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Full text of "Memorials of Cambridge"

BEQUEST OF 

REV. CANON SCADDING, D. D. 
TORONTO, 1901. 



MEMORIALS OF CAMBRIDGE 



MJSMUitlALS OF CAMBRIDGE 

GREATLY ENLARGED FROM THE WORK OF J. LE KEUX 
BY 

CHARLES HENRY COOPER, F.S.A, 

WITH STEEL AND COPPER PLATES 

BY LE KEUX AND STORER 
AND ETCHINGS ON COPPER BY ROBERT FARREN. 




ULP/uiTMCNTALUDIlAHI. 



MACMILLAN & CO. 




HIS ORAOE 
WILLIAM, DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K.G., 




is (BY PERMISSION) 
MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



I BEG to record my obligations for assistance 
rendered by Henry Bradshaw, esq. M.A., of the 
University Library, and the parochial clergy gene- 
rally. 

The rev. the Master of Downing college kindly 
lent the publisher Flaxman's design for the college 
seal. 

I much regret that unavoidable circumstances 
have so long delayed the completion of the work. 

C. H. C. 

Cambridge, January, 1866. 



CONTENTS OF VOL, III. 





SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1595-6). 



THE HOUSE OF S. FRANCIS 

THE FOUNDKESS 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS 

EMINENT MEN 

THE BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL 

THE HALL 

THE COMBINATION ROOM 

THE COLLEGE LIBRARY 

THE TAYLOR LIBRARY 

THE MASTER'S LODGE . 

THE GARDENS 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



1 
6 
15 
19 
23 
31 
32 
33 
34 
ib. 
36 
ib. 
37 
ib. 
38 



CONTENTS. 




DOWNING COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1800). 

PAGE 

THE FOUNDER . . . . . .39 

THE FOUNDATION ..... 43 

BENEFACTORS . . . . . .50 

EMINENT MEN . . . . . ib. 

THE BUILDINGS . . . . . . ib. 

THE CHAPEL ...... 51 

THE HALL . . . . . . ib, 

THE COMBINATION ROOM . . . ;> ; i;. ib. 

THE LIBRARY .... . ib. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE . . . ib. 

THE WALKS AND GROUNDS . . . .52 

MASTERSHIP, PROFESSORSHIPS, FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS ib. 

PATRONAGE . . . . . ib. 



CONTENTS. 



XI 







THE SENATE HOUSE 

THE SCHOOLS 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

THE PITT PRESS 

THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 

THE WOODWARDIAN OR GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM 

THE MlNERALOGICAL MUSEUM 

THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM 

THE OBSERVATORY 

THE BOTANIC GARDEN 

THE CASTLE . 

THE GUILDHALL 

THE TOWN GAOL . 

THE SPINNING HOUSE 

THE UNION WORKHOUSE 

ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL 

THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

THE OLD CHARITY SCHOOLS 

BRITISH SCHOOLS 

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

ALMSHOUSES 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES 



PAGE 

53 

59 

67 

84 

95 

104 

108 

110 

112 

116 

120 

129 

141 

144 

147 

148 

154 

161 

165 

ib. 

166 

181 



x ii CONTENTS. 

SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS 

ALL SAINTS . 

S. ANDREW THE GREAT ., 

S. ANDREW THE LESS . 

S. BENEDICT 

S. BOTOLPH . 

S. CLEMENT 

S. EDWARD . 

S. GILES 

S. MARY THE GREAT . 

S. MARY THE LESS 

S. MICHAEL . 

S. PETER 

HOLY SEPULCHRE 

HOLY TRINITY 






ETCHINGS BY R. FARREN. 

PAGE 

KING'S PARADE ..... frontispiece 

SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, First Court ... 1 

DOWNING COLLEGE, The Master's Lodge . . .39 

THE SENATE-HOUSE ..... 53 

GUILDHALL, Interior of New Assembly Room , . 129 

GARRET HOSTEL BRIDGE, view from Clare College . . 180 

GREAT S. MARY'S CHURCH, from the Market Hill . . 295 

STEEL AND COPPER ENGRAVINGS BY LE KEUX AND STORER. 

8 Entrance Gate Old Botanic Garden . . vignette title 

9 Plan of the University and Town of Cambridge . . xii 

10 Sidney Sussex College .... 8 

11 Upright view . . . . .16 

12 From the Master's Garden . . . . 31 

13 The Hall . .... 33 

14 Old Front, in Cromwell's Time ... 35 

15 Downing College, as it will appear when completed . . 48 

16 Hall ...... 51 

17 The Senate-House . . . . .56 

18 University Library as it will appear when completed . 7(> 

19 The Pitt Press ...... 92 

20 The Fitzwilliam Museum .... 100 

21 The Observatory . . . . . .112 

22 The Castle ...... 120 

23 View of Cambridge from Castle Hill . . .124 

24 View of Cambridge from the Ely Road . . . 128 

25 The Market Place, shewing the Town Hall and Hobsou's Conduit 1 36 

26 Addenbrooke's Hospital . . . . 148 

27 All Saints' Church, view shewing old Church . .198 

28 Great S. Andrew's Church (the Old Church) . . 207 

29 Barnwell Church, interior of East End . . . 231 

30 S. Benedict's Church, interior .... 245 

31 S. Botolph's Church . . . . .256 

32 Interior of ..... 258 

33 S. Clement's Church . . . . .264 

34 Great S. Mary's Church, exterior . . . 304 

35 Shewing the Organ . . . . .313 

36 Shewing the Throne . . . . 315 

37 Little S. Mary's Church . _. . . .321 

38 S. Michael's Church, exterior .... 344 

39 Interior of S. Peter's Church . . . .357 

40 Interior of S. Sepulchre's Church . . . 360 

41 Extended view ..... 368 

42 Trinity Church ..... 370 

43 Interior (in the Rev. C. Simeon's time) . . ,^ 374 

44 Exterior (in the Rev. C. Simeon's time) . . 382 



iv ILLUSTRATIONS. 

OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAOB 

45 Flaxman's Design for Downing College Seal . . .45 

46 Front Elevation of the New Lecture Rooms and Museums, in the 

Old Botanic Garden . . . 110 

47 Elevation of Addenbrooke's Hospital, (1866) . . . 152 

48 Great S. Andrew's Church (the New Church) . . 208 

49 Old Houses, Petty Cury . . . . .218 

50 S. Paul's Church, exterior .... 234 

51 Font and Cover, S. Edward's Church . . . 276 

52 Old Houses, Trinity Street . . . . 354 

WOOD ENGRAVINGS. 

1 Sidney Sussex College (from Loggan) . . .1 

2 The Northern Court .... 31 

3 Garden . . . . . .33 

4 Downing College, Master's Lodge ... 39 
6 The Senate House . . . . .53 

6 Interior of the Southern School . . , . 59 

7 Old Entrance-Gateway to the Schools . . .64 

8 The Pitt Press ..... 84 

9 The Fitz william Museum . . . . ,95 

10 The Anatomical Museum . . . . 110 

11 The Observatory . . . . .112 

12 Gatehouse, 1773 . . . . . 120 

13 Shirehouse . . . . . .127 

14 Gatehouse, 1840 . . . . 128 

15 The Town Gaol . . . . . .141 

16 Addenbrooke's Hospital . . . . 148 

17 Perse Grammar School ..... 154 

18 Remains of Barnwell Priory . . . . 219 

19 The Abbey Church ..... 229 

20 Christ's Church ..... 233 

21 S. Benedict's Church . ... . . 244 

22 S. Edward's Church .... 273 

23 S. Giles' Church . . . . ,286 

24 Pythagoras' School ..... 293 

25 Great S. Mary's Church, Font . . . 295 

The Tower ..... 305 

27 The Ark or Chest ..... 308 

28 Church of S. Mary the Less .... 318 

29 Font in S. Peter's Church ..... 355 
80 Holy Sepulchre, exterior, 1841 . . , . 360 
31 Exterior, 1844 . . . . ' . 364 

Interior, 1841 . . . 367 

33 The Pulpit, Trinity Church . . 374 



; 





SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE (FROM LOGGAN.) 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

THIS college stands on part of the site (a) of the house 
of the friars of the order of S. Francis, of which 
we therefore give an account. 

THE HOUSE OF S. FRANCIS. The friars of the 
order of S. Francis, called also grey friars, minorites 
or friars minors, established themselves in Cambridge 
in or soon after 1224. The townsmen on their 
arrival gave them for their habitation a place called 
the old synagogue (6) adjoining the Tolbooth, (c) but 
a few years afterwards they removed to this spot. 

(a) The residue of the site (which is the property of the college), consists 
of part of the eastern side of Sidney street, nearly the whole of the northern 
side of Sussex street, part of the northern side of King street, and part of 
the western side of Malcolm street. 

(6) The old synagogue is supposed to have been part of the house of 
Benjamin the jew, of which the burgesses obtained a grant from the crown 
in or before 1224. 

(c) A portion of the Tolbopth was used as the Guildhall, and the residue 
as the town prison. 

VOL. III. B 



4 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

conduit which was probably a conspicuous object, 
is supposed to have been used by the town at large. 
The street now called Sidney street was commonly 
known as Conduit street until some years after 
this college was built. 

The house was an academical as well as a reli- 
gious foundation, the members usually taking degrees 
in divinity. It was however, with the other houses 
of friars here, suppressed in 1538. The surrender 
to the crown, which is without date, is signed by 
William White the warden and twenty-three friars. 

We believe that no complete list of the wardens 
exists. We have only met with the names of 
four, viz., Thomas de Hispania, who was the first 
warden; Richard de Ingworthe, who was probably 
his immediate successor; Robert de Tornam, who 
had been previously warden of the house of the 
order at Lynn, and who had licence to go to the 
crusades; and William White, the last warden. 

The custody of Cambridge consisted of nine 
convents, viz., Cambridge, Norwich, Colchester, 
Bury S. Edmunds, Dunwich, Walsingham, Great 
Yarmouth, Ipswich, and Lynn. 

Bequests to the friars are of frequent occurrence. 
We may mention the following : Elizabeth de Burgh 
lady Clare (1360), 40s., and for the works going 
on when she made her will (1355), 100s. more; 
Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, 
K.G., (1361), in aid of the students, and that the 
convent might pray for him, 10. ; sir John Howard 
(1389), 5 marks; Eudo de Harleston, (1400), 20s.; 
John Tymnouth, bishop of Argos, (1524), 5. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. O 

Amongst the eminent members of the house were 
Vincent de Coventry, flourished 1250. Eustace de 
Normanville, LL.D. chancellor of Oxford 1276. Oliver 
Stanwey, LL.D. chancellor of this university. (a) William 
de Folvil, died 1384. Richard Conyngton, D.D. six- 
teenth provincial. Roger de Denemed, eighteenth 
provincial. William Tythemersch, D.D. twenty-first 
provincial. John la Zouch, twenty-ninth provincial, 
bishop of Llandaff, died 1423. John David, thirty- 
fourth provincial. Robert Burton, D.D., 1507, warden 
of the house of Franciscans at Oxford. Stephen 
Baron, confessor to Henry VIII., flourished 1520. 
John Tynmouth, suffragan bishop of Argos, died 
1524. Richard Brynckley, D.D. forty-first provincial, 
flourished 1524. William Catton, D.D. a theological 
writer, flourished 1530. William Roy, a famous 
satirist, martyred 1531. Henry Standish, bishop 
of S. Asaph, died 1535. John Riches, a writer 
in favour of the reformation, died 1536. William 
Call, D.D., warden of the house of Franciscans at 
Norwich and provincial, died 1539. John Under- 
wood, suffragan bishop of Chalcedon, died 1541. 
John Cardmaker alias Taylor, martyred 1555. 
Bartholomew Traheron, dean of Chichester, died 
about 1558. John Crayford, D.D., warden of the 
house of Franciscans at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 
afterwards canon of Durham, died 1561. 

In 1540, the university made an unsuccessful 
application to the crown for a grant of this house, 



(a) His name is not in any list of chancellors, but those lists are 
obviously incomplete as respects the earlier occupants of the office. 



6 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

the church whereof had been commonly used for 
solemn commencements and other academical as- 
semblies/* 

A survey of the house was made by Eobert 
Chester the king's surveyor, 20 May, 1546. The 
church and cloisters having been defaced and 
taken towards the buildings at Trinity college were 
valued at nothing, and the soil with the orchard, 
brewhouse, malthouse, millhouse, and garden within 
the walls thereof, are stated to be yearly worth to 
be let 4. 6s. Sd. 

On the 24th of December in the same year, the 
king granted to the master, fellows, and scholars of 
Trinity college, the site, inclosure, circuit, ambit, 
and precinct of the lately dissolved house of Mars 
minors, commonly called Grreyfriars within the 
university and town of Cambridge, and all messu- 
ages, houses, buildings, stables, dovehouses, pools, 
waters, orchards, gardens, land, and soil thereto 
pertaining, and all the walls, ditches, and enclo- 
sures, the whole being of the clear annual value of 
4. 6s. Sd. 

In 1578 the corporation endeavoured to obtain 
from Trinity college the site of the Greyfriars, in 
order to erect thereon a hospital for the poor of 
the town. 

THE FOUNDRESS. Frances Sidney was born in 
1531, being the fourth daughter of sir William 
Sidney, knight, chamberlain and steward of the 

(a) See a letter from the university to Thomas Thirleby, bishop of 
Westminster, 19th of January, [1540-1], Aschami Epistolse, 332, also the 
petition of the university and form of grant, MS, Parker, 106, p. 301. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 7 

household to king Edward VI., by his wife Anne, 
daughter of sir Hugh Pagenham, knight, and relict 
of Thomas Fitzwilliam, son and heir of sir Thomas 
Fitzwilliam, and elder brother of William Fitzwilliam, 
earl of Southampton. There can be no doubt that 
her education was of a superior character. In 1555 (o) 
she became the second wife of Thomas Radcliffe, 
viscount Fitz waiter, who in the same year was con- 
stituted lord-deputy of Ireland. On 17 February, 
1556-7, he succeeded, by the death of his father, 
to the title of earl of Sussex, being elected K.G. 
23 April, 1557. He was one of the most eminent 
statesmen of the age, and died, after a lingering 
illness, 9 June, 1583, in his fifty-seventh year. (6) 

The earl of Sussex by his will bequeathed to 
the countess all his jewels, habiliments, chains, 
buttons, and ornaments, with or without precious 
stones (except five stones, given him on a sword 
by Philip, king of Spain). He also gave her 4000 
ounces of gilt plate, and all the coaches and furniture 
which she and her women used to ride in, besides 
their riding horses and six geldings, also one-third 
of his linen. Under this will and certain settlements 
she enjoyed for her life Newhall and other manors 
in Essex, with considerable estates in Norfolk, and 
his residence at Bermondsey. The jewels he be- 
queathed her were valued at 3169. 

(a) His first wife Elizabeth Wriothesley, daughter of Thomas earl 
of Southampton, was buried 16 January, 1554-5. The countess of Sussex 
in a letter to queen Elizabeth, which will be hereafter given, states that 
she had been married to the earl twenty-eight years, which agrees with 
the date above given. 

(6) See a memoir of the earl of Sussex in Athence Cantabrigienses, 1. 462. 



8 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

In his last illness some malicious persons had 
alienated the earl's affection from his wife, who after 
his death, in consequence, as it would appear, of 
some dispute with his executors, fell under the dis- 
pleasure of the queen. The following letter to her 
majesty from the countess was forwarded through 
sir Christopher Hatton, 18 September, 1583 : 

To THE QUEEN. 

MOST GRACIOUS AND MOST MERCIFUL QUEEN, I most 
humbly beseech your Majesty to view these few lines, written 
with many tears, and even in the bitterness of my soul, with 
that pitiful regard wherewith God hath viewed your Majesty 
at all times and in all cases. And albeit I am now beaten 
down with many afflictions and calamities hardly to be borne 
of flesh and blood, yet is there no grief that pierceth me so 
deeply as that by sinister suggestion I should be defamed to 
be undutiful to your most excellent Majesty, and injurious to 
the honour of my dear Lord lately deceased. For the first, 
I appeal to God himself, the searcher of hearts, and revenger 
of all disloyalties; for the second, I appeal to none but unto 
my most gracious Queen, whether I have not from time to time 
been more careful of his health, honour, and well doing than 
of mine own soul and safety ; refusing all friends and friendships 
in this world for so dear a Lord, whom I followed, in health 
and sickness, in wealth and woe, with more care than becomed 
a true Christian, to owe unto any worldly creature. The which 
if it be true, (as I trust your Majesty in my right and your justice 
doth acknowledge it is,) marvel not, most dread Sovereign, 
if the vigilant malice of those who have long complotted my 
ruin, who espied their time, when my Lord through anguish 
and torments was brought to his utmost weakness, to break 
the perfect band and love of twenty-eight years' continuance, 
have also, by cunning sleights devised, and by slanderous 
speeches instilled into your Majesty's ears, the want of that 
duty, the which I pray God may sooner fail by lack of life 
than want of loyalty. And thus, most noble Princess, am I 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 9 

trodden down by my inferiors, not only in worldly maintenance, 
which I nothing esteem (having far more, by God's goodness, 
than I deserve), but also am touched in the chiefest point of 
honour, and the highest degree of duty, which bringeth on 
every side such a sea of sorrows as, were it not for the fear 
of God's revenge, I could, with all my heart, redeem them 
with the sacrifice of my life. Wherefore, most gracious Lady, 
even for the pity which ever hath been engrafted in your 
Princely heart, I most humbly beseech you, see not your 
Majesty's poor servant trodden down by the malicious speeches 
and unconscionable extremities of those who took the advantage 
of my Lord's painful weakness to work my disgrace, nor in- 
crease my just and perpetual griefs with your heavy displeasure : 
praying God that I may rather presently die while I write 
these lines, than that I may live wittingly to deserve your 
Majesty's just dislike. In the meantime, I will not cease to 
pray to the Almighty for your Majesty's life, health, and pros- 
perity. From the poor careful close of Bermondsey. Your 
Majesty's poor, but true faithful servant, to die at your feet, 

F. SUSSEX.^ 

On the 31st of October following, the countess 
addressed a letter to lord Burghley returning her 
thanks to him for having pleaded for her with her 
majesty. (6) 

Her applications to be restored to the queen's 
favour having failed, she renewed her efforts in a 
letter to sir Christopher Hatton, dated Bermondsey, 
12 April, 1585, wherein she offered to disprove the 
sinister informations of her contraries. (c) 

Her nephew, the heroic and incomparable sir 
Philip Sidney, by his will bequeathed her a ring 
with a diamond, in token of his very dutiful love. 

(a) Nicolas's Life of Hatton, 345. 

(6) MS. Lansd. 38. art. 66. 

(c) Nicolas's Life of Hatton, 416. 



10 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

She died at Bermondsey, 9 March, 1588-9, and 
was buried with great pomp, 15 April, 1589, on the 
east side of the chapel of S. Paul in Westminster 
abbey, where is a stately monument of alabaster 
marble and coloured stones, being twenty-four feet 
in height and consisting of an altar tomb under an 
enriched arch with corinthian columns supporting 
an entablature crowned with three pyramids and 
as many emblazoned shields. On the tomb is a 
recumbent effigy of the countess in her robes and 
coronet. At the back of the arch is a tablet whereon 
are the following inscriptions : 

Inclytae Heroinse Franciscan Comitissae Sussex ex nobili & 
Antiqua Sydneiorum familia ortae, illustrissimo, sapientissimo, 
& bellicosissimo viro Domino Thornae Ratcliffe comiti Sussex 
nuptae, fbeminae multis carissimisque dotibus, turn animi turn 
corporis ornatae, in sanguine conjunctos, in amicos, in pauperes, 
in captivos, & praecipue in verbi divini ministros liberalitate 
& charitate pra caeteris insigni, quse lection em sacra Theologiae 
in Ecclesia Westmonasteriensi Collegiata legendam instituit, 
& quinque millia librarum per testamentum legavit, quibus 
vel extrueretur Collegium novuni in Academia Cantabrigiensi 
vel (ad augmentum Aulae Clarensis in eadem Academia) perqui- 
reretur annuus census: de quo perpetuo ali possint magister 
unus, decem socii, & Scholares viginti. Opus certe praeclarum 
& nunquam satis laudatum. Yixit annos 58. Mort. est 9 
Mart. & sepulta fuit die 15 Aprilis, Anno Dom. 1589. 

Here lieth the most honourable Lady Frances sometime 
Countess of Sussex, Daughter of Sir William Sydney of 
Pensehurst Knight, Wife and Widow to that most noble, 
most wise, and most martial gentleman Thomas Katcliffe Earl 
of Sussex; a woman whilst she lived adorned with many and 
most rare gifts both of mind and body, towards God truly 
and zealously religious, to her Friends and Kinsfolk most 
liberal, to the poor prisoners, to the Ministers of the Word 
of God always most charitable. By her last Will and Testa- 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 11 

ment she instituted a Divinity Lecture to be read in this 
Collegiate Church, and by the same her Testament, gave 
also 5000 lib. towards the building of a new College in the 
University of Cambridge, with sufficient yearly revenue for 
the continual maintenance of one Master, ten Fellows and 
twenty Schollars, either in the same College, or else in another 
House in the said University already builded, commonly called 
Clare Hall. She lived 58 years, and died the ninth of March, 
and was buried the fifteenth of April 1589. 

Misericordia & Charitate, Pietate & Prudentia, Fide Con- 
jugali. 

Beati mortui qui in Domino moriuntur. 

Omnia plena malis, fert Deus unus opem. 

Veni Domine Jesu, veni cito. 

By her will, bearing date 6th of December, 1588, 
after giving directions for her burial and tomb, 
she directed her executors to purchase a perpetual 
annuity of 20 to the use of a godly and learned 
preacher, who for, and in her name, should read 
two lectures in divinity, weekly, for ever, in West- 
minster abbey, on such several days as no other 
sermons or lectures were to be read there. Her 
executors were also to bestow 100 amongst poor 
and godly preachers in London and the suburbs 
thereof. 

And reciting that since the decease of her late 
lord, the earl of Sussex, she had, in devotion and 
charity, purposed to make and erect some goodly 
and godly monument for the maintenance of good 
learning, and to that intent, had yearly gathered, 
and deducted out of her revenues, so much as con- 
veniently she could. She therefore, in accomplish- 
ment and performance of the same her charitable 
pretence, with the ready money which she had so 



12 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

yearly reserved, and with a certain portion of plate, 
and other things which she had purposely left, 
willed and ordained, that her executors should 
bestow and employ the sum of 5000, over and 
besides all such her goods, as in her will remained 
unbequeathed, for the erection of a new college in 
the university of Cambridge to be called the lady 
Frances Sidney Sussex college, and purchasing some 
competent lands for the maintaining of a master 
and of ten fellows and twenty scholars, students 
there, according to the laudable custom of the said 
university, if the said 5000 and the remainder 
of her goods unbequeathed would thereunto extend. 
But if, by the judgment of her executors, it be 
thought not sufficient to erect and found a new 
college in her name and for the maintenance thereof 
as she intended, then that the said 5000 and 
unbequeathed goods should be employed for the 
enlarging of Clare hall, in the said university of 
Cambridge and for purchasing so much lands, to 
be annexed to the said college, or hall, for ever, 
for the maintenance of so many scholars there, 
according to the rates then used in the said uni- 
versity. Which college, from thenceforth, should 
be called Clare and lady Frances Sidney Sussex 
college or hall. 

She bequeathed to her well beloved nephew, 
sir Eobert Sidney, knight, (a) a standing testern of 
crimson velvet, outer vallance and inner vallance, 
and bases below, of crimson velvet, all cut with 

(a) Son of her brother, sir Henry Sidney. He eventually became earl 
of Leicester. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 1 

cloth of silver, richly embroidered in gold, with 
her arms and five curtains of crimson taffeta, striped 
with silver lace, a quilt of crimson satin, embroidered 
with scollop shells of cloth of silver, also much other 
rich furniture therein mentioned, being in several 
rooms: likewise all her plate, jewels, &c. not be- 
queathed, among which was a cup of gold, weigh- 
ing, with the cover, twenty-six ounces, with a 
porcupine standing on the top. Also a porcupine, 
with a roll of gold, set with pearl, being her 
said nephew's arms and hers. She bequeathed to 
sir William Fitzwilliam, knight, (a) 200, to her 
sister, the lady Fitzwilliam, several jewels and 
furniture; and to her nephew, John Fitzwilliam, 
40 to make him a chain. To her nephew, sir 
John Harrington, (J) and his lady, (c) much furniture 
and jewels. To her niece, the lady Montagu, (d) a 
trained gown of black velvet, embroidered all over 
with broken trees, a large kirtle, embroidered, and 
a suit of aglets enamelled, with a suit of buttons, 
with garnets, and pearls of one hundred and twenty. 
And to her nephew, Edward Montagu, a suit of 
hangings of the story of Holifernes and Judith, and 
much rich furniture, in the chamber thereto belong- 
ing ; also all her silver plate belonging to her cushion 
cloth, and the plate in her cupboard in her bed- 

(a) Of Milton, lord deputy of Ireland. He married the countess's 
sister Anne. 

(6) Eldest son of sir James Harrington of Exton in Rutland, who 
married the countess's sister Lucy. In 1603 he was created lord Harrington 
of Exton. 

(c) Anne daughter and heiress of Robert Kelway, esq. 

(d) Elizabeth, eldest daughter of sir James Harrington and Lucy his 
wife, married to sir Edward Montagu of Boughton. 



14 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

chamber, with a pair of gilt andirons, with great 
bowls at the feet, like lions' heads. 

She appointed executors, her nephew, sir John 
Harrington, her cousin, Mr. Henry Bosvil, her well 
beloved Mend, Mr. Bond, Doctor in Divinity, (a) for 
the great virtue she had always conceived in him; 
her well beloved friend, Mr. Robert Forth, Doctor 
of the civil law, (6) for the like great virtue she had 
perceived of his fair dealing; her good friend, 
Mr. Gabriel Goodman, Doctor in Divinity, (c) for his 
godly and virtuous inclination. And for the better 
execution of her will, she constituted her honourable 
good friend, the earl of Kent, w for the great honour, 
wisdom, zeal in religion and virtue, which was noted 
in him, the chief and principal executor of the same, 
to whom she bequeathed, as a special legacy, her 
fair bason and ewer, wrought richly with stories 
enamelled, weighing 177 ounces, and a cup of gold 
to be bought for him, to the value of 100. And 
appointed her good friend the lord archbishop of 
Canterbury, (e) supervisor, and bequeathed to him 
several pieces of her plate. (/) 

It appears that her tomb cost 200, and that 
her executors were chargeable with 10,99.6. 145. 9d. 
to perform all her legacies, of which they received 
in ready money 3,997., by 4614 oz. of gilt plate 

(a) Afterwards president of Magdalen college, Oxford. See Athen. 
Cantab. II. 466. 

(b) A notice of Dr. Forth is in Athen. Cantab. II. 187. 

(c) Dean of Westminster. See Athen. Cantab. II. 317. 

(d) Henry Grey, sixth earl of Kent, died 1615. 

(e) John Whitgift. 

(/) Collins's Sydney Papers, I. (1) 80. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 15 

1,220., by 4868 oz. of white plate 1,164., and 
by jewels 2,652. (a) 

The FOUNDATION. By an act of parliament passed 
35 Eliz., the master, fellows, and scholars of Trinity 
college were empowered to sell or let at fee farm to 
the executors of the countess of Sussex, the late site of 
the dissolved house of the Greyfriars in Cambridge. 

Queen Elizabeth (6) by letters patent dated 25th of 
July in the 36th year of her reign [1594], after re- 
citing the will of the countess of Sussex, empowered 
the earl of Kent and sir John Harrington, two of 
her executors, to found and establish a college on the 
late site of the house of the Grey friars in Cambridge, 
or in any other convenient place within or near 
the town, and to appoint the master, fellows, and 
scholars, and make statutes and ordinances for their 
government. The college so founded her majesty 
willed should be called the college of the lady Frances 
Sidney Sussex for ever. The master, fellows, and 
scholars were made a body corporate with the usual 
powers, and authorized to hold in mortmain lands 
not exceeding the clear yearly value of 500. 

