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AND ILLUSTRATED 



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^COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAPHYg 



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CONTAINING A 

COMPENDIUM OF LOCAL BIOGRAPHY 

Including Biographical Sketclu-s of Hundreds cif Prominent Old Settlers and Representa- 
tive Citizens of COLUMBIA. SAUK and ADAMS COUNTIES, WISCONSIN, with a 
Review of their Life Work; their Identity with the Growth and Develop- 
ment of this Region; Reminiscences of Personal History 
and Pioneer Life; and other Interesting and 
\'aluable Matter which sliould be 
Preserved in History. 

ALSO A 

COMPENDIUM OF LOCAL BIOGRAPHY, 

Containing Biograiihical Sketches of Hundreds of ' the Greatest Men and Celebrities America has I'rodiiced 

iu Various Walks of Life, including Great Statesmen. Lawyers, Jurists, Scientists, Editors. 

J'oets. Writers, Financiers. Kailroad Magnates, Army and Navy Officers, Inventors, 

Speculators, Scouts, Merchant Princes, Humorists, Electricians. Educators, 

Preachers, Philanthropists, Artists. Manufacturers, Abolitionists, 

Kxplorers, All tlie Presidents, etc. 




ILLUSTRATED. 



GEO. A. OGLE & CO. 

Engravers and Book Mi" 

1901. 



14 

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Biography is the only true History. — Emerson. 

A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors 

will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 

pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 




CONTENTS 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Table of Contents, 
Introductory, • 



Compendium of National Biography, 13 

Compendium of Local Biography, 223 



INDEX TO FART I. 



Compendium of National Biography. 



Biographical Sketches of National Celebrities. 



PAGE 

Abbott, Lyman 144 

Adams, Charles Kendall 143 

Adams, John 25 

Adams, John Quincy 61 

V Asassiz, Louis J. R 137 

Alger, Russell A 173 

Allison, William B 131 

Allston, Washington 190 

Altgeld, John Peter 140 

Andrews, Elisha B 184 

Anthony, Susan B 62 

Armour, Philip D 62 

Arnold, Benedict 84 

Arthur, Chester Allen 168 

Astor, John Jacob 139 

Audubon, John James 166 

Bailey, James Montgomery. . . 177 

Bancroft, George , 74 

Barnard, Frederick A. P 179 

Barnuni. Phineas T 41 

Barrett, Lawrence 156 

Barton, Clara 209 

Bayard, Thomas Francis 200 

Beard, William H 196 

Beauregard, Pierre G. T 203 

Beecher, Henry Ward 26 

Bell, Alexander Graham 96 

Bennett, James Gordon 206 

Benton, Thomas Hart 53 

Bergh, Henry 160 

Bierstadt, Albert 197 

Billings, Josh 166 

Blaine, James Gillespie 22 

Bland, Richard Parks 106 



PAGE 

Boone, Daniel 36 

Booth, Edwin 51 

Booth, Junius Brutus 177 

Brice, Calvin S 181 

Brooks, Phillips 130 

Brown, John 61 

Brow-n, Charles Farrar 91 

Brush, Charles Francis 153 

Bryan, William Jennings 158 

Bryant, William Cullen 44 

Buchanan, Franklin 105 

Buchanan, James 128 

Buckner, Simon Bolivar 188 

Burdette, Robert J 103 

Burr, Aaron Ill 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin.... 24 

Calhoun, John Caldwell 23 

Cameron, James Donald 141 

Cameron, Simon 141 

Cammack, Addison 197 

Campbell, Alexander 180 

Carlisle, John G 133 

Carnegie, Andrew 73 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale 178 

Carson, Christopher (Kit) 86 

Cass, Lewis 110 

Chase, Salmon Portland 65 

Childs, George W 83 

Choate, Rufus 207 

Claflin, Horace Brigham 107 

Clay, Henry 21 

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne.. 86 

Cleveland, Grover 174 

Clews, Henry 153 



Clinton, DeWitt. 

Colfax, Schuyler 

Conkling, Alfred 

Conkling, Roscoe 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre. 
Cooper, James Fenimore... 

Cooper, Peter 

Copely, John Singleton 

Corbin, Austin 

Corcoran, W. W 

Cornell, Ezra 

Cramp, William 

Crockett, David 

Cullom, Shelby Moore 

Curtis, George William 

Cushman, Charlotte 

Custer, George A 



AGE 

110 
139 
32 
32 
140 
58 
37 
191 
205 
196 
161 
189 
76 
116 
144 
107 
95 



Dana, Charles A 88 

" Danhury News Man " 177 

Davenport, Fanny 106 

Davis, Jefferson 24 

Debs, Eugene V 132 

Decatur, Stephen 101 

Deering, William 198 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell.. .. 209 

Dickinson, Anna 103 

Dickinson, Don M 139 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr 215 

Donnelly, Ignatius 161 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 53 

Douglass, Frederick 43 

Dow, Neal 108 

Draper, John William 184 



TABLE OF CONTENTS— PART I. 



PAGE 

Drexel. Anthony Joseph 124 

Dupont, Henry 198 

Edison, Thomas Alva 55 

Edmunds, George F 201 

Ellsworth, OUver 168 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 57 

Ericsson, John 127 

Evarts, William Maxwell 89 

Farragut, David Glascoe 80 

Field, Cvrus West 173 

Field, David Dudley 126 

Field. Marshall 59 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fillmore, Millard 113 

Foote, Andrew Hull 176 

Foraker, Joseph B 143 

Forrest, Edwin 92 

Franklin, Benjamin 18 

Fremont, John Charles 29 

Fuller, Melville Weston 168 

Fulton, Robert 62 

Gage, Lyman J 71 

Gallatin, Albert 112 

Garfield, James A 163 

Garrett, John Work 200 

Garrison, William Lloyd 50 

Gates, Horatio 70 

Gatling, Richard Jordan 116 

(George, Henry _ 203 

Gibbons, Cardinal James 209 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield 77 

Girard, Stephen 137 

Gough, John B 131 

Gould, Jay 62 

Gordon, John B 215 

Grant, Ulysses S 155 

Ciray , Asa 88 

Gray, Elisha 149 

Greeley, Adolphus W 142 

Greeley, Horace 20 

Greene, Nathaniel 69 

Gresham, Walter Quintin 18'3 

Hale, Edward Everett 79 

Hall, Charles Francis 167 

Hamilton, Alexander 31 

Hamlin, Hannibal 214 

Hampton, Wade 192 

Hancock, Winlield Scott 146 

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo 169 

Harris. Isham G 214 

Harrison, William Henry 87 

Harrison, Benjamin 182 

Harvard, John 129 

Havemeyer, John Craig 182 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 135 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard.. . 157 
Hendricks, Thomas Andrew. . 212 

Henry, Joseph 105 

Henrv, Patrick 83 

Hill, David Bennett 90 

Hobart, Garrett A 213 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 206 

Hooker, Joseph 52 

Howe, Elias 130 

Howells, William Dean 104 



PAGE 

Houston, Sam 120 

Hughes, Archbishop John 157 

Hughitt, Marvin 159 

Hull, Isaac 169 

Huntington, CoUis Potter 94 

Ingalls, John James 114 

Ingersoll, Robert G 85 

Irving, Washington 33 

Jackson, Andrew 71 

Jackson, " Stonewall " 67 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan 67 

Jay, John 39 

Jefferson, Joseph 47 

Jefferson, Thomas 34 

Johnson, Andrew 145 

Johnson, Eastman 202 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston... . 86 

Jones, James K 171 

Jones, John Paul 97 

Jones, Samuel Porter 116 

Kane, Elisha Kent 125 

Kearney, Philip 210 

Kenton, Simon 188 

Knox, John Jay 134 

Lamar, Lucius Q. C 201 

Landon, Melville D 109 

Lee, Robert Edward 38 

Lewis, Charles B 193 

Lincoln, Abraham 135 

Livermore, Mary Ashton 131 

Locke, David Ross 172 

Logan, John .A 26 

Longfellow, Henry W'adsvvorth 37 

Longstreet, James 56 

Lowell, James Russell 104 

Mackay, John William 148 

Madison, James 42 

Marshall, John 156 

Mather, Cotton 164 

Mather, Increase.. 163 

Maxim, Hiram S 194 

McClellan, George Brinton.. . . 47 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 172 

McDonough, Com. Thomas.. . 167 

McKinley, William. 217 

Meade, George Gordon 75 

Medill, Joseph 169 

Miles, Nelson A 176 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine 218 

Miller, Joaquin 218 

Mills, Roger Quarles 211 

Monroe, lames 64 

Moody, Dwight L 207 

Moran, Thomas 98 

Morgan, John Pierpont 208 

Morgan, John T 216 

Morris, Robert 165 

Morse, Samuel F. B 124 

Morton, Levi P 142 

Morton, Oliver Perry 215 

Motley, John Lathro'p 130 

"Nye, Bill" 59 

Nye, Edgar Wilson 69 



PAGE 

O'Conor, Charles 187 

Olney, Richard 133 

Paine, Thomas 147 

Palmer, John M 196 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 160 

"Partington, Mrs." 202 

Peabody, George 170 

Peck, George W 187 

Peffer, William A 164 

Perkins, Eli 109 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 97 

Phillips, Wendell 30 

Pierce, Franklin 122 

Pingree, Hazen S 212 

Plant, Henry B 192 

Poe, Edgar Allen 69 

Polk, James Knox 102 

Porter, David Dixon 68 

Porter, Noah 93 

Prentice, George Denison.. . . 119 
Prescott, William Hickling. . .. 96 
Pullman, George Mortimer.... 121 

Quad, M 193 

Quay Matthews 171 

Randolph, Edmund 136 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 132 

Reed, Thomas Brackett 208 

Reid, Whitelaw 149 

Roach, John 190 

Rockefeller, John Davison.... 195 

Root, George Frederick 218 

Rothermei; Peter F 113 

Rutledge, John 57 

Sage, Russell 211 

Schofield, John .McVllister 199 

Schurz, Carl 201 

Scott, Thomas Alexander 204 

Scott, Winfield 79 

•Seward, William Henry 44 

Sharon, William 166 

Shaw, Henry W 166 

Sheridan, Phillip Henry 40 

Sherman, Charles R 87 

Sherman, John 86 

ShiUaber, Benjamin Penhallow 202 

Sherman, William Tecumseh.. 30 

Smith, Edmund Kirby 114 

Sousa, John Philip... 60 

Spreckels, Claus 169 

Stanford, Leiand , 101 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters... 179 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 126 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton 32 

Stephenson, Adlai Ewing... . 141 

Stewart, Alexander T 68 

Stewart, William Morris 213 

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth 

Beecher 66 

Stuart, James E. B 122 

Sumner, Charles 34 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt. .. . 60 

Taney, Roger Brooke 129 

Taylor, Zacharv 108 

Teller, Henrv M 127 



TABLE OF COXTENTS—rART I. 



PAGE 

Tesla, Xikola 193 

Thomas, George H 73 

Thomas, Theodore 172 

Thurman, Allen G S'O 

Thurston, John M Ifili 

Tildeii, Samuel J 48 

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan 119 

Toombs, Robert 205 

" Twain, Mark " , 8(i 

Tyler, John 93 

Van Buren, Martin 78 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 3") 

Vail, Alfred 154 

Vest, George Graham 214 



PAGE 

\"ilas, William Freeman 140 

\"oorhees, Daniel Wolsey 95 

Waite, Morrison Remich 125 

Wallace, Lewis 199 

Wallack, Lester 121 

Wallack, John Lester 121 

Wanamaker, John 89 

Ward, "Artemus " 91 

Washburne, Elihu Benjamin. . 189 

Washington, George 17 

Walson, Thomas E 178 

Watterson, Henry 7() 

Weaver, James B 123 

Webster, Daniel 19 



PAGE 

Webster, Noah 49 

Weed, Thurlow 91 

West, Benjamin 115 

Whipple, Henry Benjamin. . . . 161 

White, Stephen \' 162 

Whitefield, George 150 

Whitman, Walt 197 

Whitney, Eli 120 

Whitney, William Collins 92 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 67 

Willard, Frances E 133 

Wilson, William L 180 

Winchell, Alexander 175 

Windom, William 138 



PORTRAITS OF NATIONAL CELEBRITIES. 



1'A(;f, 

Alger, Russell .\ 16 

.Allison, William B 99 

Anthonv, Susan B 63 

Armour, Philip D 151 

Arthur, Chester A 81 

Barnum, Phineas T 117 

Beecher, Henry Ward 27 

Blaine, James G 151 

Booth, Edwin 63 

Bryan, Wm. J 63 

Bryant, William CuUen 185 

Buchanan, James 81 

Buckner, Simon B 16 

Butler Benjamin F 151 

Carlisle, John G 151 

Chase, Salmon P 16 

Childs, George W 99 

Clay, Henry 81 

Cleveland, Grover 45 

Cooper, Peter 99 

Dana, Charles A 151 

Depew.Chauncey M 117 

Douglass, Fred 63 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 27 

Evarts, William M 99 

Farragut, Com. D. G 185 

Field, Cyrus W 63 



PAGE 

Field, Marshall 117 

Franklin, Benjamin 63 

Fremont, Gen. John C 16 

Gage, Lyman J 151 

Cartield, James A 45 

Garrison, William Lloyd 63 

George, Henry 117 

Gould, fay 99 

Grant, Gen. U.S 185 

Greeley, Horace 81 

Hampton, Wade 16 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield S.. .. 185 

Hanna, MarkA 117 

Harrison, Benjamin 81 

Hayes, R. B 45 

Hendricks, Thomas A 81 

Holmes, Oliver W 151 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph 16 

Ingersoll, Robert G 117 

1 rving, Washington 27 

Jackson, Andrew 45 

Jefferson, Thomas 45 

Johnston, Gen. J. E 16 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 185 

Lincoln, Abraham 81 

Logan, Gen. John A 16 

Longfellow, Henry W 186 



PAGE 

Longstreet, Gen. James 16 

Lowell, James Russell 27 

McKinley, William 45 

Morse, S. F. B 185 

Phillips, Wendell 27 

Porter, Com. D. D 185 

Pullman, George M 117 

Quay, M. S. . ." ... 99 

Reed, Thomas B 151 

Sage, Russell 117 

Scott, Gen. Winfield 185 

Seward, William H 45 

Sherman, John 99 

Sherman, Gen. W. T 151 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 27 

.Stowe, Harriet Beecher 27 

Sumner, Charles .... 45 

Talmage, T. DeWitt 63 

Teller,"Henry M 99 

Thurman, Allen G 81 

Tilden, Samuel J 117 

\'an Buren, Martin 81 

Vanderbilt, Commodore 99 

Webster, Daniel 27 

Whittier, John G 21 

Washington, George 45 

Watterson, Henry 63 




^ -^^^^ ^. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS— PART II. 

INDEX TO PART II. 

COMPENDIUM OF kOCAk BIOGRAPHY 
OF 

COLUMBIA, SAUK AND ADAMS COUNTIES, 

WISCOISISIIM. 



PAGE 

Acers, George 2>-'5 

Allen, N. E" 554 

Alverson, Miles T 410 

Anacker, Moritz B 677 

Anacker, William E 839 

Andrus, William 78'2 

Appel, George U 477 

Ashley, Ernst P 515 

Ashley, Hon. Yates 514 

Atcherson, Oscar 456 

Austin, Ch-iuncey J '245 

Avery, Hon. Frank 250 

Ayers, Charles J 676 

Ayers, Royal 675 

Bacon, David N 458 

Bacon, George V 271 

Bacon. Rev. Joseph F 606 

Bahl, Peter 385 

Baker, Charles 683 

Bartholomew, M. C. 680 

Bartholomew, Robert N 679 

Barton, John, Sr 429 

Beach, Isaac 702 

Bell, Robert 635 

Bell, Stewart C 687 

Bement. Benjamin S 505 

Bendixen, Capt. Ole M 388 

Bentley, .Monroe 716 

Bidwel'l, William B .-. . 547 

Billings, Dana D e,52 

Blake, John W 550 

Bogue, Alan . 870 

Bohn, Christopher E 725 

Bohn, Robert L 587' 

Bolting, Francis J 361 

Bonham, James L 507 

Bonnell, David T 742 

Boutwell, John 417 

Boutwell, Simon 416 

Bowen, Joseph 686 

Bremner Bros 480 

Brenmer, Charles .-\ 481 

Bremner, George H 431 

Brimmer, William 651 

Brown, Amos 324 

Brown, Edward R 4.58 

Brown, Salmon 2."i6 

Buckley, Lewis H 569 

Biillen, Hon. Winslow 734 

Bushnell, J. .Monroe 479 

Campbell, Daniel DeW 279 

Canon, William O 578 



I'AGE 

Carpenter, Newel, Sr 299 

Cavana jgh, Perry 646 

Chipman, William R 687 

Clapp, Edwin O 634 

Clark, Charles C 443 

Coapnian, lames W 321 

Colbtirn, Alonzo W 598 

Colburn, Harvey B 563 

Colburn, J. P 594 

Colburn, Sherman 676 

Colby, Thomas P 724 

Colby, Warren 1 301 

Coleman, Daniel B 810 

Collins, Sanlord A 355 

Collipp, Platon G 248 

Colonius, Charles A 628 

Condon, Rev. Robert B 510 

Cook, George R 682 

Cook, William 408 

Coplev, lohn. . 351 

Corliss, Dr. Allen T 292 

Cottington, Amos 485 

Coughran, Samuel 270 

Councelman, Fernando 714 

Cros^, Fremont J ,. 741 

Crothers, James .M 284 

Cuddy, William T 679 

Cuff, W'iUiam 619 

Curtis, F. C 468 

Curtis, Harry H 289 

Dangel, Peter 697 

Darrow, Henry A 498 

Davis, Rees J 647 

Decker, John R 264 

Delanv, Charles W 644 

Delany, Miles B 546 

Dering, Capt. Oscar M 349 

Dieruf, F. A 658 

Dittbender, Fritz 320 

Dittbender, L 820 

Donnelly, Hugh ... 487 

Donnelly, Thomas W 291 

Dooley.John H 381 

Dorsett, A. D 718 

Doyle, Lemuel H 350 

Drager, Gus 462 

Dunn, Thomas W 383 

Eaton, Clarence C 260 

F'aton, Edward 846 

Edmin.ster, Lewis 272 

Edwards, Dr. .Adelbert 745 

Edwards, William J 649 



I'AGE 

Effinger, Ferdinaml 286 

Ellinwood, Capt. .A. P 640 

Ely, Oscar Clarke 341 

Emery, Samuel 606 

English, John 595 

Epstein, Henry 69n 

Ernsperger, Cecil R 4s8 

Evans, Jacob C 533 

Evans, William R 452 

Evarts, C. L 566 

Evarts, William H 566 

Ferris, John 692 

Field, Floyd A 442 

Held, Henry A 648 

Fisher, Edward J 826 

Fisher, Dr. William 265 

Foat, William J 419 

Foley, Martin F 335 

f'orbush, Chehar 261 

Ford, Capt. Ira H 253 

Foreman, Henry 697 

Forrest, James F 674 

Foster, Albert W 627 

Foster, John 664 

Fritz, Christ 840 

Fuhrmann, Albert 296 

Fuller, William W 755 

Galbraith, William J 623 

Galston, Robert , 495 

Gardner, Lorenzo ;}i^ 

Gattiker, John J - , 620' 

Gethers, Henry S4tJ8 

Gilbert, Warren 876 

Giles, Frederick 596 

Ginder, John 520 

Gloeckler, Theodore 280 

Goman, John 437 

Goodman, Maurice 252 

Goodrich, George 281 

Goodyear, Darius A 246 

Gottry, Edward C 294 

Grady, Daniel H 726 

Graham, John McC 715 

Graham, .Scott T 716 

(jreen, Joseph L 266 

Greenwood, Robert 686 

Griffin, John G 421 

Gunnison, Pliny H 695 

Guppy, Genl. Joshua J 228 

Hamilton, Frederick B 408 

Hanson, Hans A 286 

Harrington, George 689 



TABLE OF CONTENTS—PART II. 



PAGE 

Harris, Abner L (i60 

Harris, Ananias 387 

Harris, Milo 893 

Harvey, Ole J 5S0 

Hasey, James H 467 

Hasey, Jnhn 457 

Haskins, Daniel S 748 

Hastings, Dr. Thomas R 42(3 

Hasz, Rev. Martin 446 

Hatton, James ' 295 

Hayes, Philip 408 

Hayes, William A 844 

Heath, De.xter S 88H 

Hecocks, .■\. E 608 

Hendrickson, Holver 415 

Hennch, John .558 

Henrich, Peter 558 

Henry, Hon. John A 345 

Henry, John C 540 

Hickey. Patrick 728 

Hindes, Hon. Lemuel P 74(i 

Hodges. A.J 819 

Hofstatter, Stephen 518 

Holden. Henry S (i07 

Holm, Andrew O , 265 

Hopkins, WdlianiH. 447 

Hotchkiss, Ernest A 577 

Hotchkiss, Mortimer 577 

Hotctikiss, Ruel 576 

Houghton, Charles H 515 

Houston, John H 825 

Howland, Thomas 440 

H uber. Urban 710 

Hughes, William 490 

Hulburt, Hon. David B 800 

Huiburt, Dr. Frank D 444 

Hume, William A 711 

Hungerford, Stei^hen 670 

Hunt, Dr. Frank O -.588 

Hutchinson, Henry 574 

Hyatt, Mrs. Amelia 618 

Hyatt, William F 619 

Island Woolen Mills, The. .. . 752 

Jacobs, Marion 450 

Jamieson, Hugh 665 

Jarvis, John C 609 

Jaques, Peter G 6-56 

Jenkins, Dr. George W 688 

Jerome, John 812 

Jones, Chester 750 

Jones, James E 485 

Jones, Nelson 871 

Jones, Norman 358 

Kahl, William H 567 

Keach, Henry H 757 

Keith, George C 527 

Kelley, Lafayette M 828 

Kelloge, Hon. John 786 

Kendall, Levi G 4(15 

Kendall, William B 405 

Kershaw, Thomas C 731 

Keysar. Miles H 600 

King, Robert T 482 

King, William 482 

Kinney, William T 708 

Knapp, Comfort H 374 

Koch, Rev. Otto H 624 

Kreuger, Edward 599 



P.^GE 

Krisch, Alois 865 

Knsch, Otto 364 

Lachmund, Paul 705 

Laffan, John .530 

Lathrop, Marvin E 789 

Lawn, Dr. James 290 

Leute, Thaddeus 400 

Lewis, Mrs. Electa P 691 

Lewis, Hon. James Taylor 221 

Lohr, Gottlieb 263 

Low, Capt. Gideon 787 

Luce, 1 ra C 704 

Luckow, Edward L 625 

McChesney, Rev. James H 259 

McElwam, Calvin 719 

McFeiridge, James A 753 

McLeish, Mrs. Jane 266 

McLeish, William 2()6 

Mc.Mahon, Hugh 5.57 

McMahon, John E 451 

McWiiliams, Ira 712 

MacKenzie, James C. 680 

Maegerlein, Francis 645 

Mair, Charles .524 

Mair, Thomas 404 

Marden, Rev. Alfred C 7.54 

Warden, iMrs. Ella J 7.54 

Marsden, Dr. Arthur 261 

Marsh, Edward N 418 

Martin, Charles 459 

Mason, Arthur H 616 

Mason, Herbert L 588 

Mason, Hiram H 288 

Matthews, Orlando 639 

Ma.vfield, Edmond .540 

Meredith, John 599 

Metcalf, Holton B 698 

Mever, William C 616 

Meyer, William C. A 448 

Miller, Berdux. 577 

Mitchell, Dr. Robert 356 

Morley, Isaac W 681 

Morley, Myron M 662 

Morse', Lyman N 399 

Morse, Uri. 570 

Murphy, David 709 

Murphy, Edward 708 

.Murray, Lyman A 439 

Neff, Curtis B. 673 

Nehls, Albert W 293 

Ninman. Charles F 288 

Noble, George F " 548 

Norton, John B 672 

Noyes, Col. D. K 229 

Nutting-, Charles A 693 

Obrecht, Christian 409 

Obrion, Horace S 667 

Olson, Henry N 626 

Owen, John 383 

Owen, John G 235 

Owen, Hon. William 239 

Paddock, Hon. Benjamin G... 474 

Page, Henry D 654 

Palmer, James Parson 701 

Pardee, John 518 

Patrick, Andrew 685 

Paulson, Nels 666 

Payne, George B 6.65 



PAGE 

Pearson, Charles 385 

Pearson, Manelious 384 

Pease, Dr. William A 854 

Pells, Jeremiah.. .583 

Perry, Israel 568 

Peterson, Peter N 519 

Phelps, Wilhs 442 

Pierce, Hon. Solon W 224* 

Porter, Arthur .\ 610 

Price, James 623 

Proctor, Hon. William H 242 

Prouty, John Byron 372 

Ramsey, Robert M 365 

Rathbun, William W 274 

Reed, Calvin E 244 

Keighard, Ellis W 456 

Reighard, Jacob H 455 

Reynolds, Andrew T 539 

Reynolds, George E 688 

Reynolds, Thomas 638 

Rich, Henry 751 

Riddle, Joseph H 302 

Rice, Griffith R 332 

Rice. Rev. Thomas J 832 

Ricliards, Peter. .' 668 

Richmond, John S 604 

Richmond, Kiley S 842 

Ritchev,Rev. John H 270 

Ritter, Frank L 718 

Robbins, William H 313 

Roberts, Chauncey F 816 

Roberts, Foulk R 700 

Roberts, Holver 549 

Roberts, Robert F 586 

Robertson, David 730 

Robertson, David H 748 

Robertson, John 282 

Robinson, James W .500 

Rockafellow, C. T 690 

Rock wood. Dr. Richard C 660 

Rodgers, Alexander 518 

Rogers, Josiah H 722 

Rooney, John 366 

Rous, Francis M 484 

Rowlands, John 454 

Rowlands, Morris J 493 

Rudd, Sheldon W 480 

Rusch, August 395 

SaniDSon, Samuel 397 

Sargent, Edmund N 713 

Sarrington. Henry 398 

Sawyer, Henry • 497 

Schneider, Carl 460 

Schoff, Jeremiah M 831 

.Schroder, Charles 584 

Schultz, Christian 667 

Scoon, Alfred F 303 

.Scoon, Lyman S 303 

Scott, Charles A 598 

Scott, James 617-^ 

Scott, John 749 

Scott, Kennedy 422 

Seymour, Merton E 576 

Seymour, Hon. Silas J 284 

Shafer, Elijah L 753 

Shanahan. Edward . . ........ 667 

Shanahan, Henry M 727 

Siefert, August 589 

Simons, George T 516 

Smith, Chester W 445 



TABLE OF COXTEXTS—PART II. 



I'AOE 

Smith, John &h 

Smith, Lewis J 569 

Smith, S.K 814 

Snyder, WilHs E 526 

Sperbeck, Martm G 475 

Spiehr, Christopher 386 

Stahl, Samuel 646 

Stanton, George P 46.5 

Staudenmayer, John G 638 

Staudenmayer, John L 686 

Steckelberg, Henry 740 

Stevens, Wilham 466 

Stevenson, David 659 

Stoddard, Asa 536 

Stoddard, Charles H 536 

Stolte, Edward G 362 

Stolte, William 368 

Stone, James 704 

Stone, James A 668 

Streeter, John Franklin 651 

Swartz, George L 428 

Sweany, James A 508 

Sylvester, William . 292 

Taylor, Emmons 427 

Taylor, Hon. James H 232 



PAGE 

Teal, Joseph 829 

Thiessen, Eugene C 373 

Thompson, Charles R 293 

Thompson, Mrs. Harriet 292 

Thompson, Wallace 654 

Tillotson, Joseph 489 

Tompkins, Charles S 555 

Trumble, Edward N 528 

Trumbull, James W 664 

Tucker, Milo G 476 

Turner, Hon. Andrew J 306 

Underdahl, Gunder O 275 

Van Aernam, Alfred E 464 

Van Aernam, Charles A 644 

Van Alstine, G. B 690 

Van Alstme, James F .^£L6, 

\'on Gonten, John (z76 

Vroman, Jacob R 360 

Vroman, John W 499 

Waldref, Elmer M 660 

Walreth, Hamilton 809 

Walton, John 693 

Walton, Ruf us S 693 



I'AGK 

W'aterman, George W 233 

Ward, William 685 

Warren, Marcus A 241 

Wentworth, Hon. Robert B. . . 226 

White, John H .i.56 

Willard, Hubbard S. 603 

Willcox, Alfred 720 

Williams, John L.... 407 

Williams, Peter 671 

Williams, Robert M 496 

Williams, Thomas J 449 

Williams, Dr. William E .584 

Wilson, Ezra 629 

Wilson, George Thomas •')29 

Winnie, Menzo 311 

Witt, Fritz 539 

Wohlfert, Franz ,382 

Wood, Ned C 735 

Woodruff, Martin R 462 

Worthman, James S 721 

Wright, Joel B 706 

Wright, Lemuel S 305 

York, Oliver M ^ 699 

Young, Hon. Ephraim W 2.52 

Young, William Henry 744 



SLSLSLSLSUiSUiJiSiSLSiSiJiJiSiSiJLSLSLSLJLSiSiSiJiSLSLSL^ 

I IRTR©DWeT0RY [ 




|HE greatest of English historians, Macaulay, and one of the most 
brilliant writers and profound thinkers of the present century, has 
said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." This is a fact which is becoming more and 
more recognized as our people advance in education and intelli- 
gence, and our own great Emerson, whose name stands at the 
head of American writers of his day, in carrying forward and 
emphasizing the great fact expressed by Macaulay, says: "Biog- 
raphy is the only true history." It was for the purpose of gathering and preserving 
this biographical matter in enduring form that the design for this volume originated. 

COMPENDIUM OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY. 

Regarding the fore part of this volume, "Part I," which is devoted to a "Com- 
pendium OF National Biography," but little need be said. The lives of the great 
men and celebrities of America are so inaccessible to the general public, and are so 
often in demand without being accessible, that it has been deemed wise to gather 
together a vast number of the biographies of our nation's greatest men and include 
them in this work as a fitting preface to the life histories and biographies of the 
local parties which follow and embrace the latter part of the volume. It is not 
given to all men to become great in a national sense, but the life history of those 
who do, makes up the history of our nation, and as such the history of their lives 
should be in every home and library as a means of reference and education. 

COMPENDIUM of LOCAL BIOGRAPHY. 

That portion of the volume devoted to a "Compendium of Local Biography," 
or "Part II," is of the greatest value, and its value will increase as the years go by. 
In this department of local biography is carried out the object which led to the com- 
pilation of this work, in gathering together and placing in enduring form, before it 
becomes too late, the life history of those who have helped to build up this region 
and who have taken part in the progress and development in business, political, 
social, and agricultural affairs. The rank that any county holds among its sister 
counties depends largely upon the achievements of its citizens. Some add to its rep- 
utation by efficient public .service, some by increasing its manufacturing or commercial 



INTRODUC TOR T. 



interests, and some by adJiiij^ to the ^'cn- ral wealth and prosperity in cultivating; and 
improving its l.iiids. To gi\e a f.iit.if.d account of the lives of old settlers and rep- 
resentative citizens of this region is to write its history in the truest sense. Each 
year, as it rolls its endless way along the mighty pathway of time, is thinning the 
ranks of those hardy pioneers and old settlers whose lives are so thoroughly id.-nti- 
fied with this region. Tne relentless hand of death, pursuing its remorseless and 
unceasing avocation, is cutting down, one by one, those whose life histories should 
be preserved as a part of the history of the growth and development of this region. 
The necessity for the collection and preservation of this matter, before it becomes 
too late, is the object of this work. 

Instead of going to musty records and taking therefrom dry statistical matter and 
official generalities, which can be appreciated by but few, our corps of writers have 
gone direct to the people, to the men and women who have by their enterprise and 
industry, brought about the development found in this region, and from their lips 
have written the story of their life struggles. No more interesting or instructive mat- 
ter could be presented to an intelligent public. In this department, devoted to Loc.-\l 
Biography, will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the imitation of 
coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by industry and 
economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited advantages for 
securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an inflLience 
widely e.xtended. It tells of men who have risen from the lower walks of life to 
eminence, and whose names have become famous. It tells of those in every walk in 
life who have striven to succeed, and records how success has usually crowned their 
efforts. It tells, also, of many, very many, who, not seeking the applause of the 
world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content to have it said of them 
as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy, — "they have done what 
they could." It tells how many, in the pride and strength of young manhood, left 
the plow and the anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting room, left every trade 
and profession, and at their country's call went forth valiantly "to do or die," for 
the cause and principles they held so dear. In the life of every man and of every 
woman is a lesson that should not be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treas- 
ure, from the fact that it contains so much that would never find its way into pub- 
lic records, and which would otherwise be inaccessible and lost forever. Great care 
has been taken in the compilation of this work, and every opportunity for revision 
possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, 
and the publishers feci warranted in saying that they give to their readers a work 
with very few, if any, errors of consequence. 

In closing this brief introductory the memorable words of Carlyle fittingly e.xpress 
the hope, aim, and desire of the publishers in the compilation of this volume: "Let 
the record be made of the men and things of to-day, lest they pass out of memory 
to-morrow and are lost Then perpetuate them, not upon wood or stone that crum- 
bles to dust, but chronicled in picture and in words that endure forever." 




l^^i^^i^^;^, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



Celebrated Americans 



^^^ 



'^i^'^^'^z^'^g' 






i\ 



G 



|EORGE WASHINGTON, 
'g, ^ m ■ f the first president of the Unit- 
I Li ^*^^ f ed States, called the "Father 
-»> i»)\<i>ii \)t»n»n^ of his Country," was one of 
^^'^^yf^ the most celebrated characters 
VfefSy in history. He was born Feb- 
* ruary 22, 1732, in Washing- 

ton Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Washington, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four 
children, and March 6, 1730, he -married 
Mary Ball. Of si.x children by his second 
marriage, George was the eldest. 

Little is known of the early years of 
Washington, beyond the fact that the house 
in which he was born was burned during his 
early childhood, and that his father there- 
upon moved to another farm, inherited from 
his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford 
county, on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, and died there in 1743. From earliest 
childhood George developed a noble charac- 
ter. His education was somewhat defective, 
being confined to the elementary branches 
taught him by his mother and at a neighbor- 
ing school. On leaving school he resided 
some time at Mount Vernon with his half 




brother, Lawrence, who acted as bis guar» 
dian. George's inclinations were for a sea- 
faring career, and a midshipman's warrant 
was procured for him; but through the oppo- 
sition of his mother the project was aban- 
doned, and at the age of si.xteen he was 
appointed surveyor to the immense estates 
of the eccentric Lord Fairfa.x. Three years 
were passed by Washington in a rough fron- 
tier life, gaining experience which afterwards 
proved very essential to him. In 175 1, 
when the Virginia militia were put under 
training with a view to active service against 
France, Washington, though only nineteen 
years of age, was appointed adjutant, with 
the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence 
Washington died, leaving his large property 
to an infant daughter. In his will George 
was named one of the executors and as an 
eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the 
death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to 
that estate. In 1753 George was commis- 
sioned adjutant-general of the Virginia 
militia, and performed important work at 
the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of 
that war we find him commander-in-chief of 



u 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation 
of Indian hostilities on the frontier havjng 
followed the expulsion of the French from 
the Ohio, he resigned his commission as 
commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, 
and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take 
his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which 
he had been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and 
devoted himself for the ensuing hf teen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by the annual attendance in 
winter upon the colonial legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his coun- 
try to enter upon that other arena in which 
his fame was to become world-wide. The 
war for independence called Washington 
into service again, and he was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and 
^^■as the most gallant and conspicuous figure 
in that bloody struggle, serving until Eng- 
land acknowledged the independence of 
each of the thirteen States, and negotiated 
with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. 
December 4, 1783, the great commander 
took leave of his officers in most affection- 
ate and patriotic terms, and went to An- 
napolis, Maryland, where the congress of 
the States was in session, and to that body, 
when peace and order prevailed everywhere, 
resigned his commission and retired to 
Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1789 that W'ashington was 
called to the chief magistracy of the na- 
tion. The inauguration took place April 
30, in the presence of an immense multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the new 
and imposing ceremony. In the manifold de- 
tails of his civil administration Washington 
proved himself fully equal to the requirements 
of his position. In 1792, at the second presi- 



dential election, Washington was desirous 
to retire; but he yielded to the general wish 
of the country, and was again chosen presi- 
dent. At the third election, in 1796, he 
was again most urgently entreated to con- 
sent to remain in the executive chair. This 
he positively refused, and after March 4, 
1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon 
for peace, quiet, and repose. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 
chief to quit his repose at Mount Ver- 
non and take command of all the United 
States forces, with rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, when war was threatened with France 
in 179S, nothing need here be stated, ex- 
cept to note the fact as an unmistakable 
testimonial of the high regard in which he 
was still held by his countrymen of all 
shades of political opinion. He patriotic- 
ally accepted this trust, but a treaty of 
peace put a stop to all action under it. He 
again retired to Mount Vernon, where he 
died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. His remains were depos- 
ited in a family vault on the banks of the 
Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still 
lie entombed. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, an eminent 
American statesman and scientist, was 
born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, 
in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appren- 
ticed to his brother James to learn the print- 
er's trade to prevent his running away and 
going to sea, and also because of the numer- 
ous family his parents had to support (there 
being seventeen children, Benjamin being 
the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and 
soon developed a taste for writing, and pre- 
pared a number of articles and had them 
published in the paper without his brother's 
knowledge, and when the authorship be- 
came known it resulted in difficulty for tiie 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



young apprentice, although his articles had 
been received with favor by the public. 
James was afterwards thrown into prison for 
political reasons, and young Benjamin con- 
ducted the paper alone during the time. In 
1823, however, he determined to endure his 
bonds no longer, and ran away, going to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived with only 
three pence as his store of wealth. With 
these he purchased three rolls, and ate them 
as he walked along the streets. He soon 
found employment as a journeyman printer. 
Two years later he was sent to England by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and was 
promised the public printing, but did not get 
it. On his return to Philadelphia he estab- 
lished the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
soon found himself a person of great popu- 
larity in the province, his ability as a writer, 
philosopher, and politician having reached 
the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew 
in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Li- 
brary in 1842, and two years later the 
American Philosophical Society and the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was made 
Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 
1775. His world-famous investigations in 
electricity and lightning began in 1746. He 
became postmaster-general of the colonies 
in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial 
postal system. He advocated the rights of 
the colonies at all times, and procured the 
repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was 
elected to the Continental congress of 1775, 
and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, being one of the commit- 
tee appointed to draft that paper. He rep- 
resented the new nation in the courts of 
Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple 
dignity and homely wisdom won him the 
admiration of the court and the favor of the 
people. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
lour years; was also a member of the con- 



vention in 1787 that drafted the constitution 
of the United States. 

His writings upon political topics, anti- 
slavery, finance, and economics, stamp him 
as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, 
while his "Autobiography" and "Poor 
Richard's Almanac" give him precedence in 
the literary field. In early life he was an 
avowed skeptic in religious matters, but 
later in life his utterances on this subject 
were less extreme, though he never ex- 
pressed approval of any sect or creed. He 
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 



DANIEL WEBSTER.— Of world wide 
reputation for statesmanship, diplo- 
macy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more 
prominent figure in the history of our coun- 
try in the interval between 181 5 and 1861, 
than Daniel Webster. He was born at 
Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, 
January 18, 1782, and was the second son 
of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. 
He enjoyed but limited educational advan- 
tages in childhood, but spent a few months 
in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He 
completed his preparation for college in the 
family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall 
of 1797. He supported himself most of the 
time during these years by teaching school 
and graduated in 1801, having the credit of 
being the foremost scholar of his class. He 
entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1S02 he con- 
tinued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, 
where he was principal of the academy and 
copyist in the office of the register of 
deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, 
at Boston, he completed his studies in 
1804-5, ^^'^ w^s admitted to the bar in the 
latter year, and at Boscawen and at Ports- 
mouth soon rose to eminence in his profes- 



20 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



sion. He became known as a federalist 
but did not court political honors; but, at- 
tracting attention by his eloquence in oppos- 
ing the war with England, he was elected 
to congress in 1812. During the special 
session of May, 18 13, he was appointed on 
the committee on foreign affairs and made 
his maiden speech June 10, 181 3. Through- 
out this session (as afterwards) he showed 
his mastery of the great economic questions 
of the day. He was re-elected in 18 14. In 
1 8 16 he removed to Boston and for seven 
years devoted himself to his profession, 
earning by his arguments in the celebrated 
"Dartmouth College Case" rank among 
the most distinguished jurists of the country. 
In 1820 Mr. Webster was chosen a member 
of the state convention of Massachusetts, to 
revise the constitution. The same year he 
delivered the famous discourse on the " Pil- 
grim fathers," which laid the foundation for 
his fame as an orator. Declining a nomi- 
nation for United States senator, in 1822 he 
was elected to the lower house of congress 
and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 
1827 was transferred to the senate. He 
retained his seat in the latter chamber until 
1841. During this time his voice was ever 
lifted in defence of the national life and 
honor and although politically opposed to 
him he gave his support to the administra- 
tion of President Jackson in the latter's con- 
test with nullification. Through all these 
years he was ever found upon the side of 
right and justice and his speeches upon all 
the great questions of the day have be- 
come household words in almost every 
family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed 
secretary of state by President Harrison 
and was continued in the same office by 
President Tyler. While an incumbent of 
this office he showed consummate ability as 
a diplomat in the negotiation of the "Ash- 



burton treaty " of August 9, 1849, which 
settled many points of dispute between the 
United States and England. In May, 1843, 
he resigned his post and resumed his pro- 
fession, and in December, 1845, took his 
place again in the senate. He contributed 
in an unofficial way to the solution of the 
Oregon question with Great Britain.i«'j847, 
He was disappointed in 1848 in not receiv- 
ing the nomination for the presidency. He 
became secretary of state under President 
Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the 
complicated questions of the day showed a 
wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. 
Being hurt in an accident he retired to his 
home at Marshfield, where he died Octo- 
ber 24, 1852. 

HORACE GREELEY. —As journalist, 
author, statesman and political leader, 
there is none more widely known than the 
man whose name heads this article. He 
was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, Feb- 
ruary 3, 181 1, and was reared upon a farm. 
At an early age he evinced a remarkable 
intelligence and love of learning, and at 
the age of ten had read every book he could 
borrow for miles around. About 182 i the 
family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, 
and for some years young Greeley assisted 
in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered 
the office of a weekly newspaper at East 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained 
about four years. On the discontinuance 
of this paper he followed his father's 
family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
whither they had moved, and for a time 
worked at the printer's trade in that neigh- 
borhood. In 1 83 1 Horace went to New 
York City, and for a time found employ- 
ment as journeyman printer. January, 
1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he 
published the Morning Post, the first penny 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



21 



paper ever printed. This proved a failure 
and was discontinued after three weeks. 
The business of job printing was carried on, 
however, until the death of Mr. Story in 
July following. In company with Jonas 
Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley 
commenced the publication of the New 
Yor-licr, a weekly paper of a high character. 
For financial reasons, at the same time, 
Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, 
in ICS38, took editorial charge of the Jcjfcr- 
sonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. 
In 1840, on the discontinuance of that sheet, 
ha devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a 
campaign paper in the interests of the Whig 
party. In the fall of 1841 the latter paper 
was consolidated with the Nci<.< Yorker, un- 
der the name of the Tribune, the first num- 
ber of which was issued April 10, 184 1. At 
the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained 
until the day of his death. 

In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to 
the national house of representatives to 
fill a vacancy, and was a member of that 
body until March 4, 1S49. In 1851 he went 
to Europe and served as a juror at the 
World's Fair at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don. In 1855, he made a second visit to 
the old world. In 1859 he crossed the 
plains and received a public reception at 
San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a 
member of the Republican national con- 
vention, at Chicago in i860, and assisted in 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President. The same year he was a presi- 
dential elector for the state of New York, 
and a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia. 

At the close of the war, in 1865, Mr. 
Greeley became a strong advocate of uni- 
versal amnesty and complete pacification, 
and in pursuance of this consented to be- 
come one of the bondsmen for Jefiferson 



Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. In 
1867 he was a delegate to the New York 
state convention for the revision of the 
constitution. In 1870 he was defeated for 
congress in the Sixth New York district. 
At the Liberal convention, which met in 
Cincinnati, in May, 1872, on the fifth ballot 
Horace Greeley was nominated for presi- 
dent and July following was nominated for 
the same office by the Democratic conven- 
tion at Baltimore. He was defeated by a 
large majority. The large amount of work 
done by him during the campaign, together 
with the loss of his wife about the same 
time, undermined his strong constitution, 
and he was seized with inflammation of the 
brain, and died November 29, 1872. 

In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. 
Greeley was the author of several meritori- 
ous works, among which were: "Hints 
toward reform," "Glances at Europe," 
" History of the struggle for slavery exten 
sion," "Overland journey to San Francis- 
co," "The American conflict," and " Rec-- 
ollections of a busy life." 



HENRY CLAY.— In writing of this em- 
inent American, Horace Greeley once 
said: "He was a matchless party chief, an 
admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wield- 
ing unequaled influence, not only over his 
friends, but even over those of his political 
antagonists who were subjected to the magic 
of his conversation and manners. " A law- 
yer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few 
men in history have wielded greater influ- 
ence, or occupied so prominent a place in 
the hearts of the generation in which they 
lived. 

Henry Clay was born near Richmond, 
in Hanover county, Virginia, April 12, 
1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher 
who died when Henry was but five years 



22 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



old. The mother married again about ten 
years later and removed to Kentucky leav- 
ing Henry a clerk in a store at Richmond. 
Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a posi- 
tion as copyist in the office of the clerk of the 
high court of chancery, and four years later 
entered the law office of Robert Brooke, 
then attorney general and later governor of 
his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was 
licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother 
to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington 
and soon built up a profitable practice. 
Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from 
Virginia, called a state convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay 
at that time took a prominent part, publicly 
urging the adoption of a clause providing 
for the abolition of slavery, but in this he 
was overruled, as he was fifty years later, 
vhen in the height of his fame he again ad- 
vised the same course when the state con- 
stitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay 
took a very active and conspicuous part in 
the presidential campaign in 1 800, favoring 
the election of Jefferson; and in 1803 was 
chosen to represent Fayette county in the 
state 'egislature. In 1806 General John 
Adair, then United States senator from 
Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was 
elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature 
and served through one session in which he 
at once assumed a prominent place. In 
1807 he was again a representative in the 
legislature and was elected speaker of the 
house. At this time originated his trouble 
with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed 
that each member clothe himself and family 
wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall 
characterized as the " language of a dema- 
gogue." This led to a duel in which both 
parties were slightly injured. In 1809 
Henry Clay was again elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the United States senate, and two 



j'ears later elected representative in tne low- 
er house of congress, being chosen speaker 
of the house. About this time war was de- 
clared against Great Britain, and Clay took 
a prominent public place during this strug- 
gle and was later one of the commissioners 
sent to Europe by President Madison to ne- 
gotiate peace, returning in September, 181 5, 
having been re-elected speaker of the 
house during his absence, and was re-elect- 
ed unanimously. He was afterward re- 
elected to congress and then became secre- 
tary of state under John Quincy Adams. 
In 1 83 1 he was again elected senator from 
Kentucky and remained in the senate most 
of the time until his death. 

Henry Clay was three times a candidate 
for the presidency, and once very nearly 
elected. He was the unanimous choice of 
the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, 
and a great effort was made to elect him 
but without success, his opponent, James K. 
Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New 
York by a very slender margin, while either 
of them alone would have elected Clay. 
Henry Clay died at Washington June 29, 
1852. 

TAMES GILLESPIE BLAINE was one 
<J of the most distinguished of American 
statesmen and legislators. He was born 
January 31, 1830, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and received a thorough edu- 
cation, graduating at Washington College in 
1847. In early life he removed to Maine 
and engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
editor of the Portland "Advertiser." While 
yet a young man he gained distinction as a 
debater and became a conspicuous figure in 
political and public affairs. In 1862 he was 
elected to congress on the Republican ticket 
in Maine and was re-elected five times. In 
March, 1869, he'vvas chosen speaker of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



23 



house of represtntatives and was re-elected 
in 1 8/ I and again in 1873. In 1876 he was 
a representative in the lower house of con- 
gress and during that year was appointed 
United States senator by the Governor to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Senator Morrill, who had been appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine 
served in the senate until March 5, 1881, 
when President Garfield appointed him sec- 
retary of state, which position he resigned 
in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nom- 
inated for the presidency by the Republic- 
ans, at Chicago in June, 18S4, but was de- 
feated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting 
and spirited campaign. During the later 
years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of 
his time to the completion of his work 
"Twenty Years in Congress," which had a 
remarkably large sale throughout the United 
States. Blaine was a man of great mental 
ability and force of character and during the 
latter part of his life was one of the most 
noted men of his time. He was the origina- 
tor of what is termed the " reciprocity idea" 
in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of 
carrying it into practical effect. In 1876 
Robert G. Ingersoll in making a nominating 
speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate 
for president before the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine 
as the " Plumed Knight " and this title clung 
to him during the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred at Washington, January 27, 
1893- 



JOHN CALDWELL CALHOUN, a dis- 
tinguished American statesman, was a 
native of- South Carolina, born in Abbeville 
district, March iS, 17S2. He was given 
the advantages of a thorough education, 
graduating at Yale College in 1804, and 
adopted the calling of a lawyer. A Demo- 



crat politically, at that time, he took a fore- 
most part in the councils of his party and 
was elected to congress in iSi t, supporting 
the tariff of 18 16 and the establishing of 
the United States Bank. In 18 17 he be- 
came secretary of war in President Monroe's 
cabinet, and in 1 824 was elected vice-president 
of the United States, on the ticket with John 
Quincy Adams, and re-elected in 1 828, on the 
ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after 
this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest 
advocates of free trade and the principle of 
sovereignty of the states and was one of 
the originators of the doctrine that "any 
state could nullify unconstitutional laws of 
congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had be- 
come an aspirant for the. presidency, and 
the fact that General Jackson advanced the 
interests of his opponent. Van Buren, led 
to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1832 and was elected United 
States senator from South Carolina. It was 
during the same year that a convention was 
held in South Carolina at which the " Nul- 
lification ordinance " was adopted, the ob- 
ject of which was to test the constitution- 
ality of the protective tariff measures, and 
to prevent if possible the collection of im- 
port duties in that state which had been 
levied more for the purpose of ' ' protection " 
than revenue. This ordinance was to go 
into effect in February, 1833, and created a 
great deal of uneasiness throughout the 
country as it was feared there would be a 
clash between the state and federal authori- 
ties. It was in this serious condition of 
public affairs that Henry Clay came forward 
with the the famous "tariff compromise" 
of 1833, to which measure Calhoun and 
most of his followers gave their support and 
the crisis was averted. In 1843 Mr. Cal- 
houn was appointed secretary of state in 
President Tyler's cabinet, and it was under 



24 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



his administration that the treaty concern- 
ing the annexation of Texas was negotiated. 
In 1 845 he was re-elected to the United 
States senate and continued in the senate 
until his death, which occurred in March, 
1 850. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, 
student and orator, and it is conceded that 
he was one of thegreatest debaters America 
has produced. The famous debate between 
Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded 
as the most noted for ability and eloquence 
in the history of the country. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BUTLER, one 
of America's most brilliant and pro- 
found lawyers and noted public men, was 
a native of New England, born at Deer- 
field, New Hampshire, November 5, 18 18. 
His father, Captain John Butler, .was a 
prominent man in his day, commanded a 
company during the war of 1812, and 
served under Jackson at New Orleans. 
Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent 
education, graduated at Waterville College, 
Maine, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he commenced the practice of his 
profession and gained a wide reputation for 
his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive 
practice and a fortune. Early in life he 
began taking an active interest in military 
affairs and served in the state militia through 
all grades from private to brigadier-general. 
In 1853 he was elected to the state legisla- 
ture on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, 
and took a prominent part in the passage of 
legislation in the interests of labor. Dur- 
ing the same year he was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and in 1859 rep- 
resented his district in the Massachusetts 
■senate. When the Civil war broke out 
-General Butler took the field and remained 
at the front most of the time during that 



bloody struggle. Part of the time he had 
charge of Fortress Monroe, and in Febru- 
ary, 1862, took command of troops forming 
part of the expedition against New Orleans, 
and later had charge of the department of 
the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. After the 
close of hostilities General Butler resumed 
his law practice in Massachusetts and in 
1866 was elected to congress from the Es- 
sex district. In 1882 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and in 1884 was the 
nominee of the " Greenback" party for 
president of the United States. He con- 
tinued his legal practice, and maintained his 
place as one of the most prominent men in 
New England until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 10, 1893. 



JEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, states- 
<J man and legislator of prominence in 
America, gained the greater part of his fame 
from the fact that he was president of the 
southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, June 3, 
1808, and his early education and surround- 
ings were such that his sympathies and in- 
clinations were wholly with the southern 
people. He received a thorough education, 
graduated at West Point in 1828, and for a 
number of years served in the army at west- 
ern posts and in frontier service, first as 
lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 
he resigned and became a cotton planter in 
Warren county, Mississippi, where he took 
an active interest in public affairs and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in politics. In 
1844 he was a presidential elector from 
Mississippi and during the two following 
3'ears served as congressman from his dis- 
trict. He then became colonel of a iviissis- 
sippi regiment in the war with Mexico ana 
participated in some of the most severe lml- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



25 



ties, being seriously wounded at Buena 
Vista. Upon his return to private life he 
again took a prominent part in political af- 
fairs and represented his state in the United 
States senate from 1847 to 1S51. Hethen 
entered President Pierce's cabinet as secre- 
tary of war, after which he again entered 
the United States senate, remaining until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He then be- 
came president of the southern confederacy 
and served as such until captured in May, 
1865, at Irwinville Georgia. He was held 
as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 
1867, when he was released on bail and 
finally set free in 1868. His death occurred 
December 6, 1889. 

Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent 
abilities and was recognized as one of the 
best organizers of his day. He was a 
forceful and fluent speaker and a ready 
writer. He wrote and published the " Rise 
and Fall of "the Southern Confederacy," a 
work which is considered as authority by 
the southern peopl • 



JOHN ADAMS, the second president of 
the United States, and one of the moft 
conspicuous figures in the early struggles of 
his country for independence, was born in 
the present town of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 
'735- He received a thorough education, 
graduating at Harvard College in 1755, 
studied law aad was admitted to the bar in 
1758. He was well adapted for this profes- 
sion and after opening an office in his native 
town rapidly grew in prominence and public 
favor and soon was regarded as one of the 
leading lawyers of the country. His atten- 
tion was called to political affairs by the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he 
drew up a set of resolutions on the subject 
which were very popular. In 1768 he re- 



moved to Boston and became one of the 
most courageous and prominent advocates 
of the popular cause and was chosen a 
member of the Colonial legislature from 
Boston. He was one of the delegates that 
represented Massjichusetts in the first Con- 
tinental congress, which met in September, 
1774. In a letter written at this crisis he 
uttered the famous words: "The die is now 
cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish with my 
country, is my unalterable determination." 
He was a prominent figure in congress and 
advocated the movement for independence 
when a majority of the members were in- 
clined to temporize and to petition the King. 
In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in 
congress that the colonies should assume 
the duty of self-government, which was 
passed. In June, of the same year, a reso- 
lution that the United States "are, and of 
right ought to be, free and independent," 
was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by 
Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. 
Mr. Adams was a member of the committee 
of five appointed June 1 1 to prepare a 
declaration of independence, in support of 
wliich he made an eloquent speech. He was 
chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and 
in 1 778 was sent as commissioner to France, 
but returned the following year. In 1780 
he went to Europe, having been appointed 
as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace 
and commerce with Great Britain. Con- 
jointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated 
a treaty in 1782. He was employed as a 
minister to the Court of St. James from 
1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote 
his famous "Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions." In 1789 he became vice-presi- 
dent of the United States and was re-elected 
in 1792. 

In 1796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi- 



26 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



dent of the United States, his competitor 
being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice- 
president. In 1800 he was the Federal 
candidate for president, but he was not 
cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the 
favorite leader of his party, and was de- 
feated by Thomas Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams then retired from public life 
to his large estate at Quincy, Mass., where 
he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that 
witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. 
Though his physical frame began to give way 
many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was glad- 
dened by .the elevation of his son, John 
Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 



HENRY WARD BEECHER, one of the 
most celebrated American preachers 
and authors, was born at Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, June 24, 18 13. His father was Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, also an eminent divine. At 
an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a 
strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and 
it was practically decided that he would fol- 
low this inclination, but about this time, in 
consequence of deep religious impressions 
which he experienced during a revival, he 
renounced his former intention and decided 
to enter the ministry. After having grad- 
uated at Amherst College, in 1834, he stud- 
ied theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of liis father, who was then president 
of that institution. In 1847 he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational church 
in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and 
original eloquence attracted one of the larg- 
est congregations in the country. He con- 
tinued to served this church until the time 
of his death, March 8, 1887. Mr. Beecher 
also found time for a great amount of liter- 
ary work- For a number of years he was 



editor of the "Independent" and also the 
" Christian Union. " He also produced many 
works which are widely known. Among his 
principal productions are ' 'Lectures to Young 
Men," " Star Papers, " "Life of Christ," 
"Life Thoughts," "Royal Truths" (a 
novel), "Norwood," " Evolution and Rev- 
olution," and " Sermons on Evolution and 
Religion." Mr. Beecher was also long a 
prominent advocate of anti-slavery princi- 
ples and temperance reform, and, at a later 
period, of the rights of women. 



JOHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious states- 
man and general, was born in Jackson 
county, Illinois, February 9, 1824. In his 
boyhood days he received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his native county. 
On the breaking out of the war with Mexico 
he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers 
and became its quartermaster. At the close 
of hostilities he returned home and was 
elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county 
in 1849. Determining to supplement his 
education Logan entered the Louisville Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1852 
and taking up the study of law was admitted 
to the bar. He attained popularity and suc- 
cess in his chosen profession and was elected 
to the legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856 and 
1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 
1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress- 
in 1858 to fill a vacancy and again in i860. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan re- 
signed his office and entered the army, and 
in September, 1861, was appointed colonel 
of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he 
led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Don- 
elson. In the latter engagement he was 
wounded. In March, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and in the 
following month participated in the battles 
of Pittsburg Landing. In November, 1S62,. 



CUMPEXDJUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



29- 



for gallant conduct he was made major-gen- 
eral. Throughout the Vicksburg campaign 
he was in command of a division of the Sev- 
enteenth Corps and was distinguished at 
Port Gibson, Champion Hills and in the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg. In October, 
1863, he was placed in command of the 
Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great 
credit. During the terrible conflict before 
Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of 
General McPherson, Logan, assuming com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, led it 
on to victory, saving the day by his energy 
and ability. He was shortly after succeeded 
by General O. O. Howard and returned to 
the command of his corps. He remained 
in command until the presidential election, 
when, feeling that his influence was needed 
at home he returned thither and there re- 
mained until the arrival of Sherman at Sa- 
vannah, when General Logan rejoined his 
command. In May, 1865, he succeeded 
General Howard at the head of the Army of 
the Tennessee. He resigned from the army 
in August, the same year, and in November 
was appointed minister to Me.xico, but de- 
clined the honor. He served in the lower 
house of the fortieth and forty-first con- 
gresses, and was elected United States sena- 
tor from his native state in 1870, 1878 and 
1885. He was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1884 on the ticket with Blaine, but 
was defeated. General Logan was the 
author of "The Great Conspiracy, its origin 
and history," published in 1885. He died 
at Washington, December 26, 1886. 



JOHN CHARLES FREMONT, the first 
Republican candidate for president, was 
born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 
1S13. He graduated from Charleston Col- 
lege (South Carolina) in 1S30, and turned his 
attention to civil engineering. He was shortly 



afterward employed in the department of 
government surveys on the Mississippi, and 
constructing maps of that region. He was 
made lieutenant of engineers, and laid be- 
fore the war department a plan for p: ne- 
trating the Rocky Mountain regions, which 
was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon 
his first famous exploring e.xpedition and ex- 
plored the South Pass. He also planned an 
expedition to Oregon by a new route further 
south, but afterward joined his expedition 
with that of Wilkes in the region of the 
Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedi- 
tion which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, 
and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river 
valleys, making maps of all regions explored. 
In 1845 he conducted the great expedi- 
tion which resulted in the acquisition of 
California, which it was believed the Mexi- 
can government was about to dispose of to 
England. Learning that the Mexican gov- 
ernor was preparing to attack the American 
settlements in his dominion, Fremont deter- 
mined to forestall him. The settlers rallied 
to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated 
the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a 
month later completely routed the governor 
and his entire army. The Americans at 
once declared their independence of Mexico, 
and Fremont was elected governor of Cali- 
fornia. By this time Commodore Stockton 
had reached the coast with instructions from 
Washington to conquer California. Fre- 
mont at once joined him in that effort, which 
resulted in the annexation of California with 
its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont 
became involved in a difficulty with fellow 
officers which resulted in a court martial, 
and the surrender of his commission. He 
declined to accept reinstatement. He af- 
terward laid out a great road from the Mis- 
sissippi river to San Francisco, and became 
the first United States senator from Califor- 



t80 



COMPEXDILM OF JUOGRA Pi: }'. 



nia, in 1S49. In 1856 he was nominated 
hy the new Republican party as its first can- 
didate for president against Buchanan, and 
received 114 electoral votes, out of 296. 

In 1 861 he was made major-general and 
placed in charge of the western department. 
He planned the reclaiming of the entire 
Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of 
thirty thousand men, with plenty of artil- 
lery, and was ready to move upon the con- 
federate General Price, when he was de- 
prived of his command. He was nominated 
for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1864, but 
withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 
1878, holding the position four years. He 
was interested in an engineering enterprise 
looking toward a gre'at southern trans-con- 
tinental railroad, and in his later years also 
practiced law in New York. He died Jul}- 1 3, 
1890. 

WENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and 
abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure 
in American history, was born November 
29, 181 1, at Boston, Massachusetts. He 
received a good education at Plarvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1831, 
and then entered the Cambridge Law School . 
After completing his course in that institu- 
tion, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena 
of life at the time when the forces of lib- 
erty and slavery had already begun their 
struggle that was to culminate in the Civil 
war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clear- 
headed, courageous declarations of the anti- 
slavery principles, had done much to bring 
about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a 
man that could stand aside and see a great 
struggle being carried on in the interest of 
humanity and look passively on. He first 
iittracted attention as an orator in 1837, at 
a meeting that was called to protest against 



the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. 
The meeting would have ended in a few 
perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillips 
by his manly eloquence taken the meeting 
out of the hands of the few that were in- 
clined to temporize and avoid radical utter- 
ances. Having once started out in this ca- 
reer as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved 
from what he deemed his duty, and never 
turned br.ck. He gave up his legal practice, 
and humched himself heart and soul in the 
movement for the liberation of the slaves. 
He was an orator of very great ability and 
by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did 
much in arousing public sentiment in behalf 
of the anti-slavery cause — possibly more 
than any one man of his time. After the 
abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if pos- 
sible, even busier than before m the literary 
and lecture field. Besides temperance and 
women's rights, he lectured often and wrote 
m,uch on finance, and the relations of labor 
and capital, and his utterances on whatever 
subject alwaj's bore the stamp of having 
emanated from a master mind. Eminent 
critics have stated that it might fairly be 
questioned whether there has ever spoken 
in America an orator superior to Phillips. 
The death of this great man occurred Feb- 
ruary 4, 1884. 



WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN 
was one of the greatest generals that 
the world has ever produced and won im- 
mortal fame by that strategic and famous 
" march to the Sea," in the war of the Re- 
bellion. He was born February 8, 1820, at 
Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the 
family of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, as his 
father died when he was but nine years of 
age. He entered West Point in 1836, was 
graduated from the same in 1840, and ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Third 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



311 



Artillery. He passed through the various 
grades of the service and at the outbreak of 
the Civil war was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history 
of General Sherman's conspicuous services 
would be to repeat a history of the army. 
He c inmanded a division at Shiloh, and 
W'as instrumental in the winning of that bat- 
tle, and WHS also present at the siege of Vicks- 
burg. On July 4, 1863, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and 
shared with Hooker the victory of Mission- 
ary Ridge. He was commander of the De- 
partment of the Tennessee from October 
27th until the appjintment of General 
Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he 
was appointed to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississippi, which he as- 
sumed in March, 1864. He at once began 
organizing the army and enlarging his com- 
munications preparatory to his march upon 
Atlanta, which he started the same time of 
the beginning of the Richmond campaign by 
Grant. He started on May 6, and was op- 
posed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand 
men, but by consummate generalship, he 
cnpturtd Atlanta, on September 2, after 
Several months of hard fighting and a severe 
loss of men. General Sherman started on 
his famous march to the sea November 15, 
1864, and by December 10 he was before 
Savannah, which he took on December 23. 
This campaign is a monument to the genius 
of General Sherman as he only lost 567 
men from Atlanta to the sea. After rest- 
ing his army he moved northward and occu- 
pied the following places: Columbia, 
Cheraw. Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Benton- 
ville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April 18, he 
accepted the surrender of Johnston's army 
on a basis of agreement that was not re- 
ceived by the Government with favor, but 
finally accorded Johnston the same terms as 



Lee was given by General Grant. He was 
present at the grand review at Washington, 
and after the close of the war was appointed 
to the command of the military division of 
the Mississippi; later was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and assigned to the militar}' 
division of the Missouri. When General 
Grant was elected president Sherman became 
general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded tO' 
the command of the army. His death oc- 
curred February 14, 1891, at Washington. 



ALEXANDER HAMILTON, one of the 
most prominent of the early American 
statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, 
an island of the West Indies, January 11, 
1757, his father being.a Scotchman and his 
mother of Huguenot descent. Owing to the 
death of his mother and business reverses 
which came to his father, young Hamilton 
was sjnt to his mother's relatives in Santa 
Cruz; a few years later was sent to a gram- 
mar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
and in 1773 entered what is now known as 
Columbia College. Even at that time he 
began taking an active part in public affairs 
and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper 
articles on political affairs of the day at- 
tracted considerable attention. In 1776 he 
received a captain's commission and served 
in Washington's army with credit, becoming 
aide-de-camp to \\'ashington with rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In 1781 he resigned his 
commission because of a rebuke from Gen- 
eral Washington. He next received com- 
mand of a New York battalion and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yorktown. After 
this Hamilton studied law, served several 
terms in congress and was a member of the 
convention at which the Federal Constitu- 
tion was drawn up. His work connected 
with "The Federalist" at about this time 
attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



was chosen as the first secretary of the 
United States treasury and as such was the 
author of the funding system and founder of 
the United States Bank. In 1798 he was 
made inspector-general of the army with the 
rank of major-general and was also for a 
short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 
Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of 
New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton 
to fight a duel. Burr attributing his defeat 
to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, 
though declaring the code as a relic of bar- 
barism, accepted the challenge. They met 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, July 11, 1804. 
Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, 
but at Burr's first fire was fatally wounded 
-and died July 12, 1804. 



ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPH- 
ENS, vice-president of the southern 
confederacy, a former United States senator 
and governor of Georgia, ranks among the 
great men of American history. He was born 
February 11, 18 12, near Crawfordsville, 
Georgia. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and admitted to the bar 
in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in 
political life as a member of the state house 
of representatives, and in 1841 declined the 
nomination for the same office; but in 1842 
he was chosen by the same constituency as 
state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of 
the promoters of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his dis- 
trict to the national house of representatives, 
which office he held for sixteen consec- 
utive years. He was a member of the 
house during the passing of the Compromise 
Bill, and was one of its ablest and most 
active supporters. The same year (1850) 
Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state 
convention that framed the celebrated 
" Georgia Platform," and was also a dele- 



gate to the convention' that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, though he bitterly op- 
posed that bill by voice and vote, yet he 
readily acquiesced in their decision after 
it received the votes of the majority of the 
convention. He was chosen vice-president 
of the confederacy without opposition, and 
in 1865 he was the head of the commis- 
sion sent by the south to the Hampton 
Roads conference. He was arrested after 
the fall of the confederacy and was con- 
fined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state 
but was released on his own parole. Mr. 
Stephens was elected to the forty-third, 
forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and for- 
ty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than 
nominal opposition. He was one of the 
Jeffersonian school of American politics. 
He wrote a number of works, principal 
among which are: "Constitutional View 
of the War between the States," and a 
' ' Compendium of the History of the United 
States." He was inaugurated as governor 
of Georgia November 4th, 1882, but died 
March 4, 1883, before the completion of 
his term. 

ROSCOE CONKLING was one of the 
most noted and famous of American 
statesmen. He was among the most fin- 
ished, fluent and eloquent orators that have 
ever graced the halls of the American con- 
gress; ever ready, witty and bitter in de- 
bate he was at once admired and feared by 
his political opponents and revered by his 
followers. True to his friends, loyal to the 
last degree to those with whom his inter- 
ests were associated, he was unsparing to his 
foes and it is said "never forgot an injury." 
Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, 
New York, on the 30th of October, 1829, 
being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred 
Conkling was also a native of New York, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHf. 



33 



born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, 
and became one of the most eminent law- 
yers in the Empire state; pubhshed several 
legal works; served a term in congress; aft- 
erward as United States district judge for 
Northern New York, and in 1852 was min- 
ister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in 
1874. 

Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads 
this article, at an early age took up the 
study of law and soon became successful and 
prominent at the bar. About 1846 he re- 
moved to Utica and in 1858 was elected 
mayor of that city. He was elected repre- 
sentative in congress from this district and 
was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from the state 
of New York and was re-elected in 1873 
and 1S79. In May, 1881, he resigned on 
account of differences with the president. 
In March, 1882, he was appointed and con- 
firmed as associate justice of the United 
States supreme court but declined to serve. 
His death occurred April 18, 1888. 



'ASHINGTON IRVING, one of the 
most eminent, talented and popu- 
lar of American authors, was born in New 
York City, April 3, 1783. His father was 
William Irving, a merchant and a native of 
Scotland, who had married an English lady 
and emigrated to America some twenty 
years prior to the birth of Washington. 
Two of the older sons, William and Peter, 
were partially occupied with newspaper 
work and literary pursuits, and this fact 
naturally inclined Washington to follow 
their example. Washington Irving was given 
the advantages afforded by the common 
schools until about sixteen years of age 
when he began studying law, but continued 
to acquire his literary training by diligent 
perusal at home of the older English writers. 



When nineteen he made his first literary 
venture by printing in the "Morning Chroni- 
cle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter 
Irving, a series of local sketches under the 
noui-dc-phimc oi " Jonathan Oldstyle." In 
1804 he began an extensive trip through 
Europe, returned in 1806, quickly com- 
pleted his legal studies and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practiced the profession. 
In 1807 he began the amusing serial "Sal- 
magundi," which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and not only decided his future 
career but long determined the charac- 
ter of his writings. In 1808, assisted by 
his brother Peter, he wrote "Knickerbock- 
er's History of New York," and in 18 10 an 
excellent biography of Campbell, the poet. 
After this, for some time, Irving's attention 
was occupied by mercantile interests, but 
the commercial house in which he was a 
partner failed in 1817. In 1814 he was 
editor of the Philadelphia "Analectic Maga- 
zine." About 1818 appeared his " Sketch- 
Book, " over the noin-de-pluinc of ' 'Geoffrey 
Crayon," which laid the foundation of Ir- 
ving's fortune and permanent fame. This 
was soon followed by the legends of 
"Sleepy Hollow," and " Rip Van Winkle," 
which at once took high rank as literary 
productions, and Irving's reputation was 
firmly established in both the old and new 
worlds. After this the path of Irving was 
smooth, and his subsequent writings ap- 
peared with rapidity, including "Brace- 
bridge Hall," "The Tales of a Traveler," 
" History of the Life and Voyages of Chris- 
topher Columbus," "The Conquest of 
Granada," "The Alhambra, " " Tour on 
the Prairies," "Astoria," "Adventures oi 
Captain Bonneville," "Wolfert's Roost," 
" Mahomet and his Successors," and "Life 
of Washington," besides other works. 

Washington Irving was never married. 



84 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



He resided during the closing years of iiis 
life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hud- 
son, where he died November 28, 1859. 



CHARLES SUMNER.— Boldly outlined 
on the pages of our history stands out 
the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, states- 
man, lawyer and writer. A man of unim- 
peachable integrity, indomitable will and 
with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit 
leader in troublous times. First in rank as 
an anti-slavery leader in the halls of con- 
gress, he has stamped his image upon the 
annals of his time. As an orator he took 
front rank and, in wealth of illustration, 
rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals 
anything to be found in history. 

Charles Sumner was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 6, 181 1, and was 
the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. 
The family had long been prominent in that 
state. Charles was educated at the Boston 
Public Latin School; entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 
1830. In I 83 I he joined the Harvard Law 
School, then under charge of Judge Story, 
and gave himself up to the study of law 
with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted 
to contributing to the American Jurist. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed 
reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. 
He published several works about this time, 
and from 1S35 to 1837 and again in 1843 
was lecturer in the law school. He had 
planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave 
his attention to politics, speaking and working 
against the admission of Texas to the Union 
and subsequently against the Mexican war. 
In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the 
Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti- 
slavery question at that time alienated both 
friends and clients, but he never swerved 
from his convictions. In 185 1 he was elected 



to the United States senate and took his 
seat therein December i of that year. From 
this time his life became the history of the 
anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 
1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a 
masterly argument for the repeal of the 
fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1856, Pres- 
ton Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of 
South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. 
Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking 
him over the head with a heavy cane. The 
attack was quite serious in its effects and 
kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the 
senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 
and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of 
senator, passing some twenty-three years in 
that position, always advocating the rights 
of freedom and equity. He died March il, 
1874. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, the third pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
near Charlottesville, Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of 
Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He 
received the elements of a good education, 
and in 1760 entered William and Mary Col- 
lege. After remaining in that institution for 
two years he took up the study of law with 
George Wythe, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and 
was admitted to practice in 1767. He ob- 
tained a large and profitable practice, which 
he held for eight years. The conflict be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies then 
drew him into public life, he having for 
some time given his attention to the study 
of the sources of law, the origin of liberty 
and equal rights. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia 
house of burgesses in 1769, and served in 
that body several years, a firm supporter of 
liberal measures, and, although a slave- 



co^IPEXDlc^^ of nioGRAriir 



85 



holder himself, an opponent of slavery. 
With others, he was a leader among the op- 
positi-^n to the king. He took his place as 
a • ^t of the Continental congress June 

75, and after serving on several com- 
mittees was appointed to draught a Declara- 
tion of Independence, which he did, some 
corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin 
and John Adams. This document was pre- 
sented to congress June 28, 1776, and after 
six days' debate was passed and was signed. 
In the following September Mr. Jefferson 
resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, 
, and gave much time to the adapting of laws 
of that state to the new condition of things. 
He drew up the law, the first ever passed by 
a legislature or adopted by a government, 
which secured perfect religious freedom. 
June I, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry 
as governor of Virginia, an office which, 
after co-operating with Washington in de- 
fending the country, he resigned two years 
later. One of his own estates was ravaged 
by the British, and his house at Monticello 
was held by Tarleton for several days, and 
Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After 
the death of his wife, in 1782, he accepted 
the position of plenipotentiary to France, 
which he had declined in 1776. Before 
leaving he served a short time in congress 
at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a 
bill for establishing our present decimal sys- 
tem of currency, one of his most useful pub- 
lic services. He remained in an official ca- 
pacity until October, 1789, and was a most 
active and vigilant minister. Besides the 
onerous duties of his office, during this time, 
he published "Notes on Virginia," sent to 
the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, 
forwarded literary and scientific news and 
gave useful advice to some of the leaders of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia Novem- 



ber 18, 1789, having obtained a leave of 
absence from his post, and shortly after ac- 
cepted Washington's offer of the portfolio 
of the department of state in his cabinet. 
He entered upon the duties of his office in 
March, 1791, and held it until January i^ 
1794, when he tendered his resignation^ 
About this time he and Alexander Hamilton 
became decided and aggressive political op- 
ponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy 
with the people in the French revolation 
and strongly democratic in his feelings, 
while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 
1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of 
the United States. In 1800 he was elected 
to the presidency and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1801. During his administration, 
which lasted for eight years, he having been 
re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful 
war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased 
Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public 
debt, and was the originator of many wise 
measures. Declining a nomination for a 
third term he returned to Monticello, where 
he died July 4, 1826, but a few hours before. 
the death of his friend, John Adams. 

Mr. Jefferson was married January i, 
1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, 
beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died 
September 6, 1782, leaving three children, 
three more having died previous to her 
demise. 



CORNELIUS VANDERBILT,known as 
"Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the 
founder of what constitutes the present im- 
mense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He 
was born May 27, 1794, at Port Richmond, 
Staten Island, Richmond count}', New 
York, and we find him at sixteen years run- 
ning a small vessel between his home and 
New York City. The fortifications of Sta- 
ten and Long Islands were just in course of 



86 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



construction, and lie carried tlie laborers 
from New York to the fortifications in his 
" perianger, " as it was called, in the day, 
and at night carried supplies to the fort on 
the Hudson. Later he removed to New 
York, where he added to his little fleet. At 
the age of twenty-three he was free from 
•debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1817, 
with a partner he built the first steamboat 
that was run between New York and New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her 
captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The 
next year he took command of a larger and 
better boat and by 1824 he was in complete 
control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was 
called, which he had brought up to a point 
Avhere it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore 
Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New 
York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a 
fourteen years' lease and conducted this on 
a paying basis. He severed. his connections 
with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in 
business alone and for twenty years he was 
the leading steamboat man in the country, 
building and operating steamboats on the 
Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the 
Delaware River and the route to' Boston, 
and he had the monopoly of trade on these 
routes. In 1850 he determined to broaden 
his field of operation and accordingly built 
the steamship Prometheus and sailed for 
the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to 
make a personal investigation of the pros- 
pects of the American Atlantic and Pacific 
Ship Canal Company, in which he had pur- 
chased a controlling interest. Commodore 
Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, 
a transit route from Greytown on the At- 
lantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pa- 
cific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles 
over the old route. In 1851 he placed three 
steamers on the Atlantic side and four on 
the Pacific side to accommodate the enor- 



mous traffic occasioned by the discovery of 
gold in California. The following year 
three more vessels were added to his fleet 
and a branch line established from New 
Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Com- 
modore sold out hisNicarauguaTransit Com- 
pany, which had netted him $1,000,000 
and built the renowned steam yacht, the 
" North Star. " He continued in the ship- 
ping business nine years longer and accu- 
mulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he 
presented to the government his magnifi- 
cent steamer " Vanderbilt, " which had cost 
him $800,000 and for which he received the 
thanks of congress. In 1844 he became 
interested in the railroad business which he 
followed in later years and became one of 
the greatest railroad magnates of his time. 
He founded the Vanderbilt University at a 
cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 
1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over 
$100,000,000 to his children. 



ANIEL BOONE v/as one of the most 
famous of the many American scouts, 
pioneers and hunters which the early settle- 
ment of the western states brought into 
prominence. Daniel Boone was born Feb- 
ruary II, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, but while yet a young man removed 
to North Carolina, where he was married. 
In 1769, with five companions, he pene- 
trated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky 
■ — then uninhabited by white men. He had 
frequent conflicts with the Indians and was 
captured by them but escaped and continued 
to hunt in and explore that region for over 
a year, when, in 1771, he returned to his 
home. In the summer of 1773, he removed 
with his own and five other families into 
what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, 
and to defend his colony against the savages, 
he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



37 



on the Kentucky river. This fort was at- 
tacked by the Indians several times in 1777, 
but they were repulsed. The following 
year, however, Boone was surprised and 
captured by them. They took him to De- 
troit and treated him with leniency, but he 
soon escaped and returned to his fort which 
he defended with success against four hun- 
dred and fifty Indians in August, 1778. His 
son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male 
child born in the state of Kentucky. In 
1795 Daniel Boone removed with his family 
to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles 
west of the present site of St. Louis, where 
he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits 
— adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His 
death occurred September 20, 1820. 



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFEL- 
LOW, said to have been America's 
greatest " poet of the people," was born at 
Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He 
entered Bowdoin College at the age of four- 
teen, and graduated in 1825. During his 
college days he distinguished himself in mod- 
ern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, one of the best known of which was 
the "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." After 
his graduation he entered the law office of 
his father, but the following year was offered 
the professorship of modern languages at 
Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years 
study in Europe to perfect himself in French, 
Spanish, Italian and German. After the 
three years were passed he returned to the 
United States and entered upon his profes- 
sorship in 1829. His first volume was a 
small essay on the "Moral and Devotional 
Poetry of Spain " in 1833. In 1835 he pub- 
lished some prose sketches of travel under 
the title of " Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage be- 
yond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to 
the chair of modern languages and literature 



at Harvard University and spent a year in 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, culti- 
vating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature and entered upon his professor- 
ship in 1836. Mr. Longfellow published in 
1839 " Hyperion, a Romance," and "Voices 
of the Night, " and his first volume of original 
verse comprising the selected poems of 
twenty years work, procured him immediate 
recognition as a poet. " Ballads and other 
poems" appeared in 1842, the "Spanish 
Student " a drama in three acts, in 1843, 
"The Belfry of Bruges " in 1846, "Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which 
was considered his master piece. In 1845 
he published a large volume of the "Poets 
and Poetry of Europe," 1849 " Kavanagh, 
a Tale," ''The Seaside and Fireside" in 
1850, "The Golden Legend " in 1851, "The 
Song of Hiawatha " in 1855, " The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish " in 1858, " Tales of 
a Wayside Inn " in 1863; " Flower de Luce" 
in 1866;" "New England Tragedies" in 
1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; 
"Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The 
Hanging of the Crane " in 1874. He also 
published a masterly translation of Dante 
in 1867-70 and the " Morituri Salutamus," 
a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of 
his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Long- 
fellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1854, but continued to reside at Cam- 
bridge. Some of his poetical works have 
been translated into many languages, and 
their popularity rivals that of the best mod- 
ern English poetry. He died March 24, 
1882, but has left an imperishable fame as 
one of the foremost of American poets. 



PETER COOPER was in three partic- 
ulars — as a capitalist and manufacturer, 
as an inventor, and as a philanthropist — • 
connected intimately with some of the most 



38 



C0MPEXD7CM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



important and useful accessions to the in- 
dustrial arts of America, its progress in in- 
vention and the promotion of educational 
and benevolent institutions intended for the 
benefit of people at large. He was born 
in New York city, February 12, 1791. His 
life was one of labor and struggle, as it was 
with most of America's successful men. In 
early boyhood he commenced to help his 
father as a manufacturer of hats. He at- 
tended school only for half of each day for 
a single year, and beyond this his acquisi- 
tions were all his own. When seventeen 
years old he was placed with John Wood- 
ward to learn the trade of coach-making and 
served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily 
that his master oP?red to set him up in busi- 
ness, but this he declined because of the 
debt and obligation it would involve. 

The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune 
was laid in the invention of an improvement 
in machines for shearing cloth. This was 
largely called into use during the war of 
1812 with England when all importations 
of cloth from that country were stopped. 
The machines lost their value, however, on 
the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then 
turned his shop into the manufacture of 
cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the 
grocery business in New York and finally he 
engaged in the manufacture of glue and isin- 
glass which he carried on for more than 
fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works 
in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequently 
he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the 
city of New York, in which he first success- 
full}' applied anthracite to the puddling of 
iron. In these works, he was the first to 
roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof build- 
ings. These works grew to be very exten- 
sive, including mines, blast furnaces, etc. 
While in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 
1830, after his own designs, the first loco- 



motive engine ever constructed on this con- 
tinent and it was successfully operated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also 
took a great interest and invested large cap- 
ital in the extension of the electric telegraph, 
also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; 
besides interesting himself largely in the 
New York state canals. But the most 
cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was 
the establishment of an institution for the 
instruction of the industrial classes, which 
he carried out on a magnificent scale in New 
York city, where the "Cooper Union" 
ranks among the most important institu- 
tions. 

In May, 1876, the Independent party 
nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the 
United States, and at the election following 
he received nearly 100,000 votes. His 
death occurred April 4, 18S3. 



GENERAL ROBERT EDWARD LEE, 
one of the most conspicuous Confeder- 
ate generals during the Civil war, and one 
of the ablest military commanders of mod- 
ern times, was born at Stratford House, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 1-9, 
1807. In 1825 he entered the West Point 
academy and was graduated second in his 
class in 1829, and attached to the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. For a 
number of years he was thus engaged in en- 
gineering work, aiding in establishing the 
boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, 
and superintended various river and harbor 
improvements, becoming captain of engi- 
neers in 1838. He first saw field service in 
the Mexican war, and under General Scott 
performed valuable and efficient service. 
In that brilliant campaign he was conspicu- 
ous for professional ability as well as gallant 
and meritorious conduct, winning in quick 
succession the brevets of major, lieutenant- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir 



39 



colonel, and colonel for his part in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city 
Mexico. At the close of that war he re- 
sumed his engineering work in connection 
with defences along the Atlantic coast, and 
from 1852 to 1855 was superintendent of 
the Military Academy, a position which he 
gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Cavalry. For several years there- 
after he served on the Texas border, but 
happening to be near Washington at the 
time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 
25, 1859, Colonel Lee was placed in com- 
mand of the Federal forces employed in its 
repression. He soon returned to his regi- 
ment in Texas where he remained the 
greater part of i860, and March 16, 1861, 
became colonel of his regiment by regular 
promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he 
resigned upon the secession of Virginia, 
went at once to Richmond and tendered his 
services to the governor of that state, being 
by acclamation appointed commander-in- 
chief of its military and naval forces, with 
the rank of major-general. 

He at once set to work to organize and 
develop the defensive resources of his state 
and within a month directed the occupation 
in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile 
Virginia having entered the confederacy and 
Richmond become the capitol, Lee became 
one of the foremost of its military officers 
and was closely connected with Jefferson 
Davis in planning the moves of that tragic 
time. Lee participated in many of the 
hardest fought battles of the war among 
which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, 
Cold Harbor, and the Chickahominy, Ma- 
nassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Get- 
tysburg, the battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, all the campairns about Richmond, 



Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's 
surrender at Appomatox brought the war to 
a close. It is said of General Lee that but 
few commanders in history have been so 
quick to detect the purposes of an opponent 
or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, 
if ever equaled, in the art of winning the 
passionate, personal love and admiration of 
his troops, he acquired and held an influ- 
ence over his army to the very last, founded 
upon a supreme trust in his judgment, pre- 
science and skill, coupled with his cool, 
stable, equable courage. A great writer has 
said of him: "x\s regards the proper meas- 
ure of General Lee's rank among the sol- 
diers of history, seeing what he wrought 
with such resources as he had, under all the 
disadvantages that ever attended his oper- 
ations, it is impossible to measure what he 
might have achieved in campaigns and bat- 
tles with resources at his own disposition 
equal to those against which he invariably 
contended." 

Left at the close of the war without es- 
tate or profession, he accepted the presi- 
dency of Washington College at Lexington, 
Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870. 



JOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the 
United States, was born in New York, 
December 12, 1745. He took up the study 
of law, graduated from King's College 
(Columbia College), and was admitted to 
the bar in 1768. He was chosen a member 
of the committee of New York citizens to 
protest against the enforcement by the 
British government of the Boston Port Bill, 
was elected to the Continental congress 
which met in 1774, and was author of the 
addresses to the people of Great Britian and 
of Canada adopted by that and the suc- 
ceeding congress. He was chosen to the 
provincial assembly of his own state, and 



40 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



resigned from the Continental congress to 
serve in that body, wrote most of its public 
papers, including the constitution of the new 
state, and was then made chief-justice. He 
was again chosen as a member of the Con- 
tinental congress in 1778, and became presi- 
dent of that body. He was sent to Spain 
as minister in 1780, and his services there 
resulted in substantial and moral aid for the 
struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and 
Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain in 1782, and Jay was ap- 
pointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, 
and held the position until the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. During this time 
he had contributed strong articles to the 
"Federalist" in favor of the adoption of 
the constitution, and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the ratification of that 
instrument by his state. He was appointed 
by Washington as first chief-justice of the 
United States in 1789. In this high capac- 
ity the great interstate and international 
questions that arose for immediate settle- 
ment came before him for treatment. 

In 1794, at a time when the people in 
gratitude for the aid that France had ex- 
tended to us, were clamoring for the privilege 
of going to the aid of that nation in her 
struggle with Great Britain and her own op- 
pressors, John Jay was sent to England as 
special envoy to negotiate a treaty with 
that power. The instrument known as 
"Jay's Treaty " was the result, and while 
in many of its features it favored our nation, 
yet the neutrality clause in it so angered the 
masses that it was denounced throughout 
the entire country, and John Jay was burned 
in effigy in the city of New York. The 
treaty was finally ratified by Washington, 
and approved, in August, 1795. Having 
been elected governor of his state for three 
consecutive terms, he then retired from 



active life, declining an appointment as 
chief-justice of the supreme court, made by 
John Adams and confirmed by the senate. 
He died in New York in 1829. 



PHILLIP HENRY SHERIDAN was 
one of the greatest American cavalry 
generals. He was born March 6, 1831, at 
Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was ap- 
pointed to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, from which he graduat- 
ed and was assigned to the First Infantry as 
brevet second lieutenant July i, 1853. 
After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, 
in Washington and Oregon territories until 
the fall of 1 86 1, he was recalled to the 
states and assigned to the army of south- 
west Missouri as chief quartermaster from 
the duties of which he was soon relieved. 
After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quar- 
termaster in the Corinth campaign, and on 
May 25 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Michigan Cavalry. On July i, in 
command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated 
a superior force of the enemy and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
General Sheridan was then transferred to 
the army of the Ohio, and commanded a 
division in the battle of Perrysville and also 
did good service at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, where he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. He fought with 
great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which 
Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, 
under whom Sheridan fought the battle of 
Chattanooga and won additional renown. 
Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant- 
general, he applied for the transfer of Gen- 
eral Sheridan to the east, and appointed 
him chief of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac. During the campaign of 1864 
the cavalry covered the front and flanks of 
the infantry until May 8, when it was wif.^ 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAriir. 



41 



drawn and General Sheridan started on a 
raid against the Confederate lines of com- 
munication with Richmond and on May 25 
he rejoined the armj^ having destroyed con- 
siderable of the confederate stores and de- 
feated their cavalry under General Stuart at 
Yellow Tavern. The outer line of defences 
around Richmond were taken, but the sec- 
ond line was too strong to be taken by as- 
sault, and accordingly Sheridan crossed the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, reaching 
James River May 14, and thence by White 
House and Hanover Court House back to 
the army. The cavalry occupied Cold 
Harbor May 31, which they held until the 
arrival of the infantry. On General Sheri- 
dan's next raid he routed Wade Hampton's 
cavalry, and August 7 was assigned to the 
command of the Middle Military division, 
and during the campaign of the Shenan- 
doah Valley he performed the unheard of 
feat of " destroying an entire army." He 
was appointed brigadier-general of the reg- 
ular army and for his victory at Cedar Creek 
he was promoted to the rank of major-gen- 
eral. General Sheridan started out Febru- 
ary 27, 1865, with ten thousand cavalry 
and destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad 
and the James River Canal and joined the 
army again at Petersburg March 27. He 
commanded at the battle of Five Forks, the 
decisive victory which compelled Lee to 
evacuate Petersburg. On April 9, Lee tried 
to break through Sheridan's dismounted 
command but when the General drew aside 
his cavalry and disclosed the deep lines of 
infantry the attempt was abandoned. Gen- 
eral Sheridan mounted his men and was about 
to charge when a white flag was flown at the 
head of Lee's column which betokened the 
surrender of the army. After the war Gen- 
eral Sheridan had command of the army of 
the southwest, of the gulf and the depart- 



ment of Missouri until he was appointed 
lieutenant-general and assigned to the di- 
vision of Missouri with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, and assumed supreme command of 
the army November i, 1883, which post he 
held until his death, August 5, 1888. 



PHINEAS T. BARNUM, the greatest 
showman the world has ever seen, was 
born at Danbury, Connecticut, July 5, 18 10. 
At the age of eighteen years he began busi- 
ness on his own account. He opened a re- 
tail fruit and confectionery house, including 
a barrel of ale, in one part of an old car- 
riage house. He spent fifty dollars in fitting 
up the store and the stock cost him seventy 
dollars. Three years later he put in a full 
stock, such as is generally carried in a 
country store, and the same year he started 
a Democratic newspaper, known as the 
"Herald of Freedom." He soon found 
himself in jail under a sixty days' sentence 
for libel. During the winter of 1834-5 he 
went to New York and began soliciting busi- 
ness for several Chatham street houses. In 

1835 he embarked in the show business at 
Niblo's Garden, having purchased the cele- 
brated " Joice Heth" for one thousand dol- 
lars. He afterward engaged the celebrated 
athlete, Sig. Vivalia, and Barnum made his 
' ' first appearance on any stage, " acting as a 
"super" to Sig. Vivalia on his opening 
night. He became ticket seller, secretary 
and treasurer of Aaron Turner's circus in 

1836 and traveled with it about the country. 
His next venture was the purchase of a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, and engaged 
a theatrical company to show in the princi- 
pal towns along that river. In 1840 he 
opened Vaux Hall Garden, New Y^ork, with 
variety performances, and introduced the 
celebrated jig dancer, John Diamond, to the 
public. The next year he quit the show 



42 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArilT. 



business and settled down in New York as 
agent of Sear's Pictorial Illustration of the 
Bible, but a few months later again leased 
Vaux Hall. In September of the same year 
he again left the business, and became 
' ' puff" writer for the Bowery Amphitheater. 
In December he bought the Scudder Museum, 
and a year later introduced the celebrated 
Tom Thumb to the world, taking him to 
England in 1844, and remaining there three 
years. He then returned to New York, and 
in 1849, through James Hall Wilson, he en- 
gaged the "Swedish Nightingale," Jenny 
Lind, to come to this country and make a 
tour under his management. He also had 
sent the Swiss Bell Ringers to America in 
1844. He became owner of the Baltimore 
Museum and the Lyceum and Museum at 
Philadelphia. In 1850 he brought a dozen 
elephants from Ceylon to make a tour of this 
country, and in 1851 sent the " Bateman 
Children" to London. During 185 1 and 
1852 he traveled as a temperance lecturer, 
and became president of a bank at Pequon- 
nock, Connecticut. In 1S52 he started a 
weekly pictorial paper known as the " Illus- 
trated News." In 1865 his Museum was 
destroyed by fire, and he immediately leased 
the Winter Garden Theatre, where he played 
his company until he opened his own 
Museum. This was destroyed by fire in 
1868, and he then purchased an interest in 
the George Wood Museum. 

After dipping into politics to some ex- 
tent, he began his career as a really great 
showman in 1871. Three years later he 
erected an immense circular building in New 
York, in which he produced his panoramas. 
He has frequently appeared as a lecturer, 
some times on temperance, and some times 
on other topics, among which were "Hum- 
bugs of the World," "Struggles and 
Triumphs," etc. He was owner of the im- 



mense menagerie and circus known as the 
"Greatest Show on Earth," and his fame 
extended throughout Europe and America. 
He died in 1891. 



JAMES MADISON, the fourth president 
of the United States, 1809-17, was 
born at Port Conway, Prince George coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 16, 1751. He was the 
son of a wealthy planter, who lived on a fine 
estate called " Montpelier, " which was but 
twenty-five miles from Monticello, the home 
of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Madison was the 
eldest of a family of seven children, all of 
whom attained maturity. He received his 
early education at home under a private 
tutor, and consecrated himself with unusual 
vigor to study. At a very early age he was 
a proficient scholar in Latin, Greek, French 
and Spanish, and in 1769 he entered Prince- 
ton College, New Jersey. He graduated in 
1 77 1, but remained for several months after 
his graduation to pursue a course of study 
under the guidance of Dr. Witherspoon. 
He permanently injured his health at this 
time and returned to Virginia in 1772, and 
for two years he was immersed in the study 
of law, and at the same time made extend- 
ed researches in theology, generalliterature, 
and philosophical studies. He then directed 
his full attention to the impending struggle 
of the colonies for independence, and also 
took a prominent part in the religious con- 
troversy at that time regarding so called 
persecution of other religious denominations 
by the Church of England. Mr. Madison 
was elected to the Virginia assembly in 1776 
and in November, 1777, he was chosen 
a member of the council of state. He took 
his seat in the continental congress in 
March, 1/80. He was made chairman of 
the committee on foreign relations, and 
drafted an able memoranda for the use of 



COMTENDIUM OF BIOGRArHY. 



48 



the American ministers to the French and 
Spanish governments, that established the 
claims of the republic to the territories be- 
tween the Alleghany Mountains and the 
Mississippi River. He acted as chairman of 
the ways and means committee in 1783 and 
as a member of the Virginia legislature in 
1784-86 he rendered important services to 
the state. Mr. Madison represented Vir- 
giana in the national constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 17S7, and was one of 
the chief framers of the constitution. He 
was a member of the first four congresses, 
1789-97, and gradually became identified 
with the anti-federalist or republican party 
of which he eventually became the leader. 
He remained in private life during the ad- 
ministration of John Adams, and was secre- 
tary of state under President Jefferson. Mr. 
Madison administered the affairs of that 
post with such great ability that he was the 
natural successor of the chief magistrate 
and was chosen president by an electoral 
vote of 122 to 53. He was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at that critical period incur 
history when the feelings of the people were 
embittered with those of England, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
which finally resulted in the declaration of 
war, June 18, 1812. In theautumn of that 
year President Madison was re-elected by a 
vote of 128 to 89, and conducted the war 
for three years with varying success and 
defeat in Canada, by glorious victories at 
sea, and by the battle of New Orleans that 
was fought after the treaty of peace had 
been signed at Ghent, December 24, 18 14. 
During this war the national capitol at 
Washington was burned, and many valuable 
papers were destroyed, but the declaration 
of independence was saved to the country 
by the bravery and courage of Mr. Madi- 
son's illustrious wife. A commercial treaty 



was negotiated with Great Britain in 181 5, 
and in April, 1S16, a national bank was in- 
corporated by congress. Mr. Madison was 
succeeded, March 4, 1817, by James Monroe, 
and retired into private life on his estate at 
Montpelier, where he died June 28, 1836. 



Frederick; Douglass, a noted 
American character, was a protege of 
the great abolitionist, William Lloyd Garri- 
son, by whom he was aided in gaining his 
education. Mr. Douglass was born in Tuck- 
ahoe county, Maryland, in February, 1817, 
his mother being a negro woman and his 
father a white man. He was born in slav- 
ery and belonged to a man by the name of 
Lloyd, under which name he went until he 
ran away from his master and changed it to 
Douglass. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Baltimore where he learned to read 
and write, and later his owner allowed him 
to hire out his own time for three dollars a 
week in a shipyard. In September, 1838, 
he fled from Baltimore and made his way to 
New York, and from thence went to New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Here he was mar- 
ried and supported himself and family by 
working at the wharves and in various work- 
shops. In the summer of 1841 he attended 
an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, 
and made a speech which was so well re- 
ceived that he was offered the agency of the 
Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society. In this 
capacity he traveled through the New En- 
gland states, and about the same time he 
published his first book called "Narrative 
of my Experience in Slavery." Mr. Doug- 
lass went to England in 1845 and lectured 
on slavery to large and enthusiastic audi- 
ences in all the large towns of the country, 
and his friends made up a purse of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars and purchased his 
freedom in due form of law. 



44 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



Mr. Douglass applied himself to the de- 
livery of lyceum lectures after the abolition 
of slavery, and in 1870 he became the editor 
of the " New National Era " in Washington. 
In 1 87 1 he was appointed assistant secretary 
of the commission to San Domingo and on 
his return he was appointed one of the ter- 
ritorial council for the District of Colorado 
by President Grant. He was elected presi- 
dential elector-at-large for the state of New 
York and was appointed to carry the elect- 
oral vote to Washington. He was also 
United States marshal for the District of 
Columbia in 1876, and later was recorder 
of deeds for the same, from which position 
he was removed by President Cleveland in 
1886. In the fall of that year he visited 
England to inform the friends that he had 
made while there, of the progress of the 
colored race in America, and on his return 
he was appointed minister to Hayti, by 
President Harrison in 18S9. His career as 
a benefactor of his race was closed by his 
death in February, 1895, near Washington. 



WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT.— The 
ear for rhythm and the talent for 
graceful expression are the gifts of nature, 
and they were plentifully endowed on the 
above named poet. The principal charac- 
teristic of his poetry is the thoughtfulness 
and intellectual process by which his ideas 
ripened in his mind, as all his poems are 
bright, clear and sweet. Mr. Bryant was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and was 
educated at Williams College, from which 
he graduated, having entered it in 18 10. 
He took up the study of law, and in 18 15 
was admitted to the bar, but after practicing 
successfully for ten years at Plainfield and 
Great Barrington, he removed to New York 
in 1825. The following year he became 



the editor of the "Evening Post," which 
he edited until his death, and under his di- 
rection this paper maintained, through a 
long series of years, a high standing by the 
boldness of its protests against slavery be- 
fore the war, by its vigorous support of the 
government during the war, and by the 
fidelity and ability of its advocacy of the 
Democratic freedom in trade. Mr. Bry- 
ant visited Europe in 1834, 1845, 1849 and 
1857, and presented to the literary world 
the fruit of his travels in the series of "Let- 
ters of a Traveler," and "Letters from 
Spain and Other Countries." In the world 
of literature he is known chiefly as a poet, 
and here Mr. Bryant's name is illustrious, 
both at home and abroad. He contributed 
verses to the "Country Gazette " before he 
was ten years of age, and at the age of nine- 
teen he wrote " Thanatopsis," the most im- 
pressive and widely known of his poems. 
The later outgrowth of his genius was his 
translation of Homer's "Iliad" in 1870 
and the "Odyssey" in 1871. He also 
made several speeches and addresses which 
have been collected in a comprehensive vol- 
ume called " Orations and Addresses." He 
was honored in many ways by his fellow 
citizens, who delighted to pay tributes of 
respect to his literary eminence, the breadth 
of his public spirit, the faithfulness of his 
service, and the worth- of his private char- 
acter. Mr. Bryant died in New York City 
June 12, 1878. 



WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD, the 
secretary of state during one of the 
most critical times in the history of our 
country, and the right hand man of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, ranks among the greatest 
statesmen America has produced. Mr. 
Seward was born May 16, 1801, at Florida, 
Orange county, New York, and with such 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT 



47 



facilities as the place afforded he fitted him- 
self for a college course. He attended 
Union College at Schenectady, New York, 
at the age of fifteen, and took his degree in 
the regular course, with signs of promise in 
1820, after which he diligently addressed 
himself to the study of law under competent 
instructors, and started in the practice of 
his profession in 1823. 

Mr. Seward entered the political arena 
and in 1828 we find him presiding over a 
convention in New York, its purpose being 
the nomination of John Quincy Adams for a 
second term. He was married in 1824 and 
in 1830 was elected to the state senate. 
From 1838 to 1842 he was governor of the 
state of New York. Mr. Seward's next im- 
portant position was that of United States 
senator from New York. 

\V. H. Seward was chosen by President 
Lincoln to fill the important office of the 
secretary of state, and b.y his firmness and 
diplomacy in the face of difficulties, he aided 
in piloting the Union through that period of 
strife, and won an everlasting fame. This 
great statesman died at Auburn, New York, 
October 10, 1872, in the seventy-second 
year of his eventful life. 



JOSEPH JEFFERSON, a name as dear 
<J as it is familiar to the theater-going 
world in America, suggests first of all a fun- 
loving, drink-loving, mellow voiced, good- 
natured Dutchman, and the name of "Rip 
Van Winkle " suggests the pleasant features 
of Joe Jefferson, so intimately are play and 
player associated in the minds of those who 
have had the good fortune to shed tears of 
laughter and sympathy as a tribute to the 
greatness of his art. Joseph Jefferson was 
born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
His genius was an inheritance, if there be 
such, as his great-grandfather, Thomas 



Jefferson, was a manager and actor in Eng- 
land. His grandfather, Joseph Jefferson, 
was the most popular comedian of the New 
York stage in his time, and his father, Jos- 
eph Jefferson, the second, was a good actor 
also, but the third Joseph Jefferson out- 
shone them all. 

At the age of three years Joseph Jeffer- 
son came on the stage as the child in "Pi- 
zarro," and his training was upon the stage 
from childhood. Later on he lived and 
acted in Chicago, Mobile, and Texas. After 
repeated misfortunes he returned to New 
Orleans from Texas, and his brother-in-law, 
Charles Burke, gave him money to reach 
Philadelphia, where he joined the Burton 
theater company. Here his genius soon as- 
serted itself, and his future became promis- 
ing and brilliant. His engagements through- 
out the United States and Australia were 
generally successful, and when he went to 
England in 1865 Mr. Boucicault consented 
to make some important changes in his 
dramatization of Irving's story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and Mr. Jefferson at once placed 
it in the front rank as a comedy. He made 
a fortune out of it, and played nothing else 
for many years. In later years, however, 
Mr. Jefferson acquitted himself of the charge 
of being a one-part actor, and the parts of 
"Bob Acres," "Caleb Plummer" and 
"Golightly " all testify to the versatility of 
his genius. 

