now exerting a silent influence for 
good in the community. 

As has been seen, the Signal was estab- 
lished ill 1871, by John H. Bradley, who in 
1873 retired from its management, on account 
of ill-health, being succeeded by Messrs. W. 
E. Shepherd and John J. Sheridan. 

In November, 1875, was first issued the 
Free Press. Its editor was O. P. Hardy, 
and its politics nominally independent. The 
two papers fell into a hot controversy, in 
which was displayed much personal acrimony. 

In November, 1883, the Dernocrat was 
founded by the Democrat Publishing Com- 
pany, and subsequently purchased by John 
McGonigle, its editor from the beginning. 

The Vidette was founded in May, 1888, 
by F. E. Smitli, and an interest in it was sub- 
sequently purchased by Dr. Stephen Bowers. 

The newspapers at present in the city of 
Ventura are: The Free Press, daily and 
weekly (publishers, Leonard & Sykes); the 
Democrat, weekly; the Republican, weekly. 

In other towns of the county are published 
the following: The Chronicle, Santa Paula; 
the Herald, Hueneme; the Recurrent,'^QV^- 




Ventura has the usual number. The Masons 
own a handsome hall. 


As the judiciary of Santa Barbara for 
many yrars included that of Ventura, the 
names of the earlier Bar members in the 
older county comprehend those of the 
younger. As to those of later date, a report 
on this subject has been promised the editor 
by B. T. Williams, Esq., Superior Judge of 
Ventura County, but, as it has not yet been 
received, the present writing must go to press 
without treating of this subject. 


Chief among the resources of Ventura 
County is 


Erom the time of its first settlement by 
the Mission fathers, over 100 years ago, Ven- 
tura County has been more or less given over 
to agriculture; but her grand capabilities in 
this line are only beginning to be under- 

When he came to Ventura County the 
man whose ideas of farming were formed 
amid the summer rains and the corn-fields 
of the Mississippi had to learn over again 
how to farm, and, now that he has learned 
the lesson, is growing rich on the laud which 
at one time was deemed comparatively worth- 

A mistaken idea has pi-evailed to some ex- 
tent among people in the East that farming 
is only carried on in Suuthern California by 
means of irrigation, and that without it crops 
would be a failure. Irrigation is not used at 
all in Ventura County, except for alfalfa, and 
for all small grains and winter crops it is not 
used in other countries. They are cultivated 

just as they are in the Mississippi Valley or 
the Atlantic States, and need only the regular 
rains of the winter and spring, or wet season, 
to mature them. Corn, a summer crop, is 
irrigated in some counties, but never here, as 
the natural moisture of the soil is sufficient 
to mature the crop. In some sections, after 
a winter-sown crop, raised without irrigation, 
has been harvested, another crop is raised 
when the rains are over by means of irrio-a- 
tion, and thus the land does double duty. In 
Ventura County, however, as our farmers do 
not desire to get rich in a day, corn is planted 
after the winter rains are over, and but one 
crop a year is raised and that without irri- 

In many places land will be seen which is 
never free from a growing crop from year to 
year, except during the few days when plow- 
ing for the new planting. In counties where 
irrigation is used, where water from the river 
is used, the sediment held in suspension con- 
stantly renews the fertility of the soil over 
which it is spread. 

Southern California throughout is a won- 
derfully rich farming section, and Ven ura 
County is richer than any. She raises enough 
for her own consumption and exports more 
than any other county in the south. Her 
markets are at her very door. Lying between 
Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, neither of 
which raises enough for home consumption, 
the question of disposing of her products is a 
simple one. Many things, especially beans 
and fruit, are shipped to the East, although 
the bulk of exports goes by steamer to San 
Erancisco. But the supply is never half 
equal to the demand, which makes Ventura 
a splendid field for the industrious farmer. 
It is a better field than any other in Southern 
California, if for no other reason than that it 
is the only county where irrigation is not 
needed and not used. The number of acres 


under cultivation in this county is estimated 
at 100,000 this year. 

Anything that grows in Ventura county — 
and anything will grow — yields a good profit 
to the tiller. But of course there are some 
things much more profitable than others. 
Heretofore barley has chiefly occupied the 
attention of the farmer, with satisfactory 
results; but year by year the tendency is to 
forsake barley and go over to 


Before all others Ventura is pre-eminently 
a bean county. This is conceded on all sides, 
and one of the facts that has not been denied 
in other counties. The cultivation of the 
bean dates back to the earliest settlement of 
the county; and bean culture has always 
been successful. The season of 1864-'65 was 
the dryest and most unpropitious ever known 
here, and even then a large quantity of beans 
were exported. About the year 1875, Mr. 
Crane began cultivation of the Lima bean in 
the valley, and it is now thought to be the 
most valuable bean produced in the county. 
The Lima bean is a very prolific product. 
More than a ton is often raised on an acre of 
ground, while twenty-tiiree hundred pounds of 
the White Navy beans are frequently raii^ed on 
one acre. Lima bears have often brought as 
high as 5 and 6 cents a pound, returning to 
the producer the handsome figure of $100 per 
acre, but $50 is probably a fair average. 

This year Limas will bring 2i cents a pound. 
Estimating 1.800 pounds to the acre, at 2^ 
cents, the yield in money per acre will be 
$44 and the profit about $32 or $33. Bean 
raising costs about $7.50 per acre. This 
estimate includes everything — cost of seed, 
planting, cultivating, cutting and harvesting. 
And it is a liberal estimate. 

Beans are planted with a bean planter, a 
simple machine. Two, three, and sometimes 

four rows are planted at a time. Cultivation 
after they are planted consists simply in keep- 
ing the field clear of weeds. They are planted 
in May, after the winter rains are surely 
over, never irrigated, cultivated once or twice 
after planting, and then nothing more is done 
until they are ready to cut, which is generally 
in August or September. At first beans were 
pulled by hand, but by degrees improvements 
on this slow method were invented, until now 
the harvesting of the bean is a very inexpen- 
sive, rapid and simple process; and herein lies 
much of the profit. They are cut with a 
bean cutter, also a very simple machine. It 
is a V-shaped knife, the blades of which are 
five or six feet long and are attached on 
either'side of a wooden sled about eight feet 
long, one foot wide and one deep. Three 
horses are attached to the cutter^ which is 
guided between the rows by one man. This 
way beans can be cut at an expense of about 
50 cents an acre, and one man and three 
horses will cut fifteen acres a day. Lima beans 
are planted in rows three feet apart and 
drilled. Small white beans are planted thirty 
inches apart and drilled. The latter are cut 
earlier than the Limas. After the beans — 
of any variety — are cut, they remain in piles 
in the field for about four weeks to dry, when 
they are taken to the machine and threshed 
at an expense of about 15 cents per 100 
pounds. Seven dollars and a half will easily 
cover the cost of seed, planting, cultivating, 
cutting and harvesting an acre of beans. The 
demand for beans is always good. Limas 
bring from 2^ to 3 cents a pound, the small 
whites from 2 to 2^ cents. Farmers in Ven- 
tura have often cleared $50 an acre on a crop 
of Lima beans, and never less than $80. So 
it will be seen that bean land is not shock- 
ingly dear at even $200 an acre. Land that 
will pay fifteen per cent, on money invested 
is not exorbitantly high: it is reasonably 


cheap. But there is plenty of land suitable 
for bean ciiltni-e that can be had for $150, 
some at $100, $75, $60, $50— according to 
location and facilities for shipping. The high- 
est priced lands in the poorest season will pay 
lif teeu per cent, on money invested. The Santa 
Clara "Valley has heretofore been considered 
the home of the bean. Before this season 
farmers who were not fortunate enough to 
own land in this favored section were afraid 
to embark in anything but grain, but this 
year some tillers of Las Posas soil were bold 
enough to pioneer bean planting, and crops 
resulting from their experiments demonstrate 
the fact that beans can be successfully grown in 
other sections besides the Santa Clara Valley. 
Rice & Bell on the Las Posas have as fine a 
crop of beans as can be found in the county 
— a crop that will certainly average a ton to 
tlie acre. Beans have also been raised this 
year on the Ojai, the Coiiejo, and a few in 
the Simi. Unquestionably the soil and 
climate of the Santa Clara valley is more 
suited to the cultivation of the bean than any 
one of these latter valleys, which are mostly 
given over to grain-growing. In tiie Santa 
Clara Valley farmers often raise 2,000 to 3,000 
sacks of beans a year. A sack of Lima beans 
contains about sixty pounds, and about 
seventy poiinds of small whites. 

In the Las Posas Valley, good bean land — 
land that will raise as good beans and as heavy 
crops as grow anywhere in the county — can 
be had at $60 an acre. 

First-class bean land can be bought and 
paid for with two years' crops. No bean land 
can be bought in the Santa Clara Valley — the 
alleged home of the bean — for less than $100 
an acre, and most of it runs from $150 to 
$200. The latter price would seem enor- 
mously high to the Eastern farmer un- 
acquainted with the profits of boan raising. 

A California bean field often embraces 

hundreds of acres, all in sight from a given 
point. The vines run along the ground and 
not on poles as in the Eastern States. 

Next to fruit growing, bean raising is 
undoubtedly the most profitable industry in 
the farming line in Ventura county; and it 
is more profitable than some kinds of fruit 


No spot in California can excel the Santa 
Clara Valley in the production of corn. It 
grows without irrigation and has reached as 
high as 72 centals or 120 bushels to the acre. 
It is planted in April or May after the rains 
are over, and frequently nothing more is re- 
quired till it is ready for gathering in autumn. 
Should it lain after the ground is planted 
the farmer frequently finds it advantao-eous 
to plow it up and plant it a second time; other- 
wise cultivation will be necessary to oveicome 
the weeds. After the corn is gathered and 
husked it may be thrown into open pens and 
left uncovered for a year or more, if not 
sooner shelled or fed to stock. Everything 
in connection with corn-raising except the 
gathering is performed by machinery. Until 
lately corn was raised extensively here and 
fed to hogs, but now, notwithstanding the 
heavy yield per acre, the ground is generally 
considered more profitable for some other 
kinds of crops. Ventura is the only county 
in Southern California where corn is raised 
without irrigation. 

Barley is the chief cereal crop of Ventura 
County. Its yield is large in the Santa Clara 
and other valleys. On the west side of the 
river it has reached 52 centals, or 104 bushels, 
to the acre. There is always a demand for 
barley, and there is so much land, in the county 
exactly suited for its production that it is 
likely to continue one of its staple products. 
It may be sown alter the autumn rains or 
early in the spring. Cut green it is used for 


hay, and is highly relished by stock. Year 
in and year out the profits from barley- 
raising will average from $15 to $20 per 
acre. The Simi Valley yields larger crops 
than any other portion of the county. 

Wheat is an important crop in Southern 
California, but is not as extensively grown in 
Ventura County as barley. The Ojai Valley, 
Simi and Conejo plateaus are better adapted 
to wheat than the land immediately on the 
coast, as they are less subject to fogs which 
occur in some seasons of the year. Wheat- 
raising in California is another and different 
thing from what it is in the East. After it 
ripens it may be left standing for weeks with 
.impunity, the husk closing around the grain 
and holding it intact. When the farmer is 
ready he enters the field with headers and a 
thresher and cuts, threshes and sacks the 
grain the same day. The sacks are put in 
large piles and left in the field uncovered for 
weeks, or even for months, until he is ready 
to haul them to market. The wheat of Cali- 
fornia has a world-wide reputation. The 
State ships on an average some 15,000,000 
bushels annnally. 

Alfalfa, or lucerne, which is being exten- 
sively grown in Ventura County, is known 
botanically as Medicago sativa. It has been 
grown in Greece for about 3,000 years as a 
forage plant and for hay. The Romans es- 
teemed it very highly, and Columella wrote 
that it yielded four to six crops a year. In 
France it is known as lucerne and in Spain as 
alfalfa. It came from Spain to South 
America, and thence by way of Mexico to 
California. It is grown extensively in South- 
ern Europe. It is a most successful crop in 
this county, but in most places needs irri- 
gation. From six to eight cuttings are har- 
vested in a year. It yields from two to three 
tons to the cutting, and readily nets from 
$60 to $75 to the acre. It is fed to cows. 

horses, hogs and poultry, aU of which thrive 
upon it. 

While oats are not extensively raised here, 
yet they grow to perfection and make excel- 
lent feed. In some portions of the county 
oats grow wild, covering foot-hills and sides 
of mountains, and they are prized by stock- 
men for all kinds of stock, including sheep. 

In this connection should be mentioned 
bur clover, which covers the mountains, foot- 
hills and valleys in m inter with a carpet of 
green. It bears a bur which contains small 
seeds, which are highly relished by cattle, 
horses, sheep, goats, hogs, and upon which 
they thrive. About the first of June it dies 
and drops the burs containing the seed, some- 
times covering the ground to the depth of an 
inch or more, and remains good until the 
November rains. When the country was new 
no provision was made to feed stock any sea- 
son of the year. They were sustained during 
the winter and spring months by the abund- 
ance of grass which grows luxuriantly in the 
valleys and on the mountains, and during the 
summer and autumn lived on bur clover. 

Vegetable raising has been largely rele- 
gated to the Chinese, who pay as high as $25 
an acre rent for land. Of late, however, white 
men are turning their attention to this im- 
portant industry in Southern California. Of 
late, white men have begun to see that there 
are possibilities for profit in the humble cab- 
bage, cauliflower, tomato and potato, not ex- 
ceeded even by the noble orange. Train-loads 
of vegetables are now sent East from South- 
ern California every winter, although not by 
any means so many as should be sent. These 
vegetables arrive East when everything is 
frozen, and fetch very high prices. The in 
dustry is growing rapidly, and offers excel 
lent opportunities to men of moderate means, 
as it is not necessary to wait several years for 
a return. A thrifty man can support a family 


in this manner from tile product of live acres, 
or even less. 

Potatoes yield two crops a year and bring 
as much as $200 an acre. At present there is 
not enough raised in the county, and, with 
the demand East, ought to develop into a great 
industry in the rich vallejs of Ventura 
County. Sweet potatoes yield immense crops 
and always command a good price. 