The master, fellows, and scholars of Trinity college 
by an indenture dated 10 September, 37 Eliz. [1595], 
conveyed (c) to the earl of Kent, sir John Harrington, 

(a) Bloomfield's Norfolk, I. 518. 

(6) The executors of the countess of Sussex in compliance with a 
direction to that effect, in her will presented the queen with a jewel of 
140 value, being a star of rubies and diamonds, having a ruby in 
the centre, and at the back a hand delivering up a heart to the crown. 
On delivery of this jewel they prayed her majesty's licence to found the 
college, which she granted accordingly. 

(a) One hundred marks was paid to Trinity college as the considera- 
tion for this conveyance. The sum was fixed by archbishop Whitgift. 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, II. 465, n. 



16 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

Eobert Forth, doctor of the civil law, and Nicholas 
Bond, D.D., executors of the countess of Sussex, all 
that parcel of land containing by estimation three 
acres, more or less, called or known by the name of 
the late site of the house of Greyfriars, within or near 
the town of Cambridge, then enclosed with a stone 
wall, together with the said wall and walls, and 
all houses and buildings, &c. (except one conduit, 
sometime belonging to the said site). To hold in 
fee at the annual rent of 13. 65. 8J., subject to 
certain leases made by Trinity college before 1 January 
35 Eliz., and to a proviso for avoiding the conveyance 
if the college appointed to be erected by the countess 
were not built within seven years. 

James Montagu, M.A. of Christ's college, a re- 
lative of the foundress, became the first master, being 
so constituted 14 February, 1595-6, when the earl 
of Kent and sir John Harrington executed a deed 
founding the college, consisting of a master, three 
fellows, and four scholars, in the name of more to 
be thereafter appointed. Mr. Montagu was sub- 
sequently created D.D., and became in succession, 
dean of "Worcester, bishop of Bath and Wells, and 
bishop of Winchester. 

On the 20th of February, 1595-6, the earl of 
Kent and sir John Harrington by their attorney 
gave possession of the site of the college to Mr. 
Montagu and to William Wood, M.A., and John 
Maynard, B.A., in the name of the rest of the fellows 
and scholars. 

The first stone of the fabric was laid by Mr. 
Montagu, 20 May, 1596. 




SHT.SSH2L CCBEhOB&lS 

trpalGHT VIEW. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 



17 



In August, 1598, the earl of Kent and sir John 
Harrington gave statutes. These were subsequently 
altered from time to time, the last emendations being 
made by the earl, as surviving executor. 

In 1599 the college was completed, and eleven 
fellows (ft) were appointed. 

The first, second and third masters were nomi- 
nated by the executors of the foundress. On the 
13th of September, 1643, the fellows met to elect 
a master in the room of that illustrious ornament 
of the college, Samuel Ward, D.D., who had died 
on the 6th of that month, having presided over the 
society with distinguished reputation for nearly thirty- 
four years. (6) Six of the fellows were in favour of 
Herbert Thorndike, fellow of Trinity college (after- 
wards canon of Westminster), and five for Richard 
Minshull, B.D., one of the fellows of this college. 
A band of soldiers broke in and carried off John 
Pawson/ c) one of Mr. Thorndike's voters. The fel- 
lows in his interest in consequence protested against 
the election, and all but one of them withdrew. 
Mr. Minshull being elected by five of the remaining 
six, was admitted. He and the fellows were however 

(a) Viz., Samuel Wright, B.D., from Magdalen college ; William Wood, 
M.A., from Christ's college ; John Gamond, M.A., from Pembroke hall ; 
Francis Aldrich, M.A., from Clare hall (the second master) ; William 
Bradshaw, M.A,, from Emmanuel college; Thomas Gataker, M.A., from 
S. John's college; John Stafford; Robert Rhodes; Christopher Swale, M.A., 
from Trinity college ; Richard Cleburn, B.A., from Trinity College ; and 
Samuel Ward, B.A., from S. John's college (afterwards of Ipswich). 

In 1612 the executors on account of the insufficiency of the revenues 
reduced the number of fellows to seven. 

(6) At the close of his life he was much persecuted by the puritans 
and was for some time imprisoned in S. John's College. 

(c) Afterwards fellow of S. John's. 

VOL. III. C 



18 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

cited to appear before the king at Oxford, but ulti- 
mately his majesty, with the assent of Mr. Thorndike, 
confirmed Mr. Minshull's election. 

Dr. Eichard Minshull, master, died 30 December, 
1686. The succeeding master, Joshua Basset, B.D., 
fellow of Caius college, came in by a mandate 
from James II. Being a Roman catholic the king 
dispensed with his taking the requisite oaths. He 
set up the mass in the college chapel, and at his 
instance the commissioners for ecclesiastical causes 
on the 13th of June, 1687, made an order altering 
the college statutes so as wholly to destroy the 
protestant character of the foundation. This order 
was confirmed by a letter from the king to the 
college, dated Windsor, 2 July, in the same year. 

On the 1st of December, 1688, (after the landing 
of the prince of Orange) the king, by a letter to 
the college, dated from Whitehall, rescinded the 
order of the commissioners and his confirmatory 
letter, and willed that the statutes of the college 
should be observed and pursued as if the alterations 
of the commissioners had not been made. Basset had 
previously absconded, and on the 9th of December, 
1688, James Johnson, B.D., was unanimously elected 
master. 

Queen Anne, on the 10th of May, 1705, granted 
the college a licence of mortmain for lands not ex- 
ceeding the clear yearly value of 500, and ad- 
vowsons, rectories, vicarages, and churches of what- 
soever value, not exceeding ten in number. 

On the 20th of March, 1860, the common seal 
of the Cambridge university commissioners was affixed 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 19 

to a code of statutes framed by them for the future 
government and regulation of this college, and on 
the 16th of May following, they made ten other 
statutes concerning certain bye-foundations. These 
several statutes were confirmed by her majesty in 
council on the 1st of August in the same year. The 
commissioners by another statute made the 23rd of 
October, 1860, and which in due course received 
the royal assent, repealed the older statutes of the 
college, except so far as they affected certain rights 
and interests of the present master and of fellows 
elected before a specified date, and save and except 
such parts as relate to the powers and functions of 
the visitor, which remain in force as heretofore. 

BENEFACTORS. Sir John Harrington (afterwards 
lord Harrington), one of the executors of the found- 
ress, gave the college the legacy bequeathed to him 
by her will, also in 1595 an annuity of 30 and 
600 secured by a statute staple; Peter Blundell 
of Tiverton, clothier, having in 1599 bequeathed 
2000 for founding scholarships in the universities, 
two fellowships and two scholarships were soon after- 
wards established in this college, it being appointed 
that one of the fellows should read a greek or 
hebrew lecture; Edward Montagu, esq. of Hemington, 
in Northamptonshire (afterwards lord Montagu of 
Boughton) in 1599 gave lands in Sussex, directing 
that during the continuance of a lease for lives the 
rent should be laid out in purchase of books of 
divinity and afterwards applied to the maintenance ~ 
of scholars; Leonard Smith, citizen and fishmonger 
of London, by will in 1601 bequeathed 120- and 

C2 



20 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

all his goods for founding a fellowship; sir John 
Hart, alderman and sometime lord mayor of London, 
in 1603 bequeathed 30 for the use of the library 
and 600 to purchase an estate for the endowment 
of two fellowships and four scholarships and for other 
uses; William Bennet, citizen and fishmonger of 
London, in 1604 gave 60 to found a scholarship; 
John Freestone, esq. of Altofts, in Yorkshire, having 
bequeathed 500 for a fellowship and two scholar- 
ships at Emmanuel college, and that society de- 
clining the legacy, such fellowship and scholarships 
were in 1607 established in this college; John 
Harrington, second lord Harrington of Exton, gave 
100; Henry Grey, earl of Kent, one of the exe- 
cutors of the foundress, gave the college the legacy 
bequeathed to him by her will, and also plate; 
James Montagu, bishop of Winchester, the first 
master, wus a considerable benefactor to the chapel, 
and in 1618 bequeathed a rent charge of 20 per 
annum, whereof 20 marks was to discharge the rent 
payable to Trinity college; John Bolles, esq. (a) of 
Scampton, in Lincolnshire, in 1618 gave 200 for 
augmenting the fellowships founded by his grand- 
father, sir John Hart; Robert Johnson, B.D., arch- 
deacon of Leicester, in 1625 founded four scholar- 
ships; sir John Brereton, king's serjeant at law in 
Ireland, one of the first scholars of the college, in 
1626 bequeathed (6) nearly 3000 to augment the 

(a) Afterwards a baronet. He died 1648. There is an account of him 
, in Illingworth's Topographical Account of Scampton, p. 47, where is the 

epitaph by Richard Dugard on his eldest son George Bolles of this college, 
who died 1632, set. 20. 

(b) His gift was invalid in law, but was confirmed by sir John Bramston 
(afterwards chief justice) who married his widow. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, 21 

stipends of the master, fellows, and scholars, and 
for a mathematical lecture and other purposes ; Paul 
Micklethwaite, B.D., sometime fellow, gave in 1627 
a house opposite the college for founding two scholar- 
ships ; sir Francis Clerke, of Houghton Conquest, in 
Bedfordshire, built a fair and firm range of twenty 
chambers, and in 1628 founded four fellowships and 
eight scholarships, and augmented the scholarships 
of the first foundation; Dame Rebecca Romney 
in 1629 founded two exhibitions at this college ; (a) 
Francis Combe, esq. of Hemel Hempstead, by will 
in 1641 gave a great part of his library, also lands 
in Hertfordshire for the establishment of four ex- 
hibitions; Samuel Ward, D.D., master, in 1643 be- 
queathed 50, also certain MSS. and coins, including 
the gold medal given to him at the synod of Dort ; 
James Risely, esq. of High Holborn, Middlesex, in 
1649 granted to the college after his decease the 
advowson of the vicarage of Wilshamstead, in Bed- 
fordshire; Richard Dugard, B.D., rector of Fulletby, 
in Lincolnshire, in 1653 bequeathed 130, whereof 
10 was to buy books for the library; John Gyles, 
M.A., in 1654 gave by will the advowson of the 
vicarage of Peasemarsh, in Sussex ; Philip Stanhope, 
earl of Chesterfield, gave 100 to the library; Charles 
Pendreth, B.D., fellow, in 1657 bequeathed 83 ; John 

(a) Amongst the early benefactors were Anne wife of John first lord 
Harrington; Lucy, countess of Bedford, his daughter; George, lord Goring, 
afterwards earl of Norwich ; John Young, D.D., dean of Winchester, some- 
time fellow; sir William Willmore of Sywell, Northamptonshire (the first 
pensioner) ; Robert Hudson, citizen of London ; John Harrington, esq. ; 
Godfrey Foljambe, esq.; Edward Wray, esq.; and Edward Montagu, 
second lord Montagu of Boughton. 



22 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

Ham in 1678 bequeathed 200 towards the maintenance 
of a scholar at this college or Balliol college, Oxford ; 
Downham Yeomans, of Cambridge, dyer, in 1680 
gave lands in Suffolk for the use and benefit of 
three scholars of this house ; Thomas Fowler, B.D., 
fellow, gave in 1680 4 per annum to two sizars ; (ft) 
the executors of John Jones, esq. of London, 
in 1693 gave to the college 100 out of monies 
bequeathed by him for charitable uses; James 
Johnson, D.D., master, in 1703 bequeathed 1200 
to buy advowsons and gave the advowson of the 
rectory of Rempstone, in Nottinghamshire; he also 
devised estates (6) to augment benefices in the gift 
of the college and for other pious uses; William 
Barcroft, founded two exhibitions; Samuel Taylor 
of Dudley, (c) in 1726 gave an estate to found a 
mathematical fellowship and scholarships ; (d) Francis 

(a) Seth "Ward, bishop of Salisbury, is said to have given to this college, 
whereof he was sometime fellow, 1000 in 1679. This is a mistake. 
Wood's Athen, Oxon. ed. Bliss iv. 249. 

Sir John Frederick is enumerated amongst the benefactors to this 
house, but we are unable to specify in what particular way his bounty 
thereto was exhibited. He was an alderman of London, lord mayor, 1662, 
and treasurer of Christ's hospital from that year to 1684. He rebuilt 
the hall of the hospital at the cost of 5000 and upwards. Trollope's 
Hist, of Christ's Hospital, 104, 105, 344. 

(6) Some of these estates were lost by defects in the will. 

(c) Samuel Taylor, son of John Taylor, minister of the word, born 
at Dudley, Worcestershire, in or about 1667, and educated for about 
six years at Swinford Regis, Staffordshire, under Mr. Edward Molineux, 
was admitted of this college the 2nd of June, 1688, (his father being then 
deceased). It does not appear that he took any degree. 

(d] Mr. Taylor's estate is at Dudley in Worcestershire and at Oaken 
and Tipton green in Staffordshire. The foundation of scholarships 
was conditional on mines being sunk. By a decree of the master of 
the rolls made in 1738, a mathematical lectureship was directed to 
be established in lieu of a fellowship. Under private acts of parlia- 
ment passed in 1818 and 1823, the college are empowered to lease the 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 23 

Sawyer Parris, D.D., master, bequeathed in 1760 his 
valuable library and 600 ; the rev. Thomas Lovett, 
M.A., in or about 1777 founded by will two ex- 
hibitions; William Chafy, D.D., master, in his life- 
time contributed liberally to the alterations in the 
buildings of the college, and at his death in 1843 
bequeathed 1000. 

EMINENT MEN. Samuel Wright, the first fellow, 
author of numerous sermons, died about 1609. 
Daniel Dyke, fellow, author of theological treatises 
and sermons, died about 1614. James Montagu, 
master, bishop of Winchester, died 1618. William 
Bradshaw, fellow, author of an exposition of the 
Corinthians and other works, died 1618. Samuel 
Buggs, D.D., fellow, a famous preacher at Coventry, 
flourished 1626. Paul Micklethwaite, D.D., fellow, 
master of the Temple, flourished 1628. Richard 
Garbutt, fellow, lecturer at Leeds, author of various 
sermons, died 1630-1. John Playfere, fellow, rector 
of Depden, Suffolk, author of Appello Evangelium, 
died 1631. John Morton, a popular preacher in 
London, author of Truth's Champion, died 1631. 
William Flathers, fellow, archdeacon of Northumber- 
land, 1636-8. Jeremy Dyke, fellow, vicar of Epping, 
author of The Worthy Communicant and other works, 
died 1639. Samuel Ward, fellow, a celebrated 
preacher at Ipswich, author of numerous sermons, 
died 1639-40. John Pocklington, D.D., fellow, canon 



mines on Mr. Taylor's estate and out of the money thereby raised 
to found exhibitions, build and fit up apartments and lecture-rooms 
for the exhibitioners, establish a mathematical library, purchase mathe- 
matical instruments, and augment the stipend of Mr. Taylor's lecturer. 



24 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

of Windsor, Lincoln, and Peterborough, author of 
Sunday no Sabbath and Altare Christianum, died 
1640. John Young, D.D., fellow, dean of Winchester, 
died 1640. Charles Aleyn, poet, died about 1640. 
Edward Noel, viscount Campden, one of the com- 
manders in the army of Charles I., died 1643. 
Samuel Ward, D.D., master, archdeacon of Taunton, 
Margaret professor of divinity, one of the trans- 
lators of the Bible, and a divine of extraordinary 
erudition and attainments, died 1643. John de 
Reede, lord of Ronsvorde, envoy from the states 
general to England, 1644. James Fosbrooke, author 
of various sermons, flourished 1644. Richard 
Hewlett, fellow, dean of Cashel, flourished 1644. 
Godfrey Rodes, fellow, dean of Derry, flourished 
1647. Thomas May, poet and historian of the 
long parliament, died 1650. Julines Herring, a noted 
puritan divine, died 1651. Daniel Evance, rector 
of Calbourne in the Isle of Wight, a celebrated 
preacher, died 1652. Thomas Adams, a loyal and 
learned preacher in London, author of a commentary 
on the second epistle of S. Peter, and of many 
excellent sermons, died about 1653. Richard Du- 
gard, fellow, rector of Fulletby, Lincolnshire, a 
celebrated tutor and classical scholar, died 1653-4. 
Sir Roger Bertie, K.B., died 1654. Thomas Gataker, 
fellow, a renowned critic, died 1654. Jeremy 
Whitaker, one of the assembly of divines, successively 
rector of Stretton, Rutland, and pastor of S. Mary 
Magdalen Bermondsey, author of various sermons, 
died 1654. Francis Leke, earl of Scarsdale, died 
1655. Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield, died 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 25 

1656. John Lewis, author of theological treatises and 
sermons, flourished 1656. Sir John Reynolds, military 
commander, lost at sea, 1657. Robert White, D.D., 
archdeacon of Norfolk, died 1657. Oliver Cromwell, 
lord protector, died 1658. Thomas Fuller, D.D., 
.author of The Church History of Britain, The 
Worthies of England, and many other excellent 
works, died 1661. George Goring, earl of Norwich, 
a commander in the army of Charles I., died 1662. 
William Dugard, head master of Merchant Taylor's 
school, author of grammatical and classical works, 
died 1662. John Bramhall, archbishop of Armagh, 
died 1663. Richard Damport, fellow, rector of 
Stowlangtoft, Suffolk, a celebrated preacher, died 
about 1664. Clement Paman, dean of Elphin, died 
1664. Edward Montagu, master of the horse to 
the queen of Charles II., killed in the attack on the 
dutch fleet at Bergen, 1665. Montagu Bertie, earl of 
Lindsey, E.G., a commander in the army of Charles I., 
died 1666. Joseph Naylor, D.D., fellow, canon of 
Durham, and sometime archdeacon of Northumberland, 
died 1667. John Sterne, M.D., founder and first presi- 
dent of the college of surgeons in Ireland, and author of 
learned medical works, died 1669. Clement Bretton, 
D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Leicester, died 1669. 
Edward Montagu, earl of Manchester, K.G., chancellor 
of the university, a commander in the army of the 
parliament, and lord chamberlain to Charles II., 
died 1671. Sir William Morton, justice of the 
king's bench, died 1672. Thomas Richardson, lord 
Cramond, died 1674. Richard Resbury, ejected 
vicar of Oundle, a learned controversialist, died about 



26 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

1675. Thomas Micklethwaite, one of the assembly 
of divines, and ejected rector of Cherry Burton, 
Yorkshire, died 1675. Theophilus Dillingham, D.D., 
fellow of this college, afterwards master of Clare 
hall and archdeacon of Bedford, died 1678. Walter 
Montagu, abbot of Nanteuil, author of Miscellanea 
Spiritualia and other works, died 1678. John 
Wheelwright, a celebrated preacher in New England, 
died 1679. Thomas Calvert, ejected rector of All- 
hallows, York, author of numerous learned works, 
died 1679. Malachi Thruston, M.D., fellow, author 
of Diatribes de Respiratione usu Primario, flourished 
1679. Charles Gataker, rector of Hoggeston Bucks, 
an able theological writer, died 1680. John Ryther, 
ejected vicar of Ferriby, Yorkshire, author of sermons 
and controversial works, died 1681. Edward 
Montagu, lord Montagu of Boughton, died 1681. 
Richard Standfast, canon of Bristol, a sufferer for 
his loyalty to Charles I., and author of devotional 
works and sermons, died 1684. Edmund Calamy, 
M.A., a distinguished non-conforming divine, died 
1685. John Billers, public orator, 1681-1689. 
Seth Ward, fellow, bishop of Salisbury, died 1688-9. 
Robert Wensley, vicar of Cheshunt, author of sermons 
and theological treatises, died 1689. Sir George 
Ent, M.D., president of the college of physicians, 
a learned writer on anatomy, died 1689. George 
Cockayne, ejected rector of S. Pancras Soper lane, 
a celebrated preacher and author, died about 1689. 
John Goodman, D.D., archdeacon of Middlesex, 
author of theological works and sermons, died 1690. 
Charles North, lord North and Grey, died 1690. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 27 

John Bidgood, M.D., a distinguished physician at 
Exeter, died 1690-1. Ralph Ward, ejected vicar 
of Hartborn, Northumberland, a divine of repute 
and ability, died 1691. David Jenner, fellow, 
prebendary of Salisbury, author of the Prerogative 
of Primogeniture and other works, died 1691. 
Gilbert Clerke, fellow, a great mathematician and 
able commentator on the greek scriptures, died 
about 1697. Thomas Jekyll, D.D., author of an 
exposition on the church catechism and sermons, 
died 1698. Sir Peter Pett, advocate general in 
Ireland, author of political and other works, died 
1699. Thomas Comber, D.D., dean of Durham, an 
able theologian, died 1699. 

William Brearey, LL.D., archdeacon of the east 
riding of York, died 1701-2. John Luke, D.D., 
fellow, professor of arabic, died 1702. Sir Roger 
L'Estrange, a sufferer for his loyalty to Charles I., and 
author of many political and other works, died 1704. 
Sir William Montagu, chief baron of the exchequer, 
died 1707. John Lamb, D.D., dean of Ely, died 
1708. Sir Robert Atkyns, chief baron of the ex- 
chequer, died 1708. John Thompson, lord Haver- 
sham, a celebrated politician, died 1710. Theophilus 
Pickering, D.D., fellow, canon of Durham, a muni- 
ficent benefactor to the church and the poor, died 
1710-11. Thomas Rymer, editor of the Foedera 
and critical writer, died 1713. Richard Brocklesby, 
author of an Explication of the Gospel Theism, 
died about 1714. William Wollaston, author of The 
Religion of Nature delineated, died 1724. William 
Pattison, an unfortunate poet, died 1727. Thomas 



28 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

Walker, LL.D., fellow, head master of Charterhouse 
school, died 1728. John Frankland, D.D., master, 
dean of Ely, died 1730. Robert Camell, LL.D., rector 
of Bradwell and Lound, Suffolk, author of sermons 
and other works, died 1732. Thomas Woolston, 
fellow, a noted heterodox writer, died 1732-3. 
Thomas Bishop, D.D., rector of S. Mary Tower, 
Ipswich, author of sermons against the arian heresy, 
died 1737. Richard Venn, rector of S. Antholin, 
London, a famous evangelical divine, died 1738. 
John Wicksted, archdeacon of Wells, died 1742. 
John Allen, M.D., author of Synopsis Medicinse, 
flourished 1742. Richard Reynolds, bishop of 
Lincoln, died 1743-4. Richard Allin, fellow, 
antiquary and divine, died 1747. Samuel Peploe, 
bishop of Chester, died 1753. Thomas Wilson, 
bishop of Sodor and Man, died 1755. Thomas 
Wingfield, author of a treatise on the Lord's 
Supper and sermons, died about 1760. John 
Colson, Lucasian professor, died 1760. Francis 
Sawyer Parris, D.D., master, principal librarian of 
the university, died 1760. William Murdin, fellow, 
editor of the Burghley papers, died 1761. John 
Gay, fellow, an able metaphysician and .biblical 
critic, died 1763. Charlton Wollaston, M.D., a dis- 
tinguished London physician, died 1764. Francis 
Topham, LL.D., judge of the prerogative court of 
York and master of the faculties, died 1770. Philip 
Morant, author of the History of Essex, died 1770. 
William Ward, master of Beverley school, an able 
writer on grammar, died 1772. Laurence Jackson, 
fellow, prebendary of Lincoln, author of contro- 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 29 

versial and other works, died 1772. Robert 
Hutchinson, artist and poet, died 1773. John Jones, 
of Welwyn, author of Free and Candid Disquisitions 
relating to the Church of England and of other works, 
died about 1775. John Lawson, fellow, rector of 
Swanscombe, Kent, a distinguished mathematical 
writer, died 1781. John Garnett, fellow, bishop 
of Clogher, died 1782. Richard Jackson, university 
counsel, famed for universal knowledge, died 1782. 
Joseph Greenhill, rector of East Horsley and Clendon, 
Surrey, author of numerous sermons, died 1788. 

William Jones, vicar of Stoke by Nayland, the 
biographer of bishop Home, and author of numerous 
essays, dissertations, and sermons, died 1800. Oliver 
Saint John Cooper, topographer, died 1801. Thomas 
Twining, fellow, translator of Aristotle's poetics, died 
1804. George Moore, archdeacon of Cornwall, died 

1807. Moor Scribo, rector of Croyland, antiquary, died 

1808. Richard Cecil, a celebrated evangelical divine, 
author of sermons, biographical and other works, died 

1810. Edward Pearson, D.D., master, a divine of 
great ability, and author of numerous works, died 

1811. Philip Parsons, rector of Eastwell, Kent, 
topographer and essayist, died 1812. Robert Luke, 
fellow, author of sermons and other works, died 

1812. John Venn, rector of Clapham, a celebrated 
evangelical divine, died 1813. Thomas Ruggles, 
author of The History of the Poor, and works on 
law, antiquities, and agriculture, died 1813. Francis 
Wollaston, precentor of S. David's, author of sermons 
and political and philosophical works, died 1815. John 
Hey, D.D., fellow, first Norrissian professor, author of 



30 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

Lectures on Divinity and other works, died 1815. 
Christopher Hunter, fellow, rector of Gayton, 
Northamptonshire, biographer of Christopher Smart 
and editor of his works, died 1818. Aulay Macaulay, 
vicar of Rothley, Leicestershire, author of topographical 
and other works of merit, died 1819. Eichard Hey, 
LL.D., fellow, an able essayist and mathematician, 
died about 1820. Samuel Vince, archdeacon of 
Bedford and Plumian professor, a distinguished 
mathematician and astronomer, died 1821. Francis 
John Hyde Wollaston, (a) archdeacon of Essex, and 
for many years Jacksonian professor, died 1823. 
Joseph Kemp, MUS.D., a distinguished composer, 
and author of dramas and works on music, died 
1824. Thomas Martyn, fellow, professor of botany, 
died 1825. Charles Sandiford, fellow, archdeacon 
of Wells, died 1826. George Wollaston, D.D., fellow, 
a distinguished mathematician, died 1826. John 
Lettice, D.D., fellow, vicar of Peasemarsh, Sussex, 
and prebendary of Chichester, author of sermons 
and antiquarian and miscellaneous works, died 1832. 
William Hett, prebendary of Lincoln, author of 
sermons, poems, and miscellaneous works, died 1833. 
Edward Smedley, fellow, editor of Encyclopedia 
Metropolitana, and author of poetical, historical, 
and biographical works, died 1836. James Edward 
Gambier, rector of Langley, Kent, author of An In- 
troduction to the study of Moral Evidence, died 
1839. James Tate, fellow, canon of S. Paul's, many 
years head master of Richmond school, died 1843. 

(a) He was in 1807 elected master of this college, but his election 
was set aside, he not being statutably qualified. 



' 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 



31 




THE NORTHMEN COURT. 



Thomas Mitchell, fellow, editor of Aristophanes 
and Sophocles, died 1845. Weeden Butler, author 
of poetical and other works, original and trans- 
lated, died 1851. George Butler, D.D., fellow, dean 
of Peterborough and previously head master of 
Harrow school, died 1853. Samuel Phillips, LL.D., 
journalist, novelist, and essayist, died 1854. Weever 
Walter, vicar of Bonby, Lincolnshire, author of 
Lectures on S. Paul, Letters from the Continent and 
sermons, died 1860. William Pulling, an extra- 
ordinary linguist and author of Sonnets, died 1860. 
THE BUILDINGS. The college consisted originally 
of only one court of brick with stone dressings, 
erected from the designs of Ralph Simons, con- 
sisting of a centre and wings (the latter finished 
by projecting windows) and separated from the street 
by a wall pierced with a gateway ornamented in 



32 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

the style which prevailed at the close of the sixteenth 
century. (a) 

Sir Francis Clerke soon afterwards erected ad- 
ditional chambers to the south, which, with the 
chapel, formed a second court, very similar in cha- 
racter to the other. 

In and soon after 1830 sir Jeffrey Wyatville, 
who then had great but undeserved repute as an 
architect, made extensive alterations. The brick 
walls were fenced with cement, a number of in- 
significant turrets were erected, porches were added, 
and one of the wings of the original structure was 
converted into a low tower, surmounted with stepped 
gables. The gateway was removed and a new 
entrance formed under this low tower. These 
alterations have wholly destroyed the congruity and 
venerable appearance of the fabric. 

THE CHAPEL. Several years elapsed after the 
foundation of the college before a chapel was erected. 
It occupied the site of the refectory of the friars 
which ran north and south. 

