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VOL. I. 


Vu%If«|rt In GrtrftutB to A" M'inlft 




TliMN FOVf>4»ATiONt> 

LONpOlf : 

w „ w ■ ^ ".. 

V « V V 

W ^ M 


These volumes embrace the period of the Civil War 
and the Restoration, and contain a mass of Original 
Letters from neariy all the famous men who were 
actively engaged in the struggle, — ^the Fairfaxes, Crom- 
well, Fleetwood, David Leslie, Hugh Peters, Hammond, 
Hutchinson, Buckingham, and many others. Crowded 
with minute details and individual experiences, they 
bring us closer to the actual vicissitudes of the flying 
campaigns — ^from the hoisting of the Royal Standard 
at Nottingham, to the imprisonment of the King at 
Carisbrook, — than any previous publication. Written 
for the most part on the instant, under the walls of 
besieged towns, in the committee rooms of the House 
of Commons, on the field of battle, or in the midst of 
councils of war, they are distinguished by a freshness 
and freedom seldom found in documents of a more 
formal and elaborate character. In some cases — such 
Bs Rushworth's account of the forcible entry of the 


London Apprentices into the House of Commons — these 
letters afford circumstantial relations of particular facts 

which have not hitherto been so completely described ; 

^nd in other instances they reveal secret opinions and 

feelings which exercised an important influence upon 

the conduct of pubUc men. Fairfax's share in the 

Restoration is here, for the first time, disclosed in fuU. 

The Correspondence also incidentally illustrates the 

Personal History and Social Life of the times. 

The Volumes are enriched by the addition of many 
unpublished letters bearing upon contemporary events, 
from a valuable collection in the possession of Mr. 

In preparing the whole for publication, I have con- 
fined myself to the duty of elucidating obscure pa^ges, 
and supplying such Unks of History and Biography 
as appeared essential to a distinct exhibition of the 
events and persons referred to in the Correspondence. 
I have endeavoured to avoid all superfluous matter, and 
have speciaUy forborne to encumber the work with 
notes and authorities. To reduce the materials placed 
in my hands to a clear and inteUigible arrangement 
has been my chief aim, as I believe it to be the legiti- 
mate limit of the editorial province. 


April, 1849. 




Christopher Browne to his Son, 17th February . . • 6 

Embarkation of the Queen. Dispatch of Parliamentary busineM. 

Christopher Browne to his Son, 16th March ... 8 

Domestic gossip. 

Christopher Browne to his Daughter, 16th June . . .10 

Family afiairs and country matters. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 13th June . . .13 

The new oath of allegiance at York. 

Mr. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, — August . . .17 

Shadows of coming events. 

The Committee of Safety to the Gentry of Yorkshire, 27th 

September 21 

Appointment of Lord Fairfax to the command of the forces in the 

The Committee of Safety to Lord Fairfax, 2l8t October 23 

Approbation of his Lordship*s proceedings. 

Lord Fairfax to the Committee of Safety, 10th December . 25 

Giving an account of his proceedings and state of the army. 

Speaker Lenthall to Lord Fairfax, 23rd December . . 30 

Conveying the thanks of Parliament and orders to billet the army. 

Mr. Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 8th September 31 

Answer to a summons to come to England. 



Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 9th January 

Military occupation of the Clothing Districts. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 27th January 

Wakefield and the neighbourhood. Captain Hotham under suspicion. 

The Earl of Essex to Lord Fairfax, 31st January .. 

Appointing a Council of War for the North. 

Commissary Copley to Lord Fairfax, 1st February 

Captain Hotham created Lieutenant>Gfeneral. 

The Parliamentary Committee of Safety to Lord Fairfax, 1st 
February ......... 

• Payment of the troops. Acknowledgment of services. 

The Parliamentary Committee of Safety to Lord Fairfax, 13th 
April ■ . . . 

Further provision for the army. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 20th April . 

Revolts and alarms. 

Captain Hotham to Lord Fairfax, 24:th May 

His misery fi-om not knowing the movements of the enemy. 

Captain Hotham and the Officers at Nottingham to Lord 
Fairfax, 2nd June ....... 

Declaring that they think it hest to stay where they are. 

Lord Fairfax (a postscript) to Hotham and the Nottingham 
officers ......... 

Peremptorily ordering them not to stay where they are. 

Lenthall (the Speaker) to Lord Fairfax, 19th July 

Thanks for his services, and a^^inting him Governor of Hull, on 
discovery of the conspiracy of the Hothams. 

Dr. Wilson to Sir Richard Browne, 29th June 

Oossip. Waller^s trial. Death of Hampden. Suhscriptions for 
Irish Distiess. Articles against her Majesty. Chess out of 
Fashion, owing to the misfortunes of Kings and Queens. 
















The Committee of the Associated Coanties to the gentlemen of 

Huntingdonshire, 17th June 54 

Mutinies in the GrarriBons for want of Money. 

Oliver' Cromwell to the Bachelors and Maids of Huntingdon, 

2nd August ........ 56 

Muscles and money wanted for the common cause. Raise troops of 
godly men, buy pistols and saddles, and Cromwell will supply 

Oliver Cromwell to the Commissioners at Cambridge, 8th 

August 58 

News of the enemy. Urgent appeal to quicken friends and collect 

Lord Francis WiUoughby to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 23rd 

October 61 

Begging protection for Lady Casselton. 

Narrative of Winceby Fight ...... 62 

The Earl of Newcastle beaten, and hunted to Homcastle. 

Distressed Officers to Sir Thomas Fairfax ... 66 

Setting forth their grievances. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to the Conunittee at Stamford, 27th 

December ... ..... 68 

Announcing his determination to march for Nantwich. 


Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lady Fairfax, 28th January . . 74 

Crowned with laurels, and suffering hardships and heart-burnings at 

Propositions for the Gentlemen of Lancashire, 15th February . 76 

To raise money and horses and distribute the forces. 

The Earl of Denbigh to Sur Thomas Fairfax, 23rd March . 78 

Failure before Newark. 



Colonel Duckenfield to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 6th March . . 79 

The soldiers, disheartened for want of pay, disband themselves, and 
return to the plough. 

Colonel Copley to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 6th March . . 81 

March into Yorkshire resolved upon. Ordnance for £10,000. 
Defection of Sir Richard Greenfield. 

Colonel Bright to Sir Thomas Fairfax .... 82 

News from Ashbume and Newark. Great distress for money. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lady Derby ..... 85 
Summoning her Ladyship to surrender Lathom House. 

Colonel Rigby to the Deputy Lieutenants of Lancashire, 1st 

Requiring help in the siege of Lathom House. 

Colonel Lambert to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 6th March . . 94 

Enemy's quarters routed at Hemstell. 

Colonel Lambert to Mr. Secretary Nicholas, 11th March . 94 

Requesting the disbursement of money. Stamford Bridge taken. 

Mr. Walter Lye to Monsieur Browne, 26th March ... 97 

Pleasanter to drink wine in Paris than to swallow ditch-water under 
a hedge in England. 

Ex- Judge Randolph Crewe to Sir Richard Browne, 10th 

April ......... 98 

The country and the writer reduced to extremities and living upon 

Prince Elector Charles to Mr. Braun, 5th June . . .100 

Requesting his good offices with the French Ministers. 

Prince Elector Charles to Mr. Braun, 20th July . . .100 

Thanks for his intercession. 

Sir William Waller to the Earl of Leven, 18th June . . 1 05 

Flight and pursuit of the King from Oxford. Prince Rupert ex- 
tremely in want of powder. 

John Ashe (of the Goldsmiths' Hall) to the County Com- 

mittee, 10th April 109 

Tioans to Parliament 

Leon Watson to the Earl of Manchester, 30th June . . Ill 

The Horse drawn up at Marston Moor. The enemy advancing. 



The Earl of Manchester to Lord Fairfax, 24th August . 

The spoils of Sheffield Castle. 

Gilbert Talbot [to, probably, Sir Thomas Brown], 27th 
August ••....• . . 

Secret correspondence from France. Distress of Lord Germain. 
Madame Grotius. An Irish agent at Paris. Murmurs of a 
hattle in the West. Lord Goring in dudgeon. Prince Edward 
and Lady Banbury. 

Colonel Crosland — Propositions for the surrender of Helmesley 
Castle — 6th November . . .... 

Safe conduct to civilians — garrison to march out with drums heating, 
colours flying, and matches lighted — castle to be demolished. 

Lord Howard to Lord Fairfax, Idth November 

Interceding for an '* orthodoxal ** chaplain to be nominated in the 
room of Peter du Moulins, turned out 

Lord Howard to Lord Fairfax, 10th December 

The *' orthodoxal ** chaplain is called Mr. Tindal, a Bachelor in 
Divinity, and Fellow of Coxpus Christi. 

Lord Howard to Lord Fairfax, 17th December 

The patent made out. The ** orthodoxal ** chaplain laden down with 









Lord Howard to Lord Fairfax, 7th January, [1645.] 

The ''orthodoxal *^ chaplain begs for a little delay. 

Lord Howard to Lord Fairfax, 15th January, [1645.] . .127 

The ^ orthodoxal ** chaplain is sorry for the trouble he has given, and 
cannot come. 

Lord Francis Willoughby to Lord Fairfax, 14th December . 129 

Touching the exchange of Major Benson. 

Lord Mulgrave to Lord Fairfax, 9th December . .131 

Military valour and a transition to the business of the Attomies. 

Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland, to Lord Fairfax, 9th 

December ......... 132 

House, woods, and tenants broken up by the soldiery. 

W. Wolstenholme to Lord Fairfax, 22nd December .133 

A picture of a violated homestead in the Civil War. 



Lord Clare to Lord Fairfax, 18th August .... 136 

A little private influence in the matter of protectionB. 

Lord Morley and Monteagle to Lord Fairfax, 14th November . 137 

The inveterate malady of the spleen. Begs a pass to go home. 

Lord Edmund Sheffield to Lord Fairfax, 19th November . 140 

The wrongs of his grandfather. 

Philip, Lord Wharton, to Lord Fairfax, 16th December . 142 

The Self-denying Ordinance. The Qeneralissimo looming in the 

Philip, Lord Wharton, to Lord Fairfax, 3l8t December . . 143 

No news. 


[Sir Francis Rokeby] to Lady Mary Fane . . . 151 

A fashionable Pastoral. A morning in the Country. Scraping 
sweethearts out of the ashes. The new Spanish Monarch at 
Court. Family Parties. A shattered beau. 

Mr. James Chaloner to Lord Fairfax, 14 January . .155 

Business in Parliament The Self-denying Ordinance. The Treaty 
of Uxbridge oscillates. 

Philip, Lord Wharton, to Lord Fairfax, 5th February . .157 
The Ordinance for the New Model. The commissioners on both 
sides intend the treaty very seriously. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 11th February . 159 

Can't tell anything yet about the Treaty. The New Model oxdinaQce 
modified by the Commons. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 18th February . 161 

Arrival in London of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Generalissimo. 

Mr. James Chaloner to Lord Fairfax, 24th February . ,162 

The Treaty exploded. The Houses sitting loose in their saddles. 



Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 25th February 165 

The Treaty Commissioners give an account to the House that they 
have done nothing. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington [printed by mistake L. Fairfax] to 

Lord Fairfax, 4th March 166 

Sir Thomas's list of New Model officers approved. Movements of 

The Rev. Edward Bowles to Lord Fairfax, 18th March . .168 

The L'st carried against opposition hy the firmness of the City. 

Colonel Mitton to the Speaker of the Commons, 15th March . 170 

An account of the taking of Shrewshury. 

Mr. Thomas D'Arcy to Lord Fairfax, 12th February . . 175 
Spies, in disguise, passing through Carlisle, supposed to be for Oxford. 

Sir George Wentworth to Lord Fairfax, 2nd March . .176 

Thanks for protection to the broken family of the Straffords. 

Sir John Savile to Lord Fairfax, 2nd March . .177 

March through Pontefiact and Ferrybridge to Bradford. 

Sir John Sayile to Lord Fairfax, 3rd March . .178 

The enemy retreating to Doncaster. Prince Rupert adyandng on 
the Gloucester side. 

Sir John Savile to Lord Fairfax, 14th March . . .179 

Matches and powder wanted. Mardiing and counter-marching. 

Sir John Savile to Lord Fairfax, 22nd March . . .180 

Requesting leave to retain Captain Spencer for the service of Sandall 

Sir John Savile to Lord Fairfax, 23rd March . . .181 

Captain Spencer gone. Too weak to attempt Sandall Castle. 
Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, Uth March . .182 

Prince gone northward. Money in prospect. 

Colonel Lowther to Lord Fairfax, 5th March . . .185 

The chirurgeons short of medicaments for the wounded at Pontefract. 

Colonel Lowther to Lord Fairfax, 9th March . . .185 

Proposal for a meeting to treat. 

Colonel St. George to Lord Fairfax 186 

Exchange upon parole. 



Colonel Willys to Lord Fairfax 

A pass for the Lady Cooke. 

Colonel Willys to Lord Fairfax . 

An exchange. 

Colonel Atkins to Lwd Fairfax, 22nd March 

For a safe convoy. 

Lord Mulgrave to Lord Fairfax, SOtli March 

The miserahle case of his tenants. 






Peter du Moulin to Lord Fairfax, 30th March . . .191 

A hitter " cry for justice,** in consequence of having heen put out of 
his church. 

The Ladies Jane and Francis Cavendish to Lord Fairfax, 17th 

April . . 194 

Humble thanks for favours received. 

Mrs. Katherine Middleton to Lord Fairfax, 20th April . .196 

A suit for the pardon of her husband, who had broken his promises. 

Mary and Anne Middleton to Lord Fairfax, 20th April . . 197 

To the same effect. 

Lady Oshorne to Lord Fairfax, 23rd April . .199 

Begging protection against the soldiery. 

Lady Katherine Graham to Lord Fairfax, 12th May . 203 

Complaining of the rudeness of the military. 

Colonel Cholmeley to Lord Fairfax, 8th May . . 205 

The case of Lady Musgrave. 

Mr. Roe to Colonel Cholmeley, 12th April .... 206 

Directing him to conduct Lady Mu^frave to Carlisle. 

Lady Musgrave to Lord Fairfax, 8th May .... 207 

Praying to be allowed to remain at Eden Hall, her " jointure.** 

Mr. Ihson to Lord Fairfax, 11th May 209 

Ruinous condition of the northern estates. Poverty and desolation 
through the country. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax — Commission appointing Algernon Sidney 

to a Colonelcy of Horse . . . . .213 

[Which he soon afterwards resigned.] 



The Commanders and Officers in Alured's regiment to Sir 

Thomas Fairfax 214 

Professing their readiness to hazard their lives in his service. 

Officers at Nantwich to Sir Thomas Fairfax . . .218 

Soliciting help for the uege of Chester. 

The Committee sitting at the Star Chamber to the Mayor and 

Aldermen of Norwich, 9th Sept. . . . . .219 

Recommending to their care and protection the hurnt and plundered 
town of Taunton. 

Colonel Hutchinson to Lord Fairfax, 23rd May • .221 

Enclosing a letter from Cromwell. 

Colonel Hutchinson to Lord Fairfax .221 

Enemj in motion for Pontefract. 

The Committee for the Army to the City of Norwich, 16th 

May 223 

Trying stringent measures for the coUection of Assessments. 

The Speakers of Parliament to the Norwich Committee, 

19th May 225 

To the same effect. 

The Committee of Derby House to the City of Norwich, 

21st May 227 

To hasten monies and recruits. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 4th June . 228 

The siege of Oxford raised. Marching to Buckingham. 

Mr. Genraise Lomax to Lord Fairfax, 6th June . . . 229 

Reyiew of the troops. Hanging on the King's rear. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 11th July . . .235 

Defeat of Lord Ooring at Langport. First appearance of the Cluh- 

Lord Goring to Sir Constantino Huggens, 22nd June . 236 

Hoping to be readmitted to the Princess ftvour. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 16th July . . .239 

It is resolved to storm Bridgewater. 



Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 24th July . . .240 

Bridgewater stonned and taken. 

Sir Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 1st August . . 241 

Bates and assessments in the Three Ridings of Yorkshire. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 4th August . . . 245 

Bath taken. Sherborne invested. The Club-risers dispersed, and 
their leaders taken. Money wanted for the troops. The 
General appointed Governor of Pontefract. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, — August . . . 246 

Still before Sherborne. Making mines, and hoping to finish the 
work in a few days. Colonel Overton or Major Crooke to 
command Ponteiract under the General. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax [22nd or 23rd] August . 248 

Shuts up Prince Rupert with all his horse in Bristol. Goring^s 
army breaking daily with distractions. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 12th September . . 249 

Bristol taken. Sickness in the town. Recruits from Somersetshire 
and Gloucestershire. Prince Rupert ready to compound his 
glory for a pass to go to France. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 8th October . . . 250 

At Chard, waiting for money and recruits. Goring's army 6000 
strong, and posted in advantageous passes. The General sufiier- 
ing from his hurts and rheumatism. 

List of prisoners taken at Sherborne, 15th October. [In the 

hand- writing of Sir Thomas Fairfax] . . . .254 

Several slain — several wounded — 300 or 400 prisoners. Lord 
Digby^s coach taken with secret correspondence of the King. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 14th November . . 257 

In the swamps before Exeter. 

Lord Arthur Capel to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 1st December . 260 

Conveying the Prince's refusal to <* quit his piety and loyalty to his 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 3rd December . . .261 

Sickness breaking out in the Army. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 10th December . . . 263 

Mr. Blackboard speechless of the Sickness. 



J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 12th December 

Movements at Autree and Tiverton. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 19th December 

Discomfited at Poldiam House. Troope wasting from fever. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 20th December 

Skirmidiing at Crediton. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 23rd December 

More skirmishing. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 27th December . . 

Reinforcements on the march. The enemj gathering about 
Tavistock and Oakhampton. 







J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 3rd January . . 273 

Tiverton election. The Prince at Dartmouth. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 10th January . 274 

Armj advances to the south side of Devonshire, routs the Royalists, 
and hunts thetn into Cornwall. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 13 th January . . • 276 

Siege of Plymouth raised. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 16th January . . . 276 

Dartmouth invested by land and sea. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 20th January . . 277 

Dartmouth taken. 

Hugh Peters to Sir Thomas Fairfax 279 

Admiration and spiritual rejoicing. 

Dayid Leslie to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 17th January . 280 

Personal matters. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 26th January . .281 

Before Exeter again. Poldrani Castle surrenders at last 




Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 31st January . . 282 

Exeter blockaded. Queen*s Ictten iniereepted. 

J. Ruahworth to Lord Fairfax, 7th February . . • 283 

Siege delayed by tho floodi. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fair&x, 13th February . . 283 


On the march against Lord Hopton. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 18th February . . 285 

Hopton routed and a cbureh blo\m up. 

J* Rushworthto Lord Fairfax, 23rd February . . .286 

It is determined at a council of war to follow the enemy into Corn- 

J. Rush worth to Lord Fairfax, 13 th March . , . .287 

Hopton compelled to disband his Army. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 15th March . . .288 

Total breaking up of the Royalists in Cornwall. 

J. Rush worth to Lord Fairfax, 1st April .... 289 

Back again before Exeter. Kegodations in prospect. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 4th April . .289 

Treaty begun. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 9th April . . .290 

Treaty concluded. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 16th April .... 291 

Royalists march out and Parliamentarians march in. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 5th May .... 292 

Oxford besieged. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 26th May . . .293 

Eing^s letter to the Parliament Sorry for the blood shed. Ready 
to sign the Uxbiidge treaty. Anxious for the settlemsnt of 
religion. Willing that both Houses should dispose of hifl per- 
son. Wishes the Governor of Oxford to surrender. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 13th Juae . , . 294 

The treaty for the surrender of Oxford. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 13th June . • • • 295 

Treaty nearly concluded, Hudson, who fled from Oxford with the 
King, taken. 



Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 23rd Julj . 

Qane to Bath to recruit, after the suirender of Oxford, Wallingford, 
and Worcester. 

Sir George Wentworth to Lord Fairfax, 16th June 

About the composition for his estate. 

F. Gorges to Lord Fairfax, 1st June 

A country gentleman keeping clear of both sides. 

T. [one of the Fairfaxes] to Lord Bellasise . . . . 

A voluntary exile resolved to stay abroad till times get better at 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 17th January 

Professional business. Roger Dodsworth, the antiquary, and author 
of the ^ Monastieon.^ 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 8th April . • • . 

Appointed under^steward of Pontefract. State of the towns in the 

West Riding. Free school at Ottley. Services to Lord and 


Lady Pembroke. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 18th April 

Put to great straits between the Ladies Cork and Pembroke. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 24th July ... 

A proposal of marriage for his daughter, Nell. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 14th August 

The suitor on his road to the lady. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 29th August 

Confident of the sincerity of the suitor. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 10th October 

Has not heard from the suitor lately, but expects to see him soon. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 3rd ISfoyember • 

The landscapes of Skipton Castle and Bardon Tower. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 13th Noyember . 

Thanks for the stewardship of the Ripon Courts. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 16th December . 

Begins to suspect the sincerity of daughter Nell*s suitor, who is 
suppot«c| to have 89me ihefugbto lowardu an^U^r gentlemaQ^s 


















Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 10th August . . 316 

Befoie Ragland Castle in South Wales. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 17th September . .317 

Back again to the old quarters at Oxford. 

Charles Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 25th September . • .318 

Contested election for Pontefract. 

Lord Fairfax to the Rev. Hem-y Fairfax, 20th October . . 320 

Announcing his marriage with the Widow Hussey. ' 

Charles Fairfax to tiord Fairfax, 27th October . . .321 

A letter of congratulation. 

Alderman Atkius to the Mayor of Norwich, 23rd Nov. . . 323 

Relations between members and their constituents. 

The Mayor of Lynn to the Mayor of Norwich, 1st December 325 

Urgent for a subsidy of 4002. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 30th December . . ' 326 

Having leisure to look into his private affidrs, finds that he has 
neglected his own business in devoting himself to that of the 


Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 18th February . . 332 

At head-quarters at Nottingham. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 23rd March . . .333 

The Army makes propositions to Parliament. Stipulates for arrears. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 16th April . . 335 

Discontents amongst the soldiery from want of money. 

Sir John Bourchier to Lord Fairfax, 16th April . . . 337 

An appeal for ** Preaching Ministers.^* 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 13th May . . 340 

Votes in the Commons respecting the Army. 



Colonel White to Lord Fairfax, 16tli May . . . .341 

Payments at Goldsmitlis* Hall. Lord Inchiquin takes the Castle of 
Duugarvan. The dishanding of the Army talked of in the 

J. Rushwortli to Lord Fairfax, 18(h May .... 343 

Uncertainty of affairs. Perplexing situation of the General. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 18th May • . . 344 

Ordered to repair to the Army. Growing discontents hetween the 
Parliament and the Army. 

Key. Edward Bowles to Lord Fairfax, 22nd May . . . 345 

Yiolent proceedings of the Parliament and the City. Fears the 
temper of the military. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 23rd May . . 346 

Wonderful harmony in the House. 

Sir William Constable to Lord Fairfax, 24th May . . 347 

Ordinance for an Indemnity passes hoth Houses. The great joy 
turned into a storm. 

Colonel Overton to Lord Fairfax, 25th May .... 349 

Danger of dishanding. Fears for the future. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 9th June .... 353 

The King guarded at Newcastle. The Army, their honest intentions. 

Key. Edward Bowles to Lord Fairfax, 12th June . . . 354 

Strict and temperate proceedings of the Army. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 15th June .... 355 

The Army advances to St. Alhans, and lays its formal demands 
before Parliament. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 22nd June .... 357 

His lordship is not to he surprised if he hears of the soldiers court- 
iug ladies in Hyde Park. 

Sydenham Poyntz to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 25th June . . 359 

Communicating orders from Parliament for the arrest of persons 
pretending authority from the Army. 

J« Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 27th June .... 359 

Parliament must he upheld, hut it must reform its ahuses. 



Sydenham Poyntz to the Speaker of the Houae of Commons, 
2nd July 

The Army refractory to the Parliament, and devoted to Fairfiix. 

Colonel Holbome to Lord Fairfax, 4th July .... 

Poyntz^ unable to carry out the orden of Parliament, reaol^^ to 
throw up hi* commission* 

J. Bushwortb to Lord Fairfax, 6th July • • . . 

Head^quarters removed to Reading. The King at a bouse within 
two miles of the town. The Royalists, very high and insolent, 
thinking the Army is acting their game. They are deceived. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 12th July 

The treaty between the Army and the Parliament for *^ Purging ^ 
the House. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 13th July .... 

The treaty lingers. The House is reluctant. The Prince Elector 
dines with the General. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 20th July . . , 

Council of officers and *' Agitators ^ held at Reading. Resolution 
finally agreed upon to be submitted to Parliament. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to Lord Fairfax, 18th July . 

Resolutions almost ready to be sent to the House. 

Sir Thomas Widdrington to Lord Fairfax, 26th July 

New oath and confederacy to bring the King to town. 

Lord Constable to Lord Fairfax^ 27th July . . . • 

The storm rises. 

J. Rushworth to Lord Fairfax, 27th July .... 
Minute account of the riot of the Apprentices in Parliament, and the 
adjournment of the Commons. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax to the Lord Mayor of London, 19th Noy. 

Apprising the authorities of hfs determination to quarter troops in 
the City for the prosecution of the levy for arrears. 

Articles of agi*eement between Sir Thomas Fairfax and the 
King's Majesty, — August ...... 

[Draught of » proposed agreement.] 
























The departure of his Majesty from Whitehall, on the 

10th of January, was the first incident of the drama 

which soon afterwards filled the stage with the thunder 

of drums and trumpets. It is tolerably clear that 

Charles had a presentiment that he should never return, 

or return to his doom. After thanking the captain of 

the Trained Bands for his attendance, he added — " I do 

now dismiss you ; " and with these words he set out for 

Hampton Court. He was secretly devoured by want of 

confidence in himself and in everybody about him ; but 

he had that purple pride which is ashamed to own to 

its humanity. The fear that was in his thoughts is 

plainly marked out in his vibrations between Windsor 

and Hampton, and in his broken route onwards to 

the north ; skirting and avoiding London, and flying 

farther and ferther from it at every step. In this 

northern journey he was plunging deeper and deeper 

into the hot-bed of Puritanism ; the country of 

the Fairfaxes, the De Veres and their allies ; yet 

he stOl contrived to keep up that brave exterior 

which looks down contemptuously upon argument and 

negociation. He trampled reason and justice under 


4 MEMOBIALS OF [1642. 

the hoofs of divine right. The sovereign will was 
paramount to all claims, sufferings and necessities. 
That alone appeared to him proper to assert and 
struggle for. The committee which intercepted him 
with prayers and entreaties at Newmarket to return to 
his Parliament, had an opportunity of tasting the full 
flavour of his imperial temper. Great as was his real 
trouble at this time, he put a face of royalty upon it 
that might have perplexed and shaken men of feebler 
penetration and resolution. But in playing out to the 
last this part of " every inch a king,** he played it so 
coarsely as to betray the agitation his bluster and bravado 
were intended to conceal. There was a pitiable want 
of self-possession and dignity in interrupting the reading 
of the declaration by such unkingly exclamations as 
" That's false !" '''Tis a HeT and in teUing the Earl 
of Pembroke that he " wotdd whip a boy in Westminster 
Schooly' who had as Uttle understanding as the com- 
mittee. People in a great fright, when put to a sudden 
extremity, often burst out into this sort of topping inso- 
lence — ^in reality, a nervous escape for terror. But it was 
not the language by which a king, in such a crisis, could 
have done justice to hunself or his people. Under the 
improved relations which have grown up in our time 
between kings and subjects, this interview with the Parlia- 
mentary Committee is scarcely credible. The Parhament 
implore his Majesty to return to them, and to reassure 
their loyalty and the pubUc confidence by the resumption 
of his legitimate place and functions ; and he replies 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAK. 5 

to them by abrupt and violent expressions, charging 
them with hes, and telling them in round terms that 
they ought to be whipped. When negociation had 
degenerated into outrage, it was full time to try other 
methods of bringing their diflferences to a settlement. 

It was upon this journey his Majesty shipped off the 
Queen for Holland. She embarked at Dover. The 
King is said to have exhibited considerable emotion at 
parting. Here was the presentiment again. It shows, 
also, how strangely the most obdurate natures preserve, 
amidst theu* hardness and bigotries, some point of tender- 
ness or weakness. But the world would have a greater 
reUance upon this saving grace, if it were not generaUy 
found to be resolvable into selfishness. 

The embarkation is referred to in the foUowing letter, 
the writer of which, obUvious of the actual substance of 
his own communication, indulges a hope that pubUc 
affairs are at last on the way to adjustment. They 
were never so much out of the way as at that moment. 
Mr. Browne, who writes this, appears to have been 
better qualified to pronounce upon canary wines aad 
mulberry trees, than upon the open questions which were 
convulsing the kingdom from end to end mider his eyes. 
His facts turn his hopes to dust. That remarkable una- 
nimity of the two Houses of which he speaks, and the 
extensive changes so suddenly carried out in all offices 
of trust and authority, might have suggested to him that 
matters were not so near adjustment as he imagined. 



I HAVE received yours of the 4th, and that also of 
the 11th February, together with the copy of yoiar bills and 
letter to Sir Edward Nicholas, who at this time is absent 
with the King, either at Canterbury or Dover, his Majesty 
accompanying the Queen so far on towards her intended 
journey for Holland. Mr. Ondart is now thence also, with 
Sir Edward, and Mr. Beare left for dispatch of business 
here. At his Majesty's return, which is expected wiU be 
within a few days, I shall attend Mr. Ondart, for an answer 
of your letter, and in the mean time will advise with my 
cousin Parrington and my cousin William, and resolve, (if we 
can,) upon some meet person to solicit your business both 
with the Commissioners and at the receipt. The last time we 
had speech thereof, we could not think upon any one more 
fit than our cousin Tuke. 

There is great hope now conceived of a speedy settlement 
of our so long disturbed affairs ; for his Majesty having 
lately cast himself into the arms of his Parliament, both 
Houses concur so unanimously, that they now dispatch more 
business in one day than formerly they could in a month's 
time j for they have already either discarded or changed all 
the lieutenants of the several counties both of England and 
Wales, and there is an universal change and alteration daily 
expected in the face, I mean the exterior part, both of 
Church, Court, and country, by removing, placing, and dis- 
placing not only our great officers, but some inferior also. 
Amongst the rest, I presume you will no less wonder than 
you do wish it, when you shall hear that Sir H. Vane is 
restored to his Treasurership. In the mean time, I hear 

1«42.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 7 

that the Earl of Stamford is already designed Mr. Jermyn's 
successor in his government of Jersey. 

Yesterday, after many journeys to speak with Sir David 
Carleton, I happened to meet him in Westminster Hall, 
for he hath now no house in town. He tells me that he is 

accountable to you for by him received. As for those 

other gratuities of money, wine, and fish, he was that day 
come to town to inquire after them, but doubts (as the times 
now are) they will fall very short of what came in formerly. I 
then saluted George Carleton also, lately come out of Ireland 
with his wife and family ; he commends him kindly to you. 

My cousin William will take order forthwith to fiimish a 
tierce of good wine for Mr. Edisbury ; and if you desire any 
Canary wine, I have now a quarter cask of that which is 
good, and at a reasonable rate, which upon notice may be 
sent unto you. 

I am glad to hear that little Dick is so refined a la mode, 
and become so stout a horseman. Upon notice that he dares 
shoot off a gun, I will send him a brass cannon. In the 
mean time, I long to know how he hath borne himself in this 
time of your carnivals, and with what countenance he hath 
entertained those strange disguises. I doubt not but Moll 
hath adventured to dance with the ugliest vizards in the 
troop. I pray God bless them, &c. 

Your loving father, 

Chb. Bbowne. 

Londim, 17ih February, 1641, IN.S, 1642] * 

• The new style will be found thus distingmshed from the old throughout 
these Tolumes. Aooordmg to the old style, the legal year terminated on the 24tfa 
Biarch — according to the new, on the Slst December. The change was not 
introduced into England till 1751, when the 1st January 1751 was breyetted 
1752 ; but as the Gregorian Calendar had been adopted upwards of a centuiy 

8 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

Mr. Christopher Browne comes out to greater advan- 
tage in his domestic correspondence, which, although of 
no pubhc or historical importance, may be admitted 
into a friendly parenthesis amongst the Fairfax papers. 
He seems to have had some connection with Algernon 
Sidney, and to have been a lover of gardening and 
cheerfulness. His June letter is crammed full of roses 
and strawberries, and other seasonable things. 


Yesternight I received yours of the &Oth March ; 
and am sorry our hopes of success in the overture I lately men- 
tioned to you are become frustrate : the party himself is gone 
to play his own game, rather than trouble another to hold his 
cards. The particulars import not much, and at this time 
somewhat out of the way to relate, for me, who hasten to tell 
you that the place I have chosen for those seeds is safe 
enough from any injury of the ashen roots, or shade of their 
boughs, — ^voted to be so also by Sir William Russell^s gar- 
dener, who wishes you had Ukewise sent, or yet would send, 
some cypress seeds; it will not be too late, he tells me, any 
time this month. Touching the digging of the old orchard, 
I doubt we shall hardly find a customer to undertake it 
for the benefit he may hope to reap thereby, the season of 
the year being now past for early peas; but we will try 

and a half before by most of the oountries of Europe, some confusion is 
unavoidably apparent in the dates of documents during the interval. This 
confusion, however, attaches only to the first three months of each year, and the 
reader will be enabled to reconcile all discrepancies by the help of the addition, 
within brackets, (as on the preceding page) of the date according to the new style. 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 9 

what will be resolved upon the question. John and Lewes 
have akeady digged the mounts and planted it with beans 
and peas^ &c.^ and are to be sharers in the benefit. 

If my daughter shall approve thereof^ she is provided of 
a gentlewoman^ recommended by my cousin Muffats, the 
same I think mentioned to her at her departure hence^ (re- 
ported to be extraordinarily qualified towards performance 
of more than is required^ be it in the kitchen^ larder^ buttery^ 
any office^) only her ambition is to sit at table the first 
course^ and then to rise and attend my daughter's com- 
mands. That which above all pleases me (if I may believe 
Dr. Valentine), is a well-tempered cheerfulness, both in her 
discourse and deportment every way. I am also solicited 
to move for Mrs. Cooper, both by her own and her mother's 
earnest desires: the particulars I refer to her own letters, 
here inclosed. 

I am sorry we can as yet give no better account to Sir 
W. B., touching payment of the 60/., the late bill of 200/. 
still hanging upon our hands. Nevertheless, you may assure 
him that by the next money we can in these difficult times 
procure it shall be discharged, with consideration also to the 
party for his forbearance. 

My cousin WilHam and Mr. Baker are now here, to spend 
some time with me, finding the country air more agreeable 
than the city, especially at this time of little or no trading. 
And I hear also that Mr. Santhill, if he be not come to Paris 
already, will very shortly visit you there. I dare now pro- 
mise that by the next ordinary you shall receive a particular 
account from my cousin WilHam: he is this day gone to 
London, and to-morrow will return with the books and 
papers of his accounts, which, once perfected, you shall hear 
from him, — desiring in the meantime to be excused, his 

10 MEMOBIALS OP [1642. 

many businesses at present not pennitting him leisure. 
Both he and Mr. Baker (whose wife and family are removed 
to Lee^ in Essex^) heartily salute you and my daughter; 
and myself^ recommending you both, with little Dick and 
Moll, to Gk>d Almighty's gracious blessing, I conclude, 
and rest 

Your loving father, 

Chr. Browne. 

Deptftyrd, 16«fe Mcurck^ 1641, \N^, 1642]. 


Dearly beloved Daughter, 

By those I have received from William Bush, and 
those likewise from my son, I understand that he hath lately 
taken a journey, which I hope neither for the length of the 
way, nor time of negotiation, will cause his long absence 
from you. In the meanwhile, trusting in God's all-sufficient 
providence, I pray be cheerful. My cousin Farrington will 
take care for your supply, and hath already added to his 
former engagements this last bill of exchange for 100/. to 
Mr. Gyttings. Mr. Bartier hath discharged the 100/. biU, 
charged from thence by Mr. Algernon Sidney. And though 
neither the Court or Chequer hitherto yield any drops, the 
clouds (thanks be to God !) have been more propitiously boun- 
teous in bestowing a new livery upon the Broomefield, and 
Gummer West is now at last dropped out of the clouds also, 
and by the assistance of Daniel, her associate, hath not only 
fringed the skirts of the gravel walks with pinks and violets, 
but embroidered also the borders with varieties of herbs and 
flowers. Only the two mulberry trees and great walnuts 
languish, I fear, past hope of recovery, though no means of 

1W2.] THE CIVIL WAR. 11 

refreshment hath been wanting towards their preservation^ 
Our damask roses also have been much blasted with the 
easterly winds; the red have escaped better* My cousin 
Farrington and Mrs. Edisbury have tasted of our straw- 
berries ; Mrs. Valentine^s turn is next. As for raspberries 
we are like to have great store ; and sugar being so abund- 
antly cheap at this time, our chief want will be of a skilful 
preserver, unless it shall please God (which I heartily desire 
of him) to restore my cousin Farrington timely enough to her 
strength, much weakened at present by a hard bargain, 
though, thanks be to God, well delivered of a pretty, lively 
boy, last Friday morning. 

Your tokens to Mrs. Edisbury were delivered to her 
mother, sealed up. Those, &c.. 

Your loving father, 

Chr. Browne.* 

Lofndtm^ 16^ JwMy 1642. 

Since this letter came I received one from my brother 
Will, that my sister is very dangerously taken. I pray God 
send us better news from them. 

The royal progress into the North awakened the 
suspicions of Parliament. There was a great magazine 
at Hull, which they desired to transport to the Tower, 
and, failing that, to prevent it, at all events, from falling 
into the hands of the King. For that purpose, they 
appointed Sir John Hotham governor of Hull, and 
ordered a party of the Trained Bands of Yorkshire into 
the town. The absolute necessity of the measure was 

• These letters of Mr. Browne's are from Mr. Bentley's Collection. 

12 MEMORIALS OP [1642. 

shown in the sequel. The King, being still at York, 
appeared before Hull at the head of upwards of three 
hundred horse, and demanded admittance. The gover- 
nor refiised to open the gates, unless his Majesty con- 
sented to dismiss his troops, and enter with only twelve 
followers. This was the first time his Majesty met with 
a flat resistance. Hitherto we have had only evasions 
and state-paper formalities ; but here the matter was 
stripped of sophistries and ceremonials, and reduced to 
a sword^s point. The negociations between the governor 
and the King lasted from eleven o'clock in the morning 
until five o'clock in the evening, when poor royalty, 
finding all threats and persuasions fail, took refiige in 
the arms of two heralds, who on the spot proclaimed Sir 
John Hotham a traitor. This was all the satisfaction 
his Majesty got ; for Parliament amply vindicated Sir 
John, and declared that the proclamation denouncing 
him as a traitor was itself a treason against Parlia- 
ment, and a violation of law. The Beverly Gate, at 
which this memorable conference took place, may be 
set down as the opening scene of the tragic play of the 
Civil War. As the play advances, it is rather a solemn 
diversion of the interest to find this very Parliament, 
which had thus protected and applauded the patriotism 
of Sir John Hotham, compelled to put him and his 
son to death for betraying their trust in this same 
governorship of Hull. 

Upon the Beverly Gate failure followed the attempt 
to seduce the gentry of York. Charles, cleverly enough, 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 13 

took advantage of the hostile reception at HuU to make 
out a case for a body-guard. " You see/' says he, " that 
my magazine is about to be taken from me ; " and so it 
was necessary that the gentry should take a new oath of 
allegiance to protect his person, and disavow the sepa- 
rate authority of Parliament. Sir Thomas Fairfax, who 
was at York at the time, thus writes home to his father 
an account of the proceeding : — 



May it please your Lordship^ 

When I received your letters, I thought it would 
concern the committee as well as yourself, being directed 
with such haste ; therefore before I sent them to you I made 
bold to carry the packet to them. The King's joiurney into 
Lincolnshire is stayed yet for ten days by the advice of my 
Lord of Bath. His intent of going thither was to have seen 
if that country would have accepted my Lord Lindsey for their 
Lord-Lieutenant. My Lord Clare dislikes their proceedings 
here, and will hasten away as soon as he can. Of Saturday 
the King made two propositions to the Lords : — first, if they 
would defend his person, and raise him some horse ; secondly, 
whether they would obey an ordinance without his assent. 
They all promised to secure his person ; but many of the 
lords desired to engage themselves further, and that they 
would observe those ordinances of Parliament which should 
be for his Majesty's honour and the safety of the kingdom. 
Those that went this way were Marquis Hertford, Marquis 
Hamilton, Earl of Salisbury, Earl of Clare, Lord Paulet, and 

14 MEMORIALS OP [1642. 

some others. My Lady Westmoreland will be at Appleton 
to-morrow at night, and stay two nights there. Her chief 
intention of coming was to see her sister, and for that time 
it will not be mnch chargeable. My wife presents her 
humble duty to your lordship, and had sent this day to have 
seen your lordship, but that she understands how you are by 
those which came from Denton. So, humbly desiring your 
lordship's blessing on us all, and praying for your health, 
I rest. 

Your lordship's most humble and obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

Torh, Jime IM, 1642. 

The Lord Lindsey alluded to in this letter was soon 
afterwards appointed general of the King's forces,— a 
brief honour, being kiUed in the following October at 
the battle of Edgehill. He brought large supplies to 
the King's army, and possessed such influence in 
Lincolnshire, (which explains his Majesty's anxiety to 
establish him in the Lord-Lieutenancy,) that several of 
the companies of his own regiment were commanded 
by Lincolnshire gentlemen, who volunteered into the 
service to oblige him. Lindsey was brave to rashness, 
and haughty and zealous in his devotion to the Sove- 
reign. His pride was unable to endure the distinction 
shown to Prince Rupert, who, as general of the horse, 
was specially exempt from all orders except such as 
were delivered expressly by the King himself Lindsey, 
hurt at this exception, which compromised his position, 
declared to his friends, that when the day of battle came 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 15 

he would die at the head of his regiment. And he kept 
his word. 

The oath tendered to the noblemen at York was in 
these words : — 

I, A. B., swear before the Almighty and ever living Gk)d 
that I will bear a true and faithful allegiance to my true and 
undoubted Sovereign Lord King Charles, who is lawful King 
of this island, and all other his kingdoms and dominions both 
by sea and land, by the laws of God and man, and by lawful 
succession; and that I wUl most constantly and cheerfully 
ever, to the uttermost hazard of my hfe and fortune^ con- 
stantly oppose all seditions, rebeUions, conspiracies, covenants^ 
conjurations, and treasons whatsoever, against his royal dig- 
nity, crown, or person, raised or set up under what pretence 
or colour soever ; and if it shall come veiled under pretence 
of reUgion, I hold it more abonunable before God and man. 
And this oath I take voluntarily, in the true faith of a true 
Christian and loyal subject, without any equivocation or 
mental reservation whatsoever, and from which I do hold no 
power on earth can absolve me in any part. 

The shght way in which Sir Thomas dismisses this 
business, may probably be ascribed to his conviction of 
the certainty of its failure. But it did not end exactly 
as he says. There was a diversity of answers returned 
to the demands of the King. A few went the whole 
way in compliance, and some the whole way in refiisal. 
The greater part halted between. The individuals 
alluded to by Sir Thomas promised to defend the 

16 MBMOBIALS OF [1642. 

King's person (as Hollis or Pym, had there been occa- 
sion, would have as readily done) ; but they also pledged 
themselves to defend the Protestant religion (which the 
King was never tired of professing) and the " lawful 
liberties of the subjects of England, and just privileges 
of his Majesty and both Houses of Parliament." 
Others plainly told him that the best advice they 
could give him was to hearken to the councils of his 
Parliament, who, they were assured, would be duly 
careful of his person and his honour ; while the great 
body of the freeholders (more important at that junc- 
ture than the gentry themselves) protested against the 
entire proceeding. 

It was clear from all this that Yorkshire was growing 
too hot for the King ; and, although he continued to 
storm about his treatment at Hull, and to let Parlia- 
ment know that he was determined to bring the traitor 
Hotham to justice, he resolved to get away from the 
neighbourhood as soon as he could. Having obtained 
a supply of arms and ammimition from Holland (where 
the Queen had been foolishly busying herself in pro- 
curing succour for him to tempt him on to his ruin), he 
issued his famous Commission of Array. This explicit 
movement terminated all doubt and irresolution. The 
King and the ParUament had now fairly put themselves 
upon the country. It was for the people to choose 
between the Array and the Militia. 

The whole kingdom was thrown into confusion. The 
busy note of preparation was heard in all quarters. 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAE. 17 

The shadows of coining events fell broad and dark 
over the surface of the land. The perplexity of the 
people broke out in various shapes, and the universal 
incertitude penetrated even to the tribunals of justice. 
The Judges on the Bench sat in a state of solemn 
dubiety. A letter from Mr, Rushworth to Lord Fairfiix 
touches upon the " signs of the t^mes/^ 


Letters came this day of the certainty of the business 
about Bath and Wells in Somersetshire, where about 80,000 
of the inhabitants in Somersetshire were in arms, and besieged 
Wells, and planted thirty pieces of cannon on the hill that com- 
manded the town, where the Marquis Hertford, the Lord 
Paulet, and the Lord Seymour> and Lord Cottington, with 500 
horse well' arm6d, were quartered. They had four cart-loads 
of powder, match, %ad bullet from Bristol, and so continued in 
arms all night. Sir John Horn, Mr. Alexander Popham, Sir 
Edward Hungerford, and Mr. Ashe being there in person, 
and summoned the Marquis to come to them ; but, in the 
night time, he and his horse all marched away, and so fled 
out of the county ; so they are now gone to see if they can 
catch Sir John Stowell, Sir John Powlett, and Captain 
Digby, who commanded those forces under the Marquis, 
that hath slain and wounded divers of the Parhament side 
without provocation. The Parhament hath sent 800 horse 
to assist the foot in that county, who are generally for the 

Three troops of horse are sent to Portsmouth, and a 
regiment of foot sent to Banbury, to remove the Earl of 

VOL. !• b 

18 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

Northampton thence^ who is there to catch seven pieces of 
ordnance of the Lord Brooks^ with 600 horse, bnt the 
county begins to rise round about him. The Parliament 
hath received a petition from four Lords, and ten of the House 
of Commons, residing in Yorkshire, viz., the Lord Savile, 
Lord Falconbridge, and Sir WiUiam Savile, Mr. Henry 
Bellassis, &c, of such a nature as was nerer signed by 
members of Parliament, and voted to be an insolent petition 
and they must not go unpunished. 

In Worcestershire, at the assizes, there was a grand jury 
of knights, &c., but none but one that was legally returned 
was admitted to serve. They concluded of a petition in dis- 
like of the Parliament. Judge Henden forbore there to 
deliver his opinion according to the commands of Parliament 
touching the commission of array. 

There is an intention and preparation to adjourn speedily. 
I see no signs of peace, our preparations come on so fast. I 
pray let your, &c. 

The messengers of the Yorkshire petition are committed 
to the Black Bod not as bearers of this petition, but for 
dangerous words spoken by them, as is proved here against 

The House is much contented with Sir Thomas Fairfax's 
noble carriage of Thursday last. 

Augtutf 1642. 

Mr. Rush worth, the writer of this letter, was nearly 
related to the Fairfax family, and owes much of his 
celebrity, as an historical collector, to the advantages he 
derived from that connection. A barrister by profession, 
he abandoned the common law for state affairs, and 

1642.] THE CIYIL WAB. 19 

voluntarily devoted himself for several years to the task 
of taking down in short-hand the speeches and pro- 
ceedings in ParUament. His industry in this pursuit is 
probably unparalleled, and the world is largely indebted 
to him for the results. He afterwards became assistant 
clerk to the Commons, and the House reposed such 
trust in him, as to employ him constantly in conveying 
messages and addresses between Parliament and the 
King, while his Majesty was at York, a distance of 
upwards of 150 miles, which Rushworth is said to 
have frequently ridden within the twenty-four hours. 
When Sir Thomas Fairfax became generahssimo, 
Mr. Rushworth was appointed his secretary. During 
the Commonwealth he acted upon a committee for the 
reformation of the law, and served in several Parlia- 
ments after the death of Cromwell. Yet, notwith- 
standing that he acquired the respect of all parties 
by the integrity of his character, and had ample 
opportunities of securing an independence, he liJQgered 
out the last six years of his life in the King's Bench 
prison, where he died in May, 1690. His fine business 
faculties becd>me impaired at last, and his end was 
hastened by intemperance. 

On the 22nd of August the King set up his standard 
at Nottingham. The war was now begun in real 
earnest. The details are matters of history with which 
all readers interested in the English annals are already 
familiar. We have here to do only with our own 

special celebrities, and with the progress of the war 


20 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

in the north, as illustrated in the correspondence 
before us. ^ 

We have hitherto seen little of Lord Fairfax or his 
son in these transactions. The single exploit which 
indicated the temper and inclination of the family was 
the gallantry of young " Tom" — ^proud and fiery Tom — 
on Heyworth Moor. The military genius of the Fair^ 
faxes slumbered at the fireside at Denton while the 
King bandied protocols with ParUament ; but the case 
was altered when he issued the Commission of Array. 
The time was gone by for hesitation. It was no longer 
possible even to be neutral. Fairfax had special reason 
to stir himself. The Roundheads looked to him as 
the conservator of the zeal and enthusiasm of the north ; 
and the Cavaliers, fearing his influence, resolved to put 
him out of the way. A plan was laid to seize his per- 
son, and convey him, on some flimsy pretext of dis- 
affection, a prisoner to York ; but, forewarned of the 
design, he armed histenantry, took the field, and baffled 
his enemies. It was by such electric movements the 
King was defeated all throughout. Whichever way he 
turned, to fly or fight, he was stopped or anticipated. 
Whenever he planned a piece of treachery, he was 
caught in his own springe. 

Lord Fairfax was immediately appointed to the com- 
mand of the Parhamentary forces in the north. The 
urgency of the occasion may be seen in the hasty 
despatch of a letter addressed to the noblemen and 
gentlemen of Yorkshire by the Committee of Safety. 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 21 

My Lords and Gbntl*emen, 

We have received information that at a late meeting 
at Leeds divers worthy gentlemen and others, well aflFected 
inhabitants of Yorkshire, have declared themselves desirous 
to preserve the peace of that county, and to secure his 
Majesty^s subjects from those violent oppressions executed 
upon their persons and estates by the Earl of Cumberland, 
the Lord Savile, and others, by pretence of the commission 
of array, and other commissions against law, and for that 
purpose have thought upon a noble person of your county, 
the Lord Fairfax, to command in chief over the forces of that 
shire, and that John Hotham, Esq,, lately conferred much 
help and furtherance to this noble resolution by coming out 
of Hull with some forces, both horse and foot. Hereupon, 
we have received directions from both Houses of Parliament 
to signify unto you their approbation, and to give all encour- 
agement and assistance in these proceedings, as conducing 
much to that great work which the Parliament hath under- 
taken to secure — religion and the liberty and peace of the 
kingdom, which are much endangered by the ill council 
about his Majesty, and the war now raised against the Par- 
liament; in pursuance whereof, we have thought good hereby 
to desire and authorize you to draw the forces of that county 
together under the conduct of the Lord Fairfax; and to 
defend his Majesty^s subjects in their persons and liberties 
against the said Earl of Cumberland, or any other that shall 
oppress the same by pretence of any commission whatsoever. 
And for your better performance hereof, we intend to send 
down very speedily some experienced officers, with ample 
instructions in such manner as hath been given to other 
parties of the kingdom in the like Sase ; and to commend the 

22 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

Lord Fairfax to the Earl of Essex^ intreating his Excellency 
to send him a commission to the same effect. And^ in the 
meantime^ we have sent this bearer of purpose to give you 
notice of the intention and order of the Lords and Conmions 
in Parliament ; and of our particular care to second our good 
affections and endeavours in this so necessary and advan- 
tageous a service of the kingdom^ and so remain, 

. H. Vane. Tho. Barrinoton. 

Hen. Martin. Jo. Pym, 

Westmoreland, September 27ihy 1642. 
At 8 at night. 

A few weeks afterwards, the same Committee, in the 
name of the Parliament, express their approbation of 
his lordship's proceedings, and send Mr. Rushworth 
upon a special mission to ascertain the actual state of 
his affairs and necessities. 


My Lord^ 

Understanding, by your lordship^s letter to Sir 
Christopher Wray and Captain Hatcher, that you are in the 
field with 500 foot, and are increasing daily in your forces 
for the service of the Parliament and kingdom, in the 
pubUc cause which now they have in hand, it is so great 
contentment to us, and so desirous we are to encourage your 
lordship in your noble proceedings, that we have thought fit 
to assure you nothing shall be wanting on our part to second 
your lordship's endeavours in this cause with whatsoever lies 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAB. 23 

in oiir power ; to which purpose we have despatched by this 
bearer^ Mr. Bushworth^ an express to you, that by him we 
may understand the truth of affairs with you, and your 
desires to us for the advance of the present service herein; 
in the meantime, we have thought fit by this messenger to 
send our orders to Mr. Hotham, and the two troops of horse 
come to him out of Lincolnshire, to observe such commands 
as they shall receive from your lordship; what farther 
supplies you desire from us, when we shall understand the 
same from your lordship, we shall use all possible care to 
speed them to you. The good state of our affairs here, and 
of the army, we shall refer to the relation of this bearer, who 
will inform your lordship of all particulars and resolutions 
the Parliament have taken thereupon for the public good in 
these troublesome times. And so we rest. 

Your very loving friends and servants, 

T. Northumberland. H. Vanb. 

L. N. Howard. Holland. 

Pembroke and Mont. W. Pibrrbpont. 

Warwick. Gilb. Qbrrard. 

October 2ltt, 1642. 

Lord Fairfax had been in the discharge of his 
duties upwards of two months (without waiting, it 
appears, for the formal authority of a commission), when 
he forwarded the following dispatch to the committee, 
giving an exact account of what had been done in the 
interval. This dispatch, with the exception of the most 
curious and important part of it, has been already 
printed by Rushworth, whose omission of the passage 
from " Thus, my lords, I have represented briefly the 

24 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

condition of the army/' to the end, is too remarkable 
not to justify the publication of the whole document. 
It would be idle to conjecture how it was that Rush- 
worth came to drop out or lose this passage, unless we 
are to ascribe it to one of those suppressions of truth 
of which he is roundly accused by Nalson and others. 
Certain it is that the document was presented in its 
entirety to Parliament ; for the Speaker's answer, which 
is here added, relates almost exclusively to the matters 
contained in the omitted passage. 

It will be seen that Lord Fairfax makes a grave com- 
plaint of the distresses of the army, and warns the House 
of the power of the Royalists, by means of their numerous 
garrisons, to cut off the scattered troops should they be 
forced to go about the country to levy sustenance. Yet 
such are the greater difficulties of the Parliament, that the 
House is able to send only a moiety of the sum voted for 
the relief of the soldiers, and is compelled to authorise 
the general, in case of extreme necessity, to billet the 
soldiers on the county. What inadequate notions we can 
form, at this distance of time, of the small, harassing impe- 
diments against which the Parhament had to contend, 
and of the discretion and vigilance demanded in the least 
as in the greatest things, to enable them to conduct the 
struggle to its triumphant issue ! By this single act of 
billetting the soldiers the cause was placed in immi- 
nent peril. Yet it was imavoidable. The Commission 
of Array was out over the county, and was already 
making head in several other places. The King had 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 25 

garrisons ready for whatever might turn up, and was 
watching his opportunity for any sudden stroke of 
success that might determine in his favour those 
floating masses of opinion, which, at such times, are 
always found waiting on events ; and here were the 
new, raw, incoherent bands of the Parliament army 
drifted loose amongst the farmers and shopkeepers to 
get house-room and nurture as they might, an easy 
prey to the first compact movement of their more 
discipUned opponents. 


May IT PLEASE YOUR Lordships^ 

Upon Saturday last I received a declaration of 
Parliament^ with a commission from his excellency the Earl 
of EsseXj to command in chief over the forces of the North 
and other adjacent coimties, which great honour and trust of 
far ahove my ambition or merit, by yonr lordships conferred 
upon me, I shall exercise with all care and fideUty, not 
doubting but that your lordships will enable me therein with 
such other supphes as the necessity of the service shall 
require, and that reported fipom hence. 

The estate of the affairs in these parts since my last 
despatch of the first of this month, stands in this manner :— 
The Earl of Newcastle is come to York, and joined his forces 
to the Earl of Cumberland, making in all, as I am informed, 
about 8000 men, horse and foot, of which there is about 
2000 horse and dragooners — a strength far too potent to be 
resisted by the small power which I have here, whereof I send 

26 MEMOBIALS OF [1642. 

a list enclosed. Our strength was once estimated by our- 
selves far greater than now it appears ; for^ upon the Earl of 
Newcastle coming over the Tees, Sir Edward Loftus with all 
the Richmondshire men, and Sir Henry Anderson with all 
the Cleveland men, and the rest of the North Biding, which 
were estimated at 1000 men, did aU return to their own 
houses, save about 130 men, brought thither by Sir Matthew 
Boynton and some other gentlemen, and one troop of horse, 
raised by Sir Henry FowUs, and about forty horse more, 
brought hither by Captain Anderson ; and, besides this 
defect, our numbers are decreased by Sir Hugh Cholmeley : 
to whom I have sent divers orders to march northwards to 
join with Captain Hotham and the rest in resisting the Earl 
of Newcastle's entry, before he came into Yorkshire, and 
since his entry, to come to me and the rest of the army at 
Tadcaster; but he found such impediments as he could 
do neither, and now I hear he is gone to Scarborough, 
and taken his forces with him, which were about 700 
men; and Colonel Boynton, whose regiment consisted of 
800 foot, is likewise marched towards Hull, although I 
sent him divers orders to march up hither to assist the 
forces at Tadcaster, giving me neither reason of his not 
coming to me, nor of his march towards Hull. And I, 
understanding that Sir John Gell had raised 800 men in 
Derbyshire, sent unto him to march hither to our succour ; 
but I have received an answer from him that he is not 
able yet to stir from thence; and from Sir Anthony Irby 
nor the Lincolnshire men I hear nothing, though I have 
sent to them express messengers. So our whole strength 
here, upon return of the forces formerly sent into the North, 
consisting of twenty-one companies of foot, and seven troops 
of horse, and one company of dragooners, we did send of 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 27 

them two companies of foot to secure Selby^ one company to 
secure Cawood Castle, and quartered the rest part of them at 
Wetherby, under command of Captain Hotham^ whom I have 
nominated to be lieutenant-general of the army; and the 
rest at Tadcaster, under my own command. And upon 
Tuesday^ receiving intelligence that the Earl of Newcastle, 
with his whole forces, intended to fall upon our quarter, at 
Tadcaster, I sent to Captain Hotham to bring up the forces 
at Wetherby, which being done, and the Earl of Newcastle's 
army come in sight, we drew our men into the uttermost part 
of our quarter, where we had raised some breast- works for 
our musketeers ; and there the fight began, about eleven of 
the clock, and so continued, in sharp dispute, until about 
four of the dock in the evening, in which time there was at 
least 40,000 musket-shots discharged on both sides, and 
great numbers of cannon-shotl 

The enemy had once won part of the town, and beaten out 
our soldiers, and placed some of their company in two or three 
houses, which did much endanger us ; but in the end our men, 
with great courage, forced them out again, recovered and burnt 
the houses, and kiQed many of the enemy's men that were there 
placed, and, in conclusion, forced the whole army to retreat, 
leaving many of their men dead, and great numbers wounded. 
The certain numbers nor qualities of the persons we could 
not take ; but it is generally said by the country people that 
there was at least 100 found killed and burnt; and we took 
seventeen prisoners in the fight. And on our part we lost 
six men, and Captain William Lister, a valliant and gallant 
gentleman, who was shot with a musket-bullet in the head ; 
and we had about twenty more wounded ; and lost not one 
prisoner in the battle, though divers of our men, being negli- 
gent in their duty, staid behind us when we quit the quarter. 

28 MEMORIALS OF [1642. 

and so were taken^ the next mornings by the enemy^ and made 
prisoners. In this fight our men behaved themselves with 
very great resolution, — ^far beyond expectation, insomuch as 
I conceive we might have maintained the place still, if we had 
been furnished with powder and shot ; but having spent in a 
manner aU our whole store of bullets, match, and powder, 
I advised with the commanders, and by general consent it 
was thought fit to rise with our forces and march to Cawood 
and Selby, to secure those places, and there receive supplies 
of ammunition and men, which was accordingly done* And 
now I am at Selby, with part of the army, and the rest with 
Captain Hotham, at Cawood. And yesterday I sent my son. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, with five companies on foot and two 
troop of horse towards Leeds, intending he should continue 
there, to secure that place and the other clothing towns 
against the Earl of Newcastle's forces, if it were possible. 
But the enemy's forces were laid so strong in the way as he 
could not pass ; so he only beat up a quarter of the enemy's 
in a small village, took five prisoners, and retreated to Selby. 
Thus, my lords, I have represented briefly the condition of 
this army at present, and which, I must confess, I fear will 
very suddenly grow worse, if not utterly broken up, and that 
especially for want of money, — ^I having not above a week's 
pay provided beforehand, and no visible means left to raise 
maintenance for them, unless I should give the soldiers free 
quarters upon the country, — ^a cure, in my conception, as 
dangerous as the disease, and, peradventure, not possible to 
be effected, if the enemy be still master of the field, and cut 
off our men as they go about to levy sustenance, which they 
may do, and yet not able to beat up our quarters. I have 
hitherto supported this army by the loans and contributions, 
for the most part, of the parishes of Leeds, Halifax, and 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 29 

Bradford^ and some other small clothing towns adjacent^ 
being the only well-affected people of the country, who, 
I much fear, may now suffer by this popish army of the 
North, merely for their good affection to the religion and 
public liberty. Out of the rest of the country I was not able 
to draw any considerable help, the enemy having garrisons in 
so many places, who threatened to ruin any that should assist 
the Parliament and the cause with money or other helps. 
My lords, in sum, the state of this country is thus: the 
enemy is mighty and master of the field, plentifully supplied 
from his majesty and the papists, and malignant parties, with 
money and all necessaries. The well-affected party, as now 
it is divided, not considerable, the aid from Lincolnshire, 
Derbyshire, and other counties very uncertain, the want of 
money here such as will force us to disband within ten days ; 
and if the enemy once become absolute master of Yorkshire, 
they will force contributions and succours from the country, 
which will raise a very formidable army, and put the whole 
cause in peril, if God do not miraculously defend it. I 
beseech your lordships seriously to consider it, and send such 
speedy supplies of men and money as will enable me to go 
forward in the service, which I shall not fail to do with a 
constant fidelity. Your lordships have heretofore assigned 
2000/. for our succour, but the most part of it is still at 
London, where it Ueth for want of exchange or convoy. And 
therefore what shall now be sent must come either by suffi- 
cient convoy of forces by land, or else by sea to Hull, and 
so hither to me. The Scottish officers are now come hither 
yesterday, but now we are so straitened that we can have no 
men resort to us to put under command, nor have we money 
to pay them. The further relation of these affairs I shall 
leave to Captain Hatcher, who follows these letters, purposely 

30 MEMORIALS OP [1642. 

to give a true relation to the House of these affairs^ and hath 
been an eye-witness of most of the passages in this country^ 
from the first raising of arms : to whose further expression 
I shall leave it, with addition only, that if the country or 
cause suffer, your lordships will discern, by this relation, in 
whom the default hath been, and impute it accordingly ; for 
nothing hath been omitted possible to be effected by your 
lordships^ most faithful and humble servant, 

F. Fairfax. 

Sdhyy December 10^, 1642. 


My Lord, 

I AM commanded by the House of Commons to 
give your lordship thanks for your care, vigilance, and active- 
ness in opposing that Popish army commanded by the Earl 
of Newcastle, and, according to your lordship's desire, the 
House hath appointed 20,000/. for the payment of your army, 
whereof 10,000/. they intend to pay presently (though money 
at this time is very scant with them), and the other 10,000/. 
shall be prepared for you with all possible speed. They 
likewise approve of your lordship's billetting your soldiers on 
that county (upon the case of extreme necessity), and have 
engaged the public faith of the kingdom for the repayment 
thereof, as by the enclosed order, under the clerk's hand. 
You may perceive the committee for the northern parts are 
using aU possible care and diligence to supply your lordship 
with arms ; and the House is resolved likewise to hasten 
the supplies of foot and horse, to enforce your lordship's 
army, that so, by God's blessing upon all our endeavours. 

\'^j':C'- :..■■- >:'i: "'^re igf 'i!=:o' s^Vr-" 

1642.] THE CIVIL WAR. 31 

that army of Papists may be suppressed before the total ruin 
of the country where now they are. 

Your lordship^s very loving friend, 

Wm. Lenthall, 

December 23rd, 1642. Speaker, 

The Fairfaxes were now committed, life and fortune, 
to the cause. The eldest son, Sir Thomas, who had 
been knighted two years before in the Scotch war, was 
appointed General of the Horse under his father, who 
had already twice summoned home from foreign service 
his only remaining son, Charles, as appears from the 
foUowing letter. The first summons, it seems, was not 
very peremptory. The second was decisive, unhappily 
for the son, who returned to England, joined his father's 
forces, and was killed at the battle of Marston Moor. 


May it please your Lordship^ 

Two days ago I received your lordship's letter, 
dated from Denton, the 18th of August. I shall not seek 
now for leave to go over before I hear again from your lord- 
ship what I should do. Mr. Strickland who was sent by the 
Parliament over hath had audience of the States, but not 
openly, which was forbidden him by reason the Queen of 
England had spoke before to the States, that they would not 
hearken to his message ; notwithstanding his coming doth very 
much good for the Parliament. Here is like to be much 
troubles in these parts, now a beginning and likely to increase. 

32 MEMOEIALS OP [1642. 

if the distempers in England continue. The interest of these 
countries depends upon the welfare of England because of 
our religion and laws ; it is much feared here that if the 
government in England be changed^ these countries will also 
be debarred of their ancient customs. These States are jealous 
of the Prince of Orange, that by his means both ammunition 
and monies should have been sent to our King. The States 
hath lately arrested some ships which were going over for 
England with ammunition. My Lord Benerweart, Serjeant- 
Major General of our army, hath desired of every English 
company three men, which are granted him ,• there goes an 
English captain and a lieutenant with them to the King^s 
army, but I think they will be stayed before they can be ready 
to go over, by the States, who will have notice of them. There 
is an ambassador come the other day to the Hague, out of 
England, from the King. To-day I hear the Princess Leaguer 
is broken up, and is coming to garrison ; some of the Queen 
of England^s attendants have much offended by their uncivil 
behaviours ; the principal of them is Mr. Garmaine, and they 
are taken notice of over all these lands. Commending my 
prayers to God for your lordship, I humbly take leave. 

Your lordship's obedient son, 

Chakles Fairfax. 

From Clmeyardf this Sih of September, 1642. 

I humbly intreat of your lordship send not over for me 
this winter ; that your lordship please to give order to Mr. 
Nevell to send me some cloth for a suit of clothes this winter. 
When your lordship wiites over to me, your lordship may 
direct the letter to Mr. Dolphin's house, in Dorte, at the sign 
of the Swan, by the Eliddikes port, which will be a better way 
than to Rotterdam, because it is nearer. 