GEORGE BRINTON McCLELLAN, 
a noted American general, was born 
in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1846 from West Point, and 
was breveted second lieutenant of engineers. 
He was with Scott in the Mexican war, 
taking part in all the engagements from 
Vera Cruz to the final capture of the Mexi- 



48 



C 0\[PEXDIL 'M OF BIO GRA Plir. 



can capital, and was breveted first lieuten- 
ant and captain for gallantry displaj'ed on 
various occasions. In 1S57 he resigned his 
commission and accepted the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and became presi- 
dent of the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company. He was commissioned major- 
general by the state of Ohio in 1861, 
placed in command of the department of 
the Ohio, and organized the first volunteers 
called for from that state. In May he was 
appointed major-general in the United 
States army, and ordered to disperse the 
confederates overrunning West Virginia. 
He accomplished this task promptly, and 
received the thanks of congress. After the 
first disaster at Bull Run he was placed 
in command of the department of Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later of the 
Army of the Potomac. Upon retirement 
of General Scott the command of the en- 
tire United States army devolved upon Mc- 
Clellan, but he was relieved of it within a 
few months. In March, 1862, after elabor- 
ate preparation, he moved upon Manassas, 
only to find it deserted by the Confederate 
army, which had been withdrawn to im- 
pregnable defenses prepared nearer Rich- 
mond. He then embarked his armies for 
Fortress Monroe and after a long delay at 
Yorktown, began the disastrous Peninsular 
campaign, which resulted in the Army of the 
Potomac being cooped up on the James 
River below Richmond. His forces were 
then called to the support of General Pope, 
near Washington, and he was left without an 
^army. After Pope's defeat McClellan was 
placed in command of the troops for the de- 
fense of the capital, and after a thorough or- 
ganization he followed Lee into Maryland 
and the battles of Antietam and South Moun- 
tain ensued. The delay which followed 



caused general dissatisfaction, and he was re- 
lieved of his command, and retired from active 
service. 

In 1864 McClellan was nominated for 
the presidency by the Democrats, and over- 
whelmingly defeated by Lincoln, three 
states only casting their electoral votes for 
McClellan. On election day he resigned 
his commission and a few months later went 
to Europe where he spent several years. 
He wrote a number of military text- books 
and reports. His death occurred October 
29. 1885. 

SAMUEL J. TILDEN.— Among the great 
statesmen whose names adorn the pages 
of American history may be found that of 
the subject of this sketch. Known as a 
lawyer of highest ability, his greatest claim 
to immortality will ever lie in his successful 
battle against the corrupt rings of his native 
state and the elevation of the standard of 
official life. 

Samuel J. Tilden was born in New Leb- 
anon, New York, February 9, 1814. He 
pursued his academic studies at Yale Col- 
lege and the University of New York, tak- 
ing the course of law at the latter. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. His rare 
ability as a thinker and writer upon public 
topics attracted the attention of President 
Van Buren, of whose policy and adminis- 
tration he became an active and efficient 
champion. He made for himself a high 
place in his profession and amassed quite a 
fortune as the result of his industry and 
judgment. During the days of his greatest 
professional labor he was ever one of the 
leaders and trusted counsellors of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a member of the 
conventions to revise the state constitution, 
both in 1846 and 1867, and served two 
terms in the lower branch of the state leg- 



COMPEXDICM OF BIOGRArilV 



49 



islature. He was one of the controlling 
spirits in the overthrow of the notorious 
" Tweed ring " and the reformation of the 
f;overnment of the city of New York. In 
1S74 he was elected governor of the state 
of New York. While in this position he 
assailed corruption in high places, success- 
fully battling with the iniquitous "canal 
ring " and crushed its sway over all depart- 
ments of the government. Recognizing his 
character and executive ability Mr. Tilden 
was nominated for president by the na- 
tional Democratic convention in 1S76. At 
the election he received a much larger popu- 
lar vote than his opponent, and 184 uncon- 
tested electoral votes. There being some 
electoral votes contested, a commission ap- 
pointed by congress decided in favor of the 
Republican electors and Mr. Hayes, the can- 
didate of that party was declared elected. 
In 1880, the Democratic party, feeling that 
Mr. Tilden had been lawfully elected to the 
presidency tendered the nomination for the 
same office to Mr. Tilden, but he declined, 
retiring from all public functions, owing to 
failing health. He died August 4, 1886. 
By will he bequeathed several millions of 
dollars toward the founding of public libra- 
ries in New York City, Yonkers, etc. 



NOAH WEBSTER.— As a scholar, law- 
yer, author and journalist, there is no 
one who stands on a higher plane, or whose 
reputation is better established than the 
honored gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. He was a native of West Hartford, 
Connecticut, and was born October 17, 
1758. He came of an old New England 
family, his mother being a descendant of 
Governor William Bradford, of the Ply- 
mouth colony. After acquiring a solid edu- 
cation in early life Dr. Webster entered 
Yale College, from which he graduated in 



1778. For a while he taught school in 
Hartford, at the same time studying law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1781. He 
taught a classical school at Goshen, Orange 
county. New York, in 1782-83, and while 
there prepared his spelling book, grammar 
and reader, which was issued under the title 
of "A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language ," in three parts, — so successful a 
work that up to 1876 something like forty 
million of the spelling books had been 
sold. In 1786 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures on the English language in the seaboard 
cities and the following year taught an 
academy at Philadelphia. From December 
•7. ^I'^l ^ until November, 1788, he edited 
the "American Magazine, "a periodical that 
proved unsuccessful. In 1789-93 he prac- 
ticed law in Hartford having in the former 
year married the daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston. He returned to New York 
and November, 1793, founded a daily paper, 
the "Minerva," to which was soon added a 
semi-weekly edition under the name of the 
" Herald." The former is still in existence 
under the name of the " Commercial Adver- 
tiser." In this paper, over the signature of 
" Curtius,"' he published a lengthy and schol- 
arly defense of "John Jay's treaty." 

In 1798, Dr. Webster moved to New 
Haven and in 1807 commenced the prepar- 
ation of his great work, the "American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language," which 
was not completed and published until 1828. 
He made his home in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, for the ten years succeeding 181 2, and 
was instrumental in the establishment of 
Amherst College, of which institution he was 
the first president of the board of trustees. 
During 1824-5 he resided in Europe, pursu- 
ing his philological studies in Paris. He 
completed his dictionary from the libraries 
of Cambridge University in 1825, and de- 



50 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT 



voted his leisure for the remainder of his 
life to the revision of that and his school 
books. 

Dr. Webster was a member of the legis- 
latures of both Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, was judge of one of the courts of the 
former state and was identified with nearly 
all the literary and scientific societies in the 
neighborhood of Amherst College. He died 
in New Haven, May 28, 1843. 

Among the more prominent works ema- 
nating from the fecund pen of Dr. Noah 
Webster besides those mentioned above are 
the following: "Sketches of American 
Policy," " Winthrop's Journal," " A Brief 
History of Epidemics," "Rights of Neutral 
Nations in time of War," "A Philosophical 
and Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage," "Dissertations on the English 
Language," "A Collection of Essays," 
"The Revolution in France," "Political 
Progress of Britain," "Origin, History, and 
Connection of the Languages of Western 
Asia and of Europe," and many others. 



WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON, the 
great anti-slavery pioneer and leader, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1804. He was apprenticed 
to the printing business, and in 1828 was in- 
duced to take charge of the "Journal of the 
Times" at Bennington, Vermont. While 
supporting John Quincy Adams for the presi- 
dency he took occasion in that paper to give 
expression of his views on slavery. These 
articles attracted notice, and a Quaker 
named Lundy, editor of the "Genius of 
Emancipation," published in Baltimore, in- 
duced him to enter a partnership with him 
for the conduct of his paper. It soon 
transpired that the views of the partners 
were not in harmony, Lundy favoring grad- 
ual emancipation, while Garrison favored 



immediate freedom. In 1850 Mr. Garrison 
was thrown into prison for libel, not being 
able to pay a fine of fifty dollars and costs. 
In his cell he wrote a number of poems 
which stirred the entire north, and a mer- 
chant, Mr. Tappan, of New York, paid his 
fine and liberated him, after seven weeks of 
confinement. He at once began a lecture 
tour of the northern cities, denouncing 
slavery as a sin before God, and demanding 
its immediate abolition in the name of re- 
ligion and humanity. He opposed the col- 
onization scheme of President Monroe and 
other leaders, and declared the right of 
every slave to immediate freedom. 

In 1 83 1 he formed a partnership with 
Isaac Knapp, and began the publication of 
the "Liberator" at Boston. The "imme- 
diate abolition " idea began to gather power 
in the north, while the south became 
alarmed at the bold utterance of this jour- 
nal. The mayor of Boston was besought 
by southern influence to interfere, and upon 
investigation, reported upon the insignifi- 
cance, obscurity, and poverty of the editor 
and his staff, which report was widely 
published throughout the country. Re- 
wards were offered by the southern states 
for his arrest and conviction. Later Garri- 
son brought from England, where an eman- 
cipation measure had just been passed, 
some of the great advocates to work for the 
cause in this country. In 1835 a mob 
broke into his office, broke up a meeting of 
women, dragged Garrison through the street 
with a rope around his body, and his life 
was saved only by the interference of the 
police, who lodged him in jail. Garrison 
declined to sit in the World's Anti-Slavery 
convention at London in 1840, because 
that body had refused women representa- 
tion. He opposed the formation of a po- 
litical party with emancipation as its basis. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



51 



He favored a dissolution of the union, and 
declared the constitution which bound the 
free states to the slave states " A covenant 
with death and an agreement with hell. " 
In 1843 he became president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery society, which position he 
held until 1865, when slavery was no more. 
During all this time the " Liberator " had 
continued to promulgate anti-slavery doc- 
trines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his 
position, and declared his work was com- 
pleted. He died May 24, 1879. 



JOHN BROWN ("Brown of Ossawato- 
mie"), a noted character in American 
history, wasbornatTorrington, Connecticut, 
May 9, iSoo. In his childhood he removed 
to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's 
trade. He married there, and in 1855 set- 
tled in Kansas. He lived at the village of 
Ossawatomie in that state, and there began 
his fight against slavery. He advocated im- 
mediate emancipation, and held that the 
negroes of the slave states merely waited 
for a leader in an insurrection that would re- 
sult in their freedom. He attended the 
convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 
1859, and was the leading spirit in organiz- 
ing a raid upon the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were 
well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. 
He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry 
in the summer of 1859, and on October 
1 6th of that year, with about twenty follow- 
ers, he surprised and captured the United 
States arsenal, with all its supplies and 
arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not 
come to his support, and the next day he 
was attacked by the Virginia state militia, 
wounded and captured. He was tried in 
the courts of the state, convicted, and was 
hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1859. 
The raid and its results had a tremendous 



effect, and hastened the culmination of the 
troubles between the north and south. The 
south had the advantage in discussing this 
event, claiming that the sentiment which 
inspired this act of violence was shared by 
the anti-slavery element of the country. 

EDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the 
American stage during his long career 
as a star actor. He was the son of a famous 
actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born 
in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, neaf 
Baltimore. At the age of si.xteen he made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the Boston 
Museum, in a minor part in "Richard III." 
It was while playing in California in 185 1 
that an eminent critic called general atten* 
tion to the young actor's unusual talent. 
However, it was not until 1863, at the great 
Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy of 
his career began. His Hamlet held the 
boards for 100 nights in succession, and 
from that time forth Booth's reputation was 
established. In 1868 he opened his own 
theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. 
Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, 
however, but as an actor he was undoubted- 
ly the most popular man on the American 
stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in 
the world. In England he also won the 
greatest applause. 

Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly 
to Shakspearean roles, and his art was 
characterized by intellectual acuteness, 
fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, 
Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave 
play to his greatest powers. In 1865, 
when his brother, John Wilkes Booth, 
enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth re- 
solved to retire from the stage, but waspur- 
suaded to reconsider that decision. The 
odium did not in any way attach to the 



52 



COMPENDIUM OF BIO GRAPH 2: 



great actor, and his popularity was not 
affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung 
closel}' to the legitimate and the traditional 
in drama, making no experiments, and offer- 
ing little encouragement to new dramatic 
authors. His death occurred in New York, 
June 7, 1894. 



JOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American 
officer, was born at Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, November 13, 18 14. He graduated 
from West Point Military Academy in 1837, 
and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. 
He served in Florida in the Seminole war, 
and in garrison until the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. During the latter he saw 
service as a staff officer and was breveted 
captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and 
Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 
1 833 he took up farming in California, which 
he followed until 1861. During this time 
he acted as superintendent of military roads 
in Oregon. At the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion Hooker tendered his services to the 
government, and. May 17, 1861, was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served in the defence of Washington and on 
the lower Potomac until his appointment to 
the command of a division in the Third 
Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant con- 
duct at the siege of Yorktown and in the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Fra- 
zier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made 
major-general. At the head of his division 
he participated in the battles of Manassas 
and Chantilly. September 6, 1S62, he was 
placed at the head of the First Corps, and 
in the battles of South Mountain and An- 
tietam acted with his usual gallantry, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. On re- 
joining the army in November he was made 
brigadier-general in the regular army. On 



General Burnside attaining the command of 
the Army of the Potomac General Hooker 
was placed in command of the center grand 
division, consisting of the Second and Fifth 
Corps. At the head of these gallant men 
he participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, General Hooker assumed com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
May following fought the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. At the time of the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with Gen- 
eral Halleck, Hooker requested to be re- 
lieved of his command, and June 28 was 
succeeded by George G. Meade. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, General Hooker was given 
command of the Twentieth Corps and trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and 
distinguished himself at the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ring- 
gold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw 
almost daily service and merited his well- 
known nickname of " Fighting Joe." July 
30, 1864, at his own request, he was re- 
lieved of his command. He subsequently 
was in command of several military depart- 
ments in the north, and in October, 1868, 
was retired with the full rank of major-gen- 
eral. He died October 31, 1879. 



JAY GOULD, one of the greatest finan- 
ciers that the world has ever produced, 
was born May 27, 1836, at Roxbury, Dela- 
ware county, New York. He spent his early 
years on his father's farm and at the age of 
fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New 
York, and kept books for the village black- 
smith. He acquired a taste for mathematics 
and surveying and on leaving school found 
employment in making the surveyor's map 
of Ulster county. He surveyed very exten- 
sively in the state and accumulated five thou- 
sand dollars as the fruits of his labor. He 



coyrrExnii'M of niOGRAriir. 



58 



was then stricken with typhoid fever but re- 
covered and made the acquaintance of one 
Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the west- 
ern part of the state to locate a site for a 
tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, 
built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and 
was soon doing a large lumber business with 
Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control 
of the entire plant, which he sold out just 
before the panic of 1857 and in this year he 
became the largest stock holder in the Strouds- 
burg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the 
crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland 
& Washington Railroad at ten cents on the 
dollar, and put all his money into railroad 
securities. For a long time he conducted 
this road which he consolidated with the 
Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1859 
he removed to New York and became a 
heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, en- 
tered that company and was president until 
its reorganization in 1872. In December, 
1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thou- 
sand miles of railroad. In 1887 he pur- 
chased the controlling interest in the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and 
was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western 
portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other 
lines soon came under his control, aggregat- 
ing thousand of miles, and he soon was rec- 
ognized as one of the world's greatest rail- 
road magnates. He continued to hold his 
place as one of the master financiers of the 
century until the time of his death which 
occurred December 2, 1892. 



THOMAS HART BENTON, a very 
prominent United States senator and 
statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North 
Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to 
Tennessee in early life, studied law, and be- 
gan to practice at Nashville about 18 10. 



During the war of 1S12-1815 he served as 
colonel of a Tennessee regiment under Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson. In 18 15 he removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was 
chosen United States senator for that state. 
Having been re-elected in 1826, he sup- 
ported President Jackson in his opposition 
to the United States bank and advocated a 
gold and silver currency, thus gaining the 
name of " Old Bullion," by which he was 
familiarly known. For many years he was 
the most prominent man in Missouri, and 
took rank among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. He was a member of the senate 
for thirty years and opposed the extreme 
states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. 
In 1852 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in which he opposed the repeal 
of the ^fissouri compromise. He was op- 
posed by a powerful party of States' Rights. 
Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a 
candidate for governor of that state in 1856. 
Colonel Benton published a considerable 
work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled 
" Thirty Years' View, or a History of the 
Working of the American Government for 
Thirty Years, 1820-50." He died April 10, 
1858. 

STEPHEN ARNOLD DOUGLAS.— One 
of the most prominent figures in politic- 
al circles during the intensely exciting days 
that preceded the war, and a leader of the 
Union branch of the Democratic party was 
the gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. 

He was born at Brandon, Rutland coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 23, 1813, of poor but 
respectable parentage. His father, a prac- 
ticing physician, died while our subject was 
but an infant, and his mother, with two 
small children and but small means, could 
give him but the rudiments of an education. 



54 



COMPENDJUM OF BIOGRAPH}'. 



At the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged 
at work in the cabinet making business to 
raise funds to carry him through college. 
After a few years of labor he was enabled to 
pursue an academical course, first at Bran- 
don, and later at Canandaigua, New York. 
In the latter place he remained until 1833, 
taking np the study of law. Before he was 
twenty, however, his funds running low, he 
abandoned all further attempts at educa- 
tion, determining to enter at once the battle 
of life. After some wanderings through the 
western states he took up his residence at 
Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching 
school for three months, he was admitted to 
the bar, and' opened an office in 1834. 
Within a year from that time, so rapidly had 
he risen in his profession, he was chosen 
attorney general of the state, and warmly 
espoused the principles of the Democratic 
party. He soon became one of the most 
popular orators in Illinois. It was at this 
time he gained the name of the "Little 
Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position 
of attorney general having been elected to 
the legislature. In 184 1 he was chosen 
judge of the supreme court of Illinois which 
he resigned two years later to take a seat in 
congress. It was during this period of his 
life, while a member of the lower house, 
that he established his reputation and took 
the side of those who contended that con- 
.gress had no constitutional right to restrict 
the extension of slavery further than the 
agreement between the states made in 1820. 
This, in spite of his being opposed to slav- 
ery, and only on grounds which he believed 
to be right, favored what was called the 
Missouri compromise. In 1847 Mr. Doug- 
las was chosen United States senator for 
six years, and greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1852 he was re-elected to the same office. 
During this latter term, under his leader- 



ship, the " Kansas-Nebraska bill " was car- 
ried in the senate. In 1858, nothwith- 
standing the fierce contest made by his able 
competitor for the position, Abraham Lin- 
coln, and with the administration of Bu- 
chanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas 
was re-elected senator. After the trouble 
in the Charleston convention, when by the 
withdrawal of several state delegates with- 
out a nomination, the Union Democrats, 
in convention at Baltimore, in 1S60, nomi- 
nated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for 
presidency. The results of this election are 
well known and the great events of 1861 
coming on, Mr. Douglas was spared their 
full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois, ■ 
June 3, 1 86 1, after a short illness. His 
last words to his children were, " to obey 
the laws and support the constitution of the 
United States." 



JAMES MONROE, fifth president of the 
United States, was born in Westmore- 
land county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At 
the age of sixteen he entered William and 
Mary College, but two years later the 
Declaration of Independence having been 
adopted, he left college and hastened to New 
York where he joined Washington's army as 
a military-cadet. 

At the battle of Trenton Monroe per- 
formed gallant service and received a wound 
in the shoulder, and was promoted to a 
captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling at the battles of Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Washington then 
sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment 
of which he was to be colonel. The ex- 
hausted condition of Virginia made this im- 
possible, but he received his commission. 
He next entered the law office of Thomas 
Jefferson to study law, as there was no open- 
ing for him as an officer in the army. In 



COMTENDILM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



55 



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assem- 
bly, and the next year he was elected to the 
Continental congress. Realizing the inade- 
quacy of the old articles of confederation, 
he advocated the calling of a convention to 
consider their revision, and introduced in 
congress a resolution empowering congress 
to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. 
This resolution was referred to a committee, 
of which he was chairman, and the report 
led to the Annapolis convention, which 
called a general convention to meet at Phila- 
delphia in 1787, when the constitution was 
drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of 
law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was 
soon after elected to the legislature, and ap- 
pointed as one of the committee to pass 
upon the adoption of the constitution. He 
opposed it, as giving too much power to the 
central government. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 1789, where he 
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or 
"Republicans," as they were sometimes 
called. Although his views as to neutrality 
between France and England were directly 
opposed to those of the president, yet Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to France. 
His popularity in France was so great that 
the antagonism of England and her friends 
in this country brought about his recall. He 
then became governor of Virginia. He was 
sent as envoy to France in 1802; minister 
to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 
1805. The next year he returned to his 
estate in Virginia, and with an ample in- 
heritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He 
was again called to be governor of Virginia, 
and was then appointed* secretary of state 
by President Madison. The war with Eng- 
land soon resulted, and when the capital 
was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe be- 
came secretary of war also, and planned the 
measures for the defense of New Orleans. 



The treasury being exhausted and credit 
gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby 
made possible the victory of Jackson at New 
Orleans. 

In 1817 Mr. Monroe became president 
of the United States, having been a candi- 
date of the "Republican" party, which at 
that time had begun to be called the " Demo- 
cratic " party. In 1820 he was re-elected, 
having two hundred and thirty-one electoral 
votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. 
His administration is known as the "Era of 
good-feeling, " and party lines were almost 
wiped out. The slavery question began to 
assume importance at this time, and the 
Missouri Compromise was passed. The 
famous "Monroe Doctrine" originated in a 
great state paper of President Monroe upon 
the rumored interference of the Holy Alli- 
ance to prevent the formation of free repub- 
lics in South America. President Monroe 
acknowledged their independence, and pro- 
mulgated his great "Doctrine," which has 
been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's 
death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 



THOMAS ALVA EDISON, the master 
wizard of electrical science and whose 
name is synonymous with the subjugation 
of electricity to the service of man, was 
born in 1847 at Milan, Ohio, and it was at 
Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents 
had moved in 1854, that his self-education 
began — for he never attended school for 
more than two months. He eagerly de- 
voured every book he could lay his hands on 
and is said to have read through an encyclo- 
pedia without missing a word. At thirteen he 
began his working life as a trainboy upon the 
Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron 
and Detroit. Much of his time was now 
spent in Detroit, where he found increased 
facilities for reading at the public libraries. 



60 



COMPEXDIUM OF BWGRAPlir 



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he 
got together three hundred pounds of type 
and started the issue of the " Grand Trunk 
Herald." It was only a small amateur 
weekly, printed on one side, the impression 
being made from the type by hand. Chemi- 
cal research was his next undertaking and 
a laboratory was added to his movable pub- 
lishing house, which, by the way, was an 
old freight car. One day, however, as he 
Was experimenting with some phosphorus, 
it ignited and the irate conductor threw the 
young seeker after the truth, chemicals and 
all, from the train. His office and laboratory 
were then removed to the cellar of his fa- 
ther's house. As he grew to manhood he 
decided to become an operator. He won 
his opportunity by saving the life of a child, 
whose father was an old operator, and out of 
gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in teleg- 
raphy. Five months later he was compe- 
tent to fill a position in the railroad office 
at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to 
Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively 
to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cmnati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, 
gradually becoming an expert operator and 
gaming experience that enabled him to 
evolve many ingenious ideas for the im- 
provement of telegraphic appliances. At 
Memphis he constructed an automatic re- 
peater, which enabled Louisville and New 
Orleans to communicate direct, and received 
nothing more than the thanks of his em- 
ployers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 
1870 in search of an opening more suitable 
to his capabilities and ambitions. He hap- 
pened to be in the office of the Laws Gold 
Reporting Company when one of the in- 
struments got out of order, and even the 
inventor of the system could not make it 
work. Edison requested to be allowed to 
attempt the task, and in a few minutes he 



had overcome the difficulty and secured an 
advantageous engagement. For several 
>ears he had a contract with the Western 
Union and the Gold Stock companies, 
whereby he received a large salary, besides 
a special price for all telegraphic improve- 
ments he could suggest. Later, as the 
head of the Edison General Electric com- 
pany, with its numerous subordinate organ- 
izations and connections all over the civil- 
ized world, he became several times a 
millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the pho- 
nograph and kinetograph which bear his 
name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, 
and the duplex and quadruplex systems of 
telegraphy. 

JAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most 
conspicuous of the Confederate generals 
during the Civil war, was born in 1820, in 
South Carolina, but was early taken by his 
parents to Alabama where he grew to man- 
hood and received his early education. He 
graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1842, entering the army as 
lieutenant and spent a few years in the fron- 
tier service. When the Mexican war broke 
out he was called to the front and partici- 
pated in all the principal battles of that war 
up to the storming of Chapultepec, where 
he received severe wounds. For gallant 
conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Mo- 
lino del Rey he received the brevets of cap- 
tain and major. After the close of the 
Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant 
and captain on frontier service in Texas un- 
til 1858 when he was transferred -to the staff 
as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 
1 86 1, he resigned to join the Confederacy 
and immediately went to the front, com- 
manding a brigade at Bull Run the follow- 
ing month. Promoted to be major-general 
in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



57 



part and rendered valuable service to the 
Confederate cause. He participated in 
many of the most severe battles of the Civil 
war including Bull Run (first and second), 
Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Fraziers Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 
the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the 
fighting about Richmond. 

When the war closed General Long- 
street accepted the result, renewed his alle- 
giance to the government, and thereafter 
labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of 
war and promote an era of good feeling be- 
tween all sections of the country. He took 
up his residence in New Orleans, and took 
an active interest and prominent part in 
public affairs, served as surveyor of that 
port for several years; was commissioner of 
engineers for Louisiana, served four years 
as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he 
was appointed supervisor of internal revenue 
and settled in Georgia. After that time he 
served four years as United States minister 
to Turkey, and also for a number of years 
was United States marshal of Georgia, be- 
sides having held other important official 
positions. 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief- 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. 
He was a son of John Rutledge, who had 
left Ireland for America about five years 
prior to the birth of our subject, and a 
brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. John Rut- 
ledge received his legal edLication at the 
Temple, London, after which he returned 
to Charleston and soon won distinction at 
the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial 
congress in 1765 to protest against the 
" Stamp Act," and was a member of the 



South Carolina convention of 1774, and of 
the Continental congress of that and the 
succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman 
of the committee that draughted the con- 
stitution of his state, and was president of 
the congress of that state. He was not 
pleased with the state constitution, how- 
ever, and resigned. In 1779 he was again 
chosen governor of the state, and granted 
extraordinary powers, and he at once took 
the field to repel the British. He joined 
the army of General Gates in 1782, and the 
same year was elected to congress. He 
was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which framed our present constitu- 
tion. In 1 7S9 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the first supreme court of the 
United States. He resigned to accept the 
position of chief- justice of his own state. 
Upon the resignation of Judge Jay^ he was 
appointed chief-justice of the United States 
in 1795. The appointment was never con- 
firmed, for, after presiding at one session, 
his mind became deranged, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at 
Charleston, July 23, 1800. 



RALPH WALDO EMERSON was one 
of the most noted literary men of his 
time. He was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, May 25, 1803. He had a minister for 
an ancestor, either on the paternal or ma- 
ternal side, in every generation for eight 
generations back. His father, Rev. Will- 
iam Emerson, was a native of Concord, 
Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated 
at Harvard, in 1789, became a Unitarian 
minister; was a fine writer and one of the 
best orators of his day; died in 181 1. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for 
college at the public schools of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1821, win- 
ning about this time several prizes for es- 



58 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



says. For five years he taught school in 
Boston; in 1S26 was licensed to preach, and 
in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. 
Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church 
in Boston. In 1832 he resigned, rqaking 
the announcement in a sermon of his un- 
;villingness longer to administer the rite of 
vhe Lord's Supper, after which he spent 
about a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he began his career as a lecturer before the 
Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject be- 
ing "Water." His early lectures on " Italy" 
and "Relation of Man to the Globe " also 
attracted considerable attention; as did also 
his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, 
Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund 
Burke. After that time he gave many 
courses of lectures in Boston and became 
one of the best known lecturers in America. 
But very few men have rendered such con- 
tinued service in this field. He lectured for 
forty successive seasons before the Salem, 
Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made re- 
peated lecturing tours in this country and in 
England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, 
where he continued to make his home until 
his death which occurred April 27, 1SS2. 

Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a 
wide scope. He wrote and published many 
works, essays and poems, which rank high 
among the works of American literary men. 
A few of the many which he produced are 
the following: "Nature;" "The Method 
of Nature;" " Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" 
"Essays;" "Poems;" "English Traits;" 
"The Conduct of Life;" "May-Day and 
other Poems " and " Society and Solitude;" 
besides many others. He was a prominent 
member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and other kindred associations. 



ALEXANDER T. STEWART, one of 
the famous merchant princes of New 
York, was born near the city of Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1803, and before he was eight years 
of age was left an orphan without any near 
relatives, save an aged grandfather. The 
grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted 
to make a minister of young Stewart, and 
accordingly put him in a school with that 
end in view and he graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty 
years of age he came to New York. His 
first employment was that of a teacher, but 
accident soon made him a merchant. En- 
tering into business relations with an ex- 
perienced man of his acquaintance he soon 
found himself with the rent of a store on 
his hands and alone in a new enterprise. 
Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all 
directions, but its founder had executive 
ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, 
and in time his house became one of the 
greatest mercantile establishments of mod- 
ern times, and the name of Stewart famous. 
Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 
1876. 

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER. — In 
speaking of this noted American nov- 
elist, William CuJlen Bryant said: " He 
wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that 
he has earned a fame wider than any Amer- 
ican author of modern times. The crea- 
tions of his genius shall survive through 
centuries to come, and only perish with our 
language." Another eminent writer (Pres- 
cott) said of Cooper: " In his productions 
every American must take an honest pride; 
for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper 
in the portraiture of American character, or 
has given such glowing and eminently truth- 
ful pictures of American scenery." 

James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



59 



tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jer- 
sey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. 
About a year after the birth of our subject 
the family removed to Otsego county, New 
York, and founded the town called " Coop- 
erstown." James Fenimore Cooper spent 
his childhood there and in 1802 entered 
Yale College, and four years later became a 
midshipma'n in the United States navy. In 
181 1 he was married, quit the seafaring life, 
and began devoting more or less time to lit- 
erary pursuits. His first work was "Pre- 
caution," a novel published in 18 19, and 
three years later he produced "The Spy, a 
Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with 
p;reat favor and was a universal success. 
This was followed by many other works, 
among which may be mentioned the follow- 
ing: "The Pioneers," "The Pilot," "Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Prairie," "The 
Red Rover," "The Manikins," "Home- 
ward Bound," " Home as Found," "History 
of the United States Navy," "The Path- 
finder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and 
Ashore," "The Chain- Bearer, " "Oak- 
Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died 
at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 
1851. 



M- 



ARSHALL FIELD, one of the mer- 
chant princes of America, ranks among 
the most successful business men of the cen- 
tury. He was born in 1835 ^t Conway, 
Massachusetts. He spent his early life on 
a farm and secured a fair education in the 
common schools, supplementing this with a 
course at the Conway Academy. His 
natural bent ran in the channels of commer- 
cial life, and at the age of seventeen he was 
given a position in a store at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there 
four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. 
He began his career in Chicago as a clerk 



in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, 
Wadsworth & Company, which later be- 
came Cooley, Farwell & Company, and still 
later John V. Farwell & Company. He 
remained with them four years and exhibit- 
ed marked ability, in recognition of which 
he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a 
member of the firm, withdrew and formed 
the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the 
third partner being Potter Palmer, and they 
continued in business until 1867, when Mr. 
Palmer retired and the firm became Field, 
Leiter & Company. They ran under the 
latter name until 1881, when Mr. Leiter re- 
tired and the house has since continued un- 
der the name of Marshall Field & Company. 
The phenomenal success accredited to the 
house is largely due to the marked ability 
of Mr. Field, the house had become one of 
the foremost in the west, with an annual 
sale of $8,000,000 in 1S70. The total loss 
of the firm during the Chicago fire was 
$3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was re- 
covered through the insurance companies. 
It rapidly recovered from the effects of this 
and to-day the annual sales amount to over 
$40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate hold- 
ings amounted to $[ 0,000, 000. He was 
one of the heaviest subscribers to the Bap- 
tist University fund although he is a Presby- 
terian, and gave $ 1,000,000 for the endow- 
ment of the Field Columbian Museum — 
one of the greatest institutions of the kind 
in the world. 

EDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an im- 
mense popularity under the pen name 
of " Bill Nye," was one of the most eccen- 
tric humorists of his day. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1850, at Shirley, Piscataqua coun- 
ty, Maine, "at a very early age " as he ex- 
presses it. He took an academic course in 



60 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after 
his graduation, he removed to Wyoming 
Territory. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1S76. He began when 
quite young to contribute humorous sketches 
to the newspapers, became connected with 
various western journals and achieved a 
brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye 
settled later in New York City where he 
devoted his time to writing funny articles for 
the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for 
publication in book form the following : 
"Bill Nye and the Boomerang," "The 
Forty Liars," "Baled Hay," "Bill Nye's 
Blossom Rock," "Remarks," etc. His 
death occurred February 21, 1896, at Ashe- 
ville. North Carolina. 



THOMAS DE WITT TALMAGE, one of 
the most celebrated American preach- 
ers, was born January 7, 1832, and was the 
youngest of tv.'elve children. He made his 
preliminary studies at the grammar school 
in New Bnmswick, New Jersey. At the age 
of eighteen he joined the church and entered 
the University of the City of New York, and 
graduated in May, 1853. The exercises 
were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech 
aroused the audience to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. At the close of his college duties 
he imagined himself interested in the law 
and for three years studied law. Dr. Tal- 
mage then perceived his mistake and pre- 
pared himself for the ministry at the 
Reformed Dutch Church Theological Semi- 
nary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just 
after his ordination the young minister re- 
ceived two calls, one from Piermont, New 
York, and the other from Belleville, New 
Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter 
and for three years filled that charge, when 
he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here 
it was that his sermons first drew large 



crowds of people to his church, and from 
thence dates his popularity. Afterward he 
became the pastor of the Second Reformed 
Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining 
seven jears, during which period he first 
entered upon the lecture platform and laid 
the foundation for his future reputation. At 
the end of this time he received three calls, 
one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, 
and one from the Central Presbyterian 
church of Brooklyn, which latter at that 
time consisted of only nineteen members 
with a congregation of about thirty-five. 
This church offered him a salary of seven 
thousand dollars and he accepted the call. 
He soon induced the trustees to sell the old 
church and build a new one. They did so 
and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but 
it burned down shortly after it was finished. 
By prompt sympathy and general liberality 
a new church was built and formally opened 
in February, 1874. It contained seats for 
four thousand, si.x hundred and fifty, but if 
necessary seven thousand could be accom- 
modated. In October, 1878, his salary was 
raised from seven thousand dollars totwelve 
thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 1889 
the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. 
A third tabernacle was built and it was for- 
mally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 



JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as 
being one of the greatest band leaders 
in the world, won his fame while leader of 
the United States Marine Band at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He was not 
originally a band player but was a violinist, 
and at the age of seventeen he was conduc- 
tor of an opera company, a profession which 
he followed for several years, until he was 
offered the leadership of the Marine Band 
at Washington. The proposition was re- 
pugnant to him at first but he accepted the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



61 



offer and then ensued ten jears of brilliant 
success with that organization. When he 
first took the Marine Band he began to 
gather the national airs of all the nations 
that have representatives in Washington, 
and compiled a comprehensive volume in- 
cluding nearly all the national songs of the 
different nations. He composed a number 
of marches, waltzes and two-steps, promi- 
nent among which are the "Washington 
Post," "Directorate," "King Cotton," 
"High School Cadets," "Belle of Chica- 
go," "Liberty Bell March," "Manhattan 
Beach," "On Parade March," " Thunderer 
March," "Gladiator March," " El Capitan 
March," etc. He became a very extensive 
composer of this class of music. 



JOHN QUINCY AD.\MS, sixth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, July ii, 1767, 
the son of John Adams. At the age of 
eleven he was sent to school at Paris, and 
two years later to Leyden, where he entered 
that great university. He returned to the 
United States in 17S5, and graduated from 
Harvard in 17S8. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1791. His 
practice brought no income the first two 
years, but he won distinction in literary 
fields, and was appointed minister to The 
Hague in 1794. He married in 1797, and 
■went as minister to Berlin the same year, 
serving until 1801, when Jefferson became 
president. He was elected to the senate in 
I S03 by the Federalists, but was condemned 
by that party for advocating the Embargo 
Act and other Anti-Federalist measures. He 
■was appointed as professor of rhetoric at 
Harvard in 1805, and in 1809 was sent as 
minister to Russia. He assisted in negotiat- 
ing the treaty of peace with England in 
3814, and became minister to that power 



the next year. He served during Monroe's 
administration two terms as secretary of 
state, during which time party lines were 
obliterated, and in 1824 four candidates for 
president appeared, all of whom were iden- 
tified to some extent with the new " Demo- 
cratic" party. Mr. Adams received 84 elec- 
toral votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41, and 
Clay 37. As no candidate had a majority 
of all votes, the election went to the house 
of representatives, which elected Mr. Adams. 
As Clay had thrown his influence to Mr. 
Adams, Clay became secretary of state, and 
this caused bitter feeling on the part of the 
Jackson Democrats, who were joined by 
Mr. Crawford and his following, and op- 
posed every measur-e of the administration. 
In the election of 1828 Jackson was elected 
over Mr. Adams by a great majorit}'. 

Mr. Adams entered the lower house of 
congress in 1830, elected from the district 
in which he was born and continued to rep- 
resent it for seventeen years. He was 
known as " the old man eloquent," and his 
work in congress was independent of party. 
He opposed slavery extension and insisted 
upon presenting to congress, one at a time, 
the hundreds of petitions against the slave 
power. One of these petitions, presented in 
1842, was signed by forty-five citizens of 
Massachusetts, and prayed congress for a 
peaceful dissolution of the Union. His 
enemies seized upon this as an opportunity 
to crush their powerful foe, and in a caucus 
meeting determined upon his expulsion from 
congress. Finding they would not be able 
to command enough votes for this, they de- 
cided upon a course that would bring equal 
disgrace. They formulated a resolution to 
the effect that while he merited expulsion, 
the house would, in great mercy, substitute 
its severest censure. When it was read in the 
house the old man, then in his seventy-fifth 



62 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



year, arose and demanded that the first para- 
graph of the Declaration of Independence 
be read as his defense. It embraced the 
famous sentence, "that whenever any form 
of government becomes destructive to those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
etc., etc." After eleven days of hard fight- 
ing his opponents were defeated. On Febru- 
ary 2 1, 1S48, he rose to address the speaker 
on the Oregon question, when he suddenly 
fell from a stroke of paralysis. He died 
soon after in the rotunda of the capitol, 
where he had been conveyed by his col- 
leagues. 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY was one of the 
most famous women of America. She 
was born at South Adams, Massachusetts, 
February 15, 1820, the daughter of a 
Quaker. She received a good education 
and became a school teacher, following that 
profession for fifteen years in New York. 
Beginning with about 1852 she became the 
active leader of the woman's rights move- 
ment and won a wide reputation for her 
2eal and ability. She also distinguished 
herself for her zeal and eloquence in the 
temperance and anti-slavery causes, and 
became a conspicuous figure during the war. 
After the close of the war she gave most of 
her labors to the cause of woman's suffrage. 



PHILIP D. ARMOUR, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the mercantile 
history of America, was born May 16, 1S32, 
on a farm at Stockbridge, Madison county. 
New York, and received his early education 
in the common schools of that county. He 
was apprenticed to a farmer and worked 
faithfully and well, being very ambitious and 
desiring to start out for himself. At the 
age of twenty he secured a release from his 



indentures and set out overland for the 
gold fields of California. After a great 
deal of hard work he accumulated a little 
money and then cam.e east and settled 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He went into 
the grain receiving and warehouse busi- 
ness and was fairly successful, and later on 
he formed a partnership with John Flankin- 
ton in the pork packing line, the style of the 
firm being Plankinton & Armour. Mr. Ar- 
mour made his first great "deal" in selling 
pork "short " on the New York market in 
the anticipation of the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, and Mr. Armour is said to have made 
through this deal a million dollars. He then 
established packing houses in Chicago and 
Kansas City, and in 1875 he removed to 
Chicago. He increased his business by add- 
ing to it the shipment of dressed beef to 
-the European markets, and many other lines 
of trade and manufacturing, and it rapidly 
assumed vast proportions, employing an 
army of men in different lines of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Armour successfully conducted a 
great many speculative deals in pork and 
grain of immense.proportions and also erected 
many large warehouses for the storage of 
grain. He became one of the representative 
business men of Chicago, where he became 
closely identified with all enterprises of a 
public nature, but his fame as a great busi- 
ness man extended to all parts of the world. 
He founded the "Armour Institute " at Chi- 
cago and also contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 



ROBERT FULTON.— Although Fulton 
is best known as the inventor of the 
first successful steamboat, yet his claims to 
distinction do not rest alone upon that, for 
he was an inventor along other lines, a 
painter and an author. He was born at 
Little Britain, Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 



coMPExniCM ()/■' niocRAPiir. 



65 



vania, in 1765, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
At the age of seventeen he removed to Phila- 
delphia, and there and in New York en- 
gaged in miniature painting with success 
both from a pecuniary and artistic point of 
view. With the results of his labors he pur- 
chased a farm for the support of his mother. 
He went to London and studied under the 
great painter, Benjamin West, and all 
through life retained his fondness for art 
and gave evidence of much ability in that 
line. While in England he was brought in 
contact- with the Duke of Bridgewater, the 
father of the English canal system; Lord 
Stanhope, an eminent mechanician, and 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam en- 
gine. Their influence turned his mind to its 
true field of labor, that of mechanical in- 
vention. Machines for flax spinning, 
marble sawing, rope making, and for remov- 
ing earth from excavations, are among his 
earliest ventures. His "Treatise on the 
Improvement of Canal Navigation, " issued 
in 1796, and a series of essays on canals 
were soon followed by an English patent 
for canal improvements. In 1797 he went 
to Paris, where he resided until 1S06, and 
there invented a submarine torpedo boat for 
maritime defense, but which was rejected 
by the governments of France, England and 
the United States. In 1803 he offered to con- 
struct for the Emperor Napoleon a steam- 
boat that would assist in carrying out the 
plan of invading Great Britain then medi- 
tated by that great captain. In pursuance 
he constructed his first steamboat on the 
Seine, but it did not prove a full success 
and the idea was abandoned by the French 
government. By the aid of Livingston, 
then United States minister to France, 
Fulton purchased, in 1806, an engine which 
he brought to this country. After studying 
the defects of his own and other attempts in 



this line he built and launched in 1807 the 
Clermont, the first successful steamboat. 
This craft only attained a speed of five 
miles an hour while going up North river. 
His first patent not fully covering his in- 
vention, Fulton was engaged in many law 
suits for infringement. He constructed 
many steamboats, ferryboats, etc., among 
these being the United States steamer 
" Fulton the First," built in 18 14, the first 
war steamer ever built. This craft never 
attained any great speed owing to some de- 
fects in construction and accidentally blew 
up in 1829. Fulton died in New York, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1S15. 



SALMON PORTLAND CHASE, sixth 
chief-justice of the United States, and 
one of the most eminent of American jurists, 
was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 13, 1 80S. At the age of nine he was 
left in poverty by the death of his father, 
but means were found to educate him. He 
was sent to his uncle, a bishop, who con- 
ducted an academy near Columbus, Ohio, 
and here young Chase worked on the farm 
and attended school. At the age of fifteen 
he returned to his native state and entered 
Dartmouth College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 826. He then went to Washington, 
and engaged in teaching school, and study- 
ing law under the instruction of William 
Wirt. He was licensed to practice in 1829, 
and went to Cincinnati, where he had a 
hard struggle for several years following. 
He had in the meantime prepared notes on 
the statutes of Ohio, which, when published, 
brought him into prominence locally. He 
was soon after appointed solicitor of the 
United States Bank. In 1837 he appeared 
as counsel for a fugitive slave woman, Ma- 
tilda, and sought by all the powers of his 
learning and eloquence to prevent her owner 



'66 



COMPENDIUM OF lUOGRAPIir. 



from reclaiming her. He acted in many 
other cases, and devolved the trite expres- 
sion, "Slavery is sectional, freedom is na- 
tional." He was employed to defend Van 
if andt before the supreme court of the United 
States in 1846, which was one of the most 
noted cases connected with the great strug- 
gle against slavery. By this time Mr. Chase 
had become the recognized leader of that 
element known as " free-soilers." He was 
elected to the United States senate in 1849, 
and was chosen governor of Ohio in 1855 
and re-elected in 1857. He was chosen to 
the United States senate from Ohio in 1861, 
but was made secretary of the treasury by 
Lincoln and accepted. He inaugurated a 
financial system to replenish the exhausted 
treasury and meet the demands of the great- 
est war in history and at the same time to 
revive the industries of the country. One 
of the measures which afterward called for 
his judicial attention was the issuance of 
currency notes which were made a legal 
tender in payment of debts. When this 
question came before him as chief-justice 
of the United States he reversed his former 
action and declared the measure unconstitu- 
tional. The national banking system, by 
which all notes issued were to be based on 
funded government bonds of equal or greater 
amounts, had its direct origin with Mr. Chase. 
Mr. Chase resigned the treasury port- 
folio in 1864, and was appointed the same 
year as chief-justice of the United States 
supreme court. The great questions that 
came up before him at this crisis in the life 
of the nation were no less than those which 
confronted the first chief-justice at the for- 
mation of our government. Reconstruction, 
private, state and national interests, the 
constitutionality of the acts of congress 
passed in times of great excitement, the 
-construction and interpretation to be placed 



upon the several amendments to the national 
constitution, — these were among the vital 
questions requiring prompt decision. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1870, which 
impaired his health, though his mental 
powers were not affected. He continued to 
preside at the opening terms for two years 
iollowing and died Ma}' 7, 1873. 



HARRIET ELIZABETH BEECHER 
STOWE, a celebrated American writ- 
er, was born June 14, 1812, at Litchfield, 
Connecticut. She was a daughter of Lyman 
Beecher and a sister of Henry Ward Beecher, 
two noted divines; was carefully educated, 
afid taught school for several years at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. In 1832 Miss Beecher 
married Professor Stowe, then of Lane Semi- 
nary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and afterwards at 
Bowdoin College and Andover Seminary. 
Mrs. Stowe published in 1849 "The May- 
flower, or sketches of the descendants of the 
Pilgrims," and in 1851 commenced in the 
" National Era "of Washington, a serial story 
which was published separately in 1852 under 
the title of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." This 
book attained almost unparalleled success 
both at home and abroad, and within ten years 
it had been translated in alinost every lan- 
guage of the civilized world. Mrs. Stowe pub- 
lished in 1853 a "Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
in which the data that she used was published 
and its truthfulness was corroborated. In 
1853 she accompanied her husband and 
brother to Europe, and on her return pub- 
lished "Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands" 
in 1854. Mrs. Stowe was for some time 
one of the editors of the ' ' Atlantic Monthly " 
and the " Hearth and Home," for which 
she had written a number of articles. 
Among these, also published separately, are 
" Dred, a tale of the Great Dismal Swamp" 
(later published under the title of "Nina 



COMrEXDlL'M OF BJOGRAPIIi' 



G7 



Gordon"); "The Minister's Wooing;" "The 
Pearl of Orr's Island;" "Agnes of Sorrento;" 
"Oldtovvn Folks;" " My Wife and I;" "Bible 
Heroines," and "A Dog's Mission." Mrs. 
Stowe's death occurred July i, 1896, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 



THOMAS JONATHAN JACKSON, bet- 
ter known as "Stonewall" Jackson, 
was one of the most noted of the Confeder- 
ate generals of the Civil war. He was a 
S(jldier by nature, an incomparable lieuten- 
ant, sure to execute any operation entrusted 
to him with marvellous precision, judgment 
and courage, and all his individual cam- 
paigns and combats bore the stamp of a 
masterly capacity for war. He was born 
January 21, 1824, at Clarksburg, Harrison 
county, West Virginia. He was early in 
life imbued with the desire to be a soldier 
and it is said walked from the mountains of 
Virginia to W^ashington, secured the aid of 
his congressman, and was appointed cadet 
at the United States Military Academy at 
West Point from which he was graduated in 

1846. 'Attached to the army as brevet sec- 
ond lieutenant of the First Artillery, his first 
service was as a subaltern with Magruder's 
battery of light artillery in the Mexican war. 
He participated at the reduction of Vera 
Cruz, and was noticed for gallantry in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Molina 
del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Alexico, receiving the brevets of 
captain for conduct at Contreras and Cher- 
ubusco and of major at Chapultepec. In 
the meantime he had been advanced by 
regular promotion to be first lieutenant in 

1847. In 1852, the war having closed, he 
resigned and became professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy and artillery 
instructor at the Virginia State Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, where he 



remained until Virginia declared for seces- 
sion, he becoming chiefly noted for intense 
religious sentiment coupled with personal 
eccentricities. Upon the breaking out of 
the war he was made colonel and placed in 
command of a force sent to sieze Harper's 
Ferry, which he accomplished May 3, 1861. 
Relieved by General J. E. Johnston, May 
23, he took command of the brigade of 
Valley Virginians, whom he moulded into 
that brave corps, baptized at the first 
Manassas, and ever after famous as the 
" Stonewall Brigade." After this "Stone- 
wall " Jackson was made a major-general, 
in 1 861, and participated until his death in 
all the famous campaigns about Richmond 
and in Virginia, and was a conspicuous fig- 
ure in the memorable battles of that time. 
May 2, 1863, at Chancellorsville, he wa? 
v.'Ounded severely by his own troops, two 
balls shattering his left arm and anotiier 
passing through the palm of his right hand. 
The left arm was amputated, but pneumonia 
intervened, and, weakened by the great loss 
of blood, he died May 10, 1863. The more 
his operations in the Shenandoah valley in 
1862 are studied the more striking must the 
merits of this great soldier appear. 



JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER.— 
Near to the heart of the people of the 
Anglo-Saxon race will ever lie the verses of 
this, the "Quaker Poet." The author of 
"Barclay of Ury," "Maud Muller" and 
"Barbara Frietchie," always pure, fervid 
and direct, will be remembered when many 
a more ambitious writer has been forgotten. 
John G. Whittier was born at Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 7, 1807, of 
Quaker parentage. He had but a common- 
school education and passed his boyhood 
days upon a farm. In early life he learned 
the trade of shoemaker. At the age of 



OS 



COMPEXBIi'M OF BIOGRAPHY 



eighteen he began to write verses for the 
Haverhill '' Gazette." He spent two years 
after that at the Haverhill academy, after 
which, in 1829, he became editor of the 
"American Manufacturer," at Boston. In 
1830 he succeeded George D. Prentice as 
editor of the "New England Weekly Re- 
view," but the following year returned to 
Haverhill and engaged in farming. In 1832 
and in 1836 he edited the " Gazette." In 
1835 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, serving two years. In 1836 he became 
secretary of the Anti-slavery Society of Phil- 
adelphia. In 1838 and 1839 he edited the 
" Pennsylvania Freeman," but in the latter 
year the office was sacked and burned by a 
mob. In i84oWhittier settled at Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts. In 1847 he became 
corresponding editor of the " National Era," 
an anti-slavery paper published at Washing- 
ton, and contributed to its columns many of 
his anti-slavery and other favorite lyrics. 
Mr. Whittier lived for many years in retire- 
ment of Quaker simplicity, publishing several 
volumes of poetry which have raised him to 
a high place among American authors and 
brought to him the love and admiration of 
his countrymen. In the electoral colleges 
of i860 and 1864 Whittier was a member. 
Much of his time after 1876 was spent at 
Oak Knoll, Danvers, Massachusetts, but 
still retained his residence at Amesbury. 
He never married. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 7, 1892. 

The more prominent prose writings of 
John G. Whittier are as follows: "Legends 
of New England," " Justice and Expediency, 
or Slavery Considered with a View to Its Abo- 
lition," " The Stranger in Lowell," "Super- 
naturalism in New England," " Leaves from 
Margaret Smith's Journal," "Old Portraits 
and Modern Sketches" and "Literary 
Sketches." 



DAVID DIXON PORTER, illustrious as 
admiral of the United States navy, and 
famous as one of the most able naval offi- 
cers of America, was born in Pennsylvania, 
June 8, 1 8 14. His father was also a naval 
officer of distinction, who left the service of 
the United States to become commander of 
the naval forces of Me.xico during the war 
between that country and Spain, and 
through this fact David Dixon Porter was 
appointed a midshipman in the Mexican 
navy. Two years later David D. Porter 
joined the United States navy as midship- 
man, rose in rank and eighteen years later 
as a lieutenant he is found actively engaged 
in all the operations of our navy along the 
east coast of Mexico. When the Civil war 
broke out Porter, then a commander, was 
dispatched in the Powhattan to the relief of 
Fort Pickens, Florida. This duty accom- 
plished, he fitted out a mortar flotilla for 
the reduction of the forts guarding the ap- 
proaches to New Orleans, which it was con- 
sidered of vital importance for the govern- 
ment to get possession of. After the fall of 
New Orleans the mortar flotilla was actively 
engaged at Vicksburg, and in the fall of 
1862 Porter was made a rear-admiral and 
placed in command of all the naval forces 
on the western rivers above New Orleans. 
The ability of the man was now con- 
spicuously manifested, not only in the bat- 
tles in which he was engaged, but also in 
the creation of a formidable fleet out of 
river steamboats, which he covered with 
such plating as they would bear. In 1864 
he was transferred to the Atlantic coast to 
command the naval forces destined to oper- 
ate against the defences of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and on Jan. 15, 1865, the 
fall of Fort Fisher was hailed by the country 
as a glorious termination of his arduous war 
service. In 1 866 he was made vice-admiral 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



69 



and appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy. On the death of Farragut, in 
1S70, he succeeded that able man as ad- 
miral of the navy. His death occurred at 
Washington, February 13, 1891. 



NATHANIEL GREENE was one of the 
best known of the distinguished gen- 
erals who led the Continental soldiery 
against the hosts of Great Britain during 
the Revolutionary war. He was the son 
of Quaker parents, and was born at War- 
wick, Rhode Island, May 27, 1742. In 
youth he acquired a good education, chiefly 
by his own efforts, as he was a tireless 
reader. In 1770 he was elected a member 
of the Assembly of his native state. The 
news of the battle of Lexington stirred 
his blood, and he offered his services to 
the government of the colonies, receiving 
the rank of brigadier-general and the com- 
mand of the troops from Rhode Island. 
He led them to the camp at Cambridge, 
and for thus violating the tenets of their 
faith, he was cast out of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers. Pie soon won the es- 
teem of General Washington. In August, 

1776, Congress promoted Greene to the 
rank of major-general, and in the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton he led a division. 
At the battle of Brandy wine, September 1 1, 

1777, he greatly distinguished himself, pro- 
tecting the retreat of the Continentals by 
his firm stand. At the battle of German- 
town, October 4, the same year, he com- 
manded the left wing of the army with 
credit. In March, 1778, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the office of quartermaster-general, 
but only with the understanding that his 
rank in the army would not be affected and 
that in action he should retain his command. 
On the bloody field of Monmouth, June 28, 

1778, he commanded the right wing, as lie 



did at the battle of Tiverton Heights. He 
was in command of the army in 1780, dur- 
ing the absence of Washington, and was 
president of the court-martial that tried and 
condemned Major Andre. After General 
Gates' defeat at Camden, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1780, General Greene was ap- 
pointed to the command of the southern army. 
He sent out a force under General Morgan 
who defeated General Tarleton at Cowpens, 
January 17, 1781. On joining his lieuten- 
ant, in February, he found himself out num- 
bered by the British and retreated in good 
order to Virginia, but being reinforced re- 
turned to North Carolina where he fought 
the battle of Guilford, and a few days later 
compelled the retreat of Lord Cornwallis. 
The British were followed by Greene part 
of the way, when the American army 
marched into South Carolina. After vary- 
ing success he fought the battle of Eutaw 
Springs, Septembers, 17S1. For the latter 
battle and its glorious consequences, which 
virtually closed the war in the Carolinas, 
Greene received a medal from Congress and 
many valuable grants of land from the 
colonies of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. On the return of peace, after a 
year spent in Rhode Island, General Greene 
took up his residence on his estate near 
Savannah, Georgia, where he died June 19, 
1786. 

EDGAR ALLEN POE.— Among the 
many great literary men whom this 
country has produced, there is perhaps no 
name more widely known than that of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. He was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 19, 1809. His 
parents were David and Elizabeth (Arnold) 
Poe, both actors, the mother said to have 
been the natural daughter of Benedict Ar- 
nold. The parents died while Edgar was 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



still a child and he was adopted by John 
Allen, a wealthy and influential resident of 
Richmond, Virginia. Edgar was sent to 
school at Stoke, Newington, England, 
where he remained until he waG thirteen 
years old; was prepared for college by pri- 
vate tutors, and in i 826 entered the Virginia 
University at Charlottesville. He made 
rapid progress in his studies, and was dis- 
tinguished for his scholarship, but was ex- 
pelled within a year for gambling, after 
which for several years he resided with his 
benefactor at Richmond. He then went to 
Baltimore, and'in 1829 published a 71 -page 
pamphlet called "Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which, however, at- 
tracted no attention and contained nothing 
of particular merit. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, but was 
expelled about a year later for irregulari- 
ties. Returning to the home of Mr. Allen 
he remained for some time, and finally 
quarrelled with his benefactor and enlisted 
as a private soldier in the U. S. army, but 
remained only a short time. Soon after 
this, in 1833, Poe won several prizes for 
literary work, and as a result secured the 
position of editor of trhe "Southern Liter- 
ary Messenger," at Richmond, Virginia. 
Here he married his cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, who clung to hitn with fond devo- 
tion through all the many trials that came 
to them until her death in January, 1848. 
Poe remained with the "Messenger" for 
several years, writing meanwhile many 
tales, reviews, essays and poems. He aft- 
erward earned a precarious living by his 
pen in New York for a time; in 1839 be- 
came editor of "Burton's Gentleman's 
Magazine" ; in 1840 to 1842 was editor of 
" Graham's Magazine," and drifted around 
from one place to another, returning to 
New York in 1844. In 1845 his best 



known production, "The Raven," appeared 
in the "Whig Review," and gained him a 
reputation which is now almost world-wide. 
He then acted as editor and contributor on 
various magazines and periodicals until the 
death of his faithful wife in 1848. In the 
summer of 1849 he was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lad}' of fortune in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and the day set for the wedding. 
He started for New York to make prepara- 
tions for the event, but, it is said, began 
drinking, was attacked with dilirium tre- 
mens in Baltimore and was removed to a 
hospital, where he died, October 7, 1849. 
The works of Edgar Allen Poe have been 
repeatedly published since his death, both 
in Europe and America, and have attained 
an immense popularity. 



HORATIO GATES, one of the prom- 
inent figures in the American war for 
Independence, was not a native of the col- 
onies but was born in England in 1728. In 
early life he entered the British army and 
attained the rank of major. At the capture 
of Martinico he was aide to General Monk- 
ton and after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, he was among the first troops that 
landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock 
at his defeat in 1755, and was there severe- 
ly wounded. At the conclusion of the 
French and Indian war Gates purchased an 
estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the 
British army, settled down to life as a 
planter. On the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war he entered the service of the 
colonies and was made adjutant-general of 
the Continental forces with the rank oi 
brigadier-general. He accompanied Wash- 
ington when he assumed the command ol 
the army. In June, 1776, he was appoint- 
ed to the command of the army of Canada, 
but was superseded iu May of the following 



ClUfPEXDirM OF BIOGRAPHY 



71 



7year by General Schuyler. In August, 
1777, however, the command of that army 
was restored to General Gates and Septem- 
ber 19 he fought the battle of Bemis 
Heights. October 7, the same year, he 
won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, 
and October 17 received the surrender of 
General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal 
point of the war. This gave him a brilliant 
reputation. June 13, 17S0, General Gates 
was appointed to the command of the 
southern military division, and August 16 of 
that year suffered defeat at the hands of 
Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Car- 
olina. In December following he was 
superseded in the command by General 
Nathaniel Greene. 

On the signing of the peace treaty Gen- 
eral Gates retired to his plantation in 
Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1790, when, emancipating all his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where 
he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 



LYMAN J. GAGE.— When President Mc- 
Kinley selected Lyman J. Gage as sec- 
retary of the treasury he chose one of the 
most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. 
Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruy- 
ter, Madison county. New York, and was of 
English descent. He went to Rome, New 
York, with his parents when he was ten 
years old, and received his early education 
in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage gradu- 
ated from the same, and his first position 
was that of a clerk in the post office. When 
he was fifteen years of age he was detailed 
as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown 
R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed 
regular agents for the route. In 1854, when 
he was in his eighteenth year, he entered 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a 
junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dol- 



lars per year. Being unable at the end of 
one year and a half's service to obtain an 
increase in salary he determined to seek a 
wider field of labor. Mr. Gage set out in 
the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, 
Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a 
situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and 
planing mill. Ke remained there three years 
as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on 
account of change in the management. But 
not being able to find anything else to do he 
accepted the position of night watchman in 
the place for a period of six weeks. He 
then became a bookkeeper for the Mer- 
chants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at 
a salary of five hundred dollars per year^ 
He rapidly advanced in the service of this 
company and in 1868 he was made cashier. 
Mr. Gage was next offered the position of 
cashier of the First National Bank and ac- 
cepted the offer. He became the president 
of the First National Bank of Chicago Jan- 
uary 24, 1 89 1, and in 1897 he was appointed 
secretary of the treasury.- His ability as a 
financier and the prominent part he took in 
the discussion of financial affairs while presi- 
dent of the great Chicago bank gave him a 
national reputation. 



ANDREW JACKSON, the seventh pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
at the Waxhaw settlement. Union county. 
North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His 
parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carr- 
ickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 
and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His father, who 
was a poor farm laborer, died shortly be- 
fore Andrew's birth, when the mother re- 
moved to Waxhaw, where some relatives 
lived. Andrew's education was very limited, 
he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 
when but thirteen years of age, he and hi,s 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPH2: 



brother Robert volunteered to serve in the 
American partisan troops under General 
Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. The following year the boys 
were both taken prisoners by the enemy 
and endured brutal treatment from the 
British officers while confined at Camden. 
They both took the small pox, when the 
mother procured their exchange but Robert 
died shortly after. The mother died in 
Charleston of ship fever, the same year. 

Young Jackson, now in destitute cir- 
cumstances, worked for about six months in 
a saddler's shop, and then turned school 
master, although but little fitted for the 
position. He now began to think of a pro- 
fession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, 
entered upon the study of law, but from all 
•accounts gave but little attention to his 
books, being one of the most roistering, 
rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in 
many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he 
was admitted to the bar and in 1788 re- 
moved to Nashville, then in North Carolina, 
with the appointment of public prosecutor, 
then an office of little honor or emolument, 
but requiring much nerve, for which young 
Jackson was already noted. Two years 
later, when Tennessee became a territory 
he was appointed by Washington to the 
position of United States attorney for that 
district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel 
Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Don- 
elson, who was supposed at the time to 
have been divorced from her former hus- 
band that year by act of legislature of ^'ir- 
•ginia, but two years later, on finding that 
this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of 
separation being granted by the courts of 
Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. 
This was used as a handler by his oppo- 
nents in the political campaign afterwards. 
Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United 



States attorney and obtained much influence. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee 
became a slate and was its first represent- 
ative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen 
United States senator, but resigned the fol- 
lowing year to accept a seat on the supreme 
court of Tennessee which he held until 
1804. He was elected major-general of 
the militia of that state in 1801. In 1804, 
being unsuccessful in obtaining the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, the new territory, he 
retired from public life to the Hermitage, 
his plantation. On the outbreak of the 
war with Great Britain in 1812 he tendered 
his services to the government and went to 
New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in 
January, 181 3. In March of that year he 
was ordered to disband his troops, but later 
marched against the Cherokee Indians, de- 
feating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw 
and Tallapoosa. Having now a national 
reputation, he was appointed major-general 
in the United States army and was sent 
against the British in Florida. He con- 
ducted the defence of Mobile and seized 
Pensacola. He then went with his troops 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained 
the famous victory of January 8, 18 15. In 
18 1 7-18 he conducted a war against the 
Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor 
of the new territory of Florida. In 1S23 
he was elected United States senator, but 
in 1 824 Was the contestant with J. O. Adams 
for the presidency. Four years later he 
was elected president, and served two terms. 
In 1832 he took vigorous action against the 
nullifiers of South Carolina, and the next 
year removed the public money from the 
United States bank. During his second 
term the national debt was extinguished. At 
the close of his administration he retired to 
the Hermitage, where be died June 8, 1845. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



78 



ANDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manu- 
facturer of pig-iron, steel rails and 
coke in the world, well deserves a place 
among America's celebrated men. He was 
born November 25, 1835, at Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States 
with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. 
Two 3'ears later Mr. Carnegie began his 
business career by attending a small station- 
ary engine. This work did not suit him and 
he became a telegraph messenger with the 
Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became 
an operator, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie 
was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk 
to the superintendent and manager of the 
telegraph lines. While in this position he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the 
inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie 
immediately became interested and was one 
of the organizers of the company for its con- 
struction after the railroad had adopted it, 
and the success of this venture gave him the 
nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted 
to the superintendency of the Pittsburg 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
about this time was one of the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek 
which cost forty thousand dollars and in one 
year it yielded over one million dollars in 
cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was as- 
sociated with others in establishing a rolling- 
mill, and from this has grown the most ex- 
tensive and complete system of iron and 
steel industries ever controlled by one indi- 
vidual, embracing the Edgar Thomson 
Steel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel 
Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; 
Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hartr 
man Steel Works; Prick Coke Co.; Scotia 
Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense 
iron industries he owned eighteen English 



newspapers which he ran in the interest of 
the Radicals. He has also devoted large 
sums of money to benevolent and educational 
purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious 
swimming baths for the people of Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, and in the following year 
gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. 
Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 
to found what is now called " Carnegie Lab- 
oratory, " and in 1885 gave five hundred 
thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public 
library. He also gave two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a music hall and library 
in Allegheny City in 18S6, and two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for a free library. He also established 
free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, 
and other places for the benefit of his em- 
ployes. He also published the following 
works, "An American Four-in-hand in 
Britain;" "Round the World;" "Trium- 
phant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of 
the Republic." 



GEORGE H. THOMAS, the " Rock of 
Chickamauga," one of the best known 
commanders during the late Civil war, was 
born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 
31, 1 8 16, his parents being of Welsh and 
French origin respectively. In 1836 young 
Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Mili- 
tary Academy, at West Point, from which 
he graduated in 1840, and was promoted to 
the office of second lieutenant in the Third 
Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, 
he went to Florida, where he served for two 
years against the Seminole Indians. In 
1 84 1 he was brevetted first lieutenant for 
gallant conduct. He remained in garrison 
in the south and southwest until 1845, at 
which date with the regiment he joined the 
army under General Taylor, and participate 



74 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPU} . 



ed in the defense of Fort Brown, the storm- 
ing of Monterey and the battle of Buena 
Vista. After the latter event he remained 
in garrison, now brevetted major, until the 
close of the Mexican war. After a year 
spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was or- 
dered to West Point, where he served as in- 
structor until 1854. He then was trans- 
ferred to California. In May, 1855, Thom- 
as was appointed major of the Second Cav- 
alry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. 
Although a southern man, and surrounded 
by brother officers who all were afterwards 
in the Confederate service, Major Thomas 
never swerved from his allegiance to the 
government. A. S. Johnston was the col- 
onel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior ma- 
jor, while among the younger officers were 
Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby 
Smith. When these officers left the regi- 
ment to take up arms for the Confederate 
cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 
1 86 1, crossed the Potomac into his native 
state, at its head. After taking an active part 
in the opening scenes of the war on the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general and 
transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 
January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated 
Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought 
him into notice and laid the foundation of 
his fame. He continued in command of his 
division until September 20, 1862, except 
during the Corinth campaign when he com- 
manded the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He was in command of the 
latter at the battle of Perryville, also, Octo- 
ber 8, 1862. 

On the division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland into corps, January 9, 1863, Gen- 
eral Thomas was assigned to the command 
of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chick- 



amauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans, 
firmly held his own against the hosts of Gen- 
eral Bragg. A history of his services from 
that on would be a history of the war in the 
southwest. On September 27, 1864, Gen- 
eral Thomas was given command in Ten- 
nessee, and after organizing his army, de- 
feated General Hood in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much 
complaint was made before this on account 
of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and 
he was about to be superseded because he 
would not strike until he got ready, but 
when the blow was struck General Grant 
was the first to place on record this vindica- 
tion of Thomas' judgment. He received a 
vote of thanks from Congress, and from the 
legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. Af- 
ter the close of the war General Thomas 
had command of several of the military di- 
visions, and died at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 28, 1870. 



GEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most 
eminent American historians, was a 
native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, 
October 3, 1800, and a son of Aaron 
Bancroft, D. D. The father, Aaron Ban- 
croft, was born at Reading, Massachusetts, 
November 10, 1755. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1778, became a minister, and for 
half a century was rated as one of the ablest 
preachers in New England. He was also a 
prolific writer and published a number of 
works among which was " Life of George 
Washington." Aaron Bancroft died August 
19, 1839. 

The subject of our present biography, 
George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 
1817, and the following year entered the 
University of Gottingen, where he studied 
history and philology under the most emi- 
nent teachers, and in 1820 received the de- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



75 



fifree of doctor of philosophy at Gottingeii. 
Upon his return home he pubHshed a volume 
of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's 
" Reflections on the Politics of Ancient 
Greece." In 1834 he produced the first 
volume of his " History of the United 
States," this being followed by other vol- 
umes at different intervals later. This was 
bis greatest work and ranks as the highest 
authority, taking its place among the great- 
est of American productions. 

George Bancroft was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but 
resigned in 1846 and became minister pleni- 
potentiary to England. In 1849 he retired 
from public life and took up his residence at 
Washington, D. C. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed United States minister to the court of 
Berlin and negotiated the treaty by which Ger- 
mans coming to the United States were re- 
leased from their allegiance to the govern- 
ment of their native land. In 1871 he was 
minister plenipotentiary to the German em- 
pire and served until 1874. The death of 
George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1891. 



GEORGE GORDON MEADE, a fa- 
mous Union general, was born at 
Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 18 15, his father 
being United States naval agent at that 
port. After receiving a good education he 
entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1 83 1. From here he was graduated 
June 30, 1835, ^nd received the rank of 
second lieutenant of artillery. He par- 
ticipated in the Seminole war, but resigned 
from the army in October, 1836. He en- 
tered upon the profession of civil engineer, 
which he followed for several years, part of 
the time in the service of the government in 
making surveys of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river. His report and results of some 
experiments made by him in this service 



gained Meade much credit. He alsu was 
employed in surveying the boundary luie of 
Texas and the northeastern boundary line 
between the United States and Canada. 
In 1842 he was reappointed in the arnjy to 
the position of second lieutenant of engineers. 
During the Mexican war he served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Taylor in 
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma 
and the storming of Monterey. He received 
his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter 
action. In 1851 he was made full first 
lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, 
and major soon after. At the close of the 
war with Mexico he was employed in light- 
house construction and in geodetic surveys 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 
which he gained great reputation. In 
August, 1 86 1, he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the 
second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
a division of the First Corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, 
under McClellan, Meade took an active 
part, being present at the battles of Mechan- 
icsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the 
latter of which he was severely wounded. 
On rejoining his command he was given a 
division and distinguished himself at its head 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antie- 
tam. During the latter, on the wounding 
of General Hooker, Meade was placed in 
command of the corps and was himself 
slightly wounded. For services he was 
promoted, November, 1862, to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers. On the 
recovery of General Hooker General Meade 
returned to his division and in December, 
1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack 
which penetrated Lee's right line and swept 
to his rear. Being outnumbered and un- 
supported, he finally was driven back. The 
same month Meade was assigned to the 



76 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1863, his sagacity and 
ability so struck General Hooker that when 
the latter asked to be relieved of the com- 
mand, in June of the same year, he nomi- 
nated Meade as his successor. June 28, 
1863, President Lincohi commissioned Gen- 
eral Meade commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac, then scattered and moving 
hastily through Pennsylvania to the great 
and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at 
which he was in full command. With the 
victory on those July days the name of 
Meade will ever be associated. From that 
time until the close of the war he com- 
manded the Army of the Potomac. In 
1864 General Grant, being placed at the 
head of all the armies, took up his quarters 
with the Army of the Potomac. From that 
time until the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
matox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, 
and his tact in the delicate position in lead- 
ing his army under the eye of his superior 
officer commanded the respect and esteem 
of General Grant. For services Meade was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and 
on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, 
was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. This post he held, with 
the exception of a short period on detached 
duty in Georgia, until his death, which took 
place November 6, 1872. 



DAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter 
and scout, and also one of the earliest 
of American humorists. He was born Au- 
gust 17, 1786, in Tennessee, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his locality, 
serving as representative in congress from 
1827 until 1 83 1. He attracted consider- 
able notice while a member of congress and 
was closely associated with General Jack- 



son, of whom he was a personal friend. Ke 
went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan 
army at the time of the revolt of Texas 
against Mexico and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as a scout. He was one of the famous 
one hundred and forty men under Colonel 
W. B. Travis who were besieged in P'ort 
Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna with some five thousand 
Mexicans on February 23, 1S36. The fort 
was defended for ten days, frequent assaults 
being repelled with great slaughter, over 
one thousand Mexicans being killed or 
wounded, while not a man in the fort was 
injured. Finally, on March 6, three as- 
saults were made, and in the hand-to-hand 
fight that followed the last, the Texans were 
wofully outnumbered and overpowered. 
They fought desperately with clubbed mus- 
kets till only six were left alive, including 
W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James 
Bowie. These surrendered under promise 
of protection; but when they were brought 
before Santa Anna he ordered them all to 
be cut to pieces. 



HENRY WATTERSON, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the history of 
American journalism, was born at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, February 16, 
1840. His boyhood days were mostly spent 
in the city of his birth, where his father, 
Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the 
"Union," a well known journal. 

Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which 
interfered with a systematic course of study, 
young Watterson was educated almost en- 
tirely at home. A successful college career 
was out of the question, but he acquired a 
good knowledge of music, literature and art 
from private tutors, but the most valuable 
part of tiie training he received was by as- 
sociating with his father and the throng 01 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



public men whom he met in \\'ashington 
in the stirring days immediately preceding 
the Civil war. He began his journalistic 
career at an early age as dramatic and 
musical critic, and in 185S, became editor 
of the "Democratic Review" and at the 
same time contributed to the "States," 
a journal of liberal opinions published in 
Washington. In this he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, when the 
"States," opposing the administration, was 
suppressed, and young Watterson removed 
to Tennessee. He next appears as editor 
of the Nashville "Republican Banner," the 
moFt influential paper in the state at that 
time. After the occupation of Nashville by 
the Federal troops, Watterson served as a 
volunteer staff officer in the Confederate 
service until the close of the war, with the 
exception of a year spent in editing the 
Chattanooga "Rebel." On the close of 
the war he returned to Nashville and re- 
sumed his connection with the "Banner." 
After a trip to Europe he assumed control 
of the Louisville "Journal," which he soon 
combined with the "Courier" and the 
"Democrat" of that place, founding the 
well-known "Courier-Journal," the first 
number of which appeared November 8, 
1868. Mr. Watterson also represented his 
district in congress for several years. 



)ATRICK SARSFIELD GILMORE, 
cue of the most successful and widely 
known bandmasters and musicians of the 
last half century in America, was born in 
Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. 
He attended a public school until appren- 
ticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlbne, 
of the brass band of which town he soon 
became a member. His passion for music 
conflicting with the duties of a mercantile 
life, his position as clerk was exchanged for 



that of musical instructor to the young sons 
of his employer. At the age of nineteen he 
sailed for America and two days after his 
arrival in Boston was put in charge of the 
band instrument department of a prominent 
music house. In the interests of the pub- 
lications of this house he organized a minstrel 
company known as " Ord way's Eolians," 
with which he first achieved success as a 
cornet soloist. Later on he was called the 
best E-flat cornetist in the United States. 
He became leader, successively, of the Suf- 
folk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. 
During his connection with the latter he 
inaugurated the famous Fourth of July con- 
certs on Boston Common, since adopted as 
a regular programme for the celebration of 
Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore 
founded the organisation famous thereafter 
as Gilmore's Band. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war this band was attached to the 
Twenty-Fourth , Massachusetts Infantry. 
Later, when the economical policy of dis- 
pensing with music had proved a mistake, 
Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organiza- 
tion of state military bands, and upon his 
arrival at New Orleans with his own band 
was made bandmaster-general by General 
Banks. On the inauguration of Governor 
Hahn, later on, in Lafaj'ette square, New 
Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of 
Confederate parents, rose to the baton of 
Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred 
instruments, thirty-six guns and the united 
fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the 
Star-Spangled Banner, America and other 
patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. 
Gilmore conceived a national musical festi- 
val, which was denounced as a chimericsl 
undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15. 
1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston 
Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the 
occasion, and in the presence of over fifty 



COMTENDJUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



thousand people lifted his baton over an 
orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of 
ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, 
he opened a still greater festival in Boston, 
■when, in addition to an orchestra of two 
thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, 
were present the Band of the Grenadier 
Guards, of London, of the Garde Repub- 
licaine, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, 
and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with 
Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and many other 
soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's 
death occurred September 24, 1S92. 



M 



ARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth 
president of the United States, 1837 
to 1841. He was of Dutch extraction, and 
his ancestors were among the earliest set- 
tlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was 
born December 5, 1782, at Kinderhook, 
New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the 
study of law at the age of fourteen and took 
an active part in political matters before he 
had attained his majority. He commenced 
the practice of law in 1803 at his native 
town, and in 1S09 he removed to Hudson, 
Columbia county, New York, where he 
spent seven years gaining strength and wis- 
dom from his contentions at the bar with 
some of the ablest men of the profession. 
Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state 
senate, and from 18 15 until 18 19 he was at- 
torney-general of the state. He was re- 
elected to the senate in i8i6, and in 18 18 
he was one of the famous clique of politi- 
cians known as the "Albany regency." 
Mr. Van Buren was a member of the con- 
vention for the revision of the state consti- 
tution, in 182 I. In the same year he was 
elected to the United States senate and 
served his term in a manner that caused his 
re-election to that body in 1827, but re- 
signed the following year as he had been 



elected governor of New York. Mr. Van 
Buren was appointed by President Jackson as 
secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned 
in 1831, and during the recess of congress 
he was appointed minister to England. 
The senate, however, when it convened in 
December refused to ratify the appointment. 
In May, 1832, he was nominated by the 
Democrats as their candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, 
and he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. He received the nomination to suc- 
ceed President Jackson in 1836, as the 
Democratic candidate, and in the electoral 
college he received one hundred and seventy 
votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, 
and was inaugurated March 4, 1837. His 
administration was begun at a time of great 
business depression, and unparalled financial 
distress, which caused the suspension of 
specie payments by the banks. Nearly 
every bank in the country was forced to 
suspend specie payment, and no less than 
two hundred and fifty-four business houses 
failed in New York in one week. The 
President urged the adoption of the inde- 
pendent treasury idea, which passed through 
the senate twice but each time it was de- 
feated in the house. However the measure 
ultimately became a law near the close of 
President Van Buren's term of office. An- 
other importaat measure that was passed 
was the pre-emption law that gave the act- 
ual settlers preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery had 
begun to assume great preponderance dur- 
ing this administration, and a great conflict 
was tided over by the passage of a resolu- 
tion that prohibited petitions or papers that 
in any way related to slavery to be acted 
upon. In the Democratic convention of 
1840 President Van Buren secured the 
nomination for re-election on that ticket 



COMPEXDIi'M OF BIOGRAriir. 



79 



without opposition, but in the election he 
only received the votes of seven states, his 
opponent, W. H. Harrison, being elected 
president. In 1848 Mr. Van Buren was 
the candidate of the " Free-Soilers," but 
was unsuccessful. After this he retired 
from public life and spent the remainder of 
his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where 
he died July 24, 1862. 

W INFIELD SCOTT, a distinguished 
American general, was born June 13, 
1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddle county, 
Virginia, and was educated at the Wiliiam 
and Mary College. He studied law and was 
.admitted to the bar, and in 1808 he accepted 
an appointment as captain of light artillery, 
and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 

18 1 2, he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
■colonel, and on application was sent to the 
frontier, and reported to General Smyth, 
near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-gen- 
•eral with the rank of a colonel, in March, 

1 8 1 3, and the same month attained the colo- 
nelcy of his regiment. He participated in 
the principal battles of the war and was 
wounded many times, and at the close of 
the war he was voted a gold medal by con- 
gress for his services. He was a writer of 
considerable merit on military topics, and 
he gave to the military science, "General 
Regulations of the Army " and " System of 
Infantry and Rifle Practice." He took a 
prominent part in the Black Hawk war, 
and at the beginning of the Mexican war he 
was appointed to take the command of the 
army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled 
his troops at Lobos Island from which he 
moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which 
he took March 29, 1847, and rapidly fol- 
lowed up his first success. He fought the 
■battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of 
which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo 



where he was preceded by Worth's division 
which had taken the town and waited for the 
coming of Scott. The army was forced to 
wait here for supplies, and August 7th, 
General Scott started on his victorious 
march to the city of Mexico with ten thou- 
sand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. 
The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and 
San Antonio were fought August 19-20, 
and on the 24th an armistice was agreed 
upon, but as the commissioners could not 
agree on the terms of settlement, the fight- 
ing was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and 
the Heights of Chapultepec were carried 
by the victorious army of General Scott. 
He gave the enemy no respite, however, 
and vigorously followed up his advantages. 
On September 14, he entered the City of 
Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender 
in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. 
General Scott was offered the presidency of 
the Mexican Republic, but declined. Con- 
gress extended him a vote of thanks and 
ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of 
his generalship and bravery. He was can- 
didate for the presidency on the Whig plat- 
form but was defeated. He was honored by 
having the title of lieutenant-general con- 
ferred upon him in 1855. At the beginning of 
the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge 
of the army, but did signal service in be- 
half of the government. He retired from 
the service November i, 1861, and in 1864. 
he published his "Autobiography." Gen- 
eral Scott died at West Point, May 29, 1866 



EDWARD EVERETT HALE for many 
years occupied a high place among the 
most honored of America's citizens. As 
a preacher he ranks among the foremost 
in the New England states, but to the gen ■ 
eral public he is best known through his 
writings. Born in Boston, Mass., April 3, 



80 



coMPExnn.^f OF nioGRAi'Jir. 



1822, a descendant of one of the most 
^jrominent New England families, he enjoyed 
in his youth many of the advantages denied 
the majority of boys. He received his pre- 
paratory schooling at the Boston Latin 
School, after which he finished his studies at 
Harvard where he was graduated with high 
honors in 1839. Having studied theology 
at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry 
and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post 
which he occupied about ten years. He 
then, in 1856, became pastor of the South 
Congregational church in Boston, over which 
he presided many years. 

Mr. Hale also found time to write a 
great many literary works of a high class. 
v\mong many other well-known productions 
-ii his are " The Rosary," " Margaret Per- 
iival in America." "Sketches of Christian 
-Jistory," "Kansas and Nebraska," "Let- 
ters on Irish Emigration," " Ninety Days' 
Worth of Europe," " If, Yes, and Perhaps," 
"Ingham Papers," "Reformation," "Level 
Best and Other Stories, " " Ups and Downs, " 
"Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," " In 
His Name," "Our New Crusade," "Work- 
ingmen's Homes," "Boys' Heroes," etc., 
etc., besides many others which might be 
mentioned. One of his works, " In His 
Name," has earned itself enduring fame by 
the good deeds it has called forth. The 
numerous associations known as ' 'The King's 
Daughters," which has accomplished much 
good, owe their existence to the story men- 
tioned. 



DAVID GLASCOE FARRAGUT stands 
pre-eminent as one of the greatest na- 
val officers of the world. He was born at 
Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 
5, 1801, and entered the navy of the United 
States as a midshipman. He had the good 



fortune to serve under Captain David Por- 
ter, who commanded the " Esse.x," and by 
whom he was taught the ideas of devotion 
to duty from which he never swerved dur- 
ing all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut 
took part in a severe fight, the result of 
which was the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies. He then entered upon the 
regular duties of his profession which was 
only broken into by a year's residence with 
Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who 
was afterwards a distinguished professor at 
Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best 
linguists in the navy. He had risen through 
the different grades of the service until the 
war of 1861-65 found him a captain resid- 
ing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with 
his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and 
hastened to offer his services to the Federal 
government, and as the capture of New 
Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut 
was chosen to command the expedition. 
His force consisted of the West Gulf block- 
ading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. 
In January, 1862, he hoisted his pennant at 
the mizzen peak of the "Hartford"' at 
Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 
3rd of February and reached Ship Island on 
the 20th of the same month. A council of 
war was held on the 20th of April, in which 
it was decided that whatever was to be done 
must be done quickly. The signal was made 
from the flagship and accordingly the fleet 
weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of 
April 24th, and at 3:30 the whole force was 
underway. Thehistory of this brilliant strug- 
gle is well known, and the glory of it made Far- 
ragut a hero and also made him rear admir- 
al. In the summer of 1 862 he ran the batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on March 14, 1863, he 
passed through the fearful and destructive 
fire from Port Hudson, and opened up com- 
munication with Flag-officer Porter, whO' 



COMPEXDIVM OF BIOGRArHT. 



m 



had control of the upper Mississippi. On 
May 24th he commenced active operations 
against that fort in conjunction with the army 
and it fell on July 9th. Mr. Farragut filled 
the measure of his fame on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1864, by his great victory, thecapture 
of Mobile Bay and the destruction of the 
Confederate fleet, including the formidable 
ram Tennessee. For this victory the rank 
of admiral was given to Mr. Farragut. He 
died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 4, 1870. 

GEORGE W. CHILDS, a philanthropist 
whose remarkable "personality stood 
for the best and highest type of American 
citizenship, and whose whole life was an 
object lesson in noble living, was born in 
1829 at Baltimore, Maryland, of humble 
parents, and spent his early life in unremit- 
ting toil. He was a self-made man in the 
fullest sense of the word, and gained his 
great wealth by his own efforts. He was a 
man of very great influence, and this, in 
conjunction with his wealth, would have 
been, in the hands of other men, a means of 
getting them political preferment, but Mr. 
Childs steadily declined any suggestions that 
would bring him to figure prominently in 
public affairs. He did not choose to found 
a financial dynasty, but devoted all his 
powers to the helping of others, with the 
most enlightened beneficence and broadest 
sympathy. Mr. Childs once remarked that 
his greatest pleasure in life was in doing 
good to others. He always despised mean- 
ness, and one of his objects of life was to 
prove that a man could be liberal and suc- 
cessful at the same time. Upon these lines 
Mr. Childs made a name for himself as the 
director of one of the representative news- 
papers of America, "The Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledger," which was owned jointly by 



himself and the Drexel estate, and which he 
edited for thirty years. He acquired con- 
trol of the paper at a time when it was be- 
ing published at a heavy loss, set it upon a 
firm basis of prosperity, and he made it 
more than a money- making machine — he 
made it respected as an exponent of the 
best side of journalism, and it stands as a 
monument to his sound judgment and up- 
right business principles. Mr. Childs' char- 
itable repute brought him many applications 
for assistance, and he never refused to help 
any one that was deserving of aid; and not 
only did he help those who asked, but he 
would by careful inquiry find those who 
needed aid but were too proud to solicit it. 
He was a ' considerable employer of labor 
and his liberality was almost unparalleled. 
The death of this great and good man oc- 
curred February 3d, 1894. 



PATRICK HENRY won his way to un 
dying fame in the annals of the early 
history of the United States by introducing 
into the house of burgesses his famous reso- 
lution against the Stamp Act, which he car- 
ried through, after a stormy debate, by a 
majority of one. At this time he exclaimed 
" Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom- 
well and George IH " (here he was inter- 
rupted by cries of " treason ") " may profit 
by their example. If this be treason make 
the most of it." 

Patrick Henry was born at Studley, 
Hanover county, Virginia, May 29, 1736, 
and was a son of Colonel John Henry, a 
magistrate and school teacher of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and a nephew of Robertson, the 
historian. He received his education from 
his father, and was married at the age of 
eighteen. He was twice bankrupted before 
he had reached his twenty-fourth year, when 
after six weeks of study he was admitted to 



84 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



the bar. He worked for three years with- 
out a case and finally was applauded for his 
plea lor the people's rights and gained im- 
mense popularity. After his famous Stamp 
Act resolution he was the leader of the pa- 
triots in Virginia. In 1769 he was admitted 
to practice in the general courts and speed- 
ily won a fortune by his distinguished ability 
as a speaker. He was the first speaker of 
the General Congress at Philadelphia in 
1774. He was for a time a colonel of 
militia in 1775, and from 1776 to 1779 and 
1 78 1 to 1786 he was governor of Virginia. 
For a number of years he retired from pub- 
lic life and was tendered and declined a 
number of important political offices, and in 
March, 1789, he was elected state senator 
but oid not take his seat on account of his 
death which occurred at Red Hill, Charlotte 
county, Virginia, June 6, 1799. 



BENEDICT ARNOLD, an American 
general and traitor of the Revolution- 
ary war, is one of the noted characters in 
American history. He was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, January 3, 1740. He 
ran away and enlisted in the army when 
young, but deserted in a short time. He 
then became a merchant at New Haven, 
Connecticut, but failed. In 1775 he was 
commissioned colonel in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in the autumn of that year was 
placed in command of one thousand men 
for the invasion of Canada. He marched 
his army through the forests of Maine and 
joined General Montgomery before Quebec. 
Their combined forces attacked that city on 
December 31, 1775, and Montgomery was 
killed, and Arnold, severely wounded, was 
compelled to retreat and endure a rigorous 
winter a few miles from the city, where they 
were at the mercy of the Canadian troops 
had they cared to attack them. On his re- 



turn he was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was given command of a small 
flotilla on Lake Champlain, with which he 
encountered an immense force, and though 
defeated, performed many deeds of valor. 
He resented the action of congress in pro- 
moting a number of his fellow officers and 
neglecting himself. In 1777 he was made 
major-general, and under General Gates at 
Bemis Heights fought valiantly. For some 
reason General Gates found fault with his 
conduct and ordered him under arrest, and 
he was kept in his tent until the battle of 
Stillwater was waxing hot, when Arnold 
mounted his horse and rode to the front of 
his old troop, gave command to charge, and 
rode like a mad man into the thickest of 
the fight and was not overtaken by Gates' 
courier until he had routed the enemy and 
fell wounded. Upon his recovery he was 
made general, and was placed in command 
at Philadelphia. Here he married, and his 
acts of rapacity soon resulted in a court- 
martial. He was sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief, and 
though Washington performed this duty 
with utmost delicacy and consideration, it 
was never forgiven. Arnold obtained com- 
mand at West Point, the most important 
post held by the Americans, in 1780, and 
immediately offered to surrender it to Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commander at New 
York. Major Andre was sent to arrange 
details with Arnold, but on his return trip 
to New York he was captured by Americans, 
the plot was detected, and Andre suffered 
the death penalty as a spy. Arnold es- 
caped, and was paid about $40,000 by the 
British for his treason and was made briga- 
dier-general. He afterward commanded an 
expedition that plundered a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and another that burned New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and captured Fort Trum- 



coMPEXBii'M ar BIOGRArnr 



85. 



bull, the commandant of which Arnold mur- 
dered with the sword he had just surren- 
dercd. He passed the latter part of his life 
in England, universally despised, and died 
in London June 14, 1801. 



ROBERT G. INGERSOLL, one of the 
most brilliant orators that America has 
produced, also a lawyer of considerable 
merit, won most of his fame as a lecturer. 
Mr. Ingersoll was born Auj:;ust 24, 1833, 
at Dryden, Gates county. New York, and 
received hiseducation in the common schools. 
He went west at the age of twelve, and for 
a short time he attended an academy in 
Tennessee, and also taught school in that 
state. He began the practice of law in the 
southern part of Illinois in 1854. Colonel 
Iiigcrsoll's principal fame was made in 
the lecture room by his lectures in which he 
ridiculed religious faith and creeds and criti- 
cised the Bible and the Christian religion. 
He was the orator of the day in the Decora- 
tion Day celebration in the city of New York 
in 1S82 and his oration was widely com- 
mended. He first attracted political notice 
in the convention at Cincinnati in 1876 by 
his brilliant eulogy on James G. Blaine. He 
practiced law in Peoria, Illinois, for a num- 
ber of years, but later located in the city of 
New York. He published the follow- 
ing: "The Gods and other Lectures;" "The 
Ghosts;" "Some Mistakes of Moses;" 
"What Shall I Do To Be Saved;" "Inter- 
views on Talmage and Presbyterian Cate- 
chism ;" The "North American Review 
Controversy;" "Prose Poems;" " A Vision 
of War;" etc. 



JOSEPH ECCLESTON JOHNSTON, 
a noted general in the Confederate army, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
in 1S07. He graduated from West Point 



and entered the army in 1829. For a num- 
ber of years his chief service was garrison 
duty. He saw active service, however, in 
the Seminole war in Florida, part of the 
time as a staff officer of General Scott. He 
resigtied his commission in 1S37, but re- 
turned to the army a year later, and was 
brevetted captain for gallant services in 
Florida. He was made first lieutenant of 
topographical engineers, and was engaged 
in river and harbor improvements and also 
in the survey of the Texas boundary and 
the northern boundary of the United 
States until the beginning of the war 
with Mexico. He was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo, was 
wounded while reconnoitering the enemy's 
position, after which he was brevetted major 
and colonel. He was in all the battles about 
the city of Mexico, and was again wounded 
in the final assault upon that city. After 
the Mexican war closed he returned to duty 
as captain of topographical engineers, but 
in 1855 he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry and did frontier duty, and was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the expedition 
to Utah. In i860 he was appointed quar- 
termaster-general with rank of brigadier- 
general. At the outbreak of hostilities in 
1 86 1 he resigned his commission and re- 
ceived the appointment of major-general of 
the Confederate army. He held Harper's 
Ferry, and later fought General Patterson 
about Winchester. At the battle of Bull 
Run he declined command in favor of Beau- 
regard, and acted underthat general's direc- 
tions. He commanded the Confederates in 
the famous Peninsular campaign, and was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks and was 
succeeded in command by General Lee. 
Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant- 
general and assigned to the command of the 
southwestern department. He attempted 



SB 



COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAPHr. 



to raise the siege of Vicksburg, and was 
finally defeated at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Having been made a general he succeeded 
General Bragg in command of the army of 
Tennessee and was ordered to check General 
Sherman's advance upon Atlanta. Not 
daring to risk a battle with the overwhelm- 
ing forces of Sherman, he slowly retreated 
toward Atlanta, and was relieved of com- 
mand by President Davis and succeeded by 
General Hood. Hood utterly destroyed his 
own army by three furious attacks upon 
Sherman. Johnston was restored to com- 
mand in the Carolinas, and again faced 
Sherman, but was defeated in several en- 
gagements and continued a slow retreat 
toward Richmond. Hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, he communicated with General 
Sherman, and finally surrendered his army 
at Durham, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. 
General Johnston was elected a member 
of the forty-sixth congress and was ap- 
pointed United States railroad commis- 
sioner in 1885. His death occurred March 
21, 1891. 

SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS, 
known throughout the civilized world 
as "Mark Twain," is recognized as one of 
the greatest humorists America has pro- 
duced. He was born in Monroe county, 
Missouri, November 30, 1835. Hespenthis 
boyhood days in his native state and many 
of his earlier experiences are related in vari- 
ous forms in his later writings. One of his 
early acquaintances, Capt. Isaiah Sellers, 
at an early day furnished river news for the 
New Orleans " Picayune," using the 710111- 
dc- plume of "Mark Twain." Sellers died 
in 1863 and Clem.ens took up his iioin-dc- 
phnnc and made it famous throughout the 
world by his literary work. In 1862 Mr. 
Clemens became a journalist at Virginia, 



Nevada, and afterward followed the same pro- 
fession at San Francisco and Buffalo, New 
York. He accumulated a fortune from the 
sale of his many publications, but in later 
years engaged in business enterprises, partic- 
ularly the manufacture of a typesetting ma- 
chine, which dissipated his fortune and re- 
duced him almost to poverty , but with resolute 
heart he at once again took up his pen and 
engaged in literary work in the effort to 
regain his lost ground. Among the best 
known of his works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: "The Jumping Frog, " "Tom Saw- 
yer," " Roughingit," " Innocents Abroad," 
"Huckleberry Finn," "Gilded Age," 
"Prince and Pauper," "Million Pound 
Bank Note," "A Yankee in King Arthur's 
Court," etc. 

CHRISTOPHER CARSON, better 
known as "Kit Carson;" was an Amer- 
ican trapper and scout who gained a wide 
reputation for his frontier work. He was a 
native of Kentucky, born December 24th, 
1S09. He grew to manhood there, devel- 
oping a natural inclination for adventure in 
the pioneer experiences in his native state. 
When yet a young man he became quite 
well known on the frontier. He served as 
a guide to Gen. Fremont in his Rocky 
Mountain explorations and enlisted in the 
army. He was an officer in the United 
States service in both the Mexican war and 
the great Civil war, and in the latter received 
a brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious 
service. His death occurred May 23, 
1868. 

JOHN SHERMAN.— Statesman, politi- 
cian, cabinet officer and senator, the name 
of the gentleman who heads this sketch is al- 
most a household word throughout this 
country. Identified with some of the most 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



iinpoitant measures adopted by our Govern- 
ment since the close of the Civil war, he may 
well be called one of the leading men of his 
day. 

John Sherman was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, May lOth, 1823, 
the son of Charles R. Sherman, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio and who died in 1S29. The subject 
of this article received an academic educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in 1844. 
In the Whig conventions of 1844 and 1848 
he sat as a delegate. He was a member of 
the National house of representatives, 
from 1855 to 1 86 1. In i860 he was re- 
elected to the same position but was chosen 
United States senator before he took his 
seat in the lower house. He was re-elected 
senator in 1866 and 1872 and was long 
chairman of the committee on finance and 
on agriculture. He took a prominent part 
in debates on finance and on the conduct of 
the war, and was one of the authors of the 
reconstruction measures in 1866 and 1867, 
and was appointed secretary of the treas- 
ury March 7th, 1877. 

Mr. Sherman was re-elected United States 
senator from Ohio January i8th, 1881, and 
again in 1886 and 1892, during which time 
he was regarded as one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the Republican party, both 
in the senate and in the country. He was 
several times the favorite of his state for the 
nomination for president. 

On the formation of his cabinet in March, 
1897, President McKinley tendered the posi- 
tion of secretary of state to Mr. Sherman, 
which was accepted. 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, ninth 
president of the United States, was 
born in Charles county, Virginia, February 
9, 1773, the son of Governor Benjamin 



Harrison. He took a course in Hampden- 
Sidney College with a view to the practice 
of medicine, and then went to Philadelphia 
to study under Dr. Rush, but in 1791 he 
entered the army, and obtained the commis- 
sion of ensign, was soon promoted to the 
lieutenancy, and was with General Wayne 
in his war against the Indians. For his 
valuable service he was promoted to the 
rank of captain and given command of Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati. He was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Northwest Territory 
in 1797, and in 1799 became its representa- 
tive in congress. In 1801 he was appointed 
governor of Indiana Territory, and held the 
position for twelve years, during which time 
he negotiated important treaties with the In- 
dians, causing them to relinquish millions of 
acres of land, and also won the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 181 1. He succeeded in 
obtaining a change in the law which did not 
permit purchase of public lands in less tracts 
than four thousand acres, reducing the limit 
to three hundred and twenty acres. He 
became major-general of Kentucky militia 
and brigadier-general in the United States 
army in 1812, and won great renown in 
the defense of Fort Meigs, and his victory 
over the British and Indians under Proctor 
and Tecumseh at the Thames river, October 
5. 1813. 

In 1 8 16 General Harrison was elected to 
congress from Ohio, and during the canvass 
was accused of corrupt methods in regard to 
the commissariat of the army. He demanded 
an investigation after the election and was 
exonerated. In 1819 he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate, and in 1824 he gave 
his vote as a presidential elector to Henry 
Clay. He became a member of the United 
States senate the same year. During the 
last year of Adams' administration he was 
sent as minister to Colombia, but was re- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



called by President Jackson the following 
year. He then retired to his estate at North 
Bend, Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati. In 
1836 he was a candidate for the presidency, 
but as there were three other candidates 
the votes were divided, he receiving seventy- 
three electoral votes, a majority going to 
Mr. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate. 
Four years later General Harrison w^as again 
nominated by the Whigs, and elected by a 
tremendous majority. The campaign, was 
noted for its novel features, many of which 
have found a permanent place in subsequent 
campaigns. Those peculiar to that cam- 
paign, however, were the " log-cabin " and 
" hard cider" watchwords, which produced 
great enthusiasm among his followers. One 
month afler his inauguration he died from 
an attack of pleurisy, April 4, 1S41. 



CHARLES A. DANA, the well-known 
and widely-read journalist of New York 
City, a native of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
was born August 8, 1819. He received 
the elements of a good education in his 
youth and studied for two years at Harvard 
University. Owing to some disease of the 
eyes he was unable to complete his course 
and graduate, but was granted the degree of 
A. M. notwithstanding. For some time he 
was editor of the " Harbinger," and was a 
regular contributor to the Boston " Chrono- 
type." In 1S47 he became connected with 
the New York ' ' Tribune, " and continued on 
the staff of that journal until 1858. In the 
latter jear he edited and compiled "The 
Household Book of Poetry," and later, in 
connection with George Ripley, edited the 
"New American Cyclopaedia." 

Mr. Dana, on severing his connection 
with the "Tribune" in 1867, became editor 
of the New York "Sun," a paper with 
which he was identified for many years, and 



which he made one of the leaders of thougiit 
in the eastern part of the United States. 
He wielded a forceful pen and fearlessly 
attacked, whatever was corrupt and unworthy 
in politics, state or national. The same 
year, 1867, Mr. Dana organized the New 
York "Sun " Company. 

During the troublous days of the war, 
when the fate of the Nation depended upon 
the armies in the field, Mr. Dana accepted 
the arduous and responsible position of 
assistant secretary of war, and held the 
position during the greater part of 1863 
and 1864. He died October 17, 1897. 



ASA GRAY was recognized throughout the 
scientific world as one of the ablest 
and most eminent of botanists. He was 
born at Paris, Oneida county, New York, 
November 18, 18 10. He received his medi- 
cal degree at the Fairfield College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in Herkimer county. 
New York, and studied botany with the late 
Professor Torrey, of New York. He was 
appointed botanist to the Wilkes expedition 
in 1834, but declined the offer and became 
professor of natural history in Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1842. He retired from the active 
duties of this post in 1873, and in 1874 he 
was the regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Gray wrote several books on the sub- 
ject of the many sciences of which he was 
master. In 1836 he published his " Ele- 
ments of Botany," "Manual of Botany" in 
1848; the unfinished "Flora of North 
America," by himself and Dr. Torrey, the 
publication of which commenced in 1838. 
There is another of his unfinished works 
called "Genera Boreali-Americana, " pub- 
lished in 1848, and the "Botany of the 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
in 1854." He wrote many elaborate papers 



COMPEXDIUM OF BlOGRAPlir. 



89 



on the botany of the west and southwest 
that were published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions, Memoirs, etc., of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which in- 
stitution he was president for ten years. 
He was also the author of many of the 
government reports. " How Plants Grow," 
" Lessons in ISotany," " Structural and Sys- 
tematic Botany," are also works from his 
ready pen. 

Dr. Gray published in 1861 his "Free 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise " and his 
" Darwiniana," in 1876. Mr. Gray was 
elected July 29, 1878, to a membership in 
the Institute of France, Academy of Sciences. 
His death occurred at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, January 30, 1889. 



WILLIAM MAXWELL EVARTS was 
one of the greatest leaders of the 
American bar. He was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 6, 18 18, and grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1837. He took 
up the study of law, which he practiced in 
the city of New York and won great renown 
as an orator and advocate. He affiliated 
with the Republican party, which he joined 
soon after its organization. He was the 
leading counsel employed for the defense of 
President Johnson in his trial for impeach- 
ment before the senate in April and May of 
1868. 

In July, 1868, Mr. Evarts was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, and 
served until March 4, 1869. He was one 
of the three lawyers who were selected by 
President Grant in 1871 to defend the inter- 
ests of the citizens of the United States be- 
fore the tribunal of arbitration which met 
at Geneva in Switzerland to settle the con- 
troversy over the " Alabama Claims." 