In 1776 a new chapel was erected on the same 
spot, from the designs of James Essex, F.S.A. (J) 

The altar piece, by Francisco Pittoni, representing 
the repose after the flight into Egypt, was purchased 
for the college in Venice, by Joseph Smith, esq., 
the english consul there. 

At the northern end of the chapel is a gallery 

(a) About the beginning of the reign of George III. was substituted 
another gateway which now forms a back entrance in Jesus lane to the 
master's garden. 

(6) A statement that Dr. Elliston, who was master of the college at the 
period, was the architect of the chapel is incorrect. 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 33 




SIDNEY COLLEGE GARDEN. 



for the master's family, who have access to it through 
the library. 

In the ante-chapel are four marble tablets, com- 
memorating 

Francis Sawyer Parris, D.D., master, cal. Mail 1760, ast. 56 
(erected by his sister Eleanor Parratt). 

William Elliston, D.D., master, 11 Feb., 1807, aet. 76 (erected 
by his sister Martha Martyn). 

Robert Field, student, second son of Edward Field, esq. 
of Ipswich, and Mary his wife, 1 March, 1836. 

William Chafy, D.D. master, born 7 id. Feb. 1789, died cal. 
Jun. 1843, and Mary his wife, 3 non. Jim. 1831. 

The chapel, which is a neat plain structure, is 
(including the ante-chapel) fifty-seven feet in length, 
by twenty-four in breadth. 

THE HALL, twenty-seven feet in breadth, and 
about sixty in length, is an elegant room, having 
at the southern end a music gallery, supported by 
doric columns and pilasters. 

VOL. III. D 



64: SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

The sides are wainscotted in a modern style, 
and the ceiling is also modern, (a) but traces of the 
original fabric are discernible in the window at the 
northern end, and a spacious bow window in the 
north eastern angle. 

At the northern end is a good portrait of the 
foundress, and at the southern are her arms boldly 
carved and properly coloured. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM, a cheerful apartment, 
northward of the hall, has a pleasant prospect of 
the fellows' garden, and contains an engraved portrait 
of Dr. George Butler, dean of Peterborough. 

A portrait of the foundress is placed in the small 
room adjoining, which also contains engraved portraits 
of James Tate, Thomas Twining, and Samuel Vince. 

THE COLLEGE LIBRAEY between the chapel and 
the master's lodge was erected at the same period 
as the chapel. 

Here is preserved in a small ancient cabinet of 
carved oak the scull of a youthful person. It is 
encrusted with carbonate of lime, which is very 
hard and compact, and is spread over the bone in 
such a manner as to resemble a petrifraction of the 
soft parts. The donor was capt. William Stevens 
of Rotherhithe, one of the elder brethren of the 
Trinity house, who brought it in 1627 from Crete, 
where it was discovered about ten yards (circiter 
passus decem) below the surface of the ground, in 
digging a well near the town of Candia. 

It was exhibited to Charles I. by the celebrated 

(a) According to Carter the hall was repaired and beautified in or about 
1751. 




SWSSHX O]L1LIB<a]B. 

OLD FB.OTJT IN CLTVP.U CB.OM~WET.I-is TIME 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 35 

Dr. William Harvey, to whom it was sent by Dr. 
Samuel Ward, master of this college, with the sub- 
joined letter: 

Sir, 

I receyved y r lett r by w ch I understand his Ma*? 8 
pleasure that I should send up the petrifyed Scull, w ch wee have 
in o r Colledg library, w h accordingly I have done, w th thee 
case wherein we keep it. And I send in this Lett 1 both thee 
key of the case and a note w cl1 we have recorded of the Donour 
& whence he had it. And so with my affectionate prayers 
& best devotions for the long life of his sacred Ma ty and 
my service to y r self I rest 

At y ur command 

SAMUEL WARD. 
Sidney Coll. Junii x, 

Die Solstitiali. 
To his much honoured frend 
D tor Harvey one of his 
Majesty s Physitians att his 
howse in the Blackfryars be 
this drd. 

Dr. Harvey's reply, in his own wretched calli- 
graphy, is on the back of Dr. Ward's letter, and 
is as follows: 

Mr. Doctor Ward I have showed to his M ty this scull 
incrustated w th stone, w ch I receyved from you, & his M ty 
wondered att it & look'd content to see soe rare a thinge. 
I doe now w th thanks retorne to you & you r Colledg the same 
w th the key of the case & the memoriall you sent me inclosed 
heare in thinking it a kinde of sacriledg not to have retorned 
it to that place where it may for the instruction of men heare 
after be conserved.^) 

Here is likewise the face of Oliver Cromwell, 
executed by Bernini, from an impression taken im- 

(a) A facsimile of Dr. Harvey's reply was printed by George Edward 
Paget, esq., M.D. of Caius college, in 1849. 

D2 



36 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

mediately after the protector's death. It was pre- 
sented to the college by the rev. Thomas Martyn, 
professor of botany. 

The library contains a good collection of printed 
books and a few MSS. 

THE TAYLOR LIBRARY, deposited in a convenient 
and well arranged apartment on the ground floor 
near the combination room, contains a large, valuable 
and constantly increasing collection of scientific 
works. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE is situated between the hall 
and the chapel. In it is preserved Samuel Cooper's 
far famed drawing in crayons of Oliver Cromwell, 
given to the society in 1765 by Thomas Brand 
Hollis, esq. (a) There are also portraits of the found- 

(a) The presentation is said to have been made in the following curious 
and characteristic manner. Dr. Elliston, the master, received a letter 
stating that on a prescribed day two gentlemen would bring a painting 
of Cromwell, but that he must not see them or say anything, but only 
stand at the top of the staircase and say " I have it." 

Oliver Cromwell was admitted a fellow-commoner of this college under 
the tuition of Mr. Richard Hewlett, 23 April, 1616. He took no degree, 
and soon after July, 1617, became a member of one of the inns of court, 
although no record of his admission at any of them can now be found. 

There are some curious stories of his misbehaviour whilst a student 
at Cambridge, but they seem entitled to little credit. 

Between the entry of his admission at this college and the succeeding 
entry, some zealous individual of later date has crowded in these lines : 

Hie fuit grandis itte impostor, carnifex perditissimus, qui pientissimo 
rege Carolo primo nefaria cce.de sublato, ipsum usurpavit thronum, et 
tria regna per quinque ferme annorum spatium, sub protectoris nomine, 
indomita tyrannide vexavit. 

"Whilst Oliver Cromwell was entering himself of Sidney Sussex 
College, William Shakspeare was taking his farewell of this world. 
Oliver's Father had most likely come with him; it is but some fifteen 
miles from Huntingdon; you can go and come in a day. Oliver's Father 
saw Oliver write in the Album at Cambridge; at Stratford Shakspeare's 
Ann Hathaway was weeping over his bed. The first world-great thing 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 37 

ress ; Edward, first lord Montagu of Boughton ; 
Dr. Chafy, master; Dr. Ward, master; bishop 
Garnett; bishop Montagu; William Wollaston; 
Dr. John Hey ; Dr. James Johnson, master ; arch- 
bishop Bramhall; Dr. Bardsey Fisher, master, and 
his wife; and an engraving of Peter Blundell, the 
munificent founder of Tiverton school. 

THE GARDENS of the master and of the fellows 
are of considerable extent, contain some noble trees, 
and are laid out with much taste. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. Under the recent 
statutes there are six fellowships on the foundation 
of the countess of Sussex, one on the foundation of 
Mr. Leonard Smith, and two on the foundation of 
Mr. Peter Blundell. 

Mr. Taylor's mathematical lecturer has the position 
but not the rights of a fellow, and does not vacate 
his office by marriage. 

There are twelve foundation scholarships value 
40 per annum each, one on the foundation of Mr. 
Leonard Smith, and many exhibitions. 

that remains of English History, the Literature of Shakspeare, was ending ; the 
second world-great thing that remains of English History, the armed appeal 
of Puritanism to the Invisible God of Heaven against very many visible 
Devils, on Earth and Elsewhere, was so to speak, beginning. They have 
their exits and their entrances. And one People in its time plays many 
parts." Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches with Elucidations, by 
Thomas Carlyle, 3rd edit. I. 59. 

Cromwell represented the town of Huntingdon in 1628. He was made 
a freeman of the town of Cambridge at the request of the mayor, 7 Jan. 
1639-40, and represented that town in both the parliaments of 1640. He 
was elected high-steward of the town 8 May, 1652, and held the office 
till his death. 

There is a tradition that when first elected member for this town he 
resided in a house belonging to Magdalen college, situate in White Bull 
yard, on the western side of Bridge street, in the parish of S. Clement. 



38 SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

In 1621 the college consisted of a master, twelve 
fellows, and twenty-nine scholars, these together with 
the students, &c., making a total of one hundred 
and forty. 

In August, 1641, one hundred members of this 
college contributed 4. 165. to a poll-tax. 

In 1672 the whole number of students with officers 
and servants of the foundation was one hundred 
and twenty-two. 

Edmund Carter says that in 1753 the college 
consisted of the master, eight fellows, ten scholars, 
and two exhibitioners, the total of all sorts being 
then usually about forty. 

PATRONAGE. The rectory of Wike S. Mary in 
Cornwall ; the vicarage of lilting in Essex ; the 
rectory of Swanscombe in Kent ; the rectory of Gayton 
in Northamptonshire; the rectory of Rempstone in 
Nottinghamshire ; the vicarage of Peasemarsh in 
Sussex ; and the rectory of Kilvington in Yorkshire. 




THK MASTER 8 LODGE. 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 

THIS college, which still remains incomplete, 
stands on land formerly known as S. Thomas's or 
Pembroke leys. 

THE FOUNDER. George Downing, only son of sir 
George Downing, the second baronet (a) by his wife 
Catharine, eldest daughter of James Cecil, third 
earl of Salisbury, K.G., was born in or about 1686, 
and educated at Clare hall. 

In February, 1700-1, being then about fifteen, 
he married his maternal cousin Mary, eldest daughter 
of sir William Forester, of Watling street in Shrop- 
shire, K.B., (6) she being then only thirteen. Soon 

(a) Sir George Downing, of East Hatley in Cambridgeshire, the first 
baronet was ambassador to Holland, secretary to the treasury, and a com- 
missioner of customs, being a person of considerable political importance in 
his day. It has been repeatedly stated that he was son of Calibute Downing, 
D.D., rector of Hackney, a noted divine, but this has been satisfactorily 
proved to be a mistake. See Peirce's Hist, of Harvard University, 
Append. 58. He was the son of Emmanuel Downing. 

(6) By Mary, daughter of James Cecil, third earl of Salisbury. 



40 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

afterwards he went on his travels, but before 
his departure strictly enjoined his young bride 
not to accept the post of a maid of honour, an offer 
which he thought it probable might be made to 
her on account of her uncommon beauty, for queen 
Anne, in imitation of her uncle Charles II., was 
anxious to fill her court with beautiful ladies of 
good family. The temptation proved, however, too 
strong for resistance. In a letter from lady Temple 
to Mrs. Martha Blount, written in November, 1704, 
she remarks, "I suppose that you hear that pretty 
Mrs. Forester is the new maid of honor." Mr. 
Downing returned to England in the following year, 
and was so extremely indignant at what had occurred 
that he peremptorily refused to live with his wife. 

In 1710 he was returned to parliament for Dun- 
wich in Suffolk, and in June, 1711, succeeded to 
the baronetcy on the death of his father. He was 
again elected M.P. for Dunwich in 1713. 

In April, 1715, his unhappy wife, after having 
for ten years fruitlessly endeavoured to conquer his 
aversion to her, petitioned the house of lords in 
her maiden name for leave to bring in a bill to 
avoid the marriage, which had never been con- 
summated. His answer was as follows: 

I have considered the Petition of Mrs. Mary Forester, 
presented to the Eight Honourable the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal in Parliament assembled; and do affirm, that all 
the Allegations thereof are true, and that I have never reputed 
her as my wife, and therefore join with her in the said Petition, 
humbly submitting myself to your Lordships' great Wisdom 
and Justice. 

G. DOWNING. 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 41 

The lords, however, refused leave to bring in 
the bill, by fifty against forty-eight, all the bishops 
present voting in the majority. 

He was again returned to parliament for Dunwich; 
to the parliament of 1722, (a] and he represented that 
town in 1727, and thenceforward till his death. 

On the 30th of June, 1730, he was installed a 
knight of the bath. 

Lady Downing died at Hampton in Middlesex 26th 
July, 1734, being buried there 2nd August following. 

His estate was considered the largest in Cam- 
bridgeshire, and he erected a splendid mansion at 
Gramlingay, (i) where he died 10 June, 1749. 

He had a natural daughter, to whom he be- 
queathed about 20,000, leaving also 200 a-year 
to her mother for her life. 

By his will, dated 17 December, 1717, he gave 
and devised his manors, lands, tenements, and here- 
ditaments in Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and 
Suffolk, to James earl of Salisbury, Charles earl of 
Carlisle, Nicholas Lechmere, John Pedley, and 
Eobert Pullyn, esquires, and their heirs, in trust 
for his cousin Jacob Gfarrard Downing, esq. (c) (who 
succeeded to the baronetcy), and the heirs of his 
body, with remainder in trust for other relatives in 

(a) Sir Robert Rich and Charles Long, esq., presented a petition 18th 
October, 1722, against the return of Edward Vernon, esq., and sir George 
Downing, for Dunwich; certain freemen also petitioned against their re- 
turn. These petitions were withdrawn 1 Oth and 14th of November following. 

(6) This mansion was pulled down in October, 1776. 

(c) Son of Charles Downing, esq., comptroller of the customs in the 
port of London (third son of sir George Downing, the first baronet) by his 
wife Sarah, youngest daughter and coheiress of Jacob Garrard, esq., son 
and heir of sir Thomas Garrard, of Langford in Norfolk, bart. 



42 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

succession and their issue. In case of the failure 
of such issue, he devised the same as follows : 

To THE USE AND BEHOOF of the said James earl of 
Salisbury, Charles earl of Carlisle, Nicholas Lechmere, John 
Pedley, and Kobert Pullyn, and their heirs, IN TRUST never- 
theless, that they do and shall, as soon as may be, by and with 
and out of the rents, issues, and profits of the premises, buy and 
purchase the inheritance and fee simple of some piece of ground, 
lying and being in the town of Cambridge, proper and con- 
venient for the erecting and building a college, and thereon shall 
erect and build all such houses, edifices, and buildings as shall 
be fit and requisite for that purpose which college shall be called 
by the name of Downing's college : and my will is, that a 
charter royal be sued for and obtained for the founding such 
college, and incorporating a body collegiate by that name, in 
and within the university of Cambridge ; which college or col- 
legiate body shall consist of such head or governor, and of such 
fellows, scholars, members, and other persons for the time being, 
and shall be maintained, governed and ordered by such laws 
rules and orders, and in such manner, and therein shall be pro- 
fessed and taught such usefull learning, as my said trustees, or 
their heirs (by and with the consent and approbation of the most 
reverend the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the 
masters of Saint John's college and Clare hall in the said 
university of Cambridge, in being at the time of the founding 
of the said college) shall direct, prescribe and appoint : and 
immediately from and after the founding and incorporating such 
college or body collegiate as aforesaid, the said James earl of 
Salisbury, Charles earl of Carlisle, Nicholas Lechmere, John 
Pedley, and Robert Pullyn, and their heirs, shall stand and be 
seized of all and singular the said manors, lands, tenements and 
hereditaments in trust for the said collegiate body and their 
successors for ever and as for touching or concerning such of the 
said manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments and premises 
whereof or wherein I have or am possessed of any estate for 
any term or terms of years, I do hereby declare and appoint 
that they the said James earl of Salisbury, Charles earl of 
Carlisle, Nicholas Lechmere, John Pedley and Eobert Puflyn, 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 43 

.and their executors and administrators shall stand possessed 
thereof in trust that they the said James earl of Salisbury, 
Charles earl of Carlisle, Nicholas Lechmere, John Pedley and 
Robert Pullyn, and their executors and administrators shall, 
from time to time, assign and convey the same unto such person 
or persons as shall be intitled to the actual possession of my said 
lands of inheritance by virtue of the limitations thereof herein- 
before mentioned. 

This will was proved with a codicil thereto in 
the prerogative court of Canterbury, 13 June, 1749. 

THE FOUNDATION. Sir Jacob Garrard Downing 
died without issue, 6 February, 1764. The parties 
entitled in remainder to sir George Downing's 
estates had previously died without issue, and 
all the trustees died in his lifetime. In the 
same year an information was filed in the 
court of chancery by the attorney general at the 
relation of the chancellor, masters, and scholars of 
the university, against dame Margaret Downing, 
widow, (afterwards wife of George Bowyer, esq., 
ultimately sir George Bowyer, bart.) the heirs at 
law of sir George Downing and others. 

The cause was heard by the lord chancellor, 
assisted by the master of the rolls and the chief- 
justice of the common pleas on 15 July, 1768, when 
it was decided that the will was good, and such 
as the court would carry into execution. On 3 July, 
1769, a decree was made declaring the will and 
codicil well proved, and that the same ought to be 
established, and the trusts thereof performed and 
carried into execution, particularly the trusts for 
the foundation of the college in case the king should 



44 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

grant his charter of incorporation, and a licence to 
take the devised premises in mortmain, and the heirs 
at law were to be at liberty to apply to his majesty 
for that purpose. It was also declared that certain 
freeholds purchased by the testator after the date of 
his will did not pass by the codicil, and that certain 
leaseholds and copyholds did not pass by the will. 

A grace to admit Downing college to the same 
privileges as the other endowed colleges passed the 
senate in May, 1786. 

In consequence of the deaths of parties to the 
suit in chancery informations of revivor and supple- 
ment became necessary. On the 16th February, 1795, 
the former decree of 1769 was ordered to be prose- 
cuted against the then parties to the suit. 

In or before 1796 the heirs at law petitioned the 
crown for a charter of incorporation. The petition 
was referred to the attorney and solicitor general. 

On the 19th of December, 1796, the heirs at law 
entered into an agreement with the mayor, bailiffs, 
and burgesses of the town of Cambridge, provisionally 
on the charter being granted within one year, to 
purchase for the site of the college, Parker's piece, 
or to take a lease thereof for nine hundred and 
ninety-nine years, the purchase-money or rent to 
be fixed by two land surveyors or their umpire, 
and on the same day an agreement to the like effect 
was made between the same parties with respect 
to a piece of ground at Castle end, known as Pound 
hill, and containing one acre, and twenty-three poles. 

On the 15th March, 1798, the heirs at law entered 
into an agreement with the mayor, bailiffs, and 




FLAXMAN'S DESIGN 
DOWNING COLLEGE SEAL. 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 45 

burgesses conditionally, on the charter being granted 
within three years, for the purchase of 140 for Doll's 
close, near Maids' causeway, containing one acre, 
subject to a lease to Thomas Thackeray, for nine 
hundred and ninety-nine years, at the annual rent 
of 3. 19s. An agreement was also made about the 
same time, for the purchase of Mr. Thackeray's 
lease. 

On the 3rd of September, 1798, the heirs at law 
renewed their petition for a charter of incorporation. 

In March, 1800, the lord chancellor made a final 
decree, ordering that a receiver should be appointed, 
and that the defendants in possession should pay 
rents for six years, all former arrears being relin- 
quished by the university. 

The privy council, on the 6th of June following, 
recommended his majesty to grant a charter. 

By indentures of lease, release, and assignment, 
dated 14 and 15 July, 1800, Doll's close was con- 
veyed to the heirs at law in trust for the intended 
college. 

On the 22nd of September following, the charter 
passed the great seal. After reciting the will of sir 
George Downing, and the proceedings in chancery 
connected therewith, the king willed, ordained, con- 
stituted, established, declared, and appointed 

1. THAT in and upon Doll's close there should and might 
be erected and established one perpetual college for students 
in law, physic, and other useful arts and learning, which 
college should be called by the name of Downing college, in 
the university of Cambridge, and should consist of one master, 
two professors ; (that is to say) a professor of the laws of 
England, and a professor of medicine, and sixteen fellows (two 



46 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

of whom should be in holy orders, and the rest laymen) and 
of such a number of scholars as should thereafter be agreed 
on and settled by the statutes of the college. 

2. THAT the master, professors, fellows, and scholars, and 
their successors for ever, should be one distinct and separate 
body politic and corporate in deed and name, by the name and 
style of the master, professors, fellows, and scholars of Downing 
college, in the university of Cambridge, and by the same name 
should have perpetual succession and a common seal, and that 
by the same name they and their successors, from time to time, 
and at all times thereafter, should be a body politic and 
corporate in deed and in law, and be able and capable to 
have, take, receive, hold, possess, enjoy, and retain, to and 
for the use of the college, all and every the freehold, copyhold 
and leasehold manors, advowsons, messuages, lands, rents, 
tenements, hereditaments, and possessions given and devised 
by the will of sir George Downing, together with Doll's close ; 
and also to take, purchase, acquire, have, hold, enjoy, receive, 
possess, and retain, notwithstanding any statute or statutes 
of mortmain to the contrary, any other manors, rectories, ad- 
vowsons, messuages, lands, tenements, rents, and hereditaments 
of what kind, nature, or quality soever, for the use of the 
college, so that the same did not exceed the yearly value 
of 1,500 above all charges and reprizes. 

3. THAT the college should be deemed and taken to be 
part and parcel of the university of Cambridge, and should 
be united and annexed to and incorporated therewith, and 
enjoy all the privileges thereof. 

4. THAT the master, professors, fellows, and scholars and 
their successors, should and might individually have, hold, take, 
and enjoy within the university of Cambridge and the liberties 
and precincts thereof, all and singular such and the same 
privileges, franchises, and liberties, and in as full and ample 
manner and form, and should be subject to all such discipline, 
order, and government as any master, professor, or any 
warden, provost, principal, or doctor of any college in the 
said university, and their fellows and scholars, officers and 
ministers, or any of them within the said university, by reason 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 47 

of any charter, gift, or grant, or charters, gifts, or grants by 
his majesty, or any of his progenitors theretofore made or 
granted to the same university, or by reason of any prescrip- 
tion, custom, or other lawful title, or ordinance whatsoever, had, 
taken, held, or enjoyed, or been subject to, or ought to have 
had, taken, held or enjoyed, or been subject to. 

5. THAT statutes might be made and framed by the heirs 
at law of sir George Downing, with the consent and approba- 
tion of the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the 
masters of S. John's college and Clare hall, or the major 
part of them. 

6. THAT such statutes might be altered by the archbishops 
of Canterbury and York, and the masters of S. John's college 
and Clare hall, and Downing college, or the major part of 
them, at the request of the master, professors, and five senior 
fellows. 

7. THAT Francis Annesley^ doctor of laws in the said 
university, should be the first and modern master of the college, 
and Edward Christian ^ esquire, master of arts in the said 
university, and barrister at law, the first professor of the laws 
of England, and Busick Harwood, doctor in physic the first 
professor of medicine in the college. 

8. THAT John Lens ^ serjeant at law, and William Meek( 6 ) 
barrister at law, masters of arts in the said university, and 
William Frere, bachelor of arts, in the said university, and 
such thirteen other persons, to be qualified in manner therein- 
after prescribed respecting the elections of the future fellows 
of the college, as his majesty should, after the necessary build- 
ings for the college should have been erected, by writing under 
his sign manual nominate and appoint should be the first and 
modern fellows of the college. 



(a) Francis Annesley who was one of the heirs at law of sir George 
Downing, was M.P. for Reading from 1774 to 1806. He was created 
LL.D., by royal mandate as a member of S. John's college, 1800, and died 
16 April, 1812. 

(b) These gentlemen were with others appointed in July, 1788, syndics 
for management of the proceedings in the court of chancery, relative to 
the foundation of this college. 



48 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

9. THAT out of the revenues of the college, there should 
be in the first place set apart so much as should be necessary 
to be applied in erecting proper buildings for the college, 
together with any other funds applicable for that purpose, under 
the direction of the court of chancery. 

10. His majesty reserved to himself, his heirs and successors, 
all visitatorial power and authority over the college. 

The charter also contains provisions respecting 
the election, qualification, oaths, and duties of the 
master, professors, and fellows, the duration of the 
appointments, and the admission of pupils, and con- 
cludes with a promise to grant any other reasonable 
powers and authorities which might be necessary 
for the better government of the society. 

On the 2nd of July, 1801, the royal assent was 
given to an act for changing the site of the college to 
S. Thomas's, otherwise Pembroke leys, in the parishes 
of S. Botolph, S. Andrew the great, S. Benedict, 
and S. Andrew the less, and for providing funds 
for the purchase thereof, and for erecting proper 
buildings thereon. By another act passed at the 
same time, provision was made for extinguishing 
all rights of common and other rights in and over 
these lands. 

An application was made to the court of chancery 
to set aside the charter, but after a hearing of three 
days its validity was established on the 29th of 
June, 1802. 

Statutes were made on the 23rd of July, 1805, by 
the heirs-at-law of the founder with the consent and 
approbation of the major part of the other parties 
named in the charter. 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 49 

On the 18th of May, 1807, the members of the 
university assembled at Great S. Mary's, where a 
sermon was preached by Dr. Outram, the public 
orator. They then went to the Senate-house and 
proceeded thence to the site of the college, where 
Dr. Annesley the master laid the first stone, whereon 
was the following inscription: 

COLLEG1VM . DOWNINGENSE 

IN . ACADEMIA . CANTABRIGI.E 

GEORGIA S . DOWNING . DE . GAMLINGAY 

IN . EODEM . COMITATV . BARONETTVS 

TESTAMENTO . DESIGNAVIT 
OPIBVSQVE . MVNIFICE . INSTRVXIT 

ANNO . SALVTIS . M.DCC.XVII. 

REGIA . TANDEM . CHARTA . STABILIVIT. 

GEORGIVS . TERTIVS . OPTIMVS . PRINCEPS 

ANNO M.DCCC. 

H^C . VERO . ^DIFICII . PRIMORDIA 
MAGISTER . PROFESSORES . ET . SOCII 

POSVERVNT 

QVOD . AD . RELIGIONIS . CVLTVM 

JVRIS . ANGL1CANI . ET . MEDICINJE . SCIENTIAM 

ET . AD . RECTAM . JVVENTVTIS . INGENV^E 

DISCIPLINAM . PROMOVENDAM 

FELICITER . EVENIAT. 

At the conclusion of the ceremony the university 
returned in procession to the Senate-house. An 
entertainment was given in the evening by the 
members of the college at the Red Lion inn to the 
vice-chancellor, the earl of Hardwicke high steward 
of the university, the heads of houses, professors, 
doctors, and university officers. 

In May, 1821, undergraduates were admitted. 

VOL. III. E 



50 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

A new code of statutes for the government and 
regulation of the college was framed by the university 
commissioners 24 October, 1860, and in due course 
received the approbation of her majesty in council. 

BENEFACTOES. John Bowtell of Cambridge, book- 
binder, who died 1 December, 1813, bequeathed a 
collection of manuscripts, printed books, antiquities, 
and fossils ; William Gurdon, esq., M.A., fellow, a 
few years since gave a collection of law books ; 
George Peacock, D.D., dean of Ely, gave 50, for 
books to be chosen by the society. 

EMINENT MEN. Charles Skinner Matthews, fellow, 
classical scholar, died 1811. Sir Busick Harwood, 
M.D., professor of medicine, died 1814. Edward 
Christian, professor of law, chief-justice of the 
isle of Ely, author of legal works, died 1823. 
John Lens, fellow, serjeant-at-law, a distinguished 
advocate, died 1825. Frederick North, earl of 
Guildford, chancellor of the Ionian university, 
died 1827. William Frere, LL.D., master, serjeant- 
at-law, editor of Douglas's Reports and the fifth 
volume of the Paston Letters, died 1836. Cornwallis 
Hewett, M.D., professor of medicine, died 1841. 
Thomas Starkie, professor of law, author of numerous 
able legal works, died 1849. Eobert Devereux, vis- 
count Hereford, died 1855. Andrew Amos, professor 
of law, author of professional and historical works, 
and late member of the supreme legislative council 
in India, died 1860. 

