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Bequest of 

Frederic Bancroft 




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His Life and Writings 





9^^- 73 

Copyright, jgi6, 
The Encyclopedia Press, Inc. 

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1. • •• • • 

THIS volume is for a testimonial of the high esteem and 
admiration in which the late Andrew J. Shipman was held 
by his friends, whose names are herein inscribed. It is also, in 
a measure, the perpetuation of some of his many achievements 
in numerous fields of activity, as well as an inadequate though 
affectionate tribute to his virtues as a citizen and a church- 
man, whose thought, whose word and whose deed were always 
in perfect accord with the high ideal of life which he cherished 
so ardently and exemplified so nobly throughout his career. 

The editor wishes to express his thanks to the pub- 
lishers of "The Catholic Encyclopedia" (Moscow, Glagolitic, 
Iconostasis, Hungarian Catholics in America, Slavs in America, 
Slavonic Language and Liturgy, Greek Catholics in America, 
Rites in the United States, Raskolniks) ; "The Catholic World" 
(Spain of To-Day, Recent Impressions of Spain, McClure's, 
Archer and Ferrer); "America" (How Ferrer Was Tried, 
Latest Tactics as to Spain, The Poles in the United States) ; 
"The Columbiad" (A Vision of American Citizenship, Stretch- 
ing the Constitution, The Catholic Part in Civic Progress, 
Cardinal Raphael Merry del Val) ; "McClure's Magazine" (An 
American Catholic's Review of the Ferrer Case) ; "The Mes- 
senger" (Our Italian Greek Catholics) for permission to re- 
print articles of Mr. Shipman's originally appearing in their 
respective publications. 


PoRTRALT OF Andrew Jackson Shipman .... FroYitisptece 


List of Subscribers ^" 


Biographical Sketch '^^^ 

Spain of To-day 

Recent Impressions of Spain ^7 

An American Catholic's View of the Ferrer Case ... 32 

McClure's, Archer and Ferrer 47 

The Latest Tactics as to Spain 66 

The Situation in Portugal 7i 

vIm migration to the United States ^3 

v/The Poles in the United States loi 

Our Italian Greek Catholics ^^ 

v<!:atholics of the Eastern Rites in the United States . . 121 

Moscow ^^ 

Glagolitic ^^ 

iconostasis ^^^ 

^^ungarian Catholics in America ^55 

>^LAvs IN America ^"^ 

Slavonic Language and Liturgy 182 

Greek Catholics in America i^ 

Rites in the United States ^^3 

Raskolniks • ^40 

v^t^rvic Integrity ^49 

yh Vision of American Citizenship ...... 255 

Stretching the Constitution ^^^ 

vThe Catholic Part in Civic Progress V^ 

Roman Catholicism ^°^ 

The Church and Art • .297 

Cardinal Raphael Merry del Val 305 

Education and Religion • • • 3i9 

Manners Maketh Man ^^7 

Women in Science ^^^ 

Address to Graduates of the College of New Rochelle, 191 i . 339 

Address to the Graduates of Georgetown University, 1911 . 348 

The Proposed Catholic Association 355 


Adams, T. Albeus New York, N. Y. 

Adikes, John Jamaica, N. Y. 

Adrian, J. M New York, N. Y. 

Agar, John G New York. N. Y. 

Alexander, C. B New York, N. Y. 

Amberg, John Ward Chicago, III. 

Amy, L. H New York, N. Y. 

Anderton, Stephen Philbin New York, N. Y. 

Arkell, Mrs. Louisana Grigsby New York, N. Y. 

Arnold, Edward A New York, N. Y. 

August, Bro. Henry Pocantico Hills, N. Y. 

Avery, Brainard New York, N. Y. 

Bancroft, Edgar A Chicago, III. 

Barrettt, Edmund E New York, N. Y. 

Barron, Rev. James, c. ss. r Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Beller, William F New York, N. Y. 

Bennett, Wm. H Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Benziger Brothers • New York, N. Y. 

Benziger, Louis G Montclair, N. J. 

Benziger, Nicholas C Summit, N. J. 

Bernard, Very Rev. Father New York, N. Y. 

Berri, William Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bisbee Council K. C Bisbee, Ariz. 

Blake, Edward Perry New York, N. Y. 

Blandford, Joseph H., Jr Brandywine, Md. 

Blandy, Charles New York, N. Y. 

Blaznik, Rev. Aloysius Leo. Haverstraw, N. Y. 

Bodfish, William: A Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Brackett, Edgar T .Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Brann, Rt. Rev. Henry A., d.d New York, N. Y. 

Britt, T. Louis A New York, N. Y. 

Broderick, Daniel I Catonsville, Md. 



Brophy, W. H BisBEE, Ariz. 

Brozys, Rev. V. T i Mt, Carmel, Pa. 

Burke, Martin M. Shenandoah, Pa. 

Burr, William P New York, N. Y. 

Butler, William , New York, N. Y. 

Byrne, James New York, N. Y. 

Cahill, John Henry New York, N. Y. 

Cahill, Santiago P. New York, N. Y. 

Callaway, Wm. T Quogue, N. Y. 

Campbell, Francis P. ........ .< New Bedford, Mass. 

Canevin, Rt. Rev. J. F. Regis Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cannon, Chas. M New York, N. Y. 

Carolan, J. J New York, N. Y. 

Carr, Henry P.. .Philadelphia, Pa. 

Carton, Harold Jerome New York, N. Y. 

Carton, James D.. Asbury Park, N. J. 

Cassidy, John H Waterbury, Ct. 

Catholic Club of New York City New York, N. Y. 

Chamberlain, Mr. & Mrs. Albert S Hartford, Ct. 

Chaplinsky, Very Rev. Mgr. Joseph. .Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Chidwick, Rt. Rev. John P., d.d Yonkers, N. Y. 

Clare, William F New York, N. Y. 

Clearwater, Judge Alphonso T .Kingston, N. Y. 

CoNATY, Rev. Bernard S Pittsfield, Mass. 

CoNBOY, Martin New York, N. Y. 

Condon, Martin J.. .Memphis, Tenn. 

Connolly, Very Rev. Mgr. J. N .New York, N. Y. 

Conrad, Rt. Rev. Frowin, o.s.b Conception, Mo, 

Cooke, Abbot S Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CoYLE, John G., m.d New York, N. Y. 

Creighton University Library. . . ., Omaha, Nebr. 

Crimmins, John D.. New York, N. Y. 

Cruikshank, Alfred B New York, N. Y. 

CsoPEY, Very Rev. Nicholas Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Cunningham, Francis A Merchantville, N. J. 

Cunnion, Frank P ,. . . . .New York, N. Y. 

Cybulski, Rev. M ,. Sioux City, Iowa 

Daly, Rev. John A Dorchester, Mass. 

Daly, Joseph F New York, N. Y. 


Daly, Michael J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Davey, Rev. J. C, s.j .Philadelphia, Pa. 

Davison, Clarence! S .Tarrytown, N. Y. 

De Courcy, Chas. a Lawrence, Mass. 

Deitsch, Mary M Brooklyn, N. Y. 

De Lacy, George C .New York, N. Y. 

Delahanty, Daniel Pelham, N. Y. 

Delahunty, John New York, N. Y. 

Delany, Rev. Joseph F New York, N. Y. 

DEs Garennes, Jean F. P Flushing, N. Y. 

Devine, Thomas J Rochester, N. Y. 

Devoy, John W Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Deyo, Israel T Bingh amton, N. Y. 

DiNAND, Rev. Joseph, s.j Worcester, Mass. 

DoNLON, Rev. A. J., s.j Washington, D. C. 

Donnelly, James F New York. N. Y. 

DooLEY, John R New York, N. Y. 

Dooley, Michael F Providence, R. I. 

Dooley, William J Boston, Mass. 

Douglas, Wm. Harris New York, N. Y. 

Dowhovych, Very Rev. Waldimir Yonkers, N. Y. 

DowLiNG, Rt. Rev. Austin Des Moines, Iowa 

DowLiNG, Victor J New York, N. Y. 

Downing, Augustus S Albany, N. Y. 

Dreier, Katherine S New York, N. Y. 

Drennan, Very Rev. M. A Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Duffy, Charles H New York, N. Y. 

Duffy, John H New York, N. Y. 

DuRoss, Charles E New York, N. Y. 

Edwards, Rt. Rev. Mgr. John, v.g New York, N. Y. 

Eglin, Geo. A Kalona, Iowa 

EvERs, Very Rev. L. J New York, N. Y. 

Faour, Dominick J New York, N. Y. 

Fargis, Joseph H New York, N. Y. 

Farley, His Eminence John Cardinal. .New York, N. Y. 
Farrell, Very Rev. Herbert F., v.f. .Far Rockaway, N. Y. 

Farrelly, Rt. Rev. John P Cleveland, Ohio 

Finegan, Austin New York, N. Y. 

FiNEGAN, Thos. E Albany, N. Y. 


FiTZPATRiCK, James Philadelphia, Pa. 

Flannelly, Rev. Jos. F New York, N. Y. 

Foley, Rt. Rev. Mgr. M. F Baltimore, Md. 

Franklin, Joseph Lehigh, Ala. 

Frey, a. R New York, N. Y. 

Frey, Joseph New York, N. Y. 

Furey, John Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Fyans, Cornelius J New York, N. Y. 

Gannon, Frank S New York, N. Y. 

Gannon, Frank S., Jr New York, N. Y. 

Garver, John A New York, N. Y. 

Gaughan, Rev. James H Minneapolis, Minn. 

Gennert, Henry G New York, N. Y. 

George, Abraham New York, N. Y. 

Geringer, E.J Chicago, III. 

GiBBS, Michael P St. Johns, Newfoundland 

Gillespie, George J New York, N. Y. 

Glass, Rt. Rev. Joseph S., d.d Salt Lake City, Utah 

Glogowski, Very Rev. George Erie, Pa. 

GosTOMSKi, Rev. Francis J., s.t.l Watervliet, N. Y. 

Grady, Walter L Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Gregg, Rev. Thomas F New York, N. Y. 

Griffin, Very Rev. Wm. E. F Winona, Minn. 

Grossman, Moses H New York, N. Y. 

Guthrie, William D New York, N. Y. 

Haggerty, Louis C New York, N. Y. 

Haire, Andrew J New York, N. Y. 

Halloran, Miss Lizzie Nashville, Tenn. 

Hamilton, George E Washington, D. C. 

Hanley, Rev. Joseph, s.j Baltimore, Md. 

Hanselman, Very Rev. Joseph F., s.j Woodstock, Md. 

Hanulya, Very Rev. Joseph Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Harkins, Rt. Rev. Matthew Providence, R. I. 

Harris, Charles N New York, N. Y. 

Hayes, Cady Lanesboro, Minn. 

Hayes, Rt. Rev. Patrick J., d.d New York, N. Y. 

Healy, James A New York, N. Y. 

Heide, Henry New York, N. Y. 

Hendrick, Peter A New York, N. Y. 


Herbermann, Chas. G., ph.d., ll.d New York, N. Y. 

Herder, B St. Louis, Mo. 

Herrick, John R. Ottumwa, Iowa 

Heuser, Rev. Herman J Overbrook, Pa. 

HicKEY, Rev. David J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

HiCKEY, Rev. John F Cincinnati, Ohio 

HiCKEY, Rev. Wm. D Dayton, Ohio 

Him MEL, Rev. Joseph, s.j So. Norwalk, Ct. 

Hine, Charles DeLano Vienna, Va. 

Hirst, Anthony A Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hirst Library and Reading Room Washington, D. C. 


Horsey, Outerbridge New York, N. Y. 

Hotchkiss, Howard P New Haven, Ct. 

HowLETT, M. P Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hume, Nelson New Milford, Ct. 

Hurley, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Edw. F Lexington, Mass. 

Hynes, Thomas W Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ignatius, Mother M New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Jackson, Frederick S New York, N. Y. 

Jenks, Jeremiah W New York, N. Y. 

Joyce, Henry L New York, N. Y. 

Keane, Most Rev. John J Dubuque, Iowa 

Keany, Joseph F .Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kearney, Robt. S New York, N. Y. 

Keating, Henry Philadelphia, Pa. 

Keilty, M.J Geneva, N. Y. 

Kellogg, Walter Guest Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

Kelly, Edward Jeremiah E. Orange, N. J. 

Kenedy, Arthur New York, N. Y. 

Kent, Mrs. Percy New York, N. Y. 

Kernan, Joseph A New York, N. Y. 

Kerrigan, Joseph P Cynwyd, Pa. 

Kiernan, Patrick Maywood, N. J. 

King, Percy J New York, N. Y. 

Kisilowsky, Rev. Filemon Ansonia, Ct. 

Knappek, Rev. Paul .Newark, N. J. 

Kober, Dr. George Martin Washington, D. C. 


KuBEK, Rev. Emil A Mahanoy City, Pa. 

Kuziv, Rev. Michael Northampton, Pa. 

Langan, Jno. C Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lavelle, Rt. Rev. Mgr. M. J New York, N. Y. 

Law^ler, Joseph A Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lawyer, Florence Shipman Yonkers, N. Y. 

Lawyer, Marion Shipman Yonkers, N. Y. 

Leckie, a. E. L Washington, D. C. 

Lee, Thomas Zanzlaur Providence, R. L 

Leigo, Kathryn McGuckin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lennon, Maurice F Joliet, III. 

Lesley, Eulalia W Haverford, Pa. 

Library of St. Joseph's Convent Brentwood, N. Y. 

Lilly, Joseph T Brooklyn, N. Y. 

LisicKY, Rev. Paul J Lansford, Pa. 

Lisiecki, Frank F New York, N. Y. 

Lord, Chester S Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Louis, Mother M Brentwood, N. Y. 

Low, Seth Bedford Hills, N. Y. 

Loyola College Library Baltimore, Md. 

Loyola School New York, N. Y. 

Lynch, John H . .New York, N. Y. 

McAlenney, Paul Francis Hartford, Ct. 

McAvoy, Thomas F New York, N. Y. 

McCabe, Rev. F. X., cm Chicago, III. 

McCarthy, Florence J New York, N. Y. 

McCuE, Rev. Edward J , New York, N. Y. 

McDevitt, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Philip R Philadelphia, Pa. 

MacDonald, a. a., m.d Boston, Mass. 

McDonogh, M. F Philadelphia, Pa. 

McFarlan, Walter Sardo Washington, D. C. 

McGean, Rt. Rev. Mgr. J. H New York, N. Y. 

McGoldrick, Edward J , New York, N. Y. 

McGoLRiCK, Rt. Rev. James Duluth, Minn. 

McGuire, Edward J New York, N. Y. 

McGuiRE, Wm. J New York, N. Y. 

McHugh, Joseph P New York, N. Y. 

McIntyre, Rev. James T New York, N. Y. 

McKechnie, W. G Springfield, Mass. 


McKenna, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Edw New York, N. Y. 

McKenna, James A.. New York, N. Y. 

Mackenzie, Mrs. Jane New York, N. Y. 

McMahon, Rev. Jos. H., ph.d New York, N. Y. 

McManus, Edward F New York, N. Y. 

McNaboe, James F New York, N. Y. 

McNaboe, Peter V New York, N. Y. 

McParlan, Edward C. m.d New York, N. Y. 

McPartland, John E New Haven, Ct. 

McQuiLLEN, Paul Wm Passaic, N. J. 

Magrath, Patrick F Binghamton, N. Y. 

Maloney, Marquis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Malville, Neptune J San Francisco, Cal. 

Mandeville, H. C Elmira, N. Y. 

Mangan, Elizabeth . Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Manley, Capt. Alfred London, Ontario 

Markham, Francis J New York, N. Y. 

Marshall, Louis New York, N. Y. 

Mason, Jarvis W New York, N. Y. 

Mastick, Seabury C New York, N. Y. 

Menahan, p. J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Messmer, Most Rev. Sebastian, d. d Milwaukee, Wis. 

Moakley, William P New York, N. Y. 

Molloy, Joseph A New York, N. Y. 

Monaghan, Hugh L, ll.b Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mooney, Edmund L New York, N. Y. 

Mooney, Henry W New York, N. Y. 

Mooney, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Joseph New York, N. Y. 

Mooney, Wm. L Hartford, Ct. 

Moot, Adelbert Buffalo, N. Y. 

Moran, James, m. d New York, N. Y. 

Mount Saint Vincent, College of New York, N. Y. 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. P. J Rockford, III. 

Mullen, John J West Springfield, Mass. 

Mulligan, James R Newark, N. J. 

Murphy, Francis P New York, N. Y. 

Murphy, John H New York, N. Y. 

Murphy, Nora Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Murphy, Rt. Rev. Mgr. W. G New York, N. Y. 

Murray, Archibald, m. d New York, N. Y. 


Murray, Chas New York, N. Y. 

Murray, Thomas Edward New York, N. Y. 

Newman, James J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Nolan, James C St. Paul, Minn. 

Noonan, Rev. Hebert C, s. j Milwaukee, Wis. 

NussA, Rafael Lopez, m. d Ponce, Porto Rico 

O'Brien, John E New York, N. Y. 

O'Brien, Michael C, m. d, . New York, N. Y. 

O'Connor, John P St. Paul, Minn. 

O'Donnell, Rev. Richard Alderbrook, N. Y. 

O'DoNovAN, Charles. Baltimore, Md. 

O'DwYER, John Toledo, Ohio 

Ohligschlager, Jacob B Louisville, Ky. 

O'Keefe, John Philadelphia, Pa. 

O'Neill, Rev. John J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

O'Neill, Wm. M. A., ll.b Highland Falls, N. Y. 

Orr, William C New York, N. Y. 

Orun, Rev. Zachary Nanticoke, Pa. 

O'Shaughnessy, E. J New York, N. Y. 

Pace, Rev. E. A Washington, D. C. 

Pajkowski, Rev. Jos. S Chicago. III. 

Palen-Klar, Adolphe J Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pallen, Conde B New York, N. Y. 

Pavlak, Rev. Alexander Boston, Mass. 

Payne, John Carroll Atlanta, Ga. 

Pelletier, J. C Boston, Mass. 

Pendergast, J. Lynch New York, N. Y. 

Phelan, Rev. Thomas P Brewster, N. Y. 

Philbin, Hon. Eugene A New York, N. Y. 

Philip, Joseph , Dundee, Scotland 

Phillips, Samuel K Beacon, N. Y. 

PiTAss, Rev. Alex., ph.d., d. d Buffalo, N. Y. 

Plaznik, Rev. John Joliet, III. 

Poniatishin, Rev. Peter Newark, N. J. 

Power, John M Helena, Mont. 

Preisser, Rev. Stephen Anthony Syracuse, N. Y. 

Prendergast, William A New York, N. Y. 

Proffitt, Rev. Chas. C Garnerville, N. Y. 


Prystay, Rev. Alex Syracuse, N. Y. 

PuLLEYN, John Joseph New York, N. Y. 

QuiNLAN, Francis J New York, N. Y. 

Raczynski, Rev. A Cicero, III. 

Rainer, Rt. Rev. Mgr. J., v. g St. Francis, Wis. 

Rauh, Joseph A New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Redemptorist Fathers, St. Wenceslaus' Rectory, 

Baltimore, Md. 

Reiley, Robert J New York, N. Y. 

Reilly, Frederick J New York, N. Y. 

Reilly, Richard M Lancaster, Pa. 

Religious Sacred Heart of Mary Tarrytown, N. Y. 

RiDDER, Henry New York, N. Y. 

RiGGS, Thomas L New London, Ct. 

Rooney, John C New York, N. Y. 

Rooney, John Jerome New York, N. Y. 

RowE, Charles T. B New York, N. Y. 

RuDULPH, Zebulon Thomas Birmingham, Ala. 

Russell, Chas. T New York, N. Y. 

Ruth, Anna Frances : . . S. Pasadena, Cal. 

Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church of St. George 

New York, N. Y. 

Ryan, John D New York, N. Y. 

Ryder, Thomas J Mexico, D. F. 

St. Xavier College Cincinnati, Ohio 

Salamon, Rev. John D Elizabeth, N. J. 

Schneider, Fred M Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Schrembs, Rt. Rev. Joseph Toledo, Ohio 

ScHWEBACH, Rt. Rev. Jas La Crosse, Wis. 

Scott, Joseph Los Angeles, Cal. 

Seitz, Charles Goldfield, Nev. 

Seoane, Capt. Consuelo Andrew Fort Bayard, N. M. 

Shahan, Rt. Rev. Thos. J Washington, D. C. 

Shallow, Edward B Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Sheahan, Very Rev. J. F Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Sheedy, Dr. Bryan D New York, N. Y. 

Shepard, Mrs. Finley J Irvington, N. Y. 

Shields. George C Mansfield, Mass. 


Shipman, Carroll San Francisco, Cal. 

Shipman, Mary Priscilla Washington, D. C. 

Shipman, May P Washington, D. C. 

Sisters of Charity. . .Mt. St. Vincent-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Sloane, Chas. W Sands Point, N. Y. 

Smith, Edward N Watertown, N. Y. 

Smith, Frank W.. . . . .u .New York, N, Y. 

Smith, Rev. Joseph F New York, N. Y. 

Smith, Walter George Philadelphia, Pa. 

Spalding, Hughes Atlanta, Ga. 

Spencer, Nelson S New York, N. Y. 

Spillane, Re\^ Edward, s. j .Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stelle, Peter R New York, N. Y. 

Sterniuk, Rev. Myron Detroit, Mich. 

Stetson, Eliz. Carroll Shipman Washington, D. C. 

Stevens, Frank L.. New York, N. Y. 

Stoughton, Mr. and Mrs. C. R New York, N. Y. 

Strenski, Rev. Emil F Jamaica, N. Y. 

Sullivan, F. W Duluth, Minn. 

Synnott, Rt. Rev. Mgr. John Hartford, Ct. 

SzABo, Rev. John Toronto, Ohio 

Tack, Theodore A Philadelphia, Pa. 

Taintor, F. B New York, N. Y. 

Tennant, John A New York, N. Y. 

Thompson, Mrs. Campau Detroit, Mich. 

Thornton, Rev. Thos. A New York, N. Y. 

Tierney, Wm. L Greenwich, Ct. 

TiHEN, Rt. Rev. J. H Lincoln, Nebr. 

ToBiN, Chas. J Albany, N. Y. 

Tobin, Jos. S San Francisco, Cal. 

Tooley, Francis Laurence, d. d. s New York, N. Y. 

Treacy, Richard S New York, N. Y. 

Van Antwerp, Rev. F. J., ll. d Detroit, Mich. 

Vander Veer, A Albany, N. Y. 

Wakim, Rev. Francis New York, N. Y. 

Wall, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Francis H New York, N. Y. 

Walsh, Jas. J., m. d New York, N. Y. 

Ward, Cabot New York, N. Y. 


Webber, Charles A Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wehrle, Rt. Rev. Vincent Bismarck, N. D. 

Welch, Chas. J Port Washington, N. Y. 

Westwood, Herman J Fredonia, N. Y. 

Wielebinski, Rev. John N Schenectady, N. Y. 

Willcox, James M Villa Nova, Pa. 

Williams, Michael San Francisco, Cal. 

Wingerter, Chas. A., m. d Wheeling, W. Va. 

Wolf, Rt. Rev. Innocent, o. s. b Atchison, Kan. 

Wolfe, P. B Clinton, Iowa 

Wood, Frank S Batavia, N. Y. 

WooDLocK, Thomas F Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Wren, Peter W Bridgeport, Ct. 

Wynne, Rev. John J., s. j New York, N. Y. 

Yawman, Philip H Rochester, N. Y. 

Zeedick, Peter Ivan, m. d Pittsburgh, Pa. 





St. George's Ruthenian Greek Catholic Benevolent 


At a meeting of the St. George Ruthenian Greek CathoHc 
Benevolent Association, held on November 6, at 28 East 
Seventh Street, New York City, resolutions in memory of the 
late ANDREW JACKSON SHIPMAN were unanimously 
adopted. Mr. Shipman had been for four years the only 
honorary member of the association — a signal mark of friend- 
ship and grateful esteem on the part of the Greek-Ruthenians 
toward a benefactor whose services in behalf of the CathoHcs 
of the Uniat churches in this country cannot be overestimated. 

That the Greek Catholics feel keenly the loss they have 
sustained in Mr. Shipman's death, and cherish gratefully 
the memory of the brilliant services he performed for their 
welfare and prosperity, the memorial eloquently sets forth. 
Tribute is paid to the upright life and noble citizenship of the 
deceased, which are pronounced an inspiration to his fellows. 

The tribute closed with an expression of sincere sympathy 
and condolence with Mr. Shipman's sorrowing family, and 
bears the following signatures : The Rev. N. Pidhorecki, presi- 
dent ; B. Hociak, O. Sawicki, M. Sterka, Petro Palega, N. 



MoHANSic State Hospital 

We, the Board of Managers of the Mohansic State Hos- 
pital, in annual meeting assembled, to record how highly we 
valued the life : how deeply we deplore the death of our 
honored and beloved president, do resolve : 

Whereas, from the inception of this Board 


has been its president and although this was but one of the 
many disinterested public burdens that he assumed, he de- 
voted without stint his time, his great talents and his wide 
learning to its affairs. 

Unattended by the acclaim of the multitude he served ! 

The recipient of no personal reward from the vast interests 
for which he labored, he spent with generous prodigality in 
the public service a large measure of the life allotted to him. 
He was a man upon whom the state leaned and he became 
a pillar of her strength, and 

Whereas, his kindly, courteous and noble character has 
endeared him to us and to all with whom he was associated. 

Resolved, that in his death, which occurred on October 
17th, 1 91 5, his country and his state lost a model citizen, a 
generous patriot and we and all his associates a loved and 
honored friend. To his immediate family in their immeasur- 
able loss, we can but tender our deepest sympathy. 

Resolved, that this resolution be spread upon our minutes 
and a copy sent to his family. 

A. OuTRAM Sherman, 

Helen Gould Shepard Mary Flexner 

John J. Crennan Seabury C. Mastick 

William D, Granger 


Georgetown Alumni Society of New York 

By the death of 


Georgetown Alumni Society 
of New York City 
has lost one of its most distinguished and zealous members. 
His ever ready service, his generous co-operation in every- 
thing that promoted the welfare of his Alma Mater and the 
Alumni Society, his warm friendship for his fellow-alumni, 
and his generous assistance whenever the occasion offered, 
not only endeared him to all, but made him a shining example 
of devotion which few can emulate but none excel. 

His generous nature led him to give his time and talents 
without stint to every worthy cause. 

The distinguished position which he won by solid merit in 
his profession, his notable public and civic services which 
he gave freely and with largess in more than one direction, his 
sturdy and uncompromising love of truth and justice as a 
Publicist, the great work which he accompHshed out of the 
fullness of his charity for the Catholics of the Uniat Churches 
in the United States, make a unique and distinguished record 
which is a source of just pride and gratification to his fellow- 

While his loss in death is the cause of deep grief, his 

illustrious example in life is a source of great consolation. 

To his afflicted family the 

New York Alumni Society 

extends its profoundest sympathy. 

J. Lynch Prendergast, 

James S. McDonogh, 



The Encyclopedia Press, Inc. 

At a meeting of the 

Board of Directors 

of the 

Encyclopedia Press, Inc. 

held November, 191 5, the following resolution was upon 

motion unanimously adopted. 

In the death of 


a Director of the Encyclopedia Press, Inc., this Company 

suffers a loss which can be no more estimated than the grief 

of his fellow-Directors can be expressed in words. 

Not only is this Company deprived of his most valuable 
and generous services, but many other important interests, 
both civil and ecclesiastical, suffer likewise. 

The readiness, ability and wisdom with which he pro- 
moted the enterprise of publishing "The Catholic Encyclopedia" 
are entitled to the unceasing gratitude, not only of those with 
whom he co-operated in the production of the work, but of 
all who in any way derived benefit from its use. His name 
should be inseparably connected with this enterprise. 

The Directors of this Company and the Editors of "The 
Catholic Encyclopedia" express their deepest sympathy with 
Mr. Shipman's Widow and Family. 

Conde B. Pallen, 
W. C. J. Magee, 

John J. Wynne 
Arthur Kenedy 
Thomas F. Woodlock 
Eugene A. Philbin 
John D. Crimmins 
Chas. W. Sloane 
Thomas J. Shahan 
Edward A. Pace 


Xavier Alumni Society 
Cor unum et anima una 

At a Regular Meeting of the 

Council of the 

Xavier Alumni Sodality 

of the City of New York 

held on the 28th day of November, 191 5, the following 

resolution offered by 

John B. Doyle 
was unanimously adopted : 


has passed away, and 

Whereas, during the years of his life's work he was con- 
stant in his devotion to the 

Xavier Alumni Sodality 
as Sodalist, as President and in its Council, and — 

Whereas, his passing is a loss not only to the Sodality but, 
in its deepest significance, to the Church and to the State, for 
in him was realized the noblest ideal of a Christian gentle- 
man. With a personality of rare simplicity he combined the 
choicest gifts of mind and heart; his remarkable talents and 
attainments he used ungrudgingly for the benefit of others 
and to make our Faith better understood; he pursued the 
Law as a vocation of honor and of cherished traditions; he 
served the State purely, turning from praise or emolument ; 
he ever championed the Right and in particular the Eternal 
Right of Christ's Teaching, and by his stainless character, 
his respect for her authority, and his observance of her 
ordinances, reflected in every day of his life the spirit of holy 
Mother Church. Therefore, it is 

Resolved, that this be adopted as the unanimous sentiment 
at our grief and that it be spread upon the minutes of the 
Council of the Xavier Alumni Sodality. And it is 

Further Resolved, that a copy hereof be engrossed and 
signed by the President and the Reverend Moderator and 
presented to the wife of our late lamented member to express 
in some measure our sorrow and sympathy. 

John A. Ryan, 

T. J. Campbell, s.j. 



Catholic Club of New York 

The Catholic Club of the City of New York at its 
regular monthly meeting held at the club house on November 
nth, 1915, unanimously adopted the following memorial of 
MR. ANDREW J. SHIPMAN and directed its entry on the 

Andrew J. Shipman died at his home in this City on 
October 17th, 191 5. He had been a member of this Club 
for more than sixteen years. He served as a member of the 
Board of Managers in 1908-9. He was one of the Vice- 
Presidents in 1909-10-11. 

His character was admirable. His intellect was of the 
highest order. His personality was charming. He was a man 
of great vigor of thought and of loyalty to principle. He 
joined to these remarkable qualities an industry which was 
probably his most extraordinary gift. 

In all his official duties while an officer and manager of this 
club he illustrated this vigor, loyalty and industry so well 
that when he retired in 191 1, he left behind him a reputa- 
tion for efficiency which still continues. He was particularly 
zealous in all matters relating to learning and philosophy and 
the intellectual life. As chairman of the Library Committee 
he served the Club with signal success. 

His work in other ways is known to every one. He shed 
lustre on our membership by his achievements. Whether at 
work in his profession of the law or in public affairs or in 
the special field to which he devoted so much of both his 
mind and his heart in his later years, the care and protection of 
the Uniat Catholics of the Oriental rites ; the fame of his 
deeds was received by his fellow members of the Catholic 
Club with affectionate satisfaction. 

He did excellent work in the Constitutional Convention 
of 1915. Indeed it was his zeal and untiring devotion to 
his duties as a delegate which broke down his vigorous health 
and brought about his untimely death. 

In the midst of these great labors he remained one of 
the gentlest of men. He endeared himself to all by his genial 
disposition and his unselfishness. He was one of our most 
beloved members and his passing leaves a real gap among us. 

God in His Divine Providence has removed him in the 
flower of his activity and success. We are sure that he has 
passed to the great reward of His good and faithful servant. 


Catholic Theatre Movement 

The Executive Board of the Catholic Theatre Movement 
at its regular monthly meeting held at the residence of 
Right Reverend Monsignor Lavelle, 460 Madison Avenue, on 
February 7th, 1916, unanimously adopted the following me- 
morial of MR. ANDREW J. SHIPMAN and directed its entry 
on the minutes. 

Andrew J. Shipman had a charming personality, an in- 
tellect of the highest order, a character of sterling quality. 
He gave all these things to the service of the Catholic 
Theatre Movement, joined with an industry which was re- 
markable. He was one of the organizers of this society and 
helped to mark out the lines for its progress and to find out 
the ways for its development. His culture and knowledge 
of books and men helped greatly in the formation of the 
plans for the beginnings of the difficult work it took charge 
of. He continued earnest and interested until his untimely 


We desire to record here our sorrow at his departure 
from among us and to express to the members of his 
family our deep sympathy in their bereavement. 

Austin Finegan, 



The Marquette League 

Whereas, The Board of Directors of The Marquette League 
for Indian Welfare have learned with profound regret of 
the death of ANDREW J. SHIPMAN, for five years one of 
the Vice-presidents of this League. He actively shared in the 
management of the society and has left the impress of his 
forceful personality on all its activities during the period of 
his connection with it. The loss of so valued a citizen has 
evoked a general and profound expression of regret in which 
we, his former associates of The Marquette League, desire 
to formally join. 

Wherefore, As an expression of the intimate and par- 
ticular loss occurring to this society by reason of the death 
of Andrew J. Shipman, 

Be It Resolved, That this formal expression of regret be 
forwarded Mrs. Andrew J. Shipman and that it be spread 
upon the minutes of this meeting, the first since Mr. Ship- 
man's death. 

Eugene A. Philbin, 

Alfred J. Talley, 



New York State Board of Regents 

Abstract from the Journal of a Meeting of the Board 

OF Regents of the University of the 

State of New York 

Held in the State Education Building, Albany, 

October 21, IQ13 

The Board of Regents of the University of the State of 

New York met in the Regents' Chamber in the Education 

Building, Albany, at 10 a. m., October 21, 1915, pursuant to 

a call duly sent to each Regent as provided by law. 

The meeting was called to order by Vice Chancellor 
Vander Veer. 

The following Regents were present: Vice Chancellor 
Albert Vander Veer, Regents Chester S. Lord, William 
Nottingham, Francis M. Carpenter, Abram L Elkus, Adelbert 
Moot, Charles B. Alexander, John Moore and Walter Guest 
Kellogg. The President of the University and Commissioner 
of Education was also present. 

The Vice Chancellor reported an excuse for absence from 
Chancellor Sexton, which was voted satisfactory. 


Vice Chancellor Vander Veer read a letter from Chancellor 
Sexton as follows : 

October 20, 191 5. 

The Honorable Albert Vander Veer, 

My Dear Vice Chancellor: 

It will not be possible for me to attend the meeting of the 
Regents to-morrow, and I respectfully request them to excuse 
my absence. 

You will have just returned from the funeral of our de- 
parted brother, Regent Shipman, whose death has made us 
all very sorrowful. To the tributes which will be paid to him 
by the Regents and entered in their Journal, I would like 
to add an expression of my own great regard for Doctor 

My acquaintance with him has been short, having begun 
with his entrance into our Board, and our official relations 


therein have been mainly my opportunities for knowing him. 
But such association quickly made him a highly esteemed 
personal friend, and revealed him to me as an admirable man 
of marked ability and earnest devotion to noble purpose. 
His usefulness as a Regent of the University was great and 
increasing, and his counseling will be missed in our delibera- 

We will be moved to mention at this time our appreciation 
of his valuable service to the State in the recent Constitutional 
Convention, and we will gratefully recall the quieting satis- 
faction we had in knowing that he was one of the leading 
members of its committee on education. 

The members of the Board will probably wish to have in- 
serted in our Journal a portrait of Regent Shipman, together 
with a biographical sketch of his general career. 

With kindest regards. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Pliny T. Sexton. 

Remarks by Vice Chancellor Vander Veer 

My Brother Regents: 

We deeply regret the absence of our dearly beloved Chan- 
cellor Sexton. His absence, I understand, is due to illness 
in his family, though not of an alarming nature. He will be 
greatly missed, not only in our official duties for the day, but 
during the entire Convocation. 

The sudden and unexpected death of one of our asso- 
ciates brings us a sorrow that will permeate all our delibera- 
tions. In the death of Regent Shipman we are called upon 
to part with an unusually able fellow worker. He was un- 
tiring in his devotion to his duties as a Regent, and his very 
presence was one of cheer and comfort, especially when we 
had serious problems to consider. He was a broad-minded 
citizen, thoroughly posted upon a great variety of subjects, and 
possessed a knowledge with which we can ill afford to part. 

It seems proper that we should make record in our min- 
utes of our great respect for Regent Shipman and our deep 
appreciation for the past few years of beneficial assistance 
granted us by him. When we reach our roll call it will be the 
saddest in a period of nearly twenty years. To his family 


how sad must be the parting, and to them we can offer much 
in comfort and consolation. 

Tribute of Regent Lord 

We meet this morning in profound sorrow because of the 
departure from us, to return no more, of our friend and co- 
worker, Regent Shipman. I am sure that we all had come 
to be very fond of him because of his genial and kindly ways, 
his overflowing cheerfulness and his splendid companionship. 
He was a man of high ideals and of inborn refinement, a 
scholar in the fullest sense of the term, a pillar in the church, 
a comfort and a delight to his family circle, a man and a citizen 
above reproach. Those of us who attended his funeral yes- 
terday were profoundly impressed by the outpouring of people 
who had come to do him honor, and by the beauty and the 
solemnity of the service over his mortal remains. 

As a member of this Board he was able and faithful and 
willing, always ready to do a little more than his share and 
always performing every service with conscientious loyalty. 
His knowledge of the ways of the world and his conspicuous 
erudition especially fitted him to be an educator. He was a 
most useful member and we sorrow over his loss as an ad- 
viser and a helper, while we grieve over the departure of a 
friend and a cherished companion. 

Tribute of Regent Nottingham 

This circle has been suddenly and stealthily invaded by 
that messenger whose summons in cases like that of Regent 
Shipman means rest from earthly cares and labors and a call 
to activity in a wider sphere. He went out from us in the 
prime of life, with his "shadow just falling to the East," and 
in such apparent fulness of strength that we can scarce per- 
suade ourselves that he has not just stepped out for a moment, 
rather than departed not to return. Regent Shipman brought 
with him to this office a full appreciation of its importance 
and a keen sense of personal responsibility in the discharge 
of its duties. During his term of service, cut short by death, 
he evinced, by the study of every question and patient atten- 
tion to detail, his interest and love for the work. He enter- 
tained positive convictions upon mooted questions, and was 


always frank and outspoken in debate. Regent Shipman was 
an untiring student, and a scholar of wide and varied attain- 
ments, with much opportunity for travel and large acquain- 
tance with men and affairs. As a lawyer he stood in the first 
rank of the profession; and in the recent Constitutional Con- 
vention he did most important work. As an associate and 
co-worker in this Board I need not say to you that his effi- 
ciency, geniality and consideration endeared him to us all. 

Tribute of Regent Elkus 

It was with keen personal regret that I learned of the loss of 
our friend, Regent Shipman. I have personally known him 
for many years and respected and esteemed him for his great 
ability, his industry and his high character and ideals. It 
has been my pleasure to have served with him upon many of 
the committees of this Board, and thus to acquaint myself 
with the care and consideration which he gave to all his work 
and with the absolute fairness and impartiality of his mind and 
with the clearness of his judgment. He was a real lover 
of the work and the duties of the Board of Regents. The 
problems connected with the training of the young and the 
education of the elders for the professions, were to him tasks 
he esteemed as of the highest order and to which he was 
always ready to give his time, his best thought and his ability. 
His loss will be a personal one to all of us, as well as a great 
one to the cause of education and to the State. He found time 
to serve as a member of the recent Constitutional Convention, 
and there rendered great service not only in the cause of educa- 
tion but in all the problems connected with the administration 
of justice and other public matters. 

Tribute of Regent Moot 

Regent Shipman came to our Board a stranger to me, ex- 
cept that I had known of him as a scholarly lawyer of high 
repute, who was a member of a well-established law firm in 
New York City. After he became a member of our Board, 
he served upon committees with me, as well as upon the Board, 
and I came to value highly his judgment in matters as to 
which we had responsibility. He was so faithful, so modest, 
so scholarly, so considerate, so helpful, that our relations 


soon ceased to be official relations, and became, rather, the 
close, intimate and friendly relations of persons engaged in 
some good work who are doing their best to promote the 
common weal. At our last session at Buffalo, I could but 
notice the modesty with which he received the compliments 
showered upon him for his very helpful and intelligent work 
in connection with educational matters in the Constitutional 
Convention, of which he was a distinguished member ; he being, 
in fact, the only member of our body in that convention. He 
understood our ways and our policies, and it was an invaluable 
service he rendered to the people of this State in making our 
ways and our policies known to members of the convention, so 
modestly and yet so well that the convention, almost without 
discussion, provided in the Constitution for our continuance 
in well doing. 

I shall never forget the evening after the adjournment of 
our Board at Buffalo the pleasure I had in having Regent 
Shipman and his wife dine with me; then I became their 
guest at a simple entertainment, and once again the genial, 
pleasant, companionable and inspiring nature of the man 
revealed itself, and once again I saw his devotion to his wife, 
and thoroughly understood the cause for it. After the evening 
thus spent so agreeably that I shall never forget it, we bade 
each other "good-bye," and the next I knew of Regent Ship- 
man was the announcement of his death in the public press. 
His loss is not only a loss to the State and to our body offi- 
cially, but I believe it is a personal loss to each one of us, as 
I know it is a personal loss to me. 

Tribute of Regent Kellogg 

Regent Shipman was a scholar of attainments, a distin- 
guished lawyer, hard working, conscientious and thorough in 
everything that he did, zealous in his desire to serve the State 
and, with his many capabilities, rendering the State a splendid 
service. In his death, I have lost a good friend, and we a 
valued associate. 

Remarks by President Finley 

The death of Regent Shipman gave us special shock because 
there had been no word preparing us for it. When I last saw 


him, at the Regents' Meeting in Buffalo, I put into his hands 
some printed information about lake trips, hoping that he 
would find in a journey on the Great Lakes rest and refresh- 
ment after his unremitting labors of the summer, for I had 
had opportunity to know with what diligence and taxing of 
his strength he served the State during the months of the 
summer. The little room between the Regents' Chamber and 
my room was made his room and there he spent many hours 
at work until the sittings of his committees and of the Con- 
vention compelled his presence at the Capitol. 

And it was that intimacy of association which permitted me 
to know the breadth of his interest, the tolerance of his spirit 
and the quick flaming of his mind in behalf of justice or in 
sympathy with those who have suffered oppression or hard- 

I recall with satisfaction and gratitude that he was of 
the committee appointed by your Honorable Board to notify 
me formally of my election as President of the University 
and Commissioner of Education, and that the relationship 
which followed was most cordial and fraternal to the very 

To have earned distinction in his profession, to have evoked 
such tribute as was given him by his church and the church 
of the Slavic people whom he befriended, and to have had 
a deserved place in the highest educational board in the 
State, are witnesses that he served exceptionally his day and 

His death, in its very untimeliness, as it seems to us, in- 
tensifies our sense of loss, for we lose not only his presence 
but the prospect of his help through years to come. 

On motion of Regent Alexander, it was 

Voted, That the communication of the Chancellor and the 
remarks of the Vice Chancellor and the President of the Uni- 
versity, together with a biographical sketch and portrait of 
Regent Shipman, be embodied in the Journal of this meeting, 
and that Regent Moore be requested to make, on behalf of 
the Board of Regents, at the memorial exercises at the Uni- 
versity Convocation this afternoon, suitable expression of our 


deep sorrow in the death of our brother Regent and of our 
great appreciation of his high character. 

Proceedings of the Fifty-First Convocation of the 
University of the State of New York 

Auditorium, State Education Building, Albany, N. Y., 
Thursday afternoon, October 21, 1915, 2.30 p. m. The Honor- 
able Albert Vander Veer, M. D., Vice Chancellor of the 
University, presiding. 

Vice Chancellor Vander Veer: 

Since this program was arranged, a second sorrow came 
to the Board of Regents and the Department of Education in 
the sudden and unexpected death of Regent Andrew J. Ship- 
man, in memory of whom Regent Moore will now speak. 

Address in Memory of Regent Andrew J. Shipman 

By John Moore 
Regent of the University 

"God's finger touched him and he slept!" 

That which was mortal of Andrew Jackson Shipman, 
lawyer, scholar, churchman, constitutional reviser and Regent 
of The University of the State of New York, lapsed gently 
into death's embrace, at his home in New York, Sunday night ; 
and yesterday we gathered about his bier in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral in New York City, where the last honors of the 
Church — his holy mother — were bestowed upon a brilliant and 
devoted son. 

The death of Regent Shipman was wholly unexpected to 
his associates and aids in the University, to whom the sad 
news came with a force that shocked — and stunned. His de- 
mise is a loss to the community in which he lived ; it is a loss 
to the Church to which he gave devoutness of heart and 
sanctity of purpose ; it is a loss to the State to which he gave 
wise and sagacious counsel— to the Regents of the University, 
and the cause of public education, to an extent rarely felt in 
the passing of a Regent who had served less than three years 


on the Board — a board the elder members of which are rightly- 
regarded as most distinguished men. 

Our beloved associate in his church, professional and edu- 
cational life had achievements to his credit, not all known to 
the general public, which, when the record of his life is 
written will give to him a place of eminence in the law, in 
churchmanship, statesmanship and as a patriot, unswerving 
and unswervable. He knew how to be useful in these do- 
mains, and in many broad ways, but among men, and amid 
their activities, he was finely modest in example and action, 
for he was of the temper of those who "do good by stealth 
and blush to find it fame." 

Regent Shipman was an American through and through — 
an American Catholic gentleman of the flawless type. He 
loved the institutions of his country, and gave the best that 
was in him to their promotion and advancement. 

Pride of family he rightly had, but he made no display 
thereof. Born in the Southland he came to the Empire State 
for adoption, and New York never had a truer adopted son. 
His birthplace was in Springvale in Fairfax county, Virginia ; 
the date of his birth October 15, 1857, so that, dying on 
October 17, 191 5, he had just closed his fifty-eighth year. 
He was the son of John J. Shipman and Priscilla Carroll, and 
his early education was in the common schools of Virginia- 
Later he entered Georgetown University and still later New 
York University, taking his B. A. degree in the latter in 

For a considerable period he was engaged in the United 
States customs service investigating sugar frauds and other 
offenses against the national government, a work in which he 
rendered the Federal authorities most valuable aid. It was 
not until 1886 that he was graduated from the law school of 
New York University, and in the three decades which have 
elapsed he has achieved distinction not only by the general 
practice at the bar, but he has been chief counsel in many 
noted cases wherein new law has been definitely expressed, 
or, probably more correctly speaking, the true law has been 
fnore distinctly defined and established. He was in the 
notable litigation known as the St. Stephen's Church cases ; 
in many cases involving the relations of employers and em- 
ployees where the rights of collective or organized labor were 


at stake ; and also in important probate cases, all of great 
importance at the time and of equal moment to-day. 

Regent Shipman's last conspicuous legal work was as a 
delegate to the State Constitutional Convention in session 
in Albany during the summer just past, and it is the judg- 
ment of his confreres that he was one of the ablest and most 
industrious members of that great deliberative body. It is, 
I think, the judgment of his friends and of some of his asso- 
ciate Regents, that his labors as a student of constitutional 
revision, during a long and depressing summer, so under- 
mined his constitution and impaired his vitality that he was 
unable to combat an illness of pneumonia, with ensuing com- 
plications that caused death. 

President Finley, in intimate touch with the work of the 
constitutional revisers, cooperated freely with Mr. Shipman, 
and understands how seriously and laboriously our sleeping 
friend applied himself to the task of a revision of the consti- 
tution that would command the approval of our citizenry. 

There was an incident attending the final work of the con- 
vention which evinced the tolerant, courteous and forbearing 
attributes of the honored dead. The record shows that when 
the final vote was taken to determine whether the prepared 
revision should be submitted to the people, Mr. Shipman, an- 
nouncing that as written it did not express his ideals, credited 
the convention with having wrought with fidelity for the best 
as that body saw it, and, therefore, would not oppose its sub- 
mission to the people, but voted to do so. This was typical 
of the man, of the tolerant and able lawyer, of the fair- 
minded publicist — seeking to attain the best in the science of 

In the usual acceptation of the term, Mr. Shipman was not 
a politician. He was an adviser as to public policies in city 
and state, but not a practical performer ; he was wise in coun- 
sel, always advocating movements and policies of the better 

It is the ambition of most lawyers of his learnedness in 
the law, and of his juridical attainments, or qualities, to look 
forward to a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court, or 
higher, and it is to his honor if he cherished that ambition. 
But for his untimely death such a preference would doubt- 


less have been realized, but it would have been a loss to 
the Board of Regents. 

It was as a Regent that most of his associates here had 
come to know and love him. Two years ago last May he 
was elected by the Legislature to be a Regent of the Uni- 
versity, because he was admirably equipped for the duties 
that awaited. We found him at once an associate of fine 
mentality, strong in character as he was robust in person, 
wealthy in the humanities and ardent in moral, ethical and 
educational zeal. 

In the Board he was appointed chairman of the committee 
on educational extension and a member of the committees 
on law, licenses and appointments. On each of these com- 
mittees he served with the fullest measure of industry and 
with a soundness and discretion that marked him as one 
of the strongest and most useful in our councils. He was a 
practical aid to the Regents, and a firm adviser of our Presi- 
dent, with whose selection he had much to do. For this one 
service alone the State and the University should long remem- 
ber him with honor and deep appreciation. A more charming 
companion and entertaining, informative associate we can 
hardly look for in this work-a-day era. 

Take him as you will, Regent Shipman was truly ripe and 
wholesome. He knew life, and he knew it right, and saw 
it wnth eyes wide open, with vision unclouded, battling the 
abhorrent and welcoming the benign. His life's endeavors, 
and the honors conferred on him before he entered our circle, 
made manifest his learning and untarnished humanities. 

He was a doctor of laws by decree of his Alma Mater, 
Georgetown University. He was president of the Mohansic 
State Hospital, an associate manager of the Sevilla Home for 
Children, a member of the National Geographic Society, of the 
American Society of International Law, of the American 
Bar Association, of the New York State Bar Association, 
of the Municipal Art League of New York City, president 
of the New York City Alumni of Georgetown University, a 
member of the Southern Society, of the American Irish His- 
torical Society, one of the promoters of and a contributor to 
the Catholic Encyclopedia, a leader in the Knights of Co- 
lumbus, a member of the Manhattan Club, of the Catholic 
Club, of the Deutscher Verein, of charitable and uplift bodies 


like the St. Vincent de Paul Society, the Holy Name Society 
and of other organizations for the promotion of purity; he 
was active in the development of a moral stage and the 
elimination of immoral plays ; in fact, in the encouragement 
of the clean and decent in the drama, in musical farce comedy 
productions, etc. 

Surely this busy lawyer and peerless Christian gentleman 
was well engaged in the work of higher education, before he 
was chosen a Regent of the University. 

He found time, too, to promote the welfare of the Slavic,^ 
Hungarian and Italian emigrants on their coming to the 
United States ; to write for periodicals and to give public 
addresses about Russia, the Slavic peoples and the Eastern 
Church. He was accomplished as an Oriental scholar, familiar 
with the Slavic language, oral and written, and with the 
civil laws of those eastern peoples and the religious tenets, 
discipline and ceremonials of the Eastern Church. Many 
times he visited these peoples in^their homeland, where he 
was impressed by their spirit, their piety and integrity, love 
of music and of knowledge. He knew their conditions 
their home and church life, and was imbued by their h 
hopes and aims. 

Lawyers will be interested to know ; the refined, the 
scholarly and the seekers for truth and admirers of achieve- 
ment will be no less interested when informed that it was 
the tact, diplomacy and legal knowledge of Andrew J. Ship- 
man which brought into harmony and unity followers of the 
Greek rite in the United States with the authorities of the 
Roman Catholic church. 

The Slavic people are growing in numbers in our great 
cities, and have been numerous in the coal and ore mining 
districts of the United States. From the Atlantic coast to 
the Mississippi, yes to the Pacific coast, our sleeping associate 
is revered by followers of the Eastern rite. In their native 
land in the east Mr. Shipman was known and honored and 
among his choicest possessions when he died were the medals 
and decorations bestowed upon him by church dignitaries of 
the Greek rite and by Ruthenians who loved him. They will 
be treasured mementoes for the bereaved wife, so sympa- 

; in I 


thetic with Mr. Shipman in the deep and wide humanity that 
engrossed a part of his useful life. 

The mortal part of Andrew J. Shipman sleepeth, sleepeth 
until Resurrection's dawn and morn, but the spiritual part 
.yvill live forever. Those of us who attended the funeral cere- 
monies yesterday can never forget the event. It will be a 
memory treasure. Many of you are familiar with the im- 
pressive ceremony of final benediction according to the Roman 
Catholic rubrics, but few, I venture, have ever witnessed the 
ceremony according to the Greek rite. As a special honor 
to the dead the highest dignitary of the Eastern church in 
this country, assisted by priests of the Greek rite, conducted 
the last offices for the dead, with prayers and in chants en- 
toned with a pure and silvery sweetness. It was a beautiful 
service, the clear voices of the chanters, in chants often in- 
tense with the spirit of grief, of supplication, and of bene- 
diction, held Catholic and non-Catholic spellbound. The 
silvery cadences of the voices in prayer and grief-imbued 
chant can not be forgotten. 

Now I come to another thought about Regent Shipman 
that should not be overlooked, and that was his love of peace, 
the peace that goes with honor. Our dead friend the past 
year was greatly disturbed in mind and heart over the horrible 
warfare in Europe, partly because great peoples observing 
the Greek rite were involved, but also because he was an 
earnest advocate of peace between individuals and nations, and 
had powerfully labored to that end. He held that true peace 
can only exist in the domain ruled by sound morality, and 
that moral unsoundness is widespread and still growing. 

"Just think of it," said he, "it is immoral to steal, but 
banks build strong safety vaults. It is immoral to violate the 
laws governing the rights of person or property, but the best 
communities maintain strong police or armed forces. It is 
immoral to kill but the culture of Europe is at war, or armed 
to the teeth in readiness for war. Great armies clash with 
frightful losses of life, and down the scale of numbers the 
fighters lessen until only a handful of men engage in atrocious 
combat worse than a dog fight." 

In substance, thus spoke this patriotic, stalwart son of 
peace and piety. Thus spoke a sincere lover of the humane 
human, spoke one who could not father malice or cherish 


hate. Free of any bigotry in thought or act he respected 
and loved the peoples of every race or creed ; yes, loved them 
with a love next to that which he gave to his beloved wife, or 
held in memory for a saintly mother. He upheld the lofty 
in morals and ethics, first for our schools, and after that for 
the rest of mankind. Little wonder that each of his asso- 
ciates in this temple devoted to education is sorely bereaved by 
his departure, and prays that eternal sunshine be with him. 

The author ^ is unknown to me, but a Httle poem of eight 
lines appeals as quite fitting as an every-day creed for any 
who would emulate the example of our dead friend: 

I would be true, for there are those who trust me ; 

I would be kind, for there are those who care; 

I would be strong, for there is much to suffer; 

I would be brave, for there is much to dare ; 

I would be friend to all, the foe, the friendless; 

I would be giving, and forget the gift; 

I would be humble, for I know my weakness; 

I would look up, and love and pray and lift. 

Measured by the exalted sentiment of these inspiring words 
and lines, Andrew J, Shipman failed not. 

^ Regent Moore has been informed by one who listened to his address that the 
poem quoted was written in Japan some twenty years ago by an American. The 
fugitive lines have been read around the world, but nothing further is known 
about the authorship. 





Andrew Jackson Shipman was born at Springvale, Fair- 
fax Co., y^' on October 15, 1857, the eldest child of Priscilla 
Carroll and John James Shipman. From his mother he in- 
herited his quiet simplicity and unselfishness, together with a 
kind of gentle aloofness which was manifested except to a 
few dear and tried friends. Certain of her physical traits were 
his also,— the very dark hair, the deepset eyes and the contour 
of brow and cheek. His father gave him that wide sympathy 
with all nationalities which became so characteristic of him 
in later life, his energetic wholeheartedness and his turn for 
practical affairs. The student in him came from his grand- 
father, Bennett Carroll. 

Andrew's earliest years fell during the upheaval of the 
Civil War. Very soon after his birth his parents settled at 
Villanova in Fairfax County. The estate lies on the crest of 
Pigeon Hill, one of the series of heights which climb in steps 
from the Potomac to the Blue Ridge, and it looks over slope 
and plain of cultivated fields and patches of woodland. Here 
in the spreading old house, built piecemeal around the original 
four-room dwelling, the young mother spent those troubled 
years with her father and little son. Only from time to time 
could the husband come home from the army. 

The homestead lay southwest from the chain of forts above 
the Potomac guarding Washington, and was not far from 
the Federal outposts. It was an everyday affair to see blue- 
coated soldiers riding by in squads, either just released from 
picket duty or straggling through the orchards, or even bring- 
ing their rations to the kitchen in the yard to be cooked by 
the indulgent old negro who presided there. 

The "little rebel zouave," as Andrew was called from his 
yellow-bound gray jacket made by his Southern mother, was 
a pet of the Federal soldiers, who sometimes swung him to 
the front of the cavalry saddle and carried him away for 
long rides. One day he was brought back with a silver 
cavalry badge pinned to his gray rebel jacket — a silver circle 
with a silver cavalryman on his horse inside the circle, and 



the name "P. Podd, Co. G. 13th N. Y. Cavalry" on the nm. 
The badge, its thin silver tarnished with the years, is still in 
possession of the family. 

Later, when his string of little sisters, all born after the 
war, rambled about with him in the woods, he used to thrill 
them by unearthing battered canteens and picking up rusty 
bayonet points, or he would show them the grave where the 
young Southern soldier — shot in a skirmish along that very 
wood road — lay buried under a walnut tree at the far end 
of the field. 

With the close of the war came the question of education. 
Already the boy, who had been taught to read by his grand- 
father, was beginning to be fascinated by the printed page. 
Books were not plentiful in a young household in those stinted 
years, and there were no children's books at all. But at 
Strawberry Vale, the house on the hill to the west, just across 
the upper pasture, were books in abundance. All the old Eng- 
lish novels, Shakespeare and the poets, odd volumes of Scott, 
old histories, and rows of leather-bound Latin and French 
authors filled cupboards on each side of the fireplace, or were 
stacked on shelves under the dim, wooden-faced portraits. 
A successful school had once been maintained there and these 
scores of volumes, like the old pianos in the upper hall, were 
mementoes of the time. Here Andrew spent all his spare 
hours. Here he could always be found, and here he learned 
early what comes somewhat slowly into the consciousness of 
a boy in a rural environment, that life and its expression in 
other lands are as vivid and as strong as in his own. 

The attic at Strawberry Vale became for years a great 
playroom for the Shipman children. Andrew transformed 
the place into a theatre ; he built a stage and rigged up a cur- 
tain that glided jerkily but safely back to each side, and in- 
stalled the realistic feature of tallow candle footlights. He 
wrote plays in which all the children took part, and drew 
cartoons — mostly Indians in war-bonnets and hatchets — 
which still adorn the whitewashed walls of the attic at Straw- 
berry Vale. 

His first real school was a mile beyond Strawberry Vale. 
A Miss Tyson taught a number of small sisters and brothers 
and a few children of her neighbors. The road to the house 
passed through the pines where the rusty relics of the war 


lay about and, on a high plateau, skirted the walls of an 
abandoned Federal stockade and signal tower. The boys — a 
young Tyson became his inseparable friend — found the wooden 
scaffold, rising with its zigzag flights of steps from landing- 
place to landing-place above the brushwood beneath, a won- 
derful place for observation. One could see the whole country 
spread out like a map, the long indigo rampart of the Blue 
Ridge hemming it in, the truncated top of Sugar Loaf looming 
up in Maryland, — and lastly the sky and the stars ! This was 
the very spot for using the atlas of the heavens from the 
Gantts' attic at Strawberry Vale. A little practice brought 
out the crying need of a telescope. Fairfax County, as far as 
the boys knew, did not contain a telescope. No parent was 
willing to invest money in one. There was nothing for it but 
to earn it, which was an easy matter in harvest time when 
a water-boy is an absolute necessity. The necessary amount 
was earned and hoarded gradually ; a lengthy correspondence 
with a Philadelphia firm opened, and at last news came that 
the precious instrument had arrived in Georgetown, — it could 
not be sent by express to Lewinsville. But it came on Satur- 
day, — that meant an unendurable wait until Monday and 
the impatient owners could not wait. They walked to George- 
town, ten miles there and back, arriving home in the middle 
of the night, too triumphant in possession of the telescope 
to mind the necessary interview with anxious parents ; for of 
course they had walked without asking the leave they knew 
they could not get. 

Miss Tyson's school was soon outgrown and, as public 
education was just struggling into existence in those days in 
Fairfax, a medley of teachers, more or less competent, suc- 
ceeded one another on the platform in the one-room school 
house at Lewinsville. The two who had most influence on 
Andrew and did much toward developing his bent were, as it 
happened, Germans, — a certain Julius Golding and an Aus- 
trian ex-army officer, Augustus von Degen. They saw at 
once that the boy had abilities above the average and a rather 
surprising range of knowledge, and singling him out among 
the score of lads to whom books were an unavoidable evil, 
they grounded him in Latin, Greek and mathematics. They 
took considerable pains with his literary studies and Golding 
found that Andrew had a gift for drawing which, if his in- 



terest in other studies had not proved stronger, might have 
influenced his subsequent career in a different direction. 

It was von Degen, however, who urged Mr. John Shipman 
to send his son to Georgetown in 1871, rather than to Blacks- 
burg Agricultural College, as it was then called, where so many 
of the Fairfax youths went. Von Degen knew the strength 
of the Jesuit teaching and the intellectual value of the long 
classical drill. 

At that time neither Andrew nor his parents were Cath- 
olics, although the five younger children had been baptized at 
their birth. His mother was a descendant of a Catholic fam- 
ily, but was herself an Episcopalian through the accident of 
her grandfather, a posthumous child, being reared by an 
Episcopal mother. Andrew's father had as yet no religious 
affiliation, but greatly admired the Catholic Church, of which 
he became a member later in life. It was his wish, together 
with the mother's feeling that her own faith should be Catholic 
(as it became not many years afterwards), which had led to the 
baptism and Catholic training of the younger children. Mrs. 
Shipman taught all of her children Catholic prayers, which 
she was accustomed to say herself. 

It was at Georgetown that Andrew became a Catholic, but 

instead of being baptized in the college chapel, he went alone 

to the church of St. Dominic in Washington for his reception. 

iFrom the moment he entered college his interest in religious 

1 rites, orders and history became absorbing. 

He was a teacher by nature as he was a student by nature. 
Older by some years than his sisters, he had taken it upon 
himself when home to teach them, and he never allowed him- 
self to forget his task even while away. Letters written when 
he was a lad in the Georgetown preparatory school contain 
careful lessons in French and German for his next sister. 
Later during his college years he planned a course of study 
for his sisters which they followed under their governess. 
His holidays were for them a mingling of delight and misery. 
Instead of being free, say on a sunny, mild Sunday in March, 
to go to the south meadow and gather Johnny- jump-ups, 
whitening in a wave the warm slope of the big guUey with 
delicate, pale blooms, they had to sit in tongue-tied dismay 
face to face with a long, chalked-up line of third declension 
Latin nouns or some verb, monstrous with such irregularities 


that the various tense forms simply could not be guessed or 

In the autumn of his junior year he developed typhoid 
fever and lay very ill for three months. His life was despaired 
of more than once. Yet he recovered and, when well, took up 
his studies in the last half of the year and finished with 

The doctor at Georgetown and the President of the col- 
lege insisted that it was not safe for Andrew to enter at once 
upon an indoor occupation until his health should become 
firmly established. It was agreed that he should spend ai-, 
much time as possible in the open air. But in September, 
returning from a vacation, he revolted against the programme 
of mental idleness mapped out for him, and threw himself into 
the study of languages, German and Italian especially.) 

In two ideas he was ahead of his time. By his direction 
his sisters studied in the open air on a big verandah which 
looked down the green lines of the orchard trees. Here they 
remained as late in the fall as the weather permitted and 
thither they repaired as early as possible in the spring. 

His other idea was that his sisters' studies should be the 
same as those at Georgetown ; first the preparatory courses 
and then those of the college. He proposed that they should 
stand the same examinations as were given in his Alma Mater 
and, if it were possible, to be given a degree when they had 
made the required studies. This was in 1878 and Andrew 
was a Southern young man, bred among rural Southerners 
who had not then much sympathy with or faith in the higher 
education of women. 

His plans in this matter of education were never carried 
out completely. As time went by other aims engrossed him, as 
they should, and other interests claimed him, although he al- 
ways remained full of enthusiasm and encouragement for 
his sisters when it was a question of education. He took 
them into what would be about the third year of the four 
year high school course of to-day and when he left them 
they were in their early teens. The grounding they received 
in Latin was far more thorough than is given in any high 
school. That other teaching, the unconscious, which does 
its work by example and association, cannot be too much 
emphasized — an intense belief in and reliance on Catholic 



truth, an abiding interest in history of the past and in the 
making, were some of the many things impressed indeHbly 
upon his pupils. 

During this time he took an active interest in the little 
missionary church of St. James which had been built while 
he was away at college. It was three miles from Springvale 
near the village of Falls Church. He served as acolyte when- 
ever necessary. He undertook the practical, not the musical, 
management of the choir, who were volunteers from the con- 
gregation ; he purchased the music, saw that order was main- 
tained and that reverence ruled in the choir loft. 

After three years in the Georgetown preparatory school 
Andrew entered Georgetown College in the fall of 1874. 
His whole educational career lay along singularly fortunate 
lines. We have seen what his early schooling was in the 
little country school near his home. It is true that he had 
not the presumed advantages of modem methods, such as 
smooth the path of learning for the psychological child of 
the present hour, but he enjoyed plain straightforward teach- 
ing and drilling in the rudiments known as the three R's, and 
his mind was trained to realize that knowledge was to be 
acquired by mental effort and not absorbed as amusement. 
This was an asset of value which the elder teaching possessed, 
whatever it lacked as measured by the pedagogic novelties 
that set the fashions of to-day. The drudgery of learning 
is just as essential as the drudgery of ploughing. No young 
mind was ever allured into the path of knowledge as an easy 
and roseate way and remained there for long. Andrew Ship- 
man was fortunate in being schooled in his early years to 
the method of mental work and earnestness, and the sincerity 
and genuineness of his character readily yielded the golden 
vein to the process. With what a handicap he might have 
been burdened had his young powers been pampered and 
jellified by the uncertain psychological experiment now-a-days 
counting its victims by the tens of thousands. 

Von Degen's persuasion of the elder Shipman to send 
Andrew to Georgetown was another happy circumstance. The 
classical drill and prescribed curriculum of the Jesuit system 
gave mental system, balance and the habit of diligence. There 
was no line of least resistance by way of electivism on the 
part of the pupil. He took the prescribed course willy-nilly 


and learned that education meant work. The co-ordination 
of all the studies of the graded curriculum to the one end, 
the moulding of character and the integral development of 
all the powers of mind and heart, had no better illustration 
and exemplification than in the career of Andrew Shipman. 

He was a student at Georgetown seven years in all, from 
1871 to 1878, three in the preparatory school and four in the 
college. During his entire student career he won distinction 
in his studies, and more than once first honors in his classes. 
In his junior year he won the Philodemic Medal and the Mor- 
ris Historical Medal ; in his senior year, the Mechanics Medal, 
the Tennyson Prize Essay Medal and the Hoffman Mathe- 
matical medal. He was always eager for knowledge, and his 
training at Georgetown stimulated his mental appetite. He 
was by nature a student and a keen one, but not the pale and 
melancholy book-worm so often held up to the popular imagi- 
nation as typical. He was robust both in body and mind, 
hearty and afifable in manner, but modest and retiring. He 
had no athletic proclivities, but at times took part in and en- 
joyed the wholesome exercise of some of the games in which 
the students of that time indulged. If I remember correctly 
hand-ball was his favorite game. In his day at Georgetown 
athletics had not developed to the conspicuous and organized 
position they now hold in college programmes. The students 
played their games with zest but their sports held no major 
dignity in the life of the college. They were intended to be 
a needed relaxation and the means of building up a healthy 
body as the fitting co-ordinate of a healthy mind. 

Even in his college days Andrew's mind ran to recondite 
and remote things, never, however, to the neglect of his regu- 
lar studies. Outside of class hours, the surest place in which 
to find him was in the college library. If I remember aright 
he was unofficial assistant to the then Hbrarian, Rev. John 
Sumner. He knew the library thoroughly, and at a moment's 
notice could lay his hand upon any book asked for, no easy 
accomplishment in those days, for the library was much 
crowded and many volumes were in odd and obscure corners 
and not as accurately classified as they might have been. He 
was a book-lover, though not a book-worm, a distinction with 
a vast difference. He enjoyed books vitally, for their usufruct 
in practical application, and not as sepulchres of the dead 


past. I recall seeing him one day pouring over a huge tome 
in Latin, and jocosely enquired of him what musty, dusty bit 
of erudition he was ferreting out at the moment. He imme- 
diately proceeded to translate a passage, which, if my memory 
serves me after so long a lapse of time, was a disquisition on 
the possibilities of a self-propelled air-ship. He himself be- 
lieved it was possible, and enthusiastically declared that some 
day it would be accomplished ! This was nearly forty years 

ago! , . . 

Andrew was always ready to put himself at one's disposi- 
tion upon any point of research. He was thorough, pains- 
taking and keen upon the scent, never resting satisfied with 
half results. He relished the quest and enjoyed the conquest 
immensely. One of his most characteristic traits, which I 
learned to appreciate in those days, was his whole-hearted 
faculty of giving himself for others. He was essentially a 
giver and delighted in the giving. He would drop his own 
task at any moment and take up yours. I never went into 
the college library when he was there but I found him eager 
to assist me, and his help was valuable, for he always knew 
where to go for the nugget requisitioned. He would even 
push the enquiry beyond the immediate demand, and bring 
up more riches than one might need for the purpose of the 
moment. His enjoyment of discovery was enhanced a thou- 
sandfold by yours. The source of his delight was not so 
much that he had achieved or had helped to achieve the task 
but that it had been achieved at all. At such times his face 
would light up with pleasure and one could not fail to catch the 
glow of his enthusiasm. He had scientific interests also. 
While in the lower school at Georgetown he was always work- 
ing at photography, making many experiments, first with an 
old camera of his father's, afterwards with a better instrument. 

In 1879 the editorship of the "Vienna Times" was ofifered 
him. Vienna itself was three miles away, but when the office 
appurtenances had been delivered and put into place in one 
of the innumerable outbuildings belonging to every Virginia 
farm, Vienna seemed to have been transferred to Springvale. 
The "Vienna Times" was not a "patent insides" journal. It 
was set up in type and printed in the little office at the end 
of the yard, and in rush times, or when the letters of the 
correspondents in far corners of the country were late com- 


ing in, even the editor's sisters were pressed into service and 
put to setting type or dampening the sheets. The office force 
was small and sometimes conspicuously absent. Besides the 
editorials Andrew supplied a great part of the literary con- 
tents himself by translation and articles of his own. The 
"Vienna Times" had a fairly wide circulation in Northern Vir- 
ginia and extracts were sometimes copied from its pages into 
other papers. 

After graduation, while engaged with the paper, he grew 
interested in the telephone, just then becoming known. As an 
entire instrument could not be bought, he purchased the 
various parts, put them together, and found himself in posses- 
sion of two telephones. With the aid of three young friends 
of his own age, he set up the poles, stretched the wires and 
established communication between Vienna and his own home. 
The four young men did the work with their own hands, 
including the cutting of the poles. This was in the open- 
ing '8o's. 

To the Shipman home drifted every foreigner who en- 
tered that end of Fairfax County. That Andrew Shipman 
spoke Spanish was well known. More than one Spaniard 
or Spanish American family sought him out to explain his 
or its situation or to find possible employment. Andrew even 
stood as godfather to their babies. 

One day in the autumn arrived one Stefan ^Mel zer. That 
was only part of his name, for Stefan had a Bohemian father 
and a German mother and the Czeckish name was too difficult 
for Fairfax throats and lips. Stefan was in his seafaring 
costume, a draggled fur cap and a ragged jersey. He had 
just landed at Baltimore and had set out to walk until he 
found employment. He had been forwarded to Andrew Ship- 
man as one who could understand anything a foreigner said. 
He had been in the Austrian army and spoke German, which 
was the medium of communication between him and Andrew. 
Stefan, being a hoch bauer, was anxious to learn and better 
himself, and finding the young master of the farm was curious 
about languages, exchanged Czeckish for English. This was 
the beginning of Andrew Shipman's fruitful interest in the 
eastern European languages. When Stefan went West a 
year and a half later — the hot summers of the South were 
too much for him — Andrew used the tongue with considerable 


ease, an accomplishment which was to prove of marked as- 
sistance to him in his next step in Ufe. 

This was his appointment as assistant manager of the coal 
mines of W. P. Rend & Co. in Hocking- Valley, Ohio, which 
came in the third year after his graduation. Of this period of 
his life there are no records. His letters have unfortunately 
been destroyed. This appointment lifted him out of the dul- 
ness and routine of a country editorship, but the work at the 
mines was also ill suited to a man of Shipman's type of mind. 
Nevertheless his experience at the coal mines was valuable 
in more ways than one and became practically the determin- 

(ing factor in awakening and directing his large and fruitful 
interest — so manifest in later years in the Slavic peoples of 
the United States. I once asked him how he happened to 
become so interested in this work; he told me it was through 
his contact with the miners of Slavic nationality when he was 
with W. P. Rend & Co. in Ohio. He had some acquaintance 
with the Czech tongue through Stefan Melzer. This he found 
useful in his work among the miners of Hocking Valley. But 
it by no means sufficed. The Slavic miners of Hocking Val- 
ley spoke various dialects. The assistant manager with char- 
acteristic determination proceeded to learn them all. This 
established him in the confidence of the men, and his knowl- 
edge of their languages enabled him, when differences arose 
between employer and employees, to act as interpreter and 
intermediary. In one instance he settled a strike, which was 
the result of a misunderstanding of tongues, and when official 
interpreters were taking advantage of both parties for their 
own ends. 

It was not however simply Shipman's interest in the Slavic 
languages or his official relations as assistant manager or 
afterwards as superintendent with the miners that led him 
so far and so profoundly in his special pursuit of the history, 
rites and customs of these people. His sympathy was wider 
and deeper. He found an alien people in a strange land, be- 
/wildered and perplexed in their new surroundings, often im- 
posed upon, isolated by their own ignorance, clinging tena- 
ciously to unwise prejudices brought from the old world, 
naturally suspicious and aloof, yet very human and with all 
those substantial virtues that make for good citizenship. Ship- 
man's was a wide outlook. He saw clearly that the sole 


consideration of the economic status of these people — and 
that was the limited purview of the industrial world — led 
not to betterment but to further alienation and to both moral 
and civil deterioration. Among these foreigners were a num- 
ber of Catholics without clergy of their own tongue and to 
whom the Latin rite was like an alien religion. These condi- 
tions appealed strongly to his charity. His natural beneficence 
was quickened and the supernatural ardor of his deeply rooted 
faith aroused. These people must be saved, not only in a 
civic, but in a religious sense, and their religious salvation 
depended upon their steadfastness in their Catholic Faith. 
They were a flock without a shepherd. Lured to America by / 
the mirage of the promised land, which they dreamed could i 
be found in the United States, they were pouring in great 
numbers to our shores. The Church in this country had no 
means of meeting the problem and scarcely realized it. An- 
drew Shipman, a layman thrown into close contact with them, 
did realize it, and proceeded to devote himself to its solution. 
He mastered their tongues, studied their history, their rites 
and their customs, placed himself en rapport with their sym- 
pathies and their aspirations. All this, of course, not in a 
moment. First came the idea, and by degrees the means. It 
would take time and labor. It was, therefore, in Hocking 
Valley, Ohio, that an obscure mining superintendent first felt 
the apostolic spirit kindle into flame in his breast and con- 
ceived the beginning of the plans, which in later years were to . 
grow to such abundant fruit. ( 

As was characteristic of him, his method was radical and 
thorough. He must first learn the people sympathetically and 
completely. How well he accomplished his purpose became 
manifest in the result. For the last fifteen years of his life 
he spent nearly all his vacations among the Slavic people in 
Euioge. He made their acquaintance in their original habitat. 
He studied their languages, their rites and their history at j 
first hand. He came into intimate touch with their clergy in 
Europe, acquainted them with the needs of their people in 
the United States, urged their interest and their co-operation 
and conducted a voluminous correspondence with them. He 
also took up the matter with the hierarchy in the United 
States and received their help and participation. It was a 
great and glorious lay apostolate and a striking exemplar to 



others. It becomes especially noteworthy when we take into 
consideration that it was achieved by a busy man, who besides 
filling his professional duties with success and distinction, 
gave himself unstintedly to many public and private services, 
which drew largely upon his time and his energy. 

After two years at the mines, young Shipman came to New 
York in ^§4, where he obtained a,_the— U, S. 
f Customs House by Civil Service Examination, making in his 
examinations the TaighesFTecord trp to that time and rarely 
surpassed since. He was one of the investigators of the 
sugar frauds in the following year, and won high commenda- 
tion for his integrity, his thoroughness, his grasp of detail 
and untiring diligence in unravelling the tangled skein of evi- 
dence in the case. It was during his service in the New York 
Customs House that he studied law at the University of the 
City of New York. In 1886 he received his degree of LL.B. 
and in the course of the same year was admitted to the New 
York Bar. In 1891 he formed a law partnership with Edmund 
L. Mooney, an association continued uninterruptedly until his 
death, though in 1895 the firm was reorganized, upon the ad- 
mission of Mr. Charles Blandy, under the name of Blandy, 
Mooney and Shipman. Of Mr. Shipman's legal career and 
achievements I have no technical knowledge to enable me to 
given an account. In lieu, therefore, of any attempt on my part, 
I am privileged to quote in extenso one who was closely asso- 
ciated with him throughout his professional life and w^iose 
knowledge is both first-hand and accurate. 

"Andrew Jackson Shipman was a forceful advocate, a wise 
counselor and an eminent ecclesiastical lawyer for more than 
a generation at the New York Bar. 

"He studied law in the Law Department of the University 
of the City of New York, whence he was graduated LL.B. 
in 1886. He was President of his class and delivered an ora- 
tion at the graduating exercises held in the old Academy 
of Music. He was admitted to the Bar in the City of New 
York in the latter year. 

"In his collegiate and law school days he formed friend- 
ships that lasted during his entire lifetime, and spread their 
branches abroad as much for others as himself. More than 
that, he laid the foundations of business and professional 


relations that continued without a break, and with ever in- 
creasing strength, until his death. One of his marked char- 
acteristics was constancy, with warm-hearted devotion to his 
associates and friends. 

"Early in his career as a lawyer he became identified as 
attorney of record and one of the hardest working of an array 
of counsel in the notable series of cases known as the St. 
Stephen's Protestant Episcopal Church cases, which involved 
almost every phase of ecclesiastical law relating to that de- 
nomination. These cases lasted from 1890 to 1900 and were 
regarded as of such importance to the profession that they 
were collected and published together in Abbott's 'New Cases.' 

"Another noteworthy litigation in which Mr. Shipman was 
leading counsel was that of National Protective Association 
V. Cummings, in which he maintained the right of members 
of one labor union to work unmolested by members of rival 
labor unions. That was a case of labor against labor, not one 
of labor against capital ; the cause of the litigation was that 
there were too many laborers in one craft — then a new phase 
of the complex labor situation. Mr. Shipman had not hitherto 
been identified with the laws relating to labor organizations, 
but at the request of an old-time client, who had been wholly 
prevented from the opportunity to labor, he took up the case 
and carried it through all the Courts with the utmost industry 
and ardor. The principles for which he fought are now firmly 

"Still another remarkable case in which Mr. Shipman was 
one of the leading counsel, was the Hopkins Will case, in 
which it was held that, notwithstanding the physical cancel- 
lation of the signature to a will found in the testator's desk 
(the cancellation consising of a number of pen strokes drawn 
across the signature) the instrument was entitled to probate, 
in the absence of proof that the testator intended to revoke 
the will. 

"Mr. Shipman acted as trial counsel in many other litiga- 
tions of importance, but he preferred constructive work in the 
law of real property, wills and corporations. 

"At the time of the St. Stephen's cases, to which reference 
has been made, Mr. Shipman had no thought that his talents 
as a lawyer would again be required in the realms of ec- 
clesiastical law, but during the last fifteen years of his life — 


without turning aside from his daily practice in the general 
body of the law — he became one of the foremost ecclesiastical 
lawyers of the Catholic Church, of which he was a member, 
and the most eminent authority in America on the laws of the 
Orthodox Russian Church. It has been truly said of him 
since his death that his successor in this branch of the law is 
not now to be found, but must be reared. The distinction 
thus acquired was by nightly study at home for years and by 
study abroad in every important library of Europe during 
his annual vacations, when it is safe to say that he spent half 
his time in those pursuits, while the other half was spent in 
joyous recreation — for he had the heart of a boy, with all his 
wisdom. It was certainly remarkable that one man, while 
engaged in his daily vocation, and not prompted by gain, ac- 
quired distinction as the exponent of the laws of three great 
Churches, whose ecclesiastical constitutions are so different 
one from the other. That was another characteristic of his 
— he was so broad-minded that his thoughts were world-wide ; 
everything in the realm of learning was worth studying and 
carrying into practical effect. 

"His constructive work as a lawyer was never better shown 
than in the last important labor of his life in the Constitutional 
Convention, when as a member of two of the most important 
committees on the floor, he attended every session and was 
consulted by the leaders of both parties. He proved himself 
then, as always, a deep well of learning. 

"No summary of a lawyer's life would be worth the reading 
if silent as to his political faith, for one fuses with the other. 
Andrew Jackson Shipman was fitly named, for he was a 
staunch Democrat. Yet his last act as a Regent of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York was to nominate for the 
degree of Doctor of Laws a distinguished Republican. Mr. 
Shipman never sought a favor, political or personal, and, 
therefore, received none. He held high positions in the service 
of the State, but never of his own seeking and always without 

"He possessed in a marked degree personal modesty in 
contact with his equals and simplicity with his inferiors, and 
yet in the service of a client he was quick to assert himself 
to the highest degree. He shunned notoriety, but was not 
averse to sincere recognition. He had a deep-rooted respect 



for the judiciary as a body and was never known to cavil, as 
some do. He had not only the respect but the affection of 
many foremost judges throughout the land, and of the many 
members of the Bar with whom he came in contact. He 
harbored no ill will against his adversaries and none was 
ever heard to speak ill of him. With him graciousness and 
strength were ever combined, and so perfectly blended that 
neither outweighed the other. His genuine pleasure and ap- 
preciation of the success of others was so great that every 
success seemed to be his own. He never turned a client away 
from his door for need of a fee, and yet he was successful 
in accumulating a competence. He believed that, as every 
lawyer received a license to practice from the State without 
tax, he was bound to render to the State, through any of its 
needy citizens, legal services regardless of compensation. 

"On many other occasions and in many ways, Mr. Ship- 
man's virtues, his learning, in literature and languages, and 
his public services have been extolled. At this time we speak 
of the lawyer in the man. Throughout his professional life 
his ideals and their daily pursuit were as high and clean and 
clear as the day he entered the profession — a difficult life- 
purpose in material days. He was more than all else a lawyer, 
learned in the law, and from that sprang all his opportunities 
and the fine deeds that he achieved for himself and others in 
his eminent career." 

Notwithstanding the fulness of his legal career and its 
many duties, Mr. Shipman gave his time and labor to many c, 

enterprises beyond professional limits. He was called upon ^ ^^ 
in many ways and never failed to respond. Outside of his] J*^,^/* 
professional life, he devoted himself chiefly to the interest! ,,;, 
of the Slavs in the United States. This work was to him al '^ 
constant pursuit, and one might say, a second profession. The 
obscure assistant-manager of the W. P. Rend Coal Mines back 
in 1884 became in later years in (New York the legal advisor, 
counsellor, friend and promoter of the cause and welfare of 
the Greek Catholics in New Yorkani,adjacent States^ In 
1895 he helped to organize, boTFfHy his legal services as an 
attorney and by his friendly and ardent assistance as a lay- 
man, the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church of St. George on 
East 20th Street^ New York City, of which Rev. Joseph Chap- 


linski was rector up to 1908, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
M. J. Pidhorecky, the present incumbent. The church was 
afterwards moved to East Seventh Street, between Second 
and Third Avenues. This property was purchased for the 
sum of $90,000, the entire transaction having been carried on 
through Mr. Shipman. At the dedication of the new church in 
East Seventh Street, October 22, 191 1, Mr. Shipman took an 
active interest and prepared and pubHshed for use at the 
dedication services his translation of "The Holy Mass Ac- 
cording to the Greek Rite," a little book of forty-eight pages 
in double columns, giving the original Slavic on one side and 
}his English version on the other. It was the first time an 
'English translation had ever been ma4^. 

In 1913 when the "United CathoHc Works," an association 
for the closer organization and co-operation of all the Cath- 
^olic activities of the Diocese of New York, was established, 
Mr. Shipman was chiefly instrumental in bringing the various 
Greek Catholic Charitable organizations into the movement, 
'and in this way demonstrating to his fellow-Catholics of the 
Latin Rite the growth and zealous activities of their fellow- 
Catholics of the Greek Rite. 

Unfortunately the line of racial demarcation only too easily 
keeps people apart, who are fundamentally one in faith, though 
divergent in customs. Mr. Shipman was diHgent in seeking 
to bring his fellow-Catholics of both rites to a better under- 
standing and appreciation of each other, and eagerly seized 
the opportunity afforded by the United Catholic Works' move- 
ment. He was equally solicitous in bringing about a better 
understanding between the different Catholic nationalities of 
the Greek Rite in the United States, who naturally clung to 
their ancient European jealousies and divisions. It was his 
constant advice to them to sink their differences and unite in 
the broad and saner platform of their common faith and their 
lAmerican citizenship. He realized fully that an immigrant 
people could not tear up by the roots their racial traditions 
md customs, nor did he wish them to do so, for through 
:hose roots comes the nourishment of sturdy and substantial 
virtues. Let them remain what they naturally are, for the 
preservation of those virtues, but at the same time let them 
assimilate gradually the civic elements and principles of their 
lew allegiance in America. Mr. Shipman was a man of broad 


sympathies and of keen appreciation of the real virtues of^ 
life. When differences are essential to a people's welfare he 
believed in retaining them, for all people cannot be in all re 
spects alike. Where differences stand in the way of growth 
and development and are in truth but superficial prejudices or 
jealousies based upon misunderstanding and ignorance they 
should be abolished with charitable tact. He himself con- 
tributed much in this direction. He believed that if people, ^ 
however diverse in origin and tradition, be brought to know \ 
each other by association in a common cause, they will not | 
only soon reach a mutual understanding and appreciation, i 
but a broad and sympathetic toleration of each other's differ- i 
ences. Such was the spirit and aim of his labors among the^' 
immigrant people of America. 

His efforts were not limited to the Slavic people in this 
country. His assistance and counsel was just as readily given 
to the Syrian Catholi£3. He helped them to purchase the 
property for their Church in Washington Street and was 
their constant advisor. At the time of the dedication of their 
Church of St. Joachim he brought a holy stone from Jerusalem 
for the occasion. Mrs. Shipman presented them their altar. | 
His interest was also extended to the Italian Greek Catholics.; 
In fact his zeal took a wide range and no one ever called upon '. 
him for aid or counsel that it was not freely and readily 

When the late Bishop Ortynsky, the first bishop of the Greek 
Rite in this country, came to the United States in 1897, Mr. 
Shipman became his advisor. He drew up the charter for 
St. Basil's Orphanage in New York and conducted all the 
legal and legislative business connected with it. 

He took a special interest in St. George's Church in East 
Seventh Street. In a sense he was the soul of St. George's 
congregation and made a special provision for the church in 
his will. He devoted himself in the development of the cele- 
brated Ukrainian (Ruthenian) choir of St. George's, consist- 
ing of 120 members, and brought it to public notice by having 
it give several concerts. How much he accomplished in all 
his activities for the Slavic and Greek peoples in this country 
will never be known, and would require a much more ex- 
tended elaboration than can be given in this brief sketch. 

His activities extended not only to promoting the religious 


welfare of the Catholics of the Greek Rite in the United 
States, but he was as zealous in protecting their interests 
against any movement that might seem to jeopardize them. 
When the Russian Orthodox Bishop in the United States 
endeavored to get the New York legislature to give legal 
sanction to the name "Russian Greek Catholic Church,'' as 
applicable to the Russian Orthodox Church, Mr. Shipman suc- 
cessfully opposed the measure as an usurpation of the name 
and as a source of confusion. When one of the Protestant 
denominations in New York and in New Jersey made use 
|of the Greek rite and ceremonial to proselytize newly arrived 
Slavic Catholics, Mr. Shipman personally investigated and 
exposed the deception. 

It was characteristic of him never to take anything from 
hearsay or at second hand. In the above instance he went 
in person to the chapels in question, and determined for him- 
self the exact nature and method of the proselytizing attempt 
and followed it up by calling it to the attention of the authori- 
ties of the denomination under whose auspices the fraud was 
being practised. He also wrote several vigorous letters to 
the public press protesting against the deception with the result 
of having it discontinued. He would frequently make personal 
excursions into obscure and remote quarters of New York 
City, especially on the East side, seeking information and 
often forming in this way valuable acquaintances and friend- 
ships. He was prompt and diligent in following up any hint 
or clue relative to any interest he might have in hand and 
never rested satisfied until he had followed the trail to the 
end ; he wanted to see for himself. 

A mental habit of this kind necessarily entailed great labor 
and time, and he begrudged neither. His many voyages across 
the ocean to gather first-hand knowledge and to come into 
personal contact with the Slavic people of the Old World 
are evidence of his thoroughgoing method, his untiring zeal 
and his passion for getting at the bottom of things. A typical 
instance was his investigation of the circumstances of the 
famous Ferrer trial in Barcelona, Spain. He happened to 
be in Spain shortly after the event, and visited Barcelona 
with the express purpose of finding out on the spot what had 
happened before, during and after the trial. He visited the 
scenes of riot in the city, interviewed participators, both ag- 


gressors and victims, witnesses and officials, looked up and 
copied records and affidavits, read up the Spanish law both 
civic and military, governing the proceedings; in short posted 
himself completely and at the source. The result was several 
illuminating articles on the subject published in the "Catholic 
World" in 1910, and an answer to Mr. Archer, the English 
critic, in "McClure's Magazine" of the same year. Mr. Archer 
had espoused Ferrer's cause but had not dug down to the facts 
nor informed himself upon the Spanish law in the case, as 
Mr. Shipman had. Mr. Archer wrote brilliantly and rhetor- 
ically, but Mr. Shipman knew the case to the roots; Mr. 
Archer's glittering euphemisms were stripped bare by Mr. 
Shipman's trenchant array of the facts, which Mr. Archer had 
so carelessly neglected. 

In 1913 Mr. Shipman was elected to the Board of Regents 
of the University of the State of New York to succeed Mr. 
Eugene A. Philbin, whose appointment to the Supreme Court 
of New York State had occasioned a vacancy. To Mr. Ship- 
man the election was extremely gratifying, as it gave him i 
the opportunity to enter upon a work especially congenial 
and for which he was eminently fitted both by temperament 
and training, and as a man of large public spirit always eager 
to serve the community to the utmost of his ability. He 
regarded it as a crowning public honor to his career and the 
fulfilment of his public ambition. How well he performed 
the duties of his position and how valuable were his services 
as a Regent is amply shown in the Memorial adopted by the 
Board of Regents and the Commemorative Addresses at the 
University Convocation of 1915, published in this volume. 

As a director of the company which has published the 
Catholic Encyclopedia, not only was he prompt and diligent 
in the ordinary duties of his office, but he was especially con- 
sulted and took part in all important matters outside the 
usual routine of business. His wisdom was always clear 
and practical and he spared no pains to give the company 
of his best. A number of the articles in the Encyclopedia! 
are from his pen, and his advice was constantly sought by 
the Editors, particularly upon such subjects as pertained to 
his chosen field or were cognate. His name should be in- 
separably connected with the Encyclopedia, in the making of 
which he played no small part. 


In 1915 he was elected from the Nineteenth Senatorial dis- 
trict as Delegate to the New York Constitutional Convention, 
which convened in Albany during the summer of the same 
year. It was a hot and trying season. Mr. Shipman spent 
the entire time in Albany applying himself to the work of 
the Convention with his customary intensity and energy. He 
in fact exhausted himself with his devotion and zeal in this 
public service, and returned to New York depleted physically 
from his labors. The heavy strain upon his energies entailed 
by the work of the Convention was without doubt the founda- 
tion of his last illness. Upon his return to New York City, 
he sought to resume his professional and other duties, but 
found the task beyond his strength. He died on Sunday, Oc- 
tober 17, at his home in New York City from an acute at- 
tack of Bright's Disease. His funeral took place on Wednes- 
day, October 20, from St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York 
City, and was attended by people of prominence from all walks 
of life, as well as by the representatives of the many char- 
itable, fraternal and social organizations with which he had 
been affiliated. After the solemn requiem Mass, a burial 
.service according to the Greek Rite was conducted over the 
bier by the Right Reverend Stephen Ortynsky, bishop of all 
the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in the United States, attended 
by a number of Greek Ruthenian and Maronite priests. Mem- 
bers of the Ukrainian choir chanted the music of the service. 
This was the first time the burial service according to the 
Greek Catholic Rite was ever seen in a church of the Latin 
Rite in the United States. 

The variety and scope of Mr. Shipman's writings as pub- 
lished in this volume speak for themselves. He was a busy 
man, but like all busy men, always found time for additional 
tasks. He was called upon frequently and never refused to 
respond to a worthy cause or to an occasion where it seemed 
to him that he might do good. He was a member of some 
twenty-two different organizations, charitable, social, fraternal 
or religious, and was active in nearly all of them.^ He was 

1 He was a member of the Catholic Club, Southern Society, American Bar 
Association, New York State Bar Association. New York Ccuintv Lawyers' Associa- 
tion, American Society of International Law, American Geographic Society, 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, a number of local Church and civic organizations 
and the sole honorary member of St. George's Ruthenian Greek Catholic Benevolent 


an excellent linguist, speaking no less than thirt^enlanguages. 
He was a devoted husband, having married in 1893MTSS Adair 
Mooney, the sister of his law partner, Mr. Edmund 
Mooney. Mrs. Shipman was a most sympathetic and devoted 
helper in all his work. He was a public-spirited citizen who 
responded eagerly and practically to any civic cause or move- 
ment of merit. His services to the State as Regent and as 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention bear ample testi- 
mony to his disinterested and practical public spirit. 

Much is said in these days about a lay apostolate. Mr. 
Shipman exemplified it in many ways. He was in fact one 
of its pioneers, of large example and fruitful results. His gen- 
erous and large nature saw things in a generous and large 
way. He was above all things a giver and his gift was entire ; 
he withheld nothing. A lay apostolate is the recognized need 
of the hour. It is the layman who comes into constant and 
intimate contact with the world, and upon his shoulders falls 
the urgent obligation of an apostolate for the Faith before 
the world. Andrew Shipman realized all this even to a scru- 
pulous delicacy of conscience, and he fulfilled it ably and nobly, 
a Catholic layman without fear and without reproach, a son 
who proved to the world an illustrious example of the teach- 
ings and principle of the Catholic Church. 

CoNDE B. Fallen. 

We live in deeds, not years ; in thoughts, not breaths ; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial. 
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best; 
Life's but a means unto an end ; that end 
Beginning, mean, and end to all things — God. 

Philip James Bailey. 



I. — The Country at Large 

THE newspapers have been teeming with news from 
Spain regarding the present crisis; but very few facts 
have been given their readers upon which to base any 
adequate view of events. Even as I write, there are rumors 
of civil war. Vague statements are made without names, dates, 
or places that the clergy are fomenting it. The Catholic com- 
mittees have abstained from their projected protest against the 
present policy of the government, and that alone, irrespective 
of whether troops were massed or Radical counter-demonstra- 
tions were planned, shows that they have no desire to involve 
their country in insurrection or war. We have been regaled 
ad libitum through the press with extracts from the speeches 
of Liberal and Republican, and even of Socialistic leaders, but 
not a word has been said of the speeches, in reply, of La 
Cierva, Dalmacio Iglesias, Urguijo, and others, quite as notable 
in their way from the Conservative standpoint. This is not an 
entirely fair attitude for the American press ; it ought to tell 
both sides of the story. 

