ifm •■■'-■1' c. ." -t/' /y^ ^^ <p'^ / ?^ MEMORIAL DANIEL C. BROWN, A.M., LATE MASTER OF THE BOWDOIN SCHOOL, BOSTON, MASS. ■ NOT PUBLISHED. BOSTON: J. S. GUSHING & CO., PRINTERS. 1884. LA 2^2.n 3-^1 5 ^ V \ PREFACE. This Memorial of Daniel C. Brown, A.M., has been prepared, and is printed in a limited edition for such relatives and friends who desire to preserve in some durable form a suitable memento of one so loved, and whose name will ever be cherished by them in fond remembrance. A complete history of his life and valu- able services in educational labors has not been at- tempted ; but simply a condensed and brief account of his early and maturer life, with a few contributions from friends and associates in educational work, who well knew his sterling worth as a faithful teacher and a noble man. J. B. A TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF DANIEL C. BROWN, A. M., BY MISS SARAH R. SMITH, MASTER'S ASSISTANT IN THE BOWDOIN SCHOOL. Mr. Daniel C. Brown, late Master of the Bowdoin School, was the son of Benjamin and Mary Brown, and was born in Kingston, N.H., where he spent his boy- hood. He showed when a child the same good traits that afterward made him honored as a man. Dutiful as a son, he learned a trade, but never worked at it, because study had ever greater charms for him. Earnest as a student, his parents gave him every opportunity in their power to prepare himself for his life work. He received his earlier education at the academies at Exeter and Kingston. Later, he studied medicine for some time ; but, thinking that he could be more useful as a teacher, he gave up a noble profession for the work of teaching, and never regretted his choice, nor have his friends. Recognizing the fact that one cannot stand still, that if he does not advance he must fall back, he 5 studied early and late, took advantage of all the means for self-improvement that Boston so generously offers, and richly deserved the degree of Master of Arts con- ferred on him by Middlebury College, Vermont. His work as a teacher in Arlington, Mass., was very successful, as many of the pupils of that time, now business men of Boston, can testify. To his work in Boston it is hardly necessary to allude. Brimmer and Bowdoin suggest his name, which alone is sufficient to awaken the memories of many of the best men and women in the city ; and not alone do men and women think with gratitude of the dear teacher, but girls of all ages in that section of the city in which he worked so conscientiously for almost thirty years. As the able and devoted head of the Bowdoin School, he did a grand work for the city, yet so quietly and unobtru- sively that few beside his own scholars and co-laborers had any just appreciation of his high worth. The city is largely indebted to him, not only for his own ser- vices as teacher, but also for a most able corps of assistants selected by his ripe judgment. His modesty caused him to shrink from putting forth his own views in public too frequently ; yet, in the quiet atmosphere of his school-room and home, he was ever true to his convictions of duty. So engrossed was he in the interests of the school that it was too late for Nature to rally when he heeded the warnings of dis- ease. What the effort to give up his trust cost him, only those who knew his love for the work can under- stand. His friends hoped that he would live many years to enjoy his well-earned rest. He was a faithful and affectionate son, a helpful and loving brother, and later in life a most devoted hus- band and father. He married Miss Rose J. Prescott, a lady born in Deerfield, N.H., and educated near Boston. Those who were privileged to know him in his home have the pleasantest recollections of his married life. A cordial welcome ever awaited his friends, so willing was he to share his joys with others. Long will his genial greeting be missed. He leaves a little daughter, who is tenderly attached to him, and a wife whose heart is very deeply smitten by her bereavement. DEATH, FUNERAL SERVICES, AND BURIAL. Daniel C. Brown died on the afternoon of Thurs- day, July 3, 1884. Funeral services were held on the afternoon of Sun- day, July 6, at 3 o'clock, at Hotel Waterston, on Bulfinch Place. The parlors were thronged with friends, past pupils, teachers, members of the School Committee, and Mas- ters of the Grammar Schools. On the casket, about which were many flowers, was a simple plate, bearing the inscription, " Daniel C. Brown, aged 69 years, 9 months, 29 days." The funeral services were conducted by the venerable Dr. Miner, who read appropriate selections from the Bible, spoke fittingly of the pure life and noble work of Mr. Brown, and of the lessons it taught, and out of the abundance of his heart uttered words of faith, consolation, and hope to those who