He was one of the most eloquent advo- 
cates in the United States, and many of his 



public addresses have been preserved and 
published. He was appointed secretary of 
state March 7, 1877, by President Hayes, 
and served during the Hayes administration. 
He was elected senator from the state of 
New York January 21, 1885, and at once 
took rank among the ablest statesmen in 
Congress, and the prominent part he took 
in the discussion of public questions gave 
him a national reputation. 



JOHN \VANAMAKER.--The life of this 
*J great merchant demonstrates the fact 
that the great secret of rising from the ranks 
is, to-day, as in the past ages, not so much the 
ability to make money, as to save it, or in 
other words, the ability to live well within 
one's incom.e. Mr. Wanamaker was born in 
Philadelphia in 1S38. He started out in 
life working in a brickyard for a mere pit- 
tance, and left that position to work in a 
book store as a clerk, where he earned 
the sum of $5.00 per month, and later on 
was in the employ of a clothier where he 
received twenty-five cents a week more. 
He was only fifteen years of age at that 
time, but was a " money-getter " by instinct, 
and laid by a small sum for a possible rainy 
day. By strict attention to business, com- 
bined with natural ability, he v/as promoted 
many times, and at the age of twenty he 
had saved $2,000. After several months 
vacation in the south, he returned to Phila- 
delphia and became a master brick mason, 
but this was too tiresome to the young man, . 
and he opened up the " Oak Hall " clothing 
store in April, 1861, at Philadelphia. The 
capital of the firm was rather limited, but 
finally, after many discouragements, they 
laid the foundations of one of the largest 
business houses in the world. The estab- 
lishment covers at the present writing some 
fourteen acres of floor space, and furnishes 



90 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



employment for five thousand persons. Mr. 
Wanamaker was also a great church worker, 
and built a church that cost him $60,000, 
and he was superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which had a membership of over 
three thousand children. He steadily re- 
fused to run for mayor or congress and the 
only public office that he ever held was that 
of postmaster-general, under the Harrison 
administration, and here he exhibited his 
extraordinary aptitude for comprehending 
the details of public business. 



^.^VID BENNETT HILL, a Demo- 
cratic politician who gained a na- 
tional reputation, was born August 29, 
1843, at Havana, New York. He was 
educated at the academy of his native town, 
and removed to Elmira, New York, in 1862, 
where he studied law. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1864, in which year he was ap- 
pointed city attorney. Mr. Hill soon gained 
a considerable practice, becoming prominent 
in his profession. He developed a taste for 
politics in which he began to take an active 
part in the different campaigns and became 
the recognized leader of the local Democ- 
racy. In 1870 he was elected a member of 
the assembly and was re-elected in 1872. 
While a member of this assembly he formed 
the acquaintance of Samuel J. Tilden, after- 
ward governor of the state, who appointed 
Mr. Hill, W. M. Evarts and Judge Hand 
as a committee to provide a uniform charter 
for the different cities of the state. The 
pressure of professional engagements com- 
pelled him to decline to serve. In 1877 
I\lr. Hill was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention at Albany, his elec- 
tion being due to the Tilden wing of the 
party, and he held the same position again 
in 1 88 1. He served one term as alderman 
in Elmira, at the expiration of which term, 



in 1882, he was elected mayor of Elmira, 
and in September of the same year was 
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the 
Democratic state ticket. He was success- 
ful in the campaign and two years later, 
when Grover Cleveland was elected to the 
presidency, Mr. Hill succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship for the unexpired term. In 1885 
he was elected governor for a full term of 
three years, at the end of which he was re- 
elected, his term expiring in 1891, in which 
year he was elected United States senator. 
In the senate he became a conspicuous 
figure and gained a national reputation. 



ALLEN G. THURMAN. — " The noblest 
Roman of them all " was the title by 
which Mr. Thurman was called by his com- 
patriots of the Democracy. He was the 
greatest leader of the Democratic party in 
his day and held the esteem of all the 
people, regardless of their political creeds. 
Mr. Thurman was born November 13, 18 13, 
at Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained 
until he had attained the age of six years, 
when he moved to Ohio. He received an 
academic education and after graduating, 
took up the study of law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, and achieved a brilliant 
success ia that line. In political life he was 
very successful, and his first office was that 
of representative of the state of Ohio in the 
twenty-ninth congress. He was elected 
judge of the supreme court of Ohio in 1851, 
and was chief justice of the same from 1S54 
to 1856. In 1867 he was the choice of the 
Democratic party of his state for governor, 
and was elected to the United States senate 
in 1869 to succeed Benjamin F. Wade, 
and was re-elected to the same position in 
1874. He was a prom.inent figure in the 
senate, until the expiration of his service in 
1881. Mr. Thurman w-as also one of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAP/Il'. 



91 



principal presidental possibilities in the 
Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 
1876. In 1888 he was the Democratic 
nominee for vice-president on the ticket 
with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. 
Allen Cranberry Thurman died December 
12, 1895, at Columbus, Ohio. 



CHARLES FARRAR BROWNE, better 
known as " Artemus Ward," was born 
April 26, 1834, in the village of Waterford, 
Maine. He was thirteen years old at the 
time of his father's death, and about a year 
later he was apprenticed to John M. Rix, 
who published the "Coos County Dem- 
ocrat " at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. 
Browne remained with him one year, when, 
hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting 
a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix 
and determined to get work on the new 
paper. He worked for his brother until the 
failure of the newspaper, and then went to 
Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few 
weeks and then removed to Skovvhegan, 
and secured a position on the "Clarion." 
But either the climate or the work was not 
satisfactory to him, for one night he silently 
left the town and astonished his good mother 
by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. 
Browne then received some letters of recom- 
mendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of 
Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's 
(B. P. Shillaber) ' ' Carpet Bag " was printed, 
and he was engaged and remained there for 
three years. He then traveled westward in 
search of employment and got as far as Tif- 
fin, Ohio, where he found employment in the 
office of the "Advertiser," and remained 
there some months when he proceeded to 
Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the 
staff of the "Commercial," which position 
he held until 1857. Mr. Browne next went 
i;o Cleveland, Ohio, and became the local 



editor of the "Plain Dealer," and it was in 
the columns of this paper that he published 
his first articles and signed them "Artemus 
Ward." In i860 he went to New York and 
became the editor of " Vanity Fair," but 
the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he 
was fully determined to make the trial. 
Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, "Babes 
in the Woods " at Clinton Hall, December 
23, 1861, and in 1862 he published his first 
book entitled, " Artemus Ward; His Book." 
He attained great fame as a lecturer and his 
lectures were not confined to America, for 
he went to England in 1866, and became 
exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and 
a contributor to "Punch." Mr. Browne 
lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. 
He died in Southampton, England, March 
6, 1867. 

THURLOW WEED, a noted journalist 
and politician, was born in Cairo, New 
York, November 15, 1797. He learned the 
printer's trade at the age of twelve years, 
and worked at this calling for several years 
in various villages in central New York. He 
served as quartermaster-sergeant during the 
warof 1812. In 1818 he established the 
"Agriculturist," at Norwich, New York, 
and became editor of the "Anti-Masonic 
Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the 
same year he was elected to the legislature 
and re-elected in 1830, when he located in 
Albany, New York, and there' started the 
" Evening Journal," and conducted it in op- 
position to the Jackson administration and 
the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He 
became an adroit party manager, and was 
instrumental in promoting the nominations 
of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the pres- 
idency. In 1856 and in i860 he threw his 
support to W. H. Seward, but when defeat- 
ed in his object, he gave cordial support to 



92 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAI'Hr. 



Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln pre- 
vailed upon him to visit the various capitals 
of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid 
to the administration in moulding the opin- 
ions of the statesmen of that continent 
favorable to the cause of the Union. 

Mr. Weed's connection with the ' ' Even- 
ing Journal " was severed in 1862, when he 
settled in New York, and for a time edited 
the " Commercial Advertiser." In 1868 he 
retired from active life. His " Letters from 
Europe and the West Indies," published in 
1866, together with some interesting " Rem- 
iniscences," published in the "Atlantic 
Monthly," in 1870, an autobiography, and 
portions of an extensive correspondence will 
be of great value to writers of the political 
history of the United States. Mr. Weed 
died in New York, November 22, 1882. 



WILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY, 
one of the prominent Democratic 
politicians of the country and ex-secretary of 
the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Con- 
way, Massachusetts, and received his edu- 
cation at Williston Seminary, East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts. Later he attended 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, 
and entered the Harvard Law School, which 
he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New 
York city, he soon gained a reputation as 
an able lawyer. He made his first appear- 
ance in public affairs in 1871, when he was 
active in organizing a young men's Demo- 
cratic club. In 1872 he was the recognized 
leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 
was appointed corporation counsel for the 
city of New York. He resigned the office, 
1882, to attend to personal interests and on 
March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Cleveland. Under 
his administration the navy of the United 
States rapidly rose in rank among the navies 



of the world. When he retired from office 
in 1889, the vessels of the United States 
navy designed and contracted for by him 
were five double-turreted monitors, two 
new armor-ciads, the dynamite cruiser "Ve- 
suvius," and five unarmored steel and iron 
cruisers. 

Mr. Whitney was the leader of the 
Cleveland forces in the national Democratic 
convention of 1892. 



EDWIN FORREST, the first and great- 
est American tragedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a 
tradesman, and some accounts state that he 
had marked out a mercantile career for his 
son, Edwin, while others claim that he had 
intended him for the ministry. His wonder- 
ful memory, his powers of mimicry and his 
strong musical voice, however, attracted at- 
tention before he was eleven years old, and 
at that age he made his first appearance on 
the stage. The costume in which he appeared 
was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a 
fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from 
the audience. This did not discourage him, 
however, and at the age of fourteen, after 
some preliminary training in elocution, he 
appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, 
and gave indications of future greatness. 
Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling 
companies through the south and west, but 
at that time he obtained an engagement at 
the Bowery Theater in New York. From 
that time his fortune was made. His man- 
ager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated 
that he loaned Forrest to other houses from 
time to time at $200 per night. His great 
successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello, 
Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and 
Lear. He made his first appearance in 
London in 1836, and his success was un- 
questioned from the start. In 1S45, on h:s 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



93 



second appearance in London, he became 
involved in a bitter rivalry with the great 
English actor, Macready, who had visited 
America two years before. The result was 
that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and 
it was charged that Macready had instigated 
the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter 
that he himself openly hissed Macready 
from his box a few nights later. In 1848 
Macready again visited America at a time 
when American admiration and enthusiasm 
for Forrest had reached its height. Macready 
undertook to play at Astor Place Opera 
House in May, 1849, t>ut was hooted off the 
stage. A few nights later Macready made a 
second attempt to play at the same house, 
this time under police protection. The house 
was filled with Macready's friends, but the vio- 
olence of the mob outside stopped the play, 
and the actor barely escaped with his life. 
Upon reading the riot act the police and 
troops were assaulted with stones. The 
troops replied, first with blank cartridges, 
and then a volley of lead dispersed the 
mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously 
wounded. 

After this incident Forrest's popularity 
waned, until in 1855 he retired from the 
stage. He re-appeared in i860, however, 
and probably the most remunerative period 
of his life was between that date and the 
close of the Civil war. His last appearance 
on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, 
Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his 
death occurring December 12 of that year. 



NOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was 
one of the most noted educators, au- 
thors and scientific writers of the United 
States. He was born December 14, 181 1, 
at Farmington, Connecticut, grailuated at 
Yale College in 183 1, and was master of 
Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 



1831-33. During 1833-35 he was a tutor 
at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing 
his theological studies, and became pastor 
of the Congregational church at New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. 
Porter removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale 
in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in 
the study of modern metaphysics in 1853— 
54, and in 1871 he was elected president of 
Yale College. He resigned the presidency 
in 1885, but still remained professor of met- 
aphysics and moral philosophy. He was 
the author of a number of works, among 
which are the following: " Historical Es- 
say," written in commemorationof the 200th 
aniversary of the settlement of the town of 
Farmington; " Educational System of the 
Jesuits Compared;" "The Human Intel- 
lect," with an introduction upon psychology 
and the soul; " Books and Reading;" 
"American Colleges and the American Pub- 
lic;" " Elementsof Intellectual Philosophy;" 
" The Science of Nature versus the Science 
of Man;" " Science and Sentiment;" " Ele- 
ments of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was 
the principal editor of the revised edition of 
Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and con- 
tributed largely to religious reviews and 
periodicals. Dr. . Porter's death occurred 
March 4, 1892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 



JOHN TYLER, tenth president of the 
United States, was born in Charles City 
county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and v/as 
the son of Judge John Tyler, one of the 
most distinguished men of his day. 

When but twelve years of age young 
John Tyler entered William and Mary Col- 
lege, graduating from there in 1806. He 
took up the study of law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years 



94 



COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAPlir. 



of age. On attaining his majority in iSii 
he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, and for five years held that position 
by the almost unanimous vote of his county. 
He was elected to congress in 1816, and 
served in that body for four years, after 
which for two years he represented his dis- 
trict again in the legislature of the state. 
Whije in congress, he opposed the United 
States bank, the protective policy and in- 
ternal improvements by the United States 
government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor 
of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen 
member of the United States senate, and 
held that office for nine years. He therein 
opposed the administration of Adams and 
the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the 
nuUif'ers of South Carolina and was the 
only senator who voted against the Force 
bill lor the suppression of that state's insip- 
ient rebellion. He resigned his position as 
senator on account of a disagreement with 
the legislature of his state in relation to his 
censuring President Jackson. He retired to 
Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded 
as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, hereto- 
fore, he had always opposed, was supported 
by many of that party for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia leg- 
islature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a 
delegate to the convention of that party in 
18^9. This national convention nominated 
him for the second place on the ticket with 
General William H. H.' Harrison, and he 
was elected vice-president in November, 
1840. President Harrison dying one month 
after his inauguration, he was succeeded by 
John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen 
by his predecessor, and for a time moved in 
harmony with the Whig party. He finally 
instructed the secretary of the treasury, 
Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill 
for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the 



United States, which was passed by con- 
gress, but vetoed by the president on ac- 
count of some amendments he considered 
unconstitutional. For this and other meas- 
ures he was accused of treachery to his 
party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, 
except Daniel Webster. Things grew worse 
until he was abandoned by the Whig party 
formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He 
was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, 
at the Democratic convention, as their pres- 
idential candidate, but withdrew from the 
canvass, as he saw he had not succeed- 
ed in gaining the confidence of his old 
party. He then retired from politics until 
February, 1861, when he was made presi- 
dent of the abortive peace congress, which 
met in Washington. He shortly after re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States 
and was elected a member of the Confeder- 
ate congress. He died at Richmond, Janu- 
ary 17, 1862. 

Mr. Tyler married, in 1813, Miss Letitia 
Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 



COLLIS POTTER HUNTINGTON, 
one of the great men of his time and 
who has left his impress upon the history of 
our national development, was born October 
22, 1 82 1, at Harwinton, Connecticut. 
He received a common-school education 
and at the age of fourteen his spirit of get- 
ting along in the world mastered his educa- 
tional propensities and his father's objec- 
tions and he left school. He went to Cali- 
fornia in the early days and had opportunities 
which he handled masterfull}'. Others had 
the same opportunities but they did not have 
his brains nor his energy, and it was he who 
overcame obstacles and reaped the reward 
of his genius. Transcontinental raiKvavs 



COMPEXD/C'Af O/'- BIOGRAPHT. 



95 



were ine\-itable, but the realization of this 
masterful achievement would have been de- 
layed to a much later day if there had been 
no Huntington. He associated himself with 
Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, 
and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the 
money necessary for a survey across the 
Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the 
road, and raised, with the government's aid, 
money enough to construct and equip that 
railway, which at the time of its completion 
was a marvel of engineering and one of the 
wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington be- 
came president of the Southern Pacific rail- 
road, vice-president of the Central Pacific; 
trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, and a director of the Occidental 
and Oriental Steamship Company, besides 
being identified with many other business 
enterprises of vast importance. 



GEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous In- 
dian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. 
He graduated at West Point in 1861, an- 
served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run id 
1861, and was in the Peninsular campaign, 
being one of General McClellan's aides-de, 
camp. He fought in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was 
with General Stoneman on his famous 
cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was tiiere made brevet- 
major. In 1863 was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers. General Custer was 
in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 
1S63-64, and was present at the following 
battles of the Richmond campaign: Wil- 
derness, Todd's Tavern, Yellow Tavern, where 
he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel; Meadow 
Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevil- 
lian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 
1 864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan 
Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made 



brevet major-general for gallant conduct 
during the engagement. General Custer 
was in command of a cavalry division in the 
pursuit of Lee's army in 1865, and fought 
at Dinwiddle Court House, Five Forks, 
where he was made brevet brigadier-general; 
Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he 
gained additional honors and was made 
brevet major-general, and was given the 
command of the cavalry in the military 
division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. 
After the establishment of peace he went 
west on frontier duty and performed gallant 
and valuable service in the troubles with the 
Indians. He was killed in the massacre on 
the Little Big Horn river. South Dakota^ 
June 25, 1876. 



ANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES, cel- 
brated as " The Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, 
in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two 
months old his parents removed to Fount- 
ain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood 
on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work 
pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered 
the Indiana Asbury University, now the De 
Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. 
He took up the study of law at Crawfords- 
.ville, and in 1851 began the practice of his 
profession at Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana. He became a law partner of 
United States Senator Hannegan, of Indi- 
ana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for congress. In the fol- 
lowing year he took up his residence in Terre 
Haute, Indiana. He was United States 
district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 
1 86 1, and he had during this period been 
elected to congress, in i 860. Mr. Voorhees 
was re-elected to congress in i862artfl 1864, 
but he was unsuccessful in the election of 
1866. However, he was returned to con- 



96 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPTIT. 



gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, 
having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he 
was appointed United States senator from 
Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of O. P. Morton, and at the end of the term 
was elected for the ensuing term, being re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same of- 
fice. He served with distinction on many 
of the committees, and took a very prom- 
inent part in' the discussion of all the im- 
portant legislation of his time. His death 
occurred in August, 189 . 



ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, fa- 
mous as one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
March 3rd, 1847. He received his early 
education in the high school and later he 
attended the university, and was specially 
trained to follow his grandfather's profes- 
sion, that of removing impediments of 
speech. He emigrated to the United States 
in 1872, and introduced into this country 
his father's invention of visible speech in the 
institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was 
appointed professor of vocal physiology in 
the Boston University. He worked for 
many years during his leisure hours on his 
telephonic discovery, and finally perfected 
it and exhibited it publicly, before it had 
reached the high state of perfection to which 
he brought it. His first exhibition of it was 
at the Centennial E.xhibition that was held 
in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now 
established throughout the civilized world. 
In 1882 Prof. Bell received a diploma and 
the decoration of the Legion of Honor from 
the Academy of Sciences of France. 



WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT, 
the justly celebrated historian and 
author, was a native of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was 



the son of Judge William Prescott and the 
grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel 
William Prescott. 

Our subject in 1808 removed with the 
family to Boston, in the schools of which 
city he received his early education. He 
entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 
181 1, having been prepared at the private 
classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardi- 
jner. The following year he received an in- 
iiry in his left eye which made study 
through life a matter of difficulty. He 
graduated in i8i4with high honors in the 
classics and belle lettres. He spent several 
months on the Azores Islands, and later 
visited England, France and Italy, return- 
ing home in 18 17. In June, 1818, he 
founded a social and literary club at Boston 
for which he edited "The Club Room," a 
periodical doomed to but a short life. May 
4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. 
He devoted several years after that event to 
a thorough study of ancient and modern 
history and literature. As the fruits of his 
labors he published several well written 
essays upon French and Italian poetry and 
romance in the " North American Review." 
January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his 
first great historical work, the ' ' History of 
the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To 
this he gave the labor of ten years, publish- 
ing the same December 25, 1837. Although 
placed at the head of all American authors, 
so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit 
that although he had four copies of this 
work printed for his own convenience, he 
hesitated a long time before giving it to the 
public, and it was only by the solicitation of 
friends, especially of thai; talented Spanish 
scholar, George Ticknor, that he was in- 
duced to do so. Soon the volumes were 
translated into French, Italian, Dutch and 
German, and the work was recognized 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



97 



throughout the world as one of the most 
meritorious of historical compositions. In 
1843 I12 published the "Conquest of Mexi- 
co," and in 1847 the "Conquest of Peru." 
Two years later there came from his pen a 
volume of ' ' Biographical and Critical Mis- 
cellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 
1850, he was received with great distinction 
in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford Uni- 
versity conferred the degree of D. C. L. 
upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes 
of his "History of the Reign of Philip the 
Second," and a third in 1858. In the 
meantime he edited Robertson's "Charles 
the Fifth," adding a history of the life of 
that monarch after his abdication. Death 
cut short his work on the remaining volumes 
of " Philip the Second," coming to him at 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 



OLIVER HAZARD PERRY, a noted 
American commodore, was born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 
1785. He saw his first service as a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in April, 
1799. He cruised with his father. Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West In- 
dies for about two years. In 1804 he was 
in the war against Tripoli, and was made 
lieutenant in 1807. At the opening of hostili- 
ties with Great Britain in 18 12 he was given 
command of a fleet of gunboats on the At- 
lantic coast. At his request he was trans- 
ferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where 
he served under Commodore Chauncey, and 
took an active part in the attack on Fort 
George. He was ordered to fit out a squad- 
ron on Lake Erie, which he did, building 
most of his vessels from the forests along 
the shore, and by the summer of 181 3 he had 
a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pennsylvania September loth he 



attacked and captured the British fleet near 
Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile 
ships. His famous dispatch is part of his 
fame, " We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." He co-operated with Gen. Har- 
rison, and the success of the campaign in 
the northwest was largely due to his victory. 
The next year he was transferred to the Po- 
tomac, and assisted in the defense of Balti- 
more. After the war he was in constant 
service with the various squadrons in cruising 
in all parts of the world. He died of yellow 
fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 
1 8 19. His remains were conveyed to New- 
port, and buried there, and an imposing 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue 
was also erected in his honor, the unveiling 
taking place in 1885. 



JOHN PAUL JONES, though a native 
of Scotland, was one of America's most 
noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. 
He was born July 6, 1747. His father was 
a gardener, but the young man soon be- 
came interested in a seafaring life and at 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a 
sea captain engaged in the American trade. 
His first voyage landed him in Virginia, 
where he had a brother who had settled 
there several years prior. The failure of 
the captain released young Jones from his 
apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged 
as third mate of a vessel engaged in the 
slave trade. He abandoned this trade after 
a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. 
He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland 
in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain 
and the mate died and he was compelled to 
take command of the vessel for the re- 
mainder of the voyage. He soon after 
became master of the vessel. He returned 
to Virginia about 1 773 to settle up the estate 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



of his brother, and at this time added the 
name "Jones," having previously been 
known as John Paul. He settled down in 
Virginia, but when the war broke out in 
1775 he offered his services to congress and 
was appointed senior lieutenant of the flag- 
ship "Alfred," on which he hoisted the 
American flag with his own hands, the first 
vessel that had ever carried a flag of the 
new nation. He was afterward appointed 
to the command of the "Alfred," and later 
of the "Providence," in each of which ves- 
sels he did good service, as also in the 
"Ranger," to the command of which he 
was later appointed. The fight that made 
him famous, however, was that in which he 
captured the ~" Serapis, " off the coast of 
Scotland. He was then in command of the 
"Bon Homme Richard," which had been 
fitted out for him by the French government 
and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, or "Good Man Richard," Frank- 
lin being author of the publication known 
as " Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight 
between the " Richard" and the "Serapis" 
lasted three hours, all of which time the 
vessels were at close range, and most of the 
time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was 
on fire several times, and early in the en- 
gagement two of his guns bursted, rendering 
the battery useless. Also an envious officer 
of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, 
opened fire upon the " Richard " at a crit- 
ical time, completely disabling the vessel. 
Jones continued the fight, in spite of coun- 
sels to surrender, and after dark the " Ser- 
apis " struck her colors, and was hastily 
boarded by Jones and his crew, while the 
"Richard" sank, bows first, after the 
wounded had been taken on board the 
"Serapis." Most of the other vessels of 
the fleet of which the " Serapis" was con- 
voy, surrendered, and were taken with the 



"Serapis" to France, where Jones was 
received with greatest honors, and the king 
presented him with an elegant sword and 
the cross of the Order of Military Merit. 
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and 
made him commander of a new ship, the 
"America," but the vessel was afterward 
given to France and Jones never saw active 
sea service again. He came to America again, 
in 1787, after the close of the war, and was 
voted a gold medal by congress. He went to 
Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and 
rendered service of value against the Turks, 
but on account of personal-enmity of the fav- 
orites of the emperor he was retired on a pen- 
sion. Failing to collect this, he returned to 
France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 



THOMAS MORAN, the well-known 
painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. 
He came to America when a child, and 
showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed 
to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three 
years later he began landscape painting, and 
his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. 
His first works were water-colors, and 
though without an instructor he began the 
use of oils, he soon found it necessary to 
visit Europe, where he gave particular at- 
tention to the works of Turner. He joined 
the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition 
and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 
and again in 1873, making numerous 
sketches of the scenery. The most note- 
worthy results were his "Grand Canon of 
the Yellowstone," and " The Chasm of the 
Colorado," -which were purchased by con- 
gress at $10,000 each, the first of which is 
undoubtedly the finest landscape painting 
produced in this country. Mr. Moran has 
subordinated art to nature, and the subjects- 
he has chosen leave little ground for fau!t 




««!<»■ 



nX\ ,-Xy\ ) * ^ ^ G EQ. W. C H I LPS h^ ^ 



,/ > ^ JAY CCULP W I/V/T^^^ 



I tfQ. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPJir. 



101 



finding on that account. "The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross," "The Groves Were 
God's First Temples," " The Cliffs of Green 
River," " The Children of the Mountain," 
"The Ripening of the Leaf," and others 
have given him additional fame, and while 
they do not equal in grandeur the first 
mentioned, in many respects from an artis- 
tic standpoint they are superior. 



L ELAND STANFORD was one of the 
greatest men of the Pacific coast and 
also had a national reputation. He was 
born March 9, 1824, in Albany county. New 
York, and passed his early life on his 
father's farm. He attended the local 
schools of the county and at the age of 
twenty began the study of law. He 
entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, and a few 
years later he moved to Port Washington, 
Wisconsin, where he practiced law four 
years with moderate success. In 1S52 Mr. 
Stanford determined to push further west, 
and, accordingly went to California, where 
three of his brothers were established in 
business in the mining towns. They took 
Leland into partnership, giving him charge 
of a branch store at Michigan Bluff, in 
Placer county. There he developed great 
business ability and four years later started 
a mercantile house of his own in San Fran- 
cisco, which soon became one of the most 
substantial houses on the coast. On the 
formation of the Republican party he inter- 
ested himself in politics, and in i860 was 
sent as a delegate to the convention that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the 
autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an im- 
mense majority, governor of California. 
Prior to his election as governor he had 
been chosen president of the newly-orga- 
nized Central Pacific Railroad Company, 



and after leaving the executive chair he de- 
voted all of his time to the construction of 
the Pacific end of the transcontinental rail- 
way. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove 
the last spike of the Central Pacific road, 
thus completing the route across the conti- 
nent. He was also president of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental Steamship Company. 
He had but one son, who died of typhoid 
fever, and as a monument to his child he 
founded the university which bears his son's 
name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty- 
three thousand acres of land, the estimated 
value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire 
endowment is $20,000,000. In 1885 Mr. 
Stanford was elected United States senator 
as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a 
Democrat, and was re-elected in 1 891. His 
death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, 
California. 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a famous com- 
modore in the United States navy, was 
born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the 
naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the 
American vessel Philadelphia had been run 
aground and captured in the harbor of Trip- 
oli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, 
boarded her and burned her in the face of 
the guns from the city defenses. For this 
daring deed he was made captain. He was 
given command of the frigate United States 
at the breaking out of the war of 18 12, and 
in October of that year he captured the 
British frigate Macedonian, and was re- 
warded with a gold medal by congress. Af- 
ter the close of the war he was sent as com- 
mander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise 
the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon 
American commerce with impunity and de- 
manding tribute and ransom for the release 
of American citizens captured. Decatur 



102 



COMPENDIi'M OF L'/OGRAPHl'. 



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and 
compelled the dey to sue for peace. He 
was noted for his daring and intrepidity, 
and his coolness in the face of danger, and 
helped to bring the United States navy into 
favor with the people and congress as a 
means of defense and offense in time of 
war. He was killed in a duel by Commo- 
dore Barron, March 12, 1820. 



JAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh 
president of the United States, 1845 to 
1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, and was 
the eldest child of a family of six sons. He 
removed with his father to the Valley of the 
Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He 
attended the common schools and became 
very proficient in the lower branches of 
education, and supplemented this with 
a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, 
which he entered in 18 13 andin the autumn 
of 1815 he became a student in the sopho- 
more class of the University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 
181 8. He then spent a short time in re- 
cuperating his health and then proceeded to 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the 
study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. 
After the completion of his law studies he 
was admitted to the bar and removed to 
Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and 
started in the active practice of his profes- 
sion. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian "Re- 
publican " and in 1823 he was elected to the 
legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict 
constructionist and did not believe that the 
general government had the power to carry 
on internal improvements in the states, but 
deemed it important that it should have that 
power, and wanted the constitution amended 
to that effect. But later on he became 
alarmed lest the general government might 



become strong enough to abolish slavery 
and therefore gave his whole support to the 
" State's Rights" movement, and endeavored 
to check the centralization of power in the 
general government. Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of congress in 1825, and held that 
office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he 
was the successful gubernatorial candidate 
of his state. He had become a man of 
great influence in the house, and, as the 
leader of the Jackson party in that body, 
weilded great influence in the election of 
General Jackson to the presidency. He 
sustained the president in all his measures 
and still remained in the house after Gen- 
eral Jackson had been succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. He was- speaker of the house 
during five sessions of congress. He was 
elected governor of Tennessee by a large 
majority and took the oath of office at Nash- 
ville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate 
for re-election but was defeated by Governor 
Jones, the Whig candidate, fn 1844 the 
most prominent question in the election was 
the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk 
was the avowed champion of this cause he 
was nominated for president by the pro- 
slavery wing of the democratic party, was 
elected by a large majority, and was inaug- 
urated March 4, 1845. President Polk 
formed a very able cabinet, consisting of 
James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, Will- 
iam L. Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave John- 
son, and John Y. Mason. The dispute re- 
garding the Oregon boundary was settled 
during his term of office and a new depart- 
ment was added to the list of cabinet po- 
sitions, that of the Interior. The low tariff 
bill of 1846 was carried and the financial 
system of the country was reorganized. It 
was also during President Polk's term that 
the Mexican war was successfully conducted, 
which resulted in the acquisition of Califor- 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



103 



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from 
the presidency March 4, 1849, after having 
declined a re-nomination, and v.'as succeeded 
by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the 
Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private 
life, to his home in Nashville, where he died 
£t the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1849. 



NNA DICKINSON (Anna Elizabeth 
Dickinson), a noted lecturer and pub- 
lic speaker, was born at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 28, 1S42. Her parents were Quakers, 
and she was educated at the Friends' free 
scb.ools in her native city. She earl}' man- 
ifested an inclination toward elocution and 
public speaking, and when, at the age of 18, 
she found an opportunity to appear before 
a national assemblage for the discussion of 
woman's rights, she at once established her 
reputation as a public speaker. From i860 
to the close of the war and during the ex- 
citing period of reconstruction, she was one 
of the most noted and influential speakers 
before the American public, and her popu- 
larity was unequaled by that of any of her 
sex. A few weeks after the defeat and 
death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna 
Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made 
the remarkable assertion, " Not the incom- 
petency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery 
of General McClellaii caused the disaster at 
Ball's B!ui?." She was hissed and hooted 
off the stage. A year later, at the same 
hall and with much the same class of audi- 
tors, she repeated the identical words, and 
the applause was so great and so long con- 
tinued that it was impossible to go on with 
her lecture for more than half an hour. The 
change of sentiment had been wrought by 
the reverses and dismissal of McClellan and 
his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as presi- 
dent. 

Ten years after the close of the war, Anna 



Dickinson was not heard of on the lec- 
ture platform, and about that time she made 
an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, 
but after appearing a number of times in dif- 
ferent plays she was pronounced a failure. 



ROBERT J. BURDETTE.— Some per- 
sonal characteristics of Mr. Burdette 
were quaintly given by himself in the follow- 
ing words: "Politics.' Republican after 
the strictest sect. Religion .■* Baptist. Per- 
sonal appearance 1 Below medium height, 
and weigh one hundred and thirty- five 
pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich ">. 
Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite read- 
ing.' Poetry and history — know Longfellow 
by heart, almost. Write for magizines } 
Have mo.-e ' declined with thanks ' letters 
than would fill a trunk. Never able to get 
into a magazine with a line. Care about it.' 
Mad as thunder. Think about starting a 
magazine and rejecting everbody's articles 
except my own." Mr. Burdette was born 
at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. 
He served through the war of the rebellion 
under General Banks " on an excursion 
ticket " as he felicitously described it, ' 'good 
both ways, conquering in one direction and 
running in the other, pay going on just the 
same." He entered into journalism by the 
gateway of New York correspondence for 
the "Peoria Transcript," and in 1874 went 
on the "Burlington Hawkeye " of which he 
became the managing editor, and the work 
that he did on this paper made both him- 
self and the paper famous in the world of 
humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, 
and his wife, whom he called " Her Little 
Serene Highness," was to him a guiding 
light until the day of her death, and it was 
probably the unconscious pathos with which 
he described her in his work that broke the 
barriers that had kept him out of the maga- 



KM 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



zines and secured him the acceptance of his 
"Confessions" by Lippincott some years 
ago, and brought him substantial fame and 
recognition in the literary world. 



WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS, one 
of the leading novelists of the present 
century and author of a number of works 
that gained for him a place in the hearts of 
the people, was born March i, 1837, at 
Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At 
the age of three years he accompanied his 
father, who was a printer, to Hamilton, 
Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. 
Later he was engaged on the editorial staff 
of the ' ' Cincinnati Gazette " and the " Ohio 
State Journal." During 1861-65 he was 
the United States consul at Venice, and 
from 1 87 1 to 1878 he was the editor-in- 
chief of the "Atlantic Monthly." As a 
writer he became one of the most fertile 
and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. 
In 1S85 he became connected with " Har- 
per's Magazine. " Mr. Howells was author 
of the list of books that we give below: 
"Venetian Life," " Italian Journeys," "No 
Love Lost," " Suburban Sketches," "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaint- 
ance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. 
Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan 
Cities," "Indian Summer," besides many 
others. He also wrote the " Poem of Two 
Friends," with J. J. Piatt in i860, and 
some minor dramas: "The Drawing 
Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., 
that are full of exqusite humor and elegant 
dialogue. 

j AMES RUSSELL LOWELL was a son 
kJ of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born 
;it Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 
1 319. He graduated at Harvard College in 



183S as class poet, and went to Harsard 
Law School, from which he was graduated 
in 1840, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in Boston, but soon gave his un- 
divided attention to literary labors. Mr. 
Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of 
poems entitled " A Year's Life," edited with 
Robert Carter; in 1843, " The Pioneer, " a 
literary and critical magazine (monthly), and 
in 1848 another book of poems, that con- 
tained several directed against slavery. He 
published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" 
and in 1845 " Conversations on Some 
of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir 
Launfal," " A Fable for Critics, " and "The 
Bigelow Papers," the latter satirical es- 
says in dialect poetry directed against 
slavery and the war with Mexico. In 
1851-52 he traveled in Europe and re- 
sided in Italy for a considerable time, and 
delivered in 1854-55 a course of lectures on 
the British poets, before the Lowell Insti- 
tute, Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Long- 
fellow in January, 1855, as professor of 
modern languages and literature at Harvard 
College, and spent another year in Euiope 
qualifying himself for that post. He edited 
the " Atlantic Monthly " from 1857 to 1862, 
and the "North American Review" from 
1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he 
published the following works: "Fireside 
Travels," "Under the Willows," "The 
Commemoration Ode," in honor of the 
alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the 
Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes 
of essays; "Among My Books" and "My 
Study Windows," and in 1867 he published 
a new series of the " Bigelow Papers. " He 
traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, 
and received in person the degree of D. C. 
L. at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the 
University of Cambridge, England. He 
was also interested in political life and held 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



105 



many important offices. He was United 
States minister to Spain in 1S77 and was 
also minister to England in 1880-85. On 
January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector 
of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, but soon after he resigned the same. 
Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity 
in the United States and England. He 
died August 12, 1891. 



JOSEPH HENRY, one of America's 
greatest scientists, was born at Albany, 
New York, December 17, 1797. He was 
educated in the common schools' of the city 
and graduated from the Albany Academy, 
where he became a professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a 
course of investigation, which he continued 
for a number of years, and the results pro- 
duced had great effect on the scientific world. 
The first success was achieved by producing 
the electric magnet, and he next proved the 
possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a 
distance, and it was the invention of Pro- 
fessor Henry's intensity magnet that first 
made the invention of electric telegraph a 
possibility. He made a statement regarding 
the practicability of applying the intensity 
magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to 
the ' 'American Journal of Science " in 1 83 1 . 
During the same year he produced the first 
mechanical contrivance ever invented for 
maintaining continuous motion by means of 
electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a 
machine by which signals could be made at 
a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, 
the signals being produced by a lever strik- 
ing on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets 
were of great power, one carried over a ton 
and another not less than three thousand six 
hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered 
that secondary currents could be produced 
■;'! a long conductor by the induction of the 



primary current upon itself, and also in the 
same year he produced a spark by means of 
a purely magnetic induction. Professor 
Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in the College of New Jer- 
sey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, 
demonstrated the feasibility of the electric 
telegraph. He visited Europe in 1837, and 
while there he had an interview with Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, the inventor of the 
needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was 
elected secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, being the firstincumbent in that office, 
which he held until his death. Professor 
Henry was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1849, and of the National 
Academy of Sciences. He was made chair- 
man of the lighthouse board of the United 
States in 1871 and held that position up to 
the time of his death. He received the 
honorary degree of doctor of laws from 
Union College in 1829, and from Harvard 
University in 185 i, and his death occurred 
May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works 
may be mentioned the following: "Contri- 
butions to Electricity and Magnetism," 
" American Philosophic Trans," and many 
articles in the "American Journal of 
Science," the journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute; the proceedings of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
and in the annual reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution from its foundation. 



FRANKLIN BUCHANAN, the famous 
rear-admiral of the Confederate navy 
during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland. He became a United States 
midshipman in 1S15 and was promoted 
through the various grades of the service 
and became a captain in 1855. Mr. Buch- 
anan resigned his captaincy in order to join 



106 



COMPEXDJC.\f OF BIOGRAPHr 



the Confederate service in iS6i and later he 
asked to be reinstated, but his request was 
refused and he then entered into the service 
of the Confederate government. He was 
placed in command of the frigate " Merri- 
niac " after she had been fitted up as an iron- 
clad, and had command of her at the time 
of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was 
he who had command when the " Merri- 
mac " sunk the two wooden frigates, " Con- 
gress " and "Cumberland," and was also 
in command during part of the historical 
battle of the " Merrimac " and the "Moni- 
tor," where he was wounded and the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant Catesby 
Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the 
Confederate service and commanded the 
Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was 
defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 
1864. Mr. Buchanan was in command of 
the "Tennessee," an ironclad, and during 
the engagement he lost one of his legs and 
was taken prisoner in the end by the Union 
fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot 
county, Maryland, where he died May 11, 
1874- 

RICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated 
American statesman, frequently called 
"the father of the house," because of his 
many years of service in the lower house 
of congress, was born August 19, 1835, 
near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received 
a plain academic education. He moved, 
in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went 
overland to California, afterward locating in 
Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, 
but then part of the territory of Utah. 
While there he practiced law, dabbled in 
mines and mining in Nevada and California 
for several years, and served for a time as 
treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. 
Bland returned to Missouri in 1865, where 



he engaged in the practice ot law at Rolla, 
Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, 
Missourr. He began his congressional career 
in 1873, when he was elected as a Demo- 
crat to the forty-third congress, and he was 
regularly re-elep ted to every congress after 
that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was 
defeated for re-election, but was returned 
to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Demo- 
crat. During all his protracted service, 
while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his 
support of democratic measures, yet he won 
his special renown as the great advocate of 
silver, being strongly in favor of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver, and on ac- 
count of his pronounced views was one of 
the candidates for the presidential nomina- 
tion of the Democratic party at Chicago in 



FANNY DAVENPORT (F. L. G. Daven- 
port) was of British birth, but she be- 
longs to the American stage. She was the 
daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Daven- 
port, and was born in London in 1850. 
She first went on the stage as a child at the 
Howard Athenaaim, Boston, and her entire 
life was spent upon tlie stage. She played 
children's parts at Burton's old theater iu 
Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared 
as the King of Spain in " Faint Heart Never 
Won Fair Lady. " Here she attracted the 
notice of Augustin Daly, the noted mana- 
ger, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who 
offered her a six weeks' engagement with 
her father in "London Assurance." She 
afterwards appeared at the same house in a 
variety of characters, and her versatility 
was favorably noticed by the critics. After 
the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the 
present theater of that name was built at 
Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Daven- 
port appeared in a play written for her by 



COMPEXnU'M Ol- IUOC,RM'/fr 



107 



Mr. Daly. She scored a great success. 
She then starred in this play throughout the 
countr}', and was married to Mr. Edwin F. 
Price, sn actor of her company, in 1880. 
In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased 
the right to produce in America Sardou's 
great emotional play, "Fedora." It was 
put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in 
New York, and in it she won popular favor 
and became one of the most famous actresses 
of her time. 



HORACE BRIGHAM CLAFLIN, one 
of the greatest merchants America has 
produced, was born in Milford, Massachu- 
setts, a son of John Claflin, also a mer- 
chant. Young Claflin started his active life 
as a clerk in his father s store, after having 
been offered the opportunity of a college 
education, but with the characteristic 
promptness that was one of his virtues he 
exclaimed, "No law or medicine for me." 
He had set his heart on being a merchant, 
and when his father retired he and his 
brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Sam- 
uel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. 
Claflin was not content, however, to run a 
store in a town like Milford, and accordingly 
opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with 
his brother as a partner, but the partnership 
was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin 
assumed complete control. The business 
in Worcester had been conducted on ortho- 
dox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came 
there and introduced advertising as a means 
of drawing trade, he created considerable 
animosity among the older merchants. Ten 
years later he was one of the most prosper- 
ous merchants. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in Worcester for $30,000, and went to 
New York to search for a wider field than 
that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and 
William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods 



business there under the firm name of Bulk- 
ley & Claflin, in 1843, and Mr. Bulkley was 
connected with the firm until 185 i, when he 
retired. A new firm was then formed under 
the name of Claflin, Mellin & Co. This 
firm succeeded in founding the largest dry 
goods house in the world, and after weather- 
ing the dangers of the civil war, during 
which the house came very near going un- 
der, and was saved only by the superior 
business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to 
grow. The sales of the firui amounted to 
over $72,000,000 a year after the close of 
the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14,, 
18S5. 

CHARLOTTE CUSHMAN (Charlotte 
Saunders Cushman), one of the most 
celebrated American actresses, was born in 
Boston, July 23, 1816. She was descended 
from one of the earliest Puritan families. ^ 
Her first attempt at stage work was at the 
age of fourteen years in a charitable concert 
given by amateurs in Boston. From this 
time her advance to the first place on the- 
American lyric stage was steady, until, in 
1835, while singing in New Orleans, she 
suddenly lost control of her voice so far as 
relates to singing, and was compelled to re- 
tire. She then took up the study for the 
dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. 
Barton, the tragedian. She soon after 
made her debut as " Lady Macbeth." She 
appeared in New York in September, 1836, 
and fier success was immediate. Her 
"Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is 
the only woman that has ever appeared in 
the part of " Cardinal Wolsey." She at 
different times acted as support of Forrest 
and Macready. Her London engagement, 
secured in 1845, after many and great dis- 
couragements, proved an unqualified suc- 
cess. 



108 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAl'HV. 



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's 
theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in 
the part of " Lady Macbeth," and after that 
performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard 
was read, and a body of citizens went upon 
the stage, and in their name the venerable 
poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath 
of laurel with an inscription to the effect 
that "she who merits the palm should bear 
it." From the time of her appearance as a 
modest girl in a charitable entertainment 
down to the time of final triumph as a tragic 
queen, she bore herself with as much honor 
to womanhood as to the profession she rep- 
resented. Her death occurred in Boston, 
February iS, 1S76. By her profession she 
acquired a fortune of $600,000. 



NEAL DOW, one of the most prominent 
temperance reformers our country has 
known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 
1804. Pie received his education in the 
Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, his parents being members of that 
sect. After leaving school he pursued a 
mecrantile and manufacturing career for a 
number of years. He was active in the 
affairs of his native city, and in 1839 be- 
came chief of the fire department, and in 
1 85 1 was elected mayor. He was re-elected 
to the latter offtce in 1854. Being opposed 
to the liquor traffic he was a champion of 
the project of prohibition, first brought for- 
ward in 1839 by James Appleton. While 
serving his first term as mayor he drafted a 
bill for the "suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," which he took to the 
legislature and which was passed without an 
alteration. In 1858 Mr. Dow was elected 
to the legislature. On the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied 
General Butler's expedition to New Orleans. 



In 1862 he was made brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he 
was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
was confined at Libby prison and Mobile 
nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he 
resigned, his health having given way under 
the rigors of his captivity. He made sev- 
eral trips to England in the interests of 
temperance organization, where he addressed 
large audiences. He was the candidate of 
the National Prohibition party for the presi- 
dency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand 
votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental 
in the amendment of the constitution of 
Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular 
vote, which forever forbade the manufacture 
or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and 
commanding the legislature to enforce the 
prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 



ZACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 
1784. His boyhood was spent on his fath- 
er's plantation and his education was lim- 
ited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of 
the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regi- 
ment at New Orleans. He was promoted 
to captain in 18 10, and commanded at Fort 
Harrison, near the present site of Terra 
Haute, in 18 12, where, for his gallant de- 
fense, he was brevetted major, attaining full 
rank in 18 14. In 1815 he retired to an es- 
tate near Louisville. In 18 16 here-entered 
the army as major, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. 
Having for many years been Indian agent 
over a large portion of the western country, 
he was often required in Washington to give 
advice and cou.isel in matters connected 
with the Indian b ireau. He served through 
the Black Hawk Indian war of 1832, and in 
1837 was ordered to the command of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



109 



army in Florida, where he attacked the In- 
dians in the swamps and bral<es, defeated 
them and ended the war. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general and made commander-in- 
chief of the army in Florida. He was as- 
signed to the command of the army of the 
southwest in 1840, but was soon after re- 
lieved of it at his request. He was then 
stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 he 
was ordered to prepare to protect and de- 
fend Texas boundaries from invasion by 
Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation 
of Texas he proceeded with one thousand 
five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within 
the disputed territory. After reinforcement 
he was ordered by the Mexican General Am- 
pudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, 
with which order he declined to comply. 
The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio 
Grande and occupied Matamoras May iSth. 
He was commissioned major-general for this 
campaign, and in September he advanced 
upon the city of Monterey and captured it 
after a hard fight. Here he took up winter 
quarters, and when he was about to resume 
activity in the spring he was ordered to send 
the larger part of his army to reinforce 
General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving 
garrisons at various points his army was re- 
duced to about five thousand, mostly fresh 
recruits. He was attacked by the army of 
Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 
1847, and after a severe fight completely 
routed the Mexicans. He received the 
thanks of congress and a gold medal for 
this victory. He remained in command of 
the "army of occupation" until winter, 
when he returned to the United States. 

In 1S48 General Taylor was nominated 
by the Whigs for president. He was elected 
over his two opponents, Cass and Van 
Buren. Great bitterness was developing in 



the struggle for and against the extension of 
slavery, and the newly acquired territory in 
the west, and the fact that the states were 
now equally divided on that question, tended 
to increase the feeling. President Taylor 
favored immediate admission of California 
with her constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and the admission of other states to be 
formed out of the new territory as they 
might elect as they adopted constitutions 
from time to time. This policy resulted in 
the " Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed 
congress, though in separate bills; not, how- 
ever, until after the death of the soldier- 
statesman, which occurred July 9, 1850. 
One of his daughters became the wife of 
Jefferson Davis. 



M' 



ELVILLE D. LANDON, better known 
Eli Perkins, " author, lecturer and 
humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, 
September 7, 1839. He was the son' of 
John Landon and grandson of Rufus Lan- 
don, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. Melville was edu- 
cated at the district school and neighboring 
academy, where he was prepared for the 
sophomore class at Madison University. He 
passed two years at tlie latter, when he was 
admitted to Union College, and graduated 
in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of 
A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, ap- 
pointed to a position in the treasury depart- 
ment at Washington. This being about the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
before the appearance of any Union troops 
at the capital, he assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the " Clay Battalion," of Washing- 
ton. Leaving his clerkship some time later, 
he took up duties on the staff of General A. 
L. Chetlain, who was in command at Mem- 
phis. In 1864 he resigned from the army 
and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas 



110 



COMPENDIU.^r OF JUOGRAPHl'. 



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, 
making the tour of Europe, traversing Rus- 
sia. While in the latter country his old 
commander of the " Clay Battalion," Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, then United States 
minister at St. Petersburg, made him secre- 
tary of legation. In 1 87 1, on returning to 
America, he published a history of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with 
numerous humorous writings for the public 
press under the name of "Eli Perkins," 
which, with his regular contributions to the 
" Commercial Advertiser," brought him into 
notice, and spread his reputation as a hu- 
morist throughout thecountry. He also pub- 
lished "Saratoga in 1891," "Wit, Humor 
and Pathos," "Wit and Humor of the Age," 
" Kings of Platform and Pulpit, "" Thirty 
YearsofWit and Humor," " Fun and Fact," 
and " China and Japan." 



LEWIS CASS, one of the most prom- 
inent statesman and party leaders of his 
day, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 17S2. He studied law, and hav- 
ing removed to Zanesville, Ohio, commenced 
the practice of that profession in 1802. He 
entered the service of the American govern- 
ment in 1812 and was made a colonel in 
the army under General William Hull, and 
on the surrender of Fort Maiden by that 
officer was held as a prisoner. Being re- 
leased in 181 3, he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and in 18 14 ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan Territory. 
After he had held that office for some 
.sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, 
many treaties with the Indians, General 
Cass was made secretary of war in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, in 1831. He was, 
in 1S36, appointed minister to France, 
which office he held for six years. In 1844 
he '-.as elected United States senator from 



Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed 
the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amend- 
ment to a bill for the purchase of land from 
Mexico, which provided that in any of the 
territory acquired from that power slavery 
should not exist. For this and other reasons 
he was nominated as Democratic candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in 
1848, but was defeated by General Zachary 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but 
one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes 
to his opponent's one hundred and sixty- 
three. In 1849 General Cass was re-elected 
to the senate of the United States, and in 
1S54 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska 
bill. He became secretary of state in 
March, 1857, under President Buchanan, 
but resigned that office in December, i860. 
He died June 17, 1866. The published 
works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, 
are well written and display much ability. 
He was one of the foremost men of his day 
in the political councils of the Democratic 
party, and left a reputation for high probity 
and honor behind him. 



DE WITT CLINTON.— Probably there 
were but few men who were so popular 
in their time, or who have had so much in- 
fluence in moulding events as the individual 
whose name honors the head of this article. 
De Witt Clinton was the son of General 
James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor 
George Clinton, who was the fourth vice- 
president of the United States. He was a 
native of Orange county. New York, born at 
Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College, in his native 
state, in 1796, and took up the study of law. 
In 1790 he became private secretary to his 
uncle, then governor of New York. He en- 
tered public life as a Republican or anti- 
Federalist, and was elected to the lower 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT 



111 



house of the state assembly in 1797, and the 
senate of that body in 1798. At that time 
he was looked on as " the most rising man 
in the Union." In 1801 he was elected to 
the United States senate. In-1803 he was 
appointed by the governor and council 
mayor of the city of New York, then a 
very important and powerful office. Hav- 
ing been re-appointed, he held the office 
of mayor for nearly eleven years, and 
rendered great service to that city. Mr. 
Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of 
the state of New York, 1811-13, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed 
to examine and survey a route for a canal 
from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Dif- 
fering with President Madison, in relation to 
the war, in 18 12, he was nominated for the 
presidency against that gentleman, by a 
coalition party called the Clintonians, many 
of whom were Federalists. Clinton received 
eight-nine electoral votes. His course at 
this time impaired his popularity for a time. 
He was removed from the mayoralty in 
1814, and retired to private life. In 1815 
he wrote a powerful argument for the con- 
struction of the Erie canal, then a great and 
beneficent work of which he was the prin- 
cipal promoter. This was in the shape of 
a memorial to the legislature, which, in 
18 17, passed a bill authorizing the construc- 
tion of that canal. The same year he was 
elected governor of New York, almost unani- 
mously, notwithstanding the opposition of 
a few who pronounced the scheme of the 
canal visionary. He was re-elected governor 
in 1820. He was at this time, also, presi- 
dent of the canal commissioners. He de- 
clined a re-election to the gubernatorial 
chair in 1822 and was removed from his 
place on the canal board two years later. 
But he was triumphantly elected to the of- 
fice of governor that fall, and his pet project, 



the Erie canal, was finished the next year. 
He was re-elected governor in 1826, but 
died while holding that office, February 11, 
1828. 



AARON BURR, one of the many brilliant 
figures on the political stage in the early 
days of America, was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son 
of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the 
president of the College of New Jersey, and 
the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, 
who had been president of the same educa- 
tional institution. Young Burr graduated 
at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined 
the provincial army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. For a time, he served as a private 
soldier, but later was made an aide on the 
staff of the unfortunate General Montgom- 
er}', in the Quebec expedition. Subse- 
quently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Put- 
nam and Washington, the latter of whom 
he disliked. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a 
brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 
1779. on account of feeble health, Colonel 
Burr resigned from the army. He took up 
the practice of law in Albany, New York, 
but subsequently removed to New York City. 
In 1789 he became attorney-general of that 
state. In 1791 he was chosen to represent 
the state of New York in the United States 
senate and held that position for six years. 
In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both 
candidates for the presidency, and there 
being a tie in the electoral college, each 
having seventy-three votes, the choice was 
left to congress, who gave the first place to 
Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-presi- 
dent, as the method then was. In 1804 Mr. 
Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, met in a duel, which resulted in the 
death of the latter. Burr losing thereby con- 



112 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



siderable political and social influence. He 
soon embarked in a wild attempt upon 
Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the 
southwestern territories of the United 
States. He was tried for treason at 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, 
and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to 
Europe. After a time, in 1812, he returned 
to New York, where he practiced law, and 
where he died, September 14, 1836. A man 
of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, 
his influence was destroyed by his unscrupu- 
lous political actions and immoral private 
life. 

ALBERT GALLATIN, one of the most 
distinguished statesmen of the early 
days of the republic, was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, January 29, 1 761. He was 
the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. 
Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of 
an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin 
was left an orphan at an early age, and was 
educated under the care of friends of his 
parents. He graduated from the University 
of Geneva in 1779, and declining employ- 
ment under one of the sovereigns of Ger- 
many, came to the struggling colonies, land- 
ing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after 
his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he 
served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. 
He made advances to the government for 
the support of the American troops, and in 
November, 1780, was placed in command 
of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended 
by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. 
In 1783 he was professor of the French 
language at Harvard University. A year 
later, having received his patrimony from 
Europe, he purchased large tracts of land 
in western Virginia, but was prevented by 
the Indians from forming the large settle- 
ment he proposed, and, in 17S6, purchased 



a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention 
to amend the constitution of that state, and 
united himself with the Republican party, 
the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. 
The following year he was elected to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was 
subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was 
elected to the United States senate, but 
could not take his seat on account of not 
having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 
Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representa- 
tive branch of congress, in which he served 
three terms. He also took an important 
position in the suppression of the "whiskey 
insurrection." In iSoi, on the accession of 
Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatin 
was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the posi- 
tion of secretary of state, but he declined, 
and continued at the head of the treasury 
until 1812, a period of twelve years. He 
exercised a great influence on the other de- 
partments and in the general administration, 
especially in the matter of financial reform,, 
and recommended measures for taxation, 
etc. , which were passed by congress, and be- 
came laws May 24, 18 1 3. The same year he 
was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, which had offered to mediate between 
this country and Great Britain, but the lat- 
ter country refusing the interposition of 
another power, and agreeing to treat di- 
rectly with the United States, in 18 14, at 
Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his 
distinguished colleagues, negotiated and 
signed the treaty of peace. In 181 5, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, 
he signed, at London, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries. In 18 16, de- 
clining his old post at the head of the treas- 
ury, Mr. Gallntiii was sent as tnini-;ter to 
France, "'h ■■ i>e remained until 1823, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



113 



After a year spent in England as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he took up his residence in New 
York, and from that time held no public 
office. In 1830 he was chosen president of 
the council of the University of New York. 
He was, in 1831, made president of the 
National bank, which position he resigned 
in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 



M' 



ILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born of New England parentage in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga county. New York, January 7, 
1800. His school education was very lim- 
ited, but he occupied his leisure hours in 
study. He worked in youth upon his fa- 
ther's farm in his native county, and at the 
age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool 
carder and cloth dresser. Four years later 
he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his 
office at Montviile, New York, and take up 
the study of law. This warm friend, find- 
ing young Fillmore destitute of means, 
loaned him money, but the latter, not wish- 
ing to incur a heavy debt, taught school 
during part of the time and in this and other 
ways helped maintain himself. In 1822 he 
removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year 
following, being admitted to the bar, he 
commenced the practice of Ws profession 
at East Aurora, in the same state. Here 
he remained until 1830, having, in the 
meantime, been admitted to practice in the 
supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, 
where he became the partner of S. G. 
Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered poli- 
tics and served in the state legislature from 
1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1833- 
35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an 
active and useful member, favoring the 
views of John Quincy Adams, then battling 
almost alone the slave-holding party in na- 
tional politics, and in most 01 pnblif q;ie=;- 



tions acted with the Whig party. While 
chairman of the committee of ways and 
means he took a leading part in draughting 
the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fill- 
more was the Whig candidate for governor 
of New York. In 1847 he was chosen 
comptroller of the state, and abandoning 
his practice and profession removed to Al- 
bany. In 1848 he was elected vice presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Zachary 
Taylor, and they were inaugurated the fol- 
lowing March. On the death of the presi- 
dent, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was in- 
ducted into that office. The great events 
of his administration were the passage of 
the famous compromise acts of 1850, and 
the sending out of the Japan expedition of 
1852. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term. 
President Fillmore retired from office, and 
in 1855 went to Europe, where he received 
marked attention. On returning home, in 
1856, he was nominated for the presidency 
by the Native American or "Know-Noth- 
ing" party, but was defeated, James Buch- 
anan being the successful candidate. 

Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in re- 
tirement. During the conflict of Civil war 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup- 
posed, however, that his sympathy was with 
the southern confederacy. He kept aloof 
from the conflict without any words of cheer 
to the one party or the other. For this rea- 
son he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874- 

PETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of Amer- 
ica's greatest and best-known historical 
painters, was born in Luzerne county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of German 
ancestry. He received his earlier education 
in his native county, and in Philadelphia 



114 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



learned the profession of land surveying. 
But a strong bias toward art drew him away 
and he soon opened a studio where he did 
portrait painting. This soon gave place to 
historical painting, he having discovered the 
bent of his genius in that direction. Be- 
sides the two pictures in the Capitol at 
Washington — ' 'De Soto Discovering the Mis- 
sissippi" and "Patrick Henry Before the 
Virginia House of Burgesses" — Rothermel 
painted many others, chief among which 
are: "Columbus Before Queen Isabella," 
"Martyrs of the Colosseum," "Cromwell 
Breaking Up Service in an English Church, " 
and the famous picture of the "Battle 
of Gettysburg." The last named was 
painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for 
which Rothermel received the sum of $25,- 
000, and which it took him four years to 
plan and to paint. It represents the portion 
of that historic field held by the First corps, 
an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, 
and was selected by Rothermel for that 
reason. For many years most of his time 
was spent in Italy, only returning for short 
periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 
16, 1895. 

EDMUND KIRBY SMITH, one of the 
distinguished leaders upon the side of the 
south in the late Civil war, was born at St. 
Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiv- 
ing the usual education he was appointed to 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1845 and 
entered the army as second lieutenant of 
infantry. During the Mexican war he was 
made first lieutenant and captain for gallant 
conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. 
From 1849 to 1852 he was assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics at West Point. He 
was transferred to the Second cavalry with 
the rank of captain in 1855, served on the 



frontier, and was wounded in a fight with 
Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. 
In January, 1861, he became major of his 
regiment, but resigned April 9th to fol- 
low the fortunes of the southern cause. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army and served in Virginia. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, 
he arrived on the field late in the day, but 
was soon disabled by a wound. He was 
made major-general in 1862, and being trans- 
ferred to East Tennessee, was given com- 
mand of that department. Under General 
Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the 
invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union 
forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 

1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville, 
October 10, and in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 

1863. He was soon made general, the 
highest rank in the service, and in com- 
mand of the trans-Mississippi department 
opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous 
Red River expedition, taking part in the 
battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and 
other engagements of that eventful cam- 
paign. He was the last to surrender the 
forces under his command, which he did 
May 26, 1865. After the close of the war 
he located in Tennessee, where he died 
March 28, 1893. 



JOHN JAMES INGALLS, a famous 
American statesman, was born Decem- 
ber 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, 
where he was reared and received his early 
education. He went to Kansas in 1858 
and joined the free-soil army, and a year 
after his arrival he was a member of the his- 
torical Wyandotte convention, which drafted 
a free-state constitution. In i860 he was 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



115 



made secretary of the territorial council, 
and in 1861 was secretary of the state sen- 
ate. The next year he was duly elected to 
the legitimate state senate from Atchison, 
where he had made his home. From that 
time he was the leader of the radical Re- 
publican element in the state. He became 
the editor of the " Atchison Champion " in 
1863, which was a "red-hot free-soil Re- 
publican organ." In 1862 he was the anti- 
Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but 
was defeated. He was elected to the Unit- 
ed States senate to succeed Senator Pom- 
eroy, and took his seat in the forty-third 
congress and served until the fiftieth. In 
the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Sen- 
ator Sherman as president pro tern., which 
position he held through the fiftieth con- 
gress. 

BENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the 
early Aaierican painters, was of Eng- 
lish descent and Quaker parentage. He was 
born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. 
From what source he inherited his genius it 
is hard to imagine, since the tenets and 
tendencies of the Quaker faith were not cal- 
culated to encourage the genius of art, but 
at the age of nine years, with no suggestion 
except that of inspiration, we find him choos- 
ing his model from life, and laboring over 
his first work calculated to attract public 
notice. It was a representation of a sleep- 
ing child in its cradle. The brush with 
which he painted it was made of hairs 
which he plucked from the cat's tail, and 
the colors were obtained from the war paints 
of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, 
and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice 
of berries, but there were touches in the rude 
production that he declared in later days 
were a credit to his best works. The pic- 
ture attracted notice, for a council was 



called at once to pass upon the boy's con- 
duct in thus infringing the laws of the so- 
ciety. There were judges among them who 
saw in his genius a rare gift and their wis- 
dom prevailed, and the child was given per- 
mission to follow his inclination. He studied 
under a painter named Williams, and then 
spent some years as a portrait painter with 
advancing success. At the age of twenty- 
two he went to Italy, and not until he had 
perfected himself by twenty-three years of 
labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied 
to turn his face toward home. However, he 
stopped at London, and decided to settle 
there, sending to America for his intended 
bride to join him. Though the Revolution- 
ary war was raging. King George III showed 
the American artist the highest considera- 
tion and regard. His remuneration from 
works for royalty amounted to five thou' 
sand dollars per year for thirty years. 

West's best known work in America is, 
perhaps, "The Death of General Wolf." 
West was one of the thirty-six original mem- 
bers of the Royal academy and succeeded 
Joshua Reynolds as president, which posi- 
tion he held until his death. His early 
works were his best, as he ceased to display 
originality in his later life, conventionality 
having seriously affected his efforts. He 
died in 1820. 



SAMUEL PORTER JONES, the famous 
Georgia evangelist, was born October 
16, 1847, in Chambers county, Alabama. 
He did not attend school regularly during 
his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and 
went to school at intervals, on account of 
ill health. His father removed to Carters- 
ville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small 
boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen 
and never attended college. The war inter- 
fered with his education, which was intended 



IIG 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



to prepare him for the legal profession. 
After the war he renewed his preparation 
for college, but was compelled to desist from 
such a course, as his health failed him en- 
tirely. Later on, however, he still pursued 
his legal studies and was admitted to the 
bar. Soon after this event he went to Dal- 
las, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and in a few months removed to Cherokee 
county, Alabama, where he taught school. 
In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, 
and arrived in time to see his father die. 
Immediately after this event he applied for 
a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, 
Georgia, to the meeting of the North Geor- 
gia Conference of the M. E. church south, 
which received him on trial. He became 
an evangelist of great note, and traveled 
extensively, delivering his sermons in an 
inimitable style that made him very popular 
with the masses, his methods of conducting 
revivals being unique and original and his 
preaching practical and incisive. 



SHELBY MOORE CULLOM, a national 
character in political affairs and for 
many years United States senator from 
Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at 
Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1830 and spent his early 
yearson afarm, but havingformed the purpose 
of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession 
he spent two years study at the Rock River 
seminary atMount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 
Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart 
and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two 
years later he began the independent prac- 
tice of law in that city. He took an active 
interest in politics and was soon elected city 
attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he v/as 
elected a member of the Illinois house of 
representatives. He identified himself with 



the newly formed Republican party and in 
i860 was re-elected to the legislature of his 
state, in which he was chosen speaker of the 
house. In 1862 President Lincoln appoint- 
ed a commission to pass upon and examine 
the accounts of the United States quarter- 
masters and disbursing officers, composed 
as follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; 
Charles A. Dana, of New York, and 
Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Cullom was nominated for congress in 
1864, and was elected by a majority of 
1,785. In the house of representatives he 
became an active and aggressive member, 
was chairman of the committee on territories 
and served in congress until 1868. Mr. 
Cullom was returned to the state legislature, 
of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he 
was elected governor of Illinois and at the 
end of his term he was chosen for a second 
term. Hewaselected United States senator 
in 1 88^ and twice reelected. 



RICHARD JORDAN CATLING, an 
American inventor of much note, was 
born in Hertford county, North Carolina, 
September 12, 1818. At an early age he 
gave promise of an inventive genius. The 
first emanation from his mind was the 
invention of a screw for the propulsion 01 
water craft, but on application for a 
patent,' found that he was forestalled but 
a short time by John Ericsson. Subse- 
quently he invented a machine for sowing' 
wheat in drills, which was used to a great 
extent throughout the west. He then stud- 
ied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended 
lectures at the Indiana Medical College 
at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. He later 
discovered a method of transmitting power 
through the medium of compressed air. A 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPlfT 



119 



double-acting hemp break was also invented 
by him. The invention, however, by which 
Dr. Catling became best known was the 
famous machine gun which bears his name. 
This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on 
the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter 
year, two hundred shots per minute were 
fired from it. After making some improve- 
ments which increased its efficiency, it was 
submitted to severe trials by our govern- 
ment at the arsenals at Frankfort, Wash- 
ington and Fortress Monroe, and at other 
points. The gun was finally adopted by 
our government, as well as by that of Great 
Britain, Russia and others. 



BENJAMIN RYAN TILLMAN, who won 
a national fame in politics, was born 
August II, 1847, in Edgefield county. South 
Carolina. He received his education in the 
Oldfield school, where he acquired the 
rudiments of Latin and Creek, in addition 
to a good English education. He left school 
in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but 
was prevented from doing so by a severe 
illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. 
In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned 
in 1868, when he was married and devcted 
himself to farming. He was chairman of 
the Democratic organization of his county, 
but except a few occasional services he took 
no active part in politics then. Gradually, 
however, his attention was directed to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests 
of his state, and in August, 1885, before a 
joint meeting of the agricultural society and 
state grange at Bennettsville, he made a 
speech in which he set forth the cause of 
agricultural depression and urged measures 
of relief. From his active interest in the 
farming class he was styled the " Agricult- 
ural Moses." He advocated an industrial 

school for women and for a separate agri- 
7 



cultural college, and in 1S87 he secured a 
modification in the final draft of the will of 
Thomas C. Clemson, which resulted in the 
erection of the Clemson Agricultural Col- 
lege at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen 
governor on the Democratic ticket, and 
carried the election by a large majority. 
Governor Tillman was inaugurated Decem- 
ber 4, 1890. Mr. Tillman was next elected 
to the United States senate from South 
Carolina, and gained a national reputation 
by his fervid oratory. 



GEORGE DENISON PRENTICE.— 
No journalist of America was so cele- 
brated in his time for the wit, spice, and 
vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose 
name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to 
Pacific he was well known by his witticism 
as well as by strength and force of his edi- 
torials. He was a native of Preston, Con- 
necticut, born December 18, 1802. After 
laying the foundation of a liberal education 
in his youth, he entered Brown University, 
from which he was graduated in 1823. Tak- 
ing up the study of law, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1829. During part of his time 
he was editor of the " New England Weekly 
Review," a position which he relinquished 
to go south and was succeeded by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet. 

On arriving in Louisville, whither he 
had gone to gather items for his history of 
Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified 
with the " Louisville Journal," which, under 
his hands, became one of the leading Whig 
newspapers of the country. At the head of 
this he remained until the day of his deatli. 
This latter event occurred January 22, 1870, 
and he was succeeded in the control of the 
" Journal " by Colonel Henry Watterson. 

Mr. Prentice was an author of consider- 
able celebrity, chief among his works being 



120 



CO.yPEXDIC'M OF BIOGRAPIir 



"The Life of Henry Clay," and " Prentice- 
ana," a collection of wit and humor, that 
passed through several large editions. 



SAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some 
critics one of the most remarkable men 
w'lo ever figured in American history, was a 
native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born 
March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in 
destitute circumstances by the death of his 
father, and, with his mother, removed to 
Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilder- 
ness. He received but little education, 
spending the most of his time among the 
Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his 
residence there Houston acted as clerk for a 
trader and also taught one of the primitive 
schools of the day. In 181 3 he enlisted as 
private in the United States army and was 
engaged under General Jackson in the war 
with the Creek Indians. When peace was 
made Houston was a lieutenant, but he re- 
signed his commission and commenced the 
study of law at Nashville. After holding 
some minor offices he was elected member 
of congress from Tennessee. This was in 
1823. He retained this office until 1827, 
when he was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1829, resigning that office before the ex- 
piration of his term, Sam Houston removed 
to Arkansas, and made his home among the 
Cherokees, becoming the agent of that 
tribe and representing their interests at 
Washington. On a visit to Texas, just 
prior to the election of delegates to a con- 
vention called for the purpose of drawing 
up a constitution previous to the admission 
of the state into the Mexican union, he was 
unanimously chosen a delegate. The con- 
vention framed the constitution, but, it be- 
ing rejected by the government of Mexico, 
and the petition for admission to the Con- 
federacy denied and the Texans told by the 



president of the Mexican union to give up 
their arms, bred trouble. It was determined 
to resist this demand. A military force was 
soon organized, with General Houston at 
the head of it. War was prosecuted with 
great vigor, and with varying success, but 
at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, 
the Mexicans were defeated and their leader 
and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas 
was then proclaimed an independent repub- 
lic, and in October of the same year Hous- 
ton was inaugurated president. On the ad- 
mission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 
1845, Houston was elected senator, and 
held that position for twelve years. Oppos- 
ing the idea of secession, he retired from 
political life in 1861, and died at Hunts- 
ville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 



ELI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin, was born in Westborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his 
graduation from Yale College, he went to 
Georgia, where he studied law, and lived 
with the family of the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only 
way known to separate the cotton seed from 
the fiber was by hand, making it extremely 
slow and expensive, and for this reason cot- 
ton was little cultivated in this country. 
Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney 
to devise some means for accomplishing 
this work by machinery. This he finally 
succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by 
attempts to defraud him by those who had 
stolen his ideas. He at last formed a part- 
nership with a man named Miller, and they 
began the manufacture of the machines at 
Washington, Georgia, in 1795. The suc- 
cess of his invention was immediate, and the 
legislature of South Carolina voted the sum 
of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had 
great difficulty in collecting, after years of 



COMPEyDIUM OF BJOGRAP/ir. 



1-21 



litigation and delay. North Carolina al- 
lowed him a royalty, and the same was 
agreed to by Tennessee, but was never paid. 

While his fame rests upon the invention 
cf tiie cotton-gin, his fortune came from his 
improvements in the manufacture and con- 
struction of firearms. In 1798 the United 
Statv-S government gave him a contract for 
this purpose, and he accumulated a fortune 
from it. The town of Whitneyville, Con- 
necticut, v/as founded by this fortune. 
Whitney died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
January 8, 1825. 

The cotton-gin made the cultivation of 
cotton profitable, and this led to rapid in- 
troduction of slavery in the south. His in- 
vention thus affected our national history in 
a manner little dreamed of by the inventor. 



LESTER WALLACIv (John Lester Wal- 
lack), for many years the leading light 
comedian upon the American stage, was 
the son of James W. Wallack, the " Brum- 
mcll of the Stage." Bot^ father and son 
were noted for their comeliness of feature 
and form. Lester Wallack was born in 
New York. January i, 1819. He received 
his education in England, and made his first 
appearance on the stage in 1848 at the New 
Broadv^iay theater, New York. He acted 
light comedy parts, and also occasion- 
ally in romantic plays like Monte Cristo, 
which play made him his fame. He went 
to England and played under management 
of such men as Hamblin and Burton, and then 
returned to New York with his falher, who 
opened the first Wallack's theater, at the 
corner of Broome and Broadway, in 1852. 
The location was afterward changed to 
Thirteenth and Broadway, in 1861, and 
later to its present location, Broadway and 
Tiiirteenlh, in 1882. The elder Wallack 
died in 1S64, after which Lester assumed 



management, jointly with Theodore Moss. 
Lester Wallack was commissioned in the 
queen's service while in England, and there 
he also married a sister to tlie famous artist, 
the late John Everett Millais. While Les- 
ter Wallack never played in the interior 
cities, his name was as familiar to the public 
as that of our greatest stars. He died Sep- 
tember 6, 1888, at Stamford, Connecticut. 



GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN, 
the palace car magnate, inventor, 
multi-millionaire and manufacturer, may- 
well be classed among the remarkable 
self-made men of the century. He was 
born March 3, 1831, in Chautauqua county. 
New York. His parents were poor, and 
his education was limited to what he could 
learn of the rudimentary branches in the 
district school. At the age of fourteen he 
went to work as clerk for a country mer- 
chant. He kept this place three year^, 
stud>ing at night. When seventeen he 
went to Albion, New York, and Vv-orked for 
his brother, who kept a cabinet shop there. 
Five years later he went into business for 
himself as contractor fur moving buildings 
along the line of the Erie canal, which was 
then being widened by the state, and was 
successful in this. In 185S he removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the business of 
moving and raising houses. The work was 
novel there then and he was quite success- 
ful. About this time the discomfort attend- 
ant on traveling at night attracted his at- 
tention. He reasoned that the public would 
gladly pay for comfortable sleeping accom- 
modations. A few sleeping cars were in 
use at that time, but they were v.-retcliedly 
crude, uncomfortable affairs. In 1S5Q he 
bought two old day coaches from the Ciii- 
cago& Alton road and remodeled them some- 
thing like the general plan of the sleeping- 



122 



COMPEXDICM OF BIOGRArHT. 



cars of the present day. They were put 
into service on the Chicago & Alton and 
became popular at once. In 1863 he built 
the first sleeping-car resembling the Pullman 
cars of to-day. It cost $18,000 and was 
the "Pioneer." After that the Pullman 
Palace Car Company prospered. It had 
shops at different cities. In 1880 the Town 
of Pullman was founded by Mr. Pullman 
and his company, and this model manufac- 
turing community is known all over the 
world. Mr. Pullman died October 19, 1897. 



TAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous 
kJ cavalry leader of the Southern Confed- 
eracy during the Civil war, was born in 
Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. Oil 
graduating from the United States Military 
Academy, West Point, in 1854, he was as- 
signed, as second lieutenant, to a regiment 
of mounted rifles, receiving his commission 
in October. In March, 1855, he was trans- 
ferred to the newly organized First cavalry, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant the 
following December, and to captain April 
22, 1861. Taking the side of the south. 
May 14, 1 861, he was made colonel of a 
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as 
such at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral, and major-general early in 1862. On 
the reorganization of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, in June of the latter year, when 
R. E. Lee assumed command. General Stu- 
art made a reconnoissance with one thou- 
sand five hundred cavalry and four guns, 
and in two days made the circuit of McClel- 
lan's army, producing much confusion and 
gathering useful information, and losing but 
one man. August 25, 1862, he captured 
part of Pope's headquarters' train, including 
that general's private baggage and official 
correspondence, and the next night, in a 



descent upon Manasses, capturing immense 
quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
store, eight guns, a number of locomotives 
and a few hundred prisoners. During the 
invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, 
General Stuart acted as rearguard, resisting 
the advance of the Federal cavalry at South 
Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the 
Confederate left. Shortly after he crossed 
the Potomac, making a raid as far as Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of 
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Gen- 
eral Stuart's command was on the extreme 
right of the Confederate line. At Chancel- 
lorsville, after "Stonewall " Jackson's death 
and the wounding of General A. P. Hill, 
General Stuart assumed command of Jack- 
son's corps, which he led in the sevefe con- 
test of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the 
same year, a large force of cavalry was 
gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Vir- 
ginia, which, advancing to join General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at 
Brandy Station, by \^No divisions of cavalry 
and two brigades of infantry, under General 
John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the 
movements of the Gettysburg campaign he 
rendered important services. In May, 1864, 
General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in 
placing himself between Richmond and 
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow 
Tavern was attacked in force. During the 
fierce conflict that ensued General Stuart 
was mortally wounded, and died at Rich- 
mond, May 1 1, 1864. 



FRANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth 
president of the United States — from 
1853 until 1857 — was born November 23, 
1804, at Hillsboro, New Hampshire. He 
came of old revolutionary stock and his 
father was a governor of the state. Mr. 
Pierce entered Bowdoin College in 1820, 



COMPEXDIi'M OF BIOGRAPHY. 



123 



was graduated in 1824, and took up the 
study of law in the office of Judge Wood- 
bury, and later he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Pierce practiced his profession with 
varying successes in his native town and 
also in Concord. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1833 and served in that 
body until 1837, the last two years of his 
term serving as speaker of the house. He 
was elected to the United States senate in 
1837, just as President Van Buren began 
his term of office. Mr. Pierce served until 
1842, and many times during Polk's term he 
declined important public offices. During 
the war with Mexico Mr. Pierce was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and he embarked 
with a portion of his troops at Newport, 
Rhode .Island, May 27, 1847, and went with 
them to the field of battle. He served 
through the war and distinguished himself 
by his skill, bravery and excellent judg- 
ment. When he reached liis home in his 
native state he was received coldly by the 
opponents of the war, but the advocates of 
the war made up for his cold reception by 
the enthusiastic welcome which they ac- 
corded him. Mr. Pierce resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and in the political 
strife that followed he gave his support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party. The Democratic convention met in 
Baltimore, June 12, 1852, to nominate a 
candidate for tlie presidency, and they con- 
tinued in session four days, and in thirty- 
five ballotings no one had secured the re- 
quisite two-thirds vote. Mr. Pierce had not 
received a vote as yet, until the Virginia 
delegation brought his name forward, and 
finally on the forty-ninth ballot Mr, Pierce 
received 282 votes and all the other candi- 
dates eleven. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was General Winfield Scott, who 
onlv received the electoral votes of four 



states. Mr. Pierce was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1853, 
with W. R. King as vice president, and the 
following named gentlemen were afterward 
chosen to fill the positions in the cabinet: 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jeffer- 
son Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert Mc- 
Clelland, James Campbell and Caleb Gush- 
ing. During the administration of President 
Pierce the Missouri compromise law was 
repealed, and all the territories of the Union 
were thrown open to slavery, and the dis- 
turbances in Kansas occurred. In 1857 he 
was succeeded in the presidency by James 
Buchanan, and retired to his home in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. He always cherished 
his principles of slavery, and at the out- 
break of the rebellion he was an adherent of 
the cause of the Confederacy. He died at 
Concord, New Hampshire, October 8, 1869. 



JAMES B. WEAVER, well known as a 
leader of the Greenback and later of the 
Populist party, was born at Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833. He received his earlier 
education in the schools of his native town, 
and entered the law department of the Ohio 
University, at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1854. Removing to the grow- 
ing state of Iowa, he became connected 
with "The Iowa Tribune," at the state 
capital, Des Moines, as one of its editors. 
He afterward practiced law and was elected 
district attorney for the second judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, on the Republican ticket in 
1866, which office he held for a short time. 
In 1 867 Mr. Weaver was appointed assessor 
of internal revenue for the first district of 
Iowa, and filled that position until some- 
time in 1873. He was elected and served 
in the forty-sixth congress. In 1880 th3 
National or Greenback party in convention 
at Chicago, nominated James B. Weaver as 



12 J: 



COMPENDIUM OF BI0GRAPH7'. 



its candidate for tiie presidency. By a 
union of the Democratic and National 
parties in fiis district, he was elected to the 
forty-ninth congress, and re-elected to the 
same office in the fall of 1886. Mr. Weaver 
was conceded to be a very fluent speaker, 
and quite active in all political work. On 
July 4, 1892, at the National convention 
of the People's party, General James B. 
Weaver was chosen as the candidate for 
president of that organization, and during 
the campaign that followed, gained a na- 
tional reputation. 



ANTHONY JOSEPH DREXEL, one 
of the leading bankers and financiers of 
the United States, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1S26, and was the son of 
Francis M. Drexel, who had established 
the large banking institution of Drexel & 
Co. , so well known. The latter was a native 
of Dornbirn, in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
studied languages and fine arts at Turin, 
Italy. On returning to his mountain home, 
in 1809, and finding it in the hands of the 
French, he went to Switzerland and later 
to Paris. In 1 812, after a short visit home, 
he went to Berlin, where he studied paint- 
ing until 1S17, in which year he emigrated 
io America, and settled in Philadelphia. A 
few years later he went to Chili and Peru, 
where he executed some fine portraits of 
notable people, including General Simon 
Bolivar. After spending some time in Mex- 
ico, he returned to Philadelphia, and en- 
gaged in the banking business. . In 1S37 he 
founded the house of Drexel & Co. He 
died in 1837, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. His son, 
Anthony J. Drexel, Jr. , entered the bank 
when he was thirteen years of age, before he 
was through with his schooling, and after 
that the history of the banking business of 



which he was the head, was the history of his 
life. The New York house of Dre.xel, Mor- 
gan & Co. was established in 1850; the 
Paris house, Drexel, Harjes & Co., in 1867. 
The Drexel banking houses have supplied 
iand placed hundreds of millions of dollars 
n government, corporation, railroad and 
other loans and securities. The reputation 
of the houses has always been held on the 
highest plane. Mr. Drexel founded and 
heavily endowed the Drexel Institute, in 
Philadelphia, an institution to furnish better 
and wider avenues of employment to young 
people of both sexes. It has departments 
of arts, science, mechanical arts and domes- 
tic economy. Mr. Drexel, Jr., departed this 
life June 30, 1893. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE, 
inventor of the recording telegraph in- 
strument, was born in Charlestowii, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1791. He graduated 
from Yale College in 18 10, and took up art 
as his profession. He went to London with 
the great American painter, Washington 
AUston, and studied in the Royal Academy 
under Benjamin West. His " Dying Her- 
cules," his first effort in sculpture, took the 
gold medal in 1813. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 181 5 and continued to pursue his 
profession. He was greatly interested in 
scientific studies, which he carried on in 
connection with other labors. He founded 
the National Academy of Design and was 
many years its president. He returned to 
Europe and spent three years in study 
in the art centers, Rome, Florence, Venice 
and Paris. In 1832 he returned to America 
and while on the return voyage the idea of 
a recording telegraph apparatus occurred to 
him, and he made a drawing to represent his 
conception. He was the first to occupy the 
chair of fine arts in the University of New 



COMPEXDILM OF BlOGRAPIir 



125 



York City, and in 1835 he set up his rude 
instrument in his room in the university. 
But it was not until after many years of 
discouragement and reverses of fortune that 
he finally was successful in placing his inven- 
tion before the public. In 1844, by aid of 
the United States government, h.e had con- 
structed a telegraph line forty miles in length 
from Washington to Baltimore. Over this 
line the test was made, and the first tele- 
graphic message was flashed May 24, 1844, 
from the United States supreme court rooms 
to Baltimore. It read, "What hath God 
wrought!" His fame and fortune were es- 
tablished in an instant. Wealth and honors 
poured in upon him from that day. The 
nations of Europe vied with each other 
in honoring the great inventor with medals, 
titles and decorations, and the learned 
societies of Europe hastened to enroll his 
name upon their membership lists and confer 
degrees. In 1858 he was the recipient of an 
honor never accorded to an inventor before. 
The ten leading nations of Europe, at the 
suggestion of the Emporer Napoleon, ap- 
pointed representatives to an international 
congress, which convened at Paris for the 
special purpose of expressing gratitude of- the 
nations, and they voted him a present of 
400,000 francs. 

Professor IVIorse was present at the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue erected in his honor in 
Central Park, New York, in 1871. His last 
appearance in public was at the unveiling 
of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in New 
York in 1872, when he made the dedica- 
tory speech and unveiled the statue. He 
died April 2, 1872, in the city of New York. 



MORRISON REMICH WAITE, seventh 
chief justice of the United States, was 
born at Lyme, Connecticut, November 29, 
1816. He was a graduate from Yale Col- 



lege in 1837, in the class with \\'illiam M. 
Evarts. His father was judge of the su- 
preme court of errors of the state of Con- 
necticut, and in his office young Waite 
studied law. He subsequently removed to 
Ohio, and was elected to the legislature of 
that state in 1849. He removed from 
Maumee City to Toledo and became a prom- 
inent legal light in that state. He was 
nominated as a candidate for congress re- 
peatedly but declined to run, and also de- 
clined a place on the supreme bench of the 
state. He won great distinction for his able 
handling of the Alabama claims at Geneva, 
before the arbitration tribunal in 1S71, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States in 1874 on the 
death of Judge Chase. When, in 1876, elec- 
toral commissioners were chosen to decide 
the presidential election controversy between 
Tilden and Hayes, Judge Waite refused to 
serve on that commission. 

His death occurred March 2^, 1888.. 



ELISHA KENT KANE was one of the 
distinguished American explorers of the 
unknown regions of the frozen north, and 
gave to the world a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the Arctic zone. Dr. Kane was 
born February 3, 1820, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. He was a graduate of the 
universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
and took his medical degree in 1843. He 
entered the service of the United States 
navy, and was physician to the Chinese 
embassy. Dr. Kane traveled extensively 
in the Levant, Asia and Western Africa, 
and also served- in the Mexican war, in 
which he was severely wounded. His 
first Arctic expedition was under De Haven 
in the first Grinnell expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin in 1S50. He com- 
manded the second Grinnell expedition 



126 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



in 1853-55. and discovered an open polar 
sea. For this expedition he received a gold 
medal and other distinctions. He published 
a narrative of his first polar expedition in 
1853, and in 1856 published two volumes 
relating to his second polar expedition. He 
was a man of active, enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit. His health, which was al- 
ways delicate, was impaired by the hard- 
ships of his Arctic expeditions, from which 
he never fully recovered and from which he 
died February 16, 1857, at Havana. 



ELIZABETH CADY STANTON was a 
daughter of Judge Daniel Cady and 
Margaret Livingston, and was born Novem- 
ber 12, 181 5, at Johnstown, New York. She 
was educated at the Johnstown Academy, 
where she studied with a class of boys, and 
was fitted for college at the age of fifteen, 
after which she pursued her studies at Mrs. 
Willard's Seminary, at Troy. Her atten- 
tion was called to the disabilities of her sex 
by her own educational experiences, and 
through a study of Blackstone, Story, and 
Kent. Miss Cady was married to Henry B. 
Stanton in 1840, and accompanied him to 
the world's anti-slavery convention in Lon- 
don. While there she made the acquain- 
tance of Lucretia Mott. Mrs. Stanton 
resided at Boston until 1847, when the 
family moved to Seneca Falls, New York, 
and she and Lucretia Mott signed the first 
call for a woman's rights convention. The 
meeting was held at her place of residence 
July 19-20, 1848. This was the first oc- 
casion of a formal claim of suffrage for 
women that was made. Mrs. Stanton ad- 
dressed the New York legislature, in 1S54, 
on the rights of married women, and in 
i860, in advocacy of the granting of di- 
vorce for drunkenness. She also addressed 
the legislature and the constitutional con- 



vention, and maintained that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was 
resolved into its original elements, and that 
all citizens had, therefore, a right to vote 
for the members of that convention. After 
1869 Mrs. Stanton frequently addressed 
congressional committees and state consti- 
tutional conventions, and she canvassed 
Kansas, Michigan, and other states when 
the question of woman suffrage was sub- 
mitted in those states. Mrs. Stanton was 
one of the editors of the " Revolution," and 
most of the calls and resolutions for con- 
ventions have come from her pen. She 
was president of the national committee, 
also of the Woman's Loyal League, and 
of the National Association, for many years. 



DAVID DUDLEY FIELD, a great 
American jurist, was born in Connecti- 
cut in 1805. He entered Williams College 
when sixteen years old, and commenced the 
study of law in 1825. In 1828 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and went to New York, 
where he soon came into prominence be- 
fore the bar of that state. He entered upoti 
the labor of reforming the practice and 
procedure, which was then based upon the 
common law practice of England, and had 
become extremely complicated, difficult and 
uncertain in its application. His first paper 
on this subject was published in 1839, and 
after eight years of continuous efforts in this 
direction, he was appointed one of a com- 
mission by New York to reform the practice 
of that state. The result was embodied in 
the two codes of procedure, civil and crimi- 
nal, the first of which was adopted almost 
entire by the state of New York, and has 
since been adopted by more than half the 
states in the Union, and became the basis 
of the new practice and procedure in Eng- 
land, contained iii the Judicature act. He 



COMPENDIUM OF BIO GRAPH!'. 



127 



was later appointed chairman cf a new corn- 
mission to codify the entire body of laws. 
This great work employed many years in its 
completion, but when finished it embraced 
a civil, penal, and political code, covering 
the entire field of American laws, statutory 
and common. This great body of law was 
adopted by California and Dakota territory 
in its entirety, and many other states have 
since adopted its substance. In 1867 the 
British Association for Social Science heard 
a proposition from Mr. Field to prepare an 
international code. This led to the prepara- 
tion of his " Draft Outlines of an Interna- 
tional Code," which was in fact a complete 
body of international laws, and introduced 
the principle of arbitration. Other of his 
codes of the state of New York have since 
been adopted by that state. 

In addition to his great works on law, 
Mr. Field indulged his literary tastes by fre- 
quent contributions to general literature, 
and his articles on travels, literature, and 
the political questions of the hour gave 
him rank with the best writers of his time. 
His father was the Rev. David Dudley Field, 
and his brothers were Cyrus W. Field, Rev. 
Henry Martin Field, and Justice Stephen 
J. Field of the United States supreme 
court. David Dudley Field died at New 
York, April 13, 1S94. 



HENRY M. TELLER, a celebrated 
American politician, and secretary of 
the interior under President Arthur, was born 
May 23, 1830, in Allegany county, New 
York. He was of Hollandish ancestry and 
received an excellent education, after which 
he took up the study of law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the state of New York. 
Mr. Teller removed to Illinois in January, 
1858, and practiced for three years in that 
state. From thence he moved to Colorado 



in 1 86 1 and located at Central City, which 
was then one of the principal mining towns 
in the state. His exceptional abilities as 
a lawyer soon brought him into prominence 
and gained for him a numerous and profit- 
able clientage. In politics he affiliated with 
the Republican party, but declined to become 
a candidate for office until the admission of 
Colorado into the Union as a state, when 
he was elected to the United States senate. 
Mr. Teller drew the term ending March 
4, 1877, but was re-elected December 11, 
1876, and served until April 17, 1882, when 
he was appointed by President Arthur as 
secretary of the interior. He accepted a 
cabinet position with reluctance, and on 
March 3, 1885, he retired from the cabinet, 
having been elected to the senate a short 
time before to succeed Nathaniel P. Hill. 
Mr. Teller took his seat on March 4, 1S85, 
in the senate, to which he was afterward 
re-elected. He served as chairmait on the 
committee of pensions, patents, mines and 
mining, and was also a member of commit- 
tees on claims, railroads, privileges and 
elections and public lands. Mr. Teller came 
to be recognized as one of the ablest advo- 
cates of the silver cause. He was one of the 
delegates to the Republican National conven- 
tion at St. Louis in 1896, in which he took 
an active part and tried to have a silver 
plank inserted in the platform of the party. 
Failing in this he felt impelled to bolt the 
convention, which he did and joined forces 
with the great silver movement in the cam- 
paign which followed, being recognized in 
that campaign as one of the most able and 
eminent advocates of "silver" in America. 



JOHN ERICSSON, an eminent inven- 
tor and machinist, who won fame in 
America, was born in Sweden, July 31,1 803. 
In early childhood he evinced a decided in- 



128 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHr. 



clination to mechanical pursuits, and at the 
age of eleven he was appointed to a cadet- 
ship in the engineer corps, and at the age of 
seventeen was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
In 1826 he introduced a "flame engine," 
which he had invented, and offered it to 
English capitalists, but it was found that it 
could be operated only by the use of wood 
for fuel. Shortly after this he resigned his 
commission in the army of Sweden, and de- 
voted himself to mechanical pursuits. He 
discovered and introduced the principle of 
artificial draughts in steam boilers, and re- 
ceived a prize of two thousand five hundred 
dollars for his locomotive, the "Novelty," 
which attained a great speed, for that day. 
The artificial draught effected a great saving 
in fuel and made unnecessary the huge 
smoke-stacks formerly used, and the princi- 
ple is still applied, in modified form, in boil- 
ers. He ai.so invented a steam fire-engine, 
and later a hot-air engine, which he at- 
tempted to apply in the operation of his 
ship, "Ericsson," but as it did not give the 
speed required, he abandoned it, but after- 
wards applied it to machinery for pumping, 
hoisting, etc. 

Ericsson was first to apply the screw 
propeller to navigation. The English peo- 
ple not receiving this new departure readily, 
Ericsson came to America in 1839, and 
built the United States steamer, "Prince- 
ton," in which the screw-propeller was util- 
ized, the first steamer ever built in which 
the propeller was under water, out of range 
of the enemy's shots. The achievement 
which gave him greatest renown, however, 
was the ironclad vessel, the "Monitor," an 
ei:tirely new type of vessel, which, in March, 
1862, attacked the Confederate monster 
ironclad ram, " Virginia," and after a fierce 
struggle, compelled her to withdraw from 
Hampton Roads for repairs. After the war 



one of his most noted inventions was his 
vessel, " Destroyer," with a submarine gun, 
which carried a projectile torpedo. In 1S86 
the king of Spain conferred on him the 
grand cross of the Order of Naval Merit. 
He died in March, 1889, and his body was 
transferred, with naval honors, to the country 
of his birth. 

JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was born in Franklin 
county, April 23, 1791. He was of Irish 
ancestry, his father having come to this 
country in 1783, in quite humble circum- 
stances, and settled in the western part of 
the Kej'stone state. 

James Buchanan remained in his se- 
cluded home for eight years, enjoying but 
few social or intellectual adv9.ntages. His 
parents were industrious and frugal, and 
prospered, and, in 1799, the family removed 
to Mercersbur Pennsylvania, where he 
was placed in school. His progress was 
rapid, and in i8oi he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, where he took his place 
among the best scholars in the institution. 
In 1809 he graduated with the highest hon- 
ors in his class. He was then eighteen, tail, 
graceful and in vigorous health. He com- 
menced the study of law at Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and took a 
stand with the ablest of his fellow lawyers. 
When but twenty-six years old he success- 
fully defended, unaided by counsel, one of 
the judges of the state who was before the 
bar of t.hc state senate under articles of im- 
peachment. 

During the war of 18 12-15, ^^r. Buch- 
anan sustained the government with all his 
power, eloquently urging the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, and enlisted as a private 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAP/IT 



129 



volunteer to assist in repelling the British 
who had sacked and burned the public 
buildings of Washington and threatened 
Baltimore. At that time Buchanan was 
a Federalist, but the opposition of that 
party to the war with Great Britain and the 
alien and sedition laws of John Adams, 
brought that party into disrepute, and drove 
many, among them Buchanan, into the Re- 
publican, or anti-Federalist ranks. He was 
elected to congress in 1S28. In 1831 he 
was sent as minister to Russia, and upon 
his return to this country, in 1833, was ele- 
vated to the United States senate, and re- 
mained in that position for twelve years. 
Upon the accession of President Polk to 
office he made Mr. Buchanan secretary of 
state. Four years later he retired to pri- 
vate life, and in 1853 he was honored with 
the mission to England. In 1856 the na- 
tional Democratic convention nominated 
him for the presidency and he was elected. 
It was during his administration that the 
rising tide of the secession movement over- 
took the country. Mr. Buchanan declared 
that the national constitution gave him no 
power to do anything against the movement 
to break up the Union. After his succession 
by Abraham Lincoln in i860, Mr. Buchanan 
retired to his home at Wheatland, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died June i, 1868. 



JOHN HARVARD, the founder of the 
Harvard University, was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1608. He received his 
education at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
and came to America in 1637, settling in 
Massachusetts. He was a non-conformist 
minister, and a tract of land was set aside 
for him in Charlestown, near Boston. He 
was at once appointed one of a committee to 
formulate a body of laws for the colony. 
One year before his arrival in the colony 



the general court had voted the sum of four 
hundred pounds toward the establishment of 
a school or college, half of which was to be 
paid the next year In 1637 preliminary 
plans were made for starting the school. In 
1 63 8 John Harvard, who had shown great 
interest in the new institution of learning 
proposed, died, leaving his entire property, 
about twice the sum originally voted, to the 
school, together with three hundred volumes 
as a nucleus for a library. The institution 
was then given the name of Harvard, and 
established at Newton (now Cambridge), 
Massachusetts. It grew to be one of the two 
principal seats of learning in the new Vv'orld, 
and has maintained its reputation since. It 
now consists of twenty-two separate build- 
ings, and its curriculum embraces over one 
hundred and seventy elective courses, and it 
ranks among the great universities of the 
world. 

ROGER BROOKE TANEY, a noted 
jurist and chief justice of the United 
States supreme court, was born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, March 17, 1777. He 
graduated fiom Dickinson College at the 
age of eighteen, took up the study of law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He 
was chosen to the legislature from his county, 
and in 1801 removed to Frederick, Mary- 
land. He became United States senator 
from Maryland in 18 16, and took up his 
permanent residence in 'Baltimore a few 
years later. In 1824 he became an ardent 
admirer and supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
and upon Jackson's election to the presi- 
dency, was appointed attorney general of 
the United States. Two years later he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
after serving in that capacity for nearly one 
year, the senate refused to confirm the ap- 
pointment. In 1835, upon the death of 



130 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



Chief-justice Marshall, he was appointed to 
that place, and a political change having 
occurred in the make up of the senate, he 
was confirmed in 1836. He presided at 
his first session in January of the following 
year. 

The case which suggests itself first to 
the average reader in connection with this 
jurist is the celebrated " Dred Scott " case, 
which came before the supreme court for 
decision in 1856. In his opinion, delivered 
on behalf of a majority of the court, one 
remarkable statement occurs as a result of 
an exhaustive survey of the historical 
grounds, to the effect that " for more than 
a century prior to the adoption of the con- 
stitution they (Africans) had been regarded 
so far inferior tfiat they had no rights which 
a white man was bound to respect." Judge 
Taney retained the office of chief justice 
until his death, in 1864. 



JOHN LOTHROP MOTLEY.— This gen- 
tleman had a world-wide reputation as 
an historian, which placed him in the front 
rank of the great men of America. He was 
born April 15, 1814, at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, was given a thorough preparatory 
education and then attended Harvard, from 
which he was graduated in 1831'. He also 
studied at Gottingen and Berlin, read law 
and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. la 
1 84 1 he was appointed secretary of the 
legation at St. Petersburg, and in 1866-67 
served as United States minister to Austria, 
serving in the same capacity during 1869 
and 1870 to England. In 1856, after long 
and exhaustive research and preparation, he 
published in London "The Rise of the 
Dutch Republic." It embraced three vol- 
umes and immediately attracted great at- 
tention throughout Europe and America as 
a work of unusual merit. From 1861 to 



1868 he produced "The History of the 
United Netherlands," in four volumes. 
Other works followed, with equal success, 
and his position as one of the foremost his- 
torians and writers of his day was firmly 
established. His death occured May 29, 
1877- 

ELIAS HOWE, the inventor of the sew- 
ing machine, well deserves to be classed 
among the great and noted men of Amer- 
ica. He was the son of a miller and farmer 
and was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, 
July 9, 1819. In 1835 he went to Lowell 
and worked there, and later at Boston, in the 
machine shops. His first sewing machine 
was completed in 1 845 , and he patented it in 
1846, laboring with the greatest persistency 
in spite of poverty and hardships, working 
for a time as an engine driver on a railroad 
at pauper wages and with broken health. 
He tlien spent two years of unsuccessful ex- 
ertion in England, striving in vain to bring 
his invention into public notice and use. 
He returned to the United States in almost 
hopeless poverty, to find that his patent 
had been violated. At last, however, he 
found friends who assisted him financially, 
and after years of litigation he made gor)d 
his claims in the courts in 1854. His inven- 
tion afterward brought him a large fortune. 
During the Civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, and served for some time. During 
his life time he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor and many other medals. 
His death occurred October 3, 1867, at 
Brooklyn, New York. 



PHILLIPS BROOKS, celebrated as an 
eloquent preacher and able pulpit ora- 
tor, was born in Boston on the 13th day of 
December, 1835. He received excellent 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT 



131 



educational advantages, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1855. Early in life he decided 
upon the ministry as his life work and 
studied theology in the Episcopal Theolog- 
ical Seminary, at Alexandria, Virginia. In 
1859 he was ordained and the same year 
became pastor of the Church of the Advent, 
in Philadelphia. Three years later he as- 
sumed the pastorate of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, where he remained until 1870. 
At the expiration of that time he accepted 
the pastoral charge of Trinity Church in 
Boston, where his eloquence and ability at- 
tracted mach attention and built up a pow- 
erful church organization. Dr. Brooks also 
devoted considerable time to lecturing and 
literary work and attained prominence in 
these lines. 

WILLIAM B. ALLISON, a statesman 
of national reputation and one of the 
leaders of the Republican party, was born 
March 2, 1829, at Perry, Ohio. He grew 
up on his father's farm, which he assisted 
in cultivating, and attended the district 
school. When sixteen years old he went 
to the academy at Wooster, and subse- 
quently spent a year at the Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, Pennsylvania. He next 
taught school and spent another year at the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio. 
Mr. Allison then took up the study of lav/ 
at Wooster, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1851, and soon obtained a position 
as deputy county clerk. His political lean- 
ings were toward the old line Whigs, who 
afterward laid the foundation of the Repub- 
lican party. Hj was a delegate to the state 
convention in 1856, in the campaign of 
which lie supported Fremont for president. 
Mr Allison removed to Dubuque, Iowa, 
in the following year. He rapidly rose to 
prominence at the bar an 1 i.i politics. In 



i860 lie was chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican convention held in Chicago, of 
which he was elected one of the secretaries. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the governor. His 
congressional career opened in 1862, when 
he was elected to the thirty-eighth congress; 
he was re-elected three times, serving from 
March 4, 1863, to March 3, 1871. He was 
a member of the ways and means committee 
a good part of his term. His career in the 
United States senate began in 1873, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in national affairs, 
his service of a quarter of a century in that 
body being marked by close fealty to the 
Republican party. He twice declined the 
portfolio of the treasury tendered him by 
Garfield and Harrison, and his name was 
prominently mentioned for the presidency 
at several national Republican conventions. 



JV/|ARY ASHTON LIVERMORE, lec- 
i V 1 turer and v/riter, was born in Boston, 
December 19, 1821. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Rice, and married D. P. Liver- 
more, a preacher of the Universalist church. 
She contributed able articles to many of the 
most noted periodicals of this country and 
England. During the Civil war she labored 
zealously and with success on behalf of the 
sanitary commission which played so impor- 
tant a part during that great struggle. She 
became editor of the " Woman's Journal," 
published at Boston in 1870. 

She held a prominent place as a public 
speaker and writer on woman's suffrage, 
temperance, social and religious questions, 
and her influence was great in every cause 
she advocated. 



JOHN B. GOUGH. a noted temperance 
lecturer, wh ) wun his fame in America, 
wa3 born in the village of Sandgate, Kent, 



1^2 



COMPENDIUM OF BI0GRAPH7'. 