THE BUILDINGS. When completed the college will 
form one extensive quadrangle, having the principal 
front towards the south. At present only the western 



DOWNING COLLEGE. 51 

side and part of the eastern side of the quadrangle 
are erected. The southern ends of these buildings 
will form the wings of the principal front. The 
grecian style is employed. The design, by William 
Wilkins, M.A., E.A., has been extravagantly praised 
and as extravagantly condemned. The buildings 
already erected have cost 60,000, charged on the 
college estates, and not entirely paid off till 1843. 

THE CHAPEL is to be on the southern side of the 
quadrangle. In the interim a room has, ever since 
the opening of the college, been set aside for the 
performance of divine service. 

THE HALL, which is lofty and well-proportioned, 
forms the south-western angle of the court, having 
on the west a hexastyle Ionic portico, and on the 
south a tetrastyle portico of the same order. 

THE COMBINATION-ROOM, immediately adjoining 
the hall, is a pleasant and convenient apartment. 

THE LIBKARY is to join the chapel on the southern 
side of the court. At present the books given by 
Mr. Bowtell, and Mr. Gurdon, with others pur- 
chased by the society, are deposited in an apartment 
on the western side of the court. Amongst Mr. Bow- 
tell's books are several MSS. relating to the university 
and town of Cambridge, particularly his own history 
of the town, the collections of Mr. alderman Wicksted, 
the diary of Mr. alderman Newton, the Pontage 
book, and a series of the town treasurers' accounts. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE, a spacious and convenient 
structure, forms the south-eastern angle of the 
quadrangle, having porticos corresponding in cha- 
racter and position with those of the hall. 

E2- 



52 DOWNING COLLEGE. 

THE WALKS AND GROUNDS are extensive, and laid 
out with much taste. On the 6th of July, 1847, 
her majesty queen Victoria, accompanied by H.R.H. 
the prince chancellor, attended a grand horticul- 
tural fete held in the grounds of this college. 

MASTERSHIP, PROFESSORSHIPS, FELLOWSHIPS, AND 
SCHOLARSHIPS. The present and late master were 
appointed by the archbishops of Canterbury and 
York and the masters of S. John's and Clare 
colleges. In future the master is to be elected by 
the professors and fellows. 

The Downing professors of the laws of England, 
and of medicine, are appointed by the archbishops 
of Canterbury and York and the masters of S. John's, 
Clare, and Downing colleges. The law professor 
must be, at the time of his election, a graduate in 
law or arts of one of the English universities, of 
ten years' standing from his matriculation, and also 
a barrister-at-law. The medical professor must be, 
at the time of his election, a graduate in medicine 
of one of the universities of the United Kingdom, 
and not less than twenty-five years of age. 

Under the new code of statutes there will be at 
least eight fellowships and ten scholarships, besides 
minor scholarships. 

PATRONAGE. The vicarage of Tadlow and the 
rectory of East Hatley in Cambridgeshire. (a) 



'"jl J r : j' ' ' ~j/f / ' 





THE SENATE-HOUSE. 



THE SENATE-HOUSE. 

THIS building, which occupies a commanding 
position and excites general admiration, is used 
for the more important assemblies of the academic 
body (a) as a i so f or examinations. 

The first stone was laid by Thomas Crosse, D.D., 
vice-chancellor, 22nd June, 1722, (6) and it was 
opened at the grand public commencement^ held 

(a) Previously to the erection of the Senate-House, the ordinary univer- 
sity assemblies were held in the congregation or regenl/house, which now 
forms that part of the university library known as the Catalogue room, 
and was formerly called the New chapel. The more solemn academical 
assemblies took place anciently in the church of the Franciscan friars and 
afterwards in Great S. Mary's church. 

(b) The site was previously occupied by townsmen's houses, which were 
purchased by the university under an act of parliament, which received the 
royal assent llth June, 1720. 

(c) This was the last public commencement strictly speaking. Since that 
period a grace dispensing with the solemnities of a public commencement 
has been passed annually. 



54 THE SENATE-HOUSE. 

in July, 1730, when Pope's ode on Saint Cecilia's 
day, set to music by Maurice Greene, MUS.D., was 
performed. 

The western end was not completed till 1768. 

The total cost of the building was nearly 20,000, 
of which more than half was raised by subscription. 
A list of the benefactors is subjoined : 

. . d. 

King George the first . . . 2000 

King George the second . . . 3000^ 

Arthur Anuesley, earl of Anglesey, high- 
steward of the university . . . 1000 

Charles Seymour, duke of Somerset, chancellor 
of the university ; James Brydges, duke of Chan- 
dos ; Henry Boyle, lord Carleton, 500 each . 1500 
Sir William Dawes, bart. archbishop of York 400 
Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle ; 
Henry Brydges, marquess of Carnarvon (after- 
wards duke of Chandos) ; Charles Townshend, 
viscount Townshend ; sir Robert Walpole, K.G., 
(afterwards earl of Orford) 300 each . . 1200 

Edward Clarke, esq., esquire bedel . . 120 

Hon. Thomas Willoughby, M.P. for the uni- 
versity ; rev. sir George Wheler, knt. canon of 
Durham ; sir Robert Raymond, attorney general 
(afterwards chief-justice of the king's bench) ; 
William Stanley, D.D., dean of S. Asaph, some- 
time master of Corpus Christi college ; Thomas 
Hill, D.D. ; John Rolle, esq. ; Charles Clarke, 
M.A., archdeacon of Norwich ; rev. Rowland Hill, 
M.A., rector of Hodnet, Shropshire, 100 each . 800 

Hon. Robert Price, baron of the exchequer; 
sir Isaac Newton; Francis Hare, D.D., dean 
of Worcester (afterwards bishop of Chichester) ; 
John Millington, D.D. ; John Gaskarth, D.D., 
rector of Allhallows, Barking; Henry Raynes, 

(a) Viz. 1000 when prince of Wales, and 2000 after his accession to 
the crown. 



THE SENATE-HOUSE. 55 

. s. d. 

LL.D.; Jonas Warley, archdeacon of Colchester; 
Jacob Houblon, esq. ; sir John Cheshyre, 
serjeant-at-law, 50 each . . . 450 

Rev. William Ayloffe, LL.D., fellow of Trinity 
college, 40 ; Francis Dickens, LL.D., Regius pro- 
fessor of civil law, 27. 6s. ; sir John Ayloffe, 
bart. 25 ; dean and chapter of Durham, 21 ; 
Michael Hutchinson, D.D. 21 ; Edward Northey, 
esq. 21 ; dean and chapter of Ely, 20 ; John 
Montagu, D.D., dean of Durham, sometime master 
of Trinity college, 20 ; Walter Mills, M.D. 20 ; 
Charles Longueville, esq. 20 ; John Lightwine, 
fellow of Caius college, 20 ; James Bankes, 
rector of Bury, Lancashire, 20 ; William Ashton, 
rector of Prestwich, Lancashire, 20 . . 295 6 

John Corbet, LL.D. ; Vincent Bourne, M.A., 
fellow of Trinity college ; Henry Barnard, M.B. ; 
rev. Thomas Fitzgerald, M.A., 10. 10s. each . 42 

John Thane, D.D., 5. 15s. ; Thomas Eden, 
LL.D., canon of Durham, 5. 5s. ; Thomas Man- 
gey, D.D., canon of Durham, 5. 5s. ; rev. Thomas 
{Sharpe, 5. 5s. ; rev. Thomas Clarke of Kirkleat- 
ham, 5. 5s. ; Mr. Daston, 5. 5s. . 32 

10,839 6 

Sir James Burrough, knt., master of Caius 

college, towards finishing the western end (1764) 150 00 

10,989 6 

The ground plan is a parallelogram and the 
elevations present stylobates sustaining pilasters 
and an entablature of the corinthian order, sur- 
mounted by a balustrade. In the centre of the 
southern front is a triangular pediment supported 
by four attached columns, fluted and reeded. There 
is a similar pediment at the eastern end where 
the entrance is situate. At the western end is a 
pediment supported by pilasters. 



56 THE SENATE-HOUSE. 

The capitals of the columns and pilasters are 
copied from the temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome. 

Two tiers of architraved windows, the lower with 
pediments alternately elliptical and triangular, and 
the upper with arches are continued round the whole 
structure: those at the western end are without 
lights. 

The interior consists of one spacious apartment 
one hundred and one feet in length, forty-two feet 
in breadth, and thirty-two feet in height. It is 
surrounded on all sides by oaken galleries ; the 
gallery at the east end being supported by fluted 
doric columns. 

Pilasters of the doric order are placed on the 
northern and southern sides, and at the western 
end is the chancellor's seat under a pediment sus- 
tained by four fluted doric columns. 

On either side of the chancellor's seat are seats 
for the doctors, noblemen, and heads of houses. 

The floor is of black and white marble in alter- 
nate squares. 

The roof is divided by highly enriched beams 
into quadrangular compartments each decorated with 
a bold pendant ornament. 

The upper part of the walls is wrought with 
stucco into panels with appropriate embellishments. 

This noble apartment is adorned with the follow- 
ing statues : 

King George I., by Rysbrack, presented by 
Charles Townshend, viscount Townshend, in com- 
pliance with the intentions of his father. 

King George II., by Wilton, presented in 1766 



THE SENATE-HOUSE. 57 

by Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
chancellor of the university. 

Charles Seymour, duke of Somerset, chancellor 
of the university, by Rysbrack, presented in 1756 
by the duke's daughters Charlotte marchioness of 
Granby, and Charlotte lady Guernsey. 

The right hon. William Pitt, high steward of the 
university and for many years its representative in 
parliament, by Nollekens, erected by public sub- 
scription in June, 1812. (a) 

The architect of this building was James Gibbs. 
It has indeed been said that the credit of the design 

(a) Where Mr. Pitt's statue stands was formerly one by Barrata, which 
was given to the university in 1748 by Peter Burrell, esq. of S. John's 
college, as a figure of Academic Glory. It came from Canons in Middlesex, 
the seat of the duke of Chandos. As some said it represented queen Anne, 
the more zealous of the whig party attempted to get rid of it. Two graces 
for its removal from the senate-house were offered, but rejected, and 
ultimately a letter of thanks to Mr. Burrell was agreed to. When, after 
the lapse of sixty years, it was removed to make way for Mr. Pitt's statue, 
a lady wrote the following epigram : 

Sons of Sapience you here a fair emblem display, 
For wherever Pitt went he drove Glory away. 

It was thus indifferently answered : 

Why thus exclaim and thus exert your wit 
At making Glory here give place to Pitt ? 
We'll raise his statue of the finest stone, 
For never here a brighter glory shone. 

On the 21st March, 1806, a grace for appointing a syndicate to consider 
some mark of respect to Mr. Pitt's memory was offered to the senate, 
but rejected by one dissentient in the caput. On the 24th a meeting of 
the members of the senate was held at the master's lodge in Trinity college, 
when it was unanimously resolved to honour the memory of the great 
statesman by a statue to be placed in the senate-house. Upwards of 
7,400 was soon afterwards subscribed, but only half the amount was 
called for. Four models were made, two by Bacon, one by Nollekens, 
and one by Garrard. That of Nollekens was preferred, and lie received 
3000 guineas for the statue, which is considered his best performance. 



58 THE SENATE-HOUSE. 

is due to James Bui-rough, M.A., fellow of Caius 
college, afterwards sir James Burrougli and master 
of that society. It is however hardly credible that 
an architect of high reputation should execute the 
design of a young amateur. Gibbs's style is every 
where apparent, and moreover the design for the 
senate-house appears in his published works. {a) 

(a) Book of Architecture, plate 36. The senate-house was only a part 
of Gibbs's plan. The whole building was to have been in the form of a half 
H, the senate-house forming the northern wing. The centre was to contain 
the library purchased by George I. of the executors of bishop Moore, and 
presented by his majesty to the university, and the southern wing, corres- 
ponding in character with the senate-house, was to have been used as a 
consistory and registrars office. It was no doubt owing to the intention of 
completing the whole design of Gibbs, that the western end of the senate - 
house remained so long unfinished. Gibbs's plan led to a litigation between 
Caius college and the university. See Cambridge Portfolio, 439-441. 




IXTliRIOR OF THE SOUTHERN SCHOOL. 



THE SCHOOLS. 

THE schools {a) of the university form a small 
quadrangle. All the rooms on the ground floor 
were formerly used for academical disputations, 
as was also a portion of the upper storey. At 
the present time the university library occupies 
the whole of the upper storey and one of the 
rooms on the ground floor. 

The northern side of the quadrangle contains, 

(a) The great schools in the school street of Cambridge are mentioned 
in a lease from John de Crachal, chancellor of the university, and the 
assembly of the masters regent and non-regent, to Master William de 
Alderford, priest, M.A., dated 15th February, 20 Edw. III. [1346-7].' 



60 THE SCHOOLS. 

on the ground floor, the divinity school, built at 
the expence of the university, aided by a benefac- 
tion of forty marks from the executors of sir Robert 
de Thorpe, lord chancellor of England and some- 
time master of Pembroke hall, who died 29th June, 
1372. (a) The executors of his brother and heir sir 
William de Thorpe, (b} erected a chapel over it. By 
a deed dated 12 cal. Jul. 1398, Eudo la Zouche, 
LL.D., chancellor of the university, engaged that 
on the second of the nones of May in every year, 
the chancellor and every regent would meet in 
the chapel and there solemnly cause to be cele- 
brated exequies for the soul of sir William de 
Thorpe, with a mass on the morrow with deacon 
and subdeacon, and yearly on the 19th of November, 
cause to be celebrated exequies for the soul of his 
consort the lady Grace, with the like mass on the 
morrow. It was further granted that every one 
about to incept or read in divinity should swear 
that on every day on which he read in the schools, 
after the psalm Ad ie levavi was finished, he would 

(a) A memoir of sir Robert de Thorpe is given in Foss's Judges of 
England, in. 526. His executors were sir John Knyvet, knight, John de 
Harleston, clerk, Richard Treton, clerk, afterwards the second master of 
Corpus Christi college, and John Breton, a layman. 

(6) It is uncertain whether he were the person of this name who was 
sometime chief justice of the king's bench and afterwards a baron of the 
exchequer, and who is noticed in Foss's Judges of England, in. 527-531. 
His executors were Sir John de Roos, knight ; John Pechel, rector of S. 
Andrew in Histon ; and Henry Hammond. Some particulars of sir William 
de Thorpe's will are given in archbishop Parker's account of the erection 
of the schools at the end of Dr. Drake's edition of De Antiquitate Bri- 
tanniccs Ecclesicp,. Here it may be noted, that Dr. Caius's account of the 
erection of the schools is very inaccurate, as was also the account which 
archbishop Parker first published. Dr. Drake has availed himself of the 
archbishop's corrected statement on the subject. 



THE SCHOOLS. 61 

not depart until he had said the psalm De profundis 
for the souls of sir William and lady Grace, with 
certain other prayers ; and graduates in all facul- 
ties were to swear on their admission to say the 
psalm De profundis and other prayers for the souls 
of sir William and lady Grace before they departed 
from the chapel. 

The chapel (or new chapel as it was generally 
termed) was used as the congregation or regent-house 
until the senate-house was erected when it was added 
to the university library. The arms of Thorpe are 
in the western window of the apartment. The 
divinity school has within the last few years been 
also added to the university library. 

The southern side contains on the ground floor 
the philosophy school (now used by the professors 
of law and physic), above which was the common 
library afterwards termed the greater library. This 
room was during part of the reign of Elizabeth 
used by the divinity professors. It was afterwards 
the greek school and now forms the first room in the 
university library. This portion of the fabric, which 
was commenced about the close of the fourteenth 
century, seems not to have been finished till after 
1457. (a) 

(a) Part of the site of the schools was acquired by the university in or be- 
fore the reign of Edw. I., from a benefaction of Nigellus de Thornton, M.D. 

On the feast of S. Dunstan, archbishop and confessor, 19 Hie. II. 
[1395], Mary Suliard, prioress of the house of S. Leonard of Stratford at 
Bow, in the county of Middlesex, and the convent of the same place, 
granted to Thomas Kelsale, William Wymbel, Richard Baston, and John 
Sudbury, clerks, their heirs and assigns, one curtilage with the ap- 
purtenances lying in the town of Cambridge, in the lane called Schole-lane, 
between the tenement of the hospital of S. John, commonly called the 
hostel of the Holy cross on the south part, and the curtilage of Trinity college 



62 THE SCHOOLS. 

The western side contains on the ground floor 
the logic school, and above an apartment which 
was originally called the school of Terence, (a) and 
was afterwards used as the civil law, greek, and 
rhetoric schools. Early in the eighteenth century 
the upper portion of this side of the quadrangle 
was taken into the university library. This building 
was commenced about 1458, in which year Laurence 
Booth, bishop of Durham, (6) and chancellor of the 
university, caused a collection to be made, as well 
for finishing the southern side of the quadrangle 
as for commencing this side. The collection was 
made throughout the university from such who 
hired chairs of canon and civil law, from those 
who broke their words in taking their degrees, 
from every religious person being a proprietary of 
goods ten marks, from every religious man of the 
order of begging friars eight marks, from every 
rich parson a third part of his parsonage, and 

[hall] on the north part, abutting on the Schole-lane towards the east, and 
upon another garden of the same college [hall] on the west part. It is 
supposed that the grantees were trustees for the university (William 
Wymbel was proctor 1396, chancellor 1426, master of Clare hall 1429), and 
that the curtilage was added to the site of the schools. 

Other part of the site of the schools was purchased by the university 
of William Hulles, prior of S. John of Jerusalem [1417-1431]. 

Walter Smyth, afterwards master of Corpus Christi college, was in 1457 
appointed one of the syndics for building the schools. 

About 1459, Corpus Christi college demised to Robert; Woodlark, 
chancellor, and the university, for 99 years, a piece of land containing 30 
feet in length and 29 feet in breadth, at the annual rent of 2s., which was 
regularly paid till after the restoration of Charles II. This piece of ground 
which is said to have been the garden of S. Mary's hostel, forms part of the 
site of the schools. 

(a) In 1520 a fire broke out in the school of Terence, but it seems to 
have occasioned little damage. 

(6) Afterwards archbishop of York. 



THE SCHOOLS. 63 

from bishops and prelates what they pleased them- 
selves to give. 

This portion of the fabric was completed about 
1474. Dr. Gray, Dr. Hay wood, and Dr. Stoell 
fellow of Peterhouse are mentioned as the syndics 
under whose care the business was brought to a 
termination. 

The eastern side contained on the ground floor 
the little schools, erected at the expense of the 
university, above which was the minor library, built 
and furnished at the charge of Thomas Rotheram, 
chancellor of the university, and successively bishop 
of Eochester and Lincoln, and archbishop of York. (a) 

On the 13th of May, 1475, the university in 
grateful acknowledgement of the munificence of 
Rotheram, then bishop of Lincoln, in building a new 
library and furnishing the same with books, decreed 
that he should be for ever enrolled amongst the bene- 
factors of the academic body, and that his name should 
be specially recited by the priest who visited each 
school to pray for the benefactors of the university. 
Also that yearly during his life on the day on 
which the masters resumed their lectures after the 
feast of Easter, a mass should be celebrated, with 
deacon and subdeacon, for the healthful security of 
the state and persons of the whole body of bishops, 
and that yearly after his death should be celebrated 
exequies, with a morrow mass (such as was ac- 
customed to be celebrated for deceased bishops), on 
a day to be assigned by him or another on his behalf. 

(a) Dr. Stoell fellow of Peterhouse, and Alan Sempre esquijre bedel, 
superintended the erection of this part of the building. 



64 



THE SCHOOLS. 



i r 



=T" 




OLD ENTRANCE GATEWAY TO THE SCHOOLS. 



The eastern side of the quadrangle, which had 
a very elegant entrance gateway, (a) was removed in 
1755 to make way for a structure containing, on 
the ground floor, an arcade and a small room used 
as a lecture room by the Norrisian and other pro- 
fessors, and above a commodious apartment forming 
a portion of the university library. 

John Herrys, who was mayor of Cambridge in 
1404, gave 10 to the fabric, and at his own 
charge paved the school street. 

Humphrey Plantagenet, duke of Gloucester, K.G., 
who was murdered in 1446, and William Alnewyk, 
successively bishop of Norwich and Lincoln, who 
died 5th December, 1449, are said to have contributed 
to the building of the schools. 

(a) A portion of this gateway now forms the entrance to the stable yard 
at Madingley hall. Francis Sandford states that in his time the badges 
used by Richard duke of Gloucester, before his accession to the throne, 
were over the gate, on the inside, in a compartment of stone. 



THE SCHOOLS. 65 

Sir John Fastolfe, E.G., who died 1459, bequeathed 
a large sum for the erection of the schools of phi- 
losophy and law. 

Walter Breton, M.A., rector of Coltishall in Nor- 
folk, and sometime fellow of King's college, was a 
benefactor, and his rebus was placed in the windows 
of the philosophy school. 

John de Vere, earl of Oxford, E.G., who died 
in 1514, was also a benefactor to the fabric. 

John Sentuary, fellow of Corpus Christi college, 
who died about 1519, paved the inner area of the 
schools at his own expense. 

John Mere, M.A., esquire bedel, who died 13th 
April, 1555, having bequeathed money for charitable 
uses, 40, part thereof, was applied to the repair 
of the roof of the schools. 

Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, in 
1573, made at his own expence a new way leading 
to the schools from Great S. Mary's. It was called 
University street. (a) 

The schools were in Fuller's time thus appro- 
priated : 

Northern side. 1. Divinity school. 2. Regent 
house. 

Southern side. 1. Logic or sophister's school. 
2. The greek school. 

Western side. 1. Philosophy or bachelor's school. 
2. Physic and law schools. 

(a) The other part of the area in front of the schools and senate- 
house was formed when the latter structure was erected, by the removal 
of a considerable number of townsmen's houses, which were purchased by 
the university. 

VOL. III. F 



66 THE SCHOOLS. 

Eastern side. 1. Vestry and Consistory. 2. 
Library. 

In Loggan's time the appropriation of the quad- 
rangle was as follows: 

Northern side. 1. Divinity school. 2. Eegent 
house. 

Southern side. 1. Sophister's school. 2. Library. 

Western side. 1. Bachelor's school. 2. School 
of Physic and Law. 

Eastern side. 1. Consistory and Proctors' and 
Taxors' court. 2. Minor library. 

The sole ornament of the schools is the statue 
of Academic Grlory, adverted to in our notice of 
the senate-house. 

The schools are by no means remarkable for 
architectural beauty, indeed Evelyn, in recording his 
impressions of Cambridge on his visit in 1654, says 
" The Schooles are very despicable." 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

THE following list of benefactors, which is more 
complete than any which has hitherto appeared, will 
be found to throw considerable light on the history 
and progress of this institution : 

Thomas Langley, bishop of Durham and cardinal, who died 
in 1437, gave books. 

Robert Alne, examiner general of the spiritual court at 
York, bequeathed six volumes by will, dated 24th December, 
1440. 

Walter Crome, D.D., rector of S. Benedict Sherehog in 
London, in 1452 gave MSS. 

John de Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, K.G., designed a large 
donation of books, but being beheaded in 1470 his intentions 
could not be carried out. 

John Gunthorpe, dean of Wells, and sometime master of 
King's hall, gave the works of S. Jerome, in two volumes, 
richly illuminated. 

Thomas Rotheram, successively bishop of Rochester and 
Lincoln, and ultimately archbishop of York, gave about 
two hundred volumes. 

Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, afterwards of Durham, 
gave many books printed and MSS. 

Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1574 gave 
one hundred volumes, including twenty-five MSS. At the 
same period the following donations were made by the 
archbishop's procurement: James Pilkington, bishop of Durham, 
twenty volumes. Robert Home, bishop of Winchester, seventy- 

F2 



70 UNIVERSITY LIBRAKY. 

of arable and anglo-saxon, gave a collection of books on 
eastern and northern literature. 

John Rant, sometime fellow of Cams college, in 1655 gave 
five MSS. 

Richard Foxton, alderman of Cambridge, sometime a student 
in Emmanuel college, left 40 wherewith books were purchased 
in 1656. 

Alexander Ross, D.D. of Aberdeen, bequeathed 50 which 
was in 1657 expended in the purchase of books. 

Samuel Mori and, M.A. of Magdalen college, (afterwards sir 
Samuel Morland,) in 1658 gave a valuable collection of MSS. 
relating to the affairs of the Waldenses.( a ) 

William Moore, M.A., fellow of Caius college, and librarian 
to the university, who died in 1659, gave a MS. and printed 
books, made several useful catalogues, and greatly exerted 
himself to put the library in order. 

Henry Lucas, esq., M.A. of S. John's college, sometime 
burgess in parliament for the university, gave his whole library 
consisting of about four thousand volumes/ 6 ' 

Tobias Rustat, esq., yeoman of the king's robes, by deed 
dated 1 June, 1666, settled 1000 to be laid out in lands, the 
rents to be applied in the purchase of the best and most useful 
books for the library. 

John Cosin, bishop of Durham, by deed dated 2nd Feb. 
1668-9, covenanted to give the university 100 for the erection 
of a commencement-house and new library, according to a 
specified plan or model. ^ This sum to be paid as soon as the 
ground on both sides of the Regent walk between King's and 
Caius colleges was purchased, and when the ground was made 
clear he covenanted to contribute 100 a year for four years if the 
works were carried on vigorously without stop or delay. 

Thomas Buck, M.A., esquire bedel and printer to the university, 
gave twenty-six volumes. 

(a) It appears that some of the documents given by Morland have long 
been missing. Cat. Univ. Libr. MSS., i. 81. 

(6) Catalogue in MS. Mm. 4. 27. 

(c) Dr. Cosin's plan was promulgated about 1640, but the civil war 
prevented its being carried out. 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 71 

John Hacket, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, bequeathed 
above one thousand volumes. 

Robert Mapletoft, D.D., dean of Ely and master of Pembroke 
hall, bequeathed 100 for the purchase of the books of G olius. 

James Duport, D.D., dean of Peterborough, and master of 
Magdalen college, bequeathed 100 to purchase books. 

Edmund Castell, D.D., professor of arable, in 1685 bequeathed 
all his MSS. in hebrew, syriac, Samaritan, persian, and arabic. 

Owen Mayfield, alderman of Cambridge, bequeathed a 
collection of coins. 

Joseph Beaumont, D.D., master of Peterhouse, and Regius 
professor of divinity, bequeathed his MS. prselectiones in 
seventeen 4to. volumes. 

William Worts, M.A. of S. Catharine's hall, by will dated 
21st June, 1709 gave a considerable portion of the annual pro- 
ceeds of his real and personal estate to this library. 

King George I., in 1715 presented the choice library of 
John Moore, bishop of Ely, containing 30,755 volumes (whereof 
1790 were MSS.) which his majesty had purchased for 6000, 
or as some say 6000 guineas. () 

(a) Although he modestly disclaimed the honour there can be little 
doubt that the king's munificence to the university was owing to a suggestion 
of Charles Townshend, viscount Townshend. 

Soon after the king presented bishop Moore's library to this university, 
government were obliged to send to Oxford a squadron of horse to seize 
certain Jacobite officers who had been turned out of the army and 
were harboured there, thereupon a wit of that university produced this 
epigram : 

The king observing, with judicious eyes, 

The state of both his universities, 

To one he sends a regiment ; For why ? 

That learned body wanted loyalty. 

To th' other books he gave, as well discerning 

How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

This occasioned the subjoined retort by Mr. (afterwards sir William) 
Browne, which though commended by Dr. Johnson, has been considered 
inferior to the original : 

The king to Oxford sent his troop of horse : 

For tories own no argument but/orce. 

"With equal care to Cambridge books he sent : 

For whigs allow no force but argument. 



72 UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

Robert Cannon, D.D., sometime fellow of King's college, 
gave a valuable MS. in the handwriting of King Edward VI. 
being a treatise in french on the supremacy of the pope. 

George Lewis, archdeacon of Meath, in 1727 presented 
a cabinet of oriental MSS., coins and curiosities. (a ) 

Thomas Baker, B.D., sometime fellow of S. John's college, 
in 1740 bequeathed eighteen volumes of his MS. historical 
collections, also several valuable printed books with his 
annotations thereon. 

Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, LL,D., master of Trinity hall, in 1741 
bequeathed 500 towards the charge of rebuilding part of the 
library, and in the same year the rev. Robert Tillotson, M.A., 
fellow of Clare hall, bequeathed 30 for the same purpose. 