Tomatoes ripen nearly all the year round, 
the same vines bearing for years in the more 
sheltered spots. Asparagus, onions, beans 
of all kinds, peas, cabbage and cauliflower, 
squashes, melons, pumpkins, and in short, 
nearly or quite every vegetable known to the 
northern or semi-tropic climes grow here to 

Fruit culture iu Ventura County is yet in 
its infancy, but it is growing rapidly. There 
are a few spots on earth so favored by nature, 
and none where the horticulturist receives 
larger protits for his labor. The possibilities 
of horticulture in this county seem almost 
without limit. Year by year the area de- 
voted to it is being enlarged, and as the county 
is settled up orchards and vineyards increase 
and multiply. The profits are much greater 
than from j^rain-growing, while the labor is 
much lighter and pleasanter. It requires no 
extraordinary stretch of the imagination to 
see the county in a few years transformed 
into one vast orchard and vineyard; to see 
the large farms now in grain subdivided into 
small tracts, with a happy home in each sur- 
rounded by fruits and flowers The great 
Simi, the Las Posas, all the great ranches 
now supposed to be good for little but grain, 
will one day be an unbroken line of orchards. 
The growth of some of the most populous 
and wealthy countries of the old world has 
been based upon horticulture and viticulture. 
The chief income of the Mediterranean 
countries, occupying a similar latitude to 

Southern California —Asia Minor, Greece, 
the Ionian Islands, Italy, Southern France, 
Spain and Portugal — is derived from their 
export of oranges, lemons, figs, olives, olive 
oil, dates, raisins, dried prunes, chestnuts, 
preserved fruits, wines and brandies. The 
United States imports annually $15,000,000 
to $20,000,000 of fruits and nuts, all of which, 
in quantity to supply the United States, 
may be grown within the limits of Ventura 
County, and, in addition thereto, all the wine 
and brandy which is consumed in this 
country, with a large surplus for export. 
Horticulture, therefor, furnishes a pretty 
solid basis for a large jwpulation in this 
county, apart from its other numerous re- 

Fruits are at home in Southern California, 
and particularly in Ventura County. They 
seem at once to take kindly to its soil and 
climate, no matter whence they are brouglit. 
In the early days — during the '50s— there 
were only a few inferior varieties of grapes 
and oranges grown in Southern California. 
The Mission grape was about the only variety 
grown in California at that time. There 
were a few old orange trees in Los Angeles 
County, around the missions, introduced by 
the Catholic fathers a century ago. The suc- 
cess of these led U) others being planted in 
other sections, and so the orange industry has 
increased until the present day. There are 
seedling pear trees at the missioiit a hundred 
years old. The first grafted fruit trees were 
brought to California in 1851, 1852 and 1853. 
Fruit trees at that time were a dollar apiece, 
and the fruits were so.d at enormously hio-h 
prices — from $1 to $2 per pound. As time 
passed, more fruit trees were planted, nurs 
eries established, and the price of fruit and 
trees diminished, and before railroads reached 
our coast the price of fruit was not remunera- 
tive, orchardists lost their interest in fruit- 


raising, and it was some years before fruit 
was shipped East with profit. 

The olive is said to be the most valuable 
tree known to man. This is undoubtedly 
true in Ventura County as elsewhere. It will 
grow in almost any kind of soil, although it 
is a mistake to imagine that it prefers soil 
nearly destitute of life-giving qualities. The 
olive will grow on the hill side, among rocks, 
and flourish where other trees would die. 
But that is no reason the olive prefers that 
kind of soil. It will do better in rich soil, 
which is natural. But the cheap lands of 
Ventura County — the hillsides now covered 
with chapparal — will undoubtedly be most 
used in the cultivation of the olive, for these 
lands would not be suitable for other trees. 
Such laud can be procured at from $10 to 
$30 an acre. 

The profits from olive-growing are enor- 
mous. Olive trees are planted twenty feet 
apart, or 108 to the acre. The olive grows 
from cuttings, which can be had at from five 
to ten cents each. At present the cost of 
setting out an olive orchard in Ventura 
County, including cost of land, trees and 
planting, would scarcely exceed $35 an acre. 
This is a reasonable estimate and may be too 
high. The olive bears at six or seven years 
from the cutting. 

At seven years an olive tree will bear 
about 120 pounds to the tree. About twelve 
pounds will make one large bottle of oil, 
which will sell readily at from $1.50 to $2 a 
bottle. Mr. Cooper originally sold his at $1 
per bottle, but the demand was so great that 
he was compelled to raise the price to $2. 
Twelve pounds to the bottle would be ten 
bottles to the tree, or in round numbers 1,000 
to the acre. At $1.50 per bottle this would 
be $1,500 income from an acre of seven-year- 
old trees. Say that in curing the olive and 
making the oil and keeping the trees clean. 

two-thirds — an over estimate — of this sum is 
expended, we have left as profit the enormous 
sum of $500 an acre. These are astonish- 
ing figures, but when one reflects on the 
demand for and price of olive oil they will 
not seem without the bounds of reason. As 
the olive has off years in bearing, divide this 
estimated profit of $500 by two, and you still 
have a yearly profit per acre of $250 from an 
olive orchard. Ten acres would be enough, 
it has been often said, and such is the fact. 
Truly the olive is the most valuable tree 
known to man. The above estimates are 
based on the average yield of the orchard of 
the pioneer olive-grower of the State. 

At present there are but two varieties of 
the olive most largely grown, that is, the 
Mission and Picholine. Both have advan- 
tages. Tlie Mission will perhaps grow on a 
drier and poorer soil than the Picholine. The 
planting of the Mission is much advocated 
by many, because the fruit is a large berry 
and the tree a rapid grower. 

The walnut prefers a moist rich soil, and is 
at home in Ventura County. The older 
variety of the trees are very slow in coming 
into bearing, requiring about ten years or 
more, and this fact has discouraged many an 
orchardist from setting out this valuable fruit ; 
but there is a variety of soft shell walnut that 
requires but six years in which to bear, and 
once bearing it keeps on increasing (as is the 
case with all kinds of walnuts) its crop for 
fifty years or more. Sometimes these soft- 
shell walnut trees bear in five years — four 
years from the nursery — and this year there 
are some five-year-old trees in the county — 
notably at the Rice & Bell place on the Las 
Posas — that are loaded with nuts. This is an 
exception, however, the tree not usually bear- 
ing short of six years. 

The walnut groves of Ventura County will 
and do net their owners an average of $100 


per acre year in and year out, and tliere are 
some groves of old trees that net yearly twice 
that sum. No crop is more easily gathered 
than the walnut, and it is ready to be gath- 
ered after all otiier crops are in. The best 
thing about the walnut is that it is not 
perishable, and the owner of a grove is never 
forced to sell his crop at a loss or small profit 
to keep it from spoiling on his hands. Then 
another thing is that the area in which the 
walnut will thrive is so small that there can 
never be any danger of an overstocked market. 

Walnut lands in Ventura County sell for 
from $100 to $400 an acre, according to loca- 
tion, and any of it, after an orchard has been 
in bearing a couple or three years, will pay 
ten per cent, interest on $1,000 an acre. 

There is abundant acreaije in Ventura 
County adapted to culture of the almond, but 
as yet little has been done in this direction. 
Mr. Joseph Hobart some fifteen years ago 
put out 300 almond trees in the Upper Ojai 
Valley, and he is almost the only grower of 
this article. So satisfactory does he find the 
enterprise that he is planting out a large 
number of these trees, which he regards, each 
for each, as more profitable than apricots, 
prunes, or peaches. 8ome of the pleasant 
features of this business are as follows: its 
successful treatment requires neither great 
haste nor a large crew of workers; the gather- 
ing of the crop comes in cold weather, and 
wet days can be utilized for hulling; the care 
of the orchard is less than with other fruit 
trees, and the cost of handling a crop of 
almonds is only about twenty-five percent, of 
what it costs to handle apricots, peaches, etc. 

Probably all kinds of apples that can be 
grown in any country are grown here. They 
are of very superior quality and there is no 
place in the United States where they keep 
better than in this climate. The dried ap- 
ples sent from this county have commanded 

double the price of ordinary dried fruit. 
Pears of superior quality are raised here and 
are found profitable both for drying and can- 
ning purposes. 

The soil of this section seems to be ex- 
actly suited to the apricot. Here it finds its 
special adaptation, yielding immense quanti- 
ties of fruit of large size and excellent flavor. 
This is a very profitable industry and is be- 
coming a source of immense revenue to the 
county. As the ditstrict of country in which 
they can grow to such perfection is limited, it 
is not likely the business will be overdone, but 
there will be an increasing demand for this 
fine fruit year after year. So far the apricot 
has had no natural enemy. Neither insect 
nor disease of any kind has ever attacked it 
in this region. As instances of the profit 
derived from this fruit we niiiy cite the fol- 
lowing: A farmer sold the fruit of a nine- 
acre orchard of four-year-old trees for $1,000, 
the purchaser gathering the fruit, from 
which he also derived a handsome profit, 
having obtained it for about one cent per 
pound. The fruit in another orchard of five- 
year-old trees sold for $200 per aero, the pur- 
chaser in this instance also realizing a hand- 
some profit by drying the fruit. In another 
orchard three years old, the owner gathered 
fifty pounds to a tree, which more than paid 
for the trees and their cultivation up to that 
time. A gentleman planted seventy-five 
acres of apricot trees on land which cjst 
$25 per acre; he raise! two crops of beans 
between the trees, which more than paid the 
cost of cultivation of his orchard, and the 
third year sold it for $150 per afre. This is 
not a solitary instanc3, for there are scores of 
individuals in this county who are quadru- 
pling the value of their land in a similar 

One of the largest orange and lemon 
orchards in the county is near Santa Paula 


Tlie orange trees of tliis orcliard of nearly 
100 acres are bearing and doing well. The 
lemons have been more thoroughly tested 
and are superior to most others grown in the 
State. The soil is very deep, a rich, well 
drained alluvial or sedimentary deposit, and 
is pronounced by Prof. £. W. Hijgard su- 
perior to any of his acquaintance for " easy 
cultivation and power to raise moisture 
jointly.'" The lemons grown thus near tlie 
coast are not superior to those further inland. 
A( the citrus fair held at Riverside in 1883, 
a committee was appointed to make thorough 
scientific tests for the purpose of comparison 
of lemons grown in California with imported 
lemons. The analysis embraced, first, ap- 
pearance, including size and quality of rind; 
second, bitterness; tliird, percentage of acidity. 
The committee compared the California lemon 
with those freshly imported from Messina, 
Malaga and Palermo, and reported as follows: 
" From a careful analysis of tlie f«jregoing it 
will seem that the California budded lemon 
properly grown and handled is the equal in 
every respect of the imported lemon." The 
committee further says: '« It is noticed in tlie 
examination that the lemon of Santa Barbara, 
Ventura, Los Angeles, Anaheim and San 
Diego are nearly globular in form, and all 
having a smooth, morocco-like texture of the 
rind, while those of the same varieties found 
in San Gabriel and Pasadena are n^w elon- 
gated in form and not as smooth, and those 
of Eiverside and vicinity are still more elon- 
gated and rougher in rind. It is noticeable 
that the smoothness and thinness of rind in- 
dicates greater quantity of juice." This testi- 
mony from a Riverside committee carries great 
weight as to Ventura's ability to successfully 
grow lemons, which branch of the citrus cul- 
ture it is believed will be most profitable in 
the future. 

The oTowing of oranges and lemons lias 

been successfully tested at the Camulos, 
Sespe, Ojai, Matilija and other portions of 
the county. There are also thousands of 
acres on the Simi, Las Posas and other por- 
tions of the county that will doubtless pro- 
duce oranges, lemons and limes of good 
quality. This industry is yet in its infancy 
in Ventura County, while its possibilities are 
beyond computation. 

Farmers and fruit growers have not turned 
their attention largely to grape culture, but 
as far as tried they do remarkably well. 
Raisin grapes are grown successfully and 
produce the finest raisins in the land. This 
is especially true at Sespe and Ojai valleys. 
At the Camulos, in the northern part of the 
county, a fine quality of wine has been suc- 
cessfully manufactured for years. The county 
contains thousands of acres of land not yet 
brought under cultivation, where every va- 
riety of grape known on the coast can be 
successfully and profitably grown. For size 
and flavor the grapes grown in this county 
will compare favorably with the best. A 
few miles from Ventura is one of the largest 
grape-vines in the world. 

Prunes do well and yield profitable crops. 
The French prune grows to great perfection, 
yielding largely, and promises to become one 
of the paying industries of the future. 
Peaches of all varieties do exceedingly well 
in this county. They seldom or never fail; 
and this may be said of nearly all kinds of 
fruits grown here. Some years the yield is not 
as great as others, but is never a total failure. 

In addition to the fruits mentioned above, 
the following also do very well in Ventura's soil: 
Limes, guavas, loquats, currants, pears (which 
bear enormously), cherries, plums, figs of all 
kinds at all seasons, pomegranates, quinces, 
nectarines, persimmons (Japan), strawberries 
(ripe the year round), raspberries and black- 



Tlie barley product of Ventura County for 
this year is about 120,000 sacks, the arveage 
yield being about 350,0C0 sacl\s; the low pro- 
duct this year is due to last year's unusually 
wet winter. Of wheat there were about 
20,000 sacks, which is a fair average, com- 
paratively little land being sown to wheat. 
Of hay are raised about 2,500 tons annually. 
This year hay is more abundant than usual in 
this county. Of corn about 150,000 will be 
this year's harvest, tlie average yield in- 
creasing from year to year, as barley-raising 
is abandoned for the culture of corn and beans. 
Of beans— that great Ventura staple— 18,200 
acres were this year sown to Lima beans, 
yielding about 1,000 pounds to the acre, this 
being somewhat below the average of 1,500 
pounds to the acre. About 2,500 acres were 
put to other varieties of beans, yielding about 
1,500 pounds to the acre. The ap-icot and 
walnut yield was very large also, about 300 
car loads of green apricots having been 
shipped to Newhall alone, for the purpose of 

The shipment from this county of fresh 
apricots, delivered at the railway stations at 
$20 per ton, amounted to about $100,000 last 

So abundant was tiie crop that one grower, 
Mr. A. D. Barnard, of tiie Canada Larga 
Raucho, invited through the newspapers all 
parties who would, to take away from his 
orchard all of this fruit that they would haul, 
without money or price. Of walnuts twelve 
to fifteen car-loads, or 240,000 pounds, will 
have been shipped this year. There are about 
200 acres of walnut trees bearing, and 350 
acres not yet bearing, in this county. 

Of oranges and lemons, the total value will 
probably approach $40,000. Olives will not 
reach a large figure, outside of the Camulos 
Eancho. Peanuts enter into the exports, as 

many as 500 sacks, or 25,000 pounds, having 
gone out; potatoes amount to about 200 car- 
loads; a variety of promiscuous products also 
are exported, including hogs, of which a large 
number are raised, sometimes as many as 
10,000 a year. The yield for this year is not 


This industry has been carried on in Ven- 
tura somewhat extensively for many years. 
When under Mexican rule it consisted solely 
of cattle and horses, but when the Americans 
took possession they made sheep-raising a 
specialty. Under their supervision the county 
has supported as many as 250,000 head at 
one time. At the present time there is some- 
what over 75,000 head in the county. Ke- 
cently imported draft and other horses have 
been introduced, the assessment roll indicat- 
ing several thousand American horses, some 
3,000 of which are graded. Percheron, 
Hambletonian, Belgian, Morgan and other 
breeds have been imported. Among cattle 
there have been imported Durham, Short- 
horn, Jersey and Holstein breeds, making the 
grade of cattle the very best. The county is 
far in advance of many others in the best 
breed of horses and cattle, farmers having 
reached theconclusi'in that good stock can be 
as easily raised as the poorer varieties and to 
much greater profit. The raising of hogs is 
also engaged in extensively and profitably. 
Diseases among stock are unknown here, 
excejjt scab in sheep, M'hich has not proved 

A gentleman of Santa Paula imported 
twenty-one head of Holstein cows four years 
ago and has already sold $11,000 worth from 
their increase, while keeping up the original 
number. This is a fair sample of what is 
being done in this and other portions of the 
county in improved stock of nearly every 


The resources and capabilities of Venti;ra 
County in tliis regard may be best judged by 
the following resume of the fine stock ran- 
ches in tliis county: Three miles from Hue- 
neme on the road to Ventura, and about half 
way between the former place and Moiitalvo, 
the first station on the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road east of Ventura, is the splendid stock 
ranch of Mr. J. G. Hill, one of the representa 
tive and wealthy men of Ventura County. 

The property embraces 630 acres of the 
La Colonia ranch, and is as desirably located 
and composed as as good soil as any part of 
the 45,000 acres of this magnificent property. 
The whole ranch is very nearly a mile square, 
and is fenced and cross-fenced into suitable 
fields for tillage, grain or grazing. 