mourned. In beautiful accord with these words from Dr. Miner was the " Service of Song " by the Ruggles-Street Quartette Choir, who sang " Come Unto Me," " Let 9 lO Them Sleep, They Shall Wake to Life Again," and " Gathering Home." The pall-bearers were Messrs. James A. Page, Robert Swan, James F. Blackinton, and W. L. P. Boardman, masters of grammar schools with whom the deceased had long been associated. The remains were taken to Mt. Auburn and placed in the receiving tomb, whence they were removed, on Oct. lo, and laid in their final resting-place, lot No. 4865. "Dust to Dust." W. L. P. B. LETTER OF W. L. P. BOARDMAN, ESQ., MASTER OF THE LEWIS SCHOOL, BOSTON HTGHLANDS. Milton, Mass., July 29, 1884. My Dear Mrs. Brown : Your note of the 27th came last evening. We are very glad to learn from it that you are getting the rest and quiet you must need so much, after weeks of care, anxiety, and watching, and hopes disappointed, and the great loss and sorrow, at last. Why God permits such great and seemingly unneces- sary sorrows to come is past our finding out. But certain it is, that such an experience either so expands our powers of endurance or deadens our sensibilities, that all other troubles seem but " light afflictions." And yet all is not gone. Let us trust you are to find, in the care and nurture of the dear little child, a well-spring of hope and joy and peace at the last. It will be thirty years next September since my work in Boston began, and Mr. Brown came into the city to live. He had been in the Brimmer School some years then, but had lived in West Cambridge (now Arlington), 12 For many years thereafter we boarded together for the most part ; occupying the same room ; attending the same church ; the same and many courses of Lowell and other lectures ; the same French lessons for several seasons ; the same elocution lessons ; witnessed the same plays ; voted mainly the same tickets ; were together during the rise, the progress, and the ending of the great war of the Rebellion ; shared in its anxieties, excitements, and surprises ; rejoiced in the emancipation it brought ; grew almost wild with joy over Lee's surrender, and mourned with the whole nation for its sons slain, and the tragic death of its martyr President. From the first, and all along, we were interested in the same work ; went out much together; and, in "daily walk and conversation," I trust, for good, mutually influenced each other. At least, I am sure, his influence upon me was good, and only good. In all my years with him, I never saw anything that was low, or base, or impure. We were one year together in the Brimmer School with Mr. Bates, whom we both loved and honored, and who has, I think, never had any one associated with him whom he held in such high esteem as Mr. Brown. Then he was made master of the Bowdoin School ; but we continued boarding together, most of the time, until my marriage. Since that, we have seen him much less than we have wished. The absorbing and exhausting 13 nature of his work, and his very retiring disposition, kept him too much away from us for our good. But it has always been with pleasure that we have seen him at our house, or have met him elsewhere. When sickness came to him, it seemed as if it had come to one of our own household. His death has taken from me a more than brother. There is no man left now whom I know, or by whom I am known, as we knew each other. In our maturer years we may make new acquaint- ances, but seldom intimate friends ; and, thus, you will see how, in a measure, I am able to understand and sympathize with you in your great bereavement, for I too have suffered loss. It will always be a pleasant thought to me that the last few years of his life were made his happiest, in a home of his own ; and that a little child came to sit on his knee and call him "father." When in his last sore needs I witnessed the unspeak- able joy and peace which the ministering of loving hands brought to him, I felt renewedly grateful to our God, who had " set the desolate in families." Mrs. Boardman and Sam. join me in love and sym- pathy, and assurances of our interest in and for the family of my dear old friend. Ever very sincerely yours, W, L. P. Boardman. THE LATE DANIEL C. BROWN, A.M. RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE BOSTON MASTERS ASSOCIATION. ARRANGED FOR THE DAILY EVENING TRAVELLER BY W. L. P. BOARDMAN, ESQ. At the October meeting of the Boston Masters Association, — the first for the school year, — resolu- tions, commemorative of the late Daniel C. Brown, supplemented by an eloquent and fitting tribute to his life and work as a teacher for half a century, the last twenty-nine years of which have been as Master of the Bowdoin School, were presented by Mr. James F. Black- inton, of the Emerson School. For