Roger Gale, esq., F.S.A., of Scruton in the county of York, 
in 1744 bequeathed his cabinet of roman coins, with a com- 
plete catalogue of them drawn up by himself. ^ 

In 1754, and the seven following years, 9288 was raised 
by subscription for enlarging the library. (c ) This sum (with 

(a) There is a printed catalogue of archdeacon Lewis's collection. 

(6) Of this catalogue twenty copies were printed by John Nichols, 4to. 
1780, for the use of particular friends. The Gale coins are now in the 
Fitzwilliam museum. 

(c) The following is a list of subscribers : 

. s. d. 

King George II. .... 3000 

Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, chancellor of 
the university ..... 1000 

Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwicke, lord chancellor of Great 
Britain, and high steward of the university . . 300 

Hon. Edward Finch and Hon. Thomas Townshend, 
members in parliament for the university, 250 each . 500 

Thomas Herring, archbishop of Canterbury, John 
Manners, marquess of Granby, Henry Pelham Clinton, earl 
of Lincoln, Robert D'Arcy, earl of Holderness, Francis 
Godolphin, earl of Godolphin, John Ashburnham, earl of 
Ashburnham, Philip Yorke, Viscount Royston, Thomas 
Sherlock, bishop of London, Matthias Mawson, bishop of 
Ely, 200 each ..... 1800 

Mathew Hutton, archbishop of York, (afterwards of 
Canterbury,) John Ryder, archbishop of Tuam, Charles 
Watson Wentworth, marquess of Rockingham, Thomas 
Thynne, viscount Weymouth, Benjamin Hoadley, bishop of 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 73 

the legacies of sir Nathaniel Lloyd, and the rev. Robert 
Tillotson) was expended in rebuilding the eastern front. ( a ) 

John Newcome, D.D., dean of Rochester, and master of 
S. John's college, bequeathed in 1765, 500 for the purchase of 
theological books. 

George Lewis, M.A., sometime fellow of Jesus college, and 
son of the archdeacon of Meath of the same name, gave in 1770 
a richly illuminated persian MS. 

. d. 

Winchester, Frederick Cornwallis, bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry, (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury), John Thomas, 
bishop of Lincoln, (afterwards of Salisbury), Zachary Pearce, 
bishop of Rochester, Anthony Ellys, bishop of S. David's, 
Richard Osbaldeston, bishop of Carlisle, (afterwards of London), 
Benjamin Keene, bishop of Chester, (afterwards of Ely), 
Sir William Ashburnham, bishop of Chichester, Dr. Philip 
Yonge, bishop of Bristol (afterwards of Norwich), John 
Garnett, bishop of Clogher, William Barnard, bishop of 
Derry, Hon. Charles Yorke, solicitor general, Sir Thomas 
Clarke, master of the rolls, Sir Thomas Salusbury, judge of 
the admiralty, Sir George Savile, bart. Sir Thomas Robinson, 
K.B, Roger Pettiward, D.D., 100 each . . . 2100 

Richard Chenvenix bishop of Waterford, Sir Edward 
Wilmot, M.D., John Fountayne, D.D., dean of York, John 
Green, D.D., dean (afterwards bishop) of Lincoln, William 
Heberden, M.D., Robert Taylor, M.D., Soame Jenyns, esq., 
M.P. 50 each . . . . . 350 

John Taylor, LL.D., canon residentiary of S. Paul's . 40 

Penniston Booth, D.D., dean of Windsor, Hugh Thomas, 
D.D., dean of Ely, Charles Moss, D.D., archdeacon of Col- 
chester (afterwards bishop of Bath and Wells), Roger Long, 
D.D., master of Pembroke hall, John Sumner, D.D., provost 
of King's college, Thomas Chapman, D.D., master of Magdalen 
college, Christopher Wilson, D.D., canon residentiary of S. 
Paul's (afterwards bishop of Bristol) 21 each . 147 

Edward Barnard, D.D., master of Eton school. . 20 

Richard Etough, M.A., rector of Therfield, 10, 10s. John 
Keet, M.A., rector of Hatfield, 10. 10s. Theophilus Lowe, 
M.A., canon of Windsor, 10 .... 31 

9288 0__p 

(a) The first stone was laid with much solemnity by the duke of New- 
castle, chancellor of the university, 30th April, 1755. The architect was 
Stephen Wright. 



74 UNIVEESITY LIBRAEY. 

William Burrell, esq., LL.D. of S. John's college, (afterwards 
sir William Burrell) in 1772 presented a collection of Chinese 
books. 

Gilbert Bouchery, M.A., sometime fellow of Clare hall, in 
1778 gave two arabic MSS. 

William Petty, earl of Shelburne (afterwards marquess of 
Lansdowne), gave a greek MS. 

The rev. Henry Turner, B.D., vicar of Burwell, in 1786 
gave a MS. containing transcripts of ancient and curious docu- 
ments relative to the town of Cambridge. 

Sir James Marriott, LL.D., master of Trinity hall, gave 
various books, including a turkish MS. 

Edward Daniel Clarke, John Marten Cripps, and Bridges 
Harvey, of Jesus college, Robert Walpole of Trinity college, 
and John Spencer Smith, sometime minister at the Ottoman 
porte, presented greek marbles. 

Joseph Merrill, of Cambridge, bookseller, in 1805 bequeathed 
200, the annual interest to be laid out in purchasing books for 
the library. 

Francis Maseres, M.A., cursitor baron of the exchequer, and 
sometime fellow of Clare hall, gave books at various periods, 
and in 1806 presented MSS. of John Colson, Lucasian pro- 
fessor. 

Claudius Buchanan, D.D., in 1809 presented about eighty 
volumes of oriental MSS. and printed books. 

John Louis Burckhardt, the celebrated traveller, in 1817 
bequeathed 300 volumes of arabic MSS. 

John Palmer, B.D., arabic professor, gave in 1824 six 
arabic MSS. 

Peter Paul Dobree, M.A., Eegius professor of greek, in 
1825 bequeathed 182 volumes of classical books printed 
and MSS. 

The rev. John Manistre, M.A., fellow of King's college, 
in 1829 bequeathed 5000, the interest to be applied in the 
purchase of books. 

Basil Montagu, esq. M.A.^ of Christ's college, gave a large 

() Mr. Montagu in 1805 published a pamphlet in support of the claims 
of the university library, under the then copyright act. 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 75 

and valuable collection of the various editions of the printed 
works of Francis Bacon. 

In 1835 and the following year upwards of 21,000^ was 

(a) Subjoined are the names of the principal subscribers : 
Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., master of Pemb. coll. 105; George Biddell Airy, 
M.A., astronomer royal, 50; Sir Edward Hall Alderson, baron of the 
exchequer, 52. 10s. ; sir John Beckett, LL.D., 52. 10s. ; John Bell, M.A. 
ofTrin. coll. 105; Henry Bickersteth, M.A., (afterwards lord Langdale) 
52. I Os. ; Charles James Blomfield, bishop of London, 300; James 
Brogden, M.A. Trin. coll. 100; rev. John Brown, M.A. Trin. coll. 105; 
Samuel Butler, D.D. (afterwards bishop of Lichfield) 52. 10s.; George 
Gough Calthorpe, lord Calthorpe, 100 ; the master and fellows of Caius 
coll. 200; rev. John Bassett Campbell, M.A., Trin. coll. 50; John 
Bonham Carter, M.P. 50; rev. William Carus, M.A., Trin. coll. 52. 10s. ; 
William Cavendish, earl of Burlington (now duke of Devonshire, 
and chancellor of the university), 105; William Chafy, D.D. 
master of Sidney coll. 105; Edward Clive, viscount Clive (after- 
wards earl of Powys) 50; hon, Robert Henry Clive, LL.D, 50 ; 
Spencer J. A. Compton, marquess of Northampton, 60 ; John Singleton 
Copley, lord Lyndhurst, 50 ; the master and fellows of Corpus Christi coll. 
105; rev. George William Craufurd, M.A. King's coll. 100; John Cust, 
earl of Brownlow, 50; Martin Davy, D.D. master of Caius coll. 105; 
Peter Debary, B.D. Trin. coll. 105 ; John and Joseph Jonathan Deighton, 
booksellers, Cambridge, 50; Henry Douglas, M.A. S. John's coll. 50; 
Laurence Dundas, lord Dundas, (afterwards earl of Zetland,) 100 ; Robert 
Dundas, viscount Melville, 50 ; the provost and fellows of Eton coll. 100 ; 
rev. Robert Wilson Evans, M.A. Trin. coll. 105; rev. Frederick Field, 
M.A. Trin. coll. 60 ; Thomas Fisher and sons, bankers, Cambridge, 
52. 10s. ; lord Augustus Fitzclarence, 50; Henry Fitzmaurice, marquess 
of Lansdowne, 100; George Henry Fitzroy, duke of Grafton, 200; 
Charles William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, earl Fitzwilliam, 100; William 
Charles Wentworth Fitzwilliam, viscount Milton, 50; William French, 
D.D. master of Jesus coll. 105; Bartholomew Frere, M.A. Trin. coll. 
52. 10s. ; rev. James William Geldart, LL.D., Regius professor of civil law, 
52. 10s. ; Joseph Goodall, D.D., provost of Eton coll. 105 ; rev. Thomas 
Stephen Gosset, M.A. Trin. coll. 100; right hon. Henry Goulburn, M.P. 
105; John Graham, D.D. master of Christ's coll. (now bishop of Chester), 
105; sir Robert Graham, LL.D., sometime baron of the exchequer, 105; 
rev. Robert Hodgson Greenwood, M.A. Trin. coll. 50; hon. and rev. 
George Neville Grenville, M.A., master of Magdalen college, 105; John 
Haviland, M.D., Regius professor of physic, 52. 10s.; Edward Craven 
Hawtrey, D.D., Eton coll. 50; John Moore Heath, M.A., Trin. coll. 
52. 10s.; Thomas Henry Hope, M. P., 105; John Hutton, M.A. Christ's 
coll. 100; rev. John Hymers M.A., S. John's coll. 50; Edward Jacob, 



76 UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

collected by subscription for erecting an addition to the 

M.A., Caius coll. 52. 10s.; John Kaye, bishop of Lincoln, 210; rev. 
Richard Edward Kerrich, M.A., Christ's coll. 50 ; S. K. 50; the provost 
and fellows of King's coll. 300; hon. Marmaduke Langley, (late Dawnay,) 
M.A. Trin. coll. 100; hon. Charles Ewan Law, M.P. 105; rev. William 
Law, M.A. Trin. coll. 52. 10s.; rev. William Lax, M.A. Lrvvndean professor^ 
100; Thomas Le Blanc, LL.D. master of Trin. hall, 105; Samuel Lee, 
D.D. Regius professor of hebrew, 50 ; Alexander William Crawford 
Lindsay, lord Lindsay, 105 ; sir Joseph Littledale, justice of the king's 
bench, 105; rev. John Lodge, M.A., librarian of the university, 105; 
rev. Francis William Lodington, B.D., Clare hall, 52. 10s.; Charles Long, 
lord Farnborough, 105; rev. William Long, LL.B., canon of Windsor, 
50; William Lowther, earl of Lonsdale, 100; the master and fellows 
of Magd. coll. 105; Edward Maltby, bishop of Chichester, (afterwards 
of Durham) 105; John Henry Manners, duke of Rutland, K.G., 100; 
Herbert Marsh, bishop of Peterborough, .250 ; rev. Francis Martin, M.A. 
Trin. coll. 52. 10s.; William Hallows Miller, M.A. professor of mineralogy, 
50; James Henry Monk, bishop of Gloucester, 210; William Moody, 
M.A., Trin. coll. 52. 10s.; rev. Edmund Mortlock, M.A. Christ's coll. 50; 
Thomas Mortlock, M.A., S. John's coll. 52. 10s. ; Richard Aldworth Neville, 
lord Braybrooke, 105; sir James Parke, LL.D. (now lord Wensleydale,) 
50 ; rev. George Peacock, M.A. Trin. coll. 105 ; right hon. William Yates 
Peel, M.P. 52. 10s.; Charles George Perceval, lord Arden, 50; Hugh 
Percy, duke of Northumberland, K.G., 500 ; rev. Charles Perry, (now bishop 
of Melbourne) 105; William Portal, M.A., S. John's coll. 50; John 
Jeffreys Pratt, marquess Camden, K.G. chancellor of the university 500 ; 
Joseph Procter, B.D. master of Cath. hall, 105; James Robinson, M.A. 
S. Peter's college, 105; rev. Joseph Romilly, M.A. registrary, 105; 
Dudley Ryder, earl of Harrowby, 100; James Scarlett, lord Abinger, 
50; rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A. Woodwardian professor, 105; rev. 
Willi ain Selwyn, M.A. St. John's coll. 52. 10s.; rev. Joseph Shaw, M.A. 
Christ's coliUj t 50; rev. Richard Sheepshanks, M.A. Trin coll. 105; rev. 
Charles SiaieOn, M.A. King's coll. 105; rev. George Skinner, M.A. 
Jesus colh .105 ; Bowyer Edward Sparke, bishop of Ely, 500 ; rev. 
Edward Bowyer Sparke, M.A. S. John's coll. 50; right hon. Thomas 
Spring Rice (now lord Monteagle), 50 ; Thomas Starkie, M.A. Down- 
ing professor of law, 52. 10s.; rev. Thomas Henry Steel, M.A. Trin. 
coll. 52. 10s. ; John Stuart, marquess of Bute, 105; Charles Manners 
Sutton, viscount Canterbury, 105; Thomas Manners Sutton, lord 
Manners, 50 ; rev. Henry Tasker, M.A., Pemb. coll. 52. 10s. ; Ralph 
Tatham, 1 B.D. public orator, 50; George Thackeray, D.D. provost of 
King's coll. 105; rev. Connop Thirlwall, M.A. (now bishop of S. David's) 
50; rev. Thomas Thorp, M.A. Trin. coll. 105; sir Nicholas C. Tindal, 
chief-justice of the common pleas, 105; rev. George Townsend, M.A. 
Trin, coll. 60; rev. George Robert Tuck, M.A., Emman. coll. 50; Thomas 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 77 

buildings. (a) 

Charles Sutton, D.D., of S. John's college, in 1836 presented 
the valuable MS. collections of Adam Wall, M.A., fellow of 
Christ's college, (MS. Oo. 5. 40-52). 

The rev. Kobert William Johnson, M.A., of Magdalen 
college, about 1840 gave a MS. translation by Edward 
Courtenay, earl of Devonshire. 

The rev. Charles Bayles Broadley, LL.D., of Trinity college, 
gave the full score MS. of Dr. Walmisley's ode on the installa- 
tion of the duke of Northumberland, and Dr. Walmisley gave 
the MS. of Dr. Boyce's music for the ode on the installation 
of the duke of Newcastle. 

John Percy Baumgartner, esq., in 1859 gave MSS. collected 
by Dr. Samuel Knight, including the correspondence of John 
Strype and the autobiography of bishop Patrick. 

Henry Hazard, of Cambridge, merchant, in 1859 pre- 
sented the Cambridge Journal, 19th September 1747, to Sep- 
tember 1750, and the Cambridge Chronicle, 30th October 
1762, to December 1788. [Some of the volumes are unique.] 

The rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A. of S. John's college, in 
1861 gave MSS. of Leonard Chappelow, professor of arabic, 
Leonard Chappelow his nephew. 

The following donations have been made towards the ex- 
tension of the library buildings : Rev. Thomas Halford, M.A. 
Jesus college, 2000 ; Edward Maltby, bishop of Durham, 100 ; 
Benedict Chapman, D.D., master of Caius college, 50 ; Robert 

Turton, D.D. dean of Peterborough (now bishop of Ely), 105 ; John Charles 
Villiers, earl of Clarendon, 105 ; rev. Randall Ward, M.A. Trin. coll. 50 ; 
rev. Richard Waterfield, B.D. Emman. coll. 50; rev. Samuel Wilkes 
Waud, M.A. Magd. coll. 52. 10s. ; rev. William Whewell, M.A. Trin. coll. 
105 ; William Henry Whitbread, M.A. Trin. coll. 52. 10s. ; James Wood 
D.D. dean of Ely and master of S. John's coll. 105; Christopher Words- 
worth, D.D. master of Trin. coll. 210; rev. Christopher Wordsworth, M.A. 
Trin. coll. 52. 10s.; John Wordsworth, M.A. Trin. coll. 52. 10*. j 
Charles Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwicke, LL.D. 50. 

(a) The old quadrangle of King's college was purchased by the uni- 
versity in 1829, for 12,000. 

The first stone of the new library was laid by Gilbert Ainslie, D.D. 
vice-chancellor, 29th September, 1837. The architect was Charles Robert 
Cockerell, esq., R.A. 



78 UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

Moon, esq., M.A., fellow of Queens' college, 100; rev. Joseph 
Power, M.A., librarian of the university 50 ; Edwin Guest, 
LL.D., master of Caius college, 50; George Peacock, D.D., 
dean of Ely, 100. 

The library occupies all the upper portion of 
the school quadrangle, the northern side of the 
lower portion of that quadrangle and the upper 
portion of a building erected 1837-40, and which 
forms part of a court intended to occupy the whole 
site of the library and schools, and the old court 
of King's college. This building is hereafter re- 
ferred to as the new library, the lower portion 
being appropriated to the museum of natural history. 

The entrance to the library is by a handsome 
staircase situate at the south eastern angle of the 
building. The southern, western, and northern 
rooms have an antique appearance. At the junction 
of the southern and western rooms is a square 
apartment with a handsome dome. The ceiling of 
the northern room is of quaint character, having 
thereon the arms of John Jegon, D.D., master of 
Corpus Christi college, afterwards bishop of Norwich. 
In the western window of this room are the arms 
of Thorpe. The eastern room, erected 1755, has 
an elaborately decorated ceiling, and at either end 
are handsome doorways. The new library is a 
spacious lofty apartment, decorated with Ionic 
columns, having galleries on either side, and a 
vaulted roof. In the eastern window are the arms 
of the university, archbishop Rotheram, bishop 
Tunstall, John Jeffreys Pratt, marquess Camden, K.G., 
chancellor of the university, Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 79 

vice-chancellor, 1836-7, Thomas Worsley, M.A., vice- 
chancellor, 1837-8, William Hodgson, D.D., vice- 
chancellor, 1838-9, and Ralph Tatham, D.D., vice- 
chancellor, 1839-40. In the western window are the 
arms of Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland, E.G., 
successively high steward, and chancellor of the 
university. 

The following portraits are suspended in the 
library and on the staircase leading thereto : 

Eichard de Ling, chancellor of the university, 1339, 1345, 
and 1351, (presented by Mr. Patterson of Hull, 1810). 

Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby. 

John Colet, D.D., dean of S. Paul's. 

Erasmus. 

John Young, D.D., successively fellow of S. John's and 
Trinity colleges, and master of Pembroke halU*) 

Edmund Grindal, archbishop of Canterbury. 

Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, K.G., high steward of 
the university. 

William Cecil, lord Burghley, K.G., chancellor of the 
university. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

John Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury. 

Theodore Beza, (purchased by the university about 1846). 

Richard Bancroft, archbishop of Canterbury. 

Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, K.a., chancellor of the 
university. 

King James I. (two. One a full length, curious). 

George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, K.G., lord high 
admiral, and chancellor of the university. 

George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury. 

King Charles I., (two. One a full length, when prince 
of Wales, curious. The other a head, by Vandyke). 

Peter Gunning, bishop of Ely. 

(a) On the picture he is stated to have died 7th April, 1579, set. 67. In 
Athena Cantabrigienses, i. 428, it is said that he died in October, 1580. 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

King Charles II. (two). 

John Moore, bishop of Ely. 

Charles Townshend, viscount Townshend, K.G. (by Isaac 
"Whood). 

Nicholas Saunderson, LL.D., Lucasian professor (bequeathed 
by rev. Thomas Kerrich, M.A., principal librarian, 1828). 

Roger Gale, esq. 

Conyers Middleton, D.D., principal librarian, (presented by 
Mrs. Heberden, 1802). 

Sir Thomas Gooch, bishop of Ely. 

Sir Benjamin Keene, K.B., (in crayons presented by Bayly 
Wallis, D.D.) 

John Colson, Lucasian professor. 

Anthony Shepherd, D.D., Pluraian professor, (by Vander- 
puyle). 

John Nicholson, bookseller of Cambridge, commonly called 
Maps, (by Reinagle). 

Richard Porson, M.A., Regius professor of greek, (by John 
Hoppner, E.A., presented by Mrs. Esther Raine, of Richmond, 
Yorkshire, 1833). 

Henry Martyn, B.D., fellow of S. John's college, (presented 
by the rev. Charles Simeon, M.A.). 

There are also busts of 

Rev. Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., librarian, (by Chantrey). 
Rev. Charles Simeon, M.A., senior fellow of King's college, 
(by S. Manning, 1855). 

Both these busts were purchased by subscription. 

At the foot of the staircase is a small collection 
of greek and eastern marbles, including the statue 
of Ceres from Eleusis, and the Rosetta inscription. 

Under the copyright act (6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 45) 
this library is entitled to a copy of every work pub- 
lished in the united kingdom. 

In addition to its endowments the library is sup- 
ported by a contribution of six shillings a year from 
each member of the university (sizars excepted). 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 81 

The number of printed books is about two 
hundred thousand, and there are above three thou- 
sand MSS. The library is particularly rich in early 
printed english books. 

A catalogue of the Burckhardt MSS. by the rev. 
Theodore Preston, M.A., fellow of Trinity college, 
was published Camb. 4to., 1853; and a catalogue 
of the remaining oriental MSS., by professor 
Williams, has been announced, 

A catalogue of the other MSS. is in course of 
publication. It is intended to be comprised in five 
volumes 8vo., four of which have already appeared. 

The management of the library is delegated by 
the senate to a syndicate consisting of the vice- 
chancellor and sixteen other members of the senate, 
of whom four retire annually by rotation. 

The librarian is appointed by the senate, and 
there are several assistants appointed by the syndi- 
cate, with the sanction of the senate. (a) 

With the exception of MSS. rare books and works 
of reference, a limited number of volumes can be 
taken out for a quarter of a year, by doctors of 
divinity, law, and physic, bachelors of divinity, 
masters of arts and of law. Bachelors of physic 
and bachelors of arts and of law enjoy the like 
privilege through their tutors. All members of the 
university have access to the library, and others, 
who are not members of the academic body, can 
obtain permission from the syndicate to use the 
library for purposes of study and research. The 

(a) There were, from 1721 to 1828, two librarians. The officers were 
formally conjoined by grace of the senate, 9th April, 1845. 

VOL. in. G 



82 UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

existing regulations are of the most liberal character, 
and it may safely be asserted that this is by far 
the most useful public library in the kingdom. (a) 

(a) The following ancient regulations are curious : 
Articles for the office of keeping the Universitie Librarie, made 
Anno 1582. 

1. Inprimis that there be a tripartite inventory indented, containing 
the names of all the bookes, and the number of leaves of all written 
bookes, the one part to remaine with the Vice-Chancellour for the tyme 
being; the other in the University Chest, and the 3rd with the Keeper 
of the Library. 

2. Item, all written books and all other bookes of Imagery with 
colours, all Globes, Astroglobes, and all other Instruments mathematicall, 
with all other books mathematicall or Historicall (such as shall be 
thought meet by the Vice-Chauncellor) to be safely locked up in some 
convenient place within the Library with 2 several locks and keys, 
whereof the one key to remain with the Vice- Chancellor, and the other 
to remain with the keeper of the Library. 

3. Item, the Keeper to be bound by obligacion with sureties in 
two hundredth pounds to preserve safly all and every one of the 
books not locked up &c., ut supra, and to give accompt for them once 
in the yeare to the Vice-Chancellour and the Auditors of the Generall 
Accompt; or at any other tyme once in the yeare required thereunto 
by the Vice-Chancellor or his deputy. And if any book, or part of 
any book, shall be taken or gone out of the said Library, or any 
defaced or cutt, the said keeper shall restore the same againe, or 
another of that kynd of the like goodnes, within three months or else 
lose his office and pay the 3 parte value of the books imbecilled or 
otherwise cut or defaced. 

4. Item, he shall attend and be in readiness the whole year throughout 
in terme time, excepte all Sondayes and holydayes : that is to say, 
from eighte of the clock until tenn in the forenone, and from one to 
three in the afternone; so that all masters of arte, batchelours of law 
or physick, or any other of the university above that degree, may 
have free accesse to the bookes of the saide librarie : so that at one 
time there be not more than tenne in the said librarie together, (excepte 
the straungers that come only to see and not to tarry) ; and that none 
of them tarry above one houre at one booke at one tyme, if any other 
shall desire to use the sayd booke, Provided always, that if any straunger 
shall come to see or peruse any of the bookes therein, that then at 
the request of any master of artes, batchelour of lawes or physick, or 
other of superior Degree, either within the foresayd hours, or at any 
other tyme of the day, (so it be betweene the sun riseing and setting) the 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 83 

It is open daily from ten to four, except on 
Saturdays, when it is closed at one. There are 
however a few holidays, and at prescribed times 
the library is necessarily closed for short periods. 

sayd keeper shall not refuse, notwithstanding tenne already be within, 
to admit more as strangers into the sayd Library. 

5. Item, that no book or any Instrument be lent or alienated out 
of the Library, but by speciall Licence and grace of the University, 
upon payne of forfeiture of 3 parte valew of any book or instrument 
lent or alienated, to be answered by such as are keepers of the kejs 
of the doores and desks of the Librarie. 

6. Item, If any chaine clasps Bosse or such like decay happen to 
be, the sayd keeper to signify the same unto the Vice-chancellour 
within three days after he shall spy such default, to the ende the same 
may be amended : and that before the sayd keeper goe forth of the 
library, either in the forenoone or afternoone, he shall view all the books, 
and if any be left open or out of their due place, he shall safly close 
them up and sett them in their places. 

7. Item, that the Keeper of the Library that now is, and all other 
to be chosen hereafter, shall continue in his office by the space of three 
yeares, unlesse upon his misbehavour he shal be thought by the Universitie 
meete to be deprived. And the sayd keeper to have and receive yearly 
for his stipende and wages, five marks of lawfull money of England, to 
be payd unto him quarterly, by even porcions, by the hand of Mr. Vice- 
Chancellour for the tyme beinge. 



G2 




THE PITT PKESS. 

AMONGST the printed books given by archbishop 
Parker to Corpus Christi college is Margarita elo- 
quentise castigatae by Frater Laurentius Gruilielmi 
de Traversanis of Savona a minorite friar, at the end 
whereof is : 

Compilatum autem fuit hoc opus in alma universitate 
Cantabrigie, anno Domini, 1478, die et 6 Julrj, quo die 
festum Sancte Marthe recolitur. Sub protectione serenissimi 
regis anglorum Eduardi quarti. 

This colophon has given rise to an opinion that 
the work was printed in Cambridge. It has how- 
ever been ascertained that the types are those used 
by Caxton, and there can be little doubt that the book 
was printed by him at Westminster about 1479. (a) 

(a) It was printed also at S. Albans in 1480. 



THE PITT PRESS. 85 

John Siberch, a german, was settled in Cam- 
bridge as a printer in 1521. He is known to have 
printed seven books here in that year and two in 
the year following. One of the books printed here 
by him in 1521 was Linacre's translation of Galen 
de Temperamentis. It is supposed to be the earliest 
book printed in England which contains greek 
characters, but there are greek characters in other 
of Siberch's books of the same date. No produc- 
tion of his press subsequently to 1522 appears to 
be known. 

In 1529 the university presented a petition to 
cardinal Wolsey, that for the suppression of error 
there should be three booksellers allowed in Cam- 
bridge by the king who should be sworn not to 
bring in or sell any book which had not been 
approved by the censors of books in the university, 
that such booksellers should be men of reputation 
and gravity and foreigners (so it should be best 
for the prizing of books,) and that they might 
have the privilege to buy books of foreign mer- 
chants. 