The owner of this valuable place is doing 
much toward the improvement of horses in 
this section. Several years ago J. C. Simp- 
son, of Oakland, brought to California from 
Chicago the beautiful dapple-gray stallion, 
A. W. Richmond, which he sold to a Mr. 
Patrick, the latter to H. Johnson, he to Hill 
& Greis, and finally Mr. Greis sold his in- 
terest to Mr. Hill, the horse dying on the 
latter's hands last November, at the age of 
twenty-seven years. This horse was said to 
be one of the finest, if not the best, carriage 
or driving horses on the continent. He was 
the sire of Joe Romaro, record 2:19^; Arrow, 
record 2:13J; Columbine — the dam of Anteo 
and Anterolo, the only mare in the world that 
has produced two sons to beat 2:20; Rose- 
wall, who has just made himself a record, 
taking six straight races, against stock im- 
ported to beat him; and a host of the finest 
driving stock on this coast. Being owned by 
Mr. Hill and Hill & Greis for some five or 
six years, his colts have become numerous, 
and are considered the best stock in the 
county. Most of the colts strongly resemble 
he sire, being showy and of a gentle dis- 

position. Some of his progeny develop great 
speed, but more of them become intelligent, 
attractive family carriage horses, and are 
owned and prized by many of the best families 
in this part of the State. 

Chief among the valuable horses Mr. Hill 
has at the present time is Ulster Wilkes, a 
two-year-old stallion by Guy Wilkes, record 
2:15^, dam by Ulster Chief by Harabletonian 
No. 10, second dam by May Queen, record 
2:24. This is considered one of the finest- 
bred colts in America. He is very hand- 
some and will, without doubt, make an extra 
fine horse. Fayette King, a dark brown stal- 
lion, three years old, by The King, son of 
George Wilkes, first dam by Beecher, second 
dam by imported Consternation, full thorough- 
Itred. This is a fine horse. Sterlingwood, 
another chestnut stallion, three years old, by 
Sterling, first dam by Nutwood, second dam 
by John Nelson. This is also a valuable 

Another beautiful black two-year-old stal- 
lion, Steve White, by A. W. Richmond, first 
dam by Ben Wade (thoroughbred), second 
dam by Traveler, third dam by Son of John 
Morgan, fourth dam by Tiger Whip, is one 
of the prettiest colts in the county. 

Aside from the above list Mr . Hill has 
other fine stallions and some splendid mares 
by Joe Daniels, Ben Wade, Wild Idler, Cor- 
bitt and other horses of high record, in all 
about 120, the majority of which are un- 
usually fine animals. He has a three-quar- 
ters of a mile tiack on the ranch, and keeps a 
man who thoroughly understands the business 
to train his stock. Aside from one or two 
runninghorses,oue of which is Dottie Dimple, 
record iS^, half mile, this breeder gives his 
attention almost exclusively to carriage and 
trotting horses, and has certainly done Ven- 
tura County much good in introducing a class 
that would do credit to the blue-grass region 


of Kentucky or any other section of America 
or the world. 

This rancho is supplied with every neces- 
sary appliance, commodious buildings, well 
watered and fenced, and is one of the best for 
stock-raising on the Pacitic coast. Aside 
from his stock of horses, Mr. Hill keeps some 
400 hogs, and raises large quantities of corn, 
hay and barley. 

About a mile from the above rancho is 
that o£ J. D. Patterson, of Geneva, New 
York, covering 6,000 acres. This was also 
a part of the La Colonia property, and is 
probably the largest horse rancho on the 
south side of the Santa Clara River. The 
whole of this, however, is not devoted to 
stock, 1,000 acres or more being planted to 
barley, the product of which was 27,000 
sacks last year. This farm keeps 500 head 
of horses, mostly of the French draft species. 
Of this number 150 are brood mares. 

Mr. Patterson is the owner of the cele- 
brated Montebello, a pure Bonlornais stallion 
a beautiful mahogany bay, foaled at Jabeka, 
Belgium, in 1875, and imported into this 
country in August, 1876. His weight is 
1,800 pounds. He has taken tirst premiums 
wherever exhibited, as well he might, for a 
liner horse of its kind would be hard to find. 

Another noble stallion of this ranch is 
Black Lewis, a California-raised black fellow, 
nearly as heavy as iiis sire. This horse is 
live years old. Leopold, another son of Mon- 
tebello, a beautiful dapper-bay stallion, 
weighing 1,850 pounds, a pure blood, three 
years old. Ctesar, another three-year-old, 
and Philipi, another of the same age, Victor, 
Bonita and Patera, the last three yearlings, 
are all line stallions by same sire out of the 
imported six-year-old mares Marie and Lady 
Henrietta, and the pure blood, four-year-old, 
California-raised mare Florence, and are all 
splendid specimens of this species of horses. 

The owner of this [iroperty began raising 
this breed of horses in 1880, and has been 
very successful. He sells tiiem all over this 
coast and farther east. 

To Mr. Patterson is due the credit of in- 
troducing an excellent strain of draft horses. 

This ranch, besides raising barley and 
horses, also produces large quantities of hay 
and corn; also keeps some 2,000 hogs. The 
location, soil and equipments are all superb. 
The fences are good and everything bears the 
unmistakable evidence of thrift and pros- 

On the same old La Colonia, about four 
miles from these, is located another horse 
ranch owned by J. K. Greis, of Nordhoff, and 
Thomas Bell, of New Jerusalem, known as 
the Greis & Bell Ranch. This is a smaller 
one than the others, containing only about 
425 acres, but on it are kept some very tine 
horses, mostly of the Richmond breed. This 
rancho keeps several fine stallions; and, like 
the two above mentioned, keeps a large num- 
ber of fine brood mares, and makes a busi- 
ness of raising colts that develop into the 
best carriage and family horses. They pay 
special attention to the breeding of fine car- 
riage stock and train them for this purpose, 
not, of course, discouraging speed in trotting 
or racing. Their place, which is located near 
Springville, is a valuable one, and is kept in 
" apple-pie order," being like the other two 
a credit to the owners and to the county. 

Such marked success has attended the de- 
velopment of this industry here that it seems 
hardly extravagant to predict tliat the day 
will come when California shall lead the 
world in fine horses. The desirable mjun- 
tain ranges of Ventura County, with the 
rich alfalfa fields of the valleys, are just the 
thing to develop the fine form and strong 
limb of this noble animal; and it would be no 
unnatural thing for this little seaside county 


to wave the banner of victory over the world, 
having achieved the lienor of producing, if 
not the fastest rnHning, the fastest trotting 
and the finest driving stock on the continent. 


There are about 18,000 hives of bees in 
this county. In a good year the county pro- 
duces about 3,000,000 pounds of honey, suf- 
ficient to fill 150 cars. In many cases 400 
pounds of honey to tbe hive have been pro- 
duced. One apiary of 700 hives, and snr- 
roundcd by bees amounting in all to 1,800 
hives within the radius of two miles, aver- 
3,0-ed 130 pounds each. Another apiary, con- 
taining 445 hives in the spring, increased to 
about 1,200 and yielded eighty tons of honey. 
These are presented as fair examples of the 
products of the honey bee in this section. 

The bee-keepers of this county use honey 
extractors, replacing the comb. They have 
learned to handle it economically in a whole- 
sale way, and receive their full share of the 
profits. The Langstroth hive in its simplest 
form is almost the only one in use. The 
principal part of the honey is pnt up for 
shipment in sixty-pound tins, two tins in a 
case. Some is put up in twelve pound tins, 
and considerable in one and two pound tins 
for the English market. But the larger por- 
tion is sold by commission merchants in San 
Francisco, orders being received by them 
from all parts of the world. Some send their 
honey by the car-load to the interior States, 
at a cost of about two and one-half cents a 
pound; others send it by sailing vessels 
around Cape Horn to the Eastern States, at a 
cost of less than one cent a pound. 

This industry can be greatly extended in 
this county. The best locations are at the 
mouths of canons where water is plentiful. 
Some apiarists cultivate a little land while 

taking care of their bees, and others indulge 
in stock-raising. 


Mining in Ventura is as yet comparatively 

The mountains of this county are as yet 
but partly explored, and the most scientific 
explorers who have visited this section are 
unacquainted with much they contain. They 
will yet doubtless yield valuable returns to 
the faithful investigator in precious' metals, 
valuable minerals and not unlikely gems. 

Piru Mining District. This district is 
several miles in extent, and in scenery, 
abundance of timber, excellency of water, 
salubrity of climate in summer and health- 
fulness, is hard to excel. Tiie mountains are 
covered with pine and oak timber; and in the 
Lockwood and Pirn creeks, which traverse 
the entire district, and are never failing 
streams fed by springs, abundance of water 
can be procured for running stamp mills and 
other mining purposes. Most of the ore is 
easily accessible and can be worked with 
comparatively small cost. Considerable 
placer mining has been done in this district, 
in which dry and wet washers have been 
used. Men have made from $1.50 to $5 a 
day, but the principal wealth lies in the 
quartz ledges, which require stamp mills to 
reduce the ore. 

Some of the mineral-bearing peaks rise 
8,000 feet, and one. Mount Pinos, over 9,000 
feet above sea level. Gold was discovered 
here long before the excitement of 1849. 
The territory of this district on the northern 
line of the county has the honor of furnish- 
ing the first gold mines discovered and 
worked in the State. 

Professor Whitney says it was somewhere 
in this vicinity that gold was first obtained 
in California in considerable quantity, and 
that was as early as 1841. M. Duflot de 


Mofras says that the locality was in the 
mountains six leagues from San Fernando 
and fifteen leagues from Los Angeles, where 
gold was first discovered. Bancroft makes 
meitioa of the fact of this locality having 
been worked more or less during the first 
half of the present century. It is evident 
that the yield of gold and silver of this local- 
ity has amounted to a large sum in the 

The director of the mint, in one of his an- 
nual reports to the Government, claims that 
Frazer mountain alone had yielded |1,000,- 
000 in gold. 

To preserve the chronological symmetry 
of the present work, is introduced an extract 
from the report of the director of the mint 
for the year 1882. Dr. Bowers gives this 
at the end of his own paper on these mines, 
to which recurrence will be made hereafter. 

" The Piru District takes its name from 
the Piru Creek, which runs through it in a 
southerly direction, carrying, according to 
season, fi-om 100 to 1,000 inches of water, 
and has placer diggings along its banks that 
have been profitably worked. It is about 
fifty miles in length by twenty-five in width, 
and is a strongly-marked mineral belt, carry- 
ing mineral veins of almost every kind, such 
as gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, bis- 
muth and antimony. It is abundantly sup- 
plied with timber of all kinds and gi-ass. It 
seems never to have attracted the attention of 
that class of men who get up booms in min- 
ing camps, Those who frequent it are poor 
men, who go there to make a raise, working 
the rich gold quartz they find, in arrastras. 
The district is in Yentura County, and the 
part around which the principal interest cen- 
ters and the work is mainly done is distant 
fifty-five miles from Bakersfield. 

" The principal lode is called the Fraser 
mine. Durinsr the time it was worked, a 

period of eight years, until operations ceased, 
October 31, 1879, because of litigation aris- 
ing from disputed ownership, it is believed 
to have yielded about $1,000,000 in gold. 
The difficulty is now said to be on the eve of 
settlement, and it will be worked by improved 
methods and on a larger scale than hereto- 
fore. The vein varies from two to sixteen 
feet in width, and will average eight feet. 
The ore contains a small percentage of silver, 
which seems to increase with depth. At the 
depth of 250 feet it amounts to $6 per ton, 
while there was only a trace at the surface. 
The ore contains iron and other sulphurets 
that assay from $3.00 to $3.50 per ton. 
They are all saved, but there is no means of 
treating them at the mine. The yield in free 
gold is from $15 to $25 per ton. There are 
many other claims in the vicinity that are 
successfully worked, yielding from $500 to 
$3,500 yearly by the arrastra process. One 
of these, the Castac, has yielded about $1,500. 

" Some of the most valuable lodes cannot 
be worked by the free-milling process, be- 
cause they contain lead, and therefore lie 
idle for the present. One of these, the 
Mountain Chief, a large, well-defined vein, 
gives an average of $31 in gold and $40 in 
silver per ton. The ore is also charged with 
rich sulphates. Probably one of the most 
valuable lodes in the district, if it were in 
some other place, is a vein of magnetic iron 
fifty feet in width, containing fifty-two per 
cent, of this useful metal. 

" In this district are Frazer, Fitzgerald, 
Alamo, Brown and other monntains, all 
wiihin the boundary line of Ventura County. 
In these are found true fissure quartz veins 
with granite walls, yielding gold and silver 
in paying quantities. Unfortunately for the 
development of these ledges they have gen- 
erally fallen into the hands of persons who 
have had little or no capital to work them. 


Tliov are holding their claims by doing the 
necessary assessment work from year to year, 
awaiting the advent of men who can com- 
mand the means to purchase and develop 

" Gold has also heen found in the (jtuada- 
lasca range on the eastern side of the county, 
not far from the sea shore. The mountains 
rise trom 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea 
level a few miles back from the ocean, and 
contain numerous quartz deposits in which 
free gold is found. It has never been suc- 
cessfully mined in this locality, but prospect- 
ors have recently brought in some tine-looking 
ore carrying a considerable quantity of free 
gold. This section still lacks thorough 
scientific investigation. 

"The San Emidio Antimony Mine was 
located by its present owners in 1872. It is 
claimed that this ledge was known to the 
Jesuit Fathers at an early day and was 
worked under their direction. I learn that 
there is a record to this effect in some of the 
old missions, and tliat implements have been 
found here and elsewhere in this portion of 
the country, indicating their use in these 
mines many years ago. 

" Professor William R. Blake, who visited 
this locality in 1853 as geologist and miner- 
alogist of the expedition surveying a route 
for the Pacific Ilailroad, refers to this deposit 
of antimony and says that in one place he 
found the remains of some old smelting 
works. Mr. Blake revisited this locality 
some years afterward, being much impressed 
with the character of its mineral deposits. 
In his reports he believed the antimony of 
sufficient importance to pay for its transport- 
ation to San Pedro on mules, a distance of 
over 100 miles, to what was then the nearest 
seaport. The ore is principally sulphuret of 
antimony. The vein crops out on the sum- 
mit of the San Emidio Range, and is from 

thirty to 100 feet in width. The hanging 
and foot walls are composed of granite. The 
ore is carried on donkeys over a trail two and 
one-half miles to smelting works in San 
Emidio Canon, which is 2,500 feet below the 
vein at the place where it is being mined. 
Here is a pulverizer and three concentrators, 
with other machinery, run by steam power. 

"Messrs. Bouchey & Co., the owners of this 
mine, are preparing to erect a tramway or 
slide from the mine to the works, which will 
be about one and one-half mile in length. 
There is an abundance of pine timber grow- 
ing near by that ujay be utilized for the 
purpose, while in the cailon where the smelt- 
ing works are located is a never-failing stream 
of water. The ore averages from thirty to 
thirty-five per cent, of antimony. It is also 
stated that it contains from $4 to $16 per ton 
in gold, and from $10 to $14 in silver. * 
* * The mountain west of this ledge is 
capped with metamorphic sandstones, wiiich 
Mr. Bouchey has tested for lining the fur- 
naces of his smelting works, and pronounces 
it equal to the best imported fire-bricks." 