England, August 22, 1817. He came to 
the United States at the age of twelve, 
lie followed the trade of bookbinder, and 
Jived in great poverty on account of the 
liquor habit. In 1843, however, he re- 
formed, and began his career as a tem.per- 
ance lecturer. He worked zealously in the 
cause of temperance, and his lectures and 
published articles revealed great earnestness. 
He formed temperance societies throughout 
the entire country, and labored with great 
success. He visited England in the same 
cause about the year 1853 and again in 
1878. He also lectured upon many other 
topics, in Vv'hich he attained a wide reputa- 
tion. His death occurred February i8, 
1886. 

THOM.\S BUCHANAN READ, author, 
sculptor and painter, was born in Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1822. 
He early evinced a taste for art, and began 
the study of sculpture in Cincinnati. Later 
he found painting more to his liking. He 
went to New York, where he followed this 
profession, and later to Boston. In 1846 
he located in Philadelphia. He visited 
Italy in 1850, and studied at Florence, 
where he resided almost continuously for 
twenty-two years. He returned to America 
in 1872, and died in New York May 1 1 of 
the same year. 

He was the author of many heroic 
poems, but the one giving him the most re- 
nown is his famous "Sheridan's Ride," of 
which he has also left a representation in 
painting. 

EUGENE V. DEBS, the former famous 
president of the American Railway 
Union, and great labor leader, was born in 
the city of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1855. 
He received his education in the public 



schools of that place and at the age (A 
sixteen years began work as a painter in 
the \'andalia shops. After this, for some 
three years, he was employed as a loco- 
motive fireman on the same road. His 
first appearance in public life was in his 
canvass for the election to the ofSce of city 
clerk of Terre Haute. In this capacity he 
served two terms, and when twenty six 
years of age was elected a member of the 
legislature of the state of Indiana. While 
a member of that body he secured the 
passage of several bills in the interest of 
organized labor, of which he was always 
a faithful champion. Mr. Debs' speech 
nominating Daniel Voorhees for the United 
States senate gave him a wide reputation for 
oratory. On the expiration of his term in 
the legislature, he was elected grand secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Fireman and filled that office 
for fourteen successive years. He was 
always an earnest advocate of confederation 
of railroad men and it was mainly through 
his efforts that the United Order of Railway 
Employes, composed of the Brotherhood 
of Railway Trainmen and Conductors, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firem.en and 
the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association was 
formed, and he became a member of its 
supreme council. The order was dissolved 
by disagreement between two of its leading 
orders, and then Mr. Debs conceived ths 
idea of the American Railway Union. He 
worked on the details and the union came 
into e.xistence in Chicago, June 20, i S93. For 
a time it prospered and became one of the 
largest bodies of railway men in the world. 
It won in a contest with the Great Northern 
Railway. In the strike made by the union 
in sympathy with the Pullman employes 
inaugurated in Chicago June 25. 1S94, and 
the consequent rioting, the Railway Union 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



i;,8 



lost much prestige and Mr. Debs, in company 
with others of the officers, being held as in con- 
tempt of the United States courts, he suffered 
a sentence of six months in jail at Wood- 
stock, McHenry county, Ilh'nois. In 1897 
Mr. Debs, on the demise of the American 
Railway Union, organized the Social 
Democracy, an institution founded on the 
best lines of the communistic idea, which 
was to provide homes and employment for 
its members. 



JOHN G. CARLISLE, famous as a law- 
3er, congressman, senator and cabinet 
officer, was born in Campbell (now Kenton) 
county, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, on a 
farm. He received tlie usual education oi 
the time and began at an early age to teach 
school and, at the same time, the study of 
law. Soon opportunity offered and he 
entered an office in Covington, Kentucky, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar in 
1858. Politics attracted his attention and 
in 1859 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the legislature of his native 
state. On the outbreak of the war in 1 86 1 , 
he embraced the cause of the Union and was 
largely instrumental in preserving Kentucky 
to tlie federal cause. He resumed his legal 
practice for a time and declined a nomina- 
tion as presidential elector in 1864. In 
1866 and again in 1869 Mr. Carlisle was 
elected to the senate of Kentucky. ■ He re- 
signed this position in 1871 and was chosen 
lieutenant governor of the state, which office 
he held until 1875. He was one of tiie 
presidential e!ectors-at- large for Ken- 
tucky in 1876. He first entered congress in 
1877, and soon became a prominent leader 
on the Democratic side of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and continued a member of 
that body through the forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth and forty-ninth con- 



gresses, and was speaker of the house during 
the two latter. He was elected to the 
United States senate to succeed Senritor 
Blackburn, and remained a member of that 
branch of congress until March, 1893, when 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
He performed the duties of that high office 
until March 4, 1897, throughout the en- 
tire second administration of President 
Cleveland. His ability and many years of 
public service gave him a national reputa- 
tion. 



FRANCES E. WILLARD, for many years 
president of the 'Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and a noted American 
lecturer and writer, was born in Rochester, 
New York, September 28, 1839. Graduating 
from the Northwestern Female College at the 
age of nineteen she began teaching and met 
with great success in many cities of the west. 
She was made directress of Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary at Lima, Ohio, in 1867, and 
four years later was elected president of the 
Evanston College for young ladies, a branch 
of the Northwestern University. 

During the two years succeeding 1869 
she traveled extensively in Europe and the 
east, visiting Egypt and Palestine, a.id 
gathering materials for a valuable course of 
lectures, which she delivered at Chicago on 
her return. She became very popular, and 
won great influence in the temperance 
cause. Her work as president of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union greatly 
strengthened that society, and she made 
frequent trips to Europe in the uiterest of 
that cause. 

RICHARD OLNEY.— Among the promi- 
nent men who were members of the 
cabinet of President Cleveland in his second 
administration, the gentleman whose nama 



COMPENDIUM OF BJOGRAPHT. 



beads this h :^ i le^-^Tne place, oc- 

ccDving ^ general 

and seer 

Mr. Olney came trc - est 

and most honored Ncv _. .. es; 

the first of his ancestors to come from Eng- 
land settled in Ma^achnsetts in 1635. This 
was Thomas Olney. He was a friend and 
co-religionist of Rt^er Williams, and when 
the latter moved to what is now Rhode 
fclan d, went with him and became one of 
the founders of Providence Plantations. 

Richard Olney was bom in Oxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, and received the 
elements of his earlier edncation in the com- 
mon schools which New England is so proad 
of. He entered Brown University, from 
'vhich he graduated in 1856, and passed the 
Harvard law school two years later. He 
began the practice of his profession with 
J2dge B. F. Thomas, a prominent man of 
that locality. For years Richard Olney was 
regarded as one of the ablest and most 
ieamed lawyers in Masachnsetts. Twice 
he vras o-?er?-d a place on the bench of the 
=■-.-.- —.of the state, bnt both times 

be : Hr —1= ='^^75 z Democrat 

in his f r.y years 

was a tr-;! _ :: i^ : ; -:= of that 

party. In 1874 Mr. Olney was elected a 
member of the legislature. In 1876, daring 
tfie heated presidential campaign, to 
^rengthen the cause of Mr. Ti-den in the 
New England states, it was intimated that 
in the event of that gentleman's election to 
tne president^, Mr. Olney would be attor- 
t^ev peoeraL 

\\lien Grover Cleveland was elected pr^- 
'*»'jt of the United States, on his inangnra- 
tica in March, 1893, he tendered the posi- 
con of attorney general to Richard Olney. 
"Ihis was accepted, and that gentleman fel- 
led the duties of the oSce ondl the death 



of Walter O. Gresham, in May. 1895. made 
vacant the position of secretar}- of state. 
This post was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Olney. Whfle occnpying the later 
office. Mr. Olney brooght hin^elf into inter- 
national prominence by some very able state 
papers- 



JOHX j.-^i KS'l'Iv. for many years corr.p- 
troller of the carrency. and an emir.ent 
financier, was bom in Knoxboro, OneiJa 
coonty. New York. May 19. 1S28. He re- 
ceived a good education and gradoated at 
Hamilton College in 1849. For abo'Jt 
thirteen years he was engaged as a private 
banker, or in a position in a baak, where 
he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 
the laws of finance. In 1862. Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, ap- 
pointed him to an oSce in that department 
of the government, and later he had charge 
of the mint coinage correapondeace. In i S67 
Mr. Keox was made deputy comptixjller 
of the carrency, and in that capacity, in 
1870. he made two reports on the mint 
service, with a codification of the mint and 
coinage laws of the United States, and 
sa^esting many important amendments 
These reports were oidered printed by reso- 
lution of congress. The bill which he pre- 
pared, with some slight changes, was sub- 
sequently passed, and has been known in 
history as the " Coinage Act of 1873.*' 

In 1872 Mr. Knox --vrs appointed comp- 
troller of the currency, and held that re- 
sponsible position nntii 18S4, when he re- 
signed. He then accej-ted the position of 
preadent of the Nationsl Bank of the Re- 
public, of New York City, which institation 
he served for many years. He was the 
authored " United States Notes," published 
in 1884. In the reports spoken of above, a 
historv of the two United States bacL: :? 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



135 



given, together with that of the state and 
national banking system, and oiach valuable 
statistical matter relating to kindred sab- 
ject5. 

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE.— In the 
opinion of many critics Hawthorne is 
prononnced the foremost American novelist, 
=i.n of romance is said 
;r. His repatation is 



~ class with 

C. Abbott. 

tre he gave 



he graduated in 1825 
H W L^-- 
He then r 

his attent:o- :, . irrijre 
tales and other articles ;r 
cals. His first ventore : 
mgrce. "* Fanshaw,'' ore- 
removed t 

-2 '• Aaier 

: OEt of eausteace. 
: ■ Twice ToM TaSes, 

ch; jdy made op of his foroaer c ; 

tj magazines. In 1S3S— 41 he 1.. - _ ^ - .- 
tjoo in the Boston ctEtooi hoase, bat later 
took:----'-- r "Brook:--- ------ 

a 5C' -- afta- the 

In xtj.1 ..t -L= ' i:.i :v,£ 

res-iesce at tLt ige at C- 

MiSi - ' -^/-..^^ „5 vziZ^iatX^'iZit ::: 

his * * ^o >ji-<:r s pe-«>-n an Old 



a 57 ne 



years Lenox, Massachusetts. 

and the ' ' House of the Seven Gabies 



J me. 

was 

E::t-.edale 

Life 

iom 

e was ap- 

— pool. 

;ar5, 

aly. 

up 

:tt3. 

e.x- 
N'e'A- 
- - - .n to 
-./ve Mr. Hawthorne 
e following books: 
n Historj-, " • ' The Won- 
-: _ T..; Snow Image," "Tangle- 
wood Tales," "The Marble Fann," and 
" ' Oor Old Home. " After his death appeared 
a series of "Notebooks," edited by his wife. 



prcf :i-;i there, as well 
R In 1852 : 

c: 1 :_ „ Pierce. "a 

he warmly regarded. 
pointed ^ ''■'':' ----- 
Engiar. 

c 

h- re 
Uljile 



been p 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN, - ; r. 

dent of the United States, was bora 
Febraary 12, 1809, in Lame coanty f Har- 
din coon^j, Kentucky, in a If^-cabin near 
H '- — 'e. >\lien be was er~' - - -- 
ed with bis parents t 
3 river, and a year .^-.^r 
His fatiierthea married V.r-.. 



Scarlet Letter. 

3 



ibos empsoyed 
-s^rks. "The 
two 



focdoes ior debate, a tood ot bomor'^. 



136 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



anecdote, as well as the composition of rude 
verses. He made a trip at the age of nine- 
tctn to New Orleans on a ilat-boat, and set- 
tled in Illinois in 1830. He assisted his 
father to build a log house and clear a farm 
on the Sangamon river near Decatur, Illinois, 
and split the rails with which to fence it. In 
1 85 1 he was employed in the building of a 
flat-boat on the Sangamon, and to run it to 
New Orleans. The voyage gave him anew 
insight into the horrors of slavery in the 
south. On his return he settled at New 
Salem and engaged, first as a clerk in a store, 
then as grocer, surveyor and postmaster, and 
he piloted the first steamboat that as- 
cended the Sangamon. He participated in 
the Black Hawk war as captain of volun- 
teers, and after his return he studied law, 
interested himself in politics, and became 
prominent locally as a public speaker. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1834 as a 
'• Clay Whig, " and began at once to dis- 
play a command of language and forcible 
rhetoric that made him a match for his 
more cultured opponents. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1837, and began prac- 
tice at Springfield. He married a lady of a 
prominent Kentucky family in 1842. He 
was active in the presidential campaigns of 
1840 and 1844 and was an elector on the 
Harrison and Clay tickets, and was elected 
to congress in 1846, over Peter Cartwright. 
He voted for the Wilmot proviso and the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and opposed the war with Mexico, but 
gained little prominence during his two 
years' service. He then returned to Spring- 
field and devoted his attention to law, tak- 
ing little interest in politics, until the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1 8 54. This 
awakened his interest in politics again and 
he attacked tlie champion of that measure. 



Stephen A. Douglas, in. a speech at Spring- 
field that made him famous, and is said 
by those who heard it to be the greatest 
speech of his life. Lincoln was selected as 
candidate for the United States senate, but 
was defeated by Trumbull. Upon the pas- 
sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill the Whig 
party suddenly went to pieces, and the Re- 
publican party gathered head. At the 
Bloomington Republican convention in 1856 
Lincoln made an effective address in v.^hich 
he first took a position antagonistic to the ex- 
istence of slavery. He was a Fremont elector 
and received a strong support for nomina- 
tion as vice-president in the Philadelphia 
convention. In 1858 he v/as the unanimous 
choice of the Republicans for the United 
States senate, and the great campaign of de- 
bate which followed resulted in the election 
of Douglas, but established Lincoln's repu- 
tation as the leading exponent of Republican 
doctrines. He began to be mentioned in 
Illinois as candidate for the presidency, and 
a course of addresses in the eastern states 
attracted favorable attention. When the 
national convention met at Chicago, his 
rivals. Chase, Seward, Bates and others, 
were compelled to retire before the western 
giant, and he was.nominated, with Hannibal 
Hamlin as his running mate. The Demo- 
cratic party had now been disrupted, and 
Lincoln's election assured. He carried 
practically every northern state, and the 
secession of South Carolina, followed by a 
number of the gulf states, took place before 
his inauguration. Lincoln is the only presi- 
dent who was ever compelled to reach 
Washington in a secret manner. He es- 
caped assassination by avoiding Baltimore, 
and was quietly inaugurated March 4, 1861. 
His inaugural address was firm but con- 
ciliatory, and he said to the secessionists: 
"You h.ave no oath registered in hea\en 



COMrEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



137 



to destroy the government, while 1 have the 
most solemn one to preserve, protect and 
(Itfcnd it.' He made up his cabinet chiefly 
of those pohtical rivals in his own party — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron, Bates — and se- 
cured the co-operation of the Douglas Dem- 
o.rats. His great deeds, amidst the heat 
and turmoil of war, were: His call for 
seventy-five thousand volunteers, and the 
blockading of southern ports; calling of con- 
gress in extra session, July 14, 1S61, and 
obtaining f<3ur hundred thousand men and 
four hundred million dollars for the prosecu- 
tion of the war; appointing Stanton secre- 
tary of war; issuing the emancipation proc- 
lamation; calling three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers; address at Gettysburg 
cemetery; commissioned Grant as lieuten- 
ant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States; his second 
inaugural address; liis visit to the army be- 
fore Richmond, and his entry into Rich- 
mond the day after its surrender. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot by Jotm 
Wi'kes Booth in a box in Ford's theater 
at Washington the night of April 14, 1865, 
and expired the following morning. His 
body was buried at Oak Ridge cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois, and a monument com- 
memorating his great work marks his resting 
place. 

STEPHEN GIRARD, the celebrated 
philanthropist, was born in Bordeaux, 
France, May 24, 1750. He became a sailor 
engaged in the American coast trade, and 
also made frequent trips to the West Indies. 
During the Revolutionary war he was a 
grocer and liquor seller in Philadelphia. 
He married in that city, and afterward 
separated from his wife. After the war he 
again engaged in the coast and West India 
trade, and his fortu.je began to accumulate 



from receiving goods from West Indian 
planters during the insurrection in Hayti, 
little of which was ever called for again. 
He became a private banker in Phihidelphia 
in 1812, and afterward was a director in the 
United States Bank. He made much tnoiiey 
by leasing property in the city in times of 
depression, and upon the revival of industry 
sub-leasing at enormous profit. He became 
the wealthiest citizen of the United States 
of his time. 

He was eccentric, ungracious, and a 
freethinker. He had few, if any, friends in 
his lifetime. However, he was most chari- 
tably disposed, and gave to charitable in- 
stitutions and schools with a liberal hand. 
He did more than any one else to relieve 
the suffering and deprivations during the 
great yellow fever scourge in Philadelphia, 
devoting his personal attention to the si^k. 
He endowed and ■ made a free institution, 
the famous Will's Eye and Ear Intirnjary 
of Philadelph a — one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the world. At his death 
practically all his iu)mense wealth was be- 
queathed to charitable institutions, mure 
than two millions of dollars going to the 
founding of Girard College, which was to 
be devoted to the education and training of 
boys between the ag. s of six and ten years. 
Large donations were also made to institu- 
tions in Philadelphia and New Orleans. 
The [Principal building of Girard College, is 
the most magnificent example of Greek 
architecture in America. Girard died De- 
cember 26, I S3 I. 



LOUIS J. R. AGASSIZ, the eminent nat- 
uralist and geolog st, was born in the 
parish of Motier, near Lake Neuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, May 28, 1807, but attained his 
greatest fame after becoming an American 
citizen. He studied the medical sciences at 



138 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. His first 
work was a Latin description of the fishes 
which Martius and Spix brought from Brazil. 
This was published in 1 829-3 1 • He devoted 
much time to the study of fossil fishes, and 
in 1832 was appointed professor of natural 
history at Neuchatel. He greatly increased 
his reputation by a great work in French, 
entitled " Researches on Fossil Fishes," in 
1832-42, in which he made many important 
improvements in the classification of fishes. 
Having passed many summers among the 
Alps in researches on glaciers, he propounded 
some new and interesting ideas on geology, 
and the agency of glaciers in his "Studies 
by the Glaciers." This was published in 
1840. This latter work, with his " System 
of the Glaciers," published in 1847, '^re 
among his principal works. 

In 1846, Professor Agassiz crossed the 
ocean on a scientific excursion to the United 
States, and soon determined to remain here. 
He accepted, about the beginning of 1848, 
the chair of zoology and geology at Harvard. 
He explored the natural history of the 
United States at different times and gave an 
impulse to the study of nature in this 
country. In 1865 he conducted an expedi- 
tion to Brazil, and explored the lower Ama- 
zon and its tributaries. In 1868 he was 
made non-resident professor of natural his- 
tory at Cornell University. In December, 
1,871, he accompanied the Hassler expedi- 
tion, under Professor Pierce, to the South 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 14, 
1873- 

Among other of the important works of 
Professor Agassiz may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: "Outlines of Comparative Physi- 
ology," "Journey to Brazil," and "Contri- 
butions to the Natural History of the United 
States." It is said of Professor Agassiz, 



that, perhaps, with the exception of Hugh 
Miller, no one had so popularized science in 
his day, or trained so many young natural- 
ists. Many of the theories held by Agassiz 
are not supported by many of the natural- 
ists of these later days, but upon many of 
the speculations into the origin of species and 
in physics he has left the marks of his own 
strongly marked individuality. 



WILLIAM WINDOM.— As a prominent 
and leading lawyer of the great north- 
west, as a member of both houses of con- 
gress, and as the secretary of the treasury, 
the gentleman whose name heads this sketch 
won for himself a prominent position in the 
history of our country. 

Mr. Windom was a native of Ohio, 
born in Belmont county, May 10, 1827. 
He received a good elementary education in 
the schools of his native state, and took up 
the study of law. He was admitted to the 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Ohio, where he remained until 
1855. In the latter year he made up his 
mind to move further west, and accordingly 
went to Minnesota, and opening an office, 
became identified with the interests of that 
state, and the northwest generally. In 
1858 he took his place in the Minnesota 
delegation in the national house of repre- 
sentatives, at Washington, and continued 
to represent his constituency in that body 
for ten years. In 1871 Mr. Windom was 
elected United States senator from Min- 
nesota, and was re-elected to the same office 
after fulfilling the duties of the position for 
a full term, in 1876. On the inauguration 
of President Garfield, in March, 1881, Mr. 
Windom became secretary of the treasury 
in his cabinet. He resigned this office Oc- 
tober 27, i88t, and was elected senator 
from the North Star state to fill the va- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



139 



cancy caused by the resignation of A. J. 
Etlgerton. Mr. Wiiidoni served in that 
chamber until March, 1883. 

WilHam Windom died in New Yurk 
City January 29, 1S91. 



DON M. DICKINSON, an American 
politician and lawyer, was born in 
Port Ontario, New York, January 17, 1846. 
lie removed with his parents to Michigan 
when he was but two years old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and at the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1872 he was made 
secretary of the Democratic state central 
committee of Michigan, and his able man- 
agement of the campaign gave him a prom- 
inent place in the councils of his party. In 
1876, during the Tilden campaign, he acted 
as chairman of the state central committee. 
He was afterward chosen to represent his 
state in the Democratic national committee, 
and in 1886 he was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Cleveland. After the 
expiration of his term of office he returned 
to Detroit and resumed the practice of law. 
In the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. 
Dickinson adhered to the "gold wing "of 
the Democracy, and his influence was felt 
in the national canvass, and especially in 
his own state. 



JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the founder of 
vJ the Astor family and fortiines, while not 
a native of this country, was one of the 
most noted men of his time, and as all his 
wealth and fame were acquired here, he 
may well be classed among America's great 
men. He was born near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, July 17, 1763, and when twenty 
years old emigrated to the United States. 
Even at that age he exhibited remarkable 



business ability and foresight, and soon he 
was investing capital in furs which he took 
to London and sold at a great profit. He 
next settled at New York, and engaged ex- 
tensively in the fur trade. He exported 
furs to Europe in his own vessels, which re- 
turned with cargoes of foreign commodities, 
and thus he rapidly amassed an immense 
fortune. In 181 1 he founded Astoria on 
the western coast of North America, near 
the mouth of the Columbia river, as a depot 
for the fur trade, for the promotion of 
which he sent a number of expeditions to 
the Pacific ocean. He also purchased a 
large amount of real estate in New York, 
the value of which increased enormously 
All through life his business ventures were 
a series of marvelous successes, and he 
ranked as one of the most sagacious and 
successful business men in the world. He 
died March 29, 1848, leaving a fortune es- 
timated at over twenty million dollars to 
his children, who have since increased it. 
John Jacob Astor left $400,000 to found a 
public library in New York City, and his son, 
William B. Astor, who died in 1875, left 
$300,000 to add to his father's bequest. 
This is known as the Astor Library, one of 
the largest in the United States. 



SCHUYLER COLFAX, an eminent 
American statesman, was born in New 
York City, March 23, 1823, being a grand- 
son of General William Colfax, the com- 
mander of Washington's life-guards. In 
1836 he removed with his mother, who was 
then a widow, to Indiana, settling at South 
Bend. Young Schuyler studied law, and 
in 1845 became editor of the "St. Josepli 
Valley Register," a Whig paper published 
at South Bend. He was a member of the 
convention which formed a new constitu- 
tion for Indiana in 1850, and he opposed 



140 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



the clause tliat prohibited colored men 
from settling in that state. In 1851 he was 
defeated as the Whig candidate for congress 
but was elected in 1854, and, being repeat- 
edly re-elected, continued to represent that 
district in congress until 1869. He became 
one of the most prominent and influential 
members of the house of representatives, 
and served three terms as speaker. During 
the Civil war he was an active participant 
in all public measures of importance, and 
was a confidential friend and adviser of 
President Lincoln. In May, 1868, Mr. 
Colfax was nominated for vice-president on 
the ticket with General Grant, and was 
elected. After the close of his term he re- 
tired from office, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted much of his time to lectur- 
ing and literary pursuits. His death oc- 
curred January 23, 1885. He was one of 
the most prominent members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in America, 
and that order erected a bronze statue to 
his memory in University Park, Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana, which was unveiled in May, 
1SS7. 

WILLIAM FREEMAN VILAS, who at- 
tained a national reputation as an able 
lawyer, statesman, and cabinet officer, was 
born at Chelsea, Vermont, July g, 1840. 
His parents removed to Wisconsin when 
our subject was but eleven years of age, 
and there with the early settlers endured ail 
the hardships and trials incident to pioneer 
life. William F. Vilas was given all the 
advantages found in the common schools, 
and supplemented this by a course of study 
in the Wisconsin State University, after 
wliich he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practicing at Madison. 
Shortly afterward the Civil war broke oat 
and Mr. Vilas enlisted and became colonel 



of the Twenty-third regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers, serving throughout the war with 
distinction. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Wisconsin, resumed his law prac- 
tice, and rapidly rose to eminence in this 
profession. In 1885 he was selected by 
President Cleveland for postmaster-general 
and at the close of his term again returned 
to Madison, Wisconsin, to resume the prac- 
tice of law. 



THOMAS McINTYRE COOLEY, an em- 
inent American jurist and law writer, 
was born in Atticji, New York, January 6, 
1824. He was admitted to the bar in 1846, 
and four years later was appointed reporter 
of the supreme court of Michigan, which 
office he continued to hold for seven years. 
In the meantime, in 1859, he became pro- 
fessor of the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and soon afterward was 
made dean of the faculty of that depart- 
ment. In 1864 he was elected justice of 
the supreme court of Michigan, in 1867 be- 
came chief justice of that court, and in 
1869 was re-elected for a term of eight 
years. In 1881 he again joined the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, assuming the 
professorship of constitutional and adminis- 
trative law. His works on these branches 
have become standard, and he is recog- 
nized as authority on this and related sub- 
jects. Upon the passage of the inter-state 
commerce law in 1887 he became chairman 
of the commission and served in that capac- 
ity four years. 



JOHN PETER ALTGELD, a noted 
kJ American politician and writer on social 
questions, was born in Germany, December 
30, 1847. He came to America with his 
parents and settled in Ohio when two years 
old. In 1 SG4 lij entered the Union army 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIT. 



141 



and served till the close of the war, after 
wliich he settled in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was elected judge of the superior court of 
Cook county, Illinois, in 1886, in which 
capacity he served until elected governor of 
Illinois in 1892, as a Democrat. During 
the first year of his term as governor he at- 
tracted national attention by his pardon of 
the anarchists convicted of the Hajniarkct 
murder in Chicago, and again in 1894 by 
his denunciation of President Cleveland for 
calling out federal troops to suppress the 
rioting in connection with the great Pull- 
man strike in Chicago. At the national 
convention of the Democratic party in Chi- 
cago, in July, 1896, he is said to have in- 
spired the clause in the platform denuncia- 
tory of interference by federal authorities in 
local affairs, and "government by injunc- 
tion." He was gubernatorial candidate for 
re-election on the Democratic ticket in 1896, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, Re- 
publican. Mr. Altgeld published two vol- 
umes of essays on " Live Questions," evinc- 
ing radical views on social matters. 



ADLAI EWING STEVENSON, an Amer. 
ican statesman and politician, was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, October 23, 
1835, and removed witli the family to 
Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and set- 
tled in the practice of his profession 
in Metamora, Illinois. In 1861 he was 
made master in chancery of Woodford 
county, and in 1864 was elected state's at- 
torney. In 1868 he returned to Blooming- 
ton and formed a law partnership with 
James S. Ewing. He had served as a pres- 
idential elector in 1864, and in 1868 was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, receiv- 
ing a majority vote from every county in his 
district. He became promment in his 



party, and was a delegate to the national 
convention in 1884. On the election of 
Cleveland to the presidency Mr. Stevenson 
was appointed first assistant postmaster- 
general. After the expiration of his term 
he continued to e.xert a controlling influence 
in the politics of his state, and in 1892 was 
elected vice-president of the United States 
on the ticket vvith Grover Cleveland. At 
the expiration of his term of office he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Bloomington, 
Illinois. 

SIMON CAMERON, whose name is 
prominently identified with the history 
of the United States as a political leader 
and statesman, was bom in Lancaster coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799. He grew 
to manhood in his native county, receiving 
good educational advantages, and develop- 
ing a natural inclination for political life. 
He rapidly rose in prominence and became 
the most influential Democrat in Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1845 waselected by that party 
to the United States senate. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party he was 
one of the first to declare his allegiance to 
it, and in 1856 was re-elected United States 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Republican. 
In March, 1861, he was appointed secretary 
of war by President Lincoln, and served 
until early in 1862, when he was sent as 
minister to Russia, returning in 1863. In 
1866 he was again elected United States 
senator and served until 1877, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by his son, James 
Donald Cameron. He continued to exert a 
powerful influence in political affairs up to 
the time of his death, June 26, 1889. 

James Donald Cameron was the eld- 
est son of Simon Cameron, and also 
attained a high rank among American 
st.itesmen. He was born at Harrisburg, 



144 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



Pennsylvania, May 14, 1833, and received an 
excellent education, graduating at Princeton 
College in 1852. He rapidly developed into 
one of the most able and successful business 
men cf the country and was largely .inter- 
ested in and identified with the develop- 
ment of the coal, iron, lumber and manu- 
facturing interests of his native state. He 
served as cashier and afterward president of 
the Middletownbank, and in 1861 was made 
vice-president, and in 1863 president of 
the Northern Central railroad, holding this 
position until 1874, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Thomas A. Scott. This 
road was of great service to the government 
during the war as a means of communica- 
tion between Pennsylvania and the national 
capital, via Baltimore. Mr. Cameron also 
took an active part in political affairs, 
always as a Republican. In May, 1876, 
he was appointed secretary of war in Pres- 
ident Grant's cabinet, and in 1877 suc- 
ceeded his father in the United States 
senate. He was re-elected in 1885, and 
again in 1 891, serving until 1896, and was 
recognized as one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that bodv. 



ADOLPHUS W. GREELEY, a famous 
American arctic explorer, was born at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1844. He graduated from Brown High 
School at the age of sixteen, and a year 
later enlisted in Company B, Nineteenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and was made first 
sergeant. In 1863 he was promoted to 
second lieutenant. After the war he was 
assigned to the Fifth United States Cavalry, 
and became first lieutenant in 1873. He 
was assigned to duty in the United States 
■signal service shortly after the close of the 
-war. An expedition was fitted out by the 
United States government in 18S1, un- 



der auspices of the weather bureau, and 
Lieutenant Greeley placed in command. 
They set sail from St. Johns the first week 
in July, and after nine days landed in Green- 
land, where they secured the services of two 
natives, together with sledges, dogs, furs 
and equipment. They encountered an ice 
pack early in August, and on the '28th of 
that month freezing weather set in. Two 
of his party. Lieutenant Lockwood and Ser- 
geant Brainard, added to the known maps 
about forty miles of coast survey, and 
reached the highest point yet attained by 
man, eighty-three degrees and twenty-four 
minutes north, longitude, forty-four degrees 
and five minutes west. On their return to 
Fort Conger, Lieutenant Greeley set out 
for the south on August 9, 1883. He 
reached Baird Inlet twenty days later with 
liis entire party. Here they were compelled 
to abandon their boats, and drifted on an 
ice-floe for one month. They then went 
into camp at Cape Sabine, where tliey suf- 
fered untold hardships, and eighteen of the 
party succumbed to cold and hunger, and 
had relief been delayed two days longer 
none would have been found alive. They 
were picked up by the relief expedition, 
under Captain Schley, June 22, 1884. The 
dead were taken to New York for burial. 
Many sensational stories were published 
concerning the expedition, and Lieutenant 
Greeley prepared an exhaustive account 
of his explorations and experiences. 



LEVI P. MORTON, the millionaire poli- 
tician, was born in Shoreham, Ver- 
mont, May 16, 1824, and his early educa- 
tion consisted of the rudiments which he 
obtained in the common school up to the 
age of fourteen, and after that time what 
knowledge he gained was wrested from the 
hard school of experience. He removed to 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



143 



Hanover, Vermont, then Concord, Vermont, 
and afterwards to Boston. He had worked 
in a store at Shoreham, his native village, 
and on going to Hanover he established a 
store and went into business for himself. 
In Boston he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and then opened a business of his own in 
the same line in New York. After a short 
career he failed, and was compelled to set- 
tle with his creditors at only fifty cents on 
the dollar. He began the struggle anew, 
and when the war began he established a 
banking house in New York, with Junius 
Morgan as a partner. Through his firm 
and connections the great government war 
loans were floated, and it resulted in im- 
mense profits to his house. When he was 
again thoroughly established he invited his 
former creditors to a banquet, and under 
each guest's plate was found a check cover- 
ing the amount of loss sustained respec- 
tively, with interest to date. 

President Garfield appointed Mr. Mor- 
ton as minister to France, after he had de- 
clined the secretaryship of the navy, and in 
1888 he was nominated as candidate for 
vice-president, with Harrison, and elected. 
In 1894 he was elected governor of New 
York over David B. Hill, and served one 
term. 



CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, one 
of the most talented and prominent 
educators this country has known, was born 
January 24, 1835, ^t Derby, Vermont. He 
received an elementary education in the 
common schools, and studied two terms in 
the Derby Academy. Mr. Adams moved 
with his parents to Iowa in 1856. He was 
very anxious to pursue a collegiate course, 
but this was impossible until he had attained 
the age of twenty-one. In the autumn of 
1856 he began the study of Latin and Greek 



at Denmark Academy, and in September, 
1857, he was admitted to the University of 
Michigan. Mr. Adams was wholly depend- 
ent upon himself for the means of his edu- 
cation. During his third and fourth year 
he became deeply interested in historical 
studies, was assistant librarian of the uni- 
versity, and determined to pursue a post- 
graduate course. In 1864 he was appointed 
instructor of history and Latin and v/as ad- 
vanced to an assistant professorship in 1865, 
and in 1867, on the resignation of Professoi 
White to accept the presidency of Cornell, 
he was appointed to fill the chair of profes- 
sor of history. This he accepted on con- 
dition of his being allowed to spend a year 
for special study in Germany, France and 
Italy. Mr. Adams returned in 1868, and 
assumed the duties of his professorship. 
He introduced the German system for the 
instruction of advanced history classes, and 
his lectures were largely attended. In 1885, 
on the resignation of President White at 
Cornell, he was elected his successor and 
held the office for seven years, and on Jan- 
uary 17, 1893, he was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin. Pres- 
ident Adams was prominently connected 
with numerous scientific and literary organ- 
izations and a frequent contributor to the 
historical and educational data in the peri- 
odicals and journals of the country. He 
was the author of the following: " Dem- 
ocracy and Monarchy in France," " Manual 
of Historical Literature," " A Plea for Sci- 
entific Agriculture," " Higher Education in 
Germany." 

JOSEPH B. FORAKER, a prominent po- 
litical leader and e.x-governor of Ohio, 
was born near Rainsboro, Highland county, 
Ohio, July 5, 1846. His parents operated 
a small farm, with a grist and sawmill, hav- 



144 



COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAPIir. 



ing emigrated hither from Virginia and 
Delaware on account of their distaste for 
slavery. 

Joseph was reared upon a farm until 
1862, when he enlisted in the Eighty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry. Later he was made ser- 
geant, and in 1864 commissioned first lieu- 
tenant. The next year he was brevetted 
captain. At the age of nineteen he was 
mustered out of the army after a brilliant 
service, part of the time being on the staff 
of General Slocum. He participated in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mount- 
ain and Kenesaw Mountain and in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

For two years subsequent to the war 
young Foraker was studying at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, but later 
went to Cornell University, at Unity, New 
York, from which he graduated July i, 
1869. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati 
and held the office for three years. In 1883 
he was defeated in the contest for the gov- 
ernorship with Judge Hoadly. In 1885, 
however, being again nominated for the 
same office, he was elected and served two 
terms. In 1889, in running for governor 
again, this time against James E. Camp- 
bell, he was defeated. Two years later his 
career in the United States senate began. 
Mr. Foraker was always a prominent figure 
at all national meetings of the Republican 
party, and a strong power, politically, in his 
native state. 



LYMAN ABBOTT, an eminent American 
preacher and writer on religious sub- 
jects, came of a noted New England 
family. His father. Rev. Jacob Abbott, was 
a prolific and popular writer, and his uncle. 
Rev. John S. C. Abbott, was a noted 



preacher and author. Lyman Abbott was 
born December 18, 1835, in Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. He graduated at the New 
York University, in 1853, studied law, and 
practiced for a time at tlte bar, after which 
he studied theology with his uncle. Rev. 
John S. C. Abbott, and in i860 was settled 
in the ministry at Terre Haute, Indiana, re- 
maining there until after the close of the 
war. He then became connected with the 
Freedmen's Commission, continuing this 
until 1868, when he accepted the pastorate 
of the New England Congregational church, 
in New York City. A few years later he re- 
signed, to devote his time principally to lit- 
erary pursuits. For a number of years he 
edited for the American Tract Society, its 
"Illustrated Christian Weekly," also the 
New York "Christian Union." He pro- 
duced many works, which had a wide circu- 
lation, among which may be mentioned the 
following: "Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and 
Teachings," "Old Testament Shadows of 
New Testament Truths," "Morning and 
Evening Exercises, Selected from Writings 
of Henry Ward Beecher, " " Laicus, or the 
Experiences of a Layman in a Country 
Parish," "Popular Religious Dictionary," 
and "Commentaries on Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, John and Acts." 



GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS.— The 
well-known author, orator and journal- 
ist whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, February 24, 
1824. Having laid the foundation of a 
most excellent education in his native land, 
he went to Europe and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He made an extensive 
tour throughout the Levant, from which he 
returned home in 1850. At that early age 
literature became his field of labor, and in 
185 I he published his first important work, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



145 



" Nile Notes of a Howadji." In 1852 two 
works issued from his facile pen, "The 
Howadji in Syria," and "Lotus-Eating." 
Later on he was the author of the well- 
known " Potiphar Papers," " Prue and L" 
and "Trumps." He greatly distinguished 
himself throughout this land as a lecturer 
on many subjects, and as an orator had but 
few peers. He was also well known as one 
of the most fluent speakers on the stump, 
making many political speeches in favor of 
the Republican party. In recognition of 
his valuable services, Mr. Curtis was ap- 
pointed by President Grant, chairman of 
the advisory board of the civil service. Al- 
though a life-long Republican, Mr. Curtis 
refused to support Blaine for the presidency 
in 1884, because of his ideas on civil ser- 
vice and other reforms. For his memorable 
and magnificent eulogy on Wendell Phillips, 
delivered in Boston, in 1884, that city pre- 
sented Mr. Curtis with a gold medal. 

George W. Curtis, however, is best 
known to the reading public of the United 
States by his connection with the Harper 
Brothers, having been editor of the "Har- 
per's Weekly," and of the " Easy Chair," 
in " Harper's Monthly Magazine, "for many 
years, in fact retaining that position until 
the day of his death, which occurred August 
31. 1892. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, the seventeenth 
president of the United States, served 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born Decem- 
ber 8, 1808, at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and was left an orphan at the age of four 
years. He never attended school, and was 
apprenticed to a tailor. While serving his 
apprenticeship he suddenly acquired a pas- 
sion for knowledge, atjd learned to read. 
From that time on he spent all his spare 
time in reading, and after working for two 



years as a journeyman tailor at Lauren's 
Court House, South Carolina, he removed 
to Greenville, Tennessee, where he worked 
at his trade and was married. Under his 
wife's instruction he made rapid progress in 
his studies and manifested such an interest 
in local politics as to be elected as " work- 
ingmen's candidate " alderman in 1828, and 
in 1830 to the mayoralty, and was twice 
re-elected to each office. Mr. Johnson 
utilized this time in cultivating his talents 
as a public speaker, by taking part in a de- 
bating society. He was elected in 1835 to 
the lower house of the legislature, was re- 
elected in 1839 as a Democrat, and in 
1 84 1 was elected state senator. Mr. John- 
son was elected representative in congress 
in 1843 and was re-elected four times in 
succession until 1853, when he was the suc- 
cessful candidate for the gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. He was re-elected in 1855 
and in 1857 he entered the United States 
senate. In i860 he was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention for the presidential nomination, 
and lent his influence to the Breckinridge 
wing of the party. At the election of Lin- 
coln, which brought about the first attempt 
at secession in December, i860, Mr. John- 
son took a firm attitude in the senate for 
the Union. He was the leader of the loy- 
alists in East Tennessee. By the course 
that Mr. Johnson pursued in this crisis he 
was brought prominently before the north- 
ern people, and when, in March, 1S62, he 
was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee with the rank of brigadier-general, 
he increased his popularity by the vigorous 
manner in which he labored to restore 
order. In the campaign of 1864 he was 
elected vice-president on the ticket with 
President Lincoln, and upon the assassi- 
nation of the latter he succeeded to the 



146 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRATHT. 



presidency, April 15, 1865. He retained 
the cabinet of President Lincoln, and at 
first exhibited considerable severity towards 
the former Confederates, but he soon inau- 
gurated a policy of reconstruction, pro- 
claimed a general amnesty to the late Con- 
federates, and established provisional gov- 
ernments in the southern states. These 
states claimed representation in congress in 
the following December, and then arose the 
momentous question as to what should be 
the policy of the victorious Union against 
their late enemies. The Republican ma- 
jority in congress had an apprehension that 
the President would undo the results of the 
war, and consequently passed two bills over 
the executive veto, and the two highest 
branches of the government v.'ere in open 
antagonism. The cabinet was reconstructed 
in July, and Messrs. Randall, Stanbury and 
Browning superseded Messrs. Denison, 
Speed and Harlan. In August, 1867, Pres- 
ident Johnson removed the secretary of war 
and replaced him with General Grant, but 
when congress met in December it refused 
to ratify the removal of Stanton, who re- 
sumed the functions of his office. In 1868 
the president again attempted to remove 
Stanton, who refused to vacate his post 
and was sustained by the senate. Presi- 
dent Johnson was accused by congress of 
high crimes and misdemeanors, but the trial 
resulted in his acquittal. Later he was Uni- 
ted States senator from Tennessee, and 
died July 31, 1875. 



EDMUND RANDOLPH, first attorney- 
general of the United States, was born 
in Virginia, August 10, 1753. His father, 
John Randolph, was attorney-general of 
Virginia, and lived and died a royalist. Ed- 
mund was educated in the law. but joined 
the army as aide-de-camp to Washington 



in 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He 
was elected to the Virginia convention in 
1776, and attorney-general of the state the 
same year. In 1779 he was elected to the 
Continental congress, and served four years 
in that body. He was a member of the con- 
vention in 1787 that framed the constitu- 
tion. In that convention he proposed what 
was known as the " Virginia plan" of con- 
federation, but it was rejected. He advo- 
cated the ratification of the constitution in 
ttie Virginia convention, although he had re- 
fused to sign it. He became governor of 
Virginia in 1788, and the next year Wash- 
ington appointed him to the office of at- 
torney-general of the United States upon 
the organization of the government under 
the constitution. He was appointed secre- 
tary of state to succeed Jefferson during 
Washington's second term, but resigned a 
year later on account of differences in the 
cabinet concerning the policy pursued to- 
ward the new French republic. He died 
September 12, 181 3. 



W INFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK was 
born in Montgomery county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1824. He received 
his early education at the Norristown 
Academy, in his native county, and, in 1840, 
was appointed a cadet in the United States 
Military Academy, at West Point. He was 
graduated from the latter in 1844, and brev- 
etted as second lieutenant of infantry. In 
1853 he was made first lieutenant, and two 
years later transferred to the quartermaster's 
department, with the rank of captain, and 
in 1863 promoted to the rank of major. He 
served on the frontier, and in the war with 
Mexico, displaying conspicuous gallantry dur- 
ing the latter. He also took a part in the 
Seminole war, and in the troubles in Kan- 
sas, in 1857, and in California, at the out- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



147 



break of the Civil war, as chief quarter- 
master of the Southern district, he exerted 
a powerful influence. In 1861 he applied 
for active duty in the field, and was assigned 
to the department of Kentucky as chief 
quartermaster, but before entering upon that 
duty, was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. His subsequent history during 
the war was substantially that of the Army 
of the Potomac. He participated in the 
campaign, under McClellan, and led the 
gallant charge, which captured Fort Magru- 
der, won the day at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and by services rendered at 
Savage's Station and other engagements, 
won several grades in the regular service, 
and was recommended by McClellan for 
major-general of volunteers. He was a con- 
spicuous figure at South Mountain and An- 
tietam. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, November 29, 1862, and 
made commander of the First Division of 
the Second Corps, which he led at Fred- 
ricksburg and at Chancellorsville. He was 
appointed to the command of the Second 
Corps in June, 1863, and at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July i, 2 and 3, of that year, 
took an important part. On his arrival on 
the field he found part of the forces then 
in retreat, but stayed the retrograde 
movement, checked the enemy, and on the 
following day commanded the left center, 
repulsed, on the third, the grand assault of 
General Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. For his services on that field 
General Hancock received the thanks of 
congress. On recovering from his wound, 
he was detailed to go north to stimulate re- 
cruiting and fill up the diminished corps, and 
was the recipient of many public receptions 
and ovations. In March, 1864, he returned 
to his command, and in the Wilderness and 
at Spottsylvania led large bodies of men 



successfully and conspicuously. From that 
on to the close of the campaign he was a 
prominent figure. In November, 1864, he 
was detailed to organize the First Veteran 
Reserve Corps, and at the close of hostilities 
was appointed to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. In July, 1866, he 
was made major-general of the regular 
service. He was at the head of various 
military departments until 1872, when he 
was assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Atlantic, which post he held 
until his death. In 1869 he declined the 
nomination for governor of Pennsylvania. 
He was the nominee of the Democratic 
party for president, in 1880, and was de- 
feated by General Garfield, who had a popu- 
lar majority of seven thousand and eighteen 
and an electoral majority'lof fifty-nine. Gen- 
eral Hancock died February 9, 1886. 



THOMAS PAINE, the most noted polit- 
ical and deistical writer of the Revolu- 
tionary period, was born in England, Jan- 
uary 29, 1737, of Quaker parents. His edu- 
cation was. obtained in the grammar schools 
of Thetford, his native town, and supple- 
mented by hard private study while working 
at his trade of stay-maker at London and 
other cities of England. He was for a time 
a dissenting preacher, although he did not 
relinquish his employment. He married a 
revenue ofScial's daughter, and was employed 
in the revenue service for some time. He 
then became a grocer and during all this time 
he was reading and cultivating his literary 
tastes, and had developed a clear and forci- 
ble style of composition. He was chosen to 
represent the interests of the excisemen, 
and published a pamphlet that brought 
him considerable notice. He was soon after- 
ward introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and 
having been dismissed from the service on a 



148 



COMrEJVBIUM OF lUOGRAJ'HV 



charge of smuggling, his resentment led him 
to accept the advice of that statesman to 
come to America, in 1774. He became 
editor of the ' ' Pennsylvania Magazine," and 
the next year published his "Serious 
Thoughts upon Slavery" in the "Penn- 
sylvania Journal." His greatest political 
work, however, was written at the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Rush, and entitled "Common 
Sense." It was the most popular pamphlet 
written during the period and he received 
two thousand five hundred dollars from the 
state of Pennsylvania in recognition of its 
value. His periodical, the "Crisis," began 
in 1776, and its distribution among the 
soldiers did a great deal to keep up the spirit 
of revolution. He was made secretary cf 
the committee of foreign affairs, but was dis- 
missed for revealing diplomatic secrets in 
one of his controversies with Silas Deane. 
He was originator and promoter of a sub- 
scription to relieve the distress of the soldiers 
near the close of the war, and was sent to 
France with Henry Laurens to negotiate the 
treaty with France, and was granted three 
thousand dollars by congress for his services 
there, and an estate at New Rochelle, by the 
state of New York. 

In 1787, after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, he went to France, and a few 
years later published his " Rights of Man," 
defending the French revolution, which 
gave him great popularity in France. He 
was made a citizen and elected to the na- 
tional convention at Calais. He favored 
banishment of the king to America, and 
opposed his execution. He was imprisoned 
for about ten months during 1794 by the 
Robespierre party, during which time he 
wrote the " Age of Reason," his great deis- 
tical work. He was in danger of the guillo- 
tine for several months. He took up his 
residence with the family of James Monroe, 



then minister to France and was chosen 
again to the convention. He returned 
to the United States in 1802, and was 
cordially received throughout the coun- 
try except at Trenton, where he was insulted 
by Federalists. He retired to his estate at 
New Rochelle, and his death occurred June 
8, 1809. 

JOHN WILLIAM MACKAY was one of 
America's noted men, both in the de- 
velopment of the western coast and the 
building of the Mackay and Bennett cable. 
He was born in 1831 at Dublin, Ireland; 
came to New York in 1840 and his boyhood 
days were spent in Park Row. He went 
to California some time after the' argonauts 
of 1849 and took to the primitive methods 
of mining — ^lost and won and finally drifted 
into Nevada about i86o. The bonanza dis- 
coveries which were to have such a potent 
influence on the finance and statesmanship 
of the day came in 1872. Mr. Mackay 
founded the Nevada Bank in 1878. He is 
said to have taken one hundred and 
fifty million dollars in bullion out of 
the Big Bonanza mine. There were as- 
sociated with him in this enterprise James 
G. Fair, senator from Nevada; William 
O'Brien and James C. Flood. When 
vast wealth came to Mr. Mackay he be- 
lieved it his duty to do his country some 
service, and he agitated in his mind the 
building of an American steamship line, 
and while brooding over this his attention 
was called to the cable relations between 
America and Europe. The financial man- 
agement of the cable was selfish and ex- 
travagant, and the capital was heavy with 
accretions of financial " water " and to pay 
even an apparent dividend upon the sums 
which represented the nominal value of the 
cables, it was necessary to hold the rates 



COMPEN'DIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



149 



at an exorbitant figure. And, moreover, 
the cables were foreign; in one the influence 
of France being paramount and in the other 
that of England; and in the matter of intel- 
ligence, so necessary in case of war, we 
would be at the mercy of our enemies. This 
train of thought brought Mr. Mackay into re- 
lation with James Gordon Bennett, the pro- 
prietor of the " New York Herald." The 
result of their intercourse was that Mr. Mac- 
kay so far entered into the enthusiasm of 
Mr. Bennett over an independent cable, 
that he offered to assist the enterprise with 
five hundred thousand dollars. This was the 
inception of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany, or of what has been known for years 
as the Mackav-Bennett cable. 



ELISHA GRAY, the great inventor and 
electrician, was born August 2, 1835. 
at Barnesville, Belmont county, Ohio. He 
was, as a child, greatly interested in the 
phenomena of nature, and read with avidity 
all the books he could obtain, relating to 
this subject. He was apprenticed to various 
trades during his boyhood, but his insatiable 
thirst for knowledge dominated his life and 
he found time to study at odd intervals. 
Supporting himself by working at his trade, 
he found time to pursue a course at Oberlin 
College, where he particularly devoted him- 
self to the study of physicial science. Ivlr. 
Gray secured his first patent for electrical 
or telegraph apparatus on October i, 1867. 
His attention was first attracted to tele- 
phonic transmission during this year and he 
saw in it a way of transmitting signals for 
telegraph purposes, and conceived the idea 
■of electro-tones, tuned to different tones in 
the scale. He did not then realize the im- 
portance of his invention, his thoughts being 
employed on the capacity of the apparatus 
for transmitting musical tones throuirh an 



electric circuit, and it was not until 1874 
that he was again called to consider the re- 
production of electrically-transmitted vibra- 
tions through the medium of animal tissue. 
He continued experimenting with various 
results, which finally culminated in his 
taking out a patent for his speaking tele- 
phone on February 14, 1876. He took out 
fifty additional patents in the course of 
eleven years, among which were, telegraph 
switch, telegraph repeater, telegraph annun- 
ciator and typewriting telegraph. From 
1869 until 1873 he was employed in the 
manufacture of telegraph apparatus in Cleve- 
land and Chicago, and filled the office of 
electrician to the Western Electric Com- 
pany. He was awarded the degree of U. 
S., and in 1874 he went abroad to perfect 
himself in acoustics. Mr. Gray's latest in- 
vention was known as the telautograph or 
long distance writing machine. Mr. Gray 
wrote and published several works on scien- 
tific subjects, among which were: "Tele- 
graphy and Telephony," and " Experi- 
mental Research in Electro-Harmonic Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." 



"\^.^HITELAW REID.— Among the many 
V V men who have adorned the field of 
journalism in the United States, few stand 
out with more prominence than the scholar, 
author and editor whose name heads this ar- 
ticle. Born at Xenia, Greene county, Ohio, 
October 27, 1837, he graduated at Miami 
University in 1856. For about a year he 
was superintendent of the graded schools of 
South Charleston, Ohio, after which he pur- 
chased the "Xenia News," which he edited 
for about two years. This paper was the 
first one outside of Illinois to advocate the 
nomination of Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Reid 
having been a Republican since the birth of 
that party in 1856. After taking an active 



150 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV 



part in the campaign, in the winter of 1860- 
61, he went to the state capital as corres- 
pondent of three daily papers. At the close 
of the session of the legislature he became 
city editor of the "Cincinnati Gazette," 
and at the breaking out of the war went to 
the front as a correspondent for that journal. 
For a time he served on the staff of General 
Morris in West Virginia, with the rank of 
captain. Shortly after he was on the staff 
of General Rosecrans, and, under the name 
of "Agate," wrote most graphic descrip- 
tions of the movements in the field, espe- 
cially that of the battle ol Pittsburg Land- 
ing. In the spring of 1862 Mr. Reid went 
to Washington and was appointed librarian 
to the house of representatives, and acted as 
correspondent of the " Cincinnati Gazette." 
His description of the battle of Gettysburg, 
written on the field, gained him added 
reputation. In 1865 he accompanied Chief 
Justice Chase on a southern tour, and pub- 
lished "After the War; a Southern Tour." 
During the next two years he was engaged 
in cotton planting in Louisiana and Ala- 
bama, and published "Ohio in the War." 
In 1868 he returned to the " Cincinnati Ga- 
zette," becoming one of its leading editors. 
The same year he accepted the invitation of 
Horace Greeley and became one of the staff 
on the " New York Tribune." Upon the 
death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid be- 
came editor and chief proprietor of that 
paper. In 187S he was tendered the United 
States mission to Berlin, but declined. The 
offer was again made by the Garfield ad- 
ministration, but again he declined. In 
1878 he was elected by the New York legis- 
lature regent of the university, to succeed 
General John A. Dix. Under the Harrison 
administration he served as United States 
minister to France, and in 1892 was the 
Republican nominee for the vice-presidency 



of the United States. Among other works- 
published by him were the " Schools of 
Journalism," "The Scholar in Politics," 
''Some Newspaper Tendencies," and 
' ' Town-Hall Suggestions. " 



GEORGE WHITEFIELD was one of 
the most powerful and effective preach- 
ers the world has ever produced, swaying 
his hearers and touching the hearts of im- 
mense audiences in a manner that has rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed. While 
not a native of America, yet much of his 
labor was spent in this country. He wielded 
a great influence in the United States in 
early days, and his death occurred here; so 
that he well deserves a place in this volume 
as one of the most celebrated men America 
has known. 

George Whitefield was born in the Bull 
Inn, at Gloucester, England, December 16, 
17 14. He acquired the rudiments of learn- 
ing in St. Mary's grammar school. Later 
he attended Oxford University for a time, 
where he became intimate with the Oxford 
Methodists, and resolved to devote himself 
to the ministry. He was ordained in the 
Gloucester Cathedral June 20, 1836, and 
the following day preached his first sermon 
in the same church. On that day there 
commenced a new era in Whitefield's life. 
He went to London and began to preach at 
Bishopsgate church, his fame soon spread- 
ing over the city, and shortly he was en- 
gaged four times on a single Sunday in ad- 
dressing audiences of enormous magnitude, 
and he preached in various parts of his native 
country, the people crowding in multitudes 
to hear him and hanging upon the rails and 
rafters of the churches and approaches there- 
to. He finally sailed for America, landing 
in Georgia, where he stirred the people to 
great enthusiasm. During the balance of 




//. ftirt7iisf>-( ii\^ 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



\l 



his life he divided his time between Great 
Britain and America, and it is recorded that 
he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times. He 
came to America for the seventh time in 
1770. He preached every day at Boston 
from the 17th to the 20th of September, 
1770, then traveled to Newbury port, preach- 
ing at Exeter, New Hampshire, September 
29, on the way. That evening he went to 
Newburyport, where he died the ne.xt day, 
Sunday, September 30, 1770. 

" Whitefield's dramatic power was amaz- 
ing, " says an eminent writer in describing 
him. " His voice was marvelously varied, 
and he ever had it at command — an organ, 
a flute, a harp, all in one. His intellectual 
powers were not of a high order, but he had 
an abundance of that ready talent and that 
wonderful magnetism vv'hich makes the pop- 
ular preacher; and beyond all natural en- 
dowments, there was in his ministry the 
power of evangelical truth, and, as his con- 
verts believed, the presence of the spirit of 
God." 

CHARLES FRANCIS BRUSH, one of 
America's prominent men in the devel- 
opment of electrical science, was born March 
17, 1849, near Cleveland, Ohio, and spent 
his early life on his father's farm. From 
the district school at Wickliffe, Ohio, he 
passed to the Shaw Academy at CoUamer, 
and then entered the high school at Cleve- 
land. His interest in chemistry, physics 
and engineering was already marked, and 
during his senior year he was placed in 
charge of the chemical and physical appar- 
atus. During these years he devised a plan 
fur lighting street lamps, constructed tele- 
scopes, and his first electric arc lamp, also 
an electric motor. In September, 1867, he 
entered the engineering department of the 
University of Michigan and graduated in 



1869, which was a year in advance of his 
class, with the degree of M. E. He then 
returned to Cleveland, and for three years 
was engaged as an analytical chemist and 
for four years in the iron business. In 
1875 Mr. Brush became interested in elec- 
tric lighting, and in 1876, after four months' 
experimenting, he completed the dynamo- 
electric machine that has made his name 
famous, and in a shorter time produced the 
series arc lamps. These were both patent- 
ed in the United States in 1876, and he 
afterward obtained fifty patents on his later 
inventions, including the fundamental stor- 
age battery, the compound series, shunt- 
winding for dynamo-electric machines, and 
the automatic cut-out for arc lamps. His 
patents, two-thirds of which have already 
been profitable, are held by the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, while his 
foreign patents are controlled by the Anglo- 
American Brush Electric Ligiit Company, 
of London. In 18S0 the Western Reserve 
University conferred upon Mr. Brush the 
degree of Ph. D., and in 1881 the French 
government decorated him as a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 



HENRY CLEWS, of Wall-street fame, 
was one of the noted old-time opera- 
tors on that famous street, and was also an 
author of some repute. Mr. Clews was 
born in Staffordshire, England, August 14, 
1840. His father had him educated with 
the intention of preparing him for the minis- 
try, but on a visit to the United States the 
young man became interested in a business 
life, and was allowed to engage as a clerk in 
the importing house of Wilson G. Hunt & 
Co., of New York. Here he learned the 
first principles of business, and when the war 
broke out in 1861 young Clews saw in the 
needs of the government an opportunity to- 



L"4 



COMPEXDIUM OF BlOGRAPIir. 



reap a golden harvest. He identified him- 
self with the negotiating of loans for the 
government, and used his powers of pur- 
suasion upon the great money powers to 
•convince them of the stability of the govern- 
ment and the value of its securities. By 
enthusiasm and patriotic arguments he in- 
duced capitalists to invest their money in 
government securities, often against their 
judgment, and his success was remarkable. 
His was one of the leading firms that aided 
the struggling treasury department in that 
critical hour, and his reward was great. In 
addition to the vast wealth it brought, 
President Lincoln and Secretary Chase 
both wrote important letters, acknowledging 
his valued service. In 1873, by the repu- 
diation of the bonded indebtedness of the 
state of Georgia, Mr. Clews lost six million 
dollars which he had invested in those se- 
curities. It is said that he is the only man, 
with one exception, in Wall street, who 
ever regained great wealth after utter dis- 
aster. His " Twenty-Eight Years in Wall 
Street " has been widely read. 



ALFRED VAIL was one of the men that 
gave to the world the electric telegraph 
and the names of Henry, Morse and Vail 
will forever remain linked as the prime fac- 
tors in that great achievement. Mr. Vail 
was born September 25, 1807, at Morris- 
town, New Jersey, and was a son of Stephen 
Vail, the proprietor of the Speedwell Iron 
Works, near Morristown. At the age of 
seventeen, after he had completed his stud- 
ies at the Morristown Academy, Alfred Vail 
went into the Speedwell Iron Works and 
contented himself with the duties of his 
position until he reached his majority. He 
then determined to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and at the age of twenty-five he 
■entered the University of the City of New 



York, where he was graduated in 1836. His 
health becoming impaired he labored for a 
titne under much uncertainty as to his future 
course. Professor S. F. B. Morse had come 
to the university in 1835 as professor of lit- 
erature and fine arts, and about this time, 

1837, Professor Gale, occupying the chair 
of chemistry, invited Morse to exhibit his 
apparatus for the benefit of the students. 
On Saturday, September 2, 1837, tlie exhi- 
bition took place and Vail was asked to at- 
tend, and with his inherited taste for me- 
chanics and knowledge of their construction, 
he saw a great future for the crude mechan- 
ism used by Morse in giving and recording 
signals. Mr. Vail interested his father in 
the invention, and Morse was invited to 
Speedwell and the elder Vail promised to 
help him. It was stipulated that Alfred 
Vail should construct the required apparatus 
and exhibit before a committee of congress 
the telegraph instrument, and was to receive 
a quarter interest in the invention. Morse 
had devised a series of ten numbered leaden 
types, which were to be operated in giving 
the signal. This was not satisfactory to 
Vail, so he devised an entirely new instru- 
ment, involving a lever, or "point," on a 
radically different principle, which, when 
tested, produced dots and dashes, and de- 
vised the famous dot-and-dash alphabet, 
misnamed the " Morse." At last the ma- 
chine was in working order, on January 6, 

1838. The machine was taken to Wash- 
ington, where it caused not only wonder, 
but excitement. Vail continued his experi- 
ments and ■ devised the lever and roller. 
When the line between Baltimore and 
Washington was cornpleted. Vail was sta- 
tioned at the Baltimore end and received 
the famous first message. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that not a single feature of the 
original invention of Morse, as formulated 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArilT. 



155' 



by his caveat and repeated in his original 
patent, is to be found in Vail's apparatus. 
From 1837 to 1844 it was a combination of 
tlie inventions of Morse, Henry and Vail, 
but the work of Morse fell gradually into 
desuetude, while Vail's conception of an 
alphabet has remained unchanged for half a 
century. Mr. Vail published but one work, 
"American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
in 1845, and died at Morristown at the com- 
paratively early age of fifty-one, on January 
19. 1859- 

ULYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born April 27, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Cler- 
mont county, Ohio. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, from which he 
graduated in June, 1843, and was given his 
brevet as second lieutenant and assigned to 
the Fourth Infantry. He remained in the 
service eleven years, in which time he 
was engaged in the Mexican war with gal- 
lantry, and was thrice brevetted for conduct 
in the field. In 1848 he married Miss Julia 
Dent, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of captain, he resigned and engaged 
in farming near St. Louis. In i860 he en- 
tered the leather business with his father at 
Galena, Illinois. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he commenced to drill a company at Ga- 
lena, and at the same time offered his serv- 
ices to the adjutant-general of the army, 
but he had few influential friends, so re- 
ceived no answer. He was employed by 
the governor of Illinois in the organization 
of the various volunteer regiments, and at 
the end of a few weeks was given the 
colonelcy of the Twenty- first Infantry, from 
that state. His military training and knowl- 
edge soon attracted the attention of his su- 



perior officers, and on reporting to General 
Pope in Missouri, the latter put him in 
the way of advancement. August 7, 1861, 
he was promoted to' the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and for a few weeks 
was occupied in watching the movements of 
partisan forces in Missouri. September i, 
the same year, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Southeast Missouri, 
with headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th 
of the month, without orders, seized Padu- 
cah, which commanded the channel of the 
Oiiio and Tennessee rivers, by which he se- 
cured Kentucky for the Union. He now 
received orders to make a demonstration on 
Belmont, which he did, and with about three 
thousand raw recruits held his own against 
the Confederates some seven thousand 
strong, bringing back about two hundred 
prisoners and two guns. In February, '1862, 
he moved up the Tennessee river with 
the naval fleet under Commodore Foote. 
The latter soon silenced Fort Henry, and 
Grant advanced against Fort Donelson and 
took their fortress and its garrison. His 
prize here consisted of si.\ty-five cannon, 
seventeen thousand si.K hundred stand of 
arms, and fourteen thousand six hundred 
and twenty-three prisoners. This was the 
first important success won by the Union 
forces. Grant was immediately made a 
major-general and placed in command of 
the district of West Tennessee. In April, 
I S62, he fought the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and after the evacuation of Corinth by 
the enemy Grant became commander of the 
Department of the Tennessee. He now 
made his first demonstration toward V'icks- 
burg, but owing to the incapacity of subor- 
dinate officers, was unsuccessful. In Janu- 
ary, 1S63, he took command of all the 
troops in the Mississippi Valley and devoted 
several months to the siege of Vicksburg, 



156 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



which was finally taken possession of by him 
Julj'4, with thirty-one thousand six hundred 
prisoners and one hundred and seventy-two 
cannon, thus throwing the Mississippi river 
open to the Federals. He was now raised 
to the rank of major-general in the regular 
army, October following, at the head of 
the Department of the Mississippi, General 
Grant went to Chattanooga, where he over- 
threw the enemy, and united with the Army 
of the Cumberland. The remarkable suc- 
cesses achieved by him pointed Grant out 
for an appropriate commander of all na- 
tional troops, and in February, 1864, the 
rank of lieutenant-general was made for him 
by act of congress. Sending Sherman into 
Georgia, Sigel into the Valley of West Vir- 
ginia and Butler to attsmpt the capture of 
Richmond he fought his v\'ay through the 
Wilderness to the James and pressed the 
siege of the capital of the Confederacy. 
After the fall of the latter Grant pressed 
the Confederate army so hard that their 
commander surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. This virtually 
ended the war. 

After the war the rank of general was 
conferred upon U. S. Grant, and in 1868 he 
was elected president of the United States, 
and re-elected his own successor in 1872. 
After the expiration of the latter term he 
made his famous tour of the world. He died 
at Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, New York, 
July 23, 1885, and was buried at Riverside 
Park, New York, where a magnificent tomb 
has been erected to hold the ashes of the 
nation's hero. 



JOHN MARSHALL, the fourth chief jus- 
tice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Germantown, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1755. His father, Colonel Thomas 
Marshall, served with distinction in the Rev- 



olutionary war, while he also served from 
the beginning of the war until 1779, where 
he became noted in the field and courts 
martial. While on detached service he at- 
tended a course of law lectures at William 
and Mary College, delivered by Mr. Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar. The next year 
he resigned his commission and began his 
career as a lawyer. He was a distinguished 
member of the convention called in Virginia 
to ratify the Federal constitution. He was 
tendered the attorney-generalship of the 
United States, and also a place on the su- 
preme bench, besides other places of less 
honor, all of which he declined. He 
went to France as special envoy in 1798, 
and 'the next year was elected to congress. 
He served one year and was appointed, first, 
secretary of war, and then secretary of state, 
and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
United States. He held this high office un- 
til his death, in 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall's early education 
was neglected, and his opinions, the most 
valuable in existence, are noted for depth 
of wisdom, clear and comprehensive reason- 
ing, justice, and permanency, rather than for 
wide learning and scholarly construction. 
His decisions and rulings are resorted to 
constantly by our greatest lawyers, and his 
renown as a just judge and profound jurist 
was world wide. 



LAWRENCE BARRETT is perhaps 
known more widely as a producer of 
new plays than as a great actor. He was 
born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838, and 
educated himself as best he could, and at 
the age of sixteen years became salesman 
for a Detroit dry goods house. He after- 
wards began to go upon the stage as a 
Bupernumerary, and his ambition was soon 
rewarded by the notice of the management. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



157 



During the war of the Rebellion he was a 
soldier, and after valiant service for his 
country he returned to the stage. He went 
to Europe and appeared in Liverpool, and 
returning in 1869, he began playing at 
Booth's theater, with Mr. Booth. He was 
afterward associated with John McCullough 
in the management of the California 
theater. Probably the most noted period 
of his work was during his connection with 
Edwin Booth as manager of that great 
actor, and supporting him upon the stage. 
Mr. Barrett was possessed of the crea- 
tive instinct, and, unlike Mr. Booth, he 
sought new fields for the display of his 
genius, and only resorted to traditional 
drama in response to popular demand. He 
preferred new plays, and believed in the 
encouragement of modern dramatic writers, 
and was the only actor of prominence in his 
time that ventured to put upon the stage 
new American plays, which he did at his 
own expense, and the success of his experi- 
ments proved the quality of his judgment. 
He died March 21, 1891. 



ARCHBISHOP JOHN HUGHES, a cel- 
ebrated Catholic clergyman, was born 
at Annaboghan, Tyrone county, Ireland, 
June 24, 1797, and emigrated to America 
when twenty years of age, engaging for 
some time as a gardener and nurseryman. 
In 1819 he entered St. Mary's College, 
where he secured an education, paying his 
way by caring for the college garden. In 
1825 he was ordained a deacon'of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and in the same year, 
a priest. Until 1 838 he had pastoral charges 
in Philadelphia, where he founded St. John's 
Asylum in 1829, and a few years later es- 
tablished the "Catholic Herald." In 1838 
he was made bishop of Basileopolis in parti- 
bus and coadjutor to Bishop Dubois, of 



New York, and in 1842 became bishop of 
New York. In 1839 he founded St. John's 
College, at Fordham. In 1850 he was 
made archbishop of New York. In 186 1-2 
he was a special agent of the United States 
in Europe, after which he returned to this 
country and remained until his death, Jan- 
uary 3, 1864. Archbishop Hughes early 
attracted much attention by his controver- 
sial correspondence with Rev. John Breck- 
inridge in 1833-35. He was a man of great 
ability, a fluent and forceful writer and an 
able preacher. 

RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES 
was the nineteenth president of the 
United States and served from 1877 to 1 88 1 . 
He was born October 4, 1822, at Delaware, 
Ohio, and his ancestry can be traced back 
as far as 1280, when Haj-esand Rutherford 
v.ere two Scottish chieftans fighting side by 
side with Baliol, William Wallace and 
Robert Bruce. The Hayes family had for 
a coat of arms, a shield, barred and sur- 
mounted by a flying eagle. There was a 
circle of stars about the eagle, while on a 
scroll underneath was their motto, ''Recte." 
Misfortune overtook the family and in 1680 
George Hayes, the progenitor of the Ameri- 
can family, came to Connecticut and settled 
at Windsor. Rutherford B. Hayes was 
a very delicate child at his birth and was 
not expected to live, but he lived in spite of 
all and remained at home until he was 
seven years old, when he was placed in 
school. He was a very tractable pupil, being 
always very studious, and in 1838 entered 
Ken3'on College, graduating from the same 
in 1842. He then took up the study of law 
in the office of Thomas Sparrow at Colum- 
bus, but in a short time he decided to enter 
a law school at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where for two years he was immersed in the 



108 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



study of law. Mr. Hayes was admitted to 
the bar in 1845 ''^ Marietta, Ohio, and very 
soon entered upon the active practice of his 
profession with Ralph P. Buckland, of 
Fremont, Ohio. He remained there three 
years, and in 1849 removed to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where his ambition found a new 
stimulus. Two events occurred at this 
period that had a powerful influence on his 
after life. One was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, and the other was his 
introduction to a Cincinnati literary club, 
a body embracing such men as Salmon P. 
Chase, John Pope, and Edward F. Noyes. 
In 1856 he was nominated for judge of the 
court of common pleas, but declined, and 
two years later he was appointed city 
solicitor. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Mr. Hayes was appointed major of the 
Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, June 7. 1S61, 
and in July the regiment was ordered to 
Virginia, and October 15, i86i,saw him 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. He was made colonel of the 
Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry, but refused to 
leave his old comrades; and in the battle of 
South Mountain he was wounded very 
severely and was unable to rejoin his regi- 
ment until November 30, 1862. He had 
been promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment on October 15, 1862. In the 
following December he was appointed to 
command the Kanawa division and was 
given the rank of brigadier-general for 
meritorious services in several battles, and 
in 1864 he was brevetted major-general for 
distinguished services in 1864, during 
which campaign he was wounded several 
times and five horses had been shot under 
him. Mr. Hayes' first venture in politics 
was as a Whig, and later he was one of the 
first to unite with the Republican party. In 
1864 he was elected from the Second Ohio 



district to congress, re-elected in 1866, 
and in 1867 was elected governor of Ohio 
over Allen G. Thurman, and was re-elected 
in 1869. Mr. Hayes was elected to the 
presidency in 1876, for the term of four 
years, and at its close retired to private life, 
and went to his home in Fremont, Ohio, 
where he died on January 17, 1893. 



WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN became 
a celebrated character as the nominee 
of the Democratic and Populist parties for 
president of the United States in 1896. He 
was born March 19, i860, at Salem, Illi- 
nois. He received his early education in 
the public schools of his native county, and 
later on he attended the Whipple Academy 
at Jacksonville. He also took a course in 
Illinois College, and after his graduation 
from the same went to Chicago to study 
law, and entered the Union College of Law 
as a student. He was associated with the 
late Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago, during 
his law studies, and devoted considerable 
time to the questions of government. He 
graduated from the college, was admitted to 
the bar, and went to Jacksonville, Illinois, 
where he was married to Miss Mary Eliza- 
beth Baird. In 1887 Mr. Bryan removed 
to Lincoln, Nebraska, and formed a law 
partnership with Adolphus R. Talbot. He 
entered the field of politics, and in 1888 
was sent as a delegate to the state con- 
vention, which was to choose delegates to 
the national convention, during which he 
made a speech which immediately won him 
a high rank in political affairs. He declined, 
in the next state convention, a nomination 
for lieutenant-governor, and in 1890 he was 
elected congressman from the First district 
of Nebraska, and was the youngest member 
of the fifty-scconJ congress. He cham- 
pioned the Wilson tariff bill, and served 



COMPE.VDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



159 



three terms in the house of representatives. 
He next ran for senator, but was defeated 
by John M. Thurston, and in 1896 he was 
selected by the Democratic and Populist 
parties as their nominee for the presidency, 
being defeated by William McKinley. 



MARVIN HUGHITT, one of America's 
famous railroad men, was born in 
Genoa, New York, and entered the railway 
service in 1856 as superintendent of tele- 
graph and trainmaster of the St. Louis, Al- 
ton & Chicago, now Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road. Mr. Hughitt was superintendent of 
the southern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad from 1862 until 1864, and was, later 
on, the general superintendent of the road 
until 1870. He was then connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road as assistant general manager, and re- 
tained this position until- 1871, when he be- 
came the general manager of Pullman's 
Palace Car Company. In 1872 he was made 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. He served during 
1876 and up to 1 880 as general manager, 
and from 1880 until 1887 as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. He was elected 
president of the road in 1887, in recog- 
nition of his ability in conducting the 
affairs of the road. He was also chosen 
president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha Railway; the Fremont, Elk- 
horn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad, 
and his services in these capacities stamped 
hirn as one of the most able railroad mana- 
gers of his day. 



JOSEPH MEDILL, one of the most 
<J eminent of American journalists, was 
born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 
1823. In 1831 his father moved to Stark 



county, Ohio, and until 1841 Joseph Medill 
worked on his father's farm. Later he 
studied law, and began the practice of that 
profession in 1846 at New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. But the newspaper field was more 
attractive to Mr. Medill, and three years 
later he founded a free-soil Whig paper at 
Coshocton, Ohio, and after that time jour- 
nalism received all his abilities. "The 
Leader," another free-soil Whig paper, was 
founded by Mr. Medill at Cleveland in 1852. 
In that city he also became one of the first 
organizers of the Republican party. Shortlj' 
after that event he removed to Chicago and 
in 1855, with two partners, he purchased 
the " Chicago Tribune." In the contest for 
the nomination for the presidency in i860, 
Mr. Medill worked with unflagging zeal for 
Mr. Lincoln, his warm personal friend, and 
was one of the president's stanchest sup- 
porters during the war. Mr. Medill was a 
member of the Illinois Constitutional con- 
vention in 1870. President Grant, in 1871, 
appointed the editor a member of the first 
United States civil service commission, and 
the following year, after the fire, he was 
elected mayor of Chicago by a great ma- 
jority. During 1873 and 1874 Mr. Medill 
spent a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he purchased a controlling interest in the 
" Chicago Tribune." 



CLAUSSPRECKELS, the great ■' sugar 
baron, " and one of the most famous 
representatives of commercial life in Amer- 
ica, was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
emigrated to the United States in 1840, 
locating in New York. He very soon be- 
came the proprietor of a small retail gro- 
cery store on Church street, and embarked 
on a career that has since astonished the 
\\orld. He sold out his business and went 
to California with the argonauts of 1849, 



IGO 



COMPEA'DIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



not as a prospector, but as a trader, and for 
years after his arrival on the coast he was 
still engaged as a grocer. At length, after a 
quarter of a century of fairly prosperous 
business life, he found himself in a position 
where an ordinary man would have retired, 
but Mr. Spreckles did not retire; he had 
merely been gathering capital for the real 
work of his life. His brothers had followed 
him to California, and in combination with 
them he purchased for forty thousand dollars 
an interest in the Albany Brewery in San 
Francisco. But the field was not extensive 
enough for the development of his business 
abilities, so Mr. Sprecklas branched out 
extensively in the sugar business. He suc- 
ceeded in securing the entire output of 
sugar that was produced on the Sand- 
wich Islands, and after 1885 was known as 
the "Sugar King of Sandwich Islands." 
He controlled absolutely the sugar trade of 
the Pacific coast which was known to be 
not less than ten million dollars a year. 



CHARLES HENRY PARICHURST, 
famous as a clergyman, and for many 
years president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Crime, was born April 17, 
1842, at Framingham, Massachusetts, of 
English descent. At the age of sixteen 
he was pupil in the grammar school at 
Clinton, Massachusetts, and for the ensu- 
ing two years was a clerk in a dry goods 
store, which position he gave up to prepare 
, himself for college at Lancaster academy. 
■Mr. Parkhurst went to Amherst in 1862, 
and after taking a thorough course he gradu- 
ated in 1866, and in 1867 became the prin- 
cipal of the Amherst High School. He re- 
tained this position until 1870, when he 
•visited Germany with the intention of tak- 
ing a course in philosophy and theology, 
biit was forced to abandon this intention on 



account of illness in the family causing his 
early return from Europe. He accepted the 
chair of Latin and Greek in Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, and re- 
mained there two years. He then accom- 
panied his wife to Europe, and devoted two 
years to study in Halle, Leipsic and Bonn. 
Upon his return home he spent considerable 
time in the study of Sanscrit, and in 1874 
he became the pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church at Lenox, Massachusetts. He 
gained here his reputation as a pulpit ora- 
tor, and on March 9, 1880, he became the 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church of New York. He was, in 1890, 
made a member of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Crime, and the same year be- 
came its president. He delivered a sermon 
in 1892 on municipal corruption, for which 
he was brought before the grand jury, which 
body declared his charges to be without suffi- 
cient foundation. But the matter did not end 
here, for he immediately went to work on a 
second sermon in which he substantiated his 
foriner sermon and wound up by saying, 
"I know, for I have seen." He was again 
summoned before that august body, and as 
a result of his testimony and of the investi- 
gation of the jurors themselves, the police 
authorities were charged with incompetency 
and corruption. Dr. Parkhurst was the 
author of the following works: ' ' The Forms 
of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanscrit," 
"The Blind Man's Creed and Other Ser- 
mons," "The Pattern on the Mount," and 
" Three Gates on a Side." 



HENRY BERGH, although a writer, 
diplomatist and government official, 
was noted as a philanthropist — the founder 
of the American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals. On his labors for 
the dumb creation alone rests his fame. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



161 



Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition 
and ridicule, he began the reform which is 
now recognized as one of the beneficent 
movements of the age. Tlirough his exer- 
tions as a speaker and lecturer, but above 
all as a bold worker, in the street, in the 
court room, before the legislature, the cause 
he adopted gained friends and rapidly in- 
creased in power until it has reached im- 
mense proportions and influence. The work 
of the society covers all cases of cruelty to 
all sorts of animals, employs every moral 
agency, social, legislative and personal, and 
touches points of vital concern to health as 
well as humanity. 

Henry Bergh was born in New York 
City in 1823, and was educated at Colum- 
bia College. In 1863 he was made secre- 
tary of the legation to Russia and also 
served as vice-consul there. He also de- 
voted some time to literary pursuits and was 
the author of "Love's Alternative," a 
drama; "Married Off," a poem; "'The 
Portentous Telegram, " "The Ocean Para- 
gon;" "The Streets of New York," tales 
and sketches. 



HENRY BENJAMIN WHIPPLE, one 
of the most eminent of American di- 
vines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, 
New York, February 15, 1822. He was 
brought up in the mercantile business, and 
early in life took an active interest in polit- 
ical affairs. In 1847 he became a candidate 
for holy orders and pursued theological 
studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., 
afterward professor in Cornell University. 
He was ordained deacon in 1849, in Trinity 
church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. 
W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge 
of Zion church, Rome, New York, Decem- 
ber I, 1849. In 1850, our subject was or- 
dained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 



1857 hebecame rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th 
of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of 
Minnesota, and took charge of the interests 
of the Episcopal church in that state, being 
located at Faribault. In i860 Bishop 
Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. 
Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the 
Bishop Seabury Mission, out of which has 
grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, 
the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck 
School and St. Mary's Hall, which have 
made Faribault City one of the greatest 
educational centers of the northwest. Bishop 
Whipple also became noted as the friend 
and defender of the North American In- 
dians and planted a number of successful 
missions among them. 



EZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest 
philanthropists and friends of education 
the country has known. He was born at 
Westchester Landing, New York, January 
II, 1807. He grew to manhood in his na- 
tive state and became a prominent figure in 
business circles as a successful and self-made 
man. Soon after the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, he devoted his attention to 
that enterprise, and accumulated an im- 
mense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five 
hundred thousand dollars, he made possible 
the founding of Cornell University, which 
was named in his honor. He afterward 
made additional bequests amounting to many 
hundred thousand dollars. His death oc- 
curred at Ithaca, New York, December 9, 
1874- 

IGNATIUS DONNELLY, widely known 
i as an author and politician, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 
1 83 1. He was educated at the public 
schools of that city, and graduated from the 



162 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIIV. 



Central High School in 1849. He studied 
law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated 
to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at 
Hastings, resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, 
and again in 1858, he was defeated for state 
senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the 
Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and re- 
elected in 1 86 1. In 1862 he was elected to 
represent the Second district of Minnesota 
in congress. He was re-elected to the same 
office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an 
abolitionist and warmly supported President 
Lincoln's administration, but was strongly 
in favor of leniency toward the people of 
the south, after the war. Iii many ways he 
was identified with some of the best meas- 
ures brought before the house during his 
presence there. In the spring of 1868, at 
the request of the Republican national com- 
mittee, he canvassed New Hampshire and 
Connecticut in the interests of that party. 
E. B. Washburne about this time made an 
attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of 
Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor 
of the house by a fierce phillipic that will 
long be remembered. Through the inter- 
vention of the Washburne interests Mr. Don- 
nelly failed of a re-election in 1870. In 
1873 he was elected to the state senate from 
Dakota county, and continuously re-elected 
until 1878. In 1886 he was elected mem- 
ber of the house for two years. In later 
years he identified himself with the Popu- 
list party. 

In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as 
an author, publishing his first literary work, 
"Atlantis, the Antediluvian World," which 
passed through over twenty-two editions in 
America, several in England, and was trans- 
lated into French. This was followed by 



" Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," 
which attained nearly as much celebrity as 
the first, and these two, in the opinion of 
scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the 
author as a most capable and painstaking 
student of the facts he has collated in them. 
The work by which he gained the greatest 
notoriety, however, was "The Great Cryp- 
togram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the 
Shakespeare Plays." "Caesar's Column," 
" Dr. Huguet," and other works were pub- 
lished subsequently. 



STEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of 
Wall Street of national reputation, was 
born in Chatham county, North Carolina, 
August I, 1831, and soon afterward re- 
moved to Illinois. His home was a log 
cabin, and until his eighteenth year he 
worked on the farm. Then after several 
years of struggle with poverty he graduated 
from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, 
where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe 
house as bookkeeper. He then studied law 
and worked as a reporter for the "Missouri 
Democrat." After his admission to the bar 
he went to New York, in 1865, and became 
a member of the banking house of Marvin 
& White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of having engineered the only corner 
in Wall Street since Commodore Vander- 
bilt's time. This was the famous Lacka- 
wanna deal in 1883, in which he made a 
profit of two million dollars. He was some- 
times called " Deacon" White, and, though 
a member for many years of the Plymouth 
church, he never held that office. Mr. 
White was one of the most noted characters 
of the street, and has been called an orator, 
poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist, 
astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and 
trapper. He was a lawyer, e.x-congress- 
man, expert accountant, art critic and theo- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



163 



lOgian. He laid the foundation for a 
"Home for Colored People," in Chatham 
county, North Carolina, where the greater 
part of his father's life was spent, and in 
whose memory the work was undertaken. 



JAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth 
president of the United States, was born 
November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an 
industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the 
care of the family devolved upon Thomas, 
to whom James became deeply indebted for 
educational and other advantages. As James 
grew up he was industrious and worked on 
the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, 
or anything else he found to do, and in the 
meantime made the most of his books. 

Until he was about si.xteen, James' high- 
est ambition was to become a sea captain. 
On attaining that age he walked to 
Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, 
he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania canal, but quit this after a short 
time. He attended the seminary at Ches- 
ter for about three years, after which he 
entered Hiram Institute, a school started by 
the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order 
to pay his way he assumed the duties of 
janitor and at times taught school. After 
completing his course at the last named edu- 
cational institution he entered Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1856. He 
afterward returned to Hiram College as its 
president. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859. November 11, 1858, 
Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were 
married. 

In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first polit- 
ical speeches, at Hiram and in the neighbor- 
hood. The same year he was elected to the 
state senate. 



On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty- 
second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a new 
soldier, was given command of four regi- 
ments of infantry and eight companies of 
cavalry, with which he drove the Confeder- 
ates under Humphrey Marshall out of Ken- 
tucky. January 11, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. He participated 
with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh 
and the operations around Corinth, and was 
then detailed as a member of the Fitz John 
Porter court-martial. Reporting to General 
Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position 
of chief of staff, and resigned his position, 
with the rank of major-general, when his 
immediate superior was superseded. In 
the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to 
congress and remained in that body, either 
in the house or senate, until 1880. 

June 8, 1880, at the national Republican 
convention, held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency, and 
was elected. He was inaugurated March 
4, 1881, but, July 2, following, he was shot 
and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for 
some fancied political slight, and died Sep- 
tember 19, 1881. 



INCREASE MATHER was one of the 
1 most prominent preachers, educators and 
authors of early times in the New England 
states. He was born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, and was given an 
excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 
two years later. H&?was ordained a min- 
ister, and preached in England and America, 
and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
church, in Boston. In 1685 he became 
president of Harvard University, serving 
until 1 701. Ill 1692 he received the first 
doctorate in divinity conferred in English 



164 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHl'. 



speaking America. The same year he pro- 
cured in England a new charter for Massa- 
chusetts, which conferred upon himself the 
power of naming the governor, lieutenant- 
governor and council. He opposed the 
severe punishment of witchcraft, and took 
a prominent part in all public affairs of his 
day. He was a prolific writer, and became 
the author of nearly one hundred publica- 
tions, large and small. His death occurred 
August 23, 1723, at Boston. 



COTTON MATHER, a celebrated minis- 
ter in the "Puritan times" of New 
England, was born at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, February 12, 1663, being a son of 
Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of 
John Cotton. A biography of his father 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 
Cotton Mather received his early education 
in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel 
Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 
was ordained as associate pastor of North 
church, Boston, with his father, having by 
persistent effort overcome an impediment in 
his speech. He labored with great zeal as 
a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the 
ascendancy of the church and ministry in 
civil affairs, and in the putting down of 
witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in 
which he took an active part and through 
which he is best known in history. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. in 17 10, con- 
ferred by the University of Glasgow, and 
F. R. S. in 17 1 3. His death occurred at 
Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the 
author of many publications, among which 
were " Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft," "Wonders of the Invisible 
World," "Essays to Do Good," " Mag- 
nalia Christi Americana," and " Illustra- 
tions of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of 



these works are quaint and curious, full of 
learning, piety and prejudice. A well- 
known wri-ter, in summing up the life and 
character of Cotton Mather, says: " Mather, 
with all the faults of his early years, was a 
man of great excellence of character. He 
labored zealously for the benefit of the 
poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and 
Indians. His cruelty and credulity were 
the faults of his age, while his philanthro- 
phy was far more rare in that age than in 
the present." 

WILLIAM A. PEFFEK, who won a 
national reputation during the time 
he was in the United States senate, was 
born on a farm in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He 
drew his education from the public schools 
of his native state and at the age of f fteen 
taught school in winter, working on a farm 
in the summer. In June, 1853, while yet a 
young man, he removed to Indiana, and 
opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. 
In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and 
settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on 
account of the war and the unsettled state 
of the country, he moved to Illinois in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and enlisted as a private in 
Company F, Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, 
the following August. He was promoted 
to the rank of second lieutenant in 
March, 1863, and served successively as 
quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, 
judge advocate of a military commission, 
and depot quartermaster in the engineer 
department at Nashville. He was mustered 
out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, 
during his leisure hours while in the army, 
studied law, and in August, 1S65, he com- 
menced the practice of that profession at 
Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to 
ICansas in 1870 and practiced there until 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



165 



1878, in the meantime establishing and 
conducting two newspapers, the " Fredonia 
Journal " and " Coffey ville Journal." 

Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate 
in 1874 and was a prominent and influential 
member of several important committees. 
He served as a presidential elector in 1880. 
The year following he became editor of the 
" Kansas Farmer," which he made a promi- 
nent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer 
was elected to the United States senate as 
a member of the People's party and took 
his seat March 4, 1891. After six years of 
service Senator Peffer was succeeded in 
March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 



ROBERT MORRIS. —The name of this 
financier, statesman and patriot is 
closely connected with the early history of 
the United States. He was a native of 
England, born January 20, 1734, and came 
to America with his father when thirteen 
years old. Until 1754 he served in the 
counting house of Charles Willing, then 
formed a partnership with that gentleman's 
son, which continued with great success until 
1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and, although 
once voting against the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, signed that paper on its adop- 
tion, and was several times thereafter re- 
elected to congress. During the Revolu- 
tionary vi^ar the services of Robert Morris 
in aiding the government during its finan- 
cial difficulties were of incalculable value; he 
freely pledged his personal credit for sup- 
plies for the army, atonctimeto the amount 
of about one and a half million dollars, with- 
out which the campaign of 1781 would have 
been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was 
appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 
and served until 1784, continuing to employ 
his personal credit to facilitate the needs of 



his department. He also served as mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
from 1786 to 1795 was United States sena- 
tor, declining meanwhile the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, and suggesting the 
name of Alexander Hamilton, who was ap- 
pointed to that post. During the latter 
part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged ex- 
tensively in the China trade, and later be- 
came involved in land speculations, which 
ruined him, so that the remaining days of 
this noble man and patriot were passed 
in confinement for debt. His death occurred 
at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 



WILLIAM SHARON, a senator and 
capitalist, and mine owner of na- 
tional reputation, was born at Smithiield, 
Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared 
upon a farm and in his boyhood given excel- 
lent educational advantages and in 1842 
entered Athens College. He remained in 
that institution about two years, after which 
he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and 
commenced practice. His health failing, 
however, he abandoned his profession and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, 
Greene county, Illinois. During the time 
of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon 
went to California, whither so many went, 
and engaged in business at Sacramento. 
The next year he removed to San Francisco, 
where he operated in real estate. Being 
largely interested in its silver mines, he re- 
moved to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, 
and acquired an immense fortune. He be- 
came one of the trustees of the Bank of 
California, and during the troubles that 
arose on the death of William Ralston, the 
president of that institution, was largely in- 
strumental in bringing its affairs into a satis- 
factory shape. 



166 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArilT. 



Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the 
state of Nevada in the United States senate 
in 1875, and remained a member of that 
body until 1881. He was always distin- 
guished for close application to business. 
Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 



HENRY W. SHAW, an American hu- 
morist who became celebrated under 
the non-dc-plnme of " Josh Billings," gained 
his fame from the witticism of his writing, 
and peculiar eccentricity of style and spell- 
ing. He was born at Lanesborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 18 1 8. For twenty-five years 
he lived in different parts of the western 
states, following various lines of business, 
including farming and auctioneering, and in 
the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began 
writing humorous sketches for the news- 
papers over the signature of "Josh Bill- 
ings," and became immediately popular 
both as a writer and lecturer. He pub- 
lished a number of volumes of comic 
sketches and edited an " Annual Allminax " 
for a number of years, which had a wide cir- 
culation. His death occurred October 14, 
1885, at Monterey, California. 



JOHN M. THURSTON, well known 
kJ throughout this country as a senator 
and political leader, was born at Mont- 
pelier, Vermont, August 21, 1847, °f ''•" 
old Puritan family which dated back their 
ancestry in this country to 1636, and among 
whom were soldiers of the Revolution and 
of the war of 18 12-15. 

Young Thurston was brought west by 
the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver 
Dam, where John M. received his schooling 
in the public schools and at Wayland Uni- 
versity. His father enlisted as a private in 



the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while 
in the service, in the spring of 1863. 

Young Thurston, thrown on his own 
resources while attaining an education, sup- 
ported himself by farm work, driving team 
and at other manual labor. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1S69, 
and in October of the same year located in 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1872, city 
attorney in 1874 and a member of the Ne- 
braska legislature in 1874. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican national convention 
of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 
1888. Taking quite an interest in the 
younger members of his party he was instru- 
mental in forming the Republican League 
of the United States, of which he was presi- 
dent for two years. He was then elected a 
member of the United States senate, in 
1895, to represent the state of Nebraska. 

As an attorney John M. Thurston occu- 
pied a very prominent place, and for a num- 
ber of years held the position of general 
solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad sys- 
tem. 



JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated 
<J American naturalist, was born in Louis- 
iana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an 
opulent French naval officer who owned a 
plantation in the then French colony. In 
his childhood he became deeply interested 
in the study of birds and their habits. About 
1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where 
he was partially educated, and studied de- 
signing under the famous painter, Jacques 
Louis David. He returned to the Unit- 
ed States about 1798, and settled on a 
farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen 
creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Lucy Bakewell in 1808, and, disposing 
of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



167 



tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. About two years later he began to 
make extensive excursions through the pri- 
meval forests of the southern and south- 
western states, in the exploration of which 
he passed many years. lie made colored 
drawings of all the species of birds that he 
found. For several years he made his home 
with his wife and children at Henderson, on 
the Ohio river. It is said that about this 
time he had failed in business and Vv'as re- 
duced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the 
door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait 
painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged 
him to publish a work on ornithology. Two 
years later he went to England and com- 
menced the publication of his great work, 
"The Birds of America." He obtained a 
large number of subscribers at one thousand 
dollars a copy. This work, embracing five 
volumes of letterpress and five volumes of 
beautifully colored plates, was pronounced 
by Cuvier " the most magnificent monument 
that art ever raised to ornithology." 

Audubon returned to America in 1829, 
and explored the forests, lakes and coast 
from Canada to Florida, collecting material 
for another work. This was his " Ornitho- 
logical Biography; or, An Account of the 
Habits of the Birds of the United States, 
Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and 
returned in 1839, after which he resiaed on 
the Hudson, near New York City, in which 
place he died January 27, 1851. During 
his life he issued a cheaper edition of his 
great work, and was, in association with 
Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the 
quadrupeds of North America. 



COMMODORE THOMAS McDON- 
OUGH gained his principal fame from 
he celebrated victory which he gained over 



the superior British squadron, under Com- 
modore Dovvnie, September 1 1, 1814. Com- 
modore McDonough was born in Newcastle 
county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and 
when seventeen years old entered the 
United States navy as midshipman, serving 
in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, 
in 1803-4. Ill ^"^oj he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in July, 18 13, was made a 
commander. The following year, on Lake 
Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory 
above referred to, for which he was again 
promoted; also received a gold medal from 
congress, and from the state of Vermont an 
estate on Cumberland Head, in view of the 
scene of the engagement. His death oc- 
curred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he 
was returning from the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron. 



CHARLES FRANCIS HALL, one of 
America's most celebrated arctic ex- 
plorers, was born in Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, in 182 r. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and located in Cincinnati, where later 
he became a journalist. For several years 
he devoted a great deal of attention to cal- 
orics. Becoming interested in the fate of the 
explorer, Sir John Franklin, he joined the 
expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and 
sailed in the ship "George Henry," under 
Captain Buddington, which left New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, in i860. He returned in 
1862, and two years later published his 
" Arctic Researches." He again joined the 
expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and 
sailed in the ship, " Monticello," under 
Captain Buddington, this time remaining in 
the arctic region over four years. On his 
return he brought back many evidences of 
having found trace of Franklin. 

In 1 87 1 the " Polaris " was fitted out by 
the United States government, and Captain 



jfAPifr. 



HjII ^^aia asSed forthe potsriegioes. He 

£ed ;:: Greeal.i3d ci Ocficfeer. iSji. isd the 

■■Pcuins"' wijs inaEy aKsm^in^^ b«- the 
crei»r. a. poctica ol vhkli. grnte^ Captain 
r5^5;c. ir^te-J w-I^ Efte icebergs K>r oce 
b.-::i'irei iizi rinecj— d«^ days. Stacil pocked 
op fcj Efse ■■ Tigress-"' oq t&e joch of At' 
i3~3- Tbe ccaer pcctioa ol ti^e crew- ': 
bojitS- 2J1C, iitsr J. peruocs «v>vage. «erc 
pocked sp ii Jrzje, ri";. bjs. wteEr^vessii 



OLIVER ELLSWORTH. thediErdcfcief 
fiisoce at tie Unfted Sc?r.-7S.. w^ bora 
i- WbicSscr. Cocaectio-t. April jjo. 1745- 
Afrer grxj- ^ rf ng froci Prracecoti, he tL3ok 
::3 tie scucrr o£ li«-. aad was la-ensed 
r^ pt-jcra-e ia r J71. la i J77 be «as ^'ect&i 
2s 2. vieiegi^e C3 ; ■ 
Ee was f--.i:fe ct ■ 



5 pCSt-CT- 

oe ot toe scpceaie 
--^:es by Wsst^gtca. 

cs Secweea rfi'y cccii- 

becicse vicZejirlj 

t to Piris Si esTCT es- 




ceeoejl ty 



:ed *^. 



M 






fgffckfe- ci tfee U ~"r . -^ .i s<_it 



H"s 



it tie sse ci ^teeit Le sttersd Bcwdacs 



di^ieitEQesc of HsrraEd Un ^ i _ .^le tiea 

eateEied the la.'^ oSce of his cncle s.c Bic- 
goc, iliine, aitd sooa afBsr opesed aa oace 
for the practice erf law at AngasCa. He was 
aa i" " ' ::ini hs ward, city attaroey. 

aac e "Age." a rrrai Eew^epia- 

^-. "" wtiich. w:^ coadacted by 
r Fie *>?-! decrde-d to re- 



Qoe ot 
He 






C 



HE5TZ5. . 



LN ARTHUH- r=rsiiy- 

: tT"r- Ucitea stares, wss 

, in F: ; it-ty. Va-tioct. Octo- 

c. I ; - is ecticateci at LsiCti 

iy. Xe-w Ticfc. frota 

: with k'£iG.'ar. and ea- 

c: in te.-.: '.r..g iciiooL After two yeais 

-t—z tie law o-=ce of Jtidge E. D. 

New- Ycri, as a sc^ceni. He was 




co.^fPExn/cjf or BioGJL.4r/n\ 



opoo a. prc^table 7 r ^ sbottly 

aftervrards -Cirried tc s. vfiCjtiter d liea- 
tenant Hessdon. of tb^ Usiied SraEes nsTy. 
Mrs- Arthcr d-ed sbcrtly beloie hss aarr^in^ 
non {<H^ the vice-presidency. In 1S56 s. 
cokxed wtHcan in New York was ejected 
Stom a stree: ' ' " ■ - - 

in a. sail a^i. 



appointed jcdge- 

Bncide of Vrv ,. _ , -..„. ^ ,.. 

Deo- of Gc -acs staa. At the 

close of his i^r. ... _i . ;ri-^a«ed the practice of 
taw in New Ycoi:. In 1872 he was made 
collector <rf the port of Xew Yort:, which 
position he hrfd foot v^sais. At the Chi- 
cago ocnve. .^<o Mr. Arthcr was 
nominated . c¥-nre<5»5e?8cy wt^h 
Garfield, anu ^. ; : 
was elected. F. - 

ani Mr. .\r:h::r vras c.i!,..'! :,- : .Ve :r.e reiiss 
of srovexr.r.:e-t. H;< - ation of 

aSairs was icersra.'y < - .\t its 

close he resua.ed :he practice of law in Xew 
York. His death occulted Xovunber iS« 



1S.\.\C HULL was one of tfte most c»a~ 
spicuons and prominent naval cftsoM^s in 
the early hsf'orx of Anterk-J*. He was Ivrti 
at Derby, C ' -"5- 5>e~ 

IP** t , e "^O^ '-.*»' t<;^t ^."■ 

t" -. iiie o^evaui-e 

" .AXTcarsof ape 

of a merchant ship iri the ". 

In i^oShebecante al:eute:u-.-: 

States navv. and three veais later was made 



served widi dnsaKsiiQ ia tS»e Rsiisssy e\pe- 
ditioiss. Ja^y 1-2. iSi^ fee S££>ed ira^ 
As^apcfiS^, ia csacostasd of tbe '^CcinsrjDc- 
- - -----.- ::^jee days w^s 7 "- : " ; a 

- - ■ 3 of Svie ^fp:f 

:--er? a^d fee tis. tbe ■^r^t: Txral 



Febrsrary 15, tSiS- at F^iie 



M 

manager 

fcoc. C-o". 



ARCCS ALOXZO H.\SXA, feaoES 






Wc> - , ■ 

reoi - 

p-oye c^ tr^e wboo.'esaJe grccerr hc^sse cs 
HaEca. GarTestsoCv C!c Cok.. his father beisst 
the senkir member of the Sna. Tine latter 
died ia i5>6i, and m^ - ^ _. -_.^.-;^ vi^ 
interest nntil i^S^. :ss w.£s 

dosed up. 

0«r sabject then becasse a me m twr ol 
"\ - x Ccv. ec^.; . " : -e 

.>5iv bet v.. 



»v..F v^ \r ^ 



wfes c~^;-.j..:o. t^ 



Company, of CJeveJand. possjdeet of tke 



170 



COMPEND/L'M OF BIOGRAPIir. 



Union National Bank, of Cleveland, president 
of the Cleveland City Railway Company, 
and president of the Chapin Mining Com- 
pany, of Lake Superior, he became promi- 
nently identified with the business world. 
He was one of the government directors of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed 
to that position in 1S85 by President Cleve- 
land. 

Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the na- 
tional Republican convention of 1884, which 
was his first appearance in the political 
world. He was a delegate to the con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elect- 
ed chairman of the Republican national 
committee the latter year, and practically 
managed the campaign of William Mclvin- 
ley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna 
was appointed senator by Governor Bush- 
nell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John Sherman. 



GEORGE PEABODY was one of the 
best known and esteemed of ail philan- 
thropists, whose munificent gifts to Ameri- 
can institutions have proven of so much 
benefit to the cause of humanity. He was 
born February iS, 1795, at South Danvers, 
Massachusetts, which is now called Pea- 
body in honor of him. He received but a 
meager education, and during his earl}' life 
he was a mercantile clerk at Thetford, Ver- 
mont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 
1 8 14 he became a partner with Elisha 
Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
and in 18 1 5 rhey moved to Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The business grew to great propor- 
tions, and they opened branch houses at 
New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody 
made several voyages to Europe of com- 
mercial importance, and in 1829 became the 
head of the firm, which was then called 
-Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he re- 



moved to London, England. He retired 
from the firm, and established the cele- 
brated banking house, in which he accumu- 
lated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grin- 
nell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic e.xpedi- 
tion, in 1852, and founded in the same year 
the Peabody Institute, in his native town, 
which he afterwards endowed with two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited 
the United States in 1857, and gave three 
hundred thousand dollars for the establish- 
ment at Baltimore of an institute of science, 
literature and fine arts. In 1 862 he gave 
two million five hundred thousand dollars 
for the erecting of lodging houses for the 
poor in London, and on another visit to the 
United States he gave one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a 
museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for 
the endowment of a department of physical 
science at Yale, and gave the "Southern 
Educational Fund " two million one hundred 
thousand dollars, besides devoting two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to various objects of 
public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final 
visit to the United States in 1869, and on 
this occasion he raised the endowment of 
the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, 
created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thou- 
sand dollars to Washington College, Vir- 
ginia; fifty thousand dollars for a "Peabody 
Museum, " at North Danvers, thirty thousand 
dollars to Phillips .Academy, Andover; tVYfen- 
ty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, 
Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the 
Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody 
also endowed an art school at Rome, in 

1868. He died in London, November 4, 

1869, less then a month after he had re- 
turned from the United States, and his 



COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAPIir 



171 



remains were brought to the United States 
and interred in his native town. He made 
several other bequests in his will, and left 
his fatnilv about five million dollars. 