Spain is an intensely Catholic country, with Catholic tradi- 
tions and Catholic prejudices running back to the earliest ages. 
The Spaniards still have much of the Goth in them, much of 
the old inflexible spirit which drove out the Moor and pro- 
tected all Europe from the Moslem. Spain was at one time 
the greatest country in the world, an empire vaster than that 
of ancient Rome. People are apt to forget this. The old, 
proud spirit that brooked no contradiction and knew no com- 
promise, still dominates the people, although they are fallen 
from their high estate as rulers of the world. Kings like 
Charles V and Philip II, with their strong centralizing ten- 
dencies, enhanced the natural national disposition to inflexibility 
of character, while lesser men, following the line of their poli- 
cies, confirmed and fixed it. We who judge Spain as a whole 
must take into consideration this inheritance of history and 


tradition which helps to make nationality and pride of race. 
Then, too, Spain is a poor country. It has been devastated 
by the English and the French, and has had civil wars of its 
own. All this tends to make the Spaniards, somewhat like our 
proud Southern famihes after the Civil War, sensitively self- 
centered and averse from dealing with those who inflicted so 
much injury upon their native country. 

Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a written Constitu- 
tion, adopted in 1876, very similar to our own Constitution in 
its general provisions, and quite the equal of any of the Con- 
stitutions of modern states. It embodies all the best principles 
of the previous Spanish Constitutions, together with matters 
considered fundamental in a modern state, such as a bill of 
rights. To Americans, in comparison with our own Consti- 
tution, it seems to be defective chiefly in its insufficient checks 
to protect the invasion of individual and property rights, as 
we understand them. The Constitution is interpreted naturally 
according to the habits, usages, and predilections of old Spain, 
and its shortcomings must be attributed to those ingrained 
ideas rather than to the instrument itself. But it is a strong, 
liberal, and far-sighted document, ranking with the funda- 
mental law of any modern state. 

The executive power under the Constitution rests in the 
King, while the law-making power is vested in the Cortes, or 
Parliament, and the King. The Cortes is composed of two 
houses, the Senate and the Congress, equal in authority and 
law-making initiative. The ministry or cabinet may be chosen 
from either house, and the ministers may speak in debate in 
either house, but may vote only in the house to which they 
belong. The Constitution provides that the King is inviolable, 
but his ministers are responsible, and all his decrees must be 
countersigned by one of them. The Senate is composed of 
360 Senators divided into three classes : Senators in their own 
right, that is, sons of the King, other than the Prince of As- 
turias, sons of the successor to the throne, certain grandees 
of Spain, Captains-General, Presidents of the Supreme Coun- 
cils, and all the Archbishops; Senators for life (vitalicios) , 
nominated by the Crown, who, together with the preceding 
class, cannot exceed 180 in number; the remainder are Sen- 
ators elected for ten years by the corporations of the State, 
that is, the Universities, Communal and Provincial Assemblies, 


various corporate churches, and certain commercial bodies. To 
be either a vitalicio, or elected Senator, the candidate must 
have already been a President of Congress (Speaker), or a 
deputy who has sat for three consecutive Parliaments or eight 
independent ones. Former ministers of the Crown, bishops, 
grandees of Spain, lieutenant-generals of the army or vice-ad- 
mirals of the navy who have served more than two years, am- 
bassadors or ministers who have served five years, directors of 
the various Spanish National Academies, and certain others 
who have served in various capacities are also eligible. The 
lower house or Congress of Deputies is elected by universal 
suffrage upon the basis of one deputy for every 50,000 of 
population throughout the kingdom. The qualification is that 
they must be Spanish and twenty-five years of age, and they 
are elected for a term of five years. The Cortes may be dis- 
solved by the King at any time upon resignation of the minis- 
try, as in the English Parliament. According to the law of 
1890 every male Spaniard, twenty-five years of age, who has 
been a citizen of a municipality for two years, has the right to 
vote. Neither deputies nor senators are paid for their services, 
and cannot hold other office, except in the cabinet ministry. 
There are at present 406 deputies in Congress. 

Besides this central government Spain has also local self- 
government. Trouble is often caused by a clash between 
the central and local governments. Spain has forty-nine 
provinces, or, as we would call them, states ; and each prov- 
ince has its individual parliament and local government. 
The provincial parliament or legislature is called the "Dipu- 
tacion Provincial,'' the members of which are elected by con- 
stituencies. These "Diputaciones Provinciales" meet in annual 
session, and the local government is carried on by the "Comi- 
sion Provincial," a committee elected by the legislature. Thus 
we see the government by commission is quite usual in Spain, 
although it is being heralded as a novelty in the government of 
cities in the United States. Neither the national executive nor 
the Cortes has the right to interfere in the established provin- 
cial or municipal administration, except to annul such acts as 
lie outside the sphere of such administration, a system analo- 
gous to our State and Federal jurisdictions. The municipal gov- 
ernment is provided for by a duly elected Ayuntatniento, corre- 
sponding to our aldermen or board of supervisors, which con- 


sists of from five to thirty-nine regidores (supervisors) or con- 
cejales (aldermen), according to the size of the municipality, 
and by an Alcalde (mayor) who in large places has one or two 
Tenientes Alcaldes (vice-mayors). The entire municipal gov- 
ernment, with power of taxation, is vested in the Ayuntamien- 
tos. Half of their members are elected every two years, and 
they in turn elect the Alcalde from their own body. Thus it 
may be seen that Spain has a pretty fair local self-government, 
one which would be completely effective were it not that pres- 
sure is frequently brought to bear upon the local elections 
by the central government, conditions which are not wholly 
unknown in the United States. 

Spain is chiefly an agricultural country and has no largely 
populated cities or industrial centres. The total population 
in 1900 was 9,087,821 males and 9,530,265 females, making a 
total of 18.618,086. The estimated population on January i, 
1909, was 19,712,285. The largest cities in Spain are Madrid 
and Barcelona ; the former with 539,835, and the latter with 
533,100 inhabitants. Valencia follows with 213,530, and Se- 
ville with 168,315. Two other cities, Malaga and Murcia, have 
over 100,000 inhabitants. It is in the cities of Spain that the 
modern radical, socialistic, and revolutionary elements are to 
be found, and not among the great mass of people in the 

It is difficult to explain the politics of Spain to the outsider, 
one may live long in Spain before they are fully grasped. 
They are somewhat on the group system ; one or two ideas in 
common for a particular purpose, rather than broad platforms 
of action such as our great parties use. First of all there is 
the Conservative party, now out of power and filling the place 
of the Opposition in the Spanish Parliament. It stands for the 
old order of things in general, the "make haste slowly" prin- 
ciple ; its adherents are of various shades of opinion. The 
majority of them are heart and soul for the present monarchy 
and for a Constitutional Spain. Others are Carlists and hark 
back to the older regime : others still want to see no change 
whatever — they are the "stand-patters" of the party. Others 
are strong clericals and see in any change an attack upon the 
vested rights of the Church. This party was in power for eight 
years and accomplished much — much more proportionately 
than its successor seems capable of doing. It passed the laws 


of Electoral Reform, giving Spain manhood suffrage; and it 
passed the laws of Local Government, providing a larger meas- 
ure of autonomy for the cities and provinces of Spain than 
they ever before enjoyed. The second large division is the 
Liberal party, which believes in developing Spain to the ex- 
treme limits of pure Constitutionalism without actually de- 
stroying the Monarchical institution, no matter what interests 
may suffer. The majority of its adherents are strictly consti- 
tutional and devoted to tht monarchy. They are too fond, 
however, of adopting foreign ideas and foreign experiments 
in government, regardless of whether they are suited to the 
genius and temperament of the Spanish people or not. They 
want the broadest measure of modern political invention, 
whether Spain is ready for it or not. Then comes the Republi- 
can party, which may be described as being in the same relation 
(in the inverse order) to the Liberals as the Cadists are to 
the Conservatives. They are anti-constitutional and anti- 
monarchical. They want a republic in Spain as soon as pos- 
sible, and unfortunately they have fixed on France as their 
model, instead of taking, say, the United States or Switzer- 
land. They follow the Radicals, who are the apostles of dis- 
content, and whose members are of all shades of opinion, 
theorists, socialists, and some even of the ''white glove," or 
philosophical school of anarchy. They are the preachers of 
political discontent, and are such energetic reformers that 
they are prepared to tear down everything and build entirely 
anew. They are divided into various groups, such as, Region- 
alists, Independents, etc. 

The Church is the oldest institution in Spain. Its charter 
and inherited rights go back further than the present Constitu- 
tion, the present reigning house, or its predecessor, back to the 
time before Spain became a united kingdom under the Cath- 
olic kings, when the Moslem was driven from Spanish soil. 
Its history is the history of Spain, and it is the one enduring 
monument which Spain has to tell of its struggles and pro- 
gress. In the mind of the Spaniard it is almost impossible 
to disassociate the Church from Spain itself, they are one and 
indissoluble. It is this viewpoint that makes much of the 
present situation in Spain incomprehensible to the outsider. 
One might as well try to separate his family identity from 


his personal identity ; to the average Spanish mind it is un- 

At present the Church is composed of nine archbishoprics or 
provinces, with forty-seven suffragan bishoprics or dioceses. 
The Archbishop of Toledo is the Primate of all Spain, and 
Patriarch of the Indies. There are in all Spain some 17,369 
organized parishes, having 22,558 churches and 7,568 chapels, 
which are served by 33.303 priests. As a whole the figures do 
not show that Spain is abnormally overcrowded with priests, 
although in some of the dioceses the dwindling of population 
within the last century has left them supplied with more 
churches and clergy than possibly they need at the present 
day. On the other hand, many places in Spain show that the 
Church is under-equipped with clergy. Nearly the entire popu- 
lation is Catholic. There were in 1900 some 213,000 foreign- 
ers in Spain whose religious affiliations were not counted, 
some 7,500 Protestants, 4,500 Jews, and from 18,000 to 20,000 
Rationalists, Indifferentists, and others. This is as near as 
the census can inform us. 

The Constitution requires the nation to support the clergy 
and maintain the buildings and equipment of the Church for 
public worship, as especially regulated by the Concordat, which 
will be mentioned later. This, it must be understood, is not 
liberality on the part of the State, although the present genera- 
tion is trying to give it that aspect, but is merely a return of 
part of the fruits from the estates and property of the Church 
which were seized by the State under various pretexts during 
the past. It is an indemnity rather than a grace. The esti- 
mate of expenditure in this regard for the year 1910 was 41,- 
337,013 pesetas, or about ^8,267,000, which was about the 
same as for the year 1909. This sum looks magnificent when 
it is viewed as a whole, and no account is taken of its actual 
application. Some persons reading hastily the figures as given 
in the daily newspapers get an idea that the clergy receive the 
whole of it. But that is far from being the case. In the first 
place the appropriation is used to run the Ministry of Wor- 
ship : to pay the salaries of the minister, his assistants, and 
all the clerks, employees, and the cost of the statistical and 
administrative work. 

In the second place the fabric of the cathedrals and churches 
must be kept up out of this sum. Most of the cathedrals in 


Spain are national monuments and are more or less in need 
of repair. Those who have seen the Cathedral of Barcelona, 
with the scaffolding around its towers, or the Cathedral of 
Seville, with the extensive works in the courtyard extending 
along the northern side, will understand this. When one con- 
siders the number of beautiful cathedrals, churches, abbeys, 
and church buildings in Spain, models of Gothic architecture 
to be kept in good condition or restored, one realizes the 
amount of expenditure required. Then come the actual sal- 
aries of the clergy. They are certainly not extravagant. The 
Primate, the Archbishop of Toledo, receives $7,500 an- 
nually; the Archbishops of Seville and Valencia, $7,000 
each ; the other archbishops, $6,500 each ; two bishops, Barce- 
lona and Madrid, $5,400 each ; four bishops, Cadiz, Cartagena, 
Cordoba, and Malaga, $5,000 eacii ; twenty-two bishops, $4,300 
each ; and the remaining bishops not quite $4,000 each. Deans 
and archdeacons receive from $900 to $1,000 each; regular 
canons, $800, and beneficed canons from $350 to $700; while 
parish priests in the cities receive from $300 to $500, and those 
in the country from $150 up. Assistant priests receive from 
$100 to $200 annually. Truly it cannot be said to be a wildly 
extravagant rate of pay ; and it needs the usual stole fees, such 
as weddings, ceremonial baptisms, and the like, to eke out the 
income. The specific appropriations for the maintenance of 
worship and ordinary care and cleanliness of the churches are 
as follows : each metropolitan cathedral, $4,500 ; each suffra- 
gan cathedral, $3,500; and each collegiate church, from $1,000 
to $1,500; while parish churches get an allowance proportioned 
to their importance from a minimum of $50 up. Besides this, 
diocesan seminaries receive an allowance of from $4,500 to 
$6,000 each for the instruction and maintenance of candi- 
dates for the priesthood. From these figures one can get a 
very fair idea of how church expenditure in Spain is ap- 

Besides the parochial, secular clergy just mentioned there 
are several religious orders in Spain. The ordinary newspa- 
pers, in reporting this fact, run them up into high figures 
which is the veriest nonsense. What they mean, when they 
speak of religious orders, are religious houses or separate 
communities, and even these numbers they exaggerate. In 
1909 there were 597 religious houses or communities of men 


containing 12,142 members, which were devoted as follows: 
294 to education ; 92 to training of missionaries ; 97 to educa- 
tion of priests ; 62 to manual training for young men and the 
sale of their products : and 52 to monastic and contemplative 
life. There were 2,656 communities of women, having 42,596 
members, divided as follows: 910 for education; 1,029 fo^ 
hospital work and charity; 717 for a contemplative life. Some 
of these religious communities have taken up some sections of 
the most desolate and wild lands in Catalonia and the north, 
lands which had never been profitable or even cultivated, and 
erected monasteries there after the manner of the Middle Ages 
or of our energetic missionaries in the Far West. 

Education in Spain is not, of course, as far advanced as it 
is in the United States, or in Germany, or France. In a 
great measure this may be explained by the fact that the great 
majority of the Spanish population is rural. All sorts of mis- 
leading information about education and illiteracy in Spain 
has been given in our daily and weekly press, as well as in 
some leading magazines. Some of them have said that there 
was 75 per cent of illiteracy in Spain ; but these figures were 
taken from the census of i860. Others have said that 68 per 
cent of the people were illiterate ; but that was taken from the 
census of 1880. The trouble with these writers is that they 
utilized the handiest encyclopedia they could find, no matter 
what its date was, instead of obtaining the latest available 
figures. The census of 1910 is not yet computed, but the 
figures for 1900 gave 25,340 public schools with 1,617,314 
pupils, and 6,181 private schools with 344,380 pupils, making 
a total of 31,521 schools with 1.961,694 pupils. One-ninth of 
a population of 18,500,000 is certainly not a bad showing. In 
1900 the central government at Madrid spent $9,500,000 on 
education, and the local governments about three to four times 
as much more. In 1910 the governmental budget for educa- 
tion was 53,522,408 pesetas, or about $10,710,000. In 1900 
the illiterates of Spain amounted to less than 30 per cent, or 
to be exact 2,603,753 niales and 2,686,615 females, making a 
total of 5,290,368 persons. I am informed that the age in 
Spain at which illiterates are counted is nine years, but these 
illiterates were for the most part persons from maturity to 
old age. 

The pay of a school teacher is never magnificent in any 


country. The close-fisted, hard-headed Spanish peasant has 
old-fashioned notions about the necessity of reading and writ- 
ing, and will not tax himself to maintain schools, and still 
less to pay large salaries to teachers, especially in the primary 
grades. For this reason teaching in Spain is not an attractive 
profession, and arouses no enthusiasm outside the large cities. 
The subjects usually taught in the primary schools are: Chris- 
tian Doctrine. Spanish language, reading, writing, grammar, 
arithmetic, geography and history, drawing, singing, manual 
training, and bodily exercises. In city schools the elementary 
notions of geometry, physical science, chemistry, and physi- 
ology are taught. 

The teacher of the lowest primary grade in a country school 
begins with the magnificent salary of 500 pesetas, or $100 a 
year. He can be advanced by gradations of 200 pesetas, until 
he receives 1,500 pesetas; after that the places are all subject 
to competitive examination (oposicion). The highest places 
are in Madrid and Barcelona, where the best-paid teachers get 
1,500 pesetas, or $500. Secondary education is provided by 
what are called institiitos, analogous to our high schools. To 
enter children must be at least eleven years of age and pass an 
entrance examination. These institutos have a five to six 
years' course, and are expected to prepare for an elementary, 
professional, or a university course. Then come the normal 
schools, the professional schools, and the nine universities. The 
number of university students in 1907 was 16,500. The educa- 
tion of women is also progressing. In 1907 twenty- two women 
students passed through the universities ; in the same year 1,076 
women passed through the school of arts and industries ; and 
in 1908 this number rose to 1,315. In the normal schools in 
1907 some 2,241 schoolmistresses graduated; in 1908 there 
were 3,584 women on the list. These refer wholly to the gov- 
ernmental public schools. Besides these, there are the pri- 
vate schools, managed in part by religious congregations, and 
in part by laymen (both Catholic and otherwise) concerning 
which I have no adequate figures as to salaries and service. 

Spain is a nation of small holders of real property, and has 
but comparatively few holders of large estates. Perhaps to 
this is due in a measure its poverty, for it is the small land- 
owners rather than the manufacturer or trader who predomi- 
nates. Oi the 3,426,083 recorded assessments to the real prop- 


erty tax, there were 624,920 properties which paid a tax of 
from I to 10 reales (5 to 50 cents), 511,666 from 10 to 20 
reales, 624,377 from 20 to 40 reales, 788,184 from 40 to 100 
reales, 416,546 from 100 to 200 reales, 165,202 from 200 to 500 
reales ($10 to $25) ; while the rest, to the number of 279,188, 
are larger estates which pay from 500 to 10,000 reales, and a 
few upwards. About 80 per cent of the soil is classed as pro- 
ductive. In minerals Spain is very rich, being the largest pro- 
ducer of copper in the world after the United States, while 
mercury, iron and zinc are largely produced, but the mines 
are said to be inadequately worked. The railway communi- 
cation comprises 9.025 miles of rail, nearly all single track, 
except near Madrid and Barcelona. 

II. — The Present Situation 

At the present moment there is a report of a threatened 
break between Spain and the Holy See, and all sorts of rumors 
are being printed about it. It derives from an attempt at a 
revision of the Concordat at present existing between Spain 
and the Holy See. which is complicated by the repeal of an 
existing law and the introduction of two new ones into the 
Cortes whilst negotiations are pending. The present Con- 
gress, or lower house of the Cortes, is composed of 229 Lib- 
erals, 106 Conservatives, 40 Republicans, 9 Carlists and 20 
other members of the Integrist, Regionalist, Independent, and 
Socialist groups. The Liberals have a clear majority of 54 
votes over all the other parties combined. The Senate, how- 
ever, leans more towards the Conservative party. After all 
the seats had been filled in the late election and by appoint- 
ment, the Senate stood 178 Ministerialists, 117 Conservatists, 6 
Carlists, 5 Republicans, 29 Indefinites, and 17 Prelates, with 
nine others, Regionalists and Palatines. The present Prime 
Minister of Spain, or Presidente del Consejo, is Don Jose 
Canalejas y Mendez, probably the strongest Liberal in Spain. 
He certainly is the strongest and most effective public speaker 
and knows how to turn his sentences in a way that even his 
enemies must admire. In Spain they use the bull-rings on 
off-days in which to hold their political meetings, and they 
serve the purpose excellently. At one of his latest addresses 


to his followers Canalejas spoke so forcibly and roused them 
up so thoroughly that at the conclusion they tore up the seats 
of the amphitheatre and threw them into the ring. 

While undertaking to enter into negotiations with the Holy 
See for a revision of the Concordat, Senor Canalejas, during 
the pendency of negotiations at Rome, promulgated a Royal 
Order, which completely changed the interpretation of the 
Constitution in regard to non-Catholic bodies, and introduced 
into the Cortes two measures, nicknamed the "lock-out" (can- 
dado) in the Spanish papers, looking towards the diminution 
or suppression of religious orders and houses in Spain. The 
Holy See replied that it was scarcely the proper way to carry 
on negotiations for one party to put his purpose into execu- 
tion and talk revision afterwards. A few words upon the 
Constitution and the Concordat will explain the situation. 

There have been several Concordats between Spain and the 
Holy See, later ones superseding the others. The present 
Concordat was entered into on March i6, 1851, and a supple- 
ment was added on August 25, 1859. There have also been a 
number of Constitutions adopted in Spain. The present Con- 
stitution was adopted June 30, 1876, whose general provisions 
have already been described. The portion of the Constitution 
principally bearing on the present situation reads as follows : 

Article XI. The Apostolic Roman Catholic religion is the 
religion of the State. The nation binds itself to maintain this 
religion and its ministers. 

No one shall be molested in Spanish territory on account of 
his religious opinions, or for the exercise of his particular form 
of worship, provided he show the respect due to Christian mor- 

Ceremonies and public manifestations other than those of the 
State religion, however, shall not be permitted. 

The first and the last clauses of this article are the ones 
creating such a stir just now. Spain is almost entirely Cath- 
olic, and as I have said, there are only about 7,500 Protestants 
(including many foreigners) and some 4,500 Jews in Spain. 
They were an insignificant minority, and in so far as they are 
foreigners, Spaniards have never deemed that they should 
enjoy privileges to which the Spanish native-born were en- 
titled. They are not given the privilege of using the outward 
and visible signs of a church upon their houses of worship, 


as that would be a "public manifestation" prohibited by the 
Constitution. The doubtful clauses of the Spanish Constitu- 
tion are not construed, as with us, by a judgment of the Su- 
preme Court. They are interpreted by a decree framed by 
the Council of Ministers and signed by the King, which has 
all the force of a law. On October 23, 1876, a Royal Order 
was promulgated, which undertook to construe Article XI of 
the Constitution, as follows : 

1. From this date every public manifestation of worship or 
sects differing from the Catholic religion is prohibited out- 
side of the house of worship or cemetery belonging to them. 

2. The foregoing regulation comprises, under the meaning 
of public manifestation, every act performed in the public 
street, or on the exterior walls of the house of worship or 
cemetery, which advertises or announces the ceremonies, rites, 
usages, and customs of the dissenting sect, whether by means 
of processions, placards, banners, emblems, advertisements, 
or posters. 

This law has been on the books for thirty-four years, and 
Spaniards have never, in any number, petitioned for its re- 
moval or change, but on the contrary, have always desired it 
to remain in force. There is no need here to go into the 
propriety or justice of such a law. In the Southern States 
we have a "Jim Crow" law which represents the local wishes 
of the community, even if it be indefensible. The United 
States has a Chinese exclusion law which no one claims to 
be a miracle of justice. And so this Spanish law exactly 
fitted the wishes of the great majority of Spaniards, as against 
an infinitesimal minority who represented alien religions. We 
could no more expect the Spaniards to change their views on 
this than we can get our Southern fellow-citizens to abolish 
their "Ji"^ Crow" and voting statutes. It is human nature, 
that is all, and it must be recognized. 

But as this interpretation was made originally by Royal 
Order, so, too, it could be revoked by Royal Order. This is 
exactly what Canalejas has done ; he has simply repealed and 
annulled the former decree which has stood for so many 
years, without putting anything in its place. One does not 
know to-day whether a non-Catholic church may put up 
merely an announcement of its name, or even a cross and stat- 
ues of the saints, or may commence a campaign like the 


Methodist institution in Rome. That is what exasperates the 
Catholic Spaniard ; for the present Liberal Government has 
done this propria motn, without request from any large body 
of citizens or any debate on the subject. 

The other measures are bills submitted to the two houses of 
the Cortes — the so-called "lock-out'' legislation, using the 
simile of the factory. One is said to propose the suppression 
of the religious congregations which have entered Spain ille- 
gally ; the other is said to be a measure to enable the bishops to 
suppress unnecessary religious houses within their dioceses. 
A great deal of nonsense has been written or telegraphed to 
the American press upon this phase of the matter. For in- 
stance, it is said that the Concordat limits the number of male 
religious orders to three, and that there are now six hundred 
male religious orders in Spain. This statement has been re- 
peated in numbers of papers here. I have already given the 
statistics of the religious orders in Spain, and need only say 
that the six hundred can only refer to religious houses or 
communities. If the correspondent's fertile imagination holds 
out, he will soon reckon each monk as a "religious order." 

There is no law in Spain, nor does the Concordat itself use 
any terms, restricting the male religious orders to three. I 
quote from the Concordat of 1851, which was ratified and put 
into execution in Spain by the law of October 17, 185 1 : 

Article XXIX. In order that the whole Peninsula may have 
a sufficient number of ministers and evangelical laborers for 
the prelates to avail themselves by giving missions in the 
localities of their dioceses, helping the parish clergy, assisting 
the sick, and for other works of charity and public utility, 
the Government of her Majesty, which proposes to assist 
Colleges for Missions beyond the seas, will henceforth take 
suitable steps to establish wherever necessary, after previous 
consultation with the diocesans, religious houses and con- 
gregations of St. Vincent de Paul, St. Philip Neri, and another 
order among those approved by the Holy See, which also 
will serve at the proper times as places of retreat for 
ecclesiastics, in which to make their spiritual exercises, or for 
other pious uses. 

There is no restriction in this language, but on the con- 
trary these three orders or congregations are made a part of 
the State Church. This will be seen from a later article in 
the Concordat, where the State is bound to maintain them: 


Article XXXV. The government of her Majesty will pro- 
vide the necessary means for the maintenance of the religious 
houses and congregations mentioned in Article XXIX. 

This was really a short method of getting charitable and 
eleemosynary work done at the least expense to the State. 

There is no restriction upon religious orders in Spain any 
more than there is in the United States, and in both places 
they have occupied somewhat the same status. Under the 
Spanish Constitution it is provided that : 

Article XIII. Every Spaniard has" the right ... to form 
associations for any of the ends of human life. 

This has been uniformly interpreted as the right to form 
religious organizations of any kind. This right is expressly 
recognized in the Association (or, as we should say, Member- 
ship Corporation) Law of June 30, 1887: 

Article I. The right of association which is recognized by 
Article XIII of the Constitution may be exercised freely, con- 
formable to the provisions of this act. Under it associations 
may be formed for religious, political, scientific, artistic, and 
benevolent purposes, or for recreation or other lawful ends, 
which do not have profit or gain as their sole or principal 
obj ect. 

Article II. From the provisions of this law are excepted: 
(i) Those associations of the Catholic religion authorized in 
Spain by the Concordat. The other religious associations 
shall be regulated by this law, but the non-Catholic ones must 
be subject to the limitations prescribed by Article II of 
the Constitution. (2) Societies which are formed for mer- 
cantile purposes. (3) The institutes or corporations which 
exist or act under special laws. 

What the Liberal ministers mean, when they say "illegal" 
orders, is that many orders have not inscribed themselves, as 
to their respective houses or communities, in the books of 
registry of the province where they are situated. But the 
statistics show that out of a total of 3,253 communities, 2,831 
have been duly registered. The Premier Canalejas also desires 
to shut out all foreign members of religious orders or congre- 
gations from their rights of association, upon the ground that 
the Constitution only provides that Spaniards shall have such 
rights. This is analogous to our laws providing that Asiatics 
shall not become naturalized citizens, or that aliens cannot hold 
land in certain states. 


The debates in both houses of the Cortes upon these last 
proposals have been very warm. The one of which so much 
is made in America — the so-called permission for non-Catholic 
organizations to display the insignia of public worship — has 
not caused so much comment in Spain. In fact, Catholic news- 
papers refer very little to it. It is regarded more as an af- 
front to the Pope, as evidence of a desire to avoid a real revi- 
sion of the Concordat, and is treated as a cheap bid for popu- 
larity. But in regard to the Spaniard's constitutional right to 
form associations as he pleases, feelings run deep and strong. 
The provision of the bill that orders may be suppressed and 
their very interior affairs regulated by officious state meddlers, 
has roused general indignation. Protests have been pouring in 
by mail, telegraph, and special messenger from every part of 
Spain. Sometimes four to five columns of the bare outline of 
the protests and the thousands of signatures appear in the 
papers. Catholic sentiment throughout the entire country is 
aroused, for this is recognized as the opening gun of an as- 
sault upon the Church. Canalejas is a Catholic, but his suc- 
cessor may not be, and so the Catholic world is rousing itself. 

Catholic Spain is fairly well organized. At present there 
are 255 Catholic associations or clubs, 47 Catholic labor unions, 
556 agricultural associations, 297 Rafifeisen Mutual Banks, 95 
artisans' unions. 33 consumers' leagues, 92 indemnity associa- 
tions. 33 diocesan councils of different societies, eight popular 
libraries, and three credit banks. The Catholic press publishes 
60 papers of all kinds. The units of the organizations are the 
various parishes which make a focus of religious and social 

It has been asserted on the floor of the Cortes, and repeated 
over and over again in our press, that Spain is over-run with 
religious orders, and that they pay no taxes. Olf course those 
that are authorized by the Concordat pay no taxes, for they 
are part and parcel of the State Church. I have not the sta- 
tistics at hand to show what taxes are paid or what exemp- 
tions are claimed, but if one will look at the matter a moment 
from an American standpoint it will be seen that ordinary 
civilized nations exact no taxes in similar cases. For instance, 
here in our own country, schools, hospitals, libraries, asylums, 
etc., pay no taxes. Why, then, should the religious orders in 
Spain, which conduct such institutions of education, charity, or 


mercy, be required to submit to taxation? I have already giv- 
en the statistics of the religious orders in Spain, but the sur- 
prising part of the situation is that Spain has fevi^er members 
of religious communities per population than many other 
Catholic countries or Catholic populations. Here are some of 
the figures for the year 1909 : 

/- ^ /- ^u 1- D 14.- Individuals in Number per 

Country. Catholic Population. Religious Orders, ten thousand. 

Belgium 7,276,461 37,905 52 

United States 14,235.451 65,702 46 

England and Wales. 2,130,000 6,458 30 

Germany 22,109,644 64,174 29 

Ireland 3,3o8,66r 9,190 27 

Spain 19,712,285 54,738 27 

In addition to this it is to be noted that in 28 dioceses the 
number of individuals belonging to religious communities in 
each does not reach 100. In Minorca there are only three; 
in Guadix 6, in Astorga 15, and in Siguenza 19. It cannot be 
said, therefore, that Spain is overrun with religious orders, or 
that its condition in that regard, as compared with other coun- 
tries, is remarkable. 

The outcome of the parliamentary discussion of the bills 
in relation to the orders and religious houses cannot be fore- 
seen clearly. It may be said that they will pass Congress, but 
in the Senate many of the ministerialists are not strong Lib- 
erals, while the Conservatives have a large following and 
can also make combinations with other groups. 

The unfortunate affront to the Holy See will, of course, not 
be allowed to stand in the way of the proper adjustment of 
things. That was shown when the massing of the protesting 
Catholic organizations was abandoned, rather than allow it to 
be used as the entering wedge of Carlism. But the elements 
of the situation which I have given will enable the reader to 
judge in some intelligent fashion the fragmentary and often 
incoherent news that comes from Spain. 


Madrid and Toledo 

THE railways in Spain are proverbially slow, yet we 
found that they went at a fair speed, even judged by 
American ideas. There was a good reason in part 
for their slowness. The railways of Spain, with the excep- 
tion of a comparatively short stretch on the Northern Rail- 
way out of Madrid, are single track, and they are rather to 
be compared with our railroads west of the Mississippi River 
than with those in the east. But we found the sleeping cars 
quite comfortable and with much more privacy than is usual 
in the American pullman car. The fast expresses have a letter 
box or slot on the side of the mail car, and it is no infrequent 
sight at the country stations to see the people come trooping 
down to meet the train to mail their letters. 

The landscape through Castile and New Castile looks deso- 
late and deserted to American eyes, so accustomed to farm- 
houses nestling among the trees. There are no trees in Cas- 
tile and but few in New Castile. The Spanish countryman 
has an idea that trees afford merely lodging places for the 
birds to lie in wait and steal the grain the farmer plants. 
A Castilian proverb says that a lark has to bring his own pro- 
visions with him when he visits Castile. The rolling country 
and distant hills seem from the railway like large brown sea 
waves hardened into earth. Still the Spanish peasant is a 
painstaking and hard-working farmer. His fields are tilled 
with all the care and minuteness of a garden. Every bit of 
land on either side of the railway track was under cultiva- 
tion and we were told, produced good crops. As the Span- 
ish peasantry dwell in villages and not in scattered farm houses 
and go abroad to till their fields, the landscape seemed curi- 
ously desolate to American eyes accustomed to the familiar 
farm house and barn every few miles. 

Arriving at Madrid, at the Atocha Station, at the southern 



end of the Prado, we found a decided contrast to the quiet of 
the country. The long line of hotel omnibuses and cabs solicit- 
ing travellers showed that Madrid was as active in that regard 
as any American city. Indeed, in one respect, it was even 
more advanced than New York. The Spanish mail wagons 
(correos) were not, as here, drawn by horses, but were smart, 
light-running automobiles, which traversed the city with mar- 
velous celerity and delivered the mail with expedition. 

Madrid, in some respects, is a disappointing city. It is old 
enough not to be new, and yet it is not old enough to be an- 
cient. Its cathedral, Nuestra Senora de la Almudena, has 
not been built above the basement story, and in that it resem- 
bles the beginnings of many American churches. This cir- 
cumstance made us feel quite at home when we went down 
to admire it. The basement is very beautifully constructed and 
has a fine organ. Some time, when money is more plentiful 
in Spain, the splendid main structure will be built. Another 
instance of newness is the Church of San Francisco — the Pan- 
theon or Westminster Abbey of Spain — for it looks almost as 
if it left the builders' hands only the day before yesterday. It 
is a circular church with a very lofty dome like the Capitol 
at Washington or St. Paul's in London. The stained glass 
is very modern, but it contains examples of the very finest 
German and French artists in modern glass-design and color- 
ing. The whole effect is one of beauty and harmony. But 
the church hardly fulfills its purpose of being the resting- 
place of the great men of Spain, as the inscription on its front 
"Spain to her distinguished sons" {Espana a sus preclaros 
Hijos) proudly proclaims. The commissions entrusted with 
the search were unable to find the bodies of Guzman, Cer- 
vantes, Lope de Vega, Herrera, Velasquez, or Murillo, whose 
resting-places are unknown. Even many of those who were 
disinterred and buried here were afterwards removed and re- 
stored to their original tombs owing to the vigorous protests 
and threatened lawsuits of their descendants and their fellow- 

New buildings are going up everywhere; a fine new post- 
office intended to be very modern and up-to-date, and a still 
finer hotel — one of the Ritz-Carlton series — intended to eclipse 
anything of its kind, while a host of apartment houses and 
minor structures are projected. The first hotel to which we 


went was being modernized to such an extent that openings 
were being made in the walls and the floors to admit a won- 
derful steam-heating plant ! The proprietor begged us, with 
many courtly bows, to stay, that the installation of the calefac- 
cion should not disturb us, for it would be transferred to an- 
other part of the house. Notwithstanding his entreaties, and 
the fine rooms with special balconies overlooking the Carrera 
de San Jeronimo, we took up our quarters elsewhere, giving 
a weak-kneed promise of coming back when the calefaccion 
was completed. 

Madrid cabmen are very independent, self-possessed, chary 
of speech, and will seldom abate much of their price for a 
drive. They may be said to be the opposite of the Italian cab- 
man in these respects. Once I asked a cabman how much he 
would charge to drive me across Madrid to the Museo de Arte 
Modema, and he answered: "Dos pesetas y medio" (Two 
and a half pesetas). I said that I would give him two pesetas, 
and all he did was to look at me reproachfully, take out a 
cigarette, slowly light it, and begin to smoke. He had named 
his price and that ended it. Nor did any of the other cabmen 
in the line make a move to secure me as a fare. 

The focus of life in Madrid is at the Puerta del Sol (the 
Gate of the Sun). Once upon a time, when Madrid had its 
beginning and there were walls, there was a Gate of the Sun. 
It disappeared long ago, and now one looks directly upon the 
rising sun, if one strolls out early enough, without the inter- 
vention of walls. The place is now a large oblong plaza, the 
starting-point for all the electric street cars in Madrid and 
the location of some of the most fashionable hotels. The 
population of Madrid surges through it at all times of the day, 
and in that respect it may be compared to Fifth Avenue in 
New York or to Trafalgar Square in London. From it radi- 
ate a number of important streets, of which the Calle de 
Alcala is the largest and the best known. It is far wider than 
the widest street we have in New York, and it leads directly 
to the Buen Retiro, or Central Park of Madrid, passing by the 
Prado, a great avenue of trees known all the world over. The 
very word Prada brings to memory the magnificent Museo 
Nacional de Pintura y Escultura, with its wonderfully fine 
collections of the great masters. It contains two rooms respec- 
tively devoted to Murillo and Velasquez, the Mecca of the 


admirers of the Spanish painters, to say nothing of the treas- 
ures of the ItaHan, Flemish. German, and French schools. It 
is especially rich in examples of Rubens and Vandyke, while 
the works of the Spanish painters of the various schools can 
here be studied as nowhere else in the world. Raphael and 
Titian are well represented, and the portrait of Cardinal de 
Paira, by the former, is looked upon as one of the greatest 
in the world of art. Art critics have done ample justice to 
this noble gallery, and it would be but repetition to add my 
words of appreciation. 

Behind the Museo del Prado is the quiet little white Church 
of San Jeronimo el Real (St. Jerome the Royal), the church 
in which the sovereigns of Spain are wedded. In fact all this 
part of Madrid, in the time of Lope de V^ega, was the "mead- 
ows of St. Jerome," where the fashionables of the Court 
used to go for recreation. The Church of San Jeronimo and 
the great promenade of the Prado are all that now recall it. 
In this church also (up to the year 1833) the members of the 
Cortes used to come to hear the Mass of the Holy Ghost and 
to take their oaths at the opening session of Parliament; a 
custom now observed in the breach rather than in the per- 
formance. Here, too, the Prince of Asturias (as the heir ap- 
parent in Spain is called) used to come to take his oath to 
observe the laws of the kingdom. Now, however, the Church 
plays no greater historic part than receiving the marriage vows 
of the sovereign. It was here that King Alfonso and Queen 
Victoria were married on May 31, 1906, in all the pomp and 
circumstance of the Spanish Court, only to narrowly escape 
death a half hour later on the Calle Mayor on their way back 
to the palace. The bomb, concealed in a huge bouquet of 
roses, was hurled from the third story of a house by Morral, 
an anarchist teacher in the Ferrer schools in Madrid, and 
struck directly in front of the royal carriage, killing the horses 
and killing and maiming a score of persons. As we entered 
the quiet, prim-looking church, escorted by a small boy of 
the neighboring school, we tried to imagine the splendor of 
that event which so nearly had a tragic ending for the royal 
bride and groom. Almost across from the church is the severe- 
looking building of the Spanish Academy, while to the south 
lies the great Botanical Garden. 

The legislative chambers in Madrid are situated widely 


apart. The lower house of the Cortes meets in the Palacio de 
Congreso on the Carrera de San Jeronimo, an unimposing 
building, while the Senate meets two miles away to the north 
of the Royal Palace, in an old building which was originally 
an Augustinian college. Further north is the Central Univers- 
ity, made up of the union of the University of Alcala and the 
University of Madrid in 1836, and now attended by 6,600 
students. The main building of the University is known as 
the Noviciado, because it was originally a novitiate of the 
Jesuits, when the Society owned the property before their sup- 
pression in the eighteenth century. A little further on is the 
great Hospital de la Princesa, which, together with the great 
Hospital General, make two extensive institutions, probably 
the equals of any in the world. In fact, Madrid would seem 
almost too well supplied with hospitals for a city of 600,000 
inhabitants. It has eleven altogether, besides a special one 
for small children. In addition it has fourteen ambulance 
stations (Casas de Socorro) scattered over different parts of 
the city, affording first aid to the injured. 

The number of news-stands and the great sale of illustrated 
papers, newspapers, and light novels was noticeable. Span- 
ish illiteracy cannot be as great as represented, or these and 
the numerous book stores would soon go out of business. On 
coming home I looked the matter up. I found the statistics 
on the subject were much at variance with the popular ideas 
and loose percentages given. For instance, I had heard it 
repeated that there was 68 per cent of illiterates among the 
population in Spain. That would mean that more than half 
the people could not read or write. Yet I never met a person 
who could not read or write during my whole trip through 
Spain ; on the contrary I saw everybody reading newspapers, 
novels, letters, etc. I found that the 68 per cent was true 
enough when it was written, but unfortunately the figures were 
taken from the Encyclopedia Britannica and referred to the 
census of 1880, and could hardly be controlling to-day. When 
we reflect that Spain is essentially an agricultural country, with 
only a small urban population (even now only two cities have 
a population of over 500,000), it will be seen that the diffusion 
of education must necessarily be of slower growth. I have 
not the figures of any late census by me, but the census of 
1900 puts quite a different phase upon the situation. 


The total population of Spain at that time was 9,087,821 
males and 9,530,265 females, making a total of 18,618,086. 
The elementary schools numbered 25,340 public schools with 
1,617,314 pupils, and 6,181 private schools with 344,380 pupils, 
giving a total of 31,521 schools with 1,961,694 pupils. In addi- 
tion there were ten universities, numerous high and normal 
schools, trade, technical, and engineering and professional 
schools of all kinds. The illiterates in 1900 amounted to 5,- 
290,368, or less than 30 per cent of the population. These illit- 
erate persons were, for the most part, persons from maturity 
to old age — chiefly hard-headed peasants who had old-fash- 
ioned notions about the necessity of reading and writing — 
while the younger generation was growing up bright and alert. 
The lack of schools is also accounted for. Spain has local 
government ; and the thrifty Spanish countryman will not tax 
himself to maintain schools, while the stipend derived from the 
central government at Madrid (which spends about $9,500,000 
a year on education) is in itself too small to maintain schools, 
where no local taxation has been provided. An analogous sit- 
uation may be found in North Carolina and Tennessee. In 
North Carolina in 1900 the illiterates were 28 per cent of the 
population, and in Tennessee they were a little over 20 per 

When we compare the sums spent by Spain on the educa- 
tion of her children and the school attendance there with the 
sums spent in New York State, the comparison is not alto- 
gether unfavorable. The various provinces and communes 
in Spain supply the largest amount of money to support the 
schools. I have not at hand exact figures for 1900, but I am 
told that it is between three and four times as much as the 
central government furnishes. In the State of New York local 
taxation produced $34,721,611 for public education, while the 
state government supplied $4,616,769 for the same purpose. 
The total population of the State in 1900 was 7,268,012, so 
that the State supplied a little over fifty cents per capita. The 
attendance in the New York public schools throughout the State 
for the year 1900 was 873,157 pupils. Spain, with two and 
one half times the population of the State of New York in 
1900, supplied twice as many pupils to her public schools, and 
the central government supplied for education about twice as 
much money as the central government of the State of New 


York. New York is nearly the foremost, and certainly the 
richest and most populous, State in the Union, and when we 
find that Spain is by no means lagging far behind the pace 
set by the Empire State in the matter of education, we can 
see that a prejudiced view — based upon antiquated figures and 
compared with recent development here — has been entertained 
of Spain in educational matters. She is not as far ahead as 
she ought to be ; but she is not so far behind as hostile critics 
would make out. 

The same thing holds true of the statement that Spain is 
"priest-ridden," that there are too many priests, friars, and 
monks there. It may be ; and the enjoyment of the endow- 
ments of a State Church and ancient privileges may have 
dulled their energy and rendered them less active and strenu- 
ous in their sacred callings than our clergy. A keen and 
exhaustive study of the situation could alone determine that. 
Nevertheless I saw and conversed with as bright, keen, and 
eager-faced priests in Spain as I ever have in New York. 
When stress is laid upon the mere numbers as the root of the 
criticism, a little comparison will do much to clear the mind. 

When I was in Madrid a Radical newspaper published a 
severe article in which it asserted that the vast number of 
celibates (priests, monks and friars) — and it particularly gave 
the figures for the city and province of Madrid — was an evil, 
particularly because it meant the withdrawal from civil life 
of many individuals who might otherwise be the honored heads 
of flourishing famiHes. But the illustrated journal "A. B. C." 
replied in a telling article in which it quoted statistics to show 
that in the city and province of Madrid there were already far 
more bachelors above the age of thirty years, who were lay- 
men, than the entire number of religious mentioned, and it 
sarcastically asked why "they did not become the honored 
heads of flourishing families" for the welfare of Spain. In 
Spain there were in 1900 (I have no later figures) some 11,000 
male religious — priests, monks, friars, and lay religious — and 
these, in a population of 18,617,000. gives about an average 
of one religious or clergyman to every 1,692 persons. By 
the United States religious census for 1906 (there are no 
figures available for 1900) there were 164,830 ministers and 
clergy of all kinds among a population that year of 84,246,250. 
This gives our own country one clergyman to every 511 per- 


sons, or over three times as many as Spain possesses per 
capita. Yet we are not prone to think that the United States 
is "clergy-ridden." A little comparison of the relative situa- 
tion of things v^ould make the usual criticism of Spain a little 
more charitable and certainly more judicious. 

Some eighteen miles away to the northwest lies the village 
of Escorial, where Philip II built the pile which has taken that 
name to itself in the minds of most sightseers. Escorial 
(from the Latin scoria) was a forlorn village surrounding 
certain iron mines, where slag and cinders were the chief 
ornament of the landscape, at the foot of the Guadarrama 
mountains. This spot was selected by Philip II to erect the 
great building which is at once a palace, a temple, a monas- 
tery, and a tomb, and which was the abiding-place of that 
monarch in the declining years of his life. When the traveller 
arrives by train, a dashing automobile takes him from the 
station up the hill to the centre of the village, where the 
famous buildings are. The dull gray stone and severe archi- 
tecture make it a part almost of the frowning Guadarramas 
which lie behind it. High up on the mountain side is a little 
plateau called "Philip's Chair" (La Silla de Felipe) where it 
is said that the king caused a large throne-like chair to be 
placed in which he sat and watched the workmen build the 

The gray building is situated in an enormous courtyard, 
with still an inner court. Toward the east is the temple or 
church, which is built in a severe style of architecture, simple, 
yet resembling St. Peter's Church at Rome. The high altar 
has a retablo or reredos of carved wood, rising to the ceiling. 
Oin the Gospel side, in a niche over the sanctuary, are the 
figures of Charles V and his family kneeling and facing the 
altar. On the epistle side is a similar bronze group of Philip 
II and some of his family in a similar attitude. High up in 
the rear of the church is the famous coro alto, the choir in 
which Philip sat in his stall as a monk and which had the 
little postern door by his side through which he entered and 
received communications. He was kneeling here when the 
news was brought to him that Don John of Austria had won 
the battle of Lepanto ; he immediately rose and commanded the 
choir to sing the Te Deum. This choir loft is supported upon 
a single flat arch or vaulting which trembles under footsteps. 


It is said that the architect was told that it would fall if it 
remained as he built it ; thereupon he placed an elaborate 
pillar in the centre of the vaulting underneath, and requested 
his critics to examine it. They walked over the vaulting again 
and again and pronounced it entirely safe. Whereupon he 
took them down into the church below and showed them that 
the central pillar did not reach the vaulting by nearly an 
inch and that it was made of painted paper! The choir loft 
also contains a huge reading-desk some fifteen feet high for 
the great antiphonals to rest upon, and yet at the slightest 
touch of the hand it will turn in any direction, so delicately 
is it balanced. 

Under the high altar, down a long staircase, lie the sarco- 
phagi of the kings of Spain and their wives who have borne 
kings. Queens who were childless, or whose sons did not 
succeed to the throne, are not interred in these vaults. There 
they range from Charles V (or rather Charles I, as he is 
known in Spain) down to Alfonso XII, the father of the 
present king, and there are yet thirteen granite coffins un- 
named and to be filled. Beyond here and to the south lie 
the tombs of the Princes of Spain, some of them quite beauti- 
ful and all quite modern. The most beautiful is the tomb to 
Don John of Austria, the famous victor of the naval battle of 
Lepanto against the Turks in 1571. 

The monastery of St. Lawrence covers the whole of the 
southern portion of the building and possesses a fine library 
with some magnificent early Greek and Latin manuscripts. 
A peculiarity about the placing of the books on the shelves 
is that the gilt edges are turned towards the on-looker while 
the backs are turned towards the wall — the reverse of the 
ordinary book shelf. In the great courtyard of the Hebrew 
kings (so-called because of the gigantic statues of David, 
Solomon, Josias, Josaphat, Ezechias and Manasses) the sol- 
diers and sailors of the ill-fated Armada were blessed before 
they set sail for England. High up on the side of the great 
central dome over the church is what looks like a speck of 
gold, but is actually half the size of a man's hand, placed there 
by the bravado of Philip, as a proof that he had not, as his 
enemies said, spent all the gold of his kingdom in building 
the Escorial, but had still some to spare to adorn the roof. 
The palace is on the northern side of the vast pile, but is too 


formal and gloomy and has never been occupied except for 
brief occasions by the Spanish Court. Perhaps the royal 
occupants realize too keenly that they will come one day 
to the Escorial to stay, and do not care to anticipate that 
last coming. 

We parted from the gray buildings with keen regret, for 
our stay had been too short to explore them thoroughly, as 
every room is filled with history. The study, bedroom, and 
antechamber of Philip II, where he spent his last days and 
where he died, made everything a reality to us. A walk 
through the park and a visit to the Prince's palace, a modern 
French toy-house, almost, set at the end of the Park by 
Philip V, completed and rounded out our visit by bringing 
it down to the times of the Bourbon kings. Just near the 
station is a little Spanish posada, the mistress of which pro- 
vided us with as nice a cup of tea (and Upton's tea at that!) 
as can be furnished anywhere in England or America. 

The city of Toledo lies some fifty miles from Madrid and 
was the ancient capital of Spain. Here it was that the Gothic 
kings ruled and here King Reccared and King Wamba held 
court in the days when Spain was converted to Christianity 
a second time after its invasion by the Goths and Visigoths. 
It was not until towards the end of the Middle Ages that the 
capital was transferred to Madrid. Toledo sits high upon a 
hill where the River Tagus sweeps round it in a semi-circle. 
It was for many centuries a stronghold of the Moors when 
they held more than half of Spain. It defied capture from the 
river side, but was at last taken by the Castilians from the 
land side. Outside the church of San Juan de los Reyes 
there hang on the walls countless numbers of iron chains and 
shackles which were stricken from the limbs of Christian 
captives at the taking of the city. The city bears a distinctly 
Moorish character in its narrow, winding, and confused 
streets. It is said to be one of the hardest Spanish cities 
to find one's way around in, and we marvelled much at the 
dexterity of the driver who successfully piloted the carriage 
without scraping the doorways on either side or squeezing 
the passersby flat against the walls of the houses. 

Two bridges cross the Tagus by which one may enter 
Toledo. One, the Bridge of Alcantara (Arabic, cd-kantara, 
the bridge), leads from the railway station directly into the 


main part of the city by a winding road past the wall and 
the Alcazar or citadel, which is now a military training school 
— the West Point of Spain. This bridge, as might be surmised 
from its Arabic name, goes back to the time of the Moors. 
The lower Bridge of St. Martin is further down the river 
at the other end of the city and has a romantic story con- 
nected with it. The architect who first planned the bridge 
had nearly completed it ; the wooden scaffolding was still in 
position and the arches were about to be finished. On going 
over his calculations he discovered that his bridge would 
not be strong enough to bear the weight, and that when 
the king, court, and clergy passed over it the arches would 
fall. He was wild with despair and confided his discovery 
and grief to his wife. In the dead of night, while the city 
was all asleep, the devoted wife crept down to the water's 
edge and set fire to the scaflfolding which supported the cen- 
tering. When the whole bridge fell the people and court 
attributed the calamity to the fire. The architect remodelled 
his plans and the bridge was built again, and has stood firm 
and true ever since. When it was finished the wife publicly 
confessed her doings to Archbishop Tenorio, but instead of 
making her husband pay the expenses of rebuilding the bridge, 
he complimented him on the treasure that he possessed in 
such a wife. 

The Cathedral of Toledo is, of course, the great centre 
of attraction and its history dates back as far as 587. St. 
Ildefonso was one of its early archbishops (A. D. 667) and 
a national hero of Spain. The Moors conquered the city in 
the year 700. In 712 they turned the great church into their 
Masjid-al-djami, or chief mosque, and held it for 300 years. 
When Alfonso VI captured the city in 1085 he permitted the 
Moors to retain it for Moslem worship. But in a year or so 
dissensions broke out between the Moslems and the Chris- 
tians, and in 1087 the Christians took forcible possession of 
the building and turned it into a church again. St. Ferdinand 
(Ferdinand III) caused the old building to be torn down and 
in 1227 laid the foundation stone for the present cathedral. 
It was completed in 1493, the year after the discovery of 
America. After the taking of the city from the Moors, the 
Archbishop of Toledo was made the Primate of Spain, and 
it has been the primatial See ever since. The Court which 


was established here under Alfonso VI remained until 1561, 
when Philip II transferred the capital to Madrid. The 
great Archbishops of Toledo are known all over the world. 
The names of Cardinal Gonzalez de Mendoza, the friend of 
Columbus, and of Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros, the great 
patron of learning, are among the brightest in history. The 
cathedral itself is one of the most imposing Gothic monuments 
of Europe; it is 400 feet long and 195 feet wide, covering 
about the same area as the Cathedral of Cologne, and its 
stained glass windows are the finest of their time. The only 
defect which jars upon the exquisite harmony of its per- 
fectly executed Gothic architecture is the aperture pierced 
through to the roof over the ambulatory behind the high altar 
by Narciso Tome in 1732 — a fricassee de marbre as a disgusted 
Frenchman called it. It is called the trasparente or skylight 
by the Spaniards, and amid the chaos of angels and clouds 
which adorn it in full rococo fashion, is the Archangel 
Raphael kicking his feet in the air and holding a large golden 
fish in his hand. 

The capilla moyor or high altar, as in all Spanish cathe- 
drals, is separated from the choir and enclosed by a beautiful 
reja or iron screen, a monument of the art of the blacksmith, 
with all the beauty and tracery of delicate sculpture. Behind 
the altar is the retahlo, or wooden reredos, made of larchwood 
gilded and painted in the richest Gothic style, erected under 
Cardinal Ximenez. Its five stories or stages represent scenes 
from the New Testament, the figures being life size and larger. 
The choir, which is in the centre of the cathedral, and its 
choir stalls are magnificent specimens of carved walnut. The 
54 medallions represent scenes in the conquest of Granada 
and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. The marble 
outside of the choir is studded with bas-reliefs of the Old 

The most peculiar thing about the cathedral — ^that which 
differentiates it from other cathedrals in and out of Spain 
— is the Mozarabic Chapel in the southwest angle, below the 
great tower. The rite of Spain originally seems to have been 
the Gothic rite, not the Roman, or as it is also known, the 
rite of St. James. The Goths and Visigoths of Spain, when 
converted to Christianity, seem to have used this rite alto- 
gether. However, on the rise of Arianism, the Gothic races 


of Spain seem to have readily embraced the error, and for 
a long time Arianism flourished upon Spanish soil, teaching 
its doctrine that the Son was not equal to the Father. When 
King Reccared in 586 renounced the errors of Arius and 
became a true Catholic, the Gothic rite, which had been prac- 
ticed and used alike by Catholic and Arian, became in some 
way seemingly identified with Arianism. The advent of the 
Moors and their domination in Spain left the question of 
rites undetermined. The Catholic Christians of Toledo and 
other Spanish cities were allowed by the Arabs to practice 
their religion under certain restrictions, but they adopted the 
Arabic language and many Moorish customs, and in conse- 
quence became known as Mozdrabes or "half Arabs." The 
Mass which they celebrated and the rites which they followed 
were the old Gothic Mass and ritual. In the north of Spain, 
in Aragon and Castile, the Roman rite was followed, and the 
Gothic rite became practically unknown, or at least disused. 
After the conquest of the southern part of Spain by Christian 
arms and the expulsion of the Moors, the Christians of Toledo 
came again into their own. 

But those disturbed times and the Gothic rite gradually 
waned and there came grave question as to whether it should 
be used by the Church or not. There is a legend that it 
was determined to try the question by fire, and two Missals, 
one of each rite, were cast into the flames. The Roman 
Missal leaped out of the flames unscathed ; the Gothic Missal 
remained there unconsumed. It was decided, therefore, that 
both rites were proper. In a later age Cardinal Ximenes 
came to the rescue for perpetuity. He had beautiful editions 
of the Gothic Missal printed — some of these editions may be 
seen in New York at the Hispanic Museum — and established 
the Mozarabic Chapel in the Cathedral of Toledo, where the 
Gothic rite was to be used as long as the Cathedral should 

I had long been acquainted with the rite and had been in 
correspondence with Don Jorje Abad y Perez, the Capellan 
Capitular of the Mozarabic Chapel at Toledo. Through his 
courtesy several years ago I became possessed of a fine Gothic 
Missal, and the Hispanic Museum is indebted likewise to his 
courtesy and advocacy for the fine specimens of the Gothic 
Missals which it possesses. When we had inspected the cathe- 


dral as much as we cared to for the first time, we made our 
call upon Don Jorje. He begged us to excuse him for recit- 
ing the vesper office in choir, but when that was finished — and 
we saw the Mozarabic canons file into their stalls and recite 
the office — he put himself entirely at our service, and not only- 
accompanied us over the cathedral again, but went with us 
around the city and for a long excursion outside the walls and 
across the Tagus. Altogether he was a charming man, his 
chief regret, as he expressed it, being that he did not speak 
English. One could tell by looking at him that he was of 
Gothic origin, for I was asked to translate to him the remark 
that he was one of the few Spaniards we had seen with brown 
hair and the bluest of blue eyes. He accompanied us to the 
Hotel Castilla and took cofifee with us, and on parting hoped 
that he might some day visit New York, which we had de- 
scribed to him, I am afraid somewhat grandiloquently. 

Up to i860 there were six Mozarabic churches in Toledo, 
besides the chapel in the cathedral; now there are only two. 
The Mozarabic Mass is said in the others at certain intervals 
during the year, notably on St. James' day. There are also 
some five other places in Spain where the Mozarabic rite is 
celebrated on certain days in the year, so that the rite his- 
torically may never die out there. The rite is a personal and 
family privilege and belongs to those whose families have 
always been Mozarab. Others who follow the Roman rite are 
not permitted to pass over to the Mozarabic rite, nor are the 
Mozarab families or individuals permitted to take up the 
Roman rite except in case of marriage, where division of the 
family may result from separate rites. The decay of the 
Mozarabic rite represents, therefore, the dwindling numbers 
of the representatives of the old Mozarab families. 

The Mozarabic Mass is peculiar in many points, and quite 
Oriental in many of its characteristics. In some respects its 
Latin is quite archaic, and the names for the various parts of 
the Mass are quite different from the familiar names to which 
we are accustomed. The Psalms are from the old Italic and 
not from the Vulgate, and the expression Oremus is only 
twice used in the Mass; once before the Agios, a prayer not 
found in the Roman Mass, and again before the Pater Noster. 
The Gradual is called the Psallendo, the Offertory, the Sacri- 
iiciiim, the Preface, the Inlatio; while the Sanctus begins in 


Latin and ends in Greek. The Creed, which is usually called 
the Bini (couplets), is said immediately after the consecra- 
tion, in couplets, each one divided off from the other, and im- 
mediately after, the Our Father is sung by the priest, who 
pauses at each petition while the choir responds Amen. For 
those who are learned in liturgies, I may add that the Moza- 
rabic rite is the only western rite which has an epiclesis which 
is said as the post-pridie on the feast of Corpus Christi. In 
the Mozarabic Mass they read the Prophecy, the Epistle, and 
the Gospel, and have besides a Preface or Inlatio for nearly 
every feast day and Sunday in the year. Father Abad y Perez 
has compiled an excellent little Mozarabic Mass-book, contain- 
ing the whole Mass in Latin and Spanish called "Devocionario 
Muzarabe," which is sold for a very modest sum at all the 
Toledo book shops. 

In addition to the cathedral and its old-fashioned cloisters 
with quaint decaying frescoes, the church of Santo Tome is 
well worth a visit, if it be only to see the pictures of El Greco. 
Besides there are two old Jewish synagogues, afterwards 
turned into churches : Santa Maria la Blanca and La Sinagoga 
del Transito, afterwards called San Benito. Both are now 
merely architectural monuments, no longer used for worship. 
The cloisters adjoining the church of San Juan de los Reyes 
have been skillfully restored and show all the delicate tracery 
of column and arch designed by the Gothic architect. Close 
by is the Escuela de Industrias Artisticas, where young To- 
ledans are taught in both day and night schools to revive and 
continue the ancient arts of Spain. 

Toledo is remarkable for its manufacture of swords and for 
its inlaid gold upon steel and iron. It has also a modern arms 
factory just outside the walls, but the traveler's attention is 
chiefly directed to the beautiful swords and daggers twisted 
into curves and knots in the armorer's show-windows. You 
are asked to buy the armas blancas or armas negras — either 
of glistening steel or dull iron containing the marvelous tracer- 
ies of bright, flashing gold imbedded in Moorish patterns. 
You may see in Toledo also the posada or inn where Cervantes 
lodged and where he is said to have written, or at least con- 
ceived, a portion of "Don Quixote." We were told that 
if one brought his own food, he could lodge and dine there 
even now at a peseta (20 cents) a day. 


IT has been said that the execution of Francisco Ferrer 
at Barcelona in October, 1909, was due to the fact that 
he instituted for the first time in Spain a system of edu- 
cation, and that clerical prejudice and clerical hostility exer- 
cised through the religious orders had encompassed his death. 
This view of the case tends to become the common one, and 
has caused a feeling of indignation and hostility not only 
against the Church in Spain, but against the Catholic Church 
in general. If the story of his trial and execution had re- 
flected merely on the military or judicial authorities of Spain, 
it might have been a matter for them to right; but the story 
also arraigned the Catholic Church — one of the factors in our 
every day American life — and it is but proper that the facts 
surrounding the case should he given. In its last analysis, it 
is the case of an anarchist who was tried for his participation 
in rebellion and riot. 

From the story as generally told, one would naturally sup- 
pose that there had never been any schools of any consequence 
in Barcelona except the Ferrer schools. But the statistics of 
Barcelona for the year 1909 show the following results : pub- 
lic schools, 860 ; private church schools conducted by religious 
communities, 268; private schools conducted by Catholic lay- 
men, 564; Protestant schools, 22; Ferrer "laic" schools, 43. 
This does very well for the city and province of Barcelona, 
containing a total population of 1,052,977. 

It has been said that the schools of Spain still leave 75 per 
cent of the people illiterate. Those are the statistics of i860 — 
fifty years ago. According to the census of 1900 (before 
Ferrer ever began his schools), Spain had 25,340 public 
schools, with 1,617,314 pupils, and 6,181 private schools with 
344,380 pupils, making a total of 31,521 schools with 1,961,- 
694 pupils, out of a population then of 18,618,086 — some- 



where approaching the same average as the State of New 
York at that date had in her public schools. This is excluding 
high schools, seminaries, and the ten universities. Spain has 
largely increased her educational facilities in the ten years 
since 1900. The Spanish school-teachers of to-day seem fairly 
intelligent, and have their congresses for improvement in edu- 
cation, just as here in America. 

We Americans, in the strenuous swiftness of our civic Hfe, 
often forget our own history, or at least do not call it sharply 
to mind. We had in the United States, some twenty-five years 
ago, the very duplicate of the Ferrer case, except that here 
the death and devastation was not so great as in Barcelona. 
On May 4, 1886, a bomb was thrown in Haymarket Square 
in Chicago, which killed six policemen, and together with the 
firing which followed, wounded sixty persons. For this crime 
August Spies, Albert Parsons, Michael Schwab, Samuel 
Fielden, Adolph Fischer, George Engel, and Louis Lingg were 
found guilty and executed. At the trial it was conceded that 
none of the convicted persons threw the bomb with his own 
hands, for the man who was believed to have done so was 
blown to pieces by its explosion. The prisoners were charged 
with having aided, advised, and encouraged the throwing of 
the bomb. Their guilt was shown by numerous extracts 
from papers published by them advocating riot and dynamite, 
by the fact of their speeches encouraging the workman to rise 
against the capitalist by force, and the incitement of their fel- 
lows to anarchy. The nearest overt act was the making of 
impassioned speeches at a meeting by Spies, Parsons, and 
Fielden, which was concluded just before the police came 
upon the scene and the bomb was thrown. The wording of 
these newspaper articles, the general tenor of the speeches, 
and the history of the events can be read in the law reports of 
the case of Spies (Volume 122 of the Illinois Reports, pages 
1-266), and the whole reads singularly like the events in 
Barcelona for which Ferrer and others suffered death. We 
have forgotten that we have had our own Ferrer case, in 
which we acted exactly as the Spanish Government did ; and 
we have forgotten, too, the principles of law carried out in 
our own case of riot and anarchy. In this Chicago case, the 
court said : 

"He who inflames people's minds, and induces them by vio- 


lent means to accomplish an illegal object, is himself a rioter, 
even though he take no part in the riot. ... If he set in 
motion the physical power of another, he is liable for its result. 
If he awaken into action an indiscriminate power, he is 

Here in the State of New York our Penal Law provides 
(Sec. 2) that a person who aids or abets in the commission of 
a crime, whether present or not, or who counsels, commands, 
or induces another to commit a crime, is a "principal," and 
shall be dealt with accordingly. It also provides (Sees. 160, 
161) that the advocacy of criminal anarchy is a felony; also 
(Sees. 1044, 1045) that murder in the first degree is punish- 
able by death ; and that any person who, even without premedi- 
tated design, causes the death of another while committing a 
felony, is himself guilty of murder in the first degree. Trea- 
son (Sec. 2380) is defined as "a combination of two or more 
persons by force to usurp the government of the State or to 
overthrow the same, shown by a forcible attempt made within 
the State," and (Sec. 2381) it is punishable by death. These 
principles of our own law will enable us to take a saner and 
clearer view of the Ferrer matter than to rehearse merely 
the statutes of rebellion and treason in the Spanish law under 
which he was convicted. Lest it may be said that "The dice 
were loaded, the game was not honest," we will keep in mind, 
for the sake of analogy, what our own laws in the United 
States provide in like cases, and what they have already meted 
out in a similar situation. 

The nexus of events leading up to the revolution and riot 
in Barcelona, July 26-31, 1909, is too long to be told here, but 
we may briefly set down a short outline of them. Catalufia 
has been the discontented child of Spain, as well as one of 
the great manufacturing provinces. The soil for revolt is 
there, and an appeal to its local passions often finds re- 
sponse. In 1908 the Spanish Government granted a franchise 
to an iron company to mine the rich ores in Africa. The com- 
pany sold its entire product, for many years to come, to Ger- 
man syndicates. The Spanish company found the richest ores 
at the extreme frontier of the Spanish possessions in Africa, 
if not actually upon Moroccan Riflf territory. They en- 
croached upon Moorish territory, or at least the natives 
thought they did ; and finally the clash came when they were 


driven off by the Riffians. Troops were sent to protect them ; 
they, too, were beaten by the Moorish mountaineers ; battles 
ensued, and in the month of June, 1909, Spain had a Httle 
war on her hands. Reserves were called to the colors, and 
in Barcelona this was sharply resented. The Barcelonese 
were something like our former militia ; they wanted no mili- 
tary service outside of Spain. Besides, they thought the war 
debt would be largely paid by them, being one of the wealthi- 
est provinces in Spain. Moreover, the whole war seemed to 
be a Madrid scheme to enable a syndicate to make money on 
its contract with Germans. Hence feeling ran high and all 
political parties in opposition to the government in power 
aroused the Barcelona public by continual agitation. But the 
ministry insisted on the reserves going to the front, and dur- 
ing the early part of July, 1909, troop-ships sailed from Barce- 
lona to Melilla. Just after the departure of the last one, on 
July 23, and after a week's incessant political agitation and 
fiery speech-making, a general strike was ordered to express 
the workingmen's opposition to the government measures. 
The factories closed, thousands of idle workmen met or 
paraded the streets ; all was at a fever-heat, and it needed but 
a spark to start the explosion. We know too well in America 
how strikes in a flash degenerate into disorder. 

This was the supreme occasion for which Ferrer and his 
school had been waiting. For eight years he had carried on 
the so-called Escuela Moderna (Modern School), a name he 
did not invent, but boldly filched from the works of one of 
the ablest scholars in Spain, Don Rafael Altamira, and used 
for a time as a disguise to cover his teaching. His associates 
who managed the teaching and direction of the school were 
all anarchists or of the anarchistic type. They were not 
merely the advocates of disorder ; they went deeper than that. 
They sought to eliminate from the pupil's mind all basic ideas 
of religion, patriotism, and morality. It was not a mere teach- 
ing against Catholicism or religious orders, as the correspond- 
ents of our newspapers have suggested, but, along with con- 
crete intellectual training given in their schools, the very ideas 
of the flag, the country, lawful marriage, property, the family, 
and the reciprocal relation of State and citizenship were de- 
stroyed in the minds of their pupils. 

It would take too much space to give extracts from the 


school-bcx)ks embodying these ideas, but the Ferrer schools 
were the very antithesis of what we teach in our pubUc 
schools in the United States. Take merely the extracts from 
his Third Reader, known by the title of "Patriotism and Col- 
onization," where the children are taught such gems as these : 
"Don't get excited for the sake of the flag ! It is nothing but 
three yards of cloth stuck on a pole!" "The words 'country,' 
'flag,' and 'family,' are no more than hypocritical echoes of 
wind and sound." "Industry and commerce are names by 
which merchants cover up their robberies." "Marriage is 
prostitution sanctified by the Church and protected by the 
State." "The family is one of the principal obstacles to the 
enlightenment of men." 

Ferrer carried out the last doctrine literally ; for he deserted 
and then divorced his wife, Teresa, left his children, Trinidad, 
Paz, and Sol, to shift for themselves, while he took a mistress 
by whom he had illegitimate children. 

His teachers represented the same line of thought. Mme. 
Clementine Jacquinet, his chief instructor for girls, was a 
French anarchist who had been expelled from Egypt by the 
British authorities, and who described herself frankly as "an 
atheist, a scientific materialist, an anti-militarist, and an anar- 
chist." She had a large hand in preparing the school-books 
used in his schools. Among his other professors were Mateo 
Morral, who threw the bomb at King Alfonso on his wedding 
day, and Leon Fabre. who led in the attacks against the 
churches in Barcelona, and other local teachers who took part 
in the rioting. It was the teaching of these schools and 
their allied clubs and societies which prepared the soil for the 
events which followed upon the embarkation of the troops for 
Africa. The anarchists had been waiting for years for such 
a chance, and here was one made ready to their hands. Nay, 
more ; every idler, every thug and criminal, every rascal and 
jailbird, was ready to pitch in and help at the sight of riot 
and plunder. 

The "Bloody Week" in Barcelona, from July 26 to 31, 1909, 
is too terrible to record in a few words. At the time of the 
strike there were only sixteen hundred troops and police 
left in the city. On the 26th, roving bands of rioters paraded 
the streets, and frequent collisions with the police took place. 
Banks, post-ofiices, credit companies, stores, hotels, ware- 


houses, and public buildings were guarded as well as possible 
by the slender force at hand. No one thought of guarding 
churches, convents, schools, etc., and so these were left unpro- 
tected. That night the street-cars were overturned, trolley- 
lines cut, telephone and telegraph wires disabled, and gas and 
electric lights rendered useless. Rioting occurred, policemen 
were shot, and firemen stoned and wounded. The authorities 
were thoroughly alarmed, and the riot act was read and posted 
in the public places. The next day the city was declared under 
martial law, and all powers were handed over to the military 
governor. Proclamations to that effect were posted in con- 
spicuous places throughout the city. 

But on the second day, July 27, the storm broke. The revo- 
lutionists and anarchists had been holding meetings, and had 
determined on a program of looting the banks, stores, and 
public buildings. These, however, were too well guarded by 
cordons of military and police and well-equipped employees. 
All the morning attempts to pillage and rob were made, but 
the rioters were driven off. Then, in the outlying districts, 
they tore up the paving-stones and began to barricade the 
streets. They broke into an armory and sacked it of its arms. 
Railway tracks were torn up and all means of communication 
were completely shut off. The police frequently heard of out- 
rages hours after they had occurred. A mob of young thugs 
broke into one of the churches and plundered everything there 
and in the sacristry, set fire to the church, and went howling 
into the streets with their booty. It was the first-fruits of the 
anarchist program, and it supplied an easy quarry for the 
anarchists and revolutionists. The churches, schools, and 
convents were not guarded at all ; and, besides, there would be 
plunder for everybody. The riotous crowd of anarchists and 
their allies now had a chance to exploit their hatred for reli- 
gion and order, and proceeded to carry it out with all the 
brutality and savagery of which they were capable. 

The day of July 27 was a ghastly one, filled with smoke, 
murder, and terror. The kerosene-can was used after looting 
had secured every valuable article, and before midnight the 
mob had attacked and burned some twenty-two institutions in 
the newer and outer part of Barcelona. The police pursued 
them as best they could; but the revolutionists were divided 
by their leaders into sections, attacking churches, schools, and 


houses simultaneously at remote distances from one another. 
During the night the King and ministry, who were communi- 
cated with by cable — for all telegraph lines were cut — sus- 
pended the constitutional guaranties, leaving the city and 
province in an actual state of war. All day on the 28th the 
burning, looting, and destruction of churches, convents, and 
schools went on ; but by nightfall the troops had broken a few 
of the barricades and begun to subdue some sections of the 
rioters. On Thursday (the 29th) they had the rioting under 
control and the revolt was crushed. On Friday the roving 
bands of anarchists, rioters, and idlers were entirely stopped, 
and the next day street trafific began again. 

It is sickening to tell of the savagery of the mob. Even the 
dead nuns were dragged from their coffins, and paraded with 
revolting and obscene orgies, and then thrown into the gutters. 
Clerical teachers in the schools were stripped, tortured, and 
shot. Even little children were not spared. Churches that 
had stood as monuments from the days of the Crusades were 
destroyed ; while everything valuable was plundered from 
them and from schools and religious houses. They even stole 
the clothes and petty jewelry of the girls in the boarding- 

It has been alleged that the rioters were incensed against 
the religious orders because they manufactured goods and 
sold them cheaply, thus depriving workmen of possible em- 
ployment. As a matter of fact, no attacks were made on any 
of the working orders, for there are none within the city of 
Barcelona ; but the anarchists confined themselves chiefly to 
churches, schools, and convents of women, all of which were 
an easy prey. If it had any element of a movement in favor 
of enlargement of popular education, it had a singular result. 
These are some of the educational institutions destroyed and 
the number of pupils that were being educated in them : 
Pious schools (escolapios), 500 scholars, 200 of them free; 
San Andres Asylum, 150 workingmen's children, free; Asy- 
lum-Nursery of the Holy Family, kindergarten for 80 children 
and 5(X) girls, free ; College of St. Peter, 400 scholars, day and 
night schools, free; Convent of Loreto, 150 girls, boarders; 
Franciscan Nuns, 150 girls, free: Immaculate Conception, 250 
girls, boarders ; Girls' College of Salesian Sisters, 300 stu- 
dents, 70 night students, free; Convent of the Adoration, 80 


girl students ; Workingmen's Free Schools at San Andres, 600 
workingwomen scholars, free ; Boys' College at San Jose, 250 
students ; Workingmen's Institute at Pueblo Nuevo, 200 
pupils ; Catholic Club at Pekin, 80 fishermen's children, free ; 
Manual Training School, 100 boys, free; Asylum in Aldeva 
Street, 800 children of workingmen, educated free ; Dominican 
Nuns, 150 girl students; College of San Antonio, 500, part of 
them free ; and others which dispensed education along with 
other forms of charitable relief. This leaves out entirely the 
destruction of the hospitals, homes, etc., unconnected with 
education. Altogether the rioters burned and wrecked the 
following buildings : churches and chapels, 22 ; convents, 14 ; 
schools and colleges, 20; asylums, homes, and charitable insti- 
tutions, 22 ; official buildings and private houses, 19 ; making 
a total of 97. In doing so, they killed 102 persons and seri- 
ously wounded and maimed 312. There is nothing since the 
Reign of Terror or the Commune in Paris to equal it in feroc- 
ity and destruction. 

It was for his connection with this outbreak of revolution 
and civil war that Ferrer was tried and condemned. One of 
his closest friends, Emiliano Iglesias, said lately in the Span- 
ish Cortes that Serior Maura should be killed for his death, 
and when Seiior Maura passed through Barcelona, shortly 
thereafter, he was fired upon as he alighted at the railway 
station. Thus they object to an execution according to law, 
but are willing to pass sentence of death and have it immedi- 
ately executed without even the formality of notifying the 
victim. The press of the United States made no adverse 
comments upon this turn of affairs. As the city of Barcelona 
remained under martial law for some four months after the 
outbreak, and the civil courts were suspended, Ferrer was tried 
by court-martial. 

Although there were four trials and executions of ring-lead- 
ers in the revolt, no outcry was made about any of them ex- 
cept Francisco Ferrer y Guardia. When Miguel Paro was 
shot over a month before Ferrer, nothing was said in the 
press. There have been executions since, and several sen- 
tences to long terms in prison, for the participants in that 
awful week, but the press of the world has been mute. The 
competency and integrity of the court-martial that tried him 
have never been assailed. All the venom has been reserved 


for the Catholic Church and the religious orders, with not one 
word of sympathy or regret for the awful deeds of murder 
and pillage wrought upon them. This court-martial consisted 
of a presiding judge and six captains : Colonel Eduardo de 
Aguirre, Captains Pompeyo Marti, Sebastian Calleras, Mar- 
celino Diaz, Manuel de Llanos, Aniceto Garcia Rodriguez, and 
Julio Lopez Marzo. The prosecutor was Captain Jesus Maria 
Rafales, of the Infantry, and the counsel chosen by the defend- 
ant was Captain Francisco Galceran y Ferrer, of the Engi- 
neers, who made a most determined effort for his client. 

The military code under which Ferrer was tried was passed 
by the Liberal Parliament in 1890. The formation of the 
court-martial is automatic, being made by designation of a 
number of officers six months in advance, so that a special 
court-martial is not formed to try a prisoner. The accused is 
notified of the formation of the court, and can object to any 
member and then another must take his place. The rules of 
evidence are the same as in the Spanish criminal courts. The 
trial of Ferrer lasted for twenty-eight days ; over seventy per- 
sons were examined as witnesses ; the majority of those testify- 
ing to facts against him were practically of his own side ; they 
were Republicans, Liberals, revolutionists, labor leaders, and 
anarchists, and it was their testimony which demonstrated his 
complicity in the riots of July. Not a clerical witness or one 
connected with the churches or religious orders was called 
against him. 

Francisco Ferrer y Guardia, during his residence in Barce- 
lona prior to July 28, 1909, wore a full beard ; when he was 
captured by the police in the latter part of August he was 
smooth shaven. He pretended that he was a tourist and a 
delegate to the European convention, and was not recognized 
^t the country place where he was taken into custody. A few 
days later it was ascertained that he was Ferrer, and he was 
brought to Barcelona. In his country villa, Mas Germinal, at 
Mongat, about six miles out of Barcelona, a quantity of tele- 
grams, correspondence, circulars, and memoranda were dis- 
covered, and in the Solidaridad Obrera (his headquarters in 
Barcelona) still more were taken. These alone made up fifty- 
four packages, or files of exhibits, of the documentary evi- 
dence presented at the trial. They contained urgent calls to 
rise against capital, seize the banks, destroy the churches, dis- 


able the railroads, etc. One of them winds up with : "Work- 
men, prepare yourselves. The hour is at hand!" Annexed 
thereto is a recipe for the manufacture of dynamite. 

Among other things they clearly demonstrated that Ferrer 
had been actively connected with every conspiracy to overturn 
established authority in Spain since 1883; that on every occa- 
sion he was in active correspondence with the leaders of those 
movements, and was in touch with everything they did — the 
years 1885, 1892, 1898, clear down to the attempt to kill the 
king in Madrid in 1906, by Mateo Morral. It was a curious 
coincidence, to say the least, that he was always on hand on 
each of these occasions, and always in close consultation with 
the men who did the deeds. His correspondence, circulars, 
and statements all preached social revolution and advocated its 
bringing about by force and rebellion. He himself claimed 
toward the last, and his partisans nowadays maintain, that 
he was merely a philosophic anarchist, and that he had aban- 
doned his former doctrines of violence and dynamite. But 
they do not deny that he was an anarchist, and in active touch 
and correspondence with the advocates of violence, even 
almost down to his death. 

The prosecution adduced proof which followed Ferrer's 
acts throughout the riots until the troops began to subdue 
the rioters — when Ferrer disappeared from the city — covering 
three days in all. The summary of this evidence may be here 
given, day by day. 

On Monday, July 26, the day when the rioters began to 
clash with the police, Ferrer was seen by the witnesses, Angel 
Fernandez Bermejo, Claudio Sanchez, and Manuel Cabro, 
among certain riotous groups in formation in the Plaza de 
Antonio Lopez, at about six o'clock in the afternoon. A de- 
tachment of mounted men dispersed these rioters, and Ferrer 
thereupon went toward the Puerta de la Paz, where he was 
again engaged in addressing another group. On the police 
coming toward them, he went on down the Rambla, the prin- 
cipal street in Barcelona. The proprietor of the Hotel Inter- 
nacional, on the Rambla, testified that Ferrer dined there. 
Francisco Domenech, a barber and a partizan of Ferrer, testi- 
fied that he met Ferrer at the Hotel Internacional at half-past 
nine that night, and from there they went to the editorial office 
of "El Progreso," "to see how the comrades were getting on." 


After coming away, they went to the Cafe Aribau, where 
Ferrer met Calderon, Ponte, Tuban, and Litran, all of whom 
were afterward mixed up in the rioting. Then Ferrer, with 
Domenech, went back to the office of "El Progreso," saying that 
he wanted to see Iglesias, its editor (the same Emiliano Igle- 
sias who advocated the assassination of Maura upon the floor 
of Congress in Madrid), and tell him not to sign the contem- 
plated protest to the government against the war in Melilla, 
"because the revolution will be here and the signers will be 
marching at the head of the populace." On his way from 
this interview Ferrer met Moreiio, to whom he said that the 
Solidaridad Obrera should take sides with the rioters, for it 
was already compromised, and those who did not would be 
treated as traitors were treated in Russia. 

On the same evening of July 26, after the rioting of the 
day, Lorenzo Ardid, who was a mild anarchist and a close 
companion of Ferrer prior to the riots, was taking his coffee 
in the Casa del Pueblo (the successor to the Escuela Mod- 
erna), when Ferrer entered and, after salutations, said: 

"What do you think of the events of to-day?" 

Ardid answered : "That is over, but it is a kind of protest 
that ought to go no further." 

Then Ferrer turned on him sharply : "Don't believe that 
this will go no further !" 

Ardid began to answer him excitedly. Ferrer grew heated, 
and Ardid turned his shoulder and said : "You are taking 
the wrong road." 

In the confrontation of witnesses, Ferrer admitted he had 
met Ardid there, but denied the language used. 

On Tuesday. July 2^, the day of the burning of so many 
churches, schools, and convents, Ferrer left his country villa 
and came into Barcelona. On that day Claudio Sanchez and 
Miguel Calvo saw a man, dressed in a blue suit and a straw 
hat with the front drawn down, haranguing a group of riot- 
ers in the street. Sanchez went up to him and, pointing to the 
proclamation on the wall, said, "Can't you read that?" and 
dispersed them. Both of these witnesses afterward identified 
Ferrer during the examination on three different occasions, 
among a number of similar persons, as the man wearing the 
blue suit and straw hat. Francisco de Paula Colldeforns testi- 
fied that between seven-thirty and eight-thirty that same even- 


ing he saw a group of rioters on the Rambla in front of the 
Lyceum, apparently commanded by a man whom he closely 
observed from the manner of his actions. He heard him 
order the rioters to march through the Calle de Hospital. As 
soon as he afterward saw a photograph of Ferrer, he recog- 
nized him. On the examination, he readily picked out Ferrer 
as the person he had seen. Ferrer never denied that he wore 
a blue suit and a straw hat during those days. 

On Wednesday, July 28, the second great day of the riots 
and pillage, Ferrer was exceedingly active, according to the 
witnesses. In the morning he came to the barber shop of 
Domenech and ordered him to get the president of the Repub- 
lican Committee, Juan Ventura Puig (alias Llarch), and see 
if he could not do something. Puig came, and Ferrer pro- 
posed to him to go to the City Hall and proclaim the Repub- 
lic; but Puig refused, saying that he would not compromise 
himself. Puig, while on the witness-stand, declared that once 
before, in a cafe in Calle de Puerto Rico, when he objected 
to doing such things because the people ought to be behind 
him in such a movement, Ferrer insisted that "then he ought 
to begin by stirring up the people, so that a lot of them would 
go out and burn churches and convents." Puig further ob- 
jected that he did not see how the Republic would come by 
such means, but Ferrer cut him short with, "The Republic 
doesn't matter ; the question is, there should be a revolution" ; 
and then added a moment later : "Very well, we will have to 
destroy everything." 

Esteban Puigmollens testified that later in that day he saw 
Ferrer addressing a group of rioters, and Salvador Millet said 
that a number of them entered the mayor's office at Masnou 
and began to address the crowd in the name of Ferrer. On 
this same day, the witness, Francisco Valvet, testified that at 
half-past twelve at the club-house of the Fraternidad Republi- 
cana at Premia (a village on the outskirts of Barcelona) two 
persons presented themselves, one of whom was Puig and the 
other a man in a summer suit and straw hat, who said, "I am 
Ferrer Guardia," and thereupon sent for the mayor, Domingo 
Casas Llibre, who came over, accompanied by the witnesses 
Antonio Mustareo, the vice-mayor, and Jose Alvarez Espinosa, 
the aldermanic clerk. When they arrived, he again announced 
that he was Ferrer, and, turning to the mayor, said : 


"I come to tell you that you must proclaim the republic in 

The Mayor said : "Seiior, I won't take those orders." 

Then Ferrer said : "Why not, when the Republic is pro- 
claimed in Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia, and other cities?" 

The witnesses who testified to these facts were not only 
Valvet, but the mayor, vice-mayor, and clerk, and also Jaime 
Comas, Pedro Cesa, Lorenzo Amau, and Jaime Calve, who 
were present in the club-house at the interview. Ferrer was 
squarely confronted on four occasions with the witnesses 
Lorenzo Ardid, Ventura Puig (or Llarch), Casas Llibre, the 
mayor, and Alvarez Espinosa, who maintained to his face 
their testimony as to his actions and statements; and Ferrer 
had to admit the fact that he was with them. 

A carpenter, Rosendo Gudas, testified that on July 27 he 
was fixing a door in Ferrer's house, and Ferrer stopped, in 
passing, and said to him : "Now what does Tiana (a nick- 
name for the village) think? It is about time now to burn 
down everything." 

On the 28th a street orator at Masnou, at the edge of Barce- 
lona, explained to the crowd of rioters which he was address- 
ing that he had just come from Ferrer and that Ferrer could 
not get around to address them. A multitude of other pieces 
of circtmistantial evidence, pointing to Ferrer's presence and 
activity during those days in different parts of the city, show- 
ing all the elements of suggestion and direction, was also 
offered. A curious fact, much more than mere coincidence, 
was that detachments of the rioters were officered by the 
teachers in Ferrer's schools, and that the severest outbreaks 
took place in precisely the districts where those schools and 
allied clubs were situated. 

Francisco Domenech, the Masnou barber, testified that on 
the morning of July 29 he shaved Ferrer completely, taking 
off his beard. Bruno Humbert on that afternoon found 
Ferrer's villa locked and bolted and the occupants gone. 
Among others who testified to Ferrer's activity preceding the 
riots were Manuel Jimenez Moya, a newspaper man of radical 
opinions like Ferrer's, Marcisco Verdaguet, Baldomero Bonet, 
himself prosecuted for arson in the riots, Modesto Lara, and 
Alfredo Garcia Magallon, most of whom had had close rela- 
tions with the accused. 


Against this mass of testimony Ferrer offered no witnesses. 
He only claimed that he did not belong to the school of mili- 
tant anarchy. No attempt was made to prove what Ferrer 
did from the 26th to the 29th day of July, while the horrors of 
murder, pillage, and arson were going on. He did not under- 
take to prove that he never wore a blue suit and a straw hat, 
or why he shaved off his beard and ran away. If he had been 
innocent, the simplest thing would have been for him to go 
before the authorities on the first day of the riots and offer 
his services to restore order. That would have tested the 
kind of man he was, and would have proved the most effective 
alibi. It has been said that his mistress, Soledad Villafranca, 
who was deported by the authorities to Teruel, two hundred 
and fifty miles away, could have proved his innocence, but her 
testimony was not taken. Yet she was not called as a witness, 
although the trial lasted twenty-eight days. Nor was any 
request made to take her testimony by deposition, although 
that method was open at all times. During all this time the 
radical and anarchist press throughout Europe was ready to 
publish anything that might tend to exculpate Ferrer; yet 
Soledad Villafranca and the others said not a word. Nor 
have they detailed any facts since. 

Ferrer's counsel. Captain Galceran, wanted the trial sus- 
pended until he could get declarations from abroad in France, 
Italy, and Belgium, principally of distinguished anarchists, 
"that the ideas of Ferrer were opposed to every kind of act 
of violence," which would show he was incapable of taking 
part in the July rioting. The court properly rebuked Captain 
Galceran that such a line of defense was not proper, and that 
Ferrer was being tried for his acts and their consequences, 
not for his ideas. This rebuke was afterward magnified into 
a report, first, that Galceran had been shot for his energetic 
defense, and, later, that he had been court-martialed for it. 
As a matter of fact, nothing occurred. 

The trial was in the open court-room, and the illustrated 
papers in Spain and France had large double-page illustrations 
showing a hundred persons or more present. It lasted twen- 
ty-eight days, ten of which were allotted for the defense to 
use. After deliberation, the sentence of the court on October 
9, 1909, was that Ferrer was guilty of rebellion and treason 
under aggravating circumstances. This sentence was con- 


firmed by the Captain-General of Cataluna on October lo, 
and it was afterward approved by the ministry. The law it- 
self, under Article 238, fixed the penalty therefore as death, 
and this penalty was carried out on October 13, 1909. 

In view of all the circumstances involved in the Ferrer case, 
we think the matter should be considered in a similar light to 
cases occurring in our own country, for thereby we can obtain 
a fairer and more unprejudiced view of the situation. 

He had a trial, and there was evidence produced against 
him, and, moreover, the evidence was of substantially the 
same nature as that for which we ourselves sent seven men 
to death for a like crime. The law under which he was 
tried was framed by the anti-clerical party, while his daily 
associates furnished the principal evidence against him. The 
case should therefore be judged upon the actual facts involved, 
and not upon prejudice and hostility. 


McCLURE'S MAGAZINE for November has an arti- 
cle entitled "The Life and Death of Ferrer," writ- 
ten by the English correspondent, William Archer, 
who, it is said, went to Spain for the particular purpose of 
ascertaining the facts concerning Ferrer. To judge from 
the first installment of his work Mr. Archer might per- 
haps have saved himself the trouble: for, no matter what 
he gathered, he has written down only what was contained 
in McCabe's "Martyrdom of Ferrer," the anonymous "Un 
Martyr des Pretres," and other books of Hke import. There 
seems to have been no investigation on his part of any of 
the Spanish officials, merchants, bankers, men of substance, 
persons interested in preserving the good name and char- 
acter of Barcelona. All the investigation and all the re- 
sults shown in the installment of the November number seem 
to have been wholly directed towards Ferrer's late com- 
rades and sympathizers alone; and even the majority of 
such results, as stated, are copied out of the above-named 
books. Spanish official records, statistics, memoranda, and the 
like were not difficult to get at in Barcelona, yet they never 
seem to have been consulted, or even as much as mentioned. 
To judge from Mr. Archer's report it would seem that there 
was only a slight "unpleasantness" ; and yet Ferrer alone was 
executed for its occurrence. Certainly that is the impression 
he has studiously endeavored to create. 

Yet, even with that, he has to admit that Ferrer, after all, 
was not the beau-ideal of a teacher of children, a moulder of 
infancy, either in morals or rectitude, as understood among 
us. For instance, he admits that Ferrer had relations with 
at least two women other than the particular one who was 
the direct cause of the outburst of jealousy against him by 



his wife when she shot at him ; he admits that Ferrer's 
personal character as to sex relations was such as we could 
not tolerate in a teacher or professor in any school ; he admits 
that Ferrer was an anarchist, or, as he calls it in politer terms, 
an "acratist," which he tells us means merely that Ferrer 
was "anti-religious, anti-monarchical, anti-patriotic, anti-mili- 
tarist and anti-capitalist." If there be any other "antis" — 
such as those relating to family and marriage, quite apart 
from religion — he must have inadvertently omitted them. 
But Mr. Archer frankly says that Ferrer would not be per- 
mitted to carry on his schools in the United States or Eng- 
land for, "there are very few countries in which teaching so 
openly hostile to the existing form of government and to the 
whole social order would be endured." 

He then proceeds to make a distinction to the effect that 
Ferrer himself was not an "anarchist of action"; that per- 
sonally he did not favor the bomb, the torch, and the rifle; 
that he did not directly advocate arson and murder, although 
he and his subordinate teachers taught anarchy, revolution 
and rebellion openly in his schools and text-books and care- 
fully prepared the immature minds of children and half-taught 
men and women to do the deeds which he personally feared 
to advocate with his own utterances. Certainly, no one read- 
ing the admissions which Mr. Archer was compelled to make 
about Ferrer can help conceding that Ferrer was nearly all 
that his opponents have painted him. The summary of what 
Mr. Archer has given is the picture of a man who has care- 
fully set the springs of human action so that they will do 
the most diabolic work, and thereupon stands aside to wit- 
ness the result, and when it has been accomplished, saying 
smugly and cowardly: "I never raised my hand to that work, 
for it cannot be shown that I took part, for I was most care- 
ful to keep away." This is the utmost to which Mr. Archer 
can carry his investigation, confined as it seems to have been 
to Ferrer's friends and present-day advocates. 

Certainly one may well doubt the truthfulness and correct- 
ness of assertions in Mr. Archer's article, undertaking now 
to overturn the results of a trial of one year ago, when the 
very facts in front of him, mathematical, obvious facts, are 
wholly mis-stated. It does not argue well for the thorough- 
ness of his research, or the honesty with which he states facts. 



For instance, he says: "More than fifty per cent of the 
Spanish population is illiterate; and most of those who can 
read and write have been miserably taught by underpaid mas- 
ters in unsanitary and ill-provided schools." He knows, or 
should know, that that statement is not true. In reality it is 
copied from pages 44 and 53 of McCabe's "Martyrdom of 
Ferrer," and pages 8 and 24 of "Un Martyr des Pretres" ; so 
that Mr. Archer need not have gone to Spain for that. The 
census of Spain in 1900 showed that the general illiteracy then 
was not over 30 per cent; and Spain has made large strides 
since 1900 in all branches of education. That percentage of 
illiteracy includes the peasantry of Galicia and the Basque 
mountaineers of the Pyrenees, neither of whom are anarchists 
or in rebellion, although they are woefully lacking in book 

Barcelona was the focus and hotbed of the uprising; and, 
as a matter of fact, the illiteracy of Barcelona in 1908- 1909 
was between six and eight per cent, as Mr. Archer could easily 
have ascertained by consulting "La Estadistica Escolar de 
Espafia," published at the beginning of 1910. Any one 
who has ever been in Barcelona knows the prevalent habit of 
cabmen, porters, etc., of reading their books of rules to a 
traveller upon the slightest controversy as to fees, prices, and 
the like. Certainly the obvious was overlooked in regard to 
the statement about illiteracy, for Barcelona is one of the 
cities abundantly provided with schools, and about the first 
thing the mob did was to destroy a great many of them. 
About the only schools in that city which are small and miser- 
able in comparison with most of the others are the Ferrer 
schools ; only eight or ten of them were of good size and 
comfortable, usually they were in the cramped quarters of a 
private school. It was not the lack of schools and education in 
Barcelona that caused Ferrer to start his propaganda ; it was 
the lack of the particular kind of schools which Ferrer fa- 
vored, and which would teach the elements of anarchy and 
revolution. It is evident that Mr. Archer made no attempt 
to visit and compare the real schools of Barcelona with those 
which Ferrer established. 

Then, too, he insists continually in his article that "it was as 
'author and chief of the rebellion' — '<mtor y jefe de la rehelion* 
— that he [Ferrer] was found guilty and shot," and again and 


again emphasizes it and builds several sentences on it, to 
the effect that Ferrer was tried as the sole "instigator and 
director of the rising." Either he did not know, or did not 
care to say, that this Spanish phrase was nothing more than 
the technical legal expression in Spanish of our word "prin- 
cipal" in criminal law, as distinguished from "accessory" or 
"accomplice." Our law here in America has often condemned 
criminals as "principals" who have had substantially no physi- 
cal participation in the crime. 