^^43.] THE CIVIL WAR. 33 

In the meanwhDe the battle of Edgehill had taken 
place, and several skirmishes, with a most fluctuating 
forttme ; and Sir Thomas, diligently executing his trust 
in the clothing districts, was already growing impatient 
to raise the country, but prudently delayed for orders 
from his father. The following letter is dated jfrom 
the scene of his first action, Bradford, where, against 
more than double his numbers, and the advantages of 
the ground, he compelled the King's troops to draw oflF 
to Leeds : 



May it please your Lordship, 

These parts grow very impatient of our delay in 
beating them out of Leeds and Wakefield, for by them all 
trade and provisions are stopped^ so that the people in these 
clothing towns are not able to subsist^ and^ indeed^ so 
pressing are these wants^ as some have told me^ if I would 
not stir with them, they must rise of necessity of themselves 
in a thing of so great importance. I thought it fit to acquaint 
you with it, to desire your lordship^s advice, before I would 
undertake it ; therefore humbly desire your lordship not to 
defer this business, but. If no aid can come to us, then to 
give us advice, and order what to do, for long this country 
cannot subsist; and to raise the country to assault the 
enemy, I would not do it, without your lordship's consent, 
being only commanded to defend the parts from them. I 
desire, with all speed, this bearer may bring us your lord* 

VOL. I. D 

34 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

ship^s resdiutioii. I am sure I shall have above six hundred 
muskets^ if I summons the country to come in^ besides 3000 
and more with other weapons, that would rise with us. I£ 
your lordship please to give me power to join with the 
readiness of the people, I doubt not but, by God^s assist- 
ance, to give your lordship a good account of what we do. 
So, hxunbly desiring your blessing, I will ever be 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

Bradf<3Tdy Jommy 9«/^ 1642. [^. 8, 1643.] 

All circumstances considered, the letter is abundantly 
hopeful. Sir Thomas and his father had a serious 
responsibility placed upon them with grievously inade- 
quate means. Their forces were numerically, and 
indeed in every other way, inferior to the royalists; 
the officers were inexperienced ; the soldiers were ill 
paid, sometimes not paid at all ; provisions and muni- 
tions were scarce ; and there were traitors amongst 
their foremost men — the greatest calamity of all. On 
the other hand, the Royalists were well officered, 
liberally provided, better disciplined, and had with them 
the prestige and traditions of the kingly authority, " a 
tower of strength ^' in itself. This state of things 
accounts for the diffidence and incertitude of Sir 
Thomas's movements during this period. After the 
action at Bradford, he was joined by Captain Hotham 
with three troops of dragoons, and advancing upon 
Leeds, found that the enemy had evacustffced the town 
at his approach. Some collisions subsequently took 

1643.] THE CtYIL WAR. 35 

place at Wetherby and Tadcaster, and towards the end 
of the month he took the towli of Leeds, which was 
hotly disputed by Sir WilUam Savile. The next letter 
is an acknowledgment of his father's approbation of his 
conduct on that occasion : 


May it please your Lordship^ 

The good success it hath pleased God to give my 
weak endeavours hath only proceeded from his goodness^ to 
whom I desire the honour may redound, and if yoiu* lordship 
hath received any satisfaction by it I am rewarded with what 
I desire. I am at Wakefield now, but I return this day to 
Leeds. I found here when I came great numbers of people 
in the town, who by Capt. Wingers good government and 
care, whom I had sent thither to keep the town, kept them 
from doing much hurt by pillaging. According to your 
lordship^s order. Sir William Fairfax, of Steeton, stays there 
to command, and if it be well looked to, I beheve 4000/. will 
easily be raised out of that town. Some of these forces I 
intend to send to Pomfret to quarter in the town, the Castle 
hath not above eighty men in it and it cannot annoy those 
in the town; the possessing oiu'selves of that place would 
open a £ree passage to Hull which would be a great benefit 
to these towns, and some terror to the enemy to see us go on; 
but I desire your lordship to excuse me that I do this with- 
out order from your lordship, but you may send them back 
again to-morrow if you please. K they he there because 
they have no money, it will be good if your lordship think it 


36 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

fit to allow the guides free billet, yet all plunder forbid. So 
very near, your lordship may make good use of them. Capt. 
Hotham intends to go to Doncaster this day. When he saw 
your lordship's order, he called for pen and ink to copy it out, 
it seemed by his peevish humour to have taken some advan- 
tage by it, but he did not. No order will be observed by 
him but what he please, unless some order be to restrain him; 
if he will be accountable for 6000Z., which I believe he may 
raise in those parts and bring it in to the public stock, as we 
shall give an account what we raise in our own quarters, he 
may be allowed to take the employment. If we could join 
all our forces, your lordship might resolve of some notable 
design, but Leeds, Wakefield, and other places doth so view 
our strength as we can do little ; for this I shall attend your 
lordship's further order. I thank your lordship for thinking 
of sending Capt. Bladen to me. I have great need of one to 
assist me, having many things heavy upon me, and being 
grown within these few days more unhealthfiil than I was; if 
your lordship could send us more arms we could arm the 
country with them, for strangers being restrained of their 
will are very mutinous. I think to send the convoy which 
came from Selby back to-morrow. So humbly desiring your 
lordship's blessing, I rest 

Your lordship's humble and most obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

WaJs^di Jamtary 27th, 1642. [iV. S, 1643.] 

It is evident from the allusion to Captain Hotham that 
there was a discordance somewhere. Who should have 
suspected that treason, which the quick eye of Fairfax 
had already discerned, was growing up here. The 
Hothams, probably, thought that, after the business at 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 37 

Hull, a trust of higher responsibility ought to have been 
reposed in them, and were unwilling to be placed under 
the command of others, especially this young Fairfax, 
who was now only in his thirty-first year. Lord Essex, 
the generalissimo, no doubt thinking these expectations 
reasonable, appointed Captain Hotham to the post of 
Lieutenant-general ; a step which he may have after- 
wards looked back upon with some misgivings when he 
was himself superseded by the ParUament to make way 
for Sir Thomas Fairfax. This Lord Essex was the son 
of the favourite, and had joined the Parliament in a fit 
of resentment against the King, because his majesty 
refiised to grant him the command of the forest of 
Medwood. The appointment of Captain Hotham is 
formally announced in a subsequent communication 
from Commissary Copley : — 


My Lord, 

I FIND myself no way deceived in my confidence of 
your lordship's zeal to promote the good of your country of 
which you are a great patriarch, and so God owns you by 
many earnests of his favour in giving you victories upon the 
common enemy, the last of which came to my hands by Mr. 
Copley and was right welcome to me, as also those assur- 
ances he gives me of a happy concordance betwixt your 
lordship. Sir John Hotham, and his son Captain Hotham, to 

38 MEMOBULS OF [1643. 

whicli purpose I have herewith inclosed sent you instructions 
to be observed by you all for the future regulating of busi- 
ness with you, to which I doubt not you will freely con- 
descend, as being the only way under God to carry on your 
affairs to public advantage. 

My lord, what I do herein is no way to lessen you, but 
to keep on our business in such a course as through Gk)d^s 
blessing may make it prosper to further success^ and give 
way for present to some things which might else bring on 
greater inconveniencies. As your lordship is wise in all things, 
so I must say you are truly noble in quitting private interests 
for public advantage ; go on and the Lord will prosper you. 
My lord, I send you herewith also a list of names who I 
desire should constantly stand for a council of war with you; 
leaving to that council power to add more as occasion may 
require, and shall be voted by the major part of them. I do 
this in respect of the Lincolnshire forces, and those under 
my Lord Gray and others; who when they come wiU expect 
to be of the council of war. I have already written to the 
Lord Gray, and into Lincolnshire, to march into your 
county and to join with you, that whilst fear possesseth the 
enemy you may fall upon them at York, or wheresoever they 
now quarter, and if it be possible seize the convoy they 
expect should bring their money and ammunition from 

My lord, as your hearty pursuit of the instructions I send 
will abundantly honour you in the opinion of all good men, 
so in particular will very much oblige me to remain. 

Your lordship's faithful friend, 


Wmdaor^ Jwmary 31fff, 1642. [N.8. 1643.] 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAIL 39 


Horse. — ^Lord Fairfax, Major Butler, Colonel Windsor, 
Lord Brandon, Earl of Dalkeith, Earl of Warwick, Admiral 
of the Fleet. 

Foot. — Sir Richard Atkins, Sir Arthur Chichester, Colonel 
Clint, Colonel Edgworth, Colonel Fox, (attended the Commis'- 
sion who tried the King); Colonel Harrington, Colonel Pack, 
Colonel Hamilton, Colonel Freak, Trenchard, Norcoate, Lord 
Mountjoy, Blaney, (1646, taken prisoner by the Rebels in 
Lreland); Shelbom, Charlemont, Colonel Ross, Colonel Smith. 


My Lord, 

I WAS commanded to intimate to your lordship that 
his Excellency forgot to express in his letter to your lord- 
ship his desire your lordship should give Captain Hotham a 
commission for lieutenant-general under your lordship, and 
that he hath written to Captain Hotham to accept it £rOm 
your lordship, and go on with your lordship in a hearty 
compliance for the future. I perceive my lord General 
accounted himself much engaged to you, for that you was so 
willing to be bound by him. I represented the business as 
it truly stood, with several notes of every your expressions 
how far you was willing to subscribe if it came commended 
from him, out of which he hath caused the enclosed instruc- 
tions to be made and sent, with a note of names for a council 
of war, who, though they are more in number, yet being 
Colonels, and men now deeply engaged in the country with 


40 MBMOBIALB OF [1643. 

you, he thought they would expect it. My lord, I procured 
my lord to write to the men at Manchester, Sir William 
Brewerton and Sir John Gell, whose letter I have here 
enclosed, and do entreat your lordship would cause them to 
be sent, that they give your lordship assistance as soon as 
possibly they can, with their forces, as also my Lord Ghrey 
and those in Lincolnshire. My lord, if your lordship please 
to enjoin me any service here, I am 

Your lordship^s faithful kinsman and servant, 

Lionel Coflby. 

Zowdon, Feb, l4t, 16412. {iV. S. 1643.] 

It will be seen that the Earl of Essex praises the 
"zeal'' of Lord Fairfax, but says nothing about his 
ability or the difficulties of his situation. It is plain 
enough that this acknowledgment of his " zeal ** is only 
a courteous hint of want of confidence in his judgment, 
which he ftirther testifies in a way that cannot be 
mistaken, bj the appointment of a council of officers to 
assist him. If the Earl of Essex had really desired to 
break down the zeal he applauded so much, this was an 
excellent way to do it. A general, in circumstances so 
new and harassing, and laden with such heavy respon- 
sibility, requires, above all things, to be assured of the 
confidence and support of those who are placed in 
authority above him. But Fairfax, (who was otherwise 
by no means the fittest man for such a position) in 
addition to the discontents and inefficiency of an ill-paid 
and worse disciphned army, had also to fight against the 
consciousness that his difficulties were not properly appre- 

i643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 41 

ciated^ while his power to cope with them was seriously 
crippled. The multitude of advisers had the effect of 
weakening the influence of the General, and producing 
disastrous divisions of opinion. Sir Thomas Fairfax 
himself, notwithstanding all his brilliant successes, had 
occasion to make the same complaint towards the close 
of the war. " My commission as General,'^ he tells us, 
" obliged me to act with council ; but the arbitrary and 
unUmited power of this council would act without a 
General : and all I could do was ineffectual to oppose 
them; especially when the Parliament itself became 
divided.^' ^ 

That the Parliamentary Committee of Safety enter- 
tained a juster sense of Lord Fairfax's services, and 
entered more heartily into his circumstances, than the 
Earl of Essex, is evident from the following letters : 


My Lord, 

We have been made acquainted by Mr. White, with 
a desire of your lordsfaip^s, to be resolved what companies 
your lordship shall pay out of the monies now sent down unto 
you. We conceive that the sense of the House is, that your 
lordship shall cause payment from time to time to be made 
unto all the companies and troops, both foot and horse, 
which are, or shall be under your command, as monies shall 
be supplied unto you. And that for the present out of the 
money now sent down, payment shall be made both to the 

* A Short Memorial. 

42 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

Lincolnshire troops^ and also unto the Hull forces^ which 
are actually in the service under your command ; for it is 
conceived that it will be a very great occasion of discontent 
in your lordship^s army^ should not an equal hand be observed 
by way of payment. 

Your lordship we hope needs not to doubt but that such a 
continued supply will be made by the Parliament. Care for 
your army, that (by God^s assistance) your lordship will not 
hereafter be put to wrestle with such difficulties as have now 
been forced upon you. My lord, we acknowledge that the 
Commonwealth oweth much, not only to your lordship^s 
valour and fidelity to the cause, but also, to that noble and 
prudent moderation which you have used to its advantage, 
in so gently handling those wounds which have been made 
amongst your forces. Your lordship may be ascertained by 
us that the House hath fixed a serious apprehension upon the 
particulars of your lordship's letter, and are and will be so 
tender of all things which may concern your lordship's house, 
that you must not fail of a just and seasonable satisfaction. 
This is all that we have to present to your lordship, save that 
we ever shall remain. 

Your lordship's aflfectionate friends and servants. 

My Lord, — I was appointed by Mr. Pierpoynt, Sir Philip 
Stapleton, Mr. Hampden, and Mr. Pym, to draw a letter to 
this eflfect to your lordship, and they would subscribe it. 1 
showed it to Sir Philip, and Mr. Pym, who approved of it as 
their sense, but by reason the Commissary Copley came so 
suddenly away, I could not get them together to have their 
hands to it. 

Your lordship's servant, 

William White. 

The Close OommiUee, Febrwiry \st. 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 43 



My Lord^ 

The Houses of Parliament^ since you have been 
employed by them, are very sensible of the great services 
your lordship hath done them, and by us do return thanks 
for the same. They understand, by your lordship^s letter of 
the 2nd of this instant, to the Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, the state of your army since your last encounter with 
the enemy ; and they do much approve of your ingenuity in 
representing the same, and are applying all their powers to 
fiimish you with moneys and arms, and will instantly send 
to the L.-General to make provision to furnish you with 
six or eight troops of horse. And that you may know how 
much your preservation is taken to heart, the House of 
Commons has this day taken order to provide the other 
10,000Z. promised you, one thousand whereof is this day put 
into the hands of Mr. White, and the rest shall be paid with 
all speed. We therefore continue our requests that your 
lordship will use your utmost care and vigilance to preserve 
those parts you are in, being so considerable, as it may be a 
means to secure Lancashire and Cheshire, and to regain the 
lost parts of Yorkshire and the rest of the northern counties. 
My lord, within a day or two you shall hear more particu- 
larly from us by an express. In the meantime we wish your 
lordship all success, and rest 

Your lordship's very loving friends, 

and humble servants, 

Pembroke & Mont. Salisbury. 

L. N. Howard. H. Vanys. 

OiLBT. Oerrard. Hollands. 

Jo. Pym. 

April 13, lei^. 

44 MEMOBIALS OF [1643. 

During the past year, up to this time, nothing re- 
markable had been done on either side. Skirmishes and 
battles with variable issue had hitherto produced no 
important results. All that can be gathered from the 
next batch of letters is, that the movements of the 
Parliamentary forces were rendered very irregular from 
want of proper co-operation, perhaps of insubordination; 
and that there was a possibiUty of the cause being 
sacrificed to the pretensions of inferior officers, who 
considered themselves qualified to judge what was best 
to be done in their own locaHties, without reference to 
unity of action or the general safety. 



May it flease your Lordship^ 

I DO not know whether your lordship sent any 
order to stay the Lancashire companies^ yet upon the 
intelligence from you of the enemy's return to Wakefield, 
I sent to intreat their stay yet awhile. This town is 
very weak by reason many are gone to defend Ambry, 
and those parts; but I hear Captain Bathffe is revolted 
to the enemy, and most of his company, if not all the 
other company, being not strong enough, retired to Elam; 
there Captain Morgan, who hath raised some dragoons, joins 
with them for the defence of those parts this day; some of 
Peniston men came also to demand aid, their being seventeen 
colours in Samesley, five miles of them. I advised them to 
seek help from Botherham and Sheffield, and whilst they 

1643,] THE CIYIL WAR. 45 

stood upon their guards to get their goods to places of most 
safeguard^ for it will be impossible without more horse to 
defend the country from spoil. I desire your lordship^ if you 
can spare an engineer^ to send one hither^ having some works 
necessary to be done speedily. The enemy lies strong at 
Wakefield^ but I shall have an eye on them^ and doubt not 
but by God's assistance to keep this place safe. So humbly 
desiring your blessings I remain^ 

Your lordship most obedient son^ 

Thomas Fairfax. 

Bradford, April 20^A, 1643. 


Mat it please your Lordship^ 

I received your letter, and do intend to fulfil your 
commands with all expedition. I am now marched up to 
Nottingham, and Colonel Cromwell^s forces with me ; here 
is Lord Gray come too, and this day we expect Sir John 
Gtellj Sir William Brereton hath order to draw down to us, 
then we shall be strong. The Manchester forces have 
orders to draw down to you, and furnish you with what you 
want. I shall endeavour all I can to join with you, or 
otherwise to distress the enemy. Our misery is, we know 
not where his force lies, nor in what condition he is. I 
shall desire to have some information from you on that point, 
and I shall not fail to endeavour that which may be best 
for the public service, and will ever remain. 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 

John Hotham. 

NiMvngkamy May 24eA, 1643. 

46 MEMOBIALS OF [1643. 


May it please your Lordship, 

We were even ready to marcli with all the forces 
here to attend you, when we had certain intelligence of the 
state of my Lord Newcastle's army, so weak and in such a 
distraction, that we conceive it far unfit to force your lord- 
ship in your quarters. We had certain notice likewise that 
a good strength of horse and foot were marched from him 
to Newark, to face and attend the moving of the forces that 
are here. Upon Tuesday last there was towards forty troops 
of horse and dragooners appeared in a body some four 
miles from this place; and we hear behind them stood 
their foot. We drew out to fight them; but they had 
chosen such a ground as we could not come to them without 
great disadvantage. At night they drew away, and are still 
within six or seven miles hovering up and down the country. 
Until we see what these people intend, or which way my 
Lord Newcastle will move, we think it best to stay here, and 
not to draw down into Yorkshire, to eat up that small 
remainder of provisions that is left, and by that means do 
your lordship more prejudice than the enemy can do. This 
we thought fit to offer to your consideration ; and if, not- 
withstanding all this, you shall think it fit for us to move 
towards you, it shall be readily done by your lordship's 
humble servants, 

John Gell, John Hotham, 

Oli. Cromwell, Mi. Hoobert, 

Tho. Grey. 

NoUinghamy June 2nd, 1643. 

1W3.] THE CIVIL WAR. 47 

The last letter is in the hand-writing of Captain 
John Hotham, and is sealed with his seal. The signa- 
tures of the rest are added in their own hands. Lord 
Fairfax appears to have attached some importance to 
this communication, having folded it up carefully and 
endorsed it, " 2 June, the Lord Grey, Captain Hotham, 
&c.'' Whether Lord Fairfax had any grounds at this 
time for suspecting the honesty of Hotham is not 
certain ; but the following rapid and decisive answer, 
commanding the officers, notwithstanding their objec- 
tions^ to join him at once, looks very like a distrust of 
their intentions. He had just finished a letter to 
them as the communication from Hotham reached his 

"After I had concluded this letter, I received yours, dated 
2nd June. I do, notwithstanding all the objections and 
difficulties therein represented, desire that as you tender the 
pubUc safety, you draw down this day with all the forces you 
have, and join with me to suppress this Popish army here, 
which else, whatsoever report gives it out to you, is of 
power, without God's miraculous dehverance, to destroy our 
force, and so by degrees to ruin the kingdom/' 

That the Hothams were meditating treason at this 
moment is beyond question, and that Captain Hotham 
regarded the war as a mere marauding expedition, and 
thought only of how he could make the best terms and 
the most plunder, the issues of a few days substantially 
proved. Less than three weeks after the date of this 

48 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

letter to Lord Fairfax, we find Mr. Pym, in the House 
of Commons, detaiKng the extraordinary ill conduct of 
this gentleman : how he plundered various persons, 
without reference to their party ; how on one occasion 
he turned his cannon against Cromwell, who belonged to 
his detachment, and who may be supposed to have pro- 
tested against his proceedings ; how he was in the habit 
of getting up unseemly brawls amongst the troops ; and 
how he corresponded with the enemy, especially with the 
Queen, who, by this time, had returned fi-om Holland. 

The evidence on these points was decisive, and 
Captain Hotham was taken in his, bed, and imprisoned 
in Nottingham Castle ; but he managed to make his 
escape, and was fooHsh enough to take refuge in Hull, 
with his father, who was himself plotting the surrender 
of the town to the Royalists. Secret information of 
this design having been conveyed to the Mayor, the 
townspeople quietly assembled in the night, and seizing 
the magazine, the ordnance, and the guards, made 
themselves masters of the place, without shedding a 
drop of blood. Sir John, the Governor, scared out of 
his sleep by this sudden action, which hardly consumed 
the space of an hour, fled out of his house in a state of 
utter dismay, and meeting a man riding into the town, 
he made him alight, and mounting the horse, galloped 
for his Hfe into the open country, through the Beverly 
gate ; — that gate which, but a few months before, was 
the scene of the one great luminous incident of his life, 
and now the witness of his total ruin and disgrace. At 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAK. 49 

such a time, it was indispensable to the safety of all 
other men that traitors should suffer for their guUt; 
and the justice of the Parliament in such cases was 
swift and sure. In the depth of that winter the 
Hothams were tried for the crimes they had com- 
mitted during the long days of the summer, and 
in the ensuing January they were executed on Tower 

At the end of June, Lord Fairfax, having succeeded 
in getting his troops together, intercepted the progress 
of the Earl of Newcastle, and gave him battle on 
Adderton Moor. The result was disastrous to the Par- 
liament, whose troops were completely routed and com- 
pelled to fall back upon Bradford, and hunted from 
thence into Hull, which had just been vacated by Sir 
John Hotham. But failures were so rapidly balanced 
by victories, that there was hardly time to calculate 
between them. ParHament, however, found leisure to 
recognise and reward the activity and endurance of 
Lord Fairfax, wisely availing themselves of this oppor- 
tunity to appoint him governor of Hull. 


My Lobd, 

I HAVE communicated your letter, of the 5th of 
July, unto the House, who have commanded me to let your 

VOL. r, £ 

60 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

lordship know^ that as they have always been sensible of 
your many and worthy services^ so are they now not without 
a deeper resentment of your late sufferings^ whereof they 
will be ready to give your lordship a full testimony by their 
constant endeavours to assist you in the great employment 
you have undertaken for the suppressing of that Popish 
army which hath so maliciously, and by so many unworthy 
and barbarous proceedings, invaded the true religion and 
sincere worship of Almighty God, the safety of his Majesty, 
and the tranquillity of his kingdoms, in the prosecution of 
these honourable designs, so much tending to the settling of 
these present distractions. I am commanded to let you 
know, and to give all assurance that this House will never 
desert you, but, upon all occasions, extend their uttermost 
power and authority both to accommodate you with all 
necessaries suitable to so great undertakings, and to protect 
your lordship against the opposition and malignity of all 
those incendiaries, from whose oppression and cruelties they 
hope your lordship's wisdom and courage will be a sanctuary 
and refuge to many of his Majesty's distressed and most 
loyal subjects in the northern parts. And for the better 
securing thereof they have, with the concurrence of the 
lords, appointed your lordship to be Governor of Hull, 
whereby they conceive your lordship will be very much 
enabled to proceed in these weighty affairs with much 
advantage, by the access of that strong garrison to your 
lordship's army. I am likewise to let you understand that 
they have been frequently informed of the carriage and 
deportment of your son. Sir Thomas Fairfax, in his com- 
mand, so full of valour and honour, for which this House 
will be ever ready to give to him and the rest of the com- 
manders aU due encouragement, as opportunity shaU be 

16^.] THE CIYIL WAR. 61 

offered. And thus^ Mrisbing your lordship all prosperity and 
safety^ I rest 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Wm. Lbnthall, 


Wetimmttery July 19^ 1643. 


The Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, 
upon the assured confidence and trust which they have and 
do repose in the vrisdom, valour, and fidelity of the right 
honourable Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, do ordain, declare, and 
appoint that the said Lord Fairfax shall be governor of the 
town of Eingston-upon-Hull, in the place and stead of Sir 
John Hotham, knight and baronet, for securing of the said 
town and the magazines there -, and that he shall and may 
command the said town, and the forces therein, and have the 
like power that the said Sir John Hotham had ; and that all 
persons whom it doth or may concern shall give their 
obedience unto the said Lord Fairfax and his emissaries ; 
and that the said Lord Fairfax, or who else he shall appoint 
under him, shall not deliver up the town of Hull, or maga- 
zines there, or any part thereof, without the King's authority 
signified unto him by both Houses of Parliament. And the 
said Lords and Commons do further ordain and declare that 
the said Lord Fairfax shall have the like power and allow- 
ance of soldiers, both of horse and foot, for the defence of the 
said town, and the Uke pays and allowances for himself, his 
officers, and soldiers, as the said Sir John Hotham, his 
officers, and soldiers formerly had ; and shall and may at his 


52 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

will and pleasure place and displace the officers and aoldiers 
of the said garrison, so as to him shall seem most necessary 
for the defence and safety of the said town. 

Jo. Srowne/ 

TT -n r Cfer. Pail, 

H. Elsynge, 

Dm B(Mihd^ 22nd July, 1643. 


In other places the King s troops were actively 
engaged beating up the Parliament quarters, and her 
Majesty, who had recently returned from Holland, was 
making a sort of military progress to meet the King, 
with whom she fell in at Edgehill, the memorable spot 
where he had fought his first battle in arms against the 
people. About the same time Hampden was killed at 
Chalgrave Field, and Waller's Plot, as it is called, was 
detected. Some of these incidents are alluded to in the 
following gossiping letter : 


Noble Sir, 

The last week your letter came so late, that I had 
no opportunity to return you thanks for so great a favour, 
nor must you now expect any other thsji jefune expressions, 
according to the nature of our monthly solemnity, which falls 
out upon this very day. Your candour, therefore, must take 
for current coin the deep apprehension I have of so unde- 
served an honour. The truth is, my patience is nearly worn 
out to stay seven hours in a church, my ears being guilty of 
scarce three words of sense, and my only comfort that I had 
like to have starved in a great audience. 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 53 

This next day being Thursday, Mr. Waller and the rest 

are to come to their trial in Guildhall, where I believe the 
delinquents would find mercy enough, if the fear of tumult 
did not urge their judges to some exemplary severity. Our 
army's pause makes no good harmony in the citizens' opi- 
nions; and Colonel Hampden's death revives the memory 
of my Lord Srooke's funeral. I know not what news to 
write, unless that we have continual collections for distressed 
Ireland, and our own maimed soldiers. It is supposed that 
many salve up the ruins of their estates out of their woiuids. 
The House of Commons are now perfecting the proof of their 
articles against the Queen ; and the report is that the Eling 
hath declared this Parliament not to be free, and therefore to 
have invited the members thereof to Oxford; whereupon 
our Lords are much incensed. What Sir WiUiam Waller or 
Brereton do with their forces we cannot yet understand. 

Certainly I think we may better refer ourselves to Paris for 
news than take it up at London. Let not these times make 
you fall out with chess, for kings and queens may in time 
come again in fashion : however, let that keep up their 
memory. As for bishops, I must confess I think that here 
they will scarce ever recover any other notion, than what that 
game in France affords them ; for their subversion seems to 
be the chief fuel of these desperate troubles. 

I have not had the happiness to see your father a long time, 
nor your brother this fortnight. Next Friday I purpose to 
wait upon them 4t Deptford, I much rejoice to hear of any 
hopes of your wife's so complete a cure, and should account 
myself infinitely happy to see the accompUshment. Pray pre- 
sent her with my most humble respects, and tell her &om me 
as a prognostic, that her own resolution will be her best 
remedy. If Mr. Satty be with you still, he may take notice 

54 MEMORIALS OT [164a 

that I have received my lancets^ and far the same^ with many 
thankfi and my best service^ remain his debtor. The other day 

I met my Lord Downes^ and at Piccadilly, the quondam 

owner of the Diamond Ring, a day after, who is fitting out his 
ship for the last year's voyage. The gentleman is almost out 
of conceit with his fortune at picquet. Sir, I confine myself to 
the limits of my paper, and request you to honour me still 
with your wonted favours, and esteem me. 

Your must humble servant. 

Winston is cashiered of his Gresham fellowship, and Dr. 
De Laen put in his room. 

Mr. Greene was with me yesterday in the afternoon, and 
he is resolved, so soon as he can get a letter from the King 
to you, to come over to you.* 

f London, 29th /ttne, 1643. 

It cannot be concealed that affairs were not so pros- 
perous vnth the Parliamentary forces as their patience 
and energy deserved. An appeal to the gentlemen of 
Huntingdonshire, from the Committee of the Associated 
Counties, sitting at Cambridge, shows to what extremi- 
ties they were driven, and how near to dissolution they 
were reduced for want of money : 


Wb are in great strait, being constrained for our 
security to guard Huntingdon with some companies, the 

* From Mr. Bentle/s Ck>]lection. 

164S.] THE CIVIL WAB. 55 

enemy making maxiy sallies out upon our frontier, coming 
down to Peterborough this last night, as we are informed by 
our scouts, and since sent to us by our committee at Hunt- 
ingdon. We have, according to the resolution of the Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons for our association, a rule 
of proportion upon every county for what monies we want; 
and have sent unto them for 4000/,, which, according to the 
proportion by them agreed, (which herein we send you,) 
makes your proportion amount to the sum of eight-score 
pounds, which sum we pray you to send us with all speed, for 
the payment of our forces herein and at Huntingdon, and 
discharging of our necessary dues. For we are debarred of 
raising any monies, the ordinance of Parliament Umiting the 
raising of monies by the particular committees in their several 
counties. Then if you shall not speedily send us, our garrison 
will disband, our forces will be possessed by the enemies, and 
ten special pieces of ordnance will be turned upon you and 
us, and repentance will be too late. A word to the wise is 
enough. Here we send you the several sums brought into 
our treasury since we began out of the several counties, and 
the sums disbursed, and what we owe, whereby you may see 
what the proportion in expense is since our sitting in Cam- 
bridge. You shall be sure, if God permit, and we by your 
means be enabled to be kept together, to give you a true 
account of your several sums which we shall receive from 
time to time from you. Gentlemen, seriously consider the 
necessity of keeping this Committee together, and supplying 
money for such forces as they need, (which we hope shall be 
with all the best care we can, for the security of the charge 
and benefit of the several counties,) as a means of the greatest 
concernment to aU the Association. Pardon the length of our 
lines, on account of those who desire not to serve them- 

56 MEMOBIALS OF [1643. 

selves^ but the kingdom^ our country^ yourselves more tliaa 
themselves^ aud shall not fail to rest. 

Tour assured friends, 

John King. John Palorave. 

Thomas Fabkeb. Franc. Jbbmyn. 

James Thompson. Jno. Eden. 

John Sbewsteb. Samuel Beads. 

Eight hundred men we desire of the whole Association : 
your proportion is thirty-two men. 

Further, we are to inform you that Mr. Thomas Corey 
being to pay long since 30/. into the treasury here, for which 
Mr. Greenwood, your sheriff, is security, we do expect that 
he will send up the same accordingly, whereof we entreat you 
will be pleased to give them notice. 

Gtentlemen, we have received this comfort, that by a party 
of horse sent to Peterborough we have discovered that the 
enemy is retreated,* 

Ckmbridge, the 17 th of June, 1643. 

Here follows a curious reUc in Cromwell's hand- 
writing, much to the same eflFect, urging, with a full 
heart, the youth of Huntingdon to contribute muscles 
and money to the common cause, and to supply horse 
troops as the chief necessity : 

MAIDS, 2nd august, 1643, FROM HUNTINGDON. 


I tJNDERSTAND by thcsc gentlemen the good affec- 
tions of your young men and maids, for which God is to be 

* From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 

1648.] THE CIVIL WAE. 57 

praised. I approve of the business^ only I desire to advise 
you that your foot company may be turned into a troop of 
horse, which, indeed, will (by God's blessing) far more advan- 
tage the cause than two or three companies of foot, especially 
if your men be honest, godly men, which by all means I 
desire. I thank God for stirring up the youth to cast in 
their mite, which I desire may be employed to the best 
advantage ; therefore my advice is, that you would employ 
your twelve-score pounds to buy pistols and saddles, and I 
will provide four-score horses ; for 400/. more will not raise a 
troop of horse. As for the muskets that are bought, I think 
the country will take them of you. Pray raise honest, godly 
men, and I will have them of my regiment. As for your 
of&cers, I leave it as God shall or hath directed to choose, 
and rest. 

Your loving friend, 

Oliver Cromwell.* 

Augua 2nd, 1643. 

Cromwell had lately gained what he termed "a 
notable victory" at Gainsborough, but in the foUowing 
interesting letter to the Cambridge Committee (who, 
as we have seen, were not to blame for the straits to 
which the army were reduced), he shows how uncertain 
all prospects were in that direction, and how grievously 
the troops were neglected by those whose duty it was to 
provide for them. This plain speaking, and caUing 
aloud for succour, enabled the committee to send the 
echo of the crying want back to Parliament with 
redoubled force. 

* From Mr. Bentle/s Collectton. 

5& MEMOBIALS OF [1648. 




Finding our foot much lessened at Stamford^ and 
having a great train and many carriages^ I held it not safe 
to continue there, but presently after my return from you, I 
ordered the foot to quit that place and march into Holland, 
which they did on Monday last. I was the rather induced 
so to do because of the letter I received from my Lord 
Willoughby, a copy whereof I sent you. I am now at 
Peterborough, whither I came this afternoon. I was no 
sooner come but Lieutenant Colonel Wood sent me word, 
from Spalding, that the enemy was marching with twelve 
flying colours of horse and foot within a mile of Swinstead, 
so that I hope it was- a good providence of God that our 
foot were at Spalding; it much concerns your association 
and the kingdom that so strong a place as Holland is be 
not possessed by them ; if you have any foot ready to march, 
send them away to us with all speed. I fear lest the enemy 
should press in upon oar foot ; he being thus far advanced 
towards you, I hold it very fit that you should hasten your 
horse at Huntingdon and what you can speedily raise at 
Cambridge unto me. I dare not go into Holland with my 
horse, lest the enemy should advance with his whole body of 
horse this way into your association, but am ready endeavour- 
ing to get my Lord Gray's and the Northamptonshire horse 
to me, that so, if we be able, we may fight the enemy, or 
retreat unto you with our whole strength. I beseech you 
hasten your leavers, what you can, especially those of foot; 
quicken all our friends with new letters upon this occasion, 
which I believe you will find to be a true alarm : the parti- 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 59 

cnlars I hope to be able to inform yon speedily of more 
punctually^ having sent in all haste to Colonel Wood for 
that purpose. The money I brought with me is so poor a 
pittance when it comes to be distributed amongst all my 
troops that^ considering their necessity^ it will not half clothe 
them^ they were so far behind ; if we have not more money 
speedily they will be exceedingly discouraged. I am sorry 
you put me to it to write thus often, it makes it seem a 
needless importunity in me ; whereas, in truth, it is a constant 
neglect of those that should provide for us. Gentlemen, 
make them able to live and subsist that are willing to spend 
their blood for you. I say no more, but rest 

Your faithful servant, 

Oliver Cromwell.* 

Augua 8^, 1643. 

The same language is held everywhere with greater 
and lesser eagerness ; and amidst this universal clamour, 
threatening disorganisation and rupture, we find the 
Fairfaxes, father and son, steadily pursuing their objects, 
moving up and dovm the country through risks and 
perils of no common magnitude, and keeping their breath 
for action, while most others are expending theirs in 
murmurs and complaints. At Bradford, Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, besieged by the Earl of Newcastle, cut his 
passage through the Royalists, and made good his way 
to Leeds. On this occasion his wife was taken prisoner. 
Finding Leeds in the utmost disorder, he fled towards 
Hull, and on his way defended the ferry at Selby, while 
his &.ther crossed the river. Calamities accumulated 

* From Mr. BenUey's Collection. 

60 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

upon him. He was shot in the wrist, and from the 
fatigues of this dreadful retreat neariy lost his daughter, 
then only five years old, afterwards Duchess of Buck- 
ingham. For twenty hours he sat his horse with his 
wrist shattered. At Burton he lay down, hoping to get 
a little rest, but was called up in a quarter of an hour 
by the sudden appearance of the enemy, and had scarcely 
time to huddle his ordnance on board a ship in the 
Humber, when the King's troops galloped into the town. 
In this mangled condition, covered with blood, without a 
shirt, and his clothes rent, he arrived alive at Hull. A 
few days afterwards the Earl of Newcastle had the 
gallantry to send home Lady Fairfax in his own coach, 
attended by a maid of honour. 

The usual horrors of civil war convulsed the country. 
There was no security against the lawlessness of the 
soldiery, who availed themselves (on both sides) of the 
sUghtest pretexts for entering private houses, and plun- 
dering and menacing the inhabitants. A suspicion of 
disaffection either way, or the possession of arms or 
gunpowder, was excuse enough for violence and rapine. 
Unprotected widows, or ladies who were left in charge 
of mansions and domains, while their husbands were 
out levying troops, offered irresistible temptation to the 
scattered parties of half-fed troops that went marauding 
himgrily over the country. The history of these cam- 
paigns is highly coloured vnth personal incidents, such 
as that to which the following letter alludes. The 
writer is the Lord Francis Willoughby, who was 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 61 

drowned at Barbadoes in 1666, and the lady referred 
to was the widow of Viscount Castleton, an Irish peer, 
whose grandson was created a peer of England by the 
same title in 1714 : 



Noble Sir, 

There is a lady, my lady Casselton, a kinswoman 
of mine, who hath been frighted by some of your troops 
that have plundered in her house ; there was some powder 
found there, which I hear she hath much exceptions taken 
against her for; her lord was a deputy lieutenant, and this 
powder was of the country^s powder which he had, having a 
command of the Trained Bands. You may see by the being 
of it there, that she had no intentions against the Parliament, 
for you know there have been many occasions for her to show 
her affection. She is a lady, and I know you are civil to all, 
much more to ladies ; only I make this request, in my lady's 
behalf, she being a widow, and having many things as chil- 
dren and debts of my lord's to look after, that she may have 
your favour, as not to have any hard opinion of her ; but 
that you would be pleased to be a friend to her in answering, 
if anything should be informed against her. I will assure 
you I should not move it, but that I know she is and ever 
hath been no ill friend of the ParHament; in it you shall 
oblige me, who am 

Your most humble servant, 

ToUaU, ikU 2ML of October, 

62 MEMORIALS OF [1648. 

The Earl of Newcastle (about this time elevated to 
a marquisate) had now penetrated into Lincolnshire 
with nearly the whole of his army. His design was to 
seize Boston, the "key of the Associated Counties," 
and thence away into Essex to block up London. The 
Fairfaxes made a diversion at Stanford Bridge, which 
drew him into Yorkshire, where he sat down before Hull 
under somewhat hopeless circumstances, the sluices being 
opened at his approach, and the country flooded for 
two miles round. While his Lordship of Newcastle 
was meditating upon this intervention of the waters, the 
yoxmger Fairfax crossed over into Lincolnshire at the 
head of a body of horse (useless in besieged Hull) to 
join the Earl of Manchester. He was eagerly received 
on landing by Cromwell. The junction of their forces 
led to the battle of Homcastle, or Winceby Fight, as 
it is now frequently called. Of this fight we have 
the following special relation amongst the Fairfax 
papers : 


Upon the 10th day of October, the Earl of Manchester 
advanced with his horse and foot from Boston to the towns 
about BuUingbrooke^ in Lincolnshire^ with a purpose to take 
the castle of Bullingbrooke^ which did enslave all those parts 

1643.J THE CIVIL WAR. 63 

of Holland near Teiston. The enemy haying taken posses- 
sion of Wanflet^ began there to fortify^ intending to make his 
winter quarters there. Upon the EarVs march into those 
parts the enemy quitted that pass and upon the 10th day 
the Earl quartered at Kirkby^ within a mile of BuUingbrooke^ 
and quartered his horse six miles up in the country beyond 
Bullingbrooke ; the alarm place for his horse being Horn- 
castle ; and sent ten foot companies into the town of Bulling- 
brooke^ under the command of Sir Miles Hubbart^ where the 
enemy had the church fortified^ besides the castle. The 
same day eighty colours of horse and dragoons of the enemy 
marched £rom fraising Lincoln and other quarters, and came 
in a fall body towards Horncastle^ and marched so fast as 
they were discovered but two hours before they came to 
Homeastle; by which means the alarm could not be so 
speedily given to the horse quarters of the Earl of Man- 
chester^ so as to get into a full body before the enemy was at 
Homcastle. Yet such was the vigilance and industry of the 
Earl^ that he went from his own quarters towards Homcastle 
upon the first alarm^ and got many of his horse into a body 
at Homcastle town^s end. There he stood^ and wanting above 
a twentieth of his troops^ he thought it not fit to engage^ but 
fell back into his quarters at Kirkby^ that so he might draw 
up all his forces to an entire body^ while those troops he had 
stood in the alarm-place at Homcastle. 

Captain Plaine and Captain Moody^ their troops coming 
from their quarters within seven miles of Lincoln^ espied 
three bodies of the enemy betwixt them and the town of 
Homcastle^ and being ordered to march to the rest of the 
troops^ and having no way to deliver themselves, they charged 
the first body of the enemy and routed it, and killed many. 
Then they came to another body, and charged them through. 

64 MEMOBIALS OF [1643. 

and so forced their way to the town of Homcastle^ withont 
the loss of above eight men. Captain Johnson coming like- 
wise towards the alarm-place^ hj mistake fell upon a quarter 
of the enemy^ took twelve prisoners and brought off his men 
without any loss. Captain Johnson and Captain Samuel 
Moody were under Sir Miles Hubbard^s command. 

The Earl spent all that night in the field for the better draw- 
ing up of his body together against the next mornings when 
having intelligence that the enemy would march next day 
to BuUingbrooke for the relief of the castle^ the Earl^ the 
next morning, being Wednesday the 12th of October, drew 
all his horse and foot into battalions upon BuUingbrooke Hill, 
having a very safe place of retreat into Holland. About twelve 
of the clock, notice was brought that the enemy was march- 
ing within three miles in a full body, whereupon the Earl 
marched towards them and met them midway upon a plain 
field, near where the armies faced one another about one 
hour, and then the forlorn hope had a very sharp encounter, 
and my Lord Manchester's regiment and Colonel Cromwell's 
gave their body such a charge as they would not abide a 

Colonel Cromwell charged at some distance before his regi- 
ment, when his horse was killed under him. He recovered 
himself, however, from under his horse but afterwards was 
again knocked down, yet by God's good providence he got up 
again. The enemy's forlorn hope charging ours, and a good 
body of horse following them. Sir Thomas Fairfax being in 
the rear of Colonel Cromwell's regiment with lus first body, 
fell in towards the flank of the enemy's body, which they 
perceiving, the enemy's body broke, and so Sir Thomas had 
the chase and execution of them a great way. Sir Miles 
Hubbard's regiments were ready to charge, and the enemy 

1643. J THE CIVIL WAR. 65 

turning head^ our men fell upon them and pursued them four 
mileS; killing them and taking prisoners all the way. 

Colonel Camaby^ Colonel Hopton> and divers persons of 
great quality were slain^ whereof many fell in the place of 
encounter. 1200 were slain^ wounded^ and taken prisoners^ 
and as the countrymen report, betwixt 100 and 200 drowned in 
Homcastle river. The Earl pursued the enemy to Homcastle 
and there quartered for the night. Very many of our men 
are wounded, but we do not hear of above twenty killed. Let 
God have all the praise of this victory ! Twenty-^six colours, 
which were taken, are brought already to my lord. 

While this fight was going on, the roar of cannon 
was heard at a distance, and the smoke of other 
guns than those of Winceby was seen gathering upon 
the heavens. It was from the beleaguered walls of 
Hull The elder Fairfax, while his son was heading 
the reserve of horse at Homcastle, and hunting the 
dishevelled Royalists into ditches and quagmires, charged 
out suddenly upon the Earl of Newcastle, and threw 
him and his troops into such consternation that he 
fled for York, leaving his ordnance behind him. These 
events were decisive as far as they went. Lincoln- 
shire was now pretty well cleared of the Array, and 
Yorkshire held out but a precarious shelter. The 
Royalists, defeated lat the same moment at the two 
points to which they had directed their main strength, 
shut themselves up in their quarters, and attempted 
nothing more that winter. 

How these signal successes were effected by an army 

VOL.1. P 

66 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

in such a condition of bankruptcy is past comprehen- 
sion. Food and clothing there was httle, and some- 
times none. Even the officers, unless they could help 
themselves, were reduced to rags. Yet they kept 
together and acted together with a devotion quite un- 
paralleled. A petition to Sir Thomas Fairfax from 
some of his officers, dated about the middle of the 
December of this year, affords a conclusive illustration 
of the misery through which this high-mettled zeal sur- 
vived to show itself in all aspects worthy of its cause : 

Noble Sir, 

The ardent zeal we have to promote the cause of 
Almighty God, the great desire we have to enjoy the liberties 
of our nation, and our hearty affection to your person, have 
drawn us with unwearied endurance of toils, undauntedness 
of courage, and unreproveable demeanours, to follow you 
through divers countries. How the Omnipotent goodness 
hath showered happy successes upon us, is apparent to all 
that have seen or heard it. What remuneration we have 
had, is known only to yourself. And seeing our extreme 
wants do now urge us, we are bold to present our complaints 
to you, from whom we look to be supplied; be therefore 
pleased to take our condition into your consideration, and 
conceive of us, as men who have hved in a reasonable affluence 
of all conveniences, and now to be dejected into so deep an 
exigency it must needs abate our spirits. 

If these countries, for whom (by Grod^s providence) we 
have done so great things, be unwilling to supply us, that we 
may be enabled to provide clothes for our backs, shoes and 
other accoutrements for our horses, and some comfortable 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 67 

refreshing for our bodies, in case God shall please to visit us ; 
that some speedy and effectual course may be taken to compel 
them thereunto^ before we be drawn hence^ and if there be 
no hopes of any recompense^ and that we must hazard our 
lives and fortunes; we rather desire that you would lead us 
into our own country^ (which hath groaned imder longer and 
greater desolations than any in the kingdom^) where we^ for 
the regaining of our estates^ the freedom of our country^ the 
flourishing of the Gospel^ and the enjoyment of our Hberties, 
will be content with our former imwearied diligence to submit 
ourselves to your honour's commands. 

Will. Long. John Wildon, 

BicH. Sta^n^ofe. Leon. Bobinson. 

Geo. Smithson. Tho. Ackland. 

BoBEBT Newham. Matt. Fosteb* 

Thomas Talbot. Bichabd Smyth, 

bichabd o&acboft. john marshall. 

Thomas Johnson. Mich. Richardson. 
Edwabd Hatwabd. 

Upon his ovra credit, Sir Thomas Fair&x clothed 
1500 of his men, nor was he wanting in other sacrifices 
to encourage them. Having been appointed to a sepa- 
rate command, as General of Cheshire, with its adjacent 
counties, he found his labours and responsibilities heavily 
increased, while his resources were more beggarly than 
ever. In the coldest part of the season, with his men, 
sick, ill-paid, and half-naked, he was ordered to march for 
Nantvdch, to raise the siege of that town, which was 
put to great extremity by Lord Byron, at the head of a 

wild Irish army. In yain he called upon Parliament to 


68 MEMORIALS OF [1643. 

supply the wants of the soldiery. Parliament lacked 
the means. Thus left to shift for himself, he put his 
ragged followers into the best condition he could, and in 
the following letter announced to the committee his 
intention, in the face of these most adverse circimi- 
stances, to set out for Nantwich. 




I AM not a little grieved to perceive by yours of 
December 22nd, that Sir William Brereton is so straitened 
by the confluence of such potent enemies. His own truly 
noble, deportment and worth, besides the interest of the 
common cause, do challenge the utmost assistance of the 
power of any that bear good afiPection to the pubhc safety. 
For my own part, though many objections arise from the 
present condition of the forces under my command, and 
otherwise, I resolve, if God permit, to begin my march 
towards his relief within two days at the furthest, and had 
done so sooner had not the necessary provision of clothes, and 
other things for my men, retarded my resolution somewhat. 
My purpose is to march by the way of Leicester, and be 
there, God willing, about Monday or Tuesday next. 

My desire is, that I may by your means receive information 
which way from thence I may most safely march; what your 
intelligence is concerning the interposition of the enemy's 
forces; where it is expected I should fall in with the forces of any 
of our friends, (for though your letters mention a besieging of 
Sir William Brereton, they name no place where) ; and what 

1643.] THE CIVIL WAR. 69 

else you shall conceive may be most conducible to the expe- 
diting of my desires in this service. If you shall think fit 
thus to send ns any further lights the messenger may either 
meet with or hear of us at Leicester; if not^ I desire he 
should come on further towards my quarters, and I doubt 
not but he will meet us on our march. Further I shall not 
now add, but commit the issue of all to the blessing of God, 
to whose providence in this particular service, and in any 
other that may advance the public good, there is none more 
desirous to be instrumental than 

Tour affectionate friend and servant, 

Thos. Fairfax. 

Sempringham, Dee. 27lhy 1643. 

In two days after the date of this letter, he was on 
his way to Nantwich, at the head of 2500 foot, and 
28 troops of horse. 









The winter of 1644 opened with great severity. 
The same snow, knee-deep, through which the Scots 
crossed the border, was crushed by the troops of the 
younger Fairfax on his road to a new triumph. His 
&ther still holding Hull, was still the Parliamentary 
general for the whole of the north ; yet the bolder 
genius of the son had already begun to fill out a larger 
space in the eyes of the country. Thundering down to 
the gates of Nantwich, with his raw levy of foot soldiers, 
and his dragoons in their new suits, he found the town 
in such a strait of weakness and famine, that it was on 
the point of surrendering. He had just come in time. 
Understanding that Lord Byron, who had been apprised 
of his approach, had drawn out his troops to meet him, 
he adopted the singular expedient of putting his men 
into the order in which he intended to fight, and thus 
continued his march tiU he came up within cannon-shot 
of the enemy's works. The battle was of short duration, 
but most important in its consequences. Lord Byron 
and his Irish were utterly routed ; and the whole body, 
with the exception of a fragment of horse that escaped 
to Chester, surrendered themselves in disorder — officers, 

74 MEMOBIALS OF [1644. 

men, arms, colom^, and ammunition — ^into the hands of 
the victors. These Byrons were strenuous supporters 
of the monarch, and the last and most illustrious of the 
name has made it a matter of exultation that four 
brothers of them fell in the royal cause.* 

Fair&x thus communicated his hardships and success 
to his wife : — 


Deab Heart^ 

Though I staid long for an opportunity of writing 
to you^ yet Ood be thanked I can now have it, with cause of 
much thankfulness ; for a great victory it hath pleased Him to 
give ufl over the Irish army, having totally routed their foot, 
and taken ahnost all their chief commandersf and inferior 
ones too, a Ust of whom I send you here inclosed, and a par- 
ticular relation to the Lord General t of that service, Grod is 
to have the glory, who put them so happily into our hands. 

I have not yet heard from you since your coming to London, 
but heard you were safely arrived there. I have endured 
some hardship since I parted with you, being forced to march 
and watch night and day this frost and snowy weather. I 
have much trouble to command these forces I now have. 

* ^ On MarstoD^ with Rupert, Against trftitora contending, 

Four brothers enriched with their blood the bleak field. 
For the righte of a monarch, their country defending, 

'Till death their attachment to royalty sealed." — Howrt of Idleness, 
f Amongst them, Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle. 
X Essex. The ^ particular relation " will be found in Bushworth. It is 
dated on the day following the date of this letter. Sir Thomas wrote to his 
wife first. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAB. 75 

there being such divisions amongst the commanders^ which 
doth much impair my health. I desire you to present my 
humble duty to my Lady Vere. I had no time to write, but 
by this to make my excuse, and acknowledgment of my great 
debt for her ladyship^s favours. Remember my humble ser- 
vice to all my honourable and noble sisters, and to my sister 
Elizabeth* and Moll. So, dear heart, farewell. 

Your most affectionate husband, 

Tho. Fairfax. 
For yourself, dear heart. 

Na/ntwick, Jan. 28«^, 1643-4. [N. S, 1 644.] 

Little alleviation of the state of the army appears to 
have taken place up to this time. Pay was still in 
arrears, and doled out with uncertainty ; and outrages, 
which no authority, under such circumstances, could 
wholly restrain, continued to spread dismay through 
the countiy. With a view to sustain the zeal of his 
troops, and keep them in proper condition for the toils 
that lay before them, Sir Thomas Fairfax submitted 
the following string of resolutions to the principal 
officers and gentry of Lancashire : — 

* His sister Elizabeth was married to Sir Wm. Craven, of Linchwicke, in 
Worcestershire. If by Moll is meant his daughter Mary, she was at this time 
little better than five years old. 

76 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 


1. That to supply the present necessity of my body of 
horse there be speedily procured 4000/.^ which will not amount 
to more than a fortnight's pay^ and that afterwards the horse 
and foot being considered as one entire body^ be paid pro- 
portionably out of the weekly assessments^ and otherwise 
by the public treasurer appointed. 

2. That for the more speedy raising of the said sum of 
4000/. such persons throughout the county as have not 
advanced upon the possessions^ or not proportionable to 
their estates^ be assessed according to the ordinances of 
Parliament^ and in particular that there be presently required 
and seized^ of the persons nominated in a schedule hereunto 
annexed^ the sum of 8000/. in a proportionable way. 

3. That there be a speedy course taken to raise upon the 
county in a proportionable way 800 able serviceable horse 
for the recruiting of my troops. 

4. That a particular list be given in of the several cobi- 
panies in the county^ as well such as are newly raised^ as others^ 
to the end they may be disposed into several regiments, and 
exercised and commanded out as there shall be occasion. 

5. That some way may be contrived to draw out of the 
several regiments 2000 men that may be actually in service 
under my command^ and move with me out of the county 
for the public service as there shall be occasion. 

6. That that part of Cheshire that by agreement was 
assigned for the maintaining of the garrison of Warrington^ 
may be returned to be liable to the charge of Cheshire, and 
that either the garrison be not continued at Warrington, or 

1644.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 77 

if there be cause it should^ that it be mamtained out of the 
charge of Lancashire. 

7. That it be considered what garrisons are necessary to 
be maintained in the county^ and what number of men are 
requisite thereunto. 

8. That in regard of the late outrages by garrisons at 
Lathom^ some course be thought on to prevent farther 
mischiefs^ and secure the well affected in those parts. 

Pebrwvry Ihth, 1643, [N^, 1644.] 

Lord Byron was lieutenant-general to Prince Rupert, 
who held the command in this part of the coimtry, and 
his defeat at Nantwich operated dismally on the spirits 
of the Royalists. Prince Rupert was immediately 
despatched to Shrewsbury, Chester, and North Wales, 
to look to the security of these places, and then to 
attempt the relief of Newark, which was trenched round 
by the troops of the Parliament. 

The preservation of Newark was of the last import- 
ance to the Royalists. Lying between Oxford and 
York, the whole of the intermediate coimtry would 
have been shut up had the town fallen into the hands of 
the Parliamentarians. To that point, therefore, they 
directed their energies, and Prince Rupert, collecting all 
the strength he could muster on his rapid journey 
through Shrewsbury and Chester, poured down upon 
Newark with such precipitation that the army, which lay 
encamped about its walls, were taken by surprise, and 
thrown into consternation. The garrison, consisting 
mostly of the gentry and the inhabitants, had been 

78 HBMOBIALS OF [1644. 

reduced to extremity ; and, had Prince Rupert's relief 
come a little later, the town must have surrendered. 
The suddenness of his appearance (for they believed 
him to be at some distance) spread such a confusion 
amongst the besiegers, that they gave way at once, 
and were glad to eJBFect a retreat at the cost of their 
arms and munitions. The failure before Newark is 
alluded to in a letter from Basil Fielding, Earl ot 
Denbigh, to Sir Thomas Fairfax. The writer was 
ardent in the cause of the Parliament, while his &ther 
fought on the other side. Amongst the revolting 
episodes of this civil war was the meeting of father and 
son on the field of battle at Edge-hiU, where the father 
was mangled with wounds, of which he died only a few 
months before the date of this letter. The son lived to 
distinguish himself in many of the conflicts which 
ensued, until the new-modelling of the army of the 
Parliament, when he threw up his commission and 
withdrew into private life. He survived the Restoration 
many years, and died in 1675. 


Noble Sib, 

Our late mischance at Newark hath necessitated me 
to march with all our forces here to the relief of our friends 
there, which will defer for a time my going for Shropshire. 
It troubles me much to hear the garrison of Wem remains 
yet under some danger, and therefore you will be pleased to 

16*4.] THE CIVIL WAS. 79 

cast your eye upon those parts^ upon this enforced delay I 
am put to^ in consideration of this present design^ which 
is of so great consequence to the whole Kingdom. If God 
will give us success in this attempt^ it will enable me to serve 
the counties adjoining you with advantage^ and be favour- 
able to our mutual interests there^ which shall be the 
endeavour of 

Your faithful friend^ and humble servant^ 

B. Denbigh. 

Coventry, March 2Srd, 1643. [iV. S, 1644.] 

Some letters, addressed to Sir Thomas Fairfax about 
this period, from oflBicers holding different commands, 
contain reports of the progress of affairs in other quar- 
ters. The first of these is from Colonel Duckenfield, the 
governor of Chester, who served in 1649 as high sheriff 
for the coimty of Chester. 


I HAVE endeavoured (since I knew your pleasiu*e) 
to get my soldiers into order fit for service, to advance 
to Nantwich; but they have disbanded themselves, and 
are following the plough, and from thence they will not 
be drawn. Yet upon the receipt of your letter yester- 
day^ I sent to the captains to join with me presently, to 
call their companies together, to march with them and me 
to Nantwich; but their soldiers refuse to stir yet. They 
pretend that the dragooners are so uncivil, that they plunder 

80 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

the country extremely^ and they dare not leave their houses 
for fear of them. Besides^ most of them have been upon 
service very long without any pay; and the gentlemen of the 
country take care to keep our men upon continual hard 
duty ; but they regard not the poor soldiers when the danger 
is passed^ which will be our ruin^ in regard there is that 
general resolution of the country hereabouts. I dare not 
take in hand to punish them yet^ unless I were more encou- 
raged and countenanced by the Council of War^ or by other 
safe authority; and that my men might be better paid^ 
I shall be willing to do duty as a common soldier myself^ 
rather than to command men in this way. I received an 
order from the Council of War before Michaelmas last past^ 
that my regiment should be first paid out of the sequestration 
in Macclesfield Hundred^ but neither myself nor my soldiers 
have received sixpence from them since that time ; and now 
they demand their pay, or part thereof, from me ; and the 
sequestrators are ordered to pay the money into the Treasury 
at Nantwich, which deprives them of all hope of pay. In 
case I keep a guard at Woodhead and Adlington I desire to 
know, whether those works must be pulled down or no. The 
Marshall-Oeneral men do dispose of the prisoners at Stock- 
port, and so suffer them to make escape for bribes ; and yet 
they expect that I or my officers shall both guard them and 
provide for them. The country is much offended hereat, and 
at the violence of the dragooners and troopers, more than 
I dare now inform you of. I am afraid some mischief will 
ensue thereof. I commend the business to your honourable 
consideration, and rest 

Your honour's servant, 

Robert Duckenfield. 

Stochport, 6th March, 1643. [N.S. 1644.] 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 81 



After two days^ stay at Stafford (for I could not 

get a convoy till Mr. Rugeley went to Coventry), I hasted 
to London with what speed mine own horses could ; for I could 
not well be furnished otherwise. The day before I came, the 
business concerning your march into Yorkshire was in 
agitation, and a Uttle preparation being put on by Sir Philip 
Stapleton ; but the next day, as soon as I was known to be 
in the town, the Yorkshire men were called, and the Cheshire 
men, to the Committee for both Kingdoms. Both gave 
their opinions each against other concerning it, and we dis- 
missed with this : — That it being a business of great import- 
ance^ they would take time to consider of it. There have 
been two debates about it since, but by Sir Philip's strong 
endeavours, it is now determined that you shall march into 
Yorkshire, as will more plainly appear. 

Sir, I received your letter, with that of Colonel Booth's and 
those of Colonel Holland's ; but, considering your march into 
Yorkshire will shortly begin, I have presumed to respite the 
negociation of them all till I receive further order from 
you, that of Colonel Booth being more proper for Sir 
William Brereton; that of Colonel Holland's being a business 
that will spin out some time, which you cannot attend, and 
that for the levying of money being of late ordered in several 
cases to be referred to the committees, and not to any officers 
military. The Ordinance for the 10,000/. we got passed 
yesterday ; and this day Captain Gill and I are to meet some 
of the City upon the Exchange about it. We are in hope to 

VOL. U o 

82 MEMOBIALS OF [1644. 

get it shortly ; and therein in truth Captain Gill hath taken 

much painS; both protecting and prosecuting the business 

to the utmost advantage hitherto. We hope to decide equally 

with Mr. White, who takes care for my lord^s part. My lady 

is very well j Sir William Fairfaxes lady is indiflferently 

recovered, and Mrs. Lambert in health also. 

A garrison, not far hence, of great importance, hath been 

lately stormed by our men, and most of the garrison put to the 

sword in the storm, being mostly Walloons. Sir Richard 

Greenfield, the Lieutenant-Colonel to Sir William Waller, is 

lately fled to the King with fifteen horse. The direction of a 

letter, sent from the King the other day to the Parliament, was 

yesterday in question, whether to be accepted or no. It was 

in these words : — " To the Lords and Commons of Parliament 

assembled at Westminster ;" but I think it is resolved to be 

accepted. This is all the news I hear ; wherewith I present 

my humble respects to you, desirous to approve myself. 


Your most humble and faithful servant, 

Chr. Copley. 

ffolbom, March 6ih, 1643. [N. S. 1644.] 

We hear since that the demi-cannon and the great mortar- 
piece are sent to Newark for the service there, and that the 
Scots have taken a troop of horse from the enemy. 




The news in these parts is, that Colonel Hastings 
is this day come to Ashbume ; and with those forces which, 
removed from Bakewell (they are about 1000 or 1200 

J644.] THE CIVIL WAB. 83 

strong), resolves to march to Chesterfield, there to join with 
Colonel Pretchvile; and that strength, with the forces at 
Doncaster, intend to raise the siege at Newark. This I 
have from a gentleman of this country, who was taken 
prisoner the last night by them, and upon some small com- 
position was set at liberty, and since gave me this notice. 

The best intelligence of Newark which I can learn is a letter 
that came from Sir John Gell to me, which I made bold to 
present yesterday to you. Here is a matter of twenty 
soldiers come to me from SheflSeld. If I were allowed to 
advance nearer those parts, I doubt not but to make a 
good addition to your strength. I shall heartily pray for 
your good success against Latham House, desiring, when 
either it is taken or surrendered, the dragoons may be sent 
up, according to your former order. I find the greatest part 
of the people senseless of their own good, and the commanders 
slow both in raising men and maintenance for them. 

If it please you to send Major Morgan in these parts, we 
may effect something upon the garrisoned houses, which do 
much hinder the increase of men and money. Sir, I humbly 
desire a commission, signed by yourself, to several gentlemen, 
whose names I shall put in as occasion or their faithfulness 
shows itself for the ^sessing and raising money, which, in the 
hundred of Scarsdale, High Yorke, and Wirksworth, we 
appointed for the maintenance of our force. It is too great 
a burden for me both to raise men and money. A man who 
is employed in war ought not to be troubled with the affairs 
of the world. 

Sir, Captain Lyn and his men, who is both active and 
faithfdl, be in great distress of money, being of my lord^s 
regiment, and in all the service of Cheshire. My humble 
request is, that he may have the same encouragement as 


84 MEMORIALS OF 11644. 

all other men^ his valour deserving it. I doubt not but 
ere this you have received intelligence^ if not from me, yet 
from others here, that the arms are all come to Derby in 
safety. What occurrences happen in these parts he will give 
you speedy notice of the same, who will ever rest 

Your most faithful and most humble servant, 

Jo. Bright. 

[AbotU the date of MarchJ] 

Sir, — I have already conveyed your former letter to Derby, 
and shall despatch the rest with all convenient speed. I 
desire your commission for establishing a committee may 
be sent with the first conveniency. Little news from Shef- 
field, or those parts, but men daily outruns them. I make 
bold to present this inclosed ; it came to a servant of mine, 
from his father, who lives about Sheffield. 

The picture given by Colonel Duckenfield of the state 
of the army shoves that all power of control over the 
soldiery was gone. They had disbanded themselves, 
gone back to their houses, and refiised to obey the 
summons of their officers to return to their duty. These 
serious embarrassments were heightened by an injudi- 
cious movement on the part of the Parliament, who, at 
a moment when it was so important to gather into the 
North all the available strength of the army, ordered 
oflF Sir Thomas Fairfax to the siege of Latham House, 
which he was strictly prohibited from breaking up 
without special leave. 

Latham, or Lathom House, the chief seat of the 
Stanleys, was a great building, standing in a spungy 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 85 

basin, surrounded by massive walls, flanked by nine 
ponderous towers mounting heavy pieces of ordnance, 
with a keep, a vast moat, and a breast-work. In this 
stronghold the Earl of Derby and his Countess were 
holding high revels, when the breaking out of the 
Civil War called away the Earl to the service of 
the King. During his absence the Countess was 
summoned to submit to the propositions of the Parlia- 
ment, or surrender. For several months she ingeniously 
contrived to evade a direct reply, enduring all the time 
the terrors of a siege, being confined to her private walks 
and gardens, and suffering the inconveniences of seques- 
tration. At last it was resolved that the siege should 
be carried out in right earnest, and on the 27th 
February Sir Thomas Fairfax established his quarters 
round the house. On the next day he transmitted to 
Lady Derby the following letter : — 


Being sent hither over this part by command £rom the 
Parliament to suppress and prevent all force that shaU oppose 
their legal just power, and to prevent the increasing miseries 
of some almost ruinated counties, which, by God^s great good- 
ness, hath had some happy success ; and understanding that 
your ladyship keeps Latham with a garrison of soldiers in it, 
which doth many injuries to the army and much hinder them, 
and is a receptacle and great encouragement to the Papists 
and disaffected persons in those parts, (which I cannot believe 
your ladyship doth naturally affect) ; I should not do my duty 

86 MEMORIALS OF [1644 

if I neglect the means to remove that mischief. Yet, madam, 
I do owe you that so much honour as a lady, as I would use 
all just means that would make me capable of serving your 
ladyship, and proceed so as may testify so much, though 
some force be already near your ladyship. 

I desire to have sent your ladyship herein inclosed an Act 
of Parliament (indeed I have need to excuse it to your lady- 
ship I had not a better to send you, having passed many hands, 
there being but this in the county), that your ladyship may 
make use of the clemency of the Parliament. And if the Earl 
of Derby wiU make an advantage of it, I shall faithfully serve 
his lordship in it ; and if your ladyship so render up that place, 
Latham House, I shall offer such terms as may be honourable 
and convenient for your ladyship, — not but the Parliament, 
which aims at nothing but the establishment of true religion 
and the honour and peace of the King and kingdom, will have 
a tender respect and care over your ladyship. I will add no 
more, but an assurance to your ladyship ; only I say this to 
prevent such that may happen, and to do your ladyship the 
best service that is in the power of 

Your ladyship^s most faithful and humble servant, 

Thos. Fairfax. 