!\/!.\TTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated 
i V 1 public man and senator, was born at 
Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1833, of an old Scotch-Irish 
family, some of whom had settled in the 
Keystone state in 1715. Matthew received 
a good education, graduating from the Jef- 
ferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, 
taught school, lectured, and studied law 
under Judge Sterrett. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothon- 
otary in 1855 and elected to the same 
office in 1856 and 1859. Later he was 
made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Re 
serves, lieutenant-colonel and assistant com- 
missary-general of the state, private secre- 
tary of the famous war governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylva- 
nia Infantry (nine months men), military 
state agent and held other offices at different 
times. 

Mr. Quay was a member of the house of 
representatives of the state of Pennsylvania 
from 1865 to 1 868. He filled the olTice of 
secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 
to 1878, and the position of delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national conventions 
of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1888. Hewasthe 
editor of the "Beaver Radical" and the 
" Philadelphia Record " for a time, and held 
many offices in the state conventions and on 
their committees. He was elected secre- 
tary of the commonwealth-of Pennsylvania, 
1869, and served three years, and in 1885 
was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his 
great abilities pointed him out as the 



natural candidate for United States senator, 
and he was accordingly elected to that posi- 
tion and re-elected thereto in 1892. He 
was always noted for a genius for organiza- 
tion, and as a political leader had but few 
peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, 
holding his impulses and forces in hand, he 
never quailed from any policy he adopted, 
and carried to success most, if not all, of 
the political campaigns in which he took 
part. 

JAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and 
political leader, attained national fame 
while chairman of the national executive 
committee of the Democratic party in the 
presidential campaign of 1896. He was a 
native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and 
was born September 29, 1839. His father, 
a well-to-do planter.setiled in Dallas count}', 
Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of 
this sketch received a careful education. 
During the Civil war he served as a private 
soldier in the Confederate army. From 
1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a 
planter, but in the latter year was admitted 
to the bar and began the practice of law. 
About the same time he was elected to the 
.Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 
1877 he was made president of the senate 
and the following year was unsuccessful in 
obtaining a nomination as member of con- 
gress. In 1880 he was elected representa- 
tive and his ability at once placed him in a 
foremost position. He was re-elected to 
congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as 
an influential member on the committee of 
ways and means. March 4, 1885, Mr. Jones 
took his seat in the United States senate to 
succeed James D. Walker, and was after- 
ward re-elected to the same office. In this 
branch of the national legislature his capa- 
bilities had a wider scope, and he was rec- 



172 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his 
party. 

On the nomination of William J. Bryan 
as its candidate for the presidency by the 
national convention of the Democratic 
party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones 
was made chairman of the national com- 
mittee. 

THEODORE THOMAS, one of the most 
celebrated musical directors America 
lias known, was born in the kingdom of Han- 
over in 1835, and received his musical educa- 
tion from his father. He was a very apt scholar 
and played the violin at public concerts at 
the age of six years. He came with his 
parents to America in 1845, and joined the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York 
City. He played the first violin in the 
orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind 
in her first American concert. In 1861 Mr. 
Thomas established the orchestra that be- 
came famous under his management, and 
gave his first symphony concerts in New 
York in 1864. He began his first "summer 
night concerts" in the same city in 1868, 
and in 1869 he started on his first tour of 
the principal cities in the United States, 
which he made every year for many years. 
He was director of the College of Music in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after 
having held the position for three years. 

Later he organized one of the greatest 
and most successful orchestras ever brought 
together in the city of Chicago, and was 
very prominent in musical affairs during the 
World's Columbian Exposition, thereby add- 
ing greatly to his fame. 



CYRUS HALL McCORMICK, the fa- 
mous inventor and manufacturer, was 
born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 
15,1 809. When he was seven years old his 



father invented a reaping machine. It was 
a rude contrivance and not successful. In 
1 83 1 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping 
machine, and had it patented three years 
later. By successive improvements he was 
able to keep his machines at the head of 
its class during his life. In 1 845 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two years later 
located in Chicago, where he amassed a 
great fortune in manufacturing reapers and 
harvesting machinery. In 1859 he estab- 
lished the Theological Seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago, an institution for pre- 
paring young men for the ministry in the 
Presbyterian church, and he afterward en- 
dowed a chair in the Washington and Lee 
College at Lexington, Virginia. He mani- 
fested great interest in educational and re- 
ligious matters, and by his great wealth he 
was able to extend aid and encouragement 
to many charitable causes. His death oc- 
curred May 13, 1884. 



DAVID ROSS LOCKE.— Under the 
pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this 
well-known humorist and writer made for 
himself a household reputation, and estab- 
lished a school that has many imitators. 

The subject of this article was born at 
Vestal, Broome county. New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1833. After receiving his edu- 
cation in the county of his birth he en- 
tered the office of the ' ' Democrat, " at Cort- 
land, New York, where he learned the 
printer's trade. He was successively editor 
and publisher of the ' 'Plymouth Advertiser, " 
the "Mansfield Herald," the " Bucyrus 
Journal," and the "Findlay Jeffersonian." 
Later he became editor of the "Toledo 
Blade." In i860 he commenced his 
" Nasby" articles, several series of which 
have been given the world in book form. 
Under a mask of misspelling, and ins auaiu*; 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



173 



?,nd humorous style, a keen political satire 
i.^ couched — a most effective weapon. 
Ilr. Locke was the author of a num- 
ber of serious political pamphlets, and 
later on a more pretentious work, " The 
Morals of Abou Ben Adhem." As a news- 
paper writer he gained many laurels and his 
works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln 
is said to have been a warm admirer of P. 
V. Nasby, of " Confedrit X Roads" fame. 
Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio. February 
15, 1S88. 

RUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a sol- 
dier, governor and secretary of war, 
was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 
27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and 
Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of 
twelve years he was left an orphan and pen- 
niless. For about a year he worked for 
his board and clothing, and attended school 
part of the time. In 1850 he found a place 
which paid small wages, and out of his 
scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. 
While there working on a farm he found 
time to attend the Richfield Academy, and 
by hard work between times managed to get 
a fair education for that time. The last 
two years of his attendance at this institu- 
tion of learning he taught school during the 
winter months. In 1857 he commenced the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. For a while he found employ- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired 
health induced him to remove to Grand 
Rapids, where he engaged in the lumber 
business. He was thus engaged when the 
Civil war broke out, and, his business suf- 
fering and his savings swept away, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain 
the following month, and major for gallant 
conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July i. 



1862. October 16, 1862, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan 
Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of 
the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered 
excellent service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, 
Maryland, and on returning to his command 
took part with Sherman in the campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley. For services ren- 
dered, that famous soldier recommended 
him for promotion, and he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers. In 1866 Gen- 
eral Alger took up his residence at Detroit, 
and prospered exceedingly in his business, 
which was that of lumbering, and grew 
quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention, and 
the same year was elected governor of 
Michigan. He declined a nomination for 
re-election to the latter office, in 1887, and 
was the following year a candidate for the 
nomination for president. In 1889 he was 
elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and at different 
times occupied many offices in other or- 
ganizations. 

In March, 1897, President Mcl\inley 
appointed General Alger secretary of war. 



CYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of 
submarine telegraphy, was the son of 
the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congre- 
gational minister, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 1819. 
He was educated in his native town, and at 
the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a 
store in New York City. Being gifted with 
excellent business ability Mr. Field pros- 
pered and became the head of a large mer- 
cantile house. In 1853 he spent about six 
months in travel in South America. On his 
return he became interested in ocean teleg- 
raphy. Being solicited to aid in the con- 



174 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



struction of a land telegraph across New 
Foundland to receive the news from a line 
of fast steamers it was proposed to run from 
from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck 
him to carr}' the line across the broad At- 
lantic. In 1850 Mr. Field obtained aeon- 
cession from the legislature of Newfound- 
land, giving him the sole right for fifty years 
to land submarine cables on the shores of 
that island. In company with Peter Cooper, 
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and 
Chandler White, he organized a company 
under the name of the New York, New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Compan}". 
In two years the line from New York across 
Newfoundland was built. The first cable 
connecting Cape Breton Island with New- 
foundland having been lost in a storm while 
being laid in 1855, another was put down in 
1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to 
London and organized the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the 
capital himself. Both governments loaned 
ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field 
accompanied the expeditions of 1857 and 
two in 1858. The first and second cables 
were failures, and the third worked but a 
short time and then ceased. The people of 
both continents became incredulous of the 
feasibility of laying a successful cable under 
so wide an expanse of sea, and the war 
breaking out shortly after, nothing was done 
until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former 
year, again made the attempt, and the Great 
Eastern laid some one thousand two hun- 
dred miles when the cable parted and was 
lost. The following year the same vessel 
succeeded in laying the entire cable, and 
picked up the one lost the year before, and 
both were carried to America's shore. After 
thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had 
his reward. He was the recipient of many 
medals and honors from both home and 



abroad. He gave his attention after this 
to establishing telegraphic communication 
throughout the world and many other large 
enterprises, notably the construction of ele- 
vated railroads in New York. Mr. Field 
died July 1 1, 1S92. 



G ROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty- 
second president of the United States, 
was born in Caldwell, Essex county, New 
Jersey, March 18, 1837, and was the son 
of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleve- 
land. The father, of distinguished New 
England ancestry, was a Presbj'terian min- 
ister in charge of the church at Caldwell at 
the time. 

When Grover was about three years of 
age the family removed to Fa\'etteville, 
Onondaga county, New York, where he 
attended the district school, and was in the 
academy for a short time. His father be- 
lieving that boys should early learn to labor, 
Grover entered a village store and worked 
for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. 
While he was thus engaged the family re- 
moved to Clinton, New York, and there 
young Cleveland took up h's studies at the 
academ}'. The death of his father dashed 
all his hopes of a collegiate education, the 
family being left in straightened circum- 
stances, and Grover started out to battle 
for himself. After acting for a year (1S53- 
54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind at New York 
City, he went to Buffalo. A short time 
after he entered the law office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a 
hard struggle with adverse circumstances, 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. He be- 
came confidential and managing clerk (or 
the firm under whom he had studied, and 
remained with them until 1863. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed district attorney 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



175 



of Erie county. It was during his incum- 
bency of this office that, on being nominated 
by the Democrats for supervisor, he came 
within thirteen votes of election, although 
the district was usuallj' Republican by two 
hundred and fifty majority. In i866Grover 
Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac 
V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here 
fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and 
he soon won a good standing at the bar of 
the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated 
himself in business with A. P. Laning and 
Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of 
Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a 
fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleve- 
land was elected sheriff of Erie county, an 
office which he tilled for four years, after 
which he resumed his profession, with L. K. 
Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. 
This firm was strong and popular and 
shortly vvas in possession of a lucrative 
practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm 
in 1879, and George J. Secard was admit- 
ted a member in 188 1. In the latter year 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, 
and in 1882 he was chosen governor by 
the enormous majority of one hundred and 
ninety-two' thousand votes. July 11, 1884, 
he was nominated for the presidency by the 
Democratic national convention, and in 
November following was elected. 

Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as 
president of the United States, in 1888 was 
nominated by his party to succeed himself, 
but he failed of the election, being beaten 
by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, 
being nominated again in opposition to the 
then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Har- 
rison, Grover Cleveland was elected pres- 
ident for the second time and served for the 
usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. 
Cleveland retired from the chair of the first 
magistrate of the nation, and in New York 



City resumed the practice of law, in which 
city he had established himself in 1889. 

June 2. 1886, Grover Cleveland was 
united in marriage with Miss Frances Fol- 
som, the daughter of his former partner. 



ALEXANDER WINCHELL, for many 
years one of the greatest of American 
scientists, and one of the most noted and 
prolific writers on scientific subjects, was 
born in Duchess county, New York, Decem- 
ber 31, 1 824. He received a thorough col- 
legiate education, and graduated at the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connect- 
icut, in 1847. His mind took a scientific 
turn, which manifested itself while he was 
yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher 
of natural sciences at the Armenian Semi- 
nary, in his native state, a position which 
he filled for three years. In 1851-3 he oc- 
cupied the same position in the Mesopo- 
tamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after 
which he was president of the Masonic Fe- 
male Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he 
became connected with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institu- 
tion he performed the most important work 
of his life, and gained a wide reputation as. 
a scientist. He held many important posi- 
tions, among which were the following: 
Professor of physics and civil engineering at 
the University of Michigan, also of geology, 
zoology and botany, and later professor of 
geology and palseontology at the same insti- 
tution. He also, for a time, was president 
of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and 
state geologist of Michigan. Professor 
Winchell was a very prolific writer on scien- 
tific subjects, and published many standard 
works, his most important and widely known 
being those devoted to geology. He also 
contributed a large number of articles to 
scientific and popular journals. 



176 



COMPENDIUM OF JJIOGRAPHT. 



ANDREW HULL FOOTE, of the 
United States navy, was a native of 
New England, born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, May. 4, 1808. He entered the 
navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. 
He slowly rose in his chosen profession, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, com- 
mander in 1852 and captain in 1861. 
Among the distinguished men in the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, but few stood higher 
in the estimation of his brother officers than 
Foote, and when, in the fall of i86"r. he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla 
then building on the Mississippi, the act 
gave great satisfaction to the service. 
Although embarrassed by want of navy 
yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into 
his new work with unusual energy. He 
overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, 
until that time, untried experiment, of creat- 
ing and maintaining a navy on a river, 
achieved a success beyond the expectations 
of the country. Great incredulity existed as 
to the possibility of carrying on hostilities 
on a river where batteries from the shore 
might bar the passage. But in spite of all, 
Foote soon had a navy on the great river, 
and by the heroic qualities of the crews en- 
trusted to him, demonstrated the utility of 
this new departure in naval architecture. 
All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote 
took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested 
action. On the 14th of the same month, 
for an hour and a half engaged the batteries 
of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads apd 
two wooden gunboats, thereby dishearten- 
ing the garrison and assisting in its capture. 
April 7th of the same year, after several 
hotly-contested actions. Commodore Foote 
received the surrender of Island No. 10, one 
of the great strongholds of the Confederacy 
on the Mississippi river. Foote having been 
wounded at Fort Donelson, and by neglect 



it having become so serious as to endanger 
his life, he was forced to resign his command 
and return home. June 16, 1862, he re- 
ceived the thanks of congress and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear admiral. He was 
appointed chief of the bureau of equipment 
and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was 
ordered to the fleet off Charleston, to super- 
cede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way 
to that destination was taken sick at New 
York, and died June 26, 1863. 



NELSON A. MILES, the well-known sol- 
dier, was born at Westminster, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8,1839. His ancestors set- 
tled in that state in 1643 among the early 
pioneers, and their descendants were, many 
of them, to be found among those battling 
against Great Britain during Revolutionary 
times and during the war of 18 12. Nelson 
was reared on a farm, received an academic 
education, and in early manhood engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 

1 86 1 he raised a company and offered his 
services to the government, and although 
commissioned as captain, on account of his 
youth went out as first lieutenant in the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 

1 862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry. At the request of Generals Grant 
and Meade he was made a brigadier by 
President Lincoln. He participated in all 
but one of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac until the close of the war. During 
the latter part of the time, he commanded 
the first division of the Second Corps. 
General Miles was wounded at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, and received four brevets for 
distinguished service. During the recon- 
struction period he commanded in North 
Carolina, and on the reorganization of the 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



177 



regular army he was made colonel of in- 
fantry. In 1880 he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to 
that of major-general. He successfully con- 
ducted several campaigns among the In- 
dians, and his name is known among the 
tribes as a friend when they are peacefully 
inclined. He many times averted war 
with the red men by judicious and humane 
settlement of difficulties without the military 
power. In 1892 General Miles was given 
command of the proceedings in dedicating 
the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the 
summer of 1894, during the great railroad 
strike at the same city, General Miles, then 
in command of the department, had the 
disposal of the troops sent to protect the 
United States mails. On the retirement of 
General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General 
Miles became the ranking major-general of 
the United States army and the head of its 
forces. 

JUNIUS BRUTUS BOOTH, the great 
actor, though born in London (1796), is 
more intimately connected with the Amer- 
ican than with the English stage, and his 
popularity in America was almost un- 
bounded, while in England he was not a 
prime favorite. He presented " Richard III. " 
in Richmond on his first appearance on the 
American stage in 1821. This was his 
greatest role, and in it he has never had an 
equal. In October of the same year he 
appeared in New York. After a long and 
successful career he gave his final perform- 
ance at New Orleans in 1852. He con- 
tracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper 
medical attention, it resulted in his death 
on November 30th of that year. He was, 
without question, one of the greatest tra- 
gedians that ever lived. In addition to his 
professional art and genius, he was skilled 



in languages, drawing, painting and sculp- 
ture. In his private life he was reserved, 
and even eccentric. Strange stories are 
related of his peculiarities, and on his farm 
near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal 
food, the taking of animal life, and even the 
felling of trees, and brought his butter and 
eggs to the Baltimore markets in person. 

Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder 
Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: 
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of 
Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes 
Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy 
in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in 
his day the greatest actor of America, if not 
of the world. 

TAMES MONTGOMERY BAILEY, fa- 
<j mous as the "Danbury News Man," 
was one of the best known American humor- 
ists, and was born September 25, 1841, at 
Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a 
profession and started in his chosen work on 
the "Danbury Times," which paper he pur- 
chased on his return from the war. Mr. 
Bailey also purchased the "Jeffersonian," 
another paper of Danbury, and consolidated 
them, forming the "Danbury News," which 
paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout 
the United States, from an incessant flow of 
rich, healthy, and original humor, which the 
pen of the editor imparted to its columns, 
and he succeeded in raising the circulation 
of the paper from a few hundred copies a. 
week to over forty thousand. The facilities 
of a country printing office were not so com- 
plete in those days as they are now, but Mr. 
Bailey was resourceful, and he put on re- 
lays of help and ran his presses night and 
day, and always prepared his matter a week 
ahead of time. The "Danbury News Man" 
was a new figure in literature, as his humor 
was so different from that of the newspaper 



178 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir 



wits — who had preceded him, and he maybe 
called the pioneer of that school now so 
familiar. Mr. Bailey published in book 
form "Life in Danbury" and "The Danbury 
News Man's Almanac. " One of his most 
admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he 
gave with unstinted generosity to all comers, 
and died comparatively poor, notwithstand- 
ing his ownership of a very profitable busi- 
ness which netted him an income of $40,000 
a year. He died March 4, 1894. 



MATTHEW HALE CARPENTER, a 
famous lawyer, orator and senator, 
was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 
22, 1824. After receiving a common-school 
education he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, but only 
remained two years. On returning to his 
home he commenced the study of law with 
Paul Dillingham, afterwards governor of 
Vermont, and whose daughter he married. 
In 1847 he was admitted to practice at the 
bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and 
for a time studied with Ruf us Choate. In 1 848 
he moved wet-t, settling at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and commencing the practice of his profes- 
sion soon obtained a wide reputation for 
ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to 
Milwaukee, where he found a wider field for 
his now increasing powers. During the 
Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he 
was loyal to the government and aided the 
Union cause to his utmost. In 1868 he 
was counsel for the government in a test 
case to settle the legality of the reconstruc- 
tion act before the United States supreme 
court, and won his case against Jeremiah S. 
Black. This gave him the election for sen- 
ator from Wisconsin in 1869, and he served 
until 1875, during part of which time he was 
president /;-tf /(TW/f?;-^ of the senate. Failing 
of a re-election Mr. Carpenter resumed the 



practice of law, and when William W. 
Belknap, late secretary of war, was im- 
peached, entered the case for General 
Belknap, and secured an acquittal. During 
the sitting of the electoral commission of 
1877, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel 
J. Tilden, although the Republican man- 
agers had intended to have him represent 
R. B. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected 
to the United States senate again in 1879, 
and remained a member of that body until 
the day of his death, which occurred at 
Washington, District of Columbia, Feb- 
ruary 24, iSof . 

Senator Carpenter's real name was De- 
catur Merritt Hammond Carpenter but about 
1852 he changed it to the one by which he 
was universally known. 



THOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and 
congressman, the well-known Geor- 
gian, whose name appears at tlie head of 
this sketch, made himself a place in the his- 
tory of our country by his ability, energy 
and fervid oratory. He was born in Col- 
umbia (now McDuffie) county, Georgia, 
September 5, 1856. He had a common- 
school education, and in 1872 entered Mer- 
cer University, at Macon, Georgia, as fresh- 
man, but for want of money left the college 
at the end of his sophomore year. He 
taught school, studying law at the same 
time, until 1875, when he was admitted to 
the bar. He opened an office and com- 
menced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in 
November, 1876. He carried on a success- 
ful business, and bought land and farmed on 
an extensive scale. 

Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic state convention of 1880, and was a 
member of the house of representatives of 
the legislature of his native state in 1882, 
In 1888 he was an elector-at-large on W\t 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



179 



Cleveland ticket, and in 1890 was elected 
to represent his district in the fifty-second 
congress. This latter election is said to have 
been due entirely to Mr. Watson's "dash- 
ing display of ability, eloquence and popular 
power." In his later years he championed 
the alliance principles and policies until he 
became a leader in the movement. In the 
heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Watson was 
nominated as the candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the Bryan ticket by that part of the 
People's party that would not endorse the 
nominee for the same position made by the 
Democratic party. 



FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, mathe- 
matician, physicist and educator, was 
born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 1809. 
He graduated from Yale College in i82S,and 
in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 
1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Alabama, and from 1848 to 1850, 
professor of chemistry and natural history 
in the same educational institution. In 
1854 he became connected with the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, of which he became 
president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. 
In 1854 he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 1861 Professor Barnard 
resigned his chancellorship and chair in the 
university, and in 1863 and 1 864 was con- 
nected with the United States coast survey 
in charge of chart printing and lithography. 
In May, 1864, he was elected president of 
Columbia College, New York City, which 
he served for a number of years. 

Professor Barnard received the honorary 
degree of LL. D. from Jefferson College, 
Mississippi, in 1S55, and from Yale College 
in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D. from 
the University of Mississippi in 1861, and 
that of L. H. D. from the regents of the 



University of the State of New York in 1 872. 
In i860 he was a member of the eclipse 
party sent by the United States coast sur- 
vey to Labrador, and during his absence 
was elected president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. lu 
the act of congress establishing the National 
Academy of Sciences in 1863, he was named 
as one of the original corporators. In 1867 
he was one of the United States commis- 
sioners to the Paris Exposition. He was 
a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, associate member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
many other philosophical and scientific 
societies at home and abroad. Dr. Barnard 
was thoroughly identified with the progress 
of the age in those branches. His published 
works relate wholly to scientific or educa- 
tional subjects, chief among which are the 
following: Report on Collegiate Education; 
Art Culture; History of the American Coast 
Survey; University Education; Undulatory 
Theory of Light; Machinery and Processes 
of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the 
Exact Sciences, Metric System of Weights 
and Measures, etc. 



EDWIN McMASTERS STANTON, the 
secretary of war during the great Civil 
war, was recognized as one of America's 
foremost public men. He was born Decem- 
ber 19, 18 14, at Steuben ville, Ohio, where 
he received his education and studied law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and 
was reporter of the supreme court of Ohio 
from 1842 until 1845. He removed to 
Washington in 1856 to attend to his prac- 
tice before the United States supreme 
court, and in 1S58 he went to California as 
counsel for the government in certain land 
cases, which he carried to a successful 
conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed 



180 



':^VMPENDIUM OF BIOGRA. 



attorney-general of the United States in 
December, i860, by President Buchanan. 
On March 4, 1861, Mr. Stanton went with 
the outgoing administration and returned to 
the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed secretary of war by President 
Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon 
Cameron. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the accession of Johnson 
to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in 
the same office. He held it for three years, 
and by his strict adherence to the Repub- 
lican party, he antagonized President John- 
son, who endeavored to remove him. On 
August 5, 1867, the president requested him 
to resign, and appointed General Grant to 
succeed him, but when congress convened 
in December the senate refused to concur in 
the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to 
his post until the president again removed 
him from office, but was again foiled by 
congress. Soon after, however, he retired 
voluntarily from office and took up the 
practice of law, in which he engaged until 
his death, on December 24, 1869. 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, the eminent 
theologian and founder of the church 
known as Disciples of Christ, was born in 
the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 
1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, a Scoth-Irish "Seceder. " After 
studying at the University of Glasgow, he, 
in company with his father, came to America 
in 1808, and both began labor in western 
Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to 
apostolic simplicity. They organized a 
church at Brush Run, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, in 181 1, which, however, the 
year following, adopted Baptist views, and 
in 1 81 3, with other congregations joined a 
Baptist association. Some of the under- 
lying principles and many practices of the 



Campbells and their disciples were repug- 
nant to the Baptist church and considerable 
friction was the result, and 1827 saw the 
separation of that church from the Church 
of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The 
latter then reorganized themselves anew. 
They reject all creeds, professing to receive 
the Bible as their only guide. In most mat- 
ters of faith they are essentially in accord with 
the other Evangelical Christian churches, 
especially in regard to the person and work 
of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. 
They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, 
hold that repentance and faith should precede 
baptism, attaching much importance to the 
latter ordinance. On all other points they 
encourage individual liberty of thought. In 
1 841, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany 
College, West Virginia, of which he was 
president for many years, and died March 4, 
1866. 

The denomination which they founded 
is quite a large and important church body 
in the United States. They support quite 
a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; 
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern 
Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana; 
Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky Univer- 
sity, Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa 
College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries 
and schools. They also support several 
monthly and quarterly religious periodicals 
and many papers, both in the United States 
and Great Britain and her dependencies. 



WILLIAM L.WILSON, the noted West 
Virginian, who was postmaster-gener- 
al under President Cleveland's second ad- 
ministration, won distinction as the father 
of the famous " Wilson bill," which became 
a law under the same administration. Mr. 
Vv'iiaon was born May 3, 1843, in Jeffer- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



181 



son county, West Virginia, and received 
a good education at the Charlestown 
Academ}', where he prepared himself for 
college. He attended the Columbian Col- 
lege in the District of Columbia, from 
which he graduated in i860, and then 
attended the University of Virginia. Mr. 
Wilson served in the Confederate army dur- 
ing the war, after which he was a professor 
in Columbian College. Later he entered 
into the practice of law at Charlestown. 
He attended the Democratic convention 
held at Cincinnati in 1880, as a delegate, 
and later was chosen as one of the electors 
for the state-at-large on the Hancock 
ticket. In the Democratic convention at 
Chicago in 1892, Mr. Wilson was its per- 
manent president. He was elected pres- 
ident of the West Virginia University in 
1882, entering upon the duties of his office 
on September 6, but having received the 
nomination for the forty-seventh congress 
on the Democratic ticket, he resigned the 
presidency of the university in June, 1883, 
to take his seat in congress. Mr. Wil- 
son was honored by the Columbian Uni- 
versity and the Hampden-Sidney College, 
both of which conferred upon him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 1S84 he was appointed 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington for two years, and at the end 
of his term was re-appointed. He was 
elected to the forty-seventh, forty-ninth, 
fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second and fifty- 
third congresses, but was defeated for re- 
election to the fifty- fourth congress. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. Bissell from the office 
of postmaster- general, Mr. Wilson was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy by President 
Cleveland. His many years of public serv- 
ice and the prominent part he took in the 
discussion of public questions gave him a 
national reputation. 



CALVIN S. BRICE, a successful and 
noted financier and politician, was 
born at Denmark, Ohio, September 17, 
1845, of an old Maryland family, who trace 
their lineage from the Bryces, or Bruces, of 
Airth, Scotland. The father of our subject 
was a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, 
who removed to Ohio in 1812. Calvin S. 
Brice was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, and at the age of thir- 
teen entered the preparatory department of 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and the 
following year entered the freshman class. 
On the breaking out of the Civil war, 
although but fifteen years old, he enlisted in 
a company of three-months men. He re- 
turned to complete his college course, but 
re-enlisted in Company A, Eighty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry, and served in the Virginia 
campaign. He then returned to college, 
from which he graduated in 1863. In 1864 
he organized Company E, One Hundred 
and Eightieth Ohio Infantry, and served 
until the close of hostilities, in the western 
armies. 

On his return home Mr. Brice entered 
the law department of the University of 
Michigan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar in Cincinnati. In the winter of 1870- 
71 he went to Europe in the interests of the 
Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad and pro- 
cured a foreign loan. This road became 
the Lake Erie & Western, of which, in 
1887, Mr. Brice became president. This 
was the first railroad in which he had a 
personal interest. The conception, build- 
ing and sale of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad, known as the "Nickel 
Plate," was largely due to him. He was 
connected with many other railroads, among 
which may be mentioned the following: 
Chicago & Atlantic; Ohio Central; Rich- 
mond & Danville; Richmond & West Point 



182 



COMTENDIL'^r OF BIOGRAPlir. 



Terminal; East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia; Memphis & Charleston; Mobile & 
Birmingham; Kentucky Central; Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic, and the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon. In 1890 he was 
elected United States senator from Ohio. 
Notwithstanding his extensive business inter- 
ests, Senator Brice gave a considerable 
time to political matters, becoming one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party and one 
of the most widely known men in the 
country. 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, twenty-third 
president of the United States, was 
born August 20, 1833, at North Bend, 
Hamilton county, Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, General William Henry Har- 
rison, afterwards president of the United 
States. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Harrison, was a member of the Continental 
congress, signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was three times elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The subject of this sketch entered Farm- 
ers College at an early age, and two years 
later entered Miami University, at Oxford, 
Ohio. Upon graduation he entered the 
office of Stover & Gwyne, of Cincinnati, as a 
law student. He was admitted to the bar 
two years later, and having inherited about 
eight hundred dollars vvorth of property, he 
married the daughter of Doctor Scott, pres- 
ident of a female school at Oxford, Ohio, 
and selected Indianapolis, Indiana, to begin 
practice. In i860 he was nominated by 
the Republicans as candidate for state 
supreme court reporter, and did his first 
political speaking in that campaign. He 
•was elected, and after two years in that 
position he organized the Se^-entieth Indi- 
ana Infantry, of which he was made colonel, 
and with his regiment joined General Sher- 



man's army. For bravery displayed at Re- 
saca and Peach Tree Creek he was made a 
brigadier-general. In the meantime the 
office of supreme court reporter had been 
declared vacant, and another party elected 
to fill it. In the fall of 1864, having been 
nominated for that office. General Harrison 
obtained a thirty-day leave of absence, went 
to Indiana, canvassed the state and was 
elected. As he was about to rejoin his 
command he was stricken down by an attack 
of fever. After his recovery he joined 
General Sherman's army and participated in 
the closing events of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined to 
be a candidate for the office of supreme 
court reporter, and returned to the practice 
of the law. His brilliant campaign for the 
office of governor of Indiana in 1876, 
brought him into public notice, although he 
was defeated. He took a prominent part 
in the presidential canvass of 1880, and was 
chosen United States senator from Indiana, 
serving six years. He then returned to the 
practice of his profession. In 1888 he was 
selected by the Republican convention at 
Chicago as candidate for the presidency, and 
after a heated campaign was elected over. 
Cleveland. He was inaugurated March 4, 
1889, and signed the McKinley bill October 
I, 1890, perhaps the most distinctive feature 
of his administration. In 1892 he was 
again the nominee of the Republican party 
for president, but was defeated by Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, and 
again resumed the practice of law in Indian- 
apolis. 

JOHN CRAIG HAVEMEYER, the 
celebrated merchant and sugar refiner, 
was born in New York City in 1833. His 
father, William F. Havemeyer, and grand- 
father, William Havemeyer, were both sugar 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



183 



refiners. The latter named came from 
Buckeburg, Germany, in 1799, and settled 
in New York, establishing one of the first 
refineries in that city. William F. succeeded 
his father, and at an early age retired from 
business with a competency. He was three 
times mayor of his native city, New York. 
John C. Havemeyer was educated in 
private schools, and was prepared for college 
at Columbia College grammar school. 
Owing to failing eyesight he was unable to 
finish his college course, and began his 
business career in a wholesale grocery store, 
where he remained two years. In 1854, 
after a year's travel abroad, he assumed the 
responsibility of the office work in the sugar 
refinery of Havemeyer & Molter, but two 
years later etablished a refinery of his own 
in Brooklyn. This afterwards developed into 
the immense business of Havemeyer & Elder. 
The capital was furnished by his father, 
and, chafing under the anxiety caused by the 
use of borrowed money, he sold out his 
interest and returned to Havemeyer & 
Molter. This firm dissolving the next year, 
John C. declined an offer of partnership 
from the successors, not wishing to use 
borrowed money. For two years he remain- 
ed with the house, receiving a share of the 
profits as compensation. For some years 
thereafter he was engaged in the commission 
business, until failing health caused his 
retirement. In 1871, he again engaged in 
the sugar refining business at Greenport, 
Long Island, with his brother and another 
partner, under the firm name of Havemeyer 
Brothers & Co. Here he remained until 
1880, when his health again declined. 
During the greater part of his life Mr. 
Havepieyer was identified with many benev- 
olent societies, including the New York 
Port Society, Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Church, American Bible Society, 



New York Sabbath School Society and 
others. He was active in Young Men's 
Christian Association work in New York, 
and organized and was the first president of 
an affiliated society of the same at Yonkers. 
He was director of several railroad corpo- 
rations and a trustee of the Continental Trust 
Company of New York. 



WALTER QUINTIN GRESHAM, an 
eminent American statesman and 
jurist, was born March 17, 1833, near Cory- 
don, Harrison county, Indiana. He ac- 
quired his education m the local schools of 
the county and at Bloomington Academy, 
although he did not graduate. After leav- 
ing college he read law with Judge Porter 
at Corydon, and just before the war he be- 
gan to take an interest in politics. Mr. 
Gresham was elected to the legislature from 
Harrison county as a Republican; previous 
to this the district had been represented by 
a Democrat. At the commencement of 
hostilities he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry, but 
served in that regiment only a short time, 
when he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- 
third Indiana, and served under General 
Grant at the siege of Vicksburg as brigadier- 
general. Later he was under Sherman in 
the famous ''March to the Sea," and com- 
manded a division of Blair's corps at the 
siege of Atlanta where he was so badly 
wounded in the leg that he was compelled 
to return home. On his way home he was 
forced to stop at New Albany, where he re- 
mained a year before he was able to leave. 
He was brevetted major-general at the close 
of the war. While at New Albany, Mr. 
Gresham was appointed state agent, his 
duty being to pay the interest on the state 
debt in New York, and he ran twice for 
congress against ex-Speaker Kerr, but was 



184 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



defeated in both cases, although he greatly 
reduced the Democratic majority. He was 
held in high esteem by President Grant, 
who offered him the portfolio of the interior 
but Mr. Gresham declined, but accepted 
the appointment of United States judge for 
Indiana to succeed David McDonald. 
Judge Gresham served on the United States 
district court bench until 1883, when he 
was appointed postmaster-general by Presi- 
dent Arthur, but held that office only a few 
months when he was made secretary of the 
treasury. Near the end of President 
Arthur's term. Judge Gresham was ap- 
pointed judge of the United States circuit 
court of the district composed of Indiana, 
Illinois and contiguous states, which he held 
until 1893. Judge Gresham was one of the 
presidential possibilities in the National Re- 
publican convention in 1888, when General 
Harrison was nominated, and was also men- 
tioned for president in 1892. Later the 
People's party made a strenuous effort to 
induce him to become their candidate for 
president, he refusing the offer, however, 
and a few weeks before the election he an- 
nounced that he would support Mr. Cleve- 
land, the Democratic nominee for president. 
Upon the election of Mr. Cleveland in the 
fall of 1892, Judge Gresham was made the 
secretary of state, and filled that position 
until his death on May 28, 1895, at Wash- 
intrton, District of Columbia. 



ELISHA B. ANDREWS, noted as an ed- 
ucator and college president, was born 
at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, January 10, 
1844, his father and mother being Erastus 
and Elmira (Bartlett) Andrews. In 1S61, 
he entered the service of the general gov- 
ernment as private and non-commissioned 
officer in the First Connecticut Heavy Ar- 
tillery, and in 1S63 was promoted to the 



rank of second lieutenant. Returning home 
he was prepared for college at Powers In- 
stitute and at the Wesleyan Academy, and 
entered Brown University. From here he 
was graduated in 1870. For the succeeding 
two years he was principal of the Connecti- 
cut Literary Institute at Suffield, Connecticut. 
Completing a course at the Newton Theo- 
logical Institute, he was ordained pastor of 
the First Baptist church at Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, July 2, 1874. The following 
year he became president of the Denison 
University, at Granville, Ohio. In 1879 
he accepted the professorship of homiletics, 
pastoral duties and church polity at Newton 
Theological Institute. In 1882 he was 
elected to the chair of history and political 
economy at Brown University. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska honored him with an 
LL. D. in 1884, and the same year Colby 
University conferred the degree of D. D. 
In 1888 he became professor of political 
economy and public economy at Cornell 
University, hut the next year returned to 
Brown University as its president. From 
the time of his inauguration the college work 
broadened in many ways. Many timely 
and generous donations from friends and 
alumni of the college were influenced by 
him, and large additions made -to the same. 
Professor Andrews published, in 1887, 
"Institutes of General History," and in 
1888, •' Institutes of Economics." 



JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, the subject 
of the present biography, was, during his 
life, one of the most distinguished chemists 
and scientific writers in America. He was 
an Englishman by birth, born at Liverpool, 
May 5, 181 1, and was reared in his native 
land, receiving an excellent .education, 
graduating at the University of London. In 
1833 he came to the United States, and 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAniT. 



187" 



settled first in Pennsylvania. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of Philadel- 
phia, in 1836, and for three years following 
was professor of chemistry and physiology 
at Hampden-Sidney College. He then be- 
came professor of chemistry in the New York 
University, with which institution he was 
prominently connected for many years. It 
is stated on excellent authority that Pro- 
fessor Draper, in 1S39, took the first photo- 
graphic picture ever taken from life. He 
was a great student, and carried on many 
important and intricate experiments along 
scientific lines. He discovered many of the 
fundamental facts of spectrum analysis, 
which he published. He published a number 
of works of great merit, many of which are 
recognized as authority upon the subjects of 
which they treat. Among his work were: 
"Human Physiology, Statistical and Dyna- 
mical of the Conditions and Cause of Life 
in Man," "History of Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," "History of the Ameri- 
can Civil War," besides a number of works 
on chemistry, optics and mathematics. Pro- 
fessor Draper continued to hold a high place 
among the scientific scholars of America 
until his death, which occurred in January, 
1882. 

GEORGE W. PECK, ex-governor of 
the -state of Wisconsin and a famous 
journalist and humorist, was born in Jeffer- 
son county. New York, September 28, 1840. 
When he was about three years of age his 
parents removed to Wisconsin, settling near 
Whitewater, where young Peck received his 
education at the public schools. At fifteen 
he entered the office of the "Whitewater 
Register," where he learned the printer's 
art. He helped start the "Jefferson County 
Republican" later on, but sold out his 
interest therein and set type in the office of 



the "State Journal," at Madison. At the 
outbreak of the war he enlisted in the 
Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry as a private, and 
after serving four years returned a second 
lieutenant. He then started the " Ripon 
Representative," which he sold not long 
after, and removing to New York, was on 
the staff of Mark Pomeroy's "Democrat." 
Going to La Crosse, later, he conducted the 
La Crosse branch paper, a half interest in 
which he bought in 1874. He next started 
"Peck's Sun," which four years later he 
removed to Milwaukee. While in La 
Crosse he was chief of police one year, and 
also chief clerk of the Democratic assembly 
in 1874. It was in 1878 that Mr. Peck 
took his paper to Milwaukee, and achieved 
his first permanent success, the circulation 
increasing to 80,000. For ten years he was 
regarded as one of the most original, versa- 
tile and entertaining writers in the country, 
and he has dehneated every phase of 
country newspaper life, army life, domestic 
experience, travel and city adventure. Up 
to 1890 Mr. Peck took but little part in 
politics, but in that year was elected mayor 
of Milwaukee on the Democratic ticket. 
The following August he was elected gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin by a large majority, 
the "Bennett School Bill" figuring to a 
large extent in his favor. 

Mr. Peck, besides many newspaper arti- 
cles in his peculiar vein and numerous lect- 
ures, bubbling over with fun, is known to 
fame by the following books: "Peck's Bad 
Boy and his Pa," and "The Grocery Man 
and Peck's Bad Boy." 



CHARLES O'CONOR, who was for 
many years the acknowledged leader 
of the legal profession of New York City, 
was also conceded to be one of the greatest 
lawyers America has produced. He was 



188 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPlir. 



born in New York City in 1804, his fatlier 
being an educated Irish gentleman. Charles 
received a common-school education, and 
early took up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to practice in 1824. His close ap- 
plication and untiring energy and industry 
soon placed him in the front rank of the 
profession, and within a few years he was 
handling many of the most important cases. 
One of the first great cases he had and which 
gained him a wide reputation, was that of 
"Jack, the Fugitive Slave," in 1835, in which 
his masterful argument before the supreme 
court attracted wide attention and com- 
ment. Charles O'Conor was a Democrat 
all his life. He did not aspire to office- 
holding, however, and never held any office 
except that of district attorney under Presi- 
dent Pierce's administration, which he only 
retained a short time. He took an active 
interest, however, in public questions, and 
was a member of the state (New York) con- 
stitutional convention in 1864. In 1868 he 
was nominated for the presidency by the 
" Extreme Democrats." His death occurred 
in May, 18S4. 

SIMON BOLIVAR BUCKNER, a noted 
American officer and major-general in 
the Confederate army, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1823. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1844, served in 
the United States infantry and was later as- 
signed to commissary duty with the rank of 
captain. He served several years at fron- 
tier posts, and was assistant professor in the 
military academy in 1846. He was with 
General Scott in the Mexican war, and en- 
gaged in all the battles from Vera Cruz to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He 
was wounded at Cherubusco and brevetted 
first lieutenant, and at Molino del Rey was 
brevetted captain. After the close of the 



Mexican war he returned to West Point as 
assistant instructor, and was then assigned 
to commissary duty at New York. He re- 
signed in 1855 and became superintendent 
of construction of the Chicago custom house. 
He was made adjutaut-genenal, with the 
rank of colonel, of Illinois militia, and was 
colonel of Illinois volunteers raised for the 
Utah expedition, but was not mustered into 
service. In i860 he removed to Kentucky, 
where he settled on a farm near Louisville 
and became inspector-general in command 
of the Kentucky Home Guards. At the 
opening of the Civil war he joined the Con- 
federate army, and was given command at 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, which he was 
compelled to abandon after the capture of 
Fort Henry. He then retired to Fort Don- 
elson, and was there captured with sixteen 
thousand men, and an immense store of pro- 
visions, by General Grant, in February, 
1862. He was held as a prisoner of war 
at Fort Warren until August of that year. 
He commanded a division of Hardee's corps 
in Bragg's Army of the Tennessee, and was 
afterward assigned to the third division and 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
and Murfreesboro. He was with Kirby 
Smith when that general surrendered his 
army to General Canby in May, 1865. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the vice- 
presidency on the Gold Democratic ticket 
with Senator John M. Palmer in 1896. 



SIMON KENTON, one of the famous pio- 
neers and scouts whose names fill the 
pages of the early history of our country, 
was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
April 3, 1755. In consequence of an affray, 
at the age of eighteen, young Kenton went 
to Kentucky, then the "Dark and Bloody 
Ground," and became associated with Dan- 
iel Boone and other pioneers of that region. 



COHIPRNDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



18» 



For a short time he acted as a scout and 
spy for Lord Dunmore, the British governor 
of Virginia, but afterward taking the side 
of the struggling colonists, participated in 
the war for independence west of the Alle- 
ghanies. In 1784 he returned to Virginia, 
but did not remain there long, going back 
with his family to Kentucky. From 
that time until 1793 he participated in all 
the combats and battles of that time, and 
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne swept the 
Valley of the Ohio, and settled the suprem- 
acy of the whites in that region. Iventon 
laid claim to large tracts of land in the new 
country he had helped to open up, but 
through ignorance of law, and the growing 
value of the land, lost it all and was reduced 
to poverty. During the war with England 
in 1812-15, Kenton took part in the inva- 
sion of Canada with the K^entucky troops 
and participated in the battle of the Thames. 
He finally had land granted him by the 
legislature of -Kentucky, and received a pen- 
sion from the United States government. 
He died in Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE, an 
American statesman of eminence, was 
born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 
I 8 16. He learned the trade of printer, but 
abandoned that calling at the age of eight- 
een and entered the Kent's Hill Academy at 
Reading, Maine, and then took up the study 
of law, reading in Hallowell, Boston, and at 
the Harvard Law School. He began prac- 
tice at Galena, Illinois, in 1840. He was 
elected to congress in 1852, and represented 
his district in that body continuously until 
March, 1869, and at the time of his retire- 
ment he had served a greater number of 
consecutive terms than any other member 
of the house. In 1873 President Grant ap- 



pointed him secretary of state, which posi- 
tion he resigned to accept that of minister 
to France. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, including the siege of Paris and the 
reign of the Commune, Mr. Washburne re- 
mained at his post, protecting the lives and 
property of his countrymen, as well as that 
of other foreign residents in Paris, while the 
ministers of all other powers abandoned 
their posts at a time when they were most 
needed. As far as possible he extended 
protection to unfortunate German residents, 
who were the particular objects of hatred of 
the populace, and his firmness and the suc- 
cess which attended his efforts won the ad- 
miration of all Europe. Mr. Washburne 
died at Chicago, Illinois, October 22, 1887. 



"\ 1 7ILLIAM CRAMP, one of the most 
V V extensive shipbuilders of this coun- 
try, was born in Kensington, then a suburb, 
now a part of Philadelphia, in 1806. He 
received a thorough English education, and 
when he left school was associated with 
Samuel Grice, one of the most eminent 
naval architects of his day. In 1830, hav- 
ing mastered all the details of shipbuilding, 
Mr. Cramp engaged in business on his own 
account. By reason of ability and excel- 
lent work he prospered from the start, until 
now, in the hands of his sons, under the 
name of William Cramp & Sons' Ship and 
EngineBuilding Company, it has become the 
most complete shipbuilding plant and naval 
arsenal in the western hemisphere, and fully 
equal to any in the world. As Mr. Cramp's 
sons attained manhood they learned their 
father's profession, and were admitted to a 
partnership. In 1872 the firm was incor- 
porated under the title given above. Until 
i860 wood was used in building vessels, al- 
though pace was kept with all advances in 
the art of shipbuilding. At the opening of 



190 



COMTENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



the war came an unexpected demand for 
war vessels, which they promptly met. The 
sea-going ironclad "New Ironsides" was 
built by them in 1862, followed by a num- 
ber of formidable ironclads and the cruiser 
"Chattanooga." They subsequently built 
several war vessels for the Russian and 
other governments which added to their 
reputation. When the American steamship 
line was established in 1S70, the Cramps 
were commissioned to build for it four first- 
class iron steamships, the "Pennsylvania," 
"Ohio," "Indiana" and "Illinois," which 
they turned out in rapid order, some of the 
finest specimens of the naval architecture of 
their day. '^Villiam Cramp remained at the 
head of the great company he had founded 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 
1879. 

Charles H. Cramp, the successor of his 
father as head of the William Cramp & 
Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, 
was born in Philadelphia May 9, 1829, and 
received an excellent education in his native 
city, which he sedulously sought to sup- 
plement by close study until he became 
an authority on general subjects and the 
best naval architect on the western hemis- 
phere. Many of the best vessels of our 
new navy were built by this immense con- 
cern. 

WASHINGTON ALLSTON, probably 
the greatest American painter, was 
born in South Carolina in 1779. He was 
sent to school at the age of seven years at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he met Ed- 
ward Malbone, two years his senior, and 
who later became a pamter of note. The 
friendship that sprang up between them un- 
doubtedly influenced young Allston in the 
choice of a profession. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1800, and went to England the 



following year, after pursuing his studies for 
a year under his friend Malbone at his home 
in South Carolina. He became a student 
at the Royal Academy where the great 
American, Benjamin West, presided, and 
who became his intimate friend. Allston 
later went to Paris, and then to Italy, where 
four years were spent, mostly at Rome. In 
1809 he returned to America, but soon after 
returned to London, having married in the 
meantime a sister of Dr. Channing. In 
a short time his first great work appeared, 
"The Dead Man Restored to Life by the 
Bones of Elisha," which took the British 
Association prize and firmly established his 
reputation. Other paintings followed in 
quick succession, the greatest among which 
were "Uriel in the Center of the Sun," 
"Saint Peter Liberated by the Angel," and 
"Jacob's Dream," supplemented by many 
smaller pieces. Hard work, and grief at the 
death of his wife began to tell upon his health, 
and he left London in 1818 for America. 
The same year he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy. During the next 
few years he painted "Jeremiah," "Witch 
ofEndor," and "Beatrice." In 1830 Alls- 
ton married a daughter of Judge Dana, and 
went to Cambridge, which was his home 
until his death. Here he produced the 
"Vision of the Bloody Hand," "Rosalie," 
and many less noted pieces, and had given 
one week of labor to his unfinished master- 
piece, "Belshazzar's Feast," when death 
ended his career July 9, 1843. 



JOHN ROACH, ship builder and manu- 
facturer, whose career was a marvel of. 
industrial labor, and who impressed his in- 
dividuality and genius upon the times in 
which he lived more, perhaps, than any 
other manufacturer in America. He was 
born at Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ire- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



191 



land, December 25, 181 5, the son of a 
wealthy merchant. He attended school 
ui.til he was thirteen, when his father be- 
came financially embarrassed and failed 
and shortly after died; John determined to 
come to America and carve out a fortune 
for himself. He landed in New York at the 
age of sixteen, and soon obtained employ- 
ment at the Howell Iron Works in New Jer- 
sey, at twenty-five cents a day. He soon 
made himself a place in the world, and at 
the end of three years had saved some 
twelve hundred dollars, which he lost by 
the failure of his employer, in whose hands 
it was left. Returning to New York he 
began to learn how to make castings for 
marine engines and ship work. Having 
again accumulated one thousand dollars, in 
company with three fellow workmen, he 
purchased a small foundry in New York, 
but soon became sole proprietor. At the 
end of four years he had saved thirty thou- 
sand dollars, besides enlarging his works. 
In 1856 his works were destroyed by a 
boiler explosion, and being unable to collect 
the insurance, was left, after paying his 
debts, without a dollar. However, his 
credit and reputation for integrity was good, 
and he built the Etna Iron Works, giving it 
capacity to construct larger marine engines 
than any previously built in this country. 
Here he turned out immense engines for 
the steam ram Dunderberg, for the war ves- 
sels Winooski and Neshaning, and other 
large vessels. To accommodate his increas- 
ing business, Mr. Roach, in 1869, pur- 
chased the Morgan Iron Works, one of the 
largest in New York, and shortly after sev- 
eral others. In 1871 he bought the Ches- 
ter ship yards, which he added to largely, 
erecting a rolling mill and blast furnace, and 
providing every facility for building a ship 
out of the ore and timber. This immense 



plant covered a large area, was valued at 
several millions of dollars, and was known 
as the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding 
and Engine Works, of which Mr. Roach 
was the principal owner. He built a large 
percentage of the iron vessels now flying 
the American flag, the bulk of his business 
being for private parties. In 1875 he built 
the sectional dry docks at Pensacola. He, 
about this time, drew the attention of the 
government to the use of compound marine 
engines, and thus was the means of im- 
proving the speed and economy of the ves- 
sels of our new navy. In 1883 Mr. Roach 
commenced work on the three cruisers for 
the government, the "Chicago," "Boston" 
and "Atlanta," and the dispatch boat 
" Dolphin." For some cause the secretary 
of the navy refused to receive the latter and 
decided that Mr. Roach's contract would 
not hold. This embarrassed Mr. Roach, 
as a large amount of his capital was in- 
volved in these contracts, and for the pro- 
tection of bondsmen and creditors, July 18, 
1885, he made an assignment, but the 
financial trouble broke down his strong con- 
stitution, and January 10, 18S7, he died. 
His son, John B. Roach, succeeded to the 
shipbuilding interests, while Stephen W. 
Roach inherited the Morgan Iron Works at 
New York. 

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, one of 
the two great painters who laid the 
foundation of true American art, was born 
in Boston in 1737, one year earlier than his 
great contemporary, Benjamin West. His 
education was limited to the common schools 
of that time, and his training in art he ob- 
tained by his own observation and experi- 
ments solely. When he was about seven- 
teen years old he had mapped out his future, 
however, by choosing painting as his pro- 



192 



COMPENDIUM OF BJOGRAPHT. 



fession. If he ever studied under any 
teacher in his early efforts, we have no au- 
thentic account of it, and tradition credits 
the young artist's wonderful success en- 
tirely to his own talent and untiring effort. 
It is almost incredible that at the age of 
twenty-three years his income from his 
works aggregated fifteen hundred dollars 
per annuin, a very great sum in those days. 
In 1774 he went to Europe in search of ma- 
terial for study, which was so rare in his 
native land. After some time spent in Italy 
he finally took up his permanent residence 
in England. In 1783 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, and later his 
son had the high honor of becoming lord 
chancellor of England and Lord Lyndhurst. 
Many specimens of Copley's work are to 
be found in the Memorial Hall at Harvard 
and in the Boston Museum, as well as a few 
of the works upon which he modeled his 
style. Copley was essentially a portrait 
painter, though his historical paintings at- 
tained great celebrity, his masterpiece 
being his " Death of Major Pierson, " though 
that distinction has by some been given to 
his "Death of Chatham." It is said that 
he never saw a good picture until he was 
thirty-five years old, yet his portraits prior 
to that period are regarded as rare speci- 
mens. He died in 1815. 



HENRY B. PLANT, one of the greatest 
railroad men of the country, became 
famous as president of the Plant system of 
railway and steamer lines, and also the 
Southern & Texas Express Co. He was 
born in October, 18 19, at Branford, 
Connecticut, and entered the railroad serv- 
ice in 1844, serving as express messenger 
on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad until 
1853, during which time he had entire 
charge of the exor^.-? lousiness of that road. 



He went south in 1853 and established ex- 
press lines on various southern railways, and 
in 1 86 1 organized the Southern Express 
Co., and became its president. In 1879 he 
purchased, with others, the Atlantic & Gulf 
Railroad of Georgia, and later reorganized 
the Savannah, Florida & W^estern Railroad, 
of which he became president. He pur- 
chased and rebuilt, in 1880, the Savannah 
& Charleston Railroad, now Charleston & 
Savannah. Not long after this he organ- 
ized the Plant Investment Co., to control 
these railroads and advance their interests 
generally, and later established a steamboat 
line on the St. John's river, in Florida. 
From 1853 until i860 he was general 
superintendent of the southern division of 
the Adams Express Co., and in 1867 be- 
came president of the Texas Express Co. 
The "Plant system" of railway, steamer 
and steamship lines is one of the greatest 
business corporations of the southern states. 



WADE HAMPTON, a noted Confeder- 
ate officer, was born at Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 18 18. He graduated 
from the South Carolina College, took an 
active part in politics, and was twice elected 
to the legislature of his state. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, and command- 
ed the " Hampton Legion " at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run, in July, 1861. He did 
meritorious service, was wounded, and pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. He command- 
ed a brigade at Seven Pines, in 1862, and 
was again wounded. He was engaged in 
the battle of Antietam in September of the 
same year, and participated in the raid into 
Pennsylvania in October. In 1863 he was 
with Lee at Gettysburg, where he was 
wounded for the third time. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded a troop of cavalry in Lee's 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



193 



army during 1864, and was in numerous en- 
gagements. In 1865 he was in South Car- 
ohna, and commanded the cavahy rear 
guard of the Confederate army in its stub- 
born retreat before General Sherman on his 
advance toward Riclimond. 

After the war Hampton took an active 
part in politics, and was a prominent figure 
at the Democratic national convention in 
1868, which nominated Seymour and Blair 
for president and vice-president. He was 
governor of South Carolina, and took his 
seat in the United States senate in 1879, 
where he became a conspicuous figure in 
national affairs. 



IKOLA TESLA, one of the most cele- 
brated electricians America has known, 
was born in 1857, at Smiljau, Lika, Servia. 
He descended from an old and representative 
family of that country. His father was a 
a minister of the Greek church, of high rank, 
while his mother was a woman of remarka- 
ble skill in the construction of looms, churns 
and the machinery required in a rural home. 
Nikola received early education in the 
public schools of Gospich, when he was 
sent to the higher "Real Schule" at Karl- 
stadt, where, after a three years' course, 
he graduated in 1873. He devoted him- 
self to experiments in electricity and 
magnetism, to the chagrin of his father, 
who had destined him for the ministry, 
but giving way to the boy's evident genius 
he was allowed to continue his studies in 
the polytechnic school at Gratz. He in- 
herited a wonderful intuition which enabled 
him to see through the intricacies of ma- 
chinery, and despite his instructor's demon- 
stration that a dynamo could not be oper- 
ated without commutators or brushes, 
began experiments which finally resulted in 
his rotating field motors. After the study 



of languages at Prague and Buda-Pesth, he 
became associated with M. Puskas, who 
had introduced the telephone into Hungary. 
He invented several improvements, but 
being unable to reap the necessary benefit 
from them, he, in search of a wider field, 
went to Paris, where he found employment 
with one of the electric lighting companies 
as electrical engineer. Soon he set his face 
westward, and coming to the United States 
for a time found congenial employment whh 
Thomas A. Edisoh. Finding it impossible, 
overshadowed as he was, to carry out his 
own ideas he left the Edison works to join 
a company formed to place his own inven- 
tions on the market. He perfected his 
rotary field principle, adapting it to circuits 
then in operation. It is said of him that 
some of his proved theories will change the 
entire electrical science. It would, in an 
article of this length, be impossible to ex- 
plain all that Tesla accomplished for the 
practical side of electrical engineering. 
His discoveries formed the basis of the at- 
tempt to utilize the water power of Niagara 
Falls. His work ranges far beyond the 
vast department of polyphase currents and 
high potential lighting and includes many 
inventions in arc lighting, transformers, 
pyro and thermo-magnetic motors, new 
forms of incandescent lamps, unipolar dyna- 
mos and many others. 



CHARLES B. LEWIS won fame as an 
American humorist under the name of 
"M. Quad." It is said he owes his 
celebrity originally to the fact that he was 
once mixed up in a boiler explosion on the 
Ohio river, and the impressions he received 
from the event he set up from his case when 
he was in the composing room of an ob- 
scure Michigan paper. His style jjossesses a 
peculiar qaaintness, and there runs through 



194 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRATHr 



it a vein of philosophy. Mr. Lewis was 
born in 1844, near a town called Liverpool, 
Ohio. He was, however, raised in Lansing, 
Michigan, where he spent a year in an agri- 
cultural college, going from there to the 
composing room of the "Lansing Demo- 
crat." At the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed in the service, remained during, the 
^entire war, and then returned to Lansing. 
The explosion of the boiler that "blew him 
into fame, " took place two years later, while 
he was on his way south. When he re- 
covered physically, he brought suit for dam- 
ages against the steamboat company, which 
he gained, and was awarded a verdict of 
twelve thousand dollars for injuries re- 
ceived. It was while he was employed by 
the " Jacksonian " of Pontiac, Mich., that he 
set up his account of how he felt while being 
blown up. He says that he signed it "M 
Quad," because "abourgeoise em quad is 
useless except in its own line — it won't 
justify with any other type." Soon after, 
because of the celebrity he attained by this 
screed, Mr. Lewis secured a place on the 
staff of the " Detroit Free Press," and made 
for that paper a wide reputation. His 
sketches of the "Lime Kiln Club" and 
" Brudder Gardner " are perhaps the best 
known of his humorous writings. 



HIRAM S. MAXIM, the famous inventor, 
was born in Sangersville, Maine, 
February 5, 1840, the son of Isaac W. 
and Harriet B. Maxim. The town of his 
:birth was but a small place, in the 
woods, on the confines of civilization, 
and the family endured many hardships. 
They were without means and entirely 
dependent on themselves to make out of 
raw materials all they needed. The mother 
■was an expert spinner, weaver, dyer and 
seamstress and the father a trapper, tanner, 



miller, blacksmith, carpenter, mason and 
farmer. Amid such surroundings young 
Maxim gave early promise of remarkable 
aptitude. With the universal Yankee jack- 
knife the products of his skill excited the 
wonder and interest of the locality. His 
parents did not encourage his latent genius 
but apprenticed him to a coach builder. 
Four years he labored at this uncongenial 
trade but at the end of that time he forsook 
it and entered a machine shop at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. Soon mastering the details 
of that business and that of mechanical 
drawing, he went to Boston as the foreman 
of the philosophical instrument manufactory. 
From thence he went to New York and wiih 
the Novelty Iron Works Shipbuilding Co. 
he gained experience in those trades. His 
inventions up to this time consisted of 
improvements in steam engines, and an 
automatic gas machine, which came into 
general use. In 1877 he turned his attention 
to electricity, and in 1878 produced an 
incandescent lamp, that would burn 1,000 
hours. He was the first to design a process 
for flashing electric carbons, and the first 
to "standardize" carbons for electric light- 
ing. In 1880 he visited Europe and exhibit- 
ing, at the Paris Exposition of 1881, a self- 
regulating machine, was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor. In 1883 he returned to 
London as the European representative of the 
United States Electric Light Co. An incident 
of his boyhood, in which the recoil of a rifle 
was noticed by him, and the apparent loss 
of power shown, in 188 1-2 prompted the 
invention of a gun which utilizes the recoil to 
automatically load and fire seven hundred 
and seventy shots per minute. The Maxim- 
Nordenfelt Gun Co., with a capital of nine 
million dollars, grew from this. In 1883 he 
patented his electric training gear for large 
guns. And later turned his attention to fly- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHi'. 



195 



ing machines, which he claimed were not an 
impossibility. He took out over one hundred 
patents for smokeless gunpowder, and for pe- 
troleum and other motors and autocycles. 



JOHN DAVISON ROCKEFELLER, 
one of America's very greatest financiers 
and philanthropists, was born in Richford, 
Tioga county. New York, July 8, 1839. He 
received a common-school education in his 
native place, and in 1853, when his parents 
removed to Cleveland, Ohio, he entered the 
high school of that city. After a two-years' 
course of diligent work, he entered the com- 
mission and forwarding house of Hewitt & 
Tuttle, of Cleveland, remaining with the 
firm some years, and then began business 
for himself, forming a partnership with 
Morris B. Clark. Mr. Rockefeller was then 
but nineteen years of age, and during the 
year i860, in connection with others, they 
started the oil refining business, under the 
firm name of Andrews, Clark & Co. Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Andrews purchased the 
interest of their associates, and, after taking 
William Rockefeller into the firm, established 
offices in Cleveland under the name of 
William Rockefeller & Co. Shortly after 
this the house of Rockefeller & Co. was es- 
tablished in New York for the purpose of 
finding a market for their products, -and two 
years later all the refining companies were 
consolidated under the firm name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. This firm was 
succeeded in 1870 by the Standard Oil 
Company of Ohio, said to be the most 
gigantic business corporation of modern 
times. John D. Rockefeller's fortune has 
been variously estimated at from one hun- 
dred million to two hundred million dollars. 
Mr. Rockefeller's philanthropy mani- 
fested itself principally through the American 
Baptist Educational Society. He donated 



the building for the Spelman Institute at 
Atlanta, Georgia, a school for the instruction 
of negroes. His other gifts were to the 
University of Rochester, Cook Academy, 
Peddie Institute, and Vassar College, be- 
sides smaller gifts to many institutions 
throughout the country. His princely do- 
nations, however, were to the University of 
Chicago. His first gift to this institution 
was a conditional offer of six hundred thou- 
sand dollars in 1889, and when this amount 
was paid he added one million more. Dur- 
ing 1892 he made it two gifts of one million 
each, and all told, his donations to this one 
institution aggregated between seven and 
eight millions of dollars. 



JOHN M. PALMER.— For over a third 
of a century this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the political world, both 
in the state of Illinois and on the broader 
platform of national issues. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Eagle Creek, 
Scott county, Kentucky, September 13, 
1817. The family subsequently removed 
to Christian county, in the same state, where 
he acquired a common-school education, and 
made his home until 1831. His father was 
opposed to slavery, and in the latter year 
removed to Illinois and settled near Alton. 
In 1834 John entered Alton College, or- 
ganized on the manual-labor plan, but his 
funds failing, abandoned it and entered a 
cooper shop. He subsequently was en- 
gaged in peddling, and teaching a district 
school near Canton. In 1838 he began the 
study of law, and the following year re- 
moved to Carlinville, where, in December of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. He 
was shortly after defeated for county clerk. 
In 1843 he was elected probate judge. In 
the constitutional convention of 1847, Mr. 
Palmer was a delegate, and from 1849 to 



196 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT 



1851 he was county judge. In 1852 he be- 
came a member of the state senate, but not 
being with his party on the slavery question 
he resigned that office in 1854. In 1856 
Mr. Palmer was chairman of the first Re- 
publican state convention held in Illinois, 
and the same year was a delegate to the 
national convention. In i860 he was an 
elector on the Lincoln ticket, and on the 
breaking out of the war entered the service 
as colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try, but was shortly after brevetted brigadier- 
general. In August, 1862, he organized 
the One Hundred and Twenty-second Illi- 
nois Infantry, but in September he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. In 
1865 he was assigned to the military ad- 
ministration in Kentucky. In 1867 General 
Pfllmer was elected governor of Illinois and 
s°rved four years. In 1872 he went with 
the Liberal Republicans, who supported 
Horace Greeley, after which time he was 
identified with the Democratic party. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator 
from Illinois, and served as such for si.x 
years. In 1896, on the adoption of the sil- 
ver plank in the platform of the Democratic 
party, General Palmer consented to lead, 
as presidential candidate, the National Dem- 
oc'-ats, or Gold Democracy. 



WILLIAM H. BEARD, the humorist 
among American painters, was born 
at Painesville, Ohio, in 1821. His father, 
James H. Beard, was also a painter of na- 
tional reputation. William H. Beard be- 
gan his career as a traveling portrait 
painter. He pursued his studies in New 
York, and later removed to Buffalo, where 
he achieved reputation. He then vvfent to 



Italy and after a short stay returned to New 
York and opened a studio. One of his 
earliest paintings was a small picture called 
"Cat and Kittens," which was placed in 
the National Academy on exhibition. Among 
his best productions are "Raining Cats and 
Dogs," "The Dance of Silenus," "Bears 
on a Bender," "Bulls and Bears," " Whoo!" 
" Grimalkin's Dream," " Little Red Riding 
Hood," "The Guardian of the Flag." His 
animal pictures convey the most ludicrous 
and satirical ideas, and the intelligent, 
human ejipression in their faces is most 
comical. Some artists and critics have re- 
fused to give Mr. Beard a place among the 
first circles in art, solelj' on account of the 
class of subjects he has chosen. 



WW. CORCORAN, the noted philan- 
throphist, was born at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia^ December 27, 1798. 
At the age of twenty-five he entered the 
banking business in Washington, and in 
time became very wealthy. He was 
noted for his magnificent donations to char- 
ity. Oak Hill cemetery was donated to 
Georgetown in 1847, and ten years later the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, Temple of Art, was 
presented to the city of Washington. The 
uncompleted building was utilized by the 
government as quartermaster's headquar- 
ters during the war. The building was 
completed after the war at a cost of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars, all the gift of Mr. 
Corcoran. The Louise Home for Women 
is another noble charity to his credit. Its 
object is the care of women of gentle breed- 
ing who in declining years are without 
means of support. In addition to this he 
gave liberally to many worthy institutions 
of learning and charity. He died at Wash- 
ington February 24, 1888. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



197 



ALBERT BIERSTADT, the noted paint- 
er of American landscape, was born in 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1829, and was 
brought to America by his parents at the 
age of two 3ears. He received his early 
education here, but returned to Dusseldorf 
to study painting, and also went to Rome. 
On his return to America he accompanied 
Lander's expedition across the continent, in 
185S, and soon after produced his most 
popular work, "The Rocky Mountains — 
Lander's Peak. " Its boldness and grandeur 
were so unusual that it made him famous. 
The picture sold for twenty-five thousand 
dollars. In 1867 Mr. Bierstadt went to 
Europe, with a government commission, 
and gathered materials for his great historic- 
al work, "Discovery of the North River 
by Hendrik Hudson." Others of his great 
works were "Storm in the Rocky Mount- 
ains," " Valley of the Yoscmite," "North 
Fork of the Platte," "Diamond Pool," 
"Mount Hood," "Mount Rosalie," and 
"The Sierra Nevada Mountains." His 
"Estes Park" sold for fifteen thousand 
dollars, and "Mount Rosalie" brought 
thirty-five thousand dollars. His smaller 
Rocky mountain scenes, however, are vast- 
ly superior to his larger works in execution 
and coloring. 

ADDISON CAMMACK, a famous mill- 
ionaire Wall street speculator, was 
born in Kentucky. When sixteen years old 
he ran away from home and went to New 
Orleans, where he went to work in a ship- 
ping house. He outlived and outworked 
all the partners, and became the head of the 
firm before the opening of the war. At 
that time he fitted out small vessels and en- 
gaged in running the blockade of southern 
ports and carrying ammunition, merchan- 
dise, etc., to the southern people. This 



made him a fortune. At the close of the 
war he quit business and went to New 
York. For two years he did not enter any 
active business, but seemed to be simply an 
on-looker in the great speculative center of 
America. He was observing keenly the 
methods and financial machinery, however, 
and when, in 1867, he formed a partnership 
with the popular Charles J. Osborne, the 
firm began to prosper. He never had an 
office on the street, but wandered into the 
various brokers' offices and placed his orders 
as he saw fit. In 1873 he dissolved his 
partnership with Osborne and operated 
alone. He joined a band of speculative 
conspirators known as the "Twenty-third 
party," and was the ruling spirit in that or- 
ganization for the control of the stock mar- 
ket. He was always on the ' ' bear " side and 
the only serious obstacle he ever encoun- 
tered was the persistent boom in industrial 
stocks, particularly sugar, engineered by 
James R. Keane. Mr. Cammack fought 
Keane for two years, and during the time is 
said to have lost no less than two million 
dollars before he abandoned the fight. 



WALT. WHITMAN.— Foremost among 
the lesserpoets of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, the gentleman whose 
name adorns the head of this article takes 
a conspicuous place. 

W^hitman was born at West Hills, Long 
Island, New York, May 13, 1809. In the 
schools of Brooklyn he laid the foundation 
of his education, and early in life learned the 
printer's trade. For a time he taught coun- 
try schools in his native state. In 1846-7 
he was editor of the " Brooklyn Eagle, " 
but in 1848-9 was on the editorial staff of 
the "Crescent," of New Orleans. He 
made an extended tour throughout the 
United States and Canada, and returned to 



198 



COMPEiVDILLM OF BIOGRAPIir 



Brooklyn, where, in 1850, he published the 
"Freeman. " For some years succeeding 
this he was engaged as carpenter and builder. 
During the Civil war, Whitman acted as 
a volunteer nurse in the hospitals at 
Washington and vicinity and from the close 
of hostilities until 1873 he was employed 
in various clerkships in the government 
offices in the nation's capital. In the latter 
year he was stricken with paralysis as a 
result of his labors in the hospital, it is 
said, and being partially disabled lived for 
many years at Camden, Nevv Jersey. 

The first edition of the work which was 
to bring him fame, "Leaves of Grass," was 
published in 1855 and was but a small 
volume of about ninety-four pages. Seven 
or eight editions of "Leaves of Grass" have 
been issued, each enlarged and enriched with 
new poems. "Drum Taps," at first a 
separate publication, has been incorporated 
with the others. This volume and one 
prose writing entitled "Specimen Days and 
Collect," constituted his whole work. 

Walt. Whitman died at Camden, New 
Jersey, March 26, 1892. 



HENRY DUPONT, who became cele- 
brated as America's greatest manufact- 
urer of gunpowder, was a native of Dela- 
ware, born August 8, 18 12. He received 
his education in its higher branches at the 
United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated and entered 
the army as second lieutenant of artillery in 
1833. In 1834 he resigned and became 
proprietor of the extensive gunpowder 
manufacturing plant that bears his name, 
near Wilmington, Delaware. His large 
business interests interfered with his tak- 
ing any active participation in political 
life, although for many years he served 
as adjutant-general of his native state, and 



during the war as major-general command- 
ing the Home Guards. He died August 8, 
1889. His son, Henry A. Dupont, also was 
a native of Delaware, and was born July 30, 
1838. After graduating from West Point 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army as second 
lieutenant of engineers. Shortly after he 
was transferred to the Fifth Artillery as first 
lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1864, serving in camp and 
garrison most of the time. He was in com- 
mand of a battery in the campaign of 
1863-4. Aschief of artillery of the army of 
West Virginia, he figured until the close of 
the war, being in the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, besides 
many minor engagements. He afterward 
acted as instructor in the artillery school at 
Fortress Monroe, and on special duty at 
West Point. He resigned from the army 
March i, 1875. 



WILLIAM DEERING, one of the fa- 
mous manufacturers of America, and 
also a philanthropist and patron of educa- 
tion, was born in Maine in 1826. His an- 
cestors were English, having settled in New 
England in 1634. Early in life it w as Will- 
iam's intention to become a physician, and 
after completing his common-school educa- 
tion, when about eighteen years of age, he 
began an apprenticeship with a physician. 
A short time later, however, at the request 
of his father, he took charge of his father's 
business interests, which included a woolen 
mill, retail store and grist mill, after which 
he became agent for a dry goods commission 
house in Portland, where he was married. 
Later he became partner in the firm, and 
removed to Nevv York. The business pros- 
pered, and after a number of years, on ac- 
count of fpiling health, Mr. Deering sold his 
interest to his partner, a Mr. Milner. The 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



19& 



business has since made Mr. Milner a mill- 
ionaire many times over. A few years 
later Mr. Deering located in Chicago. His 
beginning in the manufacture of reapers, 
which has since made his name famous, 
was somewhat of an accident. He had 
loaned money to a man in that business, 
and in 1878 was compelled to buy out the 
business to protect his interests. The busi- 
ness developed rapidly and grew to immense 
ptopori ions. The factories now cover sixty- 
two acres fif ground and employ many thou- 
sands of men. 



I 



OHN McAllister schofield, an 

kJ American general, was born in Chautau- 
qua couni:\', New York, September 29, 1831. 
Hegrad'iated at West Point in 1853, and 
was for five years assistant professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in that institution. In 1861 
he entered the volunteer service as major of 
the First Missouri Volunteers, and was ap- 
pointed chief of staff by General Lyon, under 
whom he fought at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek. In November, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
was placed in command of the Missouri 
militia until November, 1862, and of the 
army of the frontier from that time until 
1863. In 1862 he was made major-general 
of volunteers, and was placed in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1864 
of the Department of the Ohio. During the 
campaign through Georgia General Scho- 
field was in command of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, and was engaged in most of the 
fighting of that famous campaign. Novem- 
ber 30, 1864, he defeated Hood's army at 
Franklin, Tennessee, and then joined Gen- 
eral Thomas at Nashville. He took part in 
the battle of Nashville, where Hood's army 
was destroyed. In January, 1865, he led 
his corps into North Carolina, captured 



Wilmington, fought the battle of Kingston, 
and joined General Sherman at Goldsboro 
March 22, 1865. He executed the details 
of the capitulation of General Johnston to 
Sherman, which practically closed the war. 
In June, 1868, General Schofield suc- 
ceeded Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of 
war, but was the next year appointed major- 
general of the United States army, and order- 
ed to the Department of the Missouri. From 
1870 to 1876 he was in command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific; from 1S76 to 1881 
supermtendent of the West Point Military 
Academy; in 18S3 he was in charge of the 
Department of the Missouri, and in 1886 of 
the division of the Atlantic. In 1888 he 
became general-in-chief of the United States 
army, and in February, 1895, was appoint- 
ed lieutenant-general by President Cleve- 
land, that rank having been revived by con- 
gress. In September, 1895, he was retired 
from active service. 



LEWIS WALLACE, an American gen- 
eral and famous author, was born in 
Brookville, Indiana, April 10, 1827. He 
served in the Mexican war as first lieutenant 
of a company of Indiana Volunteers. After 
his return from Mexico he was admitted to 
the bar, and practiced law in Covington and 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, until 1861. At the 
opening of the war he was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Indiana, and soon after be- 
came colonel of the Eleventh Indiana Vol- 
unteers. He defeated a force of Confeder- 
ates at Romney, West Virginia, and was 
made brigadier-general in September, 1861. 
At the capture of Fort Donelson in 1862 he 
commanded a division, and was engaged in 
the second day's fight at Shiloh. In 1863 
his defenses about Cincinnati saved that city 
from capture by Kirby Smith. At Monoc- 
acy in July, 1S64, he was defeated, but 



200 



COMPENDlU.^[ OF BIOGRAniT. 



his resistance delayed the advance of Gen- 
eral Early and thus saved Washington from 
capture. 

General Wallace was a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President 
Lincoln, and also of that before whom Cap- 
tain Henry Wirtz, who had charge of the 
Andersonville prison, was tried. In 1881 
General Wallace was sent as minister to 
Turkey. When not in official service he 
devoted much of his time to literature. 
Among his better known works are his 
"Fair God," "Ben Hur," "Prince of 
India," and a " Life of Benjamin Harrison." 



THOMAS FRANCIS BAYARD, an Ameri- 
can statesman and diplomat, was born 
at Wilmington, Delaware, October 29, 1828. 
He obtained his education at an Episcopal 
academy at Flushing, Long Island, and 
after a short service in a mercantile house in 
New York, he returned to Wilmington and 
entered his father's law office to prepare 
himself for the practice of that profession. 
He was admitted to the bar in 185 1. He 
was appointed to the office of United States 
district attorney for the state of Delaware, 
serving one year. In 1869 he was elected to 
the United States senate, and continuously 
represented his state in that body until 1885, 
and in 1881, when Chester A. Arthurentered 
the presidential chair, Mr. Bayard was 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
He had also served on the famous electoral 
commission that decided the Hayes-Tilden 
contest in 1876-7. In 1885 President Cleve- 
land appointed Mr. Bayard secretary of 
state. At the beginning of Cleveland's sec- 
ond term, in 1893, Mr. Bayard was selected 
for the post of ambassador at the court of 
St. James, London, and was the first to hold 
that rank in American diplomacy, serving 
.until the beginning of the McKinley admin- 



istration. The questions for adjustment at 
that time between the two governments 
were the Behring Sea controversy and the 
Venezuelan boundary question. He was 
very popular in England because of his 
tariff views, and because of his criticism of 
the protective policy of the United States 
in his public speeches delivered in London, 
Edinburgh and other places, he received, in 
March, 1896, a vote of censure in the lower 
house of congress. 



TOHN WORK GARRETT, for so many 
<J years at the head of the great Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad system, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 31, 1820. His father, 
Robert Garrett, an enterprising merchant, 
had amassed a large fortune from a small 
beginning. The son entered Lafayette Col- 
lege in 1834, but left the following year and 
entered his father's counting room, and in 
1839 became a partner. John W. Gar- 
rett took a great interest in the develop- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He 
was elected one of the directors in 1857, 
and was its president from 1858 until his 
death. When he took charge of the road 
it was in an embarrassed condition, but 
within a year, for the first time in its exist- 
ence, it paid a dividend, the increase in its 
net gains being $725,385. After the war, 
during which the road suffered much damage 
from the Confederates, numerous branches 
and connecting roads were built or acquired, 
until it reached colossal proportions. Mr. 
Garrett was also active in securing a regular 
line of steamers between Baltimore and 
Bremen, and between the same port and 
Liverpool. He was one of the most active 
trustees -of Johns Hopkins University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Baltimore. He 
died September 26, 1884. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



201 



Robert Garrett, the son of John W. 
■Garrett, was' born in Baltimore April 9, 
1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. 
He received a business education in the 
banking house of his father, and in 1871 
became president of the Valley Railroad of 
Virginia. He was made third vice-presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 
1879, and first vice-president in 1881. He 
succeeded his father as president in 1884. 
Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 



CARL SCHURZ, a noted German-Ameri- 
can statesman, was born in Liblar, Prus- 
sia, March 2, 1829. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in 
an attempt to excite' an insurrection at that 
place. After the surrender of Rastadt by 
the revolutionists, in the defense of which 
Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to 
America. He resided in Philadelphia three 
years, and then settled in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, 
where he practiced law. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he became a 
leader of the German element and entered 
the campaign for Lincoln in i860. He was 
appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but re- 
signed in December of that year to enter 
the army. He was appointed brigadier- 
general in 1862, and participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and also at 
Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had 
temporary command of the Eleventh Army 
Corps, and also took part in the battle of 
Chattanooga. 

After the war he located at St. Louis, 
and in 1869 was elected United States sena- 
tor from Missouri. He supported Horace 
Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in 
the campaign of 1876, having removed to 
New York, he supported Hayes and the Re- 
publican ticket, and was appointed secre- 



tary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he 
became editor of the "New York Evening 
Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his 
opposition to James G. Blaine, and became 
a leader of the "Mugwumps," thus assist- 
ing in the election of Cleveland. In the 
presidential campaign of 1896 his forcible 
speeches in the interest of sound money 
wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz 
wrote a " Life of Henry Clay," said to be 
the best biography ever published of that 
eminent statesman. 



GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American 
statesman of national reputation, was 
born in Richmond, Vermont, February i, 
1828. His education was obtained in the 
public schools and from the instructions of 
a private tutor. He was admitted to the 
bar, practiced law, and served in the state 
legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three 
years of that time being speaker of the lower 
house. He was elected to the state senate 
and acted as president pro tempore of that 
body in 1861 and 1862. He became promi- 
nent for his activity in the impeachment 
proceedings against President Johnson, and 
was appointed to the United States senate 
to fill out the une.xpired term of Solomon 
Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was 
re-elected to the senate four times, and 
served on the electoral commission in 1S77. 
He became president pro tempore of the 
senate after the death of President Garfield, 
and was the author of the bill which put an 
end to the practice of polygamy in the ter- 
ritory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing 
to impaired health, he retired from the sen- 
ate and again resumed the practice of law. 



LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent 
political leader, statesman and jurist, 
was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep- 



202 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



temberi7, 1S25. He graduated from Emory 
College in 1845, studied law at Macon under 
Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, 
Mississippi, in 1849, and was elected to a 
professorship in the State University. He 
resigned the next year and returned to Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1853 he was elected to the 
Georgia Legislature, and in 1 854 he removed 
to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mis- 
sissippi, and was elected to represent his 
district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth 
congresses. He resigned in i860, and was 
sent as a delegate to the secession conven- 
tion of the state. He entered the Confed- 
erate service in 1861 as lieutenant-colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon 
after made colonel. Li 1863 President 
Davis appointed him to an important diplo- 
matic mission to Russia. In 1866 he was 
elected professor of political economy and 
social science in the State University, and 
was soon afterward transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of the law department. He rep- 
resented his district in the forty-third and 
forty-fourth congresses, and was elected 
United States senator from Mississippi in 
1877, and re-elected in 18S2. In 18S5, be- 
fore the expiration of his term, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland as secre- 
tary of the interior, which position he held 
until his appointment as associate justice of 
the United States supreme court, in 1888, 
in which capacity he served until his death, 
January 23, 1894. 



BENJAMIN PENHALLOW SHILLA- 
BER won fame in the world of 
humorists under the name of "Mrs. Parting- 
ton." He was born in 1841 at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and started out in life as a 
printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, 



where he secured employment in a printing 
office, and from there he went to Demerara, 
Guiana, where he was employed as a com- 
positor in 1835-37. In 1840 he became 
connected with the "Boston Post," and 
acquired quite a reputation as a humorist 
by his "Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He 
remained as editor of the paper until 1850, 
when he printed and edited a paper of his 
own called the "Pathfinder," which he con- 
tinued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Carpet 
Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, 
and then returned to the "Boston Post," 
with which he was connected until 1856. 
During the same time he was one of the 
editors of the "Saturday Evening Gazette," 
and continued in this line after he severed 
his connection with the "Post," for ten 
years. After 1866 Mr. Shillaber wrote for 
various newspapers and periodicals, and 
during his life published the following 
books: "Rhymes with Reason and Without," 
"Poems," "Life and Sayings of Mrs. Part- 
ington," "Knitting Work," and others. 
His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachu- 
setts, November 25, 1890. 



EASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among 
painters of American country life. He- 
was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and be- 
gan his work in drawing at the age of eight- 
een years. His first works were portraits, 
and, as he took up his residence in Wash- 
ington, the most famous men of the nation 
were his subjects. In 1 846 he went to Bos- 
ton, and there made crayon portraits of 
Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne 
and other noted men. In 1849 he went to 
Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many; spent a year at the Royal Academy, 
and thence to The Hague, where he spent 
four years, producing there his first pictures^ 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



208 



of consequence, "The Card-Players " and 
"The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, 
but was called home, after an absence from 
America of six years. He lived some time 
in Washington, and then spent two years 
among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 
1858 he produced his famous picture, "The 
Old Kentucky Home." He took up his 
permanent residence at New York at that 
time. His " Sunday Morning in Virginia " 
is a work of equal merit. He was espe- 
cially successful in coloring, a master of 
drawing, and the expression conveys with 
precision the thought of the artist. His 
portrayal of family life and child life is un- 
equalled. Among his other great works are 
"The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' 
"Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," 
" The New Bonnet," " The Drummer Boy," 
" Childhood of Lincoln," and a great vari- 
ety of equally familiar subjects. 



PIERCE GUSTAVE TOUTANT BEAU- 
REGARD, one of the most distin- 
guished generals in the Confederate army, 
was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, 
May 28, 1 8 18. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1838, and v/as 
made second lieutenant of engineers. He 
was with General Scott in Mexico, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, and the battles near the City of 
Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. 
After the Mexican war closed he was placed 
in charge of defenses about New Orleans, 
and in i860 was appointed superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point. He held this positi(jn but a 
few months, when he resigned February 20, 
1 861, and accepted a commission of briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. He 
directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the 
first engagement of the Civil war. He was 



in command of the Confederates at the first 
battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was 
made general. In 1S62 he was placed in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi, 
and planned the attack upon General Grant 
at Shiloh, and upon the death of General 
Johnston he took cominand of the army 
and was only defeated by the timely arrival 
of General Buell with reinforcements. He 
commanded at Charleston and successfully 
defended that city against the combined at- 
tack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he 
was in command in Virginia, defeating Gen- 
eral Butler, and resisting Grant's attack 
upon Petersburg until reinforced from Rich- 
mond. During the long siege which fol- 
lowed he was sent to check General Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and was with Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston when that general 
surrendered in 1865. After the close of the 
war he was largely interested in railroad 
management. In 1866 he was offered chief 
command of the Army of Roumania, and in 
1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He de- 
clined these offers. His death occurred 
February 20, 1893. 



HENRY GEORGE, one of America's, 
most celebrated political economists, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 2, 1839. He received acommon- 
school education and entered the high, 
school in 1853, and then went into a mer- 
cantile office. He made several voyages on 
the sea, and settled in California in 1858. 
He tlien worked at the printer's trade for a 
number of years, which he left to follow the 
editorial profession. He edited in succession 
several daily newspapers, and attracted at- 
tention by a number of strong essays and 
speeches on political and social questions. 
In 1 87 1 he edited a pamphlet, entitled ' ' Our 
Land and Policy," in which he outlined a 



:204 



COMPENDIUM OF B lOGRAP III'. 



theory, which has since made him so widely 
known. This was developed iti " Progress 
and Poverty," a book which soon attained a 
large circulation on both sides of tlie Atlan- 
tic, which has been extensively translated. 
In 1880 Mr. George located in New York, 
where he made his home, though he fre- 
quently addressed audiences in Great Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, and throughout the 
United States. In 1886 he was nominated 
by the labor organizations for nia3'or of New 
York, and made a campaign notable for its 
development of unexpectedpower. In 1887 he 
was candidate of the Union Labor party for 
secretary of state of New York. These cam- 
paigns served to formulate the idea of a single 
tax and popularize the Australian ballot sys- 
tem. Mr. George became a free trader in 
1 888, and in 1892 supported the election of 
Grover Cleveland. His political and eco- 
nomic ideas, known as the "single tax," 
have a large and growing support, but are 
not confined to this country alone. He 
wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in 
support of his principles, and also published: 
"The Land Question," " Social Problems," 
"Protection or Free Trade," "The Condi- 
tion of Labor, an Open Letter to Pope Leo 
XIII.," and " Perplexed Philosopher." 



THOMAS ALEXANDER SCOTT. —This 
name is indissolubly connected with 
the history and development of the railway 
systems of the United States. Mr. Scott 
-was born December 28, 1823, at London, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was first 
regularly employed by Major James Patton, 
the collector of tolls on the state road be- 
tween Philadelphia and Columbia, Penn- 
sylvania. He entered into the employ of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1850, 
and went through all the different branches 
of work until he had mastered all the details 



of the office work, and in 1858 he was ap- 
pointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott 
was the next year chosen vice-president of 
the road. This position at once brought 
liim before the public, and the enterprise 
and ability displayed by him in its manage- 
m.ent marked him as a leader among the 
railroad men of the country. At the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1S61, Mr. Scott 
was selected by Governor Curtin as a mem- 
ber of his staff, and placed in charge of the 
equipment and forwarding of the state troops 
to the seat of war. On April 27, 1861, the 
secretary of war desired to establish a new 
line of road between the national capital 
and Philadelphia, for the more expeditious 
transportation of troops. He called upon 
Mr. Scott to direct this work, and the road 
by the way of Annapolis and Perry ville was 
completed in a marvelously short space of 
time. On May 3, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d 
of the same month the government railroads 
and telegrapli lines were placed in his charge. 
Mr. Scott was the first assistant secretary 
of war ever appointed, and he took charge 
of this new post August i, 1861. In Janu- 
ary, 1S62, he was directed to organize 
transportation in the northwest, and in 
March he performed the same ser\ ice on 
the western rivers. He resigned June i, 
1862, and resumed his direction of affairs on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. Colonel Scott 
directed the policy that secured to his road 
the control of the western roads, and be- 
came the president of the new company to 
operate these lines in 1871. For one year, 
from March, 1871, he was president of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, and m 1874 he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company. He projected the Texas 
Pacific Railroad and was for many years its 
president. Colonel Scott's health failed 



COMPEXDIL-M OF JlIOGRArHT. 



205. 



him and he resigned the presidenc}- of the 
road June I, 1880, and died at hLs home in 
D.rby, Pennsylvania, May 2 i, 1881. 



ROBERT TOOMBS, an American states- 
man of note, was born in Wilkes coun- 
ty. Georgia, July 2, 18 io. He attended 
the University of Georgia, and graduated 
from Union College, Schenectady, New 
York, and then took a law^ course at the 
University of Virginia. In 1830, before he 
Lad attained his majority, he was admitted 
to the bar by special act of the legislature, 
and rose rapidly in his profession, attracting 
the attention of the leading statesmen and 
judges of that time. He raised a volunteer 
company for the Creek war, and served as 
captain to the close. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1837, re-elected in 1842, 
and in 1S44 was elected to congress. He 
had been brought up as a Jeffersonian 
Democrat, but voted for Harrison in 1840 
and for Clay in 1844. He made his first 
speerh in congress on the Oregon question, 
and immediately took rank with the greatest 
debaters of that body. In 1853 he was 
ekcted to the United States senate, and 
again in 1859, but when his native state 
seceded he resigntd his seat in the senate 
and was elected to the Confederate con- 
gress. It is ."itatcd on the best authority 
that had it i;ot been for a misunderstanding 
v/hich could not be explained till too late he 
would have been elected president of the 
Confederacy. He was appointed secretary 
of state by President Davis, but resigned 
after a few months and was commissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army. 
He won distinction at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, but resigned 
liis commission soon after and returned to 
Georgia. He organized the militia of 
Georgia to resist Sherman, and was made 



brigadier-general of the state troops. He 
left the country at the close of the war and 
did not return until 1S67. He died Decem- 
ber 15, 1885. 

AUSTIN CORBIN, one of the greatest 
railway magnates of the United States, 
was born July 11, 1827, at Newport, New 
Hampshire. He studied law with Chief 
Justice Gushing and Governor Ralph Met- 
calf, and later took a course in the Harvurd 
Law School, where he graduated in 1849. 
He was admitted to the bar, and practiced 
law, with Governor Mctcalf as his partner, 
until October 12, 1851. Mr. Corbin then 
removed to Davenport, Iowa, where he re- 
mained until 1865. In 1854 he was a part- 
ner in the banking firm of Macklot & Cor- 
bin, and later he prganized the First Na- 
tional bank of Davenport, Iowa, which 
commenced business June 29, 1863, and 
which was the first national bank op n for 
business in the United States. Mr. Corbin 
sold out his business in the Davenport bank, 
and removed to New York in 1 865 and com- 
menced business with partners under the 
style of Corbin Banking Company. Soon 
after his removal to New York h^; became 
interested in railroads, and became one of 
the leading railroad men of the country. 
The development of the west half of Coney 
Islanel as a summer resort first brought him 
into general prominence. He built a rail- 
road from New York to the island, ai;d 
built great hotels on its ocean front. He 
next turned his attention to Long Island, 
and secured all the railroads and consoli- 
dated them under one management, became 
president of the system, and under his con- 
trol Long Island became the great ocean 
suburb of New York. His latest public 
achievement was the rehabilitation of the 
Reading Railroad, of Pennsylvania, and 



20G 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHl'. 



during the same time he and his friends 
purchased the controlling interest of the 
New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it 
out of the hands of the receiver, and in 
three years had it on a dividend-pa3'ing 
basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 
4, 1896. 

JAMES GORDON BENNETT, Sr. , 
was one of the greatest journalists of 
America in his day. He was born Septem- 
ber I, 1795, at New Mill, near Iveith, Scot- 
land. At the age of fourteen he was sent 
to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, 
but, convinced that he was mistaken in his 
vocation, he determined to emigrate. He 
landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1S19, 
where he attempted to earn a living by 
teaching bookkeeping. .Failing in this he 
went to Boston and found employment as a 
proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New 
York about 1822 and wrote for the news- 
papers. Later on he became assistant 
editor in the office of the "Charleston 
Courier, "but returned to New York in 1824 
and endeavored to start a commercial 
school, but was unsuccessful in this, and 
again returned to newspaper work. He 
continued in newspaper work with varying 
success until, at his suggestion, the "En- 
quirer" was consolidated with another 
paper, and became the "Courier and En- 
quirer," with James Watson Webb as 
editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At 
this time this was the leading American 
newspaper. He, however, severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper and tried, 
without success, other ventures in the line 
of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he 
issued the first number of the "New York 
Herald." Mr. Bennett wrote the entire 
paper, and made up for lack of news by his 
own imagination. The paper became popu- 



lar, and in 1838 he engaged European jour- 
nalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 
the income derived from his paper was at 
least one hundred thousand dollars. Dur- 
ing the Civil war the " Herald " had on its 
staff sixty-three war correspondents and the 
circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was 
interested with John W. Mackay in that great 
enterprise which is now known as the Mac- 
kay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use 
in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, 
sketches and all manner of information re- 
garding every well-known man, which are 
still kept in the archives of the "Herald" 
office. He died in the city of New York in 
1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, 
Jr., one of the greatest and most profitable 
journals in the United States, or even in the 
world. 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, a 
noted American, won distinction in the 
field of literature, in which he attained a 
world-wide reputation. He was born at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. 
He received a collegiate education and grad- 
uated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of 
twenty, and took up the study of law and 
later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes at- 
tended several years in the hospitals of 
Europe and received his degree in 1836. 
He became professor of anatomy and phys- 
iology in Dartmouth in 1838, and re- 
mained there until 1847, when he was 
called to the Massachusetts Medical School 
at Boston to occupy the same chair, which 
position he resigned in 1882. The first 
collected edition of his poems appeared in 
1836, and his "Phi Beta Kappa Poems," 
"Poetry," in 1836; "Terpsichore," in 1843; 
"Urania," in 1846, and "Astraea," won for 
him many fresh laurels. His series of 
papers in the "Atlantic Moi:thly," were: 



COMPENDIUM OF BTOGRAPHT. 



207 



"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," "Pro- 
fessor at the Breakfast Table, " "Poet at 
the Breakfast Table," and are a series of 
masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among 
his medical papers and addresses, are: "Cur- 
rents and Counter-currents in the Medical 
Science," and "Borderland in Some Prov- 
inces of Medical Science." Mr. Holmes 
edited quite a number of works, of which 
we quote the following: "Else Venner," 
"Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from 
the Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The 
Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts 
ar.d Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"John L. Motley" — a memoir, "The Iron 
Gate and Other Poems," "Ralph Waldo 
Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. 
Holmes visited England for the second time, 
and while there the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 
7. 1894. 

RUFUS CHOATE, one of the most em- 
inent of America's great lawyers, was 
born October i, 1799, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Dartmouth in iSf5, 
and after taking his degree he remained as 
a teacher in the college for one year. He 
took up the study of lav/ in Cambridge, and 
subsequently studied under the distinguished 
lavvjer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United 
States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. 
Choatcbegan the practice of lav/ in Danvers, 
Massachusetts, and from there he went to 
Salem, and afterwards to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. While living at Salem he was 
elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 
1 841, he was chosen United States senator 
to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster 
having been appointed secretary of state 
under William Henry Harrison. 

After the death of Webster, Mr. Choate 



was the acknowledged leader of the Massa- 
chusetts bar, and was looked upon by the 
younger members of the profession with an 
affection that almost amounted to a rever- 
ence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator 
were of the rarest order, and his genius 
made it possible for him to enchant and in- 
terest his listeners, even while discussing the 
most ordinary theme. He was not merely 
eloquent on the subjects that were calculated 
to touch the feelings and stir the passions 
of his audience in themselves, but could at 
all times command their attention. He re- 
tired from active life in 1858, and was on 
his way to Europe, his physician having 
ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had 
only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when 
he died, July 13, 1858. 



D WIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most 
noted and effective pulpit orators and 
evangelists America has produced, was born 
in Northfield, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, February 5, 1837. He received but 
a meager education and worked on a farm 
until seventeen years of age, when he be- 
came clerk in a boot and shoe store in 
Boston. Soon after this he joined the Con- 
gregational church and went to Chicago, 
where he zealously engaged in missionary 
work among the poor classes. He met 
with great success, and in less than a year 
he built up a Sunday-school which numbered 
over one thousand children. When the 
war broke out he became connected with 
what was known as the "Christian Com- 
mission," and later became city missionary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association at 
Chicago. A church was built there for his 
converts and he became its unordainad pas- 
tor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church 
and iilr. Moody's house and furniture, which 
had been given him, were destroyed. The 



208 



COMI'EXniL'M OF BIOGRAPHT. 



church edifice was afterward replaced by a 
new church erected on the site of the old 
one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. 
Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and 
excited great religious awakenings through- 
out England, Ireland and Scotland. In 
1875 they returned to America and held 
large meetings in various cities. They 
afterward made another visit to Great 
Britain for the same purpose, meeting with 
great success, returning to the United States 
in 1884. Mr. Moody afterward continued 
his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere 
with a warm reception and success. Mr. 
Moody produced a number of works, some 
of which had a wide circulation. 



JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN, a financier 
of world-wide reputation, and famous 
as the head of one of the largest banking 
houses in the world, was born April 17, 
1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in the English 
high school, in Boston, and later supple- 
mented this with a course in the University 
of Gsttingen, Germany. He returned to 
the United States, in 1857, and entered the 
banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
of New York, and, in i860, he became 
agent and attorney, in the United States, for 
George Peabody & Co., of London. He 
became the junior partner in the banking 
firm of Dabney, Morgan & Co., in 1864, 
and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. 
This house was among the chief negotiators 
of railroad bonds, and was active in the re- 
organization of the West Shore Railroad, 
and its absorption by the New York Central 
Railroad. It was conspicuous in the re- 
organization of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad, in 1887, which a syndicate of 
capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed 
on a sound financial basis. After that time 



many other lines of railroad and gigantic 
financial enterprises were brought under Mr. 
Morgan's control, and in some respects it 
maybe said he became the foremost financier 
of the century. 



THOMAS BRACIvETT REED, one of 
the most eminent of American states- 
men, was born October 18, 1839, at Port- 
land, Maine, where he received his early 
education in the common schools of the 
city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. 
Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 
i860, and won one of the highest honors of 
the college, the prize for excellence in Eng- 
lish com.position. The following four years 
were spent by him in teacliing and in the 
study of law. Before his admission to the 
bar, however, he was acting assistant pay- 
master in the United States navy, and 
served on the "tin-clad" Sybil, which pa- 
trolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 
1865, he returned to Portland, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and began the practice of his 
profession. He entered into political life, 
and in 1 863 was elected to the legislature 
of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he 
was re-elected to the house, and in 1870 
was made state senator, from which he 
passed to attorney-general of the state. 
He retired from this oi'fice in 1873, and 
until 1877 he was solicitor for the city 
of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to 
the forty-fifth congress, which assembled 
in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence 
in that body by one of the first speeches 
which he delivered, and his long service in 
congress, coupled with his ability, gave liiin 
a national reputation. His influence each 
year became more strongly marked, and the 
leadership of \\\.i party was finally conceded 
to him, and in the foity-ninth and fiftietli 



COMPENDIUM OF BlOGRAriir. 



209 



congresses the complimentary nomination 
for the speakership was tendered him by the 
Republicans. That party having obtained 
the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he 
was elected speaker on the first ballot, and 
he was again chosen speaker of the fifty- 
fourth and fifth-fifth congresses. As a 
writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the 
magazines and periodicals, and his book 
upon parliamentary rules is generally rec- 
ognized as authority on that subject. 



CLARA BARTON is a celebrated char- 
acter among what might be termed as 
the highest grade of philanthropists Amer- 
ica has produced. She was born on a farm 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of 
Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated 
at Clinton, New York. She engaged in 
teaching early in life, and founded a free 
school at Bordentown, the first in New Jer- 
sey. She opened with si.\ pupils, but the 
attendance had grown to six hundred up to 
1854, when she went to Washington. She 
was appointed clerk in the patent depart- 
ment, and remained there until the out- 
break of the Civil war, when she resigned 
her position and devoted herself to the al- 
leviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, 
serving, not in the hospitals, but on the bat- 
tle field. She was present at a number of 
battles, and after the war closed she origi- 
nated, and for some time carried on at her 
own expense, the search for missing soldiers. 
She then for several years devoted her time 
to lecturing on "Incidents of the War." 
About 1868 she went to Europe for her 
health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war she ac- 
cepted the invitation of the grand duchess 
of Baden to aid in the establishment of her 
hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward fol- 
lowed the German army She was deco- 



rated with the golden cross by the grand 
duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by 
the emperor of Germany. She also served 
for many years as president of the famous 
Red Cross Society and attained a world- 
wide reputation. 



CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, one of 
the most eminent Catholic clergymen 
in America, was born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, July 23, 1834. He was given a 
thorough education, graduated at St. Charles 
College, Maryland, in 1857, and studied 
theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, 
Maryland. In 1S61 he became pastor of 
St. Bridget's church in Baltimore, and in 
1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of 
North Carolina. In 1872 our subject be- 
came bishop of Richmond, Virginia, and 
five years later was made archbishop of Bal- 
timore. On the 30th of June, 1886, he 
was admitted to the full degree of cardinal 
and primate of the American Catholic 
church. He was a fluent writer, and his 
book, ''Faith of Our Fathers," had a wide 
circulation. 

CHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW.— 
This name is, without doubt, one of 
the most widely known in the United States. 
Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at 
Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew 
family for two hundred years. He attended 
the common schools of his native place, 
where he prepared himself to enter college. 
He began his collegiate course at Yale at 
the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. 
He early took an active interest in politics 
and joined the Republican party at its for- 
mation. He then took up the study of law 
and went into the office of the Hon. Will- 
iam Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, 
and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar. 