On the 20th of July, 1534, Henry VIII., by 
letters patent, gave and granted his royal license 
to the chancellor, masters, and scholars of the uni- 
versity that they might assign and elect from time 
to time, by writing under the seal of the chancellor, 
three stationers and printers, or sellers of books, 
residing within the university, who might be either 
aliens or natives, and might hold and occupy either 
their own or hired houses. The stationers or printers 
thus assigned and every of them, were empowered 



THE PITT PRESS. 

to print all manner of books approved of by the 
chancellor or his vicegerent and three doctors, 
and to sell and expose to sale in the university or 
elsewhere within the realm, as well such books 
as other books printed within or without the realm 
and approved of by the chancellor or his vice- 
gerent and three doctors. If aliens these stationers 
or printers were empowered to reside in the uni- 
versity in order to attend to their business, and 
were to be reputed and treated as the king's faithful 
subjects and lieges, and to enjoy the same liberties, 
customs, laws, and privileges, and to pay and con- 
tribute to lot, scot, tax, tallage, and other customs 
and * impositions as the other subjects and lieges of 
the king. Provided that the said stationers or 
printers being aliens paid all customs, subsidies, 
and other monies for their goods and merchandises 
imported or exported as other aliens. 

On the 21st of August following, Nicholas Speryng, 
Garrat Godfrey, and Segar Nycholson were ap- 
pointed stationers of the university during their 
lives. 

On the 18th of July, 1577, lord Burghley, 
chancellor of the university, wrote to the vice- 
chancellor and the heads, with reference to their 
intention of bringing the exercise of printing into the 
university, for which purpose they had engaged 
John Kingston, a noted London printer whom they 
purposed to protect with the university privilege to 
print psalters, books of common prayer, and other 
books in english, for which the queen had already 
granted special privileges to "William Seres, Eichard 



THE PITT PRESS. 87 

Jugg, John Day and others. His lordship dis- 
approved of any attempts to prejudice the queen's 
grants, but thought they might employ an artificer 
for printing matters pertaining to the schools. 
Nothing appears to have resulted from the negotiations 
with John Kingston, although he was formally 
appointed university printer in 1577. 

Thomas Thomas, M.A., sometime fellow of King's 
college, was constituted printer to the university, 
3rd of May 1582, but nothing appeared from his 
press till 1584. This was occasioned by the sta- 
tioners' company of London having seized his press 
in 1583. From 1584 till his death in August, 1588, (o) 
he published a variety of works. 

John Legate, citizen and stationer of London, 
was appointed printer to the university, 2nd Novem- 
ber, 1588. He met with much opposition from 
the stationers' company. A considerable number 
of books however issued from his press. He died 
in or about 1626. He used the impression of " Alma 
Mater Cantabrigia," and about it " Hinc Lvcem et 
pocvla sacra." 

On 6th Feb. 1627-8, Charles I. granted a charter 
to the university, reciting the grant of Henry VIII. 
respecting stationers or printers, the act of queen 
Elizabeth confirmatory of the university charters, 
the grants to the company of stationers in London, 
a decree respecting printing of the court of star- 
chamber 28th Elizabeth, and a proclamation of 
James I. for observance of that decree, and moreover 

(a) See a memoir of Thomas in Athense Cantabrigienses, ii. 29. 



88 THE PITT PRESS. 

reciting that doubts had arisen whether the printers 
of the university could print and sell any of the 
books specified in the grants to the stationers' 
company : in order to abolish all such ambiguities 
to put an end to all controversies, and for the 
encouragement of learning, he ratified the recited 
grant of Henry VIII., and declared that the uni- 
versity by their stationers and printers might print 
and expose to sale within the university or elsewhere 
within his dominions, all books which he or queen 
Elizabeth or king James I. had licensed to any 
person or persons, bodies politic or corporate what- 
soever, and also all other books whatsoever printed 
or to be printed, or which had been, or should be, 
by the chancellor, &c., allowed as fit to be put to 
sale, any letters patent or any prohibition, restraint, 
clause, or article in any letters patent whatsoever, 
notwithstanding. 

In 1696 the university press was renovated 
principally through the exertions and agency of 
Dr. Richard Bentley, afterwards master of Trinity 
college. New buildings were erected and new presses 
and new types obtained by a public subscription, 
aided by a sum of 1000 which the senate borrowed 
for the purpose. A grace appointing a syndicate 
for the management of the press passed the senate 
21st January, 1697-8. 

In 1T58 the court of king's bench decided that 
the printers of this university had a concurrent 
power with the king's printer to print acts of 
parliament and abridgement thereof. 

The universities of Cambridge and Oxford and 



THE PITT PRESS. 89 

the company of stationers for nearly two hundred 
years enjoyed the exclusive privilege of printing 
almanacks. For many years these universities leased 
this privilege of printing almanacks to the company 
which paid each body above 500 a year. In 1775 
a bold London printer, Thomas Carnan by name, 
successfully overthrew the monopoly, and obtained 
a declaration of a court of law that the right of 
printing almanacks was a common law right over 
which the crown had no controul, and thereupon 
the stationers' company discontinued their payments 
to the universities. 

In 1779 a bill was introduced into the house of 
commons to vest the sole right of printing almanacks 
in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and 
the company of stationers of London. Thomas 
Carnan petitioned against the bill and was allowed 
to be heard by his counsel (Messrs. Davenport and 
Erskine), and immediately after they had been heard 
the house divided, and the motion for the com- 
mittal of the bill was negatived by sixty against 
forty. 

In 1781 an act passed granting to each of the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge 500 per 
annum as a compensation for the loss sustained 
by the decision on the right of printing almanacks. 
The sum payable under that act to this university 
was, by grace of the senate, llth June, 1782, 
placed at the disposal of the syndics of the press 
for the publication of new works or fresh editions of 
old works. 

In 1804 the universities of Oxford and Cam- 



90 



THE PITT PRESS. 



bridge obtained an injunction from the court of 
chancery restraining William, John, and James 
Richardson from publishing the bible and the 
book of common prayer. They had sold in London 
copies of these works printed by the king's printers 
in Scotland. They presented an appeal to the 
house of lords which was dismissed. 

The university printing-house was formerly in 
Mill lane, extending to Silver street near Queens' 
college. It was a mean house, and in many respects 
inconvenient. 

On the death of the right hon. William Pitt 
many distinguished personal friends of the great 
statesman and admirers of his public conduct, 
entered into a subscription for the purpose of erect- 
ing some memorial worthy of his name. By means 
of the funds thus raised a marble statue of Mr. Pitt, 
by Westmacott, was erected in Westminster abbey 
and a bronze statue of him executed after a model 
by Chantrey was placed in Hanover square, London. 
A large sum still remained unexpended, and on 
the 18th of June, 1824, a meeting of the subscri- 
bers was held at the Thatched-house tavern in 
London, when it was agreed to apply a portion 
of the surplus funds to the erection of a handsome 
and appropriate building at Cambridge in connection 
with the university press. This munificent offer 
was accepted, and on the 1st of July in the same 
year, the senate appointed a syndicate to purchase 
the houses in Trumpington street between Silver 
street and Mill lane. The cost of purchasing these 
houses, which was considerable, was defrayed by the 



THE PITT PRESS. 91 

university who also erected the greater part of the 
buildings in which the printing business is carried on. 
On the 18th of October, 1831, the first stone 
of the ornamental front of the printing office, which 
thereupon was designated the Pitt Press, was laid by 
the marquess of Camden, attended by the earls of 
Clarendon and Harrowby, lord Farnborough, Henry 
Bankes, esq., M.P., the vice-chancellor, heads of 
colleges, and members of the senate. The following 
is the inscription on the foundation stone : 

IN HONOEEM 
GVLIELMI PITT 

HVIVS ACADEMIAE OLIM ALVMNI 
VIEI ILLVSTRIORIS QVAM VT VLLO INDIGEAT PEAECONIO 

AEQVALES EIVS ET AMICI SVPEESTITES 

CVRATORES PECVNIAEVM TVM AB IPSIS TVM AB ALIIS 

FAMAE EIVS TVENDAE 

EEGO COLLATAEVM 

HOC AEDIFICIVM EXTEVI VOLVEEVNT. 
LAPIDEM AVSPICALEM SOLENNIBVS CAEREMONIIS STATVIT 

VIE NOBILISSIMVS 

JOANNES JEFFEEYS MAECHIO CAMDEN 
ASSISTENTIBVS ET HONOEATISSIMIS COMITIBVS CLAEENDON 

ET HAEEOWBY 
HONOEABILI ADMODVM BAEONE FAENBOEOUGH 

HENEICO BANKES AEMIGEEO. 

TOTA INSPECTANTE ET PLAVDENTE ACADEMIA 

DECIMO QVINTO CAL. NOVEMB. ANNO M.DCCC.XXXI. 

GEOEGIO THACKEEAY S. T. P. COLL. EEGAL. PEAES. 

ITEEVM PEOCANCELLAEIO. 

On the 28th of April, 1833, the vice-chancellor, 
noblemen, heads of colleges, and officers and 
members of the university, accompanied by a 



92 THE PITT PRESS. 

deputation from the Pitt committee (consisting of 
the marquess of Camden, the earls of Clarendon 
and Harrowby, lord Farnborough, sir George Henry 
Rose, Henry Bankes, esq., and Samuel Thorn- 
ton, esq.), went in procession from the senate-house 
to the Pitt Press, where the marquess of Camden 
after an appropriate address delivered the key of 
the building to Dr. Webb, the vice-chancellor. 
After each member of the press had printed off a 
copy of the inscription on the foundation stone, a 
cold collation was given by the syndicate of the 
press to the deputation, the vice-chancellor, heads 
of colleges, &c. 

The front, of which the most remarkable feature 
is a lofty tower, faces Trumpington street, and 
forms one of the most prominent objects in entering 
the town from London. The architect was Edward 
Blore, esq. 

The office contains frames, fittings and appurten- 
ances for seventy compositors ; presses and appurten- 
ances for fifty-six pressmen ; eight printing machines, 
which require about fifty men and boys to manage, 
work, and supply them. A ten-horse steam engine ; 
two boilers, turning-lathe, forge, and circular saw ; 
one (steam power) milling machine, hydraulic and 
seven hot presses, at which together one hundred 
men and boys may be employed if necessary. 

There are also closets and other places with the 
needful fittings and appurtenances for readers, over- 
seers, warehousemen, and boys. 

In consequence of a communication made by 
king William IV. to the marquess Camden, chancellor 



THE PITT PRESS. 93 

of the university, the syndicates of the press undertook 
a splendid impression of the holy scriptures. 

The printing of the first eight pages of a copy 
upon vellum for the king's use took place at the 
public commencement 1835. These pages were struck 
off by the marquess of Camden, chancellor ; the duke 
of Northumberland, high steward ; H. R. H. the duke 
of Cumberland ; H. R. H. prince George of Cambridge ; 
Dr. William Howley, archbishop of Canterbury; 
the duke of Wellington ; the earl of Hardwicke ; and 
Dr. French, vice-chancellor. 

The impression appeared in 2 vols. 4to. 1837. 

The following is a list of the most celebrated 
printers of the university in addition to those we have 
already mentioned : 

Cantrell Legge, appointed 1606, and who appears to have 
held the office jointly with John Legate. 

Thomas Buck, appointed 1625, jointly with John Buck, M.A. 

Roger Daniel, appointed 1632. He was in 1642 troubled 
by the house of commons for printing a book in defence of the 
king's commission of array, and Dr. Feme's Resolves in Cases 
of Conscience. He died 1650. 

John Field, appointed 1655. 

John Hayes, appointed 1669. 

Cornelius Crownfield, a dutchman, appointed 1706. 

Joseph Bentham, alderman of Cambridge, appointed 1740, 
died 1st June, 1778. 

John Baskerville, appointed 1758, died 8th January, 1775. 

John Archdeacon, appointed 1766, died 10th September, 1795. 

John Burgess, appointed 1793. 

Eichard Watts, appointed 1802, removed 1809. 

John Smith, appointed 1809. 

John William Parker, appointed 1836. 

George Seeley, and Charles John Clay, M.A., appointed 



94 THE PITT PRESS. 

1854, being partners with the university in the printing business. 
Mr. Seeley retired in 1856. 

During the period (about 150 years) in which 
a tax was imposed upon paper, the universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford were entitled to a drawback 
in respect of the paper used at their presses for 
books in the latin, greek, oriental, or northern lan- 
guages, and in 1794 the exemption was extended 
to bibles, testaments, psalm-books, and books of 
common prayer. 

Under the act 15 George III., c. 53, the uni- 
versity is entitled to the perpetual copyright of 
works given or bequeathed by the author or his 
representatives, if printed at the university press. 




THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 

RICHARD FITZWILLIAM VISCOUNT FITZWILLIAM, 
sometime of Trinity hall, who died 5th February, 
1816, by his will dated 18th August, 1815, gave and 
bequeathed as follows : 

I give and bequeath unto the chancellor masters and 
scholars of the university of Cambridge, all my capital stock 
in the new South Sea annuities [100,000], to be had and held 
by them, the said chancellor masters and scholars, and their 
successors for ever, upon the trusts, and to and for the intents 
and purposes hereinafter expressed and declared touching and 
concerning the same; and as to all my pictures, portraits, 
prints, drawings, and engravings, whether framed, glazed, or 
otherwise, and also the frames and glasses thereof respectively, 
all my books, printed, engraved, or manuscript, bound or un- 
bound, all my music, bound and unbound, all my busts, statues, 
medals, gems, precious stones, and bronzes whatsoever, which 
shall belong to me at the time of my decease, I give and 
bequeath the same unto the said chancellor masters and 
scholars of the said university of Cambridge, and their suc- 
cessors for ever, upon the trusts and for the intents and purposes 
hereinafter expressed, declared and contained, touching and 
concerning the same : and I do hereby declare my will to be, 



96 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 

and hereby direct, that they the said chancellor masters and 
scholars, do and shall with all convenient speed after my de- 
cease by and out of the dividends rand annual proceeds of 
my said new South Sea annuities so directed to be transferred 
to them as aforesaid, cause to be erected and built a good 
substantial and convenient museum, repository, or other building, 
within the precincts of the said university, for the reception 
and preservation of the said pictures, books, and other articles, 
or to purchase one or more erections or buildings for that 
purpose ; and in the meantime, and until such a museum, 
repository, or other building shall be erected, built, or purchased 
as aforesaid, to procure a proper building for their temporary 
reception, and to pay rent and taxes for the same, and also to 
pay and defray all the costs, charges, and expences attending 
the removing and depositing the said respective articles: and 
1 do hereby direct, that William Sheldon and Edward Roberts, 
or the survivor of them, do cause a regular schedule or inventory 
to be made of the said several articles, and shall cause two fair 
copies of such schedule or inventory to be made, one of which 
copies I direct shall be signed by them the said William Sheldon 
and Edward Roberts, or the survivor of them, and that the 
other copy shall be signed by the vice-chancellor of the said 
university for the time being, and that the copy so to be signed 
by the said William Sheldon and Edward Roberts, or the 
survivor of them, shall be delivered to the said vice-chancellor, 
and deposited in the place where the said several articles are 
kept, and that the copy to be signed by the said vice-chancellor 
shall be delivered to the said William Sheldon and Edward 
Roberts, or one of them, to be kept by them, or one of them : 
and it is my will, and I hereby direct, that none of my said 
pictures, books, or other articles before mentioned, shall be 
taken or removed from the museum or repository for the time 
being, by any person or persons whomsoever, or on any account 
or upon any pretence whatsoever, except only in case of fire 
happening, and then only during the time the necessity con- 
tinues: and I do hereby declare my will to be, and hereby 
direct, that the expence of keeping such pictures, books, and 
other articles before mentioned, and the salaries of officers and 
other persons to be emDloyed in or about the same, shall be 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 97 

discharged with and out of the dividends and annual proceeds 
of the said new South Sea annuities so given and bequeathed 
as aforesaid: and I do hereby declare, that the bequests so 
by me made to the said chancellor masters and scholars of 
the said university, are so made to them for the purpose of 
promoting the increase of learning, and the other great objects 
of that noble foundation; but the particular arrangement, 
economy, and disposition of the property comprised in the 
said legacies and bequests I have made and given, I commit 
(subject to the several trusts hereinbefore expressed) to the direc- 
tion and management of the said chancellor masters and 
scholars, in such manner as is provided by the laws and usages 
of the said university. 

Daniel Mesman esq., of Knightsbridge, bequeathed 
two hundred and forty-eight paintings, and thirty- 
three drawings and prints to the university after 
the death of his brother the rev. Charles Mesman, 
who however gave up his life interest in the bequest 
in 1834, when the collection was forwarded to the 
university. It was at first exhibited in the large 
room at the Pitt press, but is now deposited in the 
Fitzwilliam museum. 

In 1842 the following works of art were added to 
the Fitzwilliam museum : an ivory model of the Tage 
Mahal at Agra, presented by Richard Burney, esq. 
M.A. of Christ's college ; a bronze cast of Flaxman's 
shield of Achilles, presented by Messrs. Rundell, 
Bridge and Co., goldsmiths, London; and a series of 
casts of the ornaments of the Alhambra, presented 
by sir Grenville Temple. 

George Skilbeck Maude, B.A., of Catharine hall, 
in 1849 bequeathed a statue of Silence by Albertoni. 

Philip Bury Duncan, M.A. of New college, Oxford, 
presented several fine casts from the antique. 
VOL. in. H 



98 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 

John Disney, esq., of the Hyde, near Ingatestone, 
in the county of Essex, F.K.S. ,F.s.A., (a) presented to 
the university a valuable collection of ancient marble 
and statuary, (J) with a view of its being placed in 
one of the public buildings of the university, and 
being kept together as an archaeological collection 
bearing his name. Graces accepting this donation 
for affixing the university seal to a letter of thanks 
to Mr. Disney, and authorising the deposit of the 
collection in the Fitzwilliam museum, passed the 
senate 16th of April, 1850. 

In July, 1850, John Kirkpatrick, esq., M.A. of 
Trinity college, presented a collection of thirty-four 
first rate casts of antique statuary. 

The ven. George Owen Cambridge, archdeacon 
of Middlesex, presented the Martyrdom of S. George, 
by Carletto Cagliari. 

Henry Thomas Hope, esq., M.A. of Trinity 
college, presented the Salutation, by Manzuoli di 
San Friano. 

In 1853 Stratford Canning, viscount Stratford de 
Redcliffe, sometime fellow of King's college, pre- 
sented twelve casts from the Halicarnassus marbles 
in the British museum. 

(a) Mr. Disney, who was sometime a member of Peterhouse, and 
died in May, 1857, founded the professorship of archseology. 

(6) This collection owes its formation chiefly to the united labours of 
Thomas Hollis, esq., and Thomas Brand, esq. The former of these gen- 
tlemen died young, and left the greater part of the collection to his 
friend Mr. Brand, who added the name of Hollis to his own. Mr. 
Brand Hollis died in 1804, leaving his estates, and with them his col- 
lection, to the rev. Mr. Disney, the father of the gentleman who gave 
them to the university. He added to the collection, of which he pub- 
lished an account in two parts, under the title of Museum Disneianum, 
illustrated with plates, 4to., 1846 and 1848. 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 99 

George Scharf, junr., esq., in 1855 presented a 
valuable collection of casts. 

The museum has been augmented by many other 
presents of paintings, prints, books, statues, models, 
and curiosities. 

The stock bequeathed by lord Fitzwilliam, after 
the deduction of ten per cent, legacy duty, was 
in due course transferred to the university, and 
all the other directions of his lordship's will 
having been complied with, a syndicate was ap- 
pointed to assist in giving effect to his bequest. 
The collection was arranged in the Perse free 
school, which was fitted up as a temporary museum. 
Cases and cabinets were constructed for the books, 
prints, and drawings; the paintings were well ex- 
hibited; and the whole collection thus became, 
without any needless delay, available to the public. 

It remained at the Perse school for a quarter of 
a century, when a place was found for it in the 
eastern room of the university library, where it 
remained till 1848. 

After some fruitless negotiations with different 
parties, the university purchased of S. Peter's 
college for the sum of 9,645 the reversion of the 
present excellent site then occupied by many mean 
buildings held upon lease. 

At length all the leases having expired, and the 
university, after defraying the original cost of the 
site and all other necessary expences, having a 
balance in hand from the accumulation of the Fitz- 
william dividends of more than 40,000, the present 
building was commenced under the direction of 

H2 



100 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 

George Basevi, esq., the architect whose designs 
had carried off the prize in open competition. 

The first stone was laid by Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., 
vice-chancellor, 2nd of November, 1837. 

The work was carried on under Mr. Basevi's 
direction for above seven years, during which time 
all the outer portions of the building, together with 
the interior picture galleries and a large room on 
the ground floor, devoted to sculpture and classical 
antiquities, were finished with their costly decora- 
tions. 

After the melancholy death of Mr. Basevi in 1845, 
C. R. Cockerell, esq., was appointed to succeed him 
as architect ; and to him we owe the design and 
execution of the present cupola and many other 
beautiful decorations of the entrance hall, and also 
the excellent fittings of the library on the ground 
floor. The plans of Mr. Cockerell involved, how- 
ever, some costly changes in the designs of Mr. 
Basevi, and in 1847 it was found that all the avail- 
able funds, including therein 12,000 borrowed on 
the capital, were exhausted. The architectural 
decorations of the unfinished entrance hall have 
been consequently suspended till the accumulated 
dividends of the Fitzwilliam fund shall have become 
sufficient for the entire completion of the museum 
and for the construction of an architectural wall, 
which appears to be necessary to its exterior effect, 
its security, and its insulation from the contiguous 
grounds. 

The front is generally allowed to be one of the 
finest pieces of architecture in the kingdom, and 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 101 

the entrance hall when completed will be truly 
magnificent. 

The principal picture gallery is sixty-eight feet by 
thirty-nine, and the height to the springing of the cove 
is twenty-six and a-half feet. A lantern, fifty-four by 
twenty-five feet, is raised immediately upon the cove. 
Through this the light is admitted by a series of 
arched windows, between which Caryatides are 
placed at intervals. 

The other picture galleries, the library, and the 
sculpture galleries are also fine apartments. 

The cost of the site and of the buildings erected 
between 1837 and 1848 was 101,195. 9*. Wd. 

The paintings include specimens of most of the 
great masters, including Both, the Carraci, Canaletti, 
Cipriani, Claude, Cuyp, G. Douw, Albert Durer, 
Carlo Dolci, Giorgine, Holbein, Hondius, C. Jansen, 
Lely, Mieris, Ostade, Panini, Polemberg, G. Poussin, 
N. Poussin, Rembrandt, Rubens, Ruysdael, Schalken, 
Snyders, J. Steen, Teniers, Tintoretto, Titian, Van- 
derwerf, Vandyke, Velasquez, P. Veronese, Verelst, 
Cornelius de Vos, Watteau, Weenix, Zuccharelli, and 
A. Zucchio. 

Amongst the portraits are several of the Fitz- 
william family, including two of the founder, one 
representing him in his nineteenth year, by Wrighi 
of Derby, (a) the other in his sixty-fourth year by 
H. Howard, R.A. (6) There is also a curious portrait, 



(a) Painted for Samuel Hallifax, LL.D., lord Fitzwilliam's tutor (after- 
wards bishop of S. Asaph), and presented, in November, 1819, by his eon 
the rev. Thomas Fitzwilliam Hallifax, M.A. of Trinity hall. 

(6) Engraved by Charles Turner. 



102 THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 

by Holbein, of William Fitzwilliam, earl of South- 
ampton, E.G., lord high admiral. 
Here are also portraits of 

Henry Lloyd, a celebrated general, and writer on military 
affairs, who died 1783. 

The right hon. William Pitt. 

Samuel Parr, LL.D., by J. Lonsdale (presented by Edward 
Maltby, bishop of Durham). 

Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland, chancellor of the 
university. 

Daniel Mesman, esq. 

J. Nollekens, R.A. (presented by the rev. Richard Edward 
Kerrich, M.A.). 

H. B. H. Prince Albert, chancellor of the university, by 
Saye. 

Henry Philpott, D.D., late master of S. Catharine's college, 
and now bishop of Worcester. 

The rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., Woodwardian professor 
(presented by William Whewell, D.D., master of Trinity 
college). 

Amongst the busts are those of 

Henry Herbert, ninth earl of Pembroke, by Roubilliac. 

John Home Tooke, M.A., by Chantrey (presented by lady 
Chantrey, 1861). 

George Basevi, esq., architect. 

William Smyth, M.A., professor of modern history, by E. H. 
Baily, E.A. (presented by subscribers, 1851). 

John Disney, esq., LL.D. 

Edward Maltby, bishop of Durham, by Behnes. 

The library contains a magnificent collection of 
engravings extending over many large atlas folios, 
books in divinity, general history, the histories of 
painters and engravers, topography, and the best 
writers in polite literature both of the Greek and 
Roman classics, and in the modern languages of 



THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. 103 

England, France, and Italy. The topographical 
department boasts a magnificent copy of Piranesi's 
great and costly work on Rome. There are many 
richly illustrated MSS. and a valuable collection of 
MS. music principally of the great Italian com- 
posers of the 16th and 17th centuries, a part of 
which, by the permission of the university, was 
published by Mr. Vincent Novello. 

Amongst the additions to the library we may 
mention a costly purchase of a series of the rare 
prints of Marco Antonio, and a large folio of origi- 
nal drawings by the celebrated painter Eomney, 
presented by his son the rev. John Romney, B.D., 
sometime fellow of S. John's college. 

The museum' of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society (including the Litlington collection formed 
by William Webb, D.D., master of Clare college) is 
deposited in the northern room on the ground floor. 

The regulations for admission to the museum 
and library are of a liberal character, and any 
person can on proper recommendation obtain the 
vice-chancellor's permission to copy any picture, 
print, or manuscript, under some limitation of 
time, and also in subordination to the regulations 
of the managing syndicate. 



THE WOODWARDIAN OR GEOLOGICAL 
MUSEUM. 

JOHN WOODWARD, M.D., who died 25th April, 
1728, by his will (dated 1st October, 1727) be- 
queathed to the university his cabinets of english 
fossils to be reposited in such proper room or apartment 
as should be allotted by the university to the satis- 
faction of his executors. The collection being con- 
sidered incomplete without the remaining foreign 
cabinets described in Dr. Woodward's printed 
catalogues, the vice-chancellor was empowered 
by a grace of the senate passed 26th February, 
1728-9, to purchase the foreign cabinets for a 
sum not exceeding 1000. This purchase being 
effected, the whole Woodwardian collection, english 
and foreign, came into the possession of the 
university, was arranged in five cabinets and was 
deposited in a small room contiguous to the Soph's 

school. 

Thomas Green, M.A., (Woodwardian professor 

1778-88) added some valuable organic remains to 
the Woodwardian cabinets. 

s The rev. John Hailstone, M.A., (Woodwardian 
professor, 1788-1818 ) formed another distinct 
collection composed of many rare and beautiful 
simple minerals, and of specimens illustrative of 
the physical structure both of the British isles and 



THE WOODWARDIAN OR GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 105 

of some portions of the continent. In this labour 
he was assisted by the munificence of various friends 
of the university. 

The rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., who has held 
the Woodwardian professorship since 1818, for 
more than thirty years employed his long vacation 
in making a series of geological surveys chiefly 
confined to the British isles. The fruit of these 
surveys, carried on with great labour and at no small 
personal cost, was year by year conveyed to the 
university and arranged in new cabinets so long as 
it was possible to find a place for them. In a very 
few years however, all further arrangement became 
impossible, and the ponderous cases of fossils col- 
lected by the professor or contributed by his friends 
and fellow labourers were deposited in such places 
of security as could be found for them ; and in 1842 
when the present museum (which is beneath the 
new buildings of the university library) (a) was first 
opened, an enormous collection, the accumulation 
of twenty previous years, was for the first time 
unpacked and made available to the public. 

A duplicate series of foreign fossils (more than 
20,000 in number) from the collection of count 
Minister was purchased from the Woodwardian fund 
in or about 1840. 

There have been also recently purchased of M. 
Barrande a very fine series of paloeozoic fossils, 
and (out of a fund raised by subscription) from the 

(a) The sum of 4,122. 5s. Id. was paid out of the fund accumulated 
from the income of the Woodwardian estates for the fittings of the museum 
between 1840 and 1843. 



106 THE WOODWARDIAN OE GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 

rev. Thomas Image, M.A., formally of Corpus Christi 
college, an excellent secondary collection. 