Her ladyship's object was to gain time, and her 
policy consisted accordingly in demurs and delays. In 
reply to the requisition of the Parliamentary General, 
she expressed her wonder at being required to give up 
her lord's house, and begged a week's consideration that 
she might resolve her doubts of law and conscience. 
But Sir Thomas penetrated her purpose, became more 
peremptory, and oflFered to remove her ladyship in her 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 87 

carriage to New Park, a house of the earrs, about a 
quarter of a mile from Lathom. This message, which 
was courteously intended and delivered, surprised her 
ladyship into a passion, and she rejected it in a burst 
of anger, declaring that it would be more knightly that 
Sir Thomas should wait upon her than she upon him. 
In this way matters hung for a few days longer, the 
agents employed by Fairfax being invariably foiled 
by the wit or firmness of her ladyship ; until at last 
the negociations were suddenly brought to a close 
by a final declaration on the part of the Countess that 
she could treat no ferther, to which she added, that 
" though a woman and a stranger, [her ladyship was a 
French woman, daughter of the Due de Tremouille, and 
descended from the famous Count William of Nassau], 
divorced from her friends, and robbed of her estate, she 
was ready to receive their utmost violence, trusting in 
God for protection and deUverance." 

Upon the receipt of this answer, hostiUties were begun 
promptly enough, but carried on with most dreary 
indecision. They were put into motion about the 6th 
March, and we find Sir Thomas Fairfax sitting down 
here, directing single shots and splashes of powder to no 
eflfect till the 24th April, when he appears to have aban- 
doned the business, and proceeded, as he would have 
done long before if he had had the power, into York- 
shire. This siege of a valiant lady in her castle excited 
universal sympathy. It threw a sohtary glow of per- 
sonal interest upon a corner of the great war ; it was 

88 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

like a scrap of old romance let into a framework of 
coarse violent reality. 

The conduct of the siege now devolved upon Mr. or 
Colonel Rigby of Preston, a member of Parliament for 
Wigan, " a lawyer/^ says a contemporary, " and a bad 
one,'' of an impetuous disposition, and ill qualified, from 
want of military knowledge, to manage such an affair. 
He appears to have thought that the best thing he could 
do was to gather up his powder, and manufacture it 
into grenadoes, which he could fling upon the devoted 
garrison as opportunity suited. These grenadoes had 
already done much mischief, and he relied more upon 
them than upon all the rest of his resources. Having 
got his materials ready, he sent a ftirious message to 
Lady Derby, summoning her peremptorily to surrender. 
The heroine was standing amongst her soldiers when 
this message was deKvered. Receiving the paper on 
which it was written from the hands of the envoy, she 
tore it up, and exclaimed that the proper reward for 
Rigby would be to be hanged at her gates. " Tell that 
insolent rebel,'' she continued, "he shall neither have 
person, goods, nor house ; when our strength and pro- 
visions are spent, we shall find a fire more mercifiil than 
Rigby's, and then, if the providence of God prevent it 
not, my goods and house shall bum in his sight ; and 
myself, children, and soldiers, rather than fall into his 
hands, will seal our religion and loyalty in the same 

Apprehending, from the determined spirit of this 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 89 

answer, that Rigby would immediately open a fire 
upon the castle, her ladyship, whose valour was quite 
equal to her eloquent expression of it, resolved to 
be beforehand with him ; and, at four o'clock the next 
morning, her soldiers issued out of the eastern gate 
upon the desperate design of endeavouring to secure 
the ditch and rampart. It was a choice of deaths. 
The cry amongst thend was, " We must either kill or be 
killed.^' The horror of the crisis inspired them with a 
courage and devotion beyond all ordinary calculation. 
There was one mortar-piece which had raked them 
piteously, and which they feared more than all the 
rest of the enemy's guns. From its dreadful mouth 
issued those flaming grenadoes which, tumbling in 
showers of fire upon the heads of the beleaguered gar- 
rison, produced the most terrible results. The first 
thing they did was to make for the trench where this 
mortar-piece lay guarded by fifty soldiers. After a 
quarter of an hour's fighting, they won the sconce, 
gained the rampart, levelled the ditch, and drawing up 
the iron monster by ropes, dragged it into the house. 
Having accomplished their object, they looked down 
upon Rigby with scorn. It was a jubilee to witness 
the mad glee with which the poor soldiers danced round 
this fearftil trophy when they had got it safely within 
doors, and saw it lying dumb and harmless at their feet. 
The historian of the siege says, "Now [exulting over 
the mortar} neither ditches nor aught else troubled our 
soldiers; their grand terror, the mortar-piece, which had 

90 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

frightened them from their meat and sleep, lying, like a 
dead lion, quietly among them ; every one had his eye 
and his foot upon it, shouting and rejoicing as merrily 
as they used to do with their ale and bagpipes. Indeed, 
every one had this estimation of the service, that the 
main work had been done, and that what was yet 
behind was a mere pastime." 

Rigby's circumstances now became hopeless. He 
had been scorned, mocked, and beaten in the ditch, and, 
to crown his mortification as well a& his defeat, he had 
lost his mortar-piece, which had been of more use to 
him than either his skill or his soldiers. In this exi- 
gency, he apphed for help to the deputy Ueutenants of 
Lancashire, setting before them the usual complaint — 
want of money, and defalcation of troops. 




The siege of Latham House is a matter of great 
consequence to this whole county, and hath a further 
influence into other places ; but herein I need not to enlarge 
myself to you, who better understand the state of this county 
and who are so much interested therein. This work was 
begun with the personal presence and assistance of Sir 
Thomas Fairfax and Colonel Ashton, and afterwards others 
were by his honour enjoined to Colonel Ashton and my 
assistance, and since, though Colonel Ashton and his forces 

1^44] THE CIVIL WAR. 91 

have been withdrawn from me, I have not enjoyed the 
assistance intended, so that thereby I have been destitute of 
means to get in monies to maintain the work, and enforced 
to borrow great and considerable sums of money, both upon 
my word and bond, for the pubUc use. We have had many 
nights together alarms, and beaten them into the house six 
and seven times in a night, and by these alarms and great 
numbers in the house, and by our losses, my soldiers have 
been enforced some to watch and stand upon the guard in 
the trenches two nights together, and others two nights in 
four, in both which kind my son hath performed his duties 
as the meanest captain; and for myself I almost languish 
under the burden, having toiled above my strength. The 
length of the siege and the hard duties have wearied all 
the soldiers ; many have departed without license, many of the 
volunteers of Leyland and Amoundemess (though called) have 
forborne to come unto my aid, and divers of Colonel Moor's 
soldiers here with me have refused to do duties in times of 
necessity ; and want of pay was their pretence. 

Gentlemen, these things are but part of our sufferings. I 
have several times^ in most earnest manner, implored many 
of you for aid, but not been so happy as to obtain necessary 
assistance from you. I am enforced (no other course being 
pleasing to me,) to appeal from you to you, desiring that you 
will be pleased to meet here, at Ormskirk, on Friday next, 
there to understand our condition : and either, which God 
forbid ! to waive the work (pardon, I pray you, that expression, 
extorted by want of your aid), or else so to join in carrying 
it on, that it may proceed with your assistance : wherein I 
shall willingly assent that the honour thereof may be wholly 
yours, so that the benefit thereof may be that of the kingdom ; 
and so, praying God to prosper this design, wherein I am 

92 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

now engaged^ and to preserve you and us and this whole 
county and kingdom from our enemies^ 

I remain^ Your faithful servant, 

Alexander Bioby. 

Ormshirkf May Ist, 1644. 

This appeal, which put the alternative plainly before 
the deputies, was quite useless. No succours came. 
The deputies had business of their own to attend to, and 
found that difficult enough. Every man, in fact, in 
Rigby's position, was left to work out his own salva- 
tion as he could, and to exercise his discretion as to 
fighting or flying. Rigby did not lose much time in 
making up his mind. A few weeks more of sallies and 
scrambles in the trenches, and then he raised the siege, 
and on the 27th May endeavoured to escape from the 
hands of Prince Rupert, who, with the Earl of Derby* 
was coming to relieve the Countess. Collecting his 
companions on a green in the neighbourhood, he was 
for some time in great incertitude which way to march 
in order to get clear of the Royalists, and finally deter- 
mined on throwing himself into Bolton. This was the 
most dangerous point he could have selected. He' had 
hardly got within the walls when he was surprised by 
Prince Rupert, who, surrounding the town, destroyed 
more than half the numbers of the Parliamentarians. 
In this memorable action the Countess was amply- 
revenged. The Earl of Derby took the first colour 
that fell before the Royalists, and with his own hand 
cut down a man who had once been his servant, but 

. 1«44.] THE CIVIL WAR. 93 

who had deserted with the intention of betraying his 
mistress, in the time of her greatest perD. 

The Countess of Derby is said to have been the last 
person in the kingdom who submitted to the ParUa- 
ment. Her husband was worthy of her heroic nature. 
His answer to Ireton, who made him large oflFers if he 
would surrender up the Isle of Man, is a memorable 
example of high courage and inflexible resolution : — " I 
scorn your proffers ; I disdain your favour ; I abhw 
your treason," — ^,nd this, too, in July, 1649, with the 
King dead, and royalty in the coflSn with him. In 
another passage of that curious document he showed a 
peremptory scorn and defiance, which recalls some of 
the raphes of his beleaguered wife to the ill-mannered 
Rigby. " Take this for your final answer, and forbear 
any farther soUcitations ; for, if you trouble me with 
any more messages of this nature, I will bum the paper 
and hang up the bearer." Whatever becomes of Causes 
and Bights in the strifes that spring up in their vindi- 
cation, the world is bound to honour fidehty and true 
services wherever they appear, and especially when they 
are seen standing firm in the last hours of disaster. The 
Earl of Derby never wavered a jot, was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Worcester, and died upon the scaffold. 

The following letters from Colonel Lambart, written 
while Sir Thomas Fairfax was before Lathom House, 
inform us of what was going forward in the North 
during that time, and how much the presence of the 
General was needed there : — 

94 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 



The last night I sent out a party of horse and foot, 
commanded by Captain Asquith, to fall upon the enemy's 
quarters at Hunstett, which accordingly was done, through 
God's assistance, with good success. We took some prisoners; 
Major Vavasour, Captain Hughes, Captain Cardhouse, Cap- 
tain Laine, Captain Laboume, and Captain Talbot; three 
lieutenants, four gentlemen, about 200 common soldiers, 
besides some slain : and I bless God, without any loss on our 
part at all. Divers other of better quality very narrowly escap- 
ing. We all, in these parts, exceedingly long for and desire 
your appearance here, which, I am confident, were enough to 
clear these parts, if the opportunity be not slipped. General 
King is certainly at Durham, but I cannot tell with what 
force, but I fear lest his intentions may be for this country. 

Sir, I desire you not to think my following lines tedious 
unto you, which are in the behalf of my chirurgeon, who, 
having spent all his chest at Nantwich, desires that you will 
be pleased to afford him some recruit. Sir, I beseech you 
pardon his tedious petition, who rests. Sir, 

Your most faithful and humble servant, 

Jo. Lambart. 

Bradford, March Sth, 1643, [iV.5. 1644.] 




The reason of my address unto you, is, because I 
am informed by some of our friends and countrymen that 
Sir Thomas appointed so much money for us out of your 
store as would make our horse a month^s pay, and because I 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAB. 95 

hear my general is in Cheshire, and the purse in your keep- 
ing. If you be acquainted with Sir Thomas's pleasure, I 
desire you will be pleased to disburse unto Mr. Hugh Carrier 
the said sum. I have sent you the number of our horses as 
they appeared the last muster, aad since then they are 
increased something. I shall only trouble you farther with 
what news I hear. The Scots are certainly at Durham and 
Hartlepool, the latter whereof they fortify and settle a gar- 
rison. There hath lately been some blows, and the report 
goes by divers who came to us from them that Sir Richard 
Hutton's regiment is cut off. This you may credit, that 
many wounded soldiers are brought to York. My Lord 
General hath taken Stamford Bridge and some good ord- 
nance. More of the particulars I cannot relate. The enemy 
is fortifying Tadcaster; and even now I hear that he is 
marched towards Leeds with eighteen colours of foot and the 
demi-cannon. I should not in the least kind have credited 
it, but that I know the relater to be very faithfiil, and reports 
that his friend saw it. We shall, to the best of our poor 
powers, endeavour to resist. God in his mercy do his 
pleasure with us ! Sir, I must acknowledge many favours 
from you, and, in that acknowledgment, rest 

Your obliged friend and servant, 

Jo. Lambart.* 

Bradf<yrd, March 11«^, IN.8, 1644.] 

The writer of these letters was one of the most active 
of the Parliamentarian generals. His activity (which 
Charles II. considered of the " mischievous ^' order) was 
not forgotten at the Restoration. By a sinister breach 
and evasion of the royal word, he was put upon his trial, 

♦ From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 

96 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

and found guilty, but respited from death at the bar. He 
survived his sentence thirty years ; but death would have 
been a cheaper doom. That long remainder of his life 
was passed in close prison in the island of Guernsey. 

The condition of the country at this period, torn by 
dissention, and thrown into a position " fit to be con- 
quered,'^ as Mr. Lye describes it, may be gathered from 
a couple of stray epistles addressed to Mr., afterwards 
Sir Richard Browne, the English resident in Paris. 
Mr. Lye invites Mr. Browne, as a matter of ceremony, 
to visit him in Bristol ; but knowing how much plea- 
santer it was to drink wine in the Tuileries, and cultivate 
the good-will of handsome women in peace and quiet- 
ness, than to swallow ditch-water and sleep under a 
hedge, he insinuates a hint that he would considerably 
prefer being invited to visit Mr. Browne in Paris. The 
Ranulphe, or Randolf Crewe, who writes the second 
letter, was the judge who, in 1626, was removed from 
his place for not promoting the loan. We find him 
now, eighteen years afterwards, so reduced in circum- 
stances, that he is Uving upon credit. Sir Richard 
Browne, to whom these letters were addressed, appears 
to have been written to by every body, and to have 
received every body — fiigitives included. After the 
death of the King, we find him still holding his appoint- 
ment, and throwing open his doors to Sir Edward 
Nicholas, whose connection with him. Sir Edward being 
his wife's fether, was hardly sufficient to cover the risk 
of entertaining so faithful a Royalist. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 97 



Troubles and restraint have taken up all my time 
since I had the honour to wait upon you in Paris ; and truly 
between both, till this last week that I have been in this 
town of purpose to rejoice, I have had neither leisure nor 
opportunity to perform my promise with you. The last 
letter I received from you was the next day after the battle 
at Edgehill, wherein it seems fame had me a rebel at Paris ; 
but before the receipt of it, not many hours, I had given 
sufficient testimony of my fidelity. I must humbly thank 
you, sir, for your remembrance ; for had I been engaged on the 
other side, it would certainly have worked powerftilly enough 
to have drawn me from them. I need not trouble you with 
the relation of any of our passages: you have them from 
better and more judicious observations. I can only tell you 
that we prepare on all sides to cut throats, and put the king- 
dom in a posture fit (for any one that will endeavour it) to 
be conquered. In the meantime you drink good wine at 
Paris, see the beauties upon the course, and refresh in your 
own home in the Tuileries, which in my opinion is better 
than drinking scurvy ale, marching all day in the wet or 
cold, and lying all night under a hedge. If you can away 
with that course of life, I will invite you into England ; but 
truly I had rather receive and obey yours for Paris, where 
I will be next winter if I outlive the summer. My service 

to your lady. 

Sir, I am. 

Your afPectionate, humble servant, 

Walt. Lye.* 

Bristol, March 26thy 1644. 

• From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 
VOL. I. H 

98 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

Sir, — I beseech you do me the favour to send the inclosed 
by the next post to Borne, and recommend it to the College 
of English Jesuits, to be sent, according to the directions, to 



I WBiT to you by the last^ not then knowing the 
favour the King had done to you. It seems now there be 
mutual preparations and resolutions to fight. This plusg. 
civile bellum must be put to the bloody issue. I mourn and 
groan to think of it. God, for his mercy's sake, look upon 
our miseries ! If you saw the counties — ^how devastated, how 
impoverished, how defaced, it would grieve you. It is well it 
is out of your eye, howbeit it be familiar to your. ear. The 
text sways much with me, — " if it be possible, have peace with 
all men f' and would to God mine eyes might be closed in the 
days of peace. I still thank you for my youth, for whom I 
wish my friend's assistance to make him a man, for he is in 
my love and my care, and I shall rest. 

Your affectionate friend and servant, 

Banulfhe Crewe. 

lOih AprUy 1644, 

I myself receive nothing of my revenue, and have been 
plundered to a great value ; the little that my son hath for 
him and his son is so impaired, that it will in nowise maintain 
them, and I protest I know not how to supply but upon 
credit the means of my subsisting, and yet I hope my credit 
shall not faQ.* 

* From Mr. Bentle/s Collection. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 99 

Sir Richard Browne was a distinguished citizen of 
London, which he represented in Parliament, and a hot- 
brained Presbyterian. He was prominent in the out- 
break of the civil war ; accompanied Essex to the field ; 
fought at Worcester, and Edgehill, and other places ; 
and acquired such a reputation for zeal and devotion to 
the cause, that he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners from the Scotch army to receive the King. 
It is a strange and confounding sUde of the magic 
lantern which now suddenly brings this Sir Richard 
Browne before us representing in Paris the King against 
whom he had been so recently engaged in open rebelUon. 
But, in these times, we tread on a volcanic soil, and 
must not be surprised at any changes wrought by its 
convulsive throes. The interviews which the commis- 
sioners had with the King are said to have converted 
Browne back to his allegiance. Whether it was that 
his Majesty's dialectics gave him the advantage over the 
commissioners, or that Browne had reason to suspect the 
concealed designs of the Independents, does not appear ; 
but, from that time, he became a faithfiil adherent of 
the monarchy, and continued so to the end. He next 
appears as resident for the King at Paris ; and a couple 
of letters addressed to him in 1 643, soon after his appoint- 
ment, by the unfortunate Elector Palatine, will indicate 
the influence he then enjoyed. The Elector, thinking 
more of his own affairs than of his correspondent, 

gives the German orthography of Mr. Browne's name. 


100 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 



Since your constant good professions towards my 
interests^ accompanied with the King your master's orders^ 
have made me confident enough of your readiness to employ 
them for the benefit of my affairs at the French Court, and 
therefore rendered any request of mine to that purpose 
superfluous ; yet, to show you how considerable your good 
offices are unto me, I cannot also, on my part, omit to desire 
you to let this be their scope; that the French ministers 
designed for the general treaty may be particularly instructed 
to urge my restitution, according to the year 1618, and to 
insert it as an article of the general peace, my adversaries 
themselves avowing it to be a necessary ingredient thereof. 
I shall leave to your own dexterity and affection to my cause 
to represent how much it will be for France's honour and 
interest to procure it, wherein you will oblige me exceed- 
ingly; and I shall omit no occasion wherein I may testily 
how sensible I shall be of it, and so I rest 

Your very affectionate friend, 


EaguCf ihia 5th of Jime, 1643. Prince Elector PalAtine.* 




I WISH the effects of the French professions towards 
my affairs may give me as fall satisfaction as your endeavours^ 
so well expressed in your memorial, to obtain them have 
obliged me to assure you of my thankful acknowledgment ; 

• From Mr. Bentley*s Collection. 

1«^4.] THE CIVIL WAR. 101 

which I can express no other way than this, until the efifects 
of their good intentions, concurring with your constant 
solicitation, may render me able to show it more really, 
whilst, in the meantime, I rest 

Your most afiFectionate friend, 


Harvey 20«A o//%, 1643. Prince Elector Palatine.* 

About this time John Evelyn, whose pastoral and 
timid spirit had been scared out of England by the 
first roar of artillery, was travelling on the Continent, 
and, finding himself in Paris, became intimate at the 
house of Sir Richard Browne — the " home in the 
Tuileries^' — the tranquillity of which was so much 
envied by Mr. Lye. It is rather a remarkable " coin- 
cidence," with a startling contradiction in it, that it was 
a namesake of our gentle " English Peiresc,'^ as John 
Evelyn is called, who first brought gunpowder to per- 
fection in England ; and that, at this very time, another 
namesake of his, the member for Blechingley, was taking 
an active part against the King in the civil war. But we 
must not snap our little thread of narrative. Sir Richard 
Browne had a daughter, and Evelyn fell in love with 
her, and was married to her at the Embassy. Of this 
lady, Cowley said, in one of his complimentary conceits, 
(alluding to the two pursuits which chiefly engaged 

* From Mr. Bentley's Collection. Soon after the date of this letter the Elector 
returned to England, upon whose bounty he had long subsisted. He alone of 
all the members of his family abandoned the Royal cause, and joined the 

102 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

Evelyn's thoughts, gardening and reading,) that she 

<* The fftirest garden in her looks, 
And in her mind the chMcest books." 

It is a more interesting memorial of this lady, that it 
was through her Evelyn became possessed of Sayes 
Court. Sir Richard survived all the troubles, was 
knighted and baronetted, and had the honour of com- 
manding the city mihtia, and filUng the office of lord 
mayor of London in the eventftd year of 1660. 

The movements in the West began now to assume for 
a time even more importance than the variable warfare 
in the North, where the arrival of the Scotch, under the 
Earl of Leven, combined with the powerful demon- 
stration of the associated counties under the Earl of 
Manchester, produced a temporary feeling of security. 
The conduct of aflfairs in the West had been committed 
to Sir WiUiam Waller, who displayed consummate skill 
in the feints by which he diverted the attention and 
perplexed the plans of the RoyaKsts, hovering between 
his Majesty's troops and those of Prince Rupert, to 
prevent their junction ; and instead of pursuing his 
march direct into the far west — the intention of which 
was known, and might have been frustrated — ^keeping 
about the small towns and villages of Worcestershire, to 
watch his Majesty, who, having prorogued the Par- 
liament at Oxford, had taken up his quarters in Newbury 
and that neighbourhood, for a similar purpose. They 
were watching each other. But Waller had the advan- 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 103 

tage of the single hand, and the single head, against 
a stronger camp, weakened by divided councils. On 
the King's side there was deaf, drunken Brentford, who 
was general over all the rest ; hot, imperious Wilmot ; 
honest, irresolute Hopton ; soldierly Astley, who hated 
long debates, and thought the best remedy lay in the 
sword ; and Digby and Colepepper, two privy council- 
lors, who, though of the most diflFerent natures, says 
Clarendon, always agreed in their opinions. Out of 
these elements it was impossible to extract concord, and 
the King was constantly kept in collision with his friends 
as well as his enemies. The result was a sudden 
discursive flight back to Oxford, demolishing in their 
march the works of the garrison at Eeading — ^which 
place {en parenthdse) was entered by Waller's soldiers 
the next day. His Majesty did not stay long at Oxford, 
as will be seen presently by a letter, from Sir William 
Waller, to the genjferals in command. 

This letter was addressed to the Scotch Greneral and 
the Earl of Manchester, because Essex was already out 
of favour with the Parliament. They had found him 
impracticable, and, under some plausible excuses, had 
formed that association of counties, with the Earl at 
its head, and Cromwell under him in the command of 
the horse, which, united with the Scotch, and taking 
their orders direct from the Parliament, virtually super- 
seded Essex. This combined force held the North. 
There was also a distinct force under Essex, and a third, 
in the West, under Waller. By the great means thus 

104 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

organised at their disposal, they hoped to bring the war 
to a close before the end of the summer. 

These designs were kept close from Essex, who never 
knew what he was to be required to do till the moment 
of execution arrived. His orders were then peremptory. 
Nothing was left to his discretion. Upon the King's 
return to Oxford his instructions were to follow his 
Majesty wherever he went. This instruction he fulfilled 
with sufficient energy, tracking the King's footsteps 
through Derbyshire, and forcing him to concentrate his 
troops at Oxford, where he shut him up. Various 
rumours were spread abroad : one, that the King was 
planning an escape to London ; another, that he had 
fallen into the hands of Essex. These rumours pro- 
duced dismay in Westminster ; and such was the 
jealousy and distrust of Essex tliat the Parliament 
instantly wrote to him, desiring him to procure accu- 
rate information concerning his Majesty, and to do 

In his extremity, pent up in the collegiate walls of 
Oxford, with Waller on one side, and Essex on the other, 
nothing was left for the King but flight, and his escape 
was effected with considerable tact. Leaving his banner 
flying from the old tower, as if he were still there, he stole 
out of the north gate at nine o'clock at night, and joining 
his horse and foot who awaited at a distance to receive 
him, he marched through the two lines of the beleaguer- 
ing armies, and before daybreak was many miles beyond 
their outposts. The Earl of Essex sending the next 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 105 

morning to reconnoitre was deceived by the banner, so 
that the King got two days' march a-head of him. But 
Waller had better intelligence, and sent a body of horse 
flying after the King to hang upon his rear and harass his 
progress until he could come up himself. At Burford, 
they nearly caught the fugitives, and were so close upon 
them that they fell in with some stragglers from the ranks 
of the Royahsts, who had lingered to drink or sleep in the 
village. Notwithstanding the vigilance of Waller, he was 
still a few hours too late, and the King finally escaped 
with the echoes of the pursuers' hoofs ringing in his ears. 
Waller's letter refers to the flight and pursuit : — 



I HATE given your lordships several advertisements 
of my condition here, with the unfeigned zeal I have to do 
you service, and to correspond with you on all occasions. I 
signified in my former the reason of my lying at Stourbridge, 
his Majesty being at Bewdley ; which was to interpose between 
him and Prince Rupert, in case he should offer to advance for 
that end to Shrewsbury, whither I had a shorter way on this 
side the river than his Majesty had on that ; but, contrary to 
my expectation, on Saturday last his Majesty suddenly dis- 
lodged, and retired to Worcester. I durst not suddenly 
move after him, for fear it had been but a feint to make me 

106 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

lose that ground I had ; but his Majesty^s intentions were 
real; for the next day he marehed away to and through 
Evesham^ and broke the bridge behind him^* as likewise 
Bidford Bridge^ and halted a while on Broadway Hill^ and 
from thence directed his course to Burford^ so that I make 
no question but he is now very well in Oxford again. 

So soon as I received assurance of his Majesty's departure 
from Worcester I rose, and leaving my foot to march gently 
after, with two regiments of horse to secure them, I advanced 
with the rest of my horse and dragoons after him to Evesham, 
twenty-two miles distant; but when I came thither, I found 
that his Majesty had gained above twenty miles before me, 
so that I conceived I should but ruin my horse to pursue 
him farther, and therefore gave over the chace. We have 
taken some prisoners, amongst them Colonel Skirmshay, 
with letters of very great importance. The copy of one I 
have sent inclosed. 

I humbly suppose, his Majesty being now gone, that I 
shall not be able to act anything in these parts to corre- 
spond with your service; and therefore, according to the 
orders I have received from the Conmiittee of both King- 
doms, I am directing my course westward. I conceive it 
might be of some use if there were a way settled foi^ a con- 
stant intelligence between us, and a cypher appointed whereby 
there might be a mutual conveyance of matters of secrecy and 
importance. I should be glad to receive some directions to 
that purpose by the hand of this worthy gentleman. Major 

• This was the second bridge his Majesty had destroyed on his flight. The 
first was at Pershore. On that occasion unfortunately the whole of the troops 
had not passed over when the demolition took place, and three or four officers 
and about twenty men were precipitated into the Avon by the sudden falling of 
one of the arches, and drowned. 

i .••<: LiVii. w '.»:. 

« » 

. .>ut the Ip'-jibit asMiijiitro that 1 :im. 

Your niosi L'i.jiIj'o sriM-^ 



r.:.-T;ij' I- 

jlo Lad no iuici^.ii.u «■(* doiw ■ 
•'•.': ■. i'j (■j:'\-ipe, and ii mx-.I iu^ n -. : 
' • 'iv !.'» .M i!.at. 

."'•'.Nji « cxprc.-siuli n[ his aH..\'nt\r r.. j.- 
■•:;.•;- in il.^} West, and to c^t<i')i'..^u a in- .•..■ -^ 

• '•;, [ M witli the p;oiua'als, iin})lL/d au . " • 
":,.- '\L'ii understood l.y tlio>e io Avh''..i i'T •.. 

ill. !/»d ho^.n ^OrVi'cd bv Kss..'X. r-.fld i. i I - 

' ■»! d to tlic fVUJarion.t of ^,) >: i.sii::o !-" " 

■ .'• ; [ ( t* I'T-^^ox, liis lord:?liij» (ii-.t •mi-'ii ■: 

I J. ''ouiici], at AvJiicli il was ivsclv'. .1 r-...* -V r 
'■' ".Wl ^(>!iu\v tlio Ivir-ii; vvlii.'ri'vof ])o \}'.' 

. ' . Cd to srt out to tli^j rtlici' nf ;.'!•• \-. '.' I 

••t»d tJiis airangcni'.'iii, declaring iliat l-io ^'/o.-:. v,a.s 

• .•-■.:'. rd b) liiin bv t'he ooiiunitrec "s. ]i^< ' ]"'.'vi>a('c. '.*i: 
/.- x '\''.s |ion:iJipt.on. and VV'iMor, <•«»!. a«r!'''d :. 

.'?. la»\i tbo cafri* boO pj raiJia.u'-it, \v''i^» i: lUi- 

1 1 ♦ 



f \ 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 107 

Kerr. I have no more to trouble your lordships with at 
presentj, but the humble assurance that I am^ 

My Lords^ 
Your most humble servant^ 

William Waller. 

Bvetham, June IfUh^ 1644. 

By some intercepted letters, I find that Prince Rupert 
wants powder extremely. 

Waller was in error in supposing that the King 
entertained any intention of advancing towards Shrews- 
bury. He had no intention of doing anything except 
trying to ^cape, and it taxed his resources to the last 
to do even that. 

Waller's expression of his anxiety to prosecute his 
duties in the West, and to establish a means of commu- 
nication with the generals, implied an allusion which 
was well understood by those to whom it was addressed. 
He had been coerced by Essex, and had already com- 
plained to the Parliament of the usage he had suffered. 
When the King had got off out of Oxford, two days 
a-head of Essex, his lordship (not unwilling perhaps to 
shift upon others the responsibility of his own neglect) 
called a council, at which it was resolved that Waller 
should follow the King wherever he went, while Essex 
proposed to set out to the relief of Lyme. Waller 
resisted this arrangement, declaring that the West was 
assigned to him by the committee as his province. But 
Essex was peremptory, and Waller, compelled to sub- 
mit, laid the case before Parliament, who immediately 

108 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

forwarded an angry letter to Essex, desiring him to obey 
their former directions, and to direct Waller to attend 
the service of the West. To these instructions he sent 
back a bold answer — refusing to comply with their orders. 
He certainly stated as an excuse that he had already set 
out on his march, and that if he returned it would be an 
encouragement to the enemy : there was reason in this, 
but his general deportment was so overbearing that the 
Parliament were not wilUng to give him credit for being 
reasonable, even when he happened to deserve it, which 
was not often. Courage as a soldier was his great merit ; 
his great defect was want of discretion and vigilance as 
a commander of soldiers. 

Of all parts of the kingdom, during the pressure of 
these costly eflforts of the Parhament, London appears 
to have borne the burthen of voluntary and involuntary 
taxation more cheerfully than any other place. Nor 
was this because London was richer than other places, 
but because it was sounder at the core. When the 
Scots crossed the border it was foimd necessary to issue 
an ordinance for raising subscriptions to maintain them ; 
the counties, however, were so tardy in their advances 
that a second ordinance was put forth to compel pay- 
ment. Even this menace failed in some cases, and the 
Goldsmiths' Hall was obUged to follow it up vrith a letter, 
in which the example of London was referred to, in the 
hope of shaming the lingering counties into compliance. 
Here is the letter, which was probably a circular for the 
defaulters : — 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 109 




Worshipful and honoured friends^ 

I AM commanded by the committee of Goldsmiths' 
Hall to let you know that they have long expected a good 
sum of money from your county for the payment of our 
brethren of Scotland^ come into England for our help and 
assistance. The committee have been driven to great extre- 
mities for that you have been so slow. It is hoped that now 
every week you will send up or return a very considerable 
sum^ until such time as the sum of 18^000/. be made up^ for 
that is your proportion to the 200,000/. 

It was hoped by the Parliament that, when the first ordi- 
nance passed for the free and voluntary loans, there would 
have been no need of the second, to compel men to lend; and 
indeed, in London, we have made very little use of the second ; 
for upon the payment of 80,000/., which is the City's propor- 
tion, we shall not bring in use the compulsory way much above 
10,000/. All the rest, to wit, 70,000/., will be paid voluntarily 
upon the first ordinance ; for the second ordinance is only to 
compel the backward, ill-affected. But if your county shall 
prove so far ill-affected as that they must be wholly com- 
pelled, you may then expect speedily another ordinance to 
compel the payment of the residue. Wherefore I pray 
observe the advice and direction of our clerk, Mr. Sampson, 
whom we sent down of purpose to hasten the work, and to 
show you the way we have gone. He complains for want of 
a sufficient allowance to defray his charges. We hope that 

110 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

you will not suffer him to want that is come so far to do 
you service ; but I shall forbear^ and rest 

Your loving friend, 

John Ashe.* 

L(md<m, April lOth, 1644. 

The war spread rapidily over the kingdom. Essex 
had gone into Dorsetshire, and taken possession of 
Weymouth, by invitation of the mutinous townspeople ; 
Waller had left Worcestershire, and, after a variety of 
fruitless manoeuvres, had the misfortime to see his army 
vanishing before him, without the power to stay or 
recruit them ; and the Kings troops, flushed with an 
imaginary success at Cropredy-bridge, had the hardihood 
to contemplate a campaign in the West, whither they 
went, avowedly in pursuit of Essex, although the mean 
jealousies and bickerings of the generals, exasperated by 
the fitvouritism of the Sovereign, threatened the whole 
body with hourly dissolution. His Majesty had hardly 
advanced two days on his march when he received 
intelligence which paralysed him. Fearful disasters had 
fallen upon his supporters in the North, where the battle 
was already fought, the result of which shadowed forth 
his own fiite. The coming of that event is anticipated 
by a hasty intimation, written between one and two 
o^clock in the morning, from a Parliament officer to the 
Earl of Manchester : — 

• From BIr. Bentley's Collection. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. Ill 



My Lord^ 

Our intelligence from divers places agreeing that 
the enemy^s horse and foot did advance this day towards 
Otley^ and quarter there and the towns thereabouts this 
nighty hath occasioned us to draw all our horse of both 
nations into a body upon the moor close by Long Marston^ 
within five miles of York, where now we are, expecting what 
further orders we shall receive from your lordship and the 
other generals. 

My Lord, I humbly offer this, that exact orders might be 
sent to my Lord Fairfaxes troops that are in general parts of 
this country to march up either to us or you, that they may 
not by their absence be made useless. The Lieutenant- 
General commanded me to send this express to your lordship, 
being in expectation to hear your lordship's further resolu- 
tions. My Lord, I am 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Leon. Watson.* 

L(mg Martton, this ^Oth ofJime, 1644. 
Between one and two (/clock in ike morning. 

The enemy's whole body is about 15,000. 

The BJiticipation here expressed turned out to be 
quite accurate : the battle took place on the evening of 
the second day after Watson's letter was written. The 
haste in which this decisive engagement was begun and 

* Probably secretary to Cromwell, under whose instructions this letter 
appears to have been written. 

112 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

won may be seen in the shortness of the notice, and the 
promptitude with which the troops gathered and took 
up their position upon the plain of Long Marston. 
There was so much time consumed in preliminary 
movements, that the day was spent before firing 
opened, and the soldiers fought into the night, when 
the whole force of the Royalists, consisting, according to 
Watson, of 15,000, but estimated by most other autho- 
rities at 20,000, were dispersed Kke chafi*, or cut to 
pieces. The Marquis of Newcastle's foot were literally 
destroyed by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell at the 
head of their horse ; and so signal was his lordship's 
defeat and disgrace, that, without drawing rein, he fled 
to the sea-shore, and, taking the first vessel that oflfered, 
a poor crazy boat, set sail for Hamburgh. This proud 
beaten marquis, whose vanity and indiscretion helped 
materially to ruin the King's cause, did not see the 
shores of England again for sixteen years ! Here was 
ample revenge for the disaster of Addeston Moor, where, 
exactly twelve months before, the Marquis of Newcastle 
obtained a victory (for a long time doubtfiil) over Lord 

Amidst the immediate consequences of the triumph 
at Marston Moor were the surrender of Sheffield castle 
and the city of York. Respecting the spoils of the 
former (about which there seems to have been some 
very pitifiil evasions attempted) we have the subjoined 
appeal fi-om the Earl of Manchester to Lord Fairfax : — 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 113 


My Lobd^ 

Upon the surrender of Sheffield Castle (as I am 
informed) it was agreed by my commanders in cWef here, 
and Colonel Bright and other Yorkshire gentlemen^ that 
there should be an inventory taken of all arms^ provisions, 
and other things in the Castle to them, that a moderate sum 
might be allowed for gratification of the soldiers for their 
service ; and so to have all the arms and other things lefb 
entire in the Castle. After which there was an agreement 
signed that 500/. should be paid to the soldiers by Colonel 
Bright, and so he to enter upon all things which we found at 
first in the Castle, save a hundred muskets and some other 
things, which they were to bring along with them, the other 
goods and arms left in the Castle being of far greater value. 
According to which agreement Colonel Bright was to pay the 
next morning 250/., and the other 250/. was to be paid out of 
a parcel of iron found in the Castle, which had been sold by 
some officers of mine. 

Now I understand by Colonel Copley that the said iron 
had been fetched from his mills by the King's party, and 
that my officers had taken for the service against the 
Castle cannon bullet, which they commanded to be cast 
there to the value of 100/.; and therefore his expectation 
is to receive the monies for which that iron was sold, and 
satisfaction for the said bullets. I humbly desire your lord- 
ship to take it into your consideration, and endeavour his 
satisfaction according to justice. There being no reason why 
restitution fix)m me should be expected for either the iron or 
buUets, receiving no more than a moderate gratification for 

VOL. I, I 

114 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

the soldiers^ agreed npon^ as appears by the copy of the 
agreement which I have caused to be delivered unto him; 
and which 500/. is desired to extend no further than giving 
each officer and soldier of mine in that service one week's pay. 
I leave the premises to your lordship's grave consideration^ 
and remain^ 

Your lordship's most humble servant^ 

E. Manchester. 

Lincoln, August 2Uhy 1644. 

No man was better entitled to plead and to be 
heard for the soldier than the Earl of Manchester. AU 
through this war he had shared their fatigues, without 
indulging in any of those voluptuous reservations to 
which the Marquis of Newcastle used to fly for relief. 
This city of Lincoln, from which he writes in August, 
he had taken by storm in the preceding April. Yet 
for all his laurels, there fell out dissensions between him 
and Cromwell, whose energies were of a more fiery 
order ; and these dissensions became more and more 
loud and angry, until they terminated in a grave charge 
of backwardness and disinclination to fight preferred 
against Manchester by Cromwell on the floor of the 
Commons. Of all charges which could have been brought 
against Manchester, this of a disinclination to fight was 
the most untenable : vritness Edgehill, Lynn, Hom- 
castle. But it was quite true that after the battle of 
Marston Moor, which utterly broke up the King^s 
power, with the exception of the remnant that followed 
his Majesty in his wanderings up and down in search of 

[1«44. THE CIVIL WAR. 115 

Essex, and after the capitulation of York, which swept 
the North pretty clear of the Royalists, Manchester 
thought that enough had been done to show where the 
strength lay, and that something better than fighting 
might be attempted to bring about a settlement profitable 
to both sides. Cromwell, on the other hand, was for 
striking a decisive blow in the field, for he held that a 
"thorough" victory, which should spUt the heart of 
royalty, was the only means of closing the war with per- 
manent advantage to rehgion and liberty. There was no 
want of decision, or energy, or zeal in Manchester, but he 
was opposed to the extremity which Cromwell had fore- 
seen and laboured for from the beginning. Cromwell 
felt the necessity of getting rid of all men who stood at 
this dead-lock of poUcy ; and he was right. He laid his 
measures securely to that end, and by the following 
April he relieved the country of the hesitating fealty of 
Manchester, Essex, and Denbigh. 

The new modelling of the army, and the appointment 
of Sir Thomas Fairfax to the supreme command placed 
the Parliament on firmer ground than they had ever 
occupied before. A part of their security lay in the 
popularity of the commanders. With the principal 
exception — Fairfax, who was not yet quite a lord — ^they 
were nearly all men of the people, sprung from the loins 
of the people, familiar with their wishes, and intimately 
identified with their interests. The lords were gone, 
and the cause was now left to be worked out by the 

muscles and stout hearts of the eager milUons, for whom 


116 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 

Kings never had much sympathy, and who had now for 
the first time, and to set a great example to the world, 
taken in hand the question of human rights as it lay per- 
plexed and obscured between sovereigns and subjects. 

There was much of this, too, in the quarrel of 
Cromwell with Manchester. It was not altogether on 
the one side that Manchester refiised to pursue the 
King, notwithstanding the urgent remonstrances of his 
Lieutenant-General, or on the other that Cromwell had 
treated with sarcasm and contempt the order of his 
commander ; but that a new party was growing up which 
looked upon certain connections as a blot and hindrance, 
and which was imeasy at the core until it had purified 
the cause of all association with "lords/' It was the 
** lordship " of Manchester that chiefly gravelled Crom- 
well, who thought of nothing but shaping his means to 
his end, and would have made more violent sacrifices to 
achieve it, had they been necessary. How Cromwell 
carried his purpose, and what iron nerve, clear fore- 
thought and practical brains he had, the imperishable 
history he lived testifies. 

As for Manchester, he went into private life, and kept 
there till the Restoration, at which he " assisted,*' was 
appointed Speaker of the Peers to congratulate the King 
on his return, was made Commissioner of the Great 
Seal, Lord Chamberlain, and Lord of the Bedchamber, 
to the " chartered libertine" of that gay revival, and 
died full of age, in a strange place for a Pai-hamentary- 
General — Whitehall. But his death-bed was haunted 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 117 

by no headless spectre, for he had all along been opposed 
to the execution of the King. 

The Montagues, from whom he descended, appear to 
have always hung about the Court, and preserved them- 
selves in high places ; and it was the greater merit in 
the Greneral to have stepped so far out of the femily 
wake as to take part with the people. It is possible 
that the tradition of his Norman blood — ^for he was one 
of those who " came in with the Conqueror," — ^and the 
reputation of the family for numerous inter-marriages, 
and consequent quarterings on the pubhc purse, did not 
serve him when Cromwell thrust out his hand upon him. 
His great-grandfather had been married three times, and 
was one of the executors of Henry the Eighth ; his father 
had also married three times, and held a variety of 
offices ; he wa. married himself no less than five times, 
and towards the end had the usual family luck of fat 
appointments about the palace. It was his father who 
was Lord Treasurer, and who bought his staflF of office 
at Newmarket, from the Countess of Buckingham, for 
20,000/. It turned out an unfortunate bargain, for he 
was removed within a year ; in consequence of which, 
on his return to London, somebody was malicious 
enough to ask him — " Whether he did not find wood 
extremely dear at Newmarket ?" 

But, to return from this digression. 

The Battle of Marston Moor drove the Queen out of 
the kingdom. The Prince of Orange sent some Dutch 
ships to wait upon her at Falmouth, and in one of these 

118 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

she transported herself precipitately to Prance, scarcely 
a month having elapsed since she had given birth 
to the Princess Henrietta. She had a narrow escape for 
her life in the channel, being pursued so closely by the 
stragglers of the Parliament fleet, that one frigate dis- 
charged several shots into her vessel. But the wind, of 
which she had the advantage, saved her. At the 
date of the following letter, she had already arrived at 
Brest. Gilbert Talbot seems to have been employed 
about her secret business. His correspondent was 
probably Sir Richard Browne. Lord Goring, who is here 
alluded to, was put upon his trial four years after, and 
was rescued from the block by the casting vote of 
Lenthal, the Speaker. 


Worthy Sir, 

I HAVE this morning received your packet of the 
24th, which challengeth my thanks, and this return. I 
arrived here on the 25th, and the same morning hired a 
frigate for Falmouth, which expeqteth nothing but a wind ; 
although I confess I yet expect my man and my trunks whom 
I sent hither a month ago to wait my coming, but in aU this 
town I can hear no news of him> and therefore I have sent a 
post to Bennes to inquire after him. If I hear not of him 
to-morrow by the return of my messenger, I shall bequeath 
him to the devD, but not lose my journey for him ; although 
I must confess I shall go poor and naked without him, for he 
hath my money, my clothes, and the Queen^s letters: even my 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAB. 119 

Dutchman Mr. Church begged from me till my return to 
Paris^ so that I am all alone^ and comfortless ; but in your 
friendly remembrance of me^ and your lady^s^ whose indis- 
position I much bewail. 

I make bold to trouble you with a great weight of 
inclosures ; that of most consequence is my Lord Germain^s^ 
which importeth the preservation or loss of the Castle of 
Guernsey^ for Sir Peter Osborne is almost famished for 
want of supplies^ and that which causeth great suspicion 
is that his lady is gone eight days since to London^ 
in a ParUament ship. I have entreated his son (whom I 
found here) to steal over to his father^ and convey him a 
handful of provisions^ that may keep him in heart till my 
Lord Germain can procure him some supplies from Jersey^ or 
these parts of France ; and I may be able to represent to the 
King the exigency wherein he is at present. Good sir^ send 
away that letter with all possible speed. The next is that to 
Madame Grotius^ with whom I desire you to strike up an 
acquaintance^ but seem not to know anything of the main 

There is a Dunkirk frigate belonging to a Prieslander, 
naturalised English, and enabled by his Majesty's commission 
to take all rebels' ships, who is arrested for an unlawful 
prize, and is in danger of losing his ship. I have advised him 
to send you a short draught of his case, that you may assist 
him, and make him handsomely acknowledge the courtesy ; 
but he is neglectful, and I will not press him to his own good. 
I have learned from him that the Irish have an agent at 
Paris, whose name is Dr. Hartecome; I leave it to you 
whether it may concern your knowledge and the King's 
service to inquire after him and his treaties. 

We have here no news at all, but a murmur of a battle in 



120 MEMOBIALS OF [1644. 

the West^ which I conceive is begotten by conjecture^ for no 
shipping is come from those parts these eight days. I can 
tell you^ betwixt you and me^ that my Lord Gbring let fall 
some words at parting which make me believe that he will 
not stir till his letters of revocation be renewed. My best 
service to your sweet lady, to my little wife, and all our 
friends ; and let me beg this favour of you, that you will 
esteem me as I do myself, 

Your most humble, faithM, and 

obliged servant, 

GiLB, Talbot.* 

SL MalOy 27th August, 1644. 

My humblest service to Prince Edward, with my service to 
my Lady Banbury. I pray you tell her why I did not send 
her ring. 

Soon after the surrender of York, Sir Thomas Fair&x 
addressed himself to the reduction of Hehnesley Castle, 
one of the strongholds of the county. In Colonel Cros- 
land, the governor of the castle, he found a brave and 
honourable opponent. Numerous sallies, without much 
eflFect at either side except wounds and waste of ammu- 
nition, led at last to a proposal of surrender. In one of 
these deadly onslaughts, Fairfax received a musket-ball 
in his shoulder, and was carried off all but dead to York, 
where for some time he vibrated fearfiilly between life 
and death. Colonel Crosland drew up the terms of 
surrender himself, conceived in a high military spirit, 

* From Mr. BenUey's Collectioii. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 121 

and agreed to by Fairfax. The castle poured out its 
garrison accordingly with colours flying, drums beating, 
and matches lighted, on the 22nd November. 


1. That the Groyernor of the Castle and all other the 
officers shall march out with their arms, horses, and all the 
rest of their goods belonging imto them^ and to be safely 
convoyed to the garrison at Scarborough, without any 

2. That the soldiers shall march out with their arms 
loaded, matches lighted, colours flying, and drums beating, 
and to be safely convoyed to the said garrison. 

3. That the gentlemen, or others the countrymen, that 
came hither for protection, may have free Uberty to depart 
with their goods, unto their own dwellings, and to have my 
Lord Fairfax's protection for their safeguard. 

4. That the Lady Duchess of Buckingham's goods within 
the Castle, her servants and their goods, may remain safe 
within the Castle^ or the town of Helmesley, under my 
Lord Fairfax's protection, as they have been formerly with- 
out interruption. 

5. That any goods within the Castle belonging to any 
gentleman in the country, or to any other whatsoever, may 
have three days' time after the surrender thereof for the 
disposing of them, and to have my Lord Fairfax's protection 
for their convoy. 

6. That there may be carriages procured for the conveying 

122 ICEHOBIALS OF [1644. 

of two little drakes^ arms and other baggage along with 
them^ nnto the garrison before mentioned. 

7. That the Castle of Helmesley be absolutely demolished^ 
and that no garrison hereafter be kept there by either party. 

8. That in performance of these articles^ Lieutenant 
Colonel Forbes^ and all the rest of the prisoners^ shall have 
their free Hberty; and that Lieutenant Spright^ and fire 
soldiers belonging to me, now prisoners at York^ shall like- 
wise have their liberty. 

9. And lastly, that there be time given until the 16th. day 
of this month, for to consider of these articles, in case there 
might be relief had in that time from the Prince, otherwise 
we shall perform these articles on our part. 

JoR. Crosland. 

Hdmesley Cnutle, November 6£^, 1644. 

The time of the Fairfexes was not wholly occupied in 
ditches and ramparts. They had a great deal of civil 
and uncivil business on hand besides, and sometimes 
had to do with Church affairs, which, considering their 
noisier occupations and the sturdiness of their preju- 
dices, was probably the most disagreeable part of their 
functions. We have a bundle of letters from Lord 
Howard about the presentation to the living of Whel- 
drake, which he was anxious to procure for a Mr. 
Tindall ; and after importuning Lord Fairfax grievously 
upon the subject, and finally succeeding in obtaining 
the appointment, it turned out that Mr. Tindall could 
not undertake the journey, so that his lordship's inter- 
cession went for nothing, except to impose a great deal 
of useless trouble upon Lord Fairfax. 

16^.] THE CIVIL WAR. 123 

The Doctor Peter du Moulin, whose sequestered 
benefice was so eagerly looked after by Lord Howard, 
may be noted chiefly as a zealous Calvinist, and ais 
the author of a book which made a great tumult 
in its day, and which waa intended to rouse the 
indignation of the whole world against the Parlia- 
ment that put the King to death, but which book 
the world has entirely forgotten, although it has a 
vivid recollection of the King's " martyrdom." Upon a 
page of a copy of this book, which is called " Histoire 
des Nouveaux Presbyteriens Anglois et Escossais," pre- 
served in the Ubrary of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
there is a curious MS. statement in the handwriting of 
Du MouUn, in which, after telling us that he had made a 
vow that, as far as Latin and French could go in the 
world, he would make the King's cause known, he gives 
this account of the book itself : — " To pay my vow I first 
made this book, which was begun at York during the 
siege in a roome whose chimney was beaten down by 
the canon while I was at my work ; and after the siege, 
and my expulsion from my rectory at Wheldrake, it 
was finisht in an underground cellar, where I lay hid to 
avoid warrants that were out against me fi'om commit- 
tees to apprehend me, and carry me prisoner to Hull. 
Having finisht the book, I sent it to be printed in 
Holland by the means of an oflScer of the master of the 
portes at London, Mr. Pompeo Calandrini, who was 
doing great and good services to the King in that place. 
But the King being dead, and the face of pubUque 

124 MEMOBIALS OF [1644. 

businesses altered, I sent for my manuscript out of 
Holland, and reformed it for the new King's service. 
And it was printed, but very negligently, by Samuel 
Browne, at the Haghe/' And the " new King'* was not 
unmindful of aU this hiding in cellars, and writing in 
canonaded rooms, for suflFering Peter leaped into White- 
hall the moment his Majesty was restored, and had his 
revenge upon the hide-and-seek of the Commonwealth 
in the shape of a private chaplaincy at the palace, and 
a prebendal stall at Canterbury, upon whose downy 
cushions he fell asleep in the eighty-fourth year of his 
age, but not, however, says Dr. Burnet, till he had 
recanted many of the staunch opinions he had made such 
a noise about. 


My Lord, 

I AM advertised that upon some complaints, and 
just articles exhibited against Doctor Du Moulins, rector 
of the church in Wheldrake, that the standing committee at 
York have sequestered the profits of his benefice, and intend 
to eject him of the same, giving yoiu* lordship fit opportunity 
to commend another ; wherein, my lord, I beseech you con- 
sider me thus far, that having the right of presentation at 
other times belonging unto me, and at this present a chap- 
lain, very orthodoxal, to deserve it, that your lordship will 
please to allow me the Uke favour you have done my Lord 
Northumberland and some others, as to nominate him, when 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 125 

Du Moulins is rejected^ which I shall take for an act of great 
kindness done me^ and be ready on all occasions to requite 
your lordship with the best endearours of^ 

My lord, 
Your lordship^s most affectionate friend 

and humble servant, 

Ed. Howard. 

Kirh ffousCf by Charing CrosSy \6ih November^ 1644. 


Mt Lord, 

According to your letter and favour therein 
expressed to me, I here return you, with my most humble 
service, the name of the gentleman formerly recommended 
by me for the rectory of Wheldrake. He is called Mr. 
TindaU, a Bachelor in Divinity, and Fellow of Corpus Christi 
College, in Cambridge, whom by long experience I have 
known to be a man of unreproachable life, sufficient learning 
and consciousness to serve God in any place he shall be 
called unto. Yet, my lord, notwithstanding all this, I would 
not prejudice the present incumbent by any motion of mine. 
But, if he be lawfully ejected, I then beseech your lordship 
that I may present the aforesaid gentleman to your favour, 
having as clear a right to the rectory, upon a vacancy, as to 
any foot of land there, which by my patent, shown to Mr. 
Darley and Captain Harrison, appeareth, and I hope will be 
testified by them, with some respect then made known to 
your lordship, and here again renewed by protesting 

Your most affectionate friend and humble servant, 

Ed« Howard. 

Kiri Hwaey this lOih December, 1644. 

126 MEMORIALS OF [1644. 


My Lord, 

Your second answer to my letter sent to your 
lordship, about the rectory of Wheldrake, doth double your 
lordship's favour to me ; yet before your last came unto my 
hands I had, in all observance to your lordship's first letter, 
signified how that Mr. Darley and Captain Harrison had 
seen my patent, imder the Greek Seal of England, wherein 
the presentation to the rectoiy at Wheldrake is past unto me 
(from his Majesty) in the most legal and exactest word that 
can be expressed ; which I hope your lordship, ere this, hath 
received satisfaction in to clear all doubt Concerning my 
title; and likewise, according to your lordship's direction, 
I nominated the minister, Mr. Tindall, whom I desire may 
be presented ; assuring myself, that the testimonies I then 
gave him, both for ability and conversation, .... by 
all that know him. This my lord is all I can the present, 
until your lordship please to signify your further pleasure 
concerning this matter ; and then my lord just as you direct, 
be ready with all ol^edience to express myself. 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Ed. Howard. 

Kirk HofMt, hy Oharmg CrosSy I7th December, 


My Lord, 

Upon all returns your lordship still evidences a full 
discovery of favour to me, which I shall always keep in 
remembrance, and wait occasions to express my thankful- 

16440 THE CIVIL WAR. 127 

ness. Yet^ my lord^ to give answer to your lordslup^s last 
letter^ dated the 23rd of September^ I have acquainted Mr. 
Tindali with your intent thereof, who is very willing to close 
with the opportunity and hasten the undertaking of the 
cure^ but for the present is unhappily engaged to attend 
business for some part of the next term, and therefore hath 
earnestly intimated to me to move your lordship for some 
respite, which, if your lordship shall think inconvenient, 
I shall without further delay apply myself to your lordship's 
next intimation, and in the mean time crave pardon that I 
have thus often importuned your lordship's trouble, being so 
desirous to appear 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Ed. Howard. 

Kirk Home, this 7th (^ Jarma/ry, 1644. [N.S, 1645.] 


My honoured Lord, 

I LATELY made it my request to your lordship, by 
Mr. Darley, that you would please to respite for some little time 
the Wheldrake Church until that Mr. Tindali had disengaged 
of some employment in these parts. But since truly weighing 
how much I have trespassed upon your lordship's goodness, 
and that his undispatch from hence may hinder the instruc- 
tion of the people there, I now wholly refer it to your lord- 
ship's pleasure to dispose it to what other worthy person you 
shall think fit; beseeching that he who is preferred may 
acknowledge your lordship's favour, with preservation of my 
title, that so I may thereby be engaged to do hinn what 
other courtesies lie in my power. I shall not trouble your 
lordship further in this business, since the gentleman I 

128 MEMORIALS OP [16*4. 

nominated^ full of worth to do service in the Churchy cannot 
undertake so sudden a journey as I enjoined him^ hut shall 
put a period to my request in this matter, though not to the 
thankful acknowledgments of him that remains 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Ed. Howard. 

Kirk Hwue, Ibik ofJawuary, 1644. [N.S. 1645.] 

One of the incidents of most frequent occurrence 
during the war (particularly in the North, where clan- 
ship had stronger and more numerous ties than in other 
parts of the country), was the exchange of prisoners. 
Scattered through the correspondence there are nume- 
rous instances, from which occasional selections will be 
made here and there. There is not a single case in 
which such applications were not responded to with 
kindness and courtesy. Here is a note from Lord Francis 
Willoughby, touching the exchange of a friend of his, 
Major Benson, then in the hands of the Royalists. The 
occasion, and the right to ask this favour of Lord Pairfeix, 
arose from the gallant conduct of Lord Willougby, who 
had distinguished himself in many daring exploits, but 
chiefly in having stormed Gainsborough at midnight, 
and seized the persons of the Earl of Kingston, Sir John 
Orme, and others. It was in exchange for one of these 
gentlemen that he petitioned for the liberation of his 
friend Benson ; and an endorsement in Lord Fairfax's 
hand- writing informs us that the exchange was effected 
in favour of Sir John Orme on the other side, soon after 
the date of this letter : 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 129 


My Lobd^ 

I RECEIVED a letter from your lordship concerning 
the exchange of Major Benson ; your lordship's favour to me, 
in that you are pleased to take notice of me in it, is an 
obligation beyond my desert, which I have ever found in your 
lordship's civilities to me. My lord, I shall ever account it 
my greatest happiness whenever anything that I had or 
shall have an interest in, your lordship will please to command 
it ; or that I may be so useful to serve you. Sir Benson, my 
lord, he is and ever was at your lordship's disposal; and 
myself to serve you, as 

Your lordship's most affectionate and humble servant, 

London, Decemhei* lAth, 1644. 

It makes a striking postscript to Lord Willoughbys 
letter to add that this Benson, who "is, and ever was at 
his lordship^s disposal," went over, not very long after, to 
the other party, and died on the scaflFold, in 1650, for 
attempting the restoration of Charles II. Stranger 
things than this happened in those days. Monk, fighting 
on the side of the King, was taken prisoner at Nant- 
wich, and, not being lucky enough to procure an 
exchange, was sent up to the Tower, from whence he 
emerged to take arms under the Parliament; "and,'' 
says Rushworth, whose simple statement of the feet is 

VOL. !• K 

130 MEMOBIALS OF [1644. 

very expressive, "after many revolutions, proved the 
famous instrument of King Charles the Second's happy 
restoration/' Monk was made Duke of Albemarle for 
having accomplished that which Benson was beheaded 
for attempting. 

The correspondence of this eventful year of 1644 
may be wound up with a few miscellaneous letters, 
relating chiefly to the disorders and injuries arising 
from the Ucentiousness of half-disciplined soldiers and 
partisans. Friends and foes, the noble and the power- 
ful, the humble and the defenceless, alike suffered from 
these headlong excesses. 

The Lord Mulgrave, whose letter comes firsts was 
the father-in-law of Lord Fairfax, and the reader will 
also remember him as the father-in-law of that spend- 
thrift, young Sir PhiUp Fairfax, whose daughter Ursula 
was married to Mr. James Chaloner. 

The writer of the second letter was Algernon Percy, 
who resigned the office of Lord High Admiral to Charles 
the First. He was charged with the custody of the 
royal children, which he held till the execution of the 
King. He, along with the Essexes and Manchesters, 
went into private life after that time, and came out 
again in full court bloom upon the Restoration. 

Mr. Wolstenholme's circumstantial narrative gives a 
curious j»cture of the outrageous conduct of the soldiers. 
It affords a peep also at the condition of the roads, 
which were so miry and impracticable, that the honest 
country gentleman had no means of getting his family 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 131 

to church (frosty weather excepted !) after his horses 
were taken from him : — 


My Lobd^ 

I HAVB, with no small alacrity, received intelligence 
of the many achievements whereof it hath pleased God to 
make you a happy instrument, and of your valour implanted 
in your sons, mixed with so much piety, that they also have 
made the public cause the whetstone of their fortitude. 
Mihtary valour which carrieth with it much renown, hath 
been glorious in them, yet but a small ray of that perfection 
which dear Charles hath showed in his great encounter with 
death. This I mention not to beget a sigh, but as his near- 
ness binds me to rejoice with you in the assurance he is gone 
to Him that gives and takes at his pleasure. 

By this means, my lord, I have an opportunity to descend 
into the business of the attorneys, wherein something falls 
out which is Uke to He heavy upon me, should it not be 
removed by timely advertising your lordship of the state 

I understand by Sir Paul Finder that a stay is threatened 
of the attorneys, and use is to be made thereof for the State's 
service; wherein my interest is not only involved, but it will 
appear a very hard measure to that good gentleman. For, 
my lord, if the works are conceived to he the King's, it is 
misconceived ; though the King be my immediate tenant, 
and Sir Paul Finder his farmer, yet it is upon account, and 
in consideration of many thousand pounds long since paid to 


132 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

the Crown, and securing my rent; and should this be pro- 
secuted, it will as well destroy my hopes of 1640/. a year, 
wherewith you are trusted, as an honest gentleman that, 1 
fear, is reduced from a plentiful fortune to little else to 
subsist with. 

My lord, the confidence I have in you, gives me assur- 
ance I shall receive a fair account of this business. Thus 
wishing prosperity to you and yours, and that the great 
Disposer of all things will crown you with success in your 
designs, shall be the prayers of 

Your lordship's affectionate friend and father-in-law, 

Zondofi, DtcemJber 9th^ 1644. 


My Lord, 

In these distractions I cannot expect to be free 
from the oppressions and burthens which are incident to a 
war, although (as I am informed by my officers in the north) 
your lordship is pleased to afford them your countenance and 
protection upon all occasions in my businesses ; for which 1 
do return your lordship many thauks, and desire the con- 
tinuance of your favour to them when they shall make their 
addresses unto you. I hear that the garrison at Wresell 
hath so hurt the house, wasted the woods, and impoverished 
my tenants of that lordship, that the seat there will run 
a hazard of being utterly destroyed, if that garrison be not 
either removed or better ordered. The disbanding of it 
and slighting the works, is that which I desire, if it may 
stand with your lordship^s pleasure, and the service of 
the public, to which we must all submit. I shall study 

J 644.3 THE CIVIL WAR. 133 

by all ways to deserve the respect which you have been 
pleased to show unto 

Your lordship's affectionate and faithful servant^ 


Twh Rouse, December 9th, 1644. 



. My Lord, 

I WAS riBsolved not to have been more troublesome 
to your lordship for anything concerning myself; but now I 
see myself lie open not only to be undone by plunder, but 
myself> wife, children, and servants, subjected to the violence 
aind rapine of disordered soldiers, before and in the presence 
of your captains and officers who commanded them, and 
plunder in part justified to be allowed the soldier by the 
captain, when he had no commission to enter my house; 
two of my servants sore wounded who did nothing to them, 
in my wife's presence, and she forced to flee to her chamber 
for rescue, and there a naked sword tendered her by a 
young ruffian, who called for her and told her he came for 
money> and with fearful oaths that money he would have ; and 
calling all Bomish whores, wherein I thank Qt)d none with 
ine are guilty. He had his desire in part, for he snatched 
a purse with a gold ring and a seal in it, from a servant 
that was giving some to quiet him. By the way I beseech 
your lordship to take into consideration, that the sequestrator 
gave this commission to one Captain Swaine, to sequester 
and appraise all my cattle, but not to bring them away ; yet 
he not only drove them away, but gave divers of my coach- 
horses to one Captain Wood, who set him on work first to do 

134 MEMORIALS OP [1644. 

this, and who the last week plundered the same horses and 
two others notwithstanding. I showed him your lordship's 
proclamation against it. I made my address to his colonel, a 
very civil man, and he caused three coach-horses and a mare 
to be restored; but the other coach-horse and a pacing nag 
for my own saddle, the Captain keeps still; and now by 
Captain Swaine's means he may set up a coach, for he hath 
all four, and your lordship is well acquainted with bur dirty 
country, that I need not acquaint your lordship that my 
wife cannot serve God at church with the congregation, 
but in frosty weather. Comet Lg.mbert yet was very civil 
to her, though he took the best, and your lordship was 
pleased to say I should likewise have him again, you were 
BO far from taking the rest. Some other colts never backed 
he detains likewise for his own use ; he drove .away nay milch 
kine, my draught oxen, and five •fat oxen, which were for my 
own expense, and are valued very high ; and either I must 
purchase them or lose them. Yet I procured so much favour 
with Mr. Lodge, by means of a friend, as to have my cattle 
again, all but what Captain Swaine hath disposed of; upon 
promise to pay the rate within a few days, if I procured not 
your lordship^s order to stay the payment. Truly, my lord, 
money is very precious with me, and where to borrow so 
much I yet know not. My sufferings are infinite every way • 
my family great, and consequently my charge, and for my 
own security I dare not now lessen. I beseech your lordship^s 
order to quit it, or to abate it in some reasonable measure 
that I may live ; and for the abuses of the two captains and 
their officers and soldiers, that you would cause them to be 
examined by Mr. Lodge, and whom else you please^ and upon 
certificate of their demeanour, contrary to their commis- 
sion and your lordship^s proclamation, your lordship would 

1W4.] THE CIVIL WAR. 135 

make them examples for the safety of your poor servants 
and the rest of the county, and God will bless you in doing 
justice, and I shall remain. 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 

John Wolstenholme. 

Nogtel, Deceniber 22n<2, 1644. 

About three weeks since I had four fatting cattle taken 
from me for the heath garrison, and eight fat sheep. Those 
your commanders there yet gave me a bill for, but when to be 
paid Grod knoweth ; but they set a value of them less than I 
am rated to pay for my goods now taken. I beseech your 
lordship give me leave to defend my house according to law, 
against any but such as show your lordship's commission, 
because I live in fear of my life with all my family; and 
except I have your lordship's warrant herein, I dare not do it; 
as I both would and could barely do in defence thereof. 

Mr. Wolstenholme was the eldest son of Sir John 
Wolstenholme, of Nostel, Yorkshire, and was married to 
Dorothy, the youngest daughter of Lord de Vere, and 
sister-in-law to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 

A couple of incidental letters from Lords Clare and 
Morley, may be inserted here : — 

Lord Clare, whose confidential communication illus- 
trates the occasional abuse of the protection system, 
was a man of no mark in himself, but derived a sort 
of reflected lustre from his brother, Denzil Holies. He 
was married to the eldest daughter of Lord de Vere, and 
in that way claims cousinship with the Fairfaxes. 