some years before his appointment to the Bowdoin he was associated with the now venerable Joshua Bates, as sub-master in the Brimmer School, coming to the city from Arlington, where his half-century of teaching began. In all these places are left enduring monuments of his untiring zeal, his wisdom and faithfulness, and his pure, upright life and example, in the love and honor of the multitudes he has helped to educate. By his associates he was universally honored and respected for his sound judgment, his liberal attainments, his progressive con- servatism, his unostentatious independence of character 15 i6 and thought, and for his simple, manly, genial bearing toward all the members of his profession. A prudent, simple living had ensured him a competent provision for a comfortable old age, to the enjoyment of which it was his purpose to retire when the work of the year ended. But he died with the harness on, the prom- ised land just in sight. Man proposes, but God disposes. The resolutions were seconded by Mr. Boardman, of the Lewis School. Remarks were made by Mr. H. H. Lin- coln, of the Lyman, and an able and discriminating paper upon the lifework of Mr. Brown by Joshua Bates, LLD., was feelingly read by Mr. James A. Page, Secretary of the Masters Association. The resolutions were unani- mously adopted by a rising vote, and the Association adjourned. If education be the corner-stone of a republic, in the death of Mr. Brown the city and the State have lost a master builder. The resolutions were as follows: — Whereas it has pleased the all-wise Father to remove from our number our late associate, Mr. Daniel C. Brown : Resohed, That in the death of Mr. Brown there has fallen from our ranks a faithful teacher, a safe counsellor, an upright citizen, and a true friend. Resolved, That Mr. Brown, by his earnest, conscien- tious, and life-long devotion to the duties of his profes- 17 sion, by his scholarly attainments, by his pure and manly life, by his unswerving adherence to what he believed to be the true and the right, and by his modest, dignified, and gentlemanly bearing, offers an example worthy of all imitation, commanding our admiration and respect. Resolved, That we look with just pride and satisfaction upon the record of a full and rounded life, devoted for fifty years to the cause of education, inspired with upright zeal for the honor of the profession, active with single purpose to train the youth of our community to studious habits, lofty aims, and useful lives. Resolved, That we tender to the stricken wife and father- less daughter our heartfelt sympathy in this the hour of their bereavement and sorrow. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be presented to the family of the deceased. ADDRESS BEFORE THE BOSTON MASTERS ASSOCIATION, BY JAMES F. BLACKINTON, EMERSON SCHOOL, EAST BOSTON. Mr. Chairman and Brethren : — It has chanced to me to present these resolutions, not because I have known Mr. Brown as long as some Other members of this Association, not because I was as well acquainted with him as were some of you, but I have done it at the earnest solicitation of my friend and brother on the Committee, who was most inti- mately associated with Mr. Brown for many years, and who loved him as a brother. But I have known Mr, Brown for more than a quar- ter of a century ; and during all these years, I have known him, as you, brethren, have known him, whether for a longer or shorter period, as an earnest, devoted teacher, thoroughly imbued with the teacher's spirit. It needed but little acquaintance with Mr. Brown, one needed to hear him speak but a few times on the sub- ject of education, or to visit his school, to be convinced that he was thoroughly in earnest, devoted to his work. 19 20 He never shirked any duty, never shrunk from any labor connected with his school. Everywhere and always, early and late, in season and out of season, he was at his post seeking the best interests of his pupils. His voice, which was heard all too seldom at educa- tional gatherings, was always listened to with profound- est attention and respect. He never spoke without having something to say, always coming directly to the point and forcibly discussing the subject under consid- eration. When he rose to speak in this room, every man of us felt that something would be said worth lis- tening to. No matter whether we agreed with him or not, we felt we were listening to the clean, clear-cut utterances of a trained and thoughtful mind. He had strong convictions on the subject of education, and he had the courage of those convictions, — always ready to defend his opinions, always ready to give a reason for the faith that was in him. Mr. Brown, I suppose, would be called a conserva- tive teacher. His methods, perhaps, would be regarded a little