210 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



He was sent as a delegate by the new party 
to tlie Republican state convention of that 
year. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1859, but though he was a good 
■Vv-orker, his attention was detracted by the 
campaign of i860, in which he took an act- 
ive part. During this campaign he gained 
his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. 
Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 
from a Democratic district. In 1863 he se- 
cured the nomination for secretary of state, 
and gained that post by a majority of thirty 
thousand. In 1866 he left the field of pol- 
itics and entered into the active practice 
of his law business as attorney for the 
New York & Harlem Railroad Company, 
and in 1869 when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central, and 
called the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad, he was appointed the attor- 
ney for the new road. His rise in the rail- 
road business was rapid, and ten years after 
his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as 
attorney for a single line, he was the gen- 
eral counsel for one of the largest railroad 
systems in the world. He was also a 
<lirector in the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & 
Northwestern, St. Paul & Omaha, West 
■Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. 
In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of 
the State University, and a member of the 
commission appointed to superintend the 
erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, 
•on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt 
from the presidency of the Nev/ York Cen- 
tral and the accession to that office by 
James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made 
second vice-president, and held that posi- 
tion until the death of Mr. Rutter in 1885. 
In this year Mr. Depew became the execu- 
tive head of this great corporation. Mr. 
Depew's greatest fame grew from his ability 



and eloquence as an orator and " after-din- 
ner speaker," and it has been said by emi- 
nent critics that this country has never pro- 
duced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 



PHILIP KEARNEY.— Among the most 
dashing and brilliant commanders in 
the United States service, few have outshone 
the talented officer whose name heads this 
sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 2, 181 5, and was of Irish ancestry and 
imbued with all the dash and bravery of the 
Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia 
College and studied law, but in 1837 ac- 
cepted a commission as lieutenant in the 
First United States Dragoons, of which his 
uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was tlien colo- 
nel. He was sent by the government, 
soon after, to Europe to examine and report 
upon the tactics of the French cavalry. 
There he attended the Polytechnic School, 
at Samur, and subsequently served as a vol- 
unteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He returned to the 
United States in 1840, and on the staff of 
General Scott, in the Mexican war, served 
with great gallantry. He was made a cap- 
tain of dragoons in 1846 and made major 
for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. 
In the final assault on the City of Mexico 
at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an 
arm. He subsequently served in California 
and the Pacific coast. In 185 i he resigned 
his commission and went to Europe, where 
he resumed his military studies. In the 
Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volun- 
teer on the staf? of General Maurier, of the 
French army, and took part in the battles 
of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery 
was, for the second time, decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the 
opening of the Civil war he hastened home, 
and, offering his services to the general gov- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArUT. 



211 



ernrrent, was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers and placed in command of a bri- 
gade of New Jersey troops. In the cam- 
paign under McClellan he commanded a di- 
vision, and at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks 
his services were valuable and brilliant, as 
v/ell as in subsequent engagements. At 
Harrison's Landing he was made major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. In the second battle of 
Bull Run he was conspicuous, and at the 
battle of Chantilly, September i, 1862, 
while leading in advance of his troops, Gen- 
eral Kearney was shot and killed. 



RUSSELL SAGE, one of the financial 
giants of the present century and for 
more than an average generation one of the 
most conspicuous and celebrated of Ameri- 
cans, \\as born in a frontier hamlet in cen- 
tral New York in August, 1816. While Rus- 
sell was still a boy an elder brother, Henry 
Risley Sage, established a small grocery 
store at Troy, New York, and here Russell 
found his first employment, as errand boy. 
He served a five-years apprenticeship, and 
then joined another brother, Elisha M. Sage, 
in a pew venture in the same line, which 
proved profitable, at least for Russell, who 
soon became its sole owner. Next he 
formed the partnership of Sage & Bates, 
and greatly extended his field of operations. 
At twenty-five he had, by his own exertions, 
amassed what was, in those days, a consid- 
erable fortune, being worth about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. He had acquired an 
influence in local politics, and four years 
later his party, the Whigs, elected him to 
the aldermanic board of Troy and to the 
treasuryship of Rensselaer county. In 1 848 
he was a prominent member of the New 
York delegation to the Whig convention at 
Philadelphia, casting his first votes for Henry 
Clay, but joining the "stampede" which 



nominated Zachary Taylor. In 1850 the 
Whigs of Troy nominated him for congress, 
but he was not elected — a failure which he 
retrieved two years later, and in 1854 he 
was re-elected by a sweeping majority. At 
Washington he ranked high in influence and 
ability. Fame as a speaker and as a polit- 
ical leader was within his grasp, when he 
gave up public life, declined a renomination 
to congress, and went back to Troy to de- 
vote himself to his private business. Six - 
years later, in 1863, he removed to New 
York and plunged into the arena of Wall 
street. A man of boundless energy and 
tireless pertinacit}', with wonderful judg- 
ment of men and things, he soon took his 
place as a king in finance, and, it is said, 
during the latter part of his life he con- 
trolled more ready money than any other 
single individual on this continent. 



ROGER QUARLES MILLS, a noted 
United States senator and famous as the 
father of' the "Mills tariff bill, " was bora 
in Todd county, Kentucky, March 30, 1832. 
He received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools, and removed to Palestine, 
Texas, in 1849. He took up the study of 
law, and supported himself by serving as an 
assistant in the post-office, and in the offices 
of the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected 
engrossing clerk of the Texas house of rep- 
resentatives, and in 1852 was admitted to 
the bar, while still a minor, by special act 
of the legislature. He then settled at Cor- 
sicana, Texas, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1859, and in 1872 he 
was elected to congress from the state at 
large, as a Democrat. After his first elec- 
tion he was continuously returned to con- 
gress until he resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of United States senator, to which he 



212 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRArHT. 



was elected March 23, 1892, to succeed 
Hon. Horace Chilton. He took liis seat in 
the senate March 30, 1892; was afterward 
re-elected and ranked among the most use- 
ful and prominent members of that body. 
In 1876 he opposed the creation of the elec- 
toral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
the state of Texas against the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to its constitution, 
which was defeated. He introduced into 
the house of representatives the bill that was 
known as the "Mills Bill," reducing duties 
on imports, and extending the free list. 
The bill passed the house on July 21, 1888, 
and made the name of "Mills" famous 
throughout the entire country. 



HAZEN S. PINGREE, the celebrated 
Michigan political leader, was born in 
Maine in 1842. Up to fourteen years of 
age he worked hard on the stony ground of 
his father's small farm. Attending school 
in the winter, he gained a fair education, 
and when not laboring on the farm, he 
found employment in the cotton mills in the 
vicinity. He resolved to find more steady 
work, and accordingly went to Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, where he entered a shoe fac- 
tory, but on the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed at once and was enrolled in the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, which was 
his initial fight, and served creditably his 
early term of service, at the expiration of 
which he re-enlisted. He fought in the 
battles of Fredricksburg, Harris Farm, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Har- 
bor In 1864 he was captured by Mosby, 
and spent five months at AndersonvilJe, 
Georgia, as a prisoner, but escaped at the 
end of that time. He re-entered the service 
and participated in the battles of Fort 
Fisher, Boyden, and Sailor's Creek. He 



was honorably mustered out of service, and 
in 1866 went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he made use of his former experience in a 
shoe factory, and found work. Later he 
formed a partnership with another workman 
and started a small factory, which has since 
become a large establishment. Mr. Pin- 
gree made his entrance into politics in 1889, 
in which year he was elected by a surpris- 
ingly large majority as a Republican to the 
mayoralty of Detroit, in which office he was 
the incumbent during four consecutive terms. 
In November, 1896, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Michigan. While 
mayor of Detroit, Mr. Pingree originated 
and put into execution the idea of allowing 
the poor people of the city the use of va- 
cant city lands and lots for the purpose of 
raising potatoes. The idea was enthusiast- 
ically adopted by thousands of poor families, 
attracted wide attention, and gave its author 
a national reputation as "Potato-patch Pin- 
gree." 

THOMAS ANDREW HENDRICKS, an 
eminent American statesman and a 
Democratic politician of national fame, was 
born in Muskingum county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 7, 18 19. In 1822 he removed, with his 
father, to Shelby county, Indiana. He 
graduated from the South Hanover College 
in 1 841, and two years later was admitted 
to the bar. In 1851 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, 
and took a leading part in the deliberations 
of that body. He was elected to congress 
in 1851, and after serving two terms was 
appointed commissioner of the United States 
general land-office. In 1863 he was elected 
to the United States senate, where his dis- 
tinguished services commanded the respect 
of all parties. He was elected governor of 
Indiana in 1872, serving four years, and in 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



218 



1876 was nominated by the Democrats as 
candidate for the vice-presidency with Til- 
den. The returns in a number of states 
were contested, and resulted in the appoint- 
ment of the famous electoral commission, 
which decided in favor of the Republican 
candidates. In 1884 Mr. Hendricks was 
again nominated as candidate for the vice- 
presidency, by the Democratic party, on the 
ticket with Grover Cleveland, was elected, 
and served about six months. He died at 
Indianapolis, November 25, 1885. He was 
regarded as one of the brainiest men in the 
party, and his integrity was never ques- 
tioned, even by his political opponents. 



GARRETT A. HO BART, one of the 
many able men who have held the 
high office of vice-president of the United 
States, was born June 3, 1844, in Mon- 
mouth county. New Jersey, and in i860 en- 
tered the sophomore class at Rutgers Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1863 at 
the age of nineteen. He then taught 
school until he entered the law office of 
Socrates Tuttle, of Paterson, New Jersey, 
with whom he studied law. and in 1869 
was admitted to the bar. He immediately 
began the active practice of his profession 
i 1 the office of the above named gentleman. 
He became interested in political life, and 
es oused t e cause of the Republican party, 
and in 1865 held his first office, serving as 
clerk for the grind jury. He was also city 
counsel of Paterson in 1871, and in May, 
1872, was elected counsel for the board of 
chosen freeholders. He entered the state 
legislature in 1873. and was re-elected to 
the assembly in 1S74. Mr. Hobart was 
made speaker of the assembly in 1876, and 
and in 1879 was elected to the state senate. 
After serving three years in the same, he 
was elected president of that body in 1S81, 



and the following year was re-elected to 
that office. He was a delegate-at -large to 
the Republican national convention ni 1876 
and 1880, and was elected a member of the 
national committee in 1884, which pos-tion 
he occupied continuously until 1S96. He 
was then nominated for vice-president by 
the Republican national convention, ani^ 
was elected to that office in the fall of 1896 
on the ticket with William McKinley. 



WILLIAM MORRIS STEWART, noted 
as a political leader and senator, was 
born in Lyons, Wayne county. New York, 
August 9, 1827, and removed with his par- 
ents while still a small child to Mesopota- 
mia township, Trumbull county, Ohio. He 
attended the Lyons Union school and Farm- 
ington Academy, where he obtained his ed- 
ucation. Later he taught mathematics in 
the former school, while yet a pupil, and 
with the little money thus earned and the 
assistance of James C. Smith, one of the 
judges of the supreme court of New York, 
he entered Yale College. He remained 
there until the winter of 1849-50, when, at- 
tracted by the gold discovcrie-; in California 
he wended his way thither. He arrived at 
San Francisco in May, 1850, and later en- 
gaged in mining with pick and shovel in Ne- 
vada county. In this way he accumulated 
some money, and in the spring of 1852 he 
took up the study of law under John R. 
McConnell. The following December he 
was appointed district attorney, to which 
office he was chosen at tha general election 
of the next year. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of California, and 
in 1S60 he removed to Virginia City, Ne- 
vada, where he largely engaged in early 
mining litigation. Mr. Stewart was also in- 
terested in the development of the "Coni- 
stock lode," and in 1S61 was chosen a 



214 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPIir. 



member of the territorial council. He was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1863, and was elected United 
States senator in 1864, and re-elected in 
iS6g. At the expiration of his term in 
1875, he resumed the practice of law in 
Nevada, California, and the Pacific coast 
generally. He was thus engaged when he 
was elected again to the United States sen- 
ate as a Republican in 1887 to succeed the 
late James G. Fair, a Democrat, and took 
his seat March 4, 1887. On the expiration 
of his term he was again re-elected and be- 
came one of the leaders of his party in con- 
gress. His ability as an orator, and the 
prominent part he took in the discussion of 
public questions, gained him a national rep- 
utation. 



GEORGE GRAHAM VEST, for many 
years a prominent member of the 
United States senate, was born in Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, December 6, 1848. He 
graduated from Center College in 1868, and 
from the law department of the Transyl- 
vania University of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1853. In the same year he removed to 
Missouri and began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1 860 he was an elector on the 
Democratic ticket, and was a member of 
the lower house of the Missouri legislature 
in 1860-61, He was elected to the Con- 
federate congress, serving two years in the 
lower house and one in the senate. He 
then resumed the practice of law, and in 
1879 was elected to the senate of the United 
States to succeed James Shields. He was 
re-elected in 1885, and again in 1891 and 
1S97. His many years of service in the 
National congress, coupled v/ith his ability 
as a speaker and the active part he took in 
the discussion of public questions, gave him 
a wide reputation. 



HANNIBAL HAMLIN, a noted American 
statesman, whose name is indissolubly 
connected with the history of this country, 
was born in Paris, Maine, August 27, 1809. 
He learned the printer's trade and followed 
that calling for several years. He then 
studied law, and was admitted to practice 
in 1833. He was elected to the legislature 
of the state of Maine, where he was several 
times chosen speaker of the lower house. 
He was elected to congress by the Demo- 
crats in 1843, and re-elected in 1845. I" 
1848 he was chosen to the United States 
senate and served in that body until 1861. 
He was elected governor of Maine in 1857 
on the Republican ticket, but resigned when 
re-elected to the United Stales senate 
the same year. Hl; was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States on the ticket with 
Lincoln in i860, and inaugurated in March, 
1 861. In 1865 he was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston. Beginning with 
1869 he served two six-year terms in the 
United States senate, and was then ap- 
pointed by President Garfield as minister to 
Spain in 1881. His death occurred July 4, 
1891. 

I SHAM G. HARRIS, famous as Confed- 
1 erate war governor of Tennessee, and 
distinguished by his twenty years of service 
in the senate of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Tennessee, and 
educated at the Academy of Winchester. 
He then took up the study of law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
at Paris, Tennessee, in 1841. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1847, was 
a candidate for presidential elector on the 
Democratic ticket in 1848, and the next 
year was elected to congress from his dis- 
trict, and re-elected in 185 1. In 1853 he 
was renominated by the Democrats of his 



COMPENDIUM OF VlOGRAPJir. 



215 



district, but declined, and removed to Mem- 
phis, where he took up the practice of law. 
lie was a presidential elector-at-large from 
Tennessee in 1856, and was elected gov- 
ernor of the state the next year, and again 
in 1859, and in 1861. He was driven from 
Nashville by the advance of the Union 
armies, and for the last three years of the 
war acted as aid upon the staff of the com- 
manding general of the Confederate army 
of Tennessee. After the war he went to 
Liverpool, England, where he became a 
merchant, but returned to Memphis in 1867, 
and resumed the practice of law. In 1877 
he was elected to the United States senate, 
to which position he was successively re- 
elected until his death in 1897. 



N 



ELSON DINGLEY, Jr., for nearly a 
i N quarter of a century one of the leaders 
in congress and framer of the famous 
" Dingley tariff bill," was born in Durham, 
Maine, in* 1832. His father as well as all 
his ancestors, were farmers, merchants and 
mechanics and of English descent. Young 
Dingley was given the advantages first of 
the common schools and in vacations helped 
his father in the store and on the farm. 
When twelve years of age he attended high 
school and at seventeen was teaching in a 
country school district and preparing him- 
self for college. The following year he en- 
tered Waterville Academy and in 185 i en- 
tered Colby University. After a year and a 
half in this institution he entered Dart- 
mouth College and was graduated in 1855 
with liigh rank as a scholar, debater and 
writer. He next studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1856. But instead of 
practicing his profession he purchased the 
" Levvi>town (Me.) Journal," which be- 
came famous throughout the New England 
states as a leader in the advocacy of Repub- 



lican principles. About the same time Mr. 
Dingley began his political career, although 
ever after continuing at the head of the 
newspaper. He was soon elected to the 
state legislature and afterward to the lower 
house of congress, where he became a 
prominent national character. He also 
served two terms as governor of Maine. 



OLIVER PERRY MORTON, a distin- 
guished American statesman, was born 
in Wayne county, Indiana, August 4, 1823. 
His early education was by private teaching 
and a course at the Wayne County Seminary. 
At the age of twenty years he entered the 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and at 
the end of two years quit the college, began 
the study of law in the office of John New- 
man, of Centerville, Indiana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1S47. 

Mr. Morton was elected judge on the 
Democratic ticket, in 1852, but on th', 
passage of the " Kansas-Nebraska Bill " he 
severed his connection with that party, and 
soon became a prominent leader of the Re- 
publicans. He was elected governor of In- 
diana in 1 86 1, and as war governor became 
well known throughout the country. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1865, which 
partially deprived him of the use of his 
limbs. He was chosen to the United States 
senate from Indiana, in 1867, and wielded 
great influence in that body until the time 
of his death, November i, 1877. 



JOHN B. GORDON, a brilliant Confeder- 
ate officer and noted senatorof the United 
States, was born in Upson county, Georgia, 
February 6, 1832. He graduated from the 
State University, studied law, and took up 
the practice of his profession. At the be- 
ginning of the war he entered the Confederate 
service as captain of infantry, and rapidly 



216 



COMI'ENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
commanding one wing of the Confederate 
army at the close of the war. In 1868 he 
was Democratic candidate for governor of 
Georgia, and it is said was elected by a large 
majority, but his opponent was given the 
ofBce. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1868 and 1872, 
and a presidential elector both years. In 
1873 he was elected to the United States 
senate. In 1886 he was elected governor 
of Georgia, and re-elected in 1888. He 
was again elected to the United States 
senate in 1890, serving until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by A. S. Clay. He was 
regarded as a leader of the southern Democ- 
racy, and noted for his fiery eloquence. 



STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD, an illus- 
trious associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, was born at 
Iladdam, Connecticut, November 4, 1S16, 
being one of the noted sons of Rev. D. 
D. Field. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1837. took up the study of law 
with his brother, David Dudley Field, be- 
coming his partner upon admission to the 
bar. He went to California in 1849, and at 
once began to take an active interest in the 
political affairs of that state. He was 
elected alcalde of Marysville, in 1850, and 
in the autumn of the same year was elected 
to the state legislature. In 1857 he was 
elected judge of the supreme court of the 
state, and two years afterwards became its 
chief justice. In 1863 he was appointed by 
President Lincoln as associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States. During 
his incuinbenc}', in 1873, he was appointed 
by the governor of California one of a com- 
mission to examine the codes of the state 
and for the preparation of amendments to 
the same for submission to the legislature. 



In 1877 he was one of the famous electoral 
commission of fifteen members, and voted 
as one of the seven favoring the election of 
Tilden to the presidency. In 1S80 a large 
portion of the Democratic party favored his 
nomination as candidate for the presidency. 
He retired in the fall of 1897, having 
served a greater number of years on the 
supreme bench than any of his associates or 
predecessors, Chief Justice Marshall coming 
next in length of service. 



JOHN T. MORGAN, whose services in 
the United States senate brought him 
into national prominence, was born in 
Athens, Tennessee, June 20, 1824. At the 
age of nine years he emigrated to Alabama, 
where he made his permanent home, and 
where he received an academic education. 
He then took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He took a 
leading part in local politics, was a presi- 
dential elector in i860, casting his ballot 
for Breckenridge and Lane, and in 1861 
was a delegate to the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. In May, 
of the same year, he joined the Confederate 
army as a private in Company I, Cahawba 
Rifles, and was soon after made major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 
In 1862 he was commissioned colonel, and 
soon after made brigadier-general and as- 
signed to the command of a brigade in Vir- 
ginia. He resigned to join his old regiment 
whose colonel had been killed. He was 
soon afterward again marie brigadier-gen- 
eral and given command of the brigade that 
included his regiment. 

After the war he returned to the prac- 
tice of law, and continued it up to the time 
of his election to the United States senate, in 
1877. He was a presidential elector in 1876, 
and cast his vote for Tilden and Hendricks. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHT. 



217 



He was re-elected to the senate in 1883, 
and again in 1889, and 1895. His speeches 
and the measures he introduced, marked 
as they were by an intense Americanism, 
brought him into national prominence. 



WILLIAM McKINLEY, the twenty-fifth 
president of the United States, was 
born at Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1844. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and received his early education 
in a Methodist academy in the small village 
of Poland, Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
war Mr. McKinley was teaching school, 
earning twenty-five dollars per month. As 
soon as Fort Sumter was fired upon he en- 
listed in a company that was formed in 
Poland, which was inspected and mustered 
in by General John C. Fremont, who at 
first objected to Mr. McKinley, as being too 
young, but upon examination he was finally 
accepted. Mr. McKinley was seventeen 
when the war broke out but did not look his 
age. He served in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Infantry throughout the war, was promoted 
from sergeant to captain, for good conduct 
on the field, and at the close of the war, 
for meritorious services, he was brevetted 
major. After leaving the army Major Mc- 
Kinley took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1869 he took 
his initiation into politics, being elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county as a Republi- 
can, although the district was usually Demo- 
cratic. In 1 876 he was elected to congress, 
and in a call upon the President-elect, Mr. 
Hayes, to whom he went for advice upon the 
way he should shape his career, he was 
told that to achieve fame and success he 
must take one special line and stick to it. 
Mr. McKinley chose tariff legislation and 
he became an authority in regard to import 
duties. He was a member of congress for 



many years, became chairman of the ways 
and means connnittee, and later he advo- 
cated the famous tariff bill that bore his 
name, which was passed in 1890. In the 
next election the Republican party was 
overwhelmingly defeated through the coun- 
try, and the Democrats secured more than 
a two thirds majority in the lower house, 
and also had control of the senate, Mr. 
McKinley being defeated in his own district 
by a small majority. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1891 by a plurality of 
twenty-one thousand, five hundred and 
eleven, and two years later he was re-elected 
by the still greater plurality of eighty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and ninety-five. He was 
a delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis Re> 
publican convention in 1892, and was in- 
structed to support the nomination of Mr. 
Harrison. He was chairman of the con^ 
vention, and was the only man from Ohio 
to vote for Mr. Harrison upon the roll call. 
In November, 1892, a number of prominent 
politicians gathered in New York to discuss 
the political situation, and decided that the 
result of the election had put an end to Mc- 
Kinley and McKinleyism. But in less than 
four years from that date Mr. McKinley was 
nominated for the presidency against the 
combined opposition of half a dozen rival 
candidates. Much of the credit for his suc- 
cess was due to Mark A. Hanna, of Cleve- 
land, afterward chairman of the Republican 
national committee. At the election which 
occurred in November, 1896, Mr. McKinley 
was elected president of the United States 
by an enormous majority, on a gold stand- 
ard and protective tariff platform. He was 
inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1897, 
and called a special session of congress, to 
which was submitted a bill for tariff reform, 
which was passed in the latter part of July 
of that vear. 



218 



COMPEXDIUM OF niOGRAPIIT 



CINCINNATUS HEINE MILLER, 
known in the literary world as Joaquin 
Miller, "the poet of the Sierras," was born 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1841. When only 
about thirteen years of age he ran away 
from home and went to the mining regions 
in California and along the Pacific coast. 
Some time afterward he was taken prisoner 
by the Modoc Indians and lived with them 
for five years. He learned their language 
and gained great influence with them, fight- 
ing in their wars, and in all modes of living 
became as one of them. In 1858 he left 
the Indians and went to San Francisco, 
where he studied law, and in i860 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Oregon. In 1866 he 
was elected a county judge in Oregon and 
served four years. Early in the seventies 
he began devoting a good deal of time to 
literary pursuits, and about 1874 he settled 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote many 
poems and dramas that attracted consider- 
able attention and won him an e.xtended 
reputation. Among his productions maybe 
mentioned "Pacific Poems," " Songs of the 
Sierras," "Songs of the Sun Lands," 
' ' Ships in the Desert, " ' ' Adrianne, a Dream 
of Italy," "Danites," "Unwritten History," 
" First Families of the Sierras " (a novel), 
" One Fair Woman " (a novel), " Songs of 
Italy," " Shadows of Shasta," "The Gold- 
Seekers of the Sierras," and a number of 
others. 

GEORGE FREDERICK ROOT, a 
noted music publisher and composer, 
was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on August 30, 1820. While 
working on his father's farm he found time 
to learn, unaided, several musical instru- 
ments, and in his eighteenth year he went 
to Boston, where he soon found employ- 
ment as a teacher of music. From 1839 



until 1844 he gave instructions in music in 
the public schools of that city, and was also 
director of music in two churches. Mr. 
Root then went to New York and taught 
music in the various educational institutions 
of the city. He went to Paris in 1850 and 
spent one year there in study, and on his re- 
turn he published his first song, "Hazel 
Dell." It appeared as the work of " Wur- 
zel, " which was the German equivalent of 
his rijme. He was the originator of the 
normal musical institutions, an"d when the 
first one was started in New York he 
was one of the faculty. He removed to 
Chicago, Illinois, in i860, and established 
the firm of Root & Cady, and engaged in 
the publication of music. He received, in 
1872, the degree of " Doctor of Music" 
from the University of Chicago. After the 
war the firm became George F. Root & Co., 
of Cincinnati and Chicago. Mr. Root did 
much to elevate the standard of inusic in this 
country by his compositions and work as a 
teacher. Besides his numerous songs he 
wrote a great deal of sacred music and pub- 
lished many collections of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For many jears he was the 
most popular song writer in America, and 
was one of the greatest song writers of the 
war. He is also well-known as an author, 
and his work in that line comprises: " ivleth- 
ods for the Piano and Organ," "Hand- 
book on Harmony Teaching," and innumer- 
able articles for the musical press. Among 
his many and most popular songs of the 
war time are : ' ' Rosalie, the Prairie-flower, " 
"Battle Cry of Freedom," " Just Before the 
Battle," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," " The Old Folks are Gone," 
"A Hundred Years Ago," "Old Potomac 
Shore, "and " There's Music in the Air." Mr. 
Root's cantatas include "The Flower Queen" 
and "The Haymakers." He died in 1896. 



FART II. 



^?T 



^^S^>3 






COMFENDIUMs 



5-^ 



OF 



/qSM^ 



(rX?7Ta) 






LOCAL BIOGRArHY 



?ii^a 



OF 



COLUMBIA. SAUK AND ADAMS COUNTIES, 



-l^-^WISCONSIN^— ^ 



i^s^^-s-s^^^^^^^^^^^^a^r^c^s^s^-^'^^^^^^^^'^^^^^fv. 



OF 



4^ LOCAL BIOGRAPHY 











ox. JAMES TAYLOR 
LEWIS, LL. D.— 
Eoremost am< mg the 
men of Ci)Iumbiacijun- 
ty, and recognized 
tliroughout tlie state as 
one of the most useful 
and iniluential citizens of Wisconsin, stands 
tlie venerable ex-governor, James T. Lewis, 
of Columbus. He may be justly termed one 
of the fathers of the state, having been close- 
ly identified with many of its most vital in- 
terests during the formative period and the 
Civil war. His distinguished serx'ice in puli- 
lic life as well as his personal wi>rth make 
the following history of general interest, n(jt 
only to the readers of the present day, l)ut 
to future historians of this section. 

Air. Lewis was born in Clarendon, New 
York, October 30, 1819, a son of Shubael 
and Eleanor (Robertson) Lewis. The 
mother was born in Edinburg, Scotland, and 
died October 8, 1854, at the age of forty- 
two years. The father, a native of Massa- 
chusetts, was born February 27, 1783, and 
\\ as a son of Samuel Lewis, whose ancestors 
located in New England at an early day in 



the history of this cnuntr}-. Shubael Lewis 
began life with few advantages, but with a 
strong iletermination to succeed and a spirit 
of integrity and enterprse which enaliled liim 
to acquire a comfijrtaljje estate in New York 
and to add to the same considerably in \Vis- 
ci^nsin. After the death of his first wife 
he was married in New York to ]Miss Parne 
Nichols, who was a true and devoted mother 
to her seven step-children. 

James T. Lewis, our subject, pursued his 
studies at Clarkson Academy, Monroe coun- 
ty. New York, and Clinton Seminary with 
the view of entering Hamilton College, but 
after C()mpleting the course at the seminary 
he abandoned the original project by his fa- 
ther's advice, and in 1842 commenced the 
study of law with (j(A'ernor Selden Clark- 
son, of New Y(jrk. L"i)on completing his 
studies, in 1845. ^^^ came to Columlnis, Wis- 
consin, and was admitted to practice before 
the LTnited States circuit court in the terri- 
tory of W'isconsin, and later before the state 
supreme court. Soon after locating here he 
became actively identified with public affairs 
and filled the offices of district attornev and 
countv judge. He was also a member of 



222 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



the con\-eiition whicli adopted the present 
constitution of the state, December 15, 1847. 
In 1852 Mr. Lewis was a member of the 
General Assembly from Columbia county 
and the following year he was electetl to the 
state senate. He served as lieutenant gov- 
ernor for two years, beginning in January, 
1854. In the fall of 1861 he was elected 
secretary of state, receiving every vote in 
Columbus cast for that oflice, and two years 
later was elected governor, receiving the 
largest majority ever given a governor of 
Wisconsin up to 1896. His administration 
was characterized by economy, activity and 
justice, and he was especially active in rais- 
ing and equipping troops for the army and 
looking after their comfort while in the field. 
He visited many camps and hospitals and se- 
cured from the surgeon general of the United 
States an order transferring sick and wound- 
ed soldiers from Wisconsin to hospitals with- 
in the state. By this means many lives were 
saved and those whose recovery was impos- 
sible were made more comfortable. Gov- 
ernor Lewis also assisted in establishing a 
home for soldiers' orphans. He secured the 
correction of an error in the state's quota 
of troops by which the number was reduced 
about four thousand. He declined the 
usual appropriation of governor's con- 
tingent fund and managed the affairs of 
the state in a judicious and economical 
manner, worthy of emulation by some 
latter day statesmen. Upon the expira- 
tion of his term, however, he positively de- 
clined a renomination. 

On the 23d of July, 1846, Governor 
Lewis married Aliss Orlena M. Sturges, a 
daughter of David Sturges, a prominent mer- 
chant of Clarendon, New York, and they 
are the parents of three children, two sons 
and one daughter, namely: Selden J., an at- 
torney of Vermillion, South Dakota; Charles 
R., who is employed in the city ticket office 



of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road at Minneapolis; and Annie L., wife of 
W. F. Dudley, assistant general auditor for 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
residing at Evanston, 111. Mrs. Lewis is a 
most estimable lady and one of the leading 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church 
of Columbus, which the family also attend. 
Until the beginning of the Civil war 
Governor Lewis was a stanch advocate of 
Democratic principles, but when the southern 
states attempted to secede, he took a decided 
stand in support of the government and was 
elected secretary of state on the Republican 
ticket. Ever since he has affiliated with that 
party, and has been one of its stanch sup- 
porters. One of his characteristic expres- 
sions while governor was "He who is not a 
faithful friend to the government of his 
country in this trying hour is no friend of 
mine," and he has ever been acknowledged 
one of the most patriotic and loyal citizens 
of the state or nation. Since his retirement 
from public life he has lived in his old-fash- 
inned residence at Columbus, amid rural antl 
picturesque surroundings, where he dispenses 
a hearty hospitality to his numerous visitors. 
He has always been a liberal supporter of ed- 
ucational and philanthropic institutions for 
some years, devoting most of his income to 
thatl object. In 1864 Lawrence Uni- 
\-ersity conferred upon him the degree 
of LL. D. A few years ago Gov- 
ernor Lewis made a journey around the 
world, visiting the principal countries and 
cities of the orient and collecting many in- 
teresting views and curiosities from those 
lands. After a pure, honorable and useful 
life, actuated by unselfish motives, prompted 
by patriotism and guided by truth and jus- 
tice, he may in his declining age rest assured 
that the people of this state are not unmind- 
ful of those who have labored for their in- 
terests. 



COMPENDIUM Of BIOGRAPHY 



1^23 



A TRUE COPY OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY FOUND 

AMONG THE PAPERS OF GENERAL 

GUPPEY. 

"General Josluui J. Giippey, Portage, 
\\'iscuiisin, member of Rousseau Post, Xo. 
14, G. A. R., son of John and Hannah 
(Dame) Guppey, was born August 2y, 1820, 
at Dover, New Hampshire, and is of English 
extraction. 

"Joshua Guppey, the founder of the 
American branch of tlie family, emigrated in 
early youth, about the year 1720, from 
southwest England to America, settled in 
Beverly, Massachusetts, married there and 
(lied there before reaching middle age. His 
SL'U, Cajitain James CJuppey, was a sea officer 
and commanded a United States naval \-essel 
in the war of the Revolution. John Guppey, 
son of Captain James Guppey, was a wealthy 
farmer and much respected business man, 
but never held any public position. 

"General Guppey graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1843. I''' '^'s senior year 
he was captain of the 'Dartmouth Phalanx,' 
the college military company. He studied 
law in Dover, New Hampshire, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in April, 1846, and in Sep- 
tember following he settled in Columljus, 
Wisconsin, in the practice of his profession 
and in doing a general land agency business. 
He remained there until 185 1, wlien he re- 
moved to Portage, in the same county, which 
is still his home. He is in good circumstan- 
ces, and has a beautiful homestead of fifty 
acres on Silver Lake. In February, 1847, 
he was appointed colonel of jNIilitia. In 
September, 1849, '^^ was appointed Judge of 
Probate. He has six times been elected 
County Judge for terms of four years each, 
commencing, respectively, January i, 1850, 
1854, 1866, 1870, 1874 and 1878. From 
1858 to 1 86 1 he was school superintendent 
of the city of Portage, and again from 1866 
to 1872. His elections to these offices were 
usually without opposition. 



"In 1862 he was the Democratic candi- 
date for congress in the Second Wisconsin 
district, and was defeated l)y only 2,000 
votes, the usual Repulilican majority being 
about 7.000. In 1868 he became a Repub- 
lican, and has ever since acted w:th that 
l)arty. He was never \'ery acti\'e in politics. 

"September 13, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant Colonel of the Tenth 
Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry 
and served under General O. M. Mitchell, 
in all his campaigns of 1861 and 1862 in 
Kentucky, Tennessee and Alaliama. 

"July 17, 1862, he was promoted to 
Colonel of the Twenty-third Regiment, Wis- 
consin Infantry, and was with it in actual 
command in the iirst assault on \'icksburg, 
I^ecember, 1862, under General Sherman; 
also in the assault and capture of Post Ar- 
kansas, January 11, 1863; and at the battle 
of Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, Champion Hills 
and Black River Bridge. In all these bat- 
tles his regiment behaved with marked brav- 
ery, and the official report of the capture of 
I'ost Arkansas states that a part of the rebel 
right was 'djiMven in by a charge of the 
1 wenty-third Wisconsin, Colonel Guppey.' 

"Colonel Guppey was also in command 
of his regiment in the assault at Vicksburg 
in May, 1863, and in the siege operations re- 
sulting in the capture of that stronghold, 
July 4, 1863. After this capture, his regi- 
ment with the Thirteenth Army Corps, to 
\\hich it belonged, was transferred to the 
Department of the Gulf. 

"On Novemljer 3, 1863, the Fourth 
Division, in command of General Bur])ridge, 
Vv'as attacked by an overwhelming force of 
rebels at Carrion Crow or Ba_\'ou Corbeau, 
near Opelousas, Louisiana, and the battle 
of Grand Coteau was fought. In this bat- 
tle the Twenty-third W^isconsin, Colonel 
Guppey, was held in reser\-e. When it came 
its turn to take the brunt of the battle, says 
the Cincinnati Commercial, 'this excellent 



224 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



regiment, animated l)y its brave Colonel, 
lielcT the enemy in check for a short time, de- 
livering its fire with deadly effect. 

" 'Here Colonel Guppey was wounded 
(just below the knee of the left leg), and 
subsequently taken prisoner. The man who 
shot him was not thirty feet from him at the 
time. But the Twenty-third, too, had to 
gi\'e way. The odds were too great for 
human effort to ox'ercome. 

" 'The Colonel commanded his men fur 
some time after he was shot.' Mr. Greslev, 
in his '.Vmerican Conflict,' when describing 
this battle says : 'Our right, thus suddenly 
assailed in great force and with intense 
fury, was broken, and was saved from utter 
distruction by the de\oted bravery of the 
Twenty-third \\'isconsin and the efficient 
service of Xims battery.' Colonel Guppey 
was treated kindly while a prisoner, and 
was exchanged in January, 1864. He was 
soon after detailed by General Banks as 
President of a Military Commission for the 
examination of officers in the Thirteenth 
Army Corps. 

"In the summer of 1864 Colonel Guppey 
was assigned to the command of a brigade, 
and was in active service till the close of the 
v^-ar, all the way frcjm I\Iol:)ile Bay, Alabama, 
to Paducah, Kentucky, and was Post Com- 
mander at the latter place when the war 
endeil. On the 15th of June, 1865, Colonel 
Guppey was commissioned Brigadier Gen- 
eral of Volunteers by brevet, for gallant and 
meritorious services during the war. His 
regiment was mustered out of service July 
4, 1865, and had an enthusiastic reception 
on reaching Madison, Wisconsin, July i6Lh. 
(_)n the first of January, 1866, he again en- 
tered upon his duties as county judge, to 
which office he had been elected while sew- 
ing in the army. 

"In January, 18S2, at the close of his 
sixth term as county judge, on accoimt of 
impaired health from wuunds, and from 



rheumatism contracted while in the army, 
General 'Guppey retired to private life, and 
since that date has given most of his time 
to his own affairs — excepting business from 
a few of his old clients only. 

"He was never married; but notwith- 
standing that ill fortune, antl his suffering 
from rheumatism he retains his old time 
cheerfulness of spirit and finds much pleas- 
lu'c in the (|uiet days of his old ago." 

He died at Portage, \\'isciinsin, Decem- 
ber 8, 1S93. 

M. T. Alverson, Executor of the Estate 
of Joshua J. Guppey. 



HON. SOLOX WESLEY PIERCE. 

Hon. Solon ^^'esley Pierce, for more 
than forty years identified with the public 
affairs of Adams county, Wisconsin, is a resi- 
dent of the city of Friendship, and the an- 
nals of his county could not be compiled 
without frequent reference to his name and 
deeds. 

Solon Wesley Pierce is a native of Xew 
'^'ork, Ijorn in the town of Yorkshire, Catta- 
raugus county, March 7, 1831, the son of 
Daniel and Adeline (DeMott-Brunson) 
Pierce. Daniel Pierce is supposed to ha\e 
been a native of Massachusetts, and was of 
English lineage. His ancestors located near 
Marblehead in the early days of the Massa- 
chusetts colony, and the members of this 
family were active in the public affairs of 
the great commonwealth for many genera- 
tions. The grandfather of our subject, John 
Pierce, had charge of a military school in 
Marblehead for some years, and later became 
a Methodist minister, and removed to Xew 
York, where he died. Daniel Pierce fol- 
lowed the occupation of a farmer, and died 
in Rochester, Xew York, in 1843, ^t the age 
of fort}--fi\-e years. Our subject's mother, 
who later married James W. Xorris, lived 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



225 



for many years at Nunda, Livingston coun- 
ty, New York, where she died at the age of 
eighty years. Iler fatlier, Hosea Brunson, 
was a veteran of the war of 1812. serving in 
a New York regiment. If is family were of 
Scandinavian origin. His death occurred at 
Brighton, New York. 

Solon Wesley Pierce received his pri- 
mary education in the public schools of 
Rochester, then took a course in the 
Lima College, and later at Menden 
Academy, Menden, New ^'nrk. He 
then became a stationary engineer, continu- 
ing in that calling for si.x years. Li 1854 
he came to Wisconsin, and located at Cas- 
cade (now White Creek), Adams county. 
He had taken u;) the study of law before 
leaving New York, and he taught school 
for several years. In 1.S57 he removed to 
Friendship, and was admittetl to the bar 
in 1858, since which time he lias been in the 
practice of his profession. He instituted 
the first gerrymander suit in the state of 
\\'isconsin, in January, 1892, having pre- 
viously drafted a resolution wh'ich was 
adopted by the lioard of supervisors of 
Adams count}", authorizing such action. His 
position was x'indicateil liy the sujireme 
ccurt, which declared the appnrtionment 
unconstitutional, antl ordered a re-appor- 
tionment. At the age of thirt}- years he was 
elected district attorr.ey (jf the county. an<l 
he served three years as county judge. In 
1861, April 28th, he with two associates, 
Thomas B. Marsden and D. D. McGibeny, is- 
sued the first number of the "Adams County 
Press," i)f which iiapcr he has l)een the sole 
proprietor since 1866, and with which he has 
been continuously connected since its estab- 
lishment with the exception of the interval 
during which he was in the service. The 
"J'ress'' is the oldest and most influential 
journal in the county. In 1866 our subject 
published "Battle Field and Cami) Fires of 
the Thirty-eighth Regiment." 



Mr. Pierce enlisted in Company Iv, 
Thirty-eighth Wisconsin \'olunteer Lifant- 
ry, September 12, 1864, and was made first 
lieutenant. His cajjtain was T. B. Mars- 
den. His regiment was attached to the 
Ninth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, 
and he was ne\-er aljsent from duty during 
the entire period of his service. While in 
charge of a force of men engaged in felling- 
trees in front of the Union lines a tree fell 
across his legs, causing severe injuries. He 
was compelled to go on crutches for three 
weeks, but he appeared regularly for duty. 
His entire army record is marked by faith- 
fulness to duty, [jatriotism and unshrinking- 
courage. He received his honorable dis- 
charge June 24, 1865. 

In 1870 ]\lr. Pierce was elected to the 
Wisconsin Assemb'.y, and was electetl to tlie 
same body in 1877, 1878, 1880, 1881, 1882 
and 1897. He is the author of that measure 
providing for biennial elections in Wiscon- 
sin, and was active in securing the adoptii.m 
of the amendment to the state constitution 
authorizing the same. He served as chair- 
man of the judiciary committee in 1880, 
]S8i and 1882. He has always been active 
in the councils of the Repulilican party, ami 
in the assembly was a recognized leader. 

Mr. Pierce was married in 1851 to Hes- 
ter A. Mosher, of Nunda, New York. She 
died August 25, 1865, aged thirty-l< ur 
years. Our subject was married to his prt.s- 
cnt wife, who was Miss Hattie E. Water- 
man, in 1866. She was the daughter of 
Thomas and Susan (Norcross) Waterman, 
of Friendship, Wisconsin. ^Ir. and Mr;;. 
Pierce aire the parents of five children, 
nrmied as follows: Katie L., now Mrs. 
Robert S. Harrison, of Friendship; Jennie 
May, now the wife of Norman M. Jones, of 
I'riendship; Nellie L., now Mrs. C. F. 
Pierce, of Chicago; Jessie W., and Harry 
.S., cnnnected with his father in business in 
iM-iendship. Mr. Pierce is an honcjred 



226 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



member of Badger Post, G. A. R., and of the 
Quincy Lodge, A. F. & A. M., at Friend- 
ship. He is a man deservedly popular 
throughout the county and that section of 
the state. He is liberal, broad minded and 
generous, and his services to his county and 
state merit the highest meed of praise, and 
no man in central Wisconsin can boast more 
warm friends and earnest supporters. 



HON. I<OBERT BOYD WENTWOirfH. 

Hon. Robert Boyd Wentworth, of Port- 
age, ^Visconsin, has long been identified with 
the leading commercial interests of the city 
and county, and is wiflely knt)\vn as one of 
the foremost citizens of the county. He was 
born January i8, 1827, -at Buxton, York 
county, Maine, and is a son of Robert and 
Sally (Harding) Wentworth, both of whom 
were natives of Maine. The Wentworths 
are descendants of Reginald \Ventworth, 
. who was owner of the lordship of Went- 
worth, in Strafford, Yorkshire, at the time of 
the Norman conquest. The Magna Britan- 
nica says the Wentworth House may justly 
be numbered with the most magnificent seats 
in liritain. The Wentworth family has been 
prominent in England, in the Colonies, and 
in tlie United States, for several centuries. 
The first of that name in this ciiuntry was 
Elder \Villiam \\'entworth, who located at 
Exeter, New Hampshire, as early as 1639. 
Burke, in his Peerage, says he belonged to 
the illustrious family of Thomas Wentworth, 
earl of Strafford. Fie was a contemporary 
of Rev. John Wheelwright and Ann Hutch- 
inson. He lived for a time at Wells, Maine, 
but his later years were spent at Dover, New 
Hampshire. His grave at that place is said 
to be underneath the present tracks of the 
Boston and Maine Railroad. \\'hen about 
eighty years old he was preaching in Exeter 



and in 1693 the town agreed to pay him 
fdrly pounds a year for his services. He 
reared a large family of sons and his poster- 
ity includes a number of men who have 
achieved distinction in the wtst, as well as 
some of the most prominent people of New 
England. A descendant of his was John 
Wentworth. Jr., who sat as a member of the 
Continental Congress from New Hampshire, 
and affixed his name to the Articles of Con- 
federation. Se\eral of his descendants have 
been citizens of ^Visconsin and Illinois, and 
among the number ma)^ be mentioned that 
famous "Long John Wentworth," for many 
years a resident of Chicago. He was mayor 
of that city for two terms, member of con- 
gress for several years and the compiler of 
the genealogy of the family 

Robert Wentworth, father of Robert B., 
spent his life upon a farm at Buxton Center, 
Maine, where he reached the age of eighty 
years. He was a worker in metals, and made 
brass clocks, sleigh bells, and other articles. 
He was a man of character and standing, 
was an officer in the Congregational church, 
and was elected to the state legislature by 
the Whigs in the year 1848. In later life 
he became a Republican. Mrs. Sally ^Vent- 
worth died at the age of thirty-five years, 
leaving seven small children. He afterward 
married her sister, Miss Eunice Harding", 
by whom he had four children. The father 
of these two ladies commanded a ship sailing 
from Portland in the West India trade, and 
v'AS a man of much importance in the early 
days. 

Robert Boyd Wentworth belongs to the 
seventh generation of Elder William Went- 
worth, and his great-grandfather. Lieu- 
tenant Samuel Merrill, fought in the l)attle 
of Bunker Hill. He left home at the age of 
fifteen vears, and went to Portland, where he 
learned the printing trade, which was his 
occupation for many years. In 1848 he 
came to Wisconsin, and has been a citizen of 




ROBERT B. WENTWORTH. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



229 



this state ever since its organization. He 
located at JNIadison, and had the position of 
state printer from i8=;o to 1852, and did all 
his work upon a hand press. At the end of 
that time he removed to Junean, and founded 
the "Dodge County Gazette," the first news- 
paper ever printed in that county. Mr. 
Wentworth has ^reserved the original files 
of the paper, and it must be confessed that 
it presents an appearance more pleasing" to 
the critical eye than many of the rural pub- 
lications of the present day. He published 
the "Gazette" for two years, and then sold it 
to Hon. Charles Billinghurst, who changed 
the name to "The Burr Oak." Mr. Went- 
worth continued to print it until it was dis- 
continued in 1855. In 1857 he came to 
Portage and purchased the "Independent," 
which became in his hands the "Portage City 
Record." He ])ublished the "Record" four 
years and then sold it to A. J. Turner. 

Mr. ^^'entworth now determined to en- 
ter a wider field of business activity, and con- 
structed a grain elevator on the bank of the 
, ship canal connecting the Fox and ^^'iscon- 
sin rivers, and for more than thirty years 
carried on an extensive business in grain. 
He helped to organize the "Portage and 
Green Bay Transportation Company," which 
operated a line of steamboats and barges 
Ijetwecn these points for a number of years. 
He alsi.) carried on, in connection with his 
grain business, an extensive trade in lumber. 
In 1S74 ]\Ir. Wentworth was largely instru- 
mental in the organization of the City Bank 
of Portage and was its first cashier, and is 
now its vice-president. In 1880 he became 
one of the chief promoters of the Portage 
Hosiery Company and is the president of 
that corporation at the present time. It 
has developed into one of the principal in- 
dustries of the city. 

]\lr. \\'ent\vorth is careful and methodical 
i:i all his business enterprises, conservative 
until e\ery.chance is estimated, and then pro- 



gressive and thoroughly alive. He enjoys 
the confidence of all with whom he comes 
in contact, and richly merits the fraternal re- 
gard in which he is held by all who know 
him. For several years Mr. Wentworth 
has practically lived a retired life, a portion 
of his time being spent in travel. He has 
given little time to the agitation and discus- 
sion of political cjuestions, liut he has a clear 
apprehension of the great themes that inter- 
est men. The people have shown their con- 
fidence in his judgment by electing him to 
responsible positions from time to time. 
He went from Dodge county to represent 
the people of that section in the first Republi- 
can legislature of the state, and acquitted 
himself in every wav in a most creditable 
manner. In Portage he has served as alder- 
man several terms, and is regarded as one 
of tlie verv foremost citizens of the town. 

Mr. Wentworth was married to Miss 
Lydia H. Pike, October 9, 1850. She was 
tlie daughter of Rev. John and Hannah Pike, 
of Fryeburg, Maine, and a lady of noble 
character. She died June 6, 1894. Four 
children were born to them : Ella W. Carr, of 
San Antonio, Texas; Winfield S., of Wau- 
kegan, Illinois; Florence W. Thomas, of 
Milwaukee, and John P., who died in child- 
hood. February 2, 1898, Mr. Wentworth 
was married to Miss Emma C. Haight, of 
Milwaukee. 

A portrait of ]\lr. Wentworth will be 
found upon another page in this \-iihnne. 



COLONEL D. K. NOYES. 

Colonel D. K. Noyes, one of the earliest 
and most i)rominent citizens of ]3araboo, 
Sauk county, was liorn in Orange county, 
Vermont, October 28, 1820. It is needless 
to introduce him to the people of Wisconsin, 
as iiis name is well known, and a history of 



290 



COM PES DI I'M 01- BIOGRAPHY. 



that state could not be written witlnnit fre- 
quently referring to his labors. 

Mr. Noyes is the son of Enoch and Mary 
A. (Knox) Noyes. His father was a son 
of Aaron Noyes, who was born at Pembroke, 
New Hampshire. He married Betty Ladd 
and moved to Vermont, the original famly 
in America coming in 1636. Two of the 
family of Noyes came together, and one set- 
tled in Massachusetts, while the other set- 
t!eil in Connecticut. Many honors have 
f;;llen to the family along the line of descent, 
and have included statesmen, min-sters, etc. 
iMioch Noyes, the father of our subject, was 
a farmer and remained in \'ermont until 
1844, when he emigrated to Wisconsin, then 
a territnry. He first located in Iowa countv, 
then in Dane county, and later went to Sauk 
county, about 1851, where he .spent the re- 
mainder of his life on a farm. He died 
December 29, 1855, at the age of fifty-nine 
years, and his wife died October 15, 1859, 
aged sixty years. Both were members of 
the Methodist church. The mother of our 
subject was a daughter of David Knox. The 
family ( riginally came from the north of 
Ireland, and settled near Londonderry, New 
Hampshire, afterwards at Tunbridge, Ver- 
mont, (ieneral Knox, of Revolutionary 
war fame, was of the same family, and all 
are descendants of |ohn Kuox, the great re- 
former of ScotLind. Our suliject was the 
eldest of nine children, eight of whom grew 
to maturity, as follows: D. K., our subject; 
"Aaron A., a practicing physician of Minne- 
apolis; William W., deceased, was an editor 
and never married: Mary .\.., who married 
Mr. Bennett, by whom she had two .sons, 
and later married Mr. Prentice, ])y whom 
two daughters were born. She is now de- 
cea.sed; Silon, deceased, was an editor at 
Mason City, L_)wa; Amanda died in chiM- 
liood : Pydia. deceased, married Mr. j\l(_)rse; 
Henry, who now resides at Baraboo. He 
ser\'ed through the Ci^•il war, and haj served 



a;: city treasurer of Baraboo, and filled nu- 
merous offices of minor character; and Rob- 
ert Bruce, who died at the age of eighteen 
years. 

Our subject uas educated in the common 
schools, and at Norwich University and 
Chelsea and Royalton .\cademies. He began 
to work at the age of eleven years, and wdien 
not studying was engaged at farming, herd- 
ing sheep and stock, learned the tanner's 
trade, and later run a saw null and worked 
al many employments. His brother, Aaron 
.\., came to Wisconsin in 1843, ^"d the fol- 
lowing year the family, including our sub- 
ject, joined him in Wisconsin. Our subject 
had taught in N'erniont and earned the 
money with w hich to bring the family to the 
new home. He was first employed at mak- 
ing rails at fifty cents per hundred and 
taught school winters, and he afterward 
made the acquaintance of Ceneral Amasa 
Cobb, with whom he went to the lead mines 
and spent one season prospecting; liut found 
n(> lead, and after their money was spent 
in foolish tligging they enlisted for the Mex- 
ican war. But the companv was not ac- 
, cepted. Our subject then went to Dodge- 
\-ille, anil soon entered the oflice of Strong 
i!\_ .\])l)ott, attorneys, at Alineral Point, and 
began the study of law. He was admitted at 
the March term in 1X47 to practice law, and 
in June of the same year went to Baraboo, 
\,hich had Ijeen located as the county seat 
of Sauk county. The country was a wilder- 
ness and but little land was cleared. Four 
saw mills were running and the settlers were 
few, and not permanenth- settled. Our 
subject was a \\ big and estal)lished the 
newspaper "Republic," which isstill running, 
Ijut in other hands. He was the first attor- 
ne\' locatetl at Baraboo, and erected the first 
office of the town, and was attorney and land 
agent. There was not much law practice 
tc attentl, and he spent the greater part of 
his time locating land, and did more of that 



COMPENDIUM OP BIOGRAPHY 



231 



jjrolialily llian any other nian ut tliat reg'ion. 
He continued the paper about six or eight 
years, and later purchased a farm of three 
hundred and twenty acres, whicli liad been 
partially improved, and he erected a commo- 
ilious residence, large barn, and made other 
permanent improvements. In 180 1 he en- 
listed in the Sixth Wisconsin Infantry, and 
was elected first lieutenant of his company, 
and assigned to the Army of the Potomac. 
He was in numerous engagements, including 
Kai)pahannock, Gainesville, second battle of 
ilull Run, South Mountain and Antietam. 
He received a slight wound on the forehead, 
and at Antietam his right foot was taken 
off by a shell, while he was acting as captain, 
and after the battle he remained at a pri\-ate 
liouse eight weeks before he could lie re- 
moved to Georgetown lnjspital. All but his 
heel bone was taken from the foot and he was 
rendered a cripple for life. After abont 
three months he went home and with the aid 
of crutches was able to walk some. As 
soon as he was able he was given a recruit- 
ing office and continued thus for some time, 
and later was given a major's commission 
and again entered the service in the Forty- 
ninth Wisconsin Infantry. He v.as as- 
signed to St. Louis and Rolla, Missouri, 
where he remained a short time and was ap- 
pointed on the court martial service at St. 
Louis, remaining thus until November, 1865, 
when he returned home as lieutenant- 
colonel. He soon after established an in- 
dependent newspaper, and in 1867 was ap- 
pointed postmaster at Baraboo, which he 
held about sixteen years. He has now re- 
tired from active business, and devotes his 
attention to looking after his property inter- 
ests, of which he owns consideral)le in 
Baraboo. 

Colonel Xoyes married Miss Lucinda 
Barnes, in Vermont, in June, 1848. Mrs. 
Noyes was the daughter of Captain Joel 



Barnes, of Vermont. His father was Major 
Daniel Barnes, of the Revolutionary war. 
Joel Barnes settled in Wisconsin with his 
family in 1854, and engaged in farnn'ng; 
there his wife ^\.:^\. and the last three \'ears 
of his life lie found a coml'ortable home with 
Colonel and Mrs. Noyes. He died about 
1870, imd was the father of the following 
children: Harry, an ex-assemblyman; Lucy, 
now Mrs. Goodman; Leonard, of Iowa; and 
Lucinda, wife of our subject, b'our chil- 
dren were born to Colonel and AL's. Noyes, 
as follows: Clara L., deceased, who mar- 
ried Judge Huntington, of Green Bay, and 
M^ho left five children; Walter W., justice 
of the peace in Baraboo; .\rthur H., for- 
merly a prominent attorne)- of Minneapolis, 
VA)\\ one of the fe<lei'a! judges at Cape Nome, 
Alaska, and Rolla E., an attorney of Bara- 
boo. Mr. Noyes is a prominent member of 
the Masonic fraternity, the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, the (1. A. R., and the 
Loyal Legion. Both he and RL's. Noyes are 
members of the Presbyterian cluirch. He 
has been commander of the G. -\. R. ami 
was a delegate to the Boston reunion, and 
has received two honorable discharges as an 
officer. He early entered into public affairs 
and was a Republican from the organization 
of the party. The county, prior to the b're- 
mont c<ami)aign, was Uemocratic, but since 
tliat time has been a Republican county, and 
ftjr the first office for which lie was nomi- 
nated he was defeated, but has since lieen 
elected to numerous important offices. In 
1856 he was elected assemblyman, and 
served on the judiciary committee, and also 
on the town and county organizations com- 
mittee, and assisted with the Wisconsin 
code. He was the first town clerk of 1 bara- 
boo, and has also served as justice of the 
peace. A man respected and honored lor 
his good deeds, he is passing his decliifing 
years among those who know him well, and 



232 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



he has gained a competence which affords 
him a comfortable income, and he may well 
be accorded a prominent place in the annals 
of Wisconsin. 



HON. JAMES BRAINARD TAYLOR, A. 
B., A. j\I., Deceased. 

In the last half of the present century 
the lawyer has been a pre-eminent factor in 
all aft'airs of private concern and national 
importance. He has been depended upon 
to conserve the best and permanent interests 
of the whole people and is a recognized 
power in all the avenues of life. He stands 
as the protector of the rights and liberties" 
of his fell(.)w men and is the representative 
of a profession wlinse followers, if they 
would gain honor, fame and success, must 
be men of merit and al.iility. Such a one was 
Judge Taylor, \\-ho for years occupied the 
bench of Columbia county, winning high 
commendation by his fair and impartial ad- 
ministration of justice. 

He was born in Rupert, Bennington 
county, Vermont, August 15, 1840, a son of 
Stephen and Harriet (Sheldon) Taylor. The 
grandfather, Joel Taylor, removed to Ver- 
mont from Concord, New Hampshire, about 
the close of the eighteenth century, and be- 
came a successful farmer of Rupert, where 
he (lied at the age of eighty-eight years. He 
was one of the defenders of the country dur- 
ing the war of 1812. His ancestors came 
from England. The Judge's father spent 
bis life upon a farm in Rupert, Ver- 
mont, (lying there at the age of 
eighty-eight years. His wife, who was 
also a native of that place and a 
daughter of Increase Sheldon, passed away 
some years prior to her husband's death, at 
the age of fifty. Their six sons are now all 
deceased. His l)rother, Emmons Taylor, 
was at one time a prominent citizen of 



Portage, Wisconsin, and is represented on 
another page of this \-olume. 

Judge Taylor completed the prescribed 
course at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Ver- 
mont, and then entered Union College, 
Schenectady, New York, where he pursued 
a classical course and was graduated in 
1865. The same year he came to Portage, 
Wisconsin, and commenced reading law with 
his brother Emmons, who had located here 
in 1857. He was admitted to the bar in 
1868 and successfully engaged in practice, 
being at tlie time of his death one of the 
oldest established attorneys of Portage. 

In the spring of 1893 he was elected 
county j-udge and re-elected four years later 
by the unanimous vote of all parties. He 
also ser\-ed as city attorney several terms 
and as mayor for one term. His integrity 
as a judge was never called into question, 
and he was ecpially popular with his brethren 
of the legal profession and with all classes of 
citizens. 

On the 1 6th of September, 1873, Judge 
Taylor was united in marriage with Miss 
Julia A. Davidson, a native of Beaver Dam, 
Wisconsin, and a daughter of Alexander 
and Julia Davidson, of Portage, who were of 
Scottish birth. Her father, who was for 
a number of years in the United States 
mail serx'ice, is still living in Oshkcish, \\'is- 
consin, at the age of eighty-four years, but 
the mother died there in 1896. To the 
Judge and his \\ife came foiu' children: 
Emmons H., who is now in the employ of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. I'aul Rail- 
road ; James Dixon; Dwight D., and Caro- 
line M. 

The family attend the Episcopal church, 
of which Mrs. Taylor is a member and the 
Judge was a \estrvnian. Since 1861 he 
was a member of the Masonic Order, and 
Vv'as one of the foremost -representatives of 
the fraternity in this state. He belonged 
to Adonisius Lodge, of Manchester, Vt. ; 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



233 



Poultney Cliapter, Poultney, \'t. ; Fort Win- 
nebago Commandery, No. 4, K. T., Port- 
age, Wis.; and the Milwaukee Consistory; 
and was a member of Tripoli Temple, A. A. 
O. X. M. S.. Milwaukee He was also a 
member of IMcQueeney Lodge, K. P., of 
Portage. Politically he was a Republican. 
Of amiable disposition and generous im- 
pulses, he was ever ready t(_) lend his encour- 
agement to worthy pubHc enterprises, or to 
extend a helping hand to the needy and 
distressed. Judge Ta}-lor died September 
25, 189S. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON WATER- 
MAN. 

George Washington Waterman, one of 
the best known citizens of Friendship, 
Adams county, is a leading merchant of that 
city, and has been interested in many of the 
business enterprises of that region. He be- 
came a resident of Adams county as early 
as 1857, and has ever lent a helping hand 
for the better interests of his county and 
state. 

]\Ir. Waterman was born in Baldwins- 
ville. Onondaga county. New York, July 
2, 1836, and was the son of Thomas and 
Susan E. (Norcross) Waterman. His 
father was a native of New York, and the 
son of Calvin Waterman, who was born in 
Connecticut, and removed to Onondaga 
county. New York, where he died at the age 
of eighty-five years. He was descended from 
an old New England family. Thomas 
Waterman went to Illinois when a young 
man, and about 1840 settled at LaGrange, 
Walworth county, Wisconsin, becoming one 
cf the pioneers of that county, where he en- 
gaged in farming. A few years later he 
established a store which he carried on in a 
part of his house, and also worked some at 
his trade of shoeniaking. Subsequently he 



erected a large building for a store and res- 
idence, which is still standing, and is a 
conspicuous landmark in that place. He re- 
moved to Adams county in the fall of 1857, 
and resided on a farm in Springville town- 
ship, and uiion tiie location of the county 
seat at Friendship he reiuo\'ed thither, serv- 
ing as deputy register of deeds for a time, 
and also operating a shoe shop until his death 
in i860, aged fifty-eight years and six 
months. He was always an active member 
of the Methodist church and ofttimes filled 
the pulpit, and his jiome was ever opened 
with true hospitality to the visiting clergy. 
He was earnest and conscientious in all his 
dealings, and was respected by all who knew 
him. 

INIr. \\'aterman was first married to 
Eliza Dennis, whose death occurred in 
New York. She was the mother of one 
daughter who died in infancy, and five sons, 
as follows: John, Andrew, Thomas, Law- 
rence and Matthew. Lawrence was one of 
the founders of the "Whitewater Register," 
one of the leading newspapers of Wisconsin. 
.Vndrew is at present proprietor of a hotel 
at Kilbourn. The mother of our subject, 
Susan E. \\'aterman, was born in New York, 
and was the daughter of John and JMatilda 
(\Mlbur) Norcross, both of whom passed 
away at La Grange, Wisconsin, on the same 
day, aged seventy-five years. John Nor- 
cross was a native of Massachusetts, and was 
possessed of considerable musical and liter- 
ary talent, and wrote numerous books, in- 
cluding an English grammar. The Wilbur 
family was of Holland lineage. Thomas 
and Susan Waterman were the parents of 
two sons and two daughters, as follows : 
George W., our subject; Harriet E., nov/ 
Mrs. S. W. Pierce, of Friendship; Sarah L., 
now ]\Irs. Isaac Tuttle, of Rhinelander, Wis- 
consin; and Benjamin F., of Friendship. 

George W. Waterman came with his 
parents to Adams ctjunly and in 1862 was 



234 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



elected register of deeds and held the office 
eight years, being an independent candidate 
at his last election. He served as chairman 
antl town clerk in Adams township several 
vears. He established a general merchan- 
dise store at Friendship in 1878, which he 
has since conducted, and now owns a com- 
modious building, devoted to that business. 
For one year about 1876 he was engaged in 
business with his brother, Benjamin, in 
Gundrum, Indiana. 

j\Ir. Waterman is a member and past 
master of Ouincy Lodge, No. 71, A. F. & 
A. AI. He has been a life limg Republican, 
and stands firmly for the principles of "nis 
party. He keeps abreast of the times an'i 
is one of the progressive gentlemen of the 
city. His courteous manner and honest 
dealings, make him many friends and he 
is held in the highest esteem by his fellow 
citizens. 



HOX. SILAS JAMES SEY.MOUR, 
Dece.\sed. 

Hon. Silas James Seymour, deceased, 
whose death occurred at Reedsburg, April 
z'^. 1899, was one of the nmst conspicuous 
pioneers of Sauk county, and a record of 
this character would be incomplete without 
a suitable tribute to his memory. During 
his residence of a half century therein he 
had been identified with many events of the 
utmost interest and importance to its people 
and fully merited the confidence which was 
unanimously reposed in him. 

Mr. Seymour was born at Pompey, On- 
ondaga county. New York, b'ebruary 21, 
1824. He was a son of James and Susan 
(Ostrander) Seymour and sprang of a family 
which has always been distinguished for the 
patriotic spirit of its members and their de- 
votion to principles of integrity and honor. 
His grandfather, Zadoc Seymour, was borii 
near Hartford, Connecticut, the birthplace 



of a number of statesmen of that name who 
have achieved national reputations. 

\Vhile a lx)y Zadoc Seymour was bound 
out to a farmer in the neighborhood. Be- 
fore reaching his majority , however, his 
father cancelled his indentures, whereupon 
he enlisted in the Continental army, being- 
one of the first to do so, and spent six or 
seven years in the service. He went through 
the terrible winter at Valley Forge and saw 
much other hard service under the immedi- 
ate command of General Washington. 
About 1798 he settled at Pompey, New York, 
where he died about 1844, at the age of 
eighty-eight years. He was a conscientious 
member of the Presbyterian church. His 
wife, Naomi Munger, was born in Vermont 
and died some years earlier than her hus- 
band, attaining the age of seventy-five years. 
They reared a family of five sons and five 
daughters, in which James was the third 
son and sixth child. He was born in Che- 
nango county. New Yiirk.and lived for some 
vears in Genesee count\-. He died at 
Covington, Wyoming county, in the same 
state, reaching the age of nearly sixty years. 
He was a devout memlier of the Congrega- 
tional churcli and a public-sp:rited citizen. 
In early life he was a Democrat but became 
an Abolitionist when that question began to 
be agitated. His wife, who was born at 
Pompey, died about three years before her 
husband. Her father, Peter Ostrander, 
who was of Dutch lineage, came from Essex 
count V, New York, and was one of the 
founders of the town of Pompey. His wife, 
Clarissa, was a native of Connecticut. It is 
related as a curious coincidence, that at the 
tnue of their marriage this lady could not 
speak a word of Dutch nor her husband a 
word of English. One of their sons. Rev. 
Jared F. Ostrander, a Congregationalist 
minister, was one of -the pioneers of Wiscon- 
sin, settling at Aztalan, Jefl^erson county, in 
1836. He never accepted any remunera- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



235 



tion for his professional services, thereby 
demonstrating his disinterested zeal in the 
cause of Christianity. 

S. J. Seymour, whose name heads this 
article, left home at the age of fourteen 
years and was employed about two years on 
the Wabash and Erie canal in western Ohio, 
but as he suffered much from fe\-er and ague, 
he returned to New Yurk. I'p to this time 
he had attended school but six weeks, but he 
now determined to obtain a better education 
and spent the next two winters at school at 
Co\'ington and Pompey. He then began 
teaching and spent several winters in that 
way, attending school in summer. While 
teaching in Manlius, New York, he began 
using the "word method," since adopted by 
the most progressi\'e teachers generally. 
This is the first instance known of the use of 
that method of instruction. 

In 1849 lis determined to seek a home 
iri the wilds of Wisconsin and came to Sauk 
county to locate a claim. Walking from 
Madison to Reedsburg, he selected a farm in 
the present town of Dellona and continued 
on foot as far as the United States land office 
a: Mineral Point to enter the same. At that 
time there were but fi\e dwellings in Reeds- 
burg. These were built of logs and shingled 
with bark. There was one other house be- 
tween that ])lace and his farm. 1 his farm he 
culti\'ated until 1892 when he became a resi- 
dent of Reedsburg. He was a practical land 
surveyor and for fort}' years did more or less 
work in that line. 

When the Milwaukee & La Crosse rail- 
road was projected in that vicinity, like many 
of his neighbors, Mr. Seymour mortgaged 
his farm to assist in promoting the enter- 
])rise. Wiiile the result of this action was 
not as disastrous to him as to many others, 
he took an active interest in trying to secure 
some relief for the sufferers and was ap- 
pointed by Governor Smith one of the com- 
n-.issioners to dispose fif certain lands, pre- 



viously in possession of the railroad com- 
pany, for the benefit of the mortgagors and 
labored diligently for several years to secure 
the best possible results from this fund. 

He was married Septemlier 23, 1851, to 
Aiary Ann Cnnine, daughter of Derrick and 
Abigail (Bates) Conine. This lady, wdio 
still survives, was born in the town of Win- 
dom, Greene ciiunt\'. New \'ork. Five chil- 
dren blessed their union, all of whom en- 
joyed exceptional educational advantages : 
Ellen iVugusta, who was engaged in teach- 
ing for several years, was born July 19, 
1852, and died November 25, 1880; Ida 
Jane was born March 2, 1855, and died 
April 27, 187O; [Merton Eugene is a promi- 
nent farmer of the t(jwn of Dellona ; \Valter 
Frederick, who is a graduate of Wisconsin 
Uni\-ersity autl of Chicago Medical College, 
is now a medical missionary in China; and 
Arthur Romeyn is an instructor of Frencli at 
Wisconsin Uni\ersity, of which he is an 
alumnus. 

Mr. Seymour was a leading member 
of the Methodist church for a number of 
years. Before the organization of the Repub- 
lican party he began to advocate its prin- 
ciples. He filled all the principal offices of 
the town of Dellona and served two terms 
in the Wisconsin assembly in 187^1 and 1877. 
While a member of that body he introduced 
a bill providing for the establishment of the 
state board of health and labored diligently 
to secure its jjassage. The wisdom of this 
measure has since been repeatedly demon- 
strated. He was an active member of the 
Reedsburg Old Settlers' .Association and 
his presence will be greatly missed at its an- 
nual gatherings. 



JOHN GWILLYM OWEN. 

John Gwill_\m Owen is a son of Hon. 
William Owen and a grandson of John 
Owen, the founder of the W^elsh colony 



286 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



in Caledonia, Columbia county. Detailed 
accounts of the lives of his progenitors 
\\\\\ lie found elsewhere in this rec- 
ord. Mr. Owen was horn at Portag-e, Wis- 
consin, July 12, 1854. He attended the high 
school in his native city and spent most of 
his early life upon the farm, also operating 
a steam threshing machine for several years. 
About 1887 he went to Chicago and followed 
the trade of paper hanger for eight or nine 
years in that city. Since that time he has 
resided in Portage, where he continues the 
same occupation in connection with paint- 
ing, contracting, and other pursuits. 

He was married November 8, 1893, to 
Miss Alice, daughter of Isaac Tully, of 
Shullsburg, Wisconsin, and their union has 
been blessed by two children, William El- 
dred and Evelyn. 

Mr. Owen has inherited a talent for mu- 
sic and literary work. He is a frecjuent con- 
tributor to current publications and has been 
instrumental in gathering and preserving 
much of the early history of the town of 
Caledonia as well as in rescuing from (..)b- 
livion numerous reminiscences and traditions 
of his ancestors. He was the chief promoter 
of the plan to hold a semi-centennial jubilee 
of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist church 
of Caledonia, which was carried out on the 
twenty-sixth of September, 1896. He was 
elected secretary of the organization and pre- 
served the only records of the event which 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the 
settlement of his grandparents in Caledonia 
and the practical, beginning of the church. 
This jubilee was participated in l)y many 
of the early pioneers of the town and their 
descendants, all of whom passed an enjoy- 
able day, their only regret being that more 
of their neighbors had not taken part in the 
celebration. Many interesting relics of the 
early days were exhibited, including articles 
of clothing, furniture, farm implements and 
other things, many of which were rare curi- 



osities to the present generation and des- 
tined to be of great value to their descend- 
ants. 



FERDINAND EFFINGER. 

Ferdinand Ef^nger, one of the most 
energetic, enterprising and prosperous busi- 
ness men of Baraboo, Wisconsin, was born 
ir Rottweil, Dotternhausen, W\trtemburg, 
Germany, August 3, 1848, a son of Joseph 
and Veronika Etiinger, life-long residents of 
that country, where the father successfully 
engaged in the lirewery and cooperage busi- 
ness. 

Leaving home at the age of eighteen 
years, our subject went to Milhausen, Alsace, 
where he worked in a brewery for a time. 
In November, 1869, he entered the German 
army and remained in the service for three 
years, during which time he participated in 
the Franco-Prussian war. Although he took 
part in nine hard-fought battles, he for- 
tunately escaped uninjured. Later he was 
employed in a brewery in Donau, Eschingen, 
Baden, on the head waters of the river 
Danube. 

Bidding goodby to his native land, Air. 
Efifinger went to London, England, in 1873, 
and was there employed in a brewery for 
about a year. In April, 1874, he sailed for 
the United States and landed in New York 
city. As a cooper he worked in a sugar 
liouse at Hastings-on-the-Hudson for one 
year and nine months, and on the ist of 
January, 1S76, returned to New York city, 
and he was employed as a brewer and cooper 
until October, 1879, when he came to Wis- 
consin, locating in Baraboo in November 
of that year. His first employment here was 
in the capacity of superintendent of a brew- 
ery owned by Mrs. Bender, and a few 
months later, in company with Adolph Ben- 
der, he rented the establishment and em- 




V 






\ 




K 
W 
C5 

fc. CO 

^ s 

fa . 

o 

_■ o 

CQ 
>H 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



239 



barked in business on bis own account. This 
relation continued for one year, when he 
purchased the interest of his partner and has 
since carried on the business alone with 
marked success. In July, 1884, his plant 
was destroyed by hre, and until his present 
large brewery was completed the following 
year he handled Milwaukee beer. His plant 
has a capacity of 5,000 barrels per annum 
and he furnishes employment to four men. 
A view of his plant forms one of the illustra- 
tions of this volume on another page. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Effinger was ruiited in mar- 
riage with Miss Bertha ]\Iilke, a native of 
Pommerin, Germany, and to them have been 
born five children, namely : Bertha, Martha, 
Lilly, Frederick Carl and Ferdinand Joseph. 
The family attend the Lutheran church, and 
Mr. Effinger holds membership in the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen. He is not 
identified with any political party, and is 
now most creditably and acceptably serving 
his second term as supervisor from the third 
ward of Baraboo. He is a prominent and 
active member of the Baraboo Mannerchoir, 
was one of the prime movers in its organiza- 
tion, and has been very instrumental in mak- 
ing it one of the leading mannerchoirs in 
this part of the state. 



HON. WILLIAM OWEX, Deceased. 

Hon William Owen, deceased, will 
be long remembered as one of the most 
broad minded and public spirited citizens 
of Columbia county. The record of his 
life betokens an intelligent devotion to the 
welfare of the community with which he was 
identified, though his personal interests might 
sometimes have been better served by pursu- 
ing a different course. He was a prime 
mover in securing a number of public im- 
provements, the advantages of which are 
now unquestioned, but which recjuired con- 
siderable agitation to secure their adoption. 



He was the oldest son of John and ]Mar- 
garet Owen, the history of whose lives will 
be found elsewhere in this volume, and was 
born in the village of Llanelltyd, Whales, 
September 10, 1825. His death occurred 
in the town of Caledonia, Columbia county, 
Wisconsin, August 21, 1894. His educa- 
tion was of a rather rudimentary character, 
but he was an extensive reader, keeping well 
in touch with the leading questions of the 
day, and forming decided opinions on the 
various public questions which arose from 
time to time. He had marked taste for lit- 
erary work and was a frequent contributor 
to current publications, including several of 
the leading Welsh journals issued in the 
United States. For diversion he translated 
a number of articles from Welsh to English 
and others from English into the Welsh 
language. Though he reached his majority 
about the same time the family located in 
this county, he continued to live with his 
parents for several years, assisting in the 
dififerent kinds of labor necessary to the im- 
provement of the frontier farm. As lum- 
ber was one of the first things needed he 
spent one winter with his brothers and some 
of their neighbors in getting out timber on 
the Yellow river. Up to that time no one 
had ever attempted to run a raft through the 
Wisconsin dells, but, having had some ex- 
perience in navigation on the Welsh coast, 
he did not hesitate to make the attempt and 
successfully piloted his lumber to its desti- 
nation near his home, where the most of it 
was shaved into shingles and used to roof 
the houses of the early settlers in that neigh- 
borhood. His business capacity soon began 
to attract the attention of his neighbors and 
in 1849 he was elected the first school super- 
intendent of the town of Dekorra (which 
then included Caledonia) and also served as 
one of the first justices of the peace. W'hile 
filling the first named position he organized 
six district schools. 



240 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



In 1852 Mr. Owen was elected register 
of deeds and took up liis residence in Portage. 
He filled the office for four years and soon 
after removed to the \-illage of Cambria 
where he dealt in grain and lumber for al.iout 
nine years, four years of this time officiating 
as station agent at that place. He then en- 
gaged in farming and hop culture in the town 
of Randolph for a few years, after wdiich he 
returned to Caledonia and spent the balance 
of his life upon a farm, continuing to man- 
ifest a keen interest in every important public 
enterprise. He was always a stanch sup- 
porter of Republican principles and in 1865 
was elected by that party to a seat in the state 
assembly. In 1870 he was appointed to tak^^ 
the United States census in four townships, 
and in 1880 performed the same duty for the 
town of Caledonia. He was instrumental in 
promoting many improvements in the high- 
ways of the town. One of his first official 
acts was the laying out of the road along 
the south side of the Baraboo river, between 
"The Narrows" and the "Welsh Bridge." 
He ^^■as one of the organizers of the com- 
pany which finally secured the construction 
of the present bridge across the Wisconsin 
river at Portage and served as treasurer of 
the company for a time. He secured a spe- 
cial act of the legislature (drafted by him- 
self J authorizing the use of the ■"Swanip 
Land Funtls" due from the state to the town 
of Caledonia, for the purpose of building a 
lexee along the Wisconsin ri\er. and it was 
chiefly due to his influence that the fund was 
finally utilized for that purpose, thereby pro- 
tecting several thousand acres of land from 
overflow and adding immensely to their 
value. All these improvements were accom- 
plished in spite of the apathy and. in some 
cases, the positix'e opposition of many of the 
])eople who were most benefited 1)_\' them. 
He was also one of the first champions of 
the project to organize the "Leech Creek and 
Lower Baraboo Drainage District." It was 



ascertained that by cutting one mile of ditch 
the length of the Baraboo river between "the 
narrows" and its mouth could be reduced 
fi'om twenty-two miles to only eleven 
miles antl the water level of the whole valley 
would thereby be lowered about three feet, 
which would be of incalculable benefit to the 
adjacent property. Owing to a technicality, 
the idea failed of realization at the time but 
agitation of the project has recently been re- 
vi\ed and it promises to be eventually carried 
out by private enterprise. His enthusiasm in 
behalf of publk improvements sometimes 
proved disastrous to his private interests and 
he never fully recovered from the financial 
embarassments which resulted from mort- 
gaging his farm to promote the building of 
the Milwaukee & LaCrosse railroad through 
the county. 

The social and religious sides of his na- 
ture were amply developed. He was one 
of the workers in the Calvinistic Methodist 
church and ^vas known throughout the sur- 
rounding country as an organizer of Sabbath 
schools. He hail a natural talent for music 
which he took pains to cultivate and de- 
lighted to gratitV. Few instruments were 
to be found when he came to the county, but 
he was ready with his "tuning fork" on 
every occasion to pitch the key and lead the 
vocal melody 

January i, 1853, Mr. Owen was married 
to i\Iargaret, daughter of John W. and Laura 
( Price) Jones. This lady, who is still active 
in pursuit of the duties of life, was born at 
Bronyfoel, Parish of Llangelynin, Merion- 
ethshire, Wales. John W. Jones came to this 
country with his family in 1851 and settled 
in the towii of Randolph, Columbia county, 
where he gained quite a reputation on ac- 
ciiunt of his surgical skill. He died there 
April 4, 1868, at the age of sixty-one years. 
His wife reached the age of eighty-four 
years, passing away March 20, 1889. 

Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



241 



Owen, named as follows, their homes being 
in Columbia county, unless otherwise noted : 
John Gwillym ; Edwin Caradoc and Edwena 
Esellt, twins; Aneurim, of Langford, South 
Dakota; William Salisbury, in Chicago; 
David Garonwy, at Blue Earth City, Min- 
nesota ; Owen Jones ; Merrion Rhydderch, 
Atlantic City, New Jersey; Laura Maggie; 
and Edward Grant. 



MAIiCUS ALEXANDER WARREN. 

Marcus Alexander ^^^arren, president of 
the First National Bank of Baraboo, and 
one of the most prominent citizens of that 
vicinity, is a native of Wisconsin and has 
spent most of his life in Sauk county. He 
is the oldest son of Thompson M. and Cath- 
arine (McKennan) Warren. Thompson ^L 
Warren was born in the state of Maine, but 
while a young man went to New York City 
and carried on a book store for some time. 
Li 1845 he came to Wisconsin, locating at 
JNlineral Point where he was joined by his 
brothers, Dennis and Andrew. They formed 
a partnership under the name of Warren 
Brothers, and did an extensive trading busi- 
ness in general mercliandise and lumber 
with marked success. Andrew Warren, the 
only survivor of this firm, now resides in 
Chicago. After spending several years at 
Mineral Point, Thompson AL Warren re- 
moved to Dane county. He entered large 
tracts of land near the city of Madison and 
engaged in farming on a large scale. He 
improved this property and it rapidly in- 
creased in value until he sold it at a good 
profit in 1867 and removed to Baraboo. 
Upon becotning a citizen of this place he 
displayed the same enterprising spirit which 
had characterized his previous ventures and 
began to exert himself toward the upbuild- 
ing and development of the town, which was 



then but a struggling village. Being of a 
speculative turn of mind and possessing con- 
siderable foresight, he did not hesitate to 
invest his means where more timid men 
would have held aloof, and continued to 
prosper, accunudating a large estate. 
Among the enterprises which he established 
ma\' be mentioned Hotel Warren, built in 
1877. It is a substantial three-story stone 
building and continues to be the leading hos- 
telry of the town. In 1886 he organized the 
First National Bank, of which he was pres- 
ident until his death and which has 
always been one of the most sub- 
stantial financial institutions of Sauk 
county. After a long and useful ca- 
reer his death occurred February 26, 1893, 
ac the age of nearly eighty years. His ven- 
erable widow is still a resident of Baraboo. 
She was born in Herkimer county. New 
York, and is the mother of five children : 
Marcus A. ; Minnie, Mrs. J. Hoggins, of 
Chicago, Illinois; Thompson j\I., Jr., now 
deceased, a former ranchman of South Da- 
kota; Wm. A., cashier of the First National 
Bank of Baraboo; and Isabel, Mrs. L. E. 
Hoyt, of Baraboo. 

IMarcus A. Warren was born on the farm 
i:i Dane cuunty, Wisconsin, May 2^, ^^S7- 
He was ten years old when the family lo- 
cated in Baraboo and has therefore been a 
resident of that thriving city for more than 
thirty years. After leaving the Baraboo 
high school he took a course at the State 
University in Madison. He assisted his fa- 
tlier in various ways, acquiring a good un- 
derstanding of business aft'airs, and in 1889 
embarked in business on his own account, 
taking charge of the electric light plant, 
since merged into the Baraboo Gas & Elec- 
tric Light Company. 

Upon the death of his father he was 
elected president of the First National Bank 
and has ever since been at the head of that 
corporation. Besides other \aluable prop- 



242 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



erty, he is the individual owner of Hotel 
Warren. Believing that the precepts and 
principles of the Republican party embody 
the best interests of the nation, he gives that 
organization his hearty support but does not 
engage in active politics. 

He was happily married May 28, 1888, 
to Miss Mary R. Willott, a native of Boone 
county, Illinois, who has been a resident of 
Sauk county from early childhood. They 
are the parents of one daughter, Lucile. 
,Mi's. Warren is a communicant of the Epis- 
copal church and the social connections of 
the familv are all that could be desired. 



HON. WILLIAM HENRY PROCTOR. 

Hon. William Henry P.roctor, widely 
known as one of the most prosperous and 
enterprising farmers of the town of Foun- 
tain Prairie, Columbia county, is also equal- 
ly and as readily recognized as one of the 
most representative citizens of the county. 
Modest and unassuming in his personal 
habits and ciiaracter, he is yet so able and 
worthy that it somehow seems as a matter 
of course that he should come to the front 
on every occasion that demands clear and 
clean manhood. Pie is a noble type of the 
best American citizenship, and his name 
adorns these pages, not for great deeds and 
wide activities, but for straightforward hon- 
esty, moral cleanness, and sweet, wholesome 
living in the community in which his long 
and useful life has been passed. 

Mr. Proctor was born October 19, 1827, 
in Cavendish, Vermont, and inherits the best 
traditions of a long and illustrious New 
England lineage. His maternal grand- 
father was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
army at Lexington and Bunker Hill, and his 
paternal great-grandfather also participated 
in the same glorious struggle. His parents 



were Asa and Lorena Proctor, both resi- 
dents of Cavendish, Windsor county, Ver- 
mont, at the time when the subject of this 
article was ushered into this workl. In the 
same house the senior Proctor was also born 
and it was associated with the family for- 
tunes for many years. Lorena Proctor 
was a native of Mt. Plolly, Rutland county, 
Vermont. 

The or'ginal Proctor is said to have come 
into New England from Scotland, but ex- 
Secretary Proctor, perhaps the most conspic- 
uous member of the clan, was accustomed 
to look to England for the primal springs of 
the family name and fortune. English or 
Scotch, however, the family lineage is one 
(.)f which the present generation may well 
be proud. Asa Proctor was usually known 
as Captain Proctor, probably because of his 
soldierly bearing, which was his by hered- 
ity. His father served in both the army and 
the navy of the United States, and while yet 
a boy he heard the cannon roar in the dis- 
tance at the battle of Plattsburg. With his 
wife and family he left Vermont in 1836, and 
following a great tide of western immigra- 
tion found a home for several years in 
Schoolcraft, Michigan. In 1844 he moved on 
to a new home in what was then the terri- 
tory of Wisconsin, and, settling upon a gov- 
ernment claim of one hundred and twenty 
acres, made it his home for life. He died 
August 30, 1848, at the early age of fifty 
years, and his wife died on the same farm 
October 13, 1855, when fifty-five years old. 
They were the parents of five children, two 
(if whom died in infancy, and one after at- 
taining maturity. Ellen Lorette was twice 
married and died in Texas many years ago. 
Mrs. Stillman R. Dix is now living in Mitch- 
ell, South Dakota, and, with the subject of 
this writing, constitutes the only surviving 
members of the family. 

When the Proctor family came to Michi- 
gan, William Henry was but a lad of nine 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



243 



years. He attended school in Michigan, but 
after their removal to Wisconsin he was 
able to attend only a term at a private school 
at Aztalan. Upon his parents' death the 
farm on which they were living passed into 
his possession; and very soon occurred his 
wedding with Angeline Elizabeth Lashier. 
They were married November 8, 1857, and 
the union has proved in every way a most 
ideal and happy one. .She is a lady of many 
excellent traits of character, and has helped 
to make her husband's home the center of 
many wide and distant friendships. She 
is the second daughter of Samuel and Mary 
(Durfee) Lashier, of Fall River, Wiscon- 
sin. Her father was of Hollandish extrac- 
tion, while her mother was 1x)rn in Massa- 
chusetts. He was a carpenter and built 
many of the houses in Fall River and vicin- 
ity. He was also a wagon maker and is 
remembered as a capable workman and a 
thoroughly honest and reliable man. He 
died in 1881, survi\-ing the loss of his wife 
only one year. 

Mr. and JMrs. Proctor lia\e continued to 
make their home on the old farm. Here 
they have reared a family of eight children, 
and here they have written a history of can- 
dor and neighborly kindness, honesty and 
fair dealing, high moral character, and loyal- 
ty to the ideal. Their oldest child, Nettie 
Angeline, was born in 1S58, and died March 
23, 1876. Ellen Lorena, February 14, i860, 
is living at home. John Samuel, September 
30, 1861, lives in Mnnieapolis and is a mem- 
ber of a firm having very extensive trade 
in iron goods. William Rush, July i, 1863, 
lives at Sedalia, Missouri, where he is a 
train dispatcher for the Missouri Pacific rail- 
road. Mary Elizabeth, February 11, 1868, 
is the wife of A. S. Ralph, of Columbus. 
Walter Asa, June 21, 1874, is a graduate of 
the Delafield Military Academy, and served 
in the army used to police the city of Manila 
in the Spanish-American war. While there 



he learned the Spanish language, and was 
a court interpreter for some time; Clara 
May, February, 1875, a teacher in the Fall 
River school; Alfred Henry, March 17, 1878, 
is a graduate of the Columbus high school, 
and is now assisting in the management of 
the home farm. Adelaide Lulu, February 
20, 1878, is now in attendance at the same 
school. 

Mr. Proctor is an ardent Republican, and 
he has served his town many times as chair- 
man of the town bnard of Fountain Prairie. 
In 1882 he served as a member of the state 
assembly from the second district of Colum- 
bia county. He has always taken a lively 
interest in political affairs, and his influence 
is much sought. He was an alternate dele- 
gate to the Philadelphia convention that 
nom'inated Mcfelnley and 'Roosevelt. He 
is a member of the Columbus Universalist 
church, as are most of his family. He is an 
honest and upright citizen, careful and con- 
scientious in the performance of every duty. 
Recording his genuine worth and real manli- 
ness is no perfunctory task to the editorial 
pen. The writer (Dinsmore) has tender 
memories of days and scenes long gone, and 
has often communed with him heart to heart. 
He has seen into the soul of the man, and 
bears testimony to its nobilit}'. 



PLATON GARFIELD COLLIPP. 

Platon Garfield Collipp, one of the lead- 
ing attorneys of Friendship, and publisher of 
the "Adams County Reporter," is a young 
man whose ability and intelligent worth are 
recognized by every citizen of Adams coun- 
ty. He has already filled some of the most im- 
portant offices within the gift of the people of 
his community, and has faithfully discharged 
the duties of his commission in every in- 
stance, and is one of the public-spirited men 
of W^isconsin. 



244 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Mr. Collipp was bom in Portage, Wis- 
consin, May 9, 1869, and was the son of Con- 
rad and Louisa (Slifer) Collipp. Conrad 
Collipp was a native of Obersuhl, Hesse-Cas- 
sel., Germany. His father died in his native 
land, but his mother passed away in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. Conrad Collipp 
learned the trade of carpet weaving in his 
native land, and about 1842 came to 
America, and worked at his trade in Phila- 
delphia several years, and then went to Chi- 
cago, and in 1848 came to Wisconsin. He 
settled at Portage where he engaged in farm- 
ing on land which is now within the city lim- 
its. After a few years he started a Isrick 
yard, and for a number of years was thus en- 
gaged, and was successful, but afterward 
rented the establisjiment. He served as 
county treasurer and was active in matters of 
public import. He was a consistent mem- 
ber of the German Methodist church. Mrs. 
Collipp is a resident of Portage, aged sixty- 
nine years, where her husband passed away 
in 1883, aged sixty-one years. Mrs. Collipp 
was born near Pittsburg, Pennsyh-ania, and 
was the daughter of Samuel Slifer, a native 
of German}-, and a cari^enter by trade. He 
settled at Portage in 1848. where he re- 
mained until his death. 1 he original name 
of the family was Schlifer. 

Platon G. Collipp completed the course in 
the Portage high school, and then spent two 
years in the English course at the Wiscon- 
sin Universitv. He then entered the freight 
office of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railroad Company at Portage, remaining 
there until 1896. In the fall of that year he 
entered the law department of the univer- 
sity, and after spending one year and three 
months at the study was admitted to the 
bar at Milwaukee in December, 1897. He 
spent three months in the office of J. H. 
Rogers, in Portage, and then established his 
present practice at Friendship. July 8, 
1898, in company with L. L. Ketchum, he 



began the publication of the "Adams County 
Reporter," and in November of that year be- 
came its sole proprietor. During the fall 
of 1898 he was elected district attornev, hav- 
ing been unanimously nominated at the Re- 
publican con\-ention. He is also engaged 
in the real estate and insurance business to 
some extent. His practice is a growing one 
and he is destined to become one of the fore- 
most men in his state. Wherever he has 
made his home he has many friends, and has 
been called upon to serve in various offices of 
local importance. \\'hile a resident of Port- 
age he served two vears as alderman, and in 
1894 was nominated for city treasurer, Init 
the party opposition caused his defeat. 

Mr. Collipp was married September 27, 
1899, to Miss Agnes A. Fulton, daughter of 
William and Agnes (More) Fulton, resi- 
dents of Portage, Wisconsin. Mr. Collii^p 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church at Portage, and also of McOueeney 
Lodge, No. 104, Knights of Pythias. 



CAL\"L\ E. REED, Dece.vsed. 

Of the worthy pioneers who lead the 
way of ci\-ilization into the wilderness 
too much cannot be said, and among 
those \vho ga\-e the best years of their 
lives to the development of the re- 
sources of Adams county, Calvin E. 
Reed must be mentioned with much praise. 
Born in Berkshire, iMassachusetts, December 
15, 1815, and rearetl to maturit}- in Li\-ing- 
ston count}-. New York, whither he had ac- 
companietl his parents when a child, he de- 
terniiiied earl}- in his career to seek fortune 
in the new west, and in 1845 'i*^ 's*'^ '^'^ New 
York home and came to Wisconsin. He lo- 
cated in Rock county, where he purchased 
land of the govennnent, improved it, and 
held it for ten years. He then, in 1856, 
nioved to White Creek, Adams countv. Wis- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



245 



consin, and purchased a farm of about one 
hundred and twenty acres of land on the 
site of the present village. He erected a 
good house, which now stands within the 
village limits; also good barns and other 
farm buildings. The residence is now oc- 
cupied by his daughter, ]Mrs. William Fisher. 
Mr. Reed was a man of great force of char- 
acter, business ability, strictest integrity, and 
a Christian of devout princiiiles. By good 
example and liberal cducatinn he did much 
to maintain Christian institutions and works 
iti the community. He was a member nf the 
Baptist church, but his Christianit)- was 
broad and generous. In politics he was not 
a strong partisan, but took great interest in 
the affairs of good government, local as well 
as national, and was always found support- 
ing those men and measures which he be- 
lieved were calculated for the good of the 
people. He served ior eighteen years as 
postmaster, and his duty was thoroughly and 
conscientiously performed during the whole 
of that long period. 

His death was seriously felt by the en- 
tire community as an irreparable loss, and 
the heartfelt sympathies of all were extended 
to the bereaved family, each member of the 
community- feeling it as a personal 1l>ss. He 
was the counselor and friend of all in dis- 
tress, a genial neighbor, and kintl and indul- 
gent parent and de\-oted husband. He died 
at White Creek, May 9, 1895. 

Sarah Twist, daughter of Thomas and 
Mary (Burkhart) Twist, became the wife 
of Calvin E. Reed December 30, 1837. ^Nlrs. 
Reed was born in Mt. Morris, Livingston 
county, Xew "^"ork, Jul}' 23, 1819. .She was a 
devoted wife and mother, and, like her hus- 
band, was a devout memlier of the Baptist 
church. Her death occurred in tlie \-illage 
of White Creek, January 28, 1899, and was 
deeply mourned l)y all who had known her. 
During the latter years of her life her 
liealtb failed and she was unable t;;) 



attend to her household duties. She devoted 
nnich time to reading, and was a close stu- 
dent of the Bible and of all good literature. 
She retained her faculties perfectly until lier 
last illness, which began in July, 1898. but 
from that time until her death she was a 
great sufferer, and reciuired the constant and 
closest care of her daughters, who attended 
her. 

^Ir. and Mrs. Calvin E. Reed were the 
parents of the following children: A. Jo- 
sephine, now Mrs. William Fisher; Ennis 
T., for whom Ennis T. Reed Post, G. A. R., 
of White Creek, was named: Mary E., now 
Mrs. C. J. Austin; Sarah W., now }ilrs. 
Bergman ; and Kittie, who died December 
25, 1864, aged si.x years. 



CHAUNCEY J. AUSTIN. 

Chauncey J. Austin, deceased, was one 
of tlie pione'ers of Wisconsin, and a \-eteran 
of the Civil war. He was born in Pennsyl- 
vania March 9, 1840. His parents, Alvah 
and Lucinda (Stowell) Austin, who moved 
from Pennsyl\-ania to Oconomowoc, Wis- 
consin, in 1844, devoted the best part of 
their lives Xo the uplnhlding of the unculti- 
vated and unci\ilized wilderness of Wiscon- 
sin, and the father died and now rests in the 
cemetery at Mapleton, near Oconomowoc. 
The mother died in La Crosse in the autumn 
of 1888, and is buried in that city. Her 
death occurred in her eighty-third year. 

Chauncey J. Austin, the subject of this 
article, came with his parents to Wisconsin 
when he was four years of age. He re- 
ceived the common school education afforded 
at that time in Wisconsin, remained at home 
until he reached his majority, and learned the 
trade of carpenter. In 1S61 he came to 
White Creek, .\dams county, where he pur- 
chased a tract of land near the village. Here 



246 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



lie engaged in the hop industry, and was 
successful in the enterprise, demonstrating 
tliat hops can he successfully cultivated in 
Adams county. 

In August, 1862, he responded to the 
country's call for soldiers, and enlisted in 
Company K, Twenty-fifth Wisconsin \'(.)1- 
unteer Infantry. He remained with his 
regiment through all its many and weari- 
some marches and hattles, and did his dut}' 
as a brave and true soldier, until May, i8f)T,, 
when, near Snyders Bluft', Mississippi, he 
was seized by an attack of dysentery, and 
suffered severely from that time on until in 
May, 1864, he was sent to Decatur to the 
hospital, and later to the United States hos- 
pital at Nashville. Tennessee. In June, 
1864, he received his discharge from the 
Twentv-fifth Regiment, and was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant in the Forty-second 
Wisconsin, by Go\-ernor Lewis. He came 
home to Madison, Wisconsin, on a furlough, 
and remained until September of that year. 
He was finally nuistered out June 20, 1865. 
after a long and arduous service, marked 
bv great o'allantry, and honored by his su- 
perior officers f(jr his courage. 

He did not reco\-er from his physical 
troulile contracted during the ser\-ice. and 
in August. 1879, he was attacked by what 
appeared to be paralysis of the lower limbs. 
A sudden relapse and a recurrence of his 
old trouble came on July 8, 1880, and for 
the six years following he suffered intense 
pain, and was never able to stand upon his 
feet, nor to so nuich as turn himself in bed 
with()ut assistance. Through all these years 
of sufi^ering he was always most patient and 
thoughtful, and ever considerate of the com- 
fort and well-being of those around him. 
Though not a memlier of anv church organi- 
2ation, he was a true Christian man. and the 
consolations of Christianity cheered him in 
his last sufferings. He was a man of great 
public spirit and generosity, and he took a 



lively interest in all matters of a public na- 
ture. It was largely through his sugges- 
tions and influence that the town of White 
Creek was subdivided into the towns of 
Easton, Spring\'ille, and Ouincy. He was 
a Republican in political sentiment, and was 
always loyal to the principles of good gov^- 
ernment. He was married Februat)' 15, 
1868, to Mary E., daughter of Calvin E. 
and Sarah (Twist) Reed, a sketch of whom 
will be found in connection with this article. 
]\Irs. Austin still lives at the old homestead 
at W'hite Creek. To this union two children 
were born, namely: George Edward, born 
April 22, 1869, who is now at home, and 
Alvah, born September 28, 1874, and who 
was married to Alice L. Henry, daughter 
of John A. and Augusta ( Stowell) Henry, 
December i, 1898. 



DARIUS ADAMS GOODYEAR. 

Darius Adams Goodyear, one of the 
most prominent and highly respected citi- 
zens of Portage, is now living in an hon- 
orable retirement. He is a native of Sem- 
pronius, Cayuga county. New York, where 
he was born August 6, 1822, the tenth child 
in a family of eleven children. His par- 
ents were John and Julia (Bradley) Good- 
year. His father was a native of Fair- 
haven, Connecticut, but rem(.)ved to New 
York in early y(juth. He li\ed on a farm 
in Cayuga county until a short time after the 
birth of his son, Darius .\., when he re- 
moved to Genesee count}', in the same state, 
\\'here he died in 1826. His wife did not 
long survive him. passing away the same 
\'ear. ]Mr. Goodyear has a letter written 
li}' his mother to her mother, and an- 
other written by her brother, Henry 
Bradley. Both contain much valuable in- 
formation about the family. It appears 




DARIUS A. GOODYEAR. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



249 



that Jolm Goodyear and Julia Brad- 
ley were married April 5, 1807, and their 
children were : Hannah, who was horn May 
8, 1808, and died July 6, 1852. Lavinia 
became Mrs. C. C. ^^'aterhouse, and prac- 
ticed medicine in California after his death. 
She was born November 13, 1809, and died 
April I. 1890. Diana married Dr. Briggs, 
and took up. the study and jjractice of medi- 
cine with him. She was born July 29, 181 1, 
and died Xovem])er j8, 1897. Pomeroy 
was born April 15, 1813, and died Septem- 
ber 28, 1857. Addison was born January 
8, 1815, and died April 10, 1849. Brad- 
ley, a physician, was born December 6, 1816, 
and died May 16, 1889. Julia was born 
Jmie 6, 1818, and died April 4. 1872. John, 
a physician, was born November 12, 1819, 
and died April 8, 1889. Franklin, a physi- 
cian, was born April 26, 1821, and died Sep- 
tember 30, 1883. Byron was born May 12, 
1824, and died October 9, 1887. 

Dr. ]\Iiles Goodyear, a prominent physi- 
cian of Cortland, New York, displayed 
much interest in his brother's orphan chil- 
dren, and did much for them through all 
their youthful years. It was due to his in- 
fluence that so many of the family studied 
for the medical profession, and acquitted 
themselves so creditably in its practice. The 
family had a part in the old cnlnnial days 
0/ New England, and came originally fr(jm 
the parish of Monken Haslley, cnuntv l\lid- 
dlesex, England. Stephen Goodyear, the 
founder of the family in the United States, 
was one of the original freemen of New 
Haven, a list of whom was prepared in 1638. 
He left England in the ship Hester in 1637. 
His wife, Mary, was a woman of large pos- 
sessions, including an estate in London, now 
known as Grosvenor Square. She died on 
a voyage to England in 1646, the ship never 
being heard of after it left the land. He 
afterward married Margaret, the widow of 
Captain (jeoree LambertDU. He was dep- 



uty governor of New Haven colony from 
1643 to 1658, and was a man of mark. His 
posterity included many prominent business 
and professional men, none of whom were 
ever known to fail in business, but were all 
famous for commercial success and integrity 
of character. 

The Bradlev family came from Leeds, 
England, and settled at New Haven, where 
many of the name subsequently attained 
prominence. The father of Julia Bradley 
made a home at N(-)rthfield, Cayuga county, 
New York, wliere he was widely known as a 
successful farmer, and as the founder of 
the Bradley Meeting House, to which he 
ga\-e the ground for the church and cem- 
etery. His sons were Harry, Jabez, Daniel 
and Walter, and his daughters were Mrs. 
Darius Adams, Mrs. Andrews, and perhaps 
other children. 

Mr. Goodyear, the subject of this article, 
is now the only survivor of his parents' 
numerous family and was less than four 
years old when they died. He was adopted 
by his great-uncle, Heman Bradley, a resi- 
dent of Cayuga county. When he was about 
nine he was taken into the home of his sis- 
ter, Mrs. ^^'aterhouse, then living at Havana, 
New York, and went with her when her 
fr.mily found a home at Fort Defiance, Ohio. 
Schools were scarce on the frontier, and the 
young lad had little chance for learning. 
With open eyes and attentive ears, however, 
lie learned much. He helped about a hotel 
kept by Mr. Waterhouse, w'here state and 
county oificials were frequently entertained. 
He also carried mail on horseback from Fort 
Defiance to Adrian, Michigan, Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, and IMaumee, Ohio, Mr. Water- 
house having obtained contracts for all these 
routes. In 1836 he went to New York 
citv to attend a school taught by his sister, 
Diana. He was with her for a year, and 
then engaged as a collector for a lumber 
firm, of which Mr. \\'aterhouse was a mem- 



250 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



ber, and spent a number of years in tbis 
way. 