136 MEMOEIALS OF [1644. 


Mt Lord^ 

I COULD not omit this opportunity of saluting you 
by Colonel Lambert^ and having so many relations unto you 
of obligation, alliance, and affection for your own worth, I must 
needs let your lordship know of what falls within the narrow 
circle of my knowledge which may concern you, as desiring to 
be serviceable to you by all the ways I can. Sir John Cursou 
who serves for Derbyshire, was with me the other day, and 
told me (which I think he had from his brother Sir Jolm 
Gell) that your lordship had given more commissions for 
raising regiments in Derbyshire than the country coidd bear, 
and some of them to strangers to the country ; and he com- 
plained also of your protection to Mr. Frechevile, with tlie 
countenance whereof he kept twelve pieces of ordnance in 
his house, and 200 musketeers, which he billeted upon tlie 
country, which was not laying down of arms, but keeping a 
force against the Parliament, and that Gell summoning and 
requiring his arms, he sent him your protection, and writ if 
it should not be allowed, he would be buried in the ruins of 
his house. 

The copy of the protection and his letter I have seen, 
which if showed the House, would not be so well taken, and 
was called for by some malevolent to you both who had got 
some inkling of it. But Sir John Curson (I must needs do 
him that right) declined it, as unwilling to do you an ill 
office ; all which I undertook to tell yom* lordship, so as you 
may do well in my opinion to acknowledge his courtesy, 
which you have understood from me. Take no notice to 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 137 

him that I had any former traffic in the business/ though I 
know you did it at my instance, which would trouble me the 
more that it should reflect upon you, and truly I am confident 
Mr. Frechevile is of so much honour as he will be very, very 
tender of your safety. But yet I would advise your lordship 
to press him to some certainty when he will further declare 
himself, and delivec up his house to; the iise of tlje Parlia- 
ment; and if he should refuse to fix a time, I would wish you 
to call in your protectioti, and declare it void./ 

But I verily believe, you will not be put to it^ and that he 
will give you a good account of himself; and then it will 
be a good service to the public to reduce a person of his 
value and esteem, with a place of that strength, which com- 
mands a great part of the country, and would require a 
considerable expense of men and money to force it. And 
when he shall have done what belongs to him, then I believe 
you will give an account of it to the great committee, and 
withal I shall desire you to recommend him . unto them, and 
mediate his reception, upon which his friends may take a 
rise to move further for him. So, wishing your lordship^s 
health and happiness, with my service to my sister, my 
sweet cousin your daughter, and to Tom Fairfax, I rest 
Your lordship's very affectionate cousin and servant, 


A'ugust ISthy 1644. 


My Lord, 

The inveterate malady of the spleen enforced me 
to come to the Spa for my old remedy. My stay at Knares- 

138 MEMORIALS OF [1644- 

borough to that end has been ever since I wrote to your 
lordship. I intended to have retired myself to my own home, 
but was prevented by the sudden coming of your forces. 
Upon their approach I betook myself with others to the 
Castle^ not knowing what treaty the common sort of soldiers 
might afford me. 

In respect of this my infirmity, and the casualty of tlie 
thing, I would desire your lordship^s pass for myself, three 
servants, and a. boy, to repair to Hornby Castle, or some 
other place, where by your lordship's favour I may be at 
my own freedom without disturbance. Thus relying upon 
our former acquaintance, your lordship's good disposition, 
and this my reasonable request, I am confident you will con- 
descend unto it without obstacle. The engagement will 
oblige me to continue 

Your lordship's friend and servant, 


November lith, 1644. 

The " inveterate spleen " is as good a fact to remem- 
ber his lordship of Morley and Monteagle by as any 
with which we are acquainted. It has not transpired 
whether he ever did anything of greater importance than 
drink Spa water, solicit passes for safe deliverances, 
and nestle himself up in quiet corners of old castles. 
Some five years before the date of this letter he had left 
off Parliament, and apparently gave himself up exclu- 
sively to his malady. And thus in this age of enlist- 
ing, drilling, and trumpeting, when men were in inces- 
sant motion day and night all over the kingdom, and 

1644.) THE CIVIL. WAR. 139 

alarum-bells were ringing from turrets and churches, 
and evei3L from the great gable-ends of factories, and 
fiirm-hpusQS, noblemen and others aflBicted with the 
spleen, ai^d sundry Uke craven diseases, might be seen 
creeping about in search of ease and shelter, taking no 
part either way, and holding their breath till the storm; 
past over, ready to come out when the sky cteared, and 
sun themselves in the triumph ! 

A letter from young Edmund Sheffield to his uncle 
by marriage, the Lord Fairfax, relating to personal 
matters, but not wholly wanting in more general inte- 
rest, discloses an instance of the readiness of base men 
to take advantage of social confiision and distrust for 
their own ends. The " grandfather '' alluded to, who 
is so perplexed and maUgned by his late steward, is the 
Earl of Mulgrave, with whom we renewed our acquaint- 
ance a few pages back, and whom we formerly knew, in 
the quiet times of the Denton Peerage Case, as the Lord 
Sheffield, a most respectable President of the North; 
now nearly in his dotage, close upon eighty years of age, 
and fellen from the high glories of fighting the Armada, 
and ruHng the councils of the Border, to the humiliation 
of being torn to pieces by brawling hirelings. In two 
years from this time, poor old "grandfather'^ dropped 
into his grave, and the writer of the letter became Earl 
of Mulgrave. 

"Brother Monmouth" was Henry Carey, Earl of 
Monmouth. He and Sheffield had married two sisters, 
daughters of the Earl of Middlesex, the Lord Treasurer, 

140 MEMORIALS OF [1644; 

who had been disgraced from his oflSices by James the 
First. Of Monmouth there is nothing known, except that 
he was a man of studious and retired habits, who kept as 
much as possible out of the way of history ; and we are 
accordingly left to speculate upon the favour rendered 
him by Fairfax, which was probably to supply him with 
a pass, or keep the soldiers oflF his grounds. 



: M;Y Lord, . 

I Gj[ VE your lordship many thanks for the favour of 
your, letter of the 24th of October last, which (as all yours 
are) was exceeding welcome to me. I did your commands to 

my grandfather, who of late hath been marvellous ill, but took 

-' .'..••I ■-'■'' • -•• 

it very well your lordship was pleased to mention him with so 
much respect in your letter to me, and I beUeve he intends 
to write to your lordship, to acquaint you how Mr. Coventry 
(his late steward at Mulgrave) and some other ill-aflfected 
and malicious, persons go about to asperse my lord^s present 
officer there, Mr. Shipton, upon no better ground than the 
ground of ill-will, because their power is lessened and his 
increased there ; yet they are so troublesome to my lord's 
officer, as my lord^s service is much hindered by it, it being 
impossible for Mr. Shipton to follow my lord's occasions as 
they require, so long as Mr. Coventry and his mahgnant 
associates have the freedom and countenance to molest 
Shipton. Wherefore, my lord, I should be very glad (as far 
as the rules of justice will bear it) that Mr. Coventry and his 
abettors might be restrained from being so troublesome and 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 141 

spiteful, and rather that they might have the beam pulled out 
of their eyes, than suffered to find out, if it be possible, a 
mote in their brother's eye; for Coventry, he gives it upon 
his own account, that he did pay to the enemy was in Mul- 
grave 100/. of my lord's money, without the least authority 
from my lord for it. Many things of this nature I suppose 
he is guilty of, which speaks what he is, and therefore I will 
say no more of him, but leave him to your lordship's judici- 
ous consideration how to keep him, at least, from prejudicing 
of my grandfather. 

My lord, my brother Monmouth doth acknowledge your 
great favour to him, and both he and myself are your very 
humble servants for it, and shall be ready to do you any 
service we can. 

My Lady Fairfax, her sons, are arrived here, which I hope 
will be to their improvement, if she can get money to breed 
them with, which I doubt is very much wanting to her as yet, 
but she tells me your lordship will be so noble to her as to 
send her a month's pay of her husband's salary. Truly, my 
lord, I think you shall do very honourable in it, and the 
larger you extend your favour to her in this kind, the more it 
will redound to your own honour, and the seasonable relief of 
a distressed widow. 

My lord, I remain. 
Your lordship's most humble servant. 

And affectionate nephew, 


November I9ih, 1644. 

. The next letters relate to an event of some impor- 
tance to the Fairfaxes, but of still greater importance 
to the country — the elevation of Sir Thomas to the 

142 iiEMORlALS OP [1644. 

supreme command of the army of the Parliament. 
Philip, Lord Wharton, who writes these letters, was 
more distinguished by his tongue and his pen than his 
sword. One of the historians positively asserts, that 
during the battle of Edge-Hill, where he held a colonel's 
commission, he hid himself in a saw-pit I 


My Lobd^ 

During my being within doors, I forbore your 
lordship^s trouble. In this kind be pleased now to pardon me 
in the receiving of my acknowledgments of all respect and 
service. Your lordship will, from many hands, hear of a vote 
passed your House, that no member of either should have any 
office, civil or martial, during these civil wars; and for the 
trial, that they will not be partial, it was this day carried, that 
my Lord of Essex should not be excepted out of that Ordi- 
nance. Two things upon this occasion I may safely say, that 
I would to God we had such a successor in aU other places as 
your lordship will have, and that further than your lordship 
is generally involved in the Vote, you are not otherwise 
concerned or intended in it, that ever I heard of. This 
being so, if this Ordinance pass the Houses, your case 
will be with honour and comfort, for a general good, to 
resign your command over unto him who is properly to 
merit, and will constantly make good all the honour you can 
leave him. By the letter inclosed your lordship will see 
what is the King's answer, and what upon the delivery of it 
was said by my Lord Duke of Biehmondv 

I am your lordship^s most humble servant, 

P. Wharton. 

December 17 tk, 1644. 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 143 


My Lobd^ 

I AM to acknowledge my obligation for your last 
and many other favours. The worst news I can send you is, 
that there is none^ our business concerning the armies and 
officers depending yet betwixt the Houses upon great uncer- 
tainties, and all things in the interim lying very loose. 

The way and manner of the treaty is referred to the 
preparation of the Committee of both Kingdoms^ and will 
suddenly be brought to the Houses. 

The party sent into the West after relief of Taunton is, by 
some unfortunate mistake (we know not how yet), returned, 
whereby the advantages we had in those parts are much 

I am very glad your lordship's forces are so usefully 
employed. It is visible your lordship would work well, if you 
had tools j for your accommodation wherein, as in all other 
services, you shall always find me ready to approve myself 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

P. Wharton. 

December ^st, 1644. 

The appointment of Sir Thomas Fairfax in the room 
of Essex has not yet taken place, but it is ripening. 
Debates are going on in Parliament which are prepar- 
ing the way for changes in the army, and in the conduct 
of the war, which must inevitably drive out all half- 
measures and the men who support them. In the 
meanwhile, looking back through the events of the year, 
and counting up gains and losses, it may be inferred 

144 .MEMORIALS OF [1644- 

that the King's cause is reehng under vital blows, and 
that Parliament has now nothing more to do than to 
follow them up with swiftness and decision. 

And of all men Sir Thomas Fairfax is the fittest for 
this hot service. He is in his thirty-fourth year ; has 
seen the closest and fiercest fighting in streets, ditches, 
lanes, on the slopes of hills, inside and outside fortified 
walls, and upon open plains ; he has been put to the 
worst extremities, and carried himself through them 
with heroic endurance. The time is gone by for men 
like Essex and Manchester who think forbearance the 
best poUcy, and that there is nothing risked in deaUng 
tenderly with the enemy. The successes won in this 
memorable year must be pursued with vigour ; and this 
is a function which demands younger blood and bolder 

These successes were of the most signal kind : the 
defeat of Lord Byron in Lincolnshire ; the conquest of 
several garrisons in Cheshire ; the seizure of Helmesley 
and Pomfret castles ; the overthrow of a large force of 
Royalists at Ferrybridge ; the total rout of Prince 
Rupert's army, and dispersion of the generals, at 
Marston Moor ; and finally the surrender of York, which 
made Sir Thomas Fairfax master of the North. Add to 
this list of adTantages gained, the divisions in the King's 
councils, which prevailed in one shape or another fi^om 
the beginning, but which had latterly broken out into 
open feud, — the strange meandering marches of the 
King after Essex, now hemming him in, and now letting 

1644.] THE CIVIL WAR. 145 

him escape, but bringing about no result beyond that of 
exposing to pubUc gaze the pitiable spectacle of royalty 
in difficulties, — and the flight of the Queen in such sud- 
denness and alarm, as to nilow nature hardly time to 
recover strength after the tender pangs of childbirth : 
add these incidents to the larger events of the past 
twelvemonths, and there will be more than enough to 
justify the Parliament party in the enjoyment of an 
exulting Christmas and a confident New Year. 

TOL. I. 











There is a gay letter, full of pleasant drawing-room 
gallantry, which seems to have dropped out of its place 
in the old Fairfax chest, and been left to take chance 
of ever finding its way into the dayhght — ^probably 
because it is undated and unsigned. Nothing better 
can be done with this piece of stray sprightUness than 
to bring it in at once at the opening of 1645, a time 
when the whole country was beginning to look brightly 
into the future. 

From internal evidence, this letter is nearly twenty 
years older than our present date. It belongs to the 
age of our elder Fairfaxes, the age of knighthoods and 
chivalries, of armadas and spurs, and maiden Queens ; 
and it brings down with it into our troubled chambers, 
filled with the smoke and roar of civil war, a tone of 
leisure and playfiilness that steals upon us Hke a strain 
of old forgotten music. The Lady Mary Fane, to whom 
it is addressed, came of the stock of the Nevills -of 
Raby, who were interlaced with many renowned 
nobilities, and had many titular honours smouldering 
like half-extinguished brands upon their hearth. She 
was the only daughter of the fourth Lord Abergavenny, 
and was married to Sir Thomas Fane, a descendant of 

150 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

some huge, misty Welshman, called Howell ap Vane, 
who is said to have Uved long before the Conquest, — a. 
circumstance by no means so remarkable as the fact that 
the Fanes founded the house of Westmoreland. Upon 
the death of her father, Lady Mary claimed the barony 
of Abergavenny, but failed, after a long investigation, 
the House of Lords deciding that it went with the male 
heirs. By way of compensation, however, for this dis- 
appointment, they granted letters patent for reviving in 
her the ancient barony of Le Despencer, one of the 
numerous titles enrolled in her house of houses. The 
Lord Westmoreland alluded to in the letter, was her 
son, who was admitted to the peerage as Baron 
Burghersh and Earl of Westmoreland, in 1624; and as 
her ladyship died in 1626, this letter must have been 
written in the interval. The writer appears to have 
had something of the bantering youthfulness of Horace 
Walpole in his old age ; and if he puts on the airs of 
a wintry beau with less grace and sparkle, the reader 
will be tempted to suspect, perhaps, that he has a little 
more muscle to fall back upon. The initials are those of 
Sir Francis Rokeby , who, if he was a son of Sir Thomas 
Rokeby of Rokeby, (as we are justified in conjecturing) 
must have been at this time a gentleman of ruined for- 
tunes. So urgent were the necessities of Sir Thomas, 
that he had already sold the ancestral domains to a Mr. 
Robinson, in whose Une they continued until they passed 
by purchase into the hands of Mr. Morritt, the friend of 
Sir W. Scatt. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 151 



Welcome firom Windsor, my most good Lady Mary; then 
I must ask, madam, how they all stand as to health at Bray,* 
and thereabouts. You must answer weU if they be so; if 
not — ^mum, for I take no pleasure in ill news. Now I must 
inquire how it was with you for diversion — which way you 
disposed of yourselves all day; and expect to be told that the 
men were no sooner up, and had laid in a good stock of break- 
fast, than they bolted abroad with their dogs and guns; 
whilst we of the more refined metal, not made for labour and 
dirty work, found delights more acceptable at home. I said 
my own prayers, and read homilies to the family ; my sisters 
practised upon the spinnet, and my lady had the satisfaction 
of hearing all. I think there is no reason for searching out 
what use was made of evenings. I can guess the sportsmen 
brought home that little they had taken a great deal of pains 
for; you helped to eat it, took each a glass or two of wine, 
then scraped three or four sweethearts out of the ashes, and 
so to bed. Now, madam, I must take leave to make one 
step from country to court, and would be glad to know what 
sort of behaviour the new Spanish monarch has shown amidst 
the glory of our English beauties; whether he have well 
learned the art to ogle without squinting ; whether he can 
make an amour without words; whether his Austrian lips 
can kiss without slobbering ; whether he be a man of stra- 
tagem amongst ladies, as I hope he wiQ prove in war ; and 
whether he have not a double countenance — one to please 
women, the other to fright men. I am satisfied your ladyship 

* Between Maidenhead and Windsor. 



cannot be absolutely certain in your answer, but your 
acquaintance with so many gay things that know all may 
make you guess at a little. 

Now, madam, the tables must turn, and it is upon your 
part to put the questions; so you must begin. Welcome 
from Fincett and Southwick,* my most sweet Sir Francis. 
Pray give me an account, for I cannot imagine what 
employment you could spend your time upon at those 
two places fifteen or sixteen days together. Why, I will 
tell you, madam. In so mixed a multitude, perhaps 
there never was a more agreeable conversation, for you 
must know the whole family of Southwick (Dim only 
excepted) were the first half time at Fincett, and the other 
half the whole family of Fincett at Southwick. Sometimes, 
when the company were inclinable for a talk, you cannot 
think with what admirable handsomeness the pleasing con- 
descensions of Lady and Lord Westmoreland, the sweet, 
obliging tempers of the ladies, Mary, Susan, and Rachel, 
were discoursed of; but when the pretty conceits of my little 
hop-about Dallison were once thought on, it was a general 

I know the next question must naturally be, what my 
old, fusty, dying carcase, having lost the pleasure of taste 
and sight, should do amongst so much youth and spirit, there 
being a vast diflerence betwixt sky and earth. Why, truly, 
madam, it was not by choice, for I was hurried away by 
arbitrary power, whether in cart or coach I cannot weU say, 
but sure I am it had wheels. Neither do I know but that 
I might be of some use, for by looking on a man half in the 
grave, perhaps it would make them think a little upon their 
own mortality. I will not imdertake to tell which of the 

* Southwick, in the county of Southampton. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 153 

ladies danced best^ nor who of the men drank most^ they 
being excellencies. I have no skill in, nor will I make com- 
parison with, where you have been ; but this I will venture 
at, as you were all countesses and kings, we were all gentle- 
women and squires of her Majesty^s peace. Thus, my dear 
Lady Mary, in having given you a slight description of a 
fortnight's living, I have so far killed myself that I am not 
able to say more, but wish you every year all the happiness 
this world can afford, till God shall call you to a better 
enjoyment in that to come, and am, 

My most good madam. 

Your honour^s most humble and obedient, 


From what has been seen of jealousies, piques, and 
differences amongst the commanders of the army, the 
business of Parliament was clear at the opening of 
1645 ; but the way to the execution of it was crooked 
and difficult. There were two opinions as to the 
management of the war : the one for delay and 
compromise, the other for sHpping the hounds in fiiU 
cry on the King-hunt. Essex, Manchester, and Den- 
bigh, and most of the high Parliament men, who stood 
on their traditions and aristocratic associations, were of 
the former way of thinking ; Fairfax, (who was a 
thorough soldier, and nothing more, and saw all 
questions through that violent medium), Cromwell, and 
the whole movement party of the Parliament, were of 
the latter. Such a conflict might have done no great 
mischief in Westminster ; in the councils of the army it 

154 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

was fatal. It is in some sort the business of Parliament 
to doubt and discuss — it is the express fiinction of an 
army to act. Parliament may be made up of hundreds 
of atoms of crotchets, throwing out their antennae in as 
many diverging directions ; but an army ought to have 
only one mind, and move in a mass only to onei end. 
To bring about this desirable consummation, and (in 
order to bring it about) to get rid of the lords and 
shufflers, whose compassionate tears threatened to "glue 
the sword to the scabbard,'' was the design of that 
famous measure which is known to us by the significant 
title of the Self-denying Ordinance. 

The pith of this ordinance is expounded in one preg- 
nant line, in a letter from Mr. James Chaloner, who, 
busily engaged in the debates and proceedings, informs 
his friend. Lord Fairfax, at intervals, of what is going 
forward It must be remembered that in those tinaes 
there was no electric telegraph, such as the daily 
paper of our day, for the difiusion of intelligence ; so 
that information, even thus hastily and scantily commu- 
nicated, was of incalculable value. The ordinance had 
passed the Commons early in the preceding Decomber, 
and had been sent up to the Lords, who, after much 
coquetry in committees and conferences, had rejected it 
in the middle of January. The expression of a hope 
that no stranger should have the Command-in-Chie^ 
is a plain allusion to Prince Rupert, whose position at 
the head of the King's troops gave great offence. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAE. 155 



Most noble Lo&d^ 

It is an infinite content to me, that your lordship 
doth continue so high an esteem of me, expressed by your 
letters of the 3rd of this instant, wherewith you were pleased 
to honour me : it is now my part to endeavour to deserve 
it, which (God willing) I shall do upon every occasion. The 
Ordinance for withdrawing the members of either House 
£rom employments either civil or military, after several 
contestations between the two Houses about it, is rejected 
by the Lords. I am sorry for it, in regard it is so vehe- 
mently distasted by the Commons^ House; the enemy draws 
his greatest advantages as well from our divisions as 
treacheries. It is said that the King hopes, and hath (by 
some letters of his intercepted) so expressed himself, to make 
a good peace by means of a moderate party in the House of 
Parliament. Such persons in popular counsels are seldom 
liked, especially in such times of jealousy as these are, being 
suspected to be led by private interests, to the prejudice of 
the public; if there be any such in our great councils, I 
believe they will be singled out, to their dishonour, when it 
shall be held seasonable to call them to question. 

There is a design to have the Militia new moulded ; if it be 
so, then I could wish, and I hope it will be so provided 
for, that our own forces in all parts shall exceed the 
auxiliaries; and that no stranger, but one of our own 
nation, have the command in chief. It is probable Sir 
T. Fairfax will be called up to be general of the horse. 
I hear Sir W. Witherington is come to the Hague in 




Holland^ and that my Lord of Newcastle is thought to > 
coming also thither. I fear considerable forces will in th 
way of volunteers arrive to molest us. The Treaty you. 
lordship hath heard is voted^ with the manner^ but partly « 
because the differences are so great^ and for that neither 
party is yet reduced to a condition of despair^ the issue 
of it I fear will be so far from healing the wound, that it 
will be only an occasion to inflame it the more. 

Canterbury on Friday last lost his head on Tower Hill; for 
so much as I have observed in his composition, he was a man 
of a bold and austere nature, witty, but exceeding short of 
that prudence, which, in a person of his dignity, and of so 
high respect with the King as he was, was requisite. 

My lord, I should be most willing to present your lordship 
with anything worthy your consideration; but fearing that I 
have but overmuch trespassed upon your patience, and inter- 
rupted your great affairs, I will, sir, cease to say for the 
present more than that I am. 

My lord, 

Your most humble, most faithful, 

and most affectionate nephew and servant, 

James Chaloner. 

London, January litky 1644, [N,S, 1645.] 

My wife presents to your lordship her most humble duty 
and service. — J. C. 

In the midst of these stirring events we must not 
forget that the little wife, who presents her humble 
duty and service to his lordship, was the Ursula 
Fairfax, to whom the pretty love-letter (which, it is to 

/M6.] THE CIVIL WAR. 157 

^ be hoped, the reader remembers,) was addressed, by 
^^ Mr. James Chaloner, nearly, to a day, ten years before.*^ 
^" The anticipation respecting Sir Thomas Fairfax fell 
short of the mark. Instead of making him General of 
the horse, the Commons made him Generalissimo of 
horse and foot. Nor did they give much breathing 
time to the Lords after the rejection of the ordinance, but 
took the matter at once into their own hands, and went on 
re-modelling the army. On the 21st January (six days 
after the Lords had expelled the ordinance) they made 
out the appointment of the new commander, and sent 
for him into the country to attend upon them. In the 
meanwhile we hear about the progress of aflfairs from 
Lord Wharton (he who hid himself in the sand-pit at 
Edgehill) and Sir Thomas Widdrington. The ordinance 
for new-modelhng the army, alluded to in these letters^ 
must not be confounded with the Self-denying Ordinance. 


My Loud, 

I RECEIVED your lordship^s of the 25th of January 
concerning Dr. Bathurst^ to whom I shall be very ready and 
forward to do any good ofSce upon your lordship^s recom- 

There is no great news stirring from without doors. Within 
we are entertained principally with the modeUing of a new 

* Fairfax Correspoudence^ Memoir I. Ixxviii. 


army^ which is so far passed^ as that both Houses have resolved 
to rob the North of a good friend of its and yours.* 

The Ordinance this day passed the Lord's House with an 
amendment or two for the taking of the Covenant, and 
approbation of the officers by both Houses. Another of our 
endeavours is to advance the Scotch army^s march more 
southwards, for which preparations of money, arms, and 
other accommodations are now in agitation^ and so forward 
as we hope will give good encouragement. 

In the meantime, the Commissioners of both sides intend 

the Treaty f very earnestly, but as yet there is not any one 
step gained. Thursday was spent in civilities, and viewing 

of powers ; Friday, Saturday, and Monday in the proposition 
upon religion, the King's commissioners having employed 
the first two days in questions and demands about Church 
government ; and yesterday till eleven at night being wholly 
employed upon the business of Episcopacy, whereunto not- 
withstanding they would give no full answer. What hath 
been the issue of this day's work is not come to my know- 
ledge, only thus far, the business appointed to be treated on 
is about the Militia. 

My lord, 

I am your lordship's most humble servant, 

P. Wharton. 

Colonel White told me he would remind your lordship of a 
business I spoke to him in, that, upon the sequestration of 
Grinton vicarage in Mardale, an honest, faithful, full godly 
man might be put in, who might be of a bold spirit and an 
able body; which two last are absolutely necessary, considering 

* Sir T. Fairfax. f Treaty of Uxbridge. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 159 

the rougbness and multitude of the people^ and the wildness 
of the plaee^ and having. two chapels under his care^ (that of 
Meteners being eight or nine miles distant^) where it will be 
fit for him to exercise every office on every third Lord^s day, 
and whence a great part of his means ariseth. Most of the 
Dale are my tenants, and I should be exceedingly glad, there- 
fore, out of that respect, as weU as the general, that it were 
well supplied ; and would contribute my mite to his entertain- 
ment, if God enable me with an estate, and if such an active, 
honest man be procured. Your lordship will pardon me for 
recommending this unto you, amongst your other weighty 

February Bih, 1644, [N, S. 1645]. 



Mat it please youa Lo&dshif, 

I AM not yet able to tell you of anything concluded 
at Uxbridge; having nothing yet but hopes, and those 
mixed with fears upon the Treaty. The Ordinance for the 
new model, as you heard by the last, is agreed by the 
Lords, with some provisoes added by them, which are some- 
what qualified by the House of Commons, but not yet sent 
up to the Lords again. They are this day sent up to the 
Lords. The two principal provisoes are thus qualified, as I 
remember: — 1. That the commanders and officers shall be 
nominated by the Commander-in-chief, but to be approved of 
by both Houses of Parliament. 2. That all colonels and 
other officers shall take the national Covenant, within twenty 
days after they shall be approved of by both Houses of 

160 MEMOEIALS JOP [1645. 


Parliament; and that all other soldiers in that army shall 
take the Covenant at such time and in such manner as shall 
be directed by both Houses. The latter of the two provisoes 
lasted in debate from a little after ten till past five at night 
upon Saturday last. Sir Thomas Fairfax is expected here 
every day. It hath not yet been moved publicly that he 
should bring up any of his own horse, but to so many as it 
hath been privately intimated, it seems very fitting and 
reasonable ; and so I hope it will be to the House. I am 
very well satisfied that so good a choice is made for the place 
which Mr. Clayton desired. 

There is a letter sent from both Houses to desire the Scots 
to move southwards; and I believe some moneys will be 
shortly provided for them to hasten their journey. I am 
resolved not to hasten mine northward, till I see how Sir 
Thomas Fairfax settles in this place. I have no more to 
add but the presentation of my duty to your lordship, 

Ever remaining, my lord. 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 

Th. Widdrington. 

Febintary Uth, 1644, [N. S. 1645]. 

My Lord — I am desired by my worthy friend. Sir Benjamin 
Rudyard, to present his service and his suit unto your 
lordship, on behalf of one Francis Nichols, who serves 
under your lordship. The particulars of his request are 
mentioned in the inclosed letter, written from Nichols to 
Sir Benjamin Rudyard. 

On the 18th February Sir Thomas arrived in London, 
accompanied by a few officers. Sir Thomas Widdrington 

1645]. THE CITIL WAE. 161 

ton, who reports his safe arrival to Lord Fairfax, 
appears to have waited upon him at Ware, and attended 
him to town. 



May it please your Lordship, 

I SHALL at this time trouble your lordship with 
Httle, and that in my meanest scribbUng way, being newly 
returned &om Ware with Sir Thomas Fairfax, who is very 
safely arrived here, when he was very much expected. He 
hath been with Mr. Speaker, and is just now gone to wait 
upon my Lord General. The Ordinance for the new model 
passed both Houses upon Saturday last, having been delayed 
for four or five days upon the debate of the provisoes men- 
tioned in my last. Sir Thomas Fair&x is to nominate all 
the officers, and the Houses to approve. AU the officers are 
to take the Covenant, or to be displaced, in case of refusal, 
till they take it. Two forts in Weymouth were taken from 
the Parhament, but one of them is regained; and it is 
said the town will be reheved. I have no more to add, but 
my duty to your lordship, remaining. 

My Lord, 
Your lordship's humble servant, 

Thomas Widdrington. 

I doubt Sir Thomas Fairfax will hardly be able to write to 
your lordship this week. There is nothing yet concluded at 

Ltmdcn, Pebrwvry 18e^ 1644, [N. 8. 1645.] 
VOL. i; M 

162 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

On the following day he was conducted to the House 
of Commons by four members, and found a chair placed 
for him, which he declined to use, standing bare, while 
the Speaker deUvered to him the thanks and congratula- 
tions of ParUament. 

We have further accounts in other letters of his 
reception, and of the condition of aflFairs in the country. 
It is pretty obvious from Chaloner's statement that, 
although there are some antagonisms to be reconciled 
between the two Houses, and a hard battle yet to be 
fought by the Commons, nothing more is wanted to 
success than to launch Fairfax in the field, at the head 
of a fresh army. It will be seen that his activity has 
been incessant in the matter of new-officering and new- 
modelling since he was before the House on the 19th 



Most noble Lord^ 

I do observe that Sir Thomas Fairfax's arrival is 
most acceptable to the City and House of Commons, but it 
is as little pleasing to some here as to them at Oxford ; yet 
I hope his fidelity, courage, and vigilance (by the blessing of 
God) will blast the designs of his maligners, either secret 
or professed. The militia in these parts have been either 
actually mutinous, or inclined to be so, about their pay, and 
refuse to march under Sir W. Waller. The want of pay 
is the reason that we have need, once in six weeks, of a 
recniit. But the soldiers^ unwillingness to march under any 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAK. 163 

officers but their own, proceeds from the factiousness of some 
of their prime commanders, who being removed, and the 
soldier receiving a constant pay, (which they are now pro- 
mised,) no doubt but they will give due obedience to such 
officers as the Parliament shall set over them. Yet, lest 
that upon the removing of their officers the soldiers should 
mutiny or disband, and by that means give the enemy advan- 
tage to fall into our quarters, 1 could wish, that, before this 
be done, the forces now to be raised, or a competent number 
of them, were drawn into their quarters to awe them, and 
secure the counties, whatsoever should happen. 

The Treaty (I never thought other) determined with the 
time. None of the three propositions being granted, what 
success could we expect, when it was too manifest how 
broken we were in our counsels as well as in our army ; 
besides the loss of Weymouth — a port most fit to let 
in the French, (who, I am of opinion, together with 
a party of Irish, who are permitted to land, and are 
allowed quarter in Britain, will invade us this summer); 
if from Melcombe Regis, situated on the other bank of 
the river, we cannot prevent it. It is apparent this Treaty 
from the other side was but with an intention to under- 
mine us, not to compose the differences really ; for how have 
they varied in the carriage of it ? First, when our Commis- 
sioners attended with the propositions at Oxford, the King 
promised to send them an answer by messengers of his 
own, for which end he desired a safe-conduct for two lords 
to come to the Parliament, which was granted ; but the lords 
arriving, instead of an answer to the propositions, a time and 
place was desired for Commissioners to meet at, for the dis- 
cussing^ &c. The time, place, and commissioners, and the 
matters to be treated of were agreed on. Then, after twenty 


164 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

days^ debate^ and notliiiig concluded^ the other side broached 
a new motion^ which was^ that the Parliament should 
take into consideration how to secure his Majesty^s person 
from violence, and he would come to treat with them at 

Yet I believe the enemy is extremely appalled at the 
loss of Shrewsbury, the key *of North Wales, as Gloucester 
is of the south part. Prince Maurice, by this means, will 
be able to do the King little service in those parts of the 
recruiting his army ; so he must now rely only upon Somer- 
set, Devonshire, and Cornwall, for men and contribution; 
for I make account he is so straitened and wasted in his 
head-quarter about Oxford, that there are neither men, 
moneys, horses, nor victuals to be had there. How he will 
be able, without foreign aid, to bring an army into the field 
this summer I see not. For us, if moneys can be procured, 
(as I believe they wiH), to be advanced upon Sir Thomas 
Fairfaxes ordinance, no question but we shall have him at the 
head of a gallant army, which if it can but remove the 
Cavalier out of his head quarter, they will not be able to 
subsist, without foreign help, six months after. Yet no 
wonder is it if the King break the Treaty, and desire to 
come in person, when he perceiveth how loose some among 
us sit in the saddle. 

My lord, I desire your pardon for troubling you with 
so long a letter; which I have done, not that I do not 
conceive your lordship understands these affairs better 
than myself, but only that in delivering of my own appre- 
hension I might show myself to be willing to do your 
lordship the respects and service of a 

Most affectionate and himible nephew and servant, 

James Chaloner. 

FiHyruwry 2i1h, 1644, [N.S. 1645. J 

^«*«-] THE CIVIL WAB. 165 



May it please your Lordship^ 

For such thiDgs as concern Sir Thomas Fairfax 
you will have them from other hands. He hath the list of 
officers ready, and I believe will present it this day to the 
House of Commons. The Treaty at Uxbridge is ended. 
The Commissioners returned home yesterday, nothing at all 
being concluded upon. The Dutch Ambassadors yesterday 
also presented their advice to the Houses, to call a national 
Synod, for settling of certain differences in point of govern- 
ment in the Church, to whom no answer hath been as yet 
given in that particular, the consideration of it being referred 
to the Committee of both Kingdoms. This day news are 
come of the taking of Shrewsbury : the castle not being as 
yet taken. I hear the town was gotten with few blows. 
The Ordinance for the Scottish moneys is passed both 
Houses, and now in print. We are at a stand for the pre- 
sent in the Ordinance for the army, because the model of it 
is not yet presented to the House from the Committee of 
both Kingdoms. 

This day the Commissioners of the Treaty gave an 

account of their proceedings to the House, and were 

thanked for their pains and fidelity. And it is well hoped 

that, though this Treaty hath not produced a peace abroad^ 

yet it will beget a better union at home. Thus, with my 

humble service presented to your lordship, I take leave to 


My Lord, 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

Thomas Widdrington. 

February 26«fe, 1644, [N. S. 1645.] 

166 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 



May it please your Lordship^ 

The list of officers presented by Sir Thomas Fairfax 
to the House of Commons is approved there with some altera- 
tions, and was this day sent to the Lords with desire of their 
speedy concurrence. One fort at Weymouth is regained, and 
Melcombe Regis in a better condition than could be expected, 
though Goring hath now set up his regiment before it. 
Waller and Cromwell are both going that way. Shrewsbury, 
as you have heard, is taken, and we had strong reports of the 
retaking of it, but without truth. We hear of Sir M. Lang- 
dale's going northwards, with 2000 horse, which I hope is no 
news to you. It is thought that his design is to raise the siege 
at Pomfret Castle. Here be some reports, but no certainty, of 
some Irish landed in Wales. Sir William Brereton, by his 
letter this day to the House, desires that some of Scots may 
march towards him, being now at Shrewsbury. The monies 
are now in good forwardness for the Scots, which is hoped 
will hasten their march. You will receive at Hull some 
powder shortly from him. It is thought that Prince Maurice, 
with some Irish, hath a design to join with Langdale. 

Since I writ the former lines, certain news are come to the 
House, that Weymouth is miraculously regained, and Goring 
with a considerable loss gone away. On account of this, and 
for the taking of Shrewsbury and Scarborough, Wednesday 
the 12th of this instant is appointed for a day of thanks- 
giving. Our thoughts here are for the present much upon 
the North, expecting what will be the issue of Langdale's 
journey. It is very satisfactory here, that Rossi ter was so 
closely on his heels, and wish that every particular be known 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAB. 167 

unto you in time. There are many here that plot as 
zealously to crush it in the bud as others do to bring it to 
perfection. It is hoped that money will be got in K. upon 
the desire of T. to furnish it, and such as follow in his 
alphabet ; when the greatest part is for him. The wits of G. 
act in K., and it is feared in T. also, for no good. Robert 
Frank wiU serve for a schoolmaster in this case. With my 
service to your lordship, I rest. 

My Lord, 
Your lordship's humble servant, 

L. Fairfax. 

M(vrck 4^ 1644, [N.8, 1645.] 

The assent of Parliament to Sir Thomas's list was 
also communicated to Lord Fairfax by the Rev. Edward 
Bowles. This gentleman was a steady Non-conformist, 
and for many years private chaplain to Sir Thomas 
after he had succeeded to the title. A very curious 
anecdote, ascribing to him an important share in the 
first movement of the Restoration, transpired some 
eighteen or twenty years ago in one of the congrega- 
tional publications. It is said to be well authenticated, 
and shaU be more fully noticed in its proper place. 
The following letter discloses to us that at the time when 
Sir Thomas was engaged in these heavy and responsible 
aflfairs, he was sulBFering under a painful disease ; and it 
also alludes to a fact which is not stated so explicitly 
elsewhere, that the Lords were materially influenced in 
the adoption of the list by the resolute expression of 
public opinion in the City. 

168 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 



Right Honourable, 

Although the sad loss of a dear father which I have 
sustained since my coming hither makes me unfit for these 
kind of addresses, yet the constancy of that affectionate ser- 
vice I owe your lordship bids me make as few intermissions 
as I may in the tender of it. Your lordship hath faithful 
intelligences, to which I shall for the most part refer you, 
especially in this time, wherein I am shut up from converse. 
Only this, the Lords have this day passed the list of Sir 
Thomas Fairfax's officers notwithstanding their former 
refusals, and the disrelish it found from the Scottish com- 
missioners. The ground among others that moved them, I 
believe, was this ; the City, who are most considerable with us 
in regard of money, were ready to declare their willingness 
to bring in money in case the list passed, or to offer their 
obedience, though the Lords dissented. It is thought some 
scruple will be about granting the commission, but it will be 
stood upon, and I believe carried, that it be from the Houses 
and not my Lord of Essex. 

AU other particulars the Diumals will give account of: 
only my lord gave me leave to mention something I heard 
from Yorkshire of the affront offered, not so much to Mr. 
Byard as to your lordship's power, together with the com- 
missioners who sat with your lordship in the passing that 
sentence which appears juster every day than otherwise. 
To meddle with that affair here were to publish either 
that your lordship had not power to rectify such things 
and pursue your own orders, or that you would not use it, 
either of which were very inconvenient. Let me, therefore, 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAB. 169 

beseech your lordship on the behalf, not of Mr. Byard, who 
may be provided in many places, but of those poor misled 
people and your own authority, either to rid the cpimtry of 
him or to give order that it be done from hence, for no man 
will stir to the prejudice of any of your lordship's authority, and 
I beseech your lordship not to prejudge it. Such vapours, as 
these of the doctor, unchecked, will bteed mord clouds and 
storms in the country ; but I have said enough, it may be too 
much, in this matter ; but it is as easy for your lordship^s 
goodness to pardon, as for me to do that which should require 
it. I have nothing to add, but that I am resolved to be 

Your lordship's faithful servant, 

Edw. Bowles. 

Sion College, London, Ma/rch ISih, 1644, IN,S. 1645.] 

Your son hath been ill of the stone lately, and I have been 
constrained to be a stranger to him by reason of my sad 
condition, but am resolved to be so no longer. 

The taking of Shrewsbury, alluded to in these letters, 
appeal's to have been a brilliant achievement, the enemy, 
in overv^helming numbers, being within fourteen miles 
of the town when it was stormed and taken by the 
Parliamentarians. The story is briskly related by 
Colonel Mitton, a brave officer, and a native of Shrews- 
bury moreover, who had large estates in the neighbour- 
hood, and the best possible i-easons for adopting the 
shortest way to insure the peace of the county. Colonel 
Mitton held the office of Governor of Shropshire, and 
had already rendered valuable aid to the cause by 
seizing upon Wem, and placing there the first Parlia- 
ment garrison which had been established in the county. 

170 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

For these services, especially his conduct at Shrewsbury, 
he received the thanks of the Parliament in person. In 
1648 he was raised to the rank of Major-general. 



Honourable Sir, 

I DESIRE that you will he pleased to excuse my not 
writing unto you of the manner of the taking of this tow^n. 
I do assure you that the rest of the gentlemen of the Com- 
mittee did not acquaint me when they sent the messenger 
with their letters, though I was as deep in the action as also 
in the contriving of the design with them. Moreover I had 
conceived they had put my hand to the letter they had sent 
unto you (I being then in town with them, but busy in 
settling the garrison), they having showed me a draft of a 
particular to be sent. 

If it may not be unseasonable or troublesome, I shall yet 
take the boldness to relate it : — One Mr. Huson, a minister, 
who came out of Ireland with the enemy, and some three 
months since came from them unto us, did often press us 
to fall upon the town in the place where it pleased God 
now to give us entrance. That day se'nnight, before the 
town was taken, we intended to have fallen upon it, but the 
night being exceeding dark and the ways extremely wet, 
retarded our march so much, that it was near day before 
we came within a mile of the town, so that we were forced 
to retreat at that time. The night we surprised it, the 
moon did shine till after twelve o^clock, which helped us so 
much in our march, that we were within a mile of the town 

1646.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 171 

before the goiog down of the moon. I being at Oswaktree, 
twelve miles from Wem, and as far from this town, upon 
very short notice marched to meet them. 

Our intent was to have conveyed our foot in a boat in the 
river above the palisadoes, that they had set in a row from the 
out- works of the castle down into the river, but that project 
failed us. Nevertheless, Mr. Huson and one Captain Willier, 
who came likewise from the enemy unto us as I remember 
about a month before, took axes and sledges and broke down 
the palisadoes, and made way for our firelocks to enter 
through them, with some forty horsemen that went afoot 
with them with their carbines and pistols, which we were 
enforced to make use of in respect we had not above sixty 
firelocks. At the first beginning of the breaking of the pali- 
sadoes they were discovered and shot at out of the castle, 
whereupon the alarm was given to the town, our men being 
at least twelve score paces from that place in the wall where 
they entered; but it pleased God to give them such courage and 
resolution that they went on with exceeding great speed, and 
scaled the walls with light ladders we had caused to be made. 
One part of them went toward the main guard, others went 
with their firelocks, beat their guard from the gate near the 
castle, and in a short time burst open the gate and let down 
the drawbridge, where we were ready with the horse and some 
foot. We marched with the horse direct to the main guard, 
where we found that they had made our men retreat twice, 
but we soon enclosed the guard with our horse, and then 
they did cast away their arms and endeavoured to run 


At that guard we slew one Captain John Needham, and they 
two of our horses, but God be praised we lost not one man. 
Within one hour after^ they surrendered the castle upon con- 

172 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

dition to march to Ludlow, leaying their arms hehind them, 
and the Irish who were within the castle to be hanged, which 
is performed. There was one outwork at the other end of 
the town, called Franckwell, which they held, but upon our 
coming against them they presently delivered it upon quarter 
only for their lives. God be blessed for this great mercy. 

Prince Rupert marched this day within six miles of this 
town, over Severn, at a place called Byldwas : he is reported to 
be 5000 with those that are to join with him from Newark. 
Prince Maurice lieth this night at' Chirk Castle, as I am now 
informed by a messenger from Oswalstree, whither I am 
now enforced to go, having received some intelligence from 
thence which will concern my being speedily there. I 
humbly take leave, and remain 

Your humble and faithfcQ servant, 

Thos. Mitton. 

Shrewsbury f March I5th, 
10 at Night. 

When Sir Thomas's list of officers went up to the 
Lords there were considerable doubts and many con- 
ferences ; and it was not till the 1 8th — ^that is to say a 
full fortnight of terrible suspense, at a time when 
moments had the value of days — ^that the Lords agreed 
to the list. The Commons were thrown into such an 
ecstasy at receiving their Lordships' assent, as to send 
them up a message of congratulation, assuring them of 
their affection, and of their resolution to support them 
in their honours and privileges. 

This was excellent policy. The House of Lords was 
the House of Obstacles to the Commons ; but it was no 

1W5.] THE CIVIL WAR. 173 

part of the business of the Commons to subvert the other 
branch of the Legislature, since, much as it stood in their 
way on pressing occasions like the present, it would have 
been much more in their way had it gone over to the 
other side. Be it observed, too, that no question had ever 
been raised about the privileges of the Lords, or even 
the privileges of the King. The whole question was the 
abuse of privileges, and the denial of rights. It was as 
strictly, therefore, within the province of the Commons 
to sustain the just exercise of the Lords' privileges, as 
it would have been to resist the abuse of them. 

Besides, there was urgent work waiting for the appro- 
bation of the Lords, and it was more essential than ever 
to cultivate friendly relations between the two Houses. 
The Self-denying Ordinance had yet to be carried, for, 
although the Lords had already rejected it, the Commons 
were resolved it should pass, and had no sooner got 
Fairfaxes list safely endorsed by the Peers, than they 
took up the ordinance again, read it a first and second 
time, and committed it at a single sitting, and in a week 
sent it back to the Upper House. Their Lordships had 
grown wise in the interval, and passed the measure at 
once. On the same day, 3rd April, Sir Thomas Fairfax 
went to Windsor, where he vigorously commenced his 
new-modeUing of the army, recruiting the old forces, 
and re-shaping the whole into fresh companies and 
regiments. Li three weeks from that day he was again 
in the field. 

The most significant circumstance in the management 

174 MBMOBIALS OF [1645. 


of the new-modelling waa the evasion of the Self- 
denying Ordinance, by the retention of Cromwell in his 
command. Under the provisions of the ordinance, 
Cromwell was incapacitated, in common with all other 
Members of Parliament, from serving in the army ; but 
it was necessary for the pubUc interest that he should 
be there, and, after some little fencing with the difficulty 
in the first instance, a formal dispensation was obtained 
from Parliament in June, which enabled him to devote 
himself thenceforward to the camp. In the mean time, 
Essex, Manchester, Denbigh, and the rest of the ob- 
noxious commanders, in addition to some whose loss 
was to be regretted, had resigned with as good a grace 
as they could put on under compulsion. 

While these matters were taking place in London 
and Windsor, Lord Fairfax was overwhelmed by feuds 
and troubles in the North — clamorous applications for 
exchanges and passes, for the raising ot subsidies, and 
removal of suspected persons, followed up by remon- 
strances in proportion, complaints of military outrages 
and personal indignities, treacheries and surprises, feints, 
skirmishes, and threatening notices, with a terrible 
clatter of fifes and drums, from all points of the 
compass. A selection from the correspondence of this 
period will show what sort of variegated responsibilities, 
independently of hard garrison duty, devolved upon his 

From the following letter it appears that spies, care- 
fully disguised, were going about the country : — 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 175 


My good Lord^ 

I HAVE Stumbled upon an intelligence which I 
thought fit to be communicated to your lordship in way of 
the public service. There were in this town, about a week 
since^ two gentlemen which came from Carlisle, and were 
making, as I am informed, towards Oxford. They would 
not discover their names. They were disguised. One of 
them had his periwig very long on his shoulders ; the other 
of them was somewhat flat-faced, with his chin bending 
upwards ; and one of them had his eye covered with a black 
patch. They left word with one ill enough aflfected, that my 
son, now in Carlisle (if he were not one of the two before 
mentioned), was in health, and in great account there, at 
which I did not much rejoice; but they gave an especial 
charge that they should not be mentioned to me until three 
or four days after their departure, which was duly observed. 

They seemed to intend their return this way within a fort- 
night, which, if they do, will be about Monday or Tuesday 
next. If they could be lighted on in their return, they may 
happily better your lordship's information of the estate of 
that place. What to advise your lordship in way thereof 
(the malignity of this town is such) I know not, but I must 
leave it to your lordship's wisdom ; only I thought it the 
duty of the Covenant which I have taken, and of the zeal I 
have for the cause now contended for, to give your honour 

176 HEMOBIALS OF [1645. 

this information^ which^ with my humble duty^ I present 
unto your lordship^ and rest^ my lord^ 

Your humble servant^ 

Tho. Darcy. 

Rtpm, this I2ih of February, 1644, [N.S. 1645.] 

The next correspondent is Sir George Wentworth, 
brother to the Earl of Strafford. This was the gentle- 
man whose marriage with " Mistress Ruisshe " has been 
already noticed.* He was a Privy Councillor in Ireland, 
and writes, on this occasion, to Lord Fairfax, to thank 
him for the protection extended by his lordship to the 
Strafford family, or such of them as were yet left at the 
old seat of Wentworth Woodhouse, in Yorkshire. The 
young Earl (at this time pursuing his education abroad) 
was restored to his title and estates at the Restoration. 


May it fl£asb youe Lordship^ 

The great nobleness you are pleased to use to that 
poor broken family at Woodhouse, is that for which we are 
bound, not alone in words, but in all other ways to acknow- 
ledge with aU gratitude ; and I assure myself, that nobleman 
whose fortune it is will so receive your favours therein, that 
in all thankfulness they will be returned you. Whilst he is 
attending his education abroad, be pleased to give me leave, as 
a person near in aflfections as in blood, and trusted with that 

* Fairfax Correspondence, Memoirs, I. bd. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 177 

estate^ to render both in his lordship and my own behalf, 
very hearty acknowledgments to your lordship. 

And, my lord, I humbly beg the continuance of your 
nobleness to that place and the ministers employed therein, 
as there shall be occasion, which I can no ways make doubt 
of, ever remaining 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 

G. Wentworth. 

Dtiblin, March the 2nd, 1644, IN, S. 1645.] 

Of the movements of the troops about Bradford and 
Wakefield we have succinct reports in letters from Sir 
John Savile. 


My Lord, 

Being now drawn oflF with my horse and foot from 
Sandall to Bradford, Yorkshire, I thought it expedient to 
give your lordship an account thereof, and the reasons which 
induced me to do it. My lord, it was past three in the 
afternoon on Saturday last before your orders came from 
Colonel Forbes to draw off to Ferrybridge, which (though I 
used all possible expedition therein) I could not do until 
within night, and then began to march with not above 240 
horse and foot in all; for reason of the sudden notice, many 
of my men were absent, expecting to have found no enemy 
either at Pontefract or Ferrybridge, but discovered them at 
both places, by intelligence from some of them whom we took 
prisoners. Whereupon we were forced to break up their 

VOL. I. N 

178 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

quarters in Longhoughton^ where soiue troops of Colonel 
Camaby quartered. We forced our passage there with divers 
of their horse and some men of theirs prisoners^ and it was 
generally conceived most secure to make for Bradford^ in 
regard we did not know how the enemy had dispersed 
themselves towards Leeds. 

My lord^ your lordship may perceive by these inclosed 
what a distraction this late accident hath wrought in these 
western places. I have been prevailed with to summon 
all within this division^ from sixteen to sixty^ to be in readi- 
ness with such arms as they have at Bradford^ where both 
they and I shall wait your lordship^s further direction to^ 

Your lordship's faithful servant, 

John Savile. 

Bradford, Mwrch 2nd, 1644, [iV. S, 1645.] 

My Lord^ Captain Kenyon has assisted me hitherto with 
his troop^ and is now with me. Major Scarfe^ who was sent 
me by the Committee, has marched away without order ; I 
desire your lordship's further order concerning Captain 


My Lord, 

I DISPATCHED my last letter to your lordship in 
haste, immediately after a tedious march, by which we were 
partly so toiled and partly so employed in securing our 
quarters, by reason of continual but false reports of the 
enemies' approach, that I hope your lordship will excuse me 
that it came not by a better hand. My lord, it pleased Ood 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 179 

to bless and preserve us in the attempt beyond our expecta- 
tion; for, my lord, finding the enemy both in Pontefract 
and Ferrybridge, which we little imagined, and having given 
them an alarm in both places, we were in that extremity, that 
we scarce knew whither to turn; but it pleased God to 
incline us for Longhoughton, where we broke through their 
quarters without the loss of any, wherein we took about 100 
horse and some prisoners. This bearer can acquaint your 
l(»rdship more particularly, being an agent with us in the 

We have notice that the enemy is retreating to Doncaster, 
but we hear of Prince Rupert^s advance on this side Glou- 
cester. Now that the country about Wakefield is not secured, 
the enemy at SandaU ranges at pleasure. My lord, upon 
the first notice I shall be ready with these forces to wait on 
your lordship to receive your further commands to, my lord. 

Your lordship's faithM servant, 

John Savile. 

Bradfwdy Mwrch 3rd, 1644, [iV. 8, 1645.] 


My Lord, 

I HAVE sent a messenger into Nottinghamshire, 
and he is returned. I thought fit to send Major Scarfe to 
you, to tell your lordship the particulars ; the enemy is not 
this side of Newark, and the messenger saw all our horse at 
their rendezvous on Wednesday, at Mansfield, and Major 
Carter told him they would be at Ferrybrigg on Saturday. 
The town of Leeds was too fearful that I sent aU my foot 


180 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

thither, and if I should have had occasion to have removed 
from hence, I might have made my retreat thither to my 
foot, and so have marched in an entire body to Tadcaster. 
So they remain there till I shall receive further order. I 
shall humbly desire your lordship we may have some matcli 
and powder, and that Captain Clayton's men and Captain 
Spencer's may be sent thither to recruit and enjoy with the 
rest of my regiment. Colonel Broadling I have sent for to 
come together at Methley, and to make good that pass* 
Yesterday, at 3 o'clock, he heard nothing of the enemy, but 
only Pontefract horse fetching in provisions ; neither know 
anything of the cause of Colonel Forbes leaving Leadston. 
And he lay then quartered at Badsworth Monday, Tuesday, 
and Wednesday, for Sip Joseph Worstenholme would not let 
him quarter at Nostall. In haste, I rest. 

Yours ever to serve you, 

John Savile. 

Waki^fldd, March Uth, 1644, [N.S. 1645.] 


My Lord, 

Your lordship may remember your lordship's order 
to Captain Spencer for his march to the rest of my regiment 
at Wakefield, to join with me in securing Sandall Castle, 
which he did accordingly ; since that (beyond my expectation) 
another order from your lordship is come to his hands, for 
his march to Colonal Bright^s regiment, there to remain till 
the difference be determined. My lord, it hath been my 
desire from the beginning to put an end to the controversy. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 181 

if at least there be any ; but, my lord, lie being now with me 
in obedience to your lordship^s first order, and this last order 
procured in my absence, and upon suggestions which Captain 
Spencer himself disaffirms (for he denies the supply of any 
either men or armies from Colonel Lambert), and besides 
the common soldiers being unwilling to part from the 
regiment; my request to your lordship is, that they may 
stay with me, according to their desires, their Captain^s 
commission, and your lordship's first order; and if any 
exceptions be taken, I must solely own the fault, which I 
hope your lordship's candour will judge to be innocency in 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

John Savile. 

Wak^fidd, Ma/rch 22nd, 1644, [KS, 1645.] 



My Lord, 

I HAVE endeavoured to inform myself of their 
strength at Sandall, and find that they are one hundred foot 
and fifty horse, besides those fifty horse lately gone out upon 
a party from Pontefract garrison, and could not return to it 
again by reason of our leaguer there. I advised with the 
officers here, and the result was, that we were too inconsi- 
derable to lie in Sandall, for we are not above 150 foot, now 
that Captain Spencer is marched, as (it seems) your lord- 
ship's pleasure is; and we humbly conceive 300 foot and six 
troops of horse, of fifty in every troop, to be a proportion 
small enough for that attempt ; yet I refer myself in this, as 

182 MBMOBIALS OF [1645. 

in all things ehe, to your lordship's wise consideration ; 
waiting for your lordship's further commands to 

Your humble servant, 

John Sayile. 

Waki^ld, March 23rd, 1644, [N, S. 1645.] 

I have here only Major Scarfe's troop, my own troop. 
Captain Kinian's troop, and I expect Major Carter's troop, 
according to your lordship's order; so we shall want two 
troops more. 

My Lord, — all the duty and charge of the horse might be 
spared, if your lordship would be pleased to afford us two 
pieces of ordnance, and some more foot to guard them, to 
batter the gates and drawbridge, and it would much discourage 
thwn, in regard they have no other sallyport. 

About the same time, Lord Fairfax received intelli- 
gence from London, apprising him of the approach of 
a powerful force under the command of Prince Rupert, 
whose junction vrith the Royalists in the North was 
seriously to be apprehended. 


Mat it please your Lordship, 

I AM sorry to hear of the sad accident in Yorkshire. 
Is it very probable that the storm will yet be greater there. 
Prince Rupert is gone northward also; and it is conceived 
that Prince Rupert, Prince Maurice, and Langdale will, in 
conclusion, fall into one body, which will make a considerable 
army. The new model is not yet grown into an army. The 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. » 183 

list of officers approved by the House of Commons is, in 
many particulars, disapproved of by the House of Lords, with 
a recommendation of other persons in their places, and this 
day sent back to the House of Commons, for the debate of 
which to-morrow is appointed. It is hoped that 80,000Z. 
will be very shortly ready for this army by the help of the 
Court of Aldermen and the Common Council, which is to be 
assured unto them out of the monies arising out of the ordi- 
nances for the new model. A committee of the House of 
Commons spent Friday and Saturday in the last week at 
Grocers^ Hall, in London, upon this occasion. 

I have newly received your lordship's by this post. I 
should be most willing to wait upon your lordship, but cannot 
yet see how I can do it ; and am very doubtful that Colonel 
Whyte cannot be spared from hence in regard of Sir Thomas 
Fairfax's occasions, in which his presence is very necessary 
and useful, but I shall let him know your lordship's pleasure 
herein. The matter for your lordship's army is not yet settled ; 
nor, indeed, can the Ordinance be perfected till the model for 
the army be presented to the House from the Committee of 
both Kingdoms, which is not yet done, nor am I able to tell 
you the reason why it is not. There are 500 muskets provided 
for you out of the stores, and order for 1000 more to be 
taken upon credit. I have no more to add but the poor sen- 
timent of my duty to your lordship, remaining. 

My lord. 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

Th. Widdeington. 

March llihy 1644, [iV. S, 1645.] 

My Lord, since I wrote my former lines I have spoken 
with Colonel Whyte touching your desires mentioned in 

184 MEMORIALS OF 11645. 

your lordship^s letter to me; and he hopes within ten days 

to be able to wait upon your lordship ; and, for my particular, 

I hope ere long I shall obtain leave to do the like, for I am 

told this day that the model for your lordship's army will be 

presented to the House upon Thursday; and I hope, within a 

few days after, to have the ordinance ready. 


It is this day recommended to the Committee of both King- 
doms to move the Scots to a present march, and the same to 
be towards Chester. Some part of their money is ready for 
them, and will be sent from hence upon Monday. 

The " late accident,'^ and the " sad accident/' so deli- 
cately alluded to by Sir John Savile and Sir Francis 
Widdrington, was nothing less than the total defeat of 
Lord Fairfaxes army before Pontefract, by Sir Marma- 
duke Langdale. On the Parliamentary side the loss 
was considerable, more than 1000 men, and all their 
colours and ammunition, besides several officers of note, 
amongst them. Colonels Armyn, Thornton, and Malevery; 
on the RoyaKst side the loss was trifling. This was, 
indeed, a very sad "accident,^* and one, too, which might 
liave been fatally disastrous in its results, had it not 
been for the prompt measures which the Parliament 
took to secure themselves against such accidents for the 

The wounded were numerous, and concerning their 
treatment and the exchange of prisoners, we have 
the following short letters from Colonel Lowther, the 
governor of Pontefract Castle. 

J 645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 185 



My Lord^ 

Your officers will inform you how far you are short 
in medicaments^ the number of the wounded considered. 
Here is a chirurgeon of your party that will go as far as he can 
with such things as he hath received. Your lordship will 
receive with this a list of officers and soldiers^ if I may receive 
the like from you upon a safe-conduct. I shall send officers 
to treat of a general exchange^ and remain^ 

My lord, 
Your humble servant, 


PoTUefrad OcuUey March 5thy 1644, [iV. S. 1645.] 


My Lord, 

Your lordship^s of the 7th of this instant came but 
this morning : for the time and place, the first is precipitated, 
for the other it is at too great a distance. If your lordship 
please to give a meeting at Ferrybridge, upon mutual engage- 
ments for the safety of those who shall be appointed to treat 
tipon both parties, I shall agree to it, and to that purpose 
desire a new safe-conduct for such as I shall nominate ; the 
time, Wednesday next, by nine in the morning. The list 
your lordship sent of our prisoners with yours is altogether 
imperfect. I desire a particular under whose commands and 
in what regiments they have served, as also a list from Hull 
und Teressell in the same way. For your chirurgeon I cannot 
admit of him ; but if the medicaments be sent, I shall join 


my own surgeons with one of your party, a prisoner here, to 
use the best of their art in the cure of the poor wounded 
soldiers, and shall remain, 

My lord. 
Your humble servant, 

Richard Lowther. 

PmU^ract Castle, March 9th, 1644, [M S. 1645.] 

The next letter, without a date, refers also to an 
exchange, the writer having obtained permission to 
depart upon parole, on strict conditions that by a cer- 
tain day he should obtain the return of a Parliament 
officer of equal rank. He procured his man, but was 
unable to keep time " by reason of the siege ; " and 
here is his manly letter of explanation. There is a 
reminiscence of the knightly age in the gallantry with 
which he holds himself ready to return, if required, " his 
lordship's true prisoner." 


My Lord, 

It may seem strange to your lordship that I never 
sent to disengage my word; the truth is, I never had any 
convenience by reason of the siege. The exchange is granted 
me for Lieut.-Colonel Forbes; only this doubt was made, 
whether your lordship would be satisfied with the exchange. 
I have stayed beyond my time, which that your lordship will 
be pleased to satisfy Sir John Beadman, Governor of Ponte- 
fract, that I shall be disengaged of my word, he will, upon 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 187 

the receipt of your lordship's letter, return you Lieut.-Colonel 
Forbes. In the mean time, I rest. 

My lord, 
Your lordship's most humble servant, 

WiLLM. St. 0£0R0E. 

If your lordship shall not be pleased to accept this, by 
reason I could not perform my word so punctually as I could 
have wished, I shall return your lordship's true prisoner, 
when your lordship shall command* 

How grievously Lord Fairfax was hampered and 
tantalised by applications for exchanges and safe con- 
ducts, — the thanks being quite as troublesome as the 
remonstrances and complaints — may be inferred from 
the following specimens. 



My Lord, 

Upon the assurance of your lordship's letter, or any 
other way that your lordship shall think fit, I shall for the 
time to come faithfully observe those articles formerly con- 
cluded of. My lord, if I were not again engaged to request 
your lordship for a pass for the Lady Cooke, I should not 
importune your lordship upon any other occasion; but if 
your lordship shall think it reasonable to be granted, I shall 
most readily acknowledge the favour, either in the Uke or 
any other occasion, and remain. 

My lord. 
Your lordship's most humble servant, 

R. Willys. 

188 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

If your lordship shall think fit to suffer Mr. Rowbotham to 
come over hither, I shall give your lordship my faith for his 
safe return. If your lordship please to let me know what 
officers you demand for Sir Simon Fanshaw from Pomfret, I 
shall endeavour to effect the change with Sir Marmaduke 

Newwrk, March M, 1644, [iV. S. 1645.] 


My Lord, 

Whensoever your lordship pleases to command me^ 
I shall most readily acknowledge your lordship's favour in 
giving the Countess of Cork a safe convoy, by doing the like 
upon the like occasion. The governor of Pomfret writes me 
word, that Sir Simon Fanshaw is mistaken for a lieutenant- 
general, upon which his exchange is hindered. I do assure 
your lordship, by all the ways I am enabled to engage myself, 
that he was only lieutenant-colonel of horse to Sir Charles 
Lucas, who was the lieutenant-general. Therefore, if your 
lordship shall think the exchange for Mr. Mulling and a 
lieutenant proportionable to him, it shall be continued by^ 

My lord. 
Your lordship's most humble servant, 

R. Willys. 

I trust so much to your lordship's letter, that hereafter I 
hope there will arise no question concerning prisoners but 
what that may determine. 

Newark, March \7th, 1645, [N. S. 1646.] 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 189 



Bight Honourable^ 

According to an order from the general of the 
Scotch army, the Lord Montgomery was pleased to acquaint 
your excellency with my capitulation of surrendering Naward 
Castle, and you were pleased to give me your pass agreeably. 
My lord, a party of the Scotch Horse conveyed me to 
Pontefract, where the Commander-in-chief, Colonel Forbes, 
undertook my farther convoy ; but it so fell out that some 
party of the King^s advancing, and your horse retreating, it 
was not held fit I should pass then, but I was modestly 
requested to retire to some place until your present affair was 
over, which I had no reason to refuse ; but I went back to 
Gilling, where I have kept myself, expecting, within such 
limits as my present condition and your affairs require. 

My lord, I hope your business will permit that I may now go, 
and I shall humbly request your excellency will please either 
to certify me by writing if it be your mind I should pass by 
your quarters, or you wiQ please to command some officer or 
trumpet to convoy me the way least prejudicial to your 
guards, or business. My lord, your action in this shall seriously 

Your excellency's most humble servant, 

J. Atkins. 

GiUmg GasOe, 22nd March, 1644, [N, S. 1645.] 

Of another kind is a petition from old grandfather 
Mulgrave, interceding on behalf of his tenants who are 
too poor to pay taxes, and entreating the appointment 

190 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

of a ghostly lecturer for the town of L . This is the 

last letter we find from Lord Mulgrave, and it is worth 
comparison with that famous first letter, in which he 
opened a correspondence with the Fairfaxes. His lord- 
ship was then in the palmy days of his Presidency, and 
he wrote as haughtily and with as lofty an expression of 
his aristocracy as if there waa to be no end to the world 
as it was constituted at that time. But the wheel had 
turned roimd in the meanwhile, and the Fairfaxes were 
now at the top, and poor Lord Mulgrave was prostrate 
at the bottom, and he writes up to his son-in-law an 
entreaty for help and protection in a tone of forlorn 
humility, which makes most piteous contrast with his 
former lordly arrogance. 



My GOOD Lord, 

Presuming still upon your favour, I make bold to 
address myself to your lordship in the behalf of my tenants at 
Mulgrave and at Seaton, whose poor low condition I presume is 
not unknown imto you, by reason of the late heavy teixes laid 
upon them for the maintenance of the Scots army in those 
parts. There being now an Ordinance of Parliament issued for 
new sums of money to be raised in Yorkshire and elsewhere, 
my earnest suit to yom* lordship and the Committee of both 
Kingdoms is, that their miserable case be as favourably consi- 
dered as may be possible, they being altogether, as I am 
informed, destitute of means for their own livelihood, and 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 191 

likewise unable to pay any rent. I do assure myself, my 
good lord, that you wiU have a just and charitable respect of 
them, having (as I understand) borne a greater burthen than 
others in that behalf. 

I must further crave your lordship's help in a pious work. 

The town of L hath 100/. per annum allowed from the 

alum-works, for a lecturer ; that exercise hath been deserted 
by a malignant minister long since, so that the poor people 
have wanted the spiritual means they formerly enjoyed. 
Shipton, my steward, hath found one Mr. Nes, of whom he 
gives testimony to be an able godly preacher : if he be so, 
I do entreat your lordship to afford him your best further- 
ance for his establishment in that place. I doubt not of 
your lordship's care in a work which will be acceptable to 
God, and will also produce much comfort to 

Your very loving father-in-law, 


Mcvrch 30^, 1645. 

Next comes Peter du Moulin, who had at last been 
forcibly ejected, head and shoulders, wife and servants, 
out of his living, and who in the last extremity appeals, 
but appeals in vain, to Lord Fairfax, the general referee 
for all Yorkshire discontents. 


Bight Honourable, 

A THING without example was done against me on 
Saturday, March 29th ; for I have heard of no minister 
residing and serving God in his church, that was forcibly put 

192 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

out, but myself. With what violence my wife and servants 
were ejected your lordship may know, and God seeth it. 

After I had appealed to the King and Parliament, and that 
your lordship had promised me a reference to prevent the 
appeal, neither your promise nor my appeal was respected, 
but I was violently cast out, by persons that abuse your 
lordship^s authority. The Lord regard it, that great Judge, 
before whom we must all appear. 

My lord, I stand to my appeal, after which I conceive 
that no other power but King and Parliament can eject me. 

To that end, your honour and justice will not deny me 
these just requests : That I may have a copy of the Articles 
against me, which I never saw: that I may have a warrant 
from your lordship to summon witnesses : that your lordsliip 
appoint some for that examination who may certify it under 
their hands : that I may have a convenient time to prepare 
myself: that I be possessed of my house and church till I 
be condemned by the power to which I appeal. 

So shall your lordship mitigate the hard measure I had 
when I was condemned without a minute^s warning, without 
witnesses, without so much as seeing the charge against me^ 
or leave to answer the accusers' witnesses in the hearing. 

Those things, my lord, cry for justice ; and so do these : 

After I had with great care prepared many yoimg persons 
for the holy commimion, and the whole parish expecting that 
blessing the next day, to pluck me off violently from this 
service, to put in my church a chaplain of Sir William, at 
the request of one household of notorious Anabaptists, that 
now keep a child unbaptised, teach community of goods, and 
reject all ordinary calling to the ministry as Antichrist's; 
against the many petitions, cries, and tears of above two 
hundred communicants, good Protestants; — to tear off a 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 193 

faithful pastor from a loving people^ a husband from his wife^ 
and both &om house and living; I say^ my lord^ these 
things cry up to heaven, and will shortly fill up the cup of 
God^s judgments, and make it overflow, if not timely pre- 
vented by your justice and mercy. 

Standing then upon my appeal and your promise, I humbly 
crave of your lordship a favourable answer to my just rights, 
even by the compassions of Christ and the fear of his great 
wrath j so shall ye draw blessing upon yourself by the charity 
and righteousness of the action (for I demand nothing but 
what the strictness of justice cannot deny) ; and by the prayers 
of my desolate parish, my distressed wife, and myself. 

Your honour's most poor, humble servant, 

Peteii Du Moulin. 

Ycn-lc, March 30/A, 1645. 

May it please your good lordship to allow me the liberty of 
my house, and express your pleasure about these humble 
requests of mine to Captain Hoyle, of whose gentleness I 
must needs speak well. Not he, but the di\ines, expressed 
a great deal of violence against me. 

The Fairfaxes showed much consideration and libe- 
rality to the famiKes of the broken Royalists. It is 
pleasant to find the deserted Newcastles as much cared 
for as the Wentworths, remembering the gallantry which 
preserved Lady Fairfax at Bradford, and sent her home 
with an escort in the General^s coach. Such actions were 
not forgotten in the crush and din of war by the Fair- 
faxes, Writing fi-om Welbeck Abbey, Notts (now one of 
the seats of the Duke of Portland), the ladies Jane and 

VOL. u 

194 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

Frances Cavendish express their earnest thanks to Lord 
Fairfax for the constant favours he has extended to 
them, having evidently protected them on their estate, 
and otherwise provided for their comfort and security. 
These ladies were the daughters of the Duke of New- 
castle, who, hy the time the letter was written, had 
found his way to Paxis with his two sons and his 
brother, having left his daughters behind to propitiate 
the Parliament as they might. 

Bolsover Castle (also in the possession of the Duke 
of Portland), here mentioned as having been turned 
into a garrison, was the ancient seat of the Barony of 
Cavendish in Derby; and "Sister Brackley^' was the 
Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, who was married to the 
second Earl of Bridgewater, Viscount Brackley. The 
writers of this letter were afterwards married, the Lady 
Jane to Charles Cheney, Earl of Bucks, and the Lady 
Frances to the second Earl of Bolingbroke, whose whole 
family were zealously devoted to the cause of the 



May it pleass your LoAdship, 

Your favours are so continued to us, that they are 
not only to be acknowledged, but repeated as comforts, since 
your lordship^s oare of us we may justly confess is much 
beyond ottr merit. Now give us leave to present our humble 

1W5.] THE CiyiL WAR. 195 

thanks to your lordaliip for your noble favours^ which 
oblige us as long as we live to owe your excellence a 
faithful acknowledgment. Colonel Bright hath been lately 
at Bolsover, and is to give your lordship some accoimt of 
that garrison. 

We linger our remove from thence till we have some cer- 
tainty of that business^ hoping, if that he concur with the 
committee of Derby and some others for disgarrison of that 
place, to have the favour to be admitted to that house, which 
we the more desire by reason that town is assigned to us for 
maintenance, which will yield very httle, I fear, if it continue 
still a garrison. However, whatsoever your excellence's plea- 
sure, it shall be most welcome to 

Your lordship's most humble and obliged servants, 

Jane Cavendysshe, 
Pea. Cavendysshe. 

AprU 17«^, 1645. 

My sigfcer Brackley presents her most humble services to 
your lordship, and gives your excellence many thanks for the 
fSa.TOur of your lordship's protection. 

At the head of the Ust of officers of horse, drawn up 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax for the approval of Parliament, 
we find the name of Middleton. The person so indi- 
cated was, we presume, Lieutenant- General Middleton, 
who had served under Waller, and was afterwards, for 
his gallant conduct at Philiphaugh (September, 1645), 
voted 25,000 marks by Parliament. This gentleman 
subsequently ratted to the Royal party, for which he 

was rewarded in the long run with a Peerage, having 


196 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

been created Earl of Middleton at the Restoration. No 
other Middleton of note, either for good or evil, has 
come down to us from those days. Evelyn tells us that 
he carried a Colonel Middleton, who seems to have been 
connected with the colony of New England, in his 
coach to Whitehall; but that was in 1671, a clear 
quarter of a century later. Who the Colonel Middleton 
was to whom allusion is made in the following letters, 
or under what circumstances he incurred the displeasure 
of Lord Fairfax, we have not been able to ascertain. 
Certain it is that he was not Charles the Second's 
Middleton ; and that, whoever he was, he appears to 
have broken his promises to Lord Fairfax on the con- 
fession of his wife and sisters. 


My Lord^ 

Be pleased to do me the right as to beheve, when 
as my husband parted from me^ his resolution was according 
as I wrote yesterday to your lordship. I protest I knew no 
other, nor cannot rest satisfied till I send my servant to 
plead my own innocence in it, and to acquaint your lordship 
with the truth, which is this ; that after Mr. Middleton 
parted from me, he had further confirmation of what for- 
merly he had heard, which compelled him to that unfor- 
tunate place, as I perceive> so incapable of your lordship's 
favours, as I conceive by my servants for his own particular; 
but if your lordship would honour me in the continuance of 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 197 

them, to me and mine, I would ever endeavour to deserve it, 
as that already I have received from your lordship may 
challenge as due from me, and the longest day I have to live 
will ever acknowledge it. Give me leave, further, to be an 
humble suitor to your lordship, as to blot out the memory of 
this, my husband^s trespass. But esteem him as really he 
deserves — as one that truly honours your lordship, though 
his great cares of fears and jealousies might cause him 
for the present to forfeit your lordship's good opinion, 
but I hope for the future to gain it, — a gain which both he 
and I will be ambitious on; and in the meantime remain, 
my lord, 

Your most humble servant, 

Ka. Middleton. 

April 20th, 1645. 



May it please your Excellency 

To vouchsafe me and my sister Ann your honour- 
able favour and protection for our goods, and that we may 
not suflfer though my brother hath broke his promise with 
your lordship ; which I vow, my lord, I was altogether igno- 
rant of, and it grieves me infinitely ; for that we have ever 
found your lordship so noble a friend to our house. There- 
fore I beseech your lordship to commiserate our cases, who 
are left orphans, and for my dear deceased father^s sake, who 
loved and honoured your lordship truly, let not us, who are 
innocent, suffer ; but that your wonted goodness and favour 

198 MBMOBIALS OF [1645. 

may still reflect and shine upon us^ by which yon shaU oblige 
ns ever to remain, my lord. 

Your lordship's most humble servants, 

Mary Middleton. 
Anne Middleton. 

AprU 20th, 1645. 

A letter from Lady Osborne, begging Lord Fairfiix's 
assistance under rather peculiar circumstances, shows 
how the machinery of protection occasionally worked. 
Lady Osborne (formerly Mrs. Middleton, a brave York- 
shire widow) was the wife of Sir Edward Osborne of 
Kiveton, and mother of the first Duke of Leeds. Sir 
Edward had been prominent on the King's side, had 
been Vice-President of the Council of the North, and 
a commander amongst the Cavaliers. In the course of 
the troubles he obtained a protection from Lord Fairfax, 
under his parole as to residence and neutrality. But 
news reaches him that there is a warrant out against 
him ; and although " he is well assured that when his 
lordship had given protection he would not give 
warrant for apprehending '' him ; he nevertheless 
thinks that discretion is the better part of valour, and 
so runs away, leaving his wife behind to make what 
terms she can with the General. In this juncture 
her ladyship hears that the Parliament troops up in 
garrison at Bolsover, and others scattered about the 
country, intend to make a plundering descent upon her, 
and, as a last resource, she lays the whole case frankly 


1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 199 

before Lord Fairfiix. The latter part of her letter, 
referring to her allowance, and her " taking it up in 
beds and other household necessaries/^ shows the 
extremity to which people of the best condition were 
reduced — ^people who, under the worst circumstances, 
might be supposed to have good credit and strong 


My Lord, 

It is now above six months since my husband 
received your lordship^s protection, and by it has lived quiet 
at his own house, desiring nothing more than to have con- 
tinued so. But after Gell^s men had taken Sir Francis 
Reed, they gave out they were to take Sir Francis Fane 
and Sir Edward Osborne ; as my husband was informed from 
several hands ; which gave him cause to fear that GeU had 
got some warrant from the Parliament to take them for the 
four comimittee men of Derby, taken by Newark. For he was 
well assured that where your lordship had given protection, 
you would not give warrant for apprehending their persons 
without cause given for it ; but having no time to give your 
lordship information he was forced to seek for his safety. 

Thus, my lord, I only wish to give a true account of the 
reasons of his going, because I know he has many enemies ; 
no way to justify his actions. He must answer for them him- 
self; but since his going, I am threatened both by Colonel 
Bri^hfs men, the men of Bolsover, and them from Don- 
caster, that I shall be plundered ; so as my earnest request to 

200 MEMORIALS OP [1645. 

your lordship is, that what the Ordinance of Parliament and 
the connty of York has allowed me may not be taken from 
me by the violence of yonr soldiers. It is no more but a sixth 
part or degree below the ordinary allowance, and came to so 
small a proportion, that I was forced to take it up in beds 
and other household necessaries for myself and servants, 
which I doubt not but in justice and charity will still be 
allowed me. It is only in your lordship's power to do it; 
and by a letter to Colonel Bright to stop the men of Bolsover, 
and another to the Commander-in-chief at Doncaster, I assure 
myself I shall be freed from their fiiry, and be further obliged 
to continue 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Ann Osboi^ne. 

All my com and cattle were sold to one John Garland by 
the sequestrators, as the committee knows. 

Tluyrpy April 23rrf, 1645. 

The General^s " protection,'' however formally granted, 
was not always a talisman against the licentious violence 
of the soldiery. An army ill paid, irregularly provi- 
sioned, and cast out for billets and assessments upon 
districts already drained by subscriptions and quit-rents, 
could hardly be expected to act v^ith faultless modera- 
tion. Upon the whole they deserve credit for forbear- 
ance ; few flagrant violations of discipline can be charged 
upon them ; and in most cases (of which Oxford was a 
special instance) they were more careful than the King's 
troops of property which they might have destroyed 
with impunity. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 201 

Of course there were many just grounds of complaint 
against them. Whenever a Royalist, who held a pro- 
tection, suddenly disappeared, he was suspected of 
treachery, and the soldiers made no scruple of entering 
his house, (or threatening its inmates), with or without 
warrant, and scaring his family out of their wits. Or if 
there were any difficulty about the billets, or any attempt 
to evade them, the troops, having this matter in their 
own hands, and being authorised to enforce the levy, 
might probably show Uttle tenderness towards their 
grudging entertainers. In such cases, harsh and riotous 
excesses were no doubt committed ; nor was it in the 
power of Lord Fairfax adequately to prevent or punish 

But the soldiers seldom went beyond threats, unless 
they were in extreme distress, or had received singular 
provocation. The great bulk of the complaints addressed 
to Lord Fairfax, hke the following letter from Lady 
Graham, are full of terrors in expectancy ; and as we 
rarely hear any more about them, we may conclude 
that his worship interposed and averted the impending 
danger. So far as Lady Graham was concerned, there 
was excellent reason for the vigilance of Major Smith- 
son's men. Her husband (to whom the letter refers) 
was Sir Richard Graham of Esk, closely connected by 
blood and alliances with the whole clan of the Grahams 
of the Border, of Norton-Conyers, of Netherby, and 
Plomp, and springing from the same stock with the 
Montrose who exactly twelve months before had been 

202 MBMOBIALS OF [1645. 

raised to a marquisate by the King, who had played a 
conspicuous part throughout the war, and was at this 
moment raising Scotland in behalf of his master. The 
name of Graham, therefore, was not the most musical 
in the ears of the FarUamentarians, and Sir Bichard 
was one of the most prominent and turbulent of the 
whole race. He was a great absorber of landed pro- 
perty in the north, had purchased Netherby and the 
barony of Liddell from the Earl of Cumberland, and 
was created a baronet in 1629. Placing his local in- 
fluence at the disposal of the King, he joined the royal 
army in 1641, and was appointed Master of the Horse 
to the Duke of Buckingham. He fought through the 
subsequent scenes of the wars up to the battle of Edge- 
hill, where he was so severely wounded that he lay the 
whole night amongst the dead bodies on the field 
His close connection with the Royal family, and his 
notorious devotion to their cause, may be admitted as 
excuse enough for the watchfiilness of Fairfax's soldiers 
when they found that this deeply-implicated gentleman, 
known to be living under " protection,^' had vanished, as 
they supposed, without leave. The time, too, was pecu- 
harly imfavourable to the Grahams, considering how 
actively Montrose (not long afterwards hanged at the 
Tolbooth of Edinburgh for his loyalty) was just then 
engaged on the other side of the Tweed. 

Lady Graham's letter is dated from Norjfcon-Conyers, 
the seat of her second son Richard, who after the 
RestorsU^ion was raised to the baronietage on account 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 203 

of the services he had personally rendered to the King's 
cause during the civil war. It is only justice to the 
Northumheriand Smithsons to observe that the Major 
Smithson whose soldiers threatened to plunder her 
ladyship does not appear to have been any connection 
of that family. At the moment when the Major was 
menacing Norton-Conyers, Hugh Smithson of Stanwick, 
whose descendant, succeeding the Seymours and Percys, 
inherited the Earldom of Northumberiand, was distin- 
guishing himself with equal zeal on the other side. 


Bight truly honourable, 

Notwithstanding the protection I have from your 
Excellence, there are some of Major Smithson's soldiers who 
threaten to plunder my house, because my husband is gone 
to wait upon his master, having your lordship^s licence for the 
same; and now, in his absence, Mr. Fowke, the Receiver, 
demands for the use of the Commonwealth, a quit-rent due 
from us, we having already paid it above ten times over, in 
billet and sesse [assessments] for the use of the Common- 
wealth, being much more than the land is worth. If it be 
permitted that private ends may once be mixed with the 
public service, we are in a most miserable condition. 

My suit unto your excellency is, that you would give order 
to the Receiver for allowing our sesse and billet in the rent, 
and that some of your lordship^s soldiers may apprehend 
those plunderers ; for it will neither stand with the justice 

204 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

nor honour of the Parliament to take such great sesses and 
onr arms of defence from us, and leave us to the cruelty of 
such wicked men. So, with the acknowledgment of my 
humblest service for your honourable favours, recommending 
the presumption herein to your excellency's pardon, 

I am, 

The humblest of your excellency's servants, 

Katherine Grahme. 

NoTton-ConyerSj near Ripon, TorJcskire, 
May \2th, 1645. 

The writer of the next letter, the Lady Julian Mus- 
grave, was an object of quite as much jealousy and 
suspicion as Lady Graham. Her husband, Sir Philip 
Musgrave, came of what Camden calls a " warlike 
family,'' and did no discredit to his lineage. The 
moment matters took a shape of open hostility between 
the King and the Parliament, he withdrew from the 
House of Commons, where he had sat as one of the 
knights of the shire for Westmoreland, and appKed 
himself to the task of raising troops for the RoyaJ 
service. His labours were so successful, that in a short 
time he sent to the Marquis of Newcastle, at York, in 
two bodies, no less than 2400 soldiers, and 1000 more 
to Prince Rupert. For this valuable aid he was made 
Commander-in-Chief in Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
where his influence principally lay, and Governor of 
Carlisle. The battle of Marston Moor scattered his 
troops to the winds, and for a time completely frustrated 
his plans. After that event he retired to Carlisle 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 205 

with Sir Thomas Glenham. It was while he was yet 
at Carlisle, under these uncomfortable circumstances, 
that the ensuing correspondence took place. Lady 
Musgrave had been permitted by Lord Fairfax to 
remain at Eden HaU (stiU the residence of the Mus- 
graves, erroneously called Ednall, by Colonel Cholmley); 
but the Commissioners at Newcastle having intelligence 
that she had abused the indulgence, directed Colonel 
Cholmley to remove her to CarUsle. Her ladyship, 
however, was very reluctant to go to Carlisle ; she 
wished to keep in the open air, and at freedom amongst 
her friends ; and Colonel Cholmley finally refers the 
case, with a direct appeal from the lady, to Lord 


May it please your Excellence, 

I RECEIVED an order from the commissioners from 
Newcastle, for the carrying and sending divers ladies into 
Carlisle ; amongst others the Lady Musgrave, of Ednall, as 
you may perceive by a copy of the order here inclosed; but 
coming to the lady, she desired rather to go to Uve at Hartley, 
if not with her friends in Yorkshire, and showed me your 
excellency's protection, which presently I sent my servant 
witball to the commissioners at Newcastle. They returned 
this answer, — that they had rather she would live with her 
Mends in Yorkshire, than give occasion of jealousy either by 

206 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

living in Westmorelaxid or Cumberland. All which I refer till 
your excellency's pleasure be further known^ and shall ever 

Your honour's faithful servant, 

Thomas Cholmley. 

Pnm EdnaU, this Bih May, 1645. 


By the Committees and Gommlasioiien of both Homes of Parfiflmflnt 
of England. 

Wheeeas we are informed that the wives of sundry of oui 
enemies in Carlisle are remaining at their own houses in 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, fipom whence they may give 
intelligence of all that passeth amongst yourselves, and are 
ready to stir the ill-humours and to improve all discontents^ 
to the raising up of tumults^ and bringing in confusion with 
the people and inhabitants, their neighbours, round about 

We think fit, and hereby order, that Colonel Chomeley 
shall take care to apprehend all such persons as he may have 
just cause to suspect to be stirrers up of sedition and insur- 
rection; that in particular he would repaur to the Lady 
Musgrave at Eden Hall, and conduct her to Carlisle, where 
she may remain with her husband. Sir Philip Musgrave, in 
more security than in her house at Eden Hall, in these 
tumultuous and troublesome times ; and of this service we 
expect an account as speedily as may be. 

William Roe, 

Secretary to the Ctm/miatiimen. 
Qi/otn at NewcastUy April llihy 1645. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 20 7 


May IT PLEASE YOUR Excellency, 

I HAVE formerly received your lordship^s protection 
for my remaining at Eden Hall, if I be obedient to ordinance 
of Parliament, which they cannot tax me, for my accusation 
is imspicion of intelligence, without desert or proof. Colonel 
Cholmley hath orders for my removing. I did desire the 
stay of us till I knew your honour's pleasure. Eden Hall is 
my jointure, where my humble suit is to remain, being very 
unfit for travel. But I wholly refer myself to your lordship's 
pleasure, both for means, and what place I and my children 
may remain together at, presuming that your honourable 
favour and worth will consider my poor condition, which 
shall ever obHge me to be. 

Your most obedient servant, 

Julian Musgrave. 

Sir Philip Musgrave's subsequent history is full of 
honourable proofs of homage and fidelity. Soon after 
this time he was made colonel of a regiment of foot^ 
v^hich. v^as raised in Cumberland ; and in the same year 
he was taken prisoner at Rowton Moor, after which he 
took Carlisle by surprise, and was a second time 
appointed governor. He served at Worcester, and 
followed the disastrous fortunes of Charles II. in France, 
Holland, and Scotland, proce^di^g firom thence to the 
Isle of Man, which he defen#^ to the last under the 

208 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

banner of the Stanleys. At the Restoration, he was a 
third time made Governor of Carlisle, and raised to the 
peerage as Baron Musgrave, but never took out the 
patent. Notwithstanding all the vicissitudes through 
which he passed, and the frequent perils of life and 
property to which he was exposed, Sir Phihp died in 
his own bed at Eden Hall, at seventy years of age. 
Curiously enough, the Musgraves and Grahams are 
united in their living descendants by the intermarriage 
of the present representative of the former family with 
the house of Netherby. 

In a letter from Mr. Thomas Ibson, the steward of the 
young Lord Fairfax of Emely, we have a minute account 
of the deplorable condition to which some of the most 
flourishing estates in the north were reduced by the 
ravages of the soldiers (especially the Scotch), and the 
pressure of assessments. Such was the impoverished 
state of the tenantry, that they were not only unable to 
pay up the existing heavy arrears, but were compelled 
to ask for indefinite indulgence in the discharge of the 
accruing rent. The question of rent, and the mutual 
responsibiUties of landlord and tenant, seem to have 
been very imperfectly understood on all hands ; nor were 
the commissioners who had been appointed to arbitrate 
in such cases, much more enlightened on the matter 
than the parties who appealed to them. In this 
instance we find the commissioners ordering not only 
an abatement of the assessments, but a quittance of a 
whole year's rent, and a reduction of fifty per cent, till 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 209 

the times should get better. What power the commis- 
sioners possessed to absolve people from contracts and 
running engagements does not appear ; but according 
to Mr. Ibson's statement, nobody thought of questioning 
their decision, although it involved the glaring injustice 
of throwing nearly the whole weight of assessments and 
depredations upon the proprietor of the land. 

The Lord Fairfax, to whom this letter was addressed, 
had not yet attained his fifteenth year. He was a 
kinsman of Lord Fairfax of Denton, and belonged to 
that branch of the family, which in the middle of the 
thirteenth century had settled at Walton in Yorkshire. 
His grandfather. Sir Thomas Fairfax of Walton and 
Gilling, was raised to the Irish peerage, as Viscount 
Fairfax of Emely, in the county of Tipperary. The 
title became extinct in 1741. 


My Lord, 

It pleased his Excellency the Lord Fairfax, one of 
the guardians to your estate, and who only taketh care of it^ 
at the request of your lady mother, to authorise me to receive 
your rents. Upon his lordship^s warrant for that purpose, I 
presently went to your tenants of your several manors, to 
demand arrears. The answer of them all was one and the 
same in effect, viz., that the assessments paid to the armies, 
and free billet, and freebooting, had so impoverished them, 

VOL. 1. p 

210 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

that they were scarce able to pay anything. The tenants of 
Acaster Malbys^ against my coming to them^ had prepared a 
petition, which they told me they would prefer to the Lord 
General for relief, having sustained above 2000/. damage by 
the Scots, who were quartered there whilst York was be- 
leaguered. This petition they preferred, and annexed to it a 
certificate under the hands of the sequestrators, appointed 
by the commissioners and committee for that wapentake, 
who are men of credit, attesting their damage to amount to 
80 much as is above-mentioned. His Excellency referred the 
consideration of the petition to Mr. Henry Darley, one of 
the commissioners for the Parliament in this country, and Sir 
Robert Barwick, who called me on your honour's behalf, and 
your tenants of Acaster before them; which your other tenants 
hearing of, came to York to the two gentlemen and desired 
that consideration might be had of their losses likewise, 
and that they might have allowance in their rents past of 
all the assessments they had paid to the armies, free biUet, 
and other losses sustained by the armies, and that they 
might have abatement in their rents for the time to come. 
Upon hearing what could be said on both sides, the gentle- 
men did order the tenants of Acaster, who had all their com 
wasted, and the sheep, kine and swine eaten by the Scots, 
should have all their assessments abated, the last yearns rent 
wholly forgiven, and that they should pay but half rent for 
the time to come ; and such assessments as they should pay 
to be abated out of that too, and the other half rent to stand 
in super. 

My lord, this lordship was almost a fourth part of your 
estate, and, notwithstanding all these abatements, I have not 
gotten out of it 40/., and I have ridden five times for that. 
And for all your other tenants, the gentlemen [commissioners] 

1^45-] THE CIVIL WAR. 211 

did order that they should have all assessments abated, and 
for the time to come have a third part of their rents abated, 
nntil the times were better. My lord, this cuts off a great 
part of your revenue, and yet I ifear your tenants are so 
impoverished, that they will scarce be able to pay what is 
now set down. 

Skalton and Ampleford, Gillinge and Colton, lay so near 
Helmesley Castle, that during the time it was besieged they 
were never without soldiers upon free billet, who, besides 
their other provisions which they eat up, they [the soldiers] 
kiUed all their sheep. 

Heslerton lies near Scarborough, and suffers there; 
Walton was plundered at my Lord of Newcastle's first 
coming, being supposed to be one of his Excellency's towns ; 
and since that the Scots have been thrice there, and pulled 
down the houses of office about your manor-house ; and at 
their last being there, (which was about six weeks or two 
months since,) they took all their beans and oats and barley 
they had left for seed. They left but three sheep about all 
the town, and when they went away the soldiers at divers 
houses took away with them the sheets and bedding they had 
lain in, and kept some of the tenants till the rest ran to other 
towns to borrow ten pounds to give them for a farewell. 

For Budston there has been nothing gotten, I think, this 
four years. Mr. Ellis, your tenant, is dead, and it seems was 
in arms against the Parliament, and his estate is sequestered, 
as some other two of your tenants are ; concerning whom 
you had need to move, my lord, so that the rents due to you 
by those tenants may be allowed in the composition for your 
wardship ; these men's estates being taken for the public^ 
otherwise your honour will suffer in two ways. 

There is also allowed by order of the Court of Wards 240/. 


212 MEMORIALS OP [16^5. 

per annum for the maintenance of your younger brothers 
and sisters, besides your lady mother's own allowance out 
of the estate. There were lands at Skawton of 70/. by 
the year value, left about two years ago by some tenants 
there ; of these grounds, there was not only no profit made 
that I can hear of, but I have been forced to pay assessments 
for them out of the rents I received for other grounds 
which were let, else the sequestrators had driven. There is 
much ground at Walton turned into your lordship's hands 
too, for which I must pay assessments, though it be arable 
land, and lie untilled, besides meadow of SOL value per 
annum and above, of which no profit was made. All these 
things laid together, which my cousin Dobson knows to be 
true, I hope my Lord Say will commiserate your estate and 
allow of what is abated the tenants at Acaster, and what the 
sequestrators have gotten at Budston, where there is above 
800/. due, and of any other tenants, in part of your composi- 
tion, for it is impossible otherwise to raise it. 

I humbly crave pardon of your lordship for being thus 
tedious. I thought it was my duty and necessary to give you 
this account, both for your own satisfaction how it is with 
your estate, and to enable you to inform my Lord Say of the 
truth of it, and the reason why moneys come in so slowly to 
him. There are also annuities to be paid out of your estate 
to the value of 200/. per annum, and some servants' wages, 
and besides, 200/. will not put your houses into good repair; 
the leads of Gilling Castle are quite decayed, so that it 
raineth into the house at above forty places, which rotteth 
the timber. My lord, all this is but to perform my duty, 
and show the good affection of a poor kinsman. 

And your honour's most hiunble servant, 

Tho. Ibson. 

Alne,May Uth, 1645. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 213 

While Lord Fairfax is regulating affairs as weU as 
he can in the North, we wiU return to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, whom we left modelling, marshaUing, and 
officering his new army at Windsor. 

Connected with these proceedings we find the annexed 
interesting document — a commission appointing the 
celebrated Algernon Sidney colonel of a regiment of 
horse. This instrument is dated the 2nd of April, the 
day before Sir Thomas Fair&x left London for the 
general rendezvous at Windsor. In the following June, 
we find Sidney leaving this regiment. No reason 
is assigned for it. Perhaps it was an impulse of 
that " over-ruhng temper " which is ascribed to him 
by Whitelocke. 


Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knight, Commander-in-Chief of all the Forces raised or 
intended to be maintained by virtue of an Ordinance of Parliament, bearing 
date the fifteenth day of February, one thousand six hundred forty-four, 
for the defence of the Kingdom : To Algernon Sidney, Colonel. 

By the authority of the aforesaid ordiiianee, and of 
one other ordinance, bearing date the first of April, one 
thousand six hundred forty and five, we hereby constitute 
and appoint you colonel of a regiment of horse, raised and 
to be raised for the service aforesaid, which said regiment 
you shall, by virtue of the commission given you, receive into 
your charge. These are, therefore, to require you to make 
your present repair to the said regiment, and taking the 

214 MBMOBIALS OF [1645. 

same into your charge as colonel, diligently to exercise yonr 

officers and soldiers of the said regiment, commanding all 

officers and soldiers of the said regiment to obey you as their 

colonel for the said service, according to this commission 

given you, and you likewise to obey, observe, and follow such 

order and direction as you shall from time to time receive 

from myself and the superior officers of the army, according 

to the discipline of war. Given under my hand and seal, 

this second day of April, 1645. 

Thomas Faiefax. 

Sir Thomas showed excellent discrimination in his 
choice of officers ; nor was he less successful in securing 
their attachment. From amongst many proofs of their 
devotion to him, the following may be selected. The gen- 
tleman whose signature heads the hst of names was, no 
doubt, the identical Major Smithson, whose menaces gave 
so much uneasiness to Lady Graham at Norton-Conyers. 


The Humhle Petition of the Commanders and Officers in Colonel 
Matthew Alured's Regiment, 

Humbly showeth : 
Whereas we are given to understand that your honour is 
called into the southern parts for the public service of 
the kingdom, your petitioners humbly crave at your 
hands, that your honour would .accept of the service of 
this regiment, who are ready to wait upon yon, and 
hazard their lives with yon wheresoever you shall be 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 215 

called, or if we cannot be so much honoured herein, that 
then you would be pleased to see a course settled, before 
your departure hence, of a fitting constant pay for our- 
selves and soldiers, for our future subsistence and liveli- 
hood, otherwise your petitioners crave attestations under 
your hand for our arrears past, and are willing to quit 
our present commands, and in our persons to venture 
our lives with you in this your expedition (as formerly 
we have done), if you please to accept of the service of 
your petitioners underwritten. 

Geo. Smithson. Thomas Johnson. 

Mich. Richardson. Thomas Talbot. 

Henry Nevill. Francis Bland. 

John Wildon. Cornelies Vandehorst. 

Robert Leoard. Robert Newham. 

In order to a clear understanding of the opening 
operations of the army at Windsor, it vdll be usefiil to 
show how some of the principal points of action at both 
sides were covered. The King was at Oxford ; Prince 
Rupert lay about Worcester and the frontier of Wales, 
with a tendency in all his incursions towards the North ; 
General Goring kept flying posts in the neighbourhood 
of Hungerford and Marlborough ; Sir Richard GrenviUe, 
with a considerable force, was besieging Taunton, now 
reduced to the last extremity ; and another force was 
encamped before Plymouth. Such was the disposition 
of the chief divisions of the Royahsts. On the other 
side Lord Fairfax held York and Hull ; Sir WilUam 
Brereton was laying close siege to Chester; Colonels 
Massey and Hutchinson were in garrison at Gloucester 

216 MEMOEIALS OF [1645. 

and Nottingham ; and Sir Robert Pye was in possession 
of Leicester. Upon a general survey of the military 
occupation of the kingdom, the balance of advantages 
was largely in favour of the King in the western and 
midland counties. His Majesty had also a great 
numerical preponderance. It was under these circum- 
stances that the Uttle army of Windsor, which in its 
final muster had seriously fallen short of the anticipa- 
tions of Parliament, unfolded its companies late in April 
for the desultory campaigns of 1645. 

The first outward movement was a sudden expedition 
under Cromwell, to intercept a convoy of horse which 
was expected on the road from Worcester to join the 
King at Oxford. Advancing rapidly into Oxfordshire, 
Cromwell routed a body of the King's horse at Islop 
Bridge, and compelled Colonel Windebank to surrender 
Blechington House. Under the articles of surrender, 
Windebank obtained safe conduct into Oxford. Safe 
conduct with a vengeance ! — for he had no sooner 
reached the King's quarters, than he was tried by a 
council of war for abandoning his post, and shot. At 
Witney and Brampton-Bush Cromwell dispersed other 
bodies of the Royalists, and took a great number of 
prisoners. These signal successes occupied only two or 
three days. 

While Cromwell was engaged in this service, Fairfax 
marched westward to reheve Taunton. It was the only 
inland garrison the ParUament possessed in that part of 
the country, and its preservation was an object of 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 217 

primary importance. He had already proceeded as far 
as Andover, when an order came to countermand his 
farther progress in that direction. Intelligence had 
arrived in London that the two Princes, Rupe^rt and 
Maurice, were advancing towards Oxford, and it became 
necessary to consider whether it might not be advisable, 
instead of succouring Taunton, to fall back and con- 
centrate upon the head-quarters of the King. Fairfax, 
however, was of opinion that, whatever it might be best 
to do, the worst was to stand idly on the highway, and 
so continued his march steadily towards the beleaguered 
town. Two days determined the question, and being 
overtaken by positive orders, he dispatched four 
regiments of foot to Taunton, and returned with the 
remainder of his troops to join Cromwell, and watch 
the King's movements. In the meanwhile his Majesty 
had left Oxford, effected a junction with the Princes, 
and taken the field with the immediate intention of 
reUeving Chester in person, while he dispatched Goring 
into the west to harass Fairfax, whom he behoved to 
be still there. Had Goring's superior force fallen in 
with Fairfax, the issue might have been disastrous for 
the Parhament ; but Fairfax was enabled, by his intimate 
knowledge of the country, to evade that formidable 
body, and effect his march securely into Oxfordshire. 

The King had long desired to relieve Chester, but 
had hitherto been imable to accomphsh his purpose ; 
nor could Sir William Brereton collect sufficient strength 
to carry the place, so that he did nothing more than 

218 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

maintain a motionless siege. The difficulties to which 
he had been exposed so fer back as the preceding 
February, will appear from the following appeal for 
help to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 


Bight Honourable^ 

The preparation is great which the enemy makes 
for the relief of Chester and Beston Castle. Colonel Has- 
tings unites with his own forces Lichfield, Dudley, Ludlow, 
Lincell Tounge, Shrewsbury, Bridgnorth, with many other 
places besides, to join with Prince Maurice in this design, 
with whom we must join in battle, or lose the fruit of all our 
labour, and long expectations; if in this design the enemy 
should give us a blow, the influence thereof would extend to 
all the neighbouring counties, and be very prejudicious to all 
these parts of the kingdom, which makes us seek abroad for 
help, being unable of ourselves for so great a task. We under- 
stand by your letters to Sir George Booth of your courteous 
tender of assistance to these parts if need were, which makes 
us bold to importime your honour for a thousand or two of 
horse and dragoons, with what possible speed may be, and if 
it please God to repel the enemy, and give Chester into our 
hands, which now is in great distress, your forces shall share 
alike with our own in recompense for their service, and we 
shall ever acknowledge ourselves. 

Your honour^s most humble servants, 
William Brereton, Ph. Mainwaring, 
Thomas Stanley, George Simtom, 

Roger William, Thomas Croxton. 

H. Brooke, 

16^*.] THE CIVIL WAE. 219 

The enemy is within three days march, and is resolved to 
hazard all rather than lose Chester. 

Namptwich, February 4ih, 1644, [N.S, 1645.] 

Although the Royalists were thus hovering about 
Chester in February, it was not until May that they 
moved to its relief ; and upon their approach in over- 
whelming numbers, Sir William Brereton, not having 
received the assistance he required, raised the siege 
and retired into Lancashire. 

The loss of Chester was balanced by the recovery of 
Taimton. The besiegers broke up and withdrew on the 
appearance of Fairfax's four regiments of foot. The spec- 
tacle which presented itself on the entrance of the troops 
was harrowing, the town being in a state of ruin and des- 
titution, from which it did not recover, as appears from 
the following document, for several months afterwards. 




The sad condition of many hundred inhabitants of 
the town of Taunton, whose dwellings are burnt and their 
estates utterly wasted by the enemy, have moved the Parlia- 
ment to grant them a collection for their relief, by an ordi- 
nance to that eflFect ; which, together with our order for the 
managing of it, we recommend to your care and furtherance, 
not doubting but that your charitable affections to so neces- 
sary and pious a work will encourage and enable you to see 

220 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

it executed and distributed according to the instructions, 

with such faithfulness and dispatch as may prevent the 

expectation of those poor perishing Christians, and comply 

with the desires of 

Your very loving friends^ 

Northumberland. Anth. Nicoll. 


Saml. Rolle. Roger. 

Jo. HoNGE. Geo. Buller. 

Wa. Erle. Rideant. 

John Bamffylde. John Harris. 

John Browne. Jo. Waddon.* 

SUvr Chamber, September Qik, 1645. 

The retirement of Brereton from before Chester was 
not merely a politic movement to avoid an imequal 
conflict, but had reference also to a general scheme 
which Sir Thomas Fairfax now began to form for the 
purpose of drawing in his troops from isolated positions, 
with a view to concentrate them for a decisive action ; 
a scheme soon afterwards brilliantly consummated by 
the victory of Naseby. The germs of this design are 
indicated in several letters. The following communica- 
tions from Colonel Hutchinson bear upon this point. 
We see in these hasty notes, the stir and agitation of 
detachments moving to a centre at Nottingham under 
the special orders of the General. Delays still arise from 
various causes, and Colonel Hutchinson apprehends a 
mutiny in his own garrison from lack of pay. The issue 
lies dimly before us ; but there is activity enough in the 

* From Mr. Bentle/s Collection. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 221 

commanders if they can only procure the means of 
appeasing the clamours of the soldiery. 

The writer of these pregnant Uttle letters is the same 
Colonel Hutchinson whose "Memoirs," written by his 
widow, constitute one of the most interesting and 
picturesque pieces of biography in our language. He 
rendered himself famous through the Civil War by the 
devotion and integrity with which he served the Parha- 
ment, especially in the important post of Governor of 
Nottingham Castle, from whence the letters are dated. 
While he held this office, he gave a signal proof of his 
integrity, by indignantly refusing a sum of 10,000/., the 
hereditary governorship of the place, and a peerage, 
which were oflfered to him by the Earl of Newcastle, as 
bribes to induce him to betray his trust. By some 
strange and unaccountable good fortune, notwithstand- 
ing his active services against the Stuarts in the field, 
and in the tribunal which condemned the King, whose 
death-warrant he signed, he escaped execution and for- 
feiture at the Restoration. Surviving these dangers, 
however, he died a prisoner in Sandown Castle. 


Mt Lobd^ 

I HAVE received this letter from Lieutenant-Gene- 
ral Cromwell this day. I do not know of what concernment 
it may be^ and therefore I dispatch it with such haste to your 

222 BIEMOBIALS OF [1645. 

lordship that I have not leisure at this present to give you 
an account of some passages in this garrison as I ought to 
do. I hope I shall have leisure shortly^ either to wait on 
your lordship myself^ or at least Ailly to acquaint you how 
things are here with us. In the meantime^ I beseech you be 
pleased to pardon the haste of 

Your most faithful and humble servant^ 

John Hutchinson. 

Nottirighamy May 23r(2, 1645. 

Colonel Bossiter is not joined with us^ and hath this day 
sent us word that he hath given your lordship a reason for 
it^ which yoiir lordship is well satisfied in. 

Newark do not stir^ but lie ready prepared with their 


May it please your Lordship^ 

I HAVE intelligence at this instant that the enemy 
at Newark are drawing out this night with all their horse and 
dragoons^ whether to the North or to the King is uncertain^ 
and another messenger tells me they are now drawn out and 
are marching this way. Derby and Lincoln horse are not 
yet united with those of this garrison, which are in such ill 
case to march for want of pay, that they will rather mutiny 
than obey commands. Colonel Vermuden, I hear, is upon 
his march northward at Elvaston, in Derbyshire, within nine 
miles of this garrison. I have given him notice hereof, and 
have no more to your lordship but that I am. 

My lord, 
Your lordship^s humble servant, 

John Hutchinson. 

*^*^-] THE CIVIL WAR. 223 

I have intelligence even now, by a drummer of mine from 
Newark, that they are designed for Pontefraet. 

Nottvngh4!m, 2i(h Mayy 1645, at one of the docJc, afternoon. 

There were, as usual, great impediments in the way 
of recruiting and maintaining the army. The assess- 
ments ordered by Parliament were still tardily got in, 
although the urgency of affairs demanded greater 
activity than ever. Money was the chief want. It was 
impossible to procure recruits, or to keep them when 
procured, without a constant and Kberal revenue. Yet, 
in spite of repeated appeals and menaces, large arrears 
remained behind ; and day after day, as in the follow- 
ing instance, the most stringent measures were enforced 
upon the local committees. 



By the many letters and addresses which the 
House of Commons and the committee of the army have of 
late made unto you, you have been fully informed what 
necessity there is that the army imder the command of Sir 
Thomas Fairfax, (which, under God, is the principal means to 
preserve us in safety,) should be recruited and constantly 
and orderly paid; and to that end, amongst other suppHes 
necessary for that army, and, above all, the House and the 
committee have been very instant with you, that the monthly 
assessments charged upon your county might in due time be 

224 MEMORIALS OP 1*^45. 

collected and paid in to the Treasurers at War. And now 
that, by God^s blessing, (though your recruits of men and 
draught horses be not as yet complete, but we hope by your 
endeavours will speedily be done,) this army be in a fit 
condition to march, and is advanced; and that there are 
three whole months' assessments due, which the army should 
be paid ; yet we find, notwithstanding all the assurances that 
we have received by your letters, or from the Parliament's 
agents employed to you, that the money paid in by your 
county to the Treasurers at War is inconsiderable, or nothing 
at all, which we apprehend to be a very great neglect, and of 
dangerous consequence, and, as the affairs of the army and 
Commonwealth now stand, cannot be longer endured. 

This failure we conceive principally to be in the remiss 
demeanour of the collectors, either in not collecting, or 
having collected the money, in detaining the same in their 
own hands ; and therefore we, the Committee of Lords and 
Commons, appointed by the ordinance of the 28th of March 
last, taking the same into consideration, have thought fit, 
for the speedy levying of the three months' assessments now 
due, and for the preventing of all retardments in this service 
for the future, to give power to the agents employed by 
Parliament to call the collectors to account, and where they 
find any person to have neglected his duty, to bring him in 
safe custody before you, that you may inflict such punish- 
ment as the ordinances direct, — a copy of which order in 
that behalf we have inclosed sent you. 

And that the Commonwealth may receive the fruits and 
effects of this order, we are to desire you, according as 
the ordinance doth enjoin, that you the committee would 
twice every week meet, and that you would countenance 
and encourage the agent, and hear such complaints as he 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 225 

shall present unto jou, and proceed against the delinquents 
with effect and speed; and from time to time to cause 
assessments for more months to be made^ as you shall find 
necessary for this service^ which so much concerns the 
public good, that we are most earnestly to recommend the 
same to you, that all diligence and care be used herein; 
whereof not doubting, we rest, 

Your very loving friends and servants, 

P. Wharton, J. Evelyn. 

Pembroke & Salisbury. Robert Scawen. 

W. Say & Sele. John Venn. 

Wm, Masham. Jno. Petts. 

Valentine Warton. Tho. Hodges.* 

At the Committee for the Armyy the \Uh of May ^ 1645. 

The same necessity is again pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the Norwich committee in a letter from both 
Houses of Parliament, followed by another and more 
urgent requisition from Derby House. In the first of 
these letters the threatened siege of Oxford is announced ; 
in the second, Sir Thomas Fairfax has already arrived, 
and cut ofi* all communication with the town. 



The Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled^ 
being very sensible of the miseries that this kingdom doth 
sufifer by the long continuance of this unnatural war^ have 

* From Mr. Bentley's CoUection. 
VOL. I. Q 


226 MEMORIALS OF [1645, 

resolved^ as the most effectual means, with the blessing of 
Grod, to put an end thereunto, that Oxford shall be presently- 
besieged ; having found by experience for these three years 
last past, that the advantage of that place, situate in the 
heart of the kingdom, hath enabled the enemy to have ill 
influences upon this City and the counties adjoining, and to 
infest all other parts. This design, though most necessary^ 
and of great advantage, cannot be prosecuted without 
supplies of men and money. 

We are therefore, by the command of both Houses, 
earnestly to desire you to hasten the collection and send- 
ing up of the money due upon the ordinance for main- 
taining the forces under the command of Sir Thomas 
Fairfax ; and the recruits (the want whereof is a great dis- 
service to the public). These things have lately been repre- 
sented to you by the Committee of Lords and Commons 
for the army, it being of great importance, and of present 
use for the siege designed. We are by both Houses 
directed again to press the same, not doubting but the 
benefits which, by God^s blessing, this whole kingdom will 
receive hereby, will quicken all men's endeavours to further 
this great work ; and so we rest. 

Your very affectionate friends, 

Grey of Warke, 

speaker of the Home of Peers. 

Wm. Lenthall, 

Speaker of the Howe of Cowmiom^ 
Westminater, 19^ J^ay, 1645. 

* From Mr. Bentley^s Collection. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 227 



Since the writing of these letters of the Honses, 
herewith sent, Sir Thomas Fairfax is come up to Oxford, and 
doth straiten that place so that they cannot take in any 
further provision. We therefore most earnestly recommend 
it unto you, with all possible expedition to hasten up the 
monies and recruits according to the letter from the Houses, 
which may be in this case an extraordinary service. 

Signed in the name and by the warrant of the Committee 
of both Kingdoms. 

Your very loving Mends, 

P. Wharton. 

Darby Souse, May 2\8t, 1645. 

Fairfax pitched his head-quarters at Marston, his 
forces being cast upon spots which completely com- 
manded the town. But the whole proceeding was 
undertaken against his judgment. He felt that he 
was wasting his strength behind a breast-work, while 
the King was abroad in the field, and that, instead of 
reconnoitring the walls of Oxford, he ought to have 
been collecting his army for a general action. It was 
the obvious business of the New-Model Army (which 
had supplanted the procrastinating system) to follow 
the King wherever he went, and force the war to a 
conclusion. But nothing had yet been done in that 

* From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 


228 JIEMORIALS OF [1645. 

way, and his Majesty had abeady' fully availed himself 
of the opportunities to which he was invited by the 
dispersion of the ParUament troops, and amongst other 
triumphs, had taken Leicester by storm. These feel- 
ings and opinions, and the welcome intelligence that 
the Parliament had at length consented to release him 
from an " unprofitable'* siege, are emphatically expressed 
in a short note to his father. 


May it please your Lordship, 

I AM very sorry we should spend our time unpro- 
fitably before a town, whilst the King hath time to strengthen 
himself, and by terror to force obedience of all places where 
he comes; the Parliament is sensible of this now, therefore 
hath sent me directions to raise the siege and march to 
Suckingham, where, I believe, I shall have orders to advance 
northwards, in such a course as all our divided parties may 
join. It is the earnest desire of this army to follow the King, 
but the endeavours of others to prevent it hath so much 
prevailed ; but I trust God will preserve it to do the public 
service : to-morrow I begin my march (God willing). If your 
lordship strengthen York and Hull, I trust they shall not 
have time to besiege any places; so beseeching God to keep 
your lordship in health, and those parts in safety, desiring 
your blessing, I rest. 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

Thomas Fairfax. 

ManUm, Hk Jwnje, 1645. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 22SI 

It was now evident that a crisis was at hand. Fair- 
fax was marching to the defence of the Associated 
Counties, and letters were hourly dispatched over the 
country to hasten the concentration of the troops. Colonel 
Vermuden was hanging on the King's rear ; but the 
direction his Majesty intended to take was yet uncer- 
tain. We have a glance at the flying rumours in a 
letter from Mr. Gervase Lomax to Lord Fairfax. Mr. 
Lomax was a Nottingham man, belonging to the middle 
classes, of good understanding, a plain, blunt, honest 


My Lord^ 

Colonel Vermuden wrote himself yesterday to be 

at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, attending the King's motion, 

which, if southwards, then he is to unite with Sir Thomas 

Fairfax, who quartered on Wednesday night at Brackley. K 

the King come northward, Colonel Vermuden is to unite 

with Colonel Rositer, and both with the forces under the 

command of Sir John Gell. But it is yet uncertain whether 

the King be for north or south, he being yesterday not 

past Harbrowe, and at least at a stand, if not retreating 

back this way, which is presumed to be upon the noise of 

Sir Thomas Fairfax's advance. Your lordship may please to 

impart this inteUigence in your next to the Earl of Leven. 

No more at this time, but that I am 

Your humble servant in the Lord Christ, 

Gervase Lomax. 

Welbeck,Jme6th,at8ixatNig?U, [1645.] 

230 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

Early on the morning of the same day on which 
Lomax dispatched this letter, Colonel Vermuden had 
written to Sir Thomas Fair&x, apprising him that he 
was on his way to join him at Brackley, and that intel- 
ligence had reached him of the King's march towards 
Nottingham. "The Lord send ns a speedy conjunc- 
tion/^ wrote Vermuden, " and a good engagement, with 
blessed success/' This brief sentence expressed the 
universal desire. The whole army, wearied of fruitless 
skirmishing and wasteful sieges, panted for a " speedy 
conjunction,'' and " good engagement/' 

And all this time, by orders from Parhament, prayers 
are putting up in the churches for a blessing on its 
efforts ! Vermuden, one of the truest and bravest of 
Fairfax's oflScers, was unable to participate in the 
glory to which he had looked forward so eagerly, being 
compelled, within a week from the date of his letter, to 
resign his commission, and go abroad upon urgent 
private business : probably to Holland, the native 
country of Vermuden the engineer, who drained the 
fens, and who is supposed to have been his father. 

It was at this moment, when he was collecting 
to a centre the flower and strength of his army, that 
Fairfax solicited Parhament to dispense with Cromwell's 
attendance at Westminster. He had better use for him 
in the field; and, immediately upon obtaining the 
requisite permission, he appointed him Lieutenant- 
General of the cavalry, Fairfax was quartered at Wot- 
ton, within two miles of Northampton, and the King 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAE. 231 

lay at Daventry. Cromwell was ordered to bring up 
his horse without delay, and breathless dispatches were 
sent off to Coventry, Warwick, Northampton, and every 
place within reach, desiring the garrisons to " come up " 
with all the strength they could muster. Major-General 
Skipton, second in command, was directed to draw a 
plan of battle ; and the impetuous masses, from distant 
points, pouring in with portentous fury, were rapidly 
drafted off into brigades of horse and foot, and assigned 
their several positions. 

While Fairfax was making these systematic arrange- 
ments, his Majesty, always a httle too confident of the 
divinity which hedged him, was amusing himself hunt- 
ing ! And it was not until Fairfax had hemmed him 
round, and scared the van of his army, at Harborough, 
that his Majesty, called up out of his sleep, summoned a 
council of war, to consider what was best to be done. 
It was eleven o'clock at night, and seeing that Ireton 
was hanging upon their flank, withm two miles of 
Naseby, and that Fairfax had shut up the road at 
GilUng, it was concluded that retreat was impossible, 
and that nothing remained but to give battle, — of the 
result of which, in their pride of superior horse and 
experienced commanders, they appear to have enter- 
tained no doubt. Flushed with recent fluctuating suc- 
cesses, his Majesty behoved that it was as easy to hunt 
down Fairfax's army as to chase deer and rabbits ; and 
accordingly, taking up his ground on some undulating 
heights opposite to the Httle hamlet of Naseby, he drew 

232 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

out his force id full pomp, to receive the enemy. His 
Majesty himself commanded in person in the centre, 
with the two Princes and Sir Marmaduke Langdale on 
the right and left, and strong reserves of horse and life- 
guards behind. Fairfax cast his lines on the low moor- 
land hills close to the hamlet, sustained at the extremi- 
ties by Ireton and Cromwell, with his artillery train, 
enclosed in a ring of firelocks in the rear. The picture 
of the array of both armies, which has been handed 
over to us, discloses a ghastly solemnity of preparation, 
ominous, on both sides, of a frightful carnage. A wide 
sweep of irregular plain lies between the contending 
phalanxes, and here, upon this open, naked space, 
Charles stakes his last chance for the throne. 

The battle-cry on the side of the King is " Queen 
Mary I ** and on that of the Parliament " God our 
strength ! " The right wing at each side opens the 
onslaught. Prince Rupert charging up the heights of 
Naseby, and Cromwell plunging down into the broad 
plain with such fierce resolution, that he falls upon 
Langdale's horse at the sword's point, throws them 
into a panic, and pursues them over hedge-rows, ditches, 
and roads, a quarter of a mile beyond the field. Prince 
Rupert at the same moment is scattering Ireton's lefl 
wing, whose movements are embarrassed by dykes and 
pits of water, while Ireton has his horse shot under him, 
is wounded in the thigh with a pike and in the face 
with a halbert, and in the rush of the meUe taken pri- 
soner ; soon afterwards, however, finding means^ through 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 233 

the general conftision, to regain his Uberty. Prince 
Rupert having broken through Ireton^s cavah-y, and 
forced them to retreat towards Naseby, on his return 
reaches the artillery train (where Rushworth is standing 
taking notes), and, being mistaken by his dress for 
General Fairfax, an officer advances, hat in hand, to 
ask how the day goes. The mistake is soon discovered. 
Rupert offers them quarter, to which they reply by a 
volley of bullets. There is no time to argue the matter 
vrith these obstinate firelocks, and, seeing that the main 
body, under the command of the King, is in imminent 
peril, Rupert flies back with his victorious horse to 
succour his Majesty. It is too late. The fate of the 
day is already decided. Fairfax's troops, beaten back 
at first, are rallied by his officers — old General Skipton, 
who is shot in the side, still staggering on his saddle, 
and refusing to stir fi'om the ground while there is a man 
left — ^and others, clutching their colours, and bringing 
up the reserves to supply the void of the broken centre. 
The whole of that gallant body of cavaUers, which, only 
three hours ago, presented so bold a fi'ont, is now 
shattered and dispersed. Fairfax, recovering his position, 
has formed his Kne again, with his wings of cavalry and 
his foot marshalled between them, to make a last descent 
upon the King, who, to do him justice, is endeavouring, 
with desperate courage, to bring up his troops for one 
charge more. But no human influence can induce them 
to turn back, and they break away from the field in 
disorder, Langdale's horse taking the road to Newark, 

234 MEMOBIALS OF [1645. 

and the King flying towards Leicester, pursued by 
Cromweirs cavalry for a distance of twelve or fourteen 

In this memorable battle, fought on the 14th of June, 
Fairfax took nearly 5000 prisoners, including 4000 
private soldiers, the whole train of artillery, a quantity 
of rich pillage, which the cavaUers had possessed them- 
selves of at Leicester, several coaches, and his Majesty's 
private cabinet, containing letters and papers which 
furnished crushing evidence of kingly treachery and 

The Royal fiigitive made good his retreat to Leicester, 
where he had a garrison which was doomed to be driven 
out after him within the space of three days. His evil 
fortune had filled him with terrors, and afi'aid to stay in 
Leicester, even for rest and refreshment, he fled the same 
evening to Ashby-de-la-Zouch, where he snatched a 
hasty supper, and was on the road again at midnight, 
on his way to Wales, to beat up for recruits. The 
reverse was prophetic, from the chivalry of Naseby to 
the donjon of Ragland Castle. 

The prisoners taken at Naseby were that night, for 
want of accommodation, cooped up in Harborough 
church ; and the next day Fairfax advanced upon 
Leicester, which surrendered on the 17th June. He 
now resolved to move to the relief of Taunton, which was 
besieged by Goring; but Goring, having notice of his 
approach, broke up the siege and turned back to oppose 
him. Both armies met upon the river at Langport. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 235 

Goring had the advantage of the passes, but was 
dislodged, and beaten with great loss, after a fierce 
engagement. It will be seen from the following letter, 
that Groring acted against orders in risking this battle, 
his Majesty having commanded him not to engage until 
his forces should be strengthened by new levies out of 
Wales, aad by a further reinforcement from the western 


May it please your Lordship, 

To pardon my seldom writing. I have taken this 
occasion to let your lordship know God^s great goodness to 
us in defeating Gen. Goring^s army; 2000 prisoners are 
taken, two pieces of ordnance, many arms and colours, both 
of horse and foot, but not many slain.* His horse that got 
off, is gone towards Cornwall, and some foot to Bristow. It 
pleased God to give them this blow in good season. The 
King had given Goring strict commands not to engage before 
himself, with the Welsh forces, were joined with him, and 
Greenwill with those out of the West, which, altogether, 
would have made a very great army, besides many thousands 
of club-men in Wiltshire and Dorsetshire, which was ready 
to declare themselves for the King, as soon as he had crossed 
the Severn; so as we cannot esteem this mercy less, all 
things considered^ than that of Naseby fight. I have writ 

* The journals of the day estimate the killed at 200 ; Rushworth at 300. 

236 KEMORIALS OF [1645. 

to both Houses, but not so fully as the bearer of these 
letters, Col. Ransbrough, or Major Harrison^ can inform 
them. I wish my wife, and the house she is in, could be any 
ways serviceable to your lordship. So, humbly desiring your 
lordship^s blessing, I remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

Chediey, 11 July, toithin two milea of 
Bridgewater, 1645. 

At the close of the war (anticipating the result, that 
we may dismiss this rash gentleman from our pages), 
we find Goring falling under the displeasure of the 
Prince, who, remembering this fiital business at Lang- 
port, was not slow, probably, to find out reasons for 
dismissing him from his favour. The Sir Constantine 
Huygens, to whom Goring sends his whining complaints, 
was a Dutchman, Lord of Zuylichan, and had served 
three successive Princes of Orange, in the quality of 
secretary. He came to England in 1622, as secretary 
to the Dutch embassy, and was father of Huygens, the 
famous astronomer and mathematician. 




This war is ended with more loss to me than any 
other body, for I hear the Prince is displeased with me for 
the coming away of those officers that did it without my 
knowledge, and I have now my lameness so much renewed. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 237 

that I cannot come to clear myself; as soon as the bath has 
restored me to my strength, I shall employ it in his Highness' 
service, if he please to let me return into the same place of 
his favour that I thought myself happy in before, being not 
at all guilty of deserving any declination in his Highnesses 
good opinion no more than I was worthy of coming into it; 
and I set too great a value upon his favour and myself to 
quit any pretensions to it, when I keep the same affections 
to his service that I always had : and sir, you will do me a 
particular favour to let me know what my posture is there, 
and to be assured that howsoever his Highness disposes of 
me^ I am. 

Sir, your most affectionate, 

and most humble servant, 

George Goring.* 

Berwick, Jtme 22. 

The " Club-men ^' (or Club-risers, as they were some- 
times called), alluded to in Fairfax's last letter, was the 
title of a new party recently conjured into existence, and 
which, about this time, had set up an audacious and for- 
midable front. The ostensible object was the protection 
of life and property, irrespective of King or Parliament 
— a springe which entrapped hundreds of honest, foolish 
people, who were terribly harassed by the trampling 
of dragoons over their fields, and who sincerely believed 
that it was true patriotism to harass the dragoons in 
return. In reality this confederation was a Royalist 
conspiracy, managed by bold and subtle leaders, who 

* From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 


laid their plans so successftdly that they were able to 
collect at diflPerent points masses of two or three 
thousand armed men to waylay the supplies of the 
Parliamentarians, and prevent the levy of contributions. 
Fairfax encountered a cluster of these club-men on his 
march into the west ; and Cromwell fell in with large 
bodies of them on two occasions, and was at last com- 
pelled to take summary means for bringing them to 
their senses. But the club-men, and all other combi- 
nations, under whatever pretext they came into the 
world, went out of it with impressive suddenness. Some 
of their leaders were taken, and sent to London, and 
the roving cohorts, frightened at their own valorous 
folly, broke up and vanished. 

From Langport, Fairfax had removed, as we have 
seen, to Chedsey, close to Bridgewater, which was 
strongly fortified by the Royalists, and which occupied 
a position that rendered it nearly impregnable. On 
the night of 11th July, Fairfax and Cromwell went out 
to examine the fortifications ; and on the 1 6th (the date 
of the following letter), the proposition to storm the 
place, or to abandon it, was debated at a council of 
war. As soon as the council broke up. Sir Thomas 
Fairfax communicated the result of their deliberations 
to his father. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 239 



May it please your Lordship, 

Since the last fight we have only settled our 
quarters about Bridgewater, as necessary before we enter into 
action again^ to give some rest to the soldiers, who have 
extreme hard duties in marches and service. This town is of 
greater consequence, as we conceive, than any in the western 
parts ; for if we have it, we shall garrison in a line which will 
reach from Sevem^s mouth to the South Sea, and so divide 
Devonshire and Cornwall, where their chief force is driven. 
We intend presently, God willing, either to storm or block it 
up, that the rest of the army may be at liberty to go after 
Goring, or where there is most need. I hope we shaU carry 
this place if we storm it. All things are preparing for it. 
Our greatest want in the army is match, which I desire there 
may be a care taken a good quantity may be sent to Lyme. 
I shall trouble your lordship with no more, but humbly desire 
your blessing, and remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

Chedsey, 16 /i%, 1645. 

On the 22nd the town was stormed, and on the fol- 
lowing day it surrendered. 

240 MEMOBIALS OF [1645. 


May it please your Lordship^ 

Yesterday I gave an account to both Houses of 
our taking Bridgewater^ part of it by storm ; and finding their 
obstinacy I was forced to fire two or three houses^ which 
presently made them to render the town and themselves to 
mercy. The governor told me, some of his own men set fire 
on several parts of the town, for which he had committed 
some to prison, else we had done little hurt by fire. Now 
we shall, God willing, in a day or two, undertake some other 
business, either towards Sath and Bristow, or towards Gor- 
ing in Cornwall ; the latter seems fittest to be undertaken. 
Forces from France and Ireland may readily join with him 
there. I hope we shall leave force enough for the west, and 
have a considerable army for any other service. We have 
had great testimony of God^s goodness to us, and I trust He 
will still assist us in this work, that we may finish it or our 
lives to His glory and the good of this kingdom, for which I 
desire your lordship's blessing. So remain 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

Thomas Fairfax. 

Nta/r Bridg€water,July 24^, 1645. 

The King is expected this night in Bristow if the news of 
taking Bridgewater stay him not. His greatest hopes now 
seems to be in the clubmen, and God's providence is much 
seen in the timely taking of this town. If the King had had 
time to have got his forces and these numerous clubmen 
together, we must have left it. 

We are interrupted in the midst of these anxious 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 241 

scenes by a letter from Mr. Charles Fairfax to his 
brother, concerning certain investigations into divers 
comphcated questions of taxation in Yorkshire, upon 
which that worthy lawyer and antiquary had been for 
some time engaged. Deeply as he was absorbed in 
the " study '^ at Denton, he found leisure for such 
scanty inteUigence as he could get, from week to week, 
of the progress of the army. The matter of this letter 
is of no present import. The old divisions and interests 
to which it refers are obliterated; but it shows that 
there was hard work to be done in dusky offices and 
civic chambers, as well as in camps and castles, to 
sustain the heart of the great cause. It is apparently 
a dry discussion about rights of levy ; but these assess- 
ments were the hfe-blood of the army. 


Bight Honourable, 

You may please to take information that the rates 
of the three Ridings are now vehemently controverted, and 
both North and East oppose the West ; the City (who are no 
less violent against us), these will not admit part of our 
twelve, but a distinct twentieth part of the whole. They 
insist upon the seidance of their proportions in the two late 
ordinances, one for the Irish, the other the Scottish assess- 
ments ; the act for poll-money ; the irregular charge of ship- 
money; the postscript of an old letter to the mayor, &c., 
from my Lord of Huntingdon, 1595 (point blank against 

VOL. I. B 

242 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

them^ being in pursuance of our claims)^ and the City^s 
answer^ that Pierce Stanley, as muster-master of the county, 
ought not to view their arms, being a distinct county. Pur- 
veyance they admit ; but it is not against them, being an 
act of prerogative. Each objection has his answer. But 
most of that I heard at this bosird I had formerly learned 
from your lordship by frequent discourses, besides the view of 
seidaU notes, both my father^s and yours, concerning arms 
and purveyance. As a twentieth part, it is but as Strafford 
and Tickhill, from whose high constables they have received 
their charge ; that (because it is a distinct county) the sta- 
tutes enable them to claim their privileges for arms and 
bridges ; yet for arms (besides the Lord President Himting- 
don^s letter, who says we claim them) there is shown a note 
of Sir Henry Savile^s, taken 1625, wherein the City forces are 
reckoned with the West. 

A poor thing to what I have seen in your study, but espe- 
cially in my father^s desks, in several bundles of far ancienter 
date. In Henry the Sixth^s time they were made a county, 
and (though now no part of us) are concomitant witli 
us to their former proportions, which such charters can 
neither diminish nor alter more than the late separation of 
Clifton, Tulford, Rouchliff, &c., taken both from the North 
and East Ridings, where (by joint assent of the justices and 
gentry) it was ordered they should pay assessments (as before) 
with those Ridings. A like may be intended upon their first 

For the charge of shipping, each particular sheriff had his 
writ ; and if our proportion have exceeded, it (being irregu- 
lar) can be no authentic precedent* That of Camden they 
would urge against us. He (speaking of York) having for- 
merly mentioned the three Ridings, says, ^' Que nee illius nee 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 243 

cujusque alterius partis censetiir, sed suis guadet immunita- 
tibus/^ By one casting voice (there being twelve of both 
B/idings and thirteen of ours, with their Mr. Chalanour siding 
in that point with us) the month of August is voted to be 
assessed as it usually has been, and a new day assigned to 
determine the controversy, or at least for the present, until 
the Parliament decide it, there being the interests of many 
thousand pounds in lands above the value of 200,000/. per 
annum concerned. 