Further on Mr. Archer says regarding the religious orders : 
"Exempt from taxation, some of the religious houses compete 
in the production of certain commodities; and this unfair 
competition is keenly resented by the people." Then he goes 
into almost the A. P. A. hysterics about conventual life, citing 
for it an absolutely discredited anonymous work, and draws 
the conclusion, "for reasons above indicated, the religious 
houses were chronically and intensely unpopular." This is to 
give a basis for events. Notwithstanding all this, he tells us, 
"it [the mob] did not single out for destruction those institu- 
tions which competed unfairly in confectionery, laundry work, 
or other industries." Not a building of that kind was touched. 
What the rioters burned and destroyed were chiefly the 
schools, day-nurseries, kindergartens, and charitable institu- 
tions of defenseless women. Not a complaint had ever been 
raised about them; but to a cowardly, raging mob of anar- 
chists they were easy game. 

In speaking of this anarchistic mob, he says: "They were 
bent on destruction, not on theft. ... No bank was attacked ; 
no store, other than gun-stores" ; and he is extremely anxious 
to show that there was "no sack," even proclaiming in head- 
lines that there was "no massacre and no sack." Yet the 
slightest inquiry, to cite merely one case, would have shown 
Mr. Archer that at the working women's schools, in San 
Andres, the mob looted everything they could carry, and some 
even came with wheelbarrows and small carts to carry off 
beds, pillows, sheets, chairs, sewing-machines, typewriters, 
dishes, and the like ; while they piled up the heavy furniture, 
tables, pianos, harmoniums, and desks, for a bonfire! Also 
that every chalice, paten, jewel, and ornament was stolen from 
the churches and convent chapels before they were set on fire. 
He knows very well, or could have found out easily that the 


reason no bank or public building was attacked, was because 
they were all well protected ; and that very fact left no police 
to protect churches, schools, and convents. It was not due to 
any thought fulness on the part of the revolutionists; it was 
only because they did not dare to take the risk of being shot. 

In speaking of the three days' unbridled rioting, Mr. Archer 
is at exceeding great pains to minimize it. Yet he might easily 
have interviewed a hundred persons who could have given 
him the details. Had he done so, or had he even gone around 
and looked at the blackened ruins throughout the newer part 
of Barcelona, he need not have condensed his story of ruin, 
terror, and destruction into twenty-two short lines, thus indi- 
cating that it was a matter of hardly any consequence at all. 
He might even have discovered that the Padres Esculapios are 
chiefly lay brothers of the Pious Schools (Escolapios) . It 
does not appear in his story of investigation that he ever con- 
sulted with any one who was on the side of law and order, or 
who suffered from the awful series of events. But he seems 
to have taken particular pains to get in touch with all the 
Ferrerites of high and low degree. This is hardly the work 
of an unbiassed investigator. 

Yet, notwithstanding that Barcelona had about 600,000 pop- 
ulation, Mr. Archer sums up the case of the destruction of 
the schools, colleges, and convents of the religious orders with 
the words : "They [the religious orders] are, in truth, almost 
entirely outside the law ; and the populace in moments of 
revolt is apt to pronounce and execute sentence of outlawry 
upon them." But he knows, or ought to know, that eight or 
ten thousand rioters and revolutionists in a city of that size 
are most emphatically not "the populace." They are, how- 
ever, the pliable tools which master-minds in the background 
can most easily use ; minds, which, when use has been made 
with disastrous result, are the quickest to deny any participa- 
tion in anarchy or riot. 

In endeavoring to smooth over and minimize that diabolic 
outrage, the disinterment of the buried nuns, he says : "But 
it is no less certain that the motive of this profanation was a 
desire to ascertain whether there was any sign of the nuns 
having been tortured or even buried alive. It was found, as 
a matter of fact, that many of the bodies had their hands 
and feet bound together, and although this is susceptible of 


a quite innocent explanation, it was not unnaturally taken at 
first as confirming the most sinister rumors. To the Anglo- 
Saxon mind it would seem that when a community walls itself 
in from the world, and admits no intervention of the law, no 
public inspection of its practices, whether in life or death, it 
should not complain if suspicions arise as to the nature of 
these practices. The alleged design of the rioters was to take 
the bodies to the ayuntamiento or town-hall, that their condi- 
tion might be publicly verified." This is a fine specimen of 
an unbiassed statement ! But he did not take the trouble to 
find out that there are only nine cloistered convents of women 
in Barcelona, and that the other religious orders are unclois- 
tered and are not "walled in from the world," but are Little 
Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of Charity, Third Order of St. 
Francis, Sisters of Mary Immaculate, Sisters of the Immacu- 
late Conception, etc., who go in and out of their houses as 
their duties require, and who are seen regularly by their 
friends, scholars, patients, and others exactly as the same reli- 
gious orders are seen here in New York. It was from these 
that the bodies were taken. If Mr. Archer had made any 
inquiry he would have found that the town-hall of Barcelona 
is called the casa consistorial, and that it is in the centre 
of the old city, not far from the cathedral, and that the rioters 
carried the bodies of the nuns in the opposite direction, away 
from the town-hall. His explanation does not explain ; neither 
does it show why these dead bodies were treated with the most 
revolting grossness. 

But it would take too long to go over his article in extenso. 
In every portion of it are found evidences of insinuation 
against the clergy, nuns, and members of religious orders in 
general, while the riotous mob and its anarchist leaders are 
uniformly credited with good intentions. Certainly this is not 
the mere detailing of facts ; it is the addition of coloring mat- 
ter. It is not the calm statement of an unbiassed investigator; 
it more nearly inclines towards the statement of a prejudiced 
journalist, who desires to exploit only one side of the case. 
Take as an example the sentence : "The fact that the Cortes 
was not sitting left the Maura cabinet the unchecked despots 
of Spain ; and the fact that Senor Maura declined to summon 
the Cortes showed that this despotism was essential to the 
carrying through of his policy," which sounds so unbiassed. 


An ordinary biassed correspondent of the usual stamp who was 
sent out to get the whole story, would have consulted Senor 
Maura himself, and let him give his own explanation. 


There is a continuation of the history of the trial and con- 
demnation of Ferrer in the December number of "McClure's," 
thereby concluding Mr. Archer's article upon the subject. Had 
that portion of the article been seen by me at the time I penned 
the remarks in the last number of this magazine ("Catholic 
World," Dec. 1910) I would have pointed out several other 
instances of seeming bias, unfairness, and lack of informa- 
tion upon the part of the author. As it is, one must con- 
fess that the article as a whole bears out nearly all that was 
said by Catholics regarding the death of Ferrer or any part 
which the Church or the religious orders might have taken 
to effect the result. In his second article Mr. Archer, 
by his omission of any statement of the kind, seems to 
acquit them, as he concentrates all his criticism upon the 
Spanish government and military officers. There is no wish 
on the part of any Catholic to champion the civil or military 
administration in Spain; its faults and shortcomings may be 
manifold, but when the Church and her religious orders are 
made the authors and instigators of the prosecution of Ferrer, 
and are charged directly with putting him to death without 
even the form of a trial, it is, indeed, time to protest vigor- 
ously and to examine the case in all its bearings. 

Certainly Mr. Archer's article shows clearly, even from the 
testimony of one who has mixed closely with Ferrerites and 
kept aloof from his opponents, that such expressions as were 
used by Mr. Perceval Gibbon in his article on Ferrer in 
"McClure's" of one year ago are untrue. There is certainly no 
basis for the latter's statement that, after the Madrid episode, 
"the government and the orders had lost the first round of 
the fight, but they had gained experience, which served them 
well when Ferrer again fell into their hands. This time 
[Barcelona trial] they improved even on a special court and 
no jury; they abolished witnesses and limited the discretion 
of the man they themselves nominated to conduct the defense," 



or the other statement of Gibbon, in concluding the descrip- 
tion of the trial of Ferrer : "The government and the orders 
had won the second round of the game. The dice were loaded, 
it is true ; the game was not honest" ; to say nothing of the 
dozens of innuendos scattered throughout the earlier article. 
For this much we must be thankful to Mr. Archer; he has 
amply proved that there was a trial and that there were wit- 
nesses, and he does not lay the blame and execration on the 
orders and the Church. 

But Mr. Archer, as was pointed out in the December number 
of this magazine, does not take the trouble to ascertain all the 
facts, or divest himself of his prejudices, even where he might 
easily have done so. This causes him to overlook the obvious 
and easily ascertainable, and very justly casts discredit upon 
the efficiency and impartiality of his work. A few instances 
of this kind in his concluding article may be pointed out. 

For instance, he drags in "La Ley de Jurisdicciones," which 
has little or nothing to do with the case. It certainly did not 
apply to Ferrer and the Barcelona riots, although by its terms 
it might well have done so. It is a law defining the jurisdiction 
of military tribunals for offenses committed (a) directly 
against the army or navy, as for example by soldiers on duty 
or in uniform; or (b) where it may be doubtful as to the 
nature of the offense, which essentially may be an offense by 
civil law, but committed where the army or navy are already 
in control. But it is a law applying directly to acts committed 
in peaceful times. We have almost analogous provisions in re- 
gard to Federal and State jurisdictions, and an offense com- 
mitted in the corridor of a LTnited States court house or post- 
office, or the boundary line thereof, immediately divests the 
State courts of jurisdiction and turns the prisoner over to the 
United States courts. It must be remembered that Barcelona 
was under martial law from July 26, 1909, until near Janu- 
ary, 1910; the civil powers were superseded, and the whole 
city was under the control of the military commander. The 
writer was present in Barcelona when General Valeriano Wey- 
ler succeeded the commander, Don Luis de Santiago Manescau, 
who had issued the July proclamation which suspended all 
civil authority and declared the city in state of war and subject 
to the provisions of the Military Code. Articles 3 and 4 of 
his proclamation read : 


Article 3. Jurisdiction of offenses affecting public order in 
any political or social sense comes under my authority; and 
the authors [autores, Mr. Archer's favorite word] of them 
can be tried by summary court-martial. 

Article 4. Persons publishing notices or directions in any 
form whatsoever tending to disobedience of military orders 
will be considered as guilty of sedition ; as well as those who 
make attempts against freedom of labor, or cause impediment 
or destruction of railroads, street car lines, telegraph or tele- 
phone lines, or any other conductor of electricity, or water 
mains or gas pipes. 

Mr. Archer does not tell us of these things ; yet he might 
easily have inquired about them. They were the reason why 
Ferrer was tried by court-martial, and extra indulgence was 
given to him, since he might have been tried summarily instead 
of having a formal trial of twenty-eight days, the testimony 
of which filled 1,200 written pages, not one of which Mr. 
Archer seems to have examined, contenting himself solely 
with the resume in the "Juicio Ordinario" (which he calls 
the "Process"), nor does he seem to have examined the fifty 
odd packets or files of exhibits likewise adduced in the case. It 
is very evident, therefore, that the "Ley de Jurisdicciones" is 
simply lugged in to make coloring matter. 

Again in eliciting sympathy for Soledad Villafranca, the mis- 
tress of Ferrer, and blaming the authorities for not taking her, 
and her friends' evidence, he says : 

Meanwhile Soledad Villafranca was eating her heart out at 
Teruel, in total ignorance of what was passing at Barcelona. 
She and some of her comrades in exile were the persons who 
could best speak as to Ferrer's employment of his time during 
the week of revolt ; and they naturally expected, day after day, 
to be called upon for their evidence. This expectation was 
encouraged (unofficially, of course, and very likely in good 
faith) by their jailers. A member of the Palace police . . . 
bade her wait patiently and the summons would come in 
due time. 

Mr. Archer does not tell us that the provisions of the Span- 
ish military code forbid the examination of the prisoner's 
family and relatives as witnesses against him by the prosecu- 
tion. He does not tell us either that that Code provides (Arti- 
cle 479) that the prisoner shall be present at the examinations 
of witnesses, even though he be held incomunicado, nor that 
(Articles 362 and 365) he can reply in writing or orally at 
every moment of the trial (sumario) to any accusation made 


by any official, and that (Article 465) he may give his declara- 
tions or testimony as many times as he likes ; although Mr. 
Archer does admit that, according to Article 458, the accused 
may testify "without being required to take an oath," thus re- 
lieving a prisoner from the charge of perjury if his testimony 
be false. This last privilege Mr. Archer curiously turns into 
an excuse for Ferrer's obvious falsehood as to having been at 
the Casa del Pueblo and having there met with Ardid. The 
sumario may be extended (Article 548) for further testimony, 
the ratification of witnesses, and the summons of further wit- 
nesses may be requested by the accused in cases of "common 
offenses," or for the "further taking of proof which he thinks 
would protect his rights" (Article 548). Mr. Archer speaks 
of the "common offenses," but kindly omits the latter provi- 
sions. To say that the prosecution was bound to summon wit- 
nesses for the defense, where the accused and his counsel 
failed to call them, or to request them to be called, when testi- 
mony was being taken, is somewhat of a novelty. 

The Auditor pointed this out in his dictamen or opinion 
rendered in the case ("Process," p. 59) : 

If, as the defense asserts, the affidavits of Soledad Villa- 
franca and the other associates of the accused, now residing at 
Teruel, could have exculpated Ferrer Guardia, they had time 
to make such affidavits in the twenty-eight days during which 
the sumario lasted, and besides the accused might have sum- 
moned them in his investigations ; but they would have been 
required to submit to examination in the same manner in 
which all such persons were interrogated who had been cited 
in them. But not having requested any such testimony until 
after the case had been taken up in plenario, it was not pos- 
sible to accede to his petition on account of the prohibition 
of paragraph 5 of Article 552 of our Code. 

In other words, the defense did not answer orally or in 
writing to the accusations and proofs adduced, did not offer 
witnesses in his behalf during twenty-eight days, because, as 
the Auditor points out, they would have been examined, per- 
haps, so as to incriminate themselves, him, or others. But they 
waited until the other witnesses were dismissed or dispersed 
and then made an offer themselves to testify — it does not ap- 
pear that the accused ever called for them orally or in writing. 
Mr. Archer gives us to understand that the court-martial 
should have halted its procedure, which had got past the point 


of taking testimony, and of its own motion called witnesses 
in defense of Ferrer. 

It must be remembered that Ferrer was a man of some edu- 
cation — he is lauded as being a man of learning and foresight 
by his partisans — that he wrote numerous letters, and that 
even in prison he was permitted to write his own account of 
the matter, which was sent to Charles Malato on October i, 
1909, as Mr. Archer shows in a foot-note in the November 
number of "McClure's." Hence he could easily have written 
his defense for the court, detailing exactly where he was during 
every day of the riots, yet he did nothing of the kind. Mr. 
Archer makes much of the foul dungeon or cell in which he 
says Ferrer was confined in the fortress of Montjuich. Yet 
my friend, Don Casimiro Comas, a lawyer of Barcelona, says 
Ferrer was confined in the Model Prison ("Carcel Celular") 
of Barcelona (which apparently is as much up-to-date as the 
Tombs Prison of New York), where his trial also took place, 
until he was sentenced. Even Mr. Archer in the November 
"McClure's" gives the date of his letter to Malato as the "Car- 
eel Celular, October i, 1909." But these facts are kept in the 
background in his article. 

Later on he proceeds to review in extenso the evidence in the 
case, carefully separating it into diflferent portions, thus break- 
ing the connection between events. One hardly knows just 
what to make of his analysis, for it is difificult to know whether 
he is reviewing the trial of Ferrer or reviewing the methods of 
Spanish judicial procedure. If Ferrer had been tried by an 
ordinary Spanish criminal court, with a jury, the method of 
procedure and the taking of evidence would have been the 
same. Of course, in no event could Ferrer have been tried by 
the usual processes of English or American law. He would 
have had to be tried according to Spanish law and procedure, 
and hence all criticism of the method or procedure is entirely 
beside the point. It is like "going out and swearing at the 


For instance, he speaks of "unsupported opinion and hear- 
say." That is allowable under the Spanish rules of evidence, 
and that kind of evidence would have been received in the ordi- 
nary criminal trials in Spain. We have, in America and Eng- 
land, the rules of evidence so refined that nothing but direct 
evidence — with certain exceptions — is received; and hearsay 


and opinion evidence (other than that of certain experts) is 
completely barred. But upon the continent of Europe, under 
the Roman law, it is not so ; there they say that the same meth- 
ods that a man takes in the ordinary affairs of life to establish a 
fact, whether by hearsay testimony or not, should be followed 
to establish a fact in court. They point out that the business 
and reputation of every man in the world would go by the board 
were direct evidence alone required in the affairs of everyday 
life. I am not arguing the point, I am only stating the prac- 
tice. This practice Mr. Archer seems entirely to overlook, 
and desires thereby to score a point, in judging a Spanish trial 
by comparison with the standards set up by the English com- 
mon law. 

When, however, the evidence is direct evidence, Mr. Archer 
undertakes to step, in imagination, upon the bench of the trial 
judges at the court-martial, sift the evidence and decide that 
it is not against Ferrer. Even our appellate courts here do not 
do that, at least not in theory of law. They always say that the 
trier of fact, whether jury, referee, or judge, saw the witnesses, 
was nearer to the facts, and knew more about them than per- 
sons who see them in print long afterward. Hence we can 
very well assume that the seven judges of the Ferrer court- 
martial knew better what weight to give to the direct evidence 
then, than Mr. Archer could after the lapse of nearly a year. 

This will be more apparent when we come to take up the 
specific case of the testimony of Don Francisco de Paula Coll- 
deforns, who testified that between seven-thirty and eight- 
thirty in the evening of July 2.^, 1909, he saw a man, whom he 
recognized from photographs as Ferrer, "captaining a group" 
near the Lyceum Theatre on the Rambla in Barcelona. I have 
had the very spot pointed out to me by a cabman. One may 
very well recognize Mr. Roosevelt, or Mr. Taft, from having 
seen their photographs, although one had never laid eyes on 
them before. We must remember that Ferrer had not long be- 
fore been implicated in the bomb explosion in Madrid, when the 
attempt was made on the lives of King Alfonso and Queen Vic- 
toria, and his portrait was published dozens of times in all the 
Spanish and French illustrated papers, and he was as well 
known by portraiture as any political or aviation celebrity is 
here. Hence it was not such an unusual thing for a newspaper- 
man to be able to recognize him from a photograph. 


Mr, Archer makes much of the fact that the recognition took 
place between seven-thirty and eight-thirty, according to the 
testimony, and reasons that it was too dark to see any man's 
features then. Now the sun went down in Barcelona about 
seven-twenty during the week of July 26th, and twilight lasts 
until nearly nine o'clock at that period of the year. Barcelona 
is situated somewhere near the latitude of Providence or Bos- 
ton ; and one can test the point any time between July 26 and 
31 of the year. 

Again Mr. Archer, in reviewing this evidence, says that 
Mongat, where "Mas Germinal" is situated, is "eleven dusty 
miles" from Barcelona. It is only eleven kilometres, so Mr. 
Archer's pen must have slipped unwittingly, as that would be 
but about six miles from the Rambla or Plaza de Colon, in the 
very heart of Barcelona. He also says that, "the authorities 
had carefully refused to admit the evidence of Ferrer's family, 
who (now, in 1910) assert that he never quitted Mas Ger- 
minal that day." Yet on the very morning of the 27th he took 
Francisco Domenech, the barber, to breakfast at Badalona, 
which is a village two miles or more from Mongat on the 
way to Barcelona. To walk all the way from Mongat to Barce- 
lona requires only from two to two and a half hours. Hence 
it may very well be that Ferrer, now that things were becoming 
lively in Barcelona, stayed away for a large portion of the 
day — the heated portion, it will be perceived — and in the after- 
noon went into Barcelona. His "family" could easily swear 
he was at home that day, and Senor Colldeforns likewise see 
him "captaining a group" on the Rambla in the city. Ferrer, 
with his experience in the Morral bomb case, and in previous 
cases, would naturally be strong on making out an alibi. 

And just here Mr. Archer has put in a piece of innuendo. 
There is nothing in this second article which directly asserts 
any connection between the Church or the orders and Ferrer's 
trial. But he found it necessary to put a head-line, "The 
Catholic Journalist," and to repeat the phrase two or three 
times in that part of the article. It supplies an apparent miss- 
ing link, because it connects the Catholic Church in some indefi- 
nite way with the prosecution. Well, the army officers were 
Catholics, the court officials were Catholics, all the witnesses 
were Catholics where they were not the anarchist and atheist 
companions of Ferrer. Why single out the journalist who 


saw Ferrer? It seems as if it were done with the motive of 
accenting the Church as a prosecuting witness. 

As a matter of fact "El Siglo Futuro" is not a church paper. 
It is the Carlist paper, and merely incidentally, as part and 
parcel of its politics of Throne and Church, puts forward 
CathoHcism. Of course the newspaper man was "a Catholic 
journahst," but to have called him a Carlist would have left 
out much of the peculiar attitude of Mr. Archer. 

Then he insinuates that the authorities put Ferrer in such 
a woe-begone garb in the rueda, or group of prisoners, that 
his recognition by Seiior Colldeforns was a foregone conclu- 
sion. In other words, he charges deception on the part of 
the court, without a single fact to support it. The law of 
recognizing and identifying the accused is plain (Articles 422 
and 424) : "The rueda must be constituted of at least six 
persons of similar appearance to the person who is to be iden- 
tified." As Ferrer was completely shaven when captured, and 
if he were allowed no toilet accessories while in prison, as 
Mr. Archer declares, he must have been covered with a gray, 
stubby beard, which would necessarily make his identification 
amid six others similar to him very difficult to Senor Collde- 

So much for the analysis and reasoning indulged in by Mr. 
Archer. When his whole article is gone over in this manner, 
the fact stands out pre-eminently that there was evidence 
against Ferrer which even Mr. Archer cannot put out of the 
way. Space forbids a complete analysis of the entire article, 
and a discussion of Mr. Archer's statement that "the documen- 
tary proofs consisted of two papers." In fact, there were fifty 
odd files of dockets of them offered in evidence, consisting of 
correspondence, circulars, reports, and memoranda of all kinds. 

Yet even with Mr. Archer's special pleading — for he does 
not seem to have endeavored to interview Seiior Colldeforns, 
or to analyze the dockets of the documentary evidence, or even 
look over the original evidence testified and sworn to by the 
witnesses — he concludes that : "I am not at all sure that, had 
Ferrer been fairly tried under reasonable rules of evidence 
(query, under English common-law evidence), he would have 
got oflF scot-free." 

This is certainly a vindication from the rampant assertions 
that were made that the Catholic Church had "railroaded" 


Ferrer to death. Judicial errors may be made in any country; 
but it is quite another thing to say that a person was done to 
death without trial and without witnesses. We Catholics only 
ask that in these matters the same yardstick be used to measure 
events in Spain as would be used to measure events in New 
York or Oklahoma. 


I have been asked whether Ferrer's previous character and 
teachings may not have had something to do with his con- 
demnation. This question cannot be answered by any one 
outside of Spain, for he did not keep himself by any means 
aloof from the events which counted against him. There were 
some six revolutionary events before the July riots ; he was 
on hand at every one of them. It may have been a coincidence, 
but it was a coincidence that had a sinister aspect. One in- 
stance is the bomb explosion of Alay 31, 1906, when the King 
and his young bride narrowly escaped instant death on the 
Calle Mayor, Madrid. The man who threw the bomb, which 
killed ten persons, and who was executed for it, was Mateo 
Morral, a professor in La Escuela Moderna, placed in that 
position in Madrid by Ferrer. Ferrer, at that time, was in 
Madrid, living in the same block with Morral, and was visited 
from time to time by him and various noted anarchists. Fer- 
rer was arrested, along with many others, and kept for eight 
months in the Model Prison in Madrid, but, while many cir- 
cumstances pointing to his complicity were brought out, no 
evidence directly connecting him with the bomb-throwing was 
discovered. It is absolutely untrue that there was a special 
court organized to try him on that occasion. But these ques- 
tionable facts and circumstances may have weighed against 
him when it came to a question of clemency. 

Ferrer was not a man of much education. He was the 
founder of a school, but never wrote a book. His writings in 
correspondence and his verses are exhibitions of passion rather 
than reason. He was the type of man who is leader by virtue 
of his ability to arrange things and provide the means. Of 
his life I need say little. He was born in Alella, in the province 
of Barcelona, and became a railway brakeman, and then con- 
ductor, had some trouble in smuggling on the French frontier. 


and then went to Paris, where he fell in with anarchists and 
imbibed their doctrines. He quarrelled with his wife, deserted 
her, and afterwards obtained a separation, and left her to 
take care of his three children. All were disinherited in the 
will, which he made at Montjuich, just before his death, and 
his fortune left to Soledad Villafranca, his mistress, who was 
younger than his eldest daughter. He died a comparatively 
rich man, for he obtained from Mile. Ernestine Meunier, a 
pious old lady of Paris, money to found children's asylums 
in Barcelona, which were to be operated under Catholic aus- 
pices as religious institutions. He even gave her a statue of 
Our Lady of Mount Carmel, in token of how he was conduct- 
ing them. At her death, she left him property in Paris, upon 
which he realized over a million francs. She died a Catholic, 
putting that very expression in her will, and left legacies for 
Masses for her soul. 

After her death, he changed his asylums into La Escuela 
Moderna (the Modern School), a name which he took over 
bodily from a greater man, the historian, Don Rafael Altamira 
y Crevea, one of the foremost professors of the University of 
Oviedo, who had used it for many years and had used it in a 
religious sense. After the bomb-throwing episode of 1906, 
the various branches of La Escuela Modema were closed, and 
a new name, La Escuela de la Casa del Pueblo, was adopted. 
A bookselling and journalistic venture was added to it. Books 
from the French and new books written in Spanish, in which 
all mention of God or country were omitted, were compiled. 
As a rule, these books are inferior to the text-books used in 
the Catholic and government schools, as a comparison of the 
two sets of books upon any subject will demonstrate. His 
chief instructor for the girls' schools was Mme. Clementine 
Jacquinet. She was a French anarchist, who kept a school at 
Sakha, in Egypt, for several years. This school was closed 
by the British authorities and Mme. Jacquinet banished from 
Egypt on account of its anarchistic character. She describes 
herself as "an atheist, scientific materialist, and anti-religious, 
because religion, dividing men, constitutes the real obstacle to 
progress, an anti-militarist and anarchist." She had a large 
share in preparing the school books for La Escuela Modema. 

A glance at some of the teachings of the text-books of 
La Escuela Moderna, intended for the minds of tender young 


children, shows them a Httle too advanced for use in the United 
States. In the Third Reader, known as "Patriotism and Colo- 
nization," we read (page 12) : 

"Drop the soldiers' musket as though it were hot iron! 
For this refusal [to drill] you will be treated as rebels, as 
cowards and as lacking in noble sentiments. But what of that ? 
Do not shoulder the musket! If they point out to you that 
an enemy is invading the country, why, let him invade ! Even 
if they show you that he is tearing down the throne or the 
presidential chair! What do you care for those trifles?" 

On page 15: "Don't get excited for the sake of the flag! 
It is nothing but three yards of cloth stuck on a pole !" 

On page 33 : "One's country is not made up by territorial 
boundaries nor by the citizens who dwell therein, no, they are 
mere despots who exploit those ideas." 

On page 80: "The words, 'country,' 'flag,' and 'family,' 
do not excite in me more than hypocritical echoes of wind and 

On page 84, and following: "When I think of the evils I 
have seen and suffered, which proceed from national hatreds, 
I recognize that they all rest upon a gross lie, the love of one's 

"The flag is but the symbol of tyranny and misery." 

"Industry and commerce are the names by which they [mer- 
chants] cover up their robberies." 

"Marriage is prostitution sanctified by the church and pro- 
tected by the state." 

"The family is one of the principal obstacles to the enlight- 
enment of men." 

In the "Bulletin of the Modern School," Vol. V, No. i, page 
5 (1908), an article reads: "Religion has retarded the evolu- 
tion of man, has prolonged his primitive weakness, has made 
him retrograde to his ancestral brutishness, has cultivated and 
augmented the terrors arising from ignorance of phenomena, 
the miseries which those sufifer who do not know how to mod- 
ify natural effects to their advantage, and the injuries which 
are the results of general incapacity and of various obsessions ; 
and finally it has been wonderfully united with brute force to 
assist the material and moral authority of the violent and the 
astute as the oppressors of the great mass of humanity." 

And on page 6 following, in speaking of the separation of 


Church and State, it adds : ''Separate two authorities equally 
hateful ! It is imperative to suppress both of them !" 

In the "Compendium of Universal History," written by 
Mme. Clementine Jacquinet, we find the following gems — on 
page ^/: "It is believed that Jesus Christ was- a Buddhist 
monk, who came from Mt. Carmel, and who devoted himself 
to preaching the religion of Buddha to the Jews." 

On page 40: "Would not God have done better to have 
begun by making man as he desired him to be? Can you con- 
ceive of a father communicating to his son a terrible disease 
for the pleasure of curing it afterwards and then proclaiming 
himself thereafter as his benefactor ? This God of the Chris- 
tians is a wicked God, which every honest conscience ought to 
reject ; or, if not, he is a useless one, powerless to prevent evil 
or to assure the good which one desires." 

On page 41 : "We desire to observe here that the only act 
of justice accomplished by this God was to get himself killed 
as the author of all the evils which men suffer." 

On page 42, speaking of the crucifixion: "What does the 
deed represent? Why, the part of a low-minded, ambitious 
person, infatuated with the very idea of his own wisdom." 

On page 46 : "We will always see Christianity, in the course 
of history, face to face with progress in order to obstruct the 
latter's path; with a negation of science because it impeaches 
dogma; supporting firmly absolutism, inequality of the social 
classes ; as an oppressor of the human conscience in its torture- 
chamber of false morality, with a hateful flag in whose shadow 
every crime has been committed, as a vampire always thirsting 
for blood to whom milHons of victims have been sacrificed !" 

In the work called "Nature and the Social Problem," writ- 
ten by Enrique Lluria, used in the advanced schools, the 
preface (page 7) explains the design and tendency of the 

"At the end of two generations in which catechism is not 
taught, and it is scientifically explained that what is called 
creation is but the uncreated existence of the universe, only 
the atavistic eflfects of a religious belief will remain. There 
will be left then only its annihilation, and when its atrophy 
commences its annihilation will be rapid. For this purpose 
the Modern School of Barcelona has been founded, its library 
and free schools created to extend the work." 


Other extracts from the various text-books might be multi- 
plied to show the animus of the authors, and stabs and side 
remarks at Christianity and Christian civilization abound all 
through them. Observe that it is not against the Catholic 
faith or belief, as such, that these are directed; it is against 
all religion and religious ideas, though Christianity is especially 
aimed at, that the attack of this remarkable series of text-books 
and the teaching of the Modern School was directed. 

The Constitution of Spain (Article 13, Section 1) guaran- 
tees the right of free speech and free press, and, although the 
Modern School, in its various branches, was founded at Bar- 
celona in 1902, and since in other cities, the teachers and writ- 
ers of it have never been molested or called before any tribu- 
nal for their speeches or writings ; in the city of Barcelona they 
even made application to a Catholic city council for a portion 
of the public funds for the support of their schools and the 
application was granted. For eight years, therefore, Ferrer 
taught what he wanted in his schools and no one interfered 
with him. It was only when he, Morral and some militant 
teachers in the Modern Schools participated in riots, arson and 
slaughter, that they were taken before the courts and tried. 
There are plenty of teachers in La Escuela Moderna who have 
never been molested, notwithstanding the bloodshed of the 
Barcelona riots. In this country such occurrences would likely 
bring them under more than police surveillance. 

Events in Barcelona have resulted in a strong movement 
among its people to counteract the influence of the Modem 
Schools and in the establishment of anti-anarchistic schools. 
The month of December last saw a great outpouring of teach- 
ers, professors and others in the Educational Congress held 
there in the Palace of Fine Arts the week after Christmas to 
devise plans and find means for the building and equipment 
of newer and finer schools to take the place of those destroyed 
by the rioters. 


Letter to "America" 

THE defamers of the Church in Spain have devised cer- 
tain new tactics, of which the readers of "America" 
should be informed, for they are sure to appear in 
some shape in our daily press. A writer, who signs himself as 
"Gerundio, a former monk," has just published a book in Bar- 
celona, entitled "El tormento en los Conventos" (Torture in 
the Convents), and the press agencies there are kindly sup- 
plying the Spanish radical papers and the entire European 
press with copious extracts from the book. In it are given 
alleged statistics of the clergy, religious orders, and the wild- 
est stories of confinement and torture in the convents and re- 
ligious houses, the kind with which we used to be regaled in 
this country in the flourishing A. P. A. times of not so long 
ago. Doubtless after they have been repeated in the European 
press of different countries, they will be solemnly copied into 
our papers, as showing how Spain is wholly under the domina- 
tion of the monk and the clerical to a far greater degree than 
was ever known in any other country in the world. 

It is hardly worth while to go over the entire work, which 
starts out with an assumption of historical learning, and pur- 
ports to give the history of monasticism and religious orders 
in Spain from the Napoleonic years of 1808-14 down to the 
present time. Scattered all through the book are statistics of 
the various periods, showing the growth of the monastic orders 
or congregations, and if the figures given there are no more 
correct than the ones I shall presently mention, the whole book 
is little more than a mass of misinformation. No doubt we 
shall later hear of these things from the eminent gentlemen, 
who do not read Spanish and who do not examine the Spanish 
official reports, in their narration of things they have found 
out regarding the religious situation in Spain. For this reason 
I have deemed it proper to communicate to you in advance 
some of the information contained in this book and in the 
press excerpts from it. 



After speaking about the religious orders in Spain and the 
activity of the Jesuits in particular, in order to give point to his 
remarks, the author then continues : 

"The struggle of the government with the religious orders 
ended by the former's capitulation to them. To-day they hold 
a position in Spain in regard to number, property and political 
influence such as religious orders never had before in any 
other country. 

"Comparative statistics are the best proof of this fact. Spain 
is simply filled with monasteries and religious houses. In the 
year i860 there were in the Diocese of Barcelona, which is pro- 
portionately the wealthiest and by far the most enHghtened, 
only 22 nuns, and on the other hand there were no male reli- 
gious at all. To-day there are in this diocese about 500 reli- 
gious houses, of which 95 per cent devote themselves to educa- 
tion and particularly to business enterprises, factories, trades 
and also commerce. Many monks have the superintendence 
over penal institutions, asylums, orphanages and hospitals, 
both governmental as well as local and private ones. 

"Besides this, there exist in said diocese, which has not much 
more than a million inhabitants, six thousand associations, 
brotherhoods and establishments, which are subject to the man- 
agement of the religious orders. For the maintenance of these 
'Centros Catolicos' (Catholic clubs), religious houses, cathedral, 
diocesan seminary, 280 parish priests, two bishops, the canons 
and the rest of the clergy, constituting some 2,000 persons, the 
government gives every year 8,000,000 duros, that is $30,000,- 
000. In other words, each individual inhabitant of the Diocese 
of Barcelona must pay annually the sum of $30 for the main- 
tenance of bishops, priests and the male and female members 
of religious orders. 

"And now we will give a statistical sketch of the whole of 
Spain in this regard. According to the official figures for the 
year 1908, there were religious houses as follows : In the 
Province of Barcelona, 480; in Madrid, 229; in Lerida, 116; 
in Tarragona, 152 ; in Gerona, 146; in Alava, 55 ; in Guipuzcoa, 
112; in Vizcaya, 124; in Navarre, 117; in Avila, 44; in Burgos, 
98 ; in Santander, 86 ; in Murcia, 89; in Albacete, 35 ; in Seville, 
169; in Huelva, 29; in Cadiz, 150; in Cordova, 105; in Gra- 
nada, 90 ; in Malaga, 86 ; in Jaen, 89 ; in Almeria, 32 ; in Badajos, 
73; in Caceres, 53; in Coruiia, 57; in Orense, 31 ; in Soria, 


28; in Segovia, 41; in Logrona, 66; in Zamora, 48; in Leon, 
54 ; in Salamanca, 67 ; in Valladolid, 96 ; in Palencia, 53 ; in 
Toledo, 96; in Cuenca, 41 ; in Ciudad Real, 49; in Guadalajara, 
43; in Saragossa, 112; in Teruel, 48; in Huesca, 63; in Cas- 
tellon, 68 ; in Valencia, 167 ; in Alicante, 92 ; in Pontevedra, 43 ; 
in Lugo, 38; in Oviedo, 60; in the Balearic Islands, 164, and in 
the Canaries, 32. 

"According to the above figures Spain has four thousand 
three hundred and thirty monasteries of religious houses, and 
near them exist many other members of religious orders some- 
what secretly under various pretences, so that the government 
and the people may be deceived. These statistics are sufficient 
to justify the steps taken by Canalejas in the matter of the reli- 
gious orders." 

I give this extract so that the readers of "America" may 
recognize the source whenever they see them printed as newly- 
made investigations in Spain. It is needless to say that they 
are untrue, and that they are given with a prolixity and verisi- 
militude that would deceive the average reader who has not the 
requisite books on Spain and Spanish affairs with which to 
elicit the truth. 

As a sample of what this unknown author has promulgated, 
let us take the one upon which he places the most emphasis, 
the Diocese of Barcelona. I have by me the statistics of the 
religious houses in that diocese (1910) and an account of the 
work they are doing. There are in the Barcelona diocese 388 
religious communities. O'f these 72 are composed of men and 
316 of women. There are 865 male members of the religious 
communities and 3,974 women. There are besides, 1,194 
priests at present in charge of 263 parishes. The population of 
the Diocese of Barcelona is 1,054,540, of which 980,000 are 
reckoned as Catholics. The amount of the population there 
and the number of the clergy and members of religious com- 
munities are about the same as for the Archdiocese of New 
York, reckoning only the Catholic population. 

In Barcelona the male religious orders have communities de- 
voted as follows : To contemplative life, 2 ; refuges, protec- 
tories and manual training schools for children, 5 ; asylums for 
old people, i ; charitable associations, 17; schools and colleges, 
47. The female religious orders have the following communi- 
ties : Contemplative life, 27 ; houses of refuge, protectories 


and training schools for girls. 5 ; hospitals, asylums and homes 
for old people, 63; schools and colleges, 221. In the schools 
and colleges free instruction is given to 75,000 annually, and 
among them are included kindergartens, day nurseries and re- 
ception rooms for the children of the poor, while their parents 
are at work during the day. All these are maintained at their 
own expense and efforts, are entirely exclusive of the state 
public schools, hospitals and charitable institutions — except in 
regard to three religious orders, who perform at state expense 
in the public homes and hospitals the works of charity and 
mercy carried on by those institutions. If they were displaced 
that expense would be vastly increased by the employment of 
lay persons in the service of the state. 

But this anonymous author never so much as alludes to 
these facts. Moreover, he includes as religious organizations 
the various Catholic clubs, fraternal societies, Christian Doc- 
trine confraternities and sodalities which exist in connection 
with every Catholic church the world over, and which are 
always associations of laymen who pay their own meagre ex- 
penses in every instance, and are in no sense religious com- 
munities. In no single instance is there one cent contributed 
to their support or maintenance by the government. The state- 
ment of the anonymous author in this regard is an absolute 
invention. It is likewise untrue that any religious orders in 
Barcelona are engaged in business or trade, or carry on fac- 
tories for the sale of their products. The official Hst before 
me shows that there is none there which is so engaged. 

The author goes even further in the realm of invention. 
He says the Spanish government gives every year some 8,000,- 
000 duros (that is 40,000,000 pesetas) or $30,000,000 (!) for 
the support of the clergy, religious orders and lay associations 
of Barcelona. In the first place a duro is the Spanish word for 
dollar, and is equal to five pesetas, so that $30,000,000 is 
almost more than four times the amount actually given! In 
the second place, the sum of 8,000,000 duros or 40,000,000 
pesetas, is the sum spent by the Spanish government for the 
entire Church in all Spain. It goes to pay the secular salaries 
of the Minister of Worship and his clerks, the upkeep of 
church buildings, and finally the salaries and stipends of the 
clergy in actual charge of the churches and parishes. The re- 
ligious orders and lay associations get none of it, except the 


three orders actually engaged in the charitable and benevolent 
institutions of the state, who receive their bare maintenance as 
individuals in lieu of a salary. 

The total revenue of Spain is about 1,090,750,000 pesetas 
(or $218,150,000), and the Church — including the civil officers, 
who are paid out of the appropriation — receives a little over 
40,000,000 pesetas (some $8,000,000), or about 3 6/10 per cent 
of the Spanish revenue. As Spain has 19,000,000 inhabitants, 
the Province of Barcelona (conterminous with the diocese) 
pays merely 1/19 of the total sum set aside for the Church, and 
accordingly, to use the methods of the anonymous author, each 
individual inhabitant of Barcelona has to pay 42 cents annually 
(instead of $30) for the support of the Church. If the mem- 
bers of our congregations (of any creed) in America could 
be let off so cheaply, they would be proud to acclaim it. 

It would take up too much time to go over the figures given 
seriatim and show their falsity — the number of religious 
houses in Spain has already been given in "America" — but the 
rest of the figures in this latest book are about as true as the 
figures which the anonymous author gave for the Barcelona 
diocese, and which I have just analysed. The whole publica- 
tion is intended to affect public opinion in regard to the state 
of affairs in Spain by the time the Cortes meets again, and the 
religious questions are once more to the front. It is, however, 
well to be able to recognize these figures for what they are, 
gross falsehoods and not true statements of fact. 


THAT portion of the Iberian peninsula, formerly the 
Kingdom, but now the Republic, of Portugal, has been 
notoriously before the public in several instances within 
the past few years. It was only a few years ago that the king 
and crown prince were assassinated in the public streets of 
Lisbon, and only a few months have passed since the new 
republic was proclaimed amid a general attack upon the re- 
ligious orders and clergy, while the king and royal family were 
driven from the land. We have had many newspaper de- 
spatches concerning these events, but very little real informa- 
tion as to the land itself, its people and their church and its 
organization. We know that Portugal was once a world 
power and vied with Spain and England as the mistress of the 
seas. Its navigators explored Africa and Asia, and explored 
and settled a large part of South America. One of its greatest 
colonies became first the Empire and afterwards the Republic 
of Brazil. Its land has furnished poets, warriors, navigators 
and colonizers, but alas, few statesmen of the calibre which 
the world reckons as great. 

The Portuguese are, of course, regarded as a Latin race, 
and the Roman domination, from the time of the conquest of 
the peninsula which makes up Spain and Portugal, has left its 
mark upon language, people and institutions, although the re- 
mains of Roman art, architecture and civilization are not so 
plentifully found as in Spain. 

Anciently, Portugal, together with a portion of what is mod- 
ern Spain, was known as the Roman province of Lusitania. 
The Latin language is the base, if not altogether the sole ele- 
ment, of the Portuguese language, which in its orthography 
seems closer to Latin than the Spanish, but further from it in 
pronunciation and grammatical structure. The Portuguese 
are not a people of diverse race origin, as are the Spaniards, 
who spring from a mixture of Iberian, Roman, Gothic and 
Visigothic elements. They seem to be chiefly of Iberian stock, 



on which the Vandals and Goths made Httle impression, with 
only a modern and slight intermixture of other races, chiefly 
Moorish and African. 

The Portuguese are literally the longest-headed people in 
Europe ("Cranial Index" 75, yj), and they are below the aver- 
age height. Blond-haired Portuguese are practically unknown, 
while ordinary dark or black hair is found among about a 
fifth of the population ; very jet-black hair is the rule. This 
at once differentiates them from their neighbors, the Spanish ; 
and their language does so even more. To an English-speak- 
ing person the Portuguese language seems like sloppy Spanish 
pronounced in a French fashion. It is so much like Spanish 
as to be deceptive, and differs from it widely just when one 
thinks they ought to be alike. The Portuguese language shows 
signs, even more than the French, of the influence of that 
strange Gaelic habit of ellipsis, or the dropping of a letter in the 
middle of a word. 

Of course, the very name, Portugal, indicates that it was a 
country of the Gaels, for the name is derived from the ancient 
Latin name for the present city and province of Oporto, which 
was in Latin Partus Cale, or Partus Gale, that is, the Port 
of the Gaels. From this city the name spread to the whole 
country, and it was accordingly called Portugal. Notwith- 
standing the original inhabitants and their descendants talked 
a Latin jargon acquired from their Roman conquerors, which 
finally developed into the present Portuguese language, they 
could not forbear the Gaelic habit of ellipsis. The French, or 
Gauls (who were really Gaels), did this, as in the Latin words, 
pater, mater, from which they made pcre and mere. So the 
Portuguese, for example, when they used the Latin generalis 
(general), plural generates, first dropped the "n" and said 
geral, and in the plural they also dropped the "1" and said 
geraes, a regular nasal telescopic way of pronouncing a word. 
Thus the genius of the Portuguese language has differentiated 
it more and more from the Spanish, and, while the two are 
derived from the same colonial Latin, the result has been 
curiously different, yet sufficiently alike to be perplexing to 
the student. 

Spain and Portugal were not originally separated, any more 
than they are geographically separated to-day. Portugal, after 
Roman times, and when the Gaelic and Gothic tribes descended 


to dismember the great empire, came under the rule of the 
kings of GaHcia (which is now northwestern Spain) — another 
instance of where the name Gael is still imbedded in a purely 
national name. It was also conquered by the Moors, and re- 
mained under Mohammedan rule for two hundred years. Ber- 
mudez. King of Galicia, reconquered it in 997, and St. Ferdi- 
nand, King of Castile and Leon, nearly completed the con- 
quest and expelled the Moors from all the northern part of 
the country. In 1109, the country freed itself from the rule 
of the Galicians, and later threw off all allegiance to Castile. 
This was the beginning of Portuguese independence as a sepa- 
rate kingdom. The creators of the kingdom's greatness were 
King Denis (1279-1325) and his successor, Alfonso IV (1325- 

In 1383, the dynasty died out, and John I was elected king 

(1383-1433). He married Philippa, daughter of John of 
Gaunt, in England, and thus commenced the close relations of 
Portugal with England. He was the first foreign monarch to 
receive the Order of the Garter, and with him the heroic age 
of Portuguese history began. He forever put an end to Span- 
ish sovereignty, expelled the last of the Moors, and sent out 
navigator after navigator to explore the world. Madeira was 
occupied in 1420, and Guiana the following year. Bartholo- 
mew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope in i486, and in 
1498 Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India. Bra- 
zil was discovered and settled in 1500 by Pedro Alvares Ca- 
bral. Magellan (in Portuguese, Magalhaes) went to Brazil 
in 1 5 19, rounded Cape Horn in 1520, discovered the Philip- 
pine Islands in 1 52 1, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in 1522, 
and before the end of that year was back again in Portugal, 
having successfully completed the first voyage around the 
world. Not only was Brazil colonized, but conquests and colo- 
nies followed in India, China, Africa and Mozambique. 

In 1580, however, this kingly line in turn became extinct 
and Portugal was annexed to Spain. For sixty years the Por- 
tuguese endured the harsh rule of Philip II and his successors, 
but in 1640 they revolted. The nobles and clergy succeeded in 
freeing the country from Spanish rule and in placing the Por- 
tuguese Duke of Braganza on the throne under the name of 
John IV. But, during the Spanish rule and the succeeding 
wars, Portugal had declined in power and wealth. Her mari- 


time trade had vanished, many of her Indian provinces were 
taken by the Dutch, and the country, loaded with debt, had 
practically become a commercial dependency of England. 
When its formal independence was acknowledged in 1668 by 
treaty with Spain, only the vestiges of its former glory re- 
mained. In 1703, the Methuen treaty was negotiated with 
England, by which the latter secured and ever since has kept 
the trade supremacy of Portugal. In 1750, Joseph, the grand- 
son of John IV, ascended the Portuguese throne. It was 
during his reign (1750-1777) that the Marquis de Pombal 
took entire charge of the reins of government. He carried on 
a relentless war against the old nobility and the clergy, and as 
a result of his efforts, the Jesuits were expelled in 1759, and 
for many years thereafter all the property of religious orders 
was confiscated and secularized. The republican revolutionists 
of to-day are merely repeating what Pombal did over a hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. 

During the Napoleonic wars, the French invaded Portugal, 
and were about to partition the country with Spain, much after 
the manner of Poland. John VI, King of Portugal, in order 
to escape the French invaders, went to Brazil and set up his 
throne in Rio de Janeiro, in 1807. During the Peninsular 
Wars, the English and Portuguese troops under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley freed Portugal from the French invaders. The 
transfer of the seat of government from Portugal to Brazil 
was a source of humiHation to the Portuguese, and, although 
King John might have returned to Portugal after the battle of 
Waterloo, in 1814, when Napoleon's power was broken, he 
stayed in Brazil until 1821, when Napoleon died in St. Helena. 
When he returned to Portugal it was to find a constitution pro- 
claimed. He left his son, Dom Pedro, as regent in Brazil, but 
in 1822 Brazil declared its independence and made Dom Pedro 
its first emperor. 

From that time to this the fortunes of Portugal have varied, 
with but little improvement in the prospects of the country. 
In 188 1, the so-called Republican party commenced its active 
propaganda, determined to oust the royal family and overturn 
most of the existing institutions. The country became bank- 
rupt in 1892, and in 1901 its revenues were practically seques- 
tered to pay the foreign debts, and the management of the 
revenue was put in the hands of a commission, including repre- 


sentatives of England, Germany and France. In other words, 
Portugal for the past two hundred years has been a pawn on 
the chessboard of her creditors, without revenues, without 
energy and without any definite hope. Nearly all her defi- 
ciences may be ascribed to lack of means and the lack of man- 
hood arising from financial slavery. 

The Church in Portugal has been during the last two cen- 
turies in a precarious condition. One hears much of the domi- 
nation of the priesthood, but the fact is that the Church, viewed 
merely as organism of the body politic, is completely domi- 
nated by the State. This does not refer to the present provi- 
sional government, but to the old monarchical regime. For in- 
stance, the late Constitution (Chap. 2, Art. 75) empowers the 
king and his ministers "to appoint bishops and bestow ecclesi- 
astical benefices," and this power was always exercised as the 
ministry saw fit. Whatever deficiences there may be among 
the hierarchy or higher clergy who have the direction of eccle- 
siastical affairs and who rule the parochial clergy, they may be 
ascribed to the endeavor to make the Portuguese Church little 
more than a bureau of the government. Nor would the gov- 
ernment brook any rival. Religious teaching orders were ex- 
pelled even under the late government ; the Jesuits were first 
expelled in 1759, and all the remaining orders banished in 
1834. Hampering restrictions were placed on ecclesiastical 
seminaries and vocations to the priesthood. During the past 
thirty years some few religious orders were allowed to return 
in order to meet the dearth of schools, but even they have 
usually been expelled whenever the authorities thought fit to 
sign a decree. 

The clergy have always been excluded, under special laws, 
from having anything to do with secondary or higher educa- 
tion in any of the government institutions. Their religious 
instruction in the primary schools where catechism, Christian 
doctrine, and church history is provided by law and is in 
theory taught, has been hampered by all sorts of vexatious 
decrees. It must also be remembered that Jansenism made 
great headway among the Portuguese and induced an indiffer- 
ence to the frequent reception of the sacraments. Within the 
past seventy years Freemasonry of the political continental 
kind has been most powerful in Portugal, nearly every official 
of State or officer of the army and navy belonging to it. Be- 


ing a secret society, political propaganda went almost unno- 
ticed. All the members of the present provisional government 
are said to be Masons of the virulent European brand and 
very anti-Catholic. 

The population of Portugal was, in 1900, 5,016,167, or about 
that of the State of Ohio. In geographical area it is slightly 
larger than Ohio. The people of Portugal do not live in cities, 
but are rural and agricultural exclusively ; only a little less 
than one-third (32.4 per cent) of the population being dwell- 
ers in cities and towns. There are no large cities in the king- 
dom. Lisbon, the capital, had in 1900 only 356,000 inhabi- 
tants; Oporto, 167,950; Braga, 24,200; Setubal, 22,074, and 
Coimbra, 18,150, Hence, the whole population are practically 
penniless country farmers and farm hands, with all the disad- 
vantages and backwardness which that fact implies. The ex- 
ternal and internal debt of Portugal is approximately about 
$140 for each man, woman and child in the kingdom, and taxa- 
tion is proportionately heavy. 

For this population the number of parishes in the whole of 
Portugal is 3,736, and the number of priests about 6,840. The 
Church in Portugal is constituted as follows: Patriarchate 
of Lisbon, in the centre of the kingdom, with two suflfragan 
bishops, Guarda and Portalegre; Archbishopric of Evora, in 
the south, with two sufifragan bishops, Beja and Faro; Arch- 
bishopric of Braga, in the north, with five suffragan bishops, 
Braganza, Coimbra, Lamego, Porto and Vizeu, thus making 
twelve dioceses for the whole of Portugal. In addition to them 
there is the Archbishop of Goa in India, with four suffragan 
bishops of Cochin, Damao, Macao and Meliapur in the Portu- 
guese East Indies ; and also the bishops of Angola, Augra and 
San Thome in Africa, Funchal in Madeira, Santiago in Cape 
Verde, which are subject to Lisbon. There were very few 
religious orders in Portugal, only teaching and charitable ones 
being allowed after 1870. 

Education, of course, is backward. The rural population do 
not see its necessity ; they are too poor to provide schools, and 
the government is bankrupt. The latest Constitution was 
adopted in 1842 and it contains (Art. 145, Sec. 30) the declara- 
tion : "Primary instruction shall be free to all citizens." No 
government so far has ever carried this out, or been able to 
furnish the means whereby such education should be freely 


tendered to all citizens. A law was passed thirty years ago 
making primary education compulsory, but the law could not 
be enforced because the government could not provide the 
schools. It is said that in 1900 the illiteracy of the Portu- 
guese ran as high as 70 per cent, but in the cities they are 
fairly well versed in elementary knowledge, chiefly owing to 
the excellent church schools. There were then some 4,500 
public and some 1,200 private primary schools, with an attend- 
ance of 240,000 pupils, besides a number of special primary 
schools for adults, with some 7,000 pupils. Secondary schools 
are maintained in the chief towns and had an attendance of 
5,860 pupils in 1904. Besides law, professional and technical 
schools, there is the University of Coimbra, with an attendance 
in 1904 of 1,056 students. Every attempt to enter as students 
of theology is handicapped by all imaginable obstacles ; but, 
on the other hand, the study and graduation in law is all the 
rage. Portugal suffers from an over-abundance of penniless 
advocates and clientless lawyers. 

As to the government of Portugal, it is hard to say just 
what its form now is. Of course, up to last October it was 
a monarchy under a liberal Constitution, at least on paper, 
modelled much after English institutions. It would be useless 
to describe that now, since it is practically abrogated. It, how- 
ever, provided that every man of 21 years of age, with an an- 
nual income of $100, should be entitled to vote (Title IV, 
Chapter 5, Article 5), that all religions may be permitted 
(Title I, Art. 6), and that no one shall be prosecuted because 
of his religion, provided he respects the religion of the State 
and does not offend pubHc morals (Title VIII, Article 145). 
Just what the future constitution or future government of 
Portugal will be no one can tell. They call it a republic ; but 
so far a committee of seven men comprise the whole govern- 
ment. No one elected or appointed them; they have no man- 
date from the people that they should take and hold office, nor 
have they any Constitution, rules or form of government to 
define their powers and to limit their acts. No minister of the 
fallen government has ever dared to do things which they 
have done in the name of liberty and democracy. Even 
Franco, who suspended a section of the Constitution tempo- 
rarily, acted uprightly for the most part, and respected prop- 
erty and individual rights. 


The very origin of their assumption of self-conferred power 
behes any grounded spontaneous outburst on the part of the 
people for their rule. A rebellious garrison, traitorous guards 
and a seditious navy enabled them to effect the revolution and 
climb into power. The heroes of this revolution, who are 
hailed as martyrs, are two men who did but little to effect it, 
one of whom died by the hand of a demented patient in his 
own hospital, and the other committed suicide on his ship 
because he thought the uprising was a failure. Yet Dr. Miguel 
Bombarda and Vice-Admiral Candido Dos Reis received a 
magnificent public funeral through the streets of Lisbon, 
as though they had fallen bravely fighting at the head of vic- 
torious troops. All the Masonic lodges were represented offi- 
cially, and the long procession was filled with banners and pen- 
nants bearing Masonic emblems, thus making it a personal as 
well as an official manifestation. 

The moment that the seven men formed the provisional gov- 
ernment of the so-called Republic of Portugal they commenced 
war on the Church. Here are their names, so that their his- 
tory may be scanned: Teofilo Braga, president; Alfonso 
Costa, minister of justice; Bernardino Machado, minister of 
foreign affairs; Antonio d Almeida, minister of the interior; 
Luiz Barreto, minister of war ; Amaro Acevedo Gomes, min- 
ister of marine ; and Basilio Peyes, minister of commerce and 
agriculture (faaenda). We shall see how large their names 
loom in the coming history of Portugal. 

Without any Constitution, law, rules of procedure, court, 
jury, accusation or trial, these seven men constituted them- 
selves the most despotic government on the face of the earth. 
They drove monks from their cloisters, nuns from their con- 
vents, and the regular clergy from their homes. They arrested 
every member of a religious order without warrant and with- 
out charges, marched them as the vilest criminals through the 
streets, threw them into the foulest prisons, where they ex- 
isted without the ordinary conveniences of life. When the 
jails showed signs of being full, without further trial, or with- 
out being charged with any disorder or crime against the coun- 
try or its people, these religious were summarily banished from 
the country. 

The vilest stories were told about the nuns and sisters ; they 
were subjected to almost every form of insult ; while the wild- 


est and most improbable stories of underground passages and 
subterranean flights were spread broadcast about the regular 
clergy, who were expelled from their religious houses. All 
the insults, cries and contempt were for the irmas, or sisters, 
and the frades, or brothers, as the members of the religious 
orders were called in Portuguese. Not even the Sisters of 
Charity were spared. A correspondent calls attention to the 
way in which two different groups of prisoners were treated 
by the revolutionists. One group of men came along as pris- 
oners conducted in a polite and suave manner by the soldiers. 
They were not unfrocked frades, but they were three private 
soldiers in uniform, who had broken down the door of the 
church of San Salvador and plundered everything valuable 
there which they could lay their hands upon. Shortly after- 
wards a few nuns were hustled along, with insults, cries and 
whistling. Among them were three Spanish women, one a 
widow, 79 years of age, and her two daughters, all of them 
discalced Carmelite nuns, who were thrust across the border 
into Spain without funds or resources. 

For three days no order whatever was observed by the revo- 
lutionists in Lisbon. Churches were dismantled or closed and 
all services ceased. Yet there was one exception. The Irish 
Dominican Church, which has stood for 150 years in Lisbon, 
was wide open and services went on uninterruptedly. The 
British flag was hoisted over it and the Union Jack was draped 
over the doorways, while each Dominican monk wore a tiny 
Union Jack as a buttonhole ornament. The so-called republic 
did not dare arrest or expel these religious, nor make any 
attack upon their church or convent. So they made them the 
general exception to the expulsion of religious, and that, too, 
without any representation, diplomatic or otherwise, from Eng- 
land. But the brave government of seven knew that if they 
touched an Irish Dominican friar, save after charges duly pre- 
ferred, and a formal trial and conviction for violation of some 
law which they had infringed, the new government would hear 
in no uncertain manner from Great Britain. 

The new government of seven, before there is a Constitution 
or legislature in existence, has begun to promulgate decrees 
having all the effect of law, and put into practice the following 
as far as possible: Separation of Church and State, which 
also spells confiscation of church property; a law of divorce 


which goes so far as to permit divorce by consent ; lay neutral 
schools, in which anti-Catholic doctrines are taught while the 
church or religious teaching is excluded, and a law permitting, 
if not almost commanding, parish priests to marry, notwith- 
standing their vows or the rules of the Church. At present 
they are considering laws prohibiting religious rites for any 
of the state, army or navy, so that the government may be 
kept free from any alleged clerical influence, and also a law 
permitting the equality of inheritance and legal rights between 
legitimate and illegitimate children. 

Portugal has had a glorious and heroic past, but the last 
two centuries have been centuries of impotence and dishonor. 
Its magnificent churches, hospitals, monastery buildings and 
abbeys testify to the time when the Catholic faith was a living 
and quickening reality there. But, as the State gradually fet- 
tered the Church, tying it limb by limb, the State grew om- 
nipotent and paralyzed all independent action on the part of 
the Church. Only so long ago as last August the Archbishop 
of Braga suspended a religious paper, *'A Voz de Sao Fran- 
cisco," for some infraction of ecclesiastical discipline, and was 
prosecuted by the government for not having obtained permis- 
sion from it to do so. The present Bishop of Beja, Dr. Sebas- 
tian Leite de Vasconcellos, was driven from his see by the 
revolutionists and fled to Spain for safety; he was accused 
and condemned by the revolutionary government for being 
absent from his see without leave. These instances show how 
tight a rein the Portuguese government held over the Church, 
and how little initiative or power was left to the clergy to do 
their work as in other countries. Add to this the poverty of 
the people, the heavy debts and incapacity of the government, 
and we have the elements which make for backwardness and 
immobility of a race which is largely scattered among its 
country districts. But the faults, shortcomings and defects in 
Portugal are really the result of State supremacy, and it re- 
mains to be seen how much good can come out of the new 
order of things which calls itself a republic, without being one 
even in form. 



I. — The Earlier Immigration 

THE early immigration to the United States, considered 
in the large, was almost wholly from English-speaking 
countries. The vast Irish immigration between 1830 
and i860 consisted of English-speaking people, who were thus 
readily appreciative of the conditions which they found in the 
United States and easily capable of making themselves and 
their race understood in this great EngHsh-speaking republic. 
This republic was founded upon English laws and traditions, 
but by a commingled stream of English, Scotch and Irish colo- 
nists, who found their common language a unifying element. 
In fact, the Irish immigration lent a steadying force to the 
ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence and the 
constitution and establishment of these United States — the 
ideas of political equality and opportunity and of separation 
from Great Britain and her monarchical institutions. Never- 
theless, the English language, which the United States had 
inherited, as well as many of its legal forms and expressions, 
was charged with prejudice towards and misunderstanding of 
the Catholic Church. Consequently, the Irish immigrants were 
misunderstood and depreciated in one respect. They were 
almost to a man staunch adherents of the Catholic faith and 
consequently did not command sympathy or respect, but rather 
excited contempt and distrust among the citizens of the grow- 
ing republic. Nevertheless, in the course of several decades 
they managed to win both respect and sympathy, as well as to 
live down a bitter persecution founded chiefly on hatred to 
their form of religion, but also on the fact that they were alien 
born and presumed to claim the advantages and privileges of 
American citizens. 

To them succeeded the German immigration of 1848 and 
after. This began during the "Sturm und Drang" period of 



German history, when the smaller German thrones were over- 
turned and sceptres smashed in the revolutionary excitement 
of the times. Small German principalities disappeared, feudal 
systems were abolished, and larger German kingdoms arose 
to succeed them. During this formative period thousands and 
thousands of Germans sought refuge in the United States. 
Between them and the American of those days stood the bar- 
rier of language and strange customs. This made them mis- 
understood, and, being poor and forlorn, likewise despised 
amid the general contempt for the poor and homeless from 
other lands. As the Germans were largely Catholic, the gen- 
eral hatred and contempt for the Catholic Irish became their 
portion also. But the German persevered, accumulated prop- 
erty by his thrift and economy, learned EngUsh and the cus- 
toms and ideas of his new fatherland, and in every way showed 
his worth. His habits of industry, frugality and saving were 
valuable assets to our national body. The time came when 
the German was no longer looked upon as of a strange race ; 
his culture and history were appreciated, and he was welcomed 
as a real addition to our national forces. Both the German 
and the Irishman distinguished themselves in the Civil War 
between the States, North and South, and henceforth all 
America knew that patriotism and devotion to the new father- 
land was a virtue which each possessed in as eminent a de- 
gree as the native elder American, whilst in courage and self- 
denial they might outdo him. 

Meanwhile the nations heard the call of opportunity in the 
new world and promptly responded. At first the inhabitants 
of Scandinavia — the Norwegians, Danes and Swedes — came 
hither, and we made them welcome, for they were only one 
remove from the German and did not have the obstacle of the 
Catholic faith as a stumbling-block. The French, Swiss and 
Belgians came, too, but in limited numbers, and then the heter- 
ogeneous inhabitants of the Austrian monarchy began to ar- 
rive. By that time we had grown in a measure more tolerant 
of those who were born across the seas. We welcomed them 
as fleeing from adverse conditions at home and as material to 
make up the fibre of our American civilization. Perhaps the 
fact was that we of the elder stock of Americans had become 
so far educated that we now knew who these people were, as 
well as something of their languages, culture and history. 


After the Civil War between the North and South our coun- 
try began to expand rapidly, to grow great and to exploit 
every form of industry and trade known to man and to make 
use of the thousands of new inventions which the eager minds 
of this and other countries had devised. The original Eng- 
lish-speaking American stock went further afield and began to 
settle and occupy the great West which lay between the Middle 
States and the Pacific Ocean. To undertake the necessary 
hard work and pioneer labor, fresh importations and immigra- 
tion from Europe were demanded. The immigration from the 
English-speaking races and from Teutonic lands was beginning 
to slacken and in some cases had almost ceased. The immi- 
grants of those races already here had entered upon the second 
stage, that of property owners and the employers of labor 
themselves, whilst the demand for labor in America — labor 
of the cheapest and commonest sort, requiring brawn, muscle 
and endurance — was ever increasing. New projects for the 
development of the United States and its varied industries 
were constantly evolved and strong and stout men were re- 
quired to realize them. Then it was that the Eastern and 
Southern parts of Europe awoke to the fact that America 
needed strong muscles and willing arms. 

In the '8o's the movement towards America set in strongly 
from Austria, with its varied races, and from Italy, with its 
industrious and facile workmen. It has been a steadily in- 
creasing stream ever since, the numbers year by year mounting 
higher and higher. To it have been added new races, those of 
Turkey and the Balkans and of Asia Minor and Egypt. Fur- 
ther Asia (the extreme Orient of China, Japan, Siam and 
allied races) has contributed but little, owing to our exclusion 
laws. Yet even the aggregate of their numbers throughout 
the United States is large. Russia, the great consolidated em- 
pire of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, has sent us her 
immigrants, consisting mostly of non-Russian peoples, Jews, 
Poles, Lithuanians, Finns and other subject peoples. Her 
own race, the Russians of Slavic blood, she encourages to 
emigrate to Siberia, which she is settling with a rapidity greater 
than we displayed in our Western States. 

Thus, the older class of immigration has gradually passed 
away. The peoples from the east and south of Europe and 
from Asia and Africa bordering on the Mediterranean, consti- 


tute the majority of our immigrants. Owing to improved con- 
ditions at home, in Germany and Ireland, as well as the Scan- 
dinavian countries, immigrations from those localities have 
practically ceased, when viewed alongside the figures of immi- 
gration from other places. For example, the immigration into 
the United States for the preceding year was about 1,014,500, 
while only 86,130 English, 81,714 Germans, 50,488 Irish, 56,910 
Scandinavians, and 33,105 Scotch, making a total of 303,350 
in all, came in. Thus, less than one-third of the total immi- 
gration is composed of the races constituting the earlier im- 
migration. This, in the opinion of those who have carefully 
studied the subject, is not likely to change ; except that the pro- 
portion of the older form of immigration may sink to one- 
fourth of the total, or perhaps lower. 

This immigration of races with whom we, considered as a 
people at large, are not acquainted, whose language, history 
and customs we know but in the slightest, is the problem which 
we have to face earnestly and seriously. Often one talks of 
the "ignorant" immigrant and despises him accordingly ; but 
it is really we who are ignorant, for we do not know them and 
in most cases do not care to do so. As to mere illiteracy, less 
than 20 per cent (183,000) do not know how to read and 
write, out of those landed within the past year. But business 
men and oftentimes statisticians have come to look upon the 
immigrant as the barometer of prosperity or panic. As soon 
as the immigrants depart from America in great numbers, re- 
turning to their native land, depression in business, failures, 
strikes, etc., are foretold. Surely if the immigrant knows so 
keenly the conditions of labor and trade, he cannot be called 
ignorant, at least not in the contemptuous sense of the word. 

But the point which interests us much is the fact that a 
very large amount of this immigration is Catholic, perhaps the 
majority of it. The statistics kept by the United States Immi- 
gration Bureau do not show the faith professed by newcomers, 
although the questions asked are so searching as to show age, 
sex, literacy, amount of money, friends and relatives, trade 
and occupation, disease and the like. 

The ascertainment of a few additional facts relative to their 
professed faith would not impose any hardships upon the im- 
migration officials, and might provide useful statistics. Never- 
theless, we know, although not accurately, that a very large 


proportion of this immigration is Catholic. In the past, dur- 
ing the time when the bulk of the immigration was Irish or 
German, it was said that no helping hand, or at least no ade- 
quate helping hand, was held out to them in the way of retain- 
ing them in their ancestral faith, and so, great leakages oc- 
curred, whereby many souls were lost to the Catholicity of 
America. Perhaps a sufficient answer to the complaint of 
leakage may be in the fact that in those earlier days there was 
a fierce, determined hostility — both among the high and the 
lowly — to Catholicism, and that, at the same time, the Church 
was desperately poor, with meagre resources to provide for 
the great tide of newcomers. The conditions are changed to- 
day. Great as has been the mission field about us in these 
United States, we have progressed so far that we have built 
splendid churches, schools, hospitals and charitable institu- 
tions, and have provided the material equipment for Christian 
training throughout the entire country. At the same time the 
fierce hostility of old towards the Catholic Church has abated. 
The field of endeavor in regard to the immigrant is greater 
than ever before, and more urgent in many senses than in the 
earlier immigration to these shores. We ought to make the 
most of our opportunity and avoid any omission of our duty 
towards the immigrant, and above all toward the immigrant 
of Catholic faith. 

II. — The Present Immigration 

THERE are now pouring into the United States every 
year over one million of immigrants, of whom up- 
wards of 600,000 are from the east and south of Eu- 
rope and from Asia and Africa bordering on the Mediter- 
ranean. These may be roughly classified as follows by race 
or nationality (leaving out some 90,000 Jewish immigrants) : 

Armenians 4,000 

Bohemians 10,000 

Bulgarians and Servians 16,000 

Croatians, Slavonians and Dalmatians 40,000 

Greeks 40,000 

Italians (from north) 50,000 

Italians (from south) 180,000 

Lithuanians 20,000 

Magyars (Hungarians) 25,000 

Poles 120,000 


Portuguese 8,000 

Rumanians 12,000 

Russians 6,000 

Ruthenians (Little Russians) 20,000 

Slovaks 30.000 

Spanish 8,000 

Syrians 7,000 

Of these, it can be seen that the Latin and Slav races pre- 
dominate. The Latin races amount to 258,000: being 230,000 
Italians, 12,000 Rumanians and 16,000 Spanish and Portu- 
guese. To them may be added 20,000 French from 
the countries of Western Europe. The Slavic races fol- 
low as a close second, amounting to 242,000: being 120,000 
Poles, 40,000 Croatians and Slavonians, 30,000 Slovaks, 
20,000 Ruthenians, 16,000 Bulgarians and Servians, 10,000 
Bohemians and 6,000 Russians. The non-Latin, non-Slavic 
races of Eastern Europe and adjacent Asia amount to 96,000 
more ; being 40,000 Greeks, 25,000 Hungarians, 25,000 Lithu- 
anians, 7,000 Syrians and 4,000 Armenians. All this repre- 
sents the yearly flood now pouring in on us of the various 
Christian nationalities from the parts of Europe little known 
to us, except Italy. 

When we inspect this table of nationalities and races still 
further, we shall find that the various peoples represented in it 
have little or no affiliation with Protestantism, or any of the 
dominant Protestant sects in the United States. They are 
nearly all of them of the Catholic faith or of the elder schis- 
matic churches, which have kept the Catholic faith almost in- 
tact. A bare handful of the Armenians are Protestants ; the 
great majority are of the Gregorian Armenian or schismatic 
church, while quite a considerable minority are Catholics of 
the Armenian Rite. The Bohemians are very largely Catholic ; 
a minority are Free-Thinkers and some Protestants. The Bul- 
garians and Servians are almost wholly of the Greek Ortho- 
dox Church. The Croatians, Slavonians and Dalmatians are 
almost wholly Catholic. The Greeks are nearly all of the 
Greek orthodox faith. The Italians of the north of Italy are 
all Catholics, except such few as are socialists or anarchists. 
The Italians of the south of Italy are Catholics, with the excep- 
tion of the socialists or anarchists, and a small minority are 
Catholics of the Greek Rite. The Lithuanians are principally 
Catholics, a very small minority being Free-Thinkers, with 


occasional Protestants. The Hungarians (Magyars) are over 
three-fifths Catholic; the minority being Protestant and Free- 
Thinkers. The Poles are almost wholly Catholic. The Por- 
tuguese who come here, and who settle chiefly in New Eng- 
land and California, are largely Catholic, the immigration 
caused now by the efifort to escape the disadvantages of the so- 
called Portuguese republic. The Rumanians are three-fifths 
Greek Orthodox and two-fifths Catholics of the Greek Rite. 
The Russians are about one-half Greek Orthodox and one-half 
free-thinking and anarchistic. The Ruthenians or Little Rus- 
sians are nearly all Catholics of the Greek Rite. The Slovaks 
are about three-fourths Catholics, the majority being of the Ro- 
man Rite and remainder of the Greek Rite, while one-fourth 
are Protestant. The Spanish, who are widely scattered, are all 
Catholic, except the few socialistic groups. The Syrians are 
about equally divided : one-half being Catholics of the Greek, 
Maronite and Syrian Rites, and the other half being Greek 
Orthodox. Thus, it will be seen that the larger part of this 
particular immigration is Catholic, and it behooves us as Cath- 
olics to do our part in looking after it. 

When we examine how the immigrants have acquitted them- 
selves in America, we shall find that the later ones have suc- 
ceeded quite as well as the earlier nationalities which preceded \ 
them. They have established churches, schools, business 
houses and newspapers, and have given every evidence of 
ability and progress. When we consider that for the most part 
they come from countries which have but little (except the 
Christian religion) in common with us, that they are ignorant 
of our language, laws, history and customs, and that their 
own languages furnish but little in the way of grammar, root- , 
words and starting-points, in which to acquire ours, we may i 
well be astonished at the progress they have made in the years \ 
they have been here. Recently in an address which I delivered 
in New York City, upon "The Peoples of New York," I omit- 
ted all mention of the English-speaking, German-speaking and • 
French-speaking peoples dwelling in that great metropolis, yet 
I found occasion to mention some twenty other nationalities 
and races there, and commented favorably upon their progress 
and development. In the course of my lecture I produced and 
exhibited to the audience some 93 newspapers printed in vari- 
ous foreign languages and published either daily or weekly 


fwithin the City of New York. To publish and send through 
Ithe mails, or sell upon the news-stands so many journals, im- 
plies thousands of readers, and I am informed that their vari- 
ous circulations range from i,ooo to 25,000 copies each. These 
j journals keep the immigrant who has not yet acquired a com- 
' mand of English acquainted with the chief current events of the 
day, often clipped from our own "yellow" journals, the news 
! of his home country, and the chances of work, business and 
occupation, and the usual chronicles of birth, marriage and 
death, and of the national or mutual benefit societies with 
'which he may be connected. 
1/^ The unfortunate thing regarding the immigrant is the fact 
J\Qi congestion in the great cities. It is a natural outcome of 
the human desire for society, and the forlorn immigrant is apt 
^o seek out and remain with those who come from his native 
/ Wllage or district, especially if they be his relatives by blood or 
marriage. Then, again, in the older and more eastern coun- 
tries of Europe there is a settled lack of individual initiative : 
"things are done rather en masse, by concerted action. This 
,lias resulted in the formation of societies, and every newly 
arrived immigrant feels at once that he must belong to one. 
Sometimes these work for good, as when they provide for 
work, sick benefits or savings in one shape or another. But 
in the majority of cases they work for evil, by localizing the 
limmigrant, making him subject entirely to the societies' offi- 
cers, and keeping him from becoming acquainted with the lan- 
guage, laws and customs of the land to which he has come. 
This is an important factor making for the congestion of the 
cities and sometimes has the baleful effect of permitting the 
old world governmental authorities to keep control of the 
immigrant even while in America. It even enables the old 
world secret societies, under the ban of their own governments, 
to retain a hold and sometimes exercise terrorism over the 
immigrant unacquainted with our usages. 

The evil of congestion may be considered also in the light 
of the occupation of the people whom it afifects. Take for 
example the Italians, who are said to number nearly 600,000 
in New York City, thus making it the third Italian city in 
the world. They are for the most part country people, accus- 
tomed to agricultural work in the open, such as the orchard, 
the vineyard and the sheepfold. They are diverted from 



the occupation which they know and have practiced from ^ 
childhood and set at tasks which ruin their health and 
physique; and while herding together in cheap tenements 
amid the temptations of the streets, the saloon and moving 1 
picture shows, they lose their habits of sobriety and thrift, to 
say nothing of the ruin of their morals and health. Were 1 
they placed in an agricultural environment they could give 
better account of themselves and sooner become active, pros- > 
pering American citizens, retaining their faith, their healthj 
and their morals. 

The attitude of the immigrant to the Church as an institu- 
tion, even where they are Catholics, is most evident. The 
growth of the Church in the United States has been marvel- 
lous through the faithful support of the Irish immigrant or 
American-born, while the German Catholic has been a noble 
rival. Aside from the providence and grace of God, the 
human element may be seen in the fact that for the past few 
centuries the Irishman in his own green isle has had to fight 
for the very existence of his faith in every material form. 
The fight for the welfare of the Church has become ingrained ' 
as it were. The same is true of the German in the face of 
a hostile and aggressive Protestant majority in his fatherland 
and successive hostile enactments against the Church by a 
dominant majority. It has created a will to assist in the ma- 
terial and spiritual progress of the Church, because the gov- 
erning powers have been for the most part indifferent or 

On the other hand, where the Church was established by 
law, and politicians, particularly of an ecclesiastical turn of 
mind, seized the best things from a worldly point of view, 
and administered churches more from a political than a spirit- 
ual outlook, the interests of the common layman waned. When 
ifi addition to this he contributed to church revenues through 
the medium of taxes and imposts, and not through the medium 
of direct charity and interest in the Church itself, he rather 
looked upon the Church as one of the wheels of government. 
That has produced its effect even in America. The Italian, 
for instance — and there are other nationalities — has looked' 
upon the Church as something the State provided for him. 
much as it provided streets, roads, public Jjuildings and the 
like, and he continues in this frame of mind even when he 1 


/comes to America where there is no State Church. In fact, 
some assumed that they had left the Church, as an institution, 
behind them in Italy, and some whom I have known were 
much astonished to know that we had any laws here whatever 
in regard to religious worship and decorum or church owner- 
ship. Consequently they have not made an advance in church 
life commensurate with their numbers. On the other hand, 
nationalities such as the Slovaks or the Ruthenians, who have 
for nearly two centuries struggled to maintain their language, 
'nationality and oftentimes their Church, are fired through and 
i through with the idea of making their church the nucleus of 
Vheir settlement and progress here in America. This has 
made them as eager as the Irish to build and maintain their 
churches against all odds, and they have willingly and cheer- 
fully given of their substances to do so. It is needless to 
say that these immigrants are eager for and readily respond 
to the influence which the Church seeks to bring to bear upon 
them. In their desire to erect and maintain their churches 
they regard them too often as their individual property and 
are not amenable to ecclesiastical supervision, and too often 
break out into factious disturbance and difference; but all 
this may be paralleled in the history of the Irish Catholics in 
the United States between 1815 and 1850. A distinguished 
.ecclesiastic in New York City once assured me that until the 
immigrant learned enough English and became actively inter- 
) ested in American politics, it was no matter of surprise that 
he made a great deal of trouble and dissension in the parochial 
politics of his particular local church. It was the only thing 
he could take a vital, exuberant interest in, and he oftentimes 
overdid the matter. But it was a sign of life, nevertheless, and 
worth many times the conduct of mere indifference. 

Another thing from which the immigrants suffer in America 
is the firm grasp which their home governments try to hold 
over them. Emigration to America is not so much a matter of 
,-4nere volition, of desire originating in the breast of the immi- 
■ grant, as it used to be. It is now a matter of commercialism 
,v^ >, - to a very large extent. Steamship companies and ticket agents 
V§' 'go through Europe stimulating emigration to America by 
^ every device they can invent, whether by advertisement, can- 
vassing, moving pictures or other means, to set forth the 
advantages of America. Enterprising labor agents, notwith- 


standing the provisions of the contract labor law, take a hand 
in it also. But beyond and above this the central governments 
of European countries, notably Hungary, enter into agree- 
ments with steamship lines for the exclusive shipment of 
their emigrants to the United States. Much of this is done 
under cover of caring for the welfare and good treatment of 
the emigrant whilst crossing the Atlantic. It is needless to 
say that such contractual relations do not make for the sending 
of the best class of emigrants. 

The immigrant having arrived in America, the solicitude of 
the home government does not cease. That government ap- 
points priests, clergymen of other denominations, attaches 
of consular offices and of bankers and exchange offices to keep 
a general supervision of the immigrant while in America and^ 
to induce him in the end to return to his fatherland. This | 
parental supervision often takes the form of preventing him', 
in a thousand indirect ways from becoming a citizen of the 
United States. At all times it exercises the pressure of | 
national feeling, national custom, national song and language 
to keep him as alien as possible to the country in which he 
finds himself. He is to regard himself as a bird of passage 
as far as possible. Where the call and prompting of religion 
can produce efifect, it is used as an instrument to produce the 
same result. In the case of a Russian mission here, the 
inmates are always taught the words Amerikamkaya Rus 
(American Russian-land) and to use the words "our Lord, 
the Czar," thus directing them towards that empire as their ^ 
over-lord. This indicates the agencies from without which) 
take oversight of the immigrant and which do not work for/ 
his good either in citizenship, morals or religion. - 

The worst form of espionage of the newly arrived immi- 
grant is the sharper of his own nationality. He may be the 
so-called banker or ticket agent (who is happily being weeded 
out by severer laws), or the boarding-house keeper or labor 
broker who is to procure him a job, and the darker form of 
employment agency which makes it a business to prey upon 
women newly arrived. They speak the language, they are 
often of immediate practical service, and use every device to 
ingratiate themselves into the good graces of the arriving 
immigrant. Only the application of the law in full severity 
can have a deterrent effect upon their activities. They have 


their agents oftentimes upon the other side, and develop a 
surprising knowledge of the immigrant, the locality and family 
when he or she meets one of them. This is a field in which 
the Church from the practical side might be of the greatest 
service by preventing the spoliation of the immigrant. 

III. — The Church and the Immigrant 

The immigrant upon arriving in America needs not only 
care at the time of his arrival, but he needs it for long after- 
wards. While I use the word "he" as a generic term, the femi- 
nine immigrant needs care a hundredfold more than the man, 
but the one word shall stand for both sexes. 

The homes for receiving immigrants have been touched upon 
as practical institutions by other speakers, and consequently 
I shall devote but a small amount of space to them. But the 
immigrant needs a place of reception here in this land, so 
strange to him, which shall in some measure respond to his 
national and racial ideas. Imagine the cheerful reception 
which an Irish immigrant would experience in a home run 
entirely by well-meaning English Catholics, whose every man- 
nerism and idea was different from those of the Celt. In the 
same way the Ruthenian in a Polish receiving home, feels 
himself alien and out of place. The common basis of a mutual 
Catholicity cannot altogether bridge the chasm, although it 
helps wonderfully. Therefore for those who take part in 

I the first reception and care of the newly arrived immigrant, 
there should be a knowledge of the language, locality, history 
and customs of the immigrant. They should be able to 
sympathize with him from the standpoint of his home feel- 
ing, and to explain America to him from that viewpoint. 
Above all, they should understand his religious feelings, as 

' developed by the local mannerisms and devotions of his native 
land. In this way the immigrant will feel that a real interest 
is being taken in him from the very start. 

But it must not be forgotten that the primary purpose for 
which the immigrant comes is to obtain work. I maintain that 
it is here that the church organizations can do the utmost 
good in putting the immigrant in touch with the persons, 
localities and opportunities offering work. One Ruthenian 


pastor in New York makes a specialty of obtaining work for 
his congregation, and boasts that a certain office building 
employs as scrub-women, window cleaners, furnace men, all 
sent by him. In one street in New York I counted sixteen, 
labor bureaus or labor agencies within two avenue blocks, 
mostly run by sharp-eyed, anaemic-looking Hebrews. Now, 
if as many as these can be conducted for profit by private 
persons, certainly some church charity could run it, too. It 
might even be made self-supporting. One of the principal 
things I saw offered in the signs was house-servants, and one 
knows the scarcity of them. 

Another thing is to help the immigrant to get and keep 
the opportunity of earning a living. That is almost a correla- 
tive of the congestion in the large cities. A young woman who 
is very much interested in church and charity work writes me 
of the need of a day nursery in a crowded Italian quarter in 
New York. There is one nearby run by a talented woman 
who is unrelenting in her endeavors to wean the Italians from 
their Catholic faith. The Italian mothers frankly say to this 
young woman that they are obliged to place their young ' 
children in the non-Catholic institution by the day if they are 
to earn their livelihood. The children, and eventually the 
mother and family, grow to appreciate the ones who care , 
for them. A similar Catholic institution would prevent all ' 
this. And this may be duplicated in any of our large cities, i 
It could be avoided in large measure if willing Catholic hearts I 
and hands would provide the like in quarters where they are I 
needed. The loss to the faith through the lack of such oppor- f 
tunities is simply incalculable. When we add to this clubs or 
rooms where young women may meet and have innocent 
amusement, we see another means of invading the Catholic 
faith of the immigrant. They are taught moral lessons, 
inculcated from the non-Catholic point of view, invited to 
prayers, addressed and assisted in every way by those hostile 
— whether consciously or not — to the teachings of the Catholic 
faith. Something like this must be provided on our part \ 
for the children of the immigrant if the tide in that direction 1 
is to be stemmed. We must remember that Catholic mission- 
ary work can be done most effectually sometimes in an indirect 
manner and that the Church must supplement its direct wor- 
ship and teachings by an appeal to the other qualfties of men 


and women. Above all, this indirect method greatly helps to 
guard the growing youth from running into evil ways and 
from abandoning or becoming indifferent to the ancient faith 
or of losing his heritage of Catholicity. 

It behooves us to be on our guard against the traps which 
are deliberately laid to ensnare the immigrant and deceive him 
in regard to his faith and worship. The establishment of the 
charitable nurseries and settlement houses which are frankly 
non-Catholic may be ascribed to motives of mistaken charity 
I and not to proselyting principles, but nothing of the kind 
can excuse the pseudo-CathoHc missions and chapels which 
are now being established to attract the immigrant of Catholic 
faith, or of faiths allied to CathoHcism. Only bad faith and 
a species of malice can explain such things. 

In a large Protestant Episcopal chapel of Trinity Church 
on the East side in New York City there is a sign which 
reads in Italian : "Ogni Domenica LA MESSA alle 9 ore," 
that is, "Every Sunday MASS at nine o'clock." And in this 
chapel at nine o'clock on Sunday morning a Latin Mass is 
said in the usual Roman vestments. More than that, it is 
said by a former priest who has connected himself with this 
mission. Now this is a church which repudiated the Mass 
and the Latin language some three hundred years ago, al- 
though the extreme high churchmen are trying to revive it. 
But it was never thought that they would use it as a bait to 
attract raw Italian immigrants to the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. Lest this be regarded as an isolated individual case, 
attention is called to the fact that the late General Convention 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in session at New York 
City "empowered the Missionary Board of that church to 
bring to this country Syrian, Greek and Russian priests to 
minister to congregations in need of them in American 
churches, and communicants of the Roman faith lacking a 
church are invited to take part in this hospitality, and in 
case a priest of the foreign church is not available, priests of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church are authorized to hold serv- 
ices as nearly as possible according to the foreign rites." It 
may be hospitality on the part of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, but how about the deceived foreign immigrant? 

Other churches, not given to liturgy and ritual like the Epis- 
copal Church, have gone as far as it in their endeavor to 


reach out for the immigrant. Two years ago, in "America," 
I described the singular performances of the Presbyterian 
Board of Home Missions, which I discovered by chance. In 
Newark, New Jersey, and upon the East Side in New York 
City, it was engaged in running a complete imitation of a 
Catholic chapel of the Greek Rite. Probably they thought 
that, as the Mass-books and language were in the ancient 
Slavonic, they would not be easily detected. Catholics of 
the Roman Rite are not familiar with either the language 
or the ceremonies of Catholics of the Greek Rite. An exami- 
nation of the Mass-books upon the altar showed that they 
were the official editions of the Diocese of Lemberg, while 
the altar itself could not be distinguished from any other 
Greek Catholic altar, since it had candles, crucifix and gospels 
as prescribed. The officiating celebrant had a set of gorgeous 
Greek vestments, bought as I afterwards ascertained from 
a Catholic importing house on Barclay Street, New York. 
He made the sign of the cross at the usual times in the 
pseudo-mass and gave the crucifix and the gospels to the 
people to kiss, as is usual in the Greek Rite. The prayers to 
the Blessed Virgin were intoned and recited in regular form 
and the choir sang the antiphon "Through the prayers of the 
Mother of God, O Saviour, save us!" At the consecration 
the people knelt in worship, making repeated signs of the 
cross in the Greek manner. No one except a liturgical ex- 
pert, versed in the Greek Rite, could have told it from 
the Mass celebrated in the Greek Catholic Church. Yet not 
only did the Presbyterians support both of these missions — 
and I am told a third one in Pittsburg — but they actually 
advanced $20,000 to build a church for these Ruthenians in 
Newark, where these pseudo-rites might be celebrated. The 
celebrant at the New York chapel was a Ruthenian graduate 
of the Bloomfield Seminary who had received only Presby- 
terian ordination. Yet they were calmly telling the Ruthenian 
immigrant that the Latin Church was not providing his rite 
and they were supplying the defect, hoping to make him 
non-Catholic eventually, but indulging him in his religious, 
peculiarities for a time at least. The matter was fully de-' 
scribed in "America" at the time, and I am glad to say that 
several fair-minded Presbyterians took the matter up, and 
through their religious papers severely criticised the parties 


concerned. They have now modified the form of worship to 
the extent that the celebrant wears a black Geneva gown in- 
stead of the elaborate Greek vestments. 

The Baptist Church has also taken a hand in trying to 
capture the immigrant. On Washington Square, south, in 
New York City, they have near the Italian quarter a huge 
phurch — the Judson Memorial Church — with a blazing electric 
jcross, and services inside modelled in some fashion after 
Catholic ones. In Tompkins Square, New York, and in Penn- 
,sylvania and Canada they have the strange anomaly, the 'Tnde- 
ipendent Greek Baptist Church" with a liturgy and services bor- 
rowed word for word from the Greek Catholic missal. The 
Archbishop of Lemberg visiting among the Ruthenians in Can- 
ada writes : "Among others, there is a Protestant catechism 
published in Ruthenian to ensnare people. For example, it 
admits the seven sacraments, the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, 
the name of the Catholic Church and masks the heresies under 
incomprehensible names. They have adopted the whole 
Ruthenian Rite, even with those forms most repugnant to 
Protestants, censers, holy water and the like." I have been 
unable to visit other large cities and find out just what 
chapels, services and the like are made to attract the immi- 
grant under the guise of an imitation of Catholic services, but 
I am told that they occur in every locality. 

Another somewhat subtler method of attracting the im- 
migrant is practiced. The average immigrant from Eastern 
and Southern Europe is usually highly gifted in music. Con- 
sequently he loves his national songs, his peculiar music, and 
everything musical, expressive of his nationality. In Poland 
they have a lay vespers in the Polish language, and I have of- 
ten heard the Psalms chanted in the cathedral by an enthusi- 
astic congregation. In the Greek Ruthenian Catholic churches, 
the congregation often sings the entire liturgical parts of the 
Mass through by heart, changing with necessary antiphons and 
troparia for the day. In the Italian Greek Catholic chapel in 
New York I have heard the choir of girls and young boys, 
whose native tongue is Italian and acquired tongue English, 
sing the entire antiphons, troparia, responses and liturgy of the 
Mass through in ancient Greek. None of our congregations 
ever use the Latin of the Roman Mass in such a facile man- 
ner. The immigrant, therefore, loves music, particularly the 


music of his Church and his country. Lately the Young Men's 
Christian Association throughout the country has undertaken 
to develop this musical ability of the immigrant and has 
frequently held "concerts of all nations," and sought in every 
way to get the immigrant or his children actively interested 
in their association. Settlement houses have taken up the 
same idea and have sought out the musical talent of the 
immigrant. But I have yet to learn of the matter being 
taken up seriously in the Catholic missionary or charitable 
work. Here is a field which we may work with excellent 

Where the immigrant from Eastern Europe is a Catholic 
of an Oriental Rite care should be taken to approach him 
from that point of view. Although they are Catholics, they 
have a dread of being "latinized" or being made adherents of 
the Roman Rite. It amounts almost to an obsession, but 
racial warfare and history cannot be lightly expunged from 
their minds. Besides, the Holy See has sternly forbidden 
time and time again any meddling with the question of their 
rite. Nevertheless, our American Catholics do not always 
understand this, and treat the immigrant as though he were 
not a Catholic or at best only a pretended Catholic after all, 
simply because he does not understand or care for the Roman 
Rite, and cannot understand the Latin language. Conse- 
quently, misunderstandings are apt to occur, and harm is done. 
It would be well, now that this immigration has assumed suchi 
proportions, that seminary students in our various diocesan 
seminaries should be taught the elements, or at least th^ 
obvious points, of the Greek or other Oriental Rites, so that 
they might themselves comprehend and be able to explaii-^ 
to other American Catholics the peculiarities of those rites.i 
Thereby the immigrant would have a less hostile feeling even ; 
where he is Catholic, and our countrymen be more effective in j 
good towards the newcomer in this land. 

The entire matter of the relation of the Church, Church 
authorities and workers towards the immigrant is one of 
vast proportions, and I have but briefly touched upon them. 
The Church can not only afford him the spiritual oversight 
and care which it is ever eager and willing to do, but can 
also afford in a great measure oversight of his immediate 
temporal and physical needs. If any serious effort is to be 


made to better his situation and to prevent future losses and 
leakages to the Qiurch, his welfare from every standpoint 
will have to be considered. We have done excellently in the 
past, but in the future we must surpass all that has hitherto 
been accomplished. Otherwise a succeeding generation may 
have just cause to complain of us. 


ATTENTION has been directed of late to the Poles, 
the predominating Slavic race in the United States, 
by the recent celebration of the memory of two Polish 
heroes of the American Revolution, Kosciusko and Pulaski, 
and by the latest commemoration of the battle of Griinwald, 
near Tannenberg, in East Prussia, which, five hundred years 
ago, shaped the destiny of the Polish people and made them 
a great nation. The first was a celebration of their union 
in heart and soul with America in the memories of our po- 
litical birth and development at a time when the star of 
Poland was setting; the other a glorious retrospect of five 
centuries that meant the unity and development of their own 
people. The glory of their ancient land and people has been 
dimmed by conquest and the parcelling of their territory 
among alien rulers, but their life, language and faith have 
withstood the shock, and have made the Poles still a factor in 
the world's culture and civilization. Their later history may 
be called that of Slavic Ireland, while many of the dates and 
disasters of both are curiously coincident. 

The Poles are mingled with our earliest history. How 
they came to the United States in those early days is a 
mystery. It is even said that a Pole discovered America 
before Columbus. John of Kolno (a town in Russian Po- 
land) commanded a Danish vessel which is said to have 
reached the coast of Labrador in 1476. Albert Zoborowsky 
(Zabriskie) settled near Hackensack in New Jersey in 1662, 
and his name is found as interpreter on an Indian contract for 
the sale of land dated 1679. All the New Jersey and New 
York Zabriskies are said to be descended from his family. In 
1659 the Dutch on Manhattan Island hired a Polish school- 
master. In 1770 Jacob Sodowsky settled in New York and 
his sons were frontiersmen in the early settlement of Ken- 
tucky. One tradition says that the city of Sandusky was 



named after them. Our Revolution brought from Poland 
Kosciusko, the hero of two lands ; Pulaski, who died at 
Savannah, and Niemcewicz, the Polish biographer of Wash- 
ington. After the partition of Poland, and in the early part 
of last century, occasional Polish emigrants arrived. The 
Polish insurrection of 183 1 sent us a considerable and more 
abiding contingent, many of whom settled in Texas. 