]\Ir. Goodyear returned to Cortland wbile 
still a 3-oung man, and applied himself to tbe 
trade of cabinetmaker. A\'ben be bad 
learned tbis trade be worked bis way t(j 
New York city on a canal boat and secured 
emi)loyment witb a large furniture bouse, 
wbere be remained for many years. He 
was especially good at repairing, and tbis 
line of work took b:m to many of tbe bomes 
of tbe leading" and wealtby citizens of New 
York and Brooklyn. He was called to do 
tbe finest work in repairing passenger cars, 
and bis unusual ability gave tbe house a 
wide reputation. He e\'entually engaged in 
the lumber business, and became a partner 
ii^ tbe firm of W'aterbouse, Linn & Com- 
pany, which sent se\-eral shiploads of lum- 
ber to California in the boom days of 1849. 
Tbe enterprise, however, did not prove 
profitable, though boldly planned and ex- 
ecuted. Mr. Goodyear bad by this time be- 
come familiar with every department of tbe 
Ijusiness and determined to strike out for 
himself. He came to Portage in 1858, and 
at once opened a lumber yard. His intimate 
knowledge of tbe business gave him a grasp 
of tbe situation that at once put him ahead 
of all C(jm]jetition, and won for him an ex- 
tensive retail trade. All lumber was at first 
brought Ijy water, l)ut as railroad transporta- 
tion was increase!.! he opened other yards, 
and at one time bad four in Columbia coun- 
ty alone. In tbe meantime be invested his 
profits in timber land in central Wisconsin 
and after about twenty years sold out bis re- 
tail business and gave his entire attention to 
manufacture and wholesale dealing in lum- 
ber. For a number of years be operated 
extensi\-e saw-mills in tbe \\'isconsin valley. 
Tbis l)usiness took on large proportions, and 
continues very important. Mr. Goodyear 
sold out some years ago to bis son, and a 
grandson is now a principal partner in tbe 



firm. The headquarters of tbe business is 
at Tomah, \\'isconsin. 

Mr. Goodyear was married April 16, 
1 85 1, to Sarah, a daughter of Linus and 
Mary Holmes. Her father was a farmer, 
and spent his latter days at Portage. ^Ir. 
and Mrs. Goodyear have only one child, 
Charles Adams, who lives in Chicago, but 
has bis office at Tomah, ^\'isconsin. ]\Iuch 
of Mr. Goodyear's success be attributes to 
liis wife. They began housekeeping in 
Brooklyn, Xew Ynrk, on a salary of fifty 
dollars a nupntb. b\ed comfdrtaljly, rented a 
pew in tbe Strong Place Baptist church, 
but frequently attended Henry Ward Beecb- 
er's church, and saved money. In recent 
years they have spent much of their time 
in travel. Mr. Goodyear is a man of liberal 
and progressive ideas, and finds pleasure 
in freely using bis ample means to upbuild 
and adorn tbe city of Portage. He has erect- 
ed more substantial and elegant brick build- 
ings than any other man of that city, of 
recent times. Though not a member of any 
church, he encourages all Christian work 
and all other movements looking to tbe gen- 
eral good. He takes an active part in tem- 
perance work, is a trustee of tbe Presby- 
terian church, and \A'as for some years super- 
intendent of tbe Baptist Sunday school. 
From tbe organization of tbe party be has 
been a Republican, and, while never promi- 
nent as a politician, bis aih'ice has often 
been sought by friends and leading men in 
tbe political arena, and a respectful bearing 
given and his ideas often folI<i\ved in tliat 
field. 

A portrait nf Mr. Goodyear on another 
page of this \-olume will enhance its \alue 
to bis manv friends and admirers. 



HOX. FRANK A\'ERY. 
Hon. Frank Avery, of Baraboo, has i)er- 
haps been more closely identified \\itli tbe 
pulilic affairs of Sauk county than an}' other 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



251 



citizen, and lias also been instrumental in 
shaping more important legislation. He 
\vas born at Tenterden, county of Kent, 
England, November 17, 1830, a son of 
Thomas and Mary (Boorman) Avery. 
Thomas Avery came to Wisconsin in 1864 
and died at Baraboo April 15, 1885, aged 
eightv-three years. He was a native of 
Tenterden, where he carried on business 
as a shoemaker, following the occupati(^n 
in whicli his father. William Avery, had 
preceded him. Mrs. Mary Avery was born 
in the county of Kent and died there in 
1838. Her parents came to the United 
States several years previous to that time, 
settling at Rochester, New York, where the 
father engaged in farming. 

Frank Avery is the only son of his par- 
ents and the only survivor of the family. 
He received a common-school education and 
learned his father's trade, which he has fol- 
lowed during the greater part of his life. 
In 1853 he came to the United States and 
worked successi\'ely at Oswego and Fort 
Brewerton, New York. In 1855 he re- 
moved to Janesville, \\'isconsin, and soon 
after to Baraboo, which has since been his 
home. Here he opened a shoe shop and 
store and successfully carried on that line 
of business until 1891. For the first twenty 
years the firm was Avery & Green, but dur- 
ing the balance of this period he was sole 
proprietor. Since 1891 he has been en- 
gaged in general insurance, als(3 managing 
a number of estates. 

He has always been an active Republi- 
can, having supported John C. Fremont in 
1856, and every presidential candidate of his 
party since that time. He has participated 
in many county and state conventions and 
was chairman of the county committee for 
six years, a neriod which included the fa- 
mous Blaine and Logan campaign of 1884. 
For more than a score of 3'ears he has almost 
continuously held some important public 



office and has frequently filled several such 
positions simultaneously. In 1876 he was 
elected president of the village of Baraboo 
and in 1898 became the mayor of the city. 
For ten years he was a member of the com- 
ty board of supervisors. In 1887 he was 
elected a memljer of the Wisconsin assem- 
bly, where he soon became conspicuous for 
his activity and devotion to puljlic inter- 
ests. He was made chairman of the com- 
mittee on labor and manufactures, the first 
committee of that name e\er formed in the 
assemblv, and was instrumental in prevent- 
ing the passage of a bill to prohibit prison 
lebor. In 1889 he was elected a member of 
the Wisconsin senate, in which liody he 
served as a member of the committee on 
roads antl bridges and on state affairs. 
He continued his interest in prison reform 
work and helped to secure the passage of 
laws permitting the indeterminate sentence 
for con\'icts, a pro\-ision the wisdom of 
which is now universally recognized. He 
also strongly supported the bill for a gen- 
eral city charter and worked industriously 
to secure an amendment to the constitution 
of the state prohibiting special legislation 
for cities. He is now president of the 
board of directors of the Baraboo Public 
Library and chairman of the jury commis- 
sion of Sauk county. 

May 30, 1859, he was wedded to Miss 
Emily Anclrus, a daughter of Edwin and 
Susan (Gillette) Andrus, who was born 
near Loraine, Ohio, and died at Baraboo, 
April 17, 189;. aged sixty-one years. In 
addition to manv other admirable qualities, 
this lady developed remarkable Kterary 
ability, and from time to time contributed 
to some of the leading" periodicals of the 
country, expressing many charming ideas 
in both prose and verse. 

Julia, the only daughter of ]\f r. and Mrs. 
Avery, departed this life March 18, 1897, 
at the age of thirtv-lhree vears. She was 



252 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



a highly accomphshed lady and served as 
secretary to Governor W. D. Hoard during 
the latter's term of office as chief magis- 
trate of the state of Wisconsin. Miss 
Avery was afterwards employed for several 
years as stenographer for the superintendent 
of schools for the city of Milwaukee. 

Mr. Avery was reared in the Unitarian 
faith, to which he has always consistently 
adhered. Since 1854 he lias heen identified 
with the ^lasonic fraternity and he justly 
merits the high regard in which he is held 
b}- his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Avery was married May 4, 1899, 
to Hattie Hall, a resident of Baraboo. 



M.VURICE GOODMAN. 

One of the prominent representatives of 
the journalistic profession in \\'isconsin is 
the gentleman whose name introduces this 
brief notice, the well-known editor and pro- 
prietor of the "Wisconsin State Register" 
and the "Portage Daily Register," published 
at Portage, Columbia county. He was born 
in Penn Yan, New York, July 15, 1866, 
a son of Philip and Sarah (Cardozo) Good- 
man. The father, a native of Germany, 
came to Wisconsin in 1867, and for several 
years was engaged in mercantile business 
in Portage, where he dietl in 1886. The 
mother is still living and makes her home 
iri Chicago. She was born in London, 
England, and when a child came to the 
United States. Her ancestors were orig- 
inally from Spain, where they were people 
of much prominence. 

It was during his infancy that Maurice 
Goodman was brought by his parents to 
Portage, where he later attended the public 
schools, and was afterward a student at a 
private academy conducted by Dr. A. M. 
Allen in Chicago, where he was partially 



fitted for college, but owing to ill health 
he was at length forced to aljandon the 
course. After spending a year or two in 
recuperating, he entered his father's store 
in Portage, where he remained for a num- 
ber of years, and after his father's death 
carried on the business with his brother, 
Louis, now deceased, until 1889, when he 
sold out and became secretary and treas- 
urer of the Register Printing Company, a 
stock company engaged in the newspaper 
business and the manufacture of blank 
books. Severing his connection with that 
business in 1892, Mr. Goodman spent two 
years in a clothing house in Chicago, and 
owing to ill health spent the following year 
in the west. On his return to Portage, in 
1894, he bought the "Register," and has 
since successfully engaged in the publica- 
tion of the weekly "Wisconsin State Regis- 
ter" and the "Portage Daily Register." 
Through his paper he supports the men and 
measures of the Republican party. Fra- 
ternally he is a member of the Masonic 
order. Mr. Goodman was married, March 
5, 1890, to Miss Mary Goodell, a native of 
Montello, Wisconsin, and a daughter of B. 
F. and Mary Goodell, of Portage. 



HON. EPHRAIM WOOD YOUNG. 

Hon. Ephraim Wood Young, deceased, 
was for many years one of the most promi- 
nent and influential citizens of Baraboo, 
Wisconsin. It is an important public duty 
to honor and perpetuate, as far as possible, 
the memory of an eminent citizen — one who 
by his blameless and honorable life and dis- 
tinguished career reflected credit, not only 
upon his city and county, but also upon the 
whole state. Through such memorials as 
this at hand the individual and the char- 
acter of his services are kept iin remem- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



253 



brance and the importance of those services 
acknowledged. His example, in whatever 
field his work may ha\'e been done, thus 
stands an object lesson to those who come 
after him, and though dead he still speaks. 
Mr. Young was born in Bingham, Som- 
erset county, Maine, October 8, 1821, and 
was the eldest in a family of fourteen chil- 
dren. By his own efforts he acquired an 
education and graduated from Idar\-ard 
College with the class of 1848. Edward 
Everett, president of the college, spoke of 
him as having sustained a distinguished 
rank as a scholar, and that his character was 
most exemplary. For several years he was 
professor of natural sciences in the high 
school of Lowell, Mass., and in the meantime 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1856. The same year he came to Wiscon- 
sin and opened a law office at Waupun, but 
soon becoming dissatisfied he bought a farm 
in Prairie du Sac township, Sauk county, 
and turned his attention to agricultural pur- 
suits, as farming was always his delight. 

For fourteen or fifteen years Mr. Young 
attended the annual sessions of the general 
assembly, as a member one year, as clerk 
several years, and later as chief clerk for 
seven or eight years. He was also a trus- 
tee for the Wisconsin State Hospital for the 
Insane and a member of the commission 
to locate the Northern Hospital for the In- 
sane. He was a prominent representative 
of the Republican party and was its candi- 
date for secretary of state in 1873, but 
shared the fate of his associates in their 
defeat of that year. In 1881 he was elected 
county judge and some time afterward re- 
moved to Baraboo. He was twice re-elect- 
ed and had but little more than half served 
his Last term of four years when his death 
occurred, March 25, 1892. 

Judge Young married Miss Harriet Nor- 
ton, of Lowell, Mass., and to them were 
born two children : a daughter, who died 



in infancy; and a son, who was killed by 
runaway horses at the age of eighteen years. 
In his religious views the Judge was a Uni- 
tarian and quite liberal, and was one of the 
board of trustees of the Free Congrega- 
tional church of Baraboo. He was sys- 
tematic, accurate and conscientious in the 
discharge of his official duties and his sen- 
tences were models of judicial fairness. He 
was a noble, generous man, deeply inter- 
ested in the cause of education and the ad- 
vancement of his fellowmen, and was a 
member of the board of education in Bara- 
boo for some time. Universally respected 
and beloved, he was laid to rest by his 
brother Masons in the cemetery at Prairie 
du Sac, where those members of his family 
who had preceded him were also buried. 



CAPTAIN IRA H. FORD. 

Captain Ira H. Ford, of Hampden, Co- 
lumbia county, an original son of the Revo- 
lution and a veteran of the Civil war, was 
born June n, 1827, in Granville, Vermont, 
to Caleb and Roxanna (Lamb) Ford, both 
natives of the Green Mountain state. His 
father was a militiaman in the Revolution, 
and was present at the capture of Ticonder- 
oga. He died in 1852 at the great age of 
eighty-eight. His mother died in 1861 
when about seventy-eight years old. They 
were the parents of twelve children, of whom 
seven are now living: Elisha B., Chicago; 
Warren W., Granville, A'ermont ; George L., 
Chicago; Ira H., the subject of this sketch; 
Sarah married Artemus A. Rice, and lives 
in San Francisco, California; Elizabeth, who 
is now Mrs. Captain Garcia; Ellen, Mrs. 
Robinson, of Rochester, Vermont. 

Captain Ford left Vermont in 1849 and 
went to California by way of the Horn. He 
sought gold the first year, and followed 



254 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



(lairving for the next two years. In 185 J lie 
came to Wisconsin to visit relatives, and was 
so charmed with the agricnltural p;)ssibili- 
ties of Hampden, in tliis county. then largely 
a wilderness, that he bought a farm of two 
hundred and eighty acres and devoted him- 
self with characteristic energy to its im- 
provement. He continued on this farm until 
the breaking out of the Civil war, when he 
dropped everything and made haste to join 
the Union army. He enlistetl August 0, 
1S61. Governor Salomon recognized his 
executive ability, made him a lieutenant, and 
at the suggestion of J. T. Lewis (the follow- 
ing governor of the state, and only surviv- 
ing war governor) appointed him to recruit 
a company for the Eighteenth Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry. He did this very eas.ly 
and the command was mustered in as Com- 
pany I, and sent with others immediately 
south. At Shiloh, while in command of the 
company, Captain Ford was taken prisoner 
|jy the rebels and sent to the war prison at 
Jackson, Mississippi, and after that to Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, and at Macon and Madi- 
son, Georgia. At Macon he was detailed at 
the recjuest of a superior officer, to attend a 
brother oi^cer through a severe sickness. He 
nursed him back to health, and then gained 
permission to visit the barracks and minister 
to the wants of his soldiers. This permis- 
sion was given by Dr. Owen, a Confederate 
officer with Union sympathies. Captain 
Ford found William Foster, one of his men, 
lying in the sand beside a tree, and in a ter- 
rible condition. He turned him upon his 
side, and found he was wasted away to that 
extent that his hip bone fell from its sock- 
el. Scores were in as bad a condition, and 
every morning sixty or seventy were taken 
out dead. The flies were terrible, but through 
Masonic influence he was able to secure nets 
for five hundred. During the fore part of 
June an order for exchange was issued, but 
2lT. the officers were left out, Captain Ford 



and another officer determined to escape. 
Accordingly they got a long iron poker from 
a negro and found there was a Union sym- 
pathizer on guard duty. The night of 
June 22, 1862, he went o\-er the dead hne 
and was not hit l)y the Ijullets fired by the 
friendly sentinel. He went immediately to 
a tree that had been agreed upon as a meet- 
ing place with his brother officer, and waited 
there until nearly daylight. As his comrade 
had not yet appeared he left the city, and 
co\-ered twenty-se\-en miles before the follow- 
ing noon in hopes of eluding pursuit. Hear- 
ing bloodhounds in the distance he walked 
down a creek hoping to throw them off the 
scent. It was to no purpose, and presently 
he was beset by a pack of nine hounds, led 
by a great Dane that generally throttled the 
man they caught. Captain Ford watched his 
chance, and when the dog leaped at him 
struck it a blow that laid it low. At this 
moment a man appeared in a thicket a short 
distance awa)-, and, with lexeled gun, de- 
manded his surrender. Our subject drew 
his poker to a firing position and said "Don't 
you shoot unless you want to be killed." 
They finally agreed to lower their arms, and 
Ford surrendered. He was taken back to 
prison and put in shackles. It was expected 
he would wear these all the time, but he got 
a key from a negro, and when the officers 
were not near took one of tliem oft'. It 
was supposed by the rebels that he wore them 
for fi\'e months. He still has the poker and 
the shackles in his possession. He was after- 
wards transferred to Columbus, South Caro- 
lina, and then to Libby prison. He says 
this was the best prison he was in, as it was 
the only place where he found white bread. 
At Libby prison he was paroled and sent to 
Washington. He came back to Madison, and 
understanding he had been exchanged, went 
back into the army. It \\-as not until he 
fought through several battles that he got 
official notice of his exchange at Vicksburg. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



255 



He was in tlie battles of Port Gibson, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River 
Bridge, Vicksburg. and many other import- 
ant engagements. In 1864 he res-gned to 
come home and raise another company. This 
company he took out of the vicinity of Co- 
lumbus, under the designation of Company 
]\1, First Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, and 
was, by Governor Lewis, commissiuned 
captain, and went to Alexandria, V.rgiiiia. 
They did garrismi duty until Jinie J6, 1865, 
A\ hen they were discharged. 

Like a million other bra\-e and loyal 
soldiers, when war's alarms were over. 
Captain Ford came back to his farm, and ap- 
plied himself as sedulously to its duties as 
if there had never been a war. In 1867 and 
1868 he represented the Twenty-second as- 
sembly district of Columl)ia county in the 
state assembly. He was one of the three 
commissioners appointed liy the governor 
to administer the affairs of ColumJjia county, 
a method since replaced by the county board. 
Beginning in 1881 he was superintendent of 
a silver mining company Ihat conducted ex- 
tensive operations at Buena \'ista, Colo- 
rado. Our subject has been three times mar- 
ried, and his present wife, whose maiden 
name was Gertrude D. Erickson, has pre- 
sided over his household since March 17, 
i88j. They ha\-e four bright chdclren, all 
at home ; Jessie E., Clarence \'., Ellen R., 
and Ira H., Jr. 

Captain Fonl is a strong Republican, 
and takes much interest in public affairs. In 
September, 1899, he called his company to 
gether at Columbus, and twenty-six respond- 
ed. It was an interesting occasion, and he 
was presented with a gold headed cane by 
his soldiers as a mark of their appreclaUon 
of his unceasing interest in their welfare. 
The whole community honors Captain Ford, 
■and his friends are not confined to this 
county or state. All who know him think 
kindly of him. 



WTLLIA^I FISHER, M. D. 

William Fisher, i\I. D., deceased, was 
born September 18, 1S33, in western New 
York, the son of John W. Fisher, a native 
of the state of New York. John W. Fisher 
brought his family to Wisconsin at an early 
day in the history of the state, and located 
in Rock county, at Cookville, where he fol- 
lowed his trade of millwright. His death 
occurred N'ox-ember 1 1, 1873, in the seventy- 
second year i:>f his age. He was a promi- 
nent Mason, and his funeral services were 
conducted by that order. His wife died 
at Cookville, Wisconsin, about the year 

1853- 

\\'illian: Fisher, the subject of this 
sketch, received a high education, and 
graduated from a medical college in Phila- 
delphia. He located at ^Vhite Creek, Adams 
county, Wisconsin, in 1861, and practiced 
his profession there for two years. He then 
removed to Catlin, Vermilion coun,ty, Illi- 
nois, where he practiced one year. He was 
then offered the position of general agent 
for the state of Kansas of the Northwestern 
Life Insurance Company. He held this 
position for five years and then became the 
representative of the Connecticut Mutual 
Life Insurance Company in the state of 
Texas and others of the southwestern states, 
and he continued in this capacity until his 
death. lie died August 5, 1874, at War- 
ren, Ohio, among strangers. His remains 
were conveyed to St. Charles, Illinois, where 
his family resided at that time. 

William Fisher was married September 
14, 1861, to A. Josephine Reed, daughter of 
Calvin E. and Sarah (Twist) Reed, of 
Nunda, Livingston county, New York. 
Mention of Mrs. Fisher's parents will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. To this 
union four children were born, named in 
order of birth as follows: Ennis E., now 
living at \\'au\\atosa, Wisconsin; \\'illiam 



COMPEXDIi'M OF BIOGRAPHY 



AV.. nrw in Ccv^radC': Eiigene B.. state in- 
specii:-- f;- Wisconsin Telephr-ne Company: 
and Joim J., graduate in Eeloit CoJlege. 



SALMON BROW X. 

Salmon Brown, one of tbe most ex- 
tcBsave pirodsce dealers o£ ihe Dorthwest. 

itadine in Kilbccini. Colmnbia coanJy. 
"\V:s: - - ' isi can be 

£cc; :: - - - •trsisreat ef- 

ic-iT. vfcij coTccie^j- iiic iikttSi C'l persever- 
;.r.r; :s t"::; srrcessfal inan in whaiever tc- 
and 333 diis gead e^rc m are 

_.: 1 ,; caits of cJiaracier ^^ ":; ;!: 

are booad to psodnce the best and 
lesiiks. 

Mr. BrowTs isas bom in Hndsos, Snm- 
nsi cc'-nnfr. OIjjo, FdjiBaiy 13. 1&5S, aiid 
is the son of Fiedeikk Brown, a BaliTe of 
tbe sEiDc place, irbo was bom Fdimaiy 13, 
1S07- ^?r. Brown is a Hr>pa3 desosadaTit 
r i P : : caaae to Anaenca in 

iht I - r^g ai PljHDomh Reck, 

Deoemiier 30, loja Tbe fadaer of osr 
subject iras a farnaer br ooagjatiim aad 
dealr escreBsrelT in siock. iiscindii^ bosses 
and caifl-e. He wem 10 Sank coeEirr. W 35- 
caaosan, in 1870, aiid icr a time liTed on a 
fim: near Ree.ds.'bnrg'. He was a Isroil^er of 
jrin BrC'im- d AboiiBon fanje. He nar- 
r^ei ' '-— iaizn. in Obio. wbo was a 

— -■!— ; -rrScirt. ^"d^ere she lired nnii! 

gT:-s— ;. -en she renaovef 

as the Wesrem iveserre. Sbe niS'ie : 

tine rrrp in tbe saddJe. and was ihe nrs: r 

lieacber in xhai secr^':xi. Sbe dkd in Hnd- 
s^::!n, OMg. in 2S63. Tbe txthe^ of oar 
scLject daed ia Reedsbairg. WlsooGisia. in 
2S7- , " - jeais. Six djiJdien 

werr "Jo* conpiSe. our snbject 

being '"'^- j ^^' Two 01 bis In^sbeis, 



frederidc and Owen, enlisted at the Dreil-:- 
ing ont of the Gvil war. Tbe first nar::ed 
was bom in Ohio, in 1828. and was a grad- 
uate of tbe Western jReserre CoDege. He 
si'&di&d law and sensed in Pecaioojca, IBi- 
n:is. and was a^jiinted postmaster at the 
beginning of Lincoln's first admimstrariou, 
bni iip'3n ibe call for three mcaiihs' serricje 
be esilisied. and at the es^ratioa otJns time 
re-enlisted for three years, asm agairi for one 
year, tins serving for foor years and three 
months under three enHsHDems. He oya- 
sianily refused prccncdc^n, preferring to 
fight in tbe ranks, au-i dirrrng the peric^d in. 
which he "-z? ^ rbe aimy be was engaged 
innacr: ---battles. His -wife Jocfed 

ir'tr - ~- re during fn^ entsre ^ ''j*^ 

He is &yv liriag in Anrosa, 

;. - is Qigaged in tbe pjaciioe of 

!aw, and is jnsiice of the peace. He -sras 
posHnasiEr at Pecaicsfica imtil ihe. beginning 
of Giant's first term as pressdeot, wben he 
fifsigned, naTing filled tis oSoe absul eight 
years. Tbe c»tber broihex, nanoed Owen 
Brown, was also a najxre of the Buckeye 
state, ha-fii^ bees hoai in 1830. He re- 
oareJ a good euncat33n and resn-jTed to 
sombem IIiii»is in 185S, ba-dng preriogisJy 
nsarried in C&io. In 1862 be eniiised in die 
Eighty-Hesghih ITI jtc jqs VolamBss- Infamrr, 
and died in tbe bogEtal at XashriHe, Ten- 
nessee, FcSjraaTy 2, 1863. 

Saincm Bro"sra lired in his nairre S32le 
mail 187^. where be was ^agaged in lartn- 
ii^ and fmir grcwing. Upcm Jearing Ohio 
be went direci t;' DeDcma township. Sank 
rr^TTT-. ""srC'Xisin. azid ssetJed on a farm 
r-d ic'- ihirDeea years. He ea- 

__^ -— ig - pTTTTig tTtp ■= .! , "'i: I tf~ -TTVtn .Ik; 

and ^jent tbe balance of his vn>t shiTfcng 
pffodooe. Here be laid -ays. fc^ndaiian iss 
his preseni inHnense produce bnsrsss, wijacb 
He m jved to 



ry, 2SS6, and now 

aiad sells in nacse 




SALHOH BROWH. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



259 



than twenty-five. His trade extends from 
Boston on the east to the Missouri river on 
the west, and the vohime of his trade has 
been so extensive of late that it reached 
eighteen hundred car lots in the last fifteen 
months. He is considered one of the most 
extensive clover seed dealers in the state, 
and is, at this time, engaged exclusively in 
the wholesale business. 

Our subject was married at Put-in-Bay 
Island, Ohio, October 28, 1869, to Mrs. 
Belle M. Brown, a native of the Empire 
state, who was born in 1848. Mr. and Mrs. 
Brown are the parents of two children : Jen- 
nie B., born October 6, 1870, who married 
Dr. O. H. Browm, and is now a resident of 
Belvidere, Illinois; and Lydia H., born Sep- 
tember 12, 1873, who married C. H. Croth- 
ers, who is connected with Mr. Brown's office 
at Kilbourn. j\Ir. and ^Irs. Brown have 
four grandsons and three granddaughters. 

Our subject is a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows^ and the 
Modern Woodmen of America. He has al- 
ways been a stanch Republican, and*is now 
a member of the county central committee. 
He has no\y served two terms as chairman 
of the Columbia county board of supervisors, 
and has been a member from Newport town- 
ship for six continuous terms. He was one 
of the leading spirits in the celebrated fight 
of Columbia county against the famous 
tramp nuisance case, in which the county was 
engaged a short time since. This case was 
the first to be tried in the state, and the 
county was victorious, mainly throug'h the 
great efforts which Mr. Brown with others 
put forth with that end in view, thereby sav- 
ing to the county many thousands of dollars. 
He is ever ready to defend the people against 
the encroachment of evil doers, and the 
community in \\hich he resides may well be 
proud to number him among the influential 
and public-spirited citizens. So well known 
and active a character necessarily has many 



friends throughout the land, and all will 
fully appreciate the portrait of him shown 
elsewhere in this volume. 



REVEREND JAMES H. McCHESNEY. 

Reverend James H. McChesney, an aged 
resident of the township of New Chester, 
has a very comfortable home on section 4, 
near the postoffice of Grand Marsh, and 
commands the respect and veneration of a 
wide circle of friends and neighbors. He 
was born at Newark, New Jersey, February 
12, 1825, and has lived a long and active life. 
James McChesney, the father of the sub- 
ject of this writing, was born in county 
Monaghan, Ireland, June 4, 1798, and came 
to the United States when about seventeen 
years old. When he was three years older 
he traveled through the country with Lor- 
enzo Dow and Francis Williams, preaching 
the gospel at country school houses, and any 
place where a congregation could be gath- 
ered. A little later he became associated 
with D. D. Beach in the publication of a 
religious paper with an office in New York 
City. He was engaged in this work for 
many years, and when he reached the ma- 
ture age of forty-two was ordained a min- 
ister in Dr. Wallace's church in New York. 
He had various settlements and after several 
years brought up in Glenn Ellyn, Illinois, 
where he was one of thirteen to organize the 
Chicago Congregational Association. His 
pure character, lofty soul and loving spirit 
commanded reverence and esteem, and in 
whatever work he was engaged his sterling 
worth was at once recognized. He died at 
Glenn Ellyn when over ninety-six. He was 
married to Matilda Davis, April 4, 1824. 
She was born at Flempstead Harbor, Long- 
Island, New York, April 4, 1806, and proved 
herself in every way a worthy associate of 
her husband. 



2G0 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



The Reverend James H. McChesiiey, the 
subject of this writing, lived with his parents 
until he was twenty-five years old. He 
studied much and read deeply and wisely 
under his father's direction. In 1850 he 
left home and went to Sparta, Wisconsin, 
where he remained for some four years. At 
that time he moved to Adams county, and 
secured a home in New Chester, where he 
has continued to reside to the present time. 
He was ordained a minister of the gospel 
in 1869 at Westfield, Marquette county, in 
the Congregational church. He preached 
for over thirty years and owned a farm in the 
meantime. He is still called upon to offici- 
ate at the funeral services of the old resi- 
dents, and has tender and touching words 
for those with whom he has been so closely 
associated for so many years. He was mar- 
ried to Mary B. Hull, April 3, 1845, '" the 
city of Brooklyn. She is a native of the city 
of New York, where she was born November 
8, 1829. Mr. and Mrs. McChesney are the 
parents of eleven children. Three of these 
died in infancy. Those now living are : 
Josephine May, Margaret M., Jane E., 
Samuel, Joseph, James J., Mark H., and 
Myrtle A. It is a goodly family, and all 
its members have won a good standing in 
the great world. Their venerable father is 
much revered and loved, and he is still the 
center of their thoughts and ambitions. 



CLARENCE CLAYTON EATON. 

Clarence Clayton Eaton, editor and pro- 
prietor of the "Columbus Democrat," at 
Columbus, Columbia county, Wisconsin, is 
a gentleman of the highest character, and 
popular throughout that section of the coun- 
try. He is a native of Whitewater, Wis- 
consin, and was born August 7, 1861, and 
was the son of Sephrenas and Eleanor 



(Green) Eaton. His father was a native of 
Leeds, Ontario, and is a lineal descendant of 
P'rancis Eaton, who came to America on the 
Mayflower. His descendants in direct line 
follow: Francis, Benjamin, Benjamin, 
Jr., Francis H., Jabez, Jabez, Jr., Al- 
mon Ranson, Sephrenas. Francis Ea- 
ton II wedded Thankful Alden, grand- 
daughter of John and I'riscilla Alden, 
and James Edison Eaton, brother of 
Almon R. Eaton, was one of the pioneers of 
Columbus, and served as the first postmasier 
and justice of the peace and was later county 
clerk. Almon R. Eaton came to Wisconsin 
and settled at Hebron, Jefferson county, 
where he died aged over seventy years. He 
was a farmer by occupation, and served as 
one of the first justices at Hebron and was 
a man of good judgment and business ability. 
The father of our subject was by trade a 
mechanic, and worked in the Esterly Reaper 
Factory at Whitewater as a wood worker. 
In his early life he was a sailor on the great 
lakes, and he is now a manufacturer at 
Watertown, in which city he has served sev- 
eral years in succession as alderman. The 
mother of our subject came to Wisconsin 
with her parents at an early day, and the 
family settled on a farm at Hebron. 

Clarence C. Eaton attended public school 
at Fond du Lac and Watertown, and later La 
Borveau Academy at Watertown, and after 
completing a course there entered the office 
of the "Watertown Democrat." L^pon the 
death of its editor, Thomas Jones, in 187^, 
he took charge of the paper for a few months, 
after which he became foreman of the news 
and job department of the "Eau Claire Free 
Press," and also acted as correspondent to 
Chicago papers. He went to Madison in 
1884 to accept a jxisition on the "Democrat," 
and in 1887 purchased the "Columbus 
Democrat," which he has since published, 
with much success. It has been the policy of 
the paper to agitate the subject of public 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



261 



improvements, and it is largely due to its 
influence that the town has an excellent sys- 
tem of street lighting and water works, and 
a city hall which would do credit to a much 
larger town. Mr. Eaton has been active in 
many public improvements, and helped to 
organize a Fourth of July American Asso- 
ciation, which raised two hundred dollars 
for public improvements. 

Our subject was married in January, 
1884, to Julia J. Ford, daughter of John and 
Martha ( Maciritchie) Ford, of Watertown, 
Wisconsin. Two sons have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Eaton, bearing the names : 
Sumner Ford and Roswell Carlisle. Mr. 
Eaton has served as justice of the peace two 
years, and one year as superintendent of 
city schools, and in 1897 was elected alder- 
man in the first ward, the first Democratic 
candidate elected in that ward. He is a 
member of the Gold Democratic state central 
committee. He is a gentleman whose work 
is extended for the benefit of his fellow men, 
and he is held in the highest esteem. He 
is a gentleman of culture and possesses a 
naturally fine baritone voice, which he has 
greatly improved under excellent instruction, 
and aside from taking a leading part in the 
choirs of the local churches is solicited to 
sing in other towns on public occasions. 



ARTHUR MARSDEN, M. D. 

Arthur Marsden, M. D., and who has 
also won the degree of Ph. D., is located at 
Rio, Columbia county, and is engaged in the 
practice of his profession. He has rapidly 
won the favor of the public both by his pro- 
fessional skill and stability of character, and 
his friends expect for him a long and use- 
ful career in the great work to which he has 
devoted himself. He was born at Albion 
Prairie, Dane county, Wisconsin, May 15, 



1869, and is a son of Henry and Margaret 
Marsden. The Marsden family traces its 
lineage back to Normandy, and to adven- 
turous spirits who crossed the Channel with 
William the Conqueror. Henry Marsden 
was a native of Derbyshire, England, and in 
1844 he was brought by his parents into Wis- 
consin when only thirteen years old. He 
lived on the farm with them until 1880 when 
he located in Edgerton, and dealt in lumber 
and building material in that city. Mrs. 
Marsden comes of an illustrious line. She 
was born in Perthshire, Scotland, and her 
grandmother was a sister of the Earl of 
Dumbarton. 

Dr. Marsden attended the public school 
at Edgerton, and was graduated from the 
local high school at the age of eighteen. He 
spent three years at Albion Academy, devot- 
ing himself to general and philosophical 
studies, and entered Rush Medical College 
at Chicago in 1891, and received his di- 
ploma in 1894. He also spent a year at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at St. 
Louis, and received a diploma from that in- 
stitution in 1895. In June of that year he 
opened an office in Rio, and soon command- 
ed an extensive practice in Rio and the sur- 
rounding country. He is now the only 
physician in the village. He is an atten- 
dant upon the services of the Congregational 
church, belongs to the Masons, is the camp 
physician of the Modern Woodmen of 
America, and is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
He is a Republican, but not a politician. He 
reads much, and has an office fitted out with 
a valuable library. 



CHEBAR FORBUSH. 

The history of a community or a nation 
is made up of the experiences and deeds of 

individuals, and for this reason it would 



2G-2 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



be difficult to write a readable narrative of 
the development of Adams county, Wiscon- 
sin, without frequent mention of the name 
of Chebar Forbush. He is one of the pio- 
neers who did so much in those early days 
to shape the destinies of the great state of 
Wisconsin, and to make for her a career of 
prosperity and greatness rarely paralleled 
in the world's history. The subject of this 
review has been a resident of Adams county 
practically half a century and with the ex- 
ception of a few years has occupied his pres- 
ent home in New Chester township. 

Chebar Forbush was born in the town 
of Starke, Coos county, Xew Hampshire, 
November 24, 1834. His parents were 
Chebar and Elizabeth (Graper) Forbush. 
The father was born in Massachusetts, near 
Bloody Brook, and the grandfather of our 
subject ser\-ed through the Revolutionary 
war, seven years in all. It is said two For- 
bush brothers were taken prisoners by the 
great Cromwell in Scotland, and were ban- 
ished from the country in 1655. They set- 
tled in Massachusetts, near Springfield, and 
their descendants have scattered throughout 
the United States, many of them still living 
in Massachusetts. Chebar Forbush, Sr., re- 
moved to North Adams, Massachusetts, 
where he was employed as watchman in the 
factories in that place for a niunber of years. 
In 1848 he went to Cook county, Illinois, 
V. here he lived three 3-ears. He then moved 
to Adams county, Wisconsin, locating in 
Pleasant Prairie, and thence to Sharon, Wis- 
consin. His death occurred in ]\Iinneapolis, 
jSIinnesota; in 1872, at the age of seventy- 
two years. He was a stanch Whig in his 
earlier days, and later voted with the Re- 
publicans. Our subject's mother was born 
in 1804 in New Hampshire, and died in 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the age of 
eighty-five years. Her father was a farmer, 
and lived and died in New Hampshire. Her 
mother was a descendant of the Hollanders. 



Giebar Forbush, our present subject, 
was a small lad when his family took him to 
North Adams, IMassachusetts, where he 
worked five years in a cotton factory. He ac- 
companied the family to Illinois, and thence 
to Wisconsin. He took up his residence in 
Adams county in 1851, and a few years 
later purchased his present farm of one 
hundred and twenty acres. He has placed 
many valuable and convenient improvements 
upon it, and has made it in every sense a 
home, where genuine hospitality and good 
cheer are extended to all who cross itS: 
threshold. 

Mr. Forbush enlisted February 11, 1862, 
in Company G, Nineteenth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteer Infantry. His first two years of ser- 
vice were in eastern Virginia and North 
Carolina. He was later transferred to the 
Army of the Potomac, and took part in the 
siege of Norfolk, the battles of Drury's 
Blutf, Fair Oaks, and the sieges of Peters- 
burg and Richmond. He was mustered out 
and discharged May 4, 1865, having been in 
the ranks almost continuously during his en- 
tire sers'ice. 

Chebar Forbush was married November 
5, 1856, to Sarah Foster, of New Chester 
township, Adams cotmty, Wisconsin. She 
died January 8, 1859, aged twenty years. 
Sophia C. Stewart, daughter of James 
Stewart, of Waukesha, Wisconsin, became 
the wife of our subject, IMarch 19, i860. 
Mrs. Forbush was born in Martha's \'ine- 
yard, Massachusetts. To this union three 
children w^ere born, namely: Clara Sophia, 
now Mrs. Peter Johnson, of Hancock, 
Wisconsin ; Sarah Agnes, now Mrs. William 
DeMott, of Westfield, Wisconsin, and Wal- 
ter U., at home. Mr. and Mrs. Forbush are 
members of the Congregational church of 
New Chester, of which INIr. Forbush is a 
deacon and trustee. He is also a member 
of Badger Post, G. A. R., at Friendship. He 
is a Republican in political views, having 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



263 



voted for Fremont in 1856, and has con- 
tinued to support the men and measures of 
the "grand old party" ever since. He has 
been chosen supervisor of Xew Chester 
township several times, always serving his 
community with fidelit}- and to the satis- 
faction of all men of all shades of political 
faith. 



GOTTLIEB LOHR. 

A brilliant example of a self-made 
American citizen and a grand exemplifica- 
tion of the progress that an ambitious 
foreigner can make in this country of un- 
bounded opportunities, is shown in the case 
of Mr. Lohr, one of the leading German- 
American residents of Sauk City, Wisconsin. 
For many years he was actively identified 
with the agricultural interests of Sauk 
county, but two years ago he gave up busi- 
ness life and removed to the village, where 
ho is now living retired. 

Mr. Lohr was born in Prussia, Germany, 
June 7, 1835, and acquired a limited educa- 
tion in his native land. In 1854, in company 
with his parents and seven other children, 
he emigrated to America, where they hoped 
to improve their financial condition. By 
close economy and careful management they 
saved enough to pay their passage, and bid- 
ding good bye to friends and native land, 
embarked at Bremen on a sailing vessel, 
which was sixty days in crossing the Atlan- 
tic. They landed at New York, August 30, 
1854, and proceeded at once to Sauk county, 
Wisconsin, where they secured work at 
whatever they could find to do. 

Our subject found employment working 
with a threshing machine, and receive.l fifty 
cents per day and his board, which seemed 
to him at that time very good wages, as it 
was much more than he had ever earned be- 
fore. This brought before him visions of 
wealth and fortune quickly secured. He 



next worked for a farmer at $5 per month, 
and the following winter made for him oak 
shingles which were used in covering a new 
granary which the farmer built and which 
was soon afterward destroyed by fire. Later 
he was employed by another farmer at $144 
per year and remained with him three years 
and a half, during which time he saved all 
liis money, being steady, industrious and 
economical, and spending nothing for beer 
and luxuries. At the end of twelve years 
spent in the employ of others, he managed to 
save considerable money, and in the mean- 
time purchased eighty acres of raw land in 
Hone}^ Creek township, on time, and his 
wages went to pay the interest and complete 
the purchase. He then located upon his 
land and turned his attention to its cultiva- 
tion and improvement. 

About this time Mr. Lohr married Aliss 
Helena Hartmann, and together they worked 
night and day until they had one of the best 
improved farms of the locality. x\t times 
Mr. Lohr also worked for others and as 
his financial resources increased he added to 
his land until he now has a fine farm of 192 
acres, which is operated by his son. Our 
subject erected thereon a nice stone house 
20x30, with a kitchen 18x24, all two stories 
high; a barn, 40x70 feet, and good outbuild- 
ings, all of which he keeps in excellent re- 
pair. His place is supplied with all kinds 
of farm machinery, and he also has a fine 
threshing machine outfit, purchased at a cost 
of $2,400; a sorghum mill, which cost $350; 
and a saw mill, where, during the winter 
season, from 75,000 to 125,000 feet of lum- 
ber are manufactured. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lohr have five children: 
John, a farmer of Troy township, Sauk 
county, whose place cost $8,000; Chris, who 
lives on the home farm; Amelia, wife of 
William Wenzel, b\' whom she has three 
children; Herman, a school teacher; and 
Emma, at home. All of the children have 



264 



COMPEXDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



been given good educational advantages, and 
the family are meml>ers of the Lutheran 
church. In his political views j\lr. Lohr 
is a Republican. His word in business 
transactions is considered as good as his 
bond, and when purchasing his threshing 
machine he would not sign a contract but 
said he would pay the amount in so many 
days, and he did pay it before that time. He 
is a man of excellent judgment and good 
business ability, is upright and reliable in all 
things, and is justly recognized as one of 
the most energetic and representative citi- 
zens of Sauk Citv. 



JOHN RICHMOND DECKER. 

John Richmond Decker, publisher of the 
"Columbus Republican," enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the oldest editor in Columbia 
county. He is also connected with other 
business interests, including a prosperous 
furniture business at Pittsville, Wood coun- 
ty, and since 1886 had been local mana- 
ger of the Wisconsin Telephone Company 
until about one year ago. 

Mr. Decker was born in Sinclairville, 
Chautauqua county. New York, February 
28, 1842, and was the son of Stephen and 
Sylvania (Richmond) Decker. His father 
was a native of Troy, New York, and was 
of Holland descent, his ancestors having 
located on the Hudson river, and were neigh- 
bors of the Van Rensselaers, and other prom- 
inent Knickerbocker families. The grand- 
father of our subject, Christopher Decker, 
was a farmer by occupation, and his mother, 
Phoebe Cushman, was a relative of the 
famous actress, Charlotte Cushman. Our 
subject's father learned the trade of wagon- 
maker in Bennington, Vermont, and later 
conducted a large factory at Sinclairville, 
New York, and about 1845 "loved to Erie 



county. New York, and in 1855 to Waupun, 
Wisconsin, where he carried on a wagon 
factory, and his death occurred there in 
1886, aged seventy-eigiit years. The mother 
of our subject was born in Bennington, 
Vermont, and was the daughter of John 
and Sarah (Truman) Richmond. Her fa- 
ther represented the sixth generation of that 
family in America. The first was John 
Richmond, who settled at Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1635. His grandson, Sylvanus 
Richmond, married a descendant of John 
Alden. John Richmond, the fifth in line 
of descent, served under General Wolfe at 
the battle of Quebec. He was seventy- 
three years of age when the Revolutionary 
war began, and although too old to take 
active part espoused the patriot cause. The 
mother of our subject died at Columbus, 
Wisconsin, in 1888, aged eighty-five years. 

John R. Decker attended Waupun high 
school, and in 1859 spent one year in the 
office of the "Waupun Times," and finished 
his trade in the job office of Edward Beeson, 
one of the veteran printers and editors of 
the state, now deceased. Mr. Decker returned 
to Waupun in 1867 and purchased the 
"Times," wdiich he published one year, and 
in 1868 established the "Columbus Republi- 
can," which he has since published. He is 
the oldest editor in the county and one of 
the oldest in Wisconsin. 

Our subject was married, in 1866, to 
Miss Harriet E. Shelmadine, daughter of 
Abram and Lucy Shelmadine, of Waupun, 
Wisconsin. Mrs. Decker was born in 
Elmira, New York, and died in 1869, 
at the age of twenty-nine years, leav- 
ing two children, Minnie J. and Ray, who 
died at the age of four and one-half years. 
Mr. Decker married Miss Susan Hawx- 
hurst, of Columbus, daughter of Mrs. 
Penelope Hawxhurst, in. 1870. Mrs. Decker 
died three years later, aged thirty-two years. 
Her only child, Myrta, died the day follow- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



265 



ing her mother's death, aged two and a 
half years. Mr. Decker married Emma L. 
Kolmes, of Portage City, Wisconsin, in 
1875. Mrs. Decker was born in West 
Point, New York, and was tlie daugliter of 
Joshua Holmes, who died at Columbus, 
aged ninety-three years. Both our subject 
and wife are members of the Episcopal 
church, and Mr. Decker is a member of the 
Modern Woodmen of America, and the 
blue lodge, chapter and Eastern Star, of 
the Masonic fraternity. He was appointed 
postmaster of Columbus by President Har- 
rison and served from 1890-94. He was 
justice of the peace eight years at Columbus, 
and chairman of the county board of super- 
visors in 1877, '78 and '79. He is well 
and favorably known and well merits his 
success and prominent position. 



ANDREW OLESON HOLM, Deceased. 

For more than a score of years Adams 
county, Wisconsin, was the home of the 
gentleman above nametl and his public 
career was one of which his community 
could always boast. He was an ex-soldier 
and a liberty loving citizen and enjoyed 
the esteem of his fellow men. He was an 
active business man and displayed ability 
and enterprise. 

Mr. Holm was born in Skeen, Norway, 
March 5, 1831, the son of Ole and Anna 
Holm. His mother died in Norway, and 
he and his father came to America in 1849, 
and his father died the day following their 
arrival. 

Our subject attended school in this 
country but little, but was well read in his 
native language. He resided at Palmyra 
until 1859, when he went to Adams county, 
Wisconsin, and settled in Strong's Prairie 
township, where he lived for a number of 
years. He entered the United States army 
September 26, 1864, and became a member 



of Company F, Third Wisconsin Volunteer 
Infantry. He was stationed at Nashville 
for some time and took part in General 
Thomas' battle with Hood and subsequent 
march through Alabama. He received no 
wounds, but his health was much impaired 
by the service. He was discharged June 
9, 1865, and about two years after his re- 
turn to Wisconsin he was elected county 
clerk and removed to Friendship, where he 
resided until his death. He did consider- 
able insurance business, and also filled the 
office of county clerk continuously until his 
death. 

Mr. Holm was married, Alarch 24, 1857, 
to Rebecca, daughter of Peter U. and 
Louise Barnson. Mrs. Holm was born near 
Farsund, Norway, and came to America 
with her parents in 1849. The family re- 
sided four years in Dane county, Wisc<in- 
sin, and moved from thence to Adams coun- 
ty, where her father engaged in farming 
in Strong's Prairie township until his death, 
in April, 1872, aged seventy-one years. 
Mrs. Holm's mother died in December, 
1880, aged seventy-four years. Ten chil- 
dren, three of whom died in infancy, were 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Holm, as follows: 
Louise, now IMrs. James Power, of Port- 
land, North Dakota; Marie, now the wife 
of J. E. Fladeland, of North Dakota; Peter 
L'., a teacher of Farmington, Washington ; 
Tillie, a teacher at Jefferson, Wisconsin; 
Ella, now Mrs. E. E. Smith, of Friendship; 
Clara, now Mrs. Bennett, of Wyoming; 
and Ada, a resident of Friendship. Mrs. 
Holm has eleven grandchildren. She 
resides in Friendship and her home is 
one of culture and refinement. Mr. Holm 
died in Friendship September 9, 1882. Pie 
was a consistent member of the Lutheran 
church of Strong's Prairie, and was a gen- 
tleman of excellent characteristics. He was 
a life long Republican, and stood firmly for 
the prinoi[)les of his party. 



266 



COMPIiXDlUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



WILLIAM McLEISH. 

William McLeish, deceased, was num- 
bered among the honored pioneers of Co- 
hiipbia county, who located in Caledonia 
township when this region was wild and un- 
improved. In the work of development he 
took an active part and aided in opening up 
the country t(j ci\-ilization. As the years 
passed he faithfully performed his duties of 
citizenship, and his interest in the welfare 
and progress of the community never abated. 
Becoming widely and favorably known he 
made many friends, and his death was a 
joss to the entire community. A portrait 
of this respected citizen and influential mem- 
ber of the county is presented 'on another 
page in this volume. 

Air. jMcLeish was born in the parish of 
Mythel, Perthshire, Scotland, January 12, 
1824, a son of William and Margaret (Car- 
michael) AIcLeish. The mother died in 
that country, leaving five children, three sons 
and two daughters, of whom only two, Will- 
iam and Charles, came to America. The fa- 
tlier. an agriculturist of Perthshire, was a 
representative of a family who were farm- 
ers in Scotland for many generations. In 
185 1 he crossed the Atlantic and joined our 
subject in Columbia county, Wisconsin, 
where he died in 1854. 

It was in 1847 that William McLeish, 
Jr., emigrated to the United States, and af- 
ter spending one year in New York state, 
came to \\'isconsin and purchased a soldier's 
claim in Caledonia township, Columbia 
county, where he made his home until his 
death, July 18, 1878. He was a thrifty, in- 
dustrious farmer, and succeeded in accumu- 
lating several hundred acres of land. He 
was distinguished for a spirit of sociability 
and genuine Scotch hospitality, and w^as 
held in high esteem by his neighbors, who 
honored him with several local positions of 
public trust. 



In December, 1851, Mr. McLeish mar- 
ried Miss Jane Thompson, a native of New 
Monkland parish, Sterlingshire, Scotland, 
and a daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth 
(W^addell) Thompson. Her father was a 
building contractor and also operated stone 
quarries near Airdree some years. He met 
with success in his undertakings, and be- 
came proprietor of considerable property. 
To our subject and his wife were born seven 
children, two of whom died in infancy. The 
others are : Eliza, wife of Thomas Mc- 
Lean, of Nobles county, Minnesota ; Will- 
iam, who lives on the home farm in Cale- 
donia township; Margaret, wife of James 
Towers, of the same township; Andrew, a 
farmer near White, South Dakota; and 
Jc.hn, a farmer of Rock county, Minnesota. 

During her girlhood Mrs. McLeish was 
given fair educational advantages for those 
days. In 1850 she came to the United 
States on a sailing vessel, the Buena Vista, 
which made the voyage in four weeks and 
two days, and after spending one season in 
New York City, she came to Wisconsin in 
185 1. For almost half a century she has 
made her home in Columbia county, and 
although seventy-nine years of age, she is 
still active in mind and body. She is a 
lady of hospitable instincts and cultivated 
tastes, and has numerous friends through- 
out the community in which she lives. She 
was reared in the Baptist faith, her hus- 
band in the strict Presbyterian form. They 
never united with any church here, but led 
conscientious and exemplary lives, and 
sought to gi\-e their children the best ad- 
vantages in every respect. 



JOSEPH L. GREEN. 

Joseph L. Green, fleceased, was for 
many years one of the most prominent and 
influential citizens of Reedsburg, as well as 
one of its leadingand successful business men. 




WILLIAM McLEISH. (Deceased. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



269 



He was identified witli some of the most 
important industries of tlie community, 
and liis connection with tliese various busi- 
ness enterprises was of decided advantage 
to tliis section of tlie county, promoting its 
material welfare in no uncertain manner. 
Mr. Green was born in Cairo, Greene 
county, New York, June 6, 1827, and 
died at Reedsburg, Wisconsin, July 8, 
1885. His parents, James and Lodimma 
(Pitts) Green, were also natives of Greene 
county, New York. Our subject passed 
his boyhood and youth upon the home 
farm in New York, and in 1843 ''^" 
moved with the family to Racine coun- 
ty, Wisconsin, and five years later to Reeds- 
burg, when that village consisted of only a 
few log cabins. For several years he worked 
in a sawmill owned by David C. Reed, and 
later lived on a farm near the village. In 
1853 he embarked in merchandising in 
Reedsburg, and carried on business along 
that line until 1864, when he removed to 
Sparta and engaged in hop culture for a few 
years. About 1870 he went to Rudd's, 
Monroe county, becoming a partner of Rudd 
Brothers, under the firm name of Rudd 
& Green. They built a sawmill, which 
they operated until 1881, when they sold 
the plant, and Mr. Green returned to Reeds- 
burg, where he purchased an interest in a 
flouring mill. He was one of the incor- 
porators of the Reedsburg" Woolen Mills, 
and retained an interest in that concern un- 
til his death. He was also one of the in- 
corporators of the Reedsburg Bank, and 
was a direct(.)r of that flourishing institu- 
tion throughout the remainder of his life. 
The Republican party found in him a stanch 
supporter of its principles, and for a time 
he held the office of postmaster in Reeds- 
burg. He was a member of the Good 
Templars Society, and took an active in- 
terest in advancing the cause of temperance. 
He was a man of the highest respectability. 



and those who were most intimately asso- 
ciated W'ith him speak in unqualified terms 
of his sterling integrity, his honor in busi- 
ness and fidelity to all the duties of public 
and private life. 

On the 20th of November, Mr. Green 
was united in marriage with Miss Lavina 
Reed, also a native of Cairo, Greene county, 
New York, and a daughter of Alanson C. 
and Mary (Roberts) Reed, who in 1845 
removed with their family to Lake Geneva, 
\Valvvorth county, Wisconsin, and remained 
there five years. At the end of that time 
they came to Reedsburg, and located on a 
farm near the village. The father, who was 
a farmer by occupation, died in Sparta, in 
October, 1867, at the age of sixty-five years, 
and the mother died at the same place, in 
June, 1877, at the age of seventy-two. His 
cousin, David C. Reed, came to what is now 
Reedsburg, Wisconsin, about 1849, and built 
the first sawmill in the place. The village 
was afterward named in his honor. The 
paternal grandparents of Mrs. Green were 
Adam and Rebecca (Chichester) Reed, na- 
tives of Morristown, New Jersey, and the 
former w^as of Welsh and the latter of 
Dutch descent. The Reed family was rep- 
resented in the Revolutionary war. 

Mrs. Green is the third in order of birth 
in a family of six children, the others being 
as follows: Rebecca, who died in 1853, at 
the age of twenty years; Mary, widow of 
John Coughran, and a resident of Grand 
Rapids, Michigan; George, a resident of 
Greene county, Iowa ; Martha, widow of 
Samuel Coughran, wdio is represented else- 
where in this volume; and Francis, who 
died in Reedsburg, in 1856, at the age of 
fourteen years. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Green w'as born a 
daughter, Mary Evelyn, who died July 13, 
1888, at the age of thirty-four years. Mrs. 
Green still makes her home in Reedsburg, 
where she is surrounded by a large circle 



270 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



of friends and acquaintances who esteem 
her highly for her sterhng worth. She at- 
tends the Preshvterian church. 



SAMUEL COUGHRAN. 

Samuel Coughran, deceased, was one of 
the early settlers and honored citizens of 
Sauk county, where he made his home for 
many years. He was born in Vermont, 
May 8, 1828, and was a son of Samuel and 
Elizabeth Coughran. The father, who was 
a native of Ireland, was drowned while a 
resident of Vermont, but the mother died 
in Reedsburg, Wisconsin, where she spent 
her last years. 

About 1845 our subject came to Wis- 
consin and first located in Racine county, 
but in 1853 came to Sauk county, locating 
on a farm in Excelsior township, where he 
lived for five years. He then went to Idaho, 
by way of the overland route, and for some 
time was engaged in gold mining in Idaho, 
Washington and Oregon. On his return to 
this state he became interested in hop culture 
at Sparta in company with his brother-in- 
law, Joseph L. Green. In the fall of 1890 
he went to California, and later became a 
resident of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 
where he died in November, 1891, hon- 
ored and respected by all who knew him. 
He was a Knight Templar Mason, a mem- 
ber of the Commandery at Sparta, and was 
a supporter of the Repulilican party and its 
principles. 

In 1855 Mr. Coughran was united in 
marriage with Miss Martha A. Reed, a na- 
tive of Greene county. New York, and a 
daughter of Alanson C. and Mary (Rob- 
erts) Reed, who are mentioned more fully 
in the sketch of Joseph L. Green on an- 
other page of this volume. By this union 
two sons were born : Eugene W., a real estate 



dealer of Sioux Falls, South Dakota; and 
Frank R., now postmaster of Worthington, 
]\Iinnesota. Mrs. Coughran, who is a con- 
sistent member of the Congregational 
church and a most estimable lady, still 
makes her home in Reedsburg, Wisconsin. 



REV. JOHN HAMILTON RITCHEY, 
D. D. 

Rev. John Hamilton Ritchey, D. D., 
pastor of the Presbyterian church of Port- 
age, Wisconsin, was born in Ganges, Ohio, 
June 26, 1840, a son of Hamilton and Jane 
(McAllen) Ritchey. The Ritchey family is 
of Scotch-Irish lineage, and among its 
representatives have been a number of pro- 
fessional men of prominence. The pater- 
nal grandfather of our subject came to 
this country from County Armagh and set- 
tled in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. There 
the father, Hamilton Ritchey, was born 
and reared, but in November, 1839, re- 
moved to Ganges, Ohio, where he spent the 
greater part of his life as general super- 
intendent of the Columbus & Sandusky 
stage line. He was active in political af- 
fairs, first as a Whig and later as an Abo- 
litionist. The maternal grandfather of our 
subject, John McAllen, was a farmer of 
Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. His ancestors 
came from Scotland to the United States 
early in the eighteenth century. Profes- 
sional men were also numerous in this 
family. 

John H. Ritchey, of this review, attend- 
ed Vermillion Institute, of Hayesville, Ohio, 
for two years and then entered the sopho- 
more class of Jefferson College, Canons- 
burg, Pennsylvania, where he completed the 
regular course and was graduated in 1865. 
He then became a student in the W^estern 
Theological Seminary, Allegheny City, 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



271 



Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 
1868. In August of the same year he 
took charge of a mission at Cambria, Wis- 
consin, but nine months later was called to 
the Presbyterian church of Portage, where 
he was ordained and installed June i, 1869. 
He remained in charge here until the 4th 
of July, 1874, when, owing to failing health, 
he resigned with the intention of spending 
some time in recuperation. 

On the way to visit his relatives in Ohio, 
Mr. Ritchey preached at Ouincy, Michigan, 
and in response to an invitation from that 
congregation he remained there fifteen 
months. A change of climate proving ben- 
eficial and his health having somewhat im- 
proved, he accepted a call from West- 
minster church, Rockford, Illinois, in Oc- 
tober, 1875, and remained there three years. 
The following year was mainly spent in rus- 
ticating through the west, holding oc- 
casional services. On the 27th of June, 
1880, he assumed pastoral charge of the 
First Presbyterian church of Independence, 
Iowa, one of the leading congregations of 
that state, and continued at that place for 
six and a half years, which was a period 
of transition from the old stationary condi- 
tion to one of active progress and develop- 
ment in spiritual affairs there. In 1886 he 
returned to Portage, where he has since 
been in charge of his original congregation 
and, although there have been many changes 
in the membership, the society has stead- 
ily increased in numbers and strength. A 
new church has been built and was dedicated 
October 15, 1893. It is a model building, 
designed by Volk & Son, Brooklyn, New 
York, and will compare favorably with the 
best churches for all the uses of a modern 
congregation. 

On the 1 8th of May, 1871, Dr. Ritchey 
married Miss Ella L. Moor, a daughter of 
Dr. Peter and Mary M. (Taylor) Moor, 
of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and four children 



bless this union: Frederick C, connected 
with the "Chicago Record ;" Romney M., 
now a student in the medical department 
of the University of Iowa; Miriam J.; and 
John H. 

Dr. Ritchey is a man of unusual energy 
and enthusiasm, but his ambition is more 
or less curtailed by his physical frailty. 
Possessing lofty ideals, he is nevertheless 
endowed with unusually fine discernment 
and business ability, and is exceedingly 
practical in all his undertakings. All of 
the congregations over which he has pre- 
sided are conspicuous for the harmony 
which prevails among their members, who 
often speak of the permanent effect of his 
labors and influence. On the ist of June, 
1 89 1, Gale College, Galesville, Wisconsin, 
conferred the degree of D. D. upon him. 
He is trustee of several literary institutions ; 
is a member of the Phi Kappa Psi frater- 
nity of the United States; and is often in- 
vited to deliver addresses and baccalaureate 
sermons for the different colleges. For 
some time he was president of the board 
of trustees of Downer College, and was 
active in securing its consolidation with Mil- 
waukee College, by which its usefulness has 
been greatly increased. He is now vice- 
president of the Milwaukee-Downer Col- 
lege. 



GEORGE VOLNEY BACON, Dece.vsed. 

Spring\'ille township, Adams county, 
had no better representative farmer during 
his life than the gentleman whose name 
heads this personal history, and who was 
one of the early settlers of Wisconsin. His 
estate was conducted with the greatest 
care, and he showed a progressive spirit 
commendable to him, and was respected by 
his entire community. 

Mr. Bacon was born in Livingston 



272 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



county, New York, December 12, 1826, and 
was the son of Nathaniel and Achsah 
(Terry) Bacon. His father was born in Ver- 
mont, but when a young boy his family 
moved to New York, leaving him to the 
care of others. At the age of twenty-two 
years he removed to Livingston county, 
New York, where he married. His death 
occurred December 13, 1878, at Hanover, 
Michigan. 

Of a family of twelve children, six sons 
and six daughters, our subject was the sec- 
ond child. Until about seventeen years of 
age he assisted his father on the farm. His 
eyesight was affected and he could not at- 
tend school, but obtained a fair education. 
In June, 1845, 1''^ went to Beaver Dam, 
Wisconsin, and was em])loyed in different 
works for about three years, when he re- 
turned to Allegany county, New York, 
and engaged in farming. He located in 
Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1850, remaining 
there until 1856, when he went to Spring- 
ville, Adams county. He took government 
land and a few years later purchased a farm 
in the same township, which he occupied un- 
til his death. He was thorough and prac- 
tical and conducted a model farm. In No- 
vember, 1864, he entered the army and was 
away about three months at Madison, but 
was discharged at the end of that time on 
account of defective sight. 

Mr. Bacon wias married November 9, 
1848, to Mary Jane Hay, daughter of Jona- 
than and Julia (Collins) Hay, of Living- 
ston county. New York. Mrs. Bacon's fa- 
ther was of Scotch descent and was born 
in Vermont, where he resided until he 
reached the age of twenty-six years. Five 
children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bacon, 
as follows : George Mansfield, born June 30, 
1852, died at Springville, June 22, 1873; 
Frances E., born March 21, 1850, married 
J. W. Cummings, of Springville, Novem- 
ber 9, 1872; Helen E., born March 24, 1861, 



married A. D. Billings, of Springville, Oc- 
tober 15, 1884; Charles E., born August 
14, 1863, now residing on the old home- 
stead; and Anna L., born October 29, 1872, 
married A. E. Richardson, of New Lisbon, 
April 13, 1898. Mr. Bacon departed this 
life in Springville township, Adams county, 
Wisconsin. July 5, 1882. He left a loving 
family and a large circle of acquaintances 
and friends to mourn for him. He was 
respected wherever he was known, and lived 
an honest man, ever interested in the wel- 
fare of his associates. He served for sev^ 
eral terms on the town board, and in all 
matters of a public nature gave his support. 
He was a Republican in political faith, but 
did not take an active part in the affairs 
of liis party. He kept posted on important 
public questions, and was keenly awake to 
the needs of the hour. Mrs. Bacon has 
erected a fine residence on the estate of her 
son-in-law, A. D. Billings, near the old 
homestead, where she lives in comfortable 
circumstances. She is a lady of refinement 
and good taste, and her home is a model of 
convenience and neatness. 



LEWIS EDMINSTER. 

Lewis Edminster, a resident of Poynette, 
Columbia county, bears an honorable repu- 
tation, the result of a long and useful life, 
largely spent in this part of Wisconsin, and 
overflowing with a kindly spirit and humane 
impulses. 

Mr. Edminster was born at Big Flats, 
Chemung county, New York, January 16, 
1830, and his parents were Aaron and Mary 
(Davenport) Edminster, both of English 
nativity. They came into New York from 
New Jersey at an early day, when the 
region they sought was on the frontier, and 
dangerously close to the savage and the wild 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



273 



beast. To David Edminster, the grandfa- 
ther, were born four sons : Nathan, Lewis, 
Aaron and William. Aaron Edminster 
silent the greater part of his boyhood at 
Itliaca, New York, and when he became a 
man engaged in farming many years in 
Chemung county. Alwut 1854 he ex- 
changed his eastern lands for a tract of 
as quite desirable farm land in the town 
of Lowville, Columbia county. He moved 
west to occupy it, and after his arrival in 
Wisconsin divided it among his sons. He 
saw them well established, and in the pos- 
session of an ample competence, and then 
went to Hamilton, Missouri, where he spent 
his remaining years and djied March 18, 
1865, at the great age of ninety years and 
over. He was a man of rugged physicjue, 
and an active temperament, a hard working 
and upright citizen of the community. He 
w^as an earnest and enthusiastic adherent of 
the Baptist church, and helped in the erec- 
tion of a house of worship for that denom- 
ination wherever he was living. His widow 
died May 28, 1876, aged eighty-three. She 
was born at Ithaca, New York, and her fa- 
ther, John I. Davenport, was of Dutch extrac- 
tion, and came to Ithaca from Morris coun- 
ty. New York. Aaron Edminster was the 
father of the following children: Rachel, 
Catherine, Cornelius, Horace, Charles, 
Nancy, Lewis and Jackson. 

Lewis Edminster spent his boyhood in 
New York, and in 1853 came to Columbia 
county, Wisconsin, and bought and im- 
proved a fann of one hundred and forty- 
seven acres in Lowville. He put up ample 
farm buildings, brought the place into a 
high state of cultivation, and in 1880 moved 
into Poynette, where for several years he 
was engaged in business as a hardware 
merchant, giving, also, considerable atten- 
tion to agricultural implements, carriages, 
and other goods in demand among a farm- 
ing people. He has bought and sold con- 



siderable real estate and at different times 
has erected several buildings, which seemed 
to be needed in the village. A busy life 
has been his, and throughout he has pre- 
served an enviable reputation as an hon- 
orable and upright man of the strictest in- 
tegrity and the most generous spirit. He 
has been a lifelong Democrat, and has filled 
the different town offices of Lowville to the 
satisfaction of the people with whom he 
came in contact. 

Lewis Edminster and Miss Mary Teeter 
were married October 8, 1853. She is the 
daughter of Jacob and Elizabeth (Whit- 
lock) Teeter. Jacob Teeter was born in 
Canada, to which country his father re- 
moved during the Revolutionary war. Later 
on he took the side of the liberty party in 
Canada and was obliged to flee to the United 
States, sacrificing much of his property in 
Canada on account of his patriotic princi- 
ples. From New York Jacob Teeter and 
his wife moved to Illinois in 1853, and two 
years later came to Lowville, Columbia 
county, Wisconsin. Later still the family 
went to Blue Earth City, Minnesota, where 
the husband and father died in 1872, aged 
over seventy years. His widow survived 
him a number of years, and died at the age 
of eighty-four. She was of English par- 
entage. To Jacob Teeter and wife were 
born the following children : Eliza, Jesse, 
Lucinda, John, Mary, Reuben, Rebecca, 
Catherine, Christina, Watson and Benijah. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edminster are members 
of the Presbyterian church and are dis- 
tinguished for their kindness to people in 
trouble and distress. Having no children 
of their own they have reared several or- 
phans. Helen Teeter, a niece of Mrs. Ed- 
minster, was an inmate of their home sev- 
eral years, and became the wife of Byron 
Kinnear, now the treasurer of Columbia 
county. She died in August, 1882, when 
only about thirty years of age. Her only 



274 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



surviving child, Lewis Reuben, has been 
reared by the Edminsters, given a hberal 
education, including a course at Wisconsin 
University. He is now an expert account- 
ant and stenographer, and is employed in 
Stroud's bank, Kilbourn City. George 
Kinnear, another foster son, now lives in 
the state of Washington. 



WILLIAM WILSON RATHBUN. 

William Rathbun, deceased, was, for a 
period of over forty years, one of the most 
widely known and respected citizens of the 
town of LaValle, Sauk county, Wisconsin. 
He was a man of unusual energy and per- 
severance, and was enabled to overcome 
obstacles which might have seemed unsur- 
mountable to a person of less character and 
determination. Although almost constant- 
ly occupied in the discharge of extensive 
business operations, he found time to ful- 
fill his duties as a citizen, and exerted a 
powerful influence in the affairs of the town 
and county, and his counsel was frequently 
sought by his associates concerning mat- 
ters of both public and private interest. 

Mr. Rathbun was born in Addison, 
Steuben county. New York, September 29, 
1824, and was a son of Thomas and Nancy 
(Vroman) Rathbun, who became residents 
of Sauk county, Wisconsin, in 1855. The 
father was of Scotch-Irish ancestry, and he 
and his descendants have displayed many 
of the sterling characteristics for which the 
people of that lineage have always been dis- 
tinguished. 

At the age of seventeen years our sub- 
ject came to Wisconsin and made his home 
for a time in Madison. For a number of 
years thereafter he was employed on the 
Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers as rafts- 
man, and eventually becoming a competent 



pilot; the transportation of large quantities 
of lumber for the St. Louis markets was in- 
trusted to his care. While thus engaged 
he met with numerous adventures, and also 
gained a w<ide acquaintance and an extensive 
knowledge of business transactions. In 
1855 he came to Sauk county and purchased 
the farm at the mouth of Big creek, which 
was his home throughout the remainder of 
his life. He invested quite extensively in 
timber land along that stream and for a 
nimiber of years did considerable lumbering 
on his own account. He conceived the idea 
of damming the creek near his residence, 
and, in conjunction with his father, built 
a saw-mill, which he continued to operate 
until his death. He was also interested in 
a steam saw-mill in Juneau county, and 
shipped considerable quantities of lumber 
and cord wood. 

On the 23d of May, 1858, Mr. Rath- 
bun married Miss Julia A. Perry, who was 
born in Middletown, Vermont, and in 1852 
came to Wisconsin with her parents, Israel 
and Calista (Mosier) Perry, who located 
first in Whitewater,but in 1857 came to Sauk 
county. Of the four children born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Rathbun, two sons, Adelbert and 
James, died in childhood, and the other two, 
William and Julia, reside on the old home- 
stead, the former having succeeded to his 
father's business interests. 

On the 22nd of January, 1899, while 
working in his saw-mill, Mr. Rathbun's 
clothing became caught in the gearing, 
which drew his body upon the saws, pro- 
ducing instantaneous death. This sad ca- 
tastrophe was a severe shock to his many 
friends as well as his immediate family. 
Being a man of decided views on all public 
questions, he was naturally chosen by his 
fellow citizens to execute numerous official 
trusts. For a number of years he served as 
chairman of the township board of supervi- 
sors, and also filled the offices of justice of 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



275 



the peace and postmaster of LaValle. He 
was reared in the Methodist faith, but was 
not identified with any church after coming 
to Sauk county. For a number of years he 
was a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd FeUows. His business integrity was 
unquestioned, and his many excellent quah- 
ties of mind and heart won him the admira- 
tion and respect of all with whom he came 
in contact. To his family he was kind and 
considerate, and he was ever mindful of the 
comfort and well being of his friends and 
associates. 



GUNDER OLSEN UNDERDAHL. 

Gunder Olsen Underdahl, a prominent 
tobacco farmer of the town of Hampden, 
Columbia county, was born June lo, 1851, 
in the town of Otsego, of the same county. 
He is a son of 01e*0. and Ingeborg (Gun- 
derson) Underdahl, both natives of Nor- 
way, who came to this country in 1850. 
The senior Underdahl had served five years 
in the Norwegian army, and was glad to 
pitch his home in a land where military duty 
was not a necessity for the sons of the soil. 
He settled in the town of Otsego after living 
a year and a half in Dane county. He died 
April 24, 1 89 1, after a long and useful life 
at the age of seventy-five. Mrs. Ole O. 
Underdahl is still living, and is the mother 
of seven children, all of whom are living to 
comfort her declining years. They are: 
Hans, Lewis, Ole and Martin, all residents 
of Rice county, Minnesota; Gunder O. is 
the subject of this writing, and Aleck and 
Mary are still under the home roof. 

Mr. Underdahl received his early edu- 
cation in the town of Otsego, and in 1873 
attended the commercial college at Madi- 
son. He began a business career for him- 
self by becoming a bookkeeper for a firm in 



Madison. He held this position until his 
parents called him home, as his older 
brothers had gone to Minnesota. He 
helped his father through the summer's 
work, and then entered the store of Jacob 
Smith at Columbus as a bookkeeper. He 
did not find city life agreeing with him, and 
after a few months he bought a farm of 
one hundred and fifteen acres in the town 
of Hampden. To this he has since added 
fifty acres, and is now the owner of a choice 
farm, and in its cultivation he has attained, 
if not riches, certainly a competency. He 
has given much attention to the raising of 
tobacco, and following this line through the 
years he has made considerable money. He 
uses the most advanced methods, keeps him- 
self informed as to all the new ideas, and 
every year puts by a liberal profit. Two 
years ago he built a fine residence, having 
all the modern improvements, including a 
hot water heating system. He has a fine 
lot of barns, and all the buildings needed, 
both for general and tobacco farming. 

Mr. Underdahl and Miss Emily H. 
Vangsnes were married July 23, 1876. She 
is a daughter of Hans and Annie Vangsnes, 
natives of Norway. She was born Septem- 
ber 14, 185 1, and is the mother of four chil- 
dren: Ida married Frank Bridges and 
lives in the town of Hampden; Henry, 
Clara and George are still under the par- 
ental roof. Mr. Underdahl is a man of 
more than ordinary character, and com- 
mands the confidence and respect of the 
community to an unlimited degree. He is 
a Republican, and at one time or another 
has filled nearly all the town offices, and es- 
pecially been much interested in school mat- 
ters. He is a member of the Otsego Luth- 
eran church, and every effort for the 
improvement of the community finds in him 
a ready helper. He is American through 
and through, and is regarded as one of the 
county's best citizens. 



27G 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



JOHN VON GONTEN. 

John Von Gonten is one of the oldest citi- 
zens of Portage, and long ago won the re- 
spect of his associates by his industrious 
habits and exemplary life. The years have 
only served to strengthen early impressions, 
and by general confession he stands among 
the most upright and honorable members 
of the local, community. He was born near 
Thun, Canton Berne, Switzerland. April 
17, 1824, and is a son of .Jacob and Susan 
(Opliger) Von Gonten. Jacob Von Gon- 
ten was a dealer in lumber, and the proprie- 
tor of a small saw mill. He lived and died 
at Thun, reaching the advanced age of 
ninety-six. He served in the Swiss army, 
and took part in the war of 1847, though too 
old for active duty in the field. He was a 
man of character and influence, and was 
highly regarded. His wife died when over 
seventy years of age, and his father, Nicho- 
las Von Gonten, passed away when he was 
one hundred and two years old. John Von 
Gonten and his sister, Susan, who married 
Ulrich Von Gonten, were the only members 
of their immediate family to come to this 
country. For many centuries the name has. 
been a familiar one in Switzerland, and Can- 
ton Gonten was largely settled by members 
of the family, where they have long re- 
sided. 

John Von Gonten received a very fair 
education in German, and was also in- 
structed in French, which was the prevail- 
ing tongue of his native community. His 
first business venture was in burning lime 
and brick, and about 1850 he removed to 
Neufchatel and dealt in dairy products. Five 
years later he crossed the Atlantic, and found 
employment on the Erie canal for some two 
years. In 1857 he came to Portage and at 
once went into the manufacture of lime and 
brick. He sold wood, and soon developed 
an extensive business. Later he sold this 



out, and dealt in ice for some twent3'-five 
years. In 1877 he opened a cemetery in 
the outskirts of the city_, to which he gave 
his own name. It consists of forty acres, 
and is a handsome and picturesque spot. 
Success has crowned this as it has other 
enterprises of his, and his last years are full 
and running over with honor and comfort. 
In 1897 he built a handsome residence in 
Portage, and is far removed from the finan- 
cial difficulties that attended his entrance 
into the state, when he was so much in debt 
that he had to sell his watch and that of his 
v.ife to pay board bills. 

John Von Gonten and Susan Bichsel 
were married in Switzerland, June 14, 1851. 
Her father, John Bichsel, was a black- 
smith who was born, lived and died in 
Switzerland. She was born in Canton 
Berne, and is the mother of twelve chil- 
dren. Her oldest daughter, Lizzie, is Mrs. 
William Law, and lives at Stillwater, Min- 
nesota. Mary is the wife of the Reverend 
Edward Theel, and lives at Germania, Mar- 
quette county, Wisconsin. John is in the 
service of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad at Portage. Fred lives at 
Milwaukee, and is an engineer of the same 
road. Emma married Frank Rusch, and is 
a resident of Portage. Nellie is Mrs. Gus 
Foogman, and has her home in Grafton, 
North Dakota. Clara and Alwina, at home. 
George died when seventeen years old, and 
three other children passed away in infancy. 
Mrs. Von Gonten died May 18, 1900. Mr. 
Von Gonten has twenty-one grandchildren 
living, and five who died in infancy. There 
is also one great-grandchild. The home of 
the family is one of culture and refinement, 
and all the children have had the best social 
and educational advantages that the times 
and the circumstances of the business in 
which the husband and father was engaged 
would permit. Clara, who was educated 
at the Portage high school and the Oshkosh 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



279 



Normal School, has taught in the Portage 
schools for eleven years. They are all as- 
sociated with the German Lutheran church, 
of which Mr. Von Gonten was one of the 
original founders, and is now the only one 
of the first membership living in the city. 
He has been a liberal contributor to its 
funds, and has served from the first as an 
elder. He has been a Republican for many 
years, and has served the city as an alder- 
man. He has, however, had jio political 
aspirations, and has been content to be 
known as an honorable and upright business 
man. 

Portraits of Mr. Von Gonten and his la- 
mented wife are shown elsewhere in this 
volume. 



DANIEL De \MTT CAMPBELL. 

Daniel De Witt Campbell, a farmer re- 
siding in Jackson township, Adams county, 
is a pioneer settler of that region and a rep- 
resentative of one of the influential families 
of central Wisconsin. He is now the owner 
of considerable land in that vicinity, and en- 
gages in general farming. 

Mr. Campbell was born in Binghamton, 
Broome county, New York, January 3, 
1844, and was the son of William and Jane 
(Walker) Campbell His father was of 
Scotch lineage, and was a shoemaker by 
trade. He came to Wisconsin in 1847, 'U' 
eating at Fountain Prairie, Columbia county, 
where he engaged in farming and also 
v.-orked at his trade. He removed to Adams 
county in the fall of 1855, and resided in 
Jackson township until his death about 1885, 
aged over seventy years. He was a pros- 
perous farmer and owned over two hundred 
and sixty acres of land at the time of his 
death. The mother of our subject was born 
in Broome county, New York, and was of 
English and German descent. Her death 



occurred about 1880, aged over fifty years. 
By a former marriage our subject's father 
was the father of seven children, among 
them John Perry, Rhinelander, \\ isconsin ; 
Eunice, now Mrs. Ed. Starling; Olive, now 
Mrs. William Ward, residing in Springville 
township, Adams county; and William De 
Loss, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. Our sub- 
ject was one of seven children as follows : 
Daniel D., our subject; Hiram Eugene, re- 
siding in Jackson township; Alcina, now 
Mrs. J. Stanfler, of Jackson township ; Ed- 
ward, of Missouri; Delia, now Mrs. Joseph 
Tunison, Warren's Mills, Wisconsin ; Ida ; 
and Henry. 

Daniel D. Campbell enlisted in Company 
D, Thirty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer In- 
fantry, March 15, 1864. He was in the 
Army of the Potomac at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, and from thence went to Petersburg, 
where he was wounded in the left leg by a 
bullet June 17, 1864. He was in the hos- 
pital at Willard's Point, Long Island, five or 
six months, and after his recovery was trans- 
ferred to the Twelfth Regiment, Veteran Re- 
serve Corps, and was discharged July 31, 
1865. He spent the two years following 
traveling through the west, and then located 
in Adams county, since which time he has 
resided on the old homestead farm, of which 
he now owns one hundred and twenty acres, 
and also possesses land adjacent, amounting 
to two hundred and five acres. He has 
erected a comfortable residence and large 
basement barn, and his farm bears every evi- 
dnce of a well improved estate. He gives 
the raising of stock considerable attention, 
and has been successful in all his under- 
takings. 

Mr. Campbell was married July 4, 1866, 
to Elizabeth Lewis, daughter of Admiral 
and Miranda Lewis, of Easton, Wisconsin. 
Mrs. Campbell's father was a blacksmith by 
trade, and followed the same in Portage be- 
fore the war. He served in the Tenth Wis- 



280 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



consin \'oIunteer Infantry, and died from 
injuries received while shoeing mules. )tlrs. 
Campbell's mother is still living. Mrs. 
Campbell ^\■as born in New York and came 
with her parents to Wisconsin in an early 
day. Four children have been born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Campbell, as follows: Miranda 
Maude, now j\lrs. Thomas Webster, of 
Birnamwood, Wisconsin; Gertibella; Rose- 
man Alberta, and Edith Myrtle. Roseman 
and Edith are teachers. They have adopted 
a son of their daughter, Mrs. Webster, 
named Earl. J\Ir. Campbell is a member of 
Oxford Lodge, No. 91, .\. F. & A. .M. He 
has done much to advance educational af- 
fairs and has served as school treasurer for 
the past twenty years, and has gained the 
confidence and esteem of the people among 
whom he has made his home for forty-five 
years. He has been a Republican in politi- 
cal views from his youth, and stands firmly 
for the principles of his party. He is a 
gentleman who keeps abreast of the times, 
and in all matters of importance takes an ac- 
tive interest. 



THEODORE GLOECKLER. 

Theodore Gloeckler, a prosperous farmer 
and skilled dairyman of Fort \\'innebago 
township, well deserves a pronnnent place in 
the annals of thrift and industry of Co- 
lumbia county. In the very prime of life, 
whatever he undertakes is pushed to success, 
and his business tact and general good sense 
aid him to keep his standing securely. 

The Gloecklers are of an ancient German 
family, which was long situated near Ulni, 
Wirrtemberg. There at the little village of 
Neiblingen, Barnard Gloeckler, the father of 
the subject of this sketch, was born July 20, 
1829, and there he remained until 1851. 
That year he entered this country, and for a 
time w^as employed at Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 



vania, by his mother's brother, Bernard 
Straul). He did not long remain in the east, 
and was presently found in this state work- 
ing in a lime kiln at Milwaukee. At this 
time the ^Milwaukee & Portage Railroad 
was under construction, and soon com- 
manded his services. After the comple- 
tion of the road he went into the Heartile 
brewery, and was engaged there for the next 
seven years. He spent a year in Minneapo- 
lis in charge of a brewery, and in 1865 
bought a farm in the town of Fort Winne- 
bago. He devoted himself to its cultiva- 
tion with much enthusiasm, but still followed 
his trade in the winter season. In 1872 he 
bought the brewery now owned by H. Ep- 
stein, and conducted it for three years. He 
was also employed two years in a brewery at 
Austin, Minnesota. 

Bernard Gloeckler was married to Mary 
Nauer, June 22, 1859. She was a daughter 
of Kasper and Veronica (Duer) Nauer, and 
was born at Hohensstadt, Wurtemberg. She 
came to this country in 1850 with her par- 
ents, and settled in the town of Fort Winne- 
bago. Her father bought a farm on section 
30 and lived there until the day of his death, 
July 30, 1885. He was over seventy-five 
and had lived a long and active life. Born 
in Switzerland, he removed to Wurtemberg 
in early life and was long employed in a 
dairy. 

Mrs. Veronica Nauer was born in Ho- 
hensstadt December 12, 1819, and notwith- 
standing her great age is still active and 
vivacious. Her father, Joseph Duer, came 
to this state and died at Fort Winnebago 
when over eighty-five. He was a 
coachman in the old country, and was 
everywhere known as an honest and 
hardworking man. Mrs. Nauer still 
retains possession of all her faculties 
to a remarkable degree, and in the sum- 
mer frequently walks to the city of Portage, 
some two miles away. Through her long 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



281 



and active life she has endeared herself to 
tile entire community by her constant 
thought and care for the sick and the needy. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Gloeckler were 
born nine children, one dying in infancy. 
Thodore is the subject of this writing ; Jose- 
phine married James Miller, and lives in 
Portage; Otto (Adolpb) ; Charles is at Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa; Elizabeth is Mrs. Herman 
Schiefelbeim, and has her home in Portage; 
Matilda married John LeFleur, and is at 
Beaver Dam, where also her sister fiertrude 
may be found ; Mary is at home. 

Theodore Gloeckler spent his boyhood 
days at Portage, grew up under the parental 
roof, and attended the public schools until 
he was eighteen years of age. Leaving 
school he entered a blacksmith shop to learn 
the trade. In 1881 he removed to Tomah to 
take a position in the shops of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. He held 
a place there for nearly six years. He was 
industrious, careful and frugal, and by the 
expiration of that time had accumulated 
a very comfortable sum of money. With 
this in hand he returned to Columbia county, 
and bought the homestead farm of his grand- 
father, Kasper Nauer, and here he has since 
maintained his residence. The farm con- 
tained one hundred and seventy-one acres, 
and sixty-five are under thorough culti- 
vation. He has greatly enlarged the 
buildings', and improved the place in every 
way, and renamed it "The Hillside Dairy." 
He makes a specialty of the dairy business, 
and gives not a little attention to the breed- 
ing of Jersey and Guernsey cattle, and for 
eight years has supplied milk and other farm 
products to Portage families. 

Mr. Gloeckler and Emma Bahl were mar- 
ried September 27, 1897, ^i^d the union has 
proved an unusually happy one. The lady 
was born at Dodgeville, Iowa county, and is 
a daughter of Peter and Anne Mary (Eul- 
berg) Bahl. She is the mother of three 



bright and promising children, Louis, Clara 
and William. The home is an interesting 
one. gives an unusual contrast of four gen- 
erations dwelling under one roof. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gloeckler are members of the Catholic 
church, and are highly regarded by all who 
know them. He is a Democrat, but has 
not of late taken a \ery active interest in 
political affairs. 



GEORGE GOODRICH. 

Among the better and more prominent 
class of agriculturists, whose pleasant farm 
graces Lavalle township, Sauk county, may 
be placed the name of the gentleman whose 
life history is presented to the readers. He 
has made a success of his vocation, and is 
one of the intelligent and enterprising men of 
his vicinity. His home has been in Wis- 
consin for more than thirty years, and he 
has gathered around him a host of friends, 
who know him as a gentleman of the high- 
est character. His estate is one of the first 
in the community and it is through persever- 
ance, honesty, and industry, his three watch 
words, that he has gained a comfortable 
competence. 

]\Ir. Goodrich was born in Orleans, Jef- 
ferson county. New York, in 1845, ^"d was 
the son of Nelson and Catherine (Snell) 
Goodrich. His father was born in Jeffer- 
son county, New York, in March, 18 16, 
and his mother was born in Manheim town- 
ship, Herkimer county. New York, in 181 6. 
Both reside on the farm which has been their 
home for many years, in Orleans, Jefferson 
county. New York. 

Our subject was afforded liberal educa- 
tional advantages, and made the most of his 
opportunities. He was an apt scholar and 
studious, and received good training. Until 
twenty vears of age he resided at home 



282 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



with his parents, and in December, 1866, 
decided to turn his way westward, and ac- 
cordingly came t<i Wisconsin, and after a 
few years si)ent in travel, located on his 
present farm, which comprises one hundred 
and fifty acres. He worked with a will and 
in the labors of farm life t(.)ok pleasure, 
and is to-day one of the well-to-do men of 
that community. He operates a steam 
thresher in connection with his farm work, 
and all machinery used in lessening labor 
incident to rural life is of modern make. His 
buildings are good, and he is surrounded 
by more than usual comforts. 

Mr. Goodrich was married July 7, 1872, 
to Emmerette Gray, daughter of Samuel 
and Elizabeth Gray. Mrs. Goodrich was 
born in Vernon county, Wisconsin. One 
son has been born to Mr. and Mrs. Goodrich, 
upon whom they bestow-ed ,the name of 
Nelson, named after his paternal grandfa- 
ther. He was born May 12, 1873, and is 
at pre'sent working on the home farm. 

Our subject is a member of Reedsburg 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M. He is a stanch ad- 
vocate of temperance and the rights of the 
people, and is thoroughly conversant with 
the economic questions of the day. He has 
made a study of public Cjuestions, and is a 
forcible speaker, entertaining, and impresses 
upon his listeners his own convictions. He 
progresses with the world and keeps pace 
with the new discoveries and methods, and is 
a man whose work is in keei)ing with his 
ideas. He is more practical than theoretic 
and adopts new methods only wdien their 
utility is clearly demonstrated. 



JOHN ROBERTSON. 

John Robertson is a well-known citizen 
of Rio, Columbia county, Wisconsin, whose 
inventive genius is so much above the or- 



dinary that it has attracted considerable at- 
tention. Some of his ideas are very radical 
and will lead, so his friends say. to very 
decided impro\'ements in the world of me- 
chanics. He is a scion of one of the most 
conspicuous families of Columbia county, 
and was born in Warren, Monroe county, 
August 6, 1874. His father, David Rob- 
ertson, is the subject of a sketch which ap- 
pears on another page in this work. He 
was about four years old when his parents 
removed their home to Manneville, Mara- 
thon county, and from there to Rio, where 
he completed the public school course of in- 
struction. He was a student at Wayland 
Academy for a short time, and for a year 
at the Milwaukee Spencerian Business Col- 
lege. He studied designing for nine months 
at the Chicago Art Institute, and re- 
turned to Rio to assist his father in his 
limiber business until its sale in 1898. Since 
April, 1899, he has been engaged in the 
manufacture of telephones and the sale of 
telephone supplies. He is developing an ex- 
tensive business, and has ecjuipped telephone 
offices for individuals and corporations in 
all parts of the United States. The Peer- 
less Electric Telephone Company, of which 
he is manager, has introduced a number of 
novelties in this line, and its trade is rapidly 
increasing. Mr. Robertson is almost con- 
stantly engaged in experimenting in im- 
provements in electrical apparatus. He has 
perfected and patented a telephone trans- 
mitter which is considered the finest in the 
world. Mr. Robertson and Miss Nettie 
Thompson were married October 20, 1894. 
She is a daughter of the Honorable Thorn- 
ton Thom|)son, of Rio, and is a lady of most 
charming character. She is the mother of 
three children : Ethelyn L., Carroll D., 
and Esther M. She is a native of Columbia 
county, and considers her home the most 
interesting spot in the state. Mr. Robert- 
son is a Republican, and a most genial gen- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



283 



tleman. He is much interested in fraternal 
societies, and holds membersliip in several. 
He is a Mason, a Modern Woodman, and 
a member of the Equitable Fraternal Aid. 



CHARLES F. XINMAN. 

Charles F. Ninman, who was for sev- 
eral years one of the leading educators in 
this section of the state and is now success- 
fully engaged in journalistic work as editor 
and publisher of the "Wisconsin Workman," 
at Sauk City, was born in Dodge county, 
December 14, 1847. '^'i*' is the fifth in order 
of birth in a family of eight children whose 
parents were Frederick and Dorothea 
(Struck) Xinman. The father, who was a 
farmer by occupaticm, was a native of Ger- 
many and emigrated to America in 1844. 

Until twenty years of age our subject 
spent his life upon a farm and became thor- 
oughly familiar with all the duties which 
fall to the lot of the agriculturist. His pri- 
mary education was acquired in the country 
schools and later he attended higher insti- 
tutions of learning, by his own efforts and 
studious ]ial)its acquiring an excellent edu- 
cation. At the age of twenty he commenced 
teaching, first in the country schools and 
later at W'atertown. Wisconsin, and for a 
quarter of a century he followed that pro- 
fession, meeting with most excellent suc- 
cess as an instructor. For two years he 
was superintendent of the schools at Water- 
town, and in 1884 came to Sauk City to 
accept the position of principal of the high 
school, which he continued to fill for five 
years. 

Desiring a broader field of labi;)r, Mr. 
Ninman abandoned educational work in 
1890 and turned his attention to the news- 
paper business, in which he has al.so met with 
marked success, lie was editor of the "Sauk 



City Presse," a German paper, until 1897, 
and consolidated with it the "Pioneer Wis- 
consin." which he purchased, changing the 
name to the "Sauk City Pioneer Presse." He 
formerly was editorof the "Wisconsin Work- 
man," the official organ of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen, published at Sauk 
City, monthly. He takes an active and 
commendal)le interest in public affairs, is a 
stanch supporter of the Republican party, is 
the present police justice and clerk of Sauk 
City, haxing filled the latter office for three 
years. He also served as assessor three 
years, and has been justice of the peace for 
the past ten years. Socially he is a promi- 
nent member of Eureka Lodge, No. 133, 
F. & A. M. ; Sauk City Lodge, No. 62, A. 
O. U. W. ; and Sauk City Camp, No. 1210, 
M. \\\ A. 

At Watertown, Jefferson county, Wis- 
consin, Mr. Ninman was married, May 10, 
1870, to Miss Sophia Stoevhase, and to 
them have been born four children : Eddie, 
Theodore, Max and Ella, who have all 
learned the printer's trade and are home with 
the exception of the eldest son, who is now 
engaged in the newspaper business in Da- 
kota. 



HH^AM HILAND MASON. 

Hiram Hilancl Mason, the efficient oxer- 
seer of the Adams county poor farm, is a 
native of Rutland, Vermont, where he was 
born September 10, 1836. The Masons 
were of English descent, and the parents 
of our suljject were Boomer and Sarah 
( Ripley) Mason, both natives of Rutland 
county, V'ermont. Boomer Mason's father 
died at an early age. and his wife, Deborah 
(Boomer) Mason, who was born in the 
Isle of Man, died at the age of eighty-seven 
years, in the village of Ira, Vermont. 

Our suliject accompanied his parents to 



284 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Jllinois in 1847, wliere his father fa-rmed 
for six years near Aunira, Kane county. In 
1853 the family moved to Lowville, Colum- 
bia county, Wisconsin, and in 1865 to Adams 
county, locating in the town of Lincoln, 
where the father died, at Big Springs, April 
29, 1889, aged eighty-seven years. The 
mother died in the town of Lincoln in 1886, 
at the age of eighty-four years. Her fam- 
ily were natives of England and settled at 
Tinmouth, Vermont, at an early date. 

Hiram Hiland Mason enlisted July 5, 
1 86 1, in Company D, Tenth Wisconsin 
Volunteers. His regiment was attached to 
the Army of the Cumberland, and he partic- 
ipated in the battle of Stone River. After 
this engagement he was detailed as ambu- 
lance driver at General Thomas' headquar- 
ters, and continued in that capacity during 
the remainder of the service, until dis- 
charged, November 3, 1864. After the war 
he returned to Adams county, where he en- 
gaged in farming. He also worked sev- 
eral years at the car^jenter's trade. Since 
March i, 1894, he has been overseer of the 
Adams county poor farm. This farm con- 
sists of five hundred and fifty acres, and the 
institution cares for an average of fourteen 
inmates. The buildings have been greatly 
improved and conveniences enlarged and ex- 
tended under his management, and as a 
public institution reflects much credit, by its 
able management, both upon the county and 
its efficient superintendent. 

Mr. Mason was married, in 1857, to 
Emeline Bump, a daughter of Moses and 
Phoebe Bump, of Pacific, Adams county, 
Wisconsin. Seven children were born to 
this union, three of whom are living : Her- 
bert L., Cyrus C. and Nellie A. Our sub- 
ject was married to his present wife, who 
was formerly Mrs. Sarah Jane See, in 1876. 
Mrs. Mason is the daughter of Francis and 
Phoebe Mason, and was born in Ohio. Of 
the three children born to this union, but 



one, Nina B., is living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Mason are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church at Big Springs, of which Mr. 
Mason is a trustee. He is a member of the 
J. W. Iversham Post, No. 188, G. A. R., at 
Briggsville, of which he has been adjutant 
and quartermaster at various times. He 
has been a stanch Republican since i860, 
and has always taken an intelligent interest 
in public affairs. He has filled several offices 
in the county, having served as deputy sheriff 
two terms, and was also a constable and a 
justice of the peace at different times. He 
has always merited and held the confidence 
of his fellowmen, and no one enjoys in a 
higher degree the esteem of the entire com- 
munity. 



JAMES MORRIS CROTHERS. 

James Morris Crothers, a prominent and 
influential farmer and stock raiser, of New 
Haven township, Adams county, was born 
in Montreal, Canada, September 14, 1847, 
and was the son of James and Ann (Briggs) 
Crothers. 

Our subject's father was a native of 
Belfast, Ireland, and came to America in 
the spring of 1841. He was a linen 
weaver at Belfast, and upon coming to 
America engaged in farming at Montreal, 
Canada. He settled in Jackson township, 
Adams county, Wisconsin, in 1856, where 
he still resides at the age of eighty-four 
years. He is a successful farmer and re- 
spected citizen, and renowned for physical 
and mental activity far bej-ond most men of 
his age. The mother of our subject was 
born in Isle of Jersey, England, and died in 
Wisconsin October 16, 1890, in the seven- 
tieth year of her age. Her father, Robert 
Briggs, served twenty-seven years iin the 
British army, retiring as a corporal of the 
Royal Artillery. For twenty years he was 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



285 



the strong'est man in iiis battery. His 
death occurred in Ireland. 

Ovu- subject was one of ten children, 
two of whom died in childhood, those who 
grew to maturity being as follows : Mar- 
garet, who married Abner H. Flook, and 
who has now passed away; James M., our 
subject; Robert Briggs, a resident of New 
Haven township; Anna, now Mrs. Henry 
Kabaugh, residing in Jackson township; 
Elizabeth, now Mrs. Edward Wyl'ie, of 
Thorp, Wisconsin; Samuel H., residing in 
Cass county, North Dakota; George, an 
attorney at Neilsville, Wisconsin ; and Will- 
iam A., residing on the homestead in Jack- 
son towjiship. 

James M. Crothers was but a small boy 
when the parents mo\ed to Wisconsin, and 
he attended the district school, and at the 
age of se\enteen years began \vork in a 
saw mill in Grand Rapids, Wisconsin, as 
a sawyer. Uixin reaching his majority he 
began farming on his present farm, which 
he then rented, but three years later pur- 
chased the land. He added to his posses- 
sions from time to time, and his present es- 
tate comprises one hundred and sixty acres, 
about one hundred acres of which is tillable, 
and the balance furnishes abundant timber 
and pasture land. He engages principally 
in the raising of live stock and has some 
high grade stock and has made a success in 
that branch of agriculture. For several 
years he dealt in live stock and is a man 
who is well, versed on values. 

Mr. Crothers was married August 15, 
1866, to Julia M. \Vard, daughter of Ira 
C. and Ursula Ward, of New Ha\en town- 
ship. Mrs. Crothers was born in Jefferson 
county, Wisconsin, and her parents were 
among the first settlers of Adams county, 
locating on the farm which is now owned 
by Mr. Crothers. Mr. and IMrs. Ward now 
reside at Big Spring. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Crothers eight children Iiave been born, as 



follows : Herbert Stillman, engaged in the 
banking business in Davenport, North Da- 
kota; Clifford Elarris, produce dealer of 
Kilbourn, \Visconsin ; Bertha \'iola, now 
Mrs. Charles George, of Plainfield, Wis- 
consin ; Nellie Ma)-, now Mrs. F. J. Dur- 
ham, of Alilwaukee, Wisconsin; Asa Eve- 
lyn, now residing in Sjjencer, Iowa ; Cora 
Irene, Ethel and Archie Raymond, the 
last three named residing at home. Mr. 
Crothers has given his children good edu- 
cational advantages, and is interested in edu- 
cational matters. The family attend the Con- 
gational church at Big Springs and Mrs. 
Crothers is a member of the same. Mr. 
Crothers is a gentleman who exerts a marked 
interest in local affairs, and has been a dele- 
gate twice to the state congressional conven- 
tion. He has filled the principal township 
oftices, and always has the welfare of his 
community at heart. He has been a Repub- 
lican in political sentiment since his youth, 
and adheres to the principles of his party. 



GEORGE ACERS. 

George Acers, a well-known and pop- 
ular conductor on the Chicago, IMilwaukee 
& St. Paul Railroad; who has been in the 
employ of that corporation for over thirty 
years, now makes his home in Port- 
age, Wisconsin. He was born in Page- 
ville, Erie county, Pennsylvania, October 
12, 1852, a son of William and Roxa 
(Clark) Acers. also natives of the Keystone 
state. The father was by trade a carpenter, 
but he also engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine and carried on farming in Erie county. 
In 1857 he came to Wisconsin and located 
on a farm in Juneau count}-, where he con- 
tinued to follow the three occupations pre- 
viouslj' mentioned until 1883, when he re- 
moved to Broken Bow, Xeliraska. He died 



286 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



at that place January 9, 1886, at the age of 
seventy-six years. In his pohtical views he 
was always a stanch Democrat, and for many 
years he acceptably served as justice of the 
peace in Juneau county, Wisconsin. His 
wife was a daughter of Jabez Clark, a farmer 
of Erie county, Pennsylvania, who was from 
New England. She died at Lyndon, Wis- 
consin, September 10, 1868, aged fifty-one 
years. 

The suljject of this sketch was educated 
in the public schools of Lyndon, and at the 
age of sixteen years entered the service of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road Company as brakeman, was afterward 
conductor on a construction train, and since 
1886 has been a conductor on a passenger 
train, making two trips daily between Port- 
age and Aladison. Since 1880 he has made 
his home in Portage with the exception of 
four years spent in Madison, and in the wel- 
fare of the city he takes a deep and com- 
mendable interest. 

Mr. Acers was married, October i, 1877, 
the lady of his choice being Miss Rachel 
Hambleton, a daughter of Stephen D. and 
ALiry A. Hambleton, of Kilbourn, W^iscon- 
sin, where her father was engaged in mer- 
cantile business, also dealt in grain, and 
owned a farm near that place. He died 
in Delton, Sauk county, Wisconsin. To 
Mr. and ]Mrs. Acers were Ijorn three chil- 
dren, namely: Eva Pearl, who died in 
July. 1893, '^t tlie ;ige of fifteen years; 
Paul Duane and Irene, who are still 'living. 
The family attend the Presbyterian church 
and occupy an enviable position in the best 
social circles of the community. Fratern- 
alh' ^Ir. Acers is a member of the Order of 
Railroail Conductors, the Masonic Order, 
and the Knights of Pythias, while politically 
he is a Republican, though reared in the 
Democratic faith. As a business man, his 
long retention in the service of one com- 
pany mainly indicates his fidelity to duty 



and the confidence and trust reposed in him 
by his employers, and as a citizen he is highly 
esteemed by all who have the pleasure of 
his acquaintance. 



HANS A. HANSON. 

Hans A. Hanson is one of the leading 
business men of Rio, and has probalily con- 
tributed as much as any single citizen to the 
general commercial prosperity of this grow- 
ing village. His name is well known 
throughout this part of Columbia county as 
that of an uprigiit and capable business man, 
and he enjoys a wide circle of friends. He 
was born in the town of Otsego, Columbia 
county, Wisconsin, February 12, 1861, and 
is now in the prime of life. He is a son of 
Anon and Emma (Gunderson) Hanson. 
His father was a native of Norway, and 
came to this country when c^uite a young 
man. He spent a few years in Michigan, 
and in Washington county, Wisconsin, and 
then took up a quarter-section of govern- 
ment land in Otsego township. Columbia 
county, a part of which he still owns. Since 
1887 he has ceased acti\-e work, and is liv- 
ing in the village of Rio. Hans Hanson, 
the grandfather of the subject of this writ- 
ing, was a farmer and a school teacher in 
Norway, and he li\ed and died in that coun- 
try. His widow crossed the ocean to spend 
her last days with her son in Rio, and died 
in that village when over seventy years of 
age. Her father, Levi Gunderson, was one 
oi the piniieers of Columbia county, and 
died at the age of sixty-eight. His widow, 
Mrs. Trena Gunderson. li\-ed until 1878. 
Anon Hanson and wife were the parents of 
two sons and three daughters : Hans A. 
and Levi, partners in business in Rio; An- 
nie ; Trena, who is Mrs. Charles Isaacson, 
living at Rio; Christina, Mrs. Ed Isaacson, is 
a: Hazel Run, Minnesota. 