I purpose to go or send to my cousin Malory, and all 
others who may contribute any assistance to the work, to 
vindicate those rights which lie now a-gasping. They being 
confident to carry it, it will be discussed in Parliament ; and 
your lordship's memory (though you have often complained 
of it) is a faithful repertory, and ever was, in all things that 
concerned the good of the country. In the mean time your 
letter hither may be very useful. Some things I bundled in 
your chest, of impertinences concerning musters, which I 
hope I may get to, for it was not in your study. They may 
be of as good consequence as Sir Henry Savile^s note. 

My lord, I am much comforted in the weekly relations, 
wherein I read God's mercies in legible characters both of 
you and your son. The giving all unto God (of which he 
has an honourable testimony) is the most thriving way. I 
have many engagements to remember your lordship ; and I 
know you cannot forget 

Your most affectionate servant, 

C. P. 

lat AugvM, 1645. 

Mr. Stockdale has now shown me your lordship's letter 
concerning this business, and I hope will join with the 
carriage of the business. 


244 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, following up his successes at 
Langport and Bridgewater, directed his course westward 
against Bristol, where Prince Rupert was in command of a 
powerful garrison. On his way he stormed Bath, which, 
after a brisk surprise at the gates, surrendered on his own 
terms. In his next letter we follow him to Sherborne. 


Mat it please tour Lordship, 

Since the taking of Bath, (I have left there two 
regiments of horse and two of foot, which, with the assistance 
of the county with the well-aflFected there about, I hope will 
straighten Bristow very much), I am come to Sherborne. 
The necessity of staying in these parts till we receive our 
recruits and ammunition made me wilUng to attempt some- 
thing on it, which I hope in a very short time will be to 
very good purpose, if it please God we take this place. It is 
more considerable than to force Goring into Cornwall, for 
the clubmen of Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, and Hampshire, are 
Uke to be of dangerous consequence, if not prevented. We 
have taken thirteen or fourteen of their chief leaders. Lieu- 
tenant-General Cromwell is gone out with some horse to 
hinder the clubmen's meeting, which I hear they have 
appointed, to come and demand their leaders. We must 
not neglect this business, for their violence is probable to 
lead them to some foohsh attempt, which I hope may make 
them repent their errors, if they will not be advised ; which 
way, I desired him just to make use of. I am sorry money 
is so slowly sent to the army ; indeed our soldiers have been 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 245 

put to hard service and strict obedience ; but if they want 
pay, both these will be neglected, and nothing carries on our 
business with more advantage than keeping our soldiers from 
doing violences, which I do desire we may still be able to do, 
I shall trouble your lordship with no more at this time, but 
humbly desiring your blessing, remain 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

Tho. Fairfax. 

Sherborne, August 4th, 1645. 

Since the writing of this letter, I received yours of the 
24th July. I perceive the Parliament hath been pleased to 
name me Governor of Pontefract. I am so little serviceable 
to those parts, as I cannot desire more commands there. 
Either of those your lordship names are fit to command the 
castle j but if your lordship think it convenient to have that 
government, I am content ; and desire that either Colonel 
Overton or Major Crooke may command under me there. 
I now received this inclosed from Lieutenant-General Crom- 
well : I desire your lordship would acquaint the House with 
it, and that they would let me know what they would have 
me do with the ring-leaders of them. 

The " inclosed '' from Cromwell contained an account 
of the dispersion of the Clubmen, who were totally 
routed by Cromwell, and glad to escape, on condition of 
never showing their heads again. " Many of them," said 
Cromwell, in his letter to Fairfax, "are poor silly 
creatures, whom, if you please to let me send home, 
they promise to be very dutiftd for time to come, and 
will be hanged before they come out again." 

The ammunition and money, so much needed by 

246 MEMOBIALS OP [1645. 

Fairfax, arrived on the 11th August. The spirits of 
the army rose at the good news. They had been 
upwards of a week before Sherborne waiting for cannon, 
but not faihng to make a show of strength at intervals 
by sending trumpets to the gates, whose summonses 
were answered by flat negatives, and occasional shots 
out of loopholes. It was by some of these shots the 
officers mentioned in the following letter were wounded. 
Captain Horsey, and another officer, Captain Fleming, 
died of their hurts, and were buried with military honours 
in the church — ^a solemn pause in the fury of the siege ! 



May it please your Lordship, 

We find nothing more difficult than sieges, where 
things are not provided for that work. Necessity and reason 
now puts us upon that way ; for no army, God be thanked^ 
now for the present is like to keep the field against us. We 
shall neglect half our work if we leave Sherborne untaken ; 
but in a few days we hope, by God's assistance, to force it. 
We have ahready lost some of our stoutest and best officers 
before it, as Major Done, Captain Horsey, and others hnrt. 
We are making mines, which I hope in a few days will be 

I received this day your lordship's letters by Captain Hoyle. 
I shall do what I can for him ; but when places fall in this 
army they are presently challenged either by antiquity or 
merit, as it is hard to place any stranger in it. I shall desire 

1«^5,] THE CIVIIi WAR, 247 

Colonel Overton or Major Crooke to command Pontefract 
under me, if you think fit ; or if you desire, it may be abso- 
lutely under the command of one of them. I desire to know 
your lordship^s pleasure, and I shall be very well content. 
So, humbly desiring your lordship^s blessing, I remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

Thomas Fairfax. 

On the 12th the miners were at work under a hur- 
ricane of burning faggots. On the 13th the cannon was 
planted, and the miners, cutting through the naked rock, 
were within two yards of the walls. On the 14th the 
guns began to play, beating down a tower, and making 
a breach wide enough for ten men to enter abreast. 
A poor drummer, who was sent in this strait to summon 
the garrison to surrender, was told that he deserved to 
be hanged, and that the Governor was a man who 
would rather lose his life than his honour ; and on the 
15th the said brave, boisterous Governor surrendered. 
On the 16th the soldiers made high market of their 
booty with the country people. 

Before the end of a week (having reduced Nunney 
Castle on his way) Fairfax sat down before Bristol. 
His name had become a word of fear amongst the 
Royalists. Fortifications seemed to melt before him 
wherever he appeared, and belligerent Bristol was 
struck with terror at his approach. So soon as he was 
known to be in the neighbourhood, several lords and 
people of rank begged for passes to come out of the 

248 MEMORIALS OP [16*5. 

city, declaring that they were ready to leave the 
country, and get out of the way altogether. Fairfax 
refiised their request, '' it being a received opinion,^' says 
quaint old Rushworth, "that persons of quality and 
great estate, in a besieged town, rather incUne to a 
timely yielding than hazardous defending thereof, when 
no relief is at hand." And so, with the gates locked 
upon these helpless persons of quahty and great estate, 
Fairfax prepares to batter down the walls. The next 
letter, without a date, appears to have been written od 
the 22nd or 23rd August. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Upon serious debate on the consequence of affairs, 
we marched to Bristol with the army, else the good success 
God hath given us in Somersetshire might have been to little 
purpose; for Prince Rupert, with 8000 horse and foot which 
he had, might have raised force in all the county behind 
us, which would have been more considerable than Goring^s 
army is, which breaks daily with distractions, and so less 
dangerous. We have shut Prince Rupert, with all his horse, 
up in Bristol ; the plague is much there. I hope God will 
direct all things for the best, that we may give some good 
account of that which is so much expected. So, desiring your 
blessing, I remain. 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

Thomas Fairfax. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAB. 249 

This inclosed letter from my Lord Falkenbridge was inter- 
cepted coming from Prance, with other letters, which is sent 
to the committee of both kingdoms. It appears by them 
little assistance can be expected from thence. 

Having secured all the surrounding posts, and borne 
naucli distress for several days from sudden sallies of the 
besieged, it was determined, after much deliberation, to 
storm the city. This resolution was carried into efiFect 
on the 10th September. Nearly all the forts and 
bulwarks gave way, after a resistance hardly less heroic 
than the devotion of the storming parties ; and Rupert, 
seeing that all was lost, fired the town in three places, 
and sent a trumpet amidst the flames to propose a 
treaty of surrender, which was accepted. The treaty 
was concluded on the 11th; and on the next day, 
while Fairfax was writing to his father. Prince Rupert 
was riding out under a convoy of horse to Oxford. 


May it please your Lordship, 

By the good providence of God we are now possessed 
of Bristol, which was rendered, September 11th, upon these 
inclosed conditions, after a fierce and resolute storm : the 
particulars will be expressed in the Speaker's letters. I have 
left only a regiment of foot in the fort and castle, for the 
sickness is much in the town ; the army removes this day to 
Cavesham and Penford ; we must needs lay them in quarters 
free from sickness, till the monies come up from Biding, and 

250 ACEHORIALS OF [1645. 

this place be settled, Somersetsliire is raising 2000 men 
to recruit the army^ part of wliich we are to receive to-morrow. 
I hope to have 1500 more out of Glostershire. The 
enemy seems much dejected since the taking of this town, 
and I think the Prince would be glad of a pass to go into 
France. I believe I shall hear from him shortly to that 
purpose, if he would not have it so public as to desire it of 
the Parliament, but rather from me. I humbly desire some 
advice in it, but I think it would be happy for the kingdom if 
he would go out of it, Bushworth will acquaint your lordship 
more particularly of things. So, desiring your lordship's 
blessing, I remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Bristolf I2th September, 1645. 

Devizes Castle, Berkeley Castle, Winchester, and Basing 
House, w^ere now^ rapidly reduced in succession ; the 
King's troops w^ere beaten on Rowton Heath, and soon 
after at Sherborne ; and Fairfax, making forced marches 
w^estw^ard, took up his head-quarters at Chard, on the 
8th of October. Up to this time no money had been 
received by the army since the remittance of the 11th 
of September, and wherever they came they v^^ere obliged 
to take up free quarters. 



May IT PLEASE YOUR Lordship, 

We are now at Chard, upon the confines of Devon- 
shire, and shall be forced to stay there till our monies and 

1W6.] THE CIVIL WAR. 251 

recruits come to us ; Goriug is about 6000 horse aud foot, 
being the more considerable, having the advantage of rivers 
and other strong passes to maintain against us; yet we 
perceive much fearfiilness in them to engage with us, and 
many soldiers, and some officers daily run from them to us. 
They will not have any assistance from Cornwall, and I hope 
Devonshire will be our friend when we come in to them, that 
they dare declare it. I am exceedingly troubled with 
rheumatism and a benumbing coldness in my head, legs, and 
arms, especially on that side I had my hurts. It hath pleased 
the Lord to help me through much extremities, and I trust 
He will lay no more on me than He will enable me to bear ; 
the mercies I have received ought to stop all complaints in 
His service. 

My wife is gone to Sir John Paulett's, and intends to stay 
there till my lady be able to go up to London with her. As 
there is occasion I shall give your lordship further account, 
and now desiring your blessing, remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Okard, Sth October, 1645. 

The action at Sherborne was the most important of 
all the flying encounters which occurred at this time. 
It happened thus : — the King, being at Welbeck on the 
12th of October, and desirous of assisting Montrose, 
then actively engaged on the Scottish border, and com- 
plaining grievously of want of cavalry, appointed 1200 
horse for that service, which he confided to the command 
of Lord Digby, assisted by Sir Marmaduke Langdale. 
George Digby laboured under the misfortune of being 

252 MEMORIALS OP [1645. 

one of the handsomest men of his day. His vanity was 
in proportion to the grace and beauty of his person. 
It was the dye which lay at the root of his character, 
and infused its colour into all the transactions of his Ufe. 
One who knew him intimately tells us that he thought 
the most difficult things easy, and that he never troubled 
himself to calculate consequences, as if he had the 
power by mere voUtion to overrule them. His whole 
career, up to the moment when he got this unlucky 
command of horse, exhibited a succession of hot-brained 
impulses, in which his self-confidence predominated over 
all other men's judgments, and even over the most 
palpable suggestions of prudence. Like all men who, 
for the glory of standing alone, prefer their own opinions, 
even in the wrong, to the wisdom of combined comxsel, 
he cultivated singularity to the total wreck of his 
fortunes. The results of this eccentricity of temper, 
dangerous to his associates and fatal to himself were 
conspicuous in the caprice, inconstancy, and failure of 
everything he undertook. However far he might 
advance with a party, he was sure to strike oflF some- 
where on some crotchet or humour of his own. He 
began with the ParUament, and ended with the King, 
and boasted that he was hated equally by Papists and 
Puritans, which he took to be a mark of distinction, and 
a proof of independence. However enthusiastically he 
might respond to the affections of his friends, he was 
sure to differ from them at some time, and lose them at 
last. His truest and best friend, through all reverses, 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 253 

was the Lord Chancellor Clarendon, whom, in the long 
run, he impeached of high treason. Possessed of great 
natural talents, his mind was so elevated by conceit, and 
so incapable of discipUne or appUcation, that he never 
could employ them in any direction with success. He 
dabbled in literature out of a spirit of elegant ostenta- 
tion, and left nothing behind him worth remembering. 
The only things in this way by which he is known are 
a translation of three books of the Cassandra, and a 
couple of comedies, (played at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 
1665), which he constructed out of the Spanish, and 
afterwards condensed into one, and pubUshed under the 
name of "Elvira.'' The complexional intrigue of this 
piece, which shows clearly from whence it came, sur- 
vives in " The Wonder " of Mrs. Centlivre. 

Impetuous Digby, at the head of his 1200 horse, 
marched oflF to Doncaster, where he valiantly seized a 
few stray Parliament soldiers, who had sought shelter 
in the place, and were incapable of oflFering any resist- 
ance ; and pursuing his victory to Sherborne, surprised 
Colonel Wren, and took about a thousand prisoners. 
Exulting in this exploit, he gathered up the arms of the 
vanquished in a heap in the street ; but while he was 
waiting for carriages to convey them away. Colonel 
Copley appeared before the town. Digby drew out his 
forces and gave battle. The contest was short and 
decisive, Digby was soundly beaten and put to flight, 
and lost not only all the prisoners and arms he had 
taken, but three hundred men of his own, and his 


private coach, containing bundles of letters full of royal 
secrets. The papers seized upon this occasion, and at 
Naseby, were published by the orders of Parliament, 
and disclosed to the country a scheme which the King 
was carrying on to marry his son to the Prince of 
Orange's daughter, with a view to secure the aid of 
Holland, and sundry negotiations in which he was 
engaged for bringing over foreign armies and sub- 
sidies. But it was evident, from one of these letters, 
that his Majesty, in the midst of all his plans and 
aUiances, was reduced to despair. "I confess," he 
observes in a communication to Prince Rupert, " that> 
speaking as a mere soldier, or statesman, I must say 
there is no probability but of my ruin." The battle of 
Naseby had broken down his last hope. 

The following list of prisoners taken at Sherborne, 
is from a memorandum in the hand-writing of Sir 
Thomas Fairfax. 


Colonel Sir Francis Anderson, Coloner Bulmer, 
Colonel Clayton, Colonel Camaby, Lieutenant-Colonel Went- 
worth, Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, Major Crathorne, Captain 
Leuson, Master of the Ordnance ; Captain Cholmeley, Cap- 
tain Marshall, Captain Pudsey, wounded and taken; four 
more captains taken ; Captain L. Slayton, Lieutenant John 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 255 

Turner ; divers other officers and reformadoes ; Mr. Duke 
Punstable^ a great papist ; Mr. Claverin, Richard Lowther, 
gentlemau; Colonel Sir Francis Camaby, slain; Colonel Sir 
Richard Button, slain; Mr. Slingsby; several wounded; 
betwixt 300 or 400 taken prisoners, and about 600 horse, 
forty slain, many wounded ; the Countess of Nidsdale taken ; 
Colonel Clausin, Colonel Carnaby, their colours taken and 
divers others ; the Lord Digby's coach taken, and the King's 
surgeon taken in it with rich pillage. We lost not ten men, 
but many wounded. The enemy were about 1600 horse, and 
intended for Montrose. Ours were about the number of 
1250. About 600 of the enemy are gotten towards Skipton. 

Handsome Digby, who may be supposed to have had 
his beauty a little spoiled in this affair, fled precipitately 
northwards, turning this way and that, to avoid the 
Parliamentarians, and after crossing fords, hiding in 
woods, and fighting for his life, got away at last more 
dead tiian alive to the Isle of Man, from whence he 
finally escaped into Ireland. The remainder of his 
wandering life was crowded with romantic adventures, 
such as were common to soldiers of fortune in the 
middle ages. From Ireland he fled to Jersey, and 
thence into France ; served in the French army in 
Italy, attended Charles II. at Bruges, and was found at 
the Restoration in the Spanish ranks under the com- 
mand of Don John of Austria. His true fiiend, 
Clarendon, had in vain endeavoured to dissuade him 
against accepting mercenary service under a foreign 
power, telling him frankly at the same time that there 

256 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

were certain errors of his life and nature, which he 
ought to avail himself of exile and solitude to correct. 
*' You can no more," said Lord Clarendon in a letter 
remarkable for good sense and integrity of purpose, 
" be a servant or pensioner to another crown, than you 
can marry another vnfe. Borrow or beg (it is very 
honest) so much as will keep you alive and cleanly for 
one year; and vnthdraw into a quiet comer, where 
you are not known, and where not above two or three 
friends may hear of you. If you can live but one year 
without being spoken of at all, without being in a 
capacity of having your own or other men's errors 
imputed to you, you will find a strange resurrection of 
a good fame. In that retirement you wiU revolve the 
rare accidents and misfortunes of your life ; in the 
consideration whereof, I fear, you have been too neg- 
ligent ; and, it may be, you may believe you have 
encountered new and unusual dangers, because you 
have not duly weighed past and unusual deUverances. 
You will find as much of the immediate hand of God in 
both, as can be observed in the course of a man's Ufe, 
much inferior to you in age, and, it may be, in action. 
And after you have given your mind this diet, exercise 
and repose, you will return with greater vigour upon 
the stage ; and any shift you shall then be necessitated 
to, will be more justifiable to the world and comfortable 
to yourself.^' 

The first use he made of his vigoiu* when he did 
return to the stage, gartered by the new King, was to 

164«] THE CIVIL WAR. 257 

exhibit articles of high treason against the good friend 
who had given him this excellent advice. But in this, 
as in everything else, he failed egregiously. His articles 
were thrown out by the Peers ; and after a few years 
of impatient and inefficacious display in ParUament, he 
went out of town, and died at Chelsea, where his fine 
person wafi deposited. 

Supphes arrive on the 11th, and the jubilant army, 
with Goring's troops hanging in clouds upon their track, 
move on to Axminster, and thence to Tiverton, which is 
at once blocked up, stormed, and taken with miraculous 
haste, as usual. Exeter is the next point of attack, and 
Fairfax accordingly presses on, and brings his artillery 
imder the shadow of the walls at St. Mary Autree. 




I HATE some hopes of procuring a place in these 
parts for Mr. Chaloner to be burgess of. I will do what I may 
in it. I shall forbear here to give your lordship an accoimt 
of our present condition in the west, but desire you to receive 
it from Rushworth. So soon as two or three places on the east 
side of Exeter are fortified, and are now almost finished, we 
shall make our head-quarters about Tiverton ; the enemy doth 
lose men daily, and is very desirous to make conditions for 
themselves. I hear the Prince (Rupert) is at Pendennis; 
there is a party that would persuade him over sea. I think 

VOL. I. s 

258 MEMORIALS OP Ci«45. 

it would be better if it pleased God he could be prevented ; 
there will be a head where he is^ for malignants to draw to^ 
and a ground for foreign states to take part with, for their 
ends, under the pretence of defending innocency. I shall 
trouble your lordship no longer, but humbly desiring your 
blessing, take leave to rest. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Autre, I4th NovemheTf 1645. 

My wife presents her duty to your lordship, and stays yet 
a week longer, till my Lady Pawlet be ready to travel. 

The business at Exeter, however, is not so speedily 
finished as he hopes, and instead of making head- 
quarters about Tiverton, he is doomed to be buried in 
the morasses at Autree for some weeks to come. 



May it please tour Lordship^ i 

I SHALL use the best means I can to get Sir Wil- 
liam Selby a burgess's place here; but I see every man's 
affections are so engaged to their particular relations, as I 
something doubt my own interest here, unless I go a more 
open and public way than is fit in this business ; yet I shall 
omit nothing I can do in it. We lie yet still as we did ; 
but I hope presently we shall do something by way of 
advancing our quarters further west ; but this will be ques- 
tionable if we send more forces eastward, which at the next 
council of war will be determined. There is nothing more 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 259 

that is material to acquaiiit your lordship from these parts. 
I have writ to Major-General Points, humbly desiring your 
lordship to give conveyance to it upon the first opportunity. 
So, humbly desiring your lordship's pardon and blessing, 
I remain 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

AutrCy Nov, 29thy 1645. 

The wet season has set in, and the troops, plunged 
into unwholesome quarters, crowded together, and ill- 
furnished with provisions and accommodations, are dying 
oflF every day. Worse still, Plymouth is threatened, 
and Fairfax, eager to come to its relief, is unable to 
liberate himself or his diminishing army. During this 
dismal suspension of activity, he negociates with the 
Prince of Wales, who answers him, through Lord Capel, 
in a letter which reflects with marvellous fidelity the 
paternal style of mixed cajolery and obstinacy. This 
is the Lord Capel who, in the early days of Parlia- 
mentary grievances, was one of the first to cry out 
against kingly oppression, and who in about three 
years hence will be found " lying shorter by the head " 
at WhitehaU. 



In answer to yours of the 8th of this months his 
Highness hath commanded me to let you know that he did 
not believe that his overture of engaging himself in the 


260 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

mediation of a blessed peace for this miserable kingdom^ 
(which he did^ and does still most earnestly desire to labour 
in) would have brought him an invitation to quit his piety 
and loyalty to his Boyal father by dividing his interest &om 
that of his Majesty^s, whereby he should render himself 
unworthy and uncapable of the fruits of that peace he 
labours for. If his former propositions may be consented 
unto^ he hopes God will so bless his sincere intentions and 
desires^ as to make him a blessed instrument^ to preserve this 
kingdom from desolation^ but if that be rejected he shall give 
the world no cause to believe that he will forfeit that honour 
and integrity which can only preserve him in a capacity 
of doing that service ; and shall^ with patience, attend Grod^s 
good pleasure, until his endeavours may be applied with 
preservation of his innocency. This is all I have in command 
from his Highness, 

Your servant, 

Arthur Capel. 

Exeter, Jkcember Ist, 1645. 

The condition of the men at Autree gets worse and 
worse, and, even if they are ordered to Plymouth, they 
are no longer fit to undertake the service. The sickness 
has penetrated to the General^s quarters. Rushworth 
communicates this disheartening intelligence to Lord 
Fairfax who is now up in London, at his son's house in 
Queen-street, trying to exorcise money out of Parlia- 
ment. He also encloses to his lordship the scented note 
from Lord Capel. 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 261 



May it please your Lordship^ 

Your lordsliip may perceive, by the inclosed, how 
little the Pniice esteems of that dutiful and respective letter 
of the Generates to his Highness. He may now thank him- 
self if his condition proves worse, having refused so fair an 
oflFer. The army is sickly : many die daily : the disease is 
infectious; the quarters bare; and truly, I fear, a great 
mortality will ensue for want of accommodation, to the foot 
especially. Besides Colonel Pickering, there are divers other 
officers dead, and many sick. Three sick in the General^s 
family of this new fever, whereof Mr. Blackboard is one. 
We had been in no condition to move to Plymouth, if the 
Lords had obtained their desires. We have little news. 
The enemy is not only much divided but dispersed ; yet as 
high in their thoughts as they at Oxford are. The General 
hath sent his own regiment of horse towards Oxford, to join 
with Colonel Whaley and Colonel Ireton. Colonel Rains- 
borough's regiment of foot, and Colonel Fleetwood's of horse, 
are marching towards Corfe Castle. Having no more to 
trouble your lordship withal, I rest 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Dec, 3rd, 1645. 

The head quarters is still at Autry. 

The General hath received advertisement Youghall is 
reUeved ; and that Sir Charles Scott and Sir Robert Stewart 

262 MEMORIALS OP [l^^. 

have slain a bishop and 1000 rebels. The General formerly 
sent aU the provisions belonging to this army, and lent 
lOOOZ. of the soldiers' money to the relief of Youghall, so 
fiad were their condition without present relief. When any 
monies come in upon the new ordinance, it will be requisite 
to move for the repayment of their 1000/. 

At last Fairfax, having concluded his works, and 
hearing that the Prince, whose army is wasting away 
as fast as his own, has sent out to gather troops from 
Dartmouth and Barnstaple and other places, resolves 
to break away from the infectious marsh of Autree, 
and orders several regiments across the river into better 
air at Crediton, where they meditate an attempt on a 
royalist garrison at Poldram House. He is assisted 
in his councils by Cromwell, fresh from the sieges of 
Basing and Langford Houses, and the intrepid Sir 
Hardress Waller, who shows evidence of perilous service 
in a wounded arm. They are here collecting their 
brigades, whose " hum of preparation " may be heard 
at the enemy's out-posts ; and the watch-fires at night, 
casting their broad glare into the waters of the Exe, 
give intimation to the curious eyes of sentinels on the 
ramparts that the Parliamentarians are once more about 
to take the field. Fairfax, redeemed from miserable 
Autree, is again restored to his proper element. His 
activity is incessant. He has transferred his head- 
quarters to Tiverton, scared the enemy out of Kirton, 
and still holds Exeter in a state of siege. 

1645.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 263 



May it please your Lordship^ 

Since yesterday that I writ to Sir Thomas Wid- 
drington, nothing of note hath happened^ only intelligence of 
the enemy's distraction ; besides a message from my Lord 
Newport of the intention to send the Prince beyond sea to 
Holland^ and of the Holland ships there attending. Upon our 
advance to Kirton, the enemy is gone from Newton Bushell 
in great disorder. I shall suddenly give your lordship a 
further account ; Mr. Blackbeard lieth speechless, and doubt 
he will not recover ; more fallen sick. 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

J. R. 

Tivertmiy Ikcemher lO</i, 1645. 


May IT PLEASE YOUR Lordship, 

This day the General is gone to Eirton, to see the 
making that place a strong quarter, and to give orders about 
a design, within these two nights to be put in execution, in 
the taking in of a place of strength the enemy is fortifying 
upon the river. I hope there shall, within few days, be no 
manner of access into the town with permission. My Lord 
Goring continues still at Dartmouth. As soon as this place 
is taken (Poldram Castle), we shall annoy the enemy in the 
South-Hams, and give them little rest ; I hope, enforce them 

264 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

into Cornwall. We have little news else^ in these parts^ 
worth your lordship's knowledge. I remain^ 

Your lordship's most faithful and humble servant^ 

J. Bush WORTH. 

Ti/verUm, Dec. 12, 1645. 

The troops are in motion about Crediton, and have 
attempted Poldram House, and been feirly beaten back, 
when Fairfax writes again to his father. 


May it please your Lordship, 

I SHOULD give you oftener account £rom these parts 
but that I know you have it every week by other relations. 
The other day we sent a party over the river Ex, to possess 
Poldram House ; but being prepossessed by the enemy, and 
the party not sufficient to storm it, our men took a church, 
half a mile nearer Exeter, &om whence th^ enemy sallied out 
that night with 500 musketeers, and assaulted our men in 
the church. They disputed the business for three hours very 
hotly; the enemy came up close to the windows with halberts, 
and threw in fifteen grenades, but, by the goodness of God, 
our men forced them to retreat, leaving two men slain behind 
them, many others wounded. We, finding the place more 
dangerous than useful, quit it again. The extreme coldness 
of the weather, and want of clothes, makes us act slower. 
This day a small party of ours from Crediton fell into an out- 
quarter of the enemy, and took a captain of horse and about 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 265 

ten troopers prisoners. They consume away very fast, and I 
hear they have not 100 men in some regiments. There is an 
infectious fever in our quarters^ but the countrymen rather 
than soldiers die of it. This season is so ill for travellings as 
my wife cannot yet conveniently take her journey up to 
London ; and the rather because my quarters all this time are 
so settled as there is no trouble to her or me in her stay. 
So, desiring your lordship^s blessing, I remain, 

Your most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Therton, Dec. 19, 1645. 

The banks of the river bristle over vrith Uttle garri- 
sons, and we hear of surprises, and assaults, and deserters 
coming in vrith intelligence, every hour in the day. 
Exeter is clearly reduced to extremity for want of pro- 
visions, and her last hope hes in the long-expected 
reinforcements. The progress of affairs is graphically 
sketched in a couple of letters from the indefatigable 
Mr. Rushworth. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Since the time the enemy was so well beaten off at 
the church, they durst not reattempt it, a thing we desired 
they would engage in, with two pieces of ordnance they had 
drawn out, for then two regiments more being come up to 
Whetstone, midway between Crediton and Exeter, to those 
three already with Sir Hard. Waller, we had got between 

266 MEMORIALS OP [1645. 

them and home^ which they perceivings made a stand two 
days together^ the weather not admitting ns to be long on 
duty in expectation thereof; no accommodations thereabouts 
for our men. The generals caused the foot in the church to 
be drawn off over the water^ Thursday at noon; they in the 
castle never offered to interrupt their passage. If we had 
had any garrison on the other side near the churchy or could 
with an ordinary party sent from Crediton to relieve them, 
we had not quit the church, being useful as to the river 
opposite to our garrison at Nutwell, as the two blockhouses 
at Gravesend; but having twelve boats, four manned with 
ordnance, the river is suf&ciently interrupted, few passing by, 
or none in boats. Colonel Okey, from Fulford House, fell 
on their quarter, and took a captain of horse and twelve 
prisoners, A captain of horse (one Captain Bell) is come in, 
and thirty horse with him. This being all I have to present 
unto your lordship, I take my leave, and rest 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 

J. Bush WORTH. 

Tivertm, Btc. 20«^ 1645. 



The enemy yesterday morning, about two of the 
clock, assaulted our men in Mr. Davy's house at Crediton, 
after they had been about six hours in the house ; but other 
men had so barricaded the ways, and cast up breastworks, 
that they beat off the enemy, killed a lieutenant-colonel and 
many others, and took many prisoners, which they are now 

1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 267 

bringing to the head-quarter; this service was performed by 
one of Colonel Okey's dragoon captains^ which he sent from 
Pulford House. Sir Hardress Waller no sooner heard of the 
engagement, but he sent 1000 foot from Crediton to their 
relief, but, blessed be God ! they had relieved themselves ; 
this morning two regiments of horse ordnance, after those 
foot, to reside on the other side, to countenance the fortifying 
of those two garrisons of Fulford and Teene, and settling 
some others in a line, though all at a distance ; for if we stop 
the Southams for sending provisions, Exeter is quite debarred 
of all succour. The general had it late last night in debate 
of sending another regiment of foot to Corfe Castle, in lieu of 
that which is called away ; but in regard the enemy is pre- 
paring to relieve Exeter, with droves of cattle and sheep, &c., 
there is like to be need of the greatest part of our army for 
their resistance. Inhabitants come forth daily to us, their 
store of provisions being spent, and wanting fire ; and many 
are not able to pay the billet of seven, ten, or twelve soldiers 
on a poor family — all sixpence a man. Very suddenly we 
shall be round them; but we can do it all once. This being 
all I have to present unto your lordship, I rest, 

Your lordship^s most faithful servant, 

J. Bush WORTH. 

TifferUmy Saturday, Dec. 2Sd, 1645. 

Last night there came four troopers, well mounted, from 
the enemy; they came from Totness, and affirm the Ply- 
mouth horse beat up the enemy^s quarters, isome twelve mUes 
from Plymouth, forced the enemy to fly to their works, and 
took several prisoners. 

I have not writ to Mr. Speaker or Mr. Prideaux : your 
lordship will be pleased to communicate unto them. 

268 MEMORIALS OF [1645. 

The reinforcements for beleaguered Exeter are at last 
on the march. A formidable body of eight or nine thou- 
sand horse and foot are gathering about Tavistock and 
Oakhampton ; but Fairfax has early intelligence, and has 
already determined upon his fixture movements. 


Bight Honourable, 

There will be no want in the General effectually to 
endeavour that for Sir William Selby. Where engagements 
are already made by others for choice of others named, it will 
be difficult to put them by. But if your lordship please to 
move the House, or get some to do it, that the writs for 
Tiverton may be sent down, no place so likely to have a 
burgesship obtained for Sir William Selby as here, the 
General being present. If your lordship please to move Mr. 
Prideaux herein, he can hasten the writs, or take off what is 
the removal if your lordship please to advise with Sir Thomas 
Widdrington herein. The enemy find themselves injured 
that Exeter is so blocked up, that without an army they can- 
not considerably reUeve it ; so now they are drawing into a 
body, horse and foot, all Oakhampton, and out of Cornwall, 
so that we are like suddenly to have some engagement on 
that side of Exeter. We keep three houses and Crediton 

They are well at Plymouth. The enemy endeavoured to 
tempt the governor, but fruitlessly. The man was hanged 

* Difficulty, or impediment. 


1645.] THE CIVIL WAR. 269 

on Saturday. This is all I have worth your lordship's 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 


7%verton>f ScUwday, Dec. 27 th, 1645. 

This brings us to the close of 1645. The weather is 
intensely cold, and the ground is covered with snow. 
The scene round Exeter presents a dreary spectacle in 
these shivering December nights. Fairfax is moving 
away his heavy guns over the deep roads by slow and 
difficult marches, and his troops, falling in from post to 
post, are forming into companies, and departing in 
different and rather perplexing directions. The camp 
is broken up, and Exeter relieved for the present. 

The year has been a most prosperous one for the 
Parliament. The King, notwithstanding the multitu- 
dinous gatherings of Grorings and Grenvilles about 
Oakhampton, the recruiting in Wales, and the shouts of 
the Montroses over the Border, is in an extremity out 
of which the kinghest optimism can discern no present 
means of deUverance. After the battle of Naseby, 
escaping as he could into Wales, he collected a new 
army, and reappeared in England, not clear as to his 
destination, but hoping to get up into the North, (his 
only chance), and effect a junction with Montrose. In 
this design he was frustrated, and driven back south- 
wards. Stumbhng upon Huntingdon in his ffight, he 
miraculously beat a foot-company on a drawbridge, and 

270 MEMORIALS OP [1645. 

took possession of the town. Encouraged by this piece 
of good fortune, his Majesty turned towards Chester, 
met the Parliamentarians at Rowton Heath, and had his 
Huntingdon laurels blown into the air. This annihila- 
tion of his Welsh legions was, comparatively, a trivial 
misfortune to that which had befallen him only eleven 
days before in Scotland, where he had garnered up his 
last hopes. Montrose's army had been Uterally exter- 
minated at PhiKphaugh, more papers were taken reveal- 
ing secret plots, and Montrose himself was forced to 
take refage in the Highlands. All was over in the 
North. Again his Majesty, but with greater difficulty 
than before, fled into Wales, and, raising fresh levies, 
returned and took up his quarters at Newark, from 
whence he precipitately withdrew to Oxford^ hearing 
that the Parliamentarians were shattering Shelford 
Manor about the ears of Lord Chesterfield. 

While the war is yet moving darkly in the West, his 
Majesty is wintering in Oxford, and opening negocia- 
tions for a treaty of peace with Parhament. Had he 
acted in this crisis with faith and sincerity all might yet 
have been well. But even in his agony of fear the 
Stuart equivocates. 










The inclemency of the season prevented Fairfax from 
advancing with his usual speed. His design was to 
march upon Dartmouth, the present head-quarters of 
the Prince ; and, to divert attention from his real pur- 
pose, he sent Sir Hardress Waller with a detachment to 
Bow, a feint to bewilder the Royalists at Oakhampton. 
In the beginning of January we find him still at 
Tiverton, occupied, amongst other matters, with the 
approaching election. Parliament were issuing writs to 
supply the room of members who had been formally 
disabled by their adherence to the King's cause. There 
was a heavy batch of vacancies occasioned in this way, 
and Faufax was using his influence to secure the return 
of Sir William Selby for Tiverton. 



Mat it please youb Lordship, 

I WRIT by the last post about the getting writs 
issued for Tiverton^ (the only place the General can think of), 
to beMend Sir W. Selby. I have writ by this post to Sir 


274 MEMOBIALS OF [1646. 

T. Widdrington to that purpose. The Prince is come to 
Dartmouth : hath sent to Exeter for his arms. The Cor- 
nish at Totness^ they come and go, so as we are uncertain of 
their strength. The weather will not admit of a march^ 
especially with horse : when they rendezvous, we shall do 
the like, or before, as intelligence is. At Dunster, Colonel 
Blake^s mines take no effect. The work is like to be long 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 


Tipton, /anuary 3r(i, 1545, IN, S. J646]. 

On the 8th of January, Cromwell advanced by night 
to Crediton, and surprised Lord Wentworth's brigade at 
Bovey Tracy; and on the 10th, Sir Thomas Fairfax 
reached Ashburton, being now on the high road to 



May it please your Lobdshif^ 

I WRIT the last week to you of my intention to 
place Colonel Thornton in Pontefract, holding myself noways 
engaged to any other to favour them in that particular^ 
though other way I would do Major Rookby what good 
office I can. Our business here (God be thanked) goes on 
very prosperously. We advanced with the army into the 
south side of Devonshire, where the enemy lay so secure, as 
Lieutenant-General Cromwell, with some horse and two 
regiments of foot marched to a town where the enemy bad a 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 275 

guard of three regiments of horse; he was in upon them 
before he was discovered ; it being night, the men got away, 
unless a very few ; but above 400 horse and seven colours 
were taken. The next day we went to their head-quarter at 
Ashburton^ which was gone a little before our coming thither. 
We sent a party after their rear, which brought us in some 
prisoners, and hastened their retreat, with much confusion, 
towards Cornwall. There is so great a fear, through the 
hand of God, upon them, as three of onr men did chase a 
hundred of them. We shall pursue (God willing) our advan- 
tage so soon as this sharp season wiU permit. Without 
prejudicing the army too much, I staid one day behind the 
army, to see my wife : a little better before I left her : (whom 
I thank God) I left in a good way of recovery. I shall 
trouble your lordship with no more ; now humbly take leave, 
to rest 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Ashhuaion, Jcmuary lOth, 1645, [iV. S, 1646]. 

The Ashburton retreat had a more important result 
than is attached to it in this letter. The Royalists, 
apprehending that the whole of Fairfax's army was 
upon them, abandoned the siege of Plymouth, and 
leaving their posts undemolished, and their ordnance 
and ammunition behind, fled in confusion over the 
Tamar into Cornwall. 

The next letter, three days' later, is dated from 


276 MEMORIALS OF [16*6. 


Mat it please touk Lordship, 

This day intelligence is come, that the enemy hath 
raised the siege at Plymouth — in haste — left behind him 
seven piece of ordnance and four barrels of powder. A great 
fear is upon the enemy. We are now before Dartmouth, 
and purpose to attempt something this night by storm. 

I am your lordship^s humble servant, 


TotTiesSj Ja/n/uary IZthf at noon, 1645, [N.S. 1646.] 

The weather changed, and the storming was put 
off ; and in the interval Fairfax dispatched orders for 
Captain Batten to bring up his squadron to support the 
operations from the sea. On the 18th the town was 
stormed, and taken with such extraordinary rapidity 
that the assailants got possession of the enemy's cannon 
after the first discharge. 


My liORB^ 

The business of Dartmouth hath required much 
consideration : 150 piece of ordnance in it. Captain Batten 
is come in with a squadron of ships^ who is to act his part 
by water, while we do it by land. The sudden thaw hath a 
little deferred the business; before this come to your hands^ 
it will over. This day the General goes to set every man 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 277 

his post. I hope in the Lord, we shall cany it. I was 
never more assured of a place. Intelligence is come the 
enemy hath quit Tavistock, and is gone into Cornwall. We 
shall (as soon as this business of Dartmouth is over) do more 
service westward. We have good news of your Cornish part 
of the army that lies to the north ; have taken eighty horse, 
two colonels, and thirty prisoners, and brought them in yes- 
terday to Crediton : have taken, besides those, about 200 
horse in several parties. Lieutenant-General Porter is come 
in ; very speedily your lordship shall hear further from 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

Tatneaa^ Jcmmry 16, 1646, [N.S, 1646.] 

My Lord Newport is in Dartmouth, and would fain come 
out. Yesterday we killed the Governor Lieutenant-Colonel 
on a wager between two red coats that took aim. 

Since the writing hereof, the intelligence is, the enemy 
left 200 arms in Sir Francis Drake's house, and the Cornish 
will not permit Goring's horse into their county; that they 
intend to break through, and are gone towards Torrington. 
The General hath sent horse to watch their motions, and 
sent to Colonel Whaley to draw to Beading to be in readiness. 


Mt it please tour Lordship, 

As soon as we were masters of the town, I sent a 
letter to your lordship in the express to your house. The 
two forts are since surrendered, and Mr. Peters, this bearer, 
can relate all the particulars. It is one of the greatest 

278 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

businesses the General hath yet done — ^to God be the gloiy. 
I take my leave, and remain 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 


Dartnumth, January 20th, 1645, [iV. S, 646.] 

This " Mr. Peters/' the bearer, was the famous Hugh 
Peters, who attended the army on some of these occa- 
sions in a half-military, half-clerical capacity, fighting, 
preaching, and carrying dispatches by turns. In some 
of the Biographies he is said to have borne a Coloners 
commission, but that is not true : he officiated as chap- 
lain to the Train-bands, and sometimes as secretary to 
Cromwell, who made effective use of his wild eloquence 
and fanatical devotion in stimulating the religious fervour 
of the troops. That Peters often threw himself into the 
thick of the danger may be seen firom the minute eye- 
witness narratives he gave to the Commons of the 
sacking of Winchester and Basing House — very curious 
specimens of the earnest character of the man and the 
times. He was not the only priest who mixed personally 
in these scenes. The Archbishop of York took an active 
part before Conway, and was woimded in the neck. 
Peters was more lucky, and escaped without a scratch. 
It might have been better otherwise. He survived in a 
whole skin till the Restoration, when he was executed 
with Jones, Harrison, and the rest. Of his life and 
manners we have a deplorable account from the Royalists, 
who tell us that he was originally expelled from col- 
lege, that he then went upon the stage, where he 

1646]. THE CIVIL WAR. 279 

acquired that peculiar extravagance of action and 
gesticulation alluded to by Burnet who called him an 
" enthusiastic buffoon/^ that he fled to Holland on a 
charge of adultery, and was suspected of being of one 
of the men in masks who executed the King. Peters 
denied the charges, especially the last, which was cer- 
tainly false. Whatever eccentricities or vices he 
may have been guilty of, he was a conspicuous type of 
Puritan frenzy, and appears to have been thoroughly 
sincere in all the excesses to which it committed him. 
In the following letters to Fairfax, he speaks out of the 
fullness of convictions not to be hghtly set aside by 
modem scepticism. 




One of the greatest comforts I have had in this 
world, next to the grace of God in Christ, to my poor soul, 
hath been to be a member of your army, and a spectator of 
His presence with you and it. What others do, I know not ; 
but it is my duty to return to my work, and to meet you 
again ; which I am bold to do with this simple present. I 
know your mind, that must not, will not, be flattered ; nor 
am I skilful in that mystery. I have seen you upon earth, 
and doubt not to meet you triumphing in heaven. I only 
must crave leave to speak your own words. That your great 
experiences of God's power and mercy, have made strong 
obligation upon you to love Him and the saints, which I 
have seen you do impartially ; you have made it your 

280 MEMORIALS OF C16i«« 

interest^ and now find you are not deceived. The God of all 
your unparalleled mercy dwell in that thriving soul of yours, 
strengthen you throughout to the completing of this great 
work, yea, 

Serus in coelum redeas, diuque 
Lsetus intersis populo Britazmo. 

For myself (if it be worth your acceptance), I am resolved 
to live and die in your and the kingdom^s service ; and as you 
have obliged three kingdoms to you and many thousands of 
saints, so none of them more to honour you than. 

Your ever fisdthfcd servant in Christ, 

Hugh Peters. 

The writer of the next letter is the General Leslie 
who shattered Montrose at Philiphaugh, and who after- 
wards stood out so lustily for the Kirk in Scotland. 



Bight Honourable, 

My best affection of love with my humblest respects 
remembered. I thought it my incumbent duty to let you 
have a copy of the letter sent by me unto the Governor of 
Carlisle, together with the answer thereof, both of which you 
will receive herein inclosed, whereby I conceive that the 
town is able to hold out two months yet, if not more. 

I am bold in behalf of this gentleman, the bearer hereof, 
to be your humble suitor that your honour would be pleased 
to be assistant unto him in taking up and getting in of some 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 281 

old debts and monies resting unto him within the county of 
Yorkshire; as likewise that my lord would be pleased (as I 
desired in my last to his lordship) to grant me a pass for 
Colonel Attkins^ which I did promise unto him at the sur- 
render of Naward Castle. Thus hoping for a good answer 
and favourable construction^ I remain 

Your honour^s most humble servant^ 

David Leslie. 

Daatm ffaU, ihe 17 th Jcmiary, 1645, [iV. S, 1646.] 

Having secured Dartmouth, Sir Thomas Fairfax fell 
back upon Exeter. Poldram Castle surrenders at last ; 
but floods and rains delay the larger operations. Lord 
Hopton in the meanwhile has been appointed to the 
command in Cornwall, superseding Goring, who has 
been sent oft on secret negociations to France. 



Bight honourable^ 

The General^s head-quarter is at Chudley; most 
of his forces close before Exeter. Yesterday Poldram 
Castle, that commands the river, was surrendered to Colonel 
Hammond, when he was ready to storm ; another out-garrison 
they quit. There are good hopes in a short time to get 
Exeter ; the enemy in Cornwall stirs not, though Hopton is 
General, and Greenvile committed to Pendennis. I have 
sent to Mr. Speaker letters intercepted, but most in figures ; 
yet the scope of the business may be easily discerned. This 
being all I have to present unto your lordship, I remain 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

J. Bushwobth. 

Ckudleighy Jamta/ry 26^, 12 (U night. 

282 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 



May it please your Lordship^ 

I MET your letter at Tiverton, being come thitlier 
for two or three days to see my wife, whom I found in a 
very good way of recovery, (God be thanked). So soon as 
she is fit for a journey, intends for London. We both 
acknowledge, with humble thanks, your lordship's great 
favour and care of her. I have lately summoned Exeter, 
but had a modest denial : the particulars I have sent up to 
the Parliament. We intend to block it up closer, and march, 
with the rest of the army further west. I must acknowledge 
the Parliament's liberality ; and humbly desire your lordship 
to let me know if anything more be expected firom me in 
expressing it. I have writ to Mr, Whit about horses, desir- 
ing two of them may be well matched. We have inter- 
cepted letters coming lately out of France, from the Queen 
and other, desiring the Prince may be sent thither; but the 
King inclines rather to send him into Denmark. They 
have little hope of forces from Prance. I hope in a few- 
days we shall be in motion again with the army. I have 
sent for Major-General Skippon's regiment, from Bristol, 
and the regiment from Corfe Castle. Without the addition 
of those forces we shall not be able to carry on the business 
of the West with that expedition we desire. So humbly 
desiring your lordship's blessing, I remain 

Your most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Tivertm, Jan. ZUt^ 1645, [N. S, 1646.] 

1W6.] THE CIVIL WAR. 283 


Bight Honourable, 

The constant rain hath much hindered our pro- 
ceedings about Exeter. Floods are great. This day a 
council of war will confirm or alter former resolutions. 
Speedily your lordship will hear more. I believe we shall 
leave enough to do the work about Exeter, and advance to 
break the enemy totally in the field. The horse that intended 
East went to Dunster, whilst Colonel Cook was drawn off to 
oppose the Oxford horse in Dorsetshire. Colonel Blake's 
men took fifty of them, yet some relief, we conceive, they got 
in ; but that, as yet, is not certain. My lady is well. Very 
speedily your lordship shall hear more from your 

Most humble servant, 


Ckudleigh, Feb, 7th, 1645, [iV. S. 1646.] 

As Rushworth anticipated, it was determined to leave 
a sufficient force to carry on the siege at Exeter, and to 
advance with the main body of the army against Lord 
Hopton, who was collecting his forces near Torrington. 
Sir Hardress Waller was charged with the command at 
Exeter, and Fairfax advanced towards Torrington in 


Mat it please your Lordship, 

I RECEIVED yesterday, a letter from Mr. Pym, a 
member of the House, but now in Somersetshire, that he hath 

284 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

procured my brother Selby a burgesship at Ilchester, in the 
foresaid county, being effectually solicited by Mr. Pridieux 
to do it ; it is come very clear to him; the other burgess is Mr. 
Alex. Pym. We have blocked Exeter in straiter than it was, 
and with the rest of the army are upon our march towards the 
enemy, which lies about Torrington, and the frontiers of 
Cornwall ; if we go into that county (as probably we shall), 
I fear nothing but the soldiers' want of money to pay their 
quarters. Good carriage towards them being the best way to 
gain them, desire the Parliament would be pleased to con- 
sider how to supply the army timely with money, as of great 
importance to the carrying on well the affairs there. Some- 
thing your lordship will hear shortly of this motion. I hope 
good our trust is in God, who is a sure rock of defence in 
stormy times. I shall trouble your lordship with nothing 
more at this time, but humbly desiring your blessing, remain, 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Orediton, IZth February, 1645, [/S. i^.l646.] 

I hope my wife will be fit, so soon as the season, for her 
journey up to London. 

On the 1 6th, an engagement took place at Torring- 
ton, when Lord Hopton was defeated and driven back 
into Cornwall, Fairfax following with the whole of 
his army. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 285 


Mat it please your Lobdship^ 

I SHALL not need to give your lordsliip the parti- 
culars of the good success God hath given us at Torrington^ 
against the Lord Hopton^ for the letters to the Parliament 
will fully relate it ; it was as hot service as any hath been since 
our coming forth ; the enemy showed more resolution than 
ever ; I saw them after we were come into the town, — ^their 
magazine, which lay in the church, which was almost eighty 
barrels of powder, took fire, and blew up all the church ; 
timber, stones, and sheets of lead, showering down as hail on 
all parts of the town. I believe there were 200 of the enemy 
prisoners, and some of our own men blown up, and buried 
in the ruins of the church. I must acknowledge God's great 
mercy to me, and some others that stood where great webs of 
lead fell thickest, yet, praised be God, no man hurt ; only a 
horse of a gentleman of the Life Guard, that stood by me, 
killed. I could not but mention this as one of the strange 
accidents that I have seen, and as great a providence in pre- 
servation of some. Those horse are all gone into Cornwall, 
whither we shall presently follow them. I shall give your 
lordship a further account of things here as there is occasion, 
so humbly desiring your blessing, remain. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Torrmgtoriy 18tfe February, 1645, [iV. S, 1646.] 

Since the writing of this, I understand the man that gave 
fire to the powder, did confess that Lord Hopton did promise 
him thirty pounds to do it. I sent to examine him further, 
but he was senseless with the bruises he got. 

286 MEMORIALS OF 1646. 



Bight Honourable, 

Yesterday was the great debate at a full cotincil 
of war coneeming the armies marching into Cornwall ; and 
it was concluded in the affirmative, nemine contradicente. 
I hope it will be as happy an expedition as ever we made 
yet. We leave both Exeter and Barnstable blocked up. All 
the enemy's force are on the other side the river in Cornwall : 
most of it twenty miles in the county. Our wounded men 
recover apace. The General's greatest trouble is, how to 
order the army so, as not to be harsh to the Cornish, who 
were so harsh to our men formerly. Hopton hath not yet 
rallied 300 foot. I humbly take my leave, and rest 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 


Torrvngton, Feb. 23re?, 1645, [iV. S. 1646.] 

The Prince of Wales, who was sheltering in Cornwall, 
now gave up the struggle in despair, and fled to Scilly. 
Fresh proofs of the faithlessness of the King fell into 
Fairfax's hands at this time in letters which were taken 
from an Irish vessel, and which showed that while his 
Majesty was urging upon Parliament a treaty, he was 
privately intriguing through numerous agents for the 
assistance of foreign troops and loans of money. These 
frequent discoveries of royal insincerity determined 
Fairfax to lose no time in parleying with Hopton. The 
passes of the country were in his hands, from the north 
to the south sea ; his troops were already in the suburbs 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 287 

of Truro, where the enemy lay ; but he wisely preferred 
the dissolution of the Royalist army to a needless 
expenditure of blood. Hopton, a gallant and honoura- 
ble man, stood out as long as he could, submitting only 
at the last extremity to a treaty, under the provisions 
of which his 4500 mounted soldiers were disbanded 
before his eyes, and 2000 stand of arms placed at the 
disposal of the Parliamentary General. 



Eight Honourable, 

This is the third to your lordship since the treaty 
with Hopton; it is now concluded; hostages given. To- 
morrow^ at eight o^clock, they begin to be disbanded. There 
is no fear but conditions will be punctually observed on our 
part, and no article violated. 120 musketeers, with their 
colours, came in to-day. The Governor of St. Mawe's Castle, 
which commands the haven of Falmouth, more than Penden- 
nis doth, hath sent to surrender. The General hath sent, 
this night, to possess it. God is good to us. I doubt not of 
Pendennis, after a few days. I am 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 


TrurOf March IZtky W ca nighty [N, S. 1646.] 

The commanders on both sides (now that the treaty is 
ended) supped this night with the General. 

288 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 


May it please your Lobdship, 

Through Grod^s goodness^ we have almost put a 
period to the Western war, there remaining now no body of 
an army in the field against us. Being advanced as far as 
Truro, we had the enemy in an isthmus of land, where they 
could not escape us. Yet, upon serious consideration, find- 
ing dissolving them by treaty would be as efiectual as a'ly 
other way and less hazardous, we concluded these articles 
I have sent the ParUament, which I hope will be very con- 
siderable to our aflTairs, seeing they are so totally reduced 
and denuded. I hope the rest of the towns will come in in 
good season. The breaking of these forces thus, we esteem 
a great mercy, considering they had 4500 horse, and that we 
must have been put to many straits and some hazard, if we 
had fought with them. I trust God hath directed this for 
the best. I have not time to enlarge myself further; so 
humbly desiring your lordship's pardon and blessing, I 

Your lordship's most obedient and afiectionate son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Trwroy March 16<A, 1645, [iV. 8, 1646.] 

The Royalists being thus broken up in Cornwall, 
Fairfax returned to Exeter, which surrendered on the 
9th of April. Barnstaple, to which allusion is made in 
these letters, submitted three days afterwards. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 289 



May it please youb Lordship, 

Yesterday the General drew his army round 
Exeter, faced it within musket shot, sent a summons ; an 
answer of inclination to a treaty returned. This day the 
offer to treat was manifested by sending the names of 
committee. Being ten in number, the General hath sent to 
reduce them to six. On Friday the treaty begins. By what 
I observe, a few days will bring us into Exeter, and Barn- 
staple is an incident inseparable to Exeter. It yields with 
Exeter; that we had acknowledged of in Cornwall, and 
therefore came to Exeter first. This is all I have at present 
to acquaint your lordship with. I humbly take my leave, 
and remain, 

Your lordship's humble servant, 


Bef&re Exeter ^ April Ist , 1646. 


May IT PLEASE YOUB Lordship, 

This day a treaty is begun for surrendering of 
Exeter, which I hope will be concluded, and we in possession 
of before you receive this ; which, if it please God to effect, 
we shall in a few days march the whole army eastward. 
I have already sent Commissary-General Ireton, with three 
regiments of horse and one of dragoons, towards Oxford, to 
join with the rest there. Pendennis and the Mount will be 
so easy work, as the forces we have raised in these parts will, 

VOL. I. u 

290 MEMOEIALS OF [1646. 

I trust, be sufficient to cany it on. I hear not yet of any 
election to be made for burgess ; but I shall leave it as a 
request with the western gentlemen, that they will procure 
two that shall be named places there. I desire your lord- 
ship's pardon that I writ so short and so seldom ; indeed my 
indisposition of health is often as much the cause of it as 
any business ; but I desire to be thankful for the mercies 
I have received, and hope the Lord will continue them to 
me. I shall now trouble you no more, but shall shortly 
give your lordship a fuller account, so humbly desire your 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

CuUum John, April ith, 1 646. 



May it please your Lordship, 

This day the treaty is concluded, and we are pre- 
sently to have the castle and forts delivered up to us, and 
the town on Monday next ; for performance of it we have 
Colonel Coventry and Colonel Philpots, and two more as 
hostages. I am going to Barnstable, which, I have good hopes, 
will come in on a summons. Then the western war, I trust 
in the Lord, is finished. Pendennis and the Mount, though 
they yet hold out a while, can do no hurt. The other day, a 
mayor, with a captain and thirty soldiers, came out of Pen- 
dennis, and first sent to Colonel Hammond, who commands 
our forces there, that they would deliver up the works they 
were in unto him, if he would send some men to possess it; 
but not willing to trust them, they only came away them- 


1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 291 

selves. Colonel Hammond sent a party of horse to Market 
Jew, a town near the Mount, who happily surprised sixty 
soldiers, being almost all they had in the castle, for they 
were not above one hundred. 

I have writ to the Parliament, to desire the government of 
Exeter may be conferred on Colonel Hammond, who is a very 
faithful and vaUiant gentleman; and that which will most 
advantage the Parliament affairs is, that he wiU be strict in 
discipline, and ready to do right to the country. A more 
particular account will be sent very speedily to the House of 
the surrender of Exeter ; and, I hope, Barnstable too. I hope, 
before the last of this month, we shall be near Oxford. I 
shall now take leave to desire your prayers, and rest 

Your most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Tiverton, April 9th, 1646. 


Bight Honourable, 

Monday, (according to articles). Sir Jo. Berkley 
marched out; and the General entered Exeter, Tuesday. 
The town and castle of Barnstable were punctually sur- 
rendered, according to articles. To-morrow, the General 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 


Exeter, April I6th, 1646. 

Donnington Castle, hallowed in earlier times as the 

residence of Spenser, and much talked about in these 

latter days as the stumbling-point which brought 


292 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 

reluctant Manchester into immediate collision ^th 
Cromwell, had surrendered on the 1st, so that there 
being no new castles or towns to sack in this part of 
the country, the victorious general directed his steps 
to Oxford ; from whence we have some letters, in one 
of which Sir Thomas Fairfax gives the substance of 
the King's last communication to Parliament ; and 
in another, notwithstanding his experience of royal 
duplicity, shows a disposition to think these people 
sincere at last ! 


Bight Honourable, 

Thebe is little news. As yet, we are making 
bridges and entrencldng. The General is very weU, after a 
fit of the stone. There is a quarter reserved for your lord- 
ship and Sir Thomas Widdrington^ at Garsington. I humbly 
take my leave^ and remain 

Your lordship's humble servant, 


Ltcbgv^T htfore Oxfordy May bihy 1646. 


In answer to the general summons there was returned 
from Sir Tho. Olenham : — 


I have received your letter summoning me to 
render this city, which was given me in trust for his Majesty's 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAB. 293 

use. But in respect there are many persons of great 
eminence^ I must desire you to receive for answer a request 
that you will be pleased to send a safe conduct for Sir Jo. 
Monson and Mr. Philip Warwick to repair unto you, at 
such a time and place as you shall appoint, by whom you 
shall understand what for the present is desired. By this 
answer, and some other circumstances I could tell you, it is 
conceived they are determined to treat. This is all at 

May "Wihf eleven o'clock at night, 

I received your letter by Mr. Curtis, since the sealing 



May it please youb Lobdshif, 

I HAVE nothing to inform you from hence, we 
being but in preparation either for treating or working. 
I hear the substance of his Majesty^s letter was this : — ^That 
he was sorry so much blood was shed by these wars, which 
he imputed to his ill counsel that led him to these ill actions ; 
that if the Parliament would send the propositions entered 
on at Uxbridge, he will sign them ; if not, to send such 
propositions as are ready, and he wiU sign them, and the rest 
as they shall offer them to him. For Religion, he desires it 
may be settled with all convenient speed ; and for his person, 
that both Houses would dispose of him as may be most for 
his honour and for the honour of both Houses; and for 
Oxford, he had sent a warrant enclosed to the governor 

294 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

thereof^ for to surrender upon honourable terms. This is 
all I have to present your lordship with ; but the humble 
duty of. 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

May 26«A, 1646. 



May IT PLEASE YOUB Lordship, 

Our treaty doth still continue. All things are 
agreed on concerning the soldiers, and they are satisfied 
with it. The article that took up the greatest debate was 
about compositions. We have accepted of two years' 
revenue ; so that is concluded to. "We think Monday will 
conclude all the rest. I think they do really desire to 
conclude with us. I thank your lordship for your care of 
me j but I doubt I shall not have time enough, so long as I 
am in this employment, to follow such a course as will help 
me. I believe Bushforth will give your lordship a further 
account of things from London. My wife presents her 
humble service and duty to your lordship ; she is not quite 
resolved for a journey to Bath. I have nothing more to 
trouble your lordship with at this time : desiring your 
blessing, remain^ 

Your lordship's most. obedient son, 

t T. Fairfax. 

Jwne l^tJi, 1646. 

On the same day, Rush worth writes about the 
London news. He has literally nothing to relate, 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 295 

except that Hudson is taken in Kent. A dead lull has 
set in everywhere; and the War Secretary, "instead 
of mounting barWd steeds/' is house-agenting for his 



BiOHT Honourable^ 

I AM loth to omit any opportunity of giving your 
lordship notice of affairs here. The treaty is in a manner 
concluded^ for all matters of difficulty are over. The point of 
sequestration is reconciled; they agree to pay two years 
revenue. Hudson^ that went away with the king, is taken 
in Kent, He confesses freely, of which your lordship will 
hear more shortly. The House of Commons is preparing a 
letter to the Parliament of Scotland ; setting forth our 
jealousy of their army, and that to march home speedily, and 
deliver our garrisons, will he a means to set them right in 
our opinion. There is little news else : all are well here : 
though they he divided at London, we are united in the army. 
The French ambassador was this dav to be heard in the House 
of Commons. The general has written again to the House 
about the disbanding of Major-General Massey^s horse ; there 
can none pass them ; the messengers I send to your lordship 
I pay here out of the pubUc stock, so they ought to receive 
nothing from your lordship. There is a house at Charing 
Cross, next door to my Lady Fairfaxes, to be let about a 
month hence. It is, as I hear, about forty pounds a-year ; 
hath a back door into Spring Garden, and a most convenient 

296 MBM0EIAL8 OP [1646. 

house ; most of the goods in it are to be sold. I desire your 
lordship's present answer herein. 

Jwne l^thf 1646. 

Ten o'clock at night, your company are newly come in, and 
say at next meeting all will be finished. About Thursday or 
Friday they will march out of Oxford. 

A twelvemonth had elapsed since the new army had 
taken the field. A year of miracles ! In the interral, 
the King's power had crumbled into dust. Fairfax had 
swept down his garrisons, and driven some of his 
choicest commanders, with the Prince of Wales at their 
head, out of the kingdom. The sound of the recruiting 
fife was heard no more in Wales ; Scotland had expelled 
Montrose, and hanged such of his powerful fiiends as 
could be caught ; the South and the West were restored 
to the whistUng plough and the hum of business ; a 
castle or two, here and there, held out, merely waiting 
the summons to surrender ; and Oxford, the last refiige, 
after some formal coquetry, to keep up appearances 
with baffled aUies abroad, submitted on the 20th June 
— ^the King having got oflF, in the disguise of a footman, 
upon the first notice of Fairfax's approach. The man- 
ner of his flight, with Dr. Hudson and Mr. Ashbumham, 
following the latter as a servant, with a cloak-bag, 
behind him ; his adventure with a barber, who found 
much fault with the style of his hair, which had been 
villanously cut for the masquerade of his new character; 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 297 

his fiight at St. Albans, when a drunken man galloped 
violently at him ; and his miscalculation in seeking 
safety amongst the Scotch at Newark, are historical 
incidents famiUar to the world. 

Upon the surrender of Oxford, the two Princes, 
Rupert and Maurice, now ready enough to get away 
upon any terms, left the kingdom to join their cousin 
in France. Banbury Castle, and the towns of Walling- 
ford and Worcester, after some httle bluster, capitulated 
without firing a shot ; and Fairfax, reUeved for a season 
from his toils, went to Bath to recruit his shattered 



May it please your Lordship, 

It is so long since! writ, as I have need of your 
lordship's pardon. By this you will understand that Walling- 
ford will be delivered up to us on Wednesday next. The 
particulars I have sent to the House. The Lord still follows 
us with His mercies. Oh, that we could be truly thankftd to 
Him for them ! Finding myself at some leisure, I thought it 
the fittest time for Bath. I did not see my coming to 
London could be any way serviceable, nor my stay about 
Oxford to much purpose, which made me choose that course, 
having such need of help for my health. I shall receive any 
advice from your lordship very thankfully^ either concerning 
the public or myself in particular ; and in the meantime I 
shall endeavour to keep together, and in good order, the 

298 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 

army^ and shall wait on the Lord^ to see what He shall do 
for us. My wife presents her duty to your lordship. She 
hath been very ill in her head. I hope we shall both have 
some benefit of Bath. 

I desire your lordship to excuse me this brevity. I shall 
add more as there is occasion. So, desiring your blessing, 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

Fwetl Hitty July 23rrf, 1646. 

While the Greneral is indulging in a short respite at 
Bath, we will make room for a few miscellaneous letters 
of a personal and domestic kind which belong to this 

The first is from Sir George Wentworth, who had 
been member for Pontefiract, but was "disabled,^' for 
his adherence to the King. Two months fi-om the 6th 
May were allowed for compositions under the treaty of 
Newark, and Wentworth, who appears to have been 
comprised in the articles, oflFers one of his estates for 
sale to Lord Fairfax, to make up the amount. 



My Lord, 

I AM here at London prosecuting my composition 
according to the articles of Newark. I find it likely to fall 
extremely heavy on me, and that I might be forced to sell 
land to make satisfaction. Ouston, my lord, was yours, and 

1«46.] THE CIVIL WAR. 299 

the likeliest to raise money of anythiiig I have, and, therefore, 
my lord, if you please to buy it, it shall be yours before any 
other, and cheaper; and I hope your lordship will be pleased 
to think of it, and to give me an answer hereto when you 
return to this town ; I am now for Yorkshire, having done 
here what I can until the Yorkshire Committee make their 
certificate, and so I rest. 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 

Oboboe Wentwoath. 

Swnday, Jwm 16^ 1646. 

Here are a couple of letters which exhibit, under 
diflFerent aspects, some of the troubles of the time : the 
first from a country gentleman who has endeavoured to 
keep clear of both sides, and is indebted for his security 
to Lord Fairfax ; the second from one who remains in 
exile for the sake of peace and safety. 


My Noble Lord, 

I WAS very joyful to hear by Sir John Paulett of 
your lordship^s health and well-being, especially that you were 
pleased to call to memory our ancient acquaintance, with 
your noble desire to afford me your comfort in these my 
untimely sufferances; whose affections, as you may please 
to believe, never swayed me further than became an obedient 
servant, only careful of my country's happiness, and yet 
fearful to side with either party, as not able to judge of 
so transcendent a difference, but sorrowing in the highest 
degree to find such a separation threatening so much the 

300 MEMOEIALS OF [1646. 

power of all; which God, I hope, hath timely prevented; 
by guiding his Majesty to the happy advice of his greatest 
councils, whose wisdoms (under God) is only able to 
re-establish some part of the happiness we once enjoyed^ 
which God in mercy grant ; that I may have the happiness 
to attend your lordship, solely to give you account how I 
have passed my time in these sad. seasons, and to tell that 
there is nothing in my power that is not your lordship's to 
dispose of, in that I am not only a debtor to your lordship 
for your care to be helpful to me, but to your thrice- 
honoured son, for his ready acceptation of my submission, 
and favourable care I should receive no wrong while he 
stayed in these parts ; and (as I have heard) his will taking 
what hath since been offered me : these are the cords that tie 
me to assure your lordship I shall ever be. 