Their success may have induced others to come, for in 1855 
a large body of them, headed by the Rev. Leopold Moczy- 
gemba, a Polish Franciscan, settled in Texas, where their 
first colony was named Panna Marya (Our Lady Mary) and 
where the first Polish church in America was built. The 
Panna Marya settlement was quickly followed by other 
Polish colonies in Texas, five of which founded churches the 
next year and eleven others in the course of the next two 
decades. The next settlement was at Parisville, Michigan, 
in 1857. 

The Poles also settled early in Wisconsin. The earliest 
settlement was Polonia, in Portage County, in 1858, where 
they also established a church. The church (dedicated to 
the Sacred Heart) is there yet, now a structure towering over 
the country-side, built at a cost of $70,000. There is a 
magnificent school beside it, and the entire community, who 
are almost all Poles from Russia, is said to be prosperous. 
Other Polish colonies took root in Wisconsin, which now has 
over 250,000 Poles, foreign-born and native. In 1866 they 
settled in Missouri; in 1869 in Chicago, Illinois, and in 1870 
in Pennsylvania. Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New York, Min- 
nesota, follow in order of Polish settlement. In the twenty- 
six years from 1855 to 1880, there were eighty-five Polish 
churches founded, for the Pole, like the Irishman, is usually 
a practical Catholic and insists on having his Church and 
Faith expressed visibly as soon as he can. 

The great mass of Poles who came to this country after 
1870 were the poorest of all our immigrants in the goods 
of this world. The great mass of them went to the coal 
and iron mines of Pennsylvania. Some one has said of their 
coming: "At one time they came in batches, shipped by the 
carload to the coal fields. When they arrived they seemed 
perfectly aimless. It was hard for them to make themselves 
understood, and sometimes they would go up into the brush 


and undergrowth, and build a fire and sleep, or if it was too 
cold, just sit around there on the ground." But as they 
worked in Pennsylvania they saved their money, went into 
small businesses and became landed proprietors in a small 
way. But in the eastern States the Pole found a way to 
take up land and become independent in a much better way. 
He became a farm laborer from the start, saved his earnings, 
and when he had learned the American way of doing things 
bought the land from his employer. In this way hundreds of 
what used to be called "abandoned farms" in New England 
have passed into Polish hands. And they are making great 
inroads upon the eastern end of Long Island in the same 
way. One of the men concerned in settling the Poles upon 
New England farms says: "Agents at New York told the 
incoming immigrants stories to make the Pole see the Con- 
necticut valley farms as the promised land. Being new and 
green to America the Pole at first paid the highest price and 
was given the small end of the bargain. But they succeeded. 
They make good citizens. Almost without exception they 
are Roman Catholics and are faithful to their obligations. 
They are willing to pay the price to succeed." Another wit- 
ness, a New England college professor, says: "The Polish 
farmer uses as up-to-date implements as the American does. 
The crops of the Poles compare very favorably with those 
raised by Americans. In one particular (that of upland farm- 
ing) the Pole has taught the Americans a lesson." The 
Connecticut valley and western Rhode Island bid fair to 
become New Poland in the course of time. Meanwhile in 
Pennsylvania, Illinois, New York, Wisconsin and Michigan 
the Poles prospered and increased in ever-mounting numbers. 
The story of their struggles and successes is no mean one. 
Father Waclaw X. Kruszka, in his "Historya Polka w 
Ameryce, Poczatek, Wrost i Rozwoj Osad Polskich w Stanch 
Zjednoczonych" (Polish History in America; Origin, Growth 
and Distribution of Polish Settlements in the United States) 
— thirteen slender volumes — gives facts, statistics, anecdotes 
and historical gleanings of every kind in regard to his coun- 
trymen here, and makes a fascinating record of their work and 
triumph down to the present day. He estimated the total 
Polish immigration at about 2,000,000 and the total number 
of Poles in the United States in 1907 (including the Amer- 


ican-born children) at over 3,000,000. The "Prasa Polska" 
(Polish Press) of Milwaukee, at the close of the year 1908, 
reckoned the Polish population of the United States, including 
foreign and American-born, at nearly 4,000,000, and investi- 
gation has seemed to justify these figures. The latest results 
show the wonderful growth and increase of the sturdy Polish 
race in this land of freedom. 

Pennsylvania leads off as the greatest Polish State, having 
525,000 Poles within her borders. New York State follows 
close with 502,000, of whom nearly 250,000 are to be found 
within the limits of Greater New York, and 80,000 in Bufifalo. 
Illinois comes next with 450,000, and then Massachusetts with 
305,000. Wisconsin and Michigan have each 250,000, while 
New Jersey has nearly 200,000. They are scattered through- 
out the length and breadth of the United States, no State 
being without them; even Alaska is said to have 150 of them. 
Nor have they forgotten to bring their national names along 
with them, as witness the various villages (some of them 
growing into towns) of Pulaski, Sobreski, Krakow, Gniezno, 
Radom, Opole, Wilno, Tarnow and Chojnice, here in the 
United States. 

The Poles, like the Irish, have been so situated historically 
that their poHtical and religious antagonisms coincide, intensi- 
fying both. The schismatic Russian tyrant, the Protestant 
Swedish invader and the later Prussian oppressor have all 
tended to make devotion to Church and country one mingled 
and indistinguishable sentiment. They found the Catholic 
Church here also, but to them it was in charge of an alien 
race speaking an alien tongue. It therefore became their 
natural desire to have churches and priests of their own 
language and national and historic aspirations. Elsewhere 
the founding of the first churches has been mentioned. But 
they have kept the good work up even to the present day. 
Up to last year they had 517 churches and 546 Polish priests 
in the United States. And there is room for many more, for 
they have some 810 colonies or settlements scattered at various 
points throughout the United States. Their clergy have risen 
to many of the higher dignities in the Church and a Pole is 
now the Assistant Bishop of Chicago. There is no need 
to speak about the Polish parochial schools ; they are attached 
as soon as possible to every Polish church, and the pages of 


the "Catholic Directory" give them at length. Nor are they 
deficient in higher institutions of learning. I need only men- 
tion St. Stanislaus College in Chicago, the Seminary of Sts. 
Cyril and Methodius in Detroit, and the high schools of Mil- 
waukee, Chicago and Shamokin. There are also advanced 
schools which will grow into greater institutions of learning 
as time goes on. All these educational institutions are bi- 
lingual and the students are taught to be Americans while 
not forgetting that they are of Polish blood and must know 
the language and history of the land of their ancestors. 


A Sketch of Their Rite in Italian America 

A LARGE portion of Southern Italy was settled by 
the Greeks long before the Roman republic fell, and 
by the time the Empire was established under the 
Caesars, that portion of Italy was known as "Magna Graecia" — 
greater Greece. At times in its history it rivalled the older 
lands of Attica and the Peloponnesus. From Naples south- 
ward the Greek tongue and Greek manners and customs pre- 
vailed, while in Sicily the country and cities were wholly 
Greek. It was in Southern Italy that the Romans had their 
first close contact with Greek learning and civilization. The . 
provinces of Italy proper, where the Greeks were the chief 
inhabitants and the Greek language and culture prevailed, 
were Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria, and the greater por- 
tion of the present province of Naples. 

The Romans in their conquest of the east and the west 
loomed great as a world power, but their might and energy 
had nowhere to be exerted more strongly in the Latinization 
of neighboring peoples than in the southern confines of Italy 
itself. The Empire, as vast and as strong as it was, never 
succeeded fully. The Greek population of Italy lived side 
by side with their Latin neighbors, yet never became thor- 
oughly Latin. The Christian church did what the pagan world 
could not do, and made these people one in religious thought, 
but even that did not fully extinguish the Greek upon Italian 
soil. Even to-day in Southern Italy the Greek still lingers 
as a spoken language in some seaport towns and country 
places, and the inhabitants have long been bi-lingual, keeping 
their ancient tongue whilst acquiring a new one. 

The Italian Greeks followed the fortunes of both old and 
new Rome. When Christianity came on the scene of the 
world's history, the Greek portion of Italy and Sicily re- 



sponded eagerly to the call of the Master and became Chris- 
tian. It was even easier than in Latin Italy because they 
spoke the language of the New Testament and of the earliest 
disciples, and could be reached by any appeal to Greek thought 
and Greek ideas. St. Paul himself on his voyage to Rome 
was at Syracuse in Sicily, at Reggio in Calabria, and at 
Puzzoli near Naples.^ 

Being Greek in language and in blood, it was but natural 
that the Greeks of Southern Italy should take their rites and 
ceremonies from the Eastern Church in the language of the 
New Testament and the earliest Fathers and Councils. When 
Constantinople became the seat of government of the Roman 
Empire after the recognition of Christianity under Constantine, 
the Greek Rites of Southern Italy naturally aligned themselves 
according to the rites of the Greek Church (St. Sophia) of 
Constantinople. That noble rite was the final embodiment and 
ultimate form of the rites of the Oriental Church using the 
Greek language, as modelled by Saints Chrysostom, Basil and 
Gregory, and its use was made well-nigh universal in the 
whole Greek-speaking world, by the pre-eminence of Con- 
stantinople, the New Rome, the capital city first of the whole 
Roman Empire after Constantine, and then of the Eastern 
Roman Empire. The Greek Rite in the East became like the 
Roman Rite in the West ; it dominated and overcame the vari- 
ant rites around it. Thus, from the early ages of Christianity 
down to the time of the schism of the East and the West, the 
Italian-Greeks of the south of Italy looked towards Con- 
stantinople and its Oriental Rite. 

Greek was their language and their form of Christian wor- 
ship, while the Latin Rites and the Latin language were in a 
measure strange to them. Nothing concerning the faith was 
involved in this — they were Catholics and continued in the 
unity of the faith with the Roman Church — but it involved the 
external manifestation of that faith. They were, as I have 
said, and I use the expression advisedly to-day, all Catholics; 
for that word connotes at once universality and unity, and 
one cannot conceive logically of a Catholic separated from 
the centre of unity. At the same time, however, they were 
Greek Catholics and not Roman Catholics, inasmuch as they 
used the Greek and not the Roman Hturgy and worship. So 

i Acts, xxviii, 12, 13. 


did eighteen of the Popes who sat in the chair of Peter at 
Rome, one of whom wrote or compiled the Mass of the 
Presanctified as it is used in the Greek Church to-day, 
whether Catholic or schismatic. Therefore, in all my state- 
ments I use the word Catholic as indicating the faith, and 
Greek or Roman as indicating the rite. 

When the division of the Roman Empire into the East and 
the West under Valentine and Valens came, Southern Italy 
was regarded as forming a part of the Eastern Empire. Dur- 
ing the Prankish wars and the invasion of the Goths, Southern 
Italy remained Greek. Nay, more; during Justinian's reign 
and long after, the Greek Eastern part of the Empire made 
inroads upon Latin Italy. Witness the Exarchate of Ravenna 
and the holding of the Eastern coast of Italy. It was not 
until Leo the Isaurian, Emperor of Constantinople and the 
Eastern Empire, openly espoused the cause of the Iconoclasts 
and forbade the use of images or pictures in the churches in 
726, that the northern and central Italians rallied against the 
Greeks upon Catholic lines. The southern part, however, 
remained Greek and semi-independent. 

When the break between Rome and Constantinople came in 
the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, 
the Greeks of Italy held firm to the faith professed by the 
Roman See. Sicily at times was wavering, for some of its 
bishops were Photians and some — perhaps the majority — 
were Catholic. Indeed, the schism was in its beginning mainly 
political, arising out of the fierce party strife around the 
Imperial throne at Constantinople, but a theological basis and 
a complete diflference of rite embodied it forever in the minds 
of the people. In Italy, however, these bitternesses were 
lacking. Italy indeed had passed through the devastating 
campaigns of the Goth and the Vandal, the Lombard and the 
Greek, and all the changes of the monarchies of the North, 
but at its southern end the Greeks lived mainly in harmony 
with their Latin neighbors, and so one chief incentive to 
schism was lacking. Even in Sicily the schism rapidly died 
out and at no time was it violently opposed to the Roman Rite 
with which it had so long lived in unity and harmony. 

During the early period of the schism of Constantinople, 
when the break was at its bitterest, we can cite no better 
example than St. Nilus and St. Bartholomew of Calabria, of 


whom we shall speak later more at length. Both were Greek 
Italian saints, and earnest lovers of the Greek Rite. The first 
founded in 1002 that noble Greek monastery, just outside 
of Rome on the Alban hills, which now for nearly a thousand 
years has kept up the praises of God in the Hellenic tongue 
and Eastern Rite, and which Pope after Pope has praised and 
bidden go its way, unchanging, as a witness of the union of 
the East and the West. And St. Bartholomew, the pupil of 
St. Nilus, labored equally hard to make that monastery the 
exponent of Greek monastic thought and art, which at last it 
became. Yet in the days of St. Nilus, a Calabrian Greek 
bishop, by the name of Philagathus, had managed to secure 
some votes as Pope, declared himself elected and assumed the 
name of John XVI, Pope of Rome. One would have supposed 
that with the Photian controversy not yet died away, that he 
would have supported the Greek prelate in his assumption of 
the Pontifical Throne, but instead of that he espoused the 
cause of the Latin Gregory V, the Pope legitimately elected, 
though perhaps by an exceedingly slender majority. It was 
the espousal of Gregory's cause and the honor paid the Roman 
See which afterwards led to St. Nilus going to Rome and 
there founding the celebrated monastery, as related in his life 
by Saint Bartholomew. 

Although the Italian Greeks held both to their faith and 
their rite, as it was before the schism of 860, being Greeks 
continuously and uninterruptedly in communion with Rome, 
nevertheless, the mere fact that they ceased to be in harmony 
with their Eastern brethren caused them to dwindle. And, 
after the schism, there grew up among the Italians of the 
Roman Rite the idea that the Greek language and the Greek 
ritual was in some way identified with and indicative of schism. 
It took two or three hundred years or more for this idea to 
take firm hold, but, after the various attempts at reunion, 
and finally after the Council of Florence, the failure of the 
Greeks to adhere to the Union there proclaimed made the 
Greek Rite and the schism almost identical in the uneducated 
mind. These causes operated strongly to diminish the use of 
the Greek Rite in Italy, and gradually the ItaHan Greeks, as 
they lost their Greek mother-tongue, ceased to practise their 
Greek ritual and assumed the Roman Rite instead. In this 
manner they ceased to be Greeks and became Italians, so that 


the Roman Rite took a larger hold on them as they became 
Latinized in tongue. Lack of close ties with Constantinople, 
and the practical cessation of intercourse with it and the East 
after the domination of the Turk was also gradually turning 
them into Roman Catholics. The Greek Rite became more 
and more confined to monasteries, religious houses and coun- 
try towns. Whilst the Greek Rite, descended from people of 
the original Greek stock of Italy, would never perhaps have 
died out altogether in Southern Italy and Sicily, yet it was 
destined to be reinforced in a singular way by the churches 
of Greece and Constantinople, through a people who claim to 
be older than the days of Homer and the twilight of the Greek 

In Albania, the ancient Epirus of the Greeks, there lived a 
race of mountaineers, some of whose descendants still dwell in 
the land of their fathers. They spoke a language which is 
said by philologists to be older than the Greek — in fact, the 
ancient Epirate tongue — and they claimed to be the original 
inhabitants of the Greek peninsula, driven gradually inland by 
the colonizing force of Greek civilization. Certain it is they 
were in the mountains of Albania, had their own language' 
and customs long before the Greek came there. Early in the 
days of Christianity these hardy mountain folk were converted 
to Christianity and followed the Oriental rite. But they did 
not use the Greek language, as the Greeks in Italy did, as their 
vernacular. The liturgy was never translated into their 
tongue, as it was for the Slavic races by Sts. Cyril and Me- 
thodius. They always used the Greek language in the Mass 
and church rites, in the same manner as the Germanic peoples 
received the Latin, and as the Latin is used among the English- 
speaking people to-day in the church — i.e., as a dead language. 
It was during the early days of the Greek or Eastern Empire 
of Constantinople that the name of Epirus was dropped and 
the name Albania used. Although Greek in rite, the Albanians 
were only nominally Greek in subjection to the Empire. Dur- 
ing the decline of the Empire, they rose to distinction and at 

1 The language itself is very strange. "Questa lingua albanese, che deve essere 

Skyiperia is the Albanian name for una della piii antiche d'Europa, forse 

Albania; the Albanian language is anche della piu antiche del mondo. 

Skyiptar. It does not seem to resemble Questa sembra essere I'antica lingua 

any other European language. "Po pelasga, da cui hanno preso tanto i 

Skyiptari tak i hoi, isht si szogka jasht greci che i latini." Vannutelli, Le 

folees." But Albanians in a strange Colonie Italo-Greche, p. 58. 
land are like birds out of their nest. 


last to independence. They maintained their independence 
against the Bulgarian Slavs, against the Greek Empire of East- 
ern Rome, and for a long time against the Turk. As they had 
gained their independence against Constantinople before the 
schism, or before it had made any progress among them, they, 
while Greek in rite, remained steadfast to the unity of the 
Church. Their independence of Constantinople accentuated 
their steadfastness to the Holy See.^ 

The Turks and Saracens had threatened all Europe during 
the Middle Ages. By 1400 they had occupied all the richest 
and most flourishing provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire, 
and were threatening Constantinople itself. They invaded Al- 
bania and subjected it to their rule. They took away the son 
of the hereditary prince, the little George Castriot, as a hos- 
tage and kept him at the Ottoman Court, where he was brought 
up under Mussulman surveillance as an officer in the Turkish 
military service. There he received the name of Alexander 
Bey (called by the Albanians Skanderbeg) and distinguished 
himself under the Sultan Amurath II. In 1443, while on an 
expedition against the Huns, he heard that his father had died 
and that he was prince of Albania. About the same time John 
Hunyadi defeated the Turkish army which Scanderbeg had 
left. Scanderbeg then boldly proclaimed himself a Christian 
prince and fought for the liberty of Albania. His countrymen 
rallied around him and for twenty years a fierce but unsuc- 
cessful war was waged for liberty and faith. 

After the battle of Croia, in 1443, he sent to Pope Eugene IV 
for a refuge in Christian lands, where his people might rest 
secure from Turkish power, and the first emigration of the 
Albanians began. Gradually the Turkish forces captured the 
cities of Albania, utterly destroying them, and in 1448 a new 
emigration of the Albanians under Demetrio Reres and his two 
sons, George and Basil, took place. They and several thousand 
of their countrymen helped the King of Naples to put down a 
rebellion in his kingdom. For this King Alfonso of Naples 
granted them lands in Calabria, where they settled in the vi- 
cinity of the Greek religious houses and monasteries. As Scan- 
derbeg was again and again defeated, larger emigrations of the 

i"GH Albanesi venuti in Sicilia non 1736, p. 71- Amico, Lexicon Typo- 

aderivanno alio scisma, ma professa- graphicum, vol. II, p. 86. Rodota, 

vanno invece il rito greco unito, come Sforia del Rito Greco, vol. Ill, P- i?°- 

affermano Giovanni di Giovanni, De Schiro, Gh Albanesi a Leone XIII, 

Diinnis Siculorum OfKciis, Panormi, p. 9." 


Albanians took place, going into and settling in Sicily. By 
the help of the Sicilians, the tide again turned in favor of Scan- 
derbeg, and in 1450 Amurath II undertook to make peace with 
him. At this time the third and greatest emigration of the 
Albanians took place, and they settled chiefly at Palazzo Adri- 
ano, Mezzojuso, Contessa, Piana dei Greci and Palermo in 
Sicily. After the death of Scanderbeg, in 1467, and the taking 
of Croia by the Turks, larger migrations of the Albanians fol- 
lowed. These settled in Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, and even 
the Abruzzi. From 1460 to 1506 the Kings of Naples were 
continually making land grants to the Albanians all over their 

Bringing the Greek rite and Greek language (as a learned 
and ecclesiastical tongue) with them, they naturally accommo- 
dated themselves to the Greek population they found around 
them, and followed on Italian soil the beloved rite and faith 
which they had so valorously defended against the Turks. 
And they in Southern Italy and Sicily had good reason to 
make common cause with them, for the yoke of the Saracen 
had been lately removed from them. Pope after Pope con- 
firmed their rights to their Greek forms and strange tongue, 
and the civil powers enforced them. Leo X and Paul III par- 
ticularly defended these strangers of the Greek rite. 

Gradually, however, they became Italianized, and in the 
course of three centuries bi-lingual. Even now the Albanian 
language remains among them in remote country districts like 
the Irish used to be in Ireland. I have had pointed out to me 
in New York an old Italo-Albanese woman, of whom it was 
said she spoke only Albanian and no Italian. But that is rare, 
and the average Italo-Albanese or Italo-Greek is hard to dis- 
tinguish except by his devotion to the Greek Catholic rite. 

All these people in Southern Italy and Sicily are miserably 
poor. In Calabria and Basilicata they have little or nothing to 
live on. Their very poverty has contributed to the decline of 
their Greek rite. They could not keep up their churches beau- 
tifully, decently and in good order, nor could they spare their 
sons for the priesthood. Every effort had to be made to strug- 
gle for a bare livelihood, and the luxury of sending a sturdy, 

^ Giustppe Ls. Mantia, I CapitoH delle II Rito Greco in Italia, Rome, 1758, 

Colonic Greco-Albanesi, Palermo, 1904- 3 vols. Vincenzo Vannutelh, Sguardt 

Francesco Tajani, U Istoria Albanesi, all' Oriente, XVI, Rome, 1890. 
Salerno, 1886. Pietro Pompilio Rodoti, 


healthy boy to school and college, whence he might or might 
not emerge a suitable candidate for the seminary, was put 
aside in favor of the active duties of peasant life. It was the 
struggling priest, and often the priest's own family, which re- 
tained the Greek rite and furnished its candidates for the 
priesthood amid such poverty. Thus it became easier and 
more direct for the Greek peasant to turn to the Latin churches 
around him for the Sacraments and worship, because of the 
lack of his own. 

The Italian Greek Catholics of to-day are therefore com- 
posed of the descendants of the Greek inhabitants of Southern 
Italy and the descendants of the Albanians who came to Italy 
in 1443-1490. Many of their villages have changed to the 
Roman rite, partly because of the influence of their Latin 
neighbors around them, and, within the past thirty years, be- 
cause of the abolition of the monasteries by the Italian govern- 
ment since 1870. Of the eight Greek Catholic monasteries, 
which were in Sicily and Southern Italy prior to 1870, not two 
remain. They were the central points for keeping alive the 
Greek rite, a task which the parish priest with the multitude 
of his labors cannot so well do. The only Greek monastery 
now left is that of Grotta Ferrata of the monks of Saint Basil 
founded in 1002 by Saint Nilus. It has been declared a "Na- 
tional Monument" by the Italian Government, and hence re- 
mains undisturbed. There is an Oratorian monastery at Plana 
dei Greci, in Sicily, which is a curious example of a Latin 
order taken up by Greek priests in 1730, but only two priests 
of the order are left. There are also the Greek College at 
Rome, the College of San Adriano in Calabria and the Semi- 
nario Greco of Palermo, for the education chiefly of candidates 
for the priesthood according to the Greek rite. There is a 
Greek convent for women, Santa Macrina, at Plana dei Greci. 

The number of Greek Catholics in Italy is hard to ascertain 
exactly. I have inquired of the Italian governmental authori- 
ties in vain; and I cannot say that the church authorities of 
either the Roman or the Greek Rite have returned much more 
satisfactory answers to the questions addressed to them. But 
from all my inquiries and a study of the latest Italian census 
tables (the census of 1901) it seems that the Greek Catholics 
in Italy (according to origin or descent) are about as follows : 
Albanesi, 93,000; Greek descent, 31,200; Slavic descent, 30,- 



ooo ; making a total of 154,200.^ On the other hand, the Greek 
Orthodox in Italy are given as amounting to 3,472. All of 
these make but a small number in a total population of thirty- 
three million. 

Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, in his "Colonie Italo-Greche," 
says large numbers of the Greek Catholics have emigrated 
from Calabria and Sicily to America, and tells of having found 
whole Calabrian villages nearly deserted, save for a few old 
people, the younger generation having all emigrated to Amer- 
ica. The Italian figures of emigration seem to show the same 
thing. For example, in 1903, there were 230,622 emigrants 
from Italy to the United States. Of these the chief provincial 
figures were as follows: Sicily, 58,820; Calabria, 33,999 5 
Abruzzi, 46,349; Apulia, 21,210; making a total of over two- 
thirds of the whole emigration that year from Southern Italy. 
The figures of Calabria are peculiarly suggestive. These emi- 
grants went away forever, since only 878 are marked down 
as intending to return. 

In and around Rome there are three Greek Catholic 
churches, of which the fine Church of San Atanasio dei Greci, 
at the corner of Via del Babuino and Via dei Greci, is the 
largest and finest. It stands next to the famous Greek College, 
where students, whether Pure Greek, Ruthenian Greek, Ru- 
manian Greek, or Melchite Greek, are educated according to 
their rite. This church has its greatest festival in the Solemn 
High Mass according to the Greek Rite celebrated on Epiphany, 
when the Greek ritual is seen at its best. In the College of the 
Propaganda Fide, in the Piazzi di Spagna, Greek students are 
also educated and have their own chapel. 

The most magnificent church near Rome is that of the Basi- 
lian Monastery, at Grotta Ferrata, twelve miles from the city. 

In Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia, in Southern Italy, there 
are some 34 churches, Greek-Catholic, and in several other 
villages both the Latins and Greeks worship in the same 
Roman church. - 

iThe Albanesi are given as distrib- 
uted through Foggia, Avedino, Potenza, 
Teramo, Campobasso, Lecce, Palermo, 
Messina, Girgenti, and the Calabrian 
mountains. The Greeks are in Calabria, 
Basilicata, Consenza and Puglie. The 
Slavic races (originally from Dalmatia, 
Montenegro and other trans-Adriatic 
sources) are in Larino, Campobasso, 
Chieti, Abruzzi, Lanciano and Udine. 

2 The Greek churches are in the fol- 
lowing localities: in Calabria, Vac- 
carizzo, San Giorgio Albanese, San 
Demetrio, San Cosmo, Macchia, San 
Adriano, Santa Sophia d'Epiro, Spez- 
zano, Lungro, San Benedetto Ullano, 
Castroreggio, Acquaformosa, Farneta, 
Rossano, Civita Firmo, Frassineto, 
Marri, Percile, and San Basilio: in 
Basilicata, San Paolo, San Constantino, 


At Bari, in Apulia, there is the Greek Catholic Church of 
San Nicolo di Mira, where the body of St. Nicholas of Myra — 
the great saint of the Greek Church — is entombed. It was 
brought from Lycia by the Crusaders ; and Greeks from Italy, 
Greece, Russia, Austria, Rumania, Turkey and Asia Minor 
come here every year to venerate his shrine. 

In Sicily there are 20 Greek-Catholic churches, chiefly in the 
Dioceses of Monreale and Palermo.^ The Church of San 
Nicolo dei Greci, in Palermo, has a fine iconostasis, and is the 
church of the Greek seminary. The Church of San Demetrio, 
in Piana dei Greci, has been declared a "National Monument." 
There are also Italian Greek Catholic churches in Naples, Va- 
letta in Malta, Chieti and Villa Badessa in the Abruzzi, Leg- 
horn, and in Cargese in Corsica. There are also Greek Catho- 
lics in Venice, Ancona, Florence and Ravenna. In Venice and 
Ancona, t4ie Greek churches, which were formerly Greek Cath- 
olic, are now Greek Orthodox, having turned schismatic. The 
Greek Church of San Giorgio, in Venice, is a very handsome 
edifice. In Naples, the Greek Orthodox have, after a long Hti- 
gation, commencing in 1871, also won the finest and largest 
Greek church, leaving the smaller one to the Greek Catholics. 

The Greek Catholic clergy in Italy are under three bishops, 
none of whom has diocesan jurisdiction, being only titular 
bishops of Oriental dioceses, but who have jurisdiction in mat- 
ters pertaining to the Greek rite, and who ordain all the Greek 
clergy, and in most cases give the sacrament of confirmation. 
In Italy, the Greek Catholic priests do not confer the sacra- 
ment of confirmation, as is usual elsewhere in the Greek rite.^ 

I have not been able to ascertain the number of monks at 
the Basilian monastery of Grotta Ferrata. The number of 
Greek Catholic priests in Sicily is 50, and in Calabria and 
Southern Italy about 60; while the number of Greek clergy at 
Rome (including intended missionaries and monks of Basil) 
is probably about 50. Besides these, there are from one to two 
Greek priests at each of the churches in the other parts of 
Italy and the islands of Malta and Corsica. 

The priests are either an Arciprete, that is a rector of the 

Montalbano, Casalnuovo: in Apulia, Contessa, Entellina, Piano dei Greci, 

Lecce, Taranto, Otranto, Bari, Nardo, and Messina, Girgenti, besides some 

Bau, Galatino, Barletta and in many of country districts and small places, 

the surrounding villages. * Constitutio Benedicti XIV, "Etsi 

^ The Greek churches in Sicily are pastoralis," June i, 1742, III, 4. 
at Palermo, Mezzojuso, Palazzo Adriano, 


principal church (chiesa madrice), or an eiimerios, or ordi- 
nary parish priest, or assistant clergyman. All priests are 
called Papas, answering to our "Reverend" or "Father." The 
Greek priests of Italy are required to keep more closely to the 
forms and usages of the Greek rite than the Greek Catholic 
priests of Galicia and Hungary who use the Slavonic liturgy. 
The Italian Greek priests are not allowed to be shaven, but are 
required to wear beards, like their brethren of the Orthodox 
church, to distinguish them from the Roman clergy, and they 
all use the distinctive dress of the Greek church. They all 
wear the camilaiio, or Greek biretta, and the flowing Greek 
cassock, while the Ruthenian Greek Catholic priests are in 
most cases shaven and wear the Roman cassock and a curious 
biretta, resembling a Greek bishop's mitre, but which is neither 
Greek nor Roman in form. 

The language of the liturgy is the ancient Greek, as used 
in Constantinople, Athens and the East. The pronuncia- 
tion of this Greek is not what we have been taught in the 
schools and colleges of America. It is neither "continental" 
nor "Erasmian." The Greek of the Mass and religious rite is 
pronounced exactly as the modern Greek of Athens is. A 
Greek priest in Rome or Sicily will utter the words of the 
Holy Liturgy with the same pronunciation as a Greek priest 
in Athens, Constantinople or Jerusalem. The only differences 
in the words of the Mass are that at the Great Synapte the 
Greek Catholics pray "for our Supreme Pontiff, the Pope of 
Rome," while those of Athens pray for the Synod and its bish- 
ops, and at Constantinople for the Patriarch and his bishops. 

In the article on the Greek Ruthenian Church, I have de- 
scribed the rites of the Greek Church, and they are substantially 
the same in Italy and Sicily. I was struck by the fact that the 
Italian singing of the Greek of the Mass seemed to me to be 
finer and fuller than that of the Greeks of Greece and Con- 
stantinople in their services. I was told that the Greeks of the 
East have never sung well like the Russians and Italians, be- 
cause they were so long under Turkish rule and feared to let 
their voices out harmoniously in Christian worship, and this 
continuing for centuries had produced the muffled nasal form 
of singing so often heard in the Greek churches of Greece and 
Turkey. One can easily hear it in the Greek Orthodox Church 
of the Holy Trinity in East 72nd Street, in New York City, 


where the Greeks maintain a beautiful church, with a priest 
from Athens. 

The Greek Catholics of Italy and Sicily differ from the 
Greek Catholics and Greek Orthodox of the rest of the world 
in one particular: they observe the Gregorian calendar and 
not the Julian calendar/ so that their immovable and Easter 
festivals, which coincide with the Latin ones, fall upon the 
same days as the ones in the Roman calendar, instead of being 
thirteen days, or sometimes more, behind, as in Austria, Rus- 
sia, Greece and Turkey. Of course, the purely Greek feasts 
and fasts fall as provided in the Greek calendar, but as ad- 
justed to the Gregorian or New Style. 

The Greek Catholics of Italy in some respects are more 
tenacious of purely Greek rites than those of Austria. They 
say that it is their national rite from the very beginning, and 
that the rite must be altogether Greek or altogether Latin, and 
that there should be no mixing of the two rites. Of course, 
this cannot always be avoided. Yet Cardinal Vannutelli relates 
that when he was at Cargese, Corsica, a celebrated mission 
preacher came to hold a mission there, which lasted a week at 
the Greek church and a week at the Roman church. All the 
inhabitants who could come attended both churches. In the 
Greek church all the hymns were sung in Italian, because the 
Roman Catholics knew no Greek, and the next week the com- 
pliment was returned in the Latin church, because the Greeks 
could not sing Latin hymns, and so they were again all sung 
in Italian. 

One thing the Greeks of Southern Italy have retained from 
the ancient Church, which has changed everywhere else, and 
that is the form of chief vestment of the Mass. The Greek 
vestments used in Italy and Sicily correspond to those used in 
the Greek Orthodox Church, and consist of the stichario or 
alb ; the epitrachilio or stole, which joins in one piece ; the zona 
or girdle ; the epimanica or cuffs, corresponding to the maniple 
of the Roman rite; the felonio or chasuble. Originally the 
vestments of the Church, both Roman and Greek, particularly 
the chasuble, were the same. It consisted originally of the 
magnificent senatorial mantle or planeta, the finest official dress 
of the Romans. Since the time of the schism of the East and 
the West, both the Greek and Roman churches have been al- 

1 Constitutio Benedict! XI\^ "Etsi pastoralis," June i, 1742, IX, 2-6. 


tering and cutting away this vestment until it has lost its origi- 
nal form, and each has cut it in a different way. Undoubtedly 
it hampered the arms ; so the Roman church authorities cut it 
away at the sides, until all of it covering the arms was gone, 
and so produced their modern chasuble, while the Greeks of 
the East and of Russia cut it away in front, until only a small 
portion was left, thus making the Russo-Greek chasuble of 
to-day totally different from the Roman one. But in Italy 
and Sicily the ancient form has been preserved, and a Greek 
Italian priest, when vested, has a flowing chasuble, or felonio, 
which comes down equally on all sides, just as it did in the 

The Greek bishops, however, wear other and different Mass 
vestments from the priests. Instead of the felonio, they wear 
the sc£co, a sort of chasuble with sleeves, which was origi- 
nally a court dress, conferred on bishops in the Emperor Con- 
stantine's time, but which has become the chief episcopal vest- 
ment. Over this is the omoforio, or pallium, which is a broad 
band, knotted in front with one end thrown over the shoulder. 
It was originally a scarf of wool. On the right side is the 
epigonazio, or thigh shield. This is a curious vestment worn 
by bishops and high prelates. It dates from early times, when 
the bishops of the Eastern Church were placed on a rank with 
princes and generals, who always were required to appear in 
public wearing their swords, and who wore a piece of cloth to 
prevent their swords from rubbing their vestments. Being 
men of peace, the churchmen contented themselves with wear- 
ing only the piece of cloth, usually with a sword embroidered 
on it, and to indicate their peaceful mission also wore it on the 
right side. It was a symbol that they must guard their flock 
from evil. The Greek mitre is a round head-dress, containing 
a picture or embroidery of the four evangelists, and usually 
surmounted by a cross. The present Roman mitre was derived 
from the habit of folding this head-dress, or cap — a thing 
which the Greeks did not do. The crozier is a staff with two 
curving serpents' heads, in allusion to our Saviour's command, 
"Be ye wise as serpents." ^ 

Their sacred vessels consist of the chalice, the patena, the 
lance, the star, and the spoon, besides certain veils and corpo- 
rals not used in the Roman rite. 

1 Matthew, X, 16. 


I have elsewhere described the rites of the Greek 
Church, as regards the Mass and the sacraments. The Greeks 
of Italy, however, follow more closely the ancient liturgical 
forms than do the United Greek Ruthenians or Rumanians. 
They even are allowed to say the creed without the addition of 
"and from the Son," on account of the ancient usage, which 
they have never altered, and because they have never differed 
from the Roman pontiff. 

As I have said, the people of Southern Italy have immi- 
grated in large numbers to the United States. The census re- 
turns for Italy in 1901 say that there are over three million 
Italians outside of Italy, who have left their homes either per- 
manently or temporarily. In New York City alone there are 
said to be 450,000 Italians. The Greek Catholic population of 
Southern Italy has sent between a quarter and half of its num- 
ber to the United States. There are in the United States 
perhaps as many Italian Greek Catholics as there are now re- 
maining in Italy. 

During the year 1904, an energetic young Italian Greek 
Catholic priest, the Papas (Rev.) Giro Pinnola, of Mezzojuso, 
came to the United States to gather up the scattered flock of 
Greek Catholics. He is now a priest of the New York diocese. 
He says that, being used to the language and rites of the Greek 
Church, these Italians have not adopted the habit of attending 
Roman Catholic churches, which in a measure do not appeal 
to them, because of their unfamiliarity with the rites, and they 
have become the prey of all sorts of missionary experiments 
to undermine their allegiance to the Church. Father Pinnola 
has found many who, because they were not of the Roman rite, 
attended other churches and missionary chapels. They were 
easier to pervert than the ordinary Italian of the Roman rite. 

He estimates that there are about 25,000 Itahans (Alba- 
nesi) of the Greek Rite, or possibly more, within the Greater 
City of New York. There are, besides, a large number in 
Newark, Elizabeth and Jersey City. There is even quite a 
colony out on Long Island. Father Pinnola has, as yet, not 
travelled far afield, but has confined his labors to New York 
and vicinity. All these people are very poor, with an excep- 
tion here and there, and have been as yet unable to build or 
equip a church. They are, however, contributing their dimes 
and quarters to that end. 


Nevertheless, they have found means to print and publish 
in New York a tiny, four-page paper, "L'Operaio," which is 
devoted to their interests and their Greek Rite. They have 
several Albanese Greek Catholic societies, each of which is 
said to have a good membership.^ 

The Italian Greeks frequently attend one of the Italian 
churches of the Roman Rite, to celebrate many of their Greek 
festivals, but they ardently desire to have a church of their 
own. They also attend the Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches, 
but here their unfamiliarity with the Slavonic tongue is a bar. 
Some of them even have had their baptisms and weddings 
celebrated in the Greek (Hellenic) Church of the Holy Trin- 
ity, or in the Russian Cathedral of St. Nicholas, New York 
City. But they need to be gathered up into one compact body, 
where they may practice their ancient rites and where their 
children may be taught the faith as well as the devotions of 
their ancestors. 

It is said that the Italian is becoming well-to-do here in 
America, and that in a few years he will also be a political 
force to be reckoned with. To be a good citizen, he must also 
be a good man, true to his faith and his country. There is no 
better method of bringing these wandering sheep of our great 
Catholic fold back to the active practice of their faith than by 
placing before them the opportunity to enjoy the rites and wor- 
ship of that glorious faith according to the Eastern form, which 
they and their fathers have used ever since the days of the 

1 The chief of these are: Societa San Albanese, Societa San Bartolomeo Al- 

Giorgio, Societa Italo-Albanese, Societa banese, Societa San Paolo, and Societa 

Uguaglianza, Societa San Giuseppe, Stella Albanese, all of Manhattan, New 

Societa Gabriella Buccola, Societa Cuore York, 
di Gesu, Societa Civitese, Societa Sicula- 


THE Catholic Church, with its expansion in every land 
throughout the world and its existence since the days 
of the Apostles, has always kept the faith intact. But 
in doing so it has not at all times and in all places imposed the 
same form of worship in every detail upon the faithful, nor 
insisted upon the same language being used. This variation in 
form and language constitutes the diversity of rite. 

In the beginning this could hardly have been otherwise. 
The Apostles and their disciples scattered to various lands, 
with various races and languages. In each locality the Church 
grew up separately, save for the bond of union — the same- 
ness and identity of the faith. Difference in manner of wor- 
ship might be permitted, but no divergence in matters of 
faith was allowed. 

The powerful, the civilized and cultivated East, with its 
peculiar variations and attempts to break away from the faith, 
elaborated one form of worship, whilst the West, uncivilized 
except as to the Italian peninsula and Spain, elaborated an- 
other form of worship, while both retained the same faith. 

The Eastern and Western Church 

The Catholic Church has existed in many lands and its wor- 
ship has found many forms of expression throughout the ages 
since the times of the Apostles. The two principal forms of 
its worship, and particularly that of the Mass (or the Holy 
Liturgy, as it is called in the Greek Church), have been the 
one followed in the Eastern or Greek Church and the one in 
the Western or Roman Church. The former was celebrated in 
the Greek language, and the latter has always been celebrated 
in the Latin tongue. The various rites and ceremonies of the 
Mass, the usages and vestments of the priests, and the form of 
the altar and sanctuary gradually grew to be quite different in 



each part of the Church, although they had a common origin. 
Finally in the year 1054 came the separation of the two 
churches, the greater part of the Greek Church lapsing into 
schism or opposition to the unity of the Catholic Church. 
With that schism came also some later differences of doctrine. 
Still all the Greek part of the Church did not leave Catholic 
unity; and later on during the subsequent centuries and par- 
ticularly in 1695-1700, millions of separated Greeks returned 
to the unity of the Church. Thus these Greeks who never 
separated from unity and those who returned to it represent 
to-day the Catholic Church of the East, united with the West, 
as it stood before the great schism. To express this idea more 
clearly, they are sometimes called Uniats, for while Greek 
indicates their rite, Catholic expresses their faith. They are 
Catholics in faith and unity with their brethren throughout 
the world, and are subject to the Vicar of Christ as the Head 
of the Church upon earth, but they still follow their own pecu- 
liar forms of worship, rites and ceremonies, just as they used 
to do before there was ever any thought of disruption or sepa- 
ration of churches. 

Prior to the year 1054 the Catholic Church was undivided 
throughout the Eastern and the Western Roman Empires. In 
the East the people generally followed the Greek or Constanti- 
nople form of saying Mass and administering all the sacra- 
ments, and used the Greek language chiefly in the Church 
services. In the Western part of Europe they followed the 
Roman form and used the Latin language. Political and theo- 
logical dissensions ensued, based principally upon misunder- 
standings, and in 1054 the Church of Constantinople was ex- 
communicated for disobedience or schism. That made a break 
between the Eastern and Western parts of the Church, al- 
though the Eastern separated Church still retained all the es- 
sentials of Christian doctrine and belief defined up to that date. 
Matters only grew worse with the lapse of time, although 
reunion took place twice for a short period in the General 
Councils of Lyons (1275) and Florence (1438). The Greek 
Church, with the exception of a few in Italy, remained in 
schism; the differences between the two Churches being only 
on two or three points. 

The principal peoples who are Catholics using the Greek 
Rite are: 


1. Ruthenians, who use the Greek Rite in the ancient 
Slavonic language. 

2. Melchites, who are Syrians, who use the same rite in 
the Arabic language, or who use Arabic or Greek inter- 

3. Rumanians, who use the Greek Rite in the Rumanian 

4. Greeks of Constantinople, Syria, Greece and lower Italy 
and Sicily, who use the Greek Rite in the original Greek 

The Slavonic Liturgy 

The Mass, according to the Greek Rite, was originally cele- 
brated in the ancient Greek language, but in the year 868 it 
was translated into Slavonic by Sts. Cyril and Methodius for 
the conversion of the Bulgarians, Ruthenians, Moravians and 
other pagan Slavic tribes, and this translation was approved 
by Pope John VIII at Rome in 879. Afterwards it was also 
translated into Arabic and into Rumanian, so that nowadays 
Greek Catholics celebrate Mass in one of these four languages, 
in the various countries where those languages represent the 
ancient tongue of the people. The use of one single language, 
like the Latin in the Roman Rite, has never been the practice 
among the Greek Catholics in celebrating Mass. None of 
these things have been interfered with by the Holy See, which 
has always permitted ancient rites and privileges which date 
back to the time when the Church was not disturbed by schism 
or separation. 

The language used in the celebration of the Mass by the 
Ruthenian clergy is the Ancient Slavonic (Church Slavonic) 
of St. Cyril. This language bears about the same relation to 
the ordinary vernacular of the people that the language of 
Chaucer does to current English. The people can understand 
it with some difficulty and readily sing the church responses, 
but it is very quaint and archaic to them and numerous words 
have to be translated. In addition to this, it is written or 
printed in a peculiar church alphabet or type called the 

Sts. Cyril and Methodius translated all the Greek service 
books into Slavonic and said Mass in that language. This 
gave offense to some German missionaries of the Roman rite, 
who maintained that the Mass and the sacraments should be 
in either Latin or Greek, or in the Hebrew of the Old Testa- 


ment, and not in the uncouth, barbaric language of a pagan 

In the year 867 Sts. Cyril and Methodius were summoned 
to Rome by Pope Nicholas I in this matter, and, arriving 
there after his death, were warmly received by his successor, 
Pope Adrian II, to whom they gave a full account of their 
missionary work. In 869 St. Cyril died in Rome, and was 
buried in the Church of St. Clement, where there is now a 
splendid chapel to his memory. St. Methodius was sent back 
to the Slavonic tribes, and the Pope made him Archbishop of 
Pannonia, or Eastern Austria. 

Again in 879 complaints were made against St. Methodius 
on account of the use of the Slavonic language in the Mass, 
and he was again summoned to Rome by Pope John VIII, 
but he gave so good an account of his missionary efforts and 
his success in converting the people through the services in 
the Slavonic language, that the Pope said : "We rightly extol 
the Slavonic letters invented by Cyril, in which praises to 
God are set forth, and we order that the glories and deeds of 
Christ our Lord be told in that same language. Nor is it in 
anywise opposed to wholesome doctrine and faith to say Mass 
in that same Slavonic language, or to chant the holy gospels 
or divine lessons from the Old and New Testaments duly 
translated and interpreted therein, or other parts of the divine 
offices; for he who created the three principal languages, 
Hebrew, Greek and Latin, also made the others for His praise 
and glory." 

Thus the Slavonic language became one of the liturgical 
languages of the Catholic Church, and the conversion of the 
Slavonic tribes went on with great success. The offices and 
liturgy of the Greek rite so translated into Slavonic have re- 
mained substantially the same down to the present day, and 
are used practically in the same form as Sts. Cyril and Me- 
thodius left them in the ninth century. All the church books 
in Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and in Austria-Hungary (whether 
in the Greek Catholic or the Greek Orthodox churches) are 
printed in the Old Cyrillic alphabet and in the Old Slavonic 
tongue. The translation is accurate and follows the Greek 
almost word for word. As has just been said, the Greek 
Church did not sever its relations with Rome until 1054 — 
nearly 190 years after Sts. Cyril and Methodius — and the 


Slavonic Church did not follow it until nearly 200 years later, 
so that there was one united Catholic Church using the Cyril- 
lic alphabet and the Slavonic language for almost 400 years 
after the conversion of these Slavs to Christianity. 

But the Church using the Slavonic language in its Mass and 
religious services gradually followed Constantinople in its 
schism and so fell away from unity with the Holy See. The 
many wars with the Poles and the Teutonic Knights of Ger- 
many, both of whom were of the Roman Rite, helped to ac- 
centuate the differences of the two rites, and made the Slavic- 
speaking peoples of the Greek Rite dislike everything that was 
Roman or Latin. 

Their Return to Unity 

From 1438 to 1442 the Council of Florence was held for 
the reunion of Christendom. It was attended by many Greek 
prelates, among them six Russians. Isidore, Metropolitan 
(Archbishop), first of Kieff and then of Moscow, with many 
others, voted for the union of the Eastern and Western 
Churches, and it was accepted by several bishops of southern 
Rus. In the north the Russian bishops subject to Moscow 
would have none of it, and even expelled Isidore when he re- 
turned to Moscow. In Kieff the new metropolitan, Michael 
Rahosa, united his whole southern province with Rome, and 
Kieff remained until 163 1 with the Greek Rite in full com- 
munion with Rome. In the latter year a newly-elected metro- 
politan, Peter Mogila, broke away from unity and turned to 
Constantinople and Moscow with his people. 

But in the Ruthenian portion of the Kingdom of Poland 
the Greek Orthodox bishops and people found themselves neg- 
lected, because the Turks had taken Constantinople and fhe 
Moslems threatened all Europe. Besides, Protestantism was 
making inroads upon the Greek churches. The effect of the 
Council of Florence had not died out. Moreover, the Jesuit 
fathers, then newly established in Poland, set themselves ear- 
nestly to effect a reunion of the two churches. In 1595 the 
Greek Ruthenian bishops of Lithuania and Little Russia de- 
termined to return to unity with the Holy See, and in that 
year held a council at Brest-Litovsk, where a decree of union 


was passed. Two Greek bishops, Ignatius Potzcy and Cyril 
Terletzky, were sent to Rome to make their submission to the 
Holy See. They declared that they desired to return to the 
unity of the Catholic Church as it existed before the schism 
of Constantinople in 1054. 

The Pope accepted their return to unity, and no change in 
their Greek Rites was required — not even a change in their 
calendar (the Old Style), which was then ten days and is now 
thirteen days behind the New Style or Gregorian calendar. 
The whole of the ancient Greek Catholic liturgy, service and 
discipline — including the ordination of married men as priests 
— was approved by Pope Clement VIII in the Bull "Magnus 
Dominus," December 22, 1595, and was repeated in his Brief 
"Benedictus Sit Pastor," of February 7, 1596, addressed to the 
Ruthenian bishops and people. 

On the 6th day of October, 1596, the union between the 
Eastern (Greek) Church and the Western (Roman) Church 
was formally proclaimed and ratified throughout all the Ru- 
thenian and Russian-speaking part of Poland. A large num- 
ber of the Greek bishops and their priests and people immedi- 
ately went over to union with Rome. Besides the bishops who 
were present at the Council of Brest-Litovzk, the Bishop of 
Kholm in 1597, the succeeding bishops under the jurisdiction 
of Kieff during the following twenty-five years, the Bishop of 
Munkach in 1646, the Bishop of Przemysl in 1691, the Metro- 
politan of Lemberg in 1700, and their flocks, became obedient 
to the Holy See, and the majority of all that vast reunion has 
remained steadfast ever since. 

It numbers now in Austria-Hungary some 4,000,000 people 
and is under the jurisdiction of seven Greek-Catholic bishops. 
In Austria the dioceses are : Archdiocese of Lemberg, and 
the Dioceses of Przemysl and Stanislau, all in Galicia, and 
Kreutz (Crisium) in Croatia. In Hungary the dioceses are: 
Munkach, Eperies and Hajdu-Dorogh, all in the north, near 
the Carpathian mountains. They have now a flourishing press 
and fine churches, seminaries and institutions, despite their 
poverty and the fact that the Ruthenian nobility long ago gave 
up its nationality and rite and became Polish. They also have 
a Ruthenian Greek-Catholic college in Rome, on the Piazza 
dei Monti, where many students are educated for the Greek 
priesthood among the Ruthenians. 


RuTHENiAN Immigration to America 

The Ruthenians are now firmly established in America. In 
the United States they number over half a million, and in 
Canada there are some two hundred and twenty thousand. 
Every steamer brings more of them, and as they have raised 
large families, the native born of Ruthenian parentage in- 
crease steadily. As they are hard-working and eager to get 
on and being steadily Americanized, it is our duty to co-oper- 
ate with them, to understand their Greek rite and forms of 
worship, their history and the ties which unite them with the 
old country from which they came. 

Ruthenian immigration began about 1880, chiefly to Penn- 
sylvania. As they increased in numbers they brought their 
church here, too. In 1884 Father Ivan Volanski, the first Ru- 
thenian Greek-Catholic priest in America, came from Galicia 
to Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. In the following year he built 
the first uniat Greek-Catholic church there. Two years later 
another church was built at Hazletown, Pa., and the year fol- 
lowing two more at Kingston and Olyphant, Pa. In the fol- 
lowing year (1889) two more were established at Jersey City 
and Minneapolis. The priests who immediately followed 
Father Volanski were Revs. Zeno Lachovich, Constantine An- 
drukovich, Theophan Obuskevich. Since then the Ruthenian 
clergy have come in greater numbers, and the building of 
churches and schools has gone on with increasing success. 
Many very fine churches have been built in Pennsylvania, and 
many churches have been purchased from Protestant denomi- 
nations and turned into Catholic churches. 

Owing to the large cost of real estate in New York City 
the Ruthenian Greek Catholics were late in establishing a 
church here. But in 1905 the Ruthenian Greek Catholic 
Church of St. George (originally on 20th Street, but now on 
7th Street, near Cooper Union) was first organized and made 
such progress that they purchased a larger building from the 
Methodists. In 191 2 the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church 
of St. Mary's was also organized. In Yonkers there are two 
Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches, St. Nicholas of Myra 
and St. Michael the Archangel. In Peekskill there is a Ru- 
thenian Greek Catholic missionary chapel. There are also the 


Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches of St. Nicholas, at Troy; 
St. Nicholas, at Watervliet, Sts. Peter and Paul, at Cohoes. 

There are now about 165 Ruthenian Greek Catholic 
churches in the United States and some 40 more in Canada, 
as well as numerous missionary stations in both countries. 
The Greek Catholic clergy here number 156 priests and one 
bishop, and in Canada one bishop and 52 priests. The Ameri- 
can-Ruthenian Greek Catholic bishop is the Right Rev. Soter 
Ortynski ^ of Philadelphia, Pa., appointed by the Pope in 
1907, and the Canadian bishop is the Right Rev. Nicetas 
Budka, of Winnipeg, Manitoba, appointed by the Pope in 
1 91 2. A full account of the Ruthenian Greek Catholics will 
be found in the Catholic Encyclopedia, volume VI, under 
"Greek Catholics in America." and in volume XIII, "Ru- 
thenians." Their numbers have increased since that was 
written, and they are making as rapid strides in progress, edu- 
cation and wealth in America as any other nationality coming 
here under the same conditions. 

They come of a race which is alien, or rather unknown to 
us, in rite, in language and in history. They were very poor, 
since their fate, in being under the rule of other races — the 
Poles and the Hungarians — was singularly like that of Ire- 
land, and like the men and women of the Irish race they have 
kept alive their nationality and their Eastern Rite, and above 
all they have kept up their language and their Slavic traditions. 

Being of the Greek Rite, they have been misunderstood and 
neglected even by the American Catholics of the Latin Rite. 
This has left them in some cases a prey to the proselyter, who 
has installed sectarian services and under the guise of priest, 
altar and missal leads them alike from their rite and their 
Catholic faith. Two or three of these attempts have been suc- 
cessfully checked. The Greek Orthodox Church of Russia 
has also endeavored here in America to win them away from 
Catholicism, and in many cases has succeeded. 

It behooves all Catholics to help their brethren, even if their 
venerable, historic Eastern Rite be strange and almost unknown 
to them. Remember that their Greek Catholic Rite is the rite 
of St. John Chrysostom, St. Basil, St. Gregory Nazianzen. 
St. John Damascene and St. Cyril, and that sixteen of the 
Popes were of this Eastern Rite. Among the Popes since the 

1 Died March 26, 19 16. 


Council of Florence, Clement VIII, Benedict XIV, Pius IX, 
and Leo XIII, have done special and signal acts in regard 
to the Greek Rite, and the Encyclical of Leo XIII, "Dignitas 
Orientalium," deserves especially to be remembered. Pope 
Pius X is to be remembered likewise for his magnificent (15th) 
centenary celebration of St. John Chrysostom, held at the Vati- 
can in 1908, when Pontifical Greek Mass was celebrated there, 
for the first time since the Council of Florence, by the Patri- 
arch of Antioch, in the presence of twenty-six Greek Catholic 
bishops and numerous Greek clergy from all parts of the Ori- 
ental Catholic world and a host of Roman prelates and clergy. 
Piux X appointed two Greek Catholic bishops for America. 

Besides the Ruthenians there are also the Melchites or 
Syrians speaking the Arabic language, who follow the Greek 
Rite and are Catholics in communion with Rome. They be- 
gan coming here in 1886, and are now spread throughout the 
country. Their name comes from Melek, the King, back in 
Arian times, when Catholics were followers of the Emperor 
of Constantinople, as against the Arians who were not, and 
even remained Catholics when Constantinople left unity. 
When Cyril V, who was elected Patriarch of Antioch in 1700, 
left the schism and submitted to unity, they obtained a re- 
stored line of Catholic hierarchy. They have about fifteen 
churches and sixteen clergy in this country. Their church 
books are printed in Arabic and Greek in parallel columns and 
a priest may say Mass either in Greek or Arabic. There are 
probably about 15,000 of them here. 

The Rumanians are chiefly the inhabitants of Transylvania 
in Hungary. The Rumanians of Rumania mostly belong to 
the Orthodox Greek Church. Until 1878, Rumania was a 
Turkish province, whilst Transylvania has been an enlight- 
ened state in Hungary for the past two hundred years. They 
say the Greek Mass in the Rumanian language, which is a 
Latin tongue, and their church books are printed in Roman 
letters. Their unity with the Holy See dates back to 1700. 

The Italian Greek Catholics boast that they have never 
been in schism. They come from the lower part of Italy, 
which was once known as Magna Grsecia, where the Greek 
language was spoken. They hold the tradition that they were 
converted by St. Paul. Their church language is, of course, 
the ancient Greek, in which all their church books are printed. 


The Greek Catholic Church and Rites 

The language, liturgy and ceremonies of the Greek Church 
are substantially the same, whether the persons using them 
are Catholic or schismatic. Such changes in the public pray- 
ers for the church authorities as will indicate whether they 
are in unity and harmony with the Holy See at Rome are 
made, but in general, the same service books can be used for 
all the principal parts of the Mass alike in the Greek Catholic 
or in the separated Greek Churches. There are some differ- 
ences of faith, however, nowadays, between the Catholic and 
separated Churches. 

The form of the Greek altar and sanctuary, and even of 
the entire church, is different from the Roman or Western 
ones. The Ruthenian and Russian churches are fond of a 
peculiar cross, known as the Slavonic cross, which consists 
of the usual cross with the head-board and the foot-piece 
added to it. Usually the foot-piece is expressed by being 
placed slanting across "the upright stem. This form of cross 
is used outside of the churches, and on the outside of prayer- 
books, etc., and is not used in the Greek churches of other na- 
tions. The Ruthenian or Russian churches are usually sur- 
mounted by bulbous domes of Byzantine-Slavic origin, which 
have a mystical significance. Where one central dome alone 
is used, it represents Our Lord ; where three are used, it is 
either the Trinity, if they are of equal size, or Our Lord 
and the Old and New Law, if two of them are smaller; and 
where there are five domes on the church, it represents Our 
Lord surrounded by the four Evangelists. 

The altar is usually nearly square in form and is arranged 
so that the clergy may pass entirely around it. On the north 
or "gospel" side of the altar (usually against the wall), is a 
smaller altar or table of oblation, on which the Proskomide 
or first part of the Mass is said. The sanctuary is divided 
from the rest of the church by the Iconostas (Greek, ikonos- 
tasis) or picture-screen, which has three doors in it. The 
icons, or church pictures, which must be in every church, are 
Our Lord on the right-hand (or epistle) side, and Our Lady 
on the left-hand (or gospel) side. Other pictures may be and 
usually are added to beautify the iconostas. This is simply the 


chancel rail of the Roman church raised up to a great height 
and adorned with pictures. In America, the Greek CathoHcs 
have not always been able to supply their churches with the 
iconostas as soon as they are opened for worship, but add it 
later when they become wealthier. 

The vestments of the Greek clergy were once the same as 
the Roman ones, but now look quite different. The Roman 
vestments have been clipped or changed for convenience in 
one place, whilst the Greek vestments have been changed in 
another, thus making a curious case of parallel evolution. 
The bishop wears over his cassock the stikhar or alb ; then the 
epitrakhil or priestly stole, which is joined together in one 
piece ; then the poyas or girdle, which is a band or belt. On 
both wrists he wears the narukzdtsy or cuffs, which answer to 
the Roman maniple. At his side he often wears the nebedren- 
nik, a diamond-shaped vestment, peculiar to Greek bishops, 
but sometimes omitted. Lastly, he wears as the principal 
vestment the sakkos, a vestment somewhat like a dalmatic, 
but which answers to the chasuble. Over this comes the omo- 
phor or pallium, which is indicative of the bishop's office and 
powers. For the purpose of giving the solemn episcopal bless- 
ing he uses two sets of candles, the trikir, consisting of three 
candles (representing the Trinity) in his right hand, and the 
dikir, consisting of two candles (representing the divine and 
human natures of Our Lord) in his left hand. His episcopal 
staff ends in two entwined serpents between which there is a 
cross, while his mitre is in the shape of a crown surmounted 
by a small cross. 

The priest is vested in the napleshchnik (amice), the stikhar 
(alb), the epitrakhil (priestly stole), the poyas (girdle), and 
narukvitsy (cuffs), and over them the phelon or chasuble. 
This Greek chasuble is long and flowing at the sides and back, 
but has been almost entirely cut away in front. The Roman 
chasuble has also been cut away at the sides, for the same 
reason of convenience, and neither form of chasuble to-day 
quite represents the flowing vestment of the earlier ages. The 
deacon is vested in stikhar (alb) and narukvitsy (cuffs), and 
wears the orar (or deacon's stole), a plain band with "Agios" 
on it, outside of the alb pinned to the left shoulder. The dea- 
con, between the Lord's Prayer and the Communion, winds 
his stole in a cross-like shape around his body. 


The sacred utensils of the Mass are greater in number than 
in the Roman Rite. The Greek Rite uses the Diskos or paten, 
the potir or chaHce, the Asterisk {Svyezd) or star, the Kopie 
or lance, and the Loshitsa or spoon. The Greek host is called 
the Agnetz or Lamb, and is square in shape, and is cut from 
round pieces (Prosphora) of leavened bread. Several smaller 
portions of the prosphora are also used for consecration along 
with the large square Agnetz. Communion is given in the 
Greek Rite in both kinds, with the spoon. 

The sign of the cross is made from right to left by the 
Greek Catholics, who hold the thumb and two fingers together 
(symbolizing the Trinity) in making it. Instrumental music, 
such as organs, is not used, and the choirs sing without ac- 
companiment. The people generally know the responses of 
the liturgy by heart and often sing them without the choir. 

The Italo-Greeks on the East Side in New York City know 
all these changeable and unchangeable parts of the Mass by 
heart, although Greek is a stranger language to them than 
Latin is to us. Many of the men who work on the streets 
and girls who work in clothing factories are capable of sing- 
ing all the parts of the Mass. 

The Greek Mass 

The Mass, according to the Greek Rite, is divided into three 
parts : I. The Proskomide, or preparation, which is all said 
secretly at the little side altar, called the Zhertvennik or 
table of Oblation. II. The Liturgy of the Catechumens, which 
consists of the Ektenes (or litanies), the Antiphons, the Lit- 
tle Entrance, the Apostle (Epistle), the Gospel and the pray- 
ers for the Catechumens. III. The Liturgy of the Faithful, 
which begins just before the Great Entrance, includes the 
Creed, the Preface, the Consecration, Our Father, Communion 
and the Dismissal of the Mass. These divisions refer to the 
ancient discipline of the Church ; parts II and III are said 
aloud and really constitute the Mass which a visitor to a 
Greek church usually sees. 

Besides this, the Greeks have three forms of Mass which 
are said at different times throughout the year. They are : 
I. The Mass of Saint John Chrysostom, which is the normal 


or ordinary form of the Mass. II. The Mass of Saint Basil 
the Great, which is said some fourteen times a year, princi- 
pally on New Year's day, St. Basil's day, all through Lent and 
a few other feast days. III. The Mass of the Presanctified, 
which is ascribed in their missals to Saint Gregory, Pope of 
Rome. This Mass is said on Wednesdays and Fridays through- 
out Lent, instead of merely on Good Friday, as with us. 

In the Greek Mass, a great deal more is said aloud than is 
the case in the Roman Mass. The consecration is said aloud, 
and the priest is answered by the people. Communion is 
given in both kinds. The priest mixes the bread and wine in 
the chalice, and a tiny particle is given by means of a spoon 
directly to the people. The Greeks use leavened bread, not 
unleavened bread, as the Roman Rite requires, for consecra- 
tion in the Mass. 

Another peculiarity in the Greek Catholic Church is the 
married priesthood. With a view of not making any radical 
distinction to the Catholic priesthood in the United States, 
the Pope has directed that only celibate or widowed priests 
should come to America to take charge of churches. But 
remember that the rule in the Greek Church is the same as 
the rule in the Roman Church; no priest may marry. The 
Greek rite, according to the custom from antiquity, will ordain 
married men to the diaconate and priesthood, while the Ro- 
man rite has ceased to do so. The Catholic Church, therefore, 
is the only Church which can fairly say that it knows the 
advantages of an unmarried priesthood, because it has them 
both, according to the respective rites. 

The Greek Calendar 

Among the customs and privileges which the Greeks have 
retained is that of the ancient calendar. The new calendar 
introduced by Pope Gregory was never made obligatory on 
them. They, therefore, keep the calendar according to the 
Old Style, which is now about thirteen days behind the new 
or everyday one, and which will continue to drop one day 
behind every century. Consequently all the feast days fall 
much later than in the Roman Rite. Thus, for example, 
Christmas (December 25th) falls upon January 7th, New 


Style, and so on throughout the year. Easter is quite difficult 
to reconcile with the same feast in the Roman Rite. This year 
(191 5) it fell upon the same date, and both the Roman and 
Greek celebrations coincided. Next year it will be a week 
later, and some years the feast in the different rites can be 
as much as a month apart. Being reckoned from the first full 
moon of spring, the difference of thirteen days in reckoning 
when March 21st comes, throws the two rites far apart. 

The Greek year is reckoned quite differently in its starting 
point. For immovable feasts the Greeks count by the old 
Roman year, starting at September i. For movable feasts, 
they start with Easter. The Roman Church, on the contrary, 
starts with Advent, about December i, and makes everything 
else come into line. Many saint's days come on different dates 
in the Greek calendar (leaving out the fact of being thirteen 
days behind). Thus the Immaculate Conception falls in the 
Greek calendar on December 9th, and not December 8th. All 
Saints is celebrated on what we call Trinity Sunday; while 
the celebration in honor of the Trinity comes on Monday after 
Pentecost. There is no All Souls' day in the Greek Rite ; they 
have four Saturdays in the year in which they offer Mass for 
the dead. It would take too long to detail all the differences 
in the calendar alone. 

Other Eastern Rites 

Besides the Greek Catholics, there are other Eastern Rites, 
united with the Holy See, here in the United States. They 
are not as numerous as the Greeks, who all together make over 
8oo,o(X) persons who are united with the Holy See, to say 
nothing of half as many more who belong to the so-called 
Orthodox or schismatic Church. 

Among these others are the Maronites, who use the ancient 
Syriac in the Mass, and who are proud to boast that they still 
use the very language which Our Lord spoke whilst He was 
on earth. They are Syrians, mainly from Mount Lebanon, 
who have retained their Mass and liturgy. They speak Arabic 
as their ordinary tongue, but use the Syriac upon the altar; 
but they are all Catholics. 

Then, too, there are the Armenians, who use the ancient 


Armenian in the Mass. The Armenian CathoHc Church is 
pecuHar, in that it is a Church of only one people, the Arme- 
nians. No one who is not an Armenian belongs to it, and only 
Armenians are ordained to the priesthood. They have their 
missals and church books in Armenian, but there are also 
the disunited or Gregorian Armenians, who do not belong to 
the Catholic Church. 

Besides these, there are a few small communities of Chal- 
deans, from eastern Turkey in Asia and from Persia. They 
also use the ancient Syriac in the Mass, but in a varied form 
from the Maronites. 

These are the Catholics of the Eastern rites in the United 
States, who have come hither to make up part and parcel of 
the Catholic Church in America. It behooves us to know 
something about them, to welcome them, and to see that they 
do not stray from the faith. 


THE ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the 
government (province) of Moscow is situated in almost 
the centre of European Russia. It lies on both sides 
of the River Moskva, from which it derives its name; another 
small stream, called the Yauza, flows through the eastern part 
of the city. Moscow was the fourth capital of Russia — the 
earlier ones being Novgorod, Kiefif, and Vladimir — and was 
the residence of the Tsars from 1340 until the time of Peter 
the Great in 171 1. It is the holy city of Russia, almost sur- 
passing in that respect the city of Kiefif, and is celebrated in 
song and story under its poetic name Bielokamennaya, the 
"White-Walled." The population, according to the latest 
(1907) available statistics, is 1,335,104, and it is the greatest 
commercial and industrial city of Russia. It is the see of a 
Russian Orthodox metropolitan with three auxiliary or vicar 
bishops, and has 440 churches, 24 convents, over 500 schools 
(with high schools, professional schools, and the university 
besides), some 502 establishments of charity, mercy, and hos- 
pital service, and 23 cemeteries. The population is composed 
of 1,242,090 Orthodox, 26,320 Old Ritualists, 25,540 Catholics, 
26,650 Protestants, 8,905 Jews, and 5,336 Mohammedans, to- 
gether with a small scattering of other denominations. 

Historically, the city of Moscow, which has grown up grad- 
ually around the Kremlin, is divided into five principal parts 
or concentric divisions, separated from one another by walls, 
some of which have already disappeared and their places been 
taken by broad boulevards. These chief divisions are the 
Kremlin, Kitaigorod (Chinese town), Bielygorod (white 
town), Zemlianoigorod (earthwork town), and Miestchansky- 
gorod (the bourgeois town). The actual municipal division 
of the city is into seventeen chasti or wards, each of which 
has a set of local officials and separate police sections. The 
city hall or Duma is situated on Ascension Square near the 
Kremlin. The Kremlin itself is a walled acropolis and is the 



most ancient part of Moscow, the place where the city origi- 
nated ; it is situated in the very center of the present city, some 
140 feet above the level of the River Moska. The Kitaigorod, 
or Chinese town, is situated to the north-east and outside of 
the Kremlin, and is in turn surrounded by a wall with several 
gates. It is irregularly built up, contains the Stock Exchange, 
the Gostinny Dvor (bazaars), the Riady (great glass enclosed 
arcades), and the printing office of the Holy Synod. Just 
why it was called the Chinese town is not known, for no Chi- 
nese have ever settled there. The allusion may be to the Ta- 
tars, who besieged and took Moscow several times, camping 
outside the Kremlin. 

The Kremlin and Kitaigorod are considered together and 
known as the "City" {gorod), much as the same word is ap- 
plied to a part of London, The enormous walls surrounding 
them were originally whitewashed and of white stone, and are 
even yet white in places, thus giving rise to the poetic name. 
Just outside of it lies the Bielygorod, or white town, extend- 
ing in a semicircle from the Moskva on the one side until it 
reaches the Moskva again. The Bielygorod is now the most 
elegant and fashionable part of the city of Moscow. Con- 
taining as it does beautiful and imposing palaces, many fine 
public monuments and magnificent shops, theaters, and public 
buildings, it presents a splendid appearance worthy of its 
ancient history. Around this, in a still wider semicircle, is the 
Zemlianoigorod, or earthwork town, so called because of the 
earthen ramparts which were constructed there by Tsar Mi- 
chael Feodorovich in 1620 to protect the growing city in the 
Polish wars. They have been levelled and replaced by the 
magnificent boulevards known as the Sadovaya (Garden Ave- 

The wealthy merchants and well-to-do inhabitants dwell 
here, and fine buildings are seen on every side. The remainder 
of the city is given over to the industrial and poor classes, 
railway stations, and factories of all kinds. In addition, there 
is that part of the city which lies on the south side of the 
Moskva, the so-called Zamoskvarechie (quarter beyond the 
Moskva), where the Tatars dwelt for a long time after they 
had been driven from Moscow proper. Now it is the Old 
Russian quarter, where old-fashioned merchants dwell in state 
and keep up the manners and customs of their fathers. The 


famous Tretiakoff art galleries are situated here. There are 
six bridges across the River Moskva connecting both parts 
of the city. 

The name Moscow is mentioned in Russian chronicles for 
the first time in 1147. In March of that year Yuri Dolgoruki 
(George the Long-armed), Grand Duke of Kieff and son of 
Vladimir Monomachus, is said to have met and entertained 
his kinsmen there at the village of the Moskva. So pleased was 
he with the reception which he had received and so impressed 
by the commanding location of the situation that he built a 
fortified place on the hill where the meeting took place, just 
where the present Kremlin is situated. The word Kremlin 
(Russian Kreml) seems to be of Tatar origin, and means a 
fortified place overlooking the surrounding country. Many 
other Russian cities dating from Tatar times have kremlins 
also, such as Nizhni-Novgorod, Vladimir, Kazan, and Sa- 

In the beginning of its early history Moscow was nothing 
but a cluster of wooden houses surrounded by palisades; in 
1237 the Tatar Khan laid siege to it, and his successors for 
several centuries were alternately victors and vanquished be- 
fore it. In 1293 Moscow was besieged and burned by the 
Mongols and Tatars, but under the rule of Daniel, son of 
Alexander Nevsky, its fame increased and it became of im- 
portance. He conquered and annexed several neighboring 
territories and enlarged his dominions to the entire length of 
the River Moskva. In 1300 the Kremlin was enclosed by a 
strong wall of earth and wooden palisades, and it then received 
its appellation. In 13 16 the Metropolitan of Kieff changed 
his see from that city to Vladimir, and in 1322 thence to Mos- 
cow. The first cathedral of Moscow was built in 1327. The 
example of the metropolitan was followed in 1328 by Grand 
Duke Ivan Danilovich, who left Vladimir and made Moscow 
his capital. In 1333 he was recognized by the Khan of Kazan 
as the chief prince of Russia, and he extended the fortifica- 
tions of Moscow. In 1367 stone walls were built to enclose 
the Kremlin. Notwithstanding this, the city was again plun- 
dered by the Tatars two years later. During the rule of 
Dimitri Donskoi in 1382 the city was burned and almost en- 
tirely destroyed. Vasili II was the first Russian prince to be 
crowned at Moscow (1425). 


The city, although still the greatest in Russia, began to de- 
cHne until the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505). He was the 
first to call himself "Ruler of all the Russias" {Hospodar 
vseya Rossii), and made Moscow pre-eminently the capital 
and centre of Russia, besides constructing many beautiful 
monuments and buildings. 

His wife, who was Sophia Palaeologus, was a Greek princess 
from Constantinople, whose marriage to him was arranged 
through the Pope, and who brought with her Greek and Italian 
artists and architects to beautify the city. But even after that 
the Tatars were often at the gates of Moscow, although they 
only once succeeded in taking it. Under Ivan IV, surnamed 
the Terrible (Ivan Grozny), the development of the city was 
continued. He made Novgorod and Pskoff tributary to it, 
and subdued Kazan and Astrakhan. He was the first prince 
of Russia to call himself Tsar, the Slavonic name for king or 
ruler found in the church liturgy, and that name has survived 
to the present time, although Peter the Great again changed 
the title and assumed the Latin name Imperator (Emperor). 
This latter name is the one now commonly used and inscribed 
on public monuments and buildings in Russia. Moscow was 
almost completely destroyed by fire in 1547; in 1571 it was 
besieged and taken by Devlet-Ghirei, Khan of the Crimean 
Tatars, and again in 1591 the Tatars and Mongols under 
Kara-Ghirei for the last time entered and plundered the city, 
but did not succeed in taking the Kremlin. During the reign 
of Ivan the Terrible the adventurer Yermak crossed the Ural 
Mountains, explored and claimed Siberia for Russia ; the first 
code of Russian laws, the Stoglav (hundred chapters), was 
also issued under this emperor, and the first printing-ofiice 
set up at Moscow. Ivan was succeeded by Feodor I, the 
last of the Rurik dynasty, during whose reign (1584-98) serf- 
dom was introduced and the Patriarchate of Moscow estab- 
lished. During the latter part of the reign of Ivan the Terri- 
ble, Boris Godunoff, a man of high ambitions who had risen 
from the ranks of the Tatars, attained to great power, which 
was augmented by the marriage of his sister to Feodor. To 
ensure his brother-in-law's succession to the throne, he is said 
to have caused the murder of Ivan's infant son, Demetrius, at 
Uglich in 1582. When Feodor I died, Boris Godunoff was 
made Tsar, and ruled fairly well until 1605. The year before 


his death the "False Demetrius" (Lzhedimitri) appeared. He 
was said to have gone under the name of Gregory Otrepieff, 
a monk of the Chudoff monastery (Monastery of the Mira- 
cles) in the Kremlin, who fell into disgrace, escaped to Poland, 
gave himself out as Demetrius, the son of Ivan the Terrible, 
who had in some way escaped Boris Godunofif, another child 
having been murdered. King Sigismund of Poland espoused 
his claims, furnished him an army, with which and its Rus- 
sian accessions the pretender fought his way back to Moscow, 
proclaiming himself the rightful heir to the throne. All who 
looked on Boris Godunoff as a usurper flocked to his standard, 
the widow of Ivan, then a nun, recognized him as her son, 
and he was crowned in the Kremlin as the Tsar of the Rus- 
sias. For ten months he ruled, but, as he was too favorable 
to the Poles and even allowed Catholics to come to Moscow 
and worship, the tide then turned against him, and in 1606 he 
was assassinated at his palace in the Kremlin by the Streitsi 
or sharpshooters who formed the guard of the Tsars of 

After seven years of civil war and anarchy Michael Ro- 
manoff, the founder of the present dynasty, was elected Tsar 
in 1 61 3. But Moscow never regained its earlier pre-eminence, 
although it became a wealthy commercial city, until the first 
part of the reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725). He sent 
persons abroad, and, having observed the advancement and 
progress of Western Europe, determined to improve his realm 
radically by introducing the forms of western civilization. All 
the earlier part of his life was spent in war with the Swedish 
invaders and the Polish kings. In 1700 he abolished the 
Patriarchate of Moscow, left the see vacant, and established 
the Holy Synod. These acts set Moscow, the old Russians 
and the clergy against him, so that in 171 2 he changed the im- 
perial residence and capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg, 
which he had caused to be constructed for the new capital on 
the banks of the Neva. After the departure of the Tsars from 
Moscow, it diminished in political importance, but was always 
regarded as the seat and centre of Russian patriotism. In 
1755 the University of Moscow was founded. In 1812 during 
the invasion of Russia by Napoleon, the Russians determined 
after the Battle of Borodino to evacuate Moscow before the 
victorious French, and on September 14, 1812, the Russian 


troops deserted the city, followed by the greater part of the 
inhabitants. Shortly afterwards the French entered, and Na- 
poleon found that he had no submissive citizens to view his 
triumphal entry, but that the inhabitants were actually burn- 
ing up their entire city, which was even then built largely of 
wood. He revenged himself by desecrating churches and de- 
stroying monuments. The Russian winter begins in October, 
and, with a city in smoking ruins and without supplies or pro- 
visions. Napoleon was compelled, on October 19-22, to evacu- 
ate Moscow and retreat from Russia. Cold and privation 
were the most effective allies of the Russians. The recon- 
struction of the city commenced the following year, and from 
that time hardly any wooden buildings were allowed. In 
May, 1896, at the coronation of Nicholas II, over 2,000 per- 
sons were crushed and wounded in a panic just outside the 
city. In 1905 the Grand Duke Sergius was assassinated in the 
Kremlin and revolutionary riots occurred throughout the city. 
Although Moscow is no longer the capital, it has steadily 
grown in wealth and commercial importance, and, while sec- 
ond in population to St. Petersburg, it is the latter's close rival 
in commerce and industry, and is first above all in the heart 
of every Russian. 

In the religious development of Russia Moscow has held 
perhaps the foremost place. In 1240 Kieff was taken by the 
Tatars, who in 1299 pillaged and destroyed much of that 
mother city of Christian Russia. Peter, Metropolitan of 
Kieff, who was then in union with Rome, in 13 16 changed his 
see from that city to the city of Vladimir upon the Kliazma, 
now about midway between Moscow and Nizhni-Novgorod, 
for Vladimir was then the capital of Great Russia. In 1322 
he again changed it to Moscow. After his death in 1328 
Theognostus, a monk from Constantinople, was consecrated 
Metropolitan at Moscow under the title "Metropolitan of 
Kieff and Exarch of all Russia," and strove to make Great 
Russia of the north ecclesiastically superior to Little Russia 
of the south. In 1371 the South Russians petitioned the Pa- 
triarch of Constantinople: "Give us another metropolitan for 
Kieff, Smolensk, and Tver, and for Little Russia." In 1379 
Pimen took at Moscow the title of "Metropolitan of Kieff 
and Great Russia," and in 1408 Photius, a Greek from Con- 
stantinople, was made "Metropolitan of all Russia" at Mos- 


cow. Shortly afterwards an assembly of South Russian bish- 
ops was held at Novogrodek, and, determined to become inde- 
pendent of Moscow, sent to the Patriarch of Constantinople 
for a local metropolitan to rule over them. In 1416 Gregory I 
was made "Metropolitan of Kieff and Lithuania," independ- 
ently of Photius who ruled at Moscow. But at the death of 
Gregory no successor was appointed for his see. Gerasim 
(1431-5) was the successor of Photius at Moscow, and had 
correspondence with Pope Eugene IV as to the reunion of 
the Eastern and Western Churches. The next Metropolitan 
of Moscow was the famous Greek monk, Isidore, consecrated 
under the title of "Metropolitan of Kieff and Moscow." When 
the Council of Florence for the reunion of the East and West 
was held, he left Moscow in company with Bishop Abraham 
of Suzdal and a large company of Russian prelates and the- 
ologians, attended the council, and signed the act of union in 
1439. Returning to Russia, he arrived at Moscow in the 
spring of 1441, and celebrated a grand pontifical liturgy at 
the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin in the pres- 
ence of Grand Duke Vasili II and the Russian clergy and 
nobility. At its close his chief deacon read aloud the decree 
of the union of the churches. None of the Russian bishops 
or clergy raised their voices in opposition, but the grand duke 
loudly upbraided Isidore for turning the Russian people over 
to the Latins, and shortly afterwards the Russian bishops 
assembled at Moscow followed their royal master's command 
and condemned the union and the action of Isidore. He was 
imprisoned, but eventually escaped to Lithuania and Kieff, 
and after many adventures reached Rome. 

From this time the two portions of Russia were entirely 
distinct, the prelates of Moscow bearing the title "Metropoli- 
tan of Moscow and all Russia" and those of Kieff, "Metro- 
politan of Kieff, Halich, and all Russia." This division and 
both titles were sanctioned by Pope Pius II. But Kieff con- 
tinued Catholic and in communion with the Holy See for 
nearly a century, while Moscow rejected the union and re- 
mained in schism. After Isidore the Muscovites would have 
no more metropolitans sent to them from Constantinople, and 
the grand duke thereupon selected the metropolitan. Every 
effort was then made to have the metropolitans of Moscow 
independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople^ After the 


Turks had captured Constantinople, the power of its patriarch 
dwindled still more. When the Bishop of Novgorod declared 
in 1470 for union with Rome, Philip I, Metropolitan of Mos- 
cow, frustrated it, declaring that, for signing the union with 
Rome at Florence, Constantinople had been punished by the 
Turks. This hatred of Rome was fomented to such a point 
that, rather than have one who favored Rome, a Jew named 
Zozimas was made Metropolitan of Moscow (1490-4); as, 
however, he openly supported his brethren, he was finally de- 
posed as an unbeliever. Yet in 1525 the Metropolitan, Daniel, 
had a correspondence with Pope Clement VII in regard to 
the Florentine Union, and in 1581 the Jesuit Possevin visited 
Ivan the Terrible and sought to have him accept the principles 
of the Union. In 1586, after the death of Ivan, the archiman- 
drite Job was chosen Metropolitan of Moscow by Tsar Feo- 
dor under the advice of Boris Godunofif. Just at that time 
Jeremias II, Patriarch of Constantinople, who was fleeing 
from Turkish oppression, visited Russia and was received with 
all the dignity due to his rank. In 1589 he arrived at Moscow 
and was fittingly received by Boris Godunoff, who promised 
to take his part against the Turks if possible, and who re- 
quested him to create a patriarch for Moscow and Russia, so 
that the orthodox Church might once more count its five 
patriarchs as it had done before the break with Rome. Jere- 
mias consented to consecrate Job as the Patriarch of Moscow 
and all Russia, and actually made him rank as the third patri- 
arch of the Eastern Church, preceding those of Antioch and 
Jerusalem. This patriarchate was in fact a royal creation 
dependent upon the Tsar, its only independence consisting of 
freedom from the sovereignty of Constantinople. 

In 1653 the Patriarch Nikon corrected the Slavonic liturgi- 
cal books of the Eastern Rite by a comparison with the Greek 
originals, but many of the Russians refused to follow his re- 
forms, thus beginning the schism of the Old Believers or Old 
Ritualists, who still use the uncorrected books and ancient 
practices. The Patriarchate of Moscow lasted until the reign 
of Peter the Great (that is no years), there being ten patri- 
archs in all. When Patriarch Adrian died, in 1700, Peter 
abolished the office at once, and allowed the see to remain 
vacant for twenty years. He then nominally went back to the 
old order of things, and appointed Stephen Yavorski "Metro- 


politan of Moscow," but made him merely a servant of the 
Holy Synod. To emphasize the new order of things more 
strongly, it is related that Peter himself sat on the patriarch's 
throne, saying in grim jest : "I am the patriarch." Not until 
1748 was the Eparchy or Metropolitanate of Moscow canon- 
ically established by the Holy Synod under the new order of 
things. In 1721 Peter published the "Ecclesiastical Regula- 
tions" (Dukhovny Reglament), providing for the entire re- 
modelling of the Russian Church and for its government by a 
departmental bureau called the Holy Governing Synod. This 
body, usually known as the Holy Synod, has existed ever since. 
Its members are required to swear fidelity to the Tsar by an 
oath which contains these words: "I confess moreover by 
oath that the supreme judge of this ecclesiastical assembly is 
the Monarch himself of all the Russias, our most gracious 
Sovereign" {Reglament, Prisiaga, on p. 4, Tondini's edition). 
The Holy Governing Synod is composed of the Metropolitans 
of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kieff, several other bishops, 
and certain priests, but its active affairs are carried on by lay 
government officials (the bishops act rather as consultors or 
advisors), and the Chief Procurator, a layman, directs its 
operations, while none of its acts are valid without the ap- 
proval (Sokvoleniya) of the Tsar. No church council or de- 
liberative church organization has been held in Russia since 
the establishment of the Holy Synod. 

The chief and most historic buildings in Moscow are situ- 
ated in the Kremlin, which is a triangular enclosure upon a 
hill or eminence on the north bank of the Moskva. It is sur- 
rounded by a high wall of brick and stone, provided with high 
towers at intervals, and has five gates, one (for pedestrians 
only) in the wall on the river side and two in each of the other 
walls of the triangle. The most celebrated gate is the Spassa- 
kaya Vorota, or Gate of the Saviour, opening out upon the 
Red Square. It contains a venerated image or icon of Christ, 
and all persons passing through the gate must remove their 
hats in reverence. Inside the Kremlin are churches, palaces, 
convents, a parade ground, a memorial to Alexander II, also 
the Senate (or law courts building), the arsenal, and the great 
Armory. Directly inside the Gate of the Saviour is the Con- 
vent of the Ascension for women, founded in 1389 by Eu- 


doxia, wife of Dimitri Donskoi. The present stone convent 
building was erected in 1737. Just beyond it stands the Chu- 
doff monastery, founded in 1358 by the MetropoHtan Alexis, 
and here in 1667 the last Russian church council was held. 
The present building dates from 1771. Next to it is the Nicho- 
las or Minor Palace built by Catherine II and restored by 
Nicholas I. In front of this and across the parade ground 
near the river wall of the Kremlin is the memorial of Alexan- 
der II, very much in the style of the Albert Memorial in Lon- 
don. A covered gallery surrounds the monument on three 
sides, and on it are mosaics of all the rulers of Russia. To 
the west of the Minor Palace is the church and tower of Ivan 
Veliky (great St. John) with its massive bells. At the foot of 
the tower is the famous Tsar Kolokol (king of bells), the 
largest bell in the world. It was cast in 1734, and weighs 22 
tons, is 20 feet high and nearly 21 feet in diameter. A trian- 
gular piece nearly six feet high was broken out of it when it 
fell from its place in 1737 during a fire. Towards the north 
of the great bell in front of the barracks at the other end of 
the street, is the Great Cannon, cast in 1586, which has a cali- 
bre one yard in diameter, but has never been discharged. Be- 
hind Ivan Veliky stands the Cathedral of the Assumption, the 
place of coronation of all the emperors of Russia, and the place 
where all the patriarchs of Moscow are entombed. The pres- 
ent cathedral was restored and rebuilt in part after Napoleon's 
invasion. Across a small square is the Cathedral of the Arch- 
angel Michael. Here lie buried all the Tsars of the Rurik and 
Romanoff dynasties down to Peter the Great. He and his 
successors lie entombed in the cathedral in the Fortress of Sts. 
Peter and Paul in St. Petersburg. To the west lies the Cathe- 
dral of the Annunciation, in which all the Tsars before Peter 
were baptized and married, still used for royal baptisms and 

Towards the westerly end of the Kremlin is the Great Palace 
in which all the history of Moscow was focussed until after 
the time of Peter the Great. It is the union and combination 
of all the ancient palaces, and contains the magnificent halls 
of St. George and St. Alexander and also the ancient Terem 
or women's palace, which is now completely modernized. In 
the centre of the courtyard of the palace stands the Church of 


Our Saviour in the Woods (Spass na Boru). It was origi- 
nally built here at the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
when the Kremlin was but a hill still covered with forest trees, 
and hence its name. Ivan I, m 1330, tore down the primitive 
wooden church and replaced it by a church of stone. Outside 
the Great Palace is the Armory, one of the finest museums of 
its kind in Europe, being particularly rich in collections of Rus- 
sian weapons and armor. The building towards the north 
of the palace, known as the Synod, was the residence of the 
patriarchs of Moscow and the first abiding-place of the Holy 
Synod. To the east of the Kremlin, outside the gates of the 
Saviour and of St. Nicholas, is the well-known Red Square, 
where much of the history of Moscow has been enacted. At 
the end of it towards the river stands the bizarre church of 
St. Basil the Blessed, of which Napoleon is said to have or- 
dered : "Burn that mosque!" The Historical Museum is at 
the other end. At the east side of the Red Square is the Loh- 
noe Miesto or Calvary, to which the patriarchs made the Palm 
Sunday processions, and where proclamations of death were 
usually read in olden times. Behind it are the magnificent 
Riady or glass-covered arcades for fine wares, while at the 
northern entrance of the square behind the Museum is the 
chapel of the Iberian Madonna (Iverskay a Bogoroditza), the 
most celebrated icon in all Russia. It was sent to Moscow in 
1648 from the Iberian monastery on Mount Athos. 

One of the most celebrated modern churches in Moscow is 
the Temple of Our Saviour and Redeemer, built as a memorial 
and thank ofifering in commemoration of the retreat of the 
French from Moscow. It was consecrated in 1883, is probably 
the most beautiful church in Russia and is filled with modern 
art adapted to the requirements of the Greek Rite. There are 
two Arches of Triumph in Moscow — one celebrating 1812, near 
the Warsaw station, and the other called the Red Gate, com- 
memorating Empress Elizabeth. At Sergievo, about forty 
miles to the east of Moscow, is the celebrated Trinity Monas- 
tery (Troitsa-Sergievskaya Lavra), which is intimately bound 
up with the history of Moscow, and is one of the greatest 
monasteries and most celebrated places of pilgrimage in Rus- 
sia; it played a great part in the freeing of Russia from the 
Tatar yoke. There are three Roman Catholic churches in Mos- 
cow : the large church of St. Louis on the Malaya Lubianka, 


the church and school of Sts. Peter and Paul in the Milutinsky 
Pereulok, and another small chapel. There is also a Greek 
Catholic chapel recently founded by a priest converted from 
the Old Believers with a handful of worshippers. 


AN ancient alphabet of the Slavic languages, also called 
in Russian bukvitsa. The ancient Slavonic when re- 
duced to writing seems to have been originally written 
with a kind of runic letters, which, when formed into a regular 
alphabet, were called the Glagolitic, that is the signs which 
spoke. St. Cyril, who, together with his brother St. Method- 
ius, translated the Greek liturgy into Slavonic when he con- 
verted the Bulgarians and Moravians, invented the form of 
letters derived from the Greek alphabet with which the church 
Slavonic is usually written. This is known as the Cyrillic al- 
phabet or Kirillitsa. The Cyrillic form of letters is used in all 
the liturgical books of the Greek Churches, whether Catholic 
or schismatic, which use the Slavonic language in their liturgy, 
and even the present Russian alphabet, the Grazhdanska, is 
merely a modified form of the Cyrillic with a few letters omit- 
ted. The order of the letters of the alphabet in the Glagolitic 
and in the Cyrillic is nearly the same, but the letters bear no 
resemblance to each other, except possibly in one or two in- 
stances. Jagic upholds the theory that St. Cyril himself in- 
vented the Glagolitic, and that his disciple St. Clement trans- 
formed it into Cyrillic by imitating the Greek uncial letters 
of his day. There is a tradition, however, that St. Jerome, 
who was a Dalmatian, was the inventor. Some of the earliest 
Slavic manuscripts are written in the Glagolitic characters. 
The Cyrillic alphabet continued to be used for writing the 
Slavonic in Bulgaria, Russia and Galicia, while the Southern 
and Western Slavs used the Glagolitic. These Slavs were con- 
verted to Christianity and to the Roman Rite by Latin mis- 
sionaries, and gradually the Roman alphabet drove out the use 
of the Glagolitic, so that the Bohemians, Slovenians, Moravi- 
ans, and part of the Croatians used Roman letters in writing 
their languages. In Southern Croatia and in Dalmatia (often 
treated as synonymous with Illyria in ancient times) the Gla- 



politic has continued in use as an ecclesiastical alphabet in 
writing the ancient Slavonic. Although the Slavic peoples 
bordering on the Adriatic Sea were converted to the Roman 
Rite, they received the privilege, as well as their brethren of 
the Greek Rite, of having the Mass and the offices of the 
Church said in their own tongue. Thus the Roman Mass was 
translated into the Slavonic, and, in order to more fully distin- 
guish the Western Rite from the Eastern Rite among the Slavic 
peoples, the use of the Glagolitic alphabet was reserved exclu- 
sively for the service books of the Roman Rite, just as the 
Cyrillic was used for the Greek Rite. 

The use of the Glagolitic Missal and office books, while per- 
mitted in general among the Slavs of Dalmatia and Croatia 
from the earliest times since the Slavonic became a liturgical 
language under Pope John VIII, was definitely settled by the 
Constitution of Urban VIII, dated April 29, 163 1, in which he 
provided for a new and corrected edition of the Slavic Missal 
conformable to the Roman editions. In 1648 Innocent X pro- 
vided likewise for the Slavic Breviary, and by order of Inno- 
cent XI the new edition of the Roman-Illyrian Breviary was 
published in 1688. In the preface to this Breviary the Pope 
speaks of the language and letters employed therein, and gives 
St. Jerome the credit for the invention of the Glagolitic char- 
acters : "Quum igitur lUyricarum gentium, quae longe lateque 
per Europam diffusse sunt, atque ab ipsis gloriosis Apostolorum 
Principibus Petro et Paulo potissimum Christi fidem edoctae 
fuerunt libros sanctos jam inde a S. Hieronymi temporibus, ut 
pervetusta ad nos detulit traditio, vel certe a Pontificatu fel. 
rec. Joannis Papse VIII, praedecessoris nostri, uti ex ejusdem 
data super ea re epistola constat, ritu quidem romano, sed 
idiomate slavonico, et charactere S. Hieronymi vulgo nuncu- 
pato conscriptos, opportuna recognitione indigere compertum 
sit." The new edition of the Roman Ritual in Glagolitic form 
had previously been published in the year 1640. 

The latest editions of the Missal and ritual are those of 
the Propaganda, "Missale Romanum, Slavica lingua, glagoli- 
tico charactere" (Rome, 1893), and "Rimski Ritual (Obred- 
nik) izdan za zapoviedi Sv. Otca Pape Paula V" (Rome, 
1894). There was a former edition of the Glagolitic Missal, 
^'Ordo et Canon Missse, Slavice" (Rome, 1887), but on account 
of the numerous errors in printing and text it was destroyed, 


and only a few copies are in existence. The use of the Latin 
language in the Dalmatian seminaries since the year 1828 has 
had the effect of increasing the use of the Latin in the Roman 
Rite there, and the use of the Glagolitic books has accordingly 
diminished. Of course the non-Slavic inhabitants of Dalmatia 
and Croatia have always used the Latin language in the Roman 
Rite. At present the Slavonic language for the Roman Rite, 
printed in Glagolitic characters, is used in the Slavic churches 
of the Dioceses of Zengg, Veglia, Zara and Spalato, and also 
by the Franciscans in their three churches in Veglia, one in 
Cherso, two in Zara, and one in Sebenico. Priests are for- 
bidden to mingle the Slavonic and Latin languages in the cele- 
bration of the Mass, which must be said wholly in Slavonic 
or wholly in Latin. 