A large bed of gypsum occurs in the Ojai 
Yalley, crossing the hill below the grade 
road that ascends to the upper valley. There 
is an exposure in the cailon on the south side 
of the road, some fifteen or twenty feet wide, 
dipping slightly to the east. It disappears 
under the mountain, but crops out nearly a 
mile distant on the opposite side. It is situ- 
ated so that it can be easily worked, requir- 
ing the construction of a wagon road but 
about 2,000 feet along the side of the caiion. 
A large deposit of gypsum is reported to 
have been found recently in tlie western por- 
tion of the county. It is also found in small 
quantities in other portions of the county. 

A ledge of bituminous rock was discov- 
ered a few months since in Diablo Canon, 
about five miles from Yentura, and is worked 


by Messrs. Cyrus Bellali & Son. It is on 
the side of tlie canon, and has been prospected a 
distance of forty feet and forty feet deep. The 
deposit gradually increases in thickness, and 
gives promise of being practically inexhaust- 
ible. It has been tested by the Southern 
Pacific Company and others, who pronounce 
it of most excellent quality. The town au- 
thorities of San Buenaventura have ordered 
sidewalks to be constructed of this material 
on one of its principal streets, which will 
test its durability and value for paving pur- 
poses. Small deposits of this mineral are 
found in the upper Ojai Valley and other 
places in the county. 

The county abounds in hot and cold min- 
eral springs. The most noted of these are 
situated in the Matilaja Canon, fifteen or 
eighteen miles from San Buenaventura. 
They have been in use several years by per- 
sons suffering from rheumatism, indigestion, 
and cutaneous and other diseases. They are 
found somewhat abundantly for two or three 
miles along the canon, varying in tempera- 
ture from cold to hot. Several medicinal 
springs are found on the Piru and at other 
portions of the county, but they have not 
been brought to the notice of the public. 

Already all the following named minerals 
have been found in Ventura County, and 
doubtless others will be discovered in other 
.portions of the section that as yet have not 
been critically examined: 

Agate, analcite, actinolite, aragonite^ anti- 
mony, amygdaloid, azurite, alabaster, aurifer- 
ous quartz, argillaceous ironstone. 

Bitumen, basalt, bromide of silver, bitu- 
minous rock, breccia, banded agate, brown 
coal, bituminous shale. 

Copper, calcite, cinnabar, chalcedony, chert, 
chrysolite, conglomerate, calcareous tufa, 
carbonaceous shale, chrysocolla, compact 
gypsum, coal, chimney rock. 

Dolomite, dendrite, dogtooth spar, diorite, 
diatomaceous earth. 


Feldspar, fortification agite. 

Gold, garnets, granite, graphite, galenite, 
gypsum, granular gypsum, fibrous gypsum, 
graphic granite, gneiss, grit rock, granular 
quartz, gray kip ore. 

Hornblende, hornblendic gneiss, hyalite. 

Iron, ironstone, iron pyrites, infusorial 
earth, jasper, jelsonite. 

Kaolinite, lava, limestone lignite. 

Mercury, marble, moss-agate, manganese, 
magnetic iron, marl, mica, mica schist, mot- 
tled Jasper, massive calcite, micaceous gran- 
ite, massive gypsum. 

Natrolite, native sulphur, nickel (?), 

Opal, obsidian, oxide of iron, orthoclase. 

Porphyry, petroleum, pumice-stone, pud- 
ding-stotie, pitch-stone, potters' clay, petrified 
wood, pyrites, picrolite (?). 

Quartz, quartzose granite. 

Rose agate, ruby silver. 

Silver, satin spar, salt, sulphur, shale, 
silica, silt, stalactite, stalagmite, slate, syenite, 
steatite, serpentine, selenite, semi-opal, shell 

Tin (?), trachyte, talc, talcose slate, tufa, 
trap, travertine, vesicular basalt, wood opal, 

Potters' clay, pipe clay, brick clay and 
several other kinds that may be utilized and 
their manufactnre grow into important in- 
dustries, are found in this county. Also 
mineral soap is found in large quantity. 
This soap is composed of nearly pure silica, 
being the remains of infusoria, a microscop- 
ical organism that existed in vast numbers 
in past time. These deposits have detergent 
qualities, and are a valuable substitute for 
manufactured soap in many respects. It is 
also valuable for the manufacture of dyna- 


mite, in wiiich it soaks up and retains the 
liquid nitro-glycerine, and is valuable for 
some other purposes. 

Ventura County contains enough good 
building stone to supply the State of Cali- 
fornia for centuries to come. A ledge 
of brown sandstone begins at the Sespe 
and continues in a westerly direction (prob- 
ably curving northwardly) for over twenty- 
live miles to the ocean. It is several miles 
wide and of unknown depth. It crops out 
in various accessible places and varies in 
texture and hardness. But in every instance, 
so far as known, it is an excellent building 
stone. In some places this vast ledge has 
been lifted to a vertical position and in 
others it is horizontal. It can be quarried in 
any size required by builders. 

This stone is being used extensively for 
the tinest buildings in San Francisco and Los 
Angeles, and this promises to be one of the 
permanent and profitable industries of the 
county, whose development will furnish em- 
l)loyment for thousands of workmen, skilled 
and unskilled. 

Other building stone is found in various 
portions of the county, as greenish and gray 
sandstone. In some places these are found 
in extensive ledges, but they are not equal in 
texture and beauty to the red sandstone 
above described. In the iiorthern portion of 
the connty may be found millions of tons of 
granite, syenite and mica slate. The former 
contains large rose-colored crystals of ortho- 
clase, giving it a most beautiful appearance, 
which is heightened by polishing. The 
mica, feldspar and quartz are distributed in 
such a manner as to make the granite durable 
and valuable for building and monumental 
purposes. The syenite is exceedingly tough 
and durable. In other portions of the county 
vast quantities of compact slate rock may be 
obtained, and also diorite. Compact basaltic 

rocks in almost unlimited quantity may be 
found at the southeastern and northwestern 
portions of the county. 

Altogether the building stone of Ventura 
County is inexhaustible. In quality it is 
probably unexcelled in the State. Hence- 
forward the " Ventura brownstone" will go 
into the finest buildings in every city in Cal- 

The asphaltum or bituminous rock mines 
form one of the coming great interests of 
Ventura County. Up to this time a vast 
quantity has been shipped to various cities 
for street paving, etc., and large contracts 
are being filled for contractors working in 
Colorado and Utah. The output over the 
Ventura wharf will average perhaps ten tons 
daily. New deposits have been discovered 
lately, and preparations are making to ship 
in large quantities as far east as New York. 
It is hoped that this county will soon be able 
to supply the demand for this article, for- 
merly supplied from the Trinidad Islands. 
These beds of asphalt, along the San Anto- 
nio Creek, were first examined before the 
war, and before the oil discoveries in Penn- 
sylvania, by Professor Silliman of the Smith- 
sonian Institute. His report called attention 
to this territory, and led to the organization 
of the California & Philadelphia Petroleum 

(From the State Mineralogical Report.) 

Owing to the vast mineral oil deposits in this sec- 
tion, Ventura is known as the "oil county " of Cali- 
fornia. The oil belt lies in the mountains to the 
north of the Santa Clara Kiver; it starts from near the 
eastern boundary of the county, and runs in a south- 
easterly direction to the San Bueuaventura River. It 
is also found near the Conejo Rancho and in other 
places in the county. 

The wells are mostly situated from three to six 
miles north of the edge of the Santa Clara Valley, in 
and about a series of caiions which run southerly to 
the Santa Clara River. The names of these caiions in 
order, from east to west, are as follows: Piru, Hopper, 



Sespe, Santa Paula, Adams, Saltmarsh (a branch of 
Adams), Wheeler, West Wheeler (a branch of Wheel- 
er), Sulphur and Coche (these two being branches of 
the Canada Larga). There are also a few wells in the 
Ojai Valley. 

Westerly from Santa Paula Creek, between the 
Ojai Valley on the north and the Santa Clara Valley 
on the south, there extends an unbroken mountain 
ridge, whose highest crest is about 2,000 feet above 
the sea, as far west as the San Buenaventura River 
This ridge is called " Sulphur Mountain," and all the 
caflons above named to the west of Santa Paula Canon 
lie on the southern flank of Sulphur Mountain. 

Piru Canon. — From Camulos station it is about six 
miles to the well of Messrs. Rhodes & Baker, head of 
Brea Canon. * * * 

The well is about 250 feet north of the anticlinal 
axis, and is now (July 12, 18^7) 715 feet deep. * * 
They have !^topped drilling this well for a while, be- 
cause their water supply for the engine gave out. 
There is a moderate quantity of gas in the water from 
this well. The oil from the well is dark brown in color. 
This is said to be the only well in or about Piru 
Canon. And certain it is that in the Piru Caiion itself 
the visible surface indications of bituminous matter 
are veiy slight. From 200 to 300 feet south of the I 
well there is an extensive deposit of asphaltum 
mixed with surface sand, and numerous little springs 
of black maltha scattered over perhaps an acre of 
ground. Next west of Piru Caiion comes 

Hopper Canon, — at whose mouth * * * a well 
was drilled in 1877, by M. W. Beardsley, to a depth of 
300 feet, * * * when the work was stopped for 
lack of funds. * * * Even at that depth * * * 
it would probably have yielded three or four barrels 
per day of light green oil. From this well, in an air 
line * * about one and one-half miles, « * * 
are two wells about 200 feet apart. The lower one is 
ninety feet deep, and was abandoned because the hole 
became irretrievably crooked. There was here a 
good deal of heavy black oil. The other well is a 
new one just started, * * * yet they have a little 
heavy black oil on the tools even now. 

All the way from here down to the mouth of the 
canon there is liquid oil floating on top of the water 
in the creek. Some of it is green and some of it is 
black. The aggregate quantity of oil which thus 
oozes out and floats away on the water is, of course, 
not large; nevertheless it is greater in this caiion than 
in any other canon yet seen in Southern California. 

About opposite Waring's house, in the hills on the 
south side of the Santa Clara Valley, on the Simi 
Rancho, and on the northern slopes of the San Fer- 
nando range of mountains, there 's a large deposit of 
asphaltum, together with extensive outflows of liquid 

petroleum, where, some years ago, a man gathered for 
a while about ten barrels of oil per day. Oil men be- 
lieve that with the expenditure of a moderate amount 
of labor a surface flow of forty barrels per day could 
be obtained there. Mr. Hugh Waring states that this 
is the most westerly point where asphaltum is found 
in the San Fernando Range. He also says that east 
of there, in the hills somewhere to the south of Cam- 
ulos, he has seen cattle mired and dead in pools of 
viscid and muddy maltha. 

Sespe Canon.— Ses\-)e Creek, occupying the canon 
next west of Hopper Canon, is the largest and longest 
northern branch of the Santa Clara River in Ventura 
County. It heads far back in the mountains to the 
north of the Ojai Valley, and at first flows nearly east 
for a number of miles, passing entirely around tbe 
head branches of Santa Paula Caiion, and then curves 
around so that its general direction for the last ten or 
twelve miles of its course in the mountains is nearly 
south. The mouth of the caiion is something like ten 
miles east of the town of Santa Paula. "Tar Creek " 
and the "Little Sespe" are two different branches of 
the main Sespe Caiion, both of them coming in from 
the east, the mouth of Tar Creek being several miles 
above that of the Little Sespe. The latter is a short 
canon not more than four or five miles in length, but 
Tar Creek is a longer stream. * * * Near the 
mouth of the main Sespe Canon one small oil spring 
occurs in the bed of the caiion. In ihe Little Sespe 
there is a nice little spring of water, and occasional 
small oil springs and seepages. * * * in the 
Little Sespe are the so-called " Los Angeles " wells, of 
which there are two. One of these is about 1,500 
feet deep, and is said to have yielded at first, for some 
time, about 150 barrels per day. But about the year 
1882, in the course of a "freeze out" game amongst 
the owners, while still yielding some forty barrels per 
day, it was maliciously plugged by somebody, and 
thus ruined. The other one went down about 200 
feet, when it became crooked. 

The present wells of the " Sespe Oil Company " an,- 
scattered about the upper branches of Tar Creek. * 
* * Well No. 1 is on the right bank of the main 
Tar Creek. It was begun January '.:6, 1887, and fin- 
ished February 12, 1887; is 196 feet deep, and pumps 
about forty barrels per day of a very dark-colored 
greenish-brown oil. This well first started off at 
about 100 barrels per day. 

No. 2 is about 300 feet southeasterly from No. 1. It 
was drilled in April, 1887, and is 200 feet deep. It 
first started off at about 150 barrels per day, but after- 
ward fell off, iud now flows about seventy-five barrels 
per day of a dark green oil. It also produces consid 
erable gas. 
No. 4 is probably 1,200 feet northwesterly from No. 



1, and is a new well, not yet drilled. Nos. 1, 3 and 4 
are nearly in a straight line. No. 5 is on Oil Creek. 
Here they have not begun drilling. 

No. 3 is down about 500 feet, and they are still 

No. 6 is located some 500 feet easterly from No. 1. 
Here the grading has been done, but the derrick is 
not yet erected. 

The foregoing statements refer to the condition of 
the wells July 35, 1887. Some months later No. 2 was 
reported pumping instead of flowing; beginning with 
2.;5 barrels per day, it continued with about 140 per 
day. No. 4, now about 400 feet deep, was pumping 
twenty-five barrels per day. Nos. 3 and 4, having 
gone down about 700 feet, proved dry holes. 

The report of tlie State Mineralogist for 
1888 contains the following: 

In addition to the report relating to these deposits, 
published by the Mining Bureau, last year, I have to 
say that work has steadily progressed, and the output 
of oil for the last fiscal year has increased from 02,500 
barrels to 22(5,050 barrels. 

The following is a statement of the work which has 
been done in this district during the year ending 
September 18: 

Hopper Ca«o?i.— Considerable work has been done 
here, but the returns have been meager. The forma- 
tion is so broken up that it is not unlikely the oil 
exudes at the surface as rapidly as it is elaborated be- 
low. In order to thoroughly test this locality two 
wells have been drilled during the past year, one 400, 
and the other about 800, feet deep. In the deeper 
well a small amount of oil was struck, and a large 
flow of water. In the 400-foot well a flow of soda 
water was obtained, which is said to be of excellent 
quality, and may be profitably utilized. 

Piru Cnnoft.— Like Hopper Caiion, this seems to be 
outside of the paying oil belt. Two new wells have 
been drilled here during the past year. One was 
sunk to a depth of 1,000 feet, but no oil was obtained, 
and it was abandoned. Another well was sunk one- 
fourth of a mile away, but it was abandoned for the 
same reason. 

Sespe Canon,.— The efi'orts of the oil company have 
been much more successful here. Eight new wells 
liave been dug here during the year, which, in the 
aggregate, yield a large quantity of oil. 

No. 7 is located about thirty rods southwest of No. 
5. The depth reached was 300 feet. When first com- 
pleted the well produced twenty barrels a day, but 
now yields ten barrels daily. 

No. 8, located about eighty rods north of No. 4, was 
drilled to a depth of 0-)0 feet, and yielded seventy-five 
barrels a day; now reduced to forty-five barrels daily. 

till drilling at a 
water has been 

No. 9, located about 600 feet from No. 4, is down to 
a depth of 400 feet, and is producing about eight bar- 
rels a day. 

No. 10 is about 500 feet south of No. 7. It is 350 
feel deep and pumps seveuty-flve barrels a day. 

No. 11 is southwest of No. 8, and is down to a depth 
of 400 feet. It produced thirty or forty barrels a day, 
but quickly ran down to its present product of about 
nine barrels. 

No. 13 is north of No. 8, and is about 650 feet deep. 
This well produces seventy-tive barrels daily. 

No. 13 is one-half mile north of No. 13, on Irelan 
Creek. It is 600 feet deep, and pumps ten barrels a 

No. 14 is west of N ). 13, and was drilled as a test 
well, going down 1,400 feet. About 500 feet below 
the surface a small deposit of oil was struck, hut the 
well is practically dry. 

No. 15 is south of No. 13, aad is 
depth of 700 feet. Considerable 
struck, and a small quantity of oil. 

No. 16 is down about 100 feet, and still drilling. 

These wells are located twenty-five miles from the 
ocean, at an altitude of 2,800 feet. 

Adams Canon. — Well No. 16, which was completed 
in January, at a depth of 750 feet, is the largest flow- 
ing well ever struck in C ilifornia. The oil, when 
reached, shot up to ttie heiglit of nearly 100 feet, and 
flowed at the rate of 800 or yjO barrels daily. Before 
it could be controlled it sent a stream down the canon 
for a distance of seven miles. After the lapse of nine 
months it continues to flow at the rate of 500 b irrels 

No. 17 is drilled to a depth of 1,410 feet, but is a 
sma'l producer, barely paying for pumping. 

No. 18 is located about 400 feet south of No. 9, and 
is about 900 feet deep and still in process of drilling. 

Tue Adams Canon wells are about the head of the 
caiion, and most of them strung along a very narrow 
belt about three-quarters of a mile long. These wells 
are quite productive. No. 13, when one year old, had 
produced 74,000 barrels, and is still producing 330 
barrels daily. There is considerable asphaltum on 
the of the ground in Adai^s Caiion. The 
largest patch covers probably one or two acres of 
ground and contains numerous little spring.? of black 
maltha. Adams Canon we'.l, No. 16, is probably also 
the largest gas well on the Pacific Coast. At the 
present time it is producing sufficient gas to run all 
the works and machinery in the canon. 

Saltmarsh Canon, — named after John Saltmarsh, 
promises well. 

Well No. 1 was completed in January, 1888. It is 
3!i0 feet deep, and produces seventy-five barrels daily. 


No. 2 was abandoned on account of "crooked hole" 
and caving, at 350 feet deep. 

No. 3 is finislied to a depth of 400 feet. It is pro- 
ducing forty barrels per day. 

Santa Paula Ganon, — formerly called " Mupu 
Canon," contains the group called the " Scott " wells, 
situated about five miles from the town of Santa 
Paula. They are from three to ten years old. There 
were eleven or twelve in all, some five or six only of 
which are now producing an aggregate of about 
eleven barrels per day. They range from 200 to 1,000 
feet deep The oil is black. 

Wheeler Ganon — contains three wells, drilled in 
1887-88, which yield only about teu barrels per dsy 
in the aggregate. 

Aliso Ganon — promises to produce oil in paying 

During 1887-'88 the Hardison & Stewart Oil Com- 
pany erected at Santa Paula refining works which are 
claimed to be the most complete of the kind in the 
country. The machinery and equipment in general 
include the latest improvements for oil refining. This 
company manufactures benzine, illuminating oil, gas 
and domestic fuel, distillates, 'wool oil, neutral oil, 
lubricating oils, and maltha. The crude oil yields 
from fifteen to twenty per cent, of illuminating oil, 
and from thenty to twenty-five percent, of maltha or as- 
phaltum. The illuminating oil is of excellent quality, 
and claimed to be superior to any that has been made 
on the Pacific Coast. It burns with a clear and stendy 
flame, and is free from snioke or disagreeable odor. 
The asphaltum is used for pipe dipping, for the man- 
ufacture of paints and varnishes, and for coating roofs, 
bridges, etc. It is a beautiful glossy black, absolutely 
impervious to water, and particularly adapted to coat- 
ing iron. The lubricating oil is said to have a lower 
cold test than any other ever discovered in the United 
States. It does not harden until it reaches a much 
lower degree of cold than any other oil known, hence 
is adapted to locomotives and other machinery subject 
to cold weather. 

The oil regions of California have head- 
quarters at S^ta Paula, where there are six 
coiupauies, viz.: the Hardison & Steward Oil 
Company, Sespe Oil Company, Torrey Canon 
Oil Company, Mission Transfer Oil Company, 
Ventura Oil Company, and O'Hara Brothers. 
The most extensive petroleum oil operations 
are on the Rancho e.x-Mission, situated along 
the south side of Sulphur Mountain, hegin- 
nine about four miles northwest of the town, 

and extending westerly eight miles. These 
works are owned and operated by the Hardi- 
son & Stewart Company, incorporated with a 
capital stock of $1,000,000. Lyman Stewart 
is president and general manager; W. L. 
Hardison, vice-president and treasurer; Alex. 
Waldie, secretary. This company has been 
most suceessfnl in its development, having a 
large production trom their many wells and 
tunnels. There is connected with the com- 
pany's otMces at Santa Paula a complete tele- 
phone system. The region is a network of 
pipe lines conveying the oil to Santa Paula, 
Ventura and Hueneme. The next most ex- 
tensive oil developments in this region are 
located at Sespe, and are owned and operated 
by the Sespe Oil Company, with its office at 
Santa Paula. The company has a capital 
stock of 11250,000. Thomas R. JBard is 
president; D. McFarland, vice-president; W. 
L. Hardison, treasurer and general manager; 
Alex. U aldie, secretary. The Torrey Caiion 
(Jil Company is opearating three miles south 
of Pirn Station. Its officers are: Thos. R. 
Bard, president; W. S. Chaffe, vice-president; 
I. H. Warring, secretarv ; W. L. Hardison, 
superintendent. The production of the re- 
gion is also very large, and is piped to Santa 
Paula. The wells have telephone connection 
with the main office. These four companies 
keep a large force of men constantly engaged 
in the drilling of new oil wells; and thus the 
production is bein^ constantly angmented. 
The Mission Transfer Company has a capital 
stock of $500,000; T. R. Bard is president; 
Lyman Stewart, vice-president; W. L. Hardi- 
son, treasurer and general manager; L H. 
"Warring, secretary. This company has about 
100 miles of pipe lines and forty tanks, the 
largest one holding 30,000 barrels. They 
have tifty-two oil-tank cars, and have a re- 
tinery, where they make all the various pro- 
ducts usually manufactured from petroleum, 


notably lubricating oil, gas oil and naph- 
tha. Asphaltiim (maltha) is also refined in 
large quantities, and is used extensively both 
on this coast and in the East for coating pipe 
and other iron goods, for roofing, and for 
paving purposes. No industry in the Golden 
State promises better results than its oil devel- 
opments; and nothing is more beneficial to 
Ventura County, and to Santa Paula in partic- 
ular, tlian the business of these four oil com- 
panies. With an abundance of cheap petro- 
leum for fuel no section offers better advant- 
ages for manufacturing purposes than Santa 

The prospects of this industry are now 
brighter than ever before. The Sespe Oil 
Company has now drilled thirty-one wells, 
varying in depth from 450 to over 1,800 feet, 
yielding at this time an average product of 
7,000 barrels monthly. The last well, No. 
29, promises to give 150 to 300 barrels 
per diem. Developments have just begun 
on the " Kentucky Oil Claim," where, in well 
No. 2, was struck near the surface sand-rock 
so full of oil that it could not be drilled over 
200 feet; after exhausting this well by pump- 
ing, work will be continued. The Sespe Oil 
Company has a lease of about 7,000 acres of 

the best oil lands on the Simi Rancho, and 
are beginning to drill thereon, the territory 
being deemed rich in oil. Tne production 
of the Hardison & Stewart Company is in- 
creasing very rapidly, being 8,000 to 9,000 
barrels per month. Adams Caiion well. No. 
13, opened August, 1887, has to date pro- 
duced 125,000 barrels, which, at the average 
price of fuel oil — $1.75 per ban-el — has been 
a fortune in itself. They have in all drilled 
thirty-four wells, the last of which, in Adams 
Canon, averages over 125 barrels per day. 
They have at present three sets of tools, each 
employing four experienced drillers, pushing 
developments more rapidly than ever before, 
and the expectation is that 20,000 barrels per 
month will be reached before the close of the 
year. No part of the development has paid 
better than the oil tunnels. Adams' Tunnel, 
No. 3, where three men were killed in April, 
1890, b}' a gas explosion, was at that time 950 
feet long; work has just been resumed, and it 
is expected to reach 1,000 to 2,000 feet further 
into the mountain, which it will drain of oil. 
In 1889 work was began in the Upper Ojai 
Valley, and two wells are yielding average 
production, with a third well now in process 
of drilling. 



and capable business men of San Buena- 
ventura, came here as pioneers in 1857, 
when there were scarcely any Americans in 
the whole county. They are natives of 
Italy. Sr. A. Schiappa Pietra was born 
February 2, 1832, and in 1853 came to Cali- 
fornia, and after spending six months in San 
Francisco he came to San Luis Obispo and 
opened a general merchandise store, which was 
conducted successfully for fourteen months. 
He then sold out and went to San Fransisco 
in search of a locality for business, but, fail- 
ing, he visited San Diego, San Bernardino 
and other places in Southern California and 
located in Santa Barbara, engaged in general 
merchandise; and while there, in 1857, he 
started a store in San Buenaventura, and in 
1878 sold out his business there. In 1864 
he bought the Santa Clara del Norte ranch 
of 13,900 acres and stocked it with sheep; 
30,000 or 40,000 are now kept upon it. Also 
there are planted on the ranch trees of vari- 
ous kinds, including olives and oranges, and 
they are doing well. Formerly about 4,000 
acres were devoted to barley, but this year it 
is the intention to plant 5,000 acres to beans. 
The younger brother, Sr. Leopold Schia]>pa 
Pietra, was born February 3, 1842, and came 

to California in 1866, since which time his 
business was united with that of his brother. 
He married Miss Amparo Arenas, a native 
of California, and they have a son and a daugh- 
ter, both of whom are deceased. 

In 1877 the brothers built their present 
tine residence, and have made it a place of 
unusual beauty. The grounds are planted 
and decorated with artistic skill, and are ex- 
tremely well cared for. They are also the 
owners of the St. Charles Hotel at Santa Bar- 
bara and the Palace Hotel in San Buenaven- 
tura. They are zealous members of the 
Holy Cataolic Church, and are exemplary 

fAIUS WEBSTER, of San Miguel, was 
born in Delaware Coutity, New York, 
November 22, 1842, his father, John 
Webster, being a respectable farmer and jus- 
tice of the peace. Was educated mainly in 
the |)ublic schools; qualified himself for 
teaching, and taught school in the winter of 

In August, 1862, enlisted in Company A, 
One Hundred and Forty-fourth Regiment, 
New York Volunteer Infantry, and served 


until July, 1865, being discharged by reason 
of the close of the war. 

Returning to his native county, he spent a 
month or two visiting relatives and friends, 
and packing his gripsack started for Oregon 
alone. There was not a soul on the Pacific 
coast that he had ever seen, but he was de- 
termined to carve a way for himself among 
strangers in a new and rising country. 
Stopping in Douglas County, Oregon, he 
worked for a time in a logging camp, after- 
ward attending an academy at Roseburg, 
reviewing the studies of former years and 
pursuing such sciences as the curriculum of 
the institution included. 

In 1866 he entered as a law student the 
otiice of Hon. S. F. Chadwick, who afterward 
became Secreta'-y of State and Governor. 
Ilavino- read the usual coarse, he was ex- 
amined in the Supreme Court and admitted 
to the bar September, 1867. In the spring 
of 1868 he purchased the Roseburg Ensign, 
which he carried on as editor and publisher 
until the spring of 1870, and also attending to 
such law business as presented. In the po- 
litical campaign of that year he became the 
candidate of the Republican jjarty for the 
office of County Judge, but was defeated with 
the whole ticket. It was during this period 
that he became acquainted with Miss Anna 
West, an estimable lady teacher, to whom he 
was married in 1870. Near the close of that 
year, having disposed of the newspaper, he 
moved to the adjoining county of Coos, set- 
tling at Marshfield, on Coos Bay, and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. In 
1872 he was nominated and elected State 
Senator for the district including Douglas, 
Coos and Curry counties. He occupied a 
seat in the State Senate during the sessions 
of 1872 and 1874, being the youngest mem- 
ber of that body. From 1875 to 1877 he 
was associated with D. L. Watson, Esq., in 

the publishing of the Coos County Record, 
a Republican paper, the editorial manage- 
ment of which devolved upon Mr. Webster. 
On the opening of the year 1878, with I. 
Hacker, he established the newspaper known 
as the Coast Mail, which he edited for two 
years, at the same time attending to a con- 
siderable law practice. 

In 1880 he sold the paper, and for two 
years devoted his entire attention to the law. 
In the meantime pulmonary and bronchial 
disease developed in his family, and in the 
winter of 1882 he moved to Santa Cruz, 
California, where in the following year he 
resumed the practice of the law. The coast 
air of that beautiful place proving unfavor- 
able to his family he moved to Los Gatos, 
where he purchased an interest in the Los 
Gatos Neios, but devoted his time to the pro- 
fession of the law. 

In February, 1886, being impressed with 
the central location and favorable surround- 
ings of San Miguel, he established at that 
place the Inland Messenger, afterward 
changed to the San Miguel Messenger, vrh\ch 
he carried on with his law business for two 
years, when he sold tiie property to F. J. 
Burns, its present proprietor. 

Mr. Webster's family consists of his wife 
and two sons, and two daughters, all nearly 
grown. His time is now fully and pro^^'tably 
occupied in his profession; he is also improv- 
ing a fruit farm near town, where he has 
about tiiirty acres planted in choice varieties. 
He is Commander of John Buford Post, No. 
136, G. A. R.; Overseer of San Miguel 
Grange and Notary Public. Mr. Webster is 
looked upon by his fellow citizens as one of 
the most enterprising and public-spirited men 
of San Miguel, and takes an active part in 
promoting the interests of the place. He 
stands high in his profession and enjoys a 
good practice, and looks exceeding young for 



one who was for the three worst years of the 
war engaged in the great and saving struggle 
for National life, and appears as if he was 
good for another half century of usefulness. 

j^ON. H. PETERSEN is one of the 
|B\ leading business men of Tempieton, San 
"^^ Luis Obispo County. California. He is 
a native of Hamburg, Germany, born July 5, 
1840. His parents, Adolpli and Augusta 
Peterson, were Germans who emigi-ated to 
the United States, in 1855, bringing their 
family of six children with them, the subject 
of this sketch being the second child of the 
family. Tiiey settled near Davenport, Iowa, 
on a farm of 150 acres, which they bought. 
They built a home on the property, and made 
other improvements. 

Mr. Petersen had received his education in 
Germany and was fifteen years of age when 
they came to America. When he began life 
for liimself, he had twelve dollars. He en- 
gaged in farming on shares, and continued 
it until 1868, when lie moved west to Gnindy 
County, and purchased 160 acres of prairie 
land, at live dollars per acre. Here he built 
a house and improved the property, and lived 
for fifteen years. At this time the railroad 
was built to Reinbeck, and Mr. Petersen 
moved into town, and opened a hardware 
and agricultural implement business. He 
built one store and purchased another, and 
did a prosperous business until 1886,- when 
lie sold out. He was elected a member of the 
Twenty-first General Assembly by the Demo- 
cratic party, while there, and served the term 
of office with credit to himself and his con- 
stituents. In the spring of 1886 lie visited 
California, and traveled the State over, look- 
ing for a place to settle. In 1887 he came to 
San Luis Obispo County, and invested in 200 

acres of land near Tempieton and bought 
two village lots. In October, 1888, he 
brought his family to their new home. He 
bought the hardware business of Mr. E. 
Griffith, the principal business of the place. 
It had been started in the spring of 1887. 
Mr. Petersen has since continued the busi- 
ness, and has made a success of it. He deals 
in both hardware and agricultural imple- 
ments, and his trade extends out for twenty- 
six miles. His lands are rented and he is 
getting a share of the crops. He has en- 
gaged, to some extent, in the culture of fruit 
on his lands, principally French prunes. 

Mr. Petersen was married in Iowa, in 
1863, to Miss M. Klein, a native of Saxony, 
and of German parentage. They have had 
ten children, seven of whom are living, viz: 
Teresa, Ida, Antonette, Henryetta, Carl, 
Rudolph, and Hubert, all born in Iowa. Ter- 
esa and Antonetta are married, one in Kansas, 
and the other in San Bernardino, California. 
Mr. and Mrs. Petersen are Lutherans, and he is 
an Odd Fellow. He is still a member of the 
Democratic party; is a man having well 
defined business and political ideas; has a 
general information on all topics; gives his 
business close personal attention; and is 
withal a worthy citizen and desirable acquis- 
ition to the new town in which he has cast 
his lot. 

fOHN QUAliNSTKOM is one of the 
business men of San Luis Obispo County. 
He was born in Sweden, of Swedish 
parents, January 26, 1851; and came to the 
United States March 28, 1884. Previous to 
his ai-rival in America, he was a merchant 
and contractor in his native country. His 
first business enterprise in the United States 
was in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he 



carried on cabinet-making, and also did a real- 
estate business. In 1887 he came to Temple- 
ton, California, bought out a store, conducted 
it two years, and then joined the corporation 
comprising tlie Bank of Templeton, and the 
general merchandise firm of J. Quarnstrom 
& Co., and also the general merchandise firm 
at Paso Robles of the Nelson Quarnstrom 
Company. He has also become interested in 
lands and is engaging in fruit culture. He 
has build a block in Templeton, and erected 
one of the finest residences in the town, wliere 
he resides with his family. 

Mr. Quarnstrom was married to Miss S. C. 
Erksen, a native of Sweden, and their union 
has been blessed with two children, Annie C. 
and Ernest L. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Lutheran Church. Mr. Quarn- 
strom is a member of the I. O. O. F., and in 
his political views he is independent. He 
and his family are worthy people, a credit 
and an important acquisition to the com- 
munity in which they reside. 

fB. BALLARD is one of the prominent 
ranchers of Huer-Huero, two and a 
•* half miles southwest of Cre-ton, San 
Luis Obispo County, California. He is the 
owner of a beautiful estate of 640 acres. 
The house and farm buildings, which he 
planned and erected, stand on an eminence 
somewhat back from the highway, and present 
a home-like and picturesque appearance. 
The undulating hills, dotted over with ma- 
jestic white oaks, form a fine back and fore 
ground to the picture. 

Mr. Ballard is a native of EnglancJ, born 
September 23, 1860. He received a liberal 
education in England, and in March, 1880, 
came to Ameiica in search of health and for- 
tune. He went first to Iowa, and from thei-e to 

Minnesota, where he purchased 640 acres of 
land which he still owns. In 1883 he came to 
San Luis Obispo County, California. Cressey, 
Adams & Ambrose purchased the property 
and placed it in the hands of C. H. Phillips 
for subdivision and sale. As soon as it was 
subdivided Mr. Ballard was one of the first 
buyers. He is now engaged in diversified 
fanning, raising hay, grain, horses and mules. 

Mr. Ballard had the asthma very bad, and 
has found the climate on his ranch very salu- 
tary and is now quite free from the disease. 

In January, 1889, Mr. Ballard was united 
in marriage with Miss G. Hayes, a native of 
Maryland, and daughter of Dr. W. W. Hayes 
who is the pioneer physician of San l^uis 

Mr. Ballard's ancestors for five generations 
have been in the English navy, and up to 
his father, Captain J. B. Ballard, they have 
all risen to the position of Admiral. His 
younger brotiier, Casper, has now entered the 
navy with the intention of keeping up the 
family line in that department. His grand- 
father, Admiral V. V. Ballard, had the honor 
of being the captor of the Island of Guada- 
loupe and Cape Town, South Africa. Mr. 
Ballard's mother, Charlotte (Hale) Ballard, 
was the daughter of a land-holder in Hamp- 
shire, England. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ballard are members of the 
Episcopal Church. The}' are highly enter- 
taining and courteous people. 

C. JAMISON, a rancher of Santa 
Ynez, was born in Redwood, Santa 
' Clara County, December 25, 1860. 
father, T. B. Jamison, is a native 
of Maryland, and came across the plains to 
California in 1854, and again in 1859, with his 
family, settling in Santa Clara County. In 



1865 lie was a pioneer to Salinas City, Monterey 
County, and built the first house. In 1872 
he moved to Guadalupe, being among the 
first to enter that valley. W. C. Jamison 
lived at home during the several changes of 
the family, and in 1882 they again broke up; 
at the opening of the Santa Ynez Yalley^ 
went there and established themselves. He 
rents about 680 acres of land from the Santa 
Ynez Improvement Company, which he culti- 
vates to wheat and barley, principally grain. 
This year (1890), the hay crop being short, he 
is cutting everything for hay; will cut about 
275 tons and 150 acres for grain. He uses 
all heavy machinery, and presses hay in the 

Mr. Jamison was married at Santa Ynez, 
December 18, 1889, to Miss Alice B. Mills, 
a native of California. 

tDOLPH F. HORSTMAN, one of the 
prominent business men of Templeton, 
is a stockholder and the cashier of the 
Templeton Bank, and a member of two gen- 
eral merchandise firms at Templeton and 
Paso Robles, namely, Quarnstrom & Co. and 
the Nelson Quarnstrom Company, both doing 
an extensive mercantile business. He is also 
interested in ranch property and horticulture. 
Mr. Horstman is a native of Davenport, 
Iowa, born in July, 1865. His parents, 
"William and Amelia Horstman, were both 
natives of Germany, and came to the Uiiited 
States in 1861. settling in Iowa on a farm. 
They were poor people and honest and indus- 
trious, and worked by the day and month. 
After a time they purchased eighty acres of 
land, which increased in acres and value, 
until in the course of years thuy had several 
thousand acres of valuable land. His father 
and family came to California in September, 

1887, and is now retired from active busi- 
ness, and resides in a pleasant home in Tem- 
pleton, where he expects to spend the evening 
of life, amusing himself in the cultivation of 
fruit and the ornamentation of his grounds. 

Mr. Adolph F. Horstman, our subject, was 
educated at Vinton, Iowa, in the Tillford 
Academy. He engaged in the grain business, 
as book-keeper for his father for four years. 
When he was nineteen years of age his father 
started him in the merchandise business, in 
Sutherland, O'Brien County, Iowa. He con- 
tinued the business successfully until 1887, 
when he sold out and came to Templeton, 
where he established the bank, and engaged 
in banking business, to which he now gives 
his personal attention. 

Mr. Horstman was married in 1887, to 
Miss Hatty Sibert, of Reinbeck, Iowa, 
daughter of Dr. J. G. Sibert, of that State. 
Mr. Horstman is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and also of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. He has taken an active part 
in politics, when he resided in Sutherland, 
Iowa, and was elected Recorder of that town 
by the Democratic party, of which he is a 

tB. SMITH, a prominent citizen and 
Justice of the Peace of Creston, is a 
'* native of Southern Ohio, born near 
Sandusky, July 9, 1841. His father, William 
Smith, was a native of Connecticut, and a 
soldier in the war of 1812. He was in the 
Ninth United States Infantry, and at the 
battle of Sackett's Harbor. Mr. Smith has the 
pocket-book his father carried in that war, 
and many other interesting relics. His father 
married Lucy Turner, a native of New York, 
and daughter of Mr. Samuel Turner, who 
was a soldier of the Revolution. Mr. Smith's 


grandfather, Eri Smith, was also a soldier of 
the devolution; so that, as far as patriotism 
is concerned, he can claim as good ancestry 
as the best. His parents had eleven children, 
four of whom are now living. He was the 
youngest except one. He lived in Ohio un- 
til thirteen years of age, when, in 1854, the 
family removed to Illinois. His youth was 
spent working on the farm in summer and at- 
tending the district school in winter, tinishing 
his education at the Lombard Univert-ity, 
Galesburg, Illinois. He then carried on farm- 
ing and also tanght school in the winter for 
eleven years. In Illinois he bought forty acies 
of land, which he improved by building, etc., 
and which he sold before removing to South- 
ern Nebraska. In that State he purchased a 
farm of 320 acres, which he also imjiroved, 
building a house on each quarter section, and 
on this property he resided ten years. At 
this time, 1885, a throat trouble caused him 
to sell out, leave his Nebraska home, and 
come to California with a hope of obtaining 
relief from his disease; and he has been 
greatly benefited. He owns 306 acres of 
land, located 260 rods northeast of the village 
of Creston. Mr. Smith has built on the 
crest of the hill and will soon have a very 
attractive home. He has planted a large va- 
riety of fruit trees, comprising the following: 
prunes, apricots, pears, peaches, plums, tigs, 
apples, almonds, nectai-ines and also grape 
vines. Wheat is his principal crop, and in 
1889 he raised 1,665 bushels on 105 acres. 
Mr. Smith was united in marriage, in 1863, 
with Miss Emma Stone, a native of West 
Virginia, and daughter of Mr. Anson Stone, 
a native of Virginia, and a soldier of the war 
of 1812. This union was blessed with nine 
childi-eu, five of whom are living, all natives 
of Illinois, viz.: Bertha D., Clark S., Fred 
H., Paul L., and Lillie M. After eighteen 
years of wedded life, Mrs. Smith died. Her 

loss was greatly felt by her many friends and 
her bereaved family. A beautiful character 
was hers; a devoted wife, a loving and in- 
dulgent mother, and a true Christian. She 
had long been a consistent member of the 
Methodist church. In 1882 Mr. Smith was 
again married to Miss Lizy Nesmith, a na- 
tive of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, daughter of 
Mr. Thomas Ncfmith. She is a member of 
the Metho'dist church. While in Illinois? 
Mr. Smith was elected by the Republican 
party, Justice of the Peace, for the years 1870 
to 1874. He was also elected on the Board 
of Supervisors in that State. While in Ne- 
braska, he was selected by his party to fill 
the office of Justice, in 1875. He cast his 
first vote for Abraham Lincoln, and has since 
adhered to the Republican party. In 1889 
his fellow-citizens elected him Justice of the 
Peace, which office he now holds. Mr. Smith 
is a careful, painstaking, conscientious officer, 
and as such is respected by all. He is a 
member of the Grange, and is strictly a tem- 
perance man. 

tUFUS DANA SMITH was born at 
Newark, Caledonia County, Vermont, 
May 2, 1846. His parents were natives 
of that State. His father in early life fol- 
lowed the trade of joiner, but after forty years 
of ai;e devoted himself to tilling the soil. In 
the gold excitement of 1849 he visited Cali- 
fornia, spending one year in the mines very 
successfully, then returning to his home in 
Vermont, in 1868, he moved to Minnesota 
where he died at the age of eighty years. The 
subject of this sketch, being filled with youth- 
ful patriotism, enlisted at the age of fifteen 
years, in Company K, of the Eighth Vermont 
Infantry, Colonel Thomas in command. The 
regiment was mustered in February 10, 1862, 


and was immediately ordered South, going to 
Ship Island, whei-e they joined the troops 
under General Butler and from there to New 
Orleans, then to Algiers. He was taken 
prisoner at Bayou des Allemands in Septem- 
ber, 1862; a detacliment of 150 were sent 
then to gnard a bridge, and they were sur- 
rounded by about 1,500 men and all captured. 
They were then sent to New Iberia on Bayou 
Teche, where they passed ten weeks in a 
prison camp and suffered terribly from short 
allowances of food and water, and the little 
food received was worm-eaten and the water 
stale and muddy. Many died from the ef- 
fects. From New Iberia they were taken to 
the Vicksburg jail, and in November, 1862, 
were paroled, and our subject joined his regi- 
ment. In 1863 they were under General 
Banks, marching through the same swampy, 
malarious district, and in April, 1864, Mr. 
Smith was discharged, owing to disability 
caused by imprisonment and exposure. He 
then returned home to recuperate, and 
February 10, 1865, re-enlisted in Company 
D, Ninth Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, 
composed of veterans more or less disabled. 
They were first stationed in Northern Ver- 
mont to guard the banks and private property 
from the depredations of Rebel sympathizers, 
then living in Canada. Later they were sent 
to Washington and served as guard about the 
White House, and were mustered out at that 
place, November 18, 1865. 

The subject of this sketch tiieii returned to 
Vermont and followed faruiing until 1867, 
when he was married at Barton, Orleans 
County, Vermont, January 9, to Miss Lucy 
M. Lebourveau, and in May of the same year 
they went to Spring Valley, Minnesota. He 
then farmed for five years, and, on account of 
failing health, went into a store and clerked 
four years. He never recovered from the expo- 
sure of the war, and for a milderclimate went 

to Santa Barbara in 1876, and there had his 
leg amputated. After recovering, in 1877, he 
was elected Justice of the Peace, and re- 
elected in 1879, but resigned in March, 1880. 
He was then appointed Under Sheriff by C. 
E. Sherman, and later by R. J. Broughton, 
thus holding the office continuously to the 
present date. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith have five children liv- 
ing, and have lost one son. He is a member 
of Magnolia Lodge, No 242, F. and A.M., 
and Starr King Post, No. 52, Department of 
California, G. A. R. 

Barbara, was born in Salem, Massachu- 
setts, in 1824, and when he was four 
years of age his parents moved to Brooklyn, 
where his father became a member of the firm 
of Seth Low & Co., merchants of New York. 
Of his parents' twelve children he has four 
brothers and one sister still living, and they 
are all in Brooklyn ; the brothers are all mer- 
chants, doing business mainly with China. 
His nephew, Seth Low, has been mayor of 
Brooklyn, and is now president of Columbia 
College. At the age of eighteen years the 
subject of this sketch began a seafaring life, 
having studied seamanship ever since he was 
twelve years old. He began before the mast 
on the Horatio and the crack East Indiaman, 
commanded by Captain Howland. This ves- 
sel made a ten-months trip to China. Then 
Mr. Low went to London on the packet ship, 
Toronto, Captain Griswold, of the London 
Packet Company. Then he shipped for Rio 
Janeiro, then on the Houqua, Captain N. B. 
Palmer, the first clipper ship out of New 
York to China. He was a seaman for eight 
years, being third mate, second and first mate, 
and finally Captain at the age of twenty-three 


years. While Captain, in 1848, he experi- 
enced a most terrible typhoon in the Indian 
Ocean, a regular cyclone which lasted twelve 
hours and swept off the deck all the railing, 
masts and boats. The Captain was washed 
ovei'board, and, after being twice engulfed, 
he caught a rope, and as soon as he got his 
head above water he gave orders to cut away 
the masts, and so saved the ship from found- 
ering. As a testimonial of their approba- 
tion, the Atlantic, Sun, Mercantile and Union 
Insurance Companies of New York, pre- 
sented Captain Low with a beautiful chro- 
nometer, with this inscription: "Captain 
Charles P. Low, late Captain ()f the ship 
Houqna, as a testimonial of their approba- 
tion of his good conduct in saving said ship 
and cargo after having been thrown on her 
beam ends iii tlie Indian Ocean, on the 5th of 
January, 1848, in a violent typhoon and 
nearly tilled with water; but by the extraor- 
dinary exertions of the master and crew, was 
righted and subsequently taken by them to 
her port of destination, which was 3,500 mi'es 

After having arrived at Hong Kong, the 
Captain re-rigged her witiihis own crew, and 
after three voyages up and down the coast he 
returned to New York. There he took charge 
of the Samuel Russell, January 16, 1850, 
from New York to San Francisco, making the 
passage in 108 days — ten days quicker than 
any vessel before had made the trip. He 
carried 1,000 tons of freight, on which lie re- 
ceived $60 a ton, which was more than the 
original cost of the ship. Then, by way of 
China, he completed his trip around the 
world, within the year. He next took 
charge of the N". B. Palmer to San Fran- 
cisco, to China and to New York, by way of 
the Cape of Good Hope. In 1859 he took 
command of the Jacob Bell and made a voy- 
age to China. Next he took command of the 

N. B. Palmer, being on board of that vessel 
twenty-one years, with the exception of the 
last trip to China referred to He has been 
around the world seven times, making twenty- 
six voyages to China, and being thirty-one 
years at sea. In 1873 he left the sea and 
came to Santa Barbara and purchased eighty 
acres of land on the mesa. In 1875 he was 
the originator of the Agricnltnral Associa- 
tion, of which he has been president; and he 
has also been presi^'ent of the Cemetery As- 
sociation, and also the first president of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. 

He was married at Peabody, Massachn- 
setts, in 1852, to Miss Sarah Maria Tucker, 
a native of Salem, whose father was a mer- 
chant. She has also made trips to China and 
been around the world four times. They have 
five sons and two daughters. Three sons are 
in business in San Francisco. One is con- 
nected with the American Oil Company, one 
is agent for a firm in Japan, and one is in the 
hardware Imsiness; one son is a physician 
and one is at the State University. 

§G. OLIVER, who owns and cultivates 
a beautiful farm on the mesa, over- 
" looking the sea, was born in Clermont 
County, Ohio, in 1826. His father was a 
farmer, and in 1841 moved to Des Moines 
County, Iowa, and there continued farming. 
The subject of this sketch worked at home 
until twenty-one years of age; then, in 1850, 
he bought the farm of 160 acres of his father, 
and continued in general farming until 1854, 
when he sold out and erected a steam saw 
and grist mill at Kossuth, Iowa, which lie 
operated for two years; then sold out and 
returned to farm life, purchasing eighty acres 
on Round Prairie. In the Pike's Peak ex- 
citement he fitted out an expedition for the 


mines, driving five yoke of oxen and taking 
four persons. After traveling 130 miles 
west of the Missouri River, they were dis- 
couraged by the tide of emigration returning, 
80 abindonel the project anl spent tiie sum- 
mer near Brownsville, Nebraska, in breaking 
prairie, and in the fall he returned to his 
home at Kossuth. In 1861 he sold his farm 
and came to California, across the plains, 
driving a team composed of four yoke of 
oxen and one yoke of cows. He started April 
10, 1861, with his family, and joined other 
emigrants at the Missouri River. Tiiey were 
five months and a half en r.)Ute. He sold his 
team at Little Lake Valley and at Marysvillc 
took steamer for San Francisco. He then 
went to Humboldt Bay and engaged in fann- 
ing near the town of Areata; but, owing to 
frequent depredations by hostile Indiana, he 
sold out in 1864 and went into the Napa Val- 
ley, where he engaged in farming, and later, 
in Solano County, until the fall of 1868, when 
he came to Santa Barbara. He then pur- 
chased 104 acres on the mesa, at $20 per 
acre, and engage! in general farming, being 
onu of the pioneer farmers on the mesa. He 
continued farming about twelve years, then 
went into the hog business, breeding the Es- 
sex, Poland China and Berkshire breeds, fat- 
tening about 100 hogs each year, which lie 
manufactured into lard and bacon. For the 
past two years he has sold his increase to the 
butchers, as, with the increasing years, the 
responsibility was greater than he cared to 
assume. He now devotes more time to farm- 
ing, and grows extensively the Chevalier bar- 
ley, with soft beard, which is more suitable 
for hay. 

Mr. Oliver was married in Kossuth, Iowa, 
in the spring of 1851, to Miss Catharine J. 
Blair. This union has been blessed with 
three children, two of whom survive: C. A. 
Oliver, a doctor in Chico, California, and J. 

B. Oliver, who is foreman of a stock ranch 
in Sonora, Mexico. 

fH. AND R. E. BRIDGE are two of the 
prominent ranchers of San Luis Obipo 
" County. They formerly had a large 
ranch in Mexico, and farmed there one year. 
Then they sold out and cama to San Luis 
Obispo County, California, and purchased 
two ranches, one of 2,200 and the otiier of 
320 acres. The last named property is located 
one mile south of Creston. They are engaged 
in raising grain, horses and cattle, and have 
also cjmmencel the cultivation of fruit. 
They have fifty acres la olives, twenty-five 
acres in figs, fifteen acres i i French prunes, 
and ten acres devoted to a variety of fruit. 
They are farming for profit and are making 
a grand success of it. Both gentlemen are 
valuable accessions to the county. They ex- 
pect soon to build a fine residence on tlieir 

fABRIEL RUIZ is one of the native sons 
of California, born in Santa Barbara 
County in 1817. His father, Jose Ruiz, 
was born in Mexico and came to California 
many years ago. At one time he owned 
some land where Ventura is now located, 
having had a grant of 1,000 acres of land 
from the Mexican Government for services 
rendered the government in California. The 
ancestors of the family were ofiicers in the 
Mexican army. Mr. Ruiz lias a pleasant 
home and a fine ranch of 151 acres, called 
the Santa Anita Rancho, and he also owns 
some lots in Santa Barbara; also in Ventura. 
He has always lived the life of a farmer and 
I stock-raiser. They came to this locality in 



1879. Here Mr. Ruiz raises Norman and 
Richmond horses and some fine grade cattle. 
The subject of this sketch was married in 
1859 to Miss Rafaela Cota, daughter of Bal- 
entin Cota, a native of Mexico. They have 
fourteen children, all born in Southern Cali- 
fornia, and thirteen of them, at the present 
writing, make their home with their parents. 
Their names are as follows: Arthur, Dora- 
liza, Lazaro, Ulpiano, Thomas, Albertina, 
Anzelmo, Petra, Josepha, Lucy, Balen tin, Ga- 
briel and Acacia. They have all been sent 
to the English schools and can speak both the 
English and Spanish languaires. All are 
members of the Catholic Church; Three of 
the sons are engaged in business. Thomas 
assists his father in the management of the 
ranch and is agent for the Spanish people in 
the vicinity of Santa Ana, acting as their in- 
terpreter and obtaining employment for them. 
He is also a tine musician, playing both vio- 
lin and guitar. He and his brothers form a 
band and furnish good music for social par- 
ties. Arthur has a saloon and the best bill- 
iard rooms in the county of Ventura. Ulpiano 
is a freighter and teamster, having a large, 
strong wagon, to which he drives four, and 
sometimes six, fine horses. They are a family 
of intelligent and refined people, and are well 
worthy the success which is attending them. 

fRlTENHAGEN BROS., the pioneer 
merchants of Creston. Robert W., the 
senior brother, was born in Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin, in 1855, and Edward H. was born 
in the same place in 1859. Their parents, 
William F. and M. Gruenhagen, were natives 
of Germany, and came to the United States 
when they were respectively eight and ten 
years of age. They settled first in Milwaukee, 
and afterward in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, where 

they and lived raised their family. They 
came to California, October 2, 1884, and now 
reside at Creston, San Luis Obispo County. 
The brothers opened a store, seventy-two feet 
long, and have it stocked with merchandise 
of all kinds, drugs, jewelry and farm imple- 
ments; their business extends about fifty 
miles. They own a ranch of 7-40 acres thirty 
miles northeast of Creston, where they are 
raising horses and cattle. 

Robert W., in 1880, was married to Miss 
Bertha Zick, a native of his own town. They 
have three children, viz.: Ed. H., Elsie 
and Robert W. Edward H. Gruenliagen 
was married in 1889 to Miss Feda Ploetz, a 
native of Wisconsin. He enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of being postmaster of the town 
during the administration of President Cleve- 
land; in politics he is a Democrat. His 
brother, Robert W., is a Republican. 

'g ' S"C - g" 

tR. KIRK PATRICK, of San Miguel, 
is one of the prominent citizens of 
® San Luis Obispo County, a man of 
large experience in various directions, and a 
veteran of both the Mexican and the great 
civil wars. His grandfather, John Kirk- 
patrick, was a Scotch-Irish man, who came to 
America before the Revolution, and did the 
colonists valuable service as a soldier; later 
he was in the war of 1812. He settled in 
Pennsylvania, and there his son, John L. 
Kirkpatrick, the father of the subject of tliis 
sketch, was born. He married Miss Nancy 
Larimore, also a native of Pennsylvania, and 
they have four sons and three daughters, of 
whom R. R. was the fourth child. He was 
born in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 
December 9, 1826, and as he grew he learned 
the use of carpenter's tools from his father, 
who was a boat-builder. Immediately after 



the declaration of war with Mexico he en- 
listed at Louisville in the Fourth Kentucky 
Infantry, and under the command of General 
Wintield Scott his regiment held the city of 
Mexico from January until July 4. Return- 
ing then to Louisville, he was there dis- 
charged. He was afterward at several places, 
and in two or three businesses until in July, 
1862, when he enlisted in Company A, 
Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry, of which com- 
pany he was elected Second Lieutenant. In 
October, 1862, the company was mustered in 
and marched 100 miles to St. Joseph, and 
thence to St. Louis, where for a time they 
were on provost duty. From there they 
were ordered to Columbus to intercept Gen- 
eral Fori est; next they were sent to the 
White River expedition, returning to Helena. 
Soon afterward they were engaged in a fight 
at Fort Pembertou, and again at Helena. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick was then detailed with a 
company of sharpshooters, and had several 
engagements with guerrillas. When in Helena 
with about 3,000 men, they were attacked by 
General Piice with 25,000 men. This rebel 
General tliought he had a " sure thing," and 
had been boasting that he would "eat break- 
fast in Helena or in hell." The attack was 
made at daylight, and the Union forces killed 
and took more prisoners than they had men; 
Price was defeated and failed to get the 
bounteous breakfast prepared for him by the 
citizens of Helena; their houses were lilled 
instead with wounded men. A shell in that 
engagement tore Mr. Kirkpatrick's clothes, 
but did not draw blood. The soldiers were 
sent to Little Rock and participated in taking 
that place. 

The next campaign in which Mr. Kirk- 
patrick was engaged was that of General 
Banks at Shreveport. A piece of shell struck 
him in the groin, and for a long time he was 
paralyzed. His hip was also injured at the 

same time, fi'om which wound he never fully 
recovered. He has a pension of $12.50 per 
month from the Government. As this wound 
incapacitated him from marching, he was sent 
on detached duty as a recruiting officer in 
Iowa; and he was also engaged in conduct- 
ing recruits and drafted men to the front. 
He also served as Quartermaster, having 
charge of Camp Distribution from Fort 
Gaines. Nest he was sent to the Rio Grande, 
and finally to New Oi-leans to be discharged. 
In the summer of 1865 he was mustered out 
at Davenport, Iowa. 

Then he was engaged in express business 
between Omaha and Council Bluffs, making 
money; next lie was in a grocery at Council 
Bluffs, and then in the ice business. In 1877 
he came with I. E. Blake to San Francisco, 
in order to establish the Continental Oil and 
Transportation Company, and Mr. Kirk- 
patrick took charge of the Oakland ofKce five 
years. Then in 1882 he came to San Luis 
Obispo County, and filed a claim to his 
present ranch of 320 acres of choice land, 
three miles due east of San Miguel. On a 
sightly and picturesque spot on a hill, in the 
midst of trees, vines and flowers, he has built 
a i)leasant and commodious residence; and 
he has a large variety of fruit trees growing 
luxuriantly, and many of them loaded with 
fruit. The prevailing sorts are peaches, pears, 
apricots, prunes, figs, almonds and filberts. 
The locality is 1,250 feet above the sea, and 
he does not irrigate. He is also raising hay 
and grain, besides horses, cattle and poultry. 
He is a Freemason and an Odd Fellow, and 
Chaplain of the G. A. R. Post at San Miguel. 
For A time he held the office of Justice of the 
Peace. Mr. Kirkpatrick is a well-informed 
gentleman, of pleasant manner, and remark- 
ably successful in his comparatively new vo- 
cation of farming and fruit-raising on his 
"Pleasant Dale" ranch. 


In 1849, in Allegheny City, he whs united 
in matrimony with Miss Libby Lloyd, a 
native of that city, five of their six children 
are now living. The first four were born in 
Allegheny City, viz.: Inez, Alice, Ida and 
Albert; Ellen was born in Nebraska, and 
Libby in Sionx City. Inez married J. W. 
Perregoy, a wholesale tobacconist of Council 
Bluffs; Alice lives with her father, and has 
160 acres of land near hira; Ida is married 
to Mr. Frank E. Shepard, and they reside at 
Council Bluffs; Elliot is also married and 
lives on the San Marcos in this county; and 
Libby, with her husband, Charles E. Fowler, 
occupy land near their father's. Alter fifteen 
years of wedded life, Mrs. Kirkpatrick died, 
and in 1874 Mr. Kirkpatrick married his 
present wife, who was Mrs. Annie Walker, 
the widow of Frank "Walker, and a native of 
Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Kirkpatrick are Pres- 


Charles Swift, who own adjoining 
ranches in the eastern part of the 
Montecito Valley, were both born at Lyons. 
Wayne County, New York. Their father 
had passed many years as a prominent hotel- 
keeper in New York, Illinois, and later at 
Virginia City, Nevada; and in June, 1868, 
he came to Santa Barbara and purchased a 
ranch of 333 acres in the Montecito Valley. 
This part of the country was then sparsely 
settled, and scarcely a fence was to be seen in 
the valley. But by industry and perseverance 
the ranch now stands out prominently as one 
of the best in the valley for agricultural pur- 
poses. Since the father's death in 1880, the 
ranch has been divided, and the sons now 
own about 100 acres. They carry on general 
farming and devote a considerable acreage to 

beans. They are jointly interested in the oil 
wells which are now being developed near 
their ranch, in the Santa Ynez Mountains, a 
stock company carrying on the developments. 
They also have mining interests at Fort Te- 
jon, in the Santa Anita Mountains. 

W. D. Swift, being unmarried, supplies a 
home for his mother, who is now seventy-six 
years of age. Charles Swift was married in 
Montecito in 1875, to Miss Laura Pettit,and 
they have two children. 

— ■^■ ■g -s. ■;■>'» — 

R. W. B. CUNNANE, the only resident 
physician of the Santa Ynez Valley, was 
born at Edinburgh, Johnson County, 
Indiana, in 1854. His father was a farmer 
and distiller. The subject of this sketch was 
educated at the Sturgeon High School of 
Boone County, Missouri, but was taken from 
school in 1870 to accept a position with P. 
Corrigan, who was then general roadmaster 
of the Wabash Pailroad, with headquarters at 
Moberly, Missouri, remaining two years and 
learning telegraphy. He was then employed 
by the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
for five years, at stations throughout the 
southwest. Having a desire for a medical 
education, he employed every odd moment in 
medical studies, and in 1877 he resigned his 
position to enter the Medical University of 
Louisiana, at New Orleans, taking the three 
years' course and also the special course of 
toxicology and chemistry, graduating with 
honor in 1881. He then went to Queen 
City, Cass County, Texas, where he practiced 
for two years, and in 1883 he came direct to 
Santa Ynez, to grow up with the new town, 
which was then being established. He now 
has an extensive practice throughout the val- 
ley. In 1885 he built his present residence, 
and in September of the same year was mar- 


ried, at Santa Tnez, to Miss Mabel Johnston, 
a daughter of W. F. Johnston, an extensive 
rancher of Santa Maria and also a descendant 
of that celebrated family of Johnstons of 
Virginia. Doctor and Mrs. Cunnane have 
one child. 