My Lord, 
Your lordship's humble servant, 

P. Gorges.* 

A8ht(mf June Lat, 1646. 


YouK letter I have received by Sir Dudley Wyatt, 
and I have often writ to you, but I fear you have not 
received them. Do not come over to me, for it is to no pur- 
pose, and you serve a good master, and you must not be 
absent ; but follow your resolutions, I like them exceedingly. 
Preserve your life : you have bought your experience. I 
keep health, but no wealth, for I seldom hear from home ; 
yet I will follow your advice, and remain here till I hear 
better times. Farewell, and write often to me, if you can 
send safely. F. 

From PichpcmSf beside Pa/ris, at Br, KertorCs, 

* From Mr. Bentley's Ck>llectioii. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 301 

We have next a batch of letters from Mr. Charles 
Fairfax, relating partly to pubUc matters, but chiefly to 
some professional business in which he was engaged 
for the Ladies Cork and Pembroke ; his daughter's 
marriage with Mr. Jennings ; and various appointments 
he received through the favour of his brother. Roger 
Dodsworth, whose name occurs in the first letter, was 
the antiquary and author of the " Monasticon.^' To Sir 
Thomas Fairfax we are indebted for the preservation 
of Dodsworth^s MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 



Tou were pleased to deliver my letter to my Lady 
Pembroke. I am now to present my humble request to you 
to do the like to my lord, and to assure them both that it 
shall be my constant endeavour to improve my utmost ability 
to do them service. It is their pleasure to join Roger Dods- 
worth with me in the perusal and sorting their evidences in 
the castle^ which I hope we shall do to my lady's content- 
ment. You know his ability and approved experience in 
matters of antiquity, records, and evidences — the prime man 
of the kingdom in that course of practice — so that if my 
honourable lord and good lady be improvided of a solicitor 
(as your lordship sees occasion) he may be recommended 
with credit and thanks : your lordship's continuance of your 
care and trouble in my behalf is humbly acknowledged as a 
very special favour. 

302 MEM0EIAL8 OF [1646. 

If your Parliamentary employment be not inconsistent 
with your military, that noble gentleman may have it with- 
out any other intimation than that he will not reject the 
votes and affections of his country who most earnestly desire 
it, if no advantage may be taken upon the Self-denying 
Ordinance to oust him of his commands (a thing much feared) 
from two base sorts of people that have instigations from 
envy and hatred, which though they be clear contrary in 
their grounds the one to the other, yet, like Samson's foxes, 
they hang by the tails and easily agree in aUquo tercio. 

The western gentleman he has been thoroughly sifted, 
and not to be suspected, nor need we fear any kind of com- 
petitor, nor indeed suspect that any one will appear. We 
should think it much happiness to see you in the county; 
your presence would much qualify the insufferable eittrava- 
gances of the unruly soldiery. Very good orders are lately 
issued from the several committees, both of the war and 
joint Bydings. I have dispersed divers of them' amongst 
your tenants in the Ainsty, who have deeply smarted, as 
likewise to others of them in other parts of the country. 

My good lord, I am your, honour's 

In all duty and affection, 

Charles Fairfax. 

York, this i7th of January, 1645, [iV. S. 1646]. 

Yotir lordship may please to know my Lady Pembroke's 
pleasure when Mr. Dodsworth and I shall repair to the 
castle, for there is no admittance to the evidences till there 
be a meeting of persons authorised by a joint assignation of 
both the ladies. 

I beseech your lordship spare the imparting of this post- 
script, for I am now informed we may have the liberty, and 
perhaps this scruple may not be well taken. 

J 646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 303 


My very oood Lobd^ 

I HAVE now received the grant from your lordship for 
thennder-stewardship of Pontefract, for which I most humbly 
thank you ; and the next week^ when the sessions are ended^ 
having already dispatched the leet at Skipton^ I shall^ Gk)d 
willing^ attend those courts^ and whatever be the profits^ for 
of late years seventeen or eighteen copy-hold manors are 
infranchised ; one only remaining^ Tanshall^ the least within 
all that honour. This only for your lordship's information, 
and not to undervalue the gift, for I prefer it before a place 
of more benefit, because I have your lordship my chief. 
Having now returned my humble thanks, I am earnestly 
to implore your lordship's help to the country. I did formerly 
remonstrate the sad condition of the West Biding, the visita- 
tion having been for a long time together in fourscore towns 
within one, over or under. Wakefield and other places con- 
tinue infected, and some parts of Leeds parish broken out 
again, besides divers other towns ; and this summer, it is 
feared, will be exceedingly grievous. The Advice of the 
London Physicians, in a printed book, hath been of excellent 
use, but there not being any directions at all concerning 
cleansing, we are in a little time after in as ill a condition ; 
for if we had any of skiU to be got that will undertake it, as 
some there are, but their rates are so high and the country so 
poor, they are not able to pay them. Your lordship has the 
hearts and prayers of that people, and you have neither 
spared purse nor pains to do them good. Think not slightly, 
I beseech you, of this serious request. Be pleased my good 
lord, that divers of the physicians be consulted with for the 

304 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

best and cheapest means for cleansing the houses, furniture^ 
and stnff. Their results will be useful for the whole kingdom^ 
and God knows how soon this overflowing scourge may pass 
further. Your lordship knows their trading consists much in 
wool, and therefore there would be particular directions how 
to use it in the fleece, yarn, cloth, &c. ; how their utensils of 
wood — ^bedsticks, tables, stools, gists, &c. ; how their metals, pots, 
pewter, leads, &c. j how theirwalls,floors,roofs,&c.; beds, linen, 
&c. It will be a most acceptable present to the country, and the 
sooner the better. Leeds desires a government, such as they 
had before these times of distraction, that they be not 
enforced to seek help at distance ; and for obtaining their 
charter, are most humble suitors to your lordship and good 
Sir Thomas Widdrington. 

For the free school at Ottley it seems by Mr. Fawkes, his 
inquiry, that for the forty mark rent reserved to the master 
and usher, (it is upon a lease for 1000 years of lands in 
Camoth, with clause of re-entry,) there is not above sixty 
«5res of land, whereof twenty are barren j they Ue in the 
North Biding, where the Scots have so disabled them that 
for two years^ arrears not above twenty can be gotten ; nor 
above that smn for the next year's rent both to the master 
and usher, the tenant discharging all lays and assessments. 
The school is repairing, and we will hope to have your lord- 
ship down before they make choice of a master. 

And now, according to your commands, T shall give your 
lordship a short account of my service to my Lord and 
Lady Pembroke. For seven weeks' time I was never absent 
from Skipton, but only one night that I went to take 
view of my family. Such was the multiplicity of my troubles 
by country people in this want of justices that I had few 
hours my own ; therefore a very ill servant, not worthy my 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 305 

diet, though we had but one meal a day ; yet what I could 
uot do on the day I sometimes perfect out with the night. 
I stayed the longer in expectation of the commissioners ; and 
when they come, if I be required, shall not be wanting with 
my best assistance ; but I desire to know my work, and see 
my warrant. If the way be shown me, I shall like it the 
better, but upon such emergent occasions as necessarily 
require a present dispatch, I shall carefully observe my first 
commission, (their honour and profit). For the business of 
Carleton, that your lordship writes of, you may please to 
take this information; and it will not be amiss to make a 
digression. In the miserable want of a minister at Skipton, 
(Lord make us most sensible of our greatest wants), I had 
often intreated Mr. Price of Carleton (the best in those parts) 
to supply the cure. That lordship was my Lord George^s, but 
within the award. I writ to my lady for a particular of 
such lands of the Lady Cork^s as we must not meddle with, 
and for a copy of the award ; and had this answer, that her 
ladyship never consented unto it, nor wiQ be bound by it, 
but is now to demand her whole inheritance as rightful heir 
to her father, both by the laws of God and the kingdom. I 
thought this a sufficient warrant to restrain the workmen 
from felling more trees, having made great destruction, yet 
allowed them to take such small pieces as were in danger of 
stesding. This was justifiable if it had been her own ; for 
my lord, her husband, being a delinquent, I (as one of the 
committee) had reason to do it for the benefit of the public, 
for I do not suppose that a composition for one year will 
enable a delinquent to destroy all his woods. And for an 
entry they do me injury to make me so busy; for without 
special order (where a little delay can bring no prejudice) I 
am exceeding tender of giving offence. For the other part 

VOL. I. X 

306 MBMOKIALS OF [1646. 

of my charge, the denial of an interview to any of her sub- 
stitutes in perusal of the evidences, I confess it to be true 
till I have directions from my lady ; nor can our sole inter- 
medling be just cause of offence when she has had so free a 
liberty without any one in the world on my lady's part to 
see a fair carriage : our credits and reputations are as dear as 
theirs ; and I neither have nor will do anything that I will 
not justify upon oath to be just and honest to the best of my 

I know not how Mr. Robert Christopher may represent 
my carriage ; but if his relations to your lordship have the 
lenity of his intelligences to my Lady Cork, they will do me 
good that they make you merry. In one of his letters (which 
Mr.* Thompson showed me) he wrote to this effect, that your 
lordship was to come down from London to sort evidences at 
Skipton Castle with Sir Thomas Strickland. And whereas 
he tells you that my Lady Pembroke is contented to stand 
to the award, it is clearly otherwise, as appears by her vehe- 
ment protestations against it in very many letters to me ; yet 
as a most noble lady, will she deal honourably with such per- 
sons whose estates depend upon it, if they have the good 
manners to acknowledge it her bounty. Your lordship must 
pardon me many faults, this tedious relation being one of the 

Be pleased to remember me to aU my good friends. 

Your lordship's affectionate brother. 

And most humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

MemtoUf this Sih of April, 1646. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 307 




Three letters T have received from your lordship, 
by the three last posts, and for each of them return thrice 
humble thanks. Your lordship^s seasonable advice concern- 
ing my carriage in this tickle employment is exceeding 
weighty. I cannot attain the happiness to be a repairer of 
the breach, yet hope it shall never be objected against me 
with any colour of truth, that I make any gap either to let 
in charge or debate betwixt any at all, much less between 
persons of honour and in so near relation. I have often 
begged of my Lady Pembroke to receive her commands 
concerning the trunk of Evidences, selected out of both 
studies, by the Lady Cork, with prelude of a peculiar inter- 
est^ though upon the view I persuade myself there are many 
in which my lady is at least equally concerned, if not 
entirely. A letter, it seems, was sent to that purpose, (as is 
intimated unto me by the last from my lady), but it is not 
received, so that I want my instructions ; yet my lady writes 
to the Countess of Cork, (which I am now to deliver), that 
she has written to me about it, and makes no doubt but 
I shall give her good satisfaction. Thus your lordship sees 
what great straits I am put to, and how it cannot be other- 
wise conceived than that I am the ill instrument of their 
unhappy differences betwixt the ladies. I should have writ 
to my Lady Pembroke by this post, but am here enforced to 
break off, or lose my opportunity, and with thanks do present 


Your lordship^s most humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

Tork, April ISth, 1646. 


308 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 


BioHT Honourable, 

I DID, in a late letter to my sister Constable, acquaint 
her with an overture of marriage from Mr. Peter Jennings^ 
in behalf of his grandchild with my daughter Nell. What 
was then mere doubtfiil in the reality of his intentions, (I 
only taking my intelligence from others), is now well and 
fully cleared by his own expressions, that the want of portion 
must make no breach. He is very shortly for London, to 
pay in his compensation, being one of the most innocent 
delinquents in all the country, for that little he did for the 
enemy^s party was extorted from him by threats and impri- 
sonment, the best part of his estate laid under the power of 
that garrison of Skippon, and himself likewise in near a tie 
to the late Earl of Cumberland. I shall humbly beg from 
your lordship your fair respects towards him if he come to 
attend you, and your acknowledgment of her in so near a 
relation. Your lordship^s bounty to divers of her brothers 
will clear the suspicion of any design upon you, for all that 
is expected is that which is left her, secured out of Menston ; 
for the interest whereof I shall give her security, if it be 
required, until the sum be payable, being Michaelmas three 
years. The lands engaged are better worth than forty merks 
per annum. So I fear no danger of any failure of payment. 
The young gentleman has a good' report, and a general 
testimony to be of a sweet disposition. A Cambridge man of 
about nineteen years of age, that never contributed any fuel 
to these flaws. I cannot but acknowledge a good providence 
in it, that it should seem of their seeking; for being so far 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 309 

above my hopes in respect of the state, I should never 
have attempted it. The sum is now upon composition : his 
only offence was acting as a sub-committee in the liord 
Newcastle's time for regulating of assessments and allowing 
of billet for the ease of the country. His father paid 900/., 
and I fear they will have 100/. from him for his wife's land, 
being 40/. per annum. A good word from your lordship may 
very much avail him. 

My brother Wentworth is very diligent in his business, to 
speed his work, but fears the danger of the last ordinance, that 
requires it before August ; demands your lordship's help that 
he be at no prejudice. For your lordship's many remem- 
brances in Mr. Clapham's letters, accept the humhle thanks of 

Your lordship's humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

YwTc, July 24<A, 1646. 


My most honoured good Lord, 

Op all the infii'mities your lordship knows by me, 
that of unthankfulness is without my charge. Every letter 
your lordship either writes to myself or friends in these parts 
gives me new occasion to tell your lordship I want words to, 
express, no heart to resent your favours. You are a father 
indeed, and that is nature which wiU do much in this work, 
but it has a transceudancy and elevation above such a 
meridian. Mr. Jennings with his grandchild are now shortly 
for their journey. If at the report upon return of his moneys 

310 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

(being a very great sum for so small a delinquency as can be 
objected against him), there may be any return of some part 
of his composition, or any ease in his son^s, being only a regu- 
lator of assessments in my Lord of Newcastle's time, I 
should cast this into the deck as a favour to myself, being in 
this treaty, the reality whereof I cannot suspect. I humbly 
thank your lordship for your last bounty to Tom, which the 
next day I received I returned unto him by the help of Mr. 
Farrand. I beseech your lordship's excuse the post-haste of 

Your most obliged brother and servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

lith August, 1646. 



My very good Lord, 

I HUMBLY thank your lordship for the good advice 
and countenance in this great business that concerns my 
daughter. Delays are dangerous ; I could wish it were 
hastened with most conveniency. The grandfather is aged 
and very infirm. Of his reality I am most of all confident. 
His other friends here are far more dilatory, which occasions 
some jealousy. Your lordship has both a great deal of affec- 
tion and wisdom to carry on the work ; and to God's blessing 
and the marriage of su(3h worthy good Mends, I humbly 
recommend the increase and issue, as He in mercy shall dis- 
pose it. I have to beg your lordship's directions to Mr. 
Price, minister at Carleton in Craven, how he may steer his 
course for reparation of his losses and augmentation of 
means. A constant preacher and affectionate to the Parlia- 
ment, which occasions his sufferings from the garrison of 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 311 

Skipton^ of which, if your lordship had time, he could make 
a woful relation. My good lord, I am iu all relations and 
obligations, your lordship's 

Most affectionate and most humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

Ywk, this 2m Augvaty 1646. 


My most honourable good Lord, 

I PRESENT my humble thanks to your lordship for 
my children and the addition to my livelihood in the late 
stewardships you are pleased to confer upon me, viz. Bippon^ 
Cawood, and Ottley; some claims there are to both the 
former (by the committee^s order, which was but pi'o 
tempore), to which your lordship's letter will be fully satis- 
factory. This inclosed I received from Sir Robert Barwick, 
who is much displeased that he should be outed of the 
stewardship of St. Mary's. Your lordship had no notice 
how he was interested, so that your recommendation of the 
other gentleman cannot be ill taken. I shall desire nothing 
in his behalf which your lordship shall not think fitting, but 
could earnestly wish that some intimation were given him 
that your lordship knew not that he did execute the place. 

I have not heard from Mr. Jennings since his return into 
the country, but hear he will shortly make a journey into 
Craven, where I think I shall see him, and observe your 
commands. And for all your affectionate endeavours to do 

312 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

US good, I shall, as most really engaged, most cheerfully 

subscribe myself. 

My lord. 
Your honour's most faithful servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

Me^uttorif lOth October^ 1646. 

I beseech your lordship that my best services may be pre- 
sented to all my good friends. 



This day I received your letter of the 29th of the 
last month, wherein you tell me that Mr. Waterton hath at 
length finished the drawings of the landscapes of Shipton 
Castle and of Bardon Tower ; but I have not received either 
of those landscapes, in which I pray you earnestly to take 
some care in searching diUgently what is become of them, 
that so I may have them safely delivered to me, which, 
when it is done, I will send the gentleman (Mr. Waterton) 
whatsoever you shall think fit, and I pray you in your next 
letter write me word what you think is fit for me to send 
him. I will do my good will to your eldest daughter might 
do her any good, or to any of your other children, for I 
acknowledge myself much obliged to you; which I will study 
to requite ; and so I rest. 

Your assured true &iend, 

Anne Pembroke. 

Bom Castle, Novemher brd, 1646. 

1646. J THE CIVIL WAR. 313 

Mr. Benjamin Kane came hither to me and Isabella^* the 
26th day of the last month, but brought no money out of 
Caman to us, as I imagine you know before-hand. When 
I had nearly done writing of this letter, so far as this, did 
I now receive the survey of Shipton and Bardon Tower, for 
which I pray you give Mr. Waterton what you think fit, 
and write me word what you have given him, and I will send 
it you again. 


Right Honourable, 

In this general letter now directed to your lordship 
from the joint committee, some (upon pretence that it would 
be a trouble to your lordship) pitched upon another, but 
being ill taken by others that any should be thought more 
concerned in receiving our addresses, (for recommendation 
to the Parliament than yourself, in whom the country has a 
special interest by their own elections), it was thereupon 
voted to sue to your lordship, and we doubt not to hear from 
you as effectually as from those that would ingratiate them- 
selves with the county for such good offices. I himibly 
thank your lordship for the stewardship of the co\u*ts at 
Ripon, and do wonder that Mr. Armitage should conceive 
it a disparagement to be ousted when he was only put in 
pro tempore by the committee, there being then no High 
Steward, who, every man knows, must appoint his Sub- 
stitute. There are three several officers ; the first is Series- 
callus Dominiy which is your lordship — this, by patent, was 
granted by Law, Archbishop of York, unto Richard Duke of 

* Lady Isabella Sackville, her daughter, by the Earl of Dorset. 

314 MEMOBIALS OF [1646. 

Gloucester^ (together with bow-bearership), for life^ anno 
1411. The next is Subsenescatttis, sive Senesse Curiar,, which 
I now hold by your lordship^s gift ; and the last is Clericus 
Curie, always a servant to the substeward^ but never any 
office ; and hence ariseth all the benefit^ and a great benefit 
it was to Mr. Winill that last had it. 

I beseech your lordship be pleased as Custos Rotulorum of 
the West-riding to regulate the fees both for Clerk of the 
Peace and Justices' Clerk, which are shamefully extravagant; 
it will be very much for your lordship's honour, and a most 
acceptable service to all the country that groan under 
oppressions, and a rule must help us. God reward your love 
both to me and mine. I am. 

My lord. 
Your honour's most humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

Yorh, November 13^, 1646. 

I desire to know of your lordship whether it will not be an 
offence if Mr. Jennings (who was an easy dehnquent, but 
has now compounded,) do sometimes supply my place at 
Bipon, if all things go well in the other motion, as I still 
hope they will. 


Bight Honourable, 

Your lordship's suspicion of the young man's 
affections, I fear has its ground ; for it is supposed he may 
have some thoughts towards Sir Thomas Harrison's daughter. 
She wants no solicitors to further the motion, if it be so ; but 
jealousy is an unequal judge, and I hope better: a little time 

1«46.] THE CIVIL WAR, 315 

will now discover it. I am very coufident it is without the 
grandfather^s privity, for he is unquestionably real and for- 
ward for his marriage. I was bold to draw on the father, to 
make a promise of the clerkship of the courts at Bipon, (your 
lordship^s good gift,) and if it take effect, shall beg your con- 
firmation of it to the grandchild, reserving to myself the 
attendants and service, which, if I had hopes of a longer life 
(there being now small cause to expect it in regard of growing 
infirmities), I should think happily bestowed upon so good an 
occasion. My wife and I present our humble thanks for 
your great charge with Tom, and yoiu* noble intentions for 
Will's preferment signified unto us by your lordship's last 
letter. She humbly resigns to your lordship's good pleasure 
her dearest darling. 1 know, my lord, you are not unmindful 
of our poor church of Ottley, to procure a certain endowment 
to it, as likewise to Denton and BaUdon parochial chaptries. 
This day died Mr. Procter; and Nicholas Lindley about 
a fortnight ago. I wish your lordship woidd think of the 
seigniority of Ottley, lest some (least suspected) prove too 
unable in the business. My humble service to your good 
lady from your lordship's servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

Mefuton, DecemJber 16^, 1646. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax was not permitted to enjoy much 
repose at Bath. Ragland Castle, in South Wales, still 
held out ; and the old Marquis of Worcester, whose 
house it was, and who had expended in the Royal cause 
the prodigious sum of 20,000/., which he feared he 
should never get back again, was reluctant to give up 
his " poor cottage,'' without having some previous com- 

316 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 

munication with his master, the fugitive King. His 
20,000/. troubled him much ; and as Colonel Morgan, 
who was conducting the siege, found it impossible to 
reason with him, and was really unwilling to ruin him. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax went down in person to bring the 
aflFair to a conclusion. 


My Lobd^ 

I WAS sorry I could not more fully understand your 
lordship^s mind, by the messenger you had committed it to ; 
for I should be exceeding glad to receive often such light 
and help as I might have from your lordship in this trouble- 
some condition I am in ; but I trust the Lord will make it 
some ways comfortable to me, if I have no end to myself in 
it ; nor do I see yet the army hath any, but principally seeks 
to do that which is for the honour of God, and the good of 
the kingdom. I am now before Bagland. It is very strong, 
well manned, and victualled. I took advantage of their 
incHnation to treat. I have offered the soldiers honourable 
conditions, and that the Earl should remain qiuet in his 
house till the ParUament be pleased to dispose otherwise 
of him. I d\u*st not offer anything more to one that is so 
obnoxious to them ; but I doubt if there be nothing more 
done for bim, we shall expect Uttle good from this way ; and 
the country is very fearful of a long siege ; earnestly desiring 
the Earl might have leave to go beyond sea, so they might be 
freed of this garrison. And if the Parliament would consider 
what it is to engage so much of their army here, and how 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 317 

diaafiPected these parts are^ so long as this place is untakeu^ 
they wotdd find it not only to be a singular benefit for 
Wales, but much good to the affairs of the whole kingdom. 
Though they gave something that might encourage my lord 
of Worcester to surrender, I could not be satisfied till I had 
discharged my thought, though I cannot act in that way 
which I think will be a more considerable good for the public 
affairs. After I have settled some things here, I intend 
(God willing) to return again to Bath, having found already 
some good by it. I shall trouble your lordship no more 
now, but remain 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

^ T. Fairfax. 

Bagland, August Kith, 1646. 

In a week from the date of this letter, Fairfax 
entered the castle, which the poor old Marquis was at 
last induced to surrender, dined with the Committee at 
Chepstow, and returned to his quiet quarters at Bath. 

With the exception of a few places in the North, 
which were yet in the possession of the Scotch, the 
whole country was now in the hands of Parliament. 

Early in September, Fairfax returned to the army, in 
the neighbourhood of Oxford. 


May it please youe Lordship, 

I AM returned from Bath, I hope with some 
benefit. I thought it would be more fit for me to return to 
my quarters near Oxford, than to come yet to London. I 
hope we shall now settle the army so as there shall be fewer 

318 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

complaints. I hear very little of the foot ; the horse hath 
been less payed^ but no less restrained from injuries ; I shall 
desire to prevent them aU I can. Bushworth will acquaint 
your lordship with our condition here, so as I shall not 
trouble your lordship further. I have sent Sharp to take an 
account of such things as are in the house in Queen Street. 
My wife doth intend to be there the next week herself. I 
shall desire your lordship to make use still of that house, if 
you think fit ; so humbly desiring your lordship^s blessing, I 

Your lordship most obedient son, 

Thomas Fairfax. 

Pwest JffiU, I7tk SejOember, 1646. 

The following letter from Mr. Charles Fairfax, refers 
to a contested election which had just terminated 
between Mr. David Copley and Mr. White, for Ponte- 
fract. Mr. White was nominated upon the interest of 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, who shows himself a practical 


reformer in the matter of purity of election. 


My most honoured good Lord, 

In this business of election we found on Mr. Lionel 
Copley^s part very much of the lion^s skin, but more of the 
fox's tail ; he has not been wanting in a bountiftd entertain- 
ment, in courting the burgers both with wine and venison ; 
by himself and his agents giving all assurance of a real 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 319 

accomplishment of what they desired ; possessing them all 
in his wonted confidence^ that no man living was better 
acquainted with the mysteries of Parliament than he himself^ 
that would be their incessant solicitor. We came upon a 
disadvantage which wanted no pressing by him and his 
coadjutors^ which could not be so ill on Mr. White's part as 
they did vehemently enforce it, and most of the townsmen, 
too apt to believe it, but his letters of excuse and fut\u*e dili- 
gence will repair that error, which some peevishly affected 
would have to reflect upon your lordship, who recommended 
him. Indeed I am confident they made it much worse to 
gain a party; I am very glad this was no cause of offence on 
my nephew's part, who carried on the business in a discreet 
moderation, without threat or promise, or any entertainment 
until the election was past, and then he spared no cost, nor 
wanted other expressions to give a real testimony of his 
utmost desires to do them service. Colonel Overton has 
wanted neither affection nor wisdom, nor given any occasion 
whereat they can quarrel. He that so cavilled at my nephew 
Fairfax, his letters procured another in his own behalf from 
General Poyntz, to the mayor and burgers, which he only 
caused to be read, but not deUvered, suspecting the effect 
and the governor's diligence ; he seconds this project, and a 
message is sent from the general to Colonel Overton, to come 
instantly to York, but he deferred it. I shall not trouble your 
lordship with any other particulars in this business, only 
must present my most humble thanks to your good lordship 
for the variety of your favours to my children, and to 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

25th of September, 1646. 

320 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 

A " piping time of peace/' brief and uneasy, but the 
more eagerly embraced, perhaps, for that very reason, 
had now set in everywhere ; and in this interval, 
snatching what contentment he might out of such 
circumstances. Lord Fairfax takes a second wife to 
manage his house and mend his estate. His lordship 
announces the happy event in a letter to his brother, 
the retired clergyman, at Bolton Percy ; which is fol- 
lowed by a letter of congratulation from his brother, 
the antiquary. 


Good Beother, 

I SUPPOSE before this the news of my marriage will 
be come into the country, and variously reported, according 
to the intelligence of the messenger, or his affection to me. 
My solitary condition and want of help in managing house- 
hold affairs (which I am forced unto), made me think of a 
gentlewoman for assistance and comfort. Her virtue was 
the chief thing drew my affections, which was much com- 
mended by the parents and friends of her former husband. 
She was the widow of Mr. Hussey, in Lincolnshire; 
daughter of Mr. Chapman, of Hertfordshire, whose father 
was a citizen. She has five children, but provided for in 
such manner as I hope will not be burthensome, and her 
estate (though not great) may be sufficient, by God's blessing, 
in part to supply the defects of my own towards our main- 
tenance, for I found small these four years from my tenants 
in any place. I heartily wish I could have had the advice of 

^««.] THE CITIL WAR. 321 

children^ brotbers, and near friends^ but I bope tbe course I 
have taken will not be prejudicial to any, nor cause of 
ojOTence. My journey into tbe country is like to be stayed 
tm tbe next spring. I pray you remember my service to my 
sister. I rest 

Your very affectionate brotber, 

Fbr. Fairpax. 

October 20th, 1646. 


My GOOD Lord, 

I SHOULD be lotb to be the last (since it is not witb 
the least affection) to congratulate your happy choice, and 
hope that you may not only build your house (now reduced in 
your male line to a narrow compass), but (that I may wish 
great things for you) let them equal your other children, the 
ornaments not only of their family, but of eminent esteem in 
the eye of the kingdom. It is the prayer of God^s people, 
that that line may long flourish a living monument to future 
posterity, polished stones in God^s building, as a remem- 
brance of those that have done worthily in our Ephratha, — 
the repairers of our breaches, — choice instruments in the 
work of that Temple whose builder and maker is God. Let 
not that coal be quenched, and not only a remainder, (which 
you have indeed, to the envy and admiration of other 
families), but a name be left unto you upon the earth. 

Having given your lordship a view of my heart in your 
business, I now come to my own. Mr. Jennings, by a visit 
yesterday, prevented my journey to Skipton on Monday, 

VOL. T. Y 

322 MEMORIALS OP [1646. 

designed for a meeting. The man is real^ and most cordial 
in the prosecution^ but a sudden conclusion was not to be 
expected^ before a thorough acquaintance ; and some here in 
the country were to be satisfied upon the grandfather^s view 
and report, before the young gentleman shoidd too far engage 
his affections. He has now directions to renew his suit. I 
beseech your lordship he may have all encouragements, and 
that his peremptory expressions (when pressed on a sudden 
to a positive answer) may give no disgust. 

I desire that mine and my wife's most humble services 
may be presented to your honourable lady. If your lordship 
please that some of your servants may acquaint Mr. Armitage 
(being now in town) that it is your honour's pleasure to con- 
fer the Stewardship of Ripon upon me, upon his discharge 
(being only inpro tempore upon the committee's order), I shall 
then attend it : and the Uke for Mr. Hewley, who by a like 
order is placed at Cawood. Indeed I find by my attendance 
at Ottley, that there have been insufferable inconveniences by 
the former stewards that have taken presentments of omnia 
bene, and they now expect the like usage, which Justices of 
the Peace, having the engagement of an oath, cannot allow 
them. I beseech your lordship that Thomas Barker, who 
has from yoiu* honour the grant of under-stewardship, may 
be required^ to put in a sufficient substitute, that since he 
has all the benefit, he may ease me of a good part of the 

My lord, 
I am ever your lordship's faithful servant, 

C. Fairfax. 

October 27th, 1646. 

A letter from Alderman Atkins, who represented 
Norv^ich in Parliament, and who, as he plainly tells his 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 323 

constituents, was thereby incapacitated from accepting any 
place of emolument, shows what sort of relations, in some 
instances, subsisted between electors and their repre- 
sentatives. The ordinance for the sale of Bishops^ lands, 
referred to by Mr. Atkins, passed on 1 6th November. 



Right Wobshipful, 

My due respect remembered unto you, and all your 
brethren. This is to certify you, that now the ordinance 
is passed for the sale of the Bishops' lands, which I send 
hereinclosed ; those that will secure their money, lent for- 
merly upon the propositions, began to pay in their money 
last Friday morn, and before Saturday night above 40,000/. 
was paid in. So that if yourself or any else will do the same, 
it will be time to do it ; for the House was moved, last Friday, 
to order, that if any other men that had paid in no money 
upon the propositions did bring in any sum, it should be 
received, which the treasurers had no power to do before ; 
for one brought in 1000/. more than his money was, to 
equal his former lent money, and it would not be received ; 
but now it is consented unto, and money is paid in accord- 
ingly. I paid in mine last Friday, being 658/. 8*. 2>d, ; and 
I have a note for so much more, to have the use at five 
months, and use and principal in course out of Excise Office, 
if it be not paid me before, out of money received upon sale 
of Bishops' lands. I write you this much in regard you 
may now secure that which, three months since, was thought 
desperate. I thought it my duty to let you know what is 


324 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

here done upon that business. The Eastern Association 
Committee have sat but once since your aldermen were here^ 
and then I did move for an order to have your pieces 
delivered back whererer they were found. It held some 
debate^ but the result was^ that unless it coidd be set down 
where they were it could not be done at present ; for if any 
be in any garrison yet maintained^ not thought fit to remove 
them^ till the kingdom be better settled j besides^ the season 
of year is not to remove them. If you write where the two 
small pieces are^ I shall get an order for them. No oppor- 
tunity yet to move for the union of the parishes, in the 
House. I doubt not but they will confirm it as you desire. 
I will not be forgetful of it. 

On the 19th day of this month, was a year, since I sat in 
the Parliament upon your election, being thereby, you see, 
made incapable of any place of benefit, as you see, still cast 
upon such as are no members of the House of Commons ; 
and now, in this inclosed ordinance upon several of my 
fellow-aldermen and other citizens to their profit ; and were 
I at liberty, I doubt not but I had been partakers with them. 
I am by your means taken oflf all business. I know the 
burthen, and therefore I did labour against it ; but it pleased 
God so to dispose of me. I do therefore expect from you 
such allowance as my predecessors have had. I shall strive 
to deserve it, in my care and diligence. Our city burgesses 
here are paid quarterly ; and so, not doubting of your per- 
formance, I take leave, and rest. 

Your Worship^s to command, 

Thomas Atkin.* 

Laus Deo. London, Nov. 23rd, 1646. 

* Prom Mr. Bentley's Collection. 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAR. 325 

Norwich appears to have been hard pressed for 
money. The mayor of Lynn writes urgently to his 
" loving friend '^ the mayor of Norwich for a subsidy of 
400/. A long time elapsed before these pecuniary 
burthens were finally adjusted over the kingdom. 


Bight Worshipful Sib, 

The miserable condition that this poor town is in, 
I suppose is not unknown to you. Where soldiers are, and 
no money to pay them, the cry of the inhabitants there must 
needs be great. So is it here at present with us. Mr. 
Corbett informed me, a month since, that our treasurers, 
Alderman Bobinson and Alderman Wormell, should have 
from your city of Norwich 400/. forthwith; our cries are 
here so great, for the want of it ; and having this conveyance 
by Mr. HuUior and others, I entreat that you will be pleased 
to send to our treasurers the said sum of 400/. by this bearer, 
Mr. Hullior, by whom our treasurers have sent a receipt for 
the same. Thus, with my kind respects, I rest 

Your loving friend and servant, 

Thomas Toll, 

Lyrm^ December Ut, 1646. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, having completed his round of 
conquests, arrived in London on the 12th of Noyember. 

* From Mr. Bentley's Collection. 

826 MEMORIALS OF [1646. 

He was met some miles outside the city by the militia, 
who escorted him to his house/ where he was waited 
upon by deputations from both Houses of Parliament, 
and received at their hands the thanks and congratula- 
tions of the nation. 

The sale of the Bishops' lands proceeded rapidly, and 
the sum of 200,000/. having been reaUsed towards the 
close of November, it was forwarded under convoy to 
York, to be paid over to the Scots, who were thereupon 
to evacuate the garrisons they held in the North. The 
war was now ended — if appearances and promises were 
to be trusted ; and Sir Thomas Fairfax, having a little 
leisure to look into his private affairs, found himself in 
the situation of a man, who, in devoting himself to the 
business of the public, has wholly neglected his own. 



May it please your Lordship^ 

I THOUGHT it fit to discharge this duty of writing to 
your lordship, though I have little from hence to advertise 
you of. By this time the convoy is at York. I sent with it 
three regiments of horse, three regiments of foot, and 500 
dragoons. This number, I hope, will prevent jealousies, and 
yet be sufficient to secure their charge. 12,000/. is sent 
down with these, that they might discharge their quarters. 
I have not now much business here ; yet I conceive it fit to be 
with the army till the Scots be marched out of the kingdom, 
or on their march. I hear my wife intends to come to 

1646.] THE CIVIL WAE. 327 

Northampton. I know not whether I should advise her to 
stay^ or not ; but if she come, her own trouble will be more 
than any inconvenience by the journey. Though now it hath 
pleased God, in some good measure, to settle the general 
affairs of the kingdom, I should be glad to settle mine own 
in some more certainty, till I see how it may please God 
further to dispose of me ; but I must confess that neither 
myself nor any with me can advise me what is the best 
course to take in this thing, the public business having 
wholly taken up my thoughts, making me a stranger to my 
own business, and that, I most fear, to my nearest and 
dearest friends. I hope the Lord wiU direct me what to do, 
or willingly to obey whatsoever your lordship shall advise or 
command me, who am 

Your lordship^s most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

NorUuimptony Bee. dOth, 1646. 

I humbly present my service to my lady. 

By the close of the year, the negociations concerning 
the disposal of his Majesty's person we brought to a 
conclusion. The King was obstinate to the last about 
the Covenant, and the Scots, having received their 
200,000/., resolved to give him up to the Parliament. 











The commissioners appointed by Parliament to con- 
duct his Majesty to his destination at Holmby arrived in 
Newcastle on the 23rd January, and the escort set out 
on the 3rd February. Fairfax had left London about the 
middle of December, to join the army at Nottingham ; 
and Skippon, who, on Fairfaxes recommendation, had 
been appointed Governor of Newcastle, was already in 
the North, taking possession as the Scots retired. On 
the 11th February, the royal cort&ge approached Not- 
tingham, and Fairfax went out to meet the King. It 
was the first time they had looked into each other s face 
since the meeting at Heyworth Moor, when " fiery- 
Tom "' forced the petition of the people upon the 
pommel of his Majesty^s saddle. Had his Majesty 
hearkened to that petition, this strange scene had been 
spared to both. A strange scene it was, after all that 
had passed between them in the interval : the lives that 
had been sacrificed, the deadly hostility and disorganisa- 
tion into which the whole kingdom had been plunged. 
And here they met on the high road, his Majesty gra- 
ciously reining up his horse, and Fairfax kissing hands, 
and ridihg by his Majesty's side into Nottingham ! 

A week afterwards he wrote to his father. 

332 MEMORIALS OF 11647. 



May it please youb Lordship^ 

Here is now but little business in these parts to 
write of^ nor much for me to do here yet : my being in the 
army hath been some ways necessary for the ordering of it^ 
and keeping the officers here together ; which else would have 
been more^ from their charge^ and which will yet occasion my 
longer stay in London till I can settle things^ so as there 
may be constantly general officers enough in the head 
quarter^ to order the affairs of the army. We hear it is not 
like to be of long continuance. I doubt many hath given 
such discouragement to the soldiers as they will be more 
willing to lay down their arms than engage themselves in 
any other service^ unless they like their conditions they shall 
go upon. Rushworth will give your lordship further accoimt 
of things this way. I shall add no more^ but my prayers 
for your healthy and my service to my lady. So take leave 
to rest 

Your lordship's most obedient son^ 

T. Fairfax. 

Nottingham, Feb, 19th, 1646. (iV. S. 1647.) 

The " discouragement " first showed itself amongst 
the citizens of London, who petitioned against being 
put to further expenses, and prayed vigorously that the 
army might be disbanded. The work was finished, and 
the army was to be got rid of at once. London had 
mounted to freedom, and was impatient to kick down the 
ladder ! The question grew wider and took a graver 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 333 

shape afterwards, drawing in men of all shades of 
opinion, and dividing the kingdom at last into Two 
great Parties. Parliament yielded a little at first, and 
ordered that the army should not take up quarters 
within twenty-five miles of London. The civil power 
affected a great fear of the miUtary, to whom arrears 
of pay were still due, and even went so far as to accuse 
them of " designs." The unsettled state of things gave 
a sort of colouring to these charges, for the soldiers 
clamoured for their pay, and were not easily restrained 
from breaking the twenty-five miles circle. Soldiers 
were required fox' Ireland, and the army made condi- 
tions with ParUament that, at all events, their allow- 
ances should be secured to them. It was strange, as 
Fairfax observes in the next letter, that the army 
should make propositions to Parliament; but it was 
wiser to prevent mutinies than to suppress them. 


May IT PLEASE YOUR Lordship 

To pardon my long silence^ though I have heard 
often from your lordship. That which you desire concerning 
Colonel Overton, I shall be very ready to do what I can for 
him, and shall be very glad to bring so deserving a man into 
the army ; but as affairs are at this present, I cannot do 
much. What our business hath been with the commissioners 
sent from Derby House, Rushworth will give your lordship a 
full account. Though it may seem strange the army doth 

334 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

make propositions to the Parliament about conditions of 
going into Ireland^ yet it did seem to ns more honesty 
modestly to desire such things as might enable them to carry 
on that service than hereafter^ when they repent of their 
forwardness to mutiny^ and with more insolency demand the 
dues ; but by this, I hope, the service more advanced than 
hindered. I have my health but ill this spring. I go, 
to-morrow, God willing, for a day or two to my Lady Vere's. 
The country here doth like very well of the army, and is very 
sorry that there should be any petition si^ainst them. I 
have given order to free Sir Roger NortVs house, though 
there was none quartered there when he complained; but 
there is good reason he should be free* I shall here take 
leave to refer your lordship to Rushworth, to know how they 
stand here. So, desiring your blessing, with my service to 
my lady, I remain 

Your lordship's most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

March 23r<«, 1646. (N. S. 1647.) 

I had sent the Barbary to Denton before this, but that 
some grease is fallen into one of his legs, which, I hope, in a 
few days he will be recovered of, and then he shall go. 

The Colonel Overton alluded to in this letter, about 
whom Lord Fairfax interested himself, was a prot6g6 of 
Cromwell's, who prevailed upon Sir Thomas to appoint 
him Governor of Hull. He afterwards went with 
Cromwell into Scotland, and was steadfast to his patron 
till the Protectorate, when Cromwell, finding his repub- 
licanism inconvenient, dismissed him from his service, 
and committed him to the Tower. 

1647.J THE CIVIL WAR. 335 

The army grievance was want of money. It breaks 
out every where. Want of confidence was bad enough, 
after the hard service they had gone through, but want 
of money was worse for the time being. Similar diffi- 
culties arose about the composition of tithes, and the 
payment of ministers. In short, this money difficulty 
furnished the first pretext for the breaking out of dis- 
contents that lay deeper, and were fraught with graver 
consequences. Goldsmiths' Hail was the centre of the 
agitation. The disbanding of the army, the struggle 
between the Presbyterians and the Independents, and 
the wearisome negociations with the King, occupy a 
troublesome interval. All the letters of this period 
point to these prominent questions, throwing such 
accidental Hght upon them as the positions of the 
writers enabled them to collect. 


May it please your Lordship^ 

I HAVE Uttle to trouble your lordship withal at this 
time. The soldiers in divers parts in this county begin to 
complain most of want of moneys ; those at Skipton Castle 
have been in a mutiny^ imprisoned two sequestrators^ and 
threatened to seize upon the goods and furniture of the 
Castle ; but upon the payment of some money^ and a letter 
to the governor there from the committee of the West Biding, 

336 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

I hope that disorder is appeased. Mr. Hnlbume hath showed 
me the new dedimus for Oasten^ which he will take care to 
get executed. Sir George Wentworth and his son were both 
here the last week^ and had a meeting with Sir William. St. 
Quinton about the portion. The most he will condescend to 
pay is 1000/.^ for the marriage being past^ he hath the law and 
measure of the portion in his own hands^ and the treaty for 
it now is not upon even grounds. I am sorry the son^s act 
should be so prejudicial both to his father and himself. I 
purpose, God willing, to begin my journey upon Monday and 
Tuesday next, and humbly present my duty to your lordship 
and my lady, and remain. 

My lord. 
Your lordship's humble servant, 

Th. Wtddrington. 

Torky the \eih of Aprily 1647. 

The want of " preaching ministers/' or rather, of the 
means of paying them, is strenuously urged upon Lord 
Fairfax in the subjoined letter from Sir John Bourchier. 
Sequestrations, assessments, and compositions had 
absorbed all available funds, and thus the question 
of the maintenance of religion came to be mixed up 
at Goldsmiths' Hall with the question of — " What was 
to be done with the Army \ " But it is with the army 
we are chiefly concerned. The religious element which 
was mixed up so largely in the struggle of parties at 
this period, hardly enters into the Fairfax Correspond- 
ence ; Sir Thomas Fairfax having from the first dis- 
claimed, in the name of the army, all intention of 
interfering with such matters. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 337 


Bight Honourable^ 

You were pleased to procure an order from the 
committee of plundered ministers, that 40/. per annum might 
be paid unto Mr. Taylor, minister, for to oflSciate at the 
church of Usbaldwick, on maintenance of the impropriate 
tithes of Sir "William Robinson; but now Sir William 
Bobinson hath compounded at Goldsmiths^ Hall, and there- 
fore that salary will be taken away, except your lordship shall 
make some speedy means to the committee of Goldsmiths^ 
Hall, that Sir William Bobinson may have so much abated, 
proportionably as that 40/. per annum is worth in his last pay- 
ment. My humble suit is that you will seriously take into 
consideration your great want of maintenance for preaching 
ministers in this your blind country, and that what is already 
granted may be continued, that no delinquent may be suffered 
to make any composition for fixed tithes; and that also there 
may be some other way to raise provision for the cheerful 
subsistence of the ministry. It hath pleased God to make 
you instrumental to help, quiet, and subdue our enemies and 
God's : let me beseech you to stretch out the utmost of your 
power, that the gospel may flourish in these parts. There 
are many that have private aims in their public employment ; 
but I must justify you and your ever-honoured son, that I 
never observed any of selfishness in you. I am confident 
God hath in store many blessings for you both. Oh, both 
join together in advancing this good work, in procuring 
maintenance for a learned and conscionable ministry. My 

VOL. I. z 

338 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

lorAj I am bold to be importunate in this kind for an 
ignorant and sottish people ; you are our sole knight of the 
shire ; be active in yours, and you will conclude your latter 
days with much honour. I see many strive to advance them- 
selves in their own ill days, but few will be seen to procure 
honest ministers, to be planted in your country : you have 
had your licence to promote this honourable work, I pray 
perfect it, which shall be the constant and fervent prayer o^ 

My lord, 

Your humblest servant, 


TarJs, this IBth April, 1647. 

The army presented a petition to the House of Com- 
mons, asking for their arrears, and praying an indenmity 
for such actions as, illegal in time of peace, were una- 
voidable in the exigency of v^ar, and for which some of 
the soldiers had been prosecuted at the assizes. This 
petition was very reasonable, but it gave great oflFence ; 
upon which a second petition, signed by the oflScers 
under Fairfax's command, was sent into the Commons 
for the purpose of explaining away all grounds of 
misconception, and vindicating themselves from the im- 
putation of defection or insubordination. A remark- 
able passage in this petition vnll show with how 
clear a sense of their rights, and with what admirable 
temper, under great wrongs and suflferings, the army 
sustained themselves through this trying crisis. 

For our liberty of petitioning, we hope this honourable 
House wiU never deny it unto us ; we know not anything 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 339 

more essential to freedom, without grievances are remediless, 
and our condition most miserable. We have not denied it to 
your adversaries; you justified and commended it in your 
declaration of the 2nd Nov., 1642, in these words : — ^^ It is the 
liberty and privilege of the people to petition unto us for the 
ease and redress of their grievances and oppressions, and we 
are bound in duty to receive their petitions.^^ And we hope, 
by being soldiers we have not lost the capacity of subjects, nor 
divested ourselves thereby of our interest in the Common- 
wealth; that in purchasing the freedoms of our brethren, we 
have not lost our own. 

Such was the spirit which the Commons themselves 

had generated. It was as ungenerous as it was unjust 

to rebuke its manifestation in any quarter, but especially 

in that body to whose fidelity, patience, and fortitude, 

the assertion and establishment of the liberties of the 

country were to be mainly ascribed. The wrong was 

rendered doubly galling by the recollection of the frank 

reception which had been given to sundry petitions from 

Essex and other ofl&cers of the old army, who had 

the satis&ction of obtaining immediate hearing even 

for their personal disputes. The New Model, conscious 

of its higher claims on the confidence and protection 

of Parliament, was consequently the more irritated 

by the jealousy and distrust with which this, its first 

petition, was treated. The following letters, from Sir 

Thomas Widdrington and Colonel White, indicate the 

feelings of the House on this matter, and contain 

references, also, to the progress of the war in Ireland : — 


340 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 


Mat it please your Lordship^ 

I RECEIVED yours of the 14th instant ; Mr. Anson 
was with me at the time when I received it, and assures me 
that Sir Edward Hussey hath made a bargain for his land, 
and is shortly to receive his money, and he farther promised 
to let Colonel White or myself know a day or two before the 
moneys be paid into Goldsmiths' Hall ; to the intent that 
Colonel White may be there ready to demand them. I hear 
the Castle of Dungarvan is taken by the Lord Inchiqnin. 
I hear the House of Commons hath voted this afternoon 
that the train and ammunition at Oxford, be presently 
disposed of for Ireland, and that the general officers which 
went down to the army shall all return hither, except Major 
Gen. Skippon, who is to stay there : I know nor hear of any 
more done this afternoon, being absent. I waited upon the 
General this day, who is in a better condition of health than 
when you left him; and I hope wiU continue so if the 
matters of the army have not too much influence upon his 
spirits. The weather in this place continues as yet extreme 
moist. I wish you may enjoy quietness at Denton. I find 
not much pf it here. There was this day a letter from the 
General Officers of the army, and a paper of the complaints 
of the army presentied to the House ; I cannot tell you the 
particulars. The aforementioned votes show how they were 
resented. I desire by this to present my duty to your lord- 
ship and my lady, and take leave to remain. 

My lord, your lordship's humble servant, 

Th. Widdrington. 

Oray'a Inn, the 1 Bth of May, 1647. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 341 

I am troubled with a cold in my head^ which operates 
upon my tooth and one of my eyes, and renders me unfit for 
writing ; otherwise, I should have written by this post to 
my uncle Charles and my brother Arthington, and I shaD 
be glad to serve Colonel Thornton, in the thing he desires, 
so far as shall fall within my power. The General is ordered 
by the House to go down to the army, which I hear is very 



My noble Lord, 

By your lordship's received the last night, I perceive 
that your lordship may receive letters and return answer by 
the same post, of which I am very glad. 

This day Sir Richard Lucy telleth me that Mr. Spencer 
Lucy is come to town, and will some day this week pay his 
money. There is no news of Sir John Mounson yet at 
Goldsmiths' Hall, and I hear he is town ; therefore, I desire 
your lordship's further direction, whether I shall not procure 
an order for the sequestration to be laid again upon his 
estate. In case of nonpayment speedily I do intend to send 
one of Goldsmiths' Hall messengers unto him to quicken 
him in the meantime. This day, by letters from my Lord 
Inchiquin, he informs the House, that he hath taken the 
town and Castle of Dungarvan, with two other castles from 
the rebels ; that he is absolute master of the field in 
Munster; that the rebels generally want ammunition and 
money, by reason whereof they are not able to take the 
field with any considerable force ; that they are not any- 
where above 1500 men in one body, and that they are so 

342 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

divided amongst themselves that they are not likely to do 
much hurt. 

This day also came a letter from Major General Skippon, 
Lieutenant General Cromwell^ and the rest sent into the 
army, that they had received the resolutions of the army to 
the propositions delivered by them from the Parliament, 
but thought not fit to send them but by some of themselves, 
which might withall declare some material circumstances; 
they or some of them are speedily to be here. I hope the 
army will prove obedient, as well as successful. 

I hear they meddle not with anything but what concerns 
them as soldiers. 

There are divers gentlemen in the House (whom your 
lordship may imagine), who are very desirous to have the 
army speedily disbanded, and upon a long debate this day it 
was resolved, that it be referred to the committee at Derby 
House, to consider of the time and manner of speedy dis- 
banding all such forces as are not voted to be continued for 
service of this kingdom, or shall not engage for Ireland. 

This evening we had read in the House a paper from the 
King, in answer to the propositions sent to him at Newcastle, 
but gave little satisfaction. It came down in a message 
from the Lords, and it being six of the clock, the House 
ordered to take the message into consideration upon Thurs- 
day next. 

For farther relation of the proceedings, I shall refer your 
lordship to the Diurnal, and humbly presenting my own 
and my wife^s most hxmible service to your lordship and your 
noble lady, take leave to remain, 

My lord, your lordship's most humble servant. 

Will. White. 

London^ May 16<^, 1647. 

The 200,000/. will all be ready before Thursday night next. 

1647.3 THE CIVIL WAR. 343 

On the 1 8th May, it was resolved by the House that, 
with the exception of certain garrisons, all the forces of 
the kingdom not subscribing for the service of Ireland 
(some of them having explicitly declined to do so until 
their arrears were discharged) should be disbanded, and 
that the General should forthwith repair to the army. 
The situation of Sir Thomas Fairfax, throughout these 
harassing discussions, was, in the last degree, painful 
and anxious. Even patient Rushworth declares, that 
were he General, he would not hold his command an 
hour longer. 


Mt Lobd^ 

I MUST crave your pardon for my brevity. I hope 
Mr. Bowles will enlarge. Things are mighty uncertain, rather 
tending to a confusion than composing of differences. The 
General is commanded down to the army : one saying in the 
House he had time enough to go to Hyde Park, but not to 
attend his duty, — speaking it with much scorn. Truly, my 
lord, it is resolved upon the question that nothing but exas- 
peration and provocation shall be used to enforce the army 
to disorder. And then the Presbyterians say they are neces- 
sitated to join with the King ; and in order to this design, 
the King hath sent up to the Parliament his answer to the 
proposition to settle Presbytery for three years, the militia 
for ten years, and such like. A committee is appointed to 
consider of the King's answer. It is well for your lordship 

344 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

to be absent ; for it is in vain to be bere. And were it not 
for the good of tbe kingdom^ were I as the General, I would 
scorn to bold my command an hour longer; but truly bis 
patience is great ; and lie wishes he had a fair opportunity to 
give over. 

Jno. Rushwobtu. 

May ntk^ 1647. 



Mat it please your Lordship^ 

I SHALL not say mucb of tbe business of tbis day^ 
because I bope Rusbwortb batb given your lordsbip a full 
account of it. Notbing will be acceptable tbat comes &om 
tbe army^ but all tbings are bastened for a speedy disband- 
ing of it. And I am ordered by tbe House fortbwitb to 
repair to tbe army, if my bealtb will permit it. I tbink in a 
few days to go down to it (God willing). I stiU expect to 
bave great difficulties put upon me; but I trust tbe Lord 
will bring me out of tbem. My bealtb, God be tbanked, is 
sometbing better; but too soon relapses witb a little trouble. 
I desire your lordsbip to pardon me for my sbortness in 
writing, boping you will bave a fuller account otberway. 
So, desiring to present my service to my lady, and to have 
your prayers, I remain 

Your lordsbip^s most obedient son, 

T. Fairfax. 

London, May \8tk, 1647. 

Persons who had the best opportunities of forming a 
judgment as to the probable conduct of the army, when 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 345 

the moment of dissolution came, entertained serious 
fears for the result, as may be seen in letters from Sir 
William Constable, Colonel Overton, and the Rev. 
Edward Bowles (already known to the reader), who 
was chaplain to the forces under Sir Thomas Fairfax. 
Sir William Constable declares that obedience is not to 
be expected from the soldiers, and Colonel Overton 
dimly foresees a remoter danger in the consequences 
of letting loose a mass of disappointed men, without 
provision, on the country. Happily these prognostica- 
tions were disappointed by the result. Notwithstanding 
their grievances the soldiers were firm in their alle- 
giance ; and the appearance of the General at head- 
quarters restored order and confidence. 



My Lord, 

I RECEIVED letters from Mr. Rushworth by this 
post, wherein he desires to be excused to your lordship for 
not writing, and entreats me to transmit to your lordship 
what I received, the substance of which is this, that the pro- 
ceedings of the Parliament and City against the army are 
very violent. They have voted to send for their train of 
artillery to Oxford, to be bestowed for the service of Ireland, 
and to send commissioners to disband the army, with eight 
weeks' pay; and sent the General down on Thursday last. 
(I pray Gk)d direct him to avoid the snares are laid for him.) 

346 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

The army have drawn up their grievanoes^ and^ for aught I 
hear, intend to present them ; but are very doubtful what to 
do when the commissioners come to disband them. I pray 
Grod direct them for the best, rather than to suffer them to 
do 01. The King hath anticipated the propositions with an 
answer to the halves. The militia for ten years, and after 
that to be disposed as in the days of Queen Elizabeth. The 
Presbytery for three years, .of which, he says, he thinks they 
will be weary in that time : provided he may enjoy his liberty 
in his own chapel : that he may send twenty divines to the 
Assembly to consider of a Church government : to pass acts 
for the Parliament's debts, including his own: confirming 
acts of the new Great Seal, so that they confirm the old : an 
Act of Oblivion for all delinquencies. I doubt not but your 
lordship hath these advertisements from other hands ; but I 
could not neglect the trust reposed in me, much less my duty 
to your lordship, which I shall personally tender as soon as 
possibly I may, which I hope wiU be this day se'nnight. 
In the meantime I am, my lord. 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

Edw. Bowles. 

York, May 22nd, 1647. 


May it please your Lordship, 

I HAVE, and still shall continue to scribble unto 
you, every post. Having this opportunity of Mr. Jo. Went- 
worth, I send the news which passed last day in the House 
— a day of as great harmony as I have seen of late. The 
General went to Saffiron Walden upon Thursday last 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 347 

This gentleman tells me that he hath occasion to wait 
upon you at Denton^ and desires your favour in a business 
between Colonel Bethell and himself^ wherein he thinks the 
justice of his business wiU be a sufficient inducement to your 
lordship to mediate for, and the Colonel to condescend to his 
desires. I have many years known this gentleman, and the 
goodness of his disposition, which emboldens me to insert 
this much of business in this letter, of which I know you 
desire to be free at Denton. I have no more to add, but my 
duty to your lordship and my lady, and remain, my lord. 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 

Thos. Widdrington. 

Qrmfi I'm, May 23rd, 1647. 


My Lord, 

I DIRECTED a letter to your lordship in your jour- 
ney, by the post, who, I presumed, would overtake you. K 
that came not to yoijir hands, I lost only my own excuse, and 
presenting you with such passages as were then fresh. I 
missed very narrowly your taking horse, and by that means 
received not any particular commands from your lordship, 
which shall be very carefully observed on the least intima- 
tion from you. Your getting well to Denton was the best 
news I could expect from thence ; and if I could give a good 
account of our getting well off from our disputes here with 
the army, it were more desirable news than I am as yet 
furnished for. On Friday, our last day of sitting, there was 
much joy in the House, at the fair accord that seemed to be 

348 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

for some hours^ upon the report which Lieutenant General 
Cromwell made from the army^ divers things being yoted^ 
besides an ordinance^ that day passing both Houses^ for 
indemnity for things done thi;ough the necessity of the war ; 
consideration had for securing the remainder of arrears, and 
freeing all such as had served as volunteers £t*om being 
pressed for the service of Ireland, with some other fair 
things ; but one small thing being moved and denied, which 
was a declaration that we parted with them as Mends, being 
satisfied of their good affection to the Parliament, this drew 
out some sharp expressions, turned our fair day into a storm, 
the House rising in the midst of the heat, and the debate 
deferred till Tuesday, our next day of sitting. My lord, 
thus far I had gone yesterday. This day the debate about 
giving satisfaction to the army by some vindication of them 
being laid aside by vote, the time of disbanding all the foot 
was voted severally for every regiment, — ^beginning with the 
General^s regiment, at Chelmsford, this day se^nnight, and 
so proceeding with the rest at their several quarters, at 
several days, which will end about the 15th of June. I do 
not think that it is expected by any that obedience will be 
yielded by the soldiers, the provocations being so resented 
and grown to such an height; I fear we shall too soon see 
the issue, which God prevent. 

I win trouble your lordship no further, but desire to have 
my uncivil parting with my lady excused, who remain. 

Your lordship^s most himible servant, 

Wm. Constable. 

Q/ueen Street, May 24th, 1647. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 349 


My Lord^ 

I CONTINUED my present station in this place in 
hope of a happy and fair discharge of that trust, which 
hitherto I can comfortably account for, your lordship's 
honoured conferrings in that and all my other undertakings 
under you, and unfeignedly spoke myself as much your 
honour's, in your humble close, as the greatest beginnings 
under your lordship, and live as thankfully as I have acted 
faithfully, in your most noble intrustments. I cannot add to 
those constant relations which weekly come to your lordship 
from abler pens, only amongst others I offer my mite of 
observance. I see, methinks, a contention, in crossing 
betwixt the long robe and the short; the one upon the 
interests of the States' trust, and the other for the price of 
blood, the honour of his arms, and the indemnity of his 
person. I trust piety and public respect will, on both parts, 
prevent and persuade; I wish the variety of opinions and 
capricious parties multiply not old diseases beyond state 
remedies ; we might hereby become rather a land of promise 
than of peace. The City's petition was lately burnt for 
some supposed seditious overtures. The soldiers' grievances 
are come in, and moneys raised for the cure; yet, if too much 
public faith intermix the ingredient, I doubt disbanding may 
lose its common Catholic virtue. Reduction to an army is the 
most odious part of arithmetic, nor can it be gotten of an 
anti-liberal, which is so scant and pinching. Methinks it is 
hard to exchange our erst honourable employment into lazy 
begging by ineffectual petitioning; but I can add little more 
offer to your lordship than what every Diurnal delivers. I shall 

350 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

ever, to my utmost, rest ready to discharge what I owe. I 
trust your lordship is in my overtures more apt to put forth 
a pardon than to impute blame. The good of the garrison in 
its condition will, I know, in the promotion of your honour's 
interest for its good or my own, not want a favourable influ- 
ence, suitable to its necessitous condition in their pay, or my 
own employment. I shall not further insist on circumstances, 
having sufficiently blotted this paper. To avoid any farther 
prolixity or disorder, I shall only add that I am, 

Your lordship's devoted servant, 

RoBT. Overton. 

London, 25th May, 1647. 

The announcement of what had Been done by Parlia- 
ment was unsatisfactory to the army. The amount of 
pay to be distributed was pitifiil — the amnesty was 
not sufficiently comprehensive. There was a mutual 
disposition apparent nevertheless to adjust these diffi- 
culties. The army was fortified by right and reason, 
and Parliament could not fail at last to see the justice 
of admitting its claims. Sir Thomas Fairfax stood 
between them, assuaging the storm at both sides, and 
controlling his explosive materials with great prudence 
and ability. 

While these negociations, in the shape of rendezvous, 
petitions, and counter-petitions, were going forward, the 
King was filling up his leisure with bowls and secret 
correspondence at Holmby, and the nation, engrossed by 
the new questions, and believing his Majesty to be 
quite safe, almost forgot that such a person existed. 
But the army was not so indifferent. It saw clearly 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAE. 351 

that the custody of the royal prisoner gave the vantage 
ground to Parhament in the pending arbitration ; and 
a desire to get possession of the King began to spread 
amongst the troops. That such was the feeHng of the 
army cannot be doubted, although it was carried into 
operation not by an organised movement, but by an 
isolated adventure. One Comet Joyce, taking upon him- 
self to represent the general desire, saUied out of Oxford 
at the head of 500 troopers, made direct for Holmby, 
and taking possession of his Majesty's person, with his 
Majesty's consent^ carried him oflF. Upon intelligence 
of this extraordinary action, which threw the whole 
kingdom, more especially the ParUament and city, into 
consternation. Sir Thomas Fairfax oflFered to deUver his 
Majesty from the custody of Joyce, but his Majesty 
declined. He thought he was better where he was ; 
that new distractions would spring out of this strange 
incident ; and that he might ultimately profit by the 
confusion. And so we leave him for the present at 
Newcastle, playing at tennis, and discoursing with 
Comet Joyce and Hugh Peters, the latter endeavouring 
in vain to prevail upon his Majesty to let him preach 

before him. 

The ParUament men, such as HoUis, Stapleton, and 
Clotworthy, designated as " incendiaries '' in the next 
letter by Rushworth, were the prime movers in the votes 
and measures which had given umbrage to the soldiers. 
They had most of them belonged to the old army under 
Essex and Manchester, and regarded the New Model 

352 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

with the most rancorous hostility. The Stapleton here 
alluded to was Sir PhiUp Stapleton, member for Borough- 
bridge, to be distinguished from another Stapleton who 
was member for Aldborough, and from the William 
Stapleton who attended Charles II. in exile, and was 
created a baronet after the Restoration. There was a third 
Stapleton who was a gentleman of the bed-chamber to 
Charles I. ; and a fourth who was private chaplain to 
Cromwell. Sir John Clotworthy was member for Maiden. 
The proceedings arising out of the abduction, or, 
rather, the elopement of the King, may be traced 
through the following letters. The army, having pos- 
session of the King, moved nearer to London, and 
gave a firmer and more distinct expression to their 
demands. They openly charged the disaflFected mem- 
bers with the evil machinations which had wrought this 
disastrous difi*erence, and demanded their dismissal, 
declaring at the same time their resolution in no 
way to meddle with the settlement of religion, and 
requiring that the Parliament should carry out its 
own principle of free representation through successive 
ParUaments, so that " men might not sit perpetual judges 
over their fellow-subjects.'^ The dignity and moderation 
of the army throughout this dangerous crisis cannot be 
too deeply appreciated. By their motions about London 
they displayed their power without abusing it, and pre- 
vented disturbance by exhibiting the means of suppres- 
sion. If on any point, they exceeded their legitimate 
province, it was in stipulating for the security of the 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 353 

King's rights and prerogatiye and the succession of his 
femily. Such grave questions did not Ke properly at 
the disposal of the iron hand of the executive. But the 
purpose of the army was the settlement of the kingdom, 
and the restoration of peace, and some latitude may be 
allowed to the wide discretion with which circumstances 
had invested them. 



My Lobd^ 

I BEG pardon for my haste : the King is now at 
Newmarket^ well guarded more than regarded. Businesses 
grow high. I hope God will bring much good to the king- 
dom by it, and a sudden peace. If they had had the King, 
I mean HoUis and Stapleton^ &c., the Scots had come in to 
have crushed this army. The Lord direct the General and the 
army ; tomorrow we have a rendezvous near Royston. Sir 
Henry Vane, jun. and others come down to-day to satisfy the 
army. This enclosed letter from the General to the House 
will satisfy your lordship. The army hath honest intentions, 
none need fear them but such as HoUis, Stapleton, Clotworthy, 
and such incendiaries. No doubt the Scotch will come in 
yet, if they think to find no opposition in the north ; other 
friends there had need bestir themselves. 

I think business here will be brought to a sudden push in 
one week, you will see a way agreed on to compose all in 
love. My humble service to your good lady, 

John Btjshworth. 