old-fashioned by modern lights in education. Such men are needed ; we shall find out sometime, per- haps, that they are about as nearly right as any of us. He was never carried away by new theories, never rode hobbies ; and, while he was modest in the presentation of his views, never obtruding them on others, he felt most strongly that for himself he must follow those 21 methods which long experience had proved best for him. And I fancy, my friends, it made Httle differ- ence in the result, whether those methods were always such as would be approved by a disciple of the " new education," so called, so long as there were to be found behind those methods the indomitable energy, skill, perseverance, and enthusiasm of Daniel C. Brown. He was just old-fashioned enough to believe in hon- est, thorough work in the school-room, not only on the part of the teacher but of the scholar ; and if there is any one thing more than another, for which the hun- dreds and thousands of pupils who have been under Mr. Brown's care for the last half of a century, have reason to be grateful for, it is for those habits of study, of industry, of attention and thought to which they were disciplined under his direction. Could we call up this long line of pupils and question them, what an array of testimony should we have to his faithfulness and fidelity ! And this, after all, my friends, is the test. What, on the whole, do our pupils think of our work ? On the xvJiole, — not whether we never made a mistake, whether we never did or said a foolish thing, whether we were sometimes too severe or too lenient in our discipline, but what is the final conclusion in regard to the value of our work as it affects our pupils .-' 22 There are three stages in the life of a pupil from which he regards the ability and work of his teacher. At first, the youthful tyro, when he looks up into the face of his teacher, — if he is worthy of the name, — places the most implicit confidence in everything the teacher says ; he never imagines the teacher can make a mistake ; he regards every question as settled by his decision ; the words fall from his lips as from an oracle. This is the age of hero worship ; and then the pupil overestimates the ability and work of the teacher. Farther on, when the pupil begins to think and investigate for himself, he finds his teacher is not infallible, — he makes many mistakes ; he finds there are two sides to questions which he had regarded as settled ; the pupil himself comes to a different con- clusion from that of his teacher on many points, and often sets his own opinion above that of his teacher. Then the pupil often swings off to the other end of the arc in his estimate. Later in life, when the pupil takes broader views and looks over the whole field, if he is unprejudiced and has a well-balanced mind, he comes to a true and just conclusion in regard to the work of the teacher. Happy the teacher who can stand the test of this judi- cial decision ! If our pupils can say of us, as I heard a pupil say of one of our number who passed away some time ago, 23 " He was the best friend I ever had," we have erected for ourselves a monument, " perennius aere," for we shall live forever in the lives and hearts of our pupils. Such a monument has our departed brother erected for himself. He needs no other monument. We see it all around us. " If you seek his monument, look around ! " is the inscription which some of you have read on the marble tablet that covers the bones of the great architect in the vault of the mighty cathedral that he planned. If you seek the monument of Daniel C. Brown, " circumspice ! " Mr. Chairman, this is not the time to preach ser- mons or to enforce lessons. Nor is it necessary. This sad, significant decimating of our ranks which has been going on for the last three years, taking for the most part those who for many years had marched at our side, but sometimes, as within the last few weeks, tak- ing one of the younger and newer recruits, preaches its own sermon, enforces its own lesson. Mr. Chairman, I cannot stand here to speak from the experience of closest intimacy or of endeared friend- ship. This I leave to others. I knew the teacher ; some of you knew the man as well. ADDRESS BY JOSHUA BATES, LL.D., LATE MASTER, BRIMMER SCHOOL, BOSTON. 1 Mr. Chairman: — Though not now an active member of the Boston Masters Association, yet I trust it will not be deemed inappropriate for me to add a few words to the many kind expressions that will find utterance on this par- ticular occasion. I ask the privilege to say a few words, not only because this Association and its interests are most dear to me, but also because in my declining years the memory of the past and its happy retrospect crowd upon my mind, making me feel young again, and ever ready to rejoice with you when you rejoice, and to mourn with you when you mourn. Particularly am I moved, my brethren, to address you on this occasion ; for he who has so lately left our circle, and who now sleeps peacefully in his final rest- ing-place, was indeed a cherished friend, with whom I spent pleasant years in associate and harmonious edu- cational work, with daily increasing affection and ever 1 Owing to Mr. Bates's sickness, read at the October meeting of the Boston Masters Association. 