THE Iconostasis is the chief and most distinctive feature 
in all Greek churches, whether Catholic or Orthodox. 
It may be said to differentiate the Greek church com- 
pletely from the Roman in its interior arrangement. It con- 
sists of a great screen or partition running from side to side 
of the apse or across the entire end of the church, which divides 
the sanctuary from the body of the church, and is built of solid 
materials such as stone, metal, or wood, and which reaches 
often (as in Russia) to the very ceiling of the church, thus 
completely shutting off the altar and the sanctuary from the 
worshipper. It has three doors : the great royal door in the 
middle (so called because it leads directly to the altar upon 
which the King of kings is sacrificed), the deacon's door to 
the right, and the door of the proskomide (preparation for 
Mass) upon the left, when viewing the structure from the 
standpoint of a worshipper in the body of the church. 

Two pictures or icons must appear upon every iconostasis, 
no matter how humble, in the Greek church ; the picture of 
Our Lord on the right of the royal door, and that of Our Lady 
upon the left. But in the finer churches of Russia, Greece, 
Turkey and the East, the iconostasis has a wealth of paintings 
lavished upon it. Besides the two absolutely necessary pic- 
tures, the whole screen is covered with them. On the royal 
door there is always the Annunciation and often the four Evan- 
gelists. On each of the other doors there are St. Michael and 
St. Gabriel. Beyond the deacon's door there is usually the 
saint to whom the church is dedicated, while at the opposite 
end there is either St. Nicholas of Myra or St. John the Bap- 
tist. Directly above the royal door is a picture of the Last 
Supper, and above that is often a large picture (deisus) of 
Our Lord sitting crowned upon a throne, clothed in priestly 
raiment, as King and High-priest. At the very top of the ico- 
nostasis is a large cross (often a crucifix in bas-relief), the 



source of our salvation, and on either side of it are the pictures 
of Our Lady and of St. John. 

Where the iconostasis is very lofty, as among the Slavonic 
nationalities, whether Orthodox or Catholic, the pictures upon 
it are arranged in tiers or rows across its entire length. Those 
on the lower ground tier have already been described ; the first 
tier above that is a row of pictures commemorating the chief 
feasts of the Church, such as the Nativity, Annunciation, 
Transfiguration, etc. ; above them is another tier of the twelve 
Apostles; and above them a tier containing the Prophets of 
the Old Law ; and lastly the very top of the iconostasis. These 
pictures are usually painted in the stiff Byzantine manner, al- 
though in many Russian churches they have begun to use mod- 
ern art; the Temple of the Saviour, in Moscow, is a notable 
example. The iconostases in the Greek (Hellenic) churches 
have never been so lofty and as full of paintings as those in 
Russia and other countries. A curious form of adornment of 
the icons or pictures has grown up in Russia and is also found 
in other parts of the East. Since the Orthodox Church would 
not admit sculptured figures on the inside of churches (al- 
though they often have numerous statues upon the outside) 
they imitated an effect of sculpture in the pictures placed upon 
the iconostasis which produces an incongruous effect upon 
the Western mind. The icon, which is generally painted upon 
wood, is covered except as to the face and hands with a raised 
relief of silver, gold, or seed pearls showing all the details 
and curves of the drapery, clothing and halo; thus giving a 
crude cameo-like effect around the flat painted face and hands 
of the icon. 

The iconostasis is really an Oriental development in adorn- 
ing the holy place about the Christian altar. Originally the 
ahar stood out plain and severe in both the Oriental and Latin 
Rites. But in the Western European churches and cathedrals 
the Gothic church builders put a magnificent wall, the reredos, 
immediately behind the altar and heaped ornamentation, fig- 
ures and carvings upon it until it became resplendent with 
beauty. In the East, however, the Greeks turned their atten- 
tion to the barrier or partition dividing the altar and sanctuary 
from the rest of the church and commenced to adorn and beau- 
tify that, and thus gradually made it higher and covered it 
with pictures of the Apostles, Prophets, and saints. Thus the 


Greek Church put its ornamentation of the holy place in front 
of the altar instead of behind it as in the Latin churches. In 
its present form in the churches of the Byzantine (and also the 
Coptic) Rite the iconostasis is comparatively modern, not 
older than the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. It was 
never used in the Roman churches or any of the Latin churches 
of the West, and was unknown to the early Church. The 
modern chancel rail of the Latin Rite correctly represents the 
primitive barrier separating the altar from the people. In the 
great Gothic cathedrals the choir screen or rood screen may be 
said in a manner to be the analogue of the iconostasis, but that 
is the nearest approach to it in the Western Church. None 
of the historians or liturgical writers of the early or middle 
Greek Church ever mention the iconostasis. Indeed the name 
to-day is chiefly in Russian usage, for the meaning of the 
Greek word is not restricted merely to the altar screen, but is 
applied to any object supporting a picture. The word is first 
mentioned in Russian annals in 1528, when one was built by 
Macarius, Metropolitan of Novgorod. 

In the early Greek churches there was a slight barrier about 
waist high, or even lower, dividing the altar from the people. 
This was variously known as KiyxXts, grating, Spv^aKxa, fence, 
Siao-TvXa, a barrier made of columns, according to the manner in 
which it was constructed. Very often pictures of the saints 
were affixed to the tops of the columns. When Justinian con- 
structed the "great" church, St. Sophia, in Constantinople, he 
adorned it with twelve high columns (in memory of the twelve 
Apostles) in order to make the barrier or chancel, and over 
the tops of these columns he placed an architrave which ran 
the entire width of the sanctuary. On this architrave or cross- 
beam large disks or shields were placed containing the pictures 
of the saints, and this arrangement was called tcjuttXcv (tem- 
plum), either from its fancied resemblance to the front of the 
old temples or as expressing the Christian idea of the shrine 
where God was worshipped. Every church of the Byzantine 
Rite eventually imitated the "great" church and so this open 
tc^ttXov form of iconostasis began to be adopted among the 
churches of the East, and the name itself was used to desig- 
nate what is now the iconostasis. 

Many centuries elapsed before there was any approach 
towards making the solid partition which we find in the Greek 


churches of to-day. But gradually the demand for greater 
adornment grew, and to satisfy it pictures were placed over 
the entire iconostasis, and so it began to assume somewhat the 
present form. After the Council of Florence (1438) when 
the last conciliar attempt at reunion of the Churches failed, the 
Greek clergy took great pleasure in building and adorning their 
churches as little like the Latin ones as possible, and from then 
on the iconostasis assumed the form of the wall-like barrier 
which it has at present. As its present form is merely a mat- 
ter of development of Church architecture suitable and adapted 
to the Greek Rite, the iconostasis was continuously used by 
the Catholics as well as by the Orthodox. 


THE Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarorszag) comprises 
within its borders several races or nationalities other 
than the one from which it derives its name. Indeed 
the Hungarians are in the minority (or perhaps a bare ma- 
jority) when contrasted with all the others combined; but 
they outnumber any one of the other races under the Hun- 
garian Crown. It therefore frequently happens that immi- 
grants to the United States coming from the Kingdom of Hun- 
gary, no matter what race they may be, are indiscriminately 
classed as Hungarians, even by persons fairly well informed. 
The Kingdom of Hungary, which is separate from Austria 
except in matters affecting foreign relations, comprises within 
its borders not only the Hungarians proper, but also the Slo- 
vaks, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Slavonians and Croatians, as 
well as a large number of Germans and some Italians. Repre- 
sentatives of all these races from the Hungarian Kingdom 
have emigrated to America. Their mother tongue is of Asiatic 
origin and is quite unlike any of the Indo-European languages 
in its vocabulary, structure, and grammatical forms. All its 
derivative words are made up from its own roots and for the 
most part are wholly native. Although it is surrounded and 
touched in social and business intercourse on every side by 
the various Slavonic tongues and by the Italian, German and 
Rumanian languages, besides having the church liturgy and 
university teaching in Latin, the Hungarian (Magyar) lan- 
guage has nothing in it resembling any of them, and has bor- 
rowed little or nothing from their various vocabularies. It re- 
mains isolated, almost without a relative in the realm of Euro- 
pean linguistics. This barrier of language has rendered it 
exceedingly difficult for the Hungarian immigrant to acquire 
the English language and thereby readily assimilate American 
ideas and customs. Notwithstanding this drawback the Hun- 
garian Americans have made progress of which every one may 



well be proud. Although Count Beldy and his three compan- 
ions, Boloni, Wesselenyi and Balogh, settled in America in 
183 1, immigration to the United States from Hungary may be 
said to have set in, after the revolution of 1848-49 in Hun- 
gary, by the coming of Louis Kossuth to the United States, in 
December, 185 1, on the warship Mississippi, after the failure 
of his struggle for Hungarian liberties. He was accompanied 
by fifty of his compatriots and many of these remained and 
settled in various parts of the country. During the Civil War 
and the wars between Germany and Austria, m.ore and more 
Hungarian immigrants arrived, but they were then for the 
most part reckoned as Austrians. 

It was not until 1880 that the Hungarian immigration really 
set in. Between 1880 and 1898 about 200,cx)0 Hungarians 
came to America. The reports of the Commissioner of Immi- 
gration show that the number of Hungarian (Magyar) immi- 
grants from the year 1899 to July, 1909, amounted to 310,869. 
The greatest migration year was 1907, when 60,071 arrived. 
There are now about three-quarters of a million of them in 
the United States. They are scattered throughout the country 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific and fill every walk in life. 
This immigration, while caused in a great measure by an ef- 
fort to better the condition of the Hungarian of humbler cir- 
cumstances, has been largely stimulated by the agencies of the 
various European steamship companies, who have found it a 
paying business to spread tales of easily earned riches among 
dissatisfied Hungarian laborers. Peculiar political conditions, 
poverty among the agricultural classes, and high taxes have 
contributed to cause such immigration. But it cannot be said 
that a desire to emigrate to other lands is natural to the real 
Hungarian, for his country is not in the least overcrowded and 
its natural resources are sufficient to afiford a decent livelihood 
for all its children. There are but few Hungarians emigrating 
from the southern, almost wholly Magyar, counties. They 
come either from the large cities or from localities where the 
warring racial struggles make the search for a new home de- 
sirable. While a very large part of this immigration to the 
United States is Catholic, yet the combined Protestant, Jewish, 
and indifferentist Hungarian immigrants outnumber them, so 
that the Catholics number not quite one-half of the total. The 
Hungarians in the City of New York are said to number over 


100,000. They are numerous in New Jersey and Connecticut; 
and every city, mining town, iron works, and factory village 
in Pennsylvania has a large contingent; probably a third of 
the Hungarian population resides in that State. Cleveland and 
Chicago both have a very large Hungarian population, and 
they are scattered in every mining and manufacturing centre 
throughout Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, while West Virginia has 
numbers of them in its mining districts. 

For a long time after the Hungarian immigration began no 
attention was paid, from the racial standpoint, to their spir- 
itual needs as Catholics. They worshipped at German and 
Slavic churches and were undistinguishable from the mass of 
other foreign Catholics. During the eighties their spiritual 
welfare was occasionally looked after by priests of the Slavic 
nationalities in the larger American cities, for they could often 
speak Hungarian and thus get in touch with the people. About 
1891 Bishop Horstmann of Cleveland secured for the Txlagyars 
of his city a Hungarian priest, Rev. Charles Bohm, who was 
sent there at his request by the Bishop of Vac to take charge 
of them. The year 1892 marks the starting-point of an earnest 
missionary effort among the Hungarian Catholics in this coun- 
try. Father Bohm's name is connected with every temporal 
and spiritual effort for the benefit of his countrymen. Being 
the only priest whom the Hungarians could claim as their 
own, he was in demand in every part of the country and for 
over seven years his indefatigable zeal and capacity for work 
carried him over a vast territory from Connecticut to Cali- 
fornia, where he founded congregations, administered the 
sacraments, and brought the careless again into the Church. 
He built the first Hungarian church (St. Elizabeth's) in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, as well as a large parochial school for 600 pupils, 
a model of its kind, and also founded the two Hungarian Cath- 
olic papers, "Szent Erzsebet Hirnoke'' and "Alagyarok Vasar- 
napja." The second Hungarian church (St. Stephen's) was 
founded at Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1897, and the third 
(St. Stephen's) at McKeesport, Pennsylvania, in 1899. Be- 
sides those named, the following Hungarian churches have 
been established : ( 1900) South Bend, Indiana ; Toledo, Ohio ; 
(1901) Fairport, Ohio; Throop, Pennsylvania; (1902) Mc- 
Adoo and South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania ; New York City, 
New York; Passaic, New Jersey; (1903) Alpha and Perth 


Amboy, New Jersey; Lorain, Ohio; (1904) Chicago, Illinois; 
Cleveland (St. Imre's) and Dillonvale, Ohio; Trenton and 
New Brunswick, New Jersey ; Connellsville, Pennsylvania ; 
Pocahontas, Virginia; (1905) Buffalo, New York; Detroit, 
Michigan; Johnstown, Pennsylvania; (1906) Dayton, Ohio; 
South Norwalk, Connecticut; (1907) Newark and South 
River, New Jersey ; Northampton, Pennsylvania ; Youngstown, 
Ohio; (1908) East Chicago, Indiana; Columbus, Ohio; (1909) 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There are about thirty Hunga- 
rian priests who minister to the spiritual wants of these con- 
gregations, but more priests are urgently needed in order ef- 
fectually to reach their countrymen. Although there are nearly 
half a million Hungarian Catholics in the United States, in- 
cluding the native born, only thirty-three churches seem a 
faint proof of practical Catholicity ; yet one must not forget 
that these Hungarian immigrants are scattered among a thou- 
sand different localities in this country, usually very far apart 
and in only small numbers in each place. Only in a few of 
the larger places, such as New York, Cleveland, Chicago. 
Bridgeport, is there a sufficiently large number to support a 
church and the priest in charge of it. Besides it has been 
found extremely difficult to procure Magyar priests suitable 
for missionary work among their countrymen here in America. 
An attempt has been made in various dioceses to supply the 
deficiency. In the Diocese of Columbus, Ohio, Rev. Roderic 
McEachen, of Barton, and Rev. Joseph Weigand, of Steuben- 
ville, have devoted themselves to the Magyar language and 
have become sufficiently conversant with it to meet the reli- 
gious needs of their Hungarian parishioners. In Pocahontas, 
Virginia, Rev. Anthony Hoch, O. S. B., is familiar with this 
difficult language, having spent over a year in Hungary at the 
request of his superiors, in order to learn the Hungarian 
tongue. The late Bishop Tierney of Hartford, in order to 
meet the wants of his diocese, sent eight of his young clerics 
about two years ago to study theology and the Magyar lan- 
guage in Hungarian seminaries [six to Budapest and two to 
Karlsburg (Gyulyafehervar)], where they are preparing for 
the priesthood and learning the language and customs of the 
people. Two of them have just returned, having been ordained 
at Budapest. It is not intended by this policy to place Ameri- 
can priests over Hungarian congregations, but to supply mixed 


congregations, where Hungarians are numerous, with priests 
who can speak their language and keep them in the practice of 
their religion. 

While Catholic societies and membership in them are con- 
stantly increasing everywhere in this country, the Hungarian 
element can boast of only a relatively small progress. The 
Magyars have one Catholic Association (Sziiz Maria Szovet- 
seg), with headquarters at Cleveland, Ohio, which was founded 
in 1896 under the leadership of Rev. Charles Bohm, assisted 
by Joseph Pity, Francis Apathy and John Weizer. This asso- 
ciation has 2,500 members, comprising about eighty councils 
in different States. Besides being a religious organization it 
is also a benefit association providing life insurance for its 
members. There are also several other Catholic Hungarian 
benefit societies throughout the country, the largest being at 
Cleveland, Ohio, the Catholic Union (Szent Erzsebet Unio), 
with 800 members. There are many other non-Catholic Hun- 
garian societies, to which Catholic Hungarians belong, the two 
largest being the Bridgeporti Szovetseg with 250 councils and 
Verhovai Egylet with 130 councils. The Hungarian Reformed 
Church has also a church association based upon the same 
lines as the Catholic societies and with about the same mem- 
bership. In 1907 the Hungarian National Federation (Ameri- 
kai Magyar Szovetseg), an organization embracing all Mag- 
yars of whatsoever creed, was founded with great enthusiasm 
in Cleveland, its object being to care for the material interests 
and welfare of Hungarians in America. Julius Rudnyansky, 
a noted Catholic poet and writer, was one of the founders. 
Despite its good intentions, it has failed to obtain the unquali- 
fied support of Hungarians throughout the country. The pa- 
rochial schools established by the Hungarians have grown 
rapidly. The finest was built in Cleveland, Ohio, by Rev. 
Charles Bohm, and now contains 655 pupils. There are alto- 
gether (in 1909) twelve Hungarian parochial schools contain- 
ing about 2,500 children. No attempt at any institutions of 
higher education has been made, nor are there any purely Hun- 
garian teaching orders (male or female) in the United States 


The first Hungarian paper was a little sheet called "Magyar 
Szamiizottek Lapja" (Hungarian Exiles' Journal), which made 
its first appearance on October 15, 1853, and lived a few years. 


The next one was "Amerikai Nemzetor" (American Guards- 
man) in 1884, which has long since ceased to exist. The "Sza- 
badsag" (Liberty) w^as founded in 1891 in Cleveland, Ohio, by 
Tilmer Kohanyi, and is a flourishing daily pubHshed there and 
in New York. Catholic Hungarian journalism in America pre- 
sents but a meagre history. Soon after the arrival of Father 
Bohm he started a religious weekly at Cleveland called "Magya- 
rorszagi Szent Erzsebet Hirnoke" (St. EHzabeth's Hungarian 
Herald). Two years later this weekly developed into a full- 
fledged newspaper of eight pages, called "Magyarok Vasar- 
napja" (Hungarian Sunday News), and became quite popular. 
In the beginning of 1907 the Hungarian Catholic clergy, hop- 
ing to put Catholic journaHsm on a stronger foundation, held 
an enthusiastic meeting at Cleveland and took the "Magyarok 
Vasarnapja" under their joint control and selected as its editor 
Rev. Stephen F. Chernitzky, from whom in great part the facts 
for this article have been obtained. But notwithstanding his 
hard work in Catholic journalism the panic of 1907 deprived it 
of financial backing and it lost much of its patronage. At 
Cleveland there is also a Catholic weekly "Haladas" (Progress), 
started in 1909. Rev. Geza Messerschmiedt, of Passaic. New 
Jersey, is conducting a monthly Catholic paper, "Hajnal" 
(Dawn), and there is also another Catholic Hungarian 
monthly, "Magyar Zaszlo" (Hungarian Standard), pubUshed 
at McKeesport, Pennsylvania, by Rev. Colman Kovacs. Other 
clergymen like Rev. Alexander Varlaky, of Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, and Rev. Louis Kovacs, of New York City, have 
undertaken the task of keeping alive small Catholic weekly 
papers for the benefit of their countrymen. 

A great many of the Hungarians in America are indiflfer- 
entists and free-thinkers and from them the Liberals and So- 
cialists are recruited. But a large number are Protestants of 
a Calvinistic type, somewhat similar to the various Presby- 
terian denominations in this country. Although actually less 
numerous than the Catholic Hungarians, they have more 
churches here. There are forty in all, consisting of thirty- 
nine Reformed churches and one Hungarian Lutheran congre- 
gation. One division of the Reformed Church is aided by the 
Reformed Board of Missions in Hungary, having under its 
control 19 churches and 20 ministers, while 8 churches of the 
other division are controlled and supported by the Board of 


Home Missions of the Reformed Church in America, and 12 
by the Presbyterian Church of America. The Lutheran con- 
gregation is located at Cleveland, Ohio. Too short a time has 
elapsed since the establishment of Hungarian Catholic churches 
in America to speak of the distinguished participants therein, 
except as they have been incidentally mentioned above, since 
nearly every one of those interested in spreading and keeping 
the Faith among the Hungarian immigrants is still alive and 
engaged in active work. There is also a slowly growing settle- 
ment of Hungarian colonists in three provinces of British Can- 
ada, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, with headquarters 
at Winnipeg. Two of these farming centres have been named 
Esterhaz and Kaposvar, after towns in southwestern Hun- 
gary. Rev. M. Erdujhelyi undertook in 1908 to found churches 
in the country places for them, but was unsuccessful because 
of the great distances between their respective settlements. 
The spiritual welfare of the Magyar farmers and settlers has 
been chiefly taken in charge by three Canadian born priests, 
Rev. Agapite Page, Rev. Joseph Pirot and Rev. Francis Wood- 
cutter, who undertook to acquire the Hungarian language and 
thus put themselves in close communication with the immi- 
grant settlers. 


THE Slavic races have sent large numbers of their people 
to the United States and Canada, and this immigration 
is coming every year in increasing numbers. The 
earliest immigration began before the war of the States, but 
within the past thirty years it has become so great as quite to 
overshadow the Irish and German immigration of the earlier 
decades. For two-thirds of that period no accurate figures of 
tongues and nationalities were kept, the immigrants being 
merely credited to the political governments or countries from 
which they came, but within the past twelve years more accu- 
rate data have been preserved. During these years ( 1899- 
1910) the total immigration into the United States has been 
about 10,000,000 in round numbers, and of these the Slavs 
have formed about 22 per cent (actually 2,117,240), to say 
nothing of the increase of native-born Slavs in this country 
during that period, as well as the numbers of the earlier ar- 
rivals. Reliable estimates compiled from the various racial 
sources show that there are from five and a half to six mil- 
lions of Slavs in the United States, including the native-bom 
of Slavic parents. We are generally unaware of these facts, 
because the Slavs are less conspicuous among us than the Ital- 
ians, Germans, or Jews ; their languages and their history are 
unfamiliar and remote, besides they are not so massed in the 
great cities of this country. 

I. — Bohemians 

These people ought really to be called Chekh {Czech), but 
are named Bohemians after the aboriginal tribe of the Boii, 
who dwelt in Bohemia in Roman times. By a curious perver- 
sion of language, on account of various gypsies who about 
two centuries ago travelled westward across Bohemia and 
thereby came to be known in France as "Bohemians," the 



word Bohemian came into use to designate one who lived an 
easy, careless life, unhampered by serious responsibilities. 
Such a meaning is, however, the very antithesis of the serious 
conservative Chekh character. The names of a few Bohemians 
are found in the early history of the United States. Augus- 
tyn Herman (1692), of Bohemia Manor, Maryland, and Bed- 
rich Filip (Frederick Philipse, 1702), of Philipse Manor, Yon- 
kers. New York, are the earliest. In 1848 the revolutionary 
uprisings in Austria sent many Bohemians to this country. In 
the eighteenth century the Moravian Brethren (Bohemian 
Brethren) had come in large numbers. The finding of gold in 
CaHfornia in 1849-50 attracted many more, especially as serf- 
dom and labor dues were abolished in Bohemia at the end of 
1848, which left the peasant and workman free to travel. In 
1869 and the succeeding years immigration was stimulated by 
the labor strikes in Bohemia, and on one occasion all the 
women workers of several cigar factories came over and set- 
tled in New York. About 60 per cent of the Bohemians and 
Moravians who have settled here are Catholics, and their 
churches have been fairly maintained. Their immigration dur- 
ing the past ten years has been 98,100, and in 1910 the number 
of Bohemians in the United States, immigrants and native 
bom, was reckoned at 550,000. They have some 140 Bohe- 
main Catholic churches and about 250 Bohemian priests ; their 
societies, schools, and general institutions are active and flour- 

11. — Bulgarians 

This part of the Slavic race inhabits the present Kingdom of 
Bulgaria, and the Turkish provinces of Eastern Rumelia, rep- 
resenting ancient Macedonia. Thus it happens that the Bul- 
garians are almost equally divided between Turkey and Bul- 
garia. Their ancestors were the Bolgars or Bulgars, a Finnish 
tribe, which conquered, intermarried, and coalesced with the 
Slav inhabitants, and eventually gave their name to them. The 
Bulgarian tongue is in many respects the nearest to the Church 
Slavonic, and it was the ancient Bulgarian which Sts. Cyril 
and Methodius are said to have learned in order to evangelize 
the pagan Slavs. The modern Bulgarian language, written 
with Russian characters and a few additions, differs from the 


other Slavic languages in that it, like English, has lost nearly 
every inflection, and, like Rumanian, has the peculiarity of 
attaching the article to the end of the word, while the other 
Slavic tongues have no article at all. The Bulgarians who 
have gained their freedom from Turkish supremacy in the 
present Kingdom of Bulgaria are fairly contented ; but those in 
Macedonia chafe bitterly against Turkish rule and form a 
large portion of those who emigrate to America. The Bul- 
garians are nearly all of the Greek Orthodox Church; there 
are some twenty thousand Greek Catholics, mostly in Mace- 
donia, and about 50,000 Roman Catholics. The Greek Patri- 
arch of Constantinople has always claimed jurisdiction over 
the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, and he enforced his jurisdic- 
tion until 1872, when the Bulgarian exarch was appointed to 
exercise supreme jurisdiction. Since that time the Bulgarians 
have been in a state of schism to the patriarch. They are ruled 
in Bulgaria by a Holy Synod of their own, whilst the Bulgarian 
exarch, resident in Constantinople, is the head of the entire 
Bulgarian Church. He is recognized by the Russian Church, 
but is considered excommunicate by the Greek Patriarch, who, 
however, retained his authority over the Greek-speaking 
churches of Macedonia and Bulgaria. 

Bulgarians came to the United States as early as 1890; but 
there were then only a few of them as students, mostly from 
Macedonia, brought hither by mission bodies to study for the 
Protestant ministry. The real immigration began in 1905, 
when it seems that the Bulgarians discovered America as a 
land of opportunity, stimulated probably by the Turkish and 
Greek persecutions then raging in Macedonia against them. 
The railroads and steel works in the West needed men, and 
several enterprising steamship agents brought over Macedo- 
nians and Bulgarians in large numbers. Before 1906 there 
were scarcely 500 to 600 Bulgarians in the country, and these 
chiefly in St. Louis, Missouri. Since then they have been com- 
ing at the rate of from 8,000 to 10,000 a year, until now ( 191 1) 
there are from 80,000 to 90,000 Bulgarians scattered through- 
out the United States and Canada. The majority of them are 
employed in factories, railroads, mines, and sugar works. 
Granite City, Madison and Chicago, Illinois ; St. Louis, Mis- 
souri ; Indianapolis, Indiana ; Steelton, Pennsylvania ; Port- 
land, Oregon, and New York City all have a considerable Bui- 


garian population. They also take to farming and are scat- 
tered throughout the north-west. They now (1911) have three 
Greek Orthodox churches in the United States, at Granite 
City and Madison, Illinois, and at Steelton, Pennsylvania, as 
well as several mission stations. Their clergy consist of one 
monk and two secular priests ; and they also have a church 
at Toronto, Canada. There are no Bulgarian Catholics, either 
of the Greek or Roman Rite, sufficient to form a church here. 
The Bulgarians, unlike the other Slavs, have no church or 
benefit societies or brotherhoods in America. They publish 
five Bulgarian papers, of which the "Naroden Glas," of Gran- 
ite City, is the most important. 

III. — Croatians 

These are the inhabitants of the autonomous or home-rule 
province of Croatia-Slavonia, in the south-western part of the 
Kingdom of Hungary, where it reaches down to the Adriatic 
Sea. It includes not only them, but also the Slavic inhabitants 
of Istria and Dalmatia, in Austria, and those of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina who are Catholic and use the Roman alphabet. In 
blood and speech the Croatians and Servians are practically 
one ; but religion and politics divide them. The former are 
Roman Catholics and use the Roman letters ; the latter are 
Greek Orthodox and use modified Russian letters. In many 
of the places on the border-line school children have to learn 
both alphabets. The English word "cravat" is derived from 
their name, it being the Croatian neckpiece which the south 
Austrian troops wore. Croatia-Slavonia itself has a popula- 
tion of nearly 2,500,000 and is about one-third the size of the 
State of New York. Croatia in the west is mountainous and 
somewhat poor, while Slavonia in the east is level, fertile and 
productive. Many Dalmatian Croats from seaport towns came 
here from 1850 to 1870. The original emigration from Croa- 
tia-Slavonia began in 1873, upon the completion of the new 
railway connections to the seaport of Fiume, when some of 
the more adventurous Croatians came to the United States. 
From the early eighties the Lipa-Krbava district furnished 
much of the emigration. The first Croatian settlements were 
made in Calumet, Michigan, while many of them became lum- 


bermen in Michigan and stave-cutters along the Mississippi. 
Around Agram (Zagrab, the Croatian capital) the grape dis- 
ease caused large destruction of vineyards and the consequent 
emigration of thousands. Later on emigration began from 
Varasdin and from Slavonia also, and now immigrants arrive 
from every county in Croatia-Slavonia. In 1899 the figures 
for Croatia-Slavonia were 2,923, and by 1907 the annual im- 
migration had risen to 22,828, the largest number coming from 
Agram and Varasdin counties. Since then it has fallen ofif, 
and at the present time (1911) it is not quite 20,000. Un- 
fortunately the governmental statistics do not separate the 
Slovenians from the Croatians in giving the arrivals of Austro- 
Hungarian immigrants, but the Hungarian figures of depart- 
ures serve as checks. 

The number of Croatians in the United States at present, 
including the native-born, is about 280,000, divided according 
to their origin as follows: from Croatia-Slavonia, 160,000; 
Dalmatia, 80,000; Bosnia, 20,000; Herzegovina, 15,000; and 
the remainder from various parts of Hungary and Servia. 
The largest group of them is in Pennsylvania, chiefly in the 
neighborhood of Pittsburgh, and they number probably from 
80,000 to 100,000. Illinois has about 45,000, chiefly in Chicago. 
Ohio has about 35,000, principally in Cleveland and the vicin- 
ity. Other considerable colonies are in New York, San Fran- 
cisco, St. Louis, Kansas City and New Orleans. They are also 
in Montana, Colorado and Michigan. The Dalmatians are 
chiefly engaged in business and grape culture ; the other Croa- 
tians are mostly laborers employed in mining, railroad work, 
steel mills, stockyards and stone quarries. Nearly all of these 
are Catholics, and they now have one Greek Catholic and six- 
teen Roman Catholic churches in the United States. The Greek 
Catholics are almost wholly from the Diocese of Krizevac 
(Crisium), and are chiefly settled at Chicago and Cleveland. 
They have some 250 societies devoted to church and patriotic 
purposes, and in some cases to Socialism, but as yet they have 
no very large central organization, the National Croatian Union 
with 29,247 members being the largest. They publish ten 
newspapers, among them two dailies, of which "Zajednicar," 
the organ of Narodne Hrvatske Zajednice (National Croatian 
Union), is the best known. 


IV.— Poles 

The Poles came to the United States quite early in its his- 
tory. Aside from some few early settlers, the American Revo- 
lution attracted such noted men as Kosciusko and Pulaski, to- 
gether with many of their fellow-countrymen. The Polish 
Revolution of 1830 brought numbers of Poles to the United 
States. In 185 1 a Polish colony settled in Texas, and called 
their settlement Panna Marya (Our Lady Mary). In i860 
they settled at Parisville, Michigan, and Polonia, Wisconsin. 
Many distinguished Poles served in the Civil War (1861-65) 
upon both sides. After 1873 the Polish immigration began to 
grow apace, chiefly from Prussian Poland. Then the tide 
turned and came from Austria, and later from Russian Poland. 
In 1890 they began to come in the greatest numbers from 
Austrian and Russian Poland, until the flow from German 
Poland has largely diminished. The immigration within the 
past ten years has been as follows : from Russia, 53 per cent ; 
from Austria about 43 per cent; and only a fraction over 4 
per cent from the Prussian or German portion. It is esti- 
mated that there are at present about 3,000,000 Poles in the 
United States, counting the native-born. It may be said that 
they are almost solidly Catholic; the dissident and disturbing 
elements among them being but comparatively small, while 
there is no purely Protestant element at all. They have one 
Polish bishop, about 750 priests, and some 520 churches and 
chapels, besides 335 schools. There are large numbers, both 
men and women, who are members of the various religious 
communities. The Poles publish some 70 newspapers, 
amongst them nine dailies, 20 of which are purely Catholic 
publications. Their religious and national societies are large 
and flourishing; and altogether the Polish element is active 
and progressive. 

V, — Russians 

The Russian Empire is the largest nation in Europe, and 
its Slavic inhabitants (exclusive of Poles) are composed of 
Great Russians or Northern Russians, White Russians or 
Western Russians, and the Little Russians (Ruthenians) or 


Southern Russians. The Great Russians dwell in the central 
and northern parts of the empire around Moscow and St. 
Petersburg, and are so called in allusion to their stature and 
great predominance in number, government, and language. 
The White Russians are so called from the prevailing color 
of the clothing of the peasantry, and inhabit the provinces 
lying on the borders of Poland— Vitebsk, Mohileff, Minsk, 
Vilna, and Grodno. Their language differs but slightly from 
Great Russian, inclining towards Polish and Old Slavonic. 
The Little Russians (so called from their low stature) differ 
considerably from the Great Russians in language and cus- 
toms, and they inhabit the Provinces of Kieff, Kharkoff, 
Tchernigoff, Poltava, Podolia, and Volhynia, and they are 
also found outside the Empire of Russia in Galicia, Bukovina, 
and Hungary. The Great Russians may be regarded as 
the norm of the Russian people. Their language became 
the language of the court and of literature, just as High Ger- 
man and Tuscan Italian did, and they form the overwhelming 
majority of the inhabitants of the Russian Empire. They 
are practically all Greek Orthodox, the Catholics in Russia 
being Poles or Germans where they are of the Roman Rite, 
and Little Russians (Ruthenians) where they are of the Greek 


The Russians have long been settled in America, for Alaska 
was Russian territory before it was purchased by the United 
States in 1867. The Russian Greek Orthodox Church has 
been on American soil for over a century. The immigration 
from Russia is however composed of very few Russians. It 
is principally made up of Jews (Russian and Polish), Poles, 
and Lithuanians. Out of an average emigration of from 250,- 
000 to 260,000 annually from the Russian Empire to the 
United States, 65 per cent have been Jews and only from three 
to five per cent actual Russians. Nevertheless the Russian 
peasant and working class are active emigrants, and the 
exodus from European Russia is relatively large. But it is 
directed eastward instead of to the west, for Russia is intent 
upon settling up her vast prairie lands in Siberia. Hindrances 
are placed in the way of those Russians (except the Jews) 
who would leave for America or the west of Europe, while 
inducements and advantages are offered for settlers in Si- 
beria. For the past five years about 500,000 Russians have 


annually migrated to Siberia, a number equal to one-half the 
immigrants yearly received by the United States from all 
sources. They go in great colonies and are aided by the Rus- 
sian Government by grants of land, loans of money, and low 
transportation. New towns and cities have sprung up all 
over Siberia, which are not even on our maps, thus rivalling 
the American settlement of the Dakotas and the North-West. 
Many Russian religious colonists, other than the Jews, have 
come to America ; but often they are not wholly of Slavic 
blood or are Little Russians (Ruthenians). It therefore hap- 
pens that there are very few Russians in the United States 
as compared with other nationalities. There are, according 
to the latest estimates, about 75,000, chiefly in Pennsylvania 
and the Middle West. There has been a Russian colony in 
San Francisco for sixty years, and they are numerous in and 
around New York City. 

The Russian Orthodox Church is well established here. 
About a third of the Russians in the United States are op- 
posed to it, being of the anti-government, semi-revolutionary 
type of immigrant. But the others are enthusiastic in support 
of their Church and their national customs, yet their Church 
includes not only them but the Little Russians of Bukovina 
and a very large number of Greek Catholics of Galicia and 
Hungary whom they have induced to leave the Catholic and 
enter the Orthodox Church. The Russian Church in the 
United States is endowed by the Tsar and the Holy Governing 
Synod, besides having the support of Russian missionary 
societies at home, and is upon a flourishing financial basis in 
the United States. It now (1911) has 83 churches and chapels 
in the United States, 15 in Alaska, and 18 in Canada, making 
a total of 126 places of worship, besides a theological semi- 
nary at Minneapolis and a monastery at South Canaan, Penn- 
sylvania. Their present clergy is composed of one archbishop, 
one bishop, 6 proto-priests, 89 secular priests, 2 archimand- 
rites, 2 hegumens, and 18 monastic priests, making a total 
of 119, while they also exercise jurisdiction over the Servian 
and Syrian Orthodox clergy besides. Lately they took over 
a Greek Catholic sisterhood, and now have four Basilian nuns. 
The United States is now divided up into the following six 
districts of the Russian Church, intended to be the territory 
for future dioceses : New York and the New England States ; 


Pennsylvania and the Atlantic States ; Pittsburgh and the Mid- 
dle West ; Western Pacific States ; Canada, and Alaska. Their 
statistics of church population have not been published lately 
in their year-books, and much of their growth has been of 
late years by additions gained from the Greek Catholic 
Ruthenians of Galicia and Hungary, and is due largely to the 
active and energetic work and financial support of the Russian 
church authorities at St. Petersburg and Moscow. 

They have the "Russkoye Pravoslavnoye Obshchestvo 
Vzaimopomoshchi" (Russian Orthodox Mutual Aid Society) 
for men, founded in 1895, ^ow (1911) having 199 councils 
and 7,072 members, and the women's division of the same, 
founded in 1907, with 32 councils and 690 members. They 
publish two church papers, "American Orthodox Messenger," 
and "Svit" ; although there are some nine other Russian papers 
published by Jews and Socialists. 

VI. — Ruthenians 

These are the southern branch of the Russian family, ex- 
tending from the middle of Austria-Hungary across the south- 
ern part of Russia. The use of the adjective russky by both 
the Ruthenians and the Russians permits it to be translated 
into English by the word "Ruthenian" or "Russian." They 
are also called Little Russians (Malorossiani) in the Empire 
of Russia, and sometimes Russniaki in Hungary. The ap- 
pellations "Little Russians" and "Ruthenians" have come to 
have almost a technical meaning, the former indicating sub- 
jects of the Russian Empire who are of the Greek Orthodox 
Church, and the latter those who are in Austria-Hungary and 
are Catholics of the Greek Rite. Those who are active in the 
Panslavic movement and are Russophiles are very anxious 
to have them called "Russians," no matter whence they come, 
The Ruthenians are of the original Russo-Slavic race, and 
gave their name to the peoples making up the present Russian 
Empire. They are spread all over the southern part of Rus- 
sia, in the provinces of Kieflf, KharkoflF, Tchernigoff, Poltava, 
Podolia, and Volhynia, but by force of governmental pres- 
sure and restrictive laws are being slowly made into Great 
Russians. Only within the past five years has the use of their 


own form of language and their own newspapers and press 
been allowed by law in Russia. Nearly every Ruthenian 
author in the empire has written his chief works in Great 
Russian, because denied the use of his own language. They 
are also spread throughout the Provinces of Lublin, in Poland; 
Galicia and Bukovina, in Austria ; and the Counties of Szepes, 
Saros, Abauj, Zemplin, Ung, Marmos, and Bereg, in Hun- 
gary. They have had an opportunity to develop in Austria 
and also in Hungary. In the latter country they are closely 
allied with the Slovaks, and many of them speak the Slovak 
language. They are all of the Greek Rite, and with the except- 
tion of those in Russia and Bukovina are Catholics. They 
use the Russian alphabet for their language, and in Bukovina 
and a portion of Galicia have a phonetic spelHng, thus differ- 
ing largely from Great Russian, even in words that are com- 
mon to both. 

Their immigration to America commenced in 1880 as la- 
borers in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and has 
steadily increased ever since. Although they were the poorest 
class of peasants and laborers, illiterate for the most part 
and unable to grasp the English language or American cus- 
toms when they arrived, they have rapidly risen in the scale of 
prosperity and are now rivalling the other nationalities in 
progress. Greek Ruthenian churches and institutions are 
being established upon a substantial basis, and their clergy and 
schools are steadily advancing. They are scattered all over 
the United States, and there are now (1911) between 480,000 
and 500,000 of them, counting immigrants and native born. 
Their immigration for the past five years has been as fol- 
lows : 1907, 24,081; 1908, 12,361; 1909, 15,808; 1910, 27,907; 
191 1, 17,724; being an average of 20,000 a year. They have 
chiefly settled in the State of Pennsylvania, over half of them 
being there ; but Ohio, New York, New Jersey, and Illinois 
have large numbers of them. The Greek Rite in the Slavonic 
language is firmly established through them in the United 
States, but they suffer greatly from Russian Orthodox en- 
deavors to lead them from the Catholic Church, as well as 
from frequent internal dissensions (chiefly of an old-world 
political nature) among themselves. They have 152 Greek 
Catholic churches, with a Greek clergy consisting of a Greek 
Catholic bishop who has his seat at Philadelphia, but with- 


out diocesan powers as yet, and 127 priests, of whom 9 are 
Basilian monks. During 191 1 Ruthenian Greek Catholic nuns 
of the Order of St. Basil were introduced. The Ruthenians 
have flourishing religious mutual benefit societies, which also 
assist in the building of Greek churches. The "Soyedineniya 
Greko-Katolicheskikh Bratstv" (Greek Catholic Union) in 
its senior division has 509 brotherhoods or councils and 30,255 
members, while the junior division has 226 brotherhoods and 
15,200 members; the "Russky Narodny Soyus" (Ruthenian 
National Union) has 301 brotherhoods and 15,200 members; 
while the "Obshchestvo Russkikh Bratstv" (Society of Rus- 
sian Brotherhood) has 129 brotherhoods and 7,350 members. 
There are also many Ruthenians who belong to Slovak or- 
ganizations. The Ruthenians publish some ten papers, of 
which the "Amerikansky Russky Viestnil," "Svoboda," and 
*'Dushpastyr" are the principal ones. 

VII. — Servians 

This designation applies not only to the inhabitants of the 
Kingdom of Servia, but includes the people of the following 
countries forming a geographical although not a political 
whole : southern Hungary, the Kingdoms of Servia and Mon- 
tenegro, the Turkish Provinces of Kossovo, Western Mace- 
donia and Novi-Bazar. and the annexed Austrian provinces 
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The last two provinces may be 
said to furnish the shadowy boundary line between the Croa- 
tians and the Servians. The two peoples are ethnologically 
the same, and the Servian and Croatian languages are merely 
two dialects of the same Slavic tongue. Servians are some- 
times called the Shtokavski, because the Servian word for 
"what" is shto, while the Croats use the word cha for "what," 
and Croatians are called Chakavski. The Croatians are 
Roman Catholics and use the Roman alphabet (latinica), 
whilst the Servians are Greek Orthodox and use the Cyrillo- 
Russian alphabet (cirilica), with additional signs to express 
special sounds not found in the Russian. Servians who hap- 
pen to be Roman Catholics are called Bunjevaci (disturbers, 

Servian immigration to the United States did not commence 


until about 1892, when several hundred Montenegrins and 
Servians came with the Dalmatians and settled in California. 
It began to increase largely in 1903 and was at its highest in 
1907. They are largely settled in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
Illinois. There are no governmental statistics showing how 
many Servians come from Servia and how many from the 
surrounding provinces. The Servian Government has estab- 
lished a special consular office in New York City to look after 
Servian immigration. There are now (1911) about 150,000 
Servians in the United States. They are located as follows : 
New England States, 25,000; Middle Atlantic States, 50,000; 
Middle Western States, 25,000; Western and Pacific States, 
25,000; and the remainder throughout the Southern States 
and Alaska. They have brought with them their Orthodox 
clergy, and are at present affiliated with the Russian Orthodox 
Church here, although they expect shortly to have their own 
national bishop. They now (1911) have in the United States 
20 churches (of which five are in Pennsylvania) and 14 
clergy, of whom 8 are monks and 6 seculars. They publish 
eight newspapers in Servian, of which "Amerikanski Srbo- 
bran," of Pittsburgh, "Srbobran," of New York, and "Srpski 
Glasnik," of San Francisco, are the most important. They 
have a large number of church and patriotic societies, of which 
the Serb Federation "Sloga" (Concord) with 131 drustva or 
councils and over 10,000 members and "Prosvjeta" (Prog- 
ress), composed of Servians from Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
are the most prominent. 

VIII. — Slovaks 

These occupy the north-western portion of the Kingdom 
of Hungary upon the southern slopes of the Carpathian moun- 
tains, ranging over a territory comprising the Counties of 
Poszony, Nyitra, Bars, Hont, Zolyom, Trencsen, Turocz, 
Arva, Lipto, Szepes, Saros, Zemplin, Ung, Albauj, Gomor, 
and Nograd. A well-defined ethnical line is all that di- 
vides the Slovaks from the Ruthenians and the Magyars. 
Their language is almost the same as the Bohemian, for 
they received their literature and their mode of writing 
it from the Bohemians, and even now nearly all the 
Protestant Slovak literature is from Bohemian sources. It 


must be remembered, however, that the Bohemians and Mora- 
vians dwell on the northern side of the Carpathian moun- 
tains in Austria, whilst the Slovaks are on the south of the 
Carpathians and are wholly in Hungary. Between the Mora- 
vians and the Slovaks, dwelling so near to one another, the 
relationship was especially close. The Slovak and the 
Moravian people were among those who first heard the story 
of Christ from the Slavonic apostles Sts. Cyril and Methodius, 
and at one time their tribes must have extended down to the 
Danube and the southern Slavs. The Magyars (Hungarians) 
came in from Asia and the East, and like a wedge divided 
this group of northern Slavs from those on the south. 

The Slovaks have had no independent history and have en- 
dured successively Polish rule, Magyar conquest, Tatar in- 
vasions, German invading colonization, Hussite raids from 
Bohemia, and the dynastic wars of Hungary. In 1848-49, 
when revolution and rebellion were in the air, the Hungarians 
began their war against Austria ; the Slovaks in turn rose 
against the Hungarians for their language and national cus- 
toms, but on the conclusion of peace they were again incor- 
porated as part of Hungary without any of their rights recog- 
nized. Later they were ruthlessly put down when they 
refused to carry out the Hungarian decrees, particularly as 
they had rallied to the support of the Austrian throne. In 
1861 the Slovaks presented their famous Memorandum to the 
Imperial Throne of Austria, praying for a bill of rights and 
for their autonomous nationality. Stephen Moyses, the dis- 
tinguished Slovak Catholic bishop, besought the emperor to 
grant national and language rights to them. The whole move- 
ment awoke popular enthusiasm. Catholics and Protestants 
working together for the common good. In 1862 high schools 
were opened for Slovaks ; the famous "Slovenska Matica," 
to publish Slovak books and works of art and to foster the 
study of the Slovak history and language, was founded ; and 
in 1870 the Catholics also founded the "Society of St. Voy- 
tech," which became a powerful helper. Slovak newspapers 
sprang into existence and 150 reading clubs and libraries were 
established. After the defeat of the Austrian arms at Sadowa 
in 1866, pressure was resumed to split the empire into two 
parts, Austrian and Hungarian, each of which was prac- 
tically independent. The Slovaks thenceforth came wholly 


under Hungarian rule. Then the Law of Nationalities was 
passed which recognized the predominant position of the 
Magyars, but gave some small recognition to the other minor 
nationalities, such as the Slovaks, by allowing them to have 
churches and schools conducted in their own language. 

In 1878 the active Magyarization of Hungary was under- 
taken. The doctrine was mooted that a native of the King- 
dom of Hungary could not be a patriot unless he spoke, 
thought, and felt as a Magyar. A Slovak of education who 
remained true to his ancestry (and it must be remembered 
that the Slovaks were there long before the Hungarians came) 
was considered deficient in patriotism. The most advanced 
political view was that a compromise with the Slovaks was 
impossible; that there was but one expedient, to wipe them 
out as far as possible by assimilation with the Magyars. 
Slovak schools and institutions were ordered to be closed, the 
charter of the "Matica" was annulled, and its library and rich 
historical and artistic collections, as well as its funds, were 
confiscated. Inequalities of every kind before the law were 
devised for the undoing of the Slovaks and turning them into 
Hungarians; so much so that one of their authors likened 
them to the Irish in their troubles. The Hungarian authori- 
ties in their endeavor to suppress the Slovak nationality went 
even to the extent of taking away Slovak children to be 
brought up as Magyars, and forbade them to use their lan- 
guage in school and church. The 2,000,000 Catholic Slovaks 
clung to their language and Slavic customs, but the clergy 
were educated in their seminaries through the medium of the 
Magyar tongue and required in their parishes to conform to 
the state idea. Among the 750,000 Protestant Slovaks the 
Government went even further by taking control of their 
synods and bishops. Even Slovak family names were changed 
to Hungarian ones, and preferment was only through Hun- 
garian channels. Naturally, religion decayed under the stress 
and strain of repressed nationality. Slovak priests did not 
perform their duties with ardor or diligence, but confined 
themselves to the mere routine of canonical obligation. There 
are no monks or religious orders among the Slovaks and no 
provision is made for any kind of community life. Catechetical 
instruction is at a minimum and is required to be given when- 
ever possible through the medium of the Hungarian language. 


There is no lack of priests in the Slovak country, yet the 
practice of solemnizing the reception of the first communion 
by the children is unknown and many other forms of Catholic 
devotion are omitted. Even the Holy Rosary Society was dis- 
solved, because its devotions and proceedings were conducted 
in Slovak. The result of governmental restriction of any 
national expression has been a complete lack of initiative on 
the part of the Slovak priesthood, and it is needless to speak 
of the result upon their flocks. In the eastern part of the 
Slovak territory where there were Slovak-speaking Greek 
Catholics, they fared slightly better in regard to the attempts 
to make them Hungarians. There the liturgy was Slavonic 
and the clergy who used the Magyar tongue still were in 
close touch with their people through the offices of the Church. 
All this pressure on the part of the authorities tended to pro- 
duce an active Slovak emigration to America, while bad har- 
vests and taxation also contributed. 

A few immigrants came to America in 1864 and their suc- 
cess brought others. In the late seventies the Slovak exodus 
was well marked, and by 1882 it was sufficiently important to 
be investigated by the Hungarian Minister of the Interior 
and directions given to repress it. The American immigra- 
tion figures indicate the first important Slovak influx in 1873 
when 1300 immigrants came from Hungary, which rose to 
4000 in 1880 and to nearly 15,000 in 1884, most of them set- 
tling in the mining and industrial regions of Pennsylvania. 
At first they came from the Counties of Zemplin, Saros, 
Szepes, and Ung, where there were also many Ruthenians. 
They were called "Huns" or "Hunkies," and were used at 
first to fill the places left vacant by strikers. They were very 
poor and willing to work for little when they arrived, and 
were accordingly hated by the members of the various unions. 
The Slovak girls, like the Irish, mostly went into service, and 
because they had almost no expense for living managed to 
earn more than the men. To-day the Slovaks of x\merica are 
beginning to possess a national culture and organization, which 
presents a striking contrast to the cramped development of 
their kinsmen in Hungary. Their immigration of late years 
has ranged annually from 52,368 in 1905 to 33,416 in 1910. 
Altogether it is estimated that there are now some 560,000 
Slovaks in the United States, including the native born. They 


are spread throug-hout the country, chiefly in the following 
States: Pennsylvania, 270,000; Ohio, 75,000; lUinois, 50,000; 
New Jersey, 50,000; New York, 35,000; Connecticut, 20,000; 
Indiana, 15,000; Missouri, 10,000; whilst they range from 
5,000 to a few hundreds in the other States. About 450,000 
of them are Roman Catholics, 10,000 Greek Catholics and 
95,000 Protestants. 

The first Slovak Catholic church in the United States was 
founded by Rev. Joseph Kossalko at Streator, Illinois, and 
was dedicated 8 Dec, 1883. Following this he also built St. 
Joseph's Church at Hazleton, Pennsylvania, in 1884. In 1889 
Rev. Stephen Furdek founded the Church of St. Ladislas at 
Cleveland, Ohio, together with a fine parochial school, both 
of which were dedicated by Bishop Gilmour. The American 
bishops were anxious to get Slovak priests for the increasing 
immigration, and Bishop Gilmour sent Father Furdek to 
Hungary for that purpose. The Hungarian bishops were un- 
willing to send Slovak priests at first, but as immigration in- 
creased they acceded to the request. At present (1911) the 
Catholic Slovaks have a clergy consisting of one bishop (Rt. 
Rev. J. M. Koudelka) and 104 priests, and have 134 churches 
situated as follows: in Pennsylvania, 81 (Dioceses of Altoona, 
10; Erie, 4; Harrisburg, 3; Philadelphia, 15; Pittsburgh, 35; 
and Scranton, 14) ; in Ohio, 14 (in the Diocese of Cleveland, 
12, and Columbus, 2) ; in Illinois, 10 (in the Archdiocese of 
Chicago, 7; and Peoria, 3) ; in New Jersey, 11 (in the Dio- 
cese of Newark, 7; and Trenton, 4); in New York, 6; and 
in the States of Connecticut, 3 ; Indiana, 2 ; Wisconsin, 2 ; and 
Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, Alabama, and West Virginia, 
one each. Some of the Slovak church buildings are very fine 
specimens of church architecture. There are also 36 Slovak 
parochial schools, that of Our Lady Mary in Cleveland having 
750 pupils. They have also introduced an American order of 
Slovak nuns, the Sisters of Saints Cyril and Methodius, who 
are established under the direction of Bishop Hoban in the 
Diocese of Scranton, where they have four schools. 

The Protestant Slovaks followed the example of the Catho- 
lics and established their first church at Streator, Illinois, in 
1885, and later founded a church at Minneapolis, in 1888, and 
from 1890 to 1894 three churches in Pennsylvania. They now 
have in the United States 60 Slovak churches and congrega- 


tions (of which 28 are in Pennsylvania), with 34 ministers (not 
including some 5 Presbyterian clergymen), who are organized 
under the name of "The Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Synod 
of America." The Slovaks have a large number of organiza- 
tions. The principal Catholic ones are : Prva Katolicka Slo- 
venska Jednota (First Slovak Catholic Union), for men, 33,- 
000 members ; Pennsylvanska Slovenska Rimsko a Grecko 
Katolicka Jednota (Pennsylvania Slovak Roman and Greek 
Catholic Union), 7,500 members; Prva Katolicka Slovenska 
Zenska Jednota (First Catholic Slovak Women's Union), 12,- 
000 members ; Pennsylvanska Slovenska 2enska Jednota 
(Pennsylvania Slovak Women's Union), 3,500 members ; 2i- 
vena (Women's League), 6,000 members. There are also: 
Narodny Slovensky Spolok (National Slovak Society), which 
takes in all Slovaks except Jews, 28,000 members ; Evanjelicka 
Slovenska Jednota (Evangelical Lutheran Slovak Union), 
8,000 members; Kalvinska Slovenska Jednota (Presbyterian 
Slovak Union), 1,000 members ; Neodvisly Narodny Slovensky 
Spolok (Independent National Slovak Society), 2,000 mem- 
bers. They also have a large and enterprising Press, publish- 
ing some fourteen papers. The chief ones are: "Slovensky 
Dennik" (Slovak Journal), a daily, of Pittsburgh; "Slovak v 
Amerike" (Slovak in America), of New York; "Narodne No- 
viny" (National News), a weekly, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
with 38,000 circulation ; "Jednota" (The Union), also a weekly, 
of Middletown, Pennsylvania, with 35,000 circulation ; and 
"Bratstvo" (Brotherhood), of Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. 
There are also Protestant and Socialistic Slovak journals, 
whose circulation is small. Among the distinguished Slovaks 
in the United States may be mentioned Rev. Joseph Murgas, of 
Wilkesbarre, who, in addition to his work among his people, 
has perfected several inventions in wireless telegraphy and is 
favorably known in other scientific matters. 

IX. — Slovenes 

These come chiefly from south-western Austria, from the 
Provinces of Carniola (Kranjsko; Ger., Krain), Carinthia 
(Koroska; Ger., Kdrnten), and Styria (Stajersko; Ger., 
Steiennark) ; as well as from Resia (Resja) and Udine 


(Videm) in north-eastern Italy, and the Coast Lands (Primor- 
sko) of Austria-Hungary. Their neighbors on the south-west 
are ItaHans ; on the west and north, Germans; on the east, 
Germans and Magyars; and towards the south, Italians and 
their Slavic neighbors, the Croatians. Most of them are bilin- 
gual, speaking not only the Slovenian but also the German 
language. For this reason they are not so readily distinguish- 
able in America as the other Slavs, and have less trouble in 
assimilating themselves. At home the main centres of their 
language and literature have been Laibach (Ljubljana), Kla- 
genfurt (Celovec), Graz (Gradec), and Gorz (Gorica), the 
latter city being also largely Italian. In America they are 
sometimes known as Austrians, but are more often known as 
"Krainer," that being the German adjective of Krain (Car- 
niola), from whence the larger number of them come to the 
United States; sometimes the word has even been mispro- 
nounced and set down as "Griner." The Slovenes became 
known somewhat early in the history of the United States. 
Father Frederic Baraga was among the first of them to come 
here in 1830, and began his missionary work as a priest among 
the Indians of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and finally 
became the first bishop of Marquette, Michigan. He studied 
the Indian languages and wrote their grammars and history 
in his various English, German and Slovenian works. He also 
published several catechisms and religious works in Slovenian, 
and brought over several other Slovenian priests. 

In Calumet, Michigan, the Slovenes settled as early as 1856; 
they first appeared in Chicago and in Iowa about 1863, and in 
1866 they founded their chief farming colony in Brockway, 
Minnesota. Here they still preserve their own language and 
all their minute local peculiarities. They came to Omaha in 
1868, and in 1873 their present large colony in Joliet, Illinois, 
was founded. Their earliest settlement in New York was 
towards the end of 1878, and gradually their numbers have 
increased until they have churches in Haverstraw and Rock- 
land Lake, where their language is used. They have also es- 
tablished farm settlements in Iowa, South Dakota, Idaho, 
Washington, and in additional places in Minnesota. Their 
very active immigration began in 1892, and has been (1900- 
1910) at the rate of from 6,000 to 9,000 annually, but has lately 
fallen off. The official government statistics class them along 


with the Croatians. There are now (1911) in the United 
States a Httle over 120,000 Slovenes; practically all of them 
are Catholics, and with no great differences or factions among 
them. There is a leaning towards Socialism in the large min- 
ing and manufacturing centres. In Pennsylvania there are 
about 30,000; in Ohio, 15,000; in Illinois, 12,000; in Michigan, 
8,000; in Minnesota, 12,000; in Colorado, 10,000; in Wash- 
ington, 10,000; in Montana, 5,000; in California, 5,000; and in 
fact there are Slovenes reported in almost every state and 
territory except Georgia. Their immigration was caused by 
the poverty of the people at home, especially as Carniola is a 
rocky and mountainous district without much fertility, and 
neglected even from the times of the Turkish wars. Latterly 
the institution of Raffeisen banks, debt-paying and mutual aid 
associations, introduced among the people by the Catholic 
party (Slovenska Ljudska Stranka), has diminished immi- 
gration and enabled them to live more comfortably at home. 
The Slovenes are noted for their adaptability, and have given 
many prominent missionary leaders to the Church in the United 
States. Among them are Bishops Baraga, Mrak and Vertin 
(of Marquette), Stariha (of Lead), and Trobec (of St. 
Cloud); Monsignori Stibil, Buh and Plut; Abbot Bernard 
Locnika, O.S.B. ; and many others. There are some ninety- 
two Slovenian priests in the United States, and twenty-five 
Slovenian churches. Many of their churches are quite fine, 
especially St. Joseph's, Joliet, Illinois; St. Joseph's, Calumet, 
Michigan ; and Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Sheboygan, Wiscon- 
sin. There are also mixed parishes where the Slovenes are 
united with other nationalities, usually with Bohemians, Slo- 
vaks, or Germans. There are no exclusively Slovenian reli- 
gious communities. At St. John's, Minnesota, there are six 
Slovenian Benedictines, and at Rockland Lake, New York, 
three Slovenian Franciscans, who are undertaking to establish 
a Slovenian and Croatian community. From them much of the 
information herein has been obtained. The Franciscan nuns 
at Joliet, Illinois, have many Slovenian sisters ; at Kansas City, 
Kansas, there are several Slovenian sisters engaged in school 
work ; and there are some Slovenians among the Notre Dame 
Sisters of Cleveland, Ohio. Archbishop Ireland, of St. Paul, 
Minnesota, sent to Austria for Slovenian seminarians to finish 
their education here, and also appointed three Slovenian priests 


as professors in his diocesan seminary, thus providing a Slo- 
venian-American clergy for their parishes in his province. 

There are several church and benevolent organizations 
among the Slovenians in America. The principal ones are: 
Kranjsko Slovenska Katoliska Jednota (Krainer Slovenian 
Catholic Union), organized in April, 1894, now having 100 
councils and a membership of 12,000; Jugoslovenska Katoliska 
Jednota (South Slovenian Catholic Union), organized in Jan- 
uary, 1901, having 90 councils and 8,000 members; besides 
these there are also Slovenska Zapadna Zveza (Slovenian 
Western Union), with 30 councils and about 3,000 members, 
Drustva Sv. Barbara (St. Barbara Society), with 80 councils, 
chiefly among miners, and the semi-socialistic Delvaska Pod- 
porna Zveza (Workingmen's Benevolent Union), with 25 
councils and a considerable membership. There are also Sv. 
Rafaelova Druzba (St. Raphael's Society), to assist Slovenian 
immigrants, founded by Father Kasimir, O.F.M., and the So- 
ciety of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, to assist Slovenian schools, 
as well as numerous singing and gymnastic organizations. The 
Slovenians publish ten newspapers in the United States. The 
oldest is the Catholic weekly, "Amerikanski Slovenec" (Ameri- 
can Slovene), established in 1891 at Joliet, and it is the organ 
of the Krainer Slovenian Catholic Union. "Glas Naroda" 
(Voice of the People), estabHshed in 1892 in New York City, 
is a daily paper somewhat liberal in its views, but it is the offi- 
cial organ of the South Slavonic Catholic Union and the St. 
Barbara Society. "Ave Maria" is a religious monthly, pub- 
lished by the Franciscans of Rockland Lake, New York. "Glas- 
nik" (The Herald) is a weekly of Calumet, Michigan; as are 
also "Edinost" (Unity), of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; "Cleve- 
landska Amerika," of Cleveland, Ohio; "Narodni Vestnik'' 
(People's Messenger), of Duluth, Minnesota; and "Slovenski 
Narod" (Slovenian People), of Pueblo, Colorado. There are 
also two purely Socialistic weeklies in Chicago : "Proletarec" 
(Proletarian) and "Glas Svobode" (Voice of Freedom). A 
very fine work, "Amerika in Amerikanci" (America and the 
Americans), descriptive of all the United States and Slovenian 
life and development here, has been published by Father J. M. 
Trunk at Klagenfurt, Austria. 


ALTHOUGH the Latin holds the chief place among the 
liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated 
and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, 
yet the Slavonic language conies next to it among the 
languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of 
the Church. Unlike the Greek or the Latin languages, each of 
which may be said to be representative of a single rite, it is 
dedicated to both the Greek and the Roman Rites. Its use, 
however, is far better known throughout Europe as an expres- 
sion of the Greek Rite ; for it is used amongst the various 
Slavic nationalities of the Byzantine Rite, whether Catholic 
or Orthodox, and in that form is spread among 115,000,000 
people ; but it is also used in the Roman Rite along the eastern 
shores of the Adriatic Sea in Dalmatia and in the lower part 
of Croatia among about 100,000 Catholics there. Whilst the 
Greek language is the norm and the original of the Byzantine 
or Greek Rite, its actual use as a church language is limited 
to a comparatively small number, reckoning by population. 
The liturgy and offices of the Byzantine Church were trans- 
lated from the Greek into what is now Old Slavonic (or 
Church Slavonic) by Sts. Cyril and Methodius about the year 
866 and the period immediately following. St, Cyril is cred- 
ited with having invented or adapted a special alphabet which 
now bears his name (Cyrillic) in order to express the sounds 
of the Slavonic language, as spoken by the Bulgars and Mo- 
ravians of his day. 

Later on St. Methodius translated the entire Bible into Sla- 
vonic and his disciples afterwards added other works of the 
Greek saints and the canon law. These two brother saints 
always celebrated Mass and administered the sacraments in the 
Slavonic language. News of their successful missionary work 
among the pagan Slavs was carried to Rome along with com- 
plaints against them for celebrating the rites of the Church in 



the heathen vernacular. In 868 Saints Cyril and Methodius 
were summoned to Rome by Nicholas I, but arriving there 
after his death they were heartily received by his successor, 
Adrian II, who approved of their Slavonic version of the 
liturgy. St. Cyril died in Rome in 869 and is buried in the 
Church of San Clemente. St. Methodius was afterwards con- 
secrated Archbishop of Moravia and Pannonia and returned 
thither to his missionary work. Later on he was again ac- 
cused of using the heathen Slavonic language in the celebration 
of the Mass and in the sacraments. It was a popular idea 
then, that as there had been three languages, Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin, inscribed over Our Lord on the cross, it would be 
sacrilegious to use any other language in the service of the 
Church. St. Methodius appealed to the Pope and in 879 he 
was again summoned to Rome, before John VIII, who after 
hearing the matter sanctioned the use of the Slavonic language 
in the Mass and the offices of the Church, saying among other 
things : "We rightly praise the Slavonic letters invented by 
Cyril, in which praises to God are set forth, and we order that 
the glories and deeds of Christ Our Lord be told in that same 
language. Nor is it in any wise opposed to wholesome doc- 
trine and faith to say Mass in that same Slavonic language 
(Nee sanse fidei vel doctrinse aliquid obstat missam in eadem 
slavonica Hngua canere), or to chant the holy gospels or divine 
lessons from the Old and New Testaments duly translated 
and interpreted therein, or the other parts of the divine office : 
for He who created the three principal languages, Hebrew, 
Greek and Latin, also made the others for His praise and 
glory" (Boczek, Codex, tom. I, pp. 43-44)- From that time 
onward the Slavonic tongue was firmly fixed as a liturgical 
language of the Church, and was used wherever the Slavic 
tribes were converted to Christianity under the influence of 
monks and missionaries of the Greek Rite. The Cyrillic letters 
used in writing it are adaptations of uncial Greek alphabet, with 
the addition of a number of new letters to express sounds not 
found in the Greek language. All Church books in Russia, 
Servia, Bulgaria, or Austria-Hungary (whether used in the 
Greek Catholic or the Greek Orthodox Churches) are printed 
in the old Cyrillic alphabet and in the ancient Slavonic tongue. 
But even before St. Cyril invented his alphabet for the Sla- 
vonic language there existed certain runes or native characters 


in which the southern dialect of the language was committed 
to writing. There is a tradition, alluded to by Innocent XI, 
that they were invented by St. Jerome as early as the fourth 
century ; Jagic, however, thinks that they were really the origi- 
nal letters invented by St. Cyril and afterwards abandoned in 
favor of an imitation of Greek characters by his disciples and 
successors. This older alphabet, which still survives, is called 
the Glagolitic (from glagolati, to speak, because the rude 
tribesmen imagined that the letters spoke to the reader and 
told him what to say), and was used by the southern Slavic 
tribes and now exists along the Adriatic highlands. The Sla- 
vonic which is written in the Glagolitic characters is also the 
ancient language, but it differs considerably from the Slavonic 
written in the Cyrillic letters. In fact it may be roughly com- 
pared to the difference between the Gaelic of Ireland and the 
Gaelic of Scotland. The Roman Mass was translated into 
this Slavonic shortly after the Greek liturgy had been trans- 
lated by Sts. Cyril and Methodius, so that in the course of time 
among the Slavic peoples the southern Slavonic written in 
Glagolitic letters became the language of the Roman Rite, 
while the northern Slavonic written in Cyrillic letters was the 
language of the Greek Rite. The prevailing use of the Latin 
language and the adoption of the Roman alphabet by many 
Slavic nationalities caused the use of the Glagolitic to diminish 
and Latin to gradually take its place. The northern Slavic 
peoples, like the Bohemians, Poles and Slovaks, who were con- 
verted by Latin missionaries, used the Latin in their rite from 
the very first. At present the Glagolitic is only used in Dal- 
matia and Croatia. Urban VIII in 163 1 definitively settled 
the use of the Glagolitic-Slavonic missal and office-books in the 
Roman Rite, and laid down rules where the clergy of each 
language came in contact with each other in regard to church 
services. Leo XIII published two editions of the Glagolitic 

The liturgy used in the Slavonic language, whether of Greek 
or Roman Rite, offers no peculiarities differing from the origi- 
nal Greek or Latin sources. The Ruthenians have introduced 
an occasional minor modification, but the Orthodox Russians, 
Bulgarians and Servians substantially follow the Byzantine 
liturgy and offices in the Slavonic version. The Glagolitic 
Missal, Breviary, and ritual follow closely the Roman liturgi- 


cal books, and the latest editions contain the new offices autho- 
rized by the Roman congregations. The casual observer could 
not distinguish the Slavonic priest from the Latin priest when 
celebrating Mass or other services, except by hearing the lan- 
guage as pronounced aloud. 


THE Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite 
were almost unknown to the United States some twen- 
ty-five years ago. Occasionally a priest of that rite 
from Syria came to America to ask assistance for his people 
who were struggling amid the Moslems, but while his visit 
was a matter of curiosity, his rite and the peoples who fol- 
lowed it were wholly unknown to American Catholics. To- 
day, however, emigration has increased to such an extent and 
is drawn from so many lands and peoples that there are repre- 
sentatives of most of the Eastern rites in America, and par- 
ticularly those of the Greek Rite. These have lately arrived in 
large numbers and have erected their churches all over the 
country. The chief races which have brought the Greek Rite 
with them to the United States are the various Slavs of Aus- 
tria-Hungary, and they are now approaching such a position of 
material well-being and intellectual development as to be reck- 
oned with as one of the factors of Catholic life in the United 
States. Other races have also brought the Greek Rite with 
them and established it where they have settled. The advent 
of the Slavs into the United States really commenced about 
1879-1880. Those of the Greek Rite came from the north- 
eastern portion of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, where they 
inhabited chiefly the northern and southern slopes of the Car- 
pathian Mountains, which form the boundary line between Ga- 
licia and Hungary. The first of the newcomers were miners 
in the coal districts. During the troublous times in Pennsyl- 
vania, from 1871 to 1879, when the "Molly Maguires" ter- 
rorized the mining districts and practically defied the au- 
thority of the State, the various coal companies determined to 
look abroad for foreign labor to replace their lawless workmen, 
and so they introduced the Austrian Slav to the mining re- 
gions of Pennsylvania. His success in wage-earning induced 
his countrymen to follow, and the coal companies and iron- 



masters of Pennsylvania were quick to avail themselves of the 
new and less costly labor. This was before any of the present 
contract labor laws were enacted. The Slav was willing to 
work for longer hours than the English-speaking laborer, to 
perform heavier work, and to stolidly put up with incon- 
veniences which his predecessor would not brook. He came 
from a land in which he had originally been a serf (serfdom 
was abolished in Austria-Hungary in 1848, and in Russia in 
1861), then a degraded poverty-stricken peasant with hardly 
anything to call his own, and it was no wonder that America 
seemed to offer him boundless opportunity to earn a living and 
improve his condition. At first he was a cheap man ; but in 
the course of a very short time the Slav became not a mere 
pair of strong hands, but a skilled worker, and as such he 
drove out his competitors, and his success drew still more of 
his countrymen across the sea. In the anthracite coal region 
of Pennsylvania there were in 1880 but some 1,900 Slavs; in 
1890, over 40,000; and in 1900, upwards of 81,000. The same 
proportion holds good of the bituminous coal-mining districts 
and of the iron regions in that and other States. Taking sim- 
ply the past four years (1905-1908), the immigration of the 
Slovaks and Ruthenians, both of the Greek Catholic Rite, has 
amounted to 215,972. This leaves out of consideration the 
immigration (147,675) of the Croatians and Slavonians for 
the same period, though a considerable portion of them are also 
of the Greek Rite. These Slavs brought with them their Greek 
Catholic rites and practices, but they were illiterate, ignorant, 
the poorest of the poor, and knew nothing of the EngHsh lan- 
guage. Herding together in camps and settlements, and work- 
ing like serfs at the most exhausting labor, they had but little 
opportunity to improve themselves or to learn the language, 
customs and ways of the Americans around them, while both 
American and foreign-born Catholics failed to recognize in 
them fellow-Catholics, and so passed them scornfully by, and 
the American of the older stock and anti-Catholic prejudices 
too often held them in supreme contempt. Yet as soon as they 
gathered some little substance and formed a settled community 
they sent for their clergy. When these arrived, they, too, were 
often imbued with national and racial prejudices, and knew 
too little of the English language and American ideas and cus- 
toms to initiate immediately the progress of their people, yet 


they created for them churches, schools, and a branch of their 
native literature upon American soil, and gradually brought 
them into touch with the people around them. In this they 
were seconded by many educated laymen who also followed 
their countrymen, and the result has been that the Greek 
Rite has now been established in the United States much more 
solidly and with greater virility than it is in many of the dio- 
ceses in south-eastern Europe, Other races and nationalities 
have also established themselves besides the Slavs ; and there 
are in America also the Rumanians, the Syrians and the Ital- 
ians who follow the Greek Rite. But the people who have 
been foremost and most enthusiastic in the support of and de- 
votion to their Oriental Rite are the so-called Ruthenians, a 
name used to designate the Ruthenians proper and also those 
Slovaks who are their immediate neighbors. In order to un- 
derstand fully their position and relations in America, some of 
their history and peculiarities should be given. 

I. — RuTHENiAN Greek Catholics 

The word Ruthenian is derived from the later Latin Ru- 
thenia, the former name for Russia, and of course the Ruthe- 
nians might well be called Russians. Indeed, the present Ru- 
thenians declare that they are the original Russians, and that 
the present Russia and Russians owe their name and nation to 
the accident of successful conquest and assimilation. Their 
own name for themselves is Rusini, and it is probable that Ru- 
thenian was merely an attempt to put this word into Latin. 
The word Rutheni is first found in the writings of the Polish 
annalist, Martinus Gallus (1190), and the Danish historian, 
Saxo Grammaticus (1203). The original word Rusini is de- 
rived from Rus, the abstract word for Russian fatherland or 
dwelling-place of the Slavic people ; and the English word 
"Russian" may therefore be a derivative from the word 
Rus, as denominating the race, or it may mean a subject of 
the Russian Empire. The former is russky, the latter rossiisky, 
in the Russian and Ruthenian languages, and hence, while the 
first word is translated either as Russian or Ruthenian, it car- 
ries no special reference to the Russian Empire. These people 
are also called "Little Russians" (an expression chiefly used 


for them in the Russian Empire), originally an allusion to 
their stature as contrasted with the Muscovites. Their lan- 
guage is known as Ruthenian or Little Russian, and is spoken in 
Northern Hungary, Galicia, Bukowina, and in the Provinces 
of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelm and Kiev, in Russia. It is quite 
similar to the Russian language of the Russian Empire (some- 
times called Great Russian), bearing about the same relation 
to it as Lowland Scotch does to English, or Plattdeutsch to 
German, and rather closer than Portuguese does to Spanish. 
The Ruthenians (in Austria) and Little Russians (in Russia) 
use the Russian alphabet and write their language in almost 
the same orthography as the Great Russians of St. Petersburg 
and Moscow, but they pronounce it in many cases very differ- 
ently, quite as the French and English might pronounce differ- 
ently a word written the same in each language. This fact 
has led in late years to a recension of the Russian alphabet in 
Galicia and Bukowina by the governmental authorities, and by 
dropping some letters and adding one or two more and then 
spelling all the words just as they are pronounced, they have 
produced a new language at least to the eye. This is the "pho- 
netic" alphabet and orthography, and as thus introduced it dif- 
ferentiates the Ruthenian language of these provinces more 
than ever from the Russian. The phonetic system of orthog- 
raphy is still fiercely opposed at home and in America, and as 
an Austrian governmental measure it is regarded by many as 
an effort to detach the Ruthenians from the rest of the Rus- 
sian race and in a measure to Polonize them. This battle of 
the reformed phonetic spelling rages as fiercely in the United 
States as in Austria. Indeed the Greek Catholic bishop here 
has found it necessary to issue his official documents in both 
the phonetic and the etymologic spelling (as the older form is 
called), so as to meet the views of both parties. The phonetic 
spelling has never been introduced among the Ruthenians in 
Hungary, and their section of the language is still written in 
the customary form, there and in the United States. Besides 
the Ruthenians there are also the Slovaks who live in Northern 
and North-western Hungary, close neighbors to the Ruthenians, 
who are Greek Catholics, and who speak a language almost 
like the Bohemian, yet similar to the Ruthenian. It is written, 
however, with Roman letters, and the pronunciation follows 
the Bohemian more than the Ruthenian. These people seem 


to have been originally Ruthenian, but became gradually- 
changed and moulded by the Bohemians and their language 
and for a long time wrote their language in the same manner 
as the Bohemian. The Bohemians, however, are in the Aus- 
trian part of the empire, while the Slovaks are in Hungary. 
They have emigrated to the United States in large numbers, 
and are about equally divided between the Greek and Roman 
Rites. This again necessitates the pubHcation of church mat- 
ters, prayer-books, journals, etc., in the Slovak language. It 
illustrates the difficulties of the Greek Catholic priests in the 
United States, since they are likely to have in their parishes 
Ruthenians (of the old and new orthographies), Slovaks, and 
even those who speak only Hungarian, having lost their Slavic 
tongue. It is no uncommon thing to find a Greece Catholic 
priest capable of speaking five languages : Ruthenian, Slo- 
vak, Hungarian, German and English. It is these people as a 
whole who are comprehended under the term Ruthenian, al- 
though that term applies strictly to those speaking Russian and 
using the Russian alphabet. After the eleventh century the 
larger portion of Russians fell away from the unity of 
the Church in the schism of Constantinople, while a minority 
continued faithful to the Catholic Church, and later many more 
returned to unity. The Holy See, therefore, made use of the 
ancient word Ruthenian to designate those Russians who fol- 
lowed the Greek Rite in unity with the Holy See, in order to 
distinguish them from the Northern Russians who adhered to 
the schism. Later on, those Russians who joined the union 
under the Polish kings received the same name, and the word 
Ruthenian is to-day used exclusively to designate the Russians 
of Austria-Hungary, who are Greek Catholics, in contradistinc- 
tion to the Russians of the Russian Empire, who are of the 
Greek Orthodox faith. 

The language of the Mass and the other liturgical services 
according to the Byzantine Rite is the ancient Slavonic (staros- 
lavianski), and the Greek Liturgy was originally translated by 
Sts. Cyril and Methodius about the year 868, and it has re- 
mained substantially the same ever since. It is curious to no- 
tice that the Ruthenian language is much closer, both in spelling 
and pronunciation, to the church Slavonic than the present Rus- 
sian language of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The letters in 
which the church books are printed are the Cyrillic, or Kiril- 


litsa, said to have been invented, or, rather, adapted by St. 
Cyril from the Greek alphabet, together with some additional 
letter of his own invention. It consists of forty-three letters 
of archaic form as used in the church books, but has been al- 
tered and reduced in modern Russian and Ruthenian to thirty- 
five letters. In the year 879 Pope John VIII formally autho- 
rized the use of the Slavonic language forever in the Mass and 
in the whole liturgy and offices of the Church, according to the 
Greek Rite, and its use has been continued ever since by the 
Catholic and the Orthodox (schismatic) Greeks of the Slavic 
races. This is the language used in the Slushebnik (Missal), 
Trebnik (Ritual), Chasoslov (Book of Hours), and other 
church books of the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in America. 

After the schism of Constantinople ( 1054) most of the Rus- 
sians became estranged from the unity of the Church. In 1595 
the Russian bishops of Lithuania and Little Russia determined 
to return to unity with the Holy See, and held a council at 
Brest-Litovsk, at which a decree of union was adopted, and 
where they chose two of their number, Ignatius Potzey and 
Cyril Terletzki, to go to Rome and take the oath of submission 
to the Pope. They declared that they desired to return to 
the full unity of the Church as it existed before the schism of 
Photius and Caerularius, so as to have in Russia one united 
Catholic Church again. No change in their rites or their cal- 
endar was required by Rome, but the whole of the ancient 
Greek Liturgy, service and discipline (excepting a few schis- 
matic saints' days and practices) was to go on as before. In 
December, 1595, Clement VIII solemnly ratified the union of 
the two Churches in the Bull "Magnus Dominus." On October 
6, 1596, the union between the Eastern and Western Churches 
was proclaimed and ratified in the Russian part of the King- 
dom of Poland. A large number of the Russian bishops im- 
mediately went over to the union. In Chelm the Russian 
Bishop Zbiruiski led the way with his whole diocese, and his 
successor, Methodius Terletzki, was a valiant champion of the 
Uniat Church. This Greek Uniat Church even produced a 
martyr for the Faith, St. Josaphat, Archbishop of Polotzk, 
who was slain by the Orthodox partisans in 1633. In Galicia, 
however, the union was slower. While priests and congrega- 
tions became Uniat, the Bishops of Przemysl and Lemberg stood 
out for nearly a century. But on June 23, 1691, Innocent Vin- 


nitzki, Bishop of Przemysl, joined the union, and in 1700 Jo- 
seph Shumlanski, Bishop of Lemberg (it was afterwards re- 
stored to metropolitan dignity by the Pope in 1807), also took 
the oath of union with the Holy See. From that time till now 
the Russians on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Moun- 
tains and on both sides of the River Dniester have been united 
with Rome. On the southern side of the Carpathians the Rus- 
sians also accepted the union. In the year 1636 Vassili Taraso- 
vitch, Bishop of Munkacs, acknowledged the Pope as the head 
of the Church and for it he was persecuted, imprisoned, and 
forced to resign his see. But union with the Holy See could 
not be stayed by such means, and on April 24, 1646, it was 
accomplished in the city of Ungvar by Peter Rostoshinski, the 
then Bishop of Munkacs, and George Yakusitch, Bishop of 
Agri (Erlau). These two bishops in solemn council, with 
sixty-three priests, abjured the schism and confessed them- 
selves Greek clergy holding the Faith of Sts. Cyril and Me- 
thodius in communion with Rome. Since that time the Ru- 
thenian people (including the Greek Slovaks) in the Kingdom 
of Hungary have acknowledged the Pope as the visible head 
of the undivided Catholic Church. 

These Ruthenians have continued to practice their ancient 
Greek-Slavonic rites and usages, and their forms of worship 
introduced into the United States seem strange to the Catholic 
accustomed only to the Roman Rite, and have made them ob- 
jects of distrust and even active dislike, so that a few of the 
most salient differences may be pointed out, although a full 
statement will be found in the various articles on the Eastern 
rites, ceremonies and vestments. The Mass itself is said in 
ancient Slavonic, the altar is separated from the body of the 
church by a high partition called the iconostasis, upon which 
the pictures of Christ and His Mother, as well as various 
saints, are placed, and the vestments of the Mass are quite dif- 
ferent. The stole is a broad band looped around the neck and 
hanging straight down in front, the chasuble is cut away at 
the front and closely resembles the Roman cope, and instead 
of the maniple two broad cuffs are worn, while a broad belt 
takes the place of the girdle or cincture. Married men may 
be ordained to the diaconate and priesthood ; but bishops must 
be celibate, nor can a deacon or priest marry after ordination. 
Priests impart the Sacrament of Confirmation to children im- 


mediately after baptism, and Communion is given to the laity 
under both forms, the consecrated species being mingled to- 
gether in the chalice and administered to the communicant with 
a spoon. Organs are not used in their churches, and their 
church year follows the Julian Calendar, which is now thir- 
teen days behind the Gregorian Calendar in use in the United 
States and Western Europe. Besides this, the Ruthenians 
(and the Russian Orthodox likewise) display the so-called 
"three-armed" (or Russian) cross upon their churches and use 
it upon their missals, prayer-books, paintings and banners, as 
well as other objects. They make the sign of the cross in the 
reverse direction of the Roman method, and in their religious 
services the men and women are segregated from each other 
upon different sides of their churches. 

It is from these people, inhabiting Galicia, Bukowina and 
Hungary, that the Ruthenian Greek Catholic population has 
come. Their earliest immigration to the United States began 
in 1879, from the western portion of Galicia near the Car- 
pathian Mountains, the so-called Lemkovschini, and then 
spread throughout the Galician and Hungarian sides of the 
mountains. At first it was hardly noticed, but it grew year by 
year, the earliest immigrants coming from Grybow, Gorlice, 
Jaslo, Neu Sandec, Krosno, and Sanok in Galicia, and from 
Szepes, Saros, Abauj and Ung, in Hungary, until finally the 
governmental authorities began to notice it. At the post-ofiices 
in many of the mountain places in the Ruthenian portion of 
Galicia it was observed that the peasants were receiving large 
sums of money from their fathers, sons or brothers in America. 
The news spread rapidly, the newspapers and officials taking 
it up, and so emigration was at once stimulated to the highest 
degree. Every year it has increased, and Ruthenian societies 
are formed here to assist their newly-arrived brethren to find 
employment and to give information to those at home about 
America. It is impossible to tell exactly how many Ruthenian 
and Slovak Greek Catholics have come to the United States, 
because no statistics have been kept by the United States Gov- 
ernment in regard to religious faith of immigrants, and not 
always accurate ones in regard to race or nationality. Still 
the immigration reports show that immigration from Austria- 
Hungary from 1 861 to 1868 was annually in the hundreds; 
and from 1869 to 1879 it ranged from 1,500 to 8,000 annually; 


and in 1880 it suddenly rose to 17,000. From 1880 to 1908 
the total immigration from Austria-Hungary to the United 
States amounted to 2,780,000, and about twenty per cent of 
these were Ruthenians and Slovaks. Within the last four 
years (1905-1908) the immigration of the Slovaks and Ru- 
thenians has amounted to 215,972. To this must be added the 
Croatians and Slavonians (117,695), a large proportion of 
whom are of the Greek Rite. It is estimated that there are at 
present in the United States between 350,000 and 400,000 
Greek Catholic Ruthenians, including as such the Greek Catho- 
lic Slovaks and Croato-Slovenians. The largest number (over 
one-half) are in Pennsylvania, while New York, New Jersey 
and Ohio have each a very large number of them, and the re- 
mainder are scattered all through the New England and West- 
ern States. From the best information obtainable in advance 
of the coming census of 1910 their distribution is as follows: 

Pennsylvania 190,000 

New York 50,500 

New Jersey 40,000 

Ohio . 35.500 

Connecticut • • 10,000 

Illinois 8,000 

Massachusetts 7.500 

Rhode Island 1,500 

Missouri 6,500 

Indiana • • 6,000 

Minnesota 3.000 

Colorado, Dakota, Nebraska and Montana, about 8,000 

West Virginia, Virginia and the Southern States, about 5,000 

After the Ruthenian immigration had begun in considerable 
numbers, it was but natural that they should desire to establish 
a Church of their own rite. At Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, 
the Ruthenian settlement had so increased that towards the 
end of 1884 they sent a petition to Archbishop (afterwards 
Cardinal) Sylvester Sembratovitch, Metropolitan of Lemberg, 
praying that a Greek Catholic priest might be sent to them to 
found a parish of the Greek Rite at that place. The petitioners 
promised to build a church for him if he were sent. In the 
following year (1885) Rev. Ivan Volanski, of the Diocese of 
Lemberg, arrived in the United States, the first Greek Catholic 
priest to take up work among his people here. On his arrival 
he presented himself in Philadelphia with his letters, but, be- 
ing a married priest, he encountered great difficulty in being 


recognized as a Catholic priest in good standing. However, he 
proceeded to Shenandoah, where under great difficulties and 
discouragements he organized his congregation and for about 
a year celebrated Mass and other services in a hired hall, for 
he was unable to obtain the use of the local Latin churches for 
Greek services. The matter of his regularity and his accept- 
ance as a priest in Pennsylvania for the Ruthenians was finally 
arranged through Cardinal Sembratovitch. Early in 1886 he 
completed at Shenandoah a little frame church dedicated to 
St. Michael the Archangel, the first Greek Catholic church in 
America. He then organized there the first Greek Catholic 
Society, that of St. Nicholas, built and organized a small pa- 
rochial school, and then proceeded to form congregations and 
to found churches in other places where the Ruthenians were 
thickly settled. During his stay he organized congregations 
and started churches at Hazleton (1887), Kingston (1888), 
and Olyphant (1888) in Pennsylvania, at Jersey City, New 
Jersey (1889), and at Minneapohs, Minnesota (1889). Find- 
ing his Ruthenian people without any reading-matter in their 
own language, he sent to Galicia for Russian type, and in the 
latter part of 1886 he obtained a few fonts from the Shev- 
chenko printing office at Lemberg. He then commenced the 
publication in "phonetic" Ruthenian of a small paper issued 
every two weeks at Shenandoah under the name of "America." 
This paper lived until about 1890, but got involved in the labor 
troubles in the mining districts, which destroyed much of its 
usefulness. In the spring of 1887 the Metropolitan of Lem- 
berg sent him another priest. Rev. Zeno Lakovitch (unmar- 
ried), and a lay teacher, Volodimir Semenovitch, from the Uni- 
versity of Lemberg. Father Lakovitch labored at Kingston 
and at Wilkesbarre, where he died a year later. In 1888 Rev. 
Constantine Andrukovitch was sent from Lemberg, and, in 
addition to his parochial work, he, with Father Volanski, un- 
dertook to establish a series of stores in several towns in Penn- 
sylvania to sell goods to the Ruthenians and thus avoid the 
enormous prices which the mining companies charged them. 
The business venture was unsuccessful, and, with other mat- 
ters, it caused the recall of Father Volanski to Galicia. He 
remained there some time, then was sent as a missionary to 
Brazil, where his wife died, when he returned to Galicia, where 
he was a parish priest until his death in 1905. This business 


venture also caused the suspension of Father Andrukovitch, 
who returned to Galicia in 1892. The next three Greek clergy- 
men were Rev. Theophan Obushkevitch (of Galicia), Rev. 
Cornelius Laurisin and Rev. Augustin Laurisin (of Hungary), 
who took up their missionary work energetically. The first 
two are still Greek -Catholic parish priests in this country. Since 
their coming there has been a constant accession of Ruthenian 
Greek priests from Galicia and Hungary, and the building of 
churches and schools has gone on with increasing success. 
Even quite costly churches have been built. In Jersey City 
the old church has given way to a fine stone and brick church, 
which is an excellent specimen of Russian architecture, while 
at Homestead and Shamokin, Pennsylvania, there are quite 
costly churches erected. Many of the Greek churches are pur- 
chases from Protestant denominations, altered and rearranged 
for the necessities of their rite, while one or two are churches 
brought over from the schismatics. The first Greek Catholic 
Mass in New York City was celebrated in the basement of St. 
Brigid's church on Avenue A (which was put at the disposal 
of the Greeks by the late Archbishop Corrigan), on April 19, 
1890, by the Rev. Alexander Dzubay, who is still in active 
parish work in America. This Greek congregation afterwards 
bought a church in Brooklyn (St. Elias, 1892), and there was 
no Ruthenian church in Manhattan until the Greek Catholic 
church of St. George was opened in 1905. In February, 1909, 
the Greek Bishop Soter bought a Protestant Episcopal church 
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, refitted it, and consecrated it 
as the Greek Cathedral of St. Mary of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, and in the adjoining parish house and rectory will also 
open a seminary for the education of American priests of the 
Greek Rite. Of course many Ruthenian settlements in various 
localities are too poor to build and maintain a church, nor are 
there just at present sufficient priests in America to attend to 
their spiritual needs. Still there are at present (1909) about 
140 Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches in the United States, 
and there are also ten more new ones projected for waiting 
congregations. Their churches are distributed as follows : 

Pennsylvania 80 

New York • 14 

Ohio 12 

New Jersey 10 

Connecticut 4 


Illinois ■ 4 

Massachusetts 4 

Indiana 3 

Missouri 3 

West Virginia 2 

Minnesota 2 

Rhode Island i 

Virginia i 

The Ruthenian Greek Catholic clergy in the United States 
consists (1909) of one bishop and 118 priests, originating from 
the following dioceses : 

Diocese Monks Secular Qergy 

Celibates Married Widowers 

Lemberg 4 8 5 5 

Przemysl 6 12 2 

Stanislau 2 2 i 

Eperies i 13 10 

Munkacs 2 i 30 5 

Kreutz i 

Scranton i 2 

Philadelphia 4 

Pittsburgh i 

6 25 64 23 

Several of these priests are converts from the Orthodox 
Greek Church in the United States. As has been said, men 
who are already married are ordained to the diaconate and 
priesthood in the Greek Church, and so it naturally followed 
that married priests were sent to America. While a married 
priesthood seems repugnant to a Catholic of the Latin Rite, 
yet it is strongly adhered to by the Greek Catholics as vaguely 
a part of their nationality and Eastern Rite. All American 
Greek Catholic priests will hereafter be ordained from celibate 
candidates only, according to the provisions of the Apostolic 
Letter "Ea semper," which will be referred to later. The 
growing importance of the Greek Rite in America, the dissen- 
sions arising out of old-country political factions among the 
Ruthenians, which will be mentioned later on, and which occa- 
sioned serious interference with the normal growth of the 
Greek Church, and the increasing intensity of the efforts of 
the Russian Orthodox to detach the Ruthenians in America 
from their faith and unity caused the Holy Father in 1907 to 
provide a Greek Catholic bishop for America. Previous to 
this (1902) the Holy See had sent the Right Rev. Andrew 
Hodobay, titular abbot and canon of the Greek Diocese of 


Eperies, as Apostolic visitor to the Ruthenians in America, 
who examined the conditions of the CathoHcs of the Greek 
Rite in all parts of the United States and returned to Europe 
in 1906 with his report. The choice of a bishop for the 
Ruthenian Greek Catholics fell upon Right Rev. Stephen 
Soter Ortynski, a Basilian monk, hegumenos of the monastery 
of St. Paul, Michaelovka, Galicia. On May 12, 1907, he was 
consecrated titular Bishop of Daulia by the Most Rev. Andrew 
Roman Ivanovitch Scheptitzky, Greek ]vIetropolitan of Lem- 
berg, and the other Greek bishops of Galicia, and he arrived in 
America on August 2y, 1907. Shortly after his arrival (Sep- 
tember, 1907) the Apostolic Letter "Ea semper," concerning 
the new bishop for the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in the 
United States, his powers and duties, and the general consti- 
tution of the Greek Rite in America was published. It created 
considerable dissatisfaction among the Greek clergy and laity 
inasmuch as it did not provide for any diocesan power or 
authority for the new bishop, but placed him as an auxiliary 
to the Latin bishops, and as it modified several of their im- 
memorial privileges in various ways. The Sacrament of Con- 
firmation was thereafter to be withheld from infants at bap- 
tism, and was not to be conferred by priests, but was reserved 
for the bishop only (as in the Latin Rite and among the Greeks 
in Italy), and married priests were not thereafter to be or- 
dained in America or to be sent thither from abroad, while 
the regulations as to the marriage of persons of the two rites 
were also modified. The Greek Ruthenian laity saw in it an 
attack upon their Slavic nationality and Eastern Rite, an idea 
which the Russian Orthodox Church eagerly fostered and 
magnified. They were told by the Orthodox that the whole 
letter was a latinization of their Greek Rite in regard to Con- 
firmation and Holy Orders, and was a nullification in America 
of the Decrees of the Popes that their rite should be kept in- 
tact. This resulted in some losses (about 10,000) from the 
Ruthenians to the Russian Church, but already many of them 
are coming back. Matters, however, adjusted themselves, and 
the work of the new bishop is having good results. The whole 
matter of a Greek bishop in America is so far in an experi- 
mental stage, and it rests upon the extent of the current and 
future immigration, the stability and solidarity of the Ru- 
thenians in their adherence to their faith and rite, as to what 


powers and authority their bishop shall ultimately have. Where 
there is an evident and actual need for it the Holy See has 
always granted the erection of Oriental dioceses, but where a 
minority of a population seems bound to become assimilated 
with, and eventually absorbed into, the surrounding population, 
the case may be entirely otherwise. The newly-appointed 
bishop has had success in establishing churches and parochial 
schools and in inducing his Ruthenian flock to become Ameri- 
can citizens and identify themselves with American Hfe while 
not abandoning their faith and their Eastern Rite. He aims 
to establish English-Ruthenian schools in each Greek parish 
and to open a Ruthenian-American seminary at Philadelphia 
for the education of American-born Ruthenians as priests of 
the Greek Rite. There is already one American-Ruthenian 
priest, lately ordained. In purely theological matters they will 
be educated as in Latin seminaries, if not actually sent there 
for lectures, but in the Oriental church rites, discipline, liturgi- 
cal language, music and customs the proposed seminary will 
fill a place for the Ruthenians which our present diocesan semi- 
naries do not fill. The number of church or parochial schools 
of the Ruthenians is about fifty, where instruction in English, 
Ruthenian, church catechism and the elements of a general 
education is given. No organized Sunday-school system has 
as yet been established amongst them, nor are there any nuns 
or religious engaged in teaching in the United States. 

In order to understand somewhat clearly the situation of the 
Ruthenians in America, account must be taken of their national 
home politics, which they bring with them and fight out often 
quite bitterly in this country. As already said, they are from 
the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. 
The northern Ruthenians derisively call their southern breth- 
ren "Hungarians" (Madyari), while the latter return the com- 
pliment by calling the former "Poles" (Poliaki). The point 
of this lies in the fact that each of the nationalities named is 
cordially detested by the Ruthenians on either side. But these 
are merely surface divisions between the two bodies of the 
same race. Their actual factional differences are much deeper. 
There may be said to be, broadly speaking, three Ruthenian 
parties or factions in the United States : ( i ) The Mosco- 
philes, or Moskalophiles (Moskal is the Little Russian word 
for a Great Russian), who aim at an imitation, if not an actual 


adoption, of all things Russian as found in the present Empire 
of Russia, looking towards Moscow as the seed and kernel of 
Russian or Slavic development, and who are strong supporters 
of Panslavism; (2) the Ukraintzi, or Ukrainians (the Ukraine 
is the adjoining borderland provinces of Russia and Galicia), 
who stand for the interests of the Ruthenian people in Austria 
and of the Little Russians in Russia, as distinct and apart 
from the Great Russians, and who desire to develop the Ru- 
thenian (Little Russian) language, literature and race along 
their own lines, entirely distinct and apart from that of the 
present-day Russian Empire; and (3) the Ugro-russki, or 
Hungarian Ruthenians, who keep all the old Russian racial 
traditions, reverencing their Russian language, literature and 
ancestry as models to follow in their development, but at the 
same time refusing to follow the ideas of Moscow and St. 
Petersburg in such development, either in Hungary or in the 
United States. The first two parties are Galicians, the last 
one Slovaks and Hungarian Ruthenians. These parties are 
sometimes divided into smaller factions, perplexing for an out- 
sider to understand, such as those who desire to introduce the 
Hungarian language and customs, even using Hungarian in 
the liturgy of the Church. It is needless to say that none of 
these larger parties ever agree upon any one subject other than 
their Slavic nationality and Greek Rite. The Moscophiles of- 
ten unite with the Greek Orthodox and Russian societies upon 
the slightest pretext when Russo-Slavic ideals are to be pro- 
claimed, and are fiercely against everything that does not look 
Russiaward, for Russia is their big brother. On the other 
hand the Ukraintzi will have nothing to do with modern 
Russia ; it is behind the age and lags in the march of civiliza- 
tion ; and they have besides offended both the other parties by 
adopting the "phonetic" style of spelling. This oifence seems 
to be intensified because the new (3reek bishop is somewhat of 
their way of thinking. The Ugro-russki are violently op- 
posed to whatever does not accord with the racial views and 
traditions of the Ruthenian and Slovak people within the bor- 
ders of Hungary, and do not agree with the views and actions 
of either of the other two parties. Consequently, the Greek 
Catholic bishop has to publish his official communications in 
Ruthenian, both phonetic and old-style, and in Slovak, in order 
to reach all his people. 


Of course these Greek Catholics of such varied views have 
organized into societies. Each church has its own local reli- 
gious and singing societies, but there are other and larger bod- 
ies known as "brotherhoods" or lodges (bratstva), which have 
been of great assistance in building up the Ruthenian churches. 
They are usually of the nature of mutual benefit societies, 
assist in finding work, helping in religious matters and the like, 
having always the Greek Rite and the Ruthenian race as their 
main inspiration. Some of them provide that their members 
must show that they have made their Easter communion or 
forfeit membership, and provide for the dropping of a mem- 
ber when he ceases to be a Catholic. These brotherhoods or 
lodges are combined into a general federation or union which 
takes in the whole United States. It has its annual convention 
composed of delegates from the various brotherhoods, and 
always has some well-known Greek Catholic priest as its spir- 
itual director. The largest and oldest of these federated soci- 
eties is the "Soyedineniya Greko-Kaftolicheskikh Russkikh 
Bratstv" (Russian-Greek Catholic Union), which was founded 
in Pennsylvania in February, 1892. It is almost wholly com- 
posed of Slovaks and South Carpathian Ruthenians. It now 
(1909) has 542 brotherhoods and 22,490 members, and has 
besides a junior organization for young people in which there 
are 163 brotherhoods and 5,400 members, and is in a flourish- 
ing condition in every way. It also publishes a weekly Greek 
Catholic newspaper at Homestead, Pennsylvania — the "Ameri- 
kansky Russky Viestnik" (American Russian Messenger), 
printed both in the Russian and the Slovak languages. In 
Ruthenian politics it is the representative of the Ugro-russki 
party. The second of these federations is the "Russky Na- 
rodny Soyus" (Russian National Union), which was founded 
in 1894 and is a Galician offshoot from the preceding society. 
It is chiefly composed of Galicians who are Ukrainians, and 
who express themselves strongly against the Russian Empire 
and the Orthodox Church. It now has 249 brotherhoods and 
12,760 members, and it likewise publishes a weekly newspaper, 
the "Svoboda" (Liberty), which is printed in New York City, 
in "phonetic" Little Russian. The third of these federations is 
the "Obshchestvo Russkikh Bratstv" (Society of Russian 
Brotherhoods), which was founded July i, 1900. It is com- 
posed almost wholly of Galicians of the Moscophile party, and 


a small minority of its membership is also made up of Galicians 
who are either Greek Orthodox or of Orthodox proclivities, 
for it is quite pro-Russian and opposed to the Ukrainians. It 
has now 120 brotherhoods and 6,530 members, and publishes its 
weekly newspaper, "Pravda" (Truth), at Olyphant, Pennsyl- 
vania, in the Ruthenian old-style spelling. There is also the 
"Rimsko a Greko Katolicka Jednota" (Roman and Greek Cath- 
olic Union), of Pennsylvania, a Slavic organization which has 
some 175 brotherhoods and about 9,000 members, and it is 
estimated that about one-third of these are Greek Catholic. 
This federation also publishes a weekly paper, "Bratstvo" 
(Brotherhood) in the Slovenian language. Besides these pub- 
lications there is also the "Dushpastyr" (The Pastor), published 
in New York, which is exclusively a religious periodical and 
devoted solely to the affairs of the Greek Catholic Church in 
America. In it the official utterances of the Greek bishop are 
usually published. There are also many other American Ru- 
thenian papers and periodicals which have nothing whatever 
to do with church matters, but are devoted to labor questions, 
national issues and to Socialism. Unfortunately, many of 
these publications, even the Catholic ones, exhibit too much of 
a tendency to attack their opponents in strong language and 
to belittle the efforts of those not of their party, and their 
usefulness for good is thereby lessened. From time to time 
various religious works and a number of booklets on church 
and national topics have been published in Slovak and Ru- 
thenian, and every year there are issued a number of year- 
books or calendars containing a variety of information and 
illustrations concerning the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in 
America and abroad. 

The immigration of the Ruthenian Greek Catholics into the 
United States and the organization of their churches and rite 
has been too recent to properly speak by name of any distin- 
guished representatives of their clergy or laity. Nearly every 
one who took a prominent part in their settlement and develop- 
ment is still alive and engaged in active work, while a vigorous 
younger generation born on American soil is now growing up. 
Among the Greek priests here in America are several who are 
authors of learned works upon the church language and ritual, 
others who have filled posts of considerable distinction in the 
dioceses in Hungary and Galicia whence they came, and many 


who have constantly employed their tongue and pen in the edu- 
cation and improvement of their fellow-countrymen in this 
country. There is, however, no religious order of women of 
the Greek Rite, nor any association whatever of women de- 
voted to church service in the United States, nor has any at- 
tempt been made so far, either on the part of the clergy or 
laity, to establish here anything of the kind. 

In addition to the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in the United 
States, there are a large number of them in Canada. They 
are principally settled in the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta 
and Saskatchewan, where they have devoted themselves to 
agricultural pursuits. It is said that a Ruthenian often works 
hard in the United States, saves up his money, and emigrates 
to Canada, where he can obtain cheap land under the home- 
stead acts. There is besides a considerable direct immigration 
from Galicia and Hungary, but the majority of the Canadian 
Ruthenians are Galicians. Their first church (St. Nicholas) in 
Canada was built about 1900 ai Winnipeg by the Basilian 
monks who are in charge of the Greek missions of the north- 
west. The Very Rev. Platonides Filas, O.S.B.M., who is now 
( 1909) the superior of the order in Galicia, was the first mis- 
sionary sent there. Afterwards, in 1905, another church (St. 
Josaphat) was built at Edmonton. Later on a monastery was 
established in Winnipeg, with a branch at Monaster, Alberta. 
From these central points, there are now (1909) over sixty 
missionary stations established with small Greek chapels at 
Oaknook, Swan River, Barrows, Ethelbert, Garland, Grand 
View, Minatonas, Yorkton, Beaverdale, Rabbit Hill, Star, La- 
ment, Nundare and Skaro. In this section the Ruthenians 
have to contend with the Russian Orthodox missions, which 
are well provided for, and with certain schismatics from the 
Russian Orthodox known as the "Seraphimites," or inde- 
pendent Grseco-Russian Church. There are three missionary 
communities of the Basilian monks : at Winnipeg, Edmonton 
and Monaster. The Greek clergy in Canada consist of eight 
monks and four secular priests. The number of Ruthenian 
Greek Catholics is between 45,000 and 50,000, widely scattered 
through these north-west territories. In Canada there is a reli- 
gious order of women of the Greek Rite, the Servants of Mary 
(14 in number), whose mother-house is in Lemberg, Galicia. 
They have schools at Winnipeg, Edmonton, Monaster, and in 


some outlying districts. The Canadian Ruthenians publish a 
small paper ("Canadian Farmer") and have several societies 
on the pattern of those in the United States. 

II. — Rumanian Greek Catholics 

These people come from the eastern provinces of Hungary 
known as Transylvania. They are of a nationality which 
claims to come down from the Roman colonists who were set- 
tled there by the Emperor Trajan, and hence they still call 
themselves Romani. These Transylvanians are really of an 
older political order and settlement than the independent coun- 
try known as Rumania, which bounds Transylvania on the 
east. The inhabitants of both lands are of the same stock, but 
those in Hungary were organized and in possession of a fair 
amount of education and political rights under Hungarian rule 
whilst the present Kingdom of Rumania was still oppressed 
under Turkish rule. The latter only obtained its independence 
after the Russo-Turkish war of 1878, and in turn began the 
education and enlightenment of its people. 

The Rumanian language is a Latin tongue, somewhat simi- 
lar to Italian, but with a considerable mixture of Slavic, Greek, 
and Turkish words in it. It is also the language of the Mass 
and liturgical offices according to the Greek Rite among the 
Rumanians, and is an instance where the Church has made 
a modern tongue the liturgical language. Owing to Slavonic 
influences, the Rumanian language was formerly written in 
Slavonic or Russian characters, and this continued until about 
1825, when the Roman alphabet was adopted, first by the Cath- 
olic Rumanians and then by the Orthodox, and it has been 
used for the Rumanian language ever since. Even for church 
books the Slavonic letters (the Cyrillic alphabet) had to give 
way to the Latin letters, just as the Slavonic Liturgy in the 
church services had given away to the Rumanian, and now 
both the Catholic and the Orthodox Mass-books and Office- 
books are printed beautifully in Latin letters and modern Ru- 
manian, whether for use in the churches of Transylvania or 
Rumania. The Rumanian Church, although Greek in rite, 
was originally under the jurisdiction of Rome up to the ninth 
century, when Constantinople assumed jurisdiction over it. 


and later on, when Constantinople fell into schism, the Ru- 
manian Church went with it. Frequently, however, during 
the centuries that followed, partially successful attempts were 
made towards reunion. At the time of the so-called Refor- 
mation in Western Europe the Calvinists endeavored to per- 
suade a portion of the Rumanian clergy and their flocks to 
embrace the new doctrines. This naturally led to an examina- 
tion of matters wherein the Roman Church differed from 
the Calvinists, and also to the points wherein it was in har- 
mony with the Greek Church, and later to a desire for union 
with it. The union of the Rumanian Greek Church in Hun- 
gary (for the other Rumanians were subjects of Turkey) 
with the Holy See dates from 1700. The preliminaries for 
union had been in progress for several years before, and 
once or twice had been on the eve of success. In the year 
just mentioned the Metropolitan Athanasius held a general 
synod of the clergy of Transylvania at Alba Julia (Gyulya- 
fehervar), which declared, on 5 September, 1700, that "freely 
and spontaneously moved thereto by the impulse of Divine 
Grace, we have entered upon a union with the Roman Catholic 
Church." This decree was signed by the metropolitan, 54 
arch-priests, and 1563 priests. The act of union was con- 
firmed at Rome in the following year, and the Greek Catho- 
lic hierarchy was for a long time the only Greek hierarchy 
in Transylvania. Towards the middle of the last century the 
Greek Orthodox Rumanian hierarchy was also established. 
The Rumanian Greek Catholics are very proud of their union 
with Rome, and church documents are often dated not only 
by the year of Our Lord (pre anul Domnului), but also by 
the year of the union (pre anul de la santa unire). 

The Rumanian immigrant does not seem to have begun to 
come to the LTnited States until about the beginning of the 
present century. In the year 1900 Rumanian immigration 
from Transylvania and Northern Hungary began to flow 
towards the United States, and lately has been followed by 
immigration from Rumania itself. It has steadily increased 
until now ( 1909) there are between 60,000 and 70,000 Ru- 
manians in the United States. Nearly all of these have come 
from Hungary ; only a small minority are from the Kingdom 
of Rumania. Those from Hungary are from the southern 
and western counties of Transylvania, chiefly the counties of 


Szatmar, Szilagy, Fogaras, Bihar, and Temes. The Greek 
Catholics among them number about 45,000, and they are 
scattered through the United States from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. The chief places where the Rumanian Greek Catho- 
lics are settled are Cleveland, Youngstown, Columbus, New- 
ark, and Cincinnati, Ohio ; Sharon, Erie, Pittsburgh, Windber, 
and Scalp Level, Pennsylvania ; Aurora, Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana Harbor, and Terre Haute, Indiana ; Trenton, New Jer- 
sey ; St. Louis, Missouri ; and New York City. They are all 
quite poor and are generally found, like all recent immigrants, 
in the humblest and poorest walks of life. They lack suffi- 
cient missionary priests of their own rite, and at present many 
additional priests would be welcome. The Rev. Dr. Epami- 
nondas Lucaciu was the first Greek Catholic Rumanian priest 
to come to this country. He was sent here in 1904 by the 
Greek Catholic Bishop of Lugos, at the request of the late 
Bishop Horstmann of Cleveland, who was asked for a priest 
of their own rite by the Rumanians settled in Cleveland. 
When he came, he set about forming a congregation and 
building a church for his people of the Greek Rite. His en- 
ergy and ability among his countrymen led to the erection 
and dedication, on 21 October, 1906, of the church of St. 
Helena in Cleveland — the first Rumanian Greek Catholic 
church in America. His zeal also led to the formation of 
congregations in other localities, which he visited regularly. 
In 1908 the second Rumanian church was built and dedicated 
at Scalp Level, Pennsylvania, which serves as the central 
point for missionary work among the Rumanians of Penn- 
sylvania. In 1909 the third Rumanian church was completed 
and dedicated at Aurora, Illinois, and it serves in its turn 
as the centre of Greek Catholic work among the Rumanians 
of the Western States. A fourth has just been constructed 
at Youngstown, Ohio. There are now ( 1909) four Rumanian 
Greek Catholic priests in the United States, and more are 
shortly expected to arrive. Greek Catholic congregations have 
been formed in many localities, and they are regularly visited 
by the Greek Catholic priests who are here, and regular 
parishes will be formed and churches erected as soon as pos- 
sible. A Rumanian Greek chapel is now in course of forma- 
tion in New York City and awaits a priest from Transyl- 
vania. While they have a small Catholic church paper, "Cato- 


licul American," they also publish a fine eight-page weekly, 
"Romanul," at Cleveland and New York, which gives a great 
deal of church news, and they also publish a little monthly 
magazine and an illustrated year-book in which many details 
of their churches, societies, and progress are given. The 
weekly paper was originally founded by Father Lucaciu to 
provide reading-matter and general news for his people, but 
it has since passed into other hands. Their societies are not 
strictly speaking church organizations, but are rather mutual 
benefit societies for Rumanians, and some even have a limited 
membership of the Orthodox, for the Rumanians of Hungary, 
whether Greek Catholic or Greek Orthodox, are very closely 
united upon racial and national feelings, and do not exhibit 
the hostility sometimes shown between the two Churches else- 
where. The principal societies are "Racia Romana," "Ardea- 
lana," "Unirea Romana," and "Societatea Traian," numbering 
altogether about 3000 members, and generally identified with 
the church congregations. 

III. — Syrian (Melchite) Greek Catholics 

About 1886 the first immigration from the Mediterranean' 
coasts of Asia began to reach the shores of the United States, 
when the Armenians, Greeks, and Syrians began to swell the 
numbers of our immigrants. Among them came the Syrian 
Greeks, or those Syrians who were of the Byzantine Rite, 
whether Catholic or Orthodox. The name Melchite is occa- 
sionally used to designate a Syrian of the Greek Orthodox 
Faith, but now it rarely has that meaning, since the schismat- 
ics prefer to be known as Syro-Arabians, at least in the 
United States, where they are largely under Russian influ- 
ence, for it is nearly always applied to the Catholics. After 
the Council of Chalcedon the Melchites followed the for- 
tunes of the Greek Church of Constantinople. When it sep- 
arated from Rome they also gradually became separated, 
merely through inertia. Occasionally a bishop became Catho- 
lic, and there were sporadic attempts to reunite them with 
the Holy See. Cyril V, who was elected Patriarch of Antioch 
about the year 1700, decided to come back to unity and made 
his submission and profession of the Catholic Faith to Pope 


Clement XI, and his example was followed by the Archbishop 
of Tyre and Sidon, the Bishop of Beirut, and other prelates. 
From that time on the Syrian Greek Catholics have had a 
restored Catholic line of Patriarchs of Antioch. Strangely 
enough, the word Melchite, which had been used to designate 
those who adhered to the doctrines of the Church of Con- 
stantinople when it was Catholic and in unity, and who even 
followed it when it left the unity of the Church, came eventu- 
ally to mean, after the union of Cyril V and his fellow-bishops, 
almost exclusively those Syrians of the Greek Rite who were 
Catholics and united with the Holy See. Their rite, of course, 
is the same as that of the other Greek Catholics, but the lan- 
guage used in the Mass and the administration of the sacra- 
ments and in the church offices is the Arabic, with the excep- 
tion of certain prayer-endings and versicles of the Mass, 
which are still intoned in the original Greek. Still a Melchite 
priest may celebrate entirely in Greek if he so desires, and 
the Catholic Missal is printed in parallel columns in each 
language as to the parts which are to be intoned or said aloud. 
At first these Syrians were in small numbers and were not 
distinguishable from the Arabic-speaking Maronites or from 
the Syro-Arabian Orthodox Greeks, all of whom began to 
come to this country about the same date. This Syrian im- 
migration, as compared with that from other lands, has never 
been very large. The Greek Catholics came at first from the 
same localities as the Maronites — Beirut and Mount Lebanon ; 
but now they come from Damascus and other parts of Syria as 
well. In 1 891 Rev. Abraham Bechewate, a Basilian monk of 
the Congregation of the Holy Saviour, from Saida in the Dio- 
cese of Zahleh and Farzul, Mount Lebanon, was sent to this 
country by the Patriarch of Antioch to take up missionary 
work among his countrymen. So far he has been instrumental 
in establishing missions and congregations in various cities and 
in having other priests sent to assist him. His first efforts were 
confined to New York City, and at present the Melchites in 
New York City use the basement of St. Peter's Church on 
Barclay Street, but they have bought ground in Brooklyn with 
a view to erecting a Syrian Greek Catholic church there. After 
Father Bechewate other priests were sent to take up the work 
at various places throughout the United States. At the pres- 
ent time (1909) there are altogether fourteen Melchite 


churches or congregations in the United States and just across 
the border in Canada. Besides these there are many mission 
stations which the Melchite Greek priests visit periodically. 
These churches are situated at the following places : New 
York City ; Boston and Lawrence, Massachusetts ; Omaha, Ne- 
braska ; Cleveland, Ohio; Dubois and Scranton, Pennsylvania; 
Chicago and Joliet, Illinois ; Rockley, South Dakota ; La 
Crosse, Wisconsin ; Pawtucket, Rhode Island ; and Montreal 
and Toronto, Canada. So far they have erected four fair- 
sized churches in Lawrence, Cleveland, Dubois and La Crosse. 
The cost of land in the large cities has prevented them from 
building, so that their congregations in the other places are 
assembled either in the Latin churches or in rented premises. 
The number of the Syrian Greek Catholics in the United States 
(1909) is between 8,000 and 10,000, and they are to be found 
chiefly in the New England States, Pennsylvania, Ohio and 
Illinois. For their spiritual needs there are thirteen Syrian 
Greek Catholic priests, seven of them Basilian monks of the 
Congregation of the Holy Saviour from the Diocese of Zahleh 
and Farzul, four of them Basilian monks of the Congregation 
of St. John (Soarite) from the Dioceses of Aleppo and Zah- 
leh, and two secular priests from the Diocese of Beirut. Ow- 
ing to the poverty of most Syrian congregations, they have not 
maintained any schools and have no Sunday-school instruction, 
and the majority of the Syrian children attend the nearest 
Latin parochial school, if there be one. They have a small 
Arabic paper, "Al-Kown" (The Universe), published in New 
York City, and have the church society of "St. George." 

IV. — Italian Greek Catholics 

In the extreme southern part of Italy and in the Island of 
Sicily the Greek Rite has always flourished, even from Apos- 
tolic times. Three of the Popes (Sts. Eusebius, Agatho and 
Zacharias) were Greeks from that region. Many of the Greek 
saints venerated by the Church were Southern Italians or Si- 
cilians, and the great Greek monastery of Grottaferrata near 
Rome was founded by St. Nilus, a native of Rossano in Ca- 
labria. The Greek Rite in Southern Italy never fell into schism 
or separated from unity with Rome at the time of the great 


Schism of Constantinople. Although they held to their faith 
and rite, yet the fact that they were not thereafter closely allied 
with their fellow-Greeks of Constantinople caused the follow- 
ers of their rite to diminish. After the schism an idea grew 
up among the Italians of the Roman Rite that the Greek 
language and ritual were in some indefinable way identified 
with the schism. This was intensified upon the failure of the 
Greeks after the Council of Florence (1428) to adhere to the 
union. Therefore, as the Greek language died out among the 
southern Italians, they gradually gave up their Greek Rite and 
adopted the Roman Rite instead. While the Greek Rite thus 
became gradually confined to monasteries, religious houses 
and country towns, and would perhaps never have died out on 
Italian soil, yet it was reinforced in a singular manner by im- 
migration from the Balkan peninsula in the period between 
1450 and 1500. The Albanians, who were converted to Chris- 
tianity and followed the Greek Rite, using the Greek language 
in their liturgy, were persecuted by the Turks, and, by reason 
of the many Turkish victories over the Albanians under their 
chieftain, George Castriota, also known by his Turkish name 
of Scanderbeg (Alexander Bey), were forced to leave their 
native land in large numbers. Scanderbeg applied to Pope 
Eugene IV for permission for his people to settle in Italy, so 
as to escape the Moslem persecutions. From time to time 
they settled in Calabria and Sicily, and received among other 
privileges that of retaining their Greek Rite wherever their 
colonies were established. Since that time they, like the Greek 
inhabitants of Southern Italy, have become entirely Italianized, 
but, together with them, have retained their Greek Rite quite 
distinct from their Latin neighbors down to the present day. 
All the Italians who follow the Greek Rite in Southern Italy 
are known as Albanese (Albanians), although only the older 
generations of that race retain their knowledge of the Albanian 
tongue. The Mass and all the offices of the Church are of 
course said in Greek according to the Rite of Constantinople, 
although a few Latinizing practices have crept in. The smaller 
churches do not have the iconostasis, priests do not confer con- 
firmation, but it is given by the bishop, and they follow the 
Gregorian calendar instead of the Julian calendar followed by 
all the other Greeks. 

When the immigration to America from the south of Italy 


and from Sicily began in large proportions, the Italo-Greeks 
came also. They are from Calabria, Apulia and Basilicata in 
Italy, and from the Dioceses of Palermo, Monreale and Mes- 
sina, in Sicily. They are settled in the United States chiefly 
in New York, Philadelphia and Chicago, and throughout the 
States of Pennsylvania and Illinois. It is claimed that the 
Greek CathoHc population of Italy has sent a third of its num- 
ber to America, and some well-informed Albanese have even 
declared that there are perhaps more. They estimate that 
there are 20,000 of them in the United States, the greater part 
of whom are in the vicinity of New York and Philadelphia. 
As a rule they have not shown themselves in any wise as 
devoted church-attendants, but that may be because they have 
been in a measure neglected, for every one assumes that an 
Italian must be of the Roman Rite and ought to go to a Latin 
church. They have neither the means to construct churches 
of their own rite nor do they care to frequent churches of the 
Latin Rite, although their societies usually attend the Italian 
CathoHc churches and celebrate their festivals according to 
the Latin Rite. In many places they attend the churches of 
the Ruthenian Greek Catholics, and in some few instances 
some have gone to the Hellenic churches of the Greek Ortho- 
dox, where the language of the ritual is Greek. During the 
year 1904 the first (and so far the only) Itahan Greek Catholic 
priest. Papas (Rev.) Giro Pinnola, was sent from Sicily by 
Cardinal Celesia of Palermo to the United States, to look after 
the scattered flock of Greek Catholics here, and he is now a 
priest of the Archdiocese of New York. He found that these 
Italians, being accustomed to the language and rites of the 
Greek Church, as well as infected by the inertia of so many 
of the newcomers to these shores, had not attended the Latin 
Catholic churches, and that they had become the prey of all 
sorts of missionary experiments to draw them away from their 
allegiance to the Faith. Besides, they were among the poorest 
of the Italian immigrants and had been unable to establish or 
maintain a chapel or church of their rite. He took energetic 
steps to look after them and on Easter Day, 1906, had the 
pleasure of opening the first Italian Greek Catholic chapel on 
Broome Street in the City of New York. This has progressed 
so far that he has now a larger missionary chapel (Our Lady 
of Grace) on Stanton Street, with a congregation of about 


400, where the Greek Rite in the Greek language is celebrated. 
He has also various missionary stations in Brooklyn and on 
Long Island, which he visits at regular intervals, but he has 
been unable to do anything for the Italian Greek Catholics in 
Pennsylvania and elsewhere. Other priests of their rite are 
needed. There is a small school attached to the Greek Catho- 
lic chapel in New York, where the Church Catechism and 
Greek singing is taught, as well as several Italian and English 
branches, and children are instructed in their church duties. 
There is quite a large society of men, the "Fratellanza del San- 
tissimo Crocefisso," a society for mutual benefit, religious in- 
struction, and the building of an Italian Greek church. There 
are some ten or twelve Italo-Albanese societies, having branches 
in various parts of the United States, but devoted mostly to 
secular objects. There is also a small weekly Italian paper, 
''L'Operaio," for the Italo-Albanese and their Greek Rite, but 
it is also devoted to Socialism and the wildest labor theories, 
so that its usefulness is doubtful. 


SINCE immigration from the eastern portion of Europe 
and from Asia and Africa set in with such volume, the 
peoples who (both in union with and outside the unity 
of the Church) follow the various ILastern rites arrived in the 
United States in large numbers, bringing with them their 
priests and their forms of worship. As they grew in number 
and financial strength, they erected churches in the various 
cities and towns throughout the country. Rome used to be 
considered the city where the various rites of the Church 
throughout the world could be seen grouped together, but in 
the United States they may be observed to a greater advantage 
than even in Rome. In Rome the various rites are kept alive 
for the purpose of educating the various national clergy who 
study there, and for demonstrating the unity of the Church, 
but there is no body of laymen who follow those rites ; in the 
United States, on the contrary, it is the number and pressure 
of the laity which have caused the establishment and support 
of the churches of the various rites. There is consequently 
no better field for studying the various rites of the Church than 
in the chief cities of the United States, and such study has the 
advantage to the exact observer of affording an opportunity 
of comparing the dissident churches of those rites with those 
which belong to Catholic unity. The chief rites which have 
established themselves in America are these: (i) Armenian, 
(2) Greek or Byzantine, and (3) Syro-Maronite. There are 
also a handful of adherents of the Coptic, Syrian and Chal- 
dean Rites, which will also be noticed, and there are occa- 
sionally priests of the various Latin Rites. 

I. — The Armenian Rite 

This rite alone, of all the rites in the Church, is confined to 
one people, one language, and one alphabet. It is, if anything, 



more exclusive than Judaism of old. Other rites are more 
widely extended in every way : the Roman Rite is spread 
throughout Latin, Teutonic and Slavic peoples, and it even has 
two languages, the Latin and the Ancient Slavonic, and two 
alphabets, the Roman and the Glagolitic, in which its ritual is 
written ; the Greek or Byzantine Rite extends among Greek, 
Slavic, Latin and Syrian peoples, and its services are cele- 
brated in Greek, Slavonic, Rumanian and Arabic with service- 
books in the Greek, Cyrillic. Latin and Arabic alphabets. But 
the Armenian Rite, whether Catholic or Gregorian, is confined 
exclusively to persons of the Armenian race, and employs the 
ancient Armenian language and alphabet. The majority of 
the Armenians were converted to Christianity by St. Gregory 
the Illuminator, a man of noble family, who was made Bishop 
of Armenia in 302. So thoroughly was his work effected that 
Armenia alone of the ancient nations converted to Christianity 
has preserved no pagan literature antedating the Christian lit- 
erature of the people ; pagan works, if they ever existed, seem 
to have perished in the ardor of the Armenians for Christian 
thought and expression. The memory of St. Gregory is so 
revered that the Armenians who are opposed to union with the 
Holy See take pride in calling themselves "Gregorians," imply- 
ing that they keep the faith taught by St. Gregory. Hence it 
is usual to call the dissidents "Gregorians," in order to distin- 
guish them from the Uniat Catholics. At first the language of 
the Christian liturgy in Armenia was Syriac, but later they 
discarded it for their own tongue, and translated all the serv- 
ices into Armenian, which was at first written in Syriac or 
Persian letters. About 400 St. Mesrob invented the present 
Armenian alphabet (except two final letters which were added 
in the year 1200), and their language, both ancient and modern, 
has been written in that alphabet ever since. Mesrob also 
translated the New Testament into Armenian and revised the 
entire liturgy. The Armenians in their church life have led 
almost as checkered an existence as they have in their national 
life. At first they were in full communion with the Universal 
Church. They were bitterly opposed to Nestorianism, and, 
when in 451 the Council of Chalcedon condemned the doctrine 
of Eutyches, they seceded, holding the opinion that such a defi- 
nition was sanctioning Nestorianism. and have since remained 
separated from and hostile to the Greek Church of Constanti- 


nople. In 1054 the Greeks seceded in turn from unity with 
the Roman Church, and nearly three centuries later the Ar- 
menians became reconciled with Rome, but the union lasted 
only a brief period. Breaking away from unity again, the ma- 
jority formed a national church, which agrees neither with 
the Greek nor the Roman Church; a minority, recruited by 
converts to union with the Holy See in the seventeenth century, 
remained united Armenian Catholics. 

The Mass and the whole liturgy of the Armenian Church is 
said in Ancient Armenian, which differs considerably from the 
modern tongue. The language is an offshoot of the Iranian 
branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages, and proba- 
bly found its earliest written expression in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions ; it is unlike the Semitic languages immediately sur- 
rounding it. Among its peculiarities are twelve regular de- 
clensions and eight irregular declensions of nouns and five 
conjugations of the verbs, while there are many difficulties in 
the way of postpositions and the like. It abounds in conso- 
nants and guttural sounds ; the words of the Lord's Prayer in 
Armenian will suffice as an example : "Hair mier. vor herghins 
ies, surp iegitzi anun ko, ieghastze arkautiun ko, iegitzin garnk 
ko, vorbes hierghins iev hergri, zhatz mier hanabazort dur miez 
aissor, iev tog miez ezbardis mier, vorbes iev mek togumk 
merotz bardabanatz, iev mi danir. zmez i porsutiun, ail perghea 
i chare." The language is written from left to right, like 
Greek, Latin, or English, but in an alphabet of thirty-eight 
peculiar letters, which are dissimilar in form to anything in 
the Greek or Latin alphabet, and are arranged in the most per- 
plexing order. For instance, the Armenian alphabet starts o^ 
with a, p, k, t, z, etc., and ends up with the letter /. It may 
also be noted that the Armenian has changed the consonantal 
values of most of the ordinary sounds in Christian names ; 
thus George becomes Kevork ; Sergius, Sarkis ; Jacob, Hagop ; 
Joseph, Hovsep; Gregory, Krikori; Peter, Bedros, and so on. 
The usual clan addition of the word "son" {ian) to most Ar- 
menian family names, something like the use of mac in the 
Gaelic languages, renders usual Armenian names easy of iden- 
tification (e. g., Azarian, Hagopian, Rubian, Zohrabian, etc.). 

The book containing the regulations for the administration 
of the sacraments, analogous to the Greek Euchologion or the 
Roman Ritual, is called the "Mashdotz," after the name of its 


compiler, St. Mesrob, who was surnamed Mashdotz. He ar- 
ranged and compiled the five great liturgical books used in the 
Armenian Church: (i) the Breviary (Zhamakirk) or Book 
of Hours; (2) The Directory (Tzutzak) or Calendar, contain- 
ing the fixed festivals of the year; (3) The Liturgy (Pataraga- 
kirk) or Missal, arranged and enriched also by John Manta- 
guni; (4) The Book of Hymns (Dagaran), arranged for the 
principal great feasts of the year; (5) The Ritual or "Mash- 
dotz," mentioned above. A peculiarity about the Armenian 
Church is that the majority of great feasts falling upon week- 
days are celebrated on the Sunday immediately following. The 
great festivals of the Christian year are divided by the Arme- 
nians into five classes: (i) Easter; (2) feasts which fall on 
Sunday, such as Palm Sunday, Pentecost, etc.; (3) feasts 
which are observed on the days on which they occur: the Na- 
tivity, Epiphany, Circumcision, Presentation and Annuncia- 
tion; (4) feasts which are transferred to the following Sun- 
day: Transfiguration, Immaculate Conception, Nativity B. V. 
M., Assumption, Holy Cross, feasts of the Apostles, etc.; (5) 
other feasts, which are not observed at all unless they can be 
transferred to Sunday. The Gregorian Armenians observe 
the Nativity, Epiphany and Baptism of Our Lord on the same 
day (January 6), but the Catholic Armenians observe Christ- 
mas on December 25 and the Epiphany on January 6, and they 
observe many of the other feasts of Our Lord on the days on 
which they actually fall. The principal fasts are : ( i ) Lent ; 
(2) the Fast of Nineveh for two weeks, one month before the 
commencement of Lent — in reality a remnant of the ancient 
Lenten fast, now commemorated only in name by our Sep- 
tuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays; (3) the 
week following Pentecost. The days of abstinence are the 
Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year with certain ex- 
ceptions (e. g., during the week after the Nativity, Easter and 
the Assumption). In the Armenian Church Saturday is ob- 
served as the Sabbath, commemorating the Old Law and the 
creation of man, and Sunday as the Lord's Day of Resurrec- 
tion and rejoicing, commemorating the New Law and the re- 
demption of man. Most of the saints' days are dedicated to 
Armenian saints not commemorated in other lands, but the 
Armenian Catholics in Galicia and Transylvania use the Gre- 
gorian (not the Julian) Calendar, and have many Roman 


saints' days and feasts added to their ancient ecclesiastical 

In the actual arrangement of the church building for wor- 
ship the Armenian Rite differs both from the Greek and the 
Latin. While the Armenian Church was in communion with 
Rome, it seems to have united many Roman practices in its 
ritual with those that were in accord with the Greek or Byzan- 
tine forms. The church building may be divided into the sanc- 
tuary and church proper (choir and nave). The sanctuary 
is a platform raised above the general level of the church and 
reached by four or more steps. The altar is always erected 
in the middle of it, and it is again a few steps higher than the 
level of the sanctuary. It is perhaps possible that the Arme- 
nians originally used an altar-screen or iconostasis, like that 
of the Greek churches, but it has long since disappeared. Still 
they do not use the open altar like the Latin Church. Two 
curtains are hung before the sanctuary : a large double curtain 
hangs before its entrance, extending completely across the 
space like the Roman chancel rail, and is so drawn as to con- 
ceal the altar, the priest, and the deacons at certain parts of 
the Mass ; the second and smaller curtain is used merely to 
separate the priest from the deacons and to cover the altar 
after service. Each curtain opens on both sides, and ordinarily 
is drawn back from the middle. The second curtain is not 
much used. The use of these curtains is ascribed to the year 
340, when they were required by a canon formulated by Bishop 
Macarius of Jerusalem. Upon the altar are usually the Missal, 
the Book of Gospels, a cross upon which the image of Our 
Lord is painted or engraved in low relief, and two or more 
candles, which are lighted as in the Roman use. The Blessed 
Sacrament is usually reserved in a tabernacle on the altar, and 
a small lamp kept burning there at all times. In the choir, 
usually enclosed within a low iron railing, the singers and 
priests stand in lines while singing or reciting the Office. In 
the East, the worshipper, upon entering the nave of the church, 
usually takes off his shoes, just as the Mohammedans do, for 
the Armenian founds this practice upon Ex., iii, 5 ; this custom 
is not followed in the United States, nor do the Armenians 
there sit cross-legged upon the floor in their churches, as they 
do in Asia. 

The administration of the sacraments is marked by some 


ceremonies unlike those of the Roman or Greek Churches, 
and by some which are a composite of the two. In the Sacra- 
ment of Baptism the priest meets the child carried in the arms 
of the nurse at the church door, and, while reciting Psalms li 
and cxxx, takes two threads (one white and the other red) 
and twists them into a cord, which he afterwards blesses. 
Usually the godfather goes to confession before the baptism, 
in order that he may fulfil his duties in the state of grace. The 
exorcisms and renunciations then take place, and the recital of 
the Nicene Creed and the answers to the responses follow. 
The baptismal water is blessed, the anointing with oil per- 
formed, the prayers for the catechumen to be baptized are said, 
and then the child is stripped. The priest takes the child and 
holds it in the font so that the body is in the water, but the 
head is out, and the baptism takes place in this manner: "N., 
the servant of God coming into the state of a catechumen and 
thence to that of baptism, is now baptized by me, in the name 
of the Father [here he pours a handful of water on the head 
of the child], and of the Son [here he pours water as before], 
and of the Holy Ghost [here he pours a third handful]." Af- 
ter this the priest dips the child thrice under the water, saying 
on each occasion : ''Thou art redeemed by the blood of Christ 
from the bondage of sin, by receiving the liberty of sonship of 
the Heavenly Father, and becoming a co-heir with Christ and a 
temple of the Holy Ghost. Amen." Then the child is washed 
and clothed again, generally with a new and beautiful robe, 
and the priest when washing the child says : "Ye that were 
baptized in Christ, have put on Christ, Alleluia. And ye that 
have been illumined by God the Father, may the Holy Ghost 
rejoice in you. Alleluia." Then the passage of the Gospel 
of St. Matthew relating the baptism of Christ in the Jordan is 
read, and the rite thus completed. 

The Sacrament of Confirmation is conferred by the priest 
immediately after baptism, although the Catholic Armenians 
sometimes reserve it for the bishop. The holy chrism is ap- 
plied by the priest to the forehead, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, 
palms, heart, spine and feet, each time with a reference to the 
seal of the Spirit. Finally, the priest lays his hand upon and 
makes the sign of the cross on the child's forehead, saying: 
"Peace to thee, saved through God." When the confirmation 
is thus finished, the priest binds the child's forehead with the 


red and white string which he twisted at the beginning of the 
baptism, and fastens it at the end with a small cross. Then 
he gives two candles, one red and one green, to the godfather 
and has the child brought up to the altar where Communion is 
given to it by a small drop of the Sacred Blood, or, if it be 
not at the time of Mass, by taking the Blessed Sacrament from 
the Tabernacle and signing the mouth of the child with it in 
the form of the cross, saying in either case : "The plenitude 
of the Holy Ghost" ; if the candidate be an adult, full Com- 
munion is administered, and there the confirmation is ended. 
The formula of absolution in the Sacrament of Penance is : 
"May the merciful God have mercy upon you and grant you 
the pardon of all your sins, both confessed and forgotten ; and 
I by virtue of my order of priesthood and in force of the power 
granted by the Divine Command : Whosesoever sins you remit 
on earth they are remitted unto them in heaven ; through that 
same word I absolve you from all participation in sin, by 
thought, word and deed, in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost. And I again restore you to the 
sacraments of the Holy Church; whatsoever good you shall 
do, shall be counted to you for merit and for glory in the life 
to come. May the shedding of the blood of the Son of God, 
which He shed upon the cross and which delivered human na- 
ture from hell, deliver you from your sins. Amen." As a 
rule Armenians are exhorted to make their confession and 
communion on at least five days in the year : the so-called 
Daghavork or feasts of Tabernacles, i. e., the Epiphany, Eas- 
ter, Transfiguration, Assumption and Exaltation of the Holy 
Cross. The first two festivals are obligatory, and, if an Ar- 
menian neglects his duty, he incurs excommunication. The 
Sacrament of Extreme Unction (or "Unction with Oil," as it 
is called) is supposed to be administered by seven priests in the 
ancient form, but practically it is performed by a single priest 
on most occasions. The eyes, ears, nose, lips, hands, feet and 
heart of the sick man are anointed, with this form : "I anoint 
thine eyes with holy oil, so that whatever sin thou mayst have 
committed through thy sight, thou mayst be saved therefrom 
by the anointing of this oil, through the grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ," and with a similar reference to the other mem- 
bers anointed. 

The Divine Liturgy or Mass is of course the chief rite 


among the Armenians, whether Catholic or Gregorian, and it 
is celebrated with a form and ceremonial which partakes in a 
measure both of the Roman and Byzantine rites. As we have 
said, the curtains are used instead of the altar-rail or iconos- 
tasis of those rites, and the vestments are also peculiar. The 
Armenians, like the Latins, use unleavened bread, in the form 
of a wafer or small thin round cake, for consecration ; but like 
the Greeks they prepare many wafers, and those not used for 
consecration in the Mass are given afterwards to the people as 
the antidoron. The wine used must be solely the fermented 
juice of the best grapes obtainable. In the Gregorian churches 
Communion is given to the people under both species, the Host 
being dipped in the chalice before delivering it to the com- 
municant, but in the Catholic churches Communion is now 
given only in one species, that of the Body, although there is 
no express prohibition against the older form. On Christmas 
Eve and Easter Eve the Armenians celebrate Mass in the 
evening; the Mass then begins with the curtains drawn whilst 
the introductory psalms and prophecies are sung, but, at the 
moment the great feast is announced in the Introit, the cur- 
tains are withdrawn and the altar appears with full illumina- 
tion. During Lent the altar remains entirely hidden by the 
great curtains, and during all the Sundays in Lent, except 
Palm Sunday, Mass is celebrated behind the drawn curtains. 
A relic of this practice still remains in the Roman Rite, as 
shown by the veiling of the images and pictures from Pas- 
sion Sunday till Easter Eve. The Armenian vestments for 
Mass are peculiar and splendid. The priest wears a crown, 
exactly in the form of a Greek bishop's mitre, which is called 
the Saghavard or helmet. This is also worn by the deacons 
attending on a bishop at pontifical Mass. The Armenian bish- 
ops wear a mitre almost identical in shape with the Latin 
mitre, and said to have been introduced at the time of their 
union with Rome in the twelfth century, when they relinquished 
the Greek form of mitre for the priests to wear in the Mass. 
The celebrant is first vested with the shapik or alb, which is 
usually narrower than the Latin form, and usually of linen 
(sometimes of silk). He then puts on each of his arms the 
baspans or cuffs, which replace the Latin maniple; then the 
ourar or stole, which is in one piece; then the goti or girdle, 
then the varkas or amice, which is a large embroidered stiff 


collar with a shoulder covering to it ; and finally, the shoochar, 
or chasuble, which is almost exactly like a Roman cope. If the 
celebrant be a bishop, he also wears the gonker or Greek epigo- 
nation. The bishops carry a staff shaped like the Latin, while 
the vartaheds ( deans, or doctors of divinity ; analogous to the 
Roman mitred abbots) carry a staff in the Greek form (a staff 
with two intertwined serpents). No organs are used in the 
Armenian church, but the elaborate vocal music of the Eastern 
style, sung by choir and people, is accompanied by two metal- 
lic instruments, the keshotz and sinzgha (the first a fan with 
small bells; the second similar to cymbals), both of which are 
used during various parts of the Mass. The deacon wears 
merely an alb and a stole in the same manner as in the Roman 
Rite. The subdeacons and lower clergy wear simply the alb. 
The Armenian Mass may be divided into three parts : Prep- 
aration, Anaphora or Canon and Conclusion. The first and 
preparatory portion extends as far as the Preface, when the 
catechumens are directed by the deacon to leave. The Canon 
commences with the conclusion of the Preface and ends with 
the Communion. As soon as the priest is robed in his vest- 
ments he goes to the altar, washes his hands reciting Psalm 
xxvi, and then going to the foot of the altar begins the Mass. 
After saying the Intercessory Prayer, the Confiteor and the 
Absolution, which is given with a crucifix in hand, he recites 
Psalm xlii (Introibo ad altare), and at every two verses 
ascends a step of the altar. After he has intoned the prayer 
"In the tabernacle of holiness," the curtains are drawn, and 
the choir sings the appropriate hymn of the day. Meanwhile 
the celebrant behind the curtain prepares the bread on the 
paten and fills the chalice, ready for the oblation. When this 
is done the curtains are withdrawn and the altar incensed. 
Then the Introit of the day is sung, then the prayers corre- 
sponding to those of the first, second and third antiphons of 
the Byzantine Rite, while the proper psalms are sung by the 
choir. Then the deacon intones "Proschume" (let us attend), 
and elevates the book of the gospels, which is incensed as he 
brings it to the altar, making the Little Entrance. The choir 
then sings the Trisagion (Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy 
and Immortal, have mercy on us) thrice. The Gregorians in- 
terpolate after "Holy and Immortal" some words descriptive 
of the feast day, such as "who was made manifest for us," or 


"who didst rise from the dead," but this addition has been 
condemned at Rome as being a rehc of the Patripassian heresy. 
During the Trisagion the Kesliotc is jingled in accompaniment. 
Then the Greek Ektene or Litany is sung, and at its conclu- 
sion the reader reads the Prophecy; then the Antiphon 
before the Epistle is sung, and the epistle of the day read. 
At the end of each the choir responds Alleluia. Then the dea- 
con announces "Orthi" (stand up) and, taking the Gospels, 
reads or intones the gospel of the day. Immediately after- 
wards, the Armenian form of the Nicene Creed is said or sung. 
It differs from the creed as said in the Roman and Greek 
Churches in that it has, "consubstantial with the Father by 
whom all things were made in Heaven and in Earth, visible 
and invisible; who for us men and our salvation came down 
from Heaven, was incarnate and was made man and perfectly 
begotten through the Holy Ghost of the most Holy Virgin 
Mary; he assumed from her body, soul, and mind, and all that 
in man is, truly and not figuratively" ; and "we believe also in 
the Holy Ghost, not created, all perfect, who proceedeth from 
the Father (and the Son), ztrho spake in the Law, in the 
Prophets and the Holy Gospel, who descended into the Jordan, 
who preached Him who was sent, and who divelt in the Saints," 
and after concluding in the ordinary form adds the sentence pro- 
nounced by the First Council of Nicaea : "Those who say there 
was a time when the Son was not, or when the Holy Ghost was 
not ; or that they were created out of nothing ; or that the Son of 
God and the Holy Ghost are of another substance or that they 
are mutable; the Catholic and Apostolic church condemns." 
Then the Confession of St. Gregory is intoned aloud, and the 
Little Ektene sung. The kiss of peace is here given to the 
clergy. The deacon at its close dismisses the catechumens, and 
the choir sings the Hymn of the Great Entrance, when the 
bread and wine are solemnly brought to the altar. "The Body 
of our Lord and the Blood of our Redeemer are to be before 
us. The Heavenly Powers, invisible, sing and proclaim with 
uninterrupted voice, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts." 
Here the curtains are drawn, and the priest takes off his 
crown (or the bishop his mitre). The priest incenses the holy 
gifts and again washes his hands, repeating Psalm xxvi as 
before. After the salutation is sung, the catechumens are dis- 
missed, and the Anaphora or Canon begins. The Preface is 


said secretly, only the concluding part being intoned, to which 
the choir responds with the Sanctus. The prayer before con- 
secration follows, with a comparison of the Old and the New 
Law, not found in either Greek or Roman Rite : "Holy, Holy, 
Holy ; Thou art in truth most Holy ; who is there who can 
dare to describe by words thy bounties which flow down upon 
us without measure? For Thou didst protect and console our 
forefathers, when they had fallen in sin, by means of the 
prophets, the Law, the priesthood, and the offering of bullocks, 
showing forth that which was to come. And when at length 
He came, Thou didst tear in pieces the register of our sins, 
and didst bestow on us Thine Only Begotten Son, the debtor 
and the debt, the victim and the anointed, the Lamb and Bread 
of Heaven, the Priest and the Oblation, for He is the distribu- 
tor and is always distributed amongst us, without being ex- 
hausted. Being made man truly and not apparently, and by 
union without confusion, He was incarnate in the womb of the 
Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and journeyed through all the 
passions of human life, sin only excepted, and of His own free 
will walked to the cross, whereby He gave life to the world 
and wrought salvation for us." Then follow the actual words 
of consecration, which are intoned aloud. Then follow the 
Offering and the Epiklesis, which differs slightly in the Gre- 
gorian and Catholic form ; the Gregorian is : "whereby Thou 
wilt make the bread when blessed truly the body of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ"; and the Catholic form: "whereby 
Thou hast made the bread when blessed truly the Body of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." As there is actually no 
blessing or consecration after the Epiklesis, the Catholic form 
represents the correct belief. Then come the prayers for the 
living and the dead, and an intoning by the deacons of the 
Commemoration of the Saints, in which nearly all of the 
Armenian saints are mentioned. Then the deacon intones 
aloud the Ascription of Praise of Bishop Chosroes the Great 
in thanksgiving for the Sacrament of the Altar. After this 
comes a long Ektene or Litany, and then the Our Father is sung 
by the choir. The celebrant then elevates the consecrated 
Host, saying "Holy things for Holy Persons," and when the 
choir responds, he continues : "Let us taste in holiness the 
holy and honorable Body and Blood of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ who came down from heaven and is now distrib- 


uted among us." Then the choir sings antiphons in honor of 
the sacrifice of the Body and Blood, and the small curtain is 
drawn. The priest kisses the sacred Victim, saying "I con- 
fess and I believe that Thou art Christ, the Son of God, who 
has borne the sins of the world." The Host is divided into 
three parts, one of which is placed in the chalice. The choir 
sing the communion hymns as appointed ; the priest and the 
clergy receive the Communion first, and then the choir and 
people. The little curtain is withdrawn when the Communion 
is given, and the great curtains are drawn back when the peo- 
ple come up for Communion. 

After Communion, the priest puts on his crown (or the 
bishop his mitre), and the great curtains are again drawn. 
Thanksgiving prayers are said behind them, after which the 
great curtains are withdrawn once more, and the priest hold- 
ing the book of gospels says the great prayer of peace, and 
blesses the people. Then the deacon proclaims "Orthi" (stand 
up) and the celebrant reads the Last Gospel, which is nearly 
always invariable, being the Gospel of St. John, i, i sqq. : "In 
the beginning was the Word, etc." ; the only exception is from 
Easter to the eve of Pentecost, when they use the Gospel of 
St. John, xxi, 15-20: "So when they had dined, etc." Then 
the prayer for peace and the "Kyrie Eleison" (thrice) are said, 
the final benediction is given, and the priest retires from the 
altar. Whilst Psalm xxxiv is recited or sung by the people, 
the blessed bread is distributed. The Catholic Armenians con- 
fine this latter rite to high festivals only. The chief editions 
of the Gregorian Armenian Missals are those printed at Con- 
stantinople (1823, 1844), Jerusalem (1841, 1873 and 1884), 
and Etschmiadzin (1873); the chief Catholic Armenian edi- 
tions are those of Venice (1808, 1874, 1895), Trieste (1808), 
and Vienna (1858, 1884). 

Armenian Catholics. — Armenians had come to the United 
States in small numbers prior to 1895. In that and the fol- 
lowing year the Turkish massacres took place throughout Ar- 
menia and Asia Minor, and large numbers of Armenians emi- 
grated to America. Among them were many Armenian Catho- 
lics, although these were not sufficiently numerous to organize 
any religious communities like their Gregorian brethren. In 
1898 Mgr. Stephan Azarian (Stephen X), then Catholic Pa- 
triarch of Cilicia of the Armenians, who resided in Constanti- 


nople, entered into negotiations with Cardinal Ledochowski, 
Prefect of the Congregation of the Propaganda, and through 
him obtained the consent of Archbishop Corrigan of New 
York and Archbishop Williams of Boston for priests of the 
Armenian Rite to labor in their respective provinces for the 
Armenian Catholics who had come to this country. He sent as 
the first Armenian missionary the Very Reverend Archpriest 
Mardiros Mighirian, who had been educated at the Propa- 
ganda and the Armenian College, and arrived in the United 
States on Ascension Day, May 11, 1899. He at first went to 
Boston, where he assembled a small congregation of Armenian 
Catholics, and later proceeded to New York to look after the 
spiritual welfare of the Catholic Armenians in Manhattan and 
Brooklyn. He also established a mission station in Worcester, 
Massachusetts. In New York and Brooklyn the Catholics of 
the Armenian Rite are divided into those who speak Armenian 
and those who, coming from places outside of the historic Ar- 
menia, speak the Arabic language. At present this missionary 
is stationed at St. Stephen's Church in East Twenty-eighth 
Street, since large numbers of Armenians live in that vicinity, 
but has another congregation under his charge in Brooklyn. 
All these Catholic Armenians are too poor to build any church 
or chapel of their own, and use the basement portion of the 
Latin churches. Towards the end of 1906 another Armenian 
priest, Rev. Manuel Basieganian, commenced mission work in 
Paterson, New Jersey, and now attends mission stations 
throughout New England, New Jersey and Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1908 Rev. Hovsep (Joseph) Keossajian settled in 
Lawrence, Massachusetts, and established a chapel in St. 
Mary's Church. He also ministers to the spiritual wants of the 
Armenian Catholics at Boston, Cambridge, East Watertown, 
Newton, Lynn, Chelsea and Lowell. In 1909 Rev. Moses Ma- 
zarian took charge of the Armenian mission at Cleveland, 
Ohio, and in the cities throughout the west. None of these 
have been able to build independent Armenian churches, but 
usually hold their services in the Roman Catholic churches. 
Besides the places already mentioned there are slender Arme- 
nian Catholic congregations at Haverhill, Worcester, Fitch- 
burg, Milford, Fall River, Holyoke and Whiting, in Massa- 
chusetts ; Nashua and Manchester, in New Hampshire ; Provi- 
dence, Pawtucket and Central Falls, in Rhode Island; New 


Britain and Bridgeport, in Connecticut ; Jersey City, West Ho- 
boken and Newark, in New Jersey ; and Philadelphia and Chi- 
cago. The number of Catholic Armenians in the United States 
is very small, being estimated at about 2,000 to 2,500 all told. 
So many of them reside among the other Armenians and fre- 
quent their churches, that there may be more who do not pro- 
fess themselves Catholics, and purely Armenian chapels would 
doubtless bring to light many whom the mission priests on their 
rounds do not reach. 

Gregorian Armenians. — Inasmuch as Armenia was con- 
verted to the faith of St. Gregory the Illuminator, the Arme- 
nians who are not in union with the Holy See pride themselves 
upon the fact that they more truly hold the faith preached by 
St. Gregory and they are accordingly called Gregorians, since 
the word "Orthodox" would be likely to confuse them with the 
Greeks. By reason of the many schools founded in Armenia 
and in Constantinople by American Protestant missionaries, 
their attention was turned to America, and, when the massa- 
cres of 1895-96 took place, large numbers came to the United 
States. Many of them belonged to the Protestant Armenian 
Church, and identified themselves with the Congregationalists 
or Presbyterians ; but the greater number of them belonged to 
the national Gregorian Church. In 1889 Rev. Hovsep Sara- 
jian, a priest from Constantinople, was sent to the Armenians 
in Massachusetts, and a church which was built in Worcester 
in 1891 is still the headquarters of the Armenian Church in 
the United States. The emigration increasing greatly after 
the massacres, Father Sarajian was reinforced by several other 
Armenian priests; in 1898 he was made bishop, and in 1903 
was invested with archiepiscopal authority, having Canada and 
the United States under his jurisdiction. Seven great pasto- 
rates were organized to serve as the nuclei of future dioceses : 
at Worcester, Boston and Lawrence (Massachusetts), New 
York, Providence (Rhode Island), Fresno (CaHfornia) and 
Chicago (Illinois). To these was added West Hoboken in 
1906. There are numerous congregations and mission stations 
in various cities. Churches have been built in Worcester, 
Fresno and West Hoboken ; in Boston and Providence halls 
are rented, and in other places arrangements are often made 
with Episcopal churches where their services are held. The 
Gregorian Armenian clergy comprises the archbishop, seven 


resident and three missionary priests, while the number of 
Gregorian Armenians is given at 20,000 in the United States. 
There are several Armenian societies and two Armenian news- 
papers and also Armenian reading-rooms in several places. 

II. — Byzantine or Greek Rite 

This rite, reckoning both the Catholic and Schismatic 
Churches, comes next in expansion through the Christian 
world to the Roman Rite. It also ranks next to the Roman 
Rite in America, there being now (1911) about 156 Greek 
Catholic churches, and about 149 Greek Orthodox churches in 
the United States.^ The Eastern Orthodox Churches of Rus- 
sia, Turkey, Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria and other places 
where they are found, make up a total of about 120,000,000, 
while the Uniat Churches of the same rite, the Greek Catholics 
in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, Asia and elsewhere, 
amount to upwards of 7,500,000. Unlike the Armenian Rite, 
it has not been confined to any particular people or language, 
but has spread over the entire Christian Orient among the 
Slavic, Rumanian and Greek populations. As regards juris- 
diction and authority, it has not been united and homogeneous 
like the Roman Rite, nor has it, like the Latin Church, been 
uniform in language, calendar, or particular customs, although 
the same general teaching, ritual and observances have been 
followed. The principal languages in which the liturgy of 
the Greek Rite is celebrated are (i) Greek, (2) Slavonic, 
(3) Arabic, and (4) Rumanian. It is also celebrated in 
Gregorian by a small and diminishing number of worshippers, 
and sometimes experimentally in a number of modern tongues 
for missionary purposes ; but, as this latter use has never been 
approved, the four languages named above may be considered 
the official ones of the Byzantine Rite. A portion of the popu- 
lation of all the nations which use this rite, follow it in union 
with the Holy See, and these have by their union placed the 
Byzantine Rite in the position which it occupied before the 
schism of 1054. Thus, the Russians, Bulgarians and Servians, 
who are schismatic, use the Old Slavonic in their church books 
and services ; so likewise do the Catholic Ruthenians, Bul- 
garians and Servians. Likewise the Rumanians of Rumania 


and Transylvania, who are schismatic, use the Rumanian lan- 
guage in the Greek Rite ; but the Rumanians of Transylvania, 
who are Catholic, do the same. The Orthodox Greeks of 
Greece and Turkey use the original Greek of their rite ; but 
the Italo-Greeks of Italy and Sicily and the Greeks of Con- 
stantinople, who are Catholic, use it also. The Syro-Arabians 
of Syria and Egypt, who are schismatic, use the Arabic in the 
Greek Rite ; but the Catholic Melchites likewise use it. 

The numerous emigrants from these countries to America 
have brought with them their Byzantine Rite with all its local 
peculiarities and its language. In some respects the environ- 
ment of a people professing the Greek Rite in union with the 
Holy See but in close touch with their countrymen of the 
Roman Rite has tended to change in unimportant particulars 
several of the ceremonies and sometimes particular phrases of 
the rite, but not to a greater extent than the various Schismatic 
Churches have changed the language and ceremonies in their 
several national Churches. Where this has occurred in the 
Greek Churches united with the Holy See, it has been fiercely 
denounced as latinizing, but, where it has occurred in Russia, 
Bulgaria or Syria, it is simply regarded by the same de- 
nouncers as a mere expression of nationalism. There is in 
the aggregate a larger number of Catholics of the Byzantine 
Rite in America than of the Orthodox. The chief nationali- 
ties there which are Catholic are the Ruthenians, Rumanians, 
Alelchites and Italo-Greeks ; the principal Orthodox ones are 
the Russians, Greeks, Syro-Arabians, Servians, Rumanians, 
Bulgarians and Albanians. As emigration from those lands 
increases daily, and the representatives of those rites are in- 
creasing in numbers and prosperity, a still wider expansion 
of the Greek Rite in the United States may be expected. Al- 
ready the Russian Orthodox Church has a strong hierarchy, 
an ecclesiastical seminary and monasteries, supported chiefly 
by the Holy Synod and the Orthodox Missionary Society of 
Russia, and much proselytizing is carried on among the Greek 
Catholics. The latter are not in such a favorable position ; they 
have no home governmental support, but have had to build 
and equip their own institutions out of their own slender 
means. The Holy See has provided a bishop for them, but 
the Russians have stirred up dissensions and made his position 
as difficult as possible among his own people. The Hellenic 


Greek Orthodox Church expects soon to have its own Greek 
bishop, and the Servians and Rumanians also expect a bishop 
to be appointed by their home authorities. 

III. — Maronite Rite 

The Maronite is one of the Syrian rites and has been closely 
assimilated in the Church to the Roman Rite. Unlike the 
Syro-Chaldean or the Syro-Catholic rites, for they all use the 
Syriac language in the Mass and liturgy, it has not kept the 
old forms intact, but has modelled itself more and more upon 
the Roman Rite. Among all the Eastern rites which are now 
in communion with the Holy See, it alone has no Schismatic 
rite of corresponding form and language, but is wholly united 
and Catholic, thereby differing also from the other Syrian 
rites. The liturgical language is the ancient Syriac or Ara- 
maic, and the Maronites, as well as all other rites who use 
Syriac, take especial pride in the fact that they celebrate the 
Mass in the very language which Christ spoke while He was 
on earth, as evidenced by some fragments of His very words 
still preserved in the Greek text of the Gospels (e.g., in Matt, 
xxvii, 46, and Mark v, 41). The Syriac is a Semitic language 
closely related to the Hebrew, and is sometimes called Ara- 
maic from the Hebrew word Aram (Northern Syria). As the 
use of Ancient Hebrew died out after the Babylonian captivity, 
the Syriac or Aramaic took its place, very much as Italian has 
supplanted Latin throughout the Italian peninsula. This was 
substantially the situation at the time of Christ's teaching and 
the foundation of the early Church. Syriac is now a dead 
language, and in the Maronite service and liturgy bears the 
same relation to the vernacular Arabic as the Latin in the 
Roman Rite does to the modern languages of the people. It 
is written with a peculiar alphabet, reads from right to left 
like the Hebrew or Arabic languages, but its letters are unlike 
the current alphabets of either of these languages. To sim- 
plify the Maronite Missals. Breviary and other service books, 
the vernacular Arabic is often employed for the rubrics and 
for many of the best-known prayers ; it is written, not in 
Arabic characters, but in Syriac, and this mingled language 
and alphabet is called Karshuni. The Epistle, Gospel, Creed 


and Pater Noster are nearly always given in Karslumi, in- 
stead of the original Arabic. 

The form of the Liturgy or Mass is that of St. James, so 
called because of the tradition that it originated with St. James 
the Less, Apostle and Bishop of Jerusalem. It is the type 
form of the Syriac Rite, but the Maronite Use has accommo- 
dated it more and more to the Roman. This form of the 
Liturgy of St. James constitutes the Ordinary of the Mass, 
which is always said in the same manner, merely changing the 
epistles and gospels according to the Christian year. But the 
Syrians, whether of the Maronite, Syrian, Catholic or Syro- 
Chaldaic rite, have the peculiarity (not found in other litur- 
gies) of inserting different anaphoras or canons of the Mass, 
composed at various times by different Syrian saints; these 
change according to the feast celebrated, somewhat analo- 
gously to the Preface in the Roman Rite. The principal an- 
aphoras or canons of the Mass used by the Maronites are: (i) 
the Anaphora according to the Order of the Holy Catholic and 
Roman Church, the Mother of all the Churches; (2) the 
Anaphora of St. Peter, the Head of the Apostles; (3) the 
Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles ; (4) the Anaphora of St. 
James the Apostle, brother of the Lord; (5) the Anaphora of 
St. John the Apostle and Evangelist; (6) the Anaphora of 
St. Mark the EvangeHst ; (7) the Anaphora of St. Xystus, the 
Pope of Rome; (8) the Anaphora of St. John surnamed Maro, 
from whom they derive their name; (9) the Anaphora of St. 
John Chrysostom; (10) the Anaphora of St. Basil; (11) the 
Anaphora of St. Cyril; (12) the Anaphora of St. Dionysius; 
(13) the Anaphora of John of Harran, and (14) the Anaphora 
of Marutha of Tagrith. Besides these they have also a form 
of liturgy of the Presanctified for Good Friday, after the 
Roman custom. Frequent use of incense is a noticeable fea- 
ture of the Maronite Mass. and not even in low Mass is the 
incense omitted. In their form of church building the Maro- 
nites have nothing special like the Greeks with their iconostasis 
and square altar, or the Armenians with their curtains, but 
build their churches very much as Latins do. While the sacred 
vestments are hardly distinguishable from those of the Roman 
Church, in some respects they approach the Greek form. The 
alb, the girdle and the maniple or cuffs on each hand, a peculiar 
form of amice, the stole (sometimes in Greek and sometimes 


in Roman form), and the ordinary Roman chasuble make up 
the vestments worn by the priest at Mass. Bishops use a 
cross, mitre and staff of the Roman form. The sacred vessels 
used on the altar are the chalice, paten or disk, and a small 
star or asterisk to cover the consecrated Host. They, like us, 
use a small cross or crucifix, with a long silken banner attached, 
for giving the blessings. The Maronites use unleavened bread 
and have a round Host, as in the Roman Rite. 

The Maronite Mass commences with the ablution and vest- 
ing at the foot of the altar. Then, standing at the middle of 
the sanctuary, the priest recites Psalm xlii, "Introibo ad al- 
tare," moving his head in' the form of a cross. He then 
ascends the altar, takes the censer and incenses both the uri- 
covered chalice and paten, then takes up the Host and has it 
incensed, puts it on the paten and has the corporals and veils 
incensed. He next pours wine in the chalice, adding a little 
water, and then incenses it and covers both Host and chalice 
with the proper veils. Then, going again to the foot of the 
altar, he says aloud the first prayer in Arabic, which is followed 
by an antiphon. The strange Eastern music, with its harsh 
sounds and quick changes, is a marked feature of the Maronite 
Rite. The altar, the elements, the clergy, servers and people are 
incensed, and the Kyrie Eleison (Kurrilison) and the "Holy 
God, Holy strong one, etc.," are sung by choir and people. 
Then comes the Pater Noster in Arabic, with the response: 
"For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory, world 
without end. Amen." The celebrant and deacon intone the 
Synapte for peace, which is followed by a short form of the 
Gloria in excelsis: "Glory be to God on high, and on earth 
peace and good hope to the sons of men," etc. The Phrumiur 
is then said ; this is an introductory prayer, and always comes 
before the Sedro, which is a prayer of praise said aloud by the 
priest standing before the altar while the censer is swung. It 
is constructed by the insertion of verses into a more or less 
constant framework, commemorative of the feast or season, and 
seems to be a survival of the old psalm verses with the Gloria. 
For instance, a Sedro of Our Lady will commemorate her in 
many ways, something like our litany, but more poetically and 
at length ; one of Our Lord will celebrate Him in His nativity, 
baptism, etc. Then come the commemorations of the Proph- 
ets, the Apostles, the martyrs, of all the saints, and lastly the 


commemoration of the departed : "Be ye not sad, all ye who 
sleep in the dust, and in the decay of your bodies. The living 
Body which you have eaten and the saving Blood which you 
have drunk, can again vivify all of you, and clothe your bodies 
with glory. O Christ, Who hast come and given peace by Thy 
Blood to the heights and the depths, give rest to the souls of 
Thy servants in the promised life everlasting!" The priest 
then prays for the living, and makes special intercession by 
name of those living or dead for whom the Mass is offered. 
He blesses and offers the sacred elements, in a form somewhat 
analogous . to the Offertory in the Roman Rite. Another 
Phrumiur and the great Sedro of St. Ephraem or St. James is 
said, in which the whole sacrifice of the Mass is foreshadowed. 
The psalm preparatory to the Epistle in Arabic is recited, and 
the epistle of the day then read. The Alleluia and gradual 
psalm is recited, the Book of Gospels incensed, and the Gospel, 
also in Arabic, intoned or read. The versicles of thanksgiving 
for the Gospel are intoned, at several parts of which the priest 
and deacon and precentor chant in unison. The Nicene Creed, 
said in unison by priest and deacon, follows, and immediately 
after the celebrant washes his hands saying Psalm xxvi. This 
ends the Ordinary of the Mass. 

The Anaphora, or Canon of the Mass, is then begun, and 
varies according to season, place and celebrant. In the An- 
aphora of the Holy Catholic and Roman Church, which is a 
typical one, the Mass proceeds with the prayers for peace very 
much as they stand at the end of the Roman Mass ; then follow 
prayers of confession, adoration and glory, which conclude by 
giving the kiss of peace to the deacon and the other clergy. 
The Preface follows: "Let us Hft up our thoughts, our con- 
science and our hearts! I^. They are lifted up to Thee, O 
Lord ! P. Let us give thanks to the Lord in fear, and adore 
Him with trembling. ^. It is meet and just. P. To Thee, 
O God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, O glorious and holy 
King of Israel, for ever! 1^. Glory be to the Father and the 
Son and the Holy Ghost, now and forever, world without end. 
I^. Before the glorious and divine mysteries of our Redeemer, 
with the pleasant things which are imposed, let us implore the 
mercy of the Lord ! ^. It is meet and just" (and the Preface 
continues secretly). Then the Sanctus is sung, and the Conse- 
cration immediately follows. The words of Consecration are 


intoned aloud, the choir answering "Amen." After the suc- 
ceeding prayer of commemoration of the Resurrection and 
hope of the Second Coming and a prayer for mercy, the Epi- 
klesis is said : "How tremendous is this hour and how awful 
this moment, my beloved, in which the Holy and Life-giving 
Spirit comes down from on high and descends upon this Eu- 
charist which is placed in this sanctuary for our reconciliation. 
With silence and fear stand and pray! Salvation to us and 
the peace of God the Father of all of us. Let us cry out and 
say thrice: Have mercy on us, O Lord, and send down the 
Holy and Life-giving Spirit upon us! Hear me, O Lord! and 
let Thy living and Holy Spirit descend upon me and upon this 
sacrifice ! and so complete this mystery, that it be the Body of 
Christ our God for our redemption!" The prayers for the 
Pope of Rome, the Patriarch of Antioch, and all the metro- 
politans and bishops and orthodox professors and believers of 
the Catholic Faith immediately follow. This in turn is fol- 
lowed by a long prayer by the deacon for tranquillity, peace 
and the commemoration of all the saints and doctors of the 
early Church and of Syria, including St. John Maro, with the 
petition for the dead at the end. Then comes the solemn offer- 
ing of the Body and the Blood for the sins of priest and people, 
concluding with the words : "Thy Body and Thy Holy Blood 
are the way which leads to the Kingdom !" The adoration and 
the fraction follow ; then the celebrant elevates the chalice to- 
gether with the Host, and says : "O desirable sacrifice which 
is offered for us ! O victim of reconciliation, which the Father 
obtained in Thy own person ! O Lamb, Who wast the same 
person as the High Priest who sacrificed!" Then he genu- 
flects and makes the sign of the cross over the chalice: "Be- 
hold the Blood which was shed upon Golgotha for my redemp- 
tion; because of it receive my supplication." The "Sanctus 
fortis" is again sung, and the celebrant lifts the Sacred Body 
on high and says : "Holy things for holy persons, in purity 
and holiness !" The fraction of the Host follows after several 
prayers, and the priest mingles a particle with the Blood, re- 
ceives the Body and the Blood himself, and gives communion 
to the clergy and then to the people. When it is finished he 
makes the sign of the cross with the paten and blesses the 

Then follow a synapte (litany) of thanksgiving, and a sec- 


ond signing of the people with both paten and chalice, after 
which the priest consumes all the remaining species, saying 
afterwards the prayers at the purification and ablution. The 
prayer of blessing and protection is said, and the people and 
choir sing : "Alleluia ! Alleluia ! I have fed upon Thy Body 
and by Thy living Blood I am reconciled, and I have sought 
refuge in Thy Cross ! Through these may I please Thee, O 
Good Lord, and grant Thou mercy to the sinners who call 
upon Thee !" Then they sing the final hymn of praise, which 
in this anaphora contains the words : "By the prayers of 
Simon Peter, Rome was made the royal city, and she shall not 
be shaken!" Then the people all say or sing the Lord's 
Prayer; when it is finished, the final benediction is given, and 
the priest, coming again to the foot of the altar, takes oflE his 
sacred vestments and proceeds to make his thanksgiving. 

Maronites in America. — The Maronites are chiefly from the 
various districts of Mount Lebanon and from the city of Bei- 
rut, and were at first hardly distinguishable from the other 
Syrians and Arabic-speaking persons who came to America. 
At first they were merely peddlers and small traders, chiefly in 
religious and devotional articles, but they soon got into other 
lines of business and at present possess many well-established 
business enterprises. Not only are they established in the 
United States, but they have also spread to Mexico and Can- 
ada, and have several fairly large colonies in Brazil, Argen- 
tine and Uruguay. Their numbers in the United States are 
variously estimated from 100,000 to 120,000, including the 
native-born. Many of them have become prosperous mer- 
chants and are now American citizens. Several Maronite 
families of title (Emir) have emigrated and made their homes 
in the United States ; among them are the Emirs Al-Kazen, 
Al-Khouri, Abi-Saab and others. There is also the well-known 
Arabic novelist of the present day, Madame Karam Hanna 
(Afifa Karam) of Shreveport, Louisiana, formerly of Amshid, 
Mount Lebanon, who not only writes entertaining fiction, but 
touches on educational topics and even women's rights. Na- 
hum Mokarzel, a graduate of the Jesuit College of Beirut, is 
a clever writer both in Arabic and English. The Maronites 
are established in New York, the New England States, Penn- 
sylvania, Minnesota and Alabama. The first Maronite priest 
to visit the United States was Rev. Joseph Mokarzel, who 


arrived in 1879, but did not remain. Very Rev. Louis Kazen, 
of Port Said, Egypt, came later, but, as there were very few 
of his countrymen, he likewise returned. On 6 August, 1890, 
the Rev. Butrosv Korkemas came to establish a permanent mis- 
sion, and after considerable difficulty rented a tiny chapel in a 
store on Washington Street, New York City. He was accom- 
panied by his nephew. Rev. Joseph Yasbek, then in deacon's or- 
ders, who was later ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop 
Corrigan, and founded the Maronite mission in Boston; he is 
now Chor-Bishop of the Maronites and practically the head 
of that rite in America. 

A church was later established in Philadelphia, then one in 
Troy and one in Brooklyn, after which the Maronites branched 
out to other cities. At present (1911) there are fifteen Maro- 
nite churches in the United States: in New York, Brooklyn, 
Troy, Buffalo, Boston, Lawrence, Springfield, Philadelphia, 
Scranton, St. Paul, St. Louis, Birmingham, Chicago, Wheel- 
ing and Cleveland. Meanwhile new congregations are being 
formed in smaller cities, and are regularly visited by mission- 
ary priests. The Maronite clergy is composed of two chor- 
bishops (deans vested with certain episcopal powers) and 
twenty-three other priests, of whom five are Antonine monks. 
In Mexico there are three Maronite chapels and four priests. 
In Canada there is a Maronite chapel at New Glasgow and 
one resident priest. There are only two Arabic-English 
schools, in New York and St. Louis, since many of the Maro- 
nite children go to the ordinary Catholic or to the public 
schools. There are no general societies or clubs with religious 
objects, although there is a Syrian branch of the St. Vincent 
de Paul Society. About fifteen years ago Nahum A. Mokarzel 
founded and now publishes in New York City the daily news- 
paper, "Al Hoda" (The Guidance), which is now the best- 
known Arabic newspaper in the world and the only illustrated 
one. His brother also publishes an Arabic monthly magazine, 
"Al Alam ul Jadia" (The New World), which contains modern 
Arabic literature and translations of American and English 
writers. There are also two Maronite papers published in 
Mexico. The Maronites also have in New York a publishing 
house on a small scale, in which novels, pamphlets and scien- 
tific and religious works are printed in Arabic, and the usual 
Arabic literature sold. 


IV. — Other Oriental Rites 

The rites already described are the principal rites to be met 
with in the United States ; but there are besides them a few 
representatives of the remaining Eastern rites, although these 
are perhaps not sufficiently numerous to maintain their own 
churches or to constitute separate ecclesiastical entities. 
Among these smaller bodies are : ( i ) the Chaldean Catholics 
and the schismatic Christians of the same rite, known as Nes- 
torians; (2) the Syrian Catholics or Syro-Catholics and their 
correlative dissenters, the Jacobites, and (3) finally the Copts, 
CathoHc or Orthodox. All of these have a handful of repre- 
sentatives in America, and, as immigration increases, it is a 
question how great their numbers will become. 

( I ) Chaldean or Syro-Chaldean Catholic Rite. — Those who 
profess this rite are Eastern Syrians, coming from what was 
anciently Mesopotamia, but is now the borderland of Persia. 
They ascribe the origin of the rite to two of the early disciples^ 
Addeus and Maris, who first preached the Gospel in their 
lands. It is really a remnant of the early Persian Church, 
and it has always used the Syriac language in its liturgy. The 
peculiar Syriac which it uses is known as the eastern dialect, 
as distinguished from that used in the Maronite and Syro- 
Catholic rites, which is the western dialect. The method of 
writing this church Syriac among the Chaldeans is somewhat 
different from that used in writing it among the western 
Syrians. The Chaldeans and Nestorians use in their church 
books the antique letters of the older versions of the Syriac 
Scriptures which are called "astrangelo," and their pronuncia- 
tion is somewhat different. The Chaldean Church in ancient 
times was most flourishing, and its history under Persian rule 
was a bright one. Unfortunately in the sixth century it em- 
braced the Nestorian heresy, for Nestorius on being removed 
from the See of Constantinople went to Persia and taught his 
views. The Chaldean Church took up his heresy and became 
Nestorian. This Nestorian Church not only extended through- 
out Mesopotamia and Persia, but penetrated also into India 
(Malabar) and even into China. The inroads of Moham- 
medanism and its isolation from the centre of unity and from 
intercommunication with other Catholic bodies caused it to 


diminish through the centuries. In the sixteenth century the 
Church in Malabar, India, came into union with the Holy See, 
and this induced the Nestorians to do likewise. The conversion 
of part of the Nestorians and the reunion of their ancient 
Church with the Holy See began in the seventeenth century, 
and has continued to the present day. The Chaldean Patri- 
arch of Babylon (who really has his see at Mossul) is the 
chief prelate of the Chaldean Catholics, and has under him two 
archbishops (of Diarbekir and Kerkuk) and nine bishops (of 
Amadia, Gezireh, Mardin, Mossul, Sakou, Salmas, Seert, Sena 
and Urmiah). The Malabar Christians have no regular Chal- 
dean hierarchy, but are governed by vicars Apostolic. The 
number of Chaldean Catholics is estimated at about 70,000, 
while the corresponding schismatic Nestorian Church has about 

There are about 100 to 150 Chaldean Catholics in the United 
States ; about fifty live in Yonkers, New York, while the re- 
mainder are scattered in New York City and vicinity. The 
community in Yonkers is cared for by Rev. Abdul Masih (a 
married priest from the Diocese of Diarbekir), who came to 
this country from Damascus some six years ago. He says 
Mass in a chapel attached to St. Mary's Catholic Church, and 
some Nestorians also attend. At present (1911) there are two 
other Chaldean priests in this country : Rev. Joseph Ghariba, 
from the Diocese of Aleppo, who is a travelling missionary for 
his people, and Rev. Gabriel Oussani, who is professor of 
church history, patrology and Oriental languages in St. Jo- 
seph's Seminary, at Dunwoodie, near Yonkers, and from whom 
some of these particulars have been obtained. There are also 
said to be about 150 Nestorians in the United States; the ma- 
jority of these live and work in Yonkers, New York. They 
have no priest of their own, and, where they do not attend 
the Catholic Rite, are drifting into modern Protestantism. 
Several of them have become members of the Episcopal 
Church, and they are looked after by Dr. Abraham Yohannan, 
an Armenian from Persia, now a minister in the Episcopal 
Church and lecturer on modern Persian at Columbia Univer- 
sity. They have no church or chapel of their own. 

(2) Syro-Catholic Rite. — This rite is professed by those 
Syriac Christians who were subjects of the ancient Patriar- 
chate of Antioch; these are spread throughout the plains of 


Syria and Western Mesopotamia, whereas the Maronites live 
principally on Mount Lebanon and the sea coast of Syria. 
The Syriac Mass and liturgy is, like the Maronite (which is 
but a variation of it), the Liturgy of St. James, Apostle and 
Bishop of Jerusalem. For this reason, but principally for the 
reason that Jacob Baradaeus and the greater part of the Syriac 
Church embraced the Monophysite heresy of Eutyches, the 
schismatic branch of this rite are called Jacobites, although 
they call themselves Suriani or Syrians. Thus we have in the 
three Syrian rites the historic remembrance of the three great- 
est heresies of the early Church after it had become well-de- 
veloped. Nestorians and Chaldeans represent Nestorianism 
and the return to Catholicism ; Jacobites and Syro-Catholics 
represent Monophysitism and the return to Catholicism; the 
Maronites represent a vanished Monothelitism now wholly 
Catholic. The Syro-Catholics like the Maronites vary the 
Ordinary of their Mass by a large number of anaphoras or 
canons of the Mass, containing changeable forms of the con- 
secration service. The Syro-Catholics confine themselves to 
the anaphoras of St. John the Evangelist, St. James, St. Peter, 
St. John Chrysostom, St. Xystus the Pope of Rome, St. Mat- 
thew and St. Basil; but the schismatic Jacobites not only use 
these, but have a large number of others, some of them not 
yet in print, amounting perhaps to thirty or more. The epis- 
tles, gospels and many well-known prayers of the Mass are 
said in Arabic instead of the ancient Syriac. The form of 
their church vestments is derived substantially from the Greek 
or Byzantine Rite. Their church hierarchy in union with the 
Holy See consists of the Syrian Patriarch of Antioch with 
three archbishops (of Bagdad, Damascus and Homs) and five 
bishops (of Aleppo, Beirut, Gezireh, Mardin-Diarbekir and 
Mossul). The number of Syro-Catholics is about 25,000 fami- 
lies, and of the Jacobites about 80,000 to 85,000 persons. 

There are about sixty persons of the Syro-Catholic Rite in 
the eastern part of the United States, of whom forty live in 
Brooklyn, New York. They are mostly from the Diocese of 
Aleppo, and their emigration thither began only about five 
years ago. They have organized a church, although there is 
but one priest of their rite in the United States, Rev. Paul 
Kassar, from Aleppo, an alumnus of the Propaganda at Rome. 
He is a mission priest engaged in looking after his countrymen 


and resides in Brooklyn, but he is only here upon an extended 
leave of absence from the diocese. There are also some thirty 
or forty Syro-Jacobites in the United States ; they are mostly 
from Mardin, Aleppo and Northern Syria, and have no priest 
or chapel of their own. 

(3) Coptic Rite. — There is only a handful of Copts in this 
country — in New York City perhaps a dozen individuals. 
Oriental theatrical pieces, in which an Eastern setting is re- 
quired, has attracted some of them thither, principally from 
Egypt. They have no priest, either Catholic or Orthodox, and 
no place of worship. 


RASKOLNIKS is a generic term for dissidents from 
the Established Church in Russia. Under the name 
Raskolniki, the various offshoots and schismatic bod- 
ies originating- from the Greek Orthodox Church of the Rus- 
sian Empire have been grouped by Russian historians and 
ecclesiastical writers. Strictly speaking, the name Raskolniki 
refers merely to those who have kept the outward forms of 
the Byzantine Rite ; the others who have deserted its ritual as 
well as its teachings are grouped under the general Russian 
name of Sektanstvo (sectarianism). In the present article 
they are both treated together, since either form of dissent is 
but slightly known outside of Russia. The Raskolniks repre- 
sent in the Russian Church somewhat the antithesis of Protes- 
tantism towards the Catholic Church. Protestants left the 
Church because they claimed a desire to reform it by dropping 
dogmas, beliefs and rites ; the Raskolniks left the Russian 
Church because they desired to keep alive the minutest rites 
and practices to which they were accustomed, and objected to 
the Russian Church reforming them in any respect. In doing 
so they fell into the greatest of inconsistencies, and a section 
of them, while keeping up the minutiae of ritual, rejected nearly 
every doctrine the Church taught throughout the world. 

I. — True Raskolniks 

Even from the time that the Russians were converted to 
Christianity there were various dissident sects among them, 
reproducing in some respects the almost forgotten heresies of 
the early ages of the Church. These are mere names to-day, 
but the main separation from the Russian Established Church 
came in 1654 when Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow, convened a 
synod at Moscow for the reform of the ritual and correction 
of the church books. At the time the air in Southern Russia 



was filled with the idea of union with Rome, in Central and 
Northern Russia there was the fear of the Polish invasion 
and the turning to Latin customs. When Nikon corrected 
the Church service books, into which many errors had crept 
by careless copying, and conformed them with the original 
Greek text, great complaint was expressed that he was de- 
parting from old Slavonic hallowed words, and was making 
cause with the stranger outside of Russia. When he under- 
took to change the style of popular forms and ceremonies, such 
as the sign of the cross, the spelling and pronunciation of 
"Jesus," shaving the beard, or to differ in the number of Alle- 
luias before the Gospel, he aroused popular resentment, which 
rose until there came an open break in which every point he 
proposed was rejected. Afterwards when Peter the Great 
came to the throne (1689-1725) and introduced western cus- 
toms, abolished the Patriarchate of Moscow, substituted the 
Holy Synod and made himself the head of Church authority, 
changed the forms of the ancient Russo-Slavonic letters, and 
set on foot a host of new things in Church and State, the fol- 
lowers of the old order of things publicly condemned him as 
the Antichrist and renounced the State Church forever, while 
clinging to the older forms of their fathers. But both Nikon 
and Peter had the whole Russian Episcopate with them, as well 
as the great majority of the Russian clergy and people. The 
dissenters who thus separated from the established Greco- 
Russian Orthodox Church became also known as Stario- 
briadtsi (old Ritualists) and Staroviertsi (old Believers), in 
allusion to their adherence to the forms and teaching prevail- 
ing before Nikon's reforms. 

As none of the Russian bishops seceded from the Established 
Church the Raskolniks therefore had but an incomplete form 
of Church. Of course a number of priests and deacons ad- 
hered to them, but as they had no bishops they could not pro- 
vide new members of the clergy. Soon death began to thin 
the ranks of their clergy and it became apparent that within a 
brief period they would be left without any priesthood what- 
ever. Then some of their leaders began to deny that a priest- 
hood was necessary at all. This led to the splitting of the Ras- 
kolniks into two distinct branches : the Popovtsi (Priestly, i. e., 
"Pope"-ly), who insisted on the hierarchy and priesthood, 
and the Bezpopovtsi (Priestless, i. e., without "Popes"), who 


denied the necessity of any clergy whatever. The latter, 
however, accepted their ministrations. The fortunes of these 
two denominations or sects were quite different. The former 
grew to great importance in Russia, and are now said to 
have between thirteen and fifteen millions of adherents. The 
latter subdivided again and again into smaller sects, and 
are said to number between three and four millions, all in- 
cluded. They will be taken up separately. 

Popovtsi or Hierarchical Raskolniks. — At first these re- 
newed their clergy by taking over dissatisfied or dismissed 
priests from the established Orthodox Church, after having 
them take an oath against all the reforms instituted by Nikon 
and Peter; but this method was hardly satisfactory, for in 
most cases the material thus obtained was of a low moral 
grade. They believed that the whole Russian episcopate had 
gone over to Antichrist, but still were valid bishops, and 
hence endeavored to have priests ordained by them, but in 
vain. They searched the Eastern world for a bishop who 
held their peculiar ideas, and it seemed almost as though 
they must eventually change for lack of clergy, when chance 
aided them. A community of Popovtsi monks had settled at 
Bielokrinitsa (White Fountain) in Bukowina. Ambrose 
(1791-1863), a Greek monk, was appointed Bishop of Sara- 
jevo in Bosnia, and was consecrated by the Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. Subsequently a later patriarch deposed him, and 
when his resentful feelings against the Constantinople au- 
thorities were at their height, the Raskolniks approached him 
with the request to become their bishop. On 16 April, 1846, 
Ambrose agreed to go over to their faith and adopt all the 
ancient practices, consecrate other bishops for them, and 
become their metropolitan or archbishop. On 27 October, 
1846, he was solemnly received in the monastery of Bielo- 
krinitsa, took the necessary oaths, celebrated pontifical Mass 
and assumed episcopal jurisdiction. Bielo-krinitsa is only a 
few miles from the Russian border, and a hierarchy was soon 
brought into being for Russia. After bishops were conse- 
crated for Austria and Turkey, bishops were consecrated 
and installed in Russia. The Russian Government could not 
crush the head of the Raskol Church, for it was in Austria. 
The Popovtsi grew by leaps and bounds, commenced to pro- 
vide for a regular educated clergy and vied with the Estab- 


lished Church. At present they have, since the decree of 
toleration in 1905, a well-established hierarchy in Russia, 
with a metropolitan at Moscow, and bishops at Saratoff, Perm, 
Kazan, Caucasus, Samara, Kolomea, Nijni-Novgorod, Smo- 
lensk, Vyatka, and Kaluga. 

Their chief stronghold is the Rogozhsky quarter in Moscow, 
where they have their great cemetery, monastery, cathedral, 
church, and chapels. In 1863, at the time of the Polish insur- 
rection the Raskolnik archbishop and his lay advisers sent 
out an encyclical letter to the "Holy Catholic Apostolic Church 
of the Old Believers," supporting the tsar and declaring that 
on all main points they were in agreement with the Established 
Church. This again split their Church into two factions which 
last to this day : the Okruzhniki or Encyclicalists and the 
Razdorniki or Controversialists, who denied the points of 
agreement with the national Church. In addition to this the 
Established Church has now set up a section of these Ras- 
kolniks in union with it, but has permitted them to keep all 
their peculiar practices, and these are called the Y edinovertsi 
or "Uniats." A great many of the controversial section of 
the Raskolniks are coming into the Catholic Church, and al- 
ready some eight or ten priests have been received. 

Bezpopovtsi, or the Priestless, seemed to represent the de- 
spairing side of the schism. They have their great stronghold 
in the Preobrazhenky quarter in Moscow, and are strong also 
in the Government of Archangel. They took the view that 
Satan had so far conquered and throttled the Church that 
the clergy had gone wrong and had become his servants, that 
the sacraments, except baptism, were withdrawn from the 
laity, and that they were left leaderless. They claim the 
right of free interpretation of the Scriptures, modelling their 
lives accordingly. They recognize no ministers save their 
"readers," who are elected. Lest this be said to duplicate 
Protestantism, one must remember that they have kept up 
all the Orthodox forms of service as far as possible, cross- 
ings, bowings, icons, candles, fastings, and the like, and have 
regularly maintained monasteries with their monks and nuns. 
But they had no element of stability ; and their sects have be- 
come innumerable, ever shifting and varying, with incessant 
divisions and subdivisions. The chief of the subdivisions are : 
(i) Pomortsi, or dwellers near the sea, a rural division which 


is very devout; (2) Feodocei (Theodosians), who founded 
hospitals and laid emphasis on good works; (3) Besbrachniki 
(free lovers), who repudiated marriage, somewhat like the 
Oneida community in New York; (4) Stranniki (wander- 
ers), a peripatetic sect, who went over the country, declaring 
their doctrines; (5) Molchalniki (mutes), who seldom spoke, 
believing evil came through the tongue and idle conversation ; 
and (6) Niemoliaki (non-praying), who taught that as God 
knows all things it is useless to pray to Him, as He knows 
what one needs. These various divisions of the Priestless 
are again divided into smaller ones, like many of the strange 
sects in England and America, so that it is almost impossible 
to follow them. Often they indulge in the wildest immorality, 
justifying it under the cover of some distorted text of Scrip- 
ture or some phrase of the ancient Church service. 

II. — Sectarians 

The various bodies which make up the Sektanstvo have 
seceded from the national Russian Church quite independently 
of the schism at the time of Nikon and the reform in the 
Church books. They correspond more closely with the vari- 
ous sects arising from Protestantism, and are founded upon 
some distorted idea of the Church, or a rule of life or doc- 
trines of the Faith. Some of them are older than the schism, 
but most of them are later in point of time. The principal 
ones comprise between one and two millions and may be sub- 
divided or classified as follows: (i) Khlysti (Flagellants), 
who believe in severe penances, reject the Church, its sacra- 
ments and usages. They are also called the Ludi Boshi, or 
"God's People," and also the "Farmazoni" (Freemasons), on 
account of the secret initiations they have. They hold secret 
meetings in which they sing wild, stirring hymns, dress in 
white, and jump, dance, or whirl, much like the negro revivals 
in the Southern States. 

(2) Skoptsi (Eunuchs), who not only teach absolute celi- 
bacy, but mutilate themselves so as to be sexless. They boast 
that they are pure like the saints and walk untainted through 
this world of sin, and take the literal view of Matt., xix, 12. 
Women are also mutilated, particularly after they have borne 


children to recruit the sect, but these children are not born 
in wedlock. The Skoptsi are said to be usurers and money 

(3) Molokani (Milk-drinkers), said to be so named because 
they make it a point to drink milk and use other prohibited 
foods during Lent and fast days, to show their objection to 
the Orthodox Church. They abhor all external ceremonies of 
religion, but lay stress upon the Bible. They say there is 
no teacher of the Faith but Christ himself, and that we are 
all priests ; and they carry their logic so far as to have neither 
church nor chapel, simply meeting in one another's houses. 

(4) Dukhobors (Spirit wrestlers) are those who deny the 
Holy Ghost and who place but a minor importance upon the 
Scriptures. They are better known to America, for some thou- 
sands of them emigrated to Canada, where they are now 
good colonists. They give a wide place to tradition, and desig- 
nate man as "the living book," in opposition to dead books 
of paper and ink. In some respects they are pantheists, say- 
ing that God lies within us, that we must struggle with the 
spirit of God to attain the fulness of life. They do not give 
an historical reality to the Gospel narratives, but take them 
figuratively. Their idea of the Church is in conformity with 
their belief; they consider it an assembly of the righteous on 
earth, whether Christians, Jews, or Moslems. Yet they have 
all the peculiarities and fanaticism of the Slav. 

(5) Stundists, or a kind of Russian Baptists. These seem 
to be an offshoot from the Lutherans or Mennonites who set- 
tled in Russia. The name is derived from the German Stunde, 
or hour, because they assembled at stated hours to read the 
Bible or worship. They rejected the sacraments, even baptism 
at first, but yet retain it. They gave up all Church holidays, 
and agreed with the Melokani in repudiating the idea of a 
clergy. They are nearly all Little Russians, in the South of 

(6) Subhotniki (Sabbatarians), who have substituted Satur- 
day, the Jewish Sabbath, for Sunday. They have also taken 
up a great many Jewish practices from the Old Testament 
along with such elemental Christian forms which they retain. 
They are practically Unitarians, and expect the Messias ; and 
they are also said to be like the Mormons, living in polygamy 
in many instances, although most of them are content with 


one wife. Besides these principal sects there are numerous 
smaller ones. One can run almost the same round of strange 
and erratic religious beliefs in Russia as in the United States. 
There are the Pliassuny (Dancers), Samobogi (Self-gods), 
Chislenniki (Computers), who have changed Sunday so as 
to fall on Wednesday, and Easter to the middle of the week, 
Pashkovites, Radstockites (so named after their founders), 
and numerous others, which exploit some peculiar tenet of 
their various founders and believers. In addition to these are 
the various missionary enterprises and local churches of West- 
em Protestantism, of which the Lutherans and Baptists are 
the leading ones. 



Address Before the Xavier Alumni Sodality 

THE forces of this age seem to be in a large measure 
centrifugal. The reverence for former standards, 
former virtues, the established standards of mankind 
is being dissipated. This is not merely true of temporary 
things, the mere expedients of daily government and disci- 
pline, but of the very principles which lie back of social ties 
and order. 

In the history of religious movements the term "private 
judgment" was once understood to mean the right to interpret 
the meaning of Holy Scripture after the manner that seemed 
most expedient to the reader, and if the passage or the doc- 
trine embraced therein did not commend itself then to reject 
it altogether. But we have gone far beyond that now. It 
is the fashion of many political, social and personal cults to- 
day, to say nothing of private individuals, to use their "private 
judgment" in rejecting, modifying or amending the basic prin- 
ciples of morality, discipline and government. In other words, 
many a man is ready to repeal not only the Ten Command- 
ments, but hundreds of human laws so far as they apply to 
his own conduct. It is becoming the fashion to deny and 
abrogate any inconvenient prohibition or commandment what- 
soever. What is the fashion to-day may be the custom to- 
morrow, and the standard set for a decade hence. Let us 
examine how such a phase of life should affect us as Sodalists. 
You who meet with us to-night to join in our celebration 
of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the Xavier 
Alumni Sodality, may wonder why we link such a theme with 
the praises of Our Blessed Lady. It is easily explainable. 
On this evening of the Feast of her Immaculate Conception 
we again glorify the Blessed Mother of God, whom the Om- 
nipotent in His grace made a second Eve, fair and stainless 



from the moment of her existence. To-night in our celebra- 
tion we salute her in the language used by the Greek Church 
in that wonderful Acathistos hymn: "Reverently we stand 
in the house of our God and cry aloud : Hail, Queen of 
the world ! Hail, Mary, Lady of us all ! Hail, thou, alone 
immaculate and fair amongst women !" Yet in the midst of 
our celebration and rejoicing there is no greater or more 
appropriate theme than the consideration of man's duties to 
God, to himself and to his neighbor, and its logical ex- 
tension to his duty towards the State, and the laws which 
govern him, all of which is exemplified in the most striking 
manner in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

We are accustomed to look upon the shrinking maiden 
of the hills of Galilee as an example of heroic obedience, 
from a worldly standpoint, but we do not ordinarily view her 
as a public citizen doing her duty under the law. When we 
think or speak of civil duties and obedience to the law, her 
figure does not usually come up as an exemplar of citizen- 
ship. It is true that she obeyed humbly and cheerfully the 
salutation of the Most High that she should take upon her- 
self a motherhood which seemed in her eyes to conflict with 
her virginity, and gave obedience with a serene confidence 
which has made her "blessed amongst women." Yet I think 
she can stand also as an exponent of civic duty both under 
the Roman and the Jewish law in such a manner that may 
well make her a pattern and example for us of later days. 

You remember that Judea had its own code of laws, which 
every Jewish citizen obeyed. When the Romans made Pales- 
tine a conquered Roman province, they imposed their laws 
and decrees upon the people also. Here, then, were both the 
laws of a God-fearing people and the laws of a pagan em- 
pire, each to be obeyed in their respective spheres. But one 
to whom the Angel had said : "Thou shalt bring forth a son ; 
he shall be great and shall be the Son of the Most High," 
might well disregard the laws of pagan Rome and the re- 
quirements of the Mosaic code. If private judgment of our 
modern type had dominated her, she might well have said : 
I am the mother of the maker and creator of all laws, and I 
am not to be bound by any laws imposed by earthly authority. 
I am the mother and director of Him who made all things, 
even the law-givers, and I will not bow to the decrees of lesser 


men. My Son has been announced to the world by the angels 
and has been adored by the kings of the earth as He lay in 
my arms. Let the officials of this world accommodate their 
laws and customs to me. Instead of this, she exhibited every 
element of civic duty and citizenship, displaying obedience 
to constituted authority as she herself found it, although in 
the end her very obedience and compliance was the starting 
point to initiate the stupendous changes which afterwards took 
place in Judea and in Rome. 

No matter with what words we might clothe the event, we 
cannot tell the story of Mary's civic obedience and integrity 
in the observance of law in more fitting words than those 
of the Gospel. Saint Luke describes these episodes as follows : 

"And it came to pass, that in those days there went out a 
decree from Csesar Augustus, that the whole world should be 
enrolled. This enrolling was first made by Cyrinus, the gov- 
ernor of Syria. And all went to be enrolled, every one into 
Ills own city. 

"And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of 
Nazareth into Judea, to the city of David, which is called 
Bethlehem ; because he was of the house and family of Da- 
vid, to be enrolled with Mary, his espoused wife." 

It was after this act of obedience to Roman Law that 
Our Blessed Lord was born. The evangelist goes on to tell 
of the Mosaic law : 

"And after the days of her purification, according to the 
law of Moses, were accomplished they carried him to Jerusa- 
lem to present him to the Lord; And to offer a sacrifice ac- 
cording as it is written in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtle 
doves or two young pigeons. 

"And after they had performed all things according to 
the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their city, 
Nazareth." ^ 

Here was obedience and the fulfilment of the obligations 
of a citizen to the foreign and domestic laws in force in 
Judea. Although Mary knew that in her own person she 
was an exception to the ordinary laws of nature and exempt 
from the penalties of fallen humanity, nevertheless she will- 
ingly submitted to the regulations of pagan rule and of eccle- 
siastical discipline. These acts make Mary, as described in 

^ St. Luke, ii. 


the pages of the gospel, a pattern of civic integrity, which 
every Socialist and every Catholic, — nay, every man and 
woman who admires noble conduct — can take as their ideal in 
their relations to the State and to their fellow-citizens. Her 
example should be our standard and her civic virtue we can 
imitate and develop amid the varying needs of our daily civic 

It is not, however, mere obedience to civic law which the 
Sodalist in a perfunctory fashion should cultivate. If he 
wishes to imitate in spirit and in truth the high virtue of Our 
Lady, he should go further and have regard for the end for 
which such observance was intended. Merely living within the 
narrow limits of statute and decision, so as to comply with 
the bare precepts of the law, is not enough for the true fulfil- 
ment of citizenship of to-day. It is much like paying the mere 
minimum wage to the laborer, irrespective of the condition 
and the needs of the worker. The law should be observed so 
as to accomplish its full purport, and if the law in practice 
falls short of its proper aim, then effort should be made to 
improve or amend it so as to better achieve its legitimate 
results. A true-hearted citizen should make every effort 
to serve the best interests of the State and to promote to 
the largest extent the comfort and welfare of his fellow-man. 
Only by doing willing, cheerful and generous service will 
the Sodalist approach the ideal set by Our Lady. 

Nor must he be content with merely performing such ob- 
servance by himself. He should be an example and encourage- 
ment to others, inducing them by example and by precept to 
observe these things in as large a measure as possible. You 
all know the cynical definition of altruism, that altruism con- 
sisted in A and B getting together and deciding just what C 
should do for D. That can never be the Sodalist's method ; he 
must search his own heart and mind and set about doing 
the work himself. If he can induce B to cooperate in the work, 
so much the better. He can afford to wait until both himself 
and B have done their full duty, before he may require what C 
should do for D. Yet this cynical definition is not so far re- 
moved from the actual state of affairs as we find them to-day. 
There are many people who seriously believe in making the 
world over by legislation. The cry on all sides is : Pass a law 
to prevent this or that, whether it be a trivial or a serious 


thing. There are societies for the prevention of almost every- 
thing under the sun. People are engaged busily in the 
very purpose of seeing what C shall do to D. Few seem to 
think of seriously enforcing the laws which we now have, 
and, what is far worse, fewer seem to think of earnestly, 
seriously and reverently obeying the laws themselves and of 
inducing their neighbor to do likewise, by that most powerful 
of all persuasives, a good example. Loopholes and techni- 
calities in the laws are eagerly searched for, and if these 
fail there is a general protest, both in word and deed, that 
the law is no good and ought not be enforced anyhow. 

Can any one doubt that two-thirds of our laws drawn so 
stringently against commercial oppression, financial decep- 
tion and greed, injustice between man and man in a thou- 
sand ways, would be totally unnecessary if every citizen of 
any importance at all would see that our plain old-fashion 
common law — declarative of that still older-fashioned law, the 
Ten Commandments — was strictly obeyed, and first set the 
example of obeying it himself? One person in the resolute 
imitation of the good example of Our Lady would go far 
towards solving the problem. 

One cannot turn the world into a vast penitentiary where 
the citizens are working under surveillance and menaced 
at all times by severe penalties for infractions of discipline. 
Love and hope, willingness and cheerfulness, make for far 
better voluntary work and obedience, and produce nobler and 
more lasting results. Making the world over by legislation 
will never succeed. The individual must be furnished with 
and in turn must furnish the incentive to do right. The 
field for the Sodalist lies here. 

Then again there is the vast unoccupied field of civic bet- 
terment. The relations of employer and employee, so dif- 
ferent now from former times by the introduction of gigan- 
tic capital and vast machinery, the management of large 
municipal institutions from the City Hall down to the paving 
of a street, the caring for the deficient in intellect or body, 
the poor and the unfortunate, compensation for industrial 
accidents resulting from the use of colossal modern ma- 
chinery; the education of the young, especially in its religious 
aspect, their moral, physical and mental well-being, and a 
thousand similar problems demanded for their proper solu- 


tion ; the active and earnest cooperation of all citizens, espe- 
cially of Catholics, who should be foremost in such efforts for 
the welfare of the community. 

We Sodalists put much stress upon the efficacy of prayer 
and of the Sacraments. They are indeed the prime aids, the 
direct approach to God. But in the civic life and in the ex- 
pression of our integrity and our duty towards our fellow- 
man we can have no higher guide and ideal than that given 
by Our Lord himself : "Thou shalt love the Lord God, with 
thy whole heart and thy whole mind, and thy neighbor as 
thyself." With this ideal in view, no matter how often we 
may stumble daily, we shall do our real duty in civic life. 

We can then feel that the laws which govern us, although 
they may be often defective and insufficient, are, after all, ex- 
pression of the eternal verities which govern human life. Our 
civic duty will be predicated upon a whole-hearted feeling of 
acquiescence in the spirit of law and order, and of using 
our talents for the betterment of the world around us. Prog- 
ress will not be accomplished by rebellion or revolution, but 
by a gradual and orderly development of better things. In so 
proving our civic integrity and love for good and enduring 
citizenship, we shall become like unto the careful householder 
who cherishes the old household furnishings until they are 
replaced by new, and refuses to smash and destroy them 
simply because they are deemed to be antique. Our aim 
at all times must be constructive, not destructive, and to be 
striven for in obedience, cheerfulness and willing service. 


THE determined stand of a handful of patriot farmers 
at Lexington on that memorable dawn of April 19, 
1775? was the starting point of the history of a free 
nation. It was the dawn preceding the rising sun of our 
liberty which shines now so splendidly in the zenith, and 
whose rays have illumined the uttermost parts of the earth. 
The Knights of Columbus have rightly taken the perpetua- 
tion of the name of the discoverer of the New World, and 
have rightly chosen to commemorate not only the discoverer 
of America, but the great patriots who unfolded to their fel- 
low-countrymen the liberty of a people. The Order stands not 
only for these things, but attests by its numbers what Catho- 
lics have come to mean in the civic and political life of the 
United States. It was long before prejudice and unreasoning 
opposition to us died out, and in some communities it is still 
felt, although in a diminishing degree. But, gradually, as 
the heavy mists fade out before the glowing rays of the 
rising sun, each age-long relic of prejudice and hatred dis- 
solves into nothingness, and the American citizen who pro- 
fesses the Catholic faith at last becomes the peer of his fellow- 

This was not all accomplished suddenly or without toil and 
struggle. It was not due merely to native recognition of the 
fellow-man of a different creed ; it was due to the persistent 
influx of a Catholic people, who, 'mid stress and struggle, — 
like Columbus in the stormy seas on his westward way to ' 
discover America — kept true to the direction pointed by the 
compass, their Faith, and who by their earnestness and their 
single-heartedness won for themselves a place among their 
fellow-citizens. It marks a triumph in American citizenship ; 
not only as to the amelioration of public manners upon th' 
part of those who differ from us, but a winning of the esteem 
and appreciation of our fellow-citizens upon our part — a dem- 



onstration that we have become an integral and indispensable 
part of this country. It is a witness to the liberality and fair- 
mindedness of our fellows, but it is also a tribute to the 
earnestness and devotion of all who have contributed to the 

We Catholics intend to be whole-souled and energetic citi- 
zens of every great commonwealth of this still greater land ; 
we intend to march in the van of all that is to the interest of 
this republic and which may contribute to its solidity and its 
well-being ; we declare boldly our Faith in this land of the free 
and home of the brave, its institutions and its progress, its 
virtue and morality, and its everlasting witness of the watch- 
fulness of God Almighty over the destinies of man. 

Our sun of earthly glory is rising to its zenith, and the bril- 
liancy of our temporal prosperity has suffused the world. Our 
fathers in the science of government and the constitution laid 
broader and deeper foundations than they dreamed. The 
fabric of our empire has risen to gigantic proportions; it has 
reached a point where mere axioms of law and written statutes 
can hardly suffice to hold it cemented together. When this 
point is reached, reaction may set in. On the one hand, a 
strongly centralized — nay, a well-nigh despotic government — 
may seem to be the only recourse to hold the country to- 
gether, while on the other, ruin may ensue by lawless license 
instead of liberty. This is when prosperity may menace us 
more than adversity ; and the menace be so disguised that we 
fail to recognize it. 

We have already arrived at the point where the parting of 
the ways may be dimly discerned. On the one hand, the 
growth of privilege and power resulting from the combina- 
tions and monopolies of commerce and industrialism seem to 
threaten the well-being of the nation and the prosperity of 
its citizens. The only remedy so far devised is the stern curb- 
ing of such organizations by a series of enactments which 
lodge all power in the most inquisitorial fashion with the cen- 
tral government, whether it be at Washington or at the capi- 
tal of the state. It is needless to say that a reduplication of 
such powers of government may in the end reduce the citizen 
to a state of vassalage and nullify the guarantees of life, 
liberty and happiness embodied in our constitutions. 

The other alternative is scarcely better. There is a growth 


of lawless feeling, a deliberate contempt for law enactment 
and law enforcement, which is at present somewhat in the 
formless shape of a philosophic theory, but which pervades 
a large portion of our people. It is not confined to those who 
call themselves Socialists, Liberals or even Anarchists; it 
rather has its roots and being in those who have, as the phrase 
is, "a stake in the country." It is a deliberate setting of the 
individual opinion above the enacted law, and it is carrying out 
a practical defiance to that law. In its lowest stage, it mani- 
fests itself in petty evasions of the law, whether by subter- 
fuge, trickery or graft; in its highest, it calmly sneers at the 
statutes, and even buys representatives among officials, legis- 
latures and perhaps in the courts. It is the very antithesis 
of the orderly conduct of human affairs, and it is the breeder 
of more social disorder than even the wildest agitator. It 
is the survey of these things that makes the poor man rebel, 
the one of small means cherish hatred and envy towards his 
fellow-man, and produces the discontent which finally leads to 
open outbreak. 

The cause of these two phenomena may be ascribed largely 
to the mere piling up of material things to the neglect of the 
moral and intellectual side of man. Nor by intellectual side 
must we mean merely the ability to use and profit by book 
knowledge and mentality. That is merely surface intellect — 
and every modern business venture requires a substantial por- 
tion of that in order to become even approximately successful. 
The neglect of the intellectual side refers rather to an atrophy, 
a deadening and a blinding of the light-appreciating powers 
in the mind of every man. To illustrate it, I can do no better 
than to cite the instance mentioned in the book "Is Mankind 
Advancing?" where the Western farmer, surveying his past 
at the close of a successful life, discovered to his consterna- 
tion that he had spent his entire existence in growing corn to 
feed hogs in order to make money so as to buy more land on 
which to grow corn to feed more hogs, in order to buy more 
land on which to grow more corn to raise more hogs, and so 
on. No doubt he employed a corner of his intellect for the 
accomplishment of the result, but the entire performance, 
like many more instances in our modern world, can hardly be 
called intellectual. 

And when I speak of the neglect of the moral side of man's 


nature, I need hardly give examples. The newspapers are 
full of the details of high financiering, many of the particu- 
lars of which are hardly bounded by the limits of the penal 
statutes. These fine examples are merely the ones which 
are found out and exposed to the pubUc gaze; but every man 
knows whispers of many others which do not come to the 
surface. It is even exploited as a motive power for our 
daily press; since descriptions of the violations of the Ten 
Commandments make "snappy" articles. 

Now, it is these very things which may wreck our nation 
and ruin our body politic. It is a question whether we can 
keep up our standard of citizenship and preserve the institu- 
tions which we have inherited. I am one of those who firmly 
believe that we can, and I believe that every effort should 
be made to do so. And there is no organization of men in the 
world, upon whom such a standard of citizenship should rest 
more than upon Catholics in general and upon the Knights of 
Columbus in particular. When we studied our elementary 
catechism, we learned, as primary truths, "Thou shalt not steal" 
and "Thou shalt not covet," and that among the sins which cry 
to Heaven for vengeance are the oppression of the poor and 
defrauding laborers of their wage. On these may be built 
the entire economic and political history of the modern state. 
All the material ills that cry for reform are but a variation o^ 
these two themes. 

For the past five years our newspapers, our magazines and 
numerous books have teemed with the story of unrighteous 
gain, oppression of the weak, and the unholy greed manifested 
by corporate expansion. In the Middle Ages, feudal rank 
grew great by the assumption of privilege ; to-day the corpo- 
ration and its coterie of majority holders do the same thing. 
The gradual monopoly of the necessaries of life, of the means 
of transportation, and of even the means of diffusion of knowl- 
edge, threatens our national life and liberties, far more than 
the encroachments of kings and nobles in the worst decline 
of feudal times. Then, at least, they had as a working the- 
ory, the idea that they were the guardians of the people, 
exalted perhaps by caste, but nevertheless in theory bound to 
look after the welfare of their subjects or vassals. 

To-day, however, we are more individualistic ; the theory to- 
day is a shorter one : "What is there in it for me ? Where do 


I come in?" As our society to-day is larger and more com- 
plex, our fall— if fall there be — must be greater and with 
more destruction than even that of the older society. The 
heir to a dukedom had before him in those days "noblesse 
oblige," and he was bound to live up to the traditions of his 
order — he was like a general in command of his army; he 
might be superior in rank, but he must endure the same 
hardships and live the same life as his soldiers did. To-day 
the heir to a railroad, or a steel trust, may live in New York, 
London or Paris, whilst his operatives may live almost in 
hell, for aught that he may personally care. 

It is just here that the duties of Catholics and of such in- 
stitutions as the Knights of Columbus have the widest field for 
their exercise. If the state is to be carried along on the high 
plane of justice, it can only be by high moral aim and per- 
sonal endeavor. Our Faith will supply the moral aim and 
we can make the personal endeavor too. Every once in a 
while we show what we can do in one way by the election 
returns in particular localities. 

But we must needs go further; Catholics, now that they 
have obtained perhaps a little more than an amiable recog- 
nition, must not confine themselves merely to endeavors within 
the platforms of political parties. That would be indeed keep- 
ing our "light under a bushel." We have among us men of 
almost every form of activity, but familiarly a Catholic is 
heard of most frequently as a religionist and a voter. The 
popular idea — a portion of the old prejudice that has not yet 
been put away with the lumber in the attic — is that citizenship 
among Catholics has not risen higher than mere going to 
church and going to the polls. May we never forget these 
two essentials ; they are the leaven which leaveneth the whole 
lump. But there are other walks of citizenship in which we 
can take large part also. The mere alignment of political 
parties or the procurement of prominent office is not the 
whole of the duties of citizenship. We must enter into the 
greater civic life around us, until in every phase of it we 
have as many representatives as our Catholic population bears 
to the general population of the state. No civic endeavor 
should be set on foot without its proportion of Catholics. 

There is work enough for all of us; the formation of a 
healthy public opinion demands our best energies. There are 


the endless forms of charitable and educational work through- 
out the state — I do not mean the institutions which are purely 
Catholic in origin and management — which require the intel- 
ligent, energetic service of every man who can assist and 
uplift his fellow-man. Yet how many Catholics are there upon 
such boards and committees, working side by side with their 
fellow-citizens? The questions of labor, wages, working 
hours, factory laws, compensation for accidents, protection 
from machinery, child labor, women's work, co-operative 
banks and building associations, housing, tenement reform, 
sweat-shop, home industries, and the myriad questions of 
capital, labor and just treatment which concern these things, 
require Catholics, as well as non-Catholics, to solve them and 
set them aright. 

There is immense room for constructive social work, such 
as congestion in cities, reformation of young delinquents, the 
incoming of immigration, placing the foreign population where 
it will do the most good both to itself and to the state at 
large, and there is even greater room for the discussion and 
solution of the larger civic and moral questions, which I need 
not touch upon in detail. In each of these. Catholics should 
take large part. It ought to be worth while for our neighbors 
to know that there is often a Catholic point of view upon all 
such things, just as there is a Catholic view upon the questions 
concerning the family and the home and all that tends to drag 
them down, and it ought to be made worth their while to have 
them know our opinion upon all those things, even if only 
for the sake of broad enlightenment, and to ask our cordial 
assistance in every movement which makes for the betterment 
of man, and the production of a nobler citizen for the state. 

We have the men capable of studying and of giving vast 
assistance in the solution of all the complex problems of the 
higher, greater and wider citizenship which looks after the 
well-being and improvement of our fellow-men, and which 
looks further than the mere carrying of the election at hand. 
Our citizenship cannot be better employed than in entering 
upon these larger fields of human endeavor. Just as we have 
already made an impression upon the political life of this 
and other states, just as we have convinced the powers who 
write political platforms that we are persons to be in a meas- 
ure reckoned with, either for votes or for office, so also should 


it be our duty now to impress upon our fellow-citizens the 
fact that there is no public question of the hour, whether so- 
cial, political or economic, in which we are not interested and 
in which we are not capable of aiding in the solution. Every 
board, every committee,, every general body, organized in any 
state for the study, elucidation or improvement of public 
questions or conditions, should have upon it its quota of 
Catholic members. 

We must not lag behind our brethren. If we do, we fail 
to convince them that we are ready and willing to be of 
assistance and that we should be consulted by them in such 
matters; and we fail to do our duty as citizens of this great 
country of ours. The public morality and conscience of 
every state, or of the United States, the social, charitable, 
economic and mental development of the masses of the peo- 
ple, should not be left in the exclusive control of our brethren 
who are not of us. True, we may work in parallel lines in 
our own institutions with our own people chiefly as the sub- 
ject of our ministrations; but that is not our whole duty nor 
indeed its final aim. That is apt to make us exclusive, on 
the one hand, or indifferent, on the other. While we should 
do our duty towards our own, we cannot afford to estrange 
ourselves from our neighbors ; and our part in the civic, moral, 
social and economic problems of the state as a whole will be 
both beneficial to us and to our fellow-citizens. Our devo- 
tion to those things will not diminish our devotion to our 
own interests and to our own institutions. 

The entry of large-minded, active, real Catholics, who 
know their faith and their country and all the motives that 
lead to zeal and patriotism, will be the largest and greatest 
boon which the Knights of Columbus can bestow on the state 
of which they are citizens. Terence said : "Homo sum ; 
et nihil humanum mihi alienum est." (I am a man; and 
nothing which concerns manhood is foreign to me.) So, too, 
the Knights of Columbus may well say, "We are citizens of 
this noble land, and nothing that concerns the life or the 
welfare of the citizen shall be foreign to us." 

I conclude with the sincere prayer that the Order may grow 
from day to day more powerful and more influential, that 
its love for the Church may be an incentive and a guiding 
star for good works, that its American citizenship may so 


grow and expand and so impress itself upon our fellow-citi- 
zens that no question which concerns the citizen of to-day 
or of to-morrow, or which concerns the policy, acts and needs 
of our common country at any time, shall be considered, acted 
upon or decided without Catholic representatives in every walk 
in life to take counsel with their fellow-citizens. If the great 
needs of life and civic conduct are to be met, we should stand 
as a necessary and important part among those who are to 
meet them. In this way may our country best count upon 
our service, for we shall be 

"Those that by their deeds will make it known 

Whose dignity they do sustain; 

And life, state, glory, all they gain, 
Count the republic's, not their own." 


WHEN the Supreme Court of the United States de- 
cided the now famous Standard Oil and Tobacco 
Trust cases under the Sherman Act, much was said 
about the Court having practically made new law by inserting, 
so its critics claimed, the word "reasonable" in a statute 
which did not contain that word. The more hostile critics 
said that the Supreme Court, instead of interpreting law, was 
in reality creating a new and a different one. But this was 
said of the most august tribunal in the United States, if not 
in the world, in regard to its decision concerning a statute 
made by its co-ordinate branch of the government, and con- 
cerning which it was vested with the power of review in cer- 
tain respects. Yet the Supreme Court never went so far as 
to interpolate or overrule the Constitution of the United 
States, even though it be the highest tribunal in the land. 
That exploit was left for a subordinate government official — 
one who was charged with no duty whatever in regard to law 
and procedure, — one Robert G. Valentine, Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs. If criticism could attack the acts of the Su- 
preme Court whilst doing its duty in the interpretation of a 
statute, how much and how bitter ought to be the criticism 
of Mr. Valentine and those like him, who go out of their 
way to meddle in matters for which they have no warrant 
at all? 

On the 27th of January, 1912, Robert G. Valentine, the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, propria motu, ex-officio, ex- 
cathedra and ex-perversitate, without any inquiry, any notice 
or any reason demanding it and even without any consulta- 
tion with his departmental superiors, issued the following 

To Superintendents in charge of Indian schools: 

In accordance with that essential principle in our National 
life — the separation of Church and State — as applied by me to 



the Indian Service, which as to ceremonies and exercises is 
now being enforced under the existing religious regulations, I 
find it necessary to issue this order supplementary to those 
regulations to cover the use at those exercises and at other 
times of insignia and garb as used by various denominations. 
At exercises of any particular denomination there is, of course, 
no restriction in this respect, but at the general assembly 
exercises and in the public school rooms, or on the grounds 
when on duty, insignia or garb has no justification. 

In Government schools all insignia of any denomination 
must be removed from all public rooms, and members of any 
denomination wearing distinctive garb should leave such garb 
oflf while engaged at lay duties as Government employes. If 
any case exists where such an employe cannot conscientiously 
do this he will be given a reasonable time, not to extend, 
however, beyond the opening of the next school year after 
the date of this order, to make arrangements for employ- 
ment elsewhere than in Federal Indian schools. Respectfully, 

Robert G. Valentine, 

This order of the Indian Commissioner in wording reveals 
something of the manner of a Tsar. He begins: "In ac- 
cordance with that essential principle of our National life — 
the separation of Church and State — as applied by me to the 
Indian Service," &c. Most officials in the service of the 
United States, where they are not clothed with judicial func- 
tions, are content to rely upon the guidance of a court made 
upon cases arising out of an actual grievance and complaint 
carried to judgment, for the application of the principles of 
fundamental American law. But that view hardly seems to 
have suited Commissioner Valentine; he preferred to have 
them "as applied by me." 

Many persons misunderstand the language of the Consti- 
tution in regard to the separate functions of Church and State, 
and imagine all sorts of wild things. The language of the 
first amendment to the Constitution is : "Congress shall make 
no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof." Prejudice, oppression, hostility or 
suppression of the manners and customs of a religion is 
as much forbidden thereby on the one hand, as is favoritism 
or exaltation of a particular religion on the other. But this 
amendment was never intended to be a shield for unfriendly 
acts against any denomination. Besides this, the eleventh 
amendment to the Constitution expressly provides that, "Pow- 
ers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor 


prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states re- 
spectively, or to the people." These are the fundamentals 
upon which the action of Congress and of the United States 
in regard to religion is founded. There are enough examples 
in the books to show that the action of Commissioner Valen- 
tine in making such an order was officious and arbitrary. It 
was not even founded upon any necessity or any complaint, 
but merely upon his idea "as applied by me" as to what the 
relations between Church and State should be in his depart- 

Although the Catholic Church is not mentioned by name in 
the order, yet it is a fact that no other denomination has in 
the Indian schools any of its members who are consecrated 
to the religious life and who wear any clothing or insignia 
which indicate that they are so consecrated to a holy life 
of devotion. In other words, the Catholic teachers in the In- 
dian schools are the only ones who wear a religious garb, and 
hence the order is meant solely for Catholics, although tht 
name Catholic is not therein mentioned. As well might an 
official in the War Department make an order that Catholic 
Sisters of Charity should not wear their habit when minister- 
ing to the sick and wounded, as to say that a Catholic teacher 
shall not wear her or his habit in teaching arithmetic or di- 
recting play on the grounds. What the government needs and 
requires are results ; and until a complaint is made that teach- 
ers wearing a religious garb are lax in teaching or discipline, 
there is no more justification for Commissioner Valentine's 
order than there would be for one directing what color of a 
coat and cravat he himself shall wear when on duty. 

It is well that the Chief Executive of the United States is at 
present a man of wide knowledge and experience, who has had 
an extended career upon the bench as a Federal judge and 
in actual government as a cabinet officer, and who is apt to 
weigh carefully and advisedly matters purporting to be an 
interpretation of the Constitution and existing laws. He is 
not apt to take things "as applied by me," but following his 
judicial training desires to hear all sides before deciding. 
When, therefore, President Taft learned of this extraordinary 
and uncalled-for order, he promptly revoked it in the following 
letter : 


My Dear Mr. Secretary : — It has been brought to my 
attention that an order has been issued by the Commissioner 
of Indian Schools. This order relates to the general matter 
which you and I have had under consideration and concern- 
ing which, at your request, the Commissioner was collect- 
ing detailed information for our advice. The Commis- 
sioner's order has been made without consultation with either 
you or me. 

It prohibits not only the use of distinctive religious insignia 
at school exercises, but also the wearing of distinctive religious 
garb by school employes, and provides that if any school em- 
ploye cannot conscientiously comply with the order such 
employe will be given a reasonable time, not to extend, how- 
ever, beyond the opening of the next school year, to make 
arrangements for employment elsewhere than in Federal 
Indian schools. 

I fully believe in the principle of the separation of the 
Church and State, on which our Government is based, but the 
questions presented by this order are of great importance and 
delicacy. They arise out of the fact that the Government has 
for a considerable period taken for use of the Indians certain 
schools theretofore belonging to and conducted by distinctive 
religious societies or churches. As a part of the arrange- 
ment then made the school employes then employed, who 
were in many cases members of religious orders wearing 
the distinctive garb of these orders, were continued as teachers 
by the Government, and by ruling of the Civil Service Com- 
mission or by Executive action they have been included in the 
classified service under the protection of the Civil Service law. 

The Commissioner's order almost necessarily amounts to a 
discharge from the Federal service of those who have entered 
it. This should not be done without a careful consideration 
of all phases of the matter nor without giving the persons 
directly affected an opportunity to be heard. As the order 
would not in any event take effect until the beginning of the 
next school year, / direct that it be revoked and the action by 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in respect thereto be sus- 
pended until such time as will permit a full hearing to be 
given to all parties in interest and a conclusion to be reached 
in respect to the matter after full deliberation. 

Sincerely yours, 

William H. Taft. 

This was the letter of a just and courageous man, and it 
expresses the spirit of fair play by which Catholics every- 
where are content to abide. It was a well-merited rebuke to 
the author of the inconsiderate order conceived in hostility 
to Catholics alone; and all publicity should be given to the 
scope and purpose of such a letter. It is not the first time 
that such attempts have been made at Washington to attack 
Catholic customs and usages, now that the old-time method 
of openly vilifying them will no longer answer. Representa- 


tive John Hall Stephens, of the Thirteenth Congressional 
District of Texas, has for some time been a leader in such 
matters. A few of his exploits in the way of stretching the 
simple words of the Constitution so as to make them the cloak 
for his hostility to things Catholic are shown in the various 
bills and resolutions he has introduced in Congress. 

Thus in the Fifty-eighth Congress, where a clause was at- 
tached to the Indian Appropriation Bill restoring to Indian 
Catholic pupils attending Catholic schools the rations which 
had been denied them by the then Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, — and the bill had passed the Senate without opposi- 
tion, — Mr. Stephens distinguished himself as being the only 
man in the House of Representatives who was against it. 
Later, in order to prevent and make illegal the use of Indian 
tribal funds (the Indians' own money, mark you) for the 
education of Catholic Indian children in Catholic Mission 
schools, Mr. Stephens offered an amendment to the Indian 
Appropriation Bill forbidding the use of such funds for 
any such purpose. When an amendment to the Bill was made 
in the Senate reinstating the Stephens amendment, which had 
been ruled out in the House, and the matter came up in con- 
ference between the two Houses, where it was eliminated, 
Mr. Stephens refused to sign the Conference Report, and 
when that report came before the House for adoption, he 
protested vigorously against the omission of the Senate amend- 
ment. Later on in the session he introduced a bill entitled, 
"A Bill to prohibit the use of Indian Trust Funds for the pur- 
pose of educating Indian children in sectarian schools," thus 
intending to cut off Catholic schools from the funds of the 
Indians whom they were engaged in educating. These funds 
represented the value of Indian lands taken by the government, 
and could be devoted by the Indians or by the United States 
government, as their trustee, to their education by such per- 
sons as they might desire. Finally, the very latest exploit of 
Mr. Stephens, and one which may be regarded as the fore- 
runner of the Valentine "applied by me" order, was a reso- 
lution which he introduced into the House of Representatives 
on June 21, 191 1, which requested information from the Sec- 
retary of the Interior on "sectarian or other schools purchased, 
'covered in,' or over which control has been assumed through 
lease or gratuitous grant, for use of the Indian service within 


the past six years," and the Secretary "is further requested to 
report whether rehgious symbols, emblems or garbs of any 
particular religious denomination or society are permitted to 
be worn or used or publicly exhibited and kept, by employees 
in the Indian school service, or within or upon property under 
government control in the Indian service." 

Here was a dead set made at the Sisters and Catholic 
mission schools which were taken over into the govern- 
ment service, — all made with the intent of crippling and dimin- 
ishing whatever religious power and good Catholic teachers 
and missionaries might derive from the public announcement 
and exhibition of the faith they believed in. It was an act of 
hostility to the Church and her teachers, and it came in spirit 
(and in fact, when coupled with the Valentine order) within 
the Constitutional prohibition against Congress taking any 
steps "prohibiting the free exercise" of any particular religion. 
Neither Congress nor the government has any right to de- 
prive Catholic Indian children of the privilege of learning 
their Faith in the manner in which it could be freely taught 
outside the government school. If it does, then it is a dis- 
crimination against them, virtually a prohibition against "the 
free exercise thereof." 

This is more evident when we consider that the only schools 
in which a religious garb is worn are Catholic schools. If 
it were a case in which teachers, who were Sisters garbed in 
the habit of their order, were employed to teach Protestant, 
Catholic and pagan Indians in a mixed assemblage, the argu- 
ment against a religious garb might have some force. But why 
Catholic Sisters should be prohibited from wearing their dis- 
tinctive habit while teaching Catholic children passes com- 
prehension. Because they put in practice what they teach 
in precept, therefore they are to be condemned. When these 
schools were taken over by the government, and thenceforth 
run as government schools, it certainly could not mean that 
Catholic usages, customs and garb were to be remorselessly 
suppressed. Yet that is exactly what Commissioner Valentine 
seeks to do. Let us review the facts. 

In 1874 the Grey Nuns from Montreal entered the United 
States government service as teachers in the Indian School for 
Sioux children which was established at Fort Totten, Devil's 
Lake Agency, N. D. The Indians of this Agency are Catho- 


lies. At the present time the Sisters at this school possibly 
number eight. 

In 1877 the Benedictine Sisters were employed by the go\ 
ernment at the school at Fort Yates, Standing Rock Reserva- 
tion, N. D. This school still remains a government school 
and there are less than eight Sisters employed there. 

About twenty years ago Mother M. Katherine Drexel built 
a boarding school building at Elbowoods, Fort Berthold Reser- 
vation, N. D., but the school was never opened. The Indians 
continually clamored for a Sisters' school. The Indian Bu- 
reau because of lack of money could not accede to their wishes. 
In 1909 the Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs visited 
Elbowoods and the Indians appealed to him. As the Bureau 
could not support the school, the Assistant Commissioner be- 
lieved the conditions justified the employment by the govern- 
ment of Catholic religious as teachers, and in 1910 the Bene- 
dictine Sisters started a boarding school at Elbowoods and 
this on September i, 191 1, was covered into the government 
service, and they are still serving as government employees. 
They are seven in number. 

St. Patrick's Mission School at Andarko, Oklahoma, was 
burned in 1909. Father Isidore Ricklin, O. S. B., the Su- 
perintendent, spent a year collecting funds to rebuild; among 
the contributors was even Mr. Andrew Carnegie, whose atti- 
tude to sectarian schools is well known, but who appreciated 
the good work done by it. When the school was rebuilt, a 
government school in the vicinity, known as the Riverside 
School, was destroyed by fire. The government authorities 
then thought it good policy, instead of rebuilding, to make 
use of St. Patrick's School by making it a government insti- 
tution. Accordingly on December i, 191 1, the property was 
leased by the government and the personnel of the institution 
taken over as government employees. They, according to 
the Indian office, number nine. 

The Catholic Mission Day Schools at Odanah, Red Cliff 
and Lac Courtes Oreilles, in Wisconsin, taught by the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters, were leased by the government, and the teachers 
covered into the government service. They number six in 
these three schools. 

The Catholic Mission Day Schools at Jamez, New Mexico, 
with two Franciscan Sisters, and at San Xavier, Arizona, 


with three Sisters, were also taken over in 1910. The whole 
number of employees in the Indian school service afifected 
by the "religious garb order" is given by the Indian Bureau 
as forty-six all told. 

While the schools of the Grey Nuns at Fort Totten and 
those of the Benedictine Sisters at Fort Yates have been con- 
ducted in buildings that have always belonged to the United 
States government, yet during the thirty-eight years of service 
of the former and the thirty-five years of the latter, no com- 
plaint has ever been made as to the religious insignia or the 
"religious garb" by the Indians directly affected, by the gov- 
ernment officials in charge, or by any responsible person from 
any quarter. It remained for the complaint (if there were 
any complaint other than an ex-parte order) to originate in 
Washington, and to consist of objections upon theoretical 
"constitutional" grounds of separation of Church and State, 
made by Chairman Stephens of the House Indian Committee, 
the President of the Home Missions Council, and Commis- 
sioner Valentine on their own volition, and not in consequence 
of any complaints from the parties concerned. 

The Rev. Charles L. Thompson, a Presbyterian clergyman 
of No. 150 Fifth Avenue, the President of the Home Mis- 
sions Council, and also in charge of the Presbyterian Home 
Missions, as soon as he saw Commissioner Valentine's order, 
wrote to President Taft that "The action of the Hon. Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs issued January ^J relative to sec- 
tarian insignia and garb in Federal Indian Schools is to our 
minds so manifestly American in spirit, so judicial and right- 
eous that we heartily approve and commend it. We did not 
know such an order was in preparation, but we now express 
our commendation and ask that nothing be permitted to 
weaken its force." The President acknowledged the letter 
through his secretary, but issued his order of revocation. 

As showing the latitude of Mr. Thompson's ideas of what 
is "judicial and righteous," attention should be called to the 
fact that he is objecting to Catholic Sisters teaching Catholic 
children in Catholic schools in Catholic garb, whilst he him- 
self is engaged at the same time in proselytizing Catholic 
Ruthenian immigrants and children in the Hope Chapel Pres- 
byterian Mission on the East Side in New York City by means 
of Presbyterian mission workers garbed in Catholic Mass vest- 


ments and going through an imitation of the Catholic Mass. 
Evidently the garb question — when it comes to masquerading 
in Catholic altar vestments for Presbyterian purposes, — is not 
of so much moment, as when he seeks to deprive Catholic Sis- 
ters of what they have been doing consistently and legitimately 
for the past thirty years. 

The writer is not of Mr. Taft's political party nor is he a 
member of the Knights of Columbus, but he believes that the 
facts of this latest attack upon Catholic Sisters and the con- 
tract rights of Catholic schools should be known, as well as 
the energetic stand so promptly taken to prevent their loss ; 
and there is no body of men throughout the United States who 
can better assert the rights to which Catholics in their relations 
with their fellow-men and with the government are entitled 
than the Knights of Columbus. The arbitrary act of Commis- 
sioner Valentine constitutes one of those acts against which 
protest was made in the Declaration of Independence : "de- 
claring himself invested with power to legislate for us in all 
cases whatsoever," and it should be characterized accordingly, 
whilst the action of the President in stating that, "The Com- 
missioner's order almost necessarily amounts to a discharge 
from the Federal service of those who have entered it 
* * * without giving the persons affected an opportunity to 
be heard" is a call to exercise the square deal and fair play. 


WHEN we consider that the discovery of America 
by that great navigator whose name we have 
chosen for our Order, was made not merely for 
discovery, but for the spread of the Catholic faith, and that 
during the succeeding century the greatest explorers, discov- 
erers, colonizers and civilizers of this western world of ours 
were men of Catholic Faith and ideals, we should be keenly 
alive to the part which Catholic culture, training and ideals 
should play in the present development of our country. If 
men of our faith started with the country in the gift to it of 
European development and expansion, men of our faith 
should at all times be ready to do their part in the common 
weal and advancement to the very latest moment of passing 

When men of Catholic Faith and lineage were first on the 
field and made a goodly record for themselves in every walk 
of life, it must not be imagined that they failed to keep pace 
with the growth of our country in succeeding centuries. What 
chiefly happened was that their deeds and influence were not 
felt or recorded in any fitting degree after the settlement 
of North America by those nations which had broken away 
from allegiance to the old historic faith of Christendom. 
Then, too, when persecution, contempt and slander, so rife in 
those rancorous times, had done their work, little wonder was 
it that it should be thought and generally reputed that Catho- 
lics had but slight share in the civic progress and wonderful 
blossoming of our great American Republic. The current of 
the then public opinion set strongly against the Church and 
its teachings, its philosophy and ideals, and those who repre- 
sented Catholic belief and practice were mainly poor and de- 
spised. It was the time when the supreme effort among Catho- 
lics was to keep alive the Faith itself in the hearts and minds 



of the lowly people and lead them on to better things, and 
hence there could be but little active participation in the line 
of civic progress, except as exemplified in the orderly conduct, 
devotion and patriotism of that very lowly class which com- 
prised the bulk of the Catholics. 

Yet even in the days of the early formation of our coun- 
try — in its closer knitting of colonial confederation, in its 
mutual safeguarding of human interests, in the struggle for 
independence and the foundation of the infant republic — 
Catholics took a large part in the civic progress and develop- 
ment of the nation. We had a Dongan who gave in those 
days to New York the freest charter which she ever had, a 
Lord Baltimore who was the forerunner of religious liberty 
and freedom of worship throughout our broad land, a Carroll 
who was the staunchest defender of the rights of the colonies 
to resist oppression and set up independent government, and 
the leaders of armies and navies in our subsequent contests on 
land and sea in defense of our struggling and growing nation. 
The mass of Catholics in colonial times and for the first fifty 
years of our national life were sore beset with the menacing 
problems of mere livelihood, with the honest, eager endeavor 
to get on in the material sense of the word and yet keep true 
to the principles and teachings of their Faith and too busied 
thereby to have much leisure and to have, still less, material 
means to devote to the higher questions of civic progress and 
development except as exemplified in the individual. But that 
they thought of it, and that Catholic Faith and philosophy re- 
quired it, the names we have mentioned of those more for- 
tunately situated than their fellows fully attest. 

But as time has gone on the fortunes of the Catholic por- 
tion of the citizens of this great land of ours have improved. 
A few have become wealthy ; most of them are more or less 
well to do in the sense that the struggle for mere existence 
has ceased to be a problem, whilst all of them are hopeful, 
earnest and sanguine of the future of their common religion 
and their varied races in our land. The expansion and de- 
velopment of the faith is provided for in the ever-increasing 
number of churches and religious institutions throughout the 
country, works of charity and benevolence are ever widening 
and reaching out towards all classes requiring their minis- 
trations, schools, colleges and universities under Catholic aus- 


pices are spreading education and culture among all our peo- 
ple, and in many cases sharply competing with educational 
institutions endowed with the wealth and lavish expenditure 
of the state, whilst the Church has commenced upon a large 
scale to earnestly set forth her achievements in the domain 
of human thought and progress affecting the world at large, 
whether Catholic or not. An active, awakening Catholic press 
is providing books of literature, science, philosophy, history 
and art, imbued with the basic principles of Catholic thought, 
and non-Catholic publishers have become so fully aware of 
the excellence of these works that they are ready to place 
upon their lists and thoroughly advertise the merits of the 
writings of representative Catholic authors. A notable step 
forward has been the creation and publication of the 
voluminous Catholic Encyclopedia, a monument of and an 
inspiration for Catholic endeavor in almost every line of ac- 
tivity which touches the world at large. 

These things alone would be a fair measure of the impress 
of Catholic thought and activity in the progress of our coun- 
try. When we add to that the number of men of Catholic Faith 
in the various branches of the different state and Federal gov- 
ernmental bodies, and agencies for the uplifting and better- 
ment of the people, men who have the opportunity of partici- 
pating in and moulding the just and equitable powers of the 
state in the treatment and conservation of the respective rights 
of capital and labor, of the employer and employee, of the 
great aggregations of capital and contractual interrelations 
controlling the resources of this country, we may be glad that 
we are enabled to take such part in the destinies of our 
common land. 

But ought we rest content with the part already played by 
Catholics in our civic relations? Is not more demanded of 
us by the very reason of our own individual progress and 
growth ? Let us remember in going over the history of Euro- 
pean peoples and their civilization that there is no other move- 
ment or organized system of morals and philosophy of life — 
to say nothing of revelation and religion at all — which has 
produced so great an impress upon mankind as the Catholic 
Church and all it stands for. It saw the Caesars and defied 
them ; it is to-day face to face with the French and Portuguese 
Republics and will not yield its principles. Such a force in 


history, in morals and in civilization — viewed merely as a 
factor in the record of the world — cannot be ignored. If the 
principles of revealed religion, morality and right living and 
thinking which overcame the pagan world of Greece and 
Rome, and which subdued the fierce barbarians of Northern 
Europe and converted them into the pillars of the civiliza- 
tion of to-day, and hurled back the Moslem from the devasta- 
tion of Europe, and lit the flame of learning at hundreds of 
university shrines throughout the ages, have not lost their 
force — and we believe them as potent to-day as ever they were 
— it is our bounden duty above all others not to ignore the 
splendid tradition of Catholicity and its part in the better- 
ment of the world. Others should know it, but we are bound 
to do so. 

We have had in the past and in the present down even to 
to-day the splendid records of what whole-souled and high- 
minded Catholics have done in the various fields of political 
life, humanitarian service and common welfare. But mere 
record is not enough. There are the great treasures of 
thought, philosophy and experience for the past twenty cen- 
turies which can be utilized by us in the solution of the prob- 
lems of to-day. There should be a translation and adaptation 
to our present-day needs, of the formulas which healed the 
nations in the past. Occasionally some professor or some 
earnest student of the past discovers, to our shame and con- 
fusion at our own neglect, the method and the practice which 
the Church inculcated in some temporarily forgotten age and 
applies it to the solution of present-day difficulties. That 
should be preeminently our task, and it is one of the many 
things we can do for our part in the civic progress of to-day. 

As a part of the great population of this still greater land 
of ours we should lend a commensurate aid in solving the 
problems which vex it and in smoothing the ways which real 
progress takes. Not merely in political life or in municipal 
stations should Catholics be found ; there should be no problem 
to be solved, no question to be discussed, no remedy sought 
for existing evils, no improvement or reform in governmental, 
moral or educational lines without Catholics being represented 
on the body or association engaged in such work. The repre- 
sentation should be commensurate with our importance in the 
population of our country. We shall not have grown to our 


full stature unless that be so. It is not that we should dream 
of forcing our neighbors to call us into council, much as po- 
litical leaders have to take note of the votes they can com- 
mand, but it should be looked to that we shall individually 
and collectively make ourselves of such importance in those 
lines that our opinions and our help should be sought. In 
this way we shall come into our true position and importance 
in the vital questions of the day, and do our ever-increasing 
part in civic progress. 

There is much to do, and we should be unwilling to remain 
inert and let others do it. Take for instance the huge aggre- 
gations of industrial and transportation corporations of to-day. 
On the one hand they have become so great that they are a 
menace to our government and institutions. They must be 
curbed, but without doing more harm in the curbing than in 
allowing them to be without supervision. They have exer- 
cised so much reckless power and oppression in their en- 
deavor to grow greater that they have given birth to the 
worst side of SociaHsm and to all sorts of sweeping doc- 
trines which would immediately destroy the fabric of our 
institutions. On the other hand, their very sweep and consoli- 
dation have made them so supreme that they have exalted the 
rights of property above the rights of man, and they tend to 
make the workman a slave by depriving him of a just re- 
ward for his labor and of the opportunity to labor in other 
lines than the ones which they decree. The fruit of this has 
been armed strikes, misery and a heritage of hate and dis- 
content. Its side result has been the increased cost of living. 
It is a subject which Catholics can study in the clear light of 
the gospel with the intent to remedy the grosser wrongs and 
the most crying abuses. 

Again, take city government. Any analysis of the figures 
of our chief cities shows that the cost of governmental admin- 
istration is rising year by year. It will not do to say that we 
have more improvements, luxuries and benefits than our fore- 
fathers ever dreamed of ; for most of these have been bought 
by long-term bonds, which our descendants must pay, or they 
are farmed out to rapacious corporations to operate. Yet the 
daily price of municipal government mounts higher and higher. 
At the same time there are ugly rumors of graft and pecula- 
tion, and sometimes even demonstrated proofs of it in speci- 


fied cases. Here is where the man with the CathoHc con- 
science and Catholic teaching can find an ample field for his 
study, devotion and abilities. 

Our public schools have been accused of being inefficient. 
It is true that Catholics have long since said that they were 
deficient, in that they omitted to teach the science of sciences, 
that of the heart and soul, but they have not accused them so 
far of being ineffective in the subjects which they undertook 
to teach. Now, however, their own advocates, their own par- 
tisans, say that the results attained by the schools are not what 
they rightly should be, and that they represent a great waste 
of money and effort in their present ineffective condition, to 
say nothing of hints that the moral and civic material they pro- 
duce of any grade is something to be ashamed of. Here, then, 
is a field which Catholics may inquire into and seek to remedy, 
for they are taxpayers, employers and neighbors, and should 
seek the best results for money and effort expended. 

The catalogue might be made longer, but space forbids. 
There is abundant work in every line surrounding our civic 
life, and we should equip ourselves for it, and equip ourselves 
so fully and so admirably that our abilities will be recognized. 
When we consider what we have already done in the century 
past, how it stands as a bulwark for hope and righteousness 
to-day and as an incentive for further and better work in the 
future, we should rejoice and be glad. 



An Address Delivered Before the Mount Morris Baptist 

Church Forum 

IT is with much diffidence that I follow the gentlemen who 
have spoken upon the various Sundays before me. My 
talk is the harder when I undertake to condense into the 
space of three-quarters of an hour the history and development 
of the Catholic Church for nineteen centuries. It is really an 
impossible task ; and if aught in my remarks appears as an 
omission or curtailment, it is because I can give but an out- 
line of my subject — simply touch upon the great peaks of in- 
terest which dominate the doctrines and conception of Catholi- 

I cannot tell you how much I appreciate your kind invita- 
tion to address you, and the generous welcome which your offi- 
cers have extended to me. If, therefore, I may be so fortu- 
nate and sufficiently clear as to give you some idea of the sali- 
ent points of the doctrines of the Catholic Church — for I can- 
not hope to make more than an outline sketch — I shall be very 
glad indeed. I know you take the deepest interest in the out- 
look of your fellow-men towards God, and above all in that 
of your fellow American citizens. 

We are Catholics and have no objection to being called 
Roman Catholics, unless it be invidiously applied, or used in 
the sense in which the branch theorists of Anglicanism use it. 
But we do resent the names sometimes used, such as Papist, 
Romanist and Romish, for the very simple reason that they 
are expressions of contempt and are intended to wound. Their 
use is getting rarer and rarer, and all generous-minded Ameri- 
cans are too noble to fight their battles with adjectives where 
facts and arguments are needed instead. We are Catholics 
because we are of the one, great universal church of Jesus 
Christ, spread throughout all the ages since His death on Cal- 



vary and spread throughout the world in every nation, land 
and clime ; and we are Roman because we follow the Roman 
Rite or form of worship and are always and everywhere united 
with the See of Rome as the centre of union and of authority. 
But, as the word Roman is not always coterminous with Cath- 
olic, I, for my part, shall use the word Catholic throughout 
my remarks. 

All Catholics are not of the Roman Rite, although they are 
a!l in communion with the Holy See at Rome. We have some 
10,000,000 Oriental Catholics — Greek Catholics, Armenian 
Catholics, Maronite Catholics and others — who do not follow 
the Roman Rite at all, but follow their own peculiar forms of 
worship, yet their Faith is the same. As an example at our 
very doors, we have in the City of New York, not only Roman 
Catholics, but also Greek Catholics, Armenian Catholics and 
Syrian Catholics, all united in one faith but differing in their 
rites and ceremonies of worship. The Greek Orthodox 
Church broke away from the unity of the Church nearly nine 
hundred years ago, but all the Greeks did not go with them. 
Many remained Catholics and many more returned to the faith. 
In America, we have a flourishing Greek Catholic Church, 
spread throughout the United States and twice as large as the 
Greek Orthodox Church. The Greek Orthodox Church is 
opposed to the Greek Catholic Church, although they both use 
the same language and forms of worship. But the Catholic 
Church, whether Greek or Roman in form of worship, is one 
in faith and organization, while the Greek Orthodox differs in 
faith and is separate in its organization. 

If we were asked suddenly to point to the one body which is 
obviously the Church of Christ, a glance throughout the world 
would show that it is the Catholic Church, for that looms 
larger than any other Christian organization. If one were 
asked what Church has given the greatest inspiration to art, 
literature, poetry and romance, it would be none other than 
the Catholic Church. High resolve, heroic deeds, knighthood, 
chivalry, renunciation, prayer and sacrifice have their root in 
its teachings, in which you will find the sole and constant fount 
of inspiration for the pen, the brush or the chisel. Catholicism 
is woven into the warp and the woof of all nations, all lan- 
guages and all centuries since the advent of Christendom, and 
has become part of the nearest and dearest to our hearts, 



whether we believe its doctrines or no — just as the word 
Christmas brings up the memories of Bethlehem and of the 
Christ-Mass of the Catholic Church. 

Witness her history in the great battle between things spir- 
itual and things material. Against what church body do the 
rulers and the nations of the whole earth, when they are an- 
tagonistic to Christianity, first rage and seek to destroy? 
What church has just suffered the entire loss of all its tem- 
poral goods, as recently in France, rather than abate one jot 
of its principles of unity and right to teach its faith unham- 
pered? Turn where you will, whether in Europe, Asia, Af- 
rica or America, and notice what one particular church body 
is everywhere the universal target of objection or opposition 
among those who minimize, deny or flout all revelation from 
God, who advance theories subversive of moral or civil order, 
who teach doctrines intended to extinguish the light which 
the Christian religion has shed upon all nations, and you will 
find by a comparison that that body alone is the Catholic 
Church. As the Church which Jesus Christ founded could 
not hope to escape opposition and persecution any more than 
its Divine Founder, the testimony of past and present history 
cannot but lead to the conclusion that the Catholic Church 
alone bears the marks which most nearly attest her as the rep- 
resentative Church of Christ on earth. This I know is a 
negative view of the proposition, and I will not assume that 
it proves anything; but it is a sufficiently striking view to 
command the respectful consideration of thinking people to 
the teaching, constitution and claims of the Catholic Church. 

If I were asked what attitude the 
Catholic Church most insistently 
assumes in the United States, and 
what lies closest to her heart of 
hearts, I could not find a more fit- 
ting or a more striking answer than 
in the accompanying chart. It is 
taken from Bulletin No. 103 of the 
Census, and concerns the statistics 
of religious bodies in the United 
States, taken in the year 1906. You 
will notice that it deals with all the Protestant churches col- 
lectively, grouping them under one combined heading. They 


have within all their respective folds less than one-quar- 
ter (24.1 per cent) of the population of these continental 
United States. The Catholic Church has less than fif- 
teen per cent (14.3 per cent), while the Jews, Orthodox 
Greek and others hold but 7 per mill of the entire popula- 
tion. All of these together make up but 39.1 per cent of 
the population, or say, about 32,940,000 souls. This leaves, 
out of a population of 84,250,000, as shown by that census, 
some 51,310,000 persons who are without any church connec- 
tions whatever, and for aught that we know have little or no 
knowledge of their Saviour and Redeemer, or of any God 
or any religion. There is the field — the harvest is ripe — and 
you and I can put forth our very best efforts in that wide 
territory of homeless souls without unnecessary friction or 
crossing each other's paths too often. It is that wide field, 
filled with human, eager souls, varying all the way from mild 
indifference and ignorance to virulent animosity to Christ 
and His faith, which the Catholic Church is most eager to 
reach. It is a matter of the deepest, heartfelt concern to us, 
and it ought not to fail to be of importance to you. 

In the ancient Creed, the test or description of the Church 
founded by our Lord was, "I believe in one holy Catholic 
and Apostolic church." That is but a duplication of St. Paul's 
definition : "Careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace, one body and one spirit, as you are called in 
one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism" 
(Eph. iv, 3-5), and this is but an amplification of Our Lord's 
words : "And there shall be one fold and one shepherd" 
(John X, 16). In the whole world to-day there is but one 
Christian body which answers to the test of unity. Search 
throughout the world, from the uttermost bounds of the East 
to the furtherest confines of the West, and you will find but 
one Christian Church which is everywhere and, being every- 
where, is united. Wherever you find the Catholic Church in 
America, it is united in one body ; it teaches one faith ; it 
acknowledges one baptism. If you find it in England, Ireland, 
France, Belgium, Holland, Scandinavia, Germany, Russia, 
Austria, Italy, Spain or Turkey, or in Asia, Africa or Oceania 
it is the same. It everywhere teaches the same doctrine, is 
everywhere in unity and in unison. Nowhere else in the wide 


world can one discover a similar phenomenon. And as it is 
to-day, so it was yesterday and throughout the centuries. 

Those who have left the Church have always cast off some- 
thing, either of doctrine or of government. They have failed, 
either in unity or organization, or in unity of doctrine and 
teaching. But all through the pages of history, back to fhe 
beginnings of the Church, the note of unity sounds through 
the ages as the leit motif of the Catholic Church, and of the 
Catholic Church alone. In the Mass, the priest, since the 
first ages of the Church, has always prayed : "Thy holy 
Catholic Church, which do Thou vouchsafe to pacify, guard, 
unite and govern throughout the whole world," and that 
prayer goes up unceasingly every day from her altars in 
every land. No other religion of ancient or modern times, 
pagan, monotheistic (except, perhaps, the venerable Jewish 
Church, when its priesthood and ahar existed), or Christian, 
has or ever had that mark of unity. They have not tried to 
live up to "One body, one spirit, one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism." Even now, in our own day, when most of us are 
tolerant of one another, denominations professing the same 
identical faith fail to get together in corporate union, while 
those that have but a hair's breadth between them stand rig- 
idly aloof. In no other Christian assembly at any time in 
the pages of history has there ever been such a wide diversity 
of peoples, races, divergent political views and national jeal- 
ousies and antipathies among the inhabitants of the earth so 
welded together and so knit into one as the Catholic Church 
exhibits. It alone, among all the Christian faiths, is truly 
Catholic — truly universal — spread world-wide in every land 
and among every people, no matter how antagonistic they 
be one to another; and it alone is one in the faith which it 
teaches and in the government which it obeys in spiritual 

Nor does its Catholicity and unity stop here. Its faith 
teaches that the Church, the Spouse of Christ, is one now and 
hereafter. It reaches from this world to the next; and the 
Church Triumphant, in the splendid vision and glorious com- 
munion with the Triune God, the Church Suffering at the door 
of beatific rest and eternal light awaiting entrance into the 
fullness of the vision and glory of God, and the Church visi- 
ble and Militant battling here with sin on earth, is all one — 


the one and the same Church. We and they are knit to- 
gether in a bond of union so strong and so close that our 
prayers help those who have not yet attained to the vision 
and rest of God, while that great "white-robed army of mar- 
tyrs" and the other saints who have attained to everlasting 
happiness help us poor mortals who are struggling here in 
this valley of tears. We are all one, the blessed in Heaven, 
the suffering at the door of Heaven, and we who follow their 
footsteps ; and our brethren who have gone before us help us 
with their prayers at the Throne of Grace, exactly as they 
would have done were they now on earth beside us in our 
hours of struggle. And we help our brethren who need our 
prayers as we would were they kneeling here beside us, that 
they may the sooner be with the blessed brotherhood, the 
Church Triumphant, before the Throne. This unity and 
Catholicity is not only the unity that reaches around the 
world, the Catholicity that spreads through all ages, all races 
and all climes, but it is a unity and Catholicity that reaches 
across the valley of death and carries along the serried ranks 
of the saints clear up to the everlasting Throne of God. 

The Catholic Church teaches absolutely wholly and com- 
pletely the doctrine of God the Trinity. Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, and that the second person of the Blessed Trinity, God 
the Son, assumed our human nature and was made flesh — 
being at the same time true man and true God — for our re- 
demption and salvation, and consummated man's redemption 
by His crucifixion and death upon Mount Calvary. It con- 
fesses with Saint Peter with trumpet tones that "there is no 
other name under heaven given to men, whereby we may be 
saved" (Acts, iv, 12). The Incarnation of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ is the central point of Catholic theology and doctrine. 
It is not merely a feeble assent to the divinity of Our Lord; 
it is the emphatic affirmation upon every occasion, at every 
ceremony and form of worship, nay. throughout the hours of 
every day, that God became man for our salvation and for 
our lifting up to supernatural life. Not only do we say the 
prayer which Our Lord Himself taught us, "Our Father, who 
art in heaven," but we say in commemoration of the fact that 
Our Lord God became man the words with which He sent that 
message to the tender young maiden who was to bear Him 
into this world and the very first salutation of that fact before 


He was even born. Like the Archangel Gabriel and Saint 
Elizabeth, we say : "Hail Mary, full of grace ; the Lord is 
with thee; blessed art thou among women (Luke, i, 28) and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus" (Luke, i, 42), in 
humble acknowledgment of the mystery of God made mani- 
fest in the flesh. You have heard of the Angelus — Millet's 
celebrated picture is enough to impress the idea upon every 
one. The Angelus is the prayer ordained by the Church to 
be said three times a day, morning, noon and night, to bring 
home to every Christian the incarnation of our Blessed Re- 
deemer. The Angelus, which is almost wholly extracted from 
the Gospels, is said as follows : 

"The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary : and she con- 
ceived by the Holy Ghost. Hail Mary, &c." 

"Behold the handmaid of the Lord : be it done unto me 
according to Thy word. Hail Mary, &c." 

"And the Word was made flesh : and dwelt amongst us. 
Hail Mary, &c." 

And then this prayer follows : 

"Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our 
hearts that we, to whom the incarnation of Christ Thy Son 
was made known by the message of an angel, may by His 
passion and cross be brought to the glory of His resurrec- 
tion. Through the same Jesus Christ Our Lord. Amen." 

These are the prayers which the peasants in Millet's pic- 
ture are saying, as they stand with bared heads at even-tide. 

Therefore, the teaching of the Church is not merely the 
divinity of Girist, as that might mean merely a human mask 
instead of a real humanity. It is more than that — it is God 
Himself taking on our poor humanity, and thereby raising 
our weak human nature and frailty up to the splendid heights 
of God Himself. He became our brother and one of us, 
human as we are, in all except sin, and His mother is our 
mother, even as He commended her to be our mother to the 
sole apostle at the foot of the cross when He was dying; 
His brethren are our brethren ; His friends are our friends — 
and we, without abating one jot or tittle of our worship, love 
or adoration of God the Son, ask His mother and His saints 
to intercede and pray for us, just as we would in the human 
family of whom He is the elder brother and head, turn to 
them to help us in our straits and needs. He is forever God 


and man, for in His ascension and glorious reign in Heaven 
He has forever raised manhood up until it touches the hem 
of divinity. As the God-Man, as the Word made Flesh, He 
may be approached, both as God and man, exactly as if He 
walked the earth to-day. As the priest repeats at the altar, 
as he lifts his hands daily in commencing the great sacrifice 
of the Mass : 

"O God, who hast wonderfully framed man's exalted na- 
ture and still more wonderfully restored it, grant us to be^ 
come partakers of His Godhead who hath vouchsafed to be- 
come partaker of our manhood : through Our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with Thee in unity 
with the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end." 

If, therefore, we pray to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or to the 
saints, it is only because of and through the Incarnation of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ. We worship Him, we acknowledge 
Him, we confess Him to be God. our Saviour and Redeemer ; 
but we love Him, approach Him and cling tenderly to Him 
as man — as our brother — and we fervently ask all His near- 
est and dearest as men to unite with our petitions, to assist 
us with their prayers, to have the whole triumphant Church 
in Heaven with the greatest of mankind at their head ring 
with a triumphant human unison in accord with our petitions 
here below. It is the humanity of Jesus Christ that we ac- 
knowledge and glorify when we ask all created saved hu- 
manity to join with us in our petitions to Him. 

The Incarnation, then, is the centre and kernel of the Catho- 
lic faith ; all else is a consequence and corollary of it. The 
passion and death of Our Lord is His drinking the bitter wine 
of humanity to the very dregs ; it is the continuation and con- 
summation of His becoming man for our salvation. He took 
upon Himself the sins of the world as the last experience in 
taking upon Himself the flesh and soul of humanity, and He 
so identified Himself with our human life from the cradle 
to the grave, from the wedding feast of Cana to that ghastly 
climb up Calvary's hill with death at its summit. He is ours 
from a human standpoint, as well as from a divine one, inex- 
tricably and inseparably mingled together forever as God and 
man, to be loved and approached from either side. 

The Church never forgets for a moment the sacrifice upon 
Calvary. Not an instant of prayer is she without its remem- 


brance — the Sign of the Cross is the beginning and ending 
of all of them ; she puts the cross constantly before us upon 
her churches, books and vestments, and unceasingly bids us 
remember the crucified Saviour. In commemoration of the 
day upon which He suffered without food or drink, she bids 
us abstain from flesh meat on that day in each week as some 
slight denial of pleasure to ourselves in reminder thereof. 
By teaching and precept the Church keeps ever before us 
the culminating act of the redemption of the world. 

It is obvious to every one that the human work of making 
known the Incarnation and teaching of Our Lord must be 
entrusted to some human society or organization. This so- 
ciety or organization, if it is really to carry this knowledge to 
all men, in all ages and in all lands, must be protected against 
€rror and must be one in its teaching. If it be not protected 
against error, then those who live after Christ or away from 
the Saviour's voice and personal presence are indeed in a per- 
ilous condition, since they have no sure means of ascertaining 
what His teaching was. If this organization is not one in its 
teaching, then the faith and religion of Christ become little 
more than a philosophical school of thought or a doctrine of 
economics, varying with each person, each age and each lo- 

We Catholics declare and affirm that just such a society 
was established to effectively carry the news of the Incarna- 
tion and teachings of Our Lord to the uttermost ends of the 
earth and throughout all ages. Our Lord gave it an enduring 
charter: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. 
Go, therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have com- 
manded you : and behold, I am with you all days, even to the 
consummation of the world" (Matt., xxviii, 18-20). This is 
what we mean by the Catholic Church. Like all human so- 
cieties, it has a human president, or chief, and Our Lord pro- 
vided that chief in the most emphatic manner. I do not wish 
to take up time quoting texts, but the subUme declaration of 
Christ ought to be held in mind : 

"Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona : . . . And I say to 
thee: That thou art Peter (a rock) ; and upon this rock I 
will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail 


against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom 
of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it 
shall be bound also in heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt 
loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matt, xvi^ 


It is a declaration of position and power never vouchsafed 
to any other Apostle. Simon the fisherman was not the first 
of the Apostles in time, for Andrew was first called ; nor the 
first in love, for John was the well beloved ; nor the most 
steadfast, for he denied his Master. Yet he was the only 
Apostle whose name was changed by Our Lord, and a specific 
reason given for doing so. Even with the same breath in 
which He foretells Peter's denial. Our Lord prophesies that 
his faith will fail not and gives him charge of his brethren. 
His charge over his brethren and the Church is repeated even 
after the resurrection. As Our Lord and the Holy Ghost were 
to be with the Church until the end of the world, these pre- 
rogatives descended to the successors in the teaching body of 
the Church, and the special prerogatives of Peter descended to 
his successors in office. Otherwise they were useless ; and 
most of all to those who have lived since the days of the 

Even as the primitive society or Church sent out to teach all 
nations had Peter at its head, so it has continued ever since. 
The teaching body of the Church has deacons, priests and 
bishops, and, as the Chief Bishop of them all, the great Bishop 
of the West, the Pope of Rome. He is the successor of Saint 
Peter, as testified in every liturgy, menology and church his- 
tory from the earliest times. He is the centre and focus of 
Church authority. I have not the time to discuss the succes- 
sive history and organization of the Church, although I would 
gladly do so. But a word may be said of the great preroga- 
tive — the flower and blossoms of the promise of Christ, that 
"the gates of hell shall not prevail against it, and I will give 
unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven" — the infalli- 
bility of the Pope. Infallibility does not mean that the Pope 
is sinless, or incapable of sin ; or even, to use an extreme illus- 
tration, that he is able to write a book on theology wholly free 
from error; or to decide without mistake upon matters of 
science, history, art or politics — it is confined to his solemn 
official judgments on matters of faith and morals when he gives 


judgment sitting as the teacher of the one, universal Church. 
The Pope cannot add to the deposit of faith or subtract from 
it.. But when there arises among the teachers of the Church 
a controversy which alleges on the one hand that a certain 
doctrine is of the faith, and on the other hand that it is not 
of the faith, the decision of the Pope, sitting in his capacity 
as the Chief Bishop and Teacher of the whole Universal 
Church, is unalterable and conclusive. The word "infalli- 
bility" means that his decision will not fail to be a correct one, 
as carrying out the promise of Our Lord : "Simon, Simon, I 
have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not" (Luke, xxii, 31- 
32), under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, "the Spirit of 
truth, who will teach you all truth" (John, xvi, 13). 

The Catholic Church comes immediately into contact with 
the world through her preaching and her sacraments. In these 
she knows neither race, color nor civil condition — all sorts and 
conditions of men are alike at her shrines. She has been 
called the Church of the poor and the ignorant; well, so she 
is; they are the very kind of persons with whom Our Lord 
associated. She has been reproached for cultivating the rich 
and the powerful; but He also was the honored guest and 
associate of rich men and rulers. She has as many learned 
men as any other organization in the world, but their learning 
is for the supreme end of saving souls and not for earning 
distinction as erudite scholars. The prince, the savant and 
the beggar meet together at her altar rail ; one can find it here 
in this very city, or in any of the stateliest shrines of the old 
world; and I myself have taken communion in a resplendent 
church, kneeling at the altar rail between a negro and a long- 
shoreman, and in a magnificent cathedral a Bedouin of the 
desert has entered and worshipped beside me. Within those 
hallowed walls we were all equal citizens of the Kingdom of 


Upon this great body of worshippers the Church brings to 
bear her great sources of dynamic power — the Sunday Mass, 
with its accompanying sermon or familiar instruction, the 
confessional and Holy Communion. These are the main bat- 
teries of the Church in her warfare against sin. They are 
the means on which she relies to build up strong spiritual 
lives in her children. The other sacraments are all needful, 
but she puts these at the forefront. 


Every Catholic is obliged under pain of serious sin to be 
present at Mass every Sunday unless prevented by a good 
reason. So it is that, rain or shine, in heat or in cold, our 
churches are crowded every Sunday. To Catholics, the Mass, 
whether celebrated amid all the imposing solemnity of cathe- 
dral appurtenances, or whether offered in an unadorned 
chapel of a backwoods village, is the supremest act of wor- 
ship. We believe that Christ Himself becomes present on the 
altar and blesses us and all we hold dear. There before the 
aUar we are the equals of the multitude that daily saw Jesus 
when He walked and taught. He Himself said the sacrament 
was His body and He was God, the Creator of all things. No 
man, sincerely believing this doctrine, can go back to his home 
and the duties of the week without comfort, courage and 
high resolve. 

Every Sunday there is at the low Masses — so called because 
they are said in a low tone, without music, usually — a short 
familiar instruction, and at the high Masses the set sermon. 
I need not tell you that the Mass is the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper, with all the ceremonies and usages that have 
come down to us from the earliest times. In large parishes 
there are from six to eight Masses on a Sunday, so that all 
the members of the families may be accommodated. Many 
times is the church filled, and at each Mass the Gospel is read 
and expounded and applied to the daily life of the people. 
Thus throughout the year the Church keeps up her mission 
of preaching the Gospel, now calmly explaining homely duties, 
now warning, now encouraging, now reproving, now pleading, 
now thundering against abuses, now explaining her doctrine 
— always conscious of her responsibility and yearning that 
Christ may be in the hearts of her people. 

Besides the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the ministry of 
preaching, the Church has the powerful aids of confession 
and Holy Communion. The Church teaches that the sins we 
commit after baptism are forgiven through the Sacrament of 
Penance ; and the necessary conditions on the part of the peni- 
tent for receiving absolution are contrition and confession. 
Now, before a man can confess his sins, he must examine his 
conscience carefully. The soul is forced to look at itself in 
the mirror of God's law. Words, deeds, conversations, omis- 
sions and that interior life of thought and will which is hid- 


den from the world but which is so large and vital a part 
of the soul's history, all must stand the searchlight of God's 
commands and prohibitions. This serious and frequent ex- 
amination of one's life in its every detail and motive quickens 
the action of conscience and strengthens its voice. The de- 
liberate hauling of one's self before the bar of eternal law, 
the steady looking at one's faults, failures and transgressions, 
whether against God, one's neighbor or one's own interests, 
is the first step in amendment. 

The declaration of one's sins to a fellow-creature is not 
agreeable — it is not intended that it should be ; it is a medicine 
for our pride, and medicine as a rule is not particularly pala- 
table. But this declaration of sins is incumbent upon every 
one in the Church from the Pope himself down to the hum- 
blest layman in any walk of life. Every Catholic knows, too, 
that so absolute and sacred is the secrecy of the confessional, 
that the confessor would be obliged to lay down his life 
rather than reveal what is committed to his judgment in that 
tribunal. And that tribunal is guarded from abuse by the 
severest penalties the Church can decree. 

Besides confession of sin, every Catholic knows that as a 
condition for obtaining forgiveness of God, he must have true 
sorrow — otherwise his confession were worse than a mockery. 
It would be sacrilege, and he would have added to his burden 
of sin, instead of lightening it. And that sorrow is to be of 
no vague general kind, but very definite and practical. It in- 
cludes not only regret and repentance for the past, but a re- 
solve for the future. It means the definite and firm resolution 
to correct the sins that are declared, and furthermore to keep 
from whatever might prove a proximate occasion of sin. It 
is this, coupled with the recitals of the sins to the priest, which 
entitles the penitent to absolution. But it does not end here. 
There is then the satisfaction, or so-called penance, to be per- 
formed by the penitent. If he has stolen he must make resti- 
tution ; if he has slandered he must repair his slanders, etc. ; 
in every instance he must perform some exercise of piety in- 
tended to call to his mind and impress on his conscience the 
avoidance of temptation and sin. 

Confession is for the Catholic the preparation for Holy 
Communion. Hence his earnestness in striving to make as 
sincere, humble and contrite confession as possible. For he 


believes that in Holy Communion, by a miracle of God's love, 
he comes into blessed contact with the very physical presence 
of his Saviour. To receive Holy Communion with serious sin 
in his soul would be, he knows, an unspeakable sacrilege. ►It 
is these considerations, as a corrective of sin and an inspiration 
for a holy life, which the Church offers her children every 
day, and by means of which they are enabled to strive to over- 
come all that drags them down from manhood, purity and 

In the Sacrament of Matrimony, the Catholic Church has 
pronounced the holiest blessings upon the union of man and 
wife. The union of man and woman may have been a con- 
tract before — and it was a slippery, evasive, indefinable con- 
tract, varying with caprice from divorce after divorce, on the 
one hand, to unlimited polygamy on the other — but Our Lord 
made it a sacrament and indissoluble. The Catholic Church 
recognizes no divorce. She stands for the family, the home 
and the sanctity of the marriage tie. And she has ever stood 
for that, as some of the most notable events on the pages of 
history have shown. And she will unceasingly cry out against 
any legislation or any teaching which tends to disintegrate the 
home and disrupt the family relation. We stand shoulder to 
shoulder with any set or society of men — in or out of the 
Church, if they mean it — who strive to promote purity, domes- 
tic happiness and moral health, whether we agree with them 
in belief or not, and the Catholic Church will always protect 
the marriage relation and keep the family together against all 
comers. It is the only human foundation upon which the 
Church and State alike can build together, and it is one that 
needs the grace of God to keep it pure and stable. 

From the beginning of her history the Church has enjoined 
upon all her children obedience and loyalty to the lawfully 
constituted authorities in their respective countries. She 
teaches that as the Church is God's representative in the su- 
pernatural order to lead men to a supernatural end in union 
with Him, so the State is God's representative in the natural 
order to bring men to the end for which society was ordained 
— the temporal happiness and progress of the race. Disobedi- 
ence, then, to the State in any matter which is within the 
State's competence is disobedience to God. Obedience to 


the State and to all just laws is loyalty to God and is patriot- 
ism blessed by religion. 

In the natural order of things the Catholic Church is willing 
to. walk in company with all who work seriously and earnestly 
for the betterment, purity and right-mindedness of all people. 
In charity, benevolence and good works of every kind, she 
will meet all of you with a willing heart and ready hand. But 
in the teaching of the faith handed down by Jesus Christ, she 
affirms that she alone has kept the whole deposit of faith in- 
tact and the continuity and unity of the Church along with it. 
While she therefore recognizes that others have gone out from 
her carrying with them the greater truths of revelation and have 
faithfully persevered in clinging to them, she cannot regard 
them as safe or trusted teachers, and cannot allow her chil- 
dren to violate their unity of the faith by joining in worship 
with those not of the fold. She bids them recognize every 
noble, good and worthy thing which those who are out of the 
fold possess — nay, in many instances where they do not con- 
cern the faith, she bids us imitate and adopt them. And so 
in the battle against wrong and sin and foulness, and in the 
desire and yearning to make this the noblest country under 
the sun, we may join hands with you in effecting results, al- 
though we may not serve even temporarily under your banner 
or attend your martial exercises. But we may do something 
more; we may pray for you and pray with you, although 
apart from you. In the last analysis the Catholic Church rec- 
ognizes every baptized person as a member, and nothing but 
his own act, in wilfully rejecting the light afforded him by 
the teaching of the Church, and sinning deliberately against 
the grace of God, can deprive him of the supernatural end 
which the Incarnation of Our Lord Jesus Christ and His death 
on the Cross prepared for them that believe in Him. 

I cannot forbear concluding this brief outline of the work 
and teaching of the Catholic Church with the well-known quo- 
tation from Lord Macaulay : 'There was not and there is not 
on this earth a work of human policy so well deserving of 
examination as the Roman Catholic Church. The history of 
that Church joins together the two great ages of human civili- 
zation. No other institution is left standing which carries the 
mind back to the times when the smoke of sacrifice rose from 
the Pantheon and when the camelopards and tigers bounded 


in the Flavian amphitheatre. The proudest royal houses are 
but of yesterday as compared with the line of the Supreme 
Pontiffs. * * * The Catholic Church is still sending forth to 
the farthermost ends of the world missionaries as zealous as 
those who landed in Kent with Augustine, and it is still con- 
fronting hostile kings and governments with the same spirit 
with which she confronted Attila. The number of her chil- 
dren is greater than in any former age. Her acquisitions in 
the new world have more than compensated for what she 
may have lost in the old. * * * Nor do we see any sign which 
indicates that the term of her long dominion is approaching. 
She saw the commencement of all governments and of all the 
ecclesiastical establishments which now exist in the world ; 
and we feel no assurance that she is not destined to see the 
end of them all. She was great and respected before the 
Saxon had set foot in Britain, before the Frank had passed 
the Rhine, when Grecian eloquence still flourished in Antioch, 
when idols were still worshipped in the temple of Mecca. And 
she will still exist in undiminished vigor when some traveller 
from New Zealand shall, in the midst of a vast solitude, take 
his stand on a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the 
ruins of Saint Paul's." 


FROM the time the .Church emerged from the cata- 
combs, she has sought to beautify her temples and her 
worship. Even there, the rude frescoes and orna- 
ments found by archaeologists amply testify that the perse- 
cuted Christians found occasion to decorate and symbolize 
their daily worship. Not only do these paintings and quaint 
designs tell us the history of the Church's teaching, but they 
bear eloquent witness to the use of artistic means employed by 
the Church from the very beginning to impress the believer 
with the fullness and glory of the City of God. 

After the age of persecution, when the Church became a 
publicly recognized institution, then assisted and afterwards 
often dominated by the State, she sought for the greater fruits 
of artistic development. She took the Roman and Greek tem- 
ples and law courts, adorned them in a manner befitting the 
nobler Christian worship, and wrought for herself forms of 
architecture and ornamentation peculiarly Christian. How 
well she succeeded the vast multitude of examples of Christian 
art throughout Europe amply testifies. 

The central point of all Christian worship was and is the 
bloodless Sacrifice of the Altar. All Christian art leads up 
to the contemplation of that. Even in the beginning Heaven 
itself was described by St. John in the semblance of an altar 
with the lamb enthroned thereon, and the saints and angels 
ministering thereat, with golden censers, the smoke of incense, 
and the prayers of the saints. The great writer of the Apoca- 
lypse conceived no greater symbolism of Heaven than that of 
the highest act of Christian worship. 

The development of Christian art may be said to have be- 
gun with the adornment of the altar and sanctuary, and with 
everything connected with the Holy Sacrifice. In the East 
this development was different from that of the West. The 
original altar was left untouched by the Oriental Church, but 
the screen which separated the altar and sanctuary from the 



people was adorned as sumptuously as the art of the times and 
the wealth of the worshippers could afford. The Easterners 
adorned and beautified what lay in front of the altar, while 
the Western Church built the reredos behind it and filled it 
with carving and statues. Only the choir screens and altar 
screens in some of the Western churches remain now as traces 
of the Eastern practices. 

Afterwards came the great glory of paintings, mosaics and 
statuary. In the East all extension of art was checked by 
the outbreaks of the Iconoclasts — the Puritans of the Eastern 
Roman Empire — who forbade paintings and sculpture in the 
churches, making them bare and desolate. At last a compro- 
mise was effected in Constantinople, and icons, or pictures, 
consisting of paintings, were once more allowed, while sculp- 
ture was forbidden, and so remains to the present day in the 
Greek Church. The day when art was once more allowed in 
the Christian churches of the East is still triumphantly cele- 
brated on the first Sunday in Lent, known as the Sunday of 

The very restraint of sculpture in the Eastern Church and 
the subsequent inroads of the Moslems, who allowed no art 
which represented the human face or figure, arrested the de- 
velopment of nearly all art in the Oriental countries in regard 
to Christian ideals. True, there was architecture upon the 
Byzantine plan, which received its highest development when 
Justinian built the temple of Saint Sophia, at Constantinople, 
and exclaimed : 'T have surpassed thee, O Solomon !" Even 
that passed over to the Turk, who also used the Greek archi- 
tect to build him mosques after the same wonderful pattern. 

At its height that magnificent ecclesiastical architecture left 
us models which all ages must hereafter study. In the bright 
skies of Constantinople, Greece and Italy — for nearly until 
the thirteenth century Italy was almost half Greek — the win- 
dow space of the churches was a minimum and the art of the 
painter and colorist filled up the blank walls. 

Yet all wall painting was felt to be ephemeral, something 
that must soon pass away. Then came the wonderful art of 
mosaic, an art which had been used sparingly by the ancients, 
but was used lavishly by the builders of the Christian 
churches. The magnificent churches of Ravenna — the old 
Exarchate of Ravenna, a province of Constantinople, situated 


in the heart of Italy— St. Apollinare-in-Classe, San Vitale, and 
St. Apollinare Nuova, are the glories of the sixth century, 
while the older churches of Rome and Sicily and St. Mark's 
of Venice show painting and mosaic in all its greatness. 

The architecture of the Greek and Roman churches of that 
and the subsequent periods is better to be appreciated from 
the interior than from without. The glory of mosaic grows 
upon one who studies St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, the 
churches of Santa Pudenziana, and Sta. Maria Maggiore in 
Rome, and the Palatine Chapel in Palermo and the Cathedral 
in Monreale in Sicily. There one can see what a magnificent 
mantle of art it spreads over the whole church building. One 
may trace it from the fifth century until the nineteenth; as 
well as in the magnificent reproductions of modem paintings 
in the mosaics of the Vatican and St. Peter's. For a jewel, a 
flashing gem of almost modern mosaic art, I have never seen 
anything to surpass the Palatine Chapel in Palermo, for the 
entire chapel, from floor to ceiling, is one glowing mass of 
beauty, telling the story of a saint and a gospel at every turn. 

As the Western Church continued her conquest of heathen 
and barbarian Europe, she evolved a new order of art, that 
of architecture of the Romanesque and Gothic form. The 
building forms of Italy and Greece (where the sun shone 
gloriously and vividly) made too dark the buildings destined 
for worship in the more northern climes. There more light 
was needed in the interior. Then came airier structures, with 
pinnacles and spires, great wide window spaces and huge por- 
tals, soaring roofs and flying buttresses, a lace work of mar- 
ble and light stone. One has to pause with amazement at the 
industry and art which covered all the North of Europe, and 
the Isles of England, Ireland and Scotland with these mag- 
nificent specimens of art, which we can do little better than 
copy. The cutting of huge windows in the Gothic cathedral 
made wall painting and mosaic well-nigh impossible, but it in 
turn gave birth to another form of art. These huge openings 
were filled with glass, upon which designs in colors were in- 
troduced, and thus stained glass as an ornament in churches 
and a replacement of mosaic among the Northern nations came 
into being. The Church claimed them all for her own and 
made them tell to the worshippers the story of her mission 
and message to the world. 


What shall I say of painting, whether that upon the great 
wall spaces, in fresco, or that upon canvas which is not so 
enduring? Painting in modern design came later than these 
other arts and has been developed perhaps more than any. 
And the Church has, ever since the first master touched his 
inspired brush, been a consistent patron of the best that man 
can do to tell the story of the gospel, the saint and the martyr. 
The story of Italian art would take long to recite here. In 
those days there were giants, indeed, such as Michelangelo, 
the beloved Michelangelo of the Florentines, a painter, a sculp- 
tor, an architect, a military captain and a poet, all in one. 
The Church claimed and fostered the best of everything that 
these masters produced. And that youthful genius, Raphael 
of Urbino, who conquered the world of architecture and paint- 
ing, dying at the age of thirty-seven, left behind him in church 
and palace more than many masters accomplish in a long life. 

Nor has the Church ever ceased to evoke and inspire the 
best efforts of hosts of painters to tell her wondrous story 
and the conquest of the world for Christ. In many lands, 
among people of every race and tongue, the sacred story, the 
saint, the hero and the champion of God in every guise have 
been pictured by the deftest and the most creative hands the 
world has ever known. The art of painting, more than that 
of other arts, speaks directly to the heart, is more easily un- 
derstood, and preaches almost as eloquently in the churches 
as the pulpit itself. The Church has used and will always use 
it in greater profusion than any other one of the allied arts. 

But the Church has not contented herself with these arts 
alone. The art of sculpture, both creative and decorative, was 
at all times lavishly employed. Those who have studied 
Gothic cathedrals are amazed at the wealth of detail and 
thought in every part. We have our machine-made buildings, 
nowadays, but in the Middle Ages every figure, every face, was 
unique and characteristic, with a personality of its own. Con- 
sider the Cathedral of Milan, with its 2,800 statues, each one 
representing a distinct personality ! The English cathedrals, 
where they are intact, the French, German and Austrian 
churches show a wealth of sculpture in every part. Even if 
other adornment were omitted, the wealth of sculpture and 
bas-relief is so lavish and great that we wonder at the genius 
that produced it all. 


Nor did this Christian art stop with carved stone and 
moulded brass. Every bit of wood that entered into the sanc- 
tuary was carved and shaped with an art and a loving skill 
almost akin to worship. Witness the wonderful choir stalls, 
rood screens, organ frontals, and episcopal thrones and bal- 
dacchini, found in the cathedrals and parish churches. In 
its palmiest days, the art patronage of the Church was so great 
that even the village chapel always had its artificer to adorn it. 

The blacksmith also came in for his share of artistic pro- 
duction. In Spain and Portugal and in Northern Italy the 
blacksmith was an artist. The magnificent hammered iron 
altar and choir screens and hammered brass and bronze, in a 
thousand entrancing shapes, testify to his artistic power. It 
is only of very recent years that we have awakened to the 
artistic force and power of the artificer in iron and brass, as 
an adjunct to the architecture and sculpture of the Church. 

Even in the far-off lands of Norway and Sweden, wherever 
cathedrals were built, whether of brick, in default of stone, as 
at Upsala, or in the beautiful slender columns of gray stone, as 
at Trondhjem, the church devised for its humbler structures 
another form of art, the log church. Any one who has seen in 
Norway and Sweden the carved logs, forming parts of the 
church, the sanctuary and sometimes the altar, and the quaint 
beauty of the belfries and spires of logs for the old Swedish 
churches, can realize how in a land where wood was plentiful 
and stone was costly such artistic results were achieved from 
materials which here in America in our day are made simply 
repulsive. A stroll through Oscarshall, at Christiania, or the 
Skandsen, at Stockholm, will make one realize it. 

But the Church laid the pen and the needle under artistic 
contribution also. It ran the gamut of art, and nothing was 
too lowly or too insignificant to contribute to the beauty of the 
House of God. Illumination of the beautiful manuscripts of 
the Middle Ages is essentially a church art. Monks who wrote 
and copied primarily to extend knowledge and the teachings 
of the Church began to develop after their manner into con- 
summate artists, who made the written page carry, embla- 
zoned on it, as great works as ever the master-painters limned 
on the walls of the church, or the glassworker wrought in the 
windows of the cathedral. The priest at the altar read the 
words of the Mass from a treasury of art almost as great as 


the worshipper in the nave saw around him. And, with our 
art knowledge of to-day, with the experience and results of 
centuries behind us, we cannot excel those wonderful minia- 
tures and illuminations of the past, but are fain, as in so many 
other regards, merely to copy them. 

The needle, too, contributed its share. From the earliest 
times the worship of the emancipated Christian Church was 
performed in the noblest and best apparel the wealth and piety 
of the worshippers could bestow. If earthly courtiers ought 
to approach their sovereigns clad in their best, why, then, 
should not the King of kings be approached and served with 
magnificence? When the courtly apparel of Roman days be- 
came ancient and unfamiliar, it was peculiarly consecrated to 
the service of the Church and was adorned as fully and mag- 
nificently as possible. Thus the Church consecrated em- 
broidery and afterwards lacework to its service. Art work of 
the noblest kind is found in the decoration and ornamenta- 
tion of chasubles, stoles, capes, mitres and the coverings of the 
sacred vessels and the altar. In figure and color, to say noth- 
ing of the beauty of the design, these vestments vie with illu- 
mination and painting, differing from it only in degree. The 
brilliant, filmy surplices and albs and other ecclesiastical vest- 
ments brought forth the finest examples of the lacemaker's 
art in the service of the Church. 

The jeweler's art was always sought after and fostered by 
the Church. The sacred vessels in which the Blessed Sacra- 
ment reposed, and those which were used on the altar, were 
always highly adorned and made of the most precious metals. 
The arts which wrought in gold and silver and precious stones 
had their finest outlet here ; for no reverent idea of sacred 
adornment which made for artistic worth and embellishment 
was overlooked. And in a less degree the working out of 
crosses, croziers, sanctuary lamps and all the precious orna- 
ments connected with the altar and its ministry commanded 
the highest artistic skill of the worker in gold, silver and 
precious stones. The whole history of the Church glows with 
the splendor and brilliancy of this form of art, so intimately 
connected with its sacred mysteries. 

Thus the Church has laid all forms of art under contribu- 
tion. It has been as universal almost in its promotion of art, 
as it has been in the spread and the teaching of the Gospel 


throughout the world. It has sought to make the art impulse 
and the love of the beautiful in man the stepping-stone to the 
knowledge of the Kingdom of Heaven and the golden thread 
which should bind his emotions to the service of God. We 
are all in the greater sense "children of God," and the things 
of this world which in beauty, form and color, appeal to us 
children through our senses, rather than through our intel- 
lects, have been utilized by the Church now and in all ages to 
bring us more closely in touch with our Heavenly Father. 

The Church has been a constant and unceasing patron of 
art, perhaps in a sense the only real patron. Individuals have 
been fickle and fanciful ; governments have been changeful 
and utilitarian ; both have been at times almost inimical to 
art, and repellent to the artist. But the Church throughout 
its entire history has encouraged and fostered art in every 
age, and has always used the creative arts to illustrate and 
exemplify its mission and to leave enduring memorials of its 
activity on earth. Its patronage of art, therefore, has never 
been ephemeral, or bounded by current fashion or caprice, 
but has demanded and always will demand the highest crea- 
tive effort in whatsoever branch the artist may follow, or of 
whatsoever achievement he may be capable. The demand for 
the artist's service and devotion to the mission of the Church 
is a continuing one, and will, as the Church itself has done, 
outlive the transitory tastes of a current age. 

The Church in America, in these United States, has just 
entered triumphantly upon the second century of its work. 
By earnest endeavor and ceaseless economy, it has reared 
churches, schools and institutions on every hand, and now 
stands clothed in the temporal garments of contemporary use- 
fulness. Its members have become well supplied with the 
goods of this world, even if not actually wealthy. The age 
of struggle and missionary preparation is rapidly passing. It 
therefore behooves the Church to clothe itself here in the new 
world, anew, with its traditional splendor for the glory of God. 
Its temples need no longer be bare and no longer may medi- 
ocre utilitarianism reign supreme. An intelligent appreciation 
of the force and power of art rightly directed for the harmony, 
beauty and elevation of the worship of God will serve effec- 
tually as an auxiliary to the Church in its relations to mankind 
in this age, and as a stimulus and incitement to bring forth 


the very best eflforts to adorn and make worthy the temple 
which is the abode of the King of kings. No longer should 
we, while enjoying all around us the best that our culture can 
afford, employ in our worship merely those things which our 
emotions and our artistic sensibilities tell us are unworthy of 
the great object of worship. It is much like keeping the best 
for ourselves and giving the second best to the Church. 

We therefore have reached a point in our history where we 
can seriously consider art and the artist in the development of 
our public worship. It is our duty to do so, unless we are 
willing to fall far below the standard of our forefathers. If 
they had beautiful churches, so should we have them. If 
they had noble and imposing adornments of God's house, we 
should have them also. As the Church has increased in the 
past century, on its material and spiritual sides among the 
people of this diocese and land, so may it also increase in the 
coming century in its artistic growth and in its appeal to the 
beautiful and glorious in the worship of Almighty God. 


FOR the first time in the history of the CathoUc Church 
the Holy See has a Secretary of State whose mother- 
tongue is English, and who is acquainted with English 
manners, literature and modes of thought. It is this fact 
which annoys certain writers against the Holy See, for the 
comparatively young adviser of the Pope is able to take them 
at first-hand — not as his predecessors did, by means of trans- 
lation — and to judge them from an intimate personal and prac- 
tical knowledge of Anglo-Saxon affairs. He is a man to 
whom the equipment of the modern world is familiar; the 
telegraph, telephone, stenographer and typewriter are as freely 
used by him as by the modern business man. 

Raphael Merry del Val was born at No. 33 Gloucester Place, 
Portman Square, London, on October 10, 1865, and was the 
third son of Marquis Raphael Merry del Val, then Secretary 
to the Spanish Embassy at the Court of St. James. His 
father is descended from a branch of the Merry family of 
Waterford, Ireland, which in time of persecution in the sev- 
enteenth century had to seek a home in Spain. His mother, 
the Condesa Zulueta, only daughter of Don Pedro Jose de 
Zulueta, Count de Torre Diaz, was educated in England and 
lived there until her marriage. Her mother (and his grand- 
mother) was a Miss Sophie Willcocks, eldest daughter of 
Brodie McGhie Willcocks, formerly member of Parliament 
for Southampton. Thus the future cardinal came of a strong 
mixture of Irish and English blood, in addition to having 
been born in England. His brother. Count Merry del Val, is 
even now in the Spanish diplomatic service, and has been of 
great assistance in settling the intricate Morocco question. 

It is needless to say that the young Merry del Val was al- 
most wholly English in his mother-tongue and upbringing. 
His first schooling was at Baylis House, near Slough, an excel- 
lent school, kept by the well-known Butt family. He was a 
jolly, good-natured lad, and earned the schoolboy nickname 



of the "Merry Devil." When he was between ten and eleven 
years old his father was promoted to Spanish Ambassador to 
Belgium, and he was then transferred to schools in Namur 
and Brussels, where he acquired a thorough command of the 
French language. He finished his course at the College de St. 
Michel in Brussels, and before he was eighteen returned to 
England to enter the Catholic College of St. Cuthbert, at 
Ushaw, near Durham, where he finished his studies in Philos- 
ophy, in October, 1885. It is said that at the age of eighteen 
he not only knew as much Greek and Latin as most professors 
of those ancient languages, but he was amazingly well versed 
in theology and Church history and the current affairs of 
European countries, and could write and converse in English, 
Spanish, French, Italian and German. At the age of twenty, 
when he graduated from Ushaw, it is said that he spoke those 
languages without an accent, and had a tolerable knowledge 
of several others besides. In his amusements he developed into 
a good bicycHst, a fine swimmer and a clever rifle shot; was 
fond of riding and was a good dancer. When he determined 
to become a priest at the age of twenty-one, his mother used 
to laughingly warn him that his dancing days were over. 

After his graduation his father secured for him the position 
of private tutor to the present King Alfonso XIII of Spain. 
It was probably his influence which inclined the future King's 
ideas towards things English, and which inclination eventu- 
ated in the royal marriage to the English princess who is now 
Oueen Victoria of Spain. When his father was appointed 
Spanish Ambassador to the Holy See, his son accompanied 
him to Rome and entered the Gregorian University to pursue 
his studies for the priesthood. It is said that at one time he 
had a desire to enter the Society of Jesus and to serve at one 
of their missions among the poor in the East End of London, 
just as Prince MaximiHan of Saxony did after being ordained 
priest, but his confessor dissuaded him, and Pope Leo XIII, 
who was a great judge of men, further persuaded him to enter 
the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici, where in addition to 
the other University studies, ecclesiastical diplomacy, political 
economy and international law are taught. Here he acquitted 
himself with even more credit, while he obtained high de- 
grees in philosophy, theology and canon law. 

At the age of twenty-four he was ordained a priest for the 


Archdiocese of Westminster, London, thus identifying him- 
self with the Metropolitan See of the English Church. But 
even before his ordination he had been selected for important 
duties. In 1887, he was appointed a Cameriere Segreto 
(Privy Chamberlain), and as such he accompanied Mgr. Ruffo 
Scilla in 1887, to represent the Holy See at the Jubilee of 
Queen Victoria. A few months later, with Mgr. Galimberti, 
he attended the funeral of Emperor William I of Germany, 
as the representative of the Pope. In 1888 he also represented 
the Holy See upon the occasion of the Jubilee of Emperor 
Francis Joseph of Austria. All these honors came to him 
before he was even ordained deacon or priest. 

In 1892 he was made Cameriere Segreto Participante, that 
is, a Privy Chamberlain in active service, which entailed his 
taking up his residence within the Vatican itself, with an 
apartment in close proximity to that of the Holy Father, a 
member of whose official family he thus became. In 1896 he 
was appointed to the onerous and responsible position of 
Secretary to the Special Commission appointed by the Holy 
Father to examine into and determine the facts as to the va- 
lidity of the ordinations and orders in the Established Church 
of England. This may be called his first large and responsi- 
ble appointment, and was no doubt due in a great degree to 
his familiarity with the English language and his knowledge 
of affairs in England. The Commissioners were unanimous 
in their appreciation of the able manner in which he dis- 
charged his duties. His minutes, drawing together and digest- 
ing, as they did, the daily discussions and memoranda of the 
commission, were regarded as extraordinary in their faithful- 
ness, accuracy and lucidity. 

In 1897, when Canada was much disturbed over the burning 
question of the schools in Manitoba, where both the question 
of religious teaching and the use of the French language were 
involved, Merry del Val was selected by Pope Leo XIII as 
Apostolic Delegate, to visit and study the questions on the 
spot, and to report to the Holy See upon the matter. It was 
a question which threatened to interfere with the usefulness 
of the Church in Western Canada and required the most deli- 
cate handling. But his visit to Canada was a noteworthy suc- 
cess and marked an epoch in the religious history of the Do- 
minion. It was only to be expected that he would be well re- 



ceived in the Catholic province of Quebec, but the singular 
personal enthusiasm which he kindled everywhere turned his 
visit into a triumph. To the English-speaking population he 
appeared the cultured Englishman, while the French found 
that he spoke their language quite as well as themselves. At 
the Laval University and the great seminaries he sometimes 
astonished his audiences when orations had been addressed to 
him in Latin, by at once replying extemporaneously in the 
same tongue with the utmost fluency. His reception in the 
Protestant provinces was scarcely less cordial, for his charm 
of manner and fine presence won all hearts. At Ottawa both 
parties vied with each other in showing him respect and con- 
sideration, and at Toronto the cabinet gave him a public recep- 
tion which was attended by persons of all faiths and creeds. 

In connection with his visit to Toronto an amusing incident 
occurred. In the Catholic province of Quebec he was, in 
accordance with custom, at liberty to wear the elaborate eccle- 
siastical dress of a monsignore, even on the streets. But in 
Ontario, a Protestant province, the custom is quite different, 
and a Catholic clergyman, just as in the United States, wears 
broadcloth and the plain Roman collar as his street costume. 
Through some accident his baggage containing the plain gar- 
ments failed to arrive upon the train, and Mgr. Merry del Val 
realized that he must involuntarily break the law, and sug- 
gested that he turn back and wait until his suitable clothing be 
found. But the people would not hear of such a thing, and so 
during his entire sojourn in Toronto he appeared in his eccle- 
siastical robes without exciting any adverse criticism. 

The task assigned to him in Canada was no small one, but 
he successfully adjusted the claims of the Canadian Hierarchy 
as to separate Catholic schools in Manitoba with the general 
policy of the Provincial and Dominion governments as ad- 
vanced by distinguished Catholic laymen like Sir Wilfred 
Laurier and Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, a task demanding a 
breadth and independence of view in which the future Cardi- 
nal did not fail. Many had predicted the failure of his mis- 
sion ; but it was an absolute success. A modus vivendi was 
found between Church and State, as well as upon the question 
of the French and English languages there, and the internal 
peace of the Church in Canada was secured by the appoint- 
ment of a permanent Apostolic Delegate for the Dominion. 


Shortly after his return to Rome he was made President of 
the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici and served until 1901, 
as the head of the institution in which he himself had been 
educated. On April 19, 1900, he was consecrated titular Arch- 
bishop of Nice, and two years later was translated to be titular 
Archbishop of Nicosia. In this latter year he also published 
his first book, "The Truth of the Papal Claims," and in 1902 
revisited London as the Papal Envoy at the coronation of King 
Edward VII, where he was well received. 

Owing to the death of Mgr. Volpini a few days before 
Leo XIII died in 1903, a new Secretary, for the Consistory 
assembled to elect a new Pope, was required, and the choice 
by the vote of the College of Cardinals fell upon Mgr. Merry 
del Val. He was thus brought into daily personal contact with 
the new Pope, Pius X, to whom after his election as Pope 
he acted as Secretary of State pending a permanent appoint- 
ment. One day in the early part of October, 1903, as Mgr. 
Merry del Val was leaving the Pope's room with a basketful 
of correspondence and papers which had just been dealt with, 
Pius X called him back for a moment and handed him another 
letter, remarking casually, "Monsignor, this is also for you." 
Mgr. Merry del Val jammed it down on top of the pile in the 
basket and passed on into his own apartment, where he emp- 
tied the basket on his table and began to go through the vari- 
ous papers and letters. When he came to the last letter given 
him, he found to his surprise that it was a letter written by the 
Pope's own hand, appointing him permanent Secretary of 
State, and stating that His Holiness was convinced from the 
way in which the business of the office was handled that he 
would look no further for a competent Secretary of State. 
The surprise and shock were so sudden that the newly ap- 
pointed Secretary of State almost fell from his chair, and a 
friend who was in the room ran to assist him, picked up the 
letter, and thus its contents became known. 

On the 1 2th of November, 1903, at the first public consis- 
tory held after his election, Pope Pius X created the young 
Secretary of State a cardinal priest in the Sistine chapel 
with the title of the Church of Saint Praxedes. The cardinals 
represent the original archdiocese and province of Rome, with 
the six cardinal bishops, suflfragan to the Pope as archbishop; 
the fifty-four cardinal priests representing the ancient par- 


ishes of the province of Rome, and the fourteen cardinal 
deacons, those who served as deacons in the early churches 
of Rome w^hen the Church became recognized as a lawful re- 
ligion after the persecutions. They are the Senate of the 
universal Church, and are the body from which the Pope is 
selected and, with the exception of the cardinal bishops, are 
the honorary rectors or pastors of the churches to which they 
are assigned. 

As Secretary of State, Cardinal Merry del Val has his official 
residence in the Vatican palace itself. He also has a summer 
villa at No. ii Via della Valtellina, a short distance outside 
the Portese gate, to which he goes in a motor car from the 
Vatican very much like the business man of to-day who lives on 
the outskirts of the city. Here, too, he keeps up his athletic ex- 
ercises and keeps himself in good bodily trim. Occasionally 
he automobiles to Castel Gandolfo or to Lake Bracciona, 
where he can indulge in swimming. But there is also another 
side of the Cardinal which is scarcely so well known, and one 
for which the exacting duties of his high office leave but little 
time nowadays. While he was Cameriere Segreto Partici- 
pante he used to go in the evenings to the Trastevere, where 
the work which he organized among the poorest of the poor 
of Rome has its headquarters in the poor boys' school and 
club. This club, a forerunner of our Ozanam associations, 
was developed by him for years with unfailing energy, and 
now contains hundreds of boy members, many of them saved 
from ruin by its influence. This is the kind of work into 
which he has put his whole soul, and which he still looks after 
through others, although he is Secretary of State. Not only 
did he devote himself to the people of the Trastevere quarter, 
but he was regularly in his confessional first at San Silvestro 
and later at San Giorgio, and late at night numerous peni- 
tents, many of them the poorest of the poor, might be seen 
waiting their turn seeking for his consolation and direction. 
And he is still a confessor — preferably for the poor — at such 
times as he can be spared from his duties. It was charac- 
teristic of him that when he was created a Cardinal he sub- 
stituted for the usual feast which new Cardinals offer to their 
friends and relations a banquet for his poor penitents and boys 
in the Trastevere. 

The first duty of the Papal Secretary of State is to take 


charge of the relations between the Holy See and foreign 
countries, but he also takes part in all the important acts of 
the Papal Court. His office makes him the wielder of the 
Pope's diplomacy ; his post makes him the alter ego of the 
Pope, and he is constantly associated with him in all kinds 
of affairs which are not strictly diplomatic. There are, as is 
generally known, a good many envoys at Rome accredited 
to the Holy See by foreign countries, in addition to those who 
represent their countries at the Court of Italy. 

Twice a week, on Tuesdays and Fridays, the Secretary of 
State receives the ambassadors to the Holy See, one after 
another; and the ambassadors of the great countries having 
almost always some business to transact, are constant attend- 
ants at these functions. These receptions rank first among 
the duties of the Secretary of State. Next to them comes his 
correspondence with the nuncios. A nuncio is the Papal 
equivalent of an ambassador sent to a country having diplo- 
matic relations with the Pope. The Secretary of State re- 
ceives their reports and communicates his instructions to them. 
In addition to this is the endless correspondence from papal 
delegates in countries where there is no nuncio, as in the 
United States and in Canada, the numerous telegrams and 
cablegrams which come from all over the world, and the nu- 
merous details of Italian and Roman Church government 
where it impinges upon that of the State. 

Every morning the Pope receives the Cardinal Secretary, 
and they discuss the condition of the Church. When they 
have finished their consultation, the Secretary attends to the 
correspondence. He may write the replies himself, or he 
may pass on the point involved and leave the details to the 
prelates attached to his office, •or may instruct them to look 
into delicate questions upon which the decision has been post- 
poned. He has, of course, to carry out the instructions he 
receives at the audience, and to prepare the business he is 
going to submit to the Pope at the next audience. It might 
be thought that this was too much to be crowded into the life 
of any man. But in addition to this, it is the custom of Car- 
dinal Merry del Val to receive non-official visitors every eve- 
ning for an hour after the Angelus. He is consulted upon 
all sorts of questions at these receptions ; he is the Pope's 
Prime Minister ; and he has to be familiar with every question 


which touches the Church. Every piece of information, and 
every application intended for the Pope, has to be transmitted 
through him. 

Thus the Cardinal Secretary of State needs encyclopaedic 
knowledge and almost superhuman intuition and tact ; and 
they are gifts with which Cardinal Merry del Val is richly 
blessed. He has to pass quickly from subject to subject with- 
out losing the threads ; he has to know what people are talking 
about and to divine their real aims ; and to send them away 
satisfied that justice will be done. One visitor may have im- 
portant information or suggestions to make about the troubles 
with France, Spain or Portugal ; the next may be urging or 
opposing in all sorts of ways the candidature of an arch- 
bishop, perhaps here in the United States, who he thinks 
ought to be made a cardinal ; and the next may be some eccle- 
siastical nobleman or official who desires to get the Pope to 
take his side in a petty squabble : while another may bring 
forth matters of real interest towards the growth of the 
Church or the management of perplexing questions. 

No Prime Minister in Europe is so accessible, and, since 
everything that concerns religion is considered to come under 
the Pope's authority, the Secretary of State is deprived of that 
circumlocution and that favorite refuge of statesmen : "Take 
the matter next door," which is nowhere displayed with such 
exasperating regularity as in the various departments of the 
present Italian State government. The Cardinal Secretary, 
however, is allowed the widest discretion, because one of his 
most important functions is to save the Pope from unneces- 
sary business. 

There are few people who know so much of the religious 
affairs of all countries as Cardinal Merry del Val ; he is sim- 
ply obliged to keep himself in touch with them, and being half 
an Englishman, with English as his native tongue, he has a 
grasp of the affairs of the various Protestant denominations 
and of English and American opinion which no previous 
Papal Secretary of State ever had. More than that, his knowl- 
edge of English and American character, which is wonderful, 
rests on the firm basis of having himself sterling Anglo-Saxon 

His time for book reading is necessarily limited, but the 
way he keeps up with the newspapers of all countries is ex- 


traordinary, for several news-clipping bureaus are busy at 
his behest, and there is a great deal besides in the Vatican tra- 
dition that much is to be learned by patiently listening to the 
visitors who come to receptions. He has in addition a corps 
of correspondents and responsible confidential advisers in va- 
rious coimtries. He is necessarily obliged to make personal 
enemies by his decisions, since he cannot decide in favor of 
both opponents ; and in addition, all the enemies of the Church 
are his enemies. The most trifling demand upon him may 
mask important moves ; the acts of the Holy See nowadays in 
the fierce searchlight levelled by the Press of the world are 
commented on with peculiar assiduity; and a secret signifi- 
cance, a malevolent import, is often imputed to the simplest of 
them. Before he allows himself to issue one word in the 
name of the Pope, Cardinal Merry del Val has to divine what 
deductions will be made from it by commentators in good or 
bad faith ; and in order to write with safety what he wishes to 
say, he has to think not only what his words do mean, but 
what by any unfortunate twist they can be made to mean. 

In order to get at the root of matters, he must take ex- 
traordinary precautions and unusual advice. In the matter of 
the separation of Church and State in France some of the most 
astute French lawyers were employed to take up the entire 
legal situation created by the new French legislation creating 
the so-called conseils, or boards of trustees, for the churches 
and church property. When it was clearly demonstrated that 
the only effect the law would have was to throw the ultimate 
control of church property, church worship and the entire 
teaching and sacramental system of the Church under lay 
governmental officialdom, he would have none of it. This 
legal advice and the opinion then formed by him have been 
amply sustained by the trend of events in France since that 
time. When we consider that a French Protestant Church of 
New York City has just had to take upon itself the financial 
support and direction of two Protestant Churches in France, 
bereft of their sustenance by the law of separation, we can 
well appreciate the clear-headed judgment Cardinal Merry del 
Val possessed at the time, to save the Catholic Church from 
becoming little more than an obsequious lackey to government 


The same is true of the matters in Spain. The Cardinal 


Secretary of State is a Spaniard by ancestry and knows his 
country and his countrymen through and through. He is also 
advised by the best international jurists, experienced in canon 
and international law, and has fully considered the rights of 
the Church in the larger sense, in his controversy with the 
present Spanish government over the Concordat. Force may, 
with anarchistic elements, prevail over logic and law and 
order, but if it does so prevail it will be destructive in its char- 
acter for Spain. On the other hand, he would welcome a sys- 
tem whereby the Church might work out its mission of saving 
souls unhampered by State interference, as it does in Canada 
or the United States. The idea of separation of Church and 
State, as advocated by the ultra socialistic republican leaders 
of France, Portugal and Spain, seems to be that the Church 
shall give up all its vested rights and all the property pos- 
sessed by it, whilst the State shall still control the Church and 
people, and the church authorities at every turn, even as to 
the manner and method of teaching its own religious doctrines 
and enforcing its precepts. It is needless to say that such a 
thing would not be tolerated in the United States. 

Cardinal Merry del Val is still a young man as such things 
go in the great ecclesiastical world. He has already made a 
great name for himself, and his urbanity, courtesy and frank 
good-will have made him appreciated by all who have trans- 
acted business with him or with the Holy See. He has made 
many more rooms of the Vatican accessible to the general 
public, has lighted the crypts of the Basilica of St. Peter's 
with electric light and made the entrance to them compara- 
tively easy for the visitor, and in general has shown a 
leaning towards a democratic regime in regard to the 
treasures, artistic and architectural, in the Vatican and St. 
Peter's. He has almost entirely changed the rulings of the 
guardians of the basilica and the palace of the Vatican in that 
regard. In addition to that, he has shown himself very gra- 
cious towards Americans, of all denominations, who visit the 
Holy See. Where, however, it has been sought to use the 
visit to the Pope as the pretext for assisting the political propa- 
ganda of local Roman parties opposed to the Holy See, he 
has sternly set his face against it. It was a consideration of 
this point of view which led to the Fairbanks and the Roose- 
velt incidents, and it is to be regretted that neither of those 


distinguished visitors to Rome took into consideration the 
petty poHtical intrigue and opposition to the Holy Father 
which they were unconsciously assisting and fomenting when 
those incidents occurred. Later events and cooler judgment 
have shown the complete wisdom of the position then as- 
sumed by Cardinal Merry del Val. 

The Cardinal Secretary of State is a man who has the 
qualities which one admires in a great statesman and an active, 
thorough-going administrator of the affairs of a great Church. 
As time goes on we believe that his fame and abilities will 
increase, and his personal devotion, uprightness and faith will 
make him stand high among those on whom the Church has 
relied to uphold the hands and the courage of the Sovereign 
Pontiff in his government of the Church throughout the world. 



Delivered at Canisius College, Buffalo, 1913 

THERE is no part of our modern life in this State 
which has progressed so rapidly as education. In the 
earlier days of the Republic there was not the abun- 
dance of educational apparatus which is enjoyed by us. Then 
the State had not conceived the idea that teaching was one 
of its functions. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century colleges and 
academies — for there was then scarcely such a thing as a 
university — were founded and maintained almost wholly by 
individuals. Once in a great while they obtained subsidy and 
assistance from the State — but that was a rarity — and the 
State left them to their own devices. The primary schools, 
as we should call them nowadays, were maintained by private 
means. But at the end of the third decade of the century 
there came a change. Municipalities, and afterwards the 
State itself, took up and monopolized the system of public or 
gratuitous primary instruction. Gradually this was extended 
to secondary education, and it has grown, until to-day the 
State exercises supervision, if not actual rule, over every 
form of teaching within its borders. 

When I speak of the State, it may be considered as apply- 
ing to the State of New York, but in reality it is applicable 
to any of the various commonwealths which make up our 
United States. But, to have a comprehensive idea of what I 
mean by the State, I may briefly define it as meaning "all of 
us." It is not a vague entity, overwhelming the individual or 
antagonistic to church or creed ; it is, in my meaning, the re- 
sultant expression, in concrete form, of the united, dissent- 
ing or modifying views of the entire mass of the citizens. It 
is in this sense that I use the word. 

Since, therefore, the State has taken upon itself the super- 
vision, where it does not actually take the direction, of all 



education within its geographical borders, it behooves us to 
study what education may really mean. If we take the sched- 
ules of instruction provided by the authorities as the minimum 
required for graduation from a given school or classroom, 
the necessary requisite for promotion to the next grade, or the 
exaction for entrance to high school or college, or even for the 
reception of a degree in arts, literature, science, medicine or 
law, and study them through and through, we fail to get an 
absolutely complete idea of what education really is. To in- 
struct the learner mentally, to practise him in the intellectual 
gymnastics of knowledge, as a circus performer or acrobat is 
taught to perform wonderful feats, is not enough. That may 
enable him to pass clever examinations and sustain difficult 
theses, or even to make new and brilliant discoveries, but after 
all it is not the sum and substance of education. But that is 
as far as the State — considered in its present position — can 
go, for it deals with material, not spiritual things, and can 
only see that the physical and material equipment is good. 
The development of what lies entirely within the conscience, 
the awakening of the heart-strings moved by the moral law, 
it must leave to other hands, since so far no provision has been 
made for this in its schedules. 

Yet, as I have said, the State is but the concrete form of "all 
of us," expressing the hope and aim of our united will and 
wisdom. As such it must look to a perpetuation of itself 
upon an even higher plane. We do not wish our successors 
to be of less worth than we are; they ought to be of better 
fibre. The whole matter, therefore, becomes one of immedi- 
ate interest to each of us ; because in a sort of a political pan- 
theistic phrase we are each a part of the State. The education 
provided by our institutions, no matter where or what they are, 
ought to produce material for good citizens, ought to make 
each component of the State turned out by them higher ex- 
ponents of everything that is good and noble in man. Water 
cannot rise higher than its source, and so the State cannot be 
better than the collective goodness and wisdom of its citizens. 
It is a theme for you and for me to ponder. 

Now, without in anywise touching on or discussing the 
question of creed, it must be apparent that the religious and 
moral sense of an individual is a very large part of his make- 
up. It is figuratively the compass by which he steers his life. 


and the solace by which he is enabled to bear its burdens and 
defeats. Hence anything which encourages this sense, which 
arouses the moral nature and conduces to heroic effort in the 
student, ought to be encouraged and fostered. 

It is precisely in this most important point that the sched- 
ules provided by the State are deficient. But where the State 
does not so provide, you and I, in view of the fact that we are 
a part of the State, may do so. And the State ought to wel- 
come us in the effort to produce men not only learned accord- 
ing to the schedules it provides, but proficient also in the 
power and graces of soul and conscience. It all makes for 
better, nobler and more conscientious citizenship. It thus 
constitutes a thorough, all-around education, and preserves 
the integrity of human nature. 

It is axiomatic that bodies move along the plane of least 
resistance. The same is true of men and women. An artist 
will gladly study art ; a musician, music, and thus through 
the gamut of human interests — we ought to encourage them 
to do so. 

This, then, is the basis for the school which teaches reli- 
gion as a part of its course, and not merely incidentally as a 
side elective for Sundays, perhaps. It wishes to produce good 
citizens and it wishes to develop their whole nature. It will 
not do merely to listen to music to become a musician, not- 
withstanding the inclination ; one must practice it. The 
painter is not made so by visiting many art galleries, although 
he be enraptured thereby; he must work on many canvases 
to produce results. And so it is in the practice of religious, 
civic and moral virtues ; steady practice, like the rewriting 
of Latin themes and restating mathematical problems, can 
alone achieve success. 

When, therefore, an institution like this one, in addition to 
its prescribed secular teaching, uses the strongest incentive 
ever brought to bear upon the human heart and mind and 
conscience — the exercise of religion — to make the student 
keep his mind and heart pure and steadfast, the State ought 
to bid it godspeed. 

Now, in what does even secular education consist? It 
ought to mean the full development of the student and his 
appreciation of things as they exist around him. He ought 
to be made aware of his duties as well as his rights. The 


feudal system passed away in the eighteenth century. It was 
a nobly conceived system of government, which lasted for 
nearly five hundred years, founded upon duties as well as 
rights. When the governing class forgot their duties and 
insisted only upon their rights, the feudal system fell; for it 
was like a scale which was overbalanced. To it has suc- 
ceeded the industrial and democratic regime. The latter will 
do well if it lasts one-half as long as the feudal system did. 
It may seem like contradicting every modern view of history 
and progress to cast doubts upon a purely democratic popular 
regime, but I have in mind an example which seems to do so, 
and which nearly every one is quoting as a most brilliant ex- 
ample in government. The Panama Canal Zone is lauded 
from one end of the country to the other as an example of 
almost perfect government. Things go like clock-work; dis- 
ease and destitution are banished ; there is justice and plenty 
for all. But it is a one-man government — merely a benevo- 
lent despotism after all. The people there have no say in it ; 
democracy is invisible at Panama. 

In fact, it rests upon the same fundamental principle as 
the feudal system. The rights of the governing power are 
correlative with its duties towards the welfare of the gov- 
erned. So long as they are made to balance the government 
is a success. And the same rule holds good in democracies. 
When industrialism succeeded to the feudal system, and 
even when taken over by democracy in government, it, too, 
forgot that duties followed rights. That is one of the causes 
of the industrial unrest to-day, which breaks out in varied 
forms, all the way from socialism to anarchy. The financial 
magnate, railroad king, or captain of a thousand industries 
too often regards his enterprises as his personal individual 
property and acts accordingly, like the feudal monarch of two 
centuries ago. He forgets his duties, but clings tenaciously to 
his rights. Where he rules an industrial empire with almost 
as many subjects as the feudal chieftain, the people of that 
empire with keen memory of duties forgotten are going to 
act exactly as they did a century ago to get constitutional gov- 
ernment. They are bound to have a voice in the industries 
which they sustain by their labor. It is your duty, gentlemen 
of the graduating class, and your future task to see that they 
divide the power and responsibilities with the heads of such 


industries in a wise and progressive manner. Abolutisni in 
industry, like absolutism in government, in the present temper 
of things is bound to fail; and it can only lay its downfall to 
its utter disregard of its bounden duties to those below. 

While this is going on in the industrial and political world, 
there are all sorts of panaceas brought forward. As soon as 
a portion of mankind is suffering from an ailment any number 
of quack doctors arise with new cure-alls. The most promi- 
nent one nowadays in socialism. As a philosophic theory, as a 
means of affording an ideal of the wth degree, by which to pat- 
tern improvements in legislation it may do very well. I pur- 
posely do not touch upon its vagaries in relation to the things 
hitherto held sacred by the general assent of mankind in rela- 
tion to the family, the State and personal morality. It is 
merely the working of the actual government social machine 
to which I shall allude. The question is: Who shall watch 
the watchers? Socialistic government must have its heads 
and officers. If our governments so far — and we have enough 
of the most ideal laws on the statute books — cannot prevent 
bribery among legislators, violation of oaths by officials, pecu- 
lation of high and low degree in state and municipal govern- 
ment, to say nothing of grosser forms of governmental wick- 
edness, how can we hope for anything more definite to be 
accomplished under the form of socialism? We have the 
same weak humanity to deal with, and if one wants reform 
in government or industry, humanity must be essentially re- 
formed ; no mere method will effect it. 

Take one familiar example : You have all heard about the 
horrors of the Spanish Inquisition, how many thousands were 
put to death by it in Spain. Well, the highest that any im- 
aginative historian ever put the figures for the fiercest year 
was about 900, and we know something about mob law and 
lynch law ourselves ; yet here in New York State we annually 
kill from 2,500 to 4,000 persons. The two countries compare 
about the same in population. The Spanish put their people 
to death in accordance with the laws of the day for what they 
believed as a principle, probably devotion to the State and 
Church ; we slaughter ours by railways, defective machinery, 
automobiles, elevators, fire-traps, and a dozen preventable 
methods — all for the purpose of greed, economy and money- 
making — and mostly in direct violation of the laws on the 


statute book. When this particular age is viewed in the per- 
spective of a century or so, will it be said that human nature 
has greatly changed in its treatment of man by his fellow- 

If socialism succeeds as a working political machine, re- 
modelling our laws and methods of distribution of wealth, 
how m.uch will we have gained? A man to-day is said to 
worship his property and to build all his institutions and laws 
upon it. Well, if property be abolished, minimized or rele- 
gated to the scrap-heap of politico-economic delusions, what 
shall we say of the method or form which will take its place? 
The fact is, that slavery will take its place. A man's sole 
value will be determined by his economic position as a mere 
cog in the vast economic machine. We will have then the 
fedualism of rank and station, power and command, without 
the checks and counter-balances of the duties inculcated by 
feudalism. Let those who have closely observed the one-man 
power or the committee power in the organization and man- 
agement of recent strikes, and point the difference between 
the social economic boss and the harshest political boss. For 
firmness of command and ruthlessness of decree the latter 
can take lessons from the former. How, then, can we be 
assured that our later position, where a man's standing among 
his fellow-men rests upon his position or "job," will be bet- 
ter than the earlier one of property? If men will do so much 
for property now, what will they not do for position and 
power then, unless human nature be radically changed ? 

We may illustrate this by a witty statement of what pana- 
ceas have been offered us in other lines. Take, for instance, 
that of health : 

"The world was to be made over by means of the bicycle. 
The straphanger was to abandon his strap and ride joyfully 
down the cable-slot, imbibing ozone on his way to business. 
The factory hand was to abandon his city tenement and live 
in the open country, going to and from his work upon the 
wheel. The old were to grow young again, and the young 
were to dream close to the heart of nature. The doctors were 
to perish of starvation. But where is the bicycle to-day? 

"The world was to be made over by jiu-jitsu. Elderly 
gentlemen were to regain the waist-line of youth by ten min- 
utes' practice every morning. Slim young women, when at- 


tacked by heavy ruffians, were to seize their assailants by the 
wrist and hurl them over their right shoulder. The police 
were to suppress rioters by mere muscular contraction. The 
doctors, as before, were to grow extinct by starvation. But 
where is jiu-jitsu to-day? 

"The world was to be regenerated by denatured alcohol. 
Denatured alcohol — with the tax ofif — was to drive all our 
machines, propel our automobiles, run our factories, and re- 
duce the cost of Hving to a ridiculous minimum. But where 
is denatured alcohol to-day? 

"The world was to be regenerated by sour milk ; by the 
simple life ; by sleeping in the open air. But where now are 
Professor Metchnikoff and Pastor Wagner? And the doc- 
tors are still with us, even more numerous than before. 

"Does this show we must give up all hope of seeing a new 
world about us? By no means. We still have eugenics, and 
it is good for two or three years more. Then we shall ask 
the same question about it." 

Suffice it to say that the latter method of saving the world, 
by eugenics, is purely material, without reference to the 
beauty of the soul within, or its expression in practical virtue. 

The Catholic Church, wiser than local faddists, has used 
the nineteen centuries of her experience to unfold a method 
of right living, which deals not with certificates or the physi- 
cal health of a few, but the carefully inculcated purity of 
soul and body of every one who craves her ministrations. She 
knows no "single standard." The law of virtue is judged 
alike for all. She does not merely ask that the outward 
health of the adult be certified ; but she makes sure of the stu- 
dent and the learner from the entrance into manhood and 
womanhood. She teaches purity of mind and soul, not merely 
cleanliness of body. 

It is the same in the field of education. The standard for 
the greatest results must be an education where the soul is 
taught as well as the body; where the heart and the higher 
nature of man are as carefully directed as the cravings for 
material ends are developed. Nor need a single point in the 
secular side of education be neglected for a moment. These 
are the standards which are set by an education which will 
not and cannot leave religious and moral teaching out of its 
curriculum for an instant. Its standards are not to give the 


student less, but to afford him more of all that becomes a man. 
And at the same time it should afford him the means to think, 
to weigh and appreciate the panaceas, the loudly shouted nos- 
trums of the soap-box and hired-hall oratory, which are her- 
alded as being able to overturn the old established order of 

Now, gentlemen of the graduating class, it is your task to 
take an active part in these matters for the future. This is 
your Commencement Day ; the time when you are to com- 
mence to examine the state of affairs around you and to take 
a more or less prominent part in the direction of things. 
Above all things examine carefully the basis and foundation 
of things you are asked to consider or to promote. It be- 
hooves you as sample products of your Alma Mater to take 
stock of theories and statements, either before you espouse 
them or condemn them. 

You may otherwise fall into the same position as the little 
girl, who listened attentively but did not understand, and told 
her mother that she had learned at Sunday-school that King 
Herod of Judea was in the habit of running down his people 
in automobiles. The mother was astonished and sought out 
the teacher and found that what the teacher had given the 
class was that "Herod overran the people with taxes." 
Therefore examine all things ; find out their true bearings and 
application, and be sure that you understand the meaning. 

In this way you will best apply your learning; in this way 
you will honor your Alma Mater ; and in this way you will 
be true citizens of this great commonwealth. And when to 
this you add character, uprightness and fair dealing, with the 
sense of reverence and devotion which only a religious train- 
ing inculcated day by day can give, you will have demonstrated 
the value of a solid secular education reinforced and but- 
tressed by religious principles. It will keep you straight upon 
the road of life, although it may not lead you to riches. 

I wish the Class of 1913, the first to issue from these walls, 
happiness, health and a long and honorable life of success in 
the true sense of the word. 


Delivered at Brooklyn College, 1914 

THE day of final conquest has now arrived for each of 
you and each must now put his studies to active use 
in the world and pursue still further the roads upon 
which he entered the kingdom of knowledge. Your gradua- 
tion must be turned to account. It must be added to and 
made useful, both to the possessor and those around him. 
The college man must progress more than those who have not 
had his advantages, if his study and his development are to 
be of any avail. 

One of the colleges at Oxford which fascinated me the 
most was New College. It was a college with a park; and 
colleges which have a park attached to them have a peculiar 
attraction for me. The college from which I graduated had 
a dense, shady park ; and around its walks I think — or at 
least I used to think — I got the makings of all that is best 
within me. New College at Oxford is one of the oldest col- 
leges there; it was founded back in 1375. New College is not 
its real name, either; for it is the College of St. Mary of 
Winchester. But it was founded at a time when there was 
only one college building there; so some five hundred and 
fifty years ago it was really a "new" college, and the name 
has remained by it ever since. 

That College of St. Mary at Oxford, "New College," was 
founded by one of the remarkable men of his day, William 
of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. The statutes and rules 
with which he founded and endowed it remain intact until to- 
day. Its motto, and what the learned bishop insisted upon, 
was "Manners maketh man." It is something which I can 
commend to you to-day. Manners in the old thirteenth cen- 
tury sense of the term did not mean mere outward polite- 
ness, as we understand the word to-day. It was the sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon for "Education makes a man," and William 



of Wykeham thoroughly believed in that and sought to en- 
force it in the minds and hearts of the thousands of students 
who have passed through the portals of his college since 

Education, or "manners," as he called it, meant the trainint^ 
of every side of a man's nature. As the hand — manus in 
Latin — vi^as educated to all the varied fineness of skill and 
hence gave rise to the word "manners" ; so the intellect and 
soul could and should be educated in all the varied forms of 
knowledge and virtue which "maketh man." So the sturdy 
old bishop set up a monument of learning which has not yet 
fallen into decay ; but exists as an example of what one man's 
clear sense of true education can afford us even now. 

But manners are not to be acquired without a struggle. We 
must ever fight down and pluck out the weeds that grow in 
the garden of the soul and the intellect. William of Wyke- 
ham's pleasant park in New College means incessant work and 
labor bestowed upon it to render it to-day so grateful and 
pleasant. Work, work, and then work, must be the text and 
action of him who strives after the "Manners which maketh 
man." One of our great natural philosophers and inventors 
of to-day, Thomas Edison, is credited with a definition of 
genius, which says : "Genius consists of five per cent inspira- 
tion, and ninety-five per cent of perspiration." Sometimes I 
think that, for the average man, the inspiration is nil, and the 
perspiration must be profuse, if he ever hopes to accomplish 

You gentlemen have been trained in a school where before 
aught else you have been taught that "Manners maketh man." 
You have acquired a manner of appreciating and reverencing 
the spiritual and eternal things which lie close to man's heart. 
The manner of dealing with the sacred and serious things of 
life has been enjoined upon you. Along with your mental pow- 
ers you have not been permitted for a moment to lose sight of 
the spiritual and higher nature that lies within you. 

It is well, therefore, to consider where the present physical 
and industrial development leaves us. In inventive genius and 
in mechanical and scientific discovery it seems to have sur- 
passed all previous epochs. Indeed sometimes we seem to have 
made so much progress along purely material lines that we 
have lost sight of the higher and nobler side of things. Often 


our very inventions and improvements have defeated their own 
ends. An author, commenting on to-day, says : 

"Think of the time saved by the telephone, the telegraph, the 
typewriter, the cotton and woollen and silk mills, the iron foun- 
dries, the sewing machines, the mowing machines, the reapers 
and harvesters, the swift trains, the electric trolleys, the sub- 
ways and automobiles, the escalators and elevators ! What a 
vast volume of time has been saved ! Time that used to be 
wasted, now saved for man, and put away where moth doth 
not corrupt, nor thieves break in and steal ! There is time 
enough saved to give every human being an abundance of leis- 
ure ! An industrial revolution, the miracles of modern ma- 
chinery, millions of brains are directed upon the problem — all 
having their sole object, to save time ! 

"And what is the result? The result is that men have less 
time nowadays than they ever have had since the world began. 
What becomes of all the time thus saved — where does it go? 
Except in the country districts (where there is no machinery 
for saving time) there is none to be found, for every one is 
pressed for time." 

And often the time which we thus imagine to be saved is not 
put to any good use. It is merely expended to hurry on again. 

"A Western farmer, who enjoyed a calm moment at the close 
of a busy life, one day reflected on his past and discovered to 
his consternation that he had spent his existence in growing 
corn to feed hogs, and sold hogs to buy more land to grow more 
corn to raise more hogs, and so on, in an endless chain. Thus 
we invent machinery for the purpose of saving time, in order 
to produce more things and to get there more quickly, in order 
to save more time, so as to get more things and to get there 
more quickly, and over again ad infinitum." 

Is this real progress? Is it real education? Do these man- 
ners make men ? True, it is a piling up of more material things ; 
making huge mathematical results. But in the end does the 
individual man get any more real value out of life than his 
fathers did? Otherwise these manners do not make man. 
Only so much of our material results as contribute to the build- 
ing up of a finer man, a better country and a more enlightened 
civilization can be said to be any real education, after all. 

You young gentlemen who are about to go forth into the 
world, equipped with a degree and a diploma, must not imagine 


that you are very far along the road to learning and knowledge 
as yet. So far you have learned from books ; you have yet 
to take deeper lessons in human nature and human character. 
And it will require incessant work to do it. 

You have much work to do — you know that as well as I can 
tell you. First of all, you have to earn your own livelihood. 
Thank God, that our country is one of almost equal opportuni- 
ties, where good and earnest work is appreciated. It will be no 
easy task for you to do this, for you must remember that for a 
long time to come you are only going to a larger school and 
are continuing your lessons on a grander scale than ever before. 

Then, if you succeed in making for yourself a niche in 
the busy, eager, rushing world, you will have for the first time 
some leisure to consider what you can do in the larger lines of 
human endeavor. 

To-day all around us we have examples of what undue 
power and enormous aggregations of wealth may do and 
what may be feared from the threatened overturn of so- 
ciety and the confiscation of the sources of wealth. A rising 
tide of discontent against capital and wealth finds its most 
outspoken advocates in socialism and that form of anarchism 
which would utterly destroy before it attempts to rebuild. In 
their cry for economic and social reform, these advocates go 
so far as to destroy the old landmarks of civilization, religion 
and clean living. We cannot aflford to yield either to the pres- 
sure of the one or to the demands of the other. If progress 
is to be made, it must be made along the lines of reconcilia- 
tion. Here, gentlemen, is abundant work for you — a work 
which may well tax all your resources. 

Then, again, you have a third and even nobler work. 
It is that of clean and helpful living. It is the work 
of the heart and the soul. If you would accomplish great 
things, think great thoughts and inspire great deeds, you 
must begin with yourself. That is a work that you may do 
simultaneously with the others ; and it will tell more in the 
end than any other. There are no men in these United States 
upon whom the task of making straight the paths of human 
progress and human culture should rest more particularly than 
upon the college graduates. It is the noblest aim they can have 
in life. The entry of large-minded college men, who know 
their faith and love their country, into the task of solving these 


difficulties will be one of the greatest elements for good which 
this age can give. 

Gentlemen of the class of 1914, I welcome you as graduates 
of this institution, for I believe you have here imbibed the 
^'Manners which maketh man," and that you will prove your- 
selves good men and true in whatsoever you may undertake. 


Delivered at Mt. St. Vincent on the Hudson 

IT has been said that the twentieth century has become, 
in an especial way, the woman's century. All forms of 
feminine activity have started up throughout the length 
and breadth of our land. But those who speak thus calmly 
ignore and seldom investigate what women have done in the 
past. To you of the graduating class, this cannot fail to be 
of the greatest interest. You are now prepared to exercise 
your intellectual activities and to take part in the social and 
mental life around you. Feminine activities have assumed 
myriad forms — from seeking the suffrage and contending with 
men in national and municipal problems to exploring the waste 
places of science and all other forms of human endeavor to 
benefit humanity. 

Not the least of these many activities for the modern woman 
is the steady growth of Catholic colleges for women through- 
out the land. It has sometimes been made a reproach to the 
Church that she failed to provide an adequate outlet for the 
intellectual activities of her young womanhood. The reproach 
may have been true a half-century ago ; but you and I have 
cause to know that the reasons for such lack were chiefly 
financial and not intellectual. 

A picture of what the Church has accompHshed in the nine- 
teenth century should be an augury and an inspiration for the 
graduates of this college to-day. One hundred years ago 
there were but a handful of Catholics along the fringe of sea- 
coast which formed the American States of that day, barely 
enough to warrant the appointment of three bishops, with a 
few straggling churches. But to-day we have temples which 
equal any in the Christian world, and, what is more, they are 
constantly filled; we have institutions of charity, education 
and mercy throughout the land. These are constantly grow- 
ing and widening their activities and influence. We are grow- 
ing apace, so that we are reckoned with as one of the greatest 



— if not the greatest — social factors in good government and 
conservative progress in this fair land of ours. 

The graduates of Catholic schools and colleges, viewing the 
moral, material and spiritual progress made by their Church 
in these United States, can take heart for this century of 
hastening progress, and claim their own, as part of the edu- 
cated and intellectual world. In doing so, it will be no new 
thing ; they will be merely coming into their own again. 

I wonder if the graduates here recognize the magnificent 
record of educated and intellectual women in the history of 
the Church and its activities. Of course, we all know the 
sainted women commemorated on the altar and enshrined in 
legend, but it is not often that we recall the others who were 
renowned for their intellectual abilities, as well as the fact 
that it was only in Catholic countries and under Catholic rule 
that women kept up their intellectual development to the ut- 
most. Our expansion and revival of women's colleges in the 
latter part of the nineteenth century is not so new as we think. 

In the early Christian Rome, of the time of St. Jerome, 
there was the famous Ecclesia Domestica, upon the Aventine 
Hill. It was one of the earliest conventual homes, in which 
were gathered some of the most noble and learned women of 
the day. There were the learned Marcella, and her compan- 
ions, Paula and her daughter, Eustochium. These women 
were not only acquainted with the Latin and Greek literature 
and philosophy, but became proficient in Hebrew and deeply 
versed in the Scriptures. They assisted St. Jerome in his 
translation of the Bible, which we call the Vulgate. In one 
of his letters he submitted his version of the Books of Kings to 
them for criticism, and accepted some modifications which they 

Not only did the Vulgate version of the Bible have the as- 
sistance and criticism of these women in its making, but the 
Book of Psalms, recited in the daily offices of the Church, is 
for the most part the work of Paula and her daughter, Eusto- 
chium. St. Jerome dedicated some of his works to them, say- 
ing: "There are people, O Paula and Eustochium, who take 
oflFense at seeing your names at the beginning of my works." 
So you see, he appreciated the aid of women, even in those 
early days, and the sisters around you, whenever they repeat 
the office, renew their monumental work. 


It was the noble women of the conventual institutions who 
kept alive the flame of learning throughout the ages of the 
Church. Women throughout all the ages, from the fall of 
the Roman Empire to the time of the so-called Reformation, 
were taught exactly as men were, the same books, the same 
branches of learning and the same intellectual acquirements. 
They did good solid work in the convents, exactly as their 
brothers did in cloister or college. 

Practically the only schools for girls during the Middle 
Ages were the convents. Here were educated rich and poor, 
gentle and simple. Here they were free from the annoyances 
and dangers which menaced them often in their own homes 
and prevented their study. 

Among the great educators of the early Saxon times was 
the Abbess St. Hilda, of the Convent of Whitby. Her con- 
vent was known as a centre of learning and culture. She was 
the one who discovered the poetical gifts of the poet Csedmon. 
Although he was a serf and a keeper of the cows in the fields, 
she had him taught to read and developed his wonderful gifts. 
It was this Northumbrian cow-herd, transformed into a monk, 
who sang the revolt of Satan and Paradise Lost a thousand 
years earlier than Milton. 

There was also the famous nun of Gandersheim, in middle 
Germany, the Abbess Hroswitha, who lived in 930. She was 
novelist, dramatist and critic. Her dramatic compositions 
are best known, and how good they were is shown by the fact 
that Ellen Terry two years ago scored a success in one of them 
in London. I can bear personal witness to the brilliant Latin 
dialogue of a few of them. She put the most modest apology 
to her works for a nun turned author: "Let those who are 
not pleased with this work remember that it pleased her who 
wrote it." 

And there was Hildegard, the Abbess of St. Rupert, at 
Bingen-on-the-Rhine, who lived during the early Crusades. 
Her works on theology. Scripture and science make up six 
large octavo volumes. Herrad, the Superior of Hohenburg, 
in Alsace, had the widest knowledge, and wrote her famous 
book, "Hortus Deliciarum," or "Garden of Delights," one of 
the first encyclopedias of the Middle Ages, which was illus- 
trated by innumerable illuminated miniatures. It is a picture 


of the knowledge and arts of her time that cannot be sur- 

A non-Catholic writer, Mrs. Putnam, says of this period of 
woman's culture : 

"No institution of Europe has ever won for woman the free- 
dom and development that she enjoyed in the convent in early 
days. The modern college for women only feebly reproduces 
it, since the college for women has arisen at a time when col- 
leges in general are under a cloud. The lady-abbess, on the 
other hand, was part of the two great social forces, feudalism 
and the Church. She was treated as an equal by men of her 
class, as witnessed by the letters we have from Popes and em- 
perors. She had the stimulus of competition with men in 
executive capacity, in scholarship, and in artistic production, 
since her work was freely set before the general public." 

And this continued down to the time of the religious up- 
heaval which we know as the Reformation. Then convents 
were closed and often destroyed, their revenue suppressed and 
the nuns driven from the land. And so the education of 
women came to an end. A writer, describing the effects of 
the dissolution of the monasteries and convents, says : "The 
destruction by Henry VIII of the conventual schools, where 
the female population, the rich, as well as the poor, found 
their only teachers, was the absolute extinction of any syste- 
matic education of women for a long period." 

The strangest and saddest result of the suppression of the 
convents was that men profited by the loss which women sus- 
tained. Thus the nunnery of St. Radegunde, with its revenues 
and possessions, went to found another college at Oxford, 
while the convents of Bromhall and Lillechurch went to found 
another at Cambridge. In a few short years the great work 
of centuries for women was undone, and women were left 
little better educational facilities than when the Anglo-Saxon 
nuns first began their work. During the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth not a school was founded for the education of 
women. And the same spirit was shown throughout English 
history. The public schools of Boston, founded by the Puri- 
tans in 1642, were not open to girls until a century and a half 
later, and then for merely the elementary branches and for but 
a half year. Girls did not have the benefit of a high school 


education in New England generally until as late as 1852 ; and 
altogether the attitude was against their education. 

On the other hand, in Catholic countries there were no re- 
strictions upon the higher education of women. Bettina Goz- 
zadini occupied a professorship of law at the University of 
Bologna, in 1236, and Novilla d'Andrea often acted as a sub- 
stitute for her father, a professor of canon law at the same 
university. Shakespeare makes Portia a lawyer in Venice. 
Dorotea Bucca lectured on medicine at Bologna ; Laura Cer- 
retti gave lectures on philosophy. Fulvia Olympia Morati was 
professor of Greek and Latin literature, and called from Italy 
to the chair of Greek literature at Heidelberg University. 

In Spain, Beatriz Galindo was a professor of rhetoric at 
the University of Salamanca in the time of Ferdinand and 
Isabella ; Francisca de Lebrixa, professor of history and 
rhetoric in the University of Alcala, and Isabella Losa, of 
Cordova, taught Greek and Hebrew. 

One of the great mathematicians of Italy was Maria Gaetana 
Agnesi, who was born in Milan, in 1718, and died there at eigh- 
ty-one years of age. Her monumental work was "Le institu- 
zioni Analitiche" — a treatise in two large volumes on differ- 
ential and integral calculus. Pope Benedict XIV paid her sig- 
nal honor. He caused her, of his own accord, to be appointed 
professor of higher mathematics in the University of Bologna, 
but she refused to leave Milan, and became towards the end 
of her life a sister of charity devoted to hospital work. 

The first woman to occupy a chair of physics in a university 
was Laura Maria Bassi. She was born in Bologna, in 171 1, 
and besides her native Italian was proficient in Latin and 
French. Her knowledge of physics was shown in a public 
disputation and demonstration at which Pope Benedict XIV 
was present. The University of Bologna not only made her 
professor, but coined and presented her with a medal contain- 
ing her effigy. She corresponded with nearly all the great 
scholars of Europe, and was earnestly besought by Voltaire to 
advocate his election to the Academy of Sciences. She was 
deeply religious and was as pious as she was intelligent, at- 
tending Mass and her church duties with regularity. She was 
the mother of twelve children, and never permitted her scien- 
tific and literary work to interfere with her domestic duties. 
At all times she had firm friends in the Pope and in the Arch- 


bishop of Bologna, both of whom advocated her advancement. 

In Salerno, Giovanna Trotula was professor of medicine at 
the University in the Middle Ages, and wrote a work upon the 
diseases of women, even yet referred to ; while Francesca Ro- 
mana, of the same place, became one of the greatest physicians 
and surgeons of the fourteenth century. There was no prohi- 
bition against women attaining eminence in the medical or 
surgical world in Catholic Italy, as is curiously shown by a 
decree of Pope Sixtus IV, saying that : "No man or woman, 
whether Christian or Jew, shall presume to treat the human 
body, unless a master or licentiate in medicine." {Nemo, mas- 
culiis aut foemina, &c.) 

Maria dalle Donne, of peasant birth, gained the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine, summa cum laude, in the University of 
Bologna, and became a professor in the University, holding 
her chair there until she died, in 1842. Yet Miss Elizabeth 
Blackwell, here in America, some seven years after the death 
of Maria dalle Donne, desired to study medicine and applied 
in vain to nearly one dozen American medical institutions, 
which refused to take her as a student. Finally she was re- 
ceived, nearly eight years afterwards, by a small college in 
Geneva, N. Y. In Great Britain, every medical institution re- 
fused to receive Miss Sophia Blake as a student, and when 
she finally obtained admission to the University of Edinburgh, 
the students mobbed her. A half-dozen young Irishmen 
among the students came to her rescue, and afterwards be- 
came her bodyguard, escorting her to and from lectures. This 
is how women students, seekers after higher education, have 
been treated in their search for knowledge, in lands not under 
the genial and progressive traditions of the Catholic Church. 

With these examples before you, and I could give you many 
more, you will see that you are only coming, as Catholic 
women, once more into your own heritage. The expansion of 
education for women is after all only a return to the condition 
of things as it existed before the breaking away of the nations 
from the Faith. 

It therefore behooves you, as the graduates of this College, 
to see that you avail yourself of your return to the proper 
realm of educated womanhood. You will have to work hard 
to do so. You remember the definition of genius which is 
attributed to Edison. He is credited with saying that "genius 


is five per cent inspiration and ninety-five per cent perspira- 
tion." In other words, no matter what God-given gifts you 
may possess, you must work terribly hard to get the most out 
of them. Work and incessant work at an idea or a theory, 
is the only way to develop it or to develop yourself. Careful 
and exact work is the greatest thing needed in the world to- 
day, and you ought to take your share in it. 

There is much for the educated woman to do in the field of 
sociology, philanthropy and good government. Most of the 
writers and experimenters of to-day leave out of their calcu- 
lations in these spheres the influence and power of religion. 
Their ideas for the betterment of the world make a creedless, 
prayerless and almost beliefless reconstruction of the relation 
of man to his fellow-man. They aim to have statistics, eco- 
nomics and the card-index take the place of faith, hope and 
charity. It may be within your province to illumine all these 
questions by showing the true position and the teaching of the 
Church regarding them. At any rate, you have a noble equip- 
ment with which to go forth into the world, and to take your 
place among the workers and scholars in the myriad ways 
which the field of knowledge opens up to you. 

You have the opportunity in this twentieth century to renew 
again the magnificent showing which Catholic women schol- 
ars, teachers and professors made in the past. You can rise 
to as great eminence as they ; in doing so you will be only liv- 
ing up to the great traditions of your history ; and there is now 
no barrier here to forbid you doing so, for in this latest of 
centuries woman has had again thrown open to her the oppor- 
tunity of learning and achievement which she always enjoyed 
under Catholic auspices. That the class of 1914 may do so, 
and that its success may inspire coming classes to emulate 
and surpass it, is my fervent wish for you as graduates of this 

May every one of you attain a success of which Catholic 
womanhood may well be proud. 




IT is with much diffidence that I presume to address so 
many young ladies invested with the degree which marks 
their separation from college life. My own graduation 
still stands out so clearly before me that I hardly believe that 
I am in that fit perspective from which I could safely address 
words of salutary instruction to others who have assumed the 
hood and received the diploma. When a scholar steps forth 
from the college halls to take up her position either in the 
world of learning or in that busier world of every-day life, it 
is with a triumphant feeling somewhat akin to conquest. One 
exults almost as in the winning of a hard-fought game of ath- 
letic skill, in the feeling of mastery achieved over difficult and 
abstruse subjects. With the feeling that the goal has been 
reached, it seems almost as though it were a misnomer — even 
a mockery — to call it a "Commencement," when in reality you 
have finished your course and reached the goal of study aimed 
at for four long years. And when the parting comes during 
this week it seems an ending after all. What does it matter 
that learned philologists tell us that it is really a "Commence- 
ment" — that you commence to be persons of degree and begin 
to take upon yourselves the honors of the learned world — yet 
down in your hearts you look upon it as the end and the cul- 
mination of your college life. But while it rings down the 
curtain upon the old familiar scenes, it is really the awaken- 
ing to a newer and a broader life in the realm of letters and 

And so the day of such conquest has come to each of you 
in turn, and as the young women of the Class of 191 1, who 
have done your duty faithfully, you must now put your studies 
to active use and pursue still further the roads upon which 
you have entered in the kingdom of knowledge. If you did 
not do this, you would be untrue to the traditions of your col- 



lege and the earnest teaching of your professors. There is an 
obvious mission for the CathoHc college woman in the world, 
even aside from her womanly duties and such vocation as she 
may embrace. Her womanhood should be exulted in, and its 
cultivation be the crowning thought and glory of her life. But 
as she has received the light, so also should she dispense the 
light around her path throughout the world. You are, even 
more than the Vestal Virgins of ancient Rome, the keepers of 
the sacred fire, and you should ever guard that fire of learning 
and faith and see to it that its flames mount ever higher and 
higher. As you have received from your Alma Mater, so 
should you in turn give to others. 

This very fact forbids you as graduates to stand still. 
Simply that you have arrived at this day of triumph does not 
mean that you should put any brake upon your forward move- 
ment. I do not believe that one of you would for a moment 
rest content to be merely satisfied in an easy, caressing manner 
with the Baccalaureate degree, as though it were a particular 
gem or curio, and therefore a sufficient possession for all time. 
It must be turned to advantage, it must be added to, and it 
must be made useful to the possessor and to those around her. 

As I have said, I believe there is an obvious mission for the 
Catholic college woman, and I believe that just now the field 
for the exercise of that mission looms larger than ever before. 
It is particularly so, because just now there are, comparatively 
speaking, so few Catholic college women, and so many places 
where their learning and their womanhood combined can be 
displayed to such advantage. 

Just now we are in the expansive age of the Church in the 
United States, and it is precisely in this age that there is so 
much. constructive work for them to do. It is in this niche of 
the great fabric of the Church where they can nowadays fit- 
tingly place themselves with the happiest results. 

Consider for a moment just what the history of the Church 
in these United States has been within the more than a cen- 
tury and a quarter of its active and actual existence. Begin- 
ning at the close of the eighteenth century with a handful of 
clergy and a few thousand of the laity — misunderstood, pos- 
sessing but the most meager of civic rights, without learning, 
position or wealth among their members, save a great name 
here and there — they struggled on through difficulty and op- 


position. Then, note the rise through the nineteenth century 
to the present time. In the earUer part of the last century the 
almost starving Irish, untrained and unlettered, came as ex- 
ponents of an already depreciated, if not despised, form of 
faith ; and cultured opponents of Catholicity pointed to them 
with their peasant habits and general ignorance, as samples of 
what the Catholic Church brought forth in lands where her 
doctrines reigned supreme. Then there were no splendid temples 
here in which Our Lord was worshipped on resplendent altars 
and where music, painting and sculpture might show forth to 
the most listless observer the culture with which the Catholic 
Church had always surrounded Him. Nay, even the worship- 
pers themselves were far from edifying in those earlier days. 
Congregations and churches defied both priest and bishop, and 
scandals broke out sometimes upon the smallest provocation. 
It seemed to justify everything that our opponents could in- 
vent to fling at us, and it was succeeded by the first attempts 
of an active, bitter persecution. Conceive if you can now- 
adays, an unlettered, poverty-stricken, hard-working minority, 
persecuted throughout these Atlantic States by those who 
thought they were doing their country service in suppressing 
— if not oppressing — the adherents of the oldest faith in the 
Christian world. Perhaps it only needed a touch of persecu- 
tion to weld the Catholic body closer together and to bring 
them in better alignment with their spiritual superiors. At any 
rate, they made marvelous progress. The century just passed 
is a hundred years of glory. Churches, the peers of any in 
Christendom, have sprung up all over the land; schools and 
colleges (such as this one wherein I speak) have banished 
the unlettered ignorance of the people and have intensified 
their faith; institutions of mercy and charity on every hand 
have shown the Catholic heart to be the peer, if not the su- 
perior, of any others in this broad land. To-day at least we 
are coming into our own, and the magnificent Universal 
Church of God has put on here in this land of freedom the 
robes of brightness and glory that belong to her as the Bride 
of Christ and the heir of the ages, so as to be known and 
acknowledged of all men. 

Along with it has come the falling away of the many shackles 
which stood between Catholics and their civic rights. State 
after State amended their constitutions until now there is no 


longer upon any statute book anything to prevent a growth to 
our full stature as free men of this great country. As the 
heavy mists fade out before the glowing rays of the rising 
sun, each age-long relic of prejudice and hatred dissolves into 
nothingness, and the American who professes the Catholic 
Faith has at last become in every sense the peer of his fellow- 

This was not all accomplished suddenly or without toil and 
struggle. It was not due particularly to the native recognition 
of the fellow-man or woman of a different creed. Otherwise 
the path onward and forward would not have been so thorny. 
It was due to the persistent influx of a Catholic people, who, 
amid all the stress and struggle, kept true to the direction 
pointed by their Faith, and who by their earnestness and single- 
heartedness won recognition for themselves among their fel- 
low-citizens. We have impressed upon our fellow-men of 
other faiths, or of no faith at all, that we Catholics intend to 
be whole-souled and energetic members of this Commonwealth 
and still greater land, that we intend to march in the van of 
all that is to the interest of State and people, and that we 
declare boldly our faith in this land and its people, in its insti- 
tutions and its progress, and in it as the everlasting witness 
of the watchfulness of God Almighty over the destinies of 

The blossoming out of our Church and people in this great 
Republic of the West has been a miracle of grace and an "ex- 
altation of them of low degree." When we contrast the posi- 
tion now with the position one hundred years ago, or even 
later than that, our hearts must go up to God with feel- 
ings of gratitude. But our task is not finished, such a glorious 
reminiscence is but the "commencement," just as yours is to- 
day. Here is where our work must begin ; here is where we 
must make strong the glorious beginnings I have but recited. 
If the past century was one of growth, one of foundation and 
of establishment, so must the coming century be one of ex- 
pansion and of achievement. If our fathers could do so much 
with such slender materials, what ought we not do with the 
wealth of mental, educational and material development which 
we have at hand? 

It is precisely at this point that the mission of the Catho- 
lic college woman comes into play. Remember that all this 


growth of the past century was made without the material, 
intellectual and moral assistance which a keen, alert and splen- 
didly educated womanhood could have given. I do not intend 
to underrate the magnificent qualities and services rendered 
by the members of the devoted sisterhoods whose efforts in the 
past made possible the founding of colleges like this. At any 
rate, they were in the minority among a vast lay womanhood 
whose strong weapons were their prayers and their unswerv- 
ing Faith. But now that we have the college woman, her 
field of duty — aside from her direct duty to herself and her 
family — lies straight before her. She can make the future 
even more glorious than the past. Her mental equipment, her 
training and her environment render her capable of doing so. 

When a young woman goes forth from a Catholic college, 
where the Faith has been taught as well as the binomial theo- 
rem or conic sections, where physics and Christian ethics have 
not been kept apart, where the Latin of Cicero has been min- 
gled with the Latin of liturgy, where prayer and devotion have 
been as usual as study and recitation, she is apt to find a some- 
what cynical learned world around her. It will not be an anti- 
Catholic atmosphere — nothing hardly so impolite as that — for 
one must, you know, in these days of culture and appreciation, 
readily acknowledge the vast treasures of art, music and beauty 
which the Church created and fostered, but it will be an un- 
Catholic atmosphere varying all the way from doubt to amused 
pity. It will be somewhat akin to an expression which might 
be used if one were suddenly to find an enthusiast who believed 
in the ancient heathen gods of Greece and Rome. The ex- 
pression will be almost as if one might well admire the classic 
statues of antiquity and glory in them, but pity the unfortu- 
nate who in these days should render worship to Jupiter, Mars 
or Juno, or any of the other gods of Olympus. It is this un- 
conscious, half-veiled attitude of mind which will meet the 
Catholic girl graduate when she leaves college and mingles 
among her equals in academic honors. Sometimes it goes as 
far as direct hostility to and malevolent misunderstanding of 
our teachings. 

You have all heard the story of the Parisian quack doctor, 
who, mounted upon a pedestal in the midst of the listening 
crowd, was extolling the extraordinary virtues of the remedy 
which he offered for sale. After many descriptions of the 


changes wrought by modern medical science, and the cures 
effected by discarding the old methods, he concluded one of 
his rhapsodies about the ailments of the heart by vehemently 
clasping his right side. A bystander cried out: "That's 
wrong; the heart is not over there!" But the quack, not a 
whit abashed, quickly rejoined: "Vous avez tort; nous avons 
change tout cela !" and never admitted his mistake. 

It is this attitude of having changed everything in philos- 
ophy and science, in ethics and history, in the whole outlook 
upon the world, which will meet the Catholic woman graduate 
at the very outset. It is this attitude which her learning and 
her genius must learn to combat. It is she who must put the 
heart back into its right place. She can best employ her tal- 
ents in setting things in their true perspective. 

And she will find this no easy thing to do. An attitude of 
this kind is not frankly hostile to the Church and Church 
teachings, and it has no lines drawn up in battle array. There- 
fore, it will be all the harder to combat, especially hard from 
an intellectual standpoint, because no specific attack is made. 
To-day we have arotmd us a neo-paganism, which grows subtly 
in the general culture of to-day. It is wholly indifferent to 
anything pertaining to the authority of divine revelation. In 
its mildest, most innocuous form it takes the shape of the study 
of comparative religion, in its most energetic, that of positivism 
and monism. It does not waste itself upon the differences of 
creeds or dogmatic teachings. They are rather the clothes, so 
to speak, worn by the different individuals. But why be the 
devotees of fashion at all? Why not be the primitive man and 
woman, and let all the elemental passions and forces of human 
nature have their play! It is this tendency, touched up and 
gilded by a thousand arts of learning which the Catholic col- 
lege graduate will find around her in the social and literary 
world. They will understand your deep feeling for the "Im- 
maculate Conception" of Murillo, or the "Madonna del Sedia" 
of Raphael, but they cannot understand your recital of the 
rosary or the stations of the cross. 

Everywhere the chief teaching of the day will be found to con- 
sist of some form of materialism or utilitarianism. Once upon 
a time we called a lack of the divine revelation of God to 
man and of the sublime knowledge of God, by its Latin name, 
"ignorance," and we spoke of a man being saved despite the 


fact he knew not the light, by reason of his invincible ignor- 
ance. Nowadays, however, the world has grown lightly proud 
of its ignorance of God, and has translated it into the Greek, 
and called it "agnosticism." Frequently the term "agnostic" 
is heard almost as though it were a term denoting princely 

Being agnostic, the modern disciple of the learned arts cul- 
tivates necessarily what is material, and devotes herself to 
what is utilitarian. And the same spirit filtering down through 
the masses and into the business world puts these two things 
frankly to the fore. Once they were seemingly prepared to 
accept the views of the Church in regard to sin and the moral- 
ity of human acts. Nowadays they are reckoned at their ma- 
terial value and dealt with in so far as they can fill a scheme 
of general utility. For instance, we were taught that the evil 
of crime lay in its sinfulness, but now a leading magazine has 
alarming headlines and a telling article upon "The Cost of 
Crime." When the merchant or the city budget finds crime 
as a liability or a debt in the balance sheet, then crime is very 
wrong, indeed. That it imperils immortal souls is a light 
thing ; that it puts material pocket-books in danger is a serious 
matter. Temperance and right living were taught as virtues 
in the old-fashioned manner of the saints; to-day essays are 
written upon the "Cost of Disease," and the whole matter is 
viewed from the utilitarian standpoint of the book-keeper. In 
the end, morality seems to come down to a sort of trial bal- 
ance to ascertain just how much wrong-doing will come to in 
hard cash. 

The same tone of life is shown in that most insistent form 
of appeal to us in every place where we may be — the omni- 
present advertisement. Take the advertising pages of any 
magazine (there are a few exceptions), the posters on wall 
and car space, and see how insistently they preach the gospel 
of utilitarianism and materialism expressed in money. Even 
the institutions of learning, the correspondence schools, the 
business colleges, and all those who profess in advertisement 
to put cheap and speedy knowledge into action, preach the 
single doctrine of gaining more money. Doubtless gainful 
occupation is something we should strive for. But it is, after 
all, merely a means — and not an end, like these vociferous ad- 
vertisements proclaim on every side. In a little while the iron 


will enter the soul, and the ill-trained mind will think in dol- 
lars and cents, will become so utilitarian that the only test of 
all things will be : "What is there in it for me ; what can I 
get out of it for myself?" It is this attitude of mind, perhaps 
not so frankly exhibited, which the CathoUc college woman 
will meet on leaving the halls where she received her learning. 

There is consequently always a need for a lay apostolate of 
learning which the college graduate can fill. Young women 
who know the position and attitude of the Catholic Church 
upon the countless questions of the day, or who have the 
means of ascertaining with ease and exactness such attitude, 
have a duty cast upon them of championing the truth of what 
they have learned. It is incredible that, even from a historical 
standpoint, an organization which has lasted for two thou- 
sand years, like the Catholic Church, and which has pro- 
foundly stamped her impress upon the history, literature, laws 
and customs of every civilized people, should be ignored and 
misunderstood by those who are not of her. If we were con- 
sidering merely the history and art of ancient Egypt, as re- 
vealed in the papyrus, the hieroglyphic and the temple, a 
scholar would blush not to set aright erroneous impressions 
and mistaken ideas if he had the knowledge and the means of 
doing so. And a scholar who loved the subject he studied 
would be proud to add whatever he could to set human knowl- 
edge aright in that regard. If such an attitude can be main- 
tained toward a civilization which was dead ages ago, what 
shall we say should be the attitude of a Catholic graduate 
toward the living, pulsing personality of the Catholic Church 
which has dominated the civilization of twenty centuries? 

This century is the century of expansion, and you must be 
factors in the growth and expansion. Our material growth 
as Catholics is approaching a climax, very much as a tree or a 
flower assumes its maximum growth. But now has come the 
time when the growth of the Church, like that of the tree or 
flower, must result in blossom and fruit. Aside from the 
spiritual and moral fruits of perfection in God's law, there is 
no greater fruit than that of intellectual development. It is to 
this task that you, as graduates of this College of New Ro- 
chelle, should address yourselves. You are a part of this era 
of expansion ; you must have some glorious part in the devel- 
opment of this great "City of God" during the present century, 


and must be of those who shall make plain the way to those 
who stand intellectually outside the Light which enlighteneth 
the world. We say again and again in the Creed: "I believe 
in one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church," and we should 
prove our Faith by showing to the world, both learned and un- 
learned, the beauty, the truth and the Catholicity of that Faith, 
and show its adaptation to the twentieth century as fully as 
to any century that ever preceded it. 

The championship of what you feel and what you have 
learned within these walls is not and need not be incompatible 
with the other duties in life. The Class of 191 1, and the classes 
which will succeed it, have both the knowledge and the tact 
to be effective upon the appropriate occasion, and they can go 
forth into the world crowned with their scholastic honors, 
proud to be of service to their Alma Mater, to their profes- 
sors who taught them right thinking and effective expression, 
and to the Church whose history they can proudly celebrate, 
and whose expansion and acceptance throughout the present 
century in this land they can earnestly further and assist. 
Thus you will really "commence" to be true citizens in the 
realm of letters, for thus you will render the noblest service 
to yourselves and to your country. 

I wish the Class of 191 1 all success, honor and happiness 
in everything they undertake. 


IN coming before you, after so much has been said, I feel 
that in some way I am merely delaying you in the final 
event of your scholastic life. You are now eager to be 
up and doing, and no one can really say lasting things upon 
this day of joyous farewells. When a scholar steps forth from 
the college halls to take up his position, either in the world of 
learning or in that busier world of everyday life, it is with a 
triumphant feeling somewhat akin to conquest. One exults 
almost as in the winning of a hard-fought game of athletic 
skill with the glorious feeling of mastery achieved over diffi- 
cult and abstruse subjects. 

With the feeling that the goal has been reached, it seems 
almost as though it were a misnomer — perhaps even a mock- 
ery — to call it a "Commencement," when in reality you have 
finished your course and have reached the goal of study aimed 
at for so many years. When the parting from old classmates, 
from the familiar scenes around you, comes during this week, 
it seems that it is an ending after all. What does it matter 
that learned philologists tell us that it is really a *'commence- 
ment," that you now commence to be persons of degree and 
begin to take on yourselves the honors of the learned world — 
for down in your hearts you look upon it as the culmination of 
your college life. You say farewell to the old classrooms, the 
"Walks," the athletic field, your comrades and professors, and 
there is after all a sense of coming to an end instead of be- 
ginning. Yet while the day rings down the curtain upon old 
scenes, it is really the awakening to a newer and a broader 
life in the realm of letters and usefulness. 

The day of final conquest has now come to each of you, and 
you must now put your studies into active use and pursue 
still further the roads upon which you have entered in the 
kingdom of knowledge. If you did not do this earnestly and 



faithfully you would be untrue to the traditions of your col- 
lege and the teaching of your professors. Your graduation 
must be turned to account ; it must be added to and made 
useful, both to the possessor and to those around him. The 
college man must progress, if anything, somewhat more than 
those who have not had his advantages, if his study and his 
development are to be of any avail. 

A man must, if he is to accomplish anything in this world — 
anything beyond the mere necessities of food, raiment and 
shelter, and sometimes they mean a multitude of things — 
keep true to his ideals, to the high standard which he sets him- 
self. Of course, in the hurly-burly, the stress and strain of 
life, one is somewhat like a ship in the sea ; a point or so is 
lost from the true course of life, but an earnest active mind, 
like a careful helmsman, will bring himself back to his true 
course again. The motto of Georgetown University, 
which is emblazoned on its shield, "utraque unum" — two 
blended in one — is like that of this country, a great one. 
Perhaps many of us are not aware that the words of this 
motto are found in the great Antiphon sung by the Church in 
Advent, on December 22, when the cry of eager expectation 
is : "O King of the nations, yea, and the desire thereof ; O 
Corner Stone, who blendest two in one (qui facis utraque 
unum) ; come to save man whom Thou hast made of the dust 
of the earth !" It sounds the keynote of all true progress here 
on earth ; the blending of the divine with the human ; the 
mingling of the spiritual with the material in every effort of 
man to go forward. It has not only been the motto of this 
University ; it has been the very warp and woof of its teach- 
ing. You and I who have just received its degrees can testify 
that while it has evoked the mental and intellectual powers of 
the mind and has taught us to use all our natural gifts, it has 
at the same time never lost sight for a moment of the spiritual 
and higher nature that lies within us. It is the educational 
blending of the two in one which makes firm the faith of 
Georgetown in the sons which she sends forth into the world. 
And those sons, as events since the last Commencement have 
shown, have been found worthy of the highest places in the 

In this twentieth century we have but to look upon the 
noble record of the century just closed in order to take heart 


for the century which lies before us. In physical and indus- 
trial development, in inventive genius and in mechanical and 
scientific discovery, it has surpassed all previous epochs. !• 
deed, sometimes we have made so much progress along purely 
material lines that we have lost sight of the higher and nobler 
side of things. Life cannot be wholly mechanical or material. 
Often our inventions and improvements have defeated their 
very ends. In the book entitled "Is Mankind Advancing," the 
author says : 

"Think of the time saved by the telephone, the telegraph, 
the typewriter, the cotton and woollen and silk mills, the iron 
foundries, the sewing machines, the mowing machines, the 
reapers and harvesters, the swift trains, the electric trolleys, 
the subways and automobiles, the escalators and elevators! 
What a vast volume of time has been saved ! Time that used 
to be wasted, now saved for man and put away where moth 
doth not corrupt nor thieves break in and steal! There are 
seons of it ; time enough to double men's lives. Time enough 
to give every human being an abundance of leisure. An indus- 
trial revolution, the miracles of modern machinery, millions of 
brains are directed upon the problem ; all having for their one 
sole object — to save time! 

"And what is the result? The result is that men have less 
time nowadays than they ever have had since the world be- 
gan. What becomes of all the time thus saved? Where does 
it go? Except in the rural districts (where there is no ma- 
chinery for saving time, but where alone there is any to be 
found) every one is pressed for time. 

"The leisure which we gain by time-saving machinery seems 
almost to be tainted. Like the gambler's winnings, it is seldom 
put to any good use, but is soon expended in a hundred hurried 

"A Western farmer, who enjoyed a calm moment at the 
close of a busy life, one day reflected upon his past and dis- 
covered to his consternation that he had spent his existence in 
growing corn to feed hogs, in order to buy more land on which 
to grow more corn to raise more hogs on, and so on. Thus we 
invent machinery for the purpose of saving time in order to 
produce more things and to get there more quickly, in order 
to save more time to get more things and to get there more 
quickly, and over again, ad infinitum." 


Is this real progress? True, it is piling up more material 
things, making huge mathematical results ; but in the end does 
the individual man get any more real value out of life than 
his fathers did ? Does he, after all his hurry and hustle, awake 
any more of the finer and nobler side of life — to say nothing 
of the spiritual and moral side — than his predecessor did? 
Only so much of our material results as contribute to the 
building up of a finer man, a better country, and a more en- 
lightened civilization, can be said to be any real progress after 

Yet in many respects our progress has been along the best 
and noblest lines of human endeavor. We have set among the 
nations of the earth a new conception of the functions of gov- 
ernment. Before its time, legislatures and courts had been at 
best but docile servants of the ruler. Occasionally legislative 
bodies had defied the king who could do no wrong, but they 
both aHke had overawed and tyrannized the judges who were 
to interpret the laws. We embarked upon a new experiment in 
government. Thenceforth the legislature was to be independ- 
ent of the executive, whilst the courts were to be independent 
of both. Laws might be made, but the maker might not exe- 
cute them; still less was he to have the power of judging the 
citizen under them. Each sphere of government was re- 
strained within its own boundary, in order that the citizen 
might grow to his full stature as a man. Added to that, we 
provided that the State should not enter upon the domain of 
religion, but should remain nevertheless its protector and well- 
wisher. The success of our experiment in new and untried 
government, as exemplified in our history, has been a magnifi- 
cent tribute to its excellence and stability. The panorama of 
American history, since the United States came into being, is 
one of which we can be proud, and one which we must pledge 
ourselves to continue in all its excellencies, whilst pruning 
away any noxious growths that might seem to threaten it. 

Nor is this the only example of progress which appeals to us. 
Consider for a moment just what the history of the Catholic 
Church in the United States has been within the more than a 
century and a quarter of its active existence. 

Beginning at the close of the eighteenth century with a 
handful of clergy and a few thousand of laity, misunderstood, 
possessing but the most meager of civic rights, with no men of 


learning, wealth or position among their members — save a great 
name here and there — they struggled on through difficulty and 
opposition. Then note the rise through the nineteenth century 
to the present time. In the earlier part of the last century, the 
almost starving Irish, untrained and unlettered, came as ex- 
ponents of an already depreciated, if not despised, form of 
faith ; and cuhured opponents pointed to them with their peas- 
ant habits and general ignorance as the fruits which the Catho- 
lic Church brought forth in the lands where her doctrines 
reigned supreme. Then there were no splendid temples here, 
in which (3ur Lord was worshipped on resplendent altars, and 
where music, painting and sculpture might show forth to the 
most listless observer the culture which the Church encouraged. 
Even the worshippers themselves were far from edifying in 
those earlier days, and dissensions broke out upon small provo- 
cation. It seemed to justify whatever our opponents could 
invent to fling at us ; and it was succeeded by a short-lived but 
active persecution. 

Conceive, if you can nowadays, an unlettered, poverty- 
stricken, hard-working minority persecuted throughout these 
Atlantic States by those who thought they were doing their 
country service in suppressing — if not actually oppressing — 
and adherents of the oldest Faith in the Christian world. Per- 
haps it only needed a touch of persecution to bring the Catho- 
lic body closer together, and make them more determined 
to succeed. At any rate, they made marvelous progress. 
Churches, the peers of any in Christendom, have sprung up all 
over the land ; schools, colleges and universities have banished 
the unlettered ignorance of the people while intensifying their 
faith; institutions of mercy and charity on every hand have 
shown their hearts to be as great as any in this broad land. 
They have made material and earthly progress equal to any in 
the world, but have not forgotten the saving precepts which 
sanctified everything which they undertook. The magnificent 
statistics gathered by the Government but a short time ago are 
an eloquent testimony of that progress. To-day at least, this 
great Universal Church of God has put on in this land of free- 
dom the robes of brightness and glory which belong to her as 
the Bride of Christ and the heir of the ages, so as to be known 
and acknowledged of all men. 

Such a glorious reminiscence is but a "commencement," ex- 


actly as yours is to-day. Here is where our work must begin ; 
here is where we must make strong the glorious beginnings I 
have but recited. If the past century in State, Church and civi- 
lization was one of growth, one of foundation and one of estab- 
lishment, so must the coming century be one of expansion and 
of achievement. If our fathers could do so much with such 
slender materials, what ought we not do with the wealth of 
mental, educational and material development which we have 
at hand? 

To-day all around us we have examples of the undue power 
and enormous aggregations of wealth, on the one hand, and 
the threatened overturn of society and confiscation of the 
sources of that wealth, on the other. The gradual mo- 
nopoly of the necessaries of life, of the means of transporta- 
tion, of even the means of the diffusion of knowledge, threatens 
our national life and liberties. On the other hand, a rising tide 
of discontent against capital and wealth finds its most outspoken 
advocates in socialism and threatens not only our government, 
as presently constituted, but the very principles of order upon 
which it is founded. In their cry for economic and social re- 
form, these advocates would go so far as to destroy the old 
landmarks of civilization — religion, the family, and clean liv- 
ing. We cannot afford to yield either to the pressure of the 
one or to the demands of the other. If progress is to be made, 
it must be made along the lines of reconciliation. 

When we studied in boyhood our elementary catechism, we 
learned as primary truths the commands, "Thou shalt not steal" 
and "Thou shalt not covet," and that among the sins which cry 
to heaven for vengeance are oppression of the poor and de- 
frauding laborers of their wage. On these may be built the 
entire economic and political theory of the modern State. All 
the material ills which cry for reform are but a variation of 
these themes, or of the machinery by which they are exploited. 
Those commands point the direction in which the cure must be 

There are no men in these United States upon whom the 
task of making straight the tangled paths of human progress 
should rest more than upon the college graduates. It is the 
noblest aim they can have in life. The entry of large-minded 
college men, who know their Faith and love their country, into 


the task of solving these difficulties will be one of the greatest 
elements of progress this age can give. 

But it can only be done by studying the examples of real 
progress made in the past and by intently observing what our 
Faith has made essential. It demands clear thinking and clean 
living. Things must be put in their true perspective. If the 
great needs of life and civic conduct are to be met, as they will 
be met, we, as graduates of Georgetown, should stand as a 
necessary and important part among those who are to meet 
them. In that way we shall be able to contribute our portion 
to the progress of the coming century. 


THIS is primarily an association of Catholic gentlemen to 
render aid to the Church in a field which has hitherto 
been neglected in our American life. We have magnifi- 
cent churches, schools and missions, a capable and energetic 
priesthood to promote Catholic Faith, devotion and practice 
among Catholics themselves, as well as to teach it to others 
outside the fold. We have charitable and educational insti- 
tutions and societies of every kind, with devoted and untiring 
workers, men and women, lay and cleric. We have clubs, so- 
cieties and fraternities devoted to Catholic interests, enthusi- 
asms and culture, and these are steadily growing everywhere. 
But all of these are for Catholics primarily, and, with the ex- 
ception of the preaching of the faith and the practice of char- 
ity, are not for the world at large. And the world at large so 
regards them; the very matters they touch on, the very aims 
and objects they profess, are regarded as peculiarly fitted for 
the children of the Church and as such fail to arrest the atten- 
tion and challenge the interest of others. And, in so much as 
we fail in this regard, we fail to take our proper place in public 
opinion. It is to correct this, to awaken a regard for the Catho- 
lic viewpoint and to arouse a healthy, vigorous and inquiring 
public opinion upon things Catholic in the everyday world that 
this association has been formed. 

We do not intend to trench upon any of the existing Catholic 
societies. We rather desire to fill a place which they have not 
been able to find time and opportunity to occupy. We will 
leave to the clergy and their coadjutors the teaching of faith 
and doctrine; we will leave to the charitable societies the task 
of caring for the needy ; we will leave to the club and the kin- 
dred organizations the development of social and intellectual 
interests ; our purpose is to assist them along other and paral- 
lel lines. 



So much for the proposed association from a negative stand- 
point. Now for an outline of the positive work proposed. This 
statement is not intended to be a declaration of principles or 
a measurement of the boundary lines of our activities or in any 
wise limiting what we hope to accomplish. Some of the things 
set forth here may be abandoned later, on finding that they are 
accomplished better through other channels and other activities. 
Other things not even hinted at or even contemplated now may 
i'ereafter be taken up by us, if deemed expedient or necessary. 
Still larger activities may be presented to us in the future which 
cannot now be even foreseen or imagined. Therefore what is 
stated here may be regarded as only in a measure the duties 
and activities of the proposed Catholic Association. 

A word or so of the origin or immediate starting point of 
this proposed association may not be out of place. Last year 
the so-called Law of Separation of Church and State was put 
in operation in France. Its terms were so completely subver- 
sive of the constitution of the Church, so bent on making the 
Church in France little less than a civil corporation under the 
administration of the State, that the bishops, clergy and Catho- 
lic people of France could not and would not submit to its 
drastic provisions, and preferred to lose their property rather 
than surrender their liberty of worship. The American press, 
and, in fact, the majority of American publicists, apparently 
conceiving that separation in France meant what separation in 
America means, took up the side of the French government, 
and in the press and on the rostrum poured forth statements 
and arguments to the effect that the Church, its priests and 
people were in the wrong, and should be considered as engaged 
in a movement little less than treasonable to the French Repub- 
lic. This was reiterated from day to day and largely influenced 
public opinion in America. These statements, however, were 
not permitted to go unchallenged. A committee was organized, 
on the initiative of the Archbishop, by which preparation was 
made for a great popular meeting, in which a fair-minded re- 
view of the events in France was presented and a statement 
of the attitude and aims of the churchmen of France was set 
forth, while the animus and acts of the French government 
were contrasted with the real freedom guaranteed by our con- 
stitution in this free land. The success of that great meeting 
was almost instantaneous in changing American public opinion. 


The American public saw that there was another side to the 
story ; that the facts and figures they had received needed essen- 
tial additions, corrections and alterations, and that some were 
misstated altogether; many of the best-equipped American 
writers warmly espoused the Catholic view, and even those who 
were strongly biased moderated in a marked degree their ad- 
verse opinions. 

It was in preparing for this meeting, in searching out and 
obtaining the data and necessary information for the subjects 
dwelt upon, in disseminating the news of the meeting and the 
results accomplished by it, that the need of such an organiza- 
tion as the present proposed association was most strongly felt. 
In other words, we realized the need of some sort of a well- 
equipped and permanent society, which might present to our 
fellow-Americans the true facts and history of any movement, 
past or present, with which the Church is or has been identified. 
The Church and her doctrines have their defenders, able and 
conscientious men, everywhere, but the great American public 
outside of the Church is either biased or indififerent to what 
manner of constitution or teaching she may have, and seldom 
awakens to it except when some sudden occasion arises. If 
then a statement in favor of the Church or her activities comes 
from a professedly Catholic source it is taken as special plead- 
ing, and therefore loses much of its force. Oftentimes a posi- 
tive misstatement of the truth and the facts involved is the 
only notice the average American receives of Catholic events, 
and the matter has passed from his mind before the truth has 
been ascertained and the proper statement presented. Yet the 
American public, used as it is to political and business discus- 
sions, will recognize the value and correctness of a statement, 
if it is placed purely and simply upon a basis of justice and 
fair play. While it might be indififerent to a special plea, pro- 
fessedly Catholic, and therefore fail unintentionally to do jus- 
tice, it will respond to an appeal or a statement made upon the 
sole ground that it contains the actual facts involved, irrespec- 
tive of whether the statement itself is in favor of the Catholic 
view or not. In other words, it is the primary standpoint of 
the article or statement which arrests the attention of the pub- 
lic. If it professes to be something Catholic and to be written 
because it is Catholic, the probability is that it will be ignored ; 
but if it profess to contain the facts of the case and to give the 


original sources or the exact points involved merely for the 
sake of enhghtenment or for the correction of misinformation, 
it will produce an impression far greater and lasting and will 
be welcomed by all who desire to hear all sides of a question. 
It is therefore to meet this want, and other kindred wants, that 
we believe a society such as we contemplate to be necessary. 

A healthy, appreciative public opinion cannot be formed in a 
moment. Assuming, for instance, that we succeeded in remov- 
ing many false impressions about the struggle in France and 
corrected much erroneous information, it does not mean that 
we shall not have to do the work over again to-morrow or the 
next day, when a new batch of news comes over the cables, or a 
fresh crisis arrives. In the English tradition and literature, 
which we in America inherit, bias and prejudice against Catho- 
lic principles and Catholic history have been so interwoven that 
a distrust or tendency to hasty and adverse judgment on things 
Catholic exists in nearly every man who has not either taken 
the pains or had the leisure to inform himself about them. 
Sometimes malevolence makes such adverse judgment worse. 
It becomes, therefore, our duty when the occasion arises, to 
lay before our fellow-citizens in America such an array of facts, 
information and correct deductions concerning the current civil 
and temporal relations of the Church with the nations and peo- 
ples of the earth, and particularly in our own country, in a 
temperate and dispassionate manner, so that our fellow-Ameri- 
cans, even if they do not wholly agree with us, may nevertheless 
obtain and disseminate correct news of any event or question 
involving the Church. The American public should be as well 
informed upon questions touching the Catholic Church and her 
duly constituted authorities, as upon the tariff, the railroad, the 
currency, or the foreign policy of the United States, or upon 
the science, literature and art of the day. And it should be our 
duty to supply such information in an appropriate manner, 
giving a dignified statement of the facts and principles involved 
in the particular case under consideration. 

How this may best be accomplished and what particular form 
it shall take, is one of the problems confronting us. What we 
consider here are the most obvious wants at this particular time 
and the means we shall have to use in order to supply them. It 
goes without saying that a fair amount of money will be re- 
quired to put the association upon its feet and to make it really 


practical. The ground to be covered is so vast and the need of 
exact information so far reaching in many fields, that the ex- 
pense will be not inconsiderable. But, assuming that the in- 
terest taken in the movement is sufficient to assure the income 
needed, the present field of the association can be briefly 

In order to collect accurate information regarding the pres- 
ent status of the Church in European countries, correspondents 
must be stationed at, say, London, Paris, Madrid, Vienna, Ber- 
lin, and above all, at Rome. Foreign newspapers must be taken 
from nearly every large European city, at all events from every 
capital and centre of Catholic interest. Facts and exact state- 
ments concerning the relations of Catholic societies, clergy, 
schools, teaching, etc., must be ascertained and preserved. 
Every effort must be made to keep up with the political and 
social movements throughout the world, and a sufficient library 
bearing on these subjects must be established. A clipping bu- 
reau and telegraphic service will be required to facilitate mat- 
ters. The net results of such researches and investigations 
must be conveyed to the American press by news items, con- 
tributed articles, direct corrections of erroneous statements, 
and by public addresses, or, where necessary, by authoritative 
statements, so that the general public may be kept correctly in- 
formed of the progress, attitude and doings of the Catholic 
Church abroad and at home, and not have to rely on ill-digested 
and sometimes malevolent scraps of news such as now appear 
in the papers. Matters of interest to the Church should be fol- 
lowed up to their conclusion, so that the public may be made 
aware of the outcome. For instance, we were informed re- 
cently about Queen Margherita of Italy obtaining land in Rome 
for the monks by taking it away from the soldiers, but we are 
not told where the land was, under what circumstances it was 
taken, whether it originally belonged to the monks, or any of 
the essential events connected therewith, except just sufficient 
to put the Church in the role of a usurper. Another instance 
were the editorials in the "Evening Post" recently, as to the al- 
leged hostility between the regular and secular clergy in France. 
With an equipped organization we could correct or explain 
those matters in time for the next issue of the paper. As it is, 
we shall have to await the tardy arrival of letters or news- 
papers from abroad. 


Canards of all kinds in regard to the Church and her clergy 
and members in all parts of the world are freely reported in 
the press. These could be instantly corrected through such an 
organization. Grave calumnies affecting important persons can 
be refuted by it. Statements of fact inaccessible to ordinary 
readers because of their un familiarity with foreign tongues 
and their remoteness from the scene can be readily obtained 
through this association. Inquiries for specified purposes and 
for special information on particular subjects can likewise be 
pursued through its officials and members. Any one here in 
New York with limited means of information can thus set in 
motion the machinery to obtain exact knowledge upon any one 
of the subjects of the day touching the relations of the Church 
and churchmen to civil affairs. 

The same method can be employed relative to matters ex- 
clusively confined to this country. The association could main- 
tain correspondents at every important centre in the United 
States, and obtain and preserve current reports upon all mat- 
ters affecting the interests of the Church. Such matters as 
legislation and the trend of public thought affecting the rights 
of the Church in the family, the child, the school, secular prop- 
erty, the Indians, the poor and afflicted, charitable institutions, 
the welfare of Catholics in the army, the navy and the general 
government service, can be fully investigated and the results 
tabulated and preserved. The relations of the government 
with, as well as the internal relations of, our annexed depend- 
encies, like Porto Rico, the Philippines, Panama; the rights, 
freedom and exercise of the teachings and worship of the 
Catholic Church, and its growth and progress in these coun- 
tries, can be fully obtained and recorded, as well as all ques- 
tions affecting Catholic interests in the United States. Data 
and facts thus obtained may be published from time to time in 
the public prints, or made the subjects of the lecture platform, 
the pulpit and the public meeting, as the case may require, or 
brought to the attention of the public in other convenient ways. 

The American press is eager to get news. Why not utilize 
this great instrument of publicity to disseminate Catholic news, 
based upon ascertained and authentic facts, and demonstrate 
to the world that Catholics are bending their energies for the 
welfare of their country and seeking to establish the Kingdom 
of God on earth ? We need not insist that this is the work of 


the Church, as such, but is the record of the activities of indi- 
vidual citizens, or of a body of citizens, vying with their fel- 
low-men to better the world and lead it into paths of truth, 
honesty and uprightness. 

When the need for public action arises, this association may 
then take even more energetic measures. When the need 
arises, it can awaken public sentiment, arrange for public meet- 
ings and gatherings, and present the proper views to the public 
in general, or to officials, courts or legislatures, as the case may 
require. In truth, there is no limit to its activities and it may 
enlist the cooperation of the brightest and most active minds in 
its work of enlightening public opinion as to the merits of 
Catholic views and Catholic rights in a given case. The suc- 
cessful activities of such an association in informing a fair- 
minded pubHc of the acts, teachings, principles and aims of the 
Catholic Church in civil and temporal affairs, may prepare the 
way for that long-wished-for Catholic daily newspaper. This 
latter, however, is surely an inspiration for the future, and not 
an immediately practical aim of the association, as we are out- 
lining its possible activities. 

We are not aware probably of the wealth of material at our 
command to illustrate the progress, dignity and defense of the 
Church. An organization such as we contemplate would bring 
it out. The Catholic Encyclopedia surprised and delighted 
everybody by its showing of American scholars, both clerics 
and laymen, who were versed in the history, doctrine and de- 
velopment of the Church. The same thing would without 
doubt be experienced here. We do not realize the powers for 
good which we can command, or how wide would be the in- 
fluence of such a movement. The Church has no longer any 
need to apologize for its existence and policy in the United 
States : it can now insist that it become as well known in all its 
civil relations as the Panama Canal or the Railroad Question, 
quite irrespective of its dogmatic teachings or its ecclesiastical 
organization, and a succession of daily, weekly and monthly 
itemized truths, as well as lengthier statements concerning its 
temporal relations, will contribute to place it before the Ameri- 
can public without prejudice or bias. 

The average American will entertain a finer and heartier 
respect for the Church and her institutions the more he knows 
of. them, and the less likely will he be to assail or injure them. 


It may not, and probably will not, make him a Catholic or 
give him a desire to enter the Church. But whatever abates 
prejudice, whatever increases appreciation, and whatever 
makes the CathoHc, his creed and his manner of life and thought 
better known and more highly valued by his fellow-Americans, 
should be welcomed and encouraged. For this we commend the 
proposed organization, the CathoHc Association, and bespeak 
for it the approval and support of all who have the interests of 
the Church at heart. 


This book is due on the date indicated below, or at the 
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