Cambridge^ Jtme 9ih, 1647. 
VOL. I. A A 

354 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 



My Lord^ 

CoNSiDEBiNO my own duty, and your lordship^s 
soUcitude about the affairs wliich are in transaction above, I 
could not but give you a short account of the news I received. 
And first, in general, I have very good hopes that upon the 
whole matter, there is little danger ; but that if God give them 
wisdom to manage their business it may produce very good 
effects in the Parliament and kingdom, which were going on 
in the high way to a worse confusion. The business is very 
strongly laid in the army, and the Parliament and city are 
very backward to raise new forces, notwithstanding the 
earnest endeavours to that end, especially by the Scots who 
are very much moved at the Parliament being no more moved 
with the securing the King ; and have made an offer of aid 
for his rescue j but sure we shall beware the third time. The 
army have resigned themselves in all business to the hands 
of their superior officers — ^and the General and Lieutenant- 
general appear in the regulating things among them. And 
they have given ground to the General to declare that they 
intend not at all to interest themselves in matters of religion, 
either in opposing Presbytery, or effecting liberty of religions, 
but that they will submit in those things, which is very well. 
They intend to hold the King only in safe custody, so that 
he do no harm, and I think the malignants, notwithstanding 
all their hopes, wiU have a hard bargain of his being there. 
The Parliament have sent down commissioners to treat with 
them, as Sir Henry Vane, jun., Mr. Scowen, Major General 
Skippon, and one Mr. Povey ; pray God give them wisdom 
on both sides so to order their desires and grants as the 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 355 

public good may be most advantaged. We shall very shortly 
hear of their propositions. And truly it may be hoped that 
this appearance of trouble may more hasten our peace than 
the many overtures of peace elsewhere. But things are not 
so secure but that it will be very necessary to look up ear* 
nestly to God^ who fashioneth the hearts of men> to order 
things by his infinite wisdom to the public good. To him I 
commend your lordship, your family and affairs, and am 

Your lordship^s humble servant, 

Edw. Bowles. 

Yorky Jme I2ihy 1647. 


Saturday last, the General and part of his army 
came to St. Albans. The Parliament and City were much 
affrighted at it. The Parliament upon it revoked the power 
of the Committee of Safety, newly made, that they should 
act nothing but as the House was acquainted with it. The 
Common Council were much offended at the Committee of 
the Militia for offering to beat up drums, and to require the 
shutting up of the shops for fear of this army, which they 
never feared or distrusted, and wrote a civil letter unto the 
General, expressing much averseness to raisie any forces in 
the least measure against this army, and sent fotir aldermeii 
and eight common-councilmen to the General, to St. Albans, 
who accordingly came thither, upon Monday morning, and 
received infinite satisfaction of the reality of the army 
towards the City, as intending them no hurt. And for their 
fuller satisfaction, yesterday, June 14th, (that day that 
Naseby battle was fought), the General and his Council of 

A a2 

356 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

War finished the representation of the General and the 
army^ concerning the bottom of their desires^ in relation to 
the King, ParUament, and kingdom, which is very long, 
but set forth with much reason and arguments to strengthen 
the same. It will be put in print to-morrow, but will hardly 
come down by the post. I shall only hint briefly, because 
my time is short. The particulars are — 

1. That those members of Parliament who have incensed 
the Parliament against the army, and would have begot a 
new war, may not sit any longer as judges over us, and that 
if the House will give leave, their names shall be made 
known, and particularly charges against members delivered 
in; and, accordingly, the persons were named, — HolKs, 
Stapleton, Lewis, Clotworthy, [Sir William] Waller, Massey^ 
and some others. 

2. It is desired that the Parliament will consider of a time 
when they will put an end to the Parliament, first settling 
the peace of the kingdoms and those other things in order to 
it j and that there may be Parliaments successively, whereby 
men may not sit perpetual judges over their fellow-subjects. 

3. It is declared that the army will no ways hinder 
the settling of the Presbytery, desiring regard may be 
had to tender consciences, according to the Parliament's 

4. That when the King hath settled the militia and those 
other things relating to the peace of the kingdom, that he 
and his posterity may have his just rights and prerogative. 

And lastly, that the free-bom subjects of England may not 
be debarred the liberty of petitioning. 

There are very few particulars more besides these; and it 
is expressed in the Representation that in these we do 
acquiesce, though these be not all we might desire, but will 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 357 

trust this Parliament and future Parliaments for the better 
satisfaction of it. The Parliament would have us forty miles 
from London^ the City thirty miles ; but till we have assur- 
ance that no forces shall be raised^ either by Parliament or 
City, we cannot with safety think of going back. Stapleton 
and Hollis court the Beformadoes to lay a foundation of an 
army, which is a thing odious to the City, who plainly see 
their danger to be greater, even of a massacre by those 
intended to be raised by that party, than of any fear if our 
army were all in the City. 

I am so over-toiled with business, I cannot write much, 
but shall, by an express, send more to your lordship. 

John Bushworth. 

St, Albcms'Jume I5ih, 1647. 


The representation of the army in print, I suppose, 
is now public in the North; the agitators of horse have 
undertaken to disperse them in those parts ; it gives great 
satisfaction in all these parts of the kingdom. The charge 
against the members takes not so well ; it is held too slight ; 
the privilege of Parliament is so tender a thing that they 
will not suspend a member on a general charge ; for more 
than suspension is not desired. The particular charge will 
be speedily ready and against some of them to the purpose. 
But time will not admit of this dilatory proceeding; and 
therefore expedition will be used in a more general way, in 
order to a permanent settlement of the peace of the king- 
dom, which will be pressed to be done without delay before 
foreign forces or Scots come in ; and therefore, if in the next 

358 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

you hear the army is gone to court ladies in Hyde Park^ 
think it not strange^ neither wonder that on Thursday next 
Colonel Whaley attends the King with a strong guard to 
Richmond, where I believe more forces will be about that 
time. But that suits not with the votes of both Houses, that 
only Colonel Bossiter's regiment shall be there for a guard ; 
for, believe it, I perceive the army will not part with the 
King without a peace settled. Great is the fear at London 
at the army's approach ; but it is chiefly of those who have 
so provoked the army, and been imthankful to it, which 
(under God) was their deliverance. The Committee of Com- 
mon Council are here; the correspondency is very fair 
between the city and army. 

The army votes nothing, nor sends the Parliament any- 
thing, without communicating it to the city ; truth is, the 
city more fears the Reformers within than the army without. 
The Parliament was yesterday again kept in by force by 
their blades tiU they had more money granted them. The 
Parliament is not free ; nothing will set it free (it was con- 
ceived) but the army. An adjournment is threatened ; Groi 
guide their counsels ; a week is like to produce great change; 
let all honest men in all parts of the kingdom be united, and 
prevent any that shall endeavour to raise new forces to beget 
a new war. 


Your servant, 

John Rushwobth. 

St. AlbaniyJime 22ndf 1647. 

The General is well, and hopes of good upon this business. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAB. 359 


Out of the respect I owe your Excellency^ I thought 
it conyenient to give you notice that there are several 
gentlemen pretending dependence of your army^ as also 
authority from yourself though not produced to the satisfac- 
tion of officers^ who have appointed private rendezvous^ so 
far to the disturbance of the forces as the Parliament has 
taken notice of them^ and have sent me a note of the House 
to apprehend such who shall come hither to disturb their 
forces in this Association, the which I have taken course to 
publish ; all which I have here communicated to your Excel- 
lency, desiring a favourable construction to what I do, in 
order to their present commands. I shall take a return to 
these from your Excellency as an addition to the former 
civility, which have obliged me to subscribe myself 

Sydenham Poyntz. 

June 2bthy 1647. 




I HAVE not omitted one post, but have writ unto 
your lordship by the way of Leeds ; but doubting they mis- 
carry that way, I shall hardly adventure, unless I hear they 
come safe to your hands ; for affairs here, I hope things will 
come to a speedy and happy composure. Upon the armies 
coming into Uxbridge, the members withdrew, upon their 
own motion ; and both Houses have voted and enabled their 
committee to treat and debate things with the army, which 

360 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

are mentioned in the army's representation and papers. The 
City is very fair to us^ and have a standing committee in the 
army to keep a good correspondence between the City and 
the army. They and all good men much confide in the 
General^ and hope for a good conclusion, but fear the disobe- 
dience of the soldiers^ which truly, I think, need not. The 
General hath had sore conflicts in this business, and indeed 
he hath a hard game to play, in managing a matter so much 
out of method and rule ; and I hope the Lord, in conclusion, 
will let all men see that not by ends exceeding him, or most 
under him, to be (as it were) in a condition of disobedience 
to the Parliament. It is but in relation to the ill party, 
whom your lordship knows what malice they have vented 
against Him and the army. Parliament must be upheld: 
abuses in it fit to be reformed. This is all I shall trouble 
your lordship with at present, and remain 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

John Bushworth. 

Uxbridge, Jum 27<^, 1647, 12 at night. 


Honourable Sir, 

I HAVE communicated your letter, the ordinances 
and votes you sent me to my officers, and they have made 
them known to most of their respective troops and companies ; 
but there is such a distemper in several of their regiments as 
that we find no authority or power we have, will recall them 
to their former obedience. Their main desire is to associate 
their forces with his Excellency's army, resolving to stand or 
fall with them : in this their instant request to his purpose, 
they have selected two out of every assenting troop or com- 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 361 

pany who now reside at Pontefract, advising and acting with 
some come from the southern army what they think fit in 
pursuance of their aforesaid end. This day, five of their 
number, upon my engagement for their safe return, which I 
was willing to do both the better to know their intentions ; 
and because the Council of War did conceive it to be of dan- 
gerous consequence to apprehend them ; now did present to 
the Council of War a declaration which they demanded to 
be immediately subscribed by some of the colonels present, 
or to receive their negative answer, upon which it was then 
resolved by the Council of War, whose advice therein was 
requested by the said colonels, they should suspend their 
answer till the return of the gents. 

I lately sent to his Excellency to inform him of the men 
come hither from his Excellency's army, pretending by his 
authority ; and of the vote directed to me to apprehend such 
as come hither to disturb this army. What the issue of these 
things will be I know not; I shall humbly desire the directions 
of the House herein, and in all things to my utmost power 
shall be ready to manifest my fidelity to the Parliament, and 

approve myself 

Your most humble servant, 

Sydenham Poyntz. 

July 2nd, 1647. 

P.S. Sir, — Our forces here have observed, that they have 
ever waited long for whatsoever moneys the House hath 
ordered them ; and perhaps fear the like now, his Excellency's 
army having received theirs. If that 10,000/. lately ordered 
could be presently procured, it might be a probable expedient 
to satisfy the soldiers in this distraction; therefore, my humble 
request is, you would be pleased to contribute your assistance 
for that purpose, and it shall add to my former engagements. 

362 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 



May it please youe Lordship^ 

I HAVING some occasion to send a messenger near 
Denton^ made bold thereby to present my most humble 
service to your lordship and my lady ; and to give you to 
understand how all things pass here^ and what we have 
heard from his Excellency's army, viz., — Captain Clayton 
returned to York yesterday, about eight of the clock in the 
forenoon, with an answer from his Excellency (to this inclosed, 
dated June 25th, 1647). To this eflfect his Excellency writ : 
That if any officers or soldiers were come from his army into 
the Northern army, and laboured to inform this army of the 
fair carriage of his, and that such demands as were desired 
were just, and the reports cast upon himself and his army 
in disobeying ordinance of ParUament were untrue ; said he 
had sent none such : but if any such were come from his 
army, and had endeavoured to satisfy any of the truths afore- 
said, he and the forces under him would countenance and 
protect such good instruments, and those that adhere to 
them. So that Poyntz is hereby satisfied, and intends (after 
a consultation he had with old Ferns) he and his whole 
family to-morrow se^nnight for London, that he may give up 
his commission, by reason he cannot have any command in 
the North, save of Colonel Ledgard, Captain CNeale, 
Captain Blacker, and some few more inconsiderable persons, 
as the Marshall-General and such like fellows. 

Your lordship will further perceive what doings were at the 
Council of War, on Friday last, by this other inclosed, which 
was before Clayton came back with an answer. The letter is 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAB. 363 

sent to the House. I wish it make no alteration of Poyntz's 
journey. K Clayton had done his message faithfully^ it had 
prevented this letter to the House. He got to his Excellency 
on Monday last^ by twelve o^clock^ and was dispatdt^ on 
Tuesday for coming back ; but whether he had some message 
from Poyntz to some of the members questioned yea or no^ 
I know not ; but for the nearest way for Yorkshire he went 
to London^ and so got not York before Saturday. 

He takes care how to pass clear from the soldiers : they 
are much enraged against him^ about these two he caused to 
be executed, neither calling a council of war upon them^ nor 
affording them time to prepare for death. All his creatures 
have forsaken him^ but such as are extraordinary ill-condi- 
tioned. I think I know them every one. I sent by the last 
post the copy of the letter (to the House) to his Excellency. 
Not to trouble your lordship any further at present ; but as 
occasion offers itself you shall hear further from him who is, 

my lord. 

Your lordship^s most humble servant, 


Torky July Alh, 1647. 

It was five of those they call agitators came from Ponte- 
fract last Friday, and in the time the Council of War sat at 
Poyntz's house, they desired admittance, and after long 
debate with him and the officers, were then admitted ; and 
their message was, first an engagement of so many troops 
and companies to the southern army ; then they headed an 
engagement and declaration for Colonel Bethnell and Colonel 
Copley to subscribe and demand their hands thereto, and to 
repair to their regiments, or otherwise to take their answer. 
Ledgard would gladly had some advantage against them, or 
the army in the North, if he could, but they were dismissed ; 

364 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

and though neither Colonel signed them, I hear the officers 
have all subscribed since, or most of them. Sir William 
Constable went from York yesterday, about twelve o'clock, 
for Bewley, and so to Hull. He will be at York next Friday. 



Since my last there hath little of note happened ; 
only on Friday last the treaty began at Wickham, where 
things were debated by the Lords, Commons, and the Com- 
missioners of the Army, which was rather to prepare the 
method of the treaty than to agree of any matter of sub- 
stance at that time. On Saturday the head-quarters removed 
to Eeading, and the King, being then at Windsor, removed 
to Cavesham, the Lord Craven's house, within two miles of 
Beading. Monday there was but little time spent in the 
treaty, by reason the officers were engaged in finishing the 
charge against the members ; and this day it was presented 
to the House by four colonels, a mayor, two lieutenant- 
colonels, four captains, and two soldiers in behalf of the 
general and the whole army. There being so many persons 
impeached, and requiring therefore variety of matter, were 
necessitated to the spinning out of so much time till now 
for the delivery of it in, when yet a power is reserved for 
adding more articles at any time before the trial, and to have 
a trial speedily cannot be expected, unless it be upon one or 
two of the principles; for then it will protract the great 
business of the kingdom, which will admit of no delay, for 
expedition is the life of our business, and be assured not an 
hour's time will be lost in concluding upon those things 
which are for the present settlement of the peace of the 

1647.] - THE CIVIL WAR. 365 

kingdom. The King's party carry themselves vely high and 
insolent^ as conceiving the army acts their game; whereas 
they have little cause to think it; for so far forth as any- 
thing is fitting to be desired on their behalf for the more 
securing the peace of the kingdom^ something will be offered, 
but as in relation to set them up in their authority again, 
they may have little hopes ; for certainly the army will never 
desert the interest of the Parliament, and honest people of 
England that have adhered to them. Notwithstanding if the 
King grant what is desired for the security of the kingdom, 
as settling the militia by sea and land in trusty hands, and 
those other things that shall be agreed to by the Parliament, 
that then the Parliament grant him what may appertain to 
his right. There is a continuance for the present of two of the 
King's chaplains to be with him. The head-quarters is to 
be continued at Beading, till such time as things be settled. 
The eleven members were called into the House to hear the 
reading of the charge, who, after the reading thereof, set a 
good face on the businesses, hoping to clear themselves. 

J. Bush WORTH. 

L(ynd(my Jvly 6th, 1647. 

The General is well, but much perplexed with business ; 
the burden of the kingdom lies upon him. 


May it please your Lordship, 

The treaty hath had no progress since Wednesday 
last, at which time the general and officers made three pro- 
posals : first, against reformado officers staying in London ; 
secondly, against new levying and listing of men in and 

366 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

about London ; thirdly^ for purging the House of delinquent 
members ; and until they have satisfaction in these things^ 
they said that they could not safely proceed in the treaty : 
since which time the House hath done several things which 
I hope may give satisfaction in all these three particulars. 
We are now told that the heads of the treaty are in a very 
good preparation and forwardness^ and hope to see all or 
most of them in one bulk or body at the same time^ which 
sight will be far less discouragement than doing nothing. 
Dispatch and expedition herein^ as they are the common 
desires of most people^ so they are things professed by all 
parties here to be extremely laboured for, and for my part I 
see no instant ground to beheve or suspect otherwise. It 
must be confessed that the business is weighty, and consists 
of many particulars already visible out of their papers, which 
must necessarily require much time, as well in the prepara- 
tion and proposal, as in the debate and resolution. We hope 
to begin again upon the treaty this day or tomorrow, which 
hath now had so long a parenthesis of stay. The Prince 
Elector dined with the general on Saturday last, and the 
French ambassador gave him a visit in the afternoon. 

This all for the present : with my duty to your lordship and 
my lady. 

My lord, your lordship's humble servant, 

Tho. Widdrington. 

From Beading, July l^th, 1647. 

I beseech your lordship's pardon for using my man's hand 
in writing some part of this. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 367 


Since my last upon this day se^nniglit^ there hath 
not been that expedition in relation to the treaty as was 
hoped for in my last^ the reason is^ because those things 
desired by the army in order to our security before we 
engage to proceed upon the treaty, are not fully granted ; but 
since, there is just cause of fears and jealousies, that if we 
should engage in the treaty, there would be an obstruction 
(our former desires being not granted), as for instance : The 
Houses have not yet declared against the calling in of foreign 
forces ; they have not yet by vote of the House, suspended 
those members that have been lately impeached; without 
which no proposition can be agreed upon by the Committees 
of the Parliament and the Army in order to a peace ; but if 
those men come in they may protract if not prevail to cause 
a denial of what is propounded : besides the ordinance which 
they have put forth to purge the city of reformadoes, is not 
effectual, for that any fewer of the militia may grant leave 
for any one that shall allege they have a necessary occasion 
to stay, and so any fewer of those of the militia who granted 
a commission to D^Albiere to raise forces against this army, 
may with much disposition of mind, grant leave for such 
reformadoes to stay as may be serviceable to their ends. 

The greatest satisfaction the House hath given this last 
week, hath been in declaring the penalty upon such members 
who have aided or assisted the King, or sued for, or accepted 
pardons from the King. This indeed is like to produce a 
good effect, for many of the western gentlemen, as namely. 
Sir Samuel R., Sir John B., &c., are conceived to come 
within that compass, and near thirty more for accepting of 
pardons &om the King. 

368 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

Sir Charles Egerton and others, are like to withdraw upon 
another account. Mr. Ant. NichoU had a report made con- 
cerning his election, and it is voted clear illegal, having sat 
six years without just warrant : do not conceive, that the 
army protracts the treaty, or delays time for any end, for 
whilst they have been thus labouring for satisfaction from 
the Parliament in the aforesaid particulars, they have not 
omitted to prepare the foundation of a treaty, or rather a 
whole map of every particular to be treated upon, which 
being now finished, tomorrow will pass a council of war, 
then the Committees will have the whole business before 
them. The particulars are many (as well they may be), con- 
sidering it contains the settlement of all things in order to 
the peace of the Kingdom. 

The Prince Elector coming to see the King, came on 
Saturday last and dined with the general, showing great 
respect unto him, and the general answered it with discharg- 
ing twenty-two pieces of cannon at his going away. In the 
afternoon, the French ambassador who had been with the 
King, came to the General and gave him a visit as the General 
had done to him in the forenoon. I presume you have a 
great noise of a resort of cavaliers to the court at Cavesham. 
It is true they came, both Scottish and English ; some have 
access, others not ; but I hope all our friends will not alter 
their opinion of this army. 

Notwithstanding this their resort, that they will ever 
desert the Parliament, or the honest party of England, that 
ever adhered to them, there is nothing showed them but 
civility ; and that is done with as much caution as may be ; 
except now anS then an extravagant person demeans himself 
so ill as he deserves to be made incapable of that favour. 

John Rushworth. 

Beadmg^ July \Zth, 1647. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 369 



Thursday, July 15th, the officers met about the 
materials of a treaty, and sat all day long about it ; made a 
great progress therein. Debates were had whether it were 
fit to present to the world the substance of the treaty, before 
we were secured of the militia of London and kingdom to 
be safe and confiding hands. 

Friday, July 16th, a general council of war called, consist- 
ing of about 100 oflScers besides agitators. The debate held 
till almost twelve at night. There were variety of opinions, 
and all concurred in one at conclusion. The agitators were 
higher in proposals than the oflScers, who were more expert 
in State aflFairs. I only mention this, that you may be 
assured the inferior, upon good reasons, submitted to the 
superior, so that it is not will but reason that guides the pro- 
ceedings of the army. The result, in brief, was to desire 
that the militia of London might be put in the same hands 
it was before the late alteration thereof: this being a prin- 
cipal reason, that those that had it formerly were men of 
unparalleled fidelity and integrity, and as to the army, more 
to be confided in than the new. The second desire was, the 
Parliament would declare against the invasion of foreign 
forces. Third, that prisoners (except for debt, murder, &c.) 
might be set at liberty, if no proof against them, or other- 
wise released upon bail, and particularly Messrs Lilburn, 
Musgrave, Overton, &c. The fourth was, that the Committee 
of Weavers' Hall may be called to account l|pw they have 
issued out 200,000/., not above 40,000/. of it having come to 
this army. In the inquisition whereof it is supposed the 
power of the new Committee of State will appear to have 

VOL. I. B B 

370 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

been very diligent for their own advantage^ though their 
power held out not above ten days. 

The names of many of that new committee you may know^ 
if you have heard of the names of the eleven new members. 
Whilst the army was thus in debate of the militia of the 
City^ the House was in debate of the militia of the kingdom, 
and voted the Qeneral Commander-in-chief of all the land 
forces in England; and this day the Lords concurred 
therein, which, being effected, the Qeneral will thereby be 
enabled presently to order all the forces in the field and gar- 
risons, so as it is hoped they will be in such a posture, and 
so well ordered as to interrupt any insurrection that shall be 
attempted in any part of the kingdom, in case of non- 
concurrence in the treaty now in hand, and which we hope 
very shortly will be at an end. Our debates were interrupted 
by the appearance of Colonel-General Poyntz and his agitators^ 
who mutually accused each other ; but the Colonel-General 
seemed the more humble of the two. He is at liberty on his 
parole. The charge is brought in against him, yet it is con- 
ceived the prejudice will not be great if he go where he list. 
Upon the neck of this comes the news that Colonel Birches 
agitators do tread the steps of the Northern, and seized upon 
the Colonel and his brother the Major, and (to boot) the 
Castle of Hereford and 2000/. in it, besides clothes, shoes, 
and other provisions; upon this ground, that the Colonel 
and Major declared against permitting the soldiery to asso- 
ciate with this army. Upon the ColoneVs fair language his 
soldiers gave him his liberty, upon his word not to engage 
against the army. The Major, castle, and money they keep. 
Captain D'oyly being long since voted to be governor of 
Bristol, (but not agreed to by both Houses), got a commis- 
sion dormant, under the hands of Stapleton, Holies, &c.. 

1647.] THE CIYIL WAR. 371 

came down to Bristol this last week, and demanded the fort 
and castle. Captain Sampson demanded the sight of his 
commission. He produced it unto him. When he saw the 
names of Holies, Stapleton, Waller, Lewis, Glotworthy, 
Massey were at it, he told Captain D^oyly his commission was 
signed by those that were impeached by an army that had 
persevered in their fidelity to the public, which those mem- 
bers had not, and therefore he was resolved to disobey his 
commission, and live and die with the army ; and so the new 
intended Governor was dismissed. 

We remove the head-quarters to Bedford. 

John Rushworth, 

Readmgy July 20^, 1647. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Hoping still Rushworth doth supply my defect in 
writing, I make bold to omit that duty sometimes longer 
than I should do, though desirous that neither my many 
businesses nor personal infirmity should make me forget it. 
Our treaty will, I hope, speedily have an end, being now 
almost ready to be sent to the House ; but it is necessary, 
before the grounds of peace be laid down before them, some 
principal blocks be removed out of the way ; therefore, this 
day we desired the Commissioners of Parliament to send a 
paper from us to the House, in which we desire they will 
declare against the bringing into this kingdom any foreign 
force whatsoever; that the militia of London maybe put into 
their hands that did formerly manage it ; with some other 
propositions, which, being first granted, may, through God's 


372 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

blessings give a more sure and happy conclusion to our pro- 
posals of peace. Indeed, in so great a work man can only 
propose, but God dispose how it shall be. We have seen 
much of his goodness in inclining things that way of late. 
Many turbulent spirits are yet in the city and army, but I 
hope their fury shall not prevail ; and though some men's 
proceedings in this army have given some cause of jealousy, 
yet I trust, through God's assistance, we shall discern what 
is good, and not to be led along with the multitude to do 
evil. Colonel Lambart is <;oming down into the North to 
endeavour the settling of those forces, with some direction 
for that business ; if such commanders be put over them as 
do tender the public peace, and not interested otherwise, will 
be a good work. In three or four days we shall remove our 
quarters from hence — the plague hath broken out in three 
houses in Beading ; but where we shall have our next head- 
quarters is not certainly resolved. Oxford is thought on ; 
but I shaU not desire to have the Court so near as it is now ; 
it brings a great number of cavaliers amongst us, which 
brings rather an ill name than danger upon us. I shall leave 
your lordship to other relations ; so pray your blessing and 
my humble service to my lady. I remain 

Your lordship's mpst obedient servant, 

T. Paiefax. 

JReadi/ng, JtUy IBth, 1647. 

My wife and Moll present their humble duty to your lord- 
ship, and their service to my lady, 

The " agitators " alluded to in the letters of Colonel 
Holbome and Rushworth were men deputed by the 
common soldiery to represent their opinions, acting in 

1467.] THE CIVIL WAR. 373 

some sort as commissioners between them and their 
officers, and appearing even at the bar of the House of 
Commons to give an account of the business with which 
they were entrusted. The conduct of these men was 
distinguished throughout by courage and integrity ; and 
Rushworth, who would gladly have dispensed with their 
assistance at the council, bears testimony to the pro- 
priety of their bearing. 

It will be seen in these letters that the Prince Elector 
dined in high pomp with the ParUamentary General. 
The conduct of the Prince (to which allusion has been 
already made^) at this memorable period appears to 
justify the suspicion that he entertained the hope of 
succeeding to that throne from which the pressure of 
events was now not unlikely to precipitate his uncle^ 
Mr. Forster, in his able life of Cromwell, collects the 
scanty evidence upon which this suspicion is founded, 
and strengthens it by some very curious letters from 
the Prince to his mother, the beautiful Queen of 
Bohemia, which clearly show that even so far back as 
1641 "the Prince was playing a double game between 
the Court and the people's party .^'f The whole course 
of his proceedings evinced that at least he was ready to 
take advantage of circumstances, and attach himself to 
the stronger side. After having attended his Majesty 
to York, and kept with him so long as it was safe, he 
deserted him at the breaking out of hostilities, and took 
ship for Holland. He soon afterwards returned to 

* Page 101. t The Statesmen of the Commonwealtb, IV., 73. 

374 MEMORIALS OP [1647. 

England, and while his brothers, faithfiil at all events to 
their cause, were fighting for the King, he paid assi- 
duous court to the Parliament, procured a grant for the 
restitution of the pension which had formerly been 
bestowed upon him by the King, and became more and 
more bound up with the popular party as the King's 
affairs were drawing nearer to their tragical close. In 
one of his letters to his mother, dated in the November 
of the present year, he describes an interview he had 
just had with the King at Hampton Courts during 
which his Majesty reproached him for his subserviency 
to the Parliament, making use of these remarkable ex- 
pressions, " I should rather have Kved upon bread and 
water than have compUed with the ParKament, which 
he (the King) said I did to have only one chicken more 
in my dish, and that he would have thought it a design 
more worthy his nephew^ if he had gone about to have 
taken his crown from his head^ * That the Prince 
really contemplated such a turn of fortune, seems by no 
means improbable. All circumstances concur in giving 
a colour of likelihood to the supposition. But he acted 
with too much caution to risk more attainable aims upon 
the failure of that ambitious design, and, missing the 
crown of England, he succeeded in procuring his restora- 
tion to the Palatinate ; which, luckily for himself, called 
him out of the country in 1648. 

Dismissing the adventuring Elector to his foreign 
government, we return to our domestic affairs. 

• The Statesmen of the Commonwealth, IV., 80. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 375 

The explicit declarations of the army had the effect 
of inspiring the Parliament with confidence, and of 
removing all difficulty in the way of restoring a 
perfect harmony between them. It was not for the 
Parliament whose energy and wisdom had averted 
the ruin of pubUc liberty, and this army, whose alle- 
giance had been proved by the severest tests, to separate 
at such a moment. There was a common enemy, 
in the party felicitously designated the " Malignants," 
yet to be overcome, and their united power was 
necessary to its suppression. If the troops of Fairfax 
surrounding London, like the magic ring in the fairy 
tale, tightened or relaxed their circle according to circum- 
stances, making a sudden pressure only when the evil con- 
science of the city was at work, there was no design in 
such movements to alarm or intimidate the Parliament. 
On the contrary, the close neighbourhood of the troops 
was the only guarantee by which the free deliberations 
of the legislature could have been secured through this 
perilous juncture. 

In consideration of the time that would necessarily 
be consumed in the investigation of the charges against 
the eleven " incendiary^' members — ^time which could ill 
be spared from the general concerns of the kingdom — 
Fairfax, on the part of the army, declared that he 
would be content with their absence from the House 
while the proceedings for the settlement of the public 
affairs were going forward ; and the Commons, in 
accordance with this desire, passed a resolution on the 

376 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

20th July, giving " leave'' to Holies and the rest to " go 
about their particular business^' for the space of six 
months, with permission to go beyond the seas, provided 
th6y returned at the end of that time to answer the 
accusation brought against them. There was a great 
tumult in the lobbies while this resolution was passing, 
and a multitude of people thronged on the stairs and 
blocked up the doors ; but the Parliament stood firm to 
their purpose. 

The news of this resolution no sooner spread through 
the City, than it produced a terrible commotion amongst 
the apprentices — the central source of all London riot 
and disaffection. On the 26th the fiiry of the hot-brained 
youth of the guilds made itself manifest in the avenues of 
both Houses of Parliament. Vast crowds assembled, and 
petitions were forced upon the Lords and Commons, 
demanding the restoration of the eleven members, and 
of the City militia, and demanding that the King should 
be brought to London. We have the first glimpse of this 
violent proceeding in letters from Sir Thomas Widdring- 
ton, and Lady Constable, the sister of Lord Fairfax. 


May it please your Lordship, 

Colonel Whyte, being absent from hence, ac- 
quainted me by writing with the contents of your last letter 
to him, of the several particulars wherein I shall give you 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 377 

this small account. For Mr. Spenser Lucy's moneys, they 
are in town in a safe hand, and will so remain till he return 
into the country, and then care will be taken of the payment 
of what belongs to you. This I had from Sir Bichard Lucy, 
who promised me also to write to Sir John Mounson con- 
cerning his moneys. I have also spoken with Mr. Anson, 
who tells me that Sir Edward Hussey and his lady are still 
in town. They had agreed for the sale of some lands, but 
the purchaser makes some scruples, so the bargain not per- 
fected, and no moneys gotten; nor, I doubt, will be this 
long time. 

For news, we are still troubled with fears. There has of 
late appeared a new oath and confederacy, the substance of 
which is to bring the Eang to his Parliament upon such 
terms as he offers in his answer made the 12th of May last 
to the propositions sent to the King at Newcastle. The 
army hath great apprehensions upon this. [The business is 
not so well allayed as I imagined; for I hear that divers 
apprentices and others are gone to the House this day to 
present a petition to this purpose ; and there is another peti- 
tion from the Common Council against the charging of the 
militia. It is hoped that both these will be quietly settled.]* 
But the Houses have already in great measure allayed the 
business. The last militia of the City of London is changed, 
and a declaration made by both Houses against the inviting 
in of any foreign forces. I desire by this to present my duty 
to your lordship and my lady, and take leave to remain. 

My lord. 
Your lordship's humble servant, 
Thos. Widdrington. 

Qray's Inn, 2^tk Jvly, 1647. 

* This interliDeation in the original letter is evidently out of place, and should 
follow the succeeding sentence. 

378 MEMOKIALS OP [1647. 

I am going this morning to Bedford^ where the head- 
quarters and the Commissioners for Parliament are. 

My lord^ having some occasions to stay longer here this 
day than I intended, I met with your two letters, both dated 
the 23rd instant ; and my Lady Constable sent me her letter 
and one enclosed from your lordship to one Mr. Hutchinson 
as I remember. Touching that business of Sir Edward 
Hussey, I can write no more than what I have above written. 
I believe that you will hardly get any moneys from that hand 
suddenly. I am sorry to hear of my lady's weakness. I 
beseech God strengthen her. For my own journey north- 
ward, it is a thing I very much desire ; but in regard to my 
present employment, cannot think it yet fit to ask leave. I 
purpose (God willing) next week to essay it, for the time of 
the assizes will then draw near. And it concerns me to 
be there some days before, and shall endeavour, if I can 
possibly, to wait upon your lordship also. 


My Lord, 

This storm now looks black. My husband got 
late out of the Parliament House, not without danger. I 
know you will have it from better hands. He goes to the 
army, but by Windsor, or somewhere that way, to get me a 
house. I must presently remove. Sir Thomas Widdrington 
thinks that I may take Mrs. Platter's word (her husband 
is not in town) that they will seal the acquittance ; there is 
none made yet. My lady's friends here think that her 
daughter Bhoda's goods are as well where they are as in any 
place here. I will take your keys with me, for my niece 
removes too. I am sorry for my lady's weakness. I beseech 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 379 

you let me hear from you ; if you please^ send to Sir Thomas 
Widdrington, to Gray^s Inn. I sent your letter to Mr. 
Hutchinson ; I hear no more of it. Sir Thomas Widdring- 
ton spake with him. 

This take into consideration : the King swears he wUl not 
consent : he is much cried up. This company saith that he 
shall do what he will. My lord^ I am 

Your servant, 

D. Constable. 

Jvlyllthy 1647. 

The extraordinary scene glanced at by Lady Con- 
stable is fiilly detailed in a letter from Rushworth, 
which contains the fullest account of the whole transac- 
tion hitherto pubhshed. In every point of view, this is 
a document of great importance, showing more fully 
and satisfactorily than we have elsewhere seen it ex- 
pounded, the faithful spirit by which the army was 
governed. " We still trust,'' says Rushworth, who was 
with the army and represented its feelings, "to our 
interests in the Parliament, in which we shall live and 
die." The riot had the immediate eflFect of drawing out 
the zeal and loyalty of the soldiers, and making a com- 
mon cause between them and the legislature. 



Upon Thursday last we marched from Reading to 
Aylesbury, and staid there all Friday, and came to Bedford 
on Saturday last. The cause of our marching this way was 

380 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

the confidence we had in the Parliament and City^ both the 
Houses of Parliament having voted the militia of London 
into those hands it was formerly. But upon Friday last^ there 
being a Common Council^ petitions were delivered to several 
hands^ that the militia might continue in the hands of the 
malignant party (as we call them) ; and there was then set 
on foot several petitions^ as also a solemn vow and engage- 
ment in the nature of the Scots^ Covenant Oath, mutually to 
assist another that subscribed it^ to bring home the King, 
&c., as you will see it in print. The Commons declared 
against this^ and that they shoiild be proceeded against^ as 
traitors, that proceeded therein. The Lords concurred also. 
It was sent to the well-aflfected militia, who were newly 
re-invested with power to proclaim it, but they durst not do 
it. The Lord Mayor refused to give his assistance. The 
people threatened to tear any that should attempt the pub- 
lishing of it. The Common Council then sitting, being 
Saturday night, the multitude cried to have them up to the 
House that night with a petition for the malignant militia to 
continue. The House being up, all businesses were put off 
until Monday, July the 26th. The House was no sooner set 
that day, but up came the Common Council with a petition, 
as aforesaid, for the malignant militia to stand ; and there 
followed apprentices, seamen, reformadoes, malignants, and 
tag-rag, flocking in abundance to the Houses. The Lords 
first gave the answer to the Common Council, that they did 
adhere to their Ordinance, lately passed, concerning the 
militia, and also to their declaration against those who should 
proceed in the new Oath and Covenant. The apprentices 
and the rest of the rude multitude, understanding this, they 
broke into the House of Lords, and told them that they 
should either recal both the said ordinances and declaration. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 381 

or they should never come out. And one of the boldest 
standing up at the bar, said, " Where is Manchester ? we must 
call him to an account.*^ The House replied he was gone 
down ; and so, with fair words, they got them to be quiet, 
until they had passed the votes for re-calling both the said ordi- 
nance and declaration. Thereupon the multitude departed, 
and the Lords adjourned until Friday next; and they thought 
themselves well that they got so away. Then down came the 
multitude to the Commons, about two of the clock, and 
they having given the like answer to the Common Council 
which the Lords had done, the multitude told them that they 
must pass what the Lords had done. But the Commons 
were stout, and put off till 4, 5, 6, 7 of the clock. Messen- 
ger after messenger was sent to the militia, to the Lord 
Mayor, and Sheriffs, to come down with the posse of the 
City, to rescue the House and relieve them. The militia 
stirred not, and the Lord Mayor would not. The Sheriffs 
came in person with some forty halberdiers, which was all 
the militia of the City that appeared for the Parliament. 

The guards that were there stood still, and suffered the 
House to be thus abused, and let Scoutmaster-Qeneral Wat- 
son be seized upon by the tumult and afterwards carried to 
prison in the city, where he now is in custody ; the servants 
of some of the army were abused by pulling them by the ears 
and noses, and so leading them up and down, saying, '^ These 
are the Independents.^' The sheriffs coming and making this 
show to little purpose, the Commons' hearts began to fail 
them for want of relief, and the apprentices grew more bold 
and broke into the House of Commons and told them they 
must pass what the Lords had passed or should not stir out 
of the House. Towards eight of the clock the Commons 
passed the votes to recal the declaration and ordinance for 

382 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

the late alteration of the militia. When this was done and 
the House adjourned, the Speaker being out of the chair^ 
many of the multitude went again into the House and thrust 
the Speaker back and the rest of the members, and told them 
he must to the chair again and pass another vote or else they 
would not go away; thereupon the Speaker was glad to take 
the chair, and the question was put that they held it fit the 
Eling should presently be brought up to London, and to 
which there was an answer given by some of the members, 
with the help of the tumult who stood by the table tiU the 
clerk wrote down the order and gave them it under his hand. 
This unparalleled action is such as indeed we may dread what 
the event is like to be. The House of Commons adjourned 
and was no less joyful of their liberty than the Lords were. 
But unhappily they adjourned no longer than until this day, 
and therefore it is conceived that new business will be put 
upon them. In brief I can conceive no other consequence 
can follow hereupon but absolute confusion, if not to the 
ruin and distraction both of the Parliament and city. If the 
Parliament sit they must vote everything that they would 
have them, and then this army will be the next vote to 
declare them traitors, or else they must dissolve and break 
in pieces, and so no Parliament, whereby all things will be 
out of order. Our friends did formerly complain that we 
retreated firom Uxbridge, but modesty, civility, and int^rity 
towards the Parliament and city, occasioned the retreat. We 
shall not buy our advantage perhaps at a dearer rate — ^we 
must not suffer the Parliament to be thus enslaved nor the 
kingdom destroyed. We think this business gives us a just 
call towards London for the peace of the kingdom, and to 
preserve the Parliament if it be not too late. Therefore by 
the next, expect to hear of great things. We hope the Lord 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 383 

will so order our council as we shall quilt this giddy-headed 
multitude^ being not yet countenanced openly with persons 
of estate, though underhand there is no want of their power 
and policy to effect their desires. By this appearance you 
may see the womb of this long hatched design, and I think 
you will judge it the last game and reserve they had left, and 
indeed it is so desperate, that it will require a desperate cure. 
The Lord be merciful to those he owns in the city, for it 
cannot be otherwise imagined but the city will be destroyed 
by the city ; they will be obliged to put the sword into mad- 
men^s hands that will destroy themselves, and plunder them 
in the first place. Had this army had any mind to plunder, 
or any private or base end when they came so near London 
as Uxbridge, they needed not have lost an opportunity to 
enrich themselves, and therefore for the clearing of our 
hearts and proceedings, we doubt not but God will find out a 
way to direct us, and make us happy in our councils for the 
deliverance of this kingdom, notwithstanding all the secret 
plots and devices of our enemies. The King is at Wobum, 
not much troubled at these news, that I hear of. Our pro- 
posals for peace are finished, but not so fit (as things now 
stand) for public view. We still trust to our interests in the 
Parliament, in which we shall live and die, and with that 
merciful respect to those that have opposed us, that they 
cannot but say, if what we desired on their behalf be granted, 
they are dealt with in all tenderness. I believe as soon as 
the army is drawn together, the city will be sent unto to 
know whether they will own this action or no, of enforcing 
the Parliament in such a bold and unheard of manner ; if 
they do, it will be fit to consider what is further to be done, 
that offenders may be brought to punishment, and a stricter 
guard kept to prevent the like evil fDr the future. There are 

384 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

no risings in the country nor the least appearance of com- 
bination to that purpose^ so that I conceive it is sudden, they 
being touched to the quick when the head of all their villainy, 
the malignant militia, began to be broken. It is said and 
believed, that the eleven members imder hand set this 
business on foot, for many of the tumult gave out words at 
the House of Commons' door, that there were none but rogues 
left, such as had given their votes to cast out the eleven 
members that were honest men, and they should sit no 
longer than they acted as they would have them. 

John Bushworth. 

Bedfwd, Tuesday, July 27th, 1647. 

On the next morning, both Houses met and adjourned 
till the following Friday. When Friday came, the 
Speakers were not to be found, and new ones, pro tem- 
pore, were elected in their place. The ParKament was 
acting under terror. The eleven excluded members 
had resumed their seats, and votes were passed confirm- 
ing the demands of the City. These proceedings were 
urged on by tumult without and incendiaries within ; 
and the Speakers of both Houses, with a hundred 
members of the Commons, and several of the Lords, 
repaired to the head-quarters of the army, now 
advancing towards London. The Parliament, driven 
from its seat, established itself in the camp, and 
held its deliberations in a council of war. Sir 
Thomas Fairfax, disregarding the orders of the 
House sitting at Westminster, which he declared was 
not the free Parliament of England, issued a manifesto 

1647.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 385 

announcing liis determination to recognise in the 
Speakers and members who had taken refiige with the 
troops the legitimate authority of Parliament, and to 
advance upon London for the purpose of re-establishing 
their rights. The attitude of the army brought the 
City at once to a sense of its duty ; and the demands 
of tiie General were followed by the immediate com- 
pliance on all points of the Lord Mayor and Common 
Council. On the 6th August, Fairfax marched into 
London, accompanied by the Speakers and their train 
of members; was met at Hyde Park by the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen, who congratulated him on the 
peaceftd composure of their diflferences ; was cheered 
by the Common Council as he passed Charing Cross ; 
and, proceeding to Westminster, installed the Parliament 
in their respective houses. For these signal services. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax was loaded with honours on all sides, 
appointed Constable of the Tower, and, with great 
ceremony, formally thanked in the Lords and Commons, 
as the preserver of the peace and liberties of the nation. 
The town wore the aspect of a jubilee ; but the 
army arrears were still unpaid, and it became necessary 
to enforce them. Remonstrances with the authorities 
having failed — applications to Parliament having failed 
— the presence of the troops in the suburbs having 
failed, to induce the citizens of London to discharge 
their dues, Fairfax announced to the Lord Mayor the 
extremity to which he was put, in the last resort, of 
quartering some of the soldiers within the City for 

VOL. I. c c 

386 MEMOBULS OF {1647. 

the purpose of prosecuting the levy. This reluctant 
reference to a topic which lay at the root of all the 
discontents was couched in language as moderate and 
conciliatory as the occasion would admit. ' 


Mt Lord and Gentlemen, 

What tenderness has been excercised by myself 
and this army towards the City, what care to preserve it 
firom the least damage or prejudice, (notwithstanding the 
just occasions and great provocations which have thence 
been given), and with what patience we have waited for the 
raising of those arrears which have long since been due, 
I need not now use many worda to express. Yourselves, the 
City, and kingdom, do sufficiently know it. We have lain 
here about London so long, as we cannot continue much 
longer, without intolerable opposition to these parts, if not 
the undoing of some, and in all this time, though the occa- 
sion both of our coming and stay hath been from the City, 
yet in tenderness to the trade and freedom thereof, no part 
of the army hath been quartered in it ; but the parts adjacent 
have borne the burden, who gave no such occasion. And if, 
after so long and obstinate withholding what has been so 
long due, in affront to so many ordinances and demands of 
Parliament, and in the face of an army, (at a time when so 
great a part of the City had made themselves so obnoxious 
to both), I should now withdraw the army from the City 
before all the arrears of taxes thence due be paid, or if those 
who (after so many warnings from the Parliament, with 

1647.] THE CIYIL WAR. 387 

penalties imposed upon the non-payment thereof^ within the 
time limited^) have so obstinately withheld their dues so long 
beyond that time, should now escape with the bare payment 
of their arrears at last, I can expect no less but that the ill 
example thereof would, in other parts of the kingdom, give 
great discouragement to Mends from paying their shares, 
and encouragements to enemies to withhold theirs as long as 
they can. Upon these considerations (with the advice of my 
Council of War) I have desired the Committee of the Army 
that the penalties imposed by the Parliament for non-pay- 
ment (as well as the arrears themselves) may be speedily 
levied, and that from all those who have not before this time 
paid in their proportions of assessments, no less than the full 
penalty may henceforth be accepted. And for the speedy 
levying both of arrears and penalties, (according to the ordi* 
nances of Parliament for that purpose), I have, with the same 
advice, appointed Colonel Hewson, with a thousand foot, to 
come to-morrow, to quarter in the City, and within the late 
lines of communication, in such places as he finds fittest, 
until the service be accomplished; and in the prosecution 
thereof to observe the directions of the Committee for the 
Army, according to the said ordinances. If this course 
should be a matter of wonder or offence to any, I make no 
doubt but the necessity of the thing (which I have before 
represented) will afford sufficient satisfaction to all that wish 
well to the Parliament, the army, dty, or kingdom, and that 
those whose wilfulness (if not malignity, or design to break 
»the army and incense the kingdom,) have necessitated this, 
will bear the blame, both of the thing itself, and of whatever 
ill consequence may ensue. 

I shall desire the best care of your lordship and all that 
wish well to the Parliament and army, or tender the safety of 


388 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

tlie City, that in this service (so necessary both for the ends 
aforesaid, and for the vindication of the authority of Parha- 
ment) no impediment or affiront be given to the officers or 
soldiers employed therein, from whence any further ill conse- 
quences might be occasioned ; as, on the other side, I have 
commanded, and am very confident that all care will be 
taken by Colonel Hewson and the other officers employed 
under him, for the soldiers^ orderly and civil demeanour^ both 
in their quarters and in the service, and that not the least 
wrong shall be done by them to any in the City, nor any 
damage, saye what the persons refusing to pay their arrears 
or penalties according to the ordinance of Parliament, shall 
wilfully bring upon themselves, and the charge of quartering 
the soldiers till the service be done. For which purpose 
I have given order to Colonel Hewson that so soon as he 
hath (from the Committee of the Army, or collectors,) the 
lists of what persons are in arrear, he shall quarter the 
soldiers only upon such, as near as he can, with relation to 
the conveniency of quartering; and if any disorder or injuiy 
be done by the soldiers or officers, as I doubt not but Colonel 
Hewson will be careftQ to give redress, so in case of his 
neglect, I shall be ready upon complaint to do it to the 
utmost myself, who am 

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, 

T. Fairfax. 

Kingitonf Nov, 19/A, 1647. 


The happy pacification of affairs effected by the 
Grcneral was not wholly fi:ee from lingering difficulties. 
Honours were profosely showered upon him by the City 
in common with the Parliament. He was invited to 

1647.] THB CIVIL WAR. 389 

a grand banquet at the Guildhall (which he declined) ; 
a faasin and ewer of beaten gold, of the value of 1000/. 
or 1200/., were subscribed for as a present to him from 
the City ; and even the apprentices hastened to him in 
crowds with an address of acknowledgment and con- 
gratulation. But in the flower of all these tributes, 
there was still a dead halt in the proceedings of 
FarUament, notwithstanding the Uberal expressions of 
gratitude and confidence so ceremoniously addressed to 
him by both Houses. The Lords promptly responded 
to the energy with which he rescued ParUament from 
a position of danger and humiliation, and at once 
annulled the proceedings which had taken place between 
the 26th of July and the 6th of August — ^the interval 


during which the Houses had acted under coercion, and 
in the absence of their Speakers. This vote was, in fiujt, 
necessary to the justification of the army. It was 
accordingly sent down to the other House, when the 
question was debated from day to day, and, to the 
astonishment of the whole kingdom, negatived by a 
majority of three. The effect of this decision was to 
ratify in the Commons the whole of those acts which 
the Speaker, and no less than 100 members, protected 
by the army, had declared to be unconstitutional, con- 
strained, and without force. The dilemma arising out 
of this proceeding required some consideration; for it 
could not be denied that the House, which thus decided 
upon the validity of former sittings, was itself a free 
and constitutional assembly; and that had its decision 

390 MEMORIALS OF 116*7. 

been in the affirmative, it would have admitted of no 
dispute. Yet, on the other hand, the army could not 
acquiesce in this decision without compromising the rights 
and liberties which they had recently vindicated in the 
liberation of Parliament. If the acts which this decision 
authenticated were legal and constitutional, the inter- 
ference of the army was unjustifiable. But these acts 
were clearly illegal and unconstitutional, and it was, 
therefore, incumbent upon the army to resume the 
ground upon which they had originally taken up the 
question, and to require from the Commons a revision 
of their proceedings. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax called a council of war at 
Kingston to deUberate upon this matter, and the result 
was a Remonstrance addressed to both Houses, in which 
they set forth the necessity of the proceedings they had 
taken on behalf of Parliament, and declared that the 
votes which had been passed between the 26th of July 
and the 6th of August were forced, and not the expres- 
sion of a free legislation. The main point aimed at by 
this Eemonstrance was the purging of Parliament, as 
they expressed it, of such members as acted and voted 
during the time when the Speaker and the rest were 
driven to seek protection from the army. The language 
on this point was explicit. It declared that if any of 
the members who had sat and voted in the " pretended 
Parliament,'' should hereafter intrude themselves to sit 
in Parliament before they should have given satis&ction 
concerning the groimds of their bo sitting and voting. 

1647.J THE CIVIL WAR. 391 

the army would take a speedy and effectual course to 
bring them to condign punishment. 

This Remonstrance was received and approved of in 
the Lords, and read in the Commons, without fiirther 
motion. Shortly afterwards, however, an ordinance 
passed both Houses, declaring the sittings at West- 
minster null and void during the interregnum of the 
Speakers. The shape into which this ordinance was 
thrown did not exactly correspond with the requisition 
of the army ; but it fuUy met the substantial justice 
and necessity of the case. 

During these proceedings, his Majesty was quietly 
housed at Hampton Court. Ominous dreams of 
Wolsey may he have had in that gorgeous palace, 
whose history, even down to his own day, was crowded 
with courtly vicissitudes ! He had been moving about 
from place to place — from Stoke to Oatlands, and from 
Oatlands to Hampton — ^with a show of state and cheer- 
fulness which admirably masked not merely the actual 
durance in which he Uved, but the feelings and designs 
he secretly entertained. Sometimes hunting in the 
New Park, sometimes dining with his children at Sion 
House, or having them dining with him, he was to all 
outward appearance so much at his ease that wagers 
were laid from day to day that he would be at 
St. James's or Whitehall within a week. All sorts of 
people had access to him, and the road to Hampton 
was so crowded with visitors who came to kiss hands, 
or to be cured of the Evil, that Fairfax was obliged to 

392 MEM0BIAL8 OF [^^^7. 

remove bis quarters from Kingston* Colonel Whalley, 
who had charge of his Majesty, 8ays> in a declara- 
tion published in his Majest/s vindication at this time, 
that '^it is confessed no gentleman is debarred the 
liberty of kissing the King's hand; yet no stranger 
stays long ; we have fresh and fresh appearances ; the 
faces you see in the morning, you seldom see in the 
afternoon ; at the farthest but the next day/' Colonel 
Whalley says nothing about the healing power of the royal 
touch, so that it nnght be supposed that all these people 
came out of reverence and loyalty to kiss the King's 
hand. The subject was rather dangerous, for it was 
only in the preceding AprU that the House of Commons 
found it necessary to warn the people against the 
superstition of being touched by the King, his Majesty 
having largely practised in that way at Holmby, to the 
scandal of the nation.* In the early part of his reign 
his Majesty openly encouraged the belief in his divine 
gift by a succession of proclamations^ prescribing the 
order and periods in which the people were to repair 
to him for the cure of the IJvil. The historians of 
these miraculous cures ascribe extraordinary powers 
to him, and one of them assures us that he . ^^ excelled 
all his predecessors in the divine gift ; for it is manifest 
beyond all contradiction, that he not only cured by his 
sacred touch, both with and without gold, but likewise 
perfectly effected the same cure by his prayer and bene- 
diction alone.'^t We can clearly understand what the 

• WhUdoche, f Badger. See Pettigrew on Medical Superstitions. 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAR. 893 

attraction was that drew the crowds to Hampton, and 
why the morning feces were seldom seen in the afternoon. 
But it is not so easy to comprehend the infetuation 
which mider such grave circumstances resorted to means 
like these to propitiate popularity. 

While his Majesty was at Hampton Court, the propo- 
sitions intended to be made to him for the settlement 
of the affidrs of the kingdom were fully discussed and 
finally decided upon in FarUament. The propositions, 
which were much the same as those formerly rejected 
by his Majesty at Newcastle, were presented to the 
King in September, and again rejected. His Majesty 
waived the proposals of the Parliament, and, with a 
world of professions about indemnity and liberty of 
conscience, desired to enter into a treaty founded upon 
the basis of certain proposals which had been drawn up 
by the army. The following curious document, found 
amongst the Fairfax papers, appears to refer to some 
negociation which about this time — ^while the proposi- 
tions were yet under discussion in Parliameni^had been 
opened, or was in contemplation, between the King and 
Sir Thomas Fairfax. So far as it goes, it agrees in 
spirit with the elaborate proposals drawn up at a 
council of war on the 6th of August ; but no evidence 
can be traced that any such articles of agreement were 
ever submitted to his Majesty. The probability is, that 
this paper, in which only a few pressing topics are 
touched upon, to the entire omission of all the great 
questions embraced in the proposals both of the army 

394 MEMORIALS OF [1647. 

and the Parliament, was merely a rough draught of the 
heads of a preliminary agreement ; and that the purpose 
or view with which it was drawn up had been set aside 
by the fluctuation of circumstances. There were doubt- 
less many similar draughts of projected and unfiilfilled 
designs written out in this way, and destroyed. This 
paper may have escaped the same fate by accident. 
It will be seen that there is at least one essential 
difierence between these articles and the propositions 
of the Parliament, in the clause providing for the 
preservation of the rights of the Bishops, and that 
Fairfax distinctly comprehended the restoration of the 
Sovereign in his plan for the settlement of the kingdom. 


It is mutually agreed on between our Sovereign Lord King 

Charles and His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfea, with 

his Council of War, for the speedy restoration of his 

Majesty^s three kingdoms, and for the settUng of them 

in a safe and well-groimded peace. 

1st, That this present Parliament shall he suddenly 

adjourned to Oxford, and shall he then speedily dissolved, 

and not exceeding the space of eighty days, his Majesty's 

Warrant heing already signed for that purpose. 

2nd, That the Bishops shall continue in statu quo prius, 
and he restored to their indubitable rights, according to the 
ancient customs, lawsj and statutes of this realm. 

1647.1 THE CIVIL WAR. 395 

Srd^ That all the ancient charters^ laws^ edicts, and several 
pleadings in this kingdom shall be forthwith translated into 
the English tongue, for the better understanding of all his 
Majesty^s subjects therein. 

4th, That all causes whatsoever shall be tried each in their 
respective county, and judges deputed by his Majesty, to 
hear and decide the said causes, that the people may no more 
be put to that excessive travelling to Westminster upon all 
occasions of suits. 

5th, That the Earl of Bristol, the Earl of Newcastle, the 
Earl of Worcester, and the Lord Digby, shall expect no 
pardon: That Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely, Sir Bobert 
Heath, Sir George Eatcliffe, Sir Bichard Greenville, Sir 
George Carteret, Sir Charles Dalison, and other notorious 
delinquents be banished this kingdom during life, and their 
estates to be sequestrated for three years, and after the three 
years shall be expired, the said estates to be finally settled 
on their posterity. 

6th, That all those that have not Idready compounded be 
forthwith fully discharged. 

7th, That six thousand foot and two thousand horse be, 
with all speed, furnished with all accoutrements for the 
service of Irehmd. 

8th, That the several guards, consisting of his Excellency 
Sir Thomas Fairfaxes army, be speedily drawn off from the 
Tower, from the two Houses of Parliament, and the lines of 
commimication, and the said places to be again guarded by 
the Citizens of London, as formerly. 

9th, That liberty of conscience be allowed to all men, and 
that none molest or injure one another for their conscience, 
but peaceably and quietly bear with one another, so that we 
may be all kept in the general bond of peace, and though 

396 MEHOBIALS OF 11647. 

different memben^ yet all wrapt up in the natural ddn of 
one politic hodj^ that so all may lead quiet and peaceable 
lives under his Majesty^s government. 

And that his Majesty is pleased to reside at Hampton 
Courts till all this be fully perfected. 

These Articles were concluded and agreed upon betwixt 
our gracious Sovereign Lord Sang Charles^ and our ever to 
be honoured General Sir Thomas Fairfax^ August, 1647, to 
the great joy of all faithM subjects. 

In the month of October, the miracle-pageantry at 
Hampton Court was interrupted by a sudden order 
from Parliament, for the withdrawal of certain officers 
who had latterly flocked to the palace. This proceeding 
took even the soldiers by surprise, and the cavalry were 
especially incensed at it. But Parliament quietly prose- 
cuted its object. A design was on foot somewhere, 
the purport of which may be inferred from certain 
instructions which were issued to the officers of the 
Cinque Ports : " That if there be any attempt to 
pass any of our ports, a disguised gentleman, tail, and 
black hair, about thirty years old, one that varies garb, 
sometimes like a Frenchman, a Dutchman, and some- 
times for a Scot, and that can set his tongue accordingly, 
examine him well ; for such a man hath been observed 
to follow the Court lately, and folly suspected to be 
employed about desperate designs." 
' There was clearly something in agitation under the 
masquerade of hand-kissing and Evil-curing. AlxAit this 
time, too, divers ill-disposed persons were said to be 

1647.] THB CIVIL WAR. 397 

tampering with prisoners, and anonymous letters were 
affirmed to be constantly forwarded to his Majesty, 
threatening his sacred life. Under a strong belief in 
the truth of these latter reports (which may now be 
discredited, or doubted, in full), Cromwell wrote oflF 
hastily to Colonel Whalley to tell him that there were 
rumours abroad of some intended attempt on his 
Majesty's person. " Therefore,*' said Cromwell, " have 
a care of your guards. If any such thing should be 
done, it would be accounted a most horrid act." This 
was written in November, the day not being stated ; on 
the 12th of the same month, at twelve o'clock at night, 
Cromwell forwarded a letter to Speaker Lenthall, infor- 
ming him that at nine o'clock on the night before, his 
Majesty had withdrawn himself from Hampton. He 
had, in fact, evaded Whalley's vigilant guards, and made 
his eiscape. The eflfect of the reading of this letter in 
the House of Commons may easily be imagined. It was 
a scene which must have transcended, in the profound 
sensation it produced, all the remarkable scenes that 
had taken place from the beginning of the struggle. 

The discovery of his Majesty's escape was made 
within half an hour after his departure. The Com- 
missioners and Colonel Whalley, who were in charge of 
him, wondering that he did not come forth as usual to 
supper, entered his room and found it empty. Some 
letters, in his own hand-writing, lay upon the table, 
amongst them a letter to the Commissioners, to be 
communicated to Parliament, opening with this striking 

398 HSMOBIALS OP [1647. 

sentence — '^ Liberty being that which in aJl times hath 
been, but especially now is, the condition, the aim, and 
the desire of all men, common reason shows, that Kings, 
less than any, should endure captivity/' The logic is 
not satis&ctory, although it is built upon indisputable 
premises. Why, this was the thing they were fighting 
for aU along — ^this Kberty for all men. It was a pity 
that his Majesty never found out its value (and then 
only in his own case)^ till he was himself deprived of its 
enjoyment. It seems that he got oflF by the river. His 
cloak was discovered in the gallery in the private way. 
He had passed out by the back stairs and vault to the 

Orders were instantly dispatched to the ports^ all 
suspected persons were arrested, and it was declared 
that confiscation of estate and loss of life would be 
executed upon any man who should conceal his Majesty; 
These peremptory measures had hardly been thrown 
into shape, when all trouble and suspense were brought 
to an end as surprisingly as they had started up, by 
the surrender of the fugitive. His Majesty had fled 
to Southampton, accompanied by Sir John Barkley, 
Mr. Ashburnham, and Mr. Leg, with some vague notion 
about getting a ship there for France, or for any place 
out of England ; for it appears that his plans were 
matured only up to the edge of the water, and that he 
depended upon chance for everything beyond that. 
Failing in his expectations, he crossed to the Isle of 
Wight, and on the 13th of November, the second day 

1647.3 THE CIVIL WAB. 399 

after he had left Hampton Court, a hasty letter was 
received by the House of Commons from Colonel 
Hammond, the new Governor of Carisbrook Castle, 
containing the astonishing intelligence that his Majesty 
was safely lodged under that hospitable roof. " This 
morning," says Colonel Hammond, "as I was on the 
way, passing from Carisbrook Castle to Newport, Mr. 
Ashbumham and Sir John Barkley overtook me ; and, 
after a short discourse, told me that the King was near, 
and that he would be with me that night ; that he was 
come from Hampton Court upon information that there 
were some intended to destroy his person, and that he 
could not with safety continue any longer there ; and 
that finding his case thus, chose rather to put himself in 
my hands, being a member of the army ; whom, he 


saith, he would not have left, could he have had security 
to his person, than to go to any other place. Being 
herewith exceedingly surprised, at present I know not 
what course to take." But, for all his surprise, he went 
straightforward to his duty. The King had not yet left 
Southampton, and Hammond at once crossed over to 
secure him. " Hereupon," he continues, " I went imme- 
diately with them over the water, taking Captain 
Basket, the captain of Cowes Castle, with me, and found 
the King near the water-side ; and finding myself no 
way able to secure him there, I chose, he desiring it, to 
bring hinn over into this island, where he now is. My 
endeavours, as for my life," he adds, " shall be to preserve 
and secure his person." The announcement of this 

400 HXMOBIALS OF [1647. 

piece of intelligence in the House of Commons produced 
a ** sensation,'' second only to that which followed the 
reading of Cromwell's midnight communication. 

Colonel Hammond, in whose custody the King was 
thus unexpectedly deposited, had entered upon his office 
of Goyemor of Carisbrook Castle only so recently as 
the middle of September. He had scarcely had time to 
make himself acquainted with the carte du pays, still less 
to acquire personal influence amongst the inhabitants. 
The greater reason, therefore, for strict surveillance in 
this case. Having made such provisions as the circum^ 
stances, demanded, such as issuing an order that no 
person should be allowed to leave the island without a 
pass, or to land without being brought before him and 
examined, he convened a meeting of the gentry, and 
procured their co-operation in his measures for preserving 
his Majesty's person, and ensuring obedience to the 
authority of Parliament. 

Hammond had just been nominated, by a vote of both 
Houses, upon the Committee for drawing up a new set 
of propositions to be submitted to his Majesty, when the 
sudden flight from Hampton arrested all fiirther pro- 
ceedings in the way of negociation. He was well 
qualified, from his knowledge of the views of Parliament, 
and his zeal in their service, to discharge with discre- 
tion and firmness the responsible trust which had so 
suddenly devolved upon him. He had distinguished 
himself through the war, especially in the storming party 
at Bristol, where he served with his uncle, Thomas 

1647.J THE CIVIL WAR. 401 

Hammond, a Lieutenant-Greneral in the service, and 
strenuous on the side of the army. Some three years 
before the present date, he challenged a brother officer 
for giving him the " lie,'^ and killed him in a duel ; but 
was acquitted upon trial in consideration of the great* 
ness of the provocation. Hammond was a Chertsey man, 
descended from a physician who practised there before 
Cowley (who was about the same age as Hammond) 
and Dean Sprat conferred their celebrity on the Porch 
House. One of Hammond^s uncles was as staunch a 
loyaUst as the poet, and while Eobert and his uncle 
Thomas, the Lieutenant-General, were engaged in the 
ranks of the Parliament, tmcle William, the divine, 
enjoyed the intimate confidence of his Majesty in the 
capacity of one of his private chaplains. Thus it is that 
civil war invades the sanctuary of domestic life, and 
disperses its closest relations to the winds. 

Oolonel Hammond acquitted himself so skilfdlly and 
graciously of his disagreeable task, that he was constantly 
engrossed in conversation with the King, who expressed 
great pleasure in his society. His position was awkward 
— ^although the path of duty in the most embarrassing 
positions is always clear. The King had thrown him- 
self upon his protection, and his honour was engaged for 
his safety. The difficulty on this point was brought to 
issue when the Parliament sent down warrants for the 
apprehension of the three gentlemen who had accom* 
panied the King. Hammond demurred and refused. 
The King declared that if these gentlemen were to be 

VOL. I. D D 

402 HEMOBIALS OF [1647. 

punished for what they had done, he must expect the 
same himsel£ " Further, give me leave to add," said 
Hammond, in a letter to the Parliament, ^^ if so unworthy 
a servant of your lordships as I am, and that which 
concerns my honour, were at all worthy of your consi- 
deration, whether it would not much reflect upon me in 
case these gentlemen should be thus removed from 
hence. The King and themselves have freely thrown 
themselves upon me for safety, upon confidence, as they 
please to say, of my honour and honesty, and the satis- 
faction they expect it would have given the Parliament, 
the King being necessitated to remove/' Such consi- 
derations might be worth thinking of, or not ; but having 
discharged his honour of this chivalric remonstrance, 
Hammond closed by placing his allegiance at the free 
disposal of ParKament. " Whatever is commanded by 
authority, especially that of the ParKament, though 
never so contrary to my sense or honour, shall never be 

The King, feeling himself now secure, wrote a long 
statement to Parliament, presenting the basis of a per- 
sonal treaty. Parliament declined the treaty in this 
shape, and drew up other propositions in the form of 
four bills, sending Commissioners down with them to the 
Isle of Wight. The result was, as usual, unsatisfactory 
The King would do nothing expUcit or decisive, and the 
Commissioners went back, much humiliated and discom- 
fited by their Fools' Errand. Before they lefli Caris- 
brook, intelhgence reached Sir Thomas Fairfax that a 

1647.] THE CIVIL WAB. 403 

design was on foot to carry off the King, and he imme- 
diately ordered Hammond to keep a strict guard on 
his person, at the same time apprising FarUament of 
the information he had received. The design broke 
out exactly in the place and at the moment anticipated. 
Just as the Commissioners had taken leave, a drum was 
beat up at Newport, loud cries " For Gk)d and Kmg 
Charles 1 ^ filled the air, and the streets were crowded 
with rioters. The object was to seize the Castle, and 
take away the King. But Hanunond was prepared, 
and dispersing the mob, lodged the ringleaders in safe 
custody. All deKcacy was now at an end. Ashbum- 
ham and the rest of the King's party, including his 
Majesty's private chaplains and servants, were dismissed, 
and sent out of the Island ; the guards were strength- 
ened ; and the fiigitive King found himself on the last 
day of the year 1647 a prisoner in Carisbrook. 







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