25 26 growing admiration for his sterling worth as a man and teacher. With the early life and home surroundings of our friend and brother, Mr. Brown, I have little knowl- edge ; but I apprehend, like most boys from inland homes, his parents' pecuniary means were perhaps lim- ited to a strict economy. Thus compelled and trained by the circumstances of his early life to habits of indus- try and patient labor, there was laid in him the founda- tion for physical strength, mental discipline, and moral culture that gave prominence and success to his pro- fessional life. In his early manhood Mr. Brown commenced the study of medicine, but soon wisely concluded that the profession of a teacher would be a more appropriate niche for him to fill, — one more congenial to his taste, and that promised to him a better opening for useful- ness and success in life. He never regretted that he devoted his life to teaching, and his numerous friends ever rejoiced in his prosperity as a distinguished edu- cator. After suitable preparation, he commenced his career as a teacher in West Cambridge, now Arlington, and soon established a reputation as a competent and successful teacher. Many of his pupils in the early years of his teaching, now men and women in mature life, most thankfully remember his faithful instructions, and will ever hold in fond endearment the man who 27 constantly labored to fit them to become useful mem- bers of society. Mr. Brown's term of educational service in Boston covers a period of about thirty-five years. In the year 1849 h^ ^'^ss appointed usher, and somewhat later sub- master in the Brimmer school. A more genial and efificient associate in school-work, a more conscientious and able teacher, never crossed the threshold of the Brimmer. Ever prompt to duty, thorough in instruc- tion, and discreet in discipline, he assiduously studied not only to properly teach and educate all his pupils in practical and valuable knowledge, but also to give such a moral bearing to all instruction, as would tend to form in them a strength of character that would make men, pure in heart, efficient in business, well educated, virtuous citizens. While in the Brimmer, by untiring earnestness, by daily honesty in fulfilling all school requirements, and by his prudent and wise management in all affairs, he gave unvarying satisfaction to committees, received very unanimously the approbation of parents, and the sin- cere love and gratitude of his pupils ; and I can call to mind no instance in which occurred one word of misunderstanding, or even a shadow of unpleasantness, during the six years of our co-operate labor. On the election of Mr. Brown to the mastership of the Bowdoin school, his views on educational methods 28 and school administration did not essentially change, though a wider field was now opened to him, in which he could give full scope to the investigations of all theories and measures in school management, that might be suggested to his active and inquiring mind. Though he succeeded one of the most popular and thorough instructors that Boston has ever had enrolled on her list of teachers, — Father Andrews, as he was familiarly called, — yet the Bowdoin took at once, under his administration of affairs, a high rank among the best of our schools, which position it has ever since justly maintained. On assuming the mastership of the Bowdoin, Mr. Brown at once took a more prominent part in all educational movements. His voice was heard in this Association and in public educational conventions, not too often, but always with pleasure and profit. He never talked for the sake of talking, but always spoke to the point in question, and discussed it with great frankness and decision. In manner of address he was modest and unassuming, never ostentatious, or in any respect pretentious. His suggestions were practi- cal ; his views clearly stated, and forcibly advanced and maintained. He left the impress on his hearers that he was a sound thinker, a wise man. Mr. Brown, in his social and professional intercourse, was attentive to all the proprieties of life. His manner 29 was a compound of simplicity, urbanity, and dignity. The remarkable symmetry and completeness of his char- acter was at once noticeable to all, even on slight acquaintance. The various qualities that made