H. A. Hanson received \erv good edu- 




HAHS A. HAHSOH. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



289 



catioual advantages. He attended tlie pulj- 
lic schools and the Monona Academy at 
Madison, where he pursued a business 
course. At the age of twenty-three he left 
the farm, and entered a general store at Rio, 
v.diere he u"as engaged as a clerk for some 
years. In 1892 he went to Hazel Run, Min- 
nesota, and engaged in business for himself 
as a dealer in lumber and agricultural, im- 
plements. He was not very well satisfied 
with the surroundings, and sold out in about 
a year and came back to Rio, where he be- 
came manager of the extensive estate of T. 
W. Thompson, deceased. In 1894 he built 
a large, double, brick, two-story building. In 
this he opened a large department store with 
Thomas Sampson as his partner. He ter- 
minated the partnership two years later by 
buying out all Mr. Sampson's interest, and 
the business was carried on for a time under 
the firm name of Anon Hanson & Sons, his 
father and brother Levi being associated 
with him. September 15, 1900, the firm was 
changed to that of Hanson Bros. & Dun- 
ham. They carry an immense stock of gen- 
eral merchandise, and have one of the most 
complete and perfect establishments of the 
kind in the county. Mr. Hanson has many 
and important investments outside the store, 
one of the most exacting being a considerable 
interest in the Rio State Bank, of which he 
is one of the directors and vice-president. He 
carries two large farms, and gives much at- 
tention to tobacco and potatoes. His mar- 
riage with Miss Mena Thompson occurred 
June 7, 1893. She is a daughter of Thorn- 
ton Thompson, of Rio, and is the mother of 
one child, Evelyn Cornelia. They are mem- 
bers of the Lutheran church of Rio, and the 
family is much respected in all social rela- 
tions. He is a stanch Republican, and has 
represented the village on the county board 
several times. 

A portrait of Mr. Hanson is presented 
on another page in this volume. 



HARRY H. CURTIS. 

Harry H. Curtis, a well-known and 
highly esteemed citizen of Wyocena, Co- 
lumbia county, Wisconsin, represents two 
of the most prominent pioneer families of 
Columbia county. He is a native of that 
county, and was born in the town of Low- 
\ill.e, October 24, 1872, and was a son of 
Elbridge and Mary E. (Bennett) Curtis. 

The grandfather of our subject, John 
C. Curtis, spent most of his life on a farm 
in Broome county. New York, attaining 
the age of eighty-six years. He was a 
cousin of Frederick C. Curtis, of Rocky 
Run, and sprang of the same distinguished 
ancestors, a record of whom may be found 
in the sketch of the life of Frederick C. Cur- 
tis elsewhere in this volume. The father 
of our subject was born in Broome county, 
New York, and came to Wisconsin in 1849. 
He spent about two years lumbering on Lake 
Superior and on the Mississippi river, and 
then entered claim to government land in 
sections seven and eighteen, in Lowville 
township, and there tilled the soil during the 
remainder of hiis life. He became *inter- 
ested in breeding Merino sheep, and made a 
success of his farm work, leaving to his 
heirs a fine farm of one hundred and eighty 
acres. He was a man of prominence and 
was deservedly esteemed and respected. Po- 
litically he was a stanch Republican, and 
during his career filled various offices of 
trust in his township. The mother of our 
subject still resides in Wyocena. She was 
a daughter of Telman N. and Sarah Ann 
(Beardsley) Bennett, and sprang of one of 
the pioneer families of Big Flats, Chemung 
county, New York. Her ancestors came 
from Germany and her grandfather, Abram 
Bennett, represented the third generation of 
the family in America. The maternal 
grandfather of our subject, Telman N. 
Bennett, served as cajitain of the New York 



290 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



militia in early life. About 1852 he traded 
an improved farm of riiuety-six alcres at 
Big Flats for four hundred and forty acres 
of wild land in Lowvilie, and came to his 
new home to reside, never having seen the 
land until he took up his residence thereon. 
About twenty acres of the same had been 
broken and a log cabin, 10x16 feet, had 
been erected. The cabin is still standing 
on the premises. It at one time sheltered 
twenty-six people, some of his neighbors 
sharing his hospitality. The farm became 
valuable, and Mr. Bennett resided there un- 
til his death in 1892, aged eighty-two years. 
He was a devoted member of the Baptist 
church, and enjoyed the highest esteem of 
his associates. His wife was born in New 
Jersey, of Scotch lineage, and reached the 
age of sixty-two years. Our subject was 
one of eight children, four sons and four 
daughters, seven of whom grew to matu- 
rity, and are as follows: Irene, who be- 
came the wife of Harry Cutsforth, of Pa- 
cific township, and is now deceased ; Alma, 
who became Mrs. James F. Robinson, and 
died in Colorado in February, 1891 ; John 
C, residing in Chicago; Telina B., now 
Mrs. Samuel Curtis, of Ft. Pierre, South 
Dakota; Lewis B., of Denver, Colorado; 
Harry H., our subject; and Edgar F., liv- 
ing on the homestead farm in Lowvilie. 

Harry H. Curtis attended high schools 
at Portage and Poynette, and graduated 
from the latter institution at the age of 
twenty years. He then spent four years 
teaching, being successively principal of the 
graded schools of Wyocena and Rio. He 
was appointed United States railway postal 
clerk in May, 1898, and has spent most of 
the time since on the route between Chicago 
and Minneapolis on the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul Railroad. 

Our subject was married September 8, 
1897, to Lillith M. Lawn, a daughter of 
Dr. James and Isabel Lawn, nf Wyocena. 



Mr. Curtis erected a modern residence in 
Wyocena in 1899, and now occupies one of 
the most attractive homes in the village. He 
is a gentleman of much force of character, 
and is a member of the Presbyterian cluvrch. 
In political faith he is a Republican, but 
takes little part in party affairs. He holds 
membership in the National Association of 
Railway Postal Clerks. He is one of the 
administrators of the estate of the late Dr. 
James Lawn, a sketch of whose life appears 
elsewhere in this work. 



JAMES LAWN, M. D. 

James Lawn, M. D., deceased. In the 
death of James Lawn Columbia county lost 
a most worthv citizen and able and conscien- 
tious practitioner. Mr. Lawn had followed 
the practice of medicine for over a cjuarter 
of a century in that locality, and was widely 
known and deeply mourned at his demise. 
He resided in Wyocena, and the family now 
reside in Portage. 

Our subject was born in Utica, New 
York, October 2J, 1850, and was a son of 
Hugh and Jane (Duncan) Lawn, who were 
natives of Scotland. The father lived in 
Ireland during his early life, and about 1848 
came to America, and was employed as 
dyer in a cloth factory at Utica, New York. 
The mother of our subject was employed 
in the same institution as weaver. The 
family removed to Kingston, Wisconsin, 
about 1855, where the father died on his 
farm in his seventy-first year. 

Our subject began the study of medicine 
with Dr. William Meacher, of Portage, and 
he also attended Bennett Medical College, 
Chicago, graduating from that institution 
in 1873. -^^ began the practice of his pro- 
fession in Kingston, and in August, 1875, 
located in Wyocena, where he continued un- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



291 



til his death, with the exception of five years, 
from 1886-91, which he spent in Kingston. 
He built up an extensive practice, and met 
with remarkable success, and was devoted 
to his work, so much so that the constant 
vigil undermined his health and he passed 
away at \V3'ocena. Wisconsin, December 29, 
1898. 

]\Ir. Lawn was married December 30, 
1875, to Miss Isabella Peters, of Kingston, 
a daughter of Joseph and Isabella (Mur- 
phy) Peters. Mrs. Lawn's father was born 
in Connecticut, and her mother was a na- 
tive of Ireland. The family located in Wis- 
consin in 1857 and engaged in farming near 
Kingston. The mother died October 18, 
1898, aged sixty-eight years, and the father 
makes his home in Kingston, and is aged 
seventy-two years. The family was among 
the first members of the Methodist church 
of Kingston. Mrs. Lawn was born in Can- 
andaigua county, New York. Four chil- 
dren were born to the union of Mr. and Mrs. 
Lawn, who are named as follows : Lillith 
M., now Mrs. Harry H. Curtis, of Wyo- 
cena ; Ella May, Violet lone and Hugh Ed- 
ward. 

Mr. Lawn was a member of the Colum- 
bia County Medical Society, and was censor 
for three years. He was also a member of 
the State Medical Association. He was 
reared in the Presbyterian faith, and in po- 
litical sentiment was a stanch Republican. 
Mrs. Lawn, in November, 1899, removed 
to Portage so that she might have better 
educational advantages for her children. 



THOMAS W. DONNELLY. 

Prominent among the enterprising and 
successful young farmers who till the fertile 
soil of Sauk county, Wisconsin, is the sub- 
ject of this review, who now owns and 



operates a good farm of eighty acres in 
Dellona township. He is a native of this 
state, born in Valley township, Adams coun- 
ty, February 13, 1874, and is a son of Hugh 
D. and Mary Donnelly, of whom more ex- 
tended mention is made on another page of 
this volume. He received a good common- 
school education which has well-fitted him 
for life's responsible duties, and at the age 
of sixteen he left home and started out to 
make his own way in the world, following 
various occupations for some time. 

On the ist of April, 1897, Mr. Donnelly 
married Miss Elizabeth A. Capron, of Par- 
deeville, Wisconsin, a daughter of Cornelius 
and Elizabeth (Crosby) Capron. She is a 
graduate of the Wausau high school and 
an accomplished musician. They have one 
child, Elizabeth C, born December 29, 1897. 

On the nth of October, 1897, Mr. Don- 
nelly located in Dellona township, Sauk 
county, where he purchased what is known 
as the Pat Howlett farm, and now has sixty 
acres of the eighty-acre tract under a high 
state of cultivation. There is a good 
orchard upon the place, and the neat and 
thrifty appearance of the farm testifies to 
his careful, supervision. He carries on di- 
versified farming, and is also in the employ 
of the McCormick Harvesting Company, as 
an expert, doing business over the western 
part of the state. His faithful service has 
won him promotion at the company's hands. 

Mr. Donnelly is a stanch supporter of the 
Democratic party and its principles, and 
takes quite an active interest in public af- 
fairs, especially educational matters, and 
has been elected chairman of the investiga- 
tion committee for District No. 7, Dellona 
township. He is a prominent member of 
the Woodmen of the World, and is consul 
commander of Tourist Camp at Kilbnurn, 
and also state deputy. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Home Forum, No. 18 13, at Kil- 
bourn, and is orator of the same. 



292 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



ALLEN TIMOTHY CORLISS, M. D. 

Allen Timothy Corliss, ]\I. D.. a young 
medical practitioner of Loganville, Sauk 
county, has in a few years firmly established 
himself as a skilled physician among the 
fraternity of his profession. Not only do 
the members of the medical world accord 
him prominence, but the citizens of the en- 
tire community in which he has chosen to 
make his home readily give him worthy 
praise for his efforts and success. He is 
thoroughly practical and conscientious and 
enjoys an ever increasing patronage. 

Our subject was born in Sutton, Cale- 
donia county, Vermont, December 17, 1868. 
and was the son of Jewett and x^melia 
(Wheeler) Corliss. His father was a na- 
tive of Sutton, Vermont, and was a con- 
tractor and builder at St. Johnsbury, Ver- 
mont, for some years, and is now residing in 
California. The mother of our subject was 
born in Brownington, Vermont, and was a 
daughter of Silas Wheeler, a farmer by oc- 
cupation, wdio removed to Illinois about 
1890. and now resides at La Grange, Cook 
county, aged nearly eighty years. Her 
grandfather came from England and settled 
in Massachusetts. 

Allen T. Corliss attended the public 
schools and later St. Johnsbury Academy, 
and at the age of eighteen years went to La 
Grange, Illinois, where he was employed in 
a grocery store. He entered Rush Medical 
College in the fall of 1891, working in the 
store during his vacations to obtain means 
to continue his studies, and graduated from 
that college in 1894. He established him- 
self in Sioux City, Iowa, and after one year 
located in Loganville, Wisconsin, where he 
has since pursued a general practice. 

Our subject was married June 20, 1894, 
to Miss Eva Gregory, daughter of John and 
Armena (Smith) Gregory, of La Grange, 
Illinois. Mrs. Corliss' father was a native 



of Ohio, and was an early settler of Sauk 
county, Wisconsin. He lived on a farm in 
\\'infield township for several years, and 
was a mason by trade. He erected the 
original Sauk County Poor House, and 
many of the first brick buildings in Reeds- 
burg. His death occurred at Denver, Colo- 
rado, in 1883. The mother of Mrs. Corliss 
was born in Pennsylvania, and was a daugh- 
ter of Charles Smith, who lived in Sauk 
county for a number of years and died in 
Loganville. Two children have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Corliss, as follows: Mar- 
guerite F. and Allen G. Mr. and Mis. Cor- 
liss embrace the Baptist faith and are held 
in the highest regard by their acquaintances. 
Mr. Corliss is a member of Hillside Camp, 
Modern Woodmen of America, at Logan- 
ville, and is medical examiner for the camp. 
He also holds membership in Forest Lodge, 
No. 116, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, at Lime Ridge. He is connected with 
the Central Wisconsin Medical Society, and 
the State Medical Society of Wisconsin. He 
is a man of intelligence and true worth and 
his prosperity is assured. 



MRS. HARRIET THOMPSON. 

Mrs. Harriet Thompson, whose home is 
on section 31, Lincoln township, Adams 
county, Wisconsin, has spent almost her en- 
tire life on the frontier, and has witnessed 
the entire growth and development of this 
section of the Union. She was born at 
Mackinac, Michigan, September 18, 1828, 
when this region was an unbroken wilder- 
ness inhabited only by the red men, and 
abounding in wild game of all kinds. She 
early became familiar with all the hardships 
and privations of pioneer life, but with the 
advancing white man all the comforts of 
civilized life have been brought to her door. 

\\^illiam Svlvester, the father of our sub- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



293 



ject, was born in Hanover, Massachusetts, 
October 28, 1793, and for twenty- four years 
was employed as blacksmith by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company at Mackinac, Michigan. In 
1835 he removed to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
where he followed farming for about thir- 
teen years, and was then appointed by the 
government as blacksmith for the Indians 
at Point Bois, Wood county. He was 
granted a permit to build on the Indian 
lands, and in 1845 erected the first house in 
Adams county, it being known as the Marsh 
house, into which the family moved that 
fall. After the land came into market, he 
entered one hundred and sixty acres, and 
rented his house to our subject, while he 
moved to Portage in 1848, and served as 
the first mayor of that city. He also con- 
ducted a grocery store at that place, which 
he afterward sold. He returned to the 
Marsh house, Adams county, making his 
home there for a number of years. He 
then sold the Marsh house farm to Silas C. 
Fletcher and then moved to Ripon, Wis- 
consin, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He was one of the minute men from 
Massachusetts in the war of 181 2, and was 
the first postmaster in Adams county, Wis- 
consin. On the 3d of May, 1820, he mar- 
ried Miss Nancy J. Alien, who was born in 
Detroit, Michigan, March 17, 1805, and 
died at the Marsh house January 12, 1848. 
Eleven children were born of that marriage : 
Edwin J., William, Charles, Harriet, Clar- 
issa A., Amanda F., Nancy Jane, Mary M., 
Delia S., Eliza P. and Emma A., all born in 
Mackinac except the three youngest. For 
his second wife he married a Mrs. Bates, of 
Rockford, Illinois, who died some years later, 
and afterward he married Harriet Westcott, 
of Sheboygan, who still survives him. By 
his last marriage two children were born at 
the Marsh, named as follows : Lillian and 
Willis. 

On the 1 2th of May, 1848, Miss Har- 



riet Sylvester gave her hand in marriage to 
Sila^ C. Fletcher, who after living in Adams 
county, Wisconsin, for a few years, moved 
to California, where they made their home 
for about thirteen years. On their return 
to Adams county Mr. Fletcher purchased his 
father-in-law's farm, which he successfully 
operated until his death, June 2, 1890. Mrs. 
Fletcher was again married May 28, 1899, 
her second union being with Charles R. 
Thompson, who came to this state in the 
spring of 1845, ^"^ ^^'st settled in Dodge 
county, where he continued to reside until 
1 89 1. In 1892 he came to Adams county, 
which has since been his home. For one 
year he served as a soldier in the Union 
army during the Civil war, enlisting as a 
private in Company I, Forty-eighth Wis- 
consin Volunteer Infantry, but on the 24th 
of March, 1865, he was promoted to cor- 
poral. Both Mr. and Mrs. Thompson are 
highly respected and esteemed by all who 
know them, and ha\'e many warm friends 
throughout Adams county. George W. 
Fletcher, the only child born to Silas C. 
and Mrs. Fletcher, was born March 16, 
1849. He is the present owner of the 
Marsh House and farms about two hun- 
dred acres of land in Adams county. He 
was married, October 6, 1868, to Miss Mary 
A. Crane, a nati\-e of Fond du Lac, Wis- 
consin. They were the parents of six chil- 
dren ; those living are Minnie May, Silas C. 
and Mabel R. Mrs. Fletcher died Novem- 
ber 12, 1881, aged thirty. Mr. Fletcher 
was married, October 3, 1882, to Clara 
Jones, born April 9, 1861, at Cambria, Wis- 
consin. They have five children: Hazel I., 
Jane, Edwin W., Hattie L. and Ella M. 



ALBERT W. NEHLS. 

No better illustration of the character- 
istic energy and enterprise of the typical 
German-American citizen can be found than 



294 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



tliat afforded by the career of this mercliant 
tailor, now a well-known resident of Kil- 
bourn City, Wisconsin. Coming to this 
country with no capital except his abilities, 
he has made his way to success through 
wisely directed effort and he can now look 
back with satisfaction upon past struggles. 

A native of Germany, Mr. Nehls was 
born in FreienWalde, Pomerania, December 
12, 1859, and is a son of Ferdinand and 
Fredericka (Knappt) Nehls, natives of the 
same place; the father was born in 1824, 
the mother in 1830. There the father died 
in 1872, but the mother is still living and 
now makes her home in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. 

Our subject attended both public and 
private schools in his native land, and after 
coming to this country took up the study of 
bookkeeping. At the age of eighteen he 
learned the tailor's trade, and at the age of 
twenty entered the German army, where he 
served for three years. On the 15th of 
April, 1885, he sailed for America, and 
landed in this country thirteen days later. 
He first located in Wausau, Wisconsin, 
where he was engaged in the tailoring busi- 
ness until December 2, 1890, and then came 
to Kilbourn City, where he has since suc- 
cessfully carried on operations along the 
same line. In May, 1896, he bought a lot 
in block No. 47, on Broadway, where he 
now conducts his business, and where he also 
carries a good stock of ready made clothing. 

Mr. Nehls was married, January 13, 
1891, to Miss Minnie Wanderer, who was 
born January 11, 1866, in Portage, Wis- 
consin, a daughter of Joseph W. and Maggie 
Wanderer, natives of Germany. Mr. Nehls 
belongs to the Catholic church and is high- 
ly respected by all who know him. He is 
a man of exceptional business ability, is 
strictly honorable in all his dealings, and 
through his 6wn unaided efforts has achieved 
success. 



EDWARD CLINTON GOTTRY. 

Edward Clinton Gottry, a popular and 
successful attorney of Reedsburgj Wiscon- 
sin, was born June 29, 1864, at Hamilton, 
Canada, a son of Anthony S. and Eliza- 
beth (Kilgour) Gottry. The father was 
born in Haganeau, Lorraine, then a province 
of France, but now a part of Germany. 
His ancestors doubtless went there from 
the south of Scotland during Cromwell's 
invasion. About 1827, when a lad of ten 
years, Anthony S. Gottry came with his par- 
ents to the United States and settled in 
Utica, New York, where his father carried 
on the trade of a stone mason. After 
reaching manhood he conducted a hotel in 
Hamilton, Canada, for a time, and about 
1854 came to Wisconsin, being engaged in 
the same business at Stevens Point for a 
number of years. Subsequently he spent the 
greater part of two years in Canada for his 
health, and on his return to Stevens Point, 
in 1866, he engaged in merchandising for 
a time. In 1893 he removed to Pine City, 
Minnesota, where he is now living retired, 
at the age of seventy-two years. His wife 
was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and was 
eight years old when she came with her par- 
ents to the new world, locating first in 
Providence, Rhode Island. Later the fam- 
ily removed to Hamilton, Canada. Her fa- 
ther, William Kilgour, had held a position 
in the police department at Glasgow. His 
two sons, J. and R. Kilgour, became manu- 
facturers and importers of pianos and mu- 
sical merchandise at Hamilton, Canada. 

Edward C. Gottry, of this review, was 
educated in the public schools of Stevens 
Point, Wisconsin, and at the age of sixteen 
years began learning the printer's trade in 
the office of the "Stevens Point Journal," 
of which he later became foreman. In 1 884 
he went to Cloquet, Minnesota, where, as a 
member of the firm of Page & Gottry, he 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



295 



edited and published the "Pine Knot," the 
first issue appearing July 12, 1884. The 
following spring he bought and consolidated 
with it the "Carlton County Press," and in 
October of that year started the "Pine 
County Pioneer," of which he was active 
manager until the spring of 189 1. He still 
owns the paper, but it is now in charge of 
his brother, W. P. Gottry. 

In June, 1889, Mr. Gottry was appointed 
register of the United States land office at 
Taylor's Falls, Minnesota, by President Har- 
rison, which position he retained until the 
office was consolidated with the St. Cloud 
land office in January, 1894. In the mean- 
time he purchased the "Rush City Post," 
which he edited through the campaign of 
1890. In the fall of 1887 he bought the 
"Pine Tree," at Hinckley, Minnesota, which 
he consolidated with the "Pine County Pio- 
neer." He entered the law department of 
Minnesota University in 1892, and on com- 
pleting the course in 1894 was graduated 
with high honors. On the 8th of June, of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar and 
began practice at Taylor's Falls, Minnesota. 
The following fall he was elected county 
attorney of Chisago county and also city 
attorney. The latter position he held un- 
til November, 1898. While county attor- 
ney he prosecuted the celebrated "Wyoming 
murder cases," and secured the conviction 
of George Kelly, who was executed March 
23, 1897. Another important case was the 
"McMillen trial" for an attempted murder 
of his wife. Mr. Gottry conducted several 
cases before the secretary of the interior at 
Washington, D. C, one of which was the 
"Pat Fox case," involving the title to a 
tract of valuable pine land on the Mille 
Lacs Indian reservation, and he was suc- 
cessful in securing the title for his client, 
Mr. Fox. In December, 1898, he came to 
Reedsburg, Wisconsin, and has already suc- 
ceeded in building up a good general prac- 



tice. He is thoroughly versed in the law, 
is a man of deep research and careful in- 
vestigation and his mind is analytical, log- 
ical and inductive. 

On the 26th of May, 1891, Mr. Gottry 
married Miss Cosette Barlow, a native of 
Barre Mills, La Crosse county, Wisconsin, 
and a daughter of Oliver S. and Mary L. 
Barlow. Her father was a miller and en- 
gaged in milling for many years, after which 
he served as county treasurer of La Crosse 
county. Our subject and wife have one 
child. Amy Cosette, born in 1897. 

Mr. Gottry is a ready and versatile 
writer and has contributed some very in- 
teresting articles to the "Northwest Mag- 
azine." While on a trip through Idaho a few 
years since, he spent some time among the 
Nez Perces Indians and gleaned some in- 
teresting information concerning the tra- 
ditions, customs and character of that tribe. 
He was reared in the Methodist church, 
but his wife holds membership in the Bap- 
tist church. Socially he is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, the Knights of 
Pythias, the Modern Woodmen of Ameri- 
ca and the Phi Delta Phi, a college frater- 
nity. His political support has always been 
given the men and measures of the Republi- 
can party. He has always taken an active 
and prominent part in the campaigns of his 
party. In 1888, 1892, 1894 and 1896, 
during his residence in Minnesota, he 
"stumped" the state as a speaker for the 
state central committee for the candidates 
of his party. 



JAMES HATTON. 

James Hatton, a prominent farmer of 
the town of Fountain Prairie, has his home 
not far from the village of Fall River, and 
has been for many years prominent among 
the most 'successful farmers of Columbia 



296 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



county. He is a son of Joseph and Mary 
( Robertsaw ) Hatton, and was born January 
19. 1830, in their home in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. His parents came to this country in 
1849, Sid located on a quarter-section of 
choice land in the village of Fountain 
Prairie, which remained in the family name' 
for many years. Here Mr. Joseph Hatton 
died in 1850, and the management of the 
farm passed into the hands of our subject. 
He had two brothers, but they both died 
early and he became the sole reliance of his 
widowed mother. She made her home with 
him for many years and died at the venerable 
age of eighty-three. 

Mr. Hatton disposed of the family 
homestead in 1887 and bought two hun- 
dred and forty acres in section 17 of the 
same township, and here he still resides, 
keeping the acti\'e charge of everything in 
his own hands. He was married in April, 
1866, to Miss Anna Waterworth, a daugh- 
ter~of Thomas and Sarah Waterworth, both 
English born and bred. They both lived to 
pass the age of eighty years^ and came of 
a hardy stock. Some of her kindred bear- 
ing the family name are now residents of 
P'ountain Prairie, and are among the most 
influential people of the community. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Hatton have come three chil- 
dren, all of whom are now living at home. 
Joseph, the oldest son, assists his father in 
the management of the large farm; Nettie 
lends a hand to the domestic cares, and 
Harry is still in school. They live in an 
admirable farm house, adapted in every way 
to the situation. It crowns a small eleva- 
tion, and is fronted by a beautiful grassy 
lawn, and backed by noble shade trees. Mr. 
Hatton takes a great interest in the welfare 
of his adopted country, and thinking the 
Republican party nearly right, gives it a 
warm support. He is a firm believer in 
the cause of popular education, and has often 
been called to serve as a member of the 



school board. He has been a farmer of 
more than the usual abilit}-, and is an honest, 
deserving citizen universally liked and re- 
spected by all who know him. 



ALBERT FUHRMANN. 

Albert Fuhrmann, the well-known pro- 
prietor of the Reedsburg Brewery, a view 
of which forms one of the illustrations on 
another page of this volume, and an influen- 
tial citizen of Reedsburg, was born on the 
9th of February, 1853, at Grupenhagen, 
Pommerania, Germany, and is the only male 
representative of the family in America. His 
parents were Ferdinand and Christina 
(Platk) Fuhrmann. The father was a 
dealer in eggs and other produce, which he 
shipped to Berlin, and he served for three 
years in the German army. He died at 
Baversdorf, Pommerania, in 1873, at the 
age of forty-four years, but his father, a 
farmer by occupation, reached the advanced 
age of ninety. After the death of her hus- 
band, the mother of our subject came to the 
United States, and died at Oshkosh, Wis- 
consin, February 17, 1899, aged seventy 
years. 

In his native land Albert Fuhrmann 
learned the brewing business, beginning at 
the age of nineteen years in a brewery at 
Schlawe, Pommerania, where he continued 
to work until his emigration to America in 
1882. He first located in Neenah, Wiscon- 
sin, where he was employed in a brewery 
for six months, and then went to Oshkosh. 
In 1896 he came to Reedsburg and purchased 
the brewery of Geffert & Paul, which he has 
since conducted with marked success. The 
capacity of the plant is three thousand bar- 
rels per year, most of which is marketed at 
Reedsburg, and in the manufacture of the 
beer a large (|uantity of the barley grown in 
this vicinity is consumed. 




K 
M 

a! c5 

« D 

1-1 CQ 

m 
m 

Q 

W 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



299 



In 1875 was celebrated tlie marriage of 
j\lr. Fulirmann and Miss Carolina Jenrich. 
of Carwitz, Germany, and to them have 
been born five children, namely: Al- 
bert, Otto, William, l-lsther and Char- 
lie. The family are identified with the 
Evangelical Lutheran chnrch. of Reeds- 
burg, of which ^Ir. Fuhrmann is a 
trustee. He takes little interest in political 
.agitation, but is active in many other public 
affairs, being a stockholder in the Reeils- 
burg Agricultural Society and a contributor 
ti the Public Library. He is widely and 
favorajjly known, and receives and merits 
the respect of his fellow citizens. 



NEWEL CARPENTER, Sr. 

iMewel Carpenter, a prominent agricult- 
urist and millwright, residing on section 
thirty-five, in White Creek township, Adams 
county, has been a member of the farming 
community since 1850, and has been a po- 
tent factor in its upbuilding. He has a 
pleasant estate, and is engaged in general 
farming and raises some stock. 

Mr. Carpenter was born in Sutton, ]\las- 
sachusetts, January 24, 1S23, and was the 
.son of John and Abigail (Healey) Carpen- 
ter. The family resided in Massachusetts 
many years, and the father of our subject 
was the fourth in a family of five children, 
and was a wheelwright by trade. 

Until eighteen years of age Newel Car- 
penter resided at home, attending school 
and assisting his father, and was then ap- 
prenticed to V. C. Hooker, of Sutton, to 
learn the trade of millwright. He received 
for the first year's work forty dollars in 
money and three months' schooling, and the 
contract was for three years. However, his 
employer accepted a contract in Mexico 
and gave our subject his time and set of 



tools, most of which he still has in his 
possession. Pie was apt and showed such 
competency after one year's work, that the 
well know'n contractor and millwright of 
Sutton, Jonathan Dudley, engaged him as 
overseer of his workmen. He continued 
tluis three years, and then, at the age of 
twentv-two \-ears, worked for himself, and 
was engaged on mill work for the woolen 
and cotton mills in Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, and was also engaged in the car shops 
of the railway company at that place. He 
v.-ent t<.i Skowhegan Falls, Maine, at the age 
of thirty years, and was employed in a 
numlier of factories, and was proprietor of 
a sash and blind factory in that city, and was 
the Ijuilder of several starch factories. \ -He 
also emploved a number of hands in- the 
manufacture of pill boxes, and Brown 
1 homson, of Boston, bought their entire out- 
put. In the spring of 1850 Mr. Carpenter 
went to A\'hite Creek, Adams county, Wis- 
consin, and took land on section thirty-five, 
where he has since resided. He has a good 
residence on the estate, and modern conven- 
iences and good barns. He built a saw-mill 
on the farm in 1862, which he operated 
continuously until the present year, when in 
Februarv the mill burned, and was a total 
loss, including planing mill, shingle machine 
and feed mill. He contemplates erecting an- 
other sawmill at once. He removed to 
Ableman, Sauk county, in 1893, where he 
built a flour and grist-mill, which he owned 
for four years, and afterward returned to 
White Creek. He has built a number of 
nulls around the country, including those 
at Povnette, Elroy, Sumner, and Easton. 
Pie is a lo\-er of horses, and for many years 
had a horse which could shake the dust into 
all comers' eyes, and has had great fun at 
the county fairs. Mr. Carpenter is pos- 
sessed of much mechanical ingenuity, and 
for a number of years has done the work 
i:)f the country, from repairing watches to 



300 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



guns and sulkies. He has two patent 
rights, one a hop press, and the other a con- 
veyor for a hearse, the latter bearing patents 
under date of December 28, 1897, in the 
United States and Canada. 

Mr. Carpenter was married, January 15, 
1845, to Charlotte T. Arnold, daughter of 
Nathan Arnold, of Sutton, Massachusetts. 
Mrs. Carpenter died November 12, 1845, 
leaving one child, Charlotte A., born No- 
vember II, 1845, now residing in \\'orces- 
ter, Massachusetts. Mr. Carpenter married 
Mary Elizabeth Maxfield, daughter uf 
James Maxfield, of Mount Vernon, Kenne- 
bec county, Ma'ine, February ji, 1847. 
Five children have been born to Mr. and 
Rfrs. Carpenter, as follows: Abner, born 
July 13, 1858, engineer of Chicago & North- 
western Railway; Frank, born September 
18, 1854, milhyright, residing at Reeds- 
burg; Alice, born October 25, i860, residing 
at Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Newel, b(_n-n July 
12, 1868, residing at home; Leonard, born 
November 12, 1872, employed on the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railwa_\-. Mr. Car- 
penter is a genial, cle\-er man. and much 
respected in his community. He is a stanch 
Democrat in political sentiment, Ijut does 
not seek public favor. He is interested in 
the welfare of his township and aids in 
e\-ery public enterprise. 



HON. DAVID BARNES FIULBURT. 

Hon. David Barnes Hulburt, of Logan- 
ville, Sauk county, \\'isconsin, is widely 
known throughout the central part of the 
state as a man of unusual character and 
commanding ability. He was born at 
Portland, Chautauqua county. New York, 
December 8, 1829, and is a son of James 
Harvey and Lydia (Peters) Flulburt, whose 
familv included nine children. The elder 



Hulburt was a native of Vermont and was 
reared to agricultural ptirsuits. While a 
boy he accompanied his parents to Pennsyl- 
vania, and from there to Portland, New 
York, where his life was spent. He died 
when over eighty-two years of age. Rev. 
L^avid Hulburt, the grandfather of the gen- 
tleman whose naiue introduces this article, 
was a Baptist clergyman of far more than 
ordinary endowanents. He filled promi- 
nent pulpits in Pennsylvania, New York, 
and other states, and died at Portland, New 
York, when ox-er ninety-six. After he was 
se\'entv-fi\'e he retired from actixe pastoral 
work, Ijut ciintinuetl to preach from time to 
time for many years thereafter. His wife, 
Elizalieth Barnes, died when o\er seventy- 
five. 1 hey reared a family of thirteen chil- 
dren, whose average age at death was over 
seventy-five years. Mrs. Lydia H. Hulbtirt 
was a daughter of Joseph Phelps Peters. 
wh(.) was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
army and who ser\-ed his country several 
\-ears in that great struggle. 

Da\'itl B. Hulburt left his boyhcjod home 
in 1857, and came to Loganville, Wiscon- 
sin, and settletl on a farm, which is now in 
part the site of the village. Much of his 
original investment he still retains, though 
many acres ha\'e been subdi\ided and dis- 
posed of to actual settlers. He studied 
civil engineering and navigation at Fredonia 
Academy, the old and famous educational 
institution that has immortalized the little 
New York village of that name, and after 
graduating from the normal ilepartment of 
the -Vcademy, engaged in teaching. He 
taught several seasons in New York, and 
was a teacher in this state for a number of 
v'ears. On coming to the state of Wiscon- 
sin he engaged in surveying, and has al- 
ways done considerable business in that 
line, his most important labor in this di- 
rection being the establishment of the con- 
templated Loganville & Narrows Prairie 



COMTENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



801 



Railroad. In i860 he was elected county 
sur\eyor, and for twenty years or more 
he served the people in that capacity. 

It was in the assembly, however, that 
Mr. Hulburt won his most distinguished 
honors. In 1874 he was elected to the as- 
sembly, and was honored with two re-elec- 
tions in succession, and served in the ses- 
sions of 1875, 1876 and 1877. In 1884 
lie was chosen senator, and for four years 
served his constituents in the upper house 
of the Wisconsin legislature. He was 
chairman of the committee on education 
and introduced several important measures 
which became laws and are still <in the stat- 
ute books. Among other measures was the 
famous "one mill-tax" for school purposes, 
which helped increase the school attendance 
of the state over ten per cent, in addition 
to the natural increase. He also worked 
diligently in behalf of the biennial sessions 
amendment to the state constitution. In 
local matters he has served his community 
well, for he filled the office of justice of the 
peace seventeen years, and was chairman of 
the township board for se\"eral }-ears. For 
many years he was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits at Loganville, and in 1871 was ap- 
pointed postmaster by President Grant. He 
held this position a full term, and retired 
from it in 1875 to the general regret of the 
community, whose interests he had carefully 
served. 

ilr. Hulburt was married, in February, 
1856, to Josephine M., daughter of Thomas 
and Abigail (Jones) Van Scoter, of Chau- 
tauqua county, New York. Mrs. Hulburt 
,was born in Steuben county, New York, 
where her father was a practicing physician. 
He was of Holland descent, and died at 
F'redonia. Mrs. Hulburt is the mother of 
eight children: Alice M. (Mrs. H. Z. 
Westonhaver, Madison, Wisconsin) ; Frank 
D., a practicing physician at Reedsburg; Jo- 
sephine M. (Mrs. August Luherson, died 



July 9, 1892, in her twenty-sixth year) ; 
Hettie (Mrs. C. \V. Constantine, of Madi- 
son) ; Arthur D., dead; Lena B. (died June 
23, 1888, at the age of nineteen) ; Harvey 
L., a graduate in pharmacy; and Jessie 
(Mrs. Albert Williams, Loganvihe). There 
are ten grandchildren in the family, and in 
their old age Mr. and Mrs. Hulliurt feel 
th.eir lines have been cast in pleasant places. 



WARREN I. COLBY. 

The pleasant estate on which this gen- 
tleman now makes his home is the old home- 
stead farm of his father, whom he assisted, 
and became thoroughly acquainted with the 
best methods to be pursued in that calling. 
The management of the estate has now^ fallen 
to his lot and he has taken up the w'ork and 
is displaying those dominant traits of char- 
acter which are destined to bring the best 
results. He is a man of much worth to his 
community and is interested in the general 
v/elfare of Adams county. His entire life 
has been spent in Easton township, and his 
home surroundings are of the most comfort- 
able nature. Modern machinery is used for 
gathering and taking care of the grain 
products, and his stock is well provided with 
shelter. 

Mr. Colby was born at Easton, Adams 
county, Wisconsin, July 17, 1855, and was 
the son of Jonathan C. and Sarah A. ( Petti- 
grove) Colby, a sketch of whose lives will 
appear under the Ijiography of Thomas P. 
Colby, elsewhere in this volume. 

Our subject attended school until about 
fourteen years of age, and received a good 
education. He resided at home and after 
the death of his parents came into possession 
of the homestead, on which he still resides. 
He has alxnit one hundred and seventy acres 
of land, one hundred acres of which is und: r 



30i 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



cultivation. He enoages in general farm- 
ing and has been successful. 

Mr. Giliiy was married, June 21, 1892, 
to Jennie M. Halstead, daughter of Isaac 
F. aiid Lydia Halstead, of Easton township. 
Three children have been born to bless the 
home I if Mr. and Mrs. Colby, as follovys: 
Irene F., born March 30, 1893; Floyd, born 
September 4. 1895, and Dorothy Ruth, born 
August 18, 1899. 

Mr. Colliy has been called upon to serve 
in various offxial positions in his township, 
and is at present chairman of the township 
board. He is non-partisan in politics and 
casts his vote for the man which in his opin- 
ion will serve his community best. He is 
public-spirited, and in every possible way 
lends his influence for the advancement of 
his community, and enjoys the respect of his 
fellow men. 



JOSEPH HENRY RIDDLE. 

Joseph Henry Riddle, a leading farmer 
and stock breeder in the town of Lodi, Co- 
lumbia county, Wisconsin, long ago took a 
prominent place among those devoted to ag- 
riculture in tlr's comjnunity and this is easily 
his standing at the present time. He has 
always been an industrious worker; he has 
maintained a high character for honesty and 
unswerving integrity; and his business abil- 
ity is attested by his manifest success in the 
enterprises to which he has set his hands. 

Mr. Riddle was born in the city of New 
York June 24, 1839, and is a son of Robert 
S. and Mary (Dunning) Riddle. The fa- 
ther was a native of Delaware county. New 
\'ork, and the grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch was a native of Ireland. He 
came to New York while still a young man 
au-d located on a farm in Djclaware coifnty. 
There he lixcd to lie almost one hundred 
years old. His wife reached an extreme 



old age. R. S. Riddle learned the carpenter 
trade in his native state, and followed it for 
a number of years in the city of New York, 
where he bail many im]3ortant contracts. 
He came to Wisconsin in 1851, and took up 
government land in Dane county, not far 
from Lodi, and devoted himself mainlj' to 
farming the rest of his life. He did some 
wiirk at his trade, howe\'er, in the }ears 
that ini;ne<liately followed his arrival in the 
state, and had some (|uite extensi\'e con- 
tracts. He dietl at the age of eighty-three. 
Mrs. Mary Riddle sur\-ived her husband 
se\'eral years and lived to reach the age of 
eighty-one. She was born in New Jersey, 
and became the mother of seven children, 
two of whom died in early childhood : 
Mary Jane died in Dane county, Wisconsin, 
arid Frank at Los Angeles, California; Ed- 
win enlisted in Company H, Twenty-third 
Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and died at 
New Orleans while in the service; George 
is li\'ing in the town of Lodi. 

Josei)h Henry Riddle has li\'ed in the 
vicinity of Lodi since he was twelve years 
old. \'\'hen he was twenty-five he bought 
a farm in Dane county and three years later 
moved into the town of Dodi. Here he 
is now the proprietor of a magnificent rural 
estate of three hundred and forty-eight 
acres, eighty acres of it being in Dane coun- 
ty. It affords a variety of soil and is well 
supplied with timber. There are several 
large li\ing springs upon it, and it is tra- 
versed by Spring creek. For more than 
thirty years Mr. Riddle has made a specialty 
of dairying, and at the present time has 
turned his cattle very largely into thor- 
oughbred or high-grade Jerseys. He has 
an extensi\'e milk route in the village of 
Lodi, where he finds a ready market for his 
milk, crc;fm and Imtter. Mr. Riddle is also 
deeply interested in fine driving stock, and 
at the present time has over twenty horses 
and colts on his place, some of which have 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY 



303 



developed noteworthy speed. He has a 
fine herd of Sliropshire sheep. jMnch of his 
stock lias heen on exhibition at (hft'ercnt 
fairs and h'\'e stock shows, and wherever 
e.xhiliited it lias repeatedly taken premiums. 
He is a Mason, and a lifelong Democrat. 

]\[r. Riildle and Miss, Cornelia Amerette 
Simons were married in March, 1864. She 
is a daughter of Frederick Hawley and 
Roxana (Hickox) Simons, and was born 
at Canandaigua, Ontario county. New York. 
Her parents came to Wisconsin at an early 
day, and were the first settlers in the tmvn 
of Springfield, their nearest neighbor being 
nine miles away. Her father died in 1846, 
and her mother remarried and li\ed in 
Springfield township many years. One of 
her sisters, Mrs. IMicliael Durand, is still 
living in Canandaigua, New York, at the 
age of ninety-four. Captain George tlickox, 
the father of Roxana referred to above, 
won his title in the war of 1812. He came 
from New England to New York and lived 
to be ninety-four. His father, Levi Hickox, 
served in the Continental army under Gen- 
eral Washington, and was at the battle of 
Trenton. 

To ^Ir. and IMrs. Riddle five children 
have been born. Their living children have 
received excellent educational advantages, 
and the home of the family is one of Ik^s- 
pitality and refinement. Their children are: 
Arthur Henry, at present assistant manager 
of the farm at home; Ernest Hawley is a 
graduate of the Northwestern Business Col- 
lege at Madison. He has a marked me- 
chanical ability, and has executed some very 
complicated scroll work pieces, a noteworthy 
production being an antique clock represent- 
ing a feudal castle. He is interested with 
his father in l)reeding and training Idooded 
horses, and he seems to have a natural gift 
for handling horses, even the most fractious 
responding readily to his contr(jl. I'earlie 
died June 16, 1876, at the age of eleven 



months and seventeen days. Cora Eliza- 
1;eth is a graduate of the Northwestern Busi- 
ness College in stenography, and has fol- 
lowed that work several years. .\ll)erta De 
Estes is a graduate of the Lodi high school, 
and is now a student at the Whitewater 
Normal. 



LYMAN STRONG SCOON. 

Lyman Strong Scoon, a leading farmer 
of Reedsburg township. Sauk county, and a 
worth}' representati\-e of one of the promi- 
nent pioneer families of this section (d" the 
state, was born in Loganville, Wisconsin, 
Jnlv 2Ti. 1859, a son of Alfred Freeman and 
Emilv E. (Strong") Scoon. 'I he mother, 
who was a consistent member of the Meth- 
odist church of Loganville, died in March, 
1865, at the age of thirty-three years. She 
was born in Cattaraugus county. New York, 
and was a daughter of John Merrill Strong, 
a fanner, who died in Grand Detour, Illi- 
nois. 

Alfred F. Scoon. the father cd' our sub- 
ject, was born in the town of Greenwich, 
\\'ashington countw New York, Julv 4, 
1829. His father, who was born near Dum- 
fries. Scotland, started for the United States 
during the war of 1812 on board an .Vmeri- 
can \'essel, but was ca])tured and pressed 
into the Piritish na\al service. After two 
years he managed to escape by concealing 
liimself in a coil of ro|)e in New York har- 
bor, where he remained for tw;) days with 
onlv one sea biscuit to eat. Li the mean- 
time his wife, who had been left in Scot- 
land, remarried. su])posing him dead. He 
settled in Washington county, New York, 
and there married Nancy Pratt, by whom 
he had ten children. Alfred F. Scoon, the 
youngest of this i'amily, left home at the 
death of his fatlicr, when he was fourteen 
vears old and worked in the woods of Can- 



304 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



ada until 1847, when lie went to Grand De- 
tour, Illinois, where he married the mdlher 
of our subject. For several years he was 
employed as a salesman for the John Deere 
Plow Company of that place, and in 1856 
came to Loganville, Wisconsin, where he 
worked at the cooper's trade until after the 
breaking out of the Civil war. In Decem- 
ber, 1863. he enlisted in Company B, 
Twelfth Wisconsin \'olunteer Infantry, and 
was mustered out in July, 1865, after a 
year and a half of arduous service. He was 
with Sherman all through the Atlanta cam- 
paign and on the march to the sea. Hav- 
ing contracted heart disease and other 
troubles, he was in a hospital at Indianapolis, 
Indiana, for some time, and was then trans- 
ferred to the \"eteran Reserve Corps, in 
which he served with the rank of sergeant 
until the war was over. During his resi- 
dence in Loganville and later in Reedsburg 
township he filled the office of justice of 
the peace in a most acceptable manner. On 
the 15th of April, 1863, he took possession 
of a farm on section 31, that township, 
upon which few improvements had been 
made, and to its further development and 
cultivation devoted his energies until the 
spring of 1895, since which time he has lived 
retired in New London, Wisconsin. He 
was one of the few men who made money 
during the "hop crash" of 1S68, and he was 
a successful dealer in that and other prod- 
ucts, and also in real estate to some ex- 
tent. He is a well-read man of decided 
views, who has always taken an active in- 
terest in political affairs and was a Demo- 
crat in early life, but since 1880 has sup- 
ported the Republican party. He served as 
assessor of Westfield township, Sauk coun- 
ty, for two j^ears. By his first wife he had 
eightchildren,of whom three died in infancy. 
The others are: Frances F., now the wife 
of Albert W^ager, of Reedsburg township; 
Frederick, who died in 1874, at the age 



of twenty-one years; Lyman S., our subject; 
Darwin W'., a resident of W^est Superior, 
Wisconsin, and ex-sheriff of Douglas coun- 
ty; and Emma, wife of William E. Carter, 
of New London. For his second wife, Mr. 
Scoon married Louise C. Seamans. who died 
in January, 1891, when nearly si.\ty-t\vo 
years of age. All of the three children born 
of this union died in infancy. Thev had an 
adopted son, John Duane. now a resident of 
West Superior. 

Lyman S. Scoon, of this review, attend- 
ed school at Loganville and elsewhere until 
sixteen years of age, since which time he 
has devoted his entire attention to agricult- 
ural pursuits, and with the exception of 
th.ree years has spent his entire life on the 
home farm. In ^lay. 1886, he went to 
Faulk county. South Dakota, where he took 
a pre-emption claim, but two years later re- 
turned to Sauk county and has since carried 
on the old homestead, which comprises one 
hundred and fift}' acres of land, one hundred 
acres of which are under a high state of 
cultivation and well improved. In connec- 
tion with general farming, he gives con- 
siilerable attention to the raising of Shrop- 
shire sheep and hogs; has speculated more 
or less in live stock and for some years con- 
ducted an extensive dairy. 

On the 28th of September, 1881, Mr. 
Scoon married Miss Anna B. Cribben. a na- 
tive of Walworth county, Wisconsin, and 
a daughter of Thomas and Isabel (Troy) 
Cribben, of Sauk county. The father was 
born near Dublin, Ireland, and came to 
America in 1847. I" W'alworth county, 
Wisconsin, he married Isabel Troy, also a 
native of the Emerald Isle, and in the spring 
of 1868 removed to Sauk county, their home 
at present being in Lavalle. ^Ir. and Mrs. 
Scoon have two children living, namely: 
Alfred Thomas, born in July, 1885: and 
Frankie Belle, Ijorn in May, 1890. 

Socially Mr. Scoon is a prominent mem- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



305 



ber of Hillside Camp. Xo. J374, M. W. A., 
at Loganville, in which he has filled the 
chair of venerable consul : and for some 
years he was a memlier of the Independent 
Order of Good Templars, until the lodg-e at 
Loganville was disbanded. Roth he and 
his wife belong to Arbutus Camp, No. 47, 
Royal Neighbors, and are held in high re- 
gard l)y a large circle of friends and ac- 
quaintances. Since casting his first presi- 
dential vote for James A. Garfield in 1880, 
he has supported the Republican party on 
national issues and he has filled the office 
of constable for one year each in Reedsburg 
and \\'estfield towuiship, and has most cred- 
itably and satisfactorily served as justice of 
the peace since the spring of 1895. 



LEMUEL S. \\'RIGHT. 

Lemuel S. Wright, a venerable farmer 
and long a resident of the town of Fountain 
Prairie, Columbia county, is .still met on the 
streets of Fall River, bearing himself jaunt- 
ily and well despite the burden of years. 
He has done much in making Columbia 
county a garden spot, ant! is of the opinion 
that search through the world as }ou will 
it will be difficult to find a more charming 
farming region than the beautiful land on 
which he has pitched his home. Air. Wright 
is a son of Asa and Eunice Wright, and 
was born in St. Lawrence county. New York, 
November 7, 1825. His jjcople were [ire- 
viously of X'ermont, but are supposed to be 
descendants of the Norse who entered Eng- 
land in the early centuries. Asa Wright 
died about 1830, ami his widnw thirtv years 
later. They were the parents of twelve 
children: Parkis died in Ohio; Abigail, de- 
ceased ; Sarah is Mrs. Baldwin ; IMinerva is 
Mrs. Erwin and lives in Belvidere, Illinois: 
Pha-be niarried i'Jichmond Danfurd, and is 



dead; Asa, deceased; Riley, deceased; Ab- 
ner, deceased ; Cornelia, deceased ; Lemuel 
is the subject of this writing: and Lucy, 
who married Hiram Clark, and is now 
dead. 

Mr. Wright remained on his farm in 
New York and worked as a carpenter until 
1850, when he came to Beaver IJam, in this 
state. Caught up by the gold fever in 1852 
he went to California for the purpose of 
engaging in mining. The far west did not 
pro\-e an attractive proposition and he soon 
came back to Wisconsin, and settled upon a 
farm of two hundred and fifty acres in the 
townshiiJ of Fountain Prairie. To the culti- 
vation and development of this beautiful tract 
lie has devoted his life and still makes his 
home here, though he has given up the 
actual w^cirk of its cultivation to other hands. 
Mrs. Lemuel Wright was formerly Sarah 
Ann Waterlnu-y. and was a native of Con- 
necticut. Three Ijrothers came from Eng- 
land and. settled in Connecticut, and one of 
them was her ancestor. She was one of the 
following family : Darrell, who died in Azta- 
lan, Wisconsin: Rebekah married Sylvester 
Hall and died in Minnesota ; Andrew died in 
Lake Mills, \\'isconsin: INlaria married 
Jehiel Stone : Levi died in New Ym'k : Lou- 
isa married Alexander Earl and died in 
Aztalan. Jefferson county, Wisconsin ; Sarah 
is the wife of our subject; Parks died in 
Jefferson. Wisconsin ; Henry died at Au- 
gusta, Wisconsin ; Scofield is a resident of 
Nashua. Iowa ; Electa married Smith Red- 
dington. and died at Aztalan : Elwin died in 
Alinneapolis; Sarah Ne\ada married Ben- 
jamin Basham and has her home in Mitchell, 
South Dakota. The children of ^^Ir. and 
Mrs. L. S. Wright are: Charles, who 
married Martha Kellar antl lives on the 
home farm, and has a family of seven 
bright children — Leslie, Charles Parkis, 
Lyndon. Anna. Sidney and Lulu ; Lot- 
tie, a milliner of West Superior; Cora, 



806 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



the wife of Cliarles Radabaugli; and Willie, 
who was accidental!}' shot when but thirteen 
3^ears of as^-e. Mr. and ?^Irs. Writ^iit arc 
irembers of the Methodist church, and have 
been devoted and faithful workers for many 
years. They have a hne farm, a comfort- 
able home and are well situated in e\ crv re- 
spect. He holds the respect of the c im- 
munit}-. and is reg-arded as a model citizen. 



HON. ANDREW J. TURNER. 

Hon. Andrew Jackson Turner has been a 
resident of Portage for more than two-score 
of years, and during the greater part of that 
time has been prominently identified with the 
public affairs of that city. He is acknowl- 
edged to be the liest informed man in Co- 
lumbia county on matters of ],ocal history, 
as well as one of the ablest historians in the 
state of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Turner was born at Schu\-]er I'alls, 
New York, Septemlier 24, 1832, to Abel and 
Alary Turner. Abel Turner was a nati\-e of 
Huntington, N'ermont. His ancestors came 
from England in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, settling at Guilford, Con- 
necticut. Thence by a series of migrations 
members of the family moved up the Con- 
necticut valley to Vermont. Among the 
early representatives of the family were a 
numlier of soldiers who took part in the 
Revolutionary conflict and the war of 1812, 
as well as numerous public ofiicials in dif- 
ferent localities. 

While a young man Abel Turner went 
to Clinton county, New York, \vhere the 
balance of his life was spent upon a farm. 
He passed away at the age of sixty-eight 
years, but his wife reached the great age of 
ninety-three years. She was a third cousin 
of her husband, and the first female white 
child born in that part of I"'lattsburg smce 



known as Schuyler Falls, her father, Ezra 
Turner, having been the first settler at that 
place. The last named was born at Zoar. 
near North Adams, Alassachusetts, and upon 
removing to Schuyler Falls built and oper- 
ated a saw mill there. 

A. J. Turner, the subject of this article, 
spent his boyhi.Hid upon the home farm) and 
in 1S55 went to Crand Rapids, Michigan, 
where he worked in a printing office. Two 
}'cars later he came to Wisconsin and se- 
ciu'ed employment in the office of the Port- 
age .Independent. He spent the next few 
}'ears in the offices of different papers at 
thiat place, Friendship and Madison, de- 
veloping marked ability in the field of jour- 
nalism as well as in the mechanical work 
of the profession. In conjunction with S. 
S. Brannan, he founded the \A'iscdns:in 
State Register at Portage in i860, and 
they continued to publish the same for 
seventeen years, making it one of the lead- 
ing local papers of the state, as it has ever 
since Iteen. 

]\Ir. Turner was barely established in 
business at Portage wlien he began to be 
called upon bv the citizens ior the discharge 
of important public duties. In i860 he was 
elected clerk of the circuit court for Colum- 
bia county, and he represented th;. Portage 
tlistrict in the Wisconsin assembly in 1862, 
1863, 1865, and again in 1868. The ac- 
quaintar.ce and knowledge of parliamentary 
affairs which he gained in the discharge of 
these duties amplv fitted him for the office 
of chief clerk of the senate, to which he was 
elected in 1876. He filled that position un- 
til 1878, when he resigned it to accept the 
ap])ointment of Governor Smith to the office 
of state railroad commissioner, in wdiich ca- 
pacity he ser\-ed for four years. In 1881 
he was elected mayor of the city of Portage, 
and was twice re-elected. He has taken 
an acti\e part in the most important councils 
of the Republican part}-, ha\-ing been four 




HOH. AHDRBW" J, TURHER. 



'Jt.-Wt^t'^A £_ »»- U^. 



r^mEBg T^>g^ «a<T^ ^2£ gasdi <)£ ^ie 



A. X'"fft- ■ ~3Q^t_ jJH. 



HIO 



(■(),i//'/;'.\7'/r.i/ ('/•' /.■/{)(;a'. 1/7/1'. 



laul.i, ;iinl liM iliri'i' mmilli^ \\,i'. in llu' vers 
luiil'.l 1. 1 ilir wHi k. inihl ilif cipliii r d \l 
I. ml, I. Ill' .u'ioui|i,iiiicil Slu'i 111,111 on liis 

111, lull 111 llu' MM, .111(1 W.IS willl llini lllliMliMl 

all his cnnii.ii'.nis. IK' v\,is lnn'^l^•l^■ll nut 
<i|' llu' srivui' lnl\ 1(1. iSd;,. al I niusx illr, 
l\i'iilihk\. ( >ii liilv ' ', iS(i|. Ill' snlU'ii'il 
Minsiinkc wliiK' .il ilir li.iliU' .i| \lknil.i, ,iiul 

W.IS C.ilirilU'il 111 llu' 111 i'.|ill.ll. 

Ml, W.ilu'ili \\,i'. m.niu'il \i i\ I'liilu'i .'u. 
iSdS, 111 iK'lii'.lii \, ,'<rliiiir. ikiii-liU'i 111 
Jissi' W , ,111.1 M,ii \ ( I'H'oin.iii) S.-liiilT. 1"! 
Sl)rili;;\ illr li i\\ ii'-lii|i, wlin i,iiiii' limii Si, 
I awu'iuo ii'iiiiis, W'w Nmk, in llu' I, ill ol 

lSli|, Mis \\ .llu'lll''. I.lllu'l ilu'.l XllLMlsl 

.';■, iSdi , .niil lu'i ninilu'i ilu'il \|iiil(i, i S;- 1 , 
I'lulli iiasM'il ,i\\,i\ 111 .S|M iiil;\ ilK' low n.-^liip, 
aiiil wi'ii' limioil 111 \\ liiU' I. 'u'ok I'omoU'iN . 
Xiiu' I'hililion. six (i| wliiim .in- li\ Ini;. lia\i" 
lii-ni Imiii 111 Ml, .uiil .Mis, W.ilu'lli, as I'ol 
lows: joliii II,. Imrn ,M,iv i, iSr.s. now 
rosiiliiis^ on ,i l.imi in .Spi in;;\ ilU' lownsliip; 
K'ssif M,. Iioiii l'\'liru,ir\ -'s. 1 1^;' 1 . now 
Mis, I'', I'l. I''islu'i ; Kitlio, horn J,iiui.ir\ i_^, 
iS,-,^ now Mis, .■>;, Ilowaiil, ol' W liito 
(,'ri'ck; \ ornio A,, liom Juno 17, iS~o, 10 
siiK's at lioino; ,\,i^iu's H., hmii ,\l.irch is, 
iSS^, also ii'siili's al homo; ami i.',il\in J., 
horn Oi'iolnT o, iSS,-, li\os al homo. .M r 
aiiil Mrs, W.iholh ailoiuoil oiio i^iil, M.nv 
K.nki I illov, iho vl.m-htor ol ,\lis, W ,il 
lolh's sish'i, aiul sho li.is m,iilo hov homo 
with ihoiii siiu'o iSS|. ,\li, \\ .ilioth is 
luuoli iutovoslotl in oduoalional manors, and 
lias j^ivon hi.s ohilihou o\ory oduoational ad 
vaiita.ij'o. and ilio\ h,i\o hooomo inlolli,ij'cut 
mciuhoi's ol ihoii oouummiiv. llis daiiijli- 
lors ha\o all hoon toaoho\s, and l\a\o al 
taiuod a hij;h dotjroo ol' soliolarshiii. 

,Mr, \\ alroth is a inoiiil>or of l'"uuis Koovl 
I'osi. No. .-00. c;, .\. K,, of Whito (.rook, 
and is iho prosoni ooinmaiuloi of iho posl. 
llo is also a monihor of the Masonic frater- 
nity and tlio (."onijrofiatiinial ohnroh at 
Whito (."rook. In politio.d faith ho is a Ko 



IMihlio.ni. llo li.is lillod \,iriiins loojil olTioos 
111' Iriisl failhlnlU and woll, htil duos not 
•,00k pnlilio pioloi iiioiil. w ishiiiL; r.ilhor |o 
sri \ o his I'l immninlx in ullior w,i\s, li is ;i 
lilo,isnro 111 moot a man of his oharaoloris- 
lirs .md ,iliilil\ , 



I > Will I'd' I in I'OI I'M \\. 

M,miol I'liiild ( nloiiKin. iiiosi l'.i\ : ii'.ihK' 
known ,is .1 iilloi 111 iho soil, .iiid .is ,in hmi 
osi and 111001111^1 ihlo man. is a rosidoiil '>\ 
h'.ill Ki\oi. I'olnmhi.i ooimh. and llio ow nor 
ol a f.nni jiisi noiih of ilio \iI1.il;o limits. 
I lo is a son oi liislin.i .md Mi .ihoili ( Ihidd") 
I'olom.m, .ind w.is lioni al llooloi. \'ow 
^olk. .\jiiil 1 J, iS_'3. llis |i,ironis woio 
nalixos oi .\ow Joisoy, and his L;i.md 
mullior was a dan.i^hlor i^\ I'lilonol Ihidd i'\ 
l\o\ olnl ionar\ f, 11110. llio I'lulds wi-io of 
l''ioiioli dosoonl. wliilo llio (.'oloni.ins oanio 
from h'ns^land, I'lioio is in llio famil\ a 
j;'onoalo!L;y wliioli .i^oos hark to iimo. and 
shows a woll ostahlisliod olaim to royal hlnod 
in iho f.iniiK. Josluri (. 'olom.m diod Jimo 
5 iS|.'. lull his wifo sur\i\od uulil 1 SSo 
ihoN woro iho paronts of nino ohildron. ol 
whom oiiK two aro now lixin^;. mir suhjool, 
and (.'haiios (,'olomaii. a losidoni oi (.'a\- 
wood. Now Nork. 

Maniol (."olomaii oamo wosi in iS|_^. and 
spoilt iho summoi- in K.ioino, W isooiisin. 
Iho iio\i \oai ho mo\ od lo hodi^o ooniity, 
and rom.iiiiod ihoro until iSSS. w hou ho 
oamo to hall Ki\or. takiui; up his homo in 
tlio \ ilkii^o. 1 lo still luaiutains his residence 
here, and as he is \ery ooml\M-tal>ly tixed 
expeots no farther elianj^e during; the re- 
mainder oi his life. Mr, C'oloman and Miss 
h'li.-a W , r>ond were united iu marriage \o- 
\emher _;. iS|,~. She was a dans;liler of 
Poaoon Hoiul. and died l'"ehruary _'S, 181)5. 
She was tlie niotlior oi iwo ohildron : John, 
who was horn January j~. 1840. ai\d died 
laiui.ir\ I.'. 1S80; ,iud Sarah In-okv. who 



(OMI'h.NlilllM <)/■ I'.Kii.l'.'.ll'IIV. 



V,\ I 



vv.'is liorii .Vl;iiili I.',, \''''-\i. Mr. ( 'i'|r-iii;iii 
was married a m-imijiI iimi' \'> Mi'.'i Sarali l'„ 
Rcyii'ildH, a daiii^lilcr of Ahraiii and Alhiiia 
('Siiiillij Reynolds. MrH. Coleinaii vva'i Iiorn 
in IvHscx, New York, July 2'), iK.|/(, Her 
inollier died Mareli ii, 1S54, and lier fa- 
lliir married a^ain and lived nnlil Seplem- 
licr I'l, iKK,;. jiy jiin (irHl marria^'<! lie lie- 
came llie fallier of live cliildren, anfj liy liiH 
secoiul a, many more: I hey are; Sarali 
IC. ; Alhertiiie, the wife of William r.i^felovv, 
fjf VVillsi)oron).(h, New York; William, Uiil 
land, Vermoiil ; Henry, l''nllcrtoii, Nehran- 
ka; Mary, who is Mrs. Anson Smith; l.iii- 
rohi and Stewart, all live al. ICssex, New 
Y(yrk; Amy is married aiul lives at Wills- 
boronj.fh; Lonisa married Charles Under- 
wood, aiul lives at ICssex, Mr, f'olemaii 
has always voted the Ue|)nl)licaii ticket, and 
was a .soldirr in ilie Union nrniy. He en- 
listed al Lowell, Wiseoiishi, I'Vhniary 27, 
iHf)5, ill ('om|iaiiy Ii, hifly third Wiseoii- 
soii Volnnleer Infantry. He was , taken 
with pleurisy almost immediately after liiH 
enlistment, and was ,seiit to the hospital at 
Madison. He was so severely ill that he 
was once ((iven up for dead, hut jii.st as he 
was hcin(.{ prepared for the dead house some 
faint sij(iis of life were discovered and he 
was taken hack to his hed. He was dis- 
char).;ed June 6, 1S65, He is a memher of 
the (irand Army of the Ucpnhlic, and ha? 
heeii commander of the fjerjrge J[. Uraylon 
I'ost, He is a (.(oofi citizen and an lionor- 
ahlc and iiprij(ht man who staixis well in 
his own eommniiily. 



Mi:XZO WINNIR. 

,Mcnzo Winnie, deceased, wh'> was for 
many years one of the most successful and 
i'rfinential farmers of Sauk county, was hf>rn 
\u Schoharie contilv. New York, N'ovetti- 



licr I), I'^l'), ;iiid dii'l ii|ii.ij \w. I;iiiii iie;ir 
l>Iced'.l)m|',, l'<-l>iii;iiy 1 |, i^''>.', Iioiioied and 
rcsp(rcled hy all who knew liiiii, His par- 
ents, f^orneliiis W. and Mary CJire; Win- 
nie, were alv* natives of lin- Imii|iiii- l.ile, 
and the former spraii),; from an old Hol- 
land family. At an early day lliey came 
to Wisconsin, and after a few years spent 
in Walworth cotinly, look ii|) their residence 
ne.'ir Keedshiir^f, in Sank comity. The fa- 
ther 'iclecied ;i ( laim on ihe pre'ieiil site of 
Keed-.l)iii')< and walked lo llie land ollice at 
Miiiend Toiiil lo eiilei il, only lo liiid that 
it had heeii l;d<eii ,-i '.hort lime hefore hy 
oilier parlie,. He then secured another 
plar'e oil ( 'opper creek, ahoiil two miles east 
of the cily, improved the same and lived 
thereon until his death, which occurred diir- 
iii).( the Civil war. His wife is still liviiij^ 
at Ihe r,ld home near Ueedshiir^^, al the a(<e 
of ninelythrce years, and is still very active 
in mind and kwps well posted on ciirreiit 
news, ,Slie |)osscsscs a retentive memory, 
and well rememhcrs the war of (S12, tlion(,^li 
it inTwrvi'A when she was a mere child, her 
home at thai time heinjf near Stamford, 
Delaware county, New York, Wi^v father 
was a soldier in that strn><(<le, 

Menzo Winnie was a small hoy when lie 
catne with his parents to Sank county and 
here j^rew to manhood amirl pif;ncer scenes. 
He manffested his patriotism and love of 
country hy enlisting; in the fall of (S6), in 
t'ompany A, ■.Vineleenth Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Infanlrv, and after two years of ardu- 
ous and faithful service was honorahly din 
charjifed on account of illness early in \H(i/\. 
After hi", return home he continued to live 
n|)on the farm with his mother for ahout 
four years, and then purchased a farm near 
il, coinprisinjif one hundred and sixty acren 
in fCxcclsior townnliip, to the improvement 
and cultivation of which he devotcfl his en- 
erj^ies for a niimher of years. I le (^ave 
some attention to stock raisiuj,(, and also- 



312 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



bouglit and shijipecl consi(leral)le live stock. 
He was an entlnisiastic horseman, a very 
successful farmer, and an upright and con- 
scientious citizen. From Excelsior town- 
ship he removed to the old Gardner farm in. 
Reedsburg to\\-nship. on which he built a 
brick residence, and made man\- (ither im- 
provements which atlded greatly to its value 
and attracti\e appearance: in fact, it was 
supplied with e\-er\- con\-enience found upon 
a model farm ol the present centurv. It 
"vvas upon this place he spent his last davs. 

On the 2Sth of March, 1S67, Mr. \A'in- 
nie married Miss Percis M. Gardner, a na- 
tive of Erie county. New York, and a daugh- 
ter of Henry and Maria (Green) Gardner. 
During her infancy she was brought by her 
parents to \\'isconsin, but the family after- 
ward lived in Stephenson countv, Illinois, 
and it was not until 1856 that they came to 
Sauk county, thougli the father had located 
a fanu near Reedsburg the previous sum- 
mer. Later he \\ent to Fort Scott, Kan- 
sas, where he died February 24, 1893, aged 
eighty years, and liis wife passed away at 
the same place, June 12, 1894, aged seventy- 
eight. To our suliject and his wife were 
born two children: Alma E., who was suc- 
cessfully engaged in teaching in the Reeds- 
burg high school for three years : and Ernest 
G., who is engaged in farming near Reeds- 
burg. 

Air. \\'innie was always in touch with 
the latest develo]inicnt and improvement in 
agricultural methods, and w^as well in- 
formed on general subjects. He spent more 
or less time in tra\-el. had "washed his 
hands" in both the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans, and gained an excellent knowledge 
of men and affairs which only tra\-el can 
bring. On his numerous trips he was ac- 
companied by his estim.able wife. Fie was 
always actively interested in public affairs; 
and was an early member of the Reedsburg 
Grange, P. of H., of wlrich he was secre- 



tary for some vears ; also aided in the or- 
ganizati(in i.f H. A. Tator Post. G. A. R., 
of Reedsburg; and was interested in Reeds- 
burg Old Settlers' Association, of which he 
\\as an active and prominent member. 
Though not identified with anv religious 
organization, he attended and supported the 
Methodist church, and he always endeav- 
ored to live up to the golden rule. Politi- 
cally he supported the principles of the Re- 
publican party, and was a member of the 
Reedsburg tnwnshiu board of super\'isors 
fijr a number (if years. He commanded 
the respect and esteem of all his associates, 
and it is safe to say that no citizen of Sauk 
count}^ had more friends or was held in 
higher regard than Alenzo Winnie. 



^ JOHN JEROME. 

In the \'i;icatii)n which this gentleman 
has chosen lies many of the pleasant features 
of life. He was possessed of much sound 
judgment when he chose farming for his 
life work, and bis present estate in Dell 
Prairie township, Adams county, bears evi- 
dence of the interest he takes in the devel- 
opment of the farming lands of that region. 
He came to his farm when the country had 
not been cleared for cultiN'ation, and by dint 
of earnest efforts has transformed his farm 
inti) one of tlie best in the township. He 
has met with the usual discouragements of 
the pioneer, but surmounted every obstacle, 
and can n(n\- review his work with a sense 
of satisfaction. Skillful management and 
ir.dustry were sure of good results, and he 
never wa\'ercd from his purpose. 

Mr. Jerome was born October 16, 1847, 
near Portage, Columbia county, \\'isconsin, 
and was the son of Daniel and Elizabeth 
(Roberts) Jerome. His parents came from 
Dansville, Livingston county. New York, 
iri 1846, and took up land in Columbia coun- 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



aig; 



ty, Wisconsin, on which they resided the re- 
mainder of their Hves. Mis father (hed 
April 28. 1892, aged ninety-two years, and 
tlie mother died in Decenilier of the same 
year, aged eighty-four years, and hoth were 
buried at Marcellon, CoUinihia county, \\'is- 
consin. 

Of a family of ten children mir sul)ject 
\Yas the eighth in order of birth. He re- 
mained at home until sixteen years of age, 
and attended school and received a good 
education, but preferred farming to study, 
and at the age of sixteen took land on sliares 
in Columljia county, following that occupa- 
tion three rears. He tlien went into the 
pineries near Xecedah, Juneau count}', 
where he worked in the mills, and for the 
next ten years was rafting on the Wisconsin 
and Mississippi rivers, going as far as St. 
Louis, and at other times as far as Dubuque. 
After leaving that work in 1881 he pur- 
chased a farm in Dell Prairie township, 
Adams county, which Has since been his 
home. It consists of four hundred acres, 
and he has cleared for cultivation two hun- 
dred and fifty acres. He is one of the sub- 
stantial men of his township, and has suc- 
ceeded with his work. 

Mr. Jerome was married January 4, 
1867, to Annie Mallon, daughter of Peter 
and Sarah Mallon, of Marcellon, Columbia 
county, who were among the early settlers 
of that county, coming from Ireland about 
1849. Seven children have been born to 
]\Ir. and Mrs. Jerome, as follows : Sarah 
A., born in November, 1868, now Mrs. E. 
Morse, of Dell Prairie; Mary E., born in 
May, 1870, now residing at Marcellon, Co- 
lumbia county; GeorgCj^ born November, 
1872, now at home; John, born November, 
1874, now employed by a railroad company 
in Wyoming; Daniel, born June, 1875, now 
living at Portage; Charles, born July, 1877, 
now at home; and Robert, born ^lay, 1879, 
now at home. 



Mr. Jerome is a member of no political 
party, and casts his ballot for the candidate- 
which in his o])inion is the best man for the 
interests of liis country. He has ser\'ed 
as treasurer of his townslii]), and various 
oiher li_)cal oflices, but does not seek public 
fa\or, and is one of the true citizens of his 
C('mnuuiit\', and held in tlic highest esteem 
l)y his associates. 



WILLI. \M HENRY ROBBIXS. 

William Henrv Robbins, a retired farm- 
er living at Pardee\ille, has led a quiet and 
exemplarv life, uK.ist of wliich has been 
passed in Columbia county, and well merits 
the regard and esteem in which he is held 
by those among whom he has .spent so many 
years. He was born near Sacket Harbor, 
JefTerson county, New York, February 4, 
1827, and was a son of Harmon and Deb- 
orah (Coon) Rol)liins, l)oth of whom were 
nati\'es of Jefferson ct.iunty. New York. 

Our suljject's father was engaged in the 
war of 181 2, and liis Ijrother was general 
in the arm\'. He took part in the engage- 
ment at Sacket Harbor. The father reached 
the age of seventy-eight years in Jefferson 
county. The -grandfather of our subject, 
Solomon Robbins, was a farmer in Jefferson 
count)'. Our subject's mother died in 1849. 
She was a daughter of James Coon, a farmer 
of JefTerson count}'. 

William II. R(jl)l)ins sjK'nt liis Ijoyhood in 
Jefferson county on a farm, except a short 
time in a shi]) yard at Sacket Harbor. He 
went to ?\]ar1)lelicad, Massachusetts, in 1848, 
and spent four and a half months in the cod 
fisheries, where his health was much ini- 
pro\'ed. In 1850 he moved to Illinois, and 
there drove a stage between Peru and Dixon 
on the famous Frink and Walker line. He 
later returned to New York, and in 1853 



S14 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



started o\'erlan(;I for California via Salt Lake 
■City. He reached California in the fall and 
spent three years in the mines with fair suc- 
cess. He returned via Nicaragua in 1857, 
but on the trip from the latter port a gale 
disabled the \-essel and they were forced to 
make a landing at Norfolk, Virginia. They 
reached New York almost exhausted on ac- 
count of lack of Drovisions. After a visit 
in Jefferson county in the fall of 1857, Mr. 
Robbins came to Wisconsin. He bought a 
farm near Fall River, Columbia count\% but 
soon after sold that tract and purchased a 
farm near the village of Otsego, upon which 
he lived for oxer thirty years. The farm 
comprises one hundred acres, only twelve 
acres of which was broken when he pur- 
cliased it. He improved the place and made 
huuself a comfortable home and good in- 
come there, but, in 1892, he disposed of his 
interests and removed to the village of Par- 
deeville, where he has since resided retired 
from active pursuits. He now owns a farm 
of one hundred acres near the village. In 
1900 he gave to his son, Truman, se\-enty- 
six acres which adjoin the one hundred acres 
owned by Mr. Robbins. 

Our subject was married November 24, 
i857> to Josephine Edwards, daughter of 
Abiatha and Lucy (McKnight) Edwards. 
Mrs. Robbins was born in Chautauqua coun- 
ty, New York, and her father was a dealer 
in live stock, and also conducted a tin shop 
and meat market at Ripley, New York. He 
died at the latter place, aged eighty-three 
years. His mother reached the age of ninety 
years. Mrs. Robbins' mother was born in 
Ripley, and her parents lived there for many 
years. The following children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Robbins : Viola, born 
in 1859, died at the age of four months; 
Eva, born in i860, now the widow of John 
Leatherman, of Pardeeville; Truman, born 
in 1866, residing in Pardeeville; and Burr, 
born in 1872, now residing in Woodstock, 



Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Robbins have three 
grandchildren. Mrs. Robbins and daugh- 
ter are members of the Christian church at 
Pardeeville. Mr. Rolibins is prominent in 
liis community, and has been called upon to 
serve in various local othces of trust in Ot- 
sego township. He is a stanch Republican, 
but voted for Taylor in 1848. 



SAVILIAN FULLER SMITH. 

For over thirty-five years the name of 
this gentleman has been familiar to the citi- 
zens of Reedsburg, where he formerly was 
engaged in the hardware business. Since 
1872 he has lived in retirement in his com- 
fortable home in that city, but his career as 
a prominent worker for the advancement 
of his community did not cease with his 
abandoning active business life. He is a 
man of broad mind and true worth, and is 
held in the highest esteem throughout the 
state of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Smith was born in Knuxville, Onei- 
da county, New York, May 31, 1831. His 
father, Timothv Smith, was a native of 
Plartford, Connecticut, and ^vas descended 
from an old New England family. He was 
a shoemaker and currier by trade, and con- 
ducted a tannery at Knoxville, and later built 
a hotel there and was engaged in hotel keep- 
ing until his death. The building still 
stands, and is a familiar landmark. He was 
an industrious man, and successful in busi- 
ness, accumulating a fortune from a limited 
start in his business career. His death oc- 
curred in Watertown, New York, August 
20, 1873, aged eighty-one years, nine months 
and three days. The mother of our sub- 
ject, Lucy (Avery) Smith, was descended 
from the Avery family, of Groton, Connect- 
icut, one of the oldest colonial families. Her 
father, David Avery, removed to New 
York, and located near Hamilton. 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



815 



Our subject removed with his parents to 
Munnsville, New ^'ork, when he was six 
years of age, and there he gained liis edu- 
cation, attending the academy. At the age 
of fifteen years he Ijegan to learn the tin- 
ner's trade, and in 1851 went to Muscatine. 
Iowa. He located at Newport, on the Wis- 
consin river, two years later, where he en- 
gaged in the hardware business, being a 
member of the firm of Star, Smith & Lewis. 
The firm dissolved partnership when the 
tuwn was abandoned, and our subject went 
to Delton about i860, where he continued 
in business two years. He m(j\ed from 
thence to Reedsbure", where he established 
in the hardware business, which he con- 
ducted until 1872. He then disposed of 
his business to Hagenaugh & Gifford, since 
which time he has lived in retirement. 

The store building which he occupied 
was erected by him in 1868, and in 1870 
his present residence was constructed. It is 
a fine piece of property, and his home is one 
of the pleasant homes of that city. j\Ir. 
Smith is a brother of Perry H. Smith, who 
was a prominent man in railroad circles, and 
for a number of vears was vice-president of 
the Northwestern Railroad. He died in 
1886. 

Our subject was married in 1856 to Dor- 
othy Smith, daughter of Milo Smith, of 
Reedsburg. The union proved an unhappy 
one, and a separation was granted in 1865. 
Two children were born of this union, Perry 
A. and Charles S., lioth of whom are promi- 
nent business men of Reedsburg. Mr. 
Smith married Nellie E. Eggleston, May 4, 
1869. Mrs. Smith was born in Waukesha, 
Wisconsin, December 27, 1844, and was a 
daughter of Thomas and Deborah Eggles- 
ton, of Fox Lake, Wisconsin. Her parents 
came from Chipnerwolton, England, and 
Mr. Eggleston was a baker by trade, and af- 
terward followed the business of architect. 
He designed and erected the state capitol at 



Madison, Wisconsin, and many of the pub- 
lic buildings of other places, including Fox 
Lake and Beaver Dam. One daughter has 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, upon 
whom they have bestowed the name of Bird 
Lucy. The family attend the Presbyterian 
church, and Mr. Smith is a Lhiiversalist in 
belief, but not connected with any si^ciety. 
He is prominent in secret society circles, 
and is one of the oldest members of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, being initiated into that or- 
der October 21, i8i;6. He was exalted to 
the Royal Arch June 10, 1876, and created 
a Knight Templar October 9, 1878, and took 
the Wisconsin Consistory Scottish Rite de- 
gree February 9. 1881. His wife, daugh- 
ter and he are members of the Queen of 
Sheba Chapter, Order Eastern Star, at 
Reedsburg. Air. Smith joined the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows in 1866, and is a 
member of Baraboo Lodge, and Germania 
Encampment. He first joined the North- 
western Encampment, No. 20, at Reedsburg, 
and has filled all the chairs in both organi- 
zations. He is a member of Alliance Can- 
ton, Patriarchs Militant, at Baraboo, and 
Birch Lodge, Daughters of Rebekah. He 
has held inunerous offices in all of the above 
orders, and is also connected with the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen. His li- 
brary includes many volumes pertaining to 
fraternal societies, with which he is identi- 
fied, and is one of the most complete Ma- 
sonic and Odd Fellows' libraries in the state 
of Wisconsin. It includes proceedings of ' 
the Masonic Grand Lodge, from its organi- 
zation in 1843 to the present date, the pro- 
ceedings of the Grand Chapter organized in 
1S50, the First Grand Council in 1857. First 
Grand Commandery, Knights Templar, in 
1859, First Supreme Council in i860. First 
Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., for the Ju- 
risdiction of the United States in 1859; also 
proceedings of First Sovereign Grand Lodge 
of Wisconsin, Independent Order of Odd 



816 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



Fellows, in 1821, and all subsequent pro- 
ceedings to date; First Grand Encampment 
in 1852. Mr. Smith is a man of exemplary 
character, and does not seek public fa\'or, 
preferring- the quiet of private life. lie 
has been a lifelong Democrat in political 
sentiment, and cast his first vote for Frank- 
lin F'ierce frir president. 



CHAUXCEY FEN ROBERTS. 

Chauncey Fen Rolierts, after a long' and 
useful life, mostly devoted to agricultural 
pursuits, is now li\ing retired at his pleas- 
ant home in Portage, Wisconsin, surrounded 
l)y the comforts gained by former toil. He 
was Ijorn in the town of Springwater, Liv- 
ingston county. New York, March 21, 1831, 
a son of William and Phylecta (Dow'd) 
Roberts, also natives of that county. There 
the paternal grandfather, John Roberts, 
followed farming for some }-ears, but 
finally removed to Indiana, and later to 
Three Rivers, ^Michigan, where he died at 
an advanced age. In 1840 \Villiam Rob- 
erts, our subject's father, went to Indiana 
and settled on a farm near South Bend, but 
returned to New York two or three years 
later. In 1845 ^^^ came to Wisconsin, locat- 
ing first in Walworth county. He brought his 
family and household goods by water from 
Buffalo, New York, to Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
and on his arri\al in Walworth ciiunty had 
Init .$11.50 Avith which to begin life in the 
west. After tA\o years spent in that county, 
he came to Columbia county, and settled in 
Scott township, where he bought one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land at one dollar 
and a quarter per acre, and on the borrowed 
money with which he paid for it he had to 
give fifty ]jer cent, interest. He continued 
to make his Ikmiic upon that place until called 
from this life in 1866, at the age of seventy- 



four years. He was a devout member of the 
Free Will Baptist church, and a deacon in 
the Scott church, which he assisted in organ- 
izing. His w'ife also took an active part in 
church work and both were highly esteemed 
by all who knew them. She survi^■ed her 
husband only a }-ear or two, dying at the 
age of se\'enty-three years. 

The boyhood and youth of Chauncey F. 
Roberts were mainly passed upon the home 
farm in Columbia county, and though his 
literary education was limited, his training 
at farm work was not meager and he early 
became a thorough and skillful agriculturist. 
Fie assisted his father in the improvement 
and culti\ation of the farm until the latter's 
death, antl continued to carr_\- it on until 
188], since which time his son has had 
charge of it. In that year he purchased a 
tract of 180 acres of land in the old Fort 
Winnebago reservation and improved and 
operated that farm for several years. He 
has always been industrious, enterprising and 
energetic, and for a number of years, in ad- 
dition to cultivating his land during the sum- 
mer, he operated a threshing machine m the 
fall and worked in the pineries with his team 
through the winter. He is a good horseman 
and has bred some very fine animals. Since 
1895 he has been living retired in Portage, 
where he owns several lots and buildings,, 
from which he derives a good income. 

On the 30th of April, 1853, was cele- 
brated the marriage of Mr. Roberts and Miss 
Alma S. Barker, a native of Byron, Genesee 
county. New Yoik, and a daughter of Hugh 
and Mary ( Guthrie j Barker, also natives of 
the Empire state, who in 1884 came to \Vis- 
consin, and after li\'ing in Sugar Creek town- 
ship, Walworth county, for about five years 
came to Columbia county, settling in the 
town of Marcellon. The father, who was 
born in Cayuga county. New York, died in 
Packwaukee, Wisconsin, in i860, at the age 
sixty-six years. His wife had previously 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



819 



passed away October i8, 1854, at the age 
of sixty-two. Mrs. Roberts' paternal grand- 
father, Joseph Barker, with a nnnil)er of his 
neighbors, was captured liy the Indians (hn-- 
ing the Revolutionary war, and at the same 
time his house was burned and all of his 
property destroyed. Fortunately he made 
his escape from the red men the second night 
after his capture. His wife was not taken. 
Prior to her marriage JMrs. Rolicrts success- 
fully engaged in teaching se\-eral terms of 
school in Columbia county. She is the 
mother of two children : Alary, now Mrs. 
John Jar\-is, of Pacific, Columbia county; 
and Mark W'., a [jroniinent farmer of 
Scott township. Air. and Mrs. Roberts also 
have eight grandchildren and one g'reat- 
grandchild, and all constitute an intelligent 
and cultured family, wdiich is cjuite prom- 
inent socially. Our subject and his wife 
have always attended the Baptist church, and 
he belongs to the American Protective Asso- 
ciation. Politically he has been a life long 
Republican, for two years served as asses- 
sor of Scott townshij), and has always 
taken considerable interest in public afifairs. 
He has also taken an active interest in the 
Columbia County Fair; has attended its ex- 
hibitions every year but one since the society 
was organized in 185 1; has generally been 
a contributor to the same; and has frecpiently 
held office in the society. Pie is well known 
throughout the county for his sterling char- 
acter and worth and has a host of warm 
friends, all of whom will be pleased to find 
portraits of Mr. Roberts and his estimable 
wife on another page of this work. 



ADOXIRAM JUDSOX HODGES. 

Adoniram Judson Hodges, a veteran of 
the Civil war, now residing in \\'voccna, is 
nnc nf a family which has distinguished it- 



self for patriotism on manv occasions. He 
was born in Camliridgc. Washington county, 
X'ew York, October 11, 1835, and was a 
sen of Aliel and Hannah (Sliter) Hodges, 
\\lio were nati\es of Rensselaer county, Xew 
Vurk. The name is also written "Hodge." 

Abel Hodges, the first of his name in 
America, came from Ireland and settled in 
Connecticut. His sun, Abel, the grand- 
father of our subject, enlisted in the Conti- 
nental army from Hartford, and assisted 
in the defense of Xorwich, when that place 
was attacked 1>\' the British. The father 
of our suljject, Abel HI., ser\-ed in the war 
of 181 J at the battle of Plattslnu-g. He was 
born in Rensselaer count}', but lived and 
died on a farm in Washington county. New 
^'ork, antl reached the age of sixty-nine 
}-ears. The grandfather of our subject lived 
t>j the advanced age of nearly ninety-three 
}'ears. Our subject's mother died at Cam- 
bridge when he was but two years of age. 
His maternal grandfather, John Sliter, came 
from the M(jhawk \alley, and was over six 
years in the Revolutionary army, and died 
in Lewis county. New York. 

A. J. Hodges spent his boyhood in X"ew 
York, and September 22, 1857, came to 
\\"isconsin and settled in the town of Wyo- 
cena. He later spent some years at carpen- 
ter work, Ijut since 1885 has resided on his 
present farm. This consists of forty acres 
and is a pleasant and well cultivated estate. 
ITe enlisted February 10, 1864, in the United 
States army at Madison, Wisconsin, and 
was assigned to Battery A, Fourth United 
States Artillery. He was discharged Au- 
gust 9, 1865. He spent nine months at Car- 
lisle, Pennsylvania, being detailed as musi- 
cian in the Third Division Band under Ma- 
jor Sawyer, Camp Stoneman. Previous to 
entering the service, he was a member of a 
band at Wyocena, which went with the 
Eighth Wisconsin Infantry — the "Eagle 
Regiment." After leaving Carlisle he was 



320 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



stationed at Camp Barry, and organized a 
post band of sixteen members, and led the 
same until he was sent to the hospital a short 
time before his discharge from the service. 
He is a member of William Pa_vne Post, G. 
A. R., at Pardeeville. 

Our subject was married December 23, 
1855, to Mary Ann Wait, a daughter of Lee 
Warner and Lydia (Stearns) Wait, of Paw- 
let, Vermont, where Mrs. Hodges was born. 
Mrs. Hodges is a granddaughter of Dei- 
dama (Warner) Wait, a sister of Colonel 
Seth Warner of Revolutionary fame. Nine 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Hodges, who are as follows : Anna, now 
Mrs. Leon Pope, of Wyocena; Emma, de- 
ceased; Hattie, deceased; May, deceased; 
Edwin T., of \\'yocena ; Maude, who mar- 
ried John Price, and is deceased ; lulna died 
in childhood ; Charles, deceased ; and Bes- 
sie, residing at home. Mr. and Mrs. Hodges 
have six grandchildren. The family at- 
tend the Congregational churcli, and are 
held in the highest esteem in the commu- 
nity in which they have their home. Mr. 
Hodges voted for Eremont, and has since 
been a Republican politically, and the 6th 
of November, 1900, voted for INIcIvinley. 



FRITZ DrrTBENDER. 

Eritz Dittbender, a prominent stock 
raiser of Quincy township, Adams county, 
residing on section nineteen, who, with his 
sons, owns about seven hundred acres of 
land, is one of the early settlers of that re- 
gion. He was born in Berlin, Germany, 
May 27, 183 1, and was the son of John 
and Louisa (Ealk) Dittbender, of Berlin. 
His father was a farmer by occupation. 

Of four children our subject was the 
youngest, and attended school imtil four- 
teen years of age, after which, until twenty- 



seven years of age, he worked on a farm, 
and then served in the German army for 
tliree years. He came to America in 1S58, 
locating in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in 
i860 purchased one hundred acres of land 
ii, Quincy township, Adams county. He 
made section 19 his home, and has erected 
a comfortable dwelling and barns. He and 
his sons make a specialty of stock raising, 
and for a number of years have marketed 
large numbers annually, and at present have 
aljout se\-enty head. They cultivate about 
two hundred acres of land to rye, corn and 
potatoes, and have met with success, both in 
grain and stock raising. 

Mr. Dittbender was married in July, 
1858, to Johanna Dittman, daughter of 
Nicholas and Anna Dittman, of Quincy. 
Mrs. Dittbender died in 1862, leaving two 
cliildren, as follows: August, nuw farm- 
ing in Quincy township; and ^lary, now 
Mrs. Roskouskie, of Chicago. Mr. Ditt- 
bender married Lena Stevens, daughter of 
Lduie and I'anny Stevens, of Jackson town- 
shij), Adams county, January 24, 1863. 
Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Dittbender, as follows : Louie, born Octo- 
ber 2y, 1864; Eanny, born October 15, 1866, 
now Mrs. C. Ganther, of Necedah ; Minnie, 
born May 5, 1868, now Mrs. J. Lobenstein, 
of Germantown; Ered, born August 11, 
1871, farming in Quincy township; Charles, 
born June 11, 1880, now residing at home; 
William, born August 3, 1882; and Henry, 
born October 5, 1884. 

Louie Dittbender was aflforded good edu- 
cational advantages, and at the age of 
seventeen* went into the pineries of Wood 
and other counties, and worked for fourteen 
winters. He was on the drive on the Yel- 
low river and the Tomahawk river. At the 
age of thirty-one years he went to farming 
on his land in sections 18 and 19, in Quincy 
township, Adams count}', and has a well- 
improved tract comprising three hundred 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



321 



and sixty acres. He also assists his father 
with the work on the home farm, and the 
father and son are counted as among the 
foremost men of their caHing. 

Fritz Dittbender is a member of the 
Lutheran church of Quincy, and is a gen- 
tleman of the highest character. He does 
not advocate the principles of any one party, 
but lends his influence for the best govern- 
ment, and does not take an active interest 
in political affairs. He has witnessed the de- 
velopment of Adams county, and has been 
a potent factor in its advancement. He is 
thorough and practical in his business, and 
has gained a competence through honest ef- 
forts. The community where he has made 
his home lor so many years are well ac- 
quainted with his characteristics, and he oc- 
cupies a high place in the minds of his as- 
sociates. 



JAMES W. COAPMAN. 

James W. Coapman was born in Halls- 
ville, Montgomery county, New York, Sep- 
tember 29, 1839, and resided there upon 
his father's farm, with the exception of 
about two years, 1852-53, spent as clerk in 
a drug, book and variety store at Little Falls, 
Herkimer county, New York, kept by his 
uncle, James W. Cronkhite, and Samuel F. 
Bennett, co-partners. His father, John 
Coapman, married Hannah Cronkhite, of 
the town of Minden, Montgomery county. 
New York. Three brothers, Norman, An- 
son and Abram D., and one sister, Mary 
E., were born on the old homestead, as was 
also the father. His ancestors were among 
the first settlers of the Mohawk valley in 
New York, and the farm on which he and 
the other children were born was in posses- 
sion of the Coapman family for over one hun- 
dred years. His great-grandfather, Abram 
■Coapman, held a major's commission under 



General Stark in the Revolutionary war, 
and his grandfather, Jacob Coapman, held 
a captain's commission in the war of 181 2. 
His father, John Coapman, was a militia 
captain in Montgomery county. New York. 
In March, 1855, his father having disposed 
of the homestead, the eldest son, Xnrman, 
and his wife and their infant daughter, 
Alice L, and James \V. came to Wiscon- 
sin, the father having about a year ])efore 
visited the state and made extensix'e pur- 
chases of land in the township of Pacific. 
They were on the first passenger train that 
crossed the suspension bridge at Niagara 
Falls en route. The other members of the 
fanfily, with the exception of the mother, 
who died April 22, 1845, c'ame on within 
a year or two. What is known as the Ellis 
farm, east of \Vyocena about two nfiles, 
was rented by the 'ather for one year, to 
which place Norman and wife, infant daugh- 
ter, Alice I., and James W. removed soon 
after arrival in the state. One year there- 
after they removed to Wyocena. The 
mother having died, leaving five children 
cjuite young, they together with the father 
made it their home with the eldest brother, 
Norman, and wife. His sister, Mary, 
however, who resided with an uncle and 
aunt mostly since the death of the niuther, 
never resided very long in the state. 
The subject of this sketch attended school 
diligently for two years after coming 
to Wisconsin, and in 1857 entered the 
law office of Hill & Emery at Port- 
age, and pursued the study of that profes- 
sion until March 19, i860, at which time 
he was adnutted to the bar at Portage. 
Harlow S. Orton was at that time judge 
of the Ninth judicial circuit, which includ- 
ed Columbia county. After admission to 
the bar Mr. Coapman did not immediately 
enter into the practice of law extensively, 
but followed other pursuits until at length, 
when the demand of the government for a". 



d-22 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



available men to enlist and go to the front 
vas made, he considered the call personal to 
himself and enlisted in the General Mount- 
ed Service of the U. S. A., at Madison, 
Wisconsin. January 26, 1864, and served 
three years. Being in the regular army his 
discharge cculd not be obtained until the 
full expiration of his term of service. He 
was taken iirisoner at Hagerstown. ^lary- 
land. in the spring of 1864, together with 
others, whu were doing picket duty at 
Funkstown. General McClausland, of Gen- 
eral Early's command, intercepted them 
when returning from picket and completely 
cut them off from returning to their head- 
quarters. He, with other comrades, were 
ultimately taken to Andersonville, where 
they remained six months and were then 
transferred to Savannah, Georgia, at \\-hich 
latter place he with some others escaped and 
remained concealed until Sherman's army 
released them, December, 1864. ^Ir. Coap- 
man wrote up the reminiscences of his prison 
life, several years ago and they were pub- 
lished in a serial in the "Daily and Weekly 
Democrat." of Portage, occupying about 
fourteen ordinary newspaper columns. 

At the expiration of his war service 
ilr. Coapman settled in Kewaunee, Wiscon- 
sin, and engaged in the practice of law. 
He was elected to the office of district at- 
torne}- of Kewaunee county in 1878 and 
lield that office one term. He was also ap- 
pointed United States court commissioner 
for the eastern district of \\'isconsin about 
this time. For some time after leaving 
Kewaunee .Mr. Coapman followed other 
business and did not engage activeh- in the 
practice of h.is profession. He is now, how- 
ever, located at Portage and is in active 
practice. He is court commissioner of the 
countv. having received the appointment 
from judge R. G. Siebecker. In politics 
IMr. C. has always been a Republican. 
He is a member of the G. A. R., Rousseau 



Post, Xo. 14, of Portage. Of the members 
of the family his father and brothers, Nor- 
man and Anson, died in Wisconsin. His 
father died at Wyocena, January 25, 1873. 
Xorman, the eldest brother, died at the 
same place April 6, 1878, leaving his wife 
and four children surviving, viz : Mrs. Alice 
I. Todd, of Albert Lea, Minnesota; Mrs. Ida 
M. Farrington. of Arcadia, \\'isconsin; W. 
J. Coapman, of Xeedles. California, and 
Lynn X. Coapman. of Wyocena. who was 
for many years railroad agent of that place, 
but who is now a partner of the firm of 
Coapman & Irwin, doing a general mercan- 
tile, grain and stock business at Wyocena. 
Anson Coapman, the second son, died at 
his home in Pacific, January 10, 1896, leav- 
ing surviving his wife and two children,, 
viz : Mrs. Florence G. Older, of Portage, 
and Fred J. Coapman, who, with his son, 
Verne, resides upon the homestead in Pa- 
cific. Mrs. Anson Coapman also resides 
there. Abram D. Coapman is railroad agent 
at Columbus, \\'isconsin. He has been con- 
tinuously in the service of the St. Paul 
Company as agent for upwards of thirty- 
five years. He has three children. His 
eldest son, Burt, is trainmaster of a division 
of the Illinois Central Railroad. The sec- 
ond son, Frank, is dispatcher at West Pull- 
man, Chicago. The third son, Wallie, still 
a boy, is at home with his father and mother. 
The only sister of the family, ]\Irs. !Mary 
E. Easton, and her husband reside at Rich- 
field Springs, Otsego county, X"ew York. 
The\' ha\-e two children, both of whom are 
married. Fred Easton is a physician in 
practice at S3"racuse, X'ew York. Their 
daughter, ^Irs. \Mnifred ^laud Dodd, and 
her husband, Dallas Dodd, reside in Utica, 
Xew York. 

'Sir. C. was twice married. His first 
wife was Miss Anna E. Teed, of Port 
Washington, Ozaukee count}^ \^'^isconsin. 
Two children were born to them, ^label, 



COMPnNDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



323 



who died in infancy, and Eloise May, who 
resides with her mother at Wauwatosa, Wis- 
consin. His second wife was Miss Eva 
J. Spicer. of Pardeeville. No children were 
born of this marriage. 



L.\FAYETTE MORTTER KELLEY. 

Among the brave men wiio devoted the 
opening years of their maniiood to tlie de- 
fense of our country from tiie internal foes 
who sought lier dismemberment, was tlie 
subject of this review, now a prominent 
farmer of W'infield townsliip, Sank county, 
Wisconsin. He was burn in Meredith. Bel- 
knap county, Xew Hampshire, February 4, 
1847, and is a worthy representative cjf an 
old and very patriotic family of New Eng- 
land, his parents being Charles R. and Eliza 
J. (Dearborn) Kelley. His ancestors were 
from Ireland, and on account of Cromwell's 
edicts came to America in 163J and were 
among the first settlers of Dover. New 
Hampshire. Their descendants participated 
in the early Indian wars and the paternal 
great-grandfather of our suliject ser\-e(l with 
distinction as a major in a New \'ork regi- 
ment of the Continental army during the 
Revolution, while the grandfather, 'i'imothy 
Kelle\', was a soldier of the war nf 181J 
and took part in the battle of Plattsl)urg. 
Unfortunately the records of the famil}^ 
were destroyed in the Boston fire of 1872. 

Charles R. Kelley, our subject's father, 
was a native of Sanbornton, New Hamp- 
shire, and for some time was a militiaman 
in that state. His com])any \\as called out 
during the war with Mexico, but being a 
strong Abolitionist and opposed to war, he 
resigned. He was one of the promoters 
of the "underground railroad," and assisted 
fugitive slaves escaping from New (3rleans 
boats at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on 
their wav to Canada. Bv trade he was a 



tanner and currier and operated a tannery 
at Meredith village for many years. In 
1854 he sold his interests in the east and 
came to Wisconsin, spending one year at 
Baraboo, and then locating on a farm on 
section 14, W'infield township, Sauk county, 
where he died July 4. 1889, at the age of 
seventy-fiiur years. He was a man highly 
respected by all wlm knew li'm and had 
manv warm friends in this cnmty. His 
wife, who is now in her eightieth year, was 
born at Fort Ann, Washington county. New 
York, and is a daughter of George and Mar- 
tha (Demerit) Dearborn. Her father was 
a native of Ossijiee, New Hampshire, 
whence he went to Fort Ann. He was of 
English descent and a cousin of General 
Dearborn, who won fame in the war of 1812. 
He was also in the conflict and participated 
in the battle of Plattsburg. Hs wife was 
born in Canada of French lineage, and her 
mother was a sister of the grandmother of 
the famous "Long Ji.ihn Wentworth," of 
Chicago. 

Since a small boy La Fayette M. Kelley 
has made his home in Sauk county, and has 
borne his part in her upbuilding and de- 
velopment. In response to the president's 
call for more troops to aid in putting down 
the Rebellion, he enlisted. Deciiviber 20, 
1863. in Comi)any ]]. Twelfth Wisconsin 
\'olunteer Infantr_\-, and served under Gen- 
eral Sherman through the Atlanta cam- 
paign until July 28, 1864, when he was 
wounded at Ezra Chapel, near Atlanta, and 
was then confined in different h{)spitals un- 
til honorably discharged July 15. 18.55. ^^ 
shell struck his right side, caus'ng a severe 
wound and leaving a terrible scar. He had 
two brothers who were also in th.e service, 
Charles E. being a member of Company F, 
Fifty-first Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
and George W., a member of Company F, 
'i liird Wisconsin Cavalry. A few years 
after the .war Mr. Kellcv became interested 



824 



COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY. 



in farming on his own account in Winfield 
township, where he now owns a well im- 
proved and highly cultivated farm of one 
hundred acres on section i6. 

On the 6th of November, 1867, was 
celebrated the marriage of Mr. Kelley and 
Miss Mary E. Wener, a native of Burling- 
ton, Wisconsin, and a daughter of Charles 
and Dorothea (Kiber) Wener, of Reedsburg. 
Her father, who was a native of Bavaria, 
Germany, and a blacksmith by occupation, 
died in Burlington. Her mother afterward 
married Peter Enser, who came to Reeds- 
burg in 1852. He enlisted March 4, 1862, 
in Company A, Nineteenth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteer Infantry, was captured at Fair Oaks, 
Virginia, and confined in Libby prison for 
gix months. He was mustered out June 
21, 1865, and died at Reedsburg, in Febru- 
ary, 1897, at the age of seventy-three years. 
Mrs. Kelley's mother died at the same place 
in March, 1888, at the age of seventy- four. 
The children born to our subject and his 
wife are as follows: James H., an engineer 
residing in Winfield township; Mary M., 
wife of C. Lindkugel, of Spencer, South 
Dakota ; Iva, a resident of Janesville, Wis- 
consin; Mabel H., a teacher of Spencer, 
South Dakota ; Charles R. ; Inez ; Ida ; 
Walter R. ; La Fayette M. ; Ella M. ; and 
Florence E. All have received good educa- 
tional advantages. 

Mr. Kelley assisted in organizing H. A. 
I'ator Post, G. A. R., at Reedsburg, and has 
since been one of its most prominent and 
active members, serving as adjutant three 
terms, as senior vice commander and as 
commander two terms, being the present in- 
cumbent in the last named office. For many 
years he affiliated with the Republican party, 
but is now an advocate of the free coinage 
of silver at a ratio of sixteen to one, and he 
has most capably and satisfactorily served 
as assessor, treasurer and justice of the 
peace in ^^'infieId tuwnship. 



AMOS BROWN. 

Amos Brown, residing on section 23, in 
Easton township, Adams county, is a pio- 
neer settler of that region. He was born 
in Scott, Cortland county, New York, No- 
vember 9, 1828, and was the son of Sidney 
and Lovina (Salisbury) Brown. 

The father of our subject came to Adams 
county and settled in Easton township in 
1854, taking one hundred and sixty acres 
of government land, and engaged in farm- 
ing. The house now occupied by his sons 
stands on that tract. T