^ENEY L. WILLIAMS, the owner of 
the Ortega ranch and the founder of 
snmmerland, was born in Massillon, 
Ohio, in 1841. His father, G. W. Williams, 
was a financier and was connected with the 
Union Bank of Massillon. In the spring of 
1861, at the age of twenty, Henry L. enlisted 
in Company A, of the Nineteenth Ohio Infan- 
try, nnder command of Colonel Samuel Beatty 
and Captain C. F. Manderson; the latter is 
now United States Senator from Nebraska. 
The regiment, which was stationed with the 
Army of the Cumberland, joined General 
Grant's forces on the second day of the battle 
of Shiloh. They were in the three-days' fight 
at Stone Kiver, where one-half of the regil 
ment was lost, and were also in many smal- 
skirmishes. Mr. Williams, however, did not 
receive a scratch, although his clothing was 
many times pierced with bullets. In April, 
1863, he was appointed State pay agent for 
Ohio, and on June 30, 1864, he received the 
appointment of paymaster in the United 
States army, and was stationed with the army 
of the Cumberland, with headquarters at 
Louisville, Kentucky. He was mustered out 
of the service on November 15, 1865. He 
then became engaged in the coal business in 
Ohio, as manager and part owner of the 
mines, and remained there until the spring 
of 1776. In that year he was appointed by 
the United States Treasury Department to 
examine the books of the Collectors of Cus- 
toms through Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 

Delaware, with headquarters at Philadelphia. 
In June, 1881, he was stationed at Tucson, 
Arizona, to look after the frontier ofiices from 
El Paso to San Diego and Santa Barbara; 
but, finding the weather very warm at Tucson, 
he resigned October 15, 1882, and came to 
Santa Barbara, where his family were already 
settled. In April, 1883, he purchased the 
Ortega ranch, of 1,000 acres, located at the 
east end of the Montecito Valley, and has 
since made that his home. He has a small 
walnut grove and fruit only suflicient for 
family use. 

Mr. Williams brought the location of Sum- 
merfield before the public in November, 1888, 
by laying out the town and piping water 
to every lot, and advertising it extensively 
through the country. The town is estab- 
lished on the faith of Spiritualism. Already 
1,450 lots have been sold to parties from all 
over the United States, some of the purchasers 
being in Australia. Many fine cottages have 
been built, and a library of 500 volumes, with 
a building costing $4,500, has already been 
erected. A weekly newspaper named the 
Reconstructor has also been started. 

Mr. Williams has been twice married, the 
last time at Summerlaud, to Mrs. Agnes S. 
Morgan, in September, 1889. 

tTOGNAZZINI, one of the most suc- 
cessful business men and dairy men of 
** Cayiicos, is the sou of Swiss parents, 
and was born in the city of Ticino, Switzer- 
land, in 1847. May 26, 1864, he came to 
San Francisco after a journey from his native 
land of seventy-five days. He was the only son 
and youngest child of a family of five children. 
He was raised on a farm and attended the 
common schools, iind finished his education 
in the high school. His father was a dairy 


man, and his son also learned the business. 
He was seventeen years of age when he came 
to California, and engaged in the stock and 
dairy business, having learned that California 
was a fine State for that business. He began 
woi'k in Marin County, at $15 per month, 
but afterward his wages were raised to $30 a 
month ; he worked here about a year. In the 
fall of 1866 he started in business on his own 
account, having learned the Spanish language 
of Mr. Marshall, for whom he had been work- 
ing, and of whom he rented lOU cows and 
land, most of which were milch cows, and paid 
a rent of $20. That season butter was thirty 
cents per pound, and he cleared $1,100, and 
he thought himself rich. In 1868, in Marin 
County, he bought 150 cows, and rented 1,400 
acres of land, and conducted it for six years, 
from which he made some money. 

Mr. Tognazzini then came to San Luis 
Obispo County, and bought 700 acres of land, 
and has since added to it until he owns over 
1,000 acres. He bought 150 head of stock 
and pnt it upon the ranch, whicli his nephew 
conducted, while he continued the business in 
Marin County. He finally moved .here and 
rented 2,000 acres at seventy-five cents an 
acre for five years. When he rented this land 
people thought it would prove a failure; but 
it has since proved a success. In 1881 he 
bought a ranch in Santa Barbara, consisting 
of 3,200 acres, which is one of the best dairy 
ranches in the county. He has 250 cows and 
made 505 boxes of butter in the year 1889. 
In 1884, with a partner, he purchased 7,000 
acres in Santa Barbara County, which was 
divided into dairies. 

Mr. Tognazzini was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the Commercial Bank of San Luis 
Obispo and is one of the directors. He has 
built a very pleasant home on his ranch, one 
and a half miles northeast of Cayucos, which 
is surrounded with trees and shrubs. He is 

now the owner of 1,800 acres of land in Cayu- 
ucos, on which he raises a few horses that have 
frequently taken the premium at the fairs. 
He also raises cattle and hogs. 

Mr. Tognazzini was united in marriage, in 
1867, at San Francisco, to Miss Madaline 
Reghetti, a native of Switzerland. They 
have had five children, four of whom are 
living, viz.: Virgilio Valerio, now at college, 
studying engineering; Americo and Celia. 
Mr. and Mrs. Tognazzini are members of the 
Catholic Church. Mr. Tognazzini is a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows Lodge, and is also a 
Mason. In his political relations he is a 
Republican, and is an illustration of what an 
honest man can become in the county of San 
Luis Obispo. 

fE. KILSON was born in Iowa, Jan- 
uary 29, 1857. His parents, Lewis 
* and Caroline Kilson, were natives of 
Bergen, Norway. They emigrated to Am- 
erica in September, 1838, and went to Cin- 
cinnati, the journey at that time being a most 
arduous one. They soon afterward settled in 
Adams County, Illinois, on a farm they 
bought and improved. Later, they sold it 
and moved to Wisconsin, and, after a year 
spent in that State, removed, in 1855, to 
Butler County, Iowa. They entered 240 
acres of land for a homestead, and this they 
developed into a fine farm. They built a nice 
home, and there resided until their deaths, 
which occurred, the mother's on November 
10, 1881, and the father's November 28, 

The subject of this sketch was the fifth of 
a family of seven children. He was reared 
in Bristow, Butler County, Iowa, and received 
his education in the public schools of that 
town. He assisted his father on the farm 


until the age of twenty one years. At that 
time he came to California to carve his own 
destiny in the land that offers so many induce- 
ments to the worthy citizen, arriving iu the 
Golden State February 7, 1882. He had 
already obtained some knowledge of tele- 
graphy, and his first move was to tinish 
learning that business, at Piuo, Placer 
County. He was afterward [sent to Arizona 
and at different times had charge of several 
stations: was three months at Yuma, one 
year at Dragoon Summit, die highest point 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad, and was 
two years at Nelson. 

Mr. Kilson was married to Miss Laura F. 
Williams, December 17, 1886. She is a na- 
tive of California. From Nelson Mr. Kilson 
moved to Saticoy on the 20th of November, 
1887. Here he has the position of ticket 
and station agent. He is an active and cap- 
able business man, and at once became iden- 
tified with the best interests of Saticoy; has 
bought property and built a neat and pleas- 
ant home, where he resides with his family. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kilson have two children: 
Lewis, born at N^elson, and Elmer, at Sat- 

In his political views, Mr. Kilson is a 
Republican. He is a member of the K. of 
P., Eden Lodge, No. 101, at Nelson, Butte 
County, California. 

fC. MoFERSON, one of Cambria's old- 
time citizens, and one of its most reli- 
'^ able and influential ranchers, is public- 
spirited and alive to the interests of the 
community. He is also a California pioneer, 
having come to this State with the last train 
that crossed the plains in 1849. There were 
sixty people in the company, and it was con- 

ducted by Turner, Allen & Co. Every pas- 
senger paid $200 for passage and everything 
was furnished. They rode in three seated 
covered carriages, each drawn by four mules, 
and six passengers to a carriage. They ar- 
rived in Weaverville, one and a half miles 
south of Placerville, October 15, 1849. There 
is but one man living that Mr. McFerson 
knows of that came in that company, who is 
Lloyd Tevis, now a man of wealth in San 

Mr. McFerson is a native of Ohio, born in 
Brown County, August 5, 1824. His father, 
Samuel McFerson, was a native of Ohio, born 
in 1789, and died in 1833. The ancestors 
of the family were from Scotland: his mother, 
Martiia (Culter) McFerson, was a native of 
Ohio, and of English ancestry. His parents 
had seven children, of whom he is the 
youngest of the three now living. He was 
reared on a farm in Ohio, where he worked 
in summer and attended the county schools 
iu the winter. He moved to Washington 
County, Indiana, and attended the Seminary 
there for two years. He commenced the 
study of medicine, and after a year's study 
the great California gold excitement broke 
out and he, like others, was taken with the 
fever. He went into the gold diggings in 
El Dorado County, and remained there until 
1857, meeting with good success. For one 
day's work he received $115, the most he 
ever received; a single pan contained $25; he 
frequently made $100 per day. He was 
taken with lyphoid fever, and was sick at the 
camp four months; in addition to his other 
troubles he had scurvy. The first onion he 
bought cost him $1, and potatoes were $1 a 
pound. There, after his recovery, he con- 
tinued mining. He afterward purchased a 
hotel, which he operated for two yeais at In- 
dian Diggings, El Dorado County. 

August 6, 1855, Mr. McFerson whs mar 


ried to Mrs. Guegnor, a native of Virginia, 
but resided in Ohio. They continued the 
hotel business for two years, when they sold 
out, in 1857, and removed to Mariposa 
County. He engaged in cutting cord-wood 
at $5 per cord for General John C. Fremont. 
There he made $10 per day, and followed the 
business for eighteen months. He then re- 
moved to Tnlare County, and purchased 
eighty acres of land and engaged in farming. 
He built a house and fenced the property, 
and remained there until 1865, when he sold 
it and came to San Luis Obispo County, and 
settled on his present ranch, then unsurveyed 
Government land. Mrs. McFerson came in 
a spring wagon, driven by her son, Joseph 
Barrickman, and Mr. McFerson, with two 
others, drove the stock. She arrived first, 
and stopped at the house of George E. Long; 
Mr. McFerson was ten days on the road. 
Thoy first lived in a little 10 x 12 log cabin. 
Mr. Long showed them the land, and they 
took 370 acres, which he still retains, and is 
conducting a stock-raising and dairy busi- 
ness. He built a nice house in 1868, and 
has planted an orchard for home use, with a 
large variety of fruit. The train with which 
Mrs. McFerson came to California was com- 
manded by Senator Hearst, who was a warm 
friend of the family, and with whom Mr. Mc- 
Ferson had been on many trips, when they 
had to sleep on the ground many nights to- 
gether. Mr. and Mrs. McFerson have helped 
to organize the Presbyterial Cliurch at Cam- 
bria, in 1871, of which they have been faith- 
ful members since. He held Sunday-scljool 
in the little log school-honse before the 
church was organized, and has been Sunday- 
school superintendent ever since. He is a 
trustee and elder of the Church. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows Lodge, of which 
he has passed through all the chairs, and in 
1889 was district deputy grand master of the 

order. In his political views he has 
been a Democrat. 

fHOMAS HOSMER, a resident of Mon- 
tecito, was born in Freedom, Maine, in 
1833. His father was a mechanic and 
a manufacturer of edged tools, and after 
leaving Freedom moved to Springfield, Mass- 
achusetts, where he carried on a large es- 
tablishment. Thomas learned his trade of 
machinist at Belfast, Maine, in the shop of 
Messrs. White & Kimball, who did general 
country machine work, but especially work 
for shingle and saw mills. He remainea with 
them four years, and in the spring of 1858 
came to California, first settling at Sacra- 
mento, where he followed his trade for five 
years. In 1863 he became interested in a 
silver mine at Sonora, Mexico, went there and 
put up a quartz mill, and after a year of hard 
labor and much expense he gave it up as an 
unprofitable investment, and returned to San 
Francisco to follow his trade, working about 
three years for the Government at Mare 
Island, and the rest of the time in San Fran- 
cisco until the fall of 1871. In January, 
1872, he came to the Monteeito Valley and 
purchased nineteen acres of land where he 
now resides. He began with the almond cul- 
ture, but after two years of heavy bearing 
the crop failed. He then grafted the trees 
with plums and prunes, but, not meeting with 
success, the trees were taken out and oranges 
were put in their places, which are now doing 
well. He has about 700 orange and lemon 

Mr. Hosmer was elected Supervisor in 1884 
and re-elected in 1888, proving an able and 
eflicient officer. He was married in San 
Francisco in 1863, to Miss Frances Dinsinore, 
a native of Anson, Maine, who came to Cali- 


fornia with lier parents in 1861, njaking the 
journey by steamer. Her fatiier came to 
Montecito in 1868, bought what is now 
known as San Ysidro ranch, and planted the 
tirst orange grove in the valley, containing 
1,500 trees. The ranch has since been sold 
to J. Harleigh Johnston, who has brought 
the fruit to a high state of perfection. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hosmer have four children, three 
daughters at home, and one son, who is a 
member of the firm of Hunt, Hosmer &, Co., 
of Santa Barbara. 

tEOPOLD FRANKL, the founder of San 
Simeon, is a '49er, and a prominent 
business man of San Luis Obispo County; 
he was born in Vienna, Austria, April 7, 
1818, the son of Adolph Frankl, a native of 
Austria, and a merchant all through his life. 
His grandfather, on the maternal side, was 
Alios Leathern, a mail-carrier in Austria for 
years, and lived to the great age of 110 years. 
Mr. Frankl's mother, Catherine (Leathern) 
Frankl, was a native of Austria. They had 
six children, of whom three are living, the 
eldest, the middle one and the second. The 
eldest is now eighty-five years of age, the 
youngest, the subject of this sketch, is seventy- 
two years. He was educated in Austria, and 
learned engineering, and worked in the mines 
in California as a mining engineer. From 
1856 to 1860 he was with General John C. 
Fremont in his mining enterprises in .Mari- 
posa. He built the railroad and 100-stamp 
mill at the Benton Mines, named by Fre- 
mont after Jessie Benton, his wife's name 
before marriage. He afterward worked in 
the mines, and had 250 men at work. When 
Fremont went to Europe, in 1860, Mr. Frankl 
rented the mill, and sent the gold to Kra- 
haugen & Cruse, and to Davison, agent 

of Rothschild's Bank, in San Francisco, 
General Fremont went to England to 
raise money, and the arrangements were 
about consummated when the civil war 
broke out, and the unsettled condition of the 
country prevented the closing of the business. 
In 1865 Mr. Frankl sold the mines to T. W. 
Parks, by order of General Fremont. He 
then was engaged in the mines at Mexico, for 
Tillinghast, agent of a London mining com- 
pany, for fifteen months. He became sick 
and came to San Simeon, and for years was 
wharfinger and agent for the Pacific Steam- 
ship Company. In 1875 Mr. Frankl opened 
a general merchandise store in San Simeon, 
and has conducted it until the present time, 
enjoying a great