up the man were well balanced and harmonious. He never betrayed in social or public life the slightest manifes- tation, in personal manner or in habits of thought; those eccentricities that astonish and bewilder. He recognized order as Heaven's first law, and to that law the movements of his mind naturally and easily con- formed. His constitution was strong, his mind clear, acute, and vigorous. He had such uncommon strength of purpose and perseverance that scarcely any obstacle was too great to be overcome. He had unbending in- tegrity, never swerving from his honest convictions, no matter what might be the temptation. He scrupu- lously avoided giving needless offence, and was always slow to impute bad motives, when good ones might be supposed to exist. He was characteristically modest, more inclined to manifest deference toward others, than to claim it for himself. It has been well said, that "The proper sign of a great man is that he succeeds." Mr. Brown's profes- sional life was certainly marked throughout with suc- cess, and for many years past he has ranked among the foremost teachers of our city. He loved his occu- pation, and his heart was in his work. True teaching requires skill, intuitive aptitude, and entire consecration 30 to all professional obligations. Vital success in instruc- tion is developed in the life and soul of the man, for the prime factor in every prosperous and efficient school is the teacher. Such a man was Mr. Brown. He was not only sincerely devoted to his calling, and to the legitimate work prescribed by school regulations, but, also, he was ever ready to adopt progressive measures in school management, when fully convinced that such measures were practical, wise, and safe. He never sanctioned or adopted empirical methods, or without careful examination introduced into the school- room any crude or new notions in education. He heartily despised all shams in teaching. Mr. Brown was a close student, a sound thinker; and, in token of his scholarship and his prominence in educational inter- ests, some years ago the degree of A.M. was con- ferred on him by Middlebury College, Vt. It was his constant thought and study to teach principles rather than facts ; and in his teachings he aimed to discipline rather than cram the mind. The cultivation of the memory, and that instruction which quickens the per- ceptive, and guides the reasoning and reflective powers, and gives acuteness to the faculties of comparison and discrimination, he believed essential to intellectual at- tainment ; consequently, the use of the text-book he considered all important in school instruction, espe- cially with the older scholars. He always maintained, with Dr. Arnold, "that the pupil should not be told 31 by the teacher, what he himself could acquire by close application and study." " It is no wisdom," says this model teacher of the Rugby school, " to make boys prodigies of information, and mere passive recipients of knowledge ; but it is wisdom and duty to cultivate their faculties and disci- pline their minds." Ever ready to receive suggestions and to learn from others, when settled in his opinions Mr. Brown was firm and decided, and conscientiously and fearlessly acted up to his convictions. In the labor-loving student he especially delighted. "If there is any thing on earth," says Dr. Arnold, "which is truly admirable, it is to see God's wisdom blessing an inferiority of natural powers, when they have been hon- estly and zealously cultivated." In this sentiment he fully agreed ; and whenever there was honest diligence and labor, whether in those of moderate or surpassing natural powers, it was regarded by him with true sat- isfaction and appreciation. Mr. Brown's course through life was never marked by a false step ; and we find no blemish in his character to mar his reputation, or for which there is occasion to invoke the charity of the world. Do not the results of such a life, as the one we have now considered, bear the impress of true greatness and moral sublimity .'' Who can trace out all the streams of blessed influence that have proceeded from him dur- ing the period of his educational services ? Especially, 32 who can hazard a conjecture as to the ulterior results of his career, as they shall be developed in the process of coming ages? There are many, some of whom are in positions of influence and distinction, whose charac- ters have been moulded, perhaps, chiefly by his instru- mentality ; so that it is not too much to say that the man, who now lies so peacefully in his grave, is still acting through a thousand influences to bless his coun- try and the world. As that slumber will remain un- broken while time rolls on, the living will still represent him on earth, through the example of his life, that will act with mighty power in forming the characters and destinies of the myriads he has influenced. The name of our departed brother we shall ever hold fragrant in our memory ; and, as we dwell upon the vir- tues of his noble life, love sinks into forgetfulness any imperfections in him whom the grave now covers ; and affection lingers with the tenderness of friendship in and around the places where he lived, walked, labored, and daily held converse with wife, child, friends, and his companions in professional life. Our friend now lives in a higher and brighter sphere, towards which we, my brothers, should daily be incited to aspire, that we may stand ready, and equipped with the armor of righteousness, when the hour of our departure shall come. REMARKS ON THE CAREER AND CHAR.^CTER DANIEL C. BROWN, BY JOHN D. PHILBRICK, FORMERLY SUPERINTENDENT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BOSTON. Mr. Daniel C. Brown was for thirty-five years a successful teacher in the public schools of Boston, and he died with the harness on. When he commenced this service, in a subordinate position in the Brimmer School for boys, he was already a capable and experi- enced teacher, and won the promotion to this place, from the principalship of a suburban school, by his superior merit. Here his energy and tact, both in instruction and government, soon attracted the atten- tion of the committee, and after five or six years he was advanced, in 1856, to the mastership of the Bow- doin School for girls, on Beacon Hill, which had been for more than a generation, under the able direction of Master Andrews, the foremost school of its class in the city. His service in these two situations extended over the most important period in the history of the Boston public school system. During these years the system 33 34 has been, by successive modifications, almost completely revolutionized. The old " double-headed " system has disappeared. Separate schoolrooms have been substi- tuted for the large hall containing several classes. Fe- male teachers have largely replaced male teachers. The old primary school-board of nearly two hundred mem- bers has been abolished. The grammar school-board has been increased from twenty-four to seventy-two, and then to one hundred and sixteen members ; and finally reduced again to twenty-four. Supervision has been provided for by the creation of the office of sup- erintendent, and more recently supplemented by the appointment of supervisors. The primary schools have been graded and grouped around the grammar schools, under the principalship of the masters. The school accommodations have been immensely improved. The pupils have been furnished with free text-books and stationery, and thus public instruction has been ren- dered wholly gratuitous. Stringent provisions have been made for compelling the attendance of pupils. A normal school of the first order has been brought into being for the professional training of teachers. New and essential branches of instruction have been intro- duced. Not the least important of these changes was the introduction, fifteen or twenty years ago, of syste- matic and rational courses of study into the primary and o-rammar grades. In the meantime the enrollment of 35 pupils has so greatly increased that the present num- ber is threefold that of thirty-five years ago, and the number of teachers has increased in a corresponding ratio ; while the ratio in the increase of expenditure has risen not less than twice as high as that of the attendance. All these and many other minor modifica- tions took place while Mr. Brown was in the service. Two of the practical results of this development and transformation of the system have been to increase, first, the demands upon the pupils, and, second, the demands upon the teachers, and, above all, upon the principals. In 1849, when Mr. Brown became usher, the position of a Boston master was virtually little more than that of head teacher of a comparatively small school, assisted by two, or at most three, subor- dinate teachers. Gradually the responsibility of this office was increased, until the master became the actual supervising principal or local superintendent of schools comprising, in some cases, from fifteen hundred to two thousand scholars, instructed by from thirty to forty teachers. Mr. Brown was fortunate in his first associations in his Boston work. This work began in a school which was in reality a model school, under the charge of a model schoolmaster. Dr. Joshua Bates, who always kept in view the highest ideal of the duties and respon- sibilities of his profession, regarding nothing as done 36 while anything remained to be done. Mr; Brown's mind being of that high cast which gathers wisdom from the experience* of others, he could not fail to derive advantage from the association, for several years, with such a chief. He came, therefore, to his career as master thoroughly equipped for it by natural endow- ments, education, and experience. I knew Mr. Brown from the time he received his appointment to the Brimmer school as usher, and at once recognized his extraordinary qualifications as a teacher. It was my duty, during the long period of my superintendency, to keep myself thoroughly acquainted with the manner in which he fulfilled the requirements of his responsible office as principal. With such means and opportunities of forming a just estimate of Mr. Brown's character and career, -I take profound satis- faction in bearing testimony to the eminent ability, zeal, fidelity, and conscientious devotion with which he performed every function, and discharged every duty devolved upon him by the important position which he held. He was never found wanting. Noth withstanding the increase of requirements which the expansion and reorganization of the system imposed upon him, he was always equal to every task assigned him, and met cheerfully and successfully every new demand made upon his resources and capabilities. Always at his post, always alert to ascertain his duty and instant in 37 the performance of it in season and out of season, he had no part or lot with pretenders, marplots, obstruc- tionists, and drones. He was equally strong as a teacher and as a director and supervisor of teachers. He never left a thing half done. He was exacting, but judicious in his exactions. He was by nature gen- tle and genial, but he never was lacking in decision and firmness. He had the art of making both pupils and teachers do their best with cheerfulness and good will ; they had perfect reliance on his justice and impar- tiality. As a scholar and teacher, he was thorough and exact, without being in the least pedantic. In govern- ment he carried an even hand, being strict yet not austere, ever endeavoring in all his disciplinary pro- cesses and methods to develop in his pupils the ability and disposition to govern themselves. In his endeavors to perfect the scholarship of his pupils, he spared no pains to fortify every weak spot. In conducting his classes, the observer could readily perceive that, while he labored with skill and energy to store the minds of his pupils with sound knowledge, he felt it still more important to inspire them with a love of knowledge for its own sake, and to teach them the best methods of attaining it. In a word, to enumerate his qualifica- tions, moral and intellectual, is but to recite the cata- logue of qualifications requisite to constitute the man of noble character and the model schoolmaster. 38 Mr, Brown was a man of marked individuality, but his individuality was not of that sort which manifests itself in ultraisms and general one-sidedness ; it con- sisted, rather, in a rare symmetry and harmonious development of character. He was, in my judgment, a man of most extraordinary mental balance. A man of such a composition could neither indulge in hobbies nor be guilty of shams. The type of his character was naturally reproduced in the characteristics of his educa- tional work. In his school it was difficult to point out any overdoing, and it was equally difficult to discover any underdoing ; that is, excess and deficiency were alike absent, — and what better description of a model school .-* As I recall the characteristics of Mr. Brown, I recog- nize in him the man of roundabout common sense, of high moral principle, of dignified and courteous de- meanor, and of eminent practical efficiency. But it seems to me that if he had any one dominant charac- teristic it was that of fidelity ; hence his devotion to duty ; hence he thought more of fitting his pupils for life than of fitting them for examination ; hence he could always be trusted with the utmost confidence to do all in his power for the benefit of the pupils under his charge ; hence he worked for good results rather than for reputation and credit ; and hence his loyalty to duty in every relation of life. He loved and hon- 39 ored his profession ; he valued it for the opportunity it afforded for doing good ; he chose it and persevered in the conviction that it was the sphere of activity in which he could the most satisfactorily make his contri- bution to the general good. His modesty forbade his undertaking to impress upon the profession at large his views and thoughts on educational matters by pen or voice. But he has left an example of faithful and effi- cient service as teacher and master worthy of universal regard and imitation. Let his name be held in honor ! ■- -*', •' ' >■•. " //',■>-■>■ * .,»»r-.,» '. . .■•.• ■■--'. ■•*jt-'-x'- ;-; '<>■•)■'■■*■>■'• .• 'vj^T";^; •<v. ";,'> 'i- - >*--<:., • '■ I-.' ■•!'-• ''. -^W^- , ■■.-.v-'.'<^-;-r^'.