David Thomas Ansted, esq., M.A. of Jesus 
college; the rev. Samuel Bankes, M.A., rector of 
Cottenham ; L. Barrett, esq. ; Henry James Brookes, 
esq., F.R.S. of London; sir Francis Chantrey; the 
rev. W. B. Clarke, of Sydney, New South Wales ; 
the East Indian Company ; the earl of Enniskillen ; 
the rev. Osmond Fisher, M.A., fellow of Jesus 
college ; the rev J. Foster, of Wickersley ; the 
rev. William Lewes Pugh Garnons, B.D., fellow of 
Sidney college; the duke of Grafton, chancellor of 
the university; R. Griffith, esq. of Dublin; T. 
Hawkins, esq. ; the rev. John Stevens Henslow, 
M.A., professor of Botany ; William Hopkins, esq., 
M.A. of S. Peter's college; the rev. G. Jenkinson; 
T. S. Jones, esq. of Ely; Richard Owen, esq., 
F.E.S., Hunterian professor in the Royal college 
of Surgeons, London; James Packe, esq., M.A., 
fellow of King's college ; John Hutton Pollexfen, 
esq., M.A. of Queens' college; professor H. Rogers, 
of the United States ; S. M. Saxby, esq. of the Isle 
of Wight ; the Royal college of Surgeons, London ; 
and the rev. William Haughton Stokes, M.A., fellow 
of Caius college, at various periods made additions 
to the collection. 

Professor Ansted assisted professor Sedgwick 
with great zeal and ability for one or two years 
in bringing the collection into approximate order. 
After professor Ansted was called from Cambridge, 
professor Sedgwick engaged the assistance of Mr. 
Salter, an excellent naturalist and palaeontologist, 



THE WOODWARDIAN OR GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 107 

but before long he too was drawn away from Cam- 
bridge by a permanent appointment under govern- 
ment. In 1846 professor M'Coy was engaged in 
carrying out the final arrangement of the British 
and foreign fossils. Professors Ansted and M'Coy had 
small grants from the Woodwardian fund, but with 
these exceptions the whole cost of the arrangement, 
which was very considerable, has fallen on professor 
Sedgwick. 

A detailed description by professor M'Coy of 
all the British palaeozoic fossils in the collection, 
with an introductory essay by professor Sedgwick, 
has been published. The plates and the drawings 
for them were executed at the cost of professor 
Sedgwick, the letter-press being contributed by the 
syndics of the Pitt press. 

There is a small library in the museum, composed 
of books bequeathed by professor Green, and pre- 
sented by the nephew of the late professor Hailstone ; 
and some very valuable works purchased out of 
the Woodwardian fund. 



THE MINERALOGICAL MUSEUM. 

THE Mineralogical collection is deposited in 
a room contiguous to the Woodwardiau museum 
beneath the new buildings of the university 
library. (a) 

It consists of the collection of the late rev. 
Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., purchased by the 
university of his executors in 1823 for 1500; of 
some valuable specimens presented by the executors 
of the rev. Clement Robert Francis, M.A., fellow 
and tutor of Caius college; of a small but well 
selected series of specimens presented by the rev. 
William Whewell, D.D., master of Trinity college ; 
of the rich collection of minerals (including valu- 
able diamonds) made by the late sir Abraham 
Hume, (6) bart., and presented in 1841, by his 
grandson, John Hume Egerton, viscount Alford, 
M.A. of Magdalen college; of a collection, in many 
respects unrivalled, made by the late Henry James 
Brooke, esq., F.E.S., and presented in 1857 by 
his son Charles Brooke, esq., M.A., F.R.S. of S. 
John's college; of the collection of the late Henry 
Warburton, esq., M.A. of Trinity college, (which 

(a) In 1841 and 1842 the university expended 735. 11. 9<7. for the 
fittings of this museum. 

(6) The Hume and Brooke collections are kept distinct from thereat of 
the minerals belonging to the university. 



THE MINERALOGICAL MUSEUM. 109 

includes the minerals formerly in the possession 
of William Hyde Wollaston, M.D.) presented in 
1858, by Howard Warburton Elphinstone, esq., 
M.A. of Trinity college; and of minerals presented 
by the late marquess of Northampton, George 
Walsh Hallam, esq., LL.B. of Trinity hall, J. 
Hibbert, esq., Mrs. Calverley and others. There 
are also some scientific works presented by Dr. 
Whewell, who held the professorship of mineralogy 
from 1828 to 1832. 




THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM. 

IN the Anatomical museum are preserved collec- 
tions illustrative of distinct branches of science, 
viz., of normal human anatomy, of pathological 
anatomy, and of comparative anatomy. 

The museum originated in a small number of 
choice preparations which were presented, to the 
university by Mr. Lawrence. 

In May, 1815, the university purchased for 
367. 10s. the museum of sir Busick Harwood, 
M.D. In 1819 200 was expended in purchasing 
wax models, executed at Florence and Bologna 
under the direction of the rev. William Clark, who 
has held the professorship of anatomy from 1817. 
In 1830 250 was paid for preparations purchased 




o 
O flo 

T 1 



THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM. Ill 

at the sale of Brooks's museum. In 1832 100. 155. 
was paid for foreign anatomical preparations. In 
1836 the rare and valuable collection of Dr. 
Macartney, professor of anatomy in Trinity college, 
Dublin, was purchased for 1000. 

Donations have also been made from time to time 
by members and friends of the university. Dr. 
Clark, the present professor of anatomy, has pre- 
sented many of the finest specimens, and the whole 
collection is greatly enhanced in value by the long 
continued personal labour which he has bestowed 
upon it. 

The anatomical collection was at first deposited 
in a building near Queens' college, known as the 
anatomical school. 

The structure in which it is now kept, situate 
near S. Andrew's hill, was erected 1832-4 from a 
design by Charles Humfrey, esq., at the cost of 
3,220. It comprises a lecture room and two small 
dissecting rooms. 




THE OBSERVATORY. 

WE have in our account of Trinity college alluded 
to the observatory which formerly occupied the 
leads of the King's gateway there. (o) 

The present observatory, erected on a piece of 
land containing upwards of seven acres, near the 
Madingley road, purchased of S. John's college, 
was commenced in 1823, from a design of John 
C. Mead, esq., architect. The total cost of and 
incidental to the building was upwards of 19,000 
of which 5644. 1 5s. IQd. was raised by a subscrip- 
tion set on foot in 1820. {6) 

(a) Vol. II. p. 312. n. (5) 

(b) Subjoined are the names of the principal contributors : 

H. R. H. William Frederick, duke of Gloucester, chancellor of the 
university ; John Henry Temple, viscount Palmerston ; John Henry Smyth, 
esq., M.P. ; Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland ; and John Hutton, esq., 
M.A. of Christ's college, 105 each. 



THE OBSERVATORY. 113 

The structure, which is on an eminence, is ap- 
proached by a handsome gateway through a well- 
arranged plantation and shrubbery. The principal 
front, which is about one hundred and sixty feet 
in length, has a projecting centre with two wings. 
The centre has a tetrastyle portico of Grecian Doric 
supporting a pediment. There is a low dome four- 
teen feet in diameter, which, although weighing 
upwards of three tons, is made to revolve. One 
wing contains apartments assigned to the Plumian 
professor of astronomy, who has the care of the 
establishment ; and the other those of the assistant 
observers. 

The principal instruments in the observatory are 
a transit instrument of ten feet focal length by 
Dollond ; a mural circle of eight feet diameter by 
Troughton and Simnis, which was graduated on 
its pier; and an equatoreal of five feet focal length 

Charles Manners Sutton, archbishop of Canterbury ; George Henry 
Fitzroy, duke of Grafton ; John Henry Manners, duke of Rutland ; William 
Lowther, earl of Lonsdale; and sir Henry Fitzherbert, bart. ; 100 each. 

Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwicke, high steward of the university ; John 
Crichton Stuart, marquess of Bute ; Thomas Hyde Villiers, earl of Clarendon ; 
Bowyer Edward Sparke, bishop of Ely; right hon. Charles Manners Sutton 
(afterwards -viscount Canterbury) ; John Lens, serjeant at law ; and rev. Dr. 
Pearson, F.R.S., of East Sheen ; 52 10s. each. 

Henry Fitzmaurice, marquess of Lansdowne ; Frederick Howard, earl 
of Carlisle ; William Stuart, archbishop of Armagh ; Robert Saunders 
Dundas, viscount Melville; William Lort Mansel, bishop of Bristol; Herbert 
Marsh, bishop of Peterborough ; George Gough Calthorpe, lord Calthorpe ; 
sir Richard Sutton, bart., of Trinity college; Thomas Le Blanc, L.L.D., 
master of Trinity hall ; William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. of Caius college ; 
Robert Woodhouse, M.A., Lucasian professor; rev. William Lax, M.A., 
Lowndean professor; Thomas Catton, B.D., president of S. John's college; 
John Barber Scott, esq., M.A. of Emmanuel college; William Portal, esq., 
M.A. of S. John's college ; Thomas Penny White, M.A., of Queens' college ; 
and Henry Horatio Hayes, M.A. of Trinity college ; 50 each. 

I 



114 THE OBSERVATORY. 

with declination circle of three feet diameter and 
hour circle of two feet diameter by Jones. The 
transit clock is by Hardy. There are also two 
other clocks, one by Molyneux and Cope, and 
one by Graham, with several smaller instru- 
ments, of which some have been purchased by 
the Plumian professors, and others have been 
bought by the university or have been presented 
by individuals. 

In 1835 a magnificent telescope of nearly twelve 
inches aperture and twenty feet focal length, made 
by M. Cauchoix of Paris, was presented by the 
duke of Northumberland. His grace at the same 
time intimated his wish to be allowed to present 
the telescope in a complete working state. A build- 
ing was accordingly erected near the observatory, 
with a revolving dome twenty-seven feet in diameter, 
and the equatoreal mounting of the telescope was 
completed under the superintendence of George 
Biddell Airy, esq., M.A., astronomer royal, late 
Plumian professor. 

The observations made 1828-1848 have been 
published at the expense of the syndics of 
the Pitt press, and copies have been distributed 
to the principal observatories and academies in 
England and abroad, as well as to several private 
observers. 

There is a library of astronomical works at 
the observatory, formed partly by purchases made 
by the university, and partly by presents from 
other observatories and from scientific institu- 
tions. 



THE OBSERVATORY. 115 

The observatory is under the superintendence of 
a syndicate, who, with the Plumian trustees and 
the Plumian and Lowndean professors, at least once 
in each term visit the observatory, and make an 
annual report of its state and the proceedings of 
the previous year, to the senate. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

ABOUT 1588 John Gerard the famous herbalist, 
appears to have been desirous of being employed 
by the university in laying out a physic garden 
here. There is extant a recommendatory letter 
drawn up by him for the signature of his patron 
lord Burghley, the chancellor of the university. 
It is however uncertain whether the letter were 
actually sent. 

In 1695 an unsuccessful attempt was made to 
establish a public physic garden in Cambridge. The 
project was renewed in 1724 and 1731. 

Richard Walker, D.D., vice-master of Trinity 
college, expended 1600 for the purchase of free- 
hold and leasehold premises in the parishes of 
S. Edward and S. Benedict (part whereof was a 
portion of the dissolved priory of S. Augustine) for 
the purpose of a botanic garden, conveying the same 
to the university by indentures of lease and re- 
lease, dated 24th and 25th August, 1761. He 
also settled 50 per annum towards the payment 
of a reader in botany, and a curator or superin- 
tendent of the garden. 

The rev. Edward Betham, M.A., fellow of King's 
college, gave 2000, 3 per cent, bank annuities, for 
the purposes of the garden. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 117 

A public subscription in aid of the garden was 
entered into in 1762 and the following donations 
were made between that period and 1783 : 

. s. d. 

Trinity college, 100; King's college, 50; 
S. John's college, 31. 10s.; Trinity hall, 30; 
Corpus Christ! college, 25. 5s. ; Sidney college, 
21; Caius college, 20 ; Pembroke hall, 5. 5*. 313 

Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
chancellor of the university ; Philip Yorke, earl of 
Hardwicke, high steward of the university ; Charles 
Maynard, viscount Maynard ; William Greaves, 
esq., M.A., commissary of the university, 100 each. 400 

John Green, bishop of Lincoln 80; Charles 
Manners, marquess of Granby, 52. 10s. 132 10 

Thomas Hay, earl of Kinnoul, recorder of 
Cambridge ; hon. Edward Finch, M.P. for the 
university ; Walter Titley, esq., minister at the 
court of Denmark; Robert Smith, D.D., master 
of Trinity college ; hon. Thomas Townshend, M.P. 
for the university ; Francis Hooper, D.D. fellow of 
Trinity college ; Edwin Lascelles, esq., 50 each. 350 

William Heberden, M.D., 42 ; Robert Taylor, 
M.D., 42 ; John Newcome, D.D., dean of Roches- 
ter, and master of S. John's college, 40 ; John Ord, 
esq., master in chancery, 30 ; Henry Hubbard, 
B.D., fellow of Emmanuel college, 28. 8s. ; sir 
James Burrough, master of Caius college, 25 ; 
Roger Pettiward, D.D., chancellor of the diocese 
of Chichester, 25 ; Frederick Montagu, esq., of 
Trinity college, 25 ; Thomas Bromley, lord 
Montfort, high steward of the town of Cambridge, 
21 ; Robert Glynn, M.D., fellow of King's college, 
21; Thomas Hayes, of Chester, M.D., 20; 
Thomas Watson, M.D., 20; John Fothergill, 
M.D., 20 ; Stephen Whisson, B.D., fellow of 
Trinity college, 20 . . . . 379 8 

Rev. Edward Betham, M.A., fellow of King's -^ 



118 THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

college, (besides the donation of stock) 17. 17s. ; . s. d. 
William Samuel Powell, D.D., master of S. John's 
college, 15. 15s. : Hen Vane, LL.D., canon of 
Durham, 10. 10s. ; Charlton Wollaston, M.D., 
10. 10s.; John Allen B.D., fellow of Trinity 
college, 10. 10s.; Charles Collignon, M.D., pro- 
fessor of anatomy, 6. 6s. . . , 71 8 

William Elliston, D.D., master of Sidney college ; 
John Martyn, professor of botany ; Thomas Martyn, 
B.D., professor of botany ; Mainwaring, of 
Chester, M.D. ; Mr. Goodwin ; Mr. Sharpe ; 5. 5s. 
each . . . 31 10 

Smaller gifts by members of the university and 
inhabitants of the town . . 55 13 

1733 9 



By a private act which received the royal assent 
30th March, 1831, effect were given to an exchange 
between the university and Trinity hall, and the 
university was authorised to remove the botanic 
garden to a piece of land in the parish of S. Andrew 
the less containing upwards of thirty-eight acres, then 
held under a lease from Trinity hall which expired 
at Michaelmas, 1844. 

Soon after the expiration of the lease twenty- 
one acres of the land were laid out as the botanic 
garden, the old garden being thereupon abandoned. 

The garden is under the government of the 
vice-chancellor, the provost of King's college, the 
masters of Trinity and S. John's colleges, the Regius 
professor of physic, and six members of the senate 
appointed by grace. 

It is open daily during hours appointed by the 
governors to all graduates of the university, all 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 119 

undergraduates giving their names and colleges if 
required, and all respectably dressed strangers on 
condition of giving their names and addresses if 
required. 

Servants with children and children by them- 
selves are not admitted, nor are persons with dogs. 

The hothouses may be viewed from one o'clock 
till four by persons accompanied by the curator. 




GATEHOUSE, 1773. 



THE CASTLE, 

IT is probable that the spot on which the castle 
stood, was originally occupied by a small Roman 
camp. 

William the conqueror on his return from the 
reduction of York in 1068, erected a castle here. 
Twenty-seven houses were destroyed to make room 
for the structure. (a) 

(a) Gervase of Tilbury has preserved a wild legend connected with 
Cambridge castle which belongs to a date not .much after the beginning of 
the twelfth century. It appears that at that time the ancient encampment 
of Vandlebury, on the summit of Gogmagog hill, was believed to be 
haunted by unearthly beings; and that a spectral knight, well mounted 
and armed, attended to offer combat to the venturous mortal who should 
challenge him within the inclosure after nightfall. A strange knight, 
named Osborn, came to Cambridge castle, and heard in the castle hall 
the story of this nocturnal combatant. He left the company unperceived, 
hastened to Vandlebury attended only by his esquire, engaged the spectral 



THE CASTLE. 121 

About 1189, Richard I. committed the custody 
of this castle to William de Longcamp, bishop of 
Ely, his chancellor and great favourite. 

King John by writ, dated 26th January, 1200-1, 
required Eustace bishop of Ely, to deliver the castle 
of Cambridge to Hamo de Valon, sheriff of the 
counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon, together 
with all things and stores as the bishop had re- 
ceived the same, and by another writ, dated 27th 
November, 1204, the sheriff of the county was 
commanded to repair the houses and gate of the 
castle of Cambridge, the expence whereof, as by 
the view and testimony of lawful men, was to be 
accounted to him at the exchequer. 

On 17th April, 1208, king John committed the 
custody of the castle of Cambridge, together with 
the counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon, to Fulk 
the son of Theobald, for seven years from Easter 
in the eighth year of the king's reign. For this 
concession he gave the king one hundred and twenty 
marks and three palfreys, and was to render 100 
per annum in addition to the accustomed farm. 

By letters dated 23rd May, 1212, Fulk the son 
of Theobald, was commanded by the king to deliver 
the castle of Cambridge to William earl of Sarum, 

knight and vanquished him, bringing away his horse as a trophy of his 
victory. He was led in triumph into the castle, and the horse, which was 
of jetty black hue, was tied up with strong ropes in the court, where it was 
watched all night by a crowd of people. As the morning approached, the 
steed became more and more furious, till, at the crowing of the cock, it 
burst asunder its bonds, and darting across the court, disappeared from 
view. The knight had been wounded in the combat, and, after his hurt 
had been apparently healed, it broke out afresh every year on the same 
night which had witnessed his adventure on Gogmagog hill. 



122 THE CASTLE. 

to whom the king had granted the counties of Cam- 
bridge and Huntingdon during his pleasure. 

Engell de Cigoni occurs as constable of Cambridge 
castle in 1214. On 16th of August in that year, the 
king by writ dated at Nottingham, notified that he 
had sent to him sir Thomas de Erdinton and Henry 
de Ver to signify certain things which could not be 
communicated by writing, and he was required to 
give them credence in all matters relative to the 
custody of the king's castles and possessions. 

King John was at Cambridge, 16th and 17th of 
September, 1216. On his departure he left the castle 
in the custody of the famous Falcasius de Brent. 
It was soon afterwards however taken by the con- 
federated barons, who made prisoners of the garrison 
consisting of only twenty men. 

By an inquisition taken in 1278, it was found 
that the castle of Cambridge belonged to the king, 
and was in the custody of the sheriff of the county. 
One messuage and three pieces of land are specified 
as held of the fee of the castle at rents paid to 
the sheriff, and amounting in the whole to 2s. 6d. 
per annum. Various persons who held estates in 
the county, also paid the sheriff small annual sums 
as castleguard. Pertaining to the castle was a 
warren, the bounds of which are set forth. (a) 

Edward I. was at Cambridge, 25th March, 1293. 
He stayed two days and nights, and lodged in the 

(a) A commission respecting the free warren belonging to the castle of 
Cambridge, which extended into the parishes of Chesterton, Milton, Histon, 
Cottenham, Girton, Landbeach, and Waterbeach, was issued by Henry IV. 
in 1400. Clay's Landbeach, 9. 



THE CASTLE. 123 

castle where no king had been known to have lain 
before. The same monarch in 1299 assigned this 
castle to his queen Margaret as part of her dowry. 

The castle was used for the confinement of de- 
linquents at least as early as 1317. On the 3rd of 
June in that year, Edward II. granted to the univer- 
sity, that if a layman should inflict a grievous hurt 
upon a clerk, or a clerk upon a layman, he should 
be immediately arrested and imprisoned in the castle 
until he should be delivered by reasonable satisfac- 
tion, or at the demand of the chancellor. We find 
the same monarch in 1321 directing the sheriff 
to furnish the castle with victuals and other neces- 
saries out of the issues of his bailiwick, and on the 
6th of August, 1323, he directed the constable of the 
castle to keep the prisoners therein in safe and 
secure custody, so that he might be able to answer 
for them at the king's command. 

In 1337, the burgesses of the town petitioned par- 
liament against various grants made by Edward II. 
to the university. As regarded the grant empower- 
ing imprisonment in the castle, they averred that 
that edifice was without the liberty of the town, (a) 
and consequently that the grant was repugnant to 
the privilege which they had, that the burgesses 
should not be impleaded out of the borough. 

On the 7th of May, 1340, Edward III. granted to 
William marquess of Juliers and earl of Cambridge, 
the castle of Cambridge, (except the gaol) to be held 
by the service of the fourth part of a knight's fee. By 
a writ dated 15th December, 1341, the marquess or 

(a) The castle forms part of the parish of Chesterton. 



124 THE CASTLE. 

his attorney or locum tenens in the castle, was 
commanded to deliver the gaol to Warin de Bassing- 
bourn, the sheriff of the county, and to permit him 
to have free ingress to and egress from the same 
at the gate of the castle. 

Edward III. pulled down some of the materials 
and applied them to the erection of King's hall. 

In 1352, William de Nolton had a grant from 
Edward III. of lands in Litlington in the county 
of Cambridge, to be held by the service of holding 
the king's stirrup whensoever he should mount his 
palfrey at the castle of Cambridge. 

William de Muschett was constable of Cambridge 
castle in 1359, when a writ was issued requiring 
the constable of Nottingham castle to remove sir 
John de Molyns, knight, to Cambridge castle, to 
be there confined with Egida his wife. 

On 20th February, 1366-7, Edward III. directed 
a commission to Almaric de Shirlonde and John de 
Newenham, to enquire as to the dilapidations of the 
walls, turrets, houses, and buildings of the castle. 

Sir Baldwin St. George occurs as constable of the 
castle in 1376. 

Richard II. by a charter to the university, 10th 
December, 1383, empowered the chancellor to im- 
prison persons convicted before him in the castle of 
Cambridge or elsewhere in the town, and required 
the sheriff of the county or keeper of the castle to 
receive keep and deliver all such transgressors at the 
chancellor's command. 

William Clypston held the office of constable 
of the castle in the first year of Henry IV. 



THE CASTLE. 125 

Henry V. gave stones and timber for the castle 
hall to the master and fellows of King's hall for 
building their chapel. 

Arthur Agard the antiquary, who became a student 
of Queens' college in 1553, says that at that period 
the keep of the castle was entire, adding that it had 
been since demolished. 

In the reign of Mary the ruins of the castle 
furnished materials for building Trinity college 
chapel, and the mansion of sir John Huddlestone, 
at Sawston. 

Dr. Caius, referring to 1574 or thereabouts, states 
that the castle was then nearly destroyed and pre- 
served only as a session house for the judges, and 
a prison for thieves. 

Charles I. in 1632 granted the castle in fee farm 
to Henry Brown and John Cliffe, in trust for the 
justices of the peace for the county. It had been 
long previously used as the county prison, and as 
the place for holding the assizes and county sessions. 

Dr. Fuller, referring to about 1634, informs us 
that the gatehouse was the only portion of the castle 
which was then left standing, and that it was em- 
ployed for a prison, " so that what was first intended 
to restrain rebels without it, is now only used to 
confine felons within it." 

Oliver Cromwell in 1642 seized the magazine in 
the castle for the parliament. Additional works were 
soon after erected at the castle, and above fifteen 
houses were pulled down. Henry Mildmay, esq., (a) 

(<i) He was of Graces in Baddow, Essex, which county he represented in 
parliament. He did not die till 1692. 



126 THE CASTLE. 

a colonel of horse for the parliament, was constituted 
governor of the castle. The parliament soldiers 
seized the timber and stone which had been provided 
for rebuilding Clare hall, and used the same at the 
castle. On the 12th of July, 1643, the governor of 
the castle reported to the parliament that the town 
and castle were very strongly fortified, being en- 
compassed with breastworks and bulwarks : and on 
the 20th the commons ordered the deputy lieutenants 
of the associated counties to send forces to Cambridge 
for defence of the castle. 

On the 15th of August, 1645, the parliamentary 
committee at Cambridge sent a letter to the speaker 
of the house of commons complaining of want of 
money for the soldiers in the castle. In this letter 
they state the castle to be very considerable in 
strength. 

The parliament on the 13th of July, 1647, voted 
that the new works raised about the town and castle 
of Cambridge since the beginning of the troubles 
should be slighted and reduced to the condition 
they were in before the war. 

The appearance of the gatehouse in 1773 is shewn 
in the preceding wood-cut, taken from Grose's 
Antiquities. 

The present county gaol was commenced within 
the castle precincts in 1802, from the designs of 
Mr. Byfield. The first stone was laid on the 18th 
of October in that year. Part of the materials of the 
castle were sold by direction of the county magis- 
trates in or about 1808. 



THE CASTLE. 



127 




SHIREHOCSE. 



A handsome and commodious shirehouse, (0) within 
the precincts of the castle, was completed in 1842, 
being opened on the 21st of October, on which day 
the general quarter sessions for the county were held 
there. The architects were Messrs. Wyatt and 
Brandon. 

To the inexpressible regret of all lovers of an- 
tiquity, the spacious and massive gatehouse of the 
castle was removed to make way for the shirehouse. 

(a) On 18th March, 1571-2, the corporation empowered Roger lord 
North to build a house within the market place, for the justices to sit in at 
assizes and sessions, but the design was not carried out. 

On 2nd April, 1746, the corporation demised for 999 years to trustees 
for the county, land on the Market hill immediately adjoining to the 
Guildhall, for the erection of a shirehouse, which was accordingly erected at 
the charge of the county. Although a most incommodious building it 
was used for the assizes and county sessions till 1842, when the county 
magistrates surrendered the lease to the corporation. 



128 



THE CASTLE. 



The wood-cut at the end of this article exhibits the 
appearance of the gatehouse immediately before its 
demolition. 

The hill and some earthworks are all that remain 
to mark the site of the castle of Cambridge. 

British and Roman coins and other antiquities 
have been found at various periods on the site, and 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the castle. 




GATEHOUSE, 1840. 



. 



. frw< 
at varic 



THE GUILDHALL. 

HENRY I. granted to the burgesses of Cambridge 
that they might hold their town at farm, they 
paying to him the same sum which the sheriff of 
the county had previously been accustomed to 
render. He also granted a charter, which appears 
to have been intended to secure to the town a 
monopoly of the trade of the county, and to pro- 
vide for the inhabitants the benefit of a domestic 
judicature. 

On the death of Henry I. that monarch's grant 
of the town to the burgesses ceased to have validity. 
In 1185, they paid to Henry II. three hundred 
marks and a mark of gold for a renewed grant. 
They also paid a fine to Richard I. for having 
their town again at farm. 

Immediately after the accession of king John, 
the burgesses acknowledged to owe that monarch 
two hundred and fifty marks for having the town 
at farm, and that they might enjoy the same liberties 
as the king's free and demesne boroughs which had 
liberties, and accordingly by a charter dated 8th of 
January, 1200-1, he granted to the burgesses a mer- 
catorial gild, freedom from toll and other privileges 
and franchises. In this charter the customs of the 
borough and the ancient law thereof existing in 
VOL. m. K- 



130 THE GUILDHALL. 

the time of the king's ancestors are expressly re- 
cognized. 

King John by another charter, dated 8th of 
May, 1207, granted the town of Cambridge in 
meadows and feedings, mills, pools and waters, 
with all liberties and free customs, to the burgesses 
for ever, they paying at the exchequer 60 yearly. 
He also empowered them to make of themselves a 
provost, whom they would and when they would. 

The chief officer of the town was designated the 
mayor at least as early as 1235, but the first mayor 
whose name is on record is William le Rus, who 
held the office in 1261. 

Henry III. confirmed king John's charters, and 
granted the burgesses the return of writs and the 
right to elect coroners, and to have exclusive juris- 
diction in replevin and all other actions arising in 
the borough, or relating to lands therein. Edward I. 
confirmed these charters 24th of November, 1280. 
On 27th of November, 1313, Edward II. also con- 
firmed them and granted additional franchises to 
the burgesses. 

Richard II. confirmed the town charters on the 8th 
of December, 1377. In June, 1381, there were pro- 
digious riots in Cambridge. The leading members 
of the corporation took an active part in these dis- 
turbances, and compelled the university to execute 
deeds renouncing all their privileges. These transac- 
tions soon afterwards became the subject of inves- 
tigation in parliament. The franchises of the town 
were seized into the king's hands as forfeited, but 
were, with certain exceptions, regr anted 17th of 



THE GUILDHALL. 131 

February, 1381-2, a slight increase being made in 
the amount of the annual fee farm rent payable to 
the sovereign. 

On the 9th of December, 1385, Richard II. 
granted to the burgesses all fines and forfeitures 
arising in the town, as also the goods of felons, 
fugitives, and outlaws. 

Confirmatory charters were granted to the town 
by Henry IV., Henry V., Henry VI., Edward IV., 
Henry VIII. and Edward VI. " 

Queen Elizabeth by charter dated 15th of August, 
1589, granted Sturbridge fair to the corporation, 
with ample powers to make ordinances, rules, and 
statutes for the government thereof, 

A charter was granted to the corporation by 
James I. 30th of April, 1605. In 1616, the corpo- 
ration made an ineffectual application for a charter 
enlarging their privileges and restoring Cambridge 
to its ancient honour and dignity as a city. 

Charles I. on 6th of February, 1631-2, granted 
a charter, whereby the number of the aldermen was 
fixed at twelve and of the common councilmen at 
twenty-four. 

The corporation on llth of November, 1684, 
surrendered all their franchises to Charles II., who 
on 3rd of January, 1684-5, granted a new charter 
whereby he reserved the power of removing all 
officers at the pleasure of the crown. All the ancient 
charters of the town were however restored by a 
proclamation of James II., dated 17th of October, 
1688. 

Under the municipal corporations act (5 & 6, 

K2 



THE GUILDHALL. 

Will. IV. c. 76), the town is now governed by a 
council, consisting of ten aldermen and thirty coun- 
cillors, from amongst whom the mayor is annually 
elected. 

The town is divided into wards as follows, six 
councillors being assigned to each ward. 

1. EAST BARN WELL WARD, S. Mary the less and part 
of S. Andrew the less. 

2. WEST BARNWELL WARD, S. Benedict and part of 
S. Andrew the less. 

3. MARKET WARD, S. Mary the great, S. Giles, and 
S. Edward. 

4. TRINITY WARD, S. Botolph, S. Clement, Holy Sepul- 
chre, and Holy Trinity. 

5. S. ANDREW'S WARD, All Saints, S. Andrew the great, 
S. Michael, and S. Peter. 

The Cambridge Corporation Act, 1850, and the 
Cambridge Award Act, 1856, contain numerous 
provisions relating to the government of the town. 
Under the latter of these acts, which confirms an 
award made by the late right hon. sir John Patteson 
on certain matters in difference between the uni- 
versity and town, the police is placed under the 
controul of a Watch committee, consisting of the 
mayor, nine other members of the council, and five 
members of the senate elected annually. 

The paving, drainage and lighting of the town 
are regulated by the Cambridge Improvement com- 
missioners, who consist of certain members of the 
university, fifteen members of the council, and 
twenty-eight inhabitants elected by the several 
parishes. These commissioners derive their powers 
under local acts passed in 1788, 1794, and 1846. 



THE GUILDHALL. 133 

The town has a separate court of quarter sessions, 
over which the recorder (who is appointed by the 
crown) presides as sole judge. The vice-chancellor 
of the university, the mayor, and the ex-mayor 
are justices of the peace ex-officio. Other justices 
of the peace are appointed by the crown from time 
to time as occasion arises. 

A court of pleas held before the recorder, has 
jurisdiction over all actions real, personal or mixed, 
arising within the town, without any limit as re- 
spects amount. 

At a very early period the burgesses possessed 
a common hall. It is supposed to have been situate 
on Peas hill in the parish of S. Edward. 

In 1224, the burgesses offered Henry III. a fine 
of forty marks that they might have a house in 
Cambridge which had belonged to Benjamin the 
jew, in order to make thereof a gaol for the town, 
they rendering to the king for the same one mark 
annually, and also two shillings per annum to the 
chief lord of the house. On 15th of October in that 
year, the king commanded the sheriff of the county 
to put them in possession of this house, on their 
giving good security for the fine and rent. 

This house had been previously a Jewish syna- 
gogue. On digging on the spot in 1782, for the 
foundations of buildings then commenced, several 
gravestones were discovered. One had an imperfect 
hebrew inscription to this effect, " The sepulchral 
stone of Israel who died " 

A portion of the house of Benjamin or the old 
synagogue, was assigned by the burgesses to the 



134 THE GUILDHALL. 

Franciscan friars on their first settlement in Cam- 
bridge, the other part being used as a gaol. The 
friars after a few years removed to the spot now 
occupied by Sidney college, and then the burgesses 
appear to have converted the portion of the house 
of Benjamin which the friars had held into a 
Guildhall. The whole structure (both Guildhall 
and prison) was popularly known as the Tolbooth, 
although the term Guildhall is usually employed in 
records to designate the part in which courts and 
corporate assemblies were held. 

The foundation of a new Tolbooth in the parish 
of S. Mary the great was laid in 1386, the structure 
being completed in the following year. 

It appears from entries in the corporation books, 
that the Guildhall portion of the. Tolbooth consisted 
of the hall, the parlour (wherein the mayor and 
aldermen held their meetings), the pantry (wherein 
the twenty-four or common-councilmen assembled) 
and the kitchen. 

The Tolbooth being very old and dilapidated, was 
taken down in 1782, when a new Guildhall was 
commenced on the site from the designs of James 
Essex, F.S.A. The earl of Kinnoul the recorder, 
contributed 100, and the hon. Philip Yorke, M.P. 
for the county 200. Money was also raised by 
the admission of a number of honorary freemen, 
who paid a fine of thirty guineas each. The total 
cost was 2,500, and the new building was opened 
for public business on the 25th of May, 1784. In 
1790, the gaol was removed to another site. 

In I860, the corporation having purchased the 



THE GUILDHALL. 135 

leasehold interests in certain adjoining premises, 
commenced extensive additions to the Guildhall. 
The works have only recently been completed. The 
cost including the purchase of leases is above 12,000. 
More than 6000 has been voted from the borough 
fund, the residue having been raised by a subscription 
set on foot by Rowland Morris Fawcett, esq., to 
whose zeal and indefatigable exertions in this matter 
the town is deeply indebted/" 5 

The new buildings are portions of an extensive 
plan by Messrs. Peck and Stephens, architects of 
Maidstone, which was selected after a public 
competition. 

The old Shirehouse, which, as before related, 
came into the possession of the corporation in 1842, 
is erected on arches and has a plain and unpre- 
tending front towards the Market hill. One room 



(a) The following is a list of the subscribers of 50 and upwards. 
Henry John Adeane, esq. M.P. 50 ; H. R. H. Albert prince consort, 
chancellor of the university, 100; William Henry Bateson, D.D., master 
of S.John's college, 60; Caius college, 100; Cambridge Horticultural 
society, 105; William Cavendish, duke of Devonshire, chancellor of the 
university and high-steward of the town, 100; Corpus Christi college, 
50; Edward Humphreys Green De Freville, esq., of Ickleton, 50; 
Rowland Morris Fawcett, esq., 60 ; Charles Finch, esq., 50 ; Charles 
Finch Foster, esq., alderman, 100; Ebenezer Foster, esq., 100; George 
Ebenezer Foster, esq., 100 ; Henry Staples Foster, esq., alderman, 50 ; 
Clement Francis, esq., M.A., 50 ; Thomas Charles Geldart, LL.D., master 
of Trinity hall, 50; William Parker Hamond, esq., of Pampisford, 
100; John Hibbert, esq., of Braywick, Berkshire, 100; George Murray 
Humphrey, M.D., 150; Mr. William Eaden Lilley, 50; Thomas Mort- 
lock, esq. M.A., 100; Thomas Musgrave, archbishop of York, 50; Henry 
Philpott, D.D., master of S. Catharine's college, (now bishop of Worcester), 
121 ; Francis Russell, duke of Bedford, high steward of the town, 100 ; 
Mr. Robert Sayle, 100; Mr. Henry Joseph Wetenhall, 50; William 
Whewell, D.D., master of Trinity college, 100; Charles Philip Yorke, 
earl of Hardwicke, lord-lieutenant of the county, 50. 



136 THE GUILDHALL. 

is used as a council-chamber, the other as a court 
room for the quarter sessions and the meetings of 
the magistrates. 

Separated from this structure by a narrow street, 
over which is a covered gallery, is the portion of 
the Guildhall erected from the plan of Mr. Essex. 
A small part of this building has been taken down 
for the erection of the great hall hereafter mentioned. 
The residue forms a small assembly room, over 
which is a suite of apartments recently added, and 
occupied by the School of Art. 

On the south side of the small assembly room 
is a convenient and well proportioned apartment 
known as the Alderman's parlour, which was erected 
about 1790. 

The great hall just completed from the design 
of Messrs. Peck and Stephens, is one hundred and 
ten feet in length, fifty-two in breadth, and forty- 
one in height. It is a very noble apartment, having 
a richly decorated roof. At the northern end is a 
small gallery, and the southern end, which has a 
circular termination, is occupied by a well constructed 
orchestra of the depth of twenty-four feet. From 
the ceiling are suspended five handsome ormolu 
chandeliers (now adapted for gas lights), presented 
in 1820. The larger one, which is in the centre, 
was the gift of the duke of Rutland, high-steward. 
Of the smaller chandeliers, one pair was given by 
lieut.-col. Trench, M.P., and the other by Charles 
Maddryll Cheere, esq., M.P. 

Underneath the southern end of the great hall 
are convenient apartments appropriated to the pur- 



THE GUILDHALL. 137 

poses of a Free Library. (a) There is a separate 
entrance in Wheeler street to this part of the 
building. 

In the court room is a bust of sir Robert Henry 
Blossett, chief-justice in Bengal, formerly deputy 
recorder. A curious old portrait on panel of the 

(a) The Free Library was established in pursuance of a vote of the 
burgesses taken 1st of March, 1853, when eight hundred and seventy- 
three votes were recorded in its favour, and only seventy-eight against it. 

The sum of 364. 19a. Qd. was raised by subscription to defray prelimi- 
nary expences and to purchase books. Of this sum 150 was contributed 
by Charles Finch Foster, esq., alderman, and 50 by George Ebenezer 
Foster, esq. 

The library was opened to the public 28th of June, 1855, and is principally 
supported by a grant of 200 per annum from the Borough fund. The 
management is delegated to a committee consisting of thirteen members of 
the council and as many inhabitants who are not of that body. It contains 
a collection of about eight thousand volumes, and there is a good supply 
of newspapers and periodicals. Previously to the completion of the new 
Guildhall buildings, the Free Library was deposited in the Friends' 
Meeting-house in Jesus lane. 

In the year ending June, 1861, the number of visitors to the reading- 
room was 49,346, and during the same period 29,195 volumes were issued. 
Of this number 24,925 were from the lending library. 

Attached to the library is a small museum. 

The voluminous and valuable publications of Her Majesty's Commis- 
sioners of Patents are deposited in this library. 

On the dissolution of the Cambridge and Cambridgeshire Mechanics 
Institute in September, 1858, the members presented 1193 volumes to this 
library, and Mr. James Reynolds has at various periods given about 
1300 volumes. 

Amongst the other donors of books and curiosities, may be mentioned 
A. S. Adair, esq.; G. B. Airy, esq., M.A., astronomer royal; H. R. H. 
Albert prince consort; C. C. Babington, esq., professor of botany; rev. 
Churchill Babington, B.D. ; Patrick Beales, esq. ; Mr. Joseph Bright ; 
rev. W. Carus, M.A. ; rev. Charles Clayton, M.A. ; Mr. George Dawson ; 
Mr. A. Deck ; Mrs. Evans ; C. Finch, esq. ; Harvey Goodwin, D.D., dean 
of Ely ; Mr. Edmond Foster ; Mr. H. T. Hall ; H. H. Harris, esq., alder- 
man ; J. A. Jeremie, D.D., regius professor of divinity ; Mr. E. Litchfield ; 
Mr. A. Macmillan; rev. J. E. B. Mayor, M.A.; W. H. Miller, esq., M.A., 
professor of mineralogy; Robert Potts, esq., M.A. ; R. C. Trench, D.D., 
dean of "Westminster ; Mr. H. J. Wetenhall ; and William "Whewell, D.D., 
master of Trinity college. 



138 THE GUILDHALL. 

celebrated Thomas Hobson the benevolent carrier, 
who is delineated on horseback, and a large picture 
by Thomas Henry Gregg, representing the right 
hon. Thomas Spring-Rice (now lord Monteagle), and 
George iPryme, esq., elected members of parliament 
for the town, 12th of December, 1832, are in other 
parts of the building. 

Subjoined are lists of some of the principal officers 
of the corporation : 

MAYOES. 1836, (Jan. 1), Thomas Hovell, esq. ; (Nov. 9), 
Ebenezer Foster, esq. ; 1837, Charles Humfrey, esq. ; 1838, 
Henry Headly, esq. ; 1839, Richard Foster, esq. ; 1840, 
1841, George Fisher, esq. ; 1842, Thomas Stevenson, esq. ; 
1843, Eowland Morris Fawcett, esq.; 1844, William Bishop, 
esq. ; 1845, Joseph Jonathan Deighton, esq. ; 1846, Charles 
Edward Brown, esq. ; 1847, Charles Finch Foster, esq. ; 1848, 
Charles Finch, esq. ; 1850, Henry Staples Foster, esq. ; 1851, 
Elliot Smith, esq. ; 1852, Henry Hemington Harris, esq. ; 
1853, Augustine Gutteridge Brimley, esq. ; 1854, Charles 
Finch Foster, esq.; 1855, William Ekin, esq.; 1856, Patrick 
Beales, esq. ; 1857, Swann Hurrell, esq. ; 1858, Charles Balls, 
esq.; 1859, Elliot Smith, esq.; 1860, 1861, Charles Finch 
Foster, esq. 

HIGH STEWARDS. 1529, Thomas Howard, duke of Nor- 
folk, K.G. ; 1547, Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset, E.G. ; 
1552, John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, K.G. ; 1554, 
Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, K.G. ; 1572, Roger North, 
lord North; 1600, sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper, afterwards 
lord Ellesmere and viscount Brackley ; 1617, sir Francis Bacon, 
lord chancellor, afterwards lord Verulam and viscount S. 
Alban's; 1626, sir Thomas Coventry, lord-keeper, afterwards 
lord Coventry; 1639, sir John Finch, lord-keeper, afterwards 
lord Finch of Fordwich ; 1652, Oliver Cromwell, esq., after- 
wards lord-protector; 1660, sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, 
afterwards earl of Clarendon; 1670, sir Thomas Chicheley; 
1688, Henry Jermyn, lord Jermyn of Dover ; 1688, sir Thomas 



THE GUILDHALL. 139 

Chicheley, restored] 1698, Edward Russell, earl of Orford; 
1727, Edward Harley, earl of Oxford and earl Mortimer; 
1741, Henry Bromley, lord Montfort; 1755, Thomas Bromley, 
lord Montfort ; 1800, John Henry Manners, duke of Rutland, 
K.G. ; 1836, Francis Godolphin Osborne, lord Godolphin; 
1850, Charles Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, earl Fitzwilliam, K.G. ; 
1857, Thomas Babington Macaulay, lord Macaulay; 1860, 
Francis Russell, duke of Bedford, K.G. ; 1861, William Caven- 
dish, duke of Devonshire, K.G. 

RECOBDEBS. 1489, John Woode, esq. ; 1520, John Hynde, 
serjeant-at-law (afterwards justice of the common pleas) ; 1545, 
William Cooke, esq. (afterwards serjeant-at-law and eventually 
justice of the common pleas); 1552, George Freville, esq. 
(afterwards baron of the exchequer) ; 1558, Robert Shute, esq. 
(afterwards baron of the exchequer, and eventually justice of 
the queen's bench) ; 1570, Henry Carey, lord Hunsdon, K.G. ; 
[Francis Brackyn, esq., deputy] ; 1595, sir Thomas Egerton, 
afterwards successively lord-keeper, lord-chancellor, lord Elles- 
mere and viscount Brackley; 1600, sir John Fortescue; 1607, 
Francis Brackyn, esq. ; 1624, Talbot Pepys, esq. ; 1660, Roger 
Pepys, esq. 5 1678, William Allington, lord Allington ; [1679, 
Robert Wright, esq., deputy] ; 1684, sir Robert Wright, 
baron of the exchequer, afterwards chief-justice of the king's 
bench ; 1689, William Russell, earl of Bedford, afterwards duke 
of Bedford ; [1690, Tanfield Leman, esq., deputy] ; 1700, Robert 
Drake, esq.; 1702, sir John Cotton; [John Welbore, esq., 
deputy] ; 1712-13, Samuel Gatward, esq.; 1742, Samuel Henry 
Pont, esq. ; 1758, Thomas Hay, viscount Dupplin, afterwards 
earl of Kinnoul ; [1758, Edward Leeds, esq., deputy ; 1769, 
Charles Nalson Cole, esq., deputy] ; 1788, John Mortlock, esq. ; 
1788, Henry Somerset, duke of Beaufort; 1799, John Henry 
Manners, duke of Rutland; 1800, Lord Charles Somerset 
Manners; [1818, Robert Henry Blossett, serjeant-at-law, after- 
wards a knight and chief justice in Bengal, deputy ; 1822, 
Henry Storks, esq., deputy] ; 1836, Henry Storks, serjeant-at- 
law; 1858, Robert Milnes Newton, esq. 

TOWN CLEEKS. 15..., John Thirleby ; 1557, Edward Ball ; 
1596, Henry Slegge; 1628, Roger Slegge; 1629, North 
Harrison; 1631, John Harrison; 1660, Samuel Spalding, alder- 



140 THE GUILDHALL. 

man ; [John Sell, deputy] ; 1666, Edward Law, alderman ; 
1674, William Baron; 1688, Francis Webb; 1688, William 
Baron, restored; 1694, John Pyke; 1707, Thomas Fox, jun., 
alderman; 1719, Charles Chambers, alderman; [John York, 
deputy]; 1732, Guy Sindrey, alderman; [1733, Thomas John- 
son, deputy ; 1736, William Cropley, deputy] ; 1740, Thomas 
York, alderman; 1756, James Day; 1788, Robert White; 
1817, Pearse White; 1819, George Busby White; [1823, 
Christopher Hore, deputy] ; 1830, Charles Pestell Harris ; 
[Aaron Chevell, deputy] ; 1836, Francis John Gunning ; 1 840, 
Charles Pestell Harris, restored ; [Orlando Hyde, deputy] ; 
1849, Charles Henry Cooper. 

CLERKS OF THE PEACE. 1836, William Garfit Ashton ; 
1855, William Cockerell. 

TREASURERS. 1794, John Spencer; 1819, John Spencer; 
1836, William Herring Smith; 1857, Patrick Beales, jun. 

CORONERS. 1836, Charles Henry Cooper; 1849, David 
King; 1858, Edmond Foster. 

The regalia of the corporation consists of five 
handsome silver gilt maces, carried before the mayor 
on state occasions. The larger mace, which weighs 
one hundred and fifty-three ounces, was presented 
in 1710 by Samuel Shepherd, jun. esq. M.P. The 
other four were the gift of Thomas Bacon ; esq. M.P. 
in 1724. 

The corporation obtained a grant of arms and 
supporters from Robert Cooke, Clarenceux king of 
arms, on the 7th of June, 1575. 

The common seal whereon are the town arms, 
and the circumscription " Sigillum Communitatis 
villse Cantabrigise," was presented in 1736, by the 
earl of Oxford and earl Mortimer, high steward. 




THE TOWN GAOL. 

IN the preceding account of the Guildhall mention 
has been made of the grant which the burgesses 
obtained from Henry III. of the house of Benjamin, 
and the conversion of part thereof into a gaol for 
the town, which, as well as the adjoining Guildhall, 
was commonly called the Tolbooth. 

In November, 1601, queen Elizabeth granted to 
the university the custody of the house of Benjamin 
at the annual rent of 15s. A similar grant was 
made by James I. on the 6th of July, 1603. These 
grants gave rise to a suit between the university 
and town, which was, in 1607, decided in favour 
of the latter body. 

On 14th of August, 1622, the corporation made 
an order that the gaoler of the Tolbooth, a,t his 
own cost, should yearly be charged with repairing 
and cleaning the gaol and the bolts, shackles, and 



142 THE TOWN GAOL. 

implements, the town first putting the gaol into 
repair and finding sufficient bolts, shackles, and im- 
plements. The gaoler at this period had no salary, 
his emoluments arising solely from fees and per- 
quisites. 

A place called Tanners' or Leathersellers' hall 
was added to the Tolbooth as a house of correction 
in 1631. 

In the seventeenth century mention is made of 
parts of the Tolbooth called the Witches' gaol, the 
Star chamber, Pilate's chamber, and Debtors' hall. 
On 16th of May, 1661, the corporation ordered that 
Pilate's chamber and Debtors' hall should be made 
into a dwelling house for the gaoler, and let to 
him for three years at six per cent, on the money 
to be expended. 

Bequests to the poor prisoners in the Tolbooth 
are of frequent occurrence in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, and the corporation used to 
provide an alms-basket for the collection of broken 
victuals for them. 

Edmund Carter, writing in 1749, thus describes 
the gaol : 

The Town Gaol adjoining to the Town Hall, is a most 
shocking place to be confined in, especially for food, lodging, 
and air, all which are there but very indifferent. 

On 3rd of April, 1789, John Doggett the gaoler 
presented a petition to the justices in which he 
stated that the profits from the gaolers' former privi- 
lege of selling ale were considered a reasonable 
allowance for keeping the gaol. The court ordered 
him a salary of 10 per annum. 



THE TOWN GAOL. 143 

In 1790 the gaol was removed from the building 
adjoining the Guildhall, called the Tolbooth, to a 
newly erected edifice at the back of the Spinning 
house. This gaol cost the town 911. 10s. 

In 1829 the present spacious and commodious 
gaol, which is situate on the western side of Parker's 
piece and occupies two acres, was erected from a 
design by William Mackintosh Brookes, esq., B.A. 
of Peterhouse. It was built under a local act 7 
& 8 Geo. IV. cap. cxi., which was amended by 
the local act 2 & 3 Viet. cap. ix. 

The total cost of erecting the gaol and of 
obtaining and executing the acts relating thereto, 
including interest on loans, was nearly 25,000. 
The gaol debt was finally paid off in 1847. 



THE SPINNING HOUSE. 

THOMAS HOBSON, the celebrated Cambridge carrier, 
on 30th of July, 1628, conveyed to certain members 
of the university and inhabitants of the town, a 
messuage and premises in the parish of S. Andrew, 
without Barnwell gate, upon trust for the erection, 
by the university and town, of a house for setting 
the poor to work, and as a house of correction for 
unruly and stubborn rogues, beggars, and other 
poor persons who should refuse to work, and to 
provide a stock of wool, flax, and other materials 
for setting the poor to work. 

By a codicil to his will (dated on the day of 
his death, 1st January, 1630-1) he gave to the 
corporation 100 to purchase lands, the rents to be 
employed towards the maintenance of the house of 
correction and workhouse and of the poor who 
should be set to work there for ever. 

This legacy, and the residue of a sum collected 
for the relief of the afflicted by the plague, were 
in 1632 and 1634 invested in the purchase of lands 
in Cottenham, Over, and Willingham, the yearly 
rents to be employed towards the maintenance of 
the house of correction and the setting the poor 
on work. 

Roger Thompson of Cambridge, brewer, in 1642 



THE SPINNING HOUSE. 145 

bequeathed 200 to the workhouse, and this sum 
was, in 1646, invested in the purchase of lands in 
Westwick. 

George Griffith, M.A., in 1686, bequeathed 100; 
and subsequently Henry Jaines, D.D., president of 
Queens' college, gave 20 to the workhouse. 

Edmund Carter, in 1749, gives the following 
description of the Spinning house : 

The Bridewell (called by the inhabitants the Spinning 
House) is pleasantly situated near the fields at the south end 
of the Parish of Great St. Andrews, and is chiefly used for 
the confinement of such lewd women as the Proctors apprehend 
in houses of ill fame ; though sometimes the Corporation send 
small offenders thither, and the crier of the town is often there 
to discipline the ladies of pleasure with his whip. 

In proof of his veracity as respects the con- 
cluding statement, it may be noted that the treasurer 
of the workhouse in his accounts, 1748 to 1749, 
makes this charge : " Paid Horner Johnson, by 
order of Mr. Vice- Chancellor, for whipping ten 
women 10s." This Horner Johnson was the town 
crier. 

John Bowtell, in 1813, bequeathed 500, three 
per cent, stock, to the trustees of the workhouse 
for putting out poor boys, natives of the town, as 
apprentices. 

Soon after the present town gaol was erected 
the town magistrates ceased to make commitments 
to the Spinning house. 

In October, 1833, an information was filed in 
the court of chancery, having for its object the 
better regulation of this charity, and on the 4th of 

VOL. III. L 



146 THE SPINNING HOUSE. 

August, 1852, the court approved of a scheme for 
the future management thereof. 

By this scheme the northern part of the building 
is used by the university as a house of correction 
for the reception and confinement of common women 
and prostitutes apprehended by the proctors or 
committed by the vice-chancellor, and the southern 
part by the town as a lock-up house and police- 
station. 

The general management of the affairs of the 
charity is vested in the vice-chancellor and six 
members of the senate, and the mayor and six 
members of the council. 

Of the annual rents and income 75 is paid 
to the university for the repair of their portion of 
the Spinning house, and the rates and taxes there- 
upon, and the insurance thereof; 75 is paid to the 
corporation for the like purposes as regards their 
portion; a sum not exceeding 25 is paid to the 
clerk and treasurer; 30 is to be expended (as 
Mr. Bowtell's benefaction) in putting out poor boys, 
natives of the town, as apprentices ; and the residue 
is applied in donations to schools (including in- 
dustrial schools) for the education of poor boys and 
girls within the limits of the university and borough, 
or in any contiguous parish where children of poor 
persons residing within such limits are educated, 
or in apprenticing poor boys and girls. One half 
of the residue is in the disposition of the uni- 
versity governors and the other half of the town 
governors. 

The portion of the Spinning house which is 



THE UNION WORKHOUSE. 147 

used as a police-station has a neat stone frontis- 
piece of Jacobean architecture, designed by James 
Walter, esq. In the rear (and on the spot where 
stood the Town gaol of 1790) is a commodious 
residence for the chief superintendent of police. 



THE UNION WORKHOUSE. 

THE fourteen parishes in Cambridge were con- 
stituted a Poor Law Union by an order of the 
Poor Law Commissioners made 19th March, 1836. 
Four guardians are annually elected by the parish 
of S. Andrew the less, and two by each of the 
other parishes. 

A spacious and commodious workhouse was soon 
afterwards erected in Mill road, S. Andrew the less, 
from a design by John Smith, esq. 

Under the Cambridge Award Act, 1856, union 
rating has been established. That act also contains 
provisions for ascertaining, at certain intervals, the 
annual rateable value of the property occupied by 
the university and colleges. 




ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL. 

JOHN ADDENBROOKE, born in Staffordshire, in or 
about 1682, was admitted a pensioner of Catha- 
rine hall, 13th of December, 1697, proceeding B.A. 
1701-2, and being elected a fellow of his college, 
25th of March, 1704, and admitted 13th of April 
following. He commenced M.A. 1705, and on the 
3rd of September, 1706, was admitted an extra licen- 
tiate of the college of physicians, being represented 
as then of West Bromwich in his native county. 
On the 1st of November, 1709, he was chosen bursar 
of Catharine hall for the year ensuing. He was 
created M.D. 1712, and vacated his fellowship 
about Lady-day 1715, probably on account of 
marriage. He would seem to have practised his 
faculty for some years at Cambridge, but of his 
professional career little is known. He died the 
7th of June, 1719, and is commemorated by the 



ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL. 149 

following inscription on a flat marble in the chapel 
of Catharine hall, where he was buried. 

M. S. 

JOHANNIS ADDENBROOKE, M.D. 
de Swinford Kegis in Comitatu Staffordise 

Hujus Collegii olim Socii 
Obiit 7 mo Junii Anno Domini 1719. .^Etatis 39. 

He was the author of A Short Essay upon Free 
Thinking. Lond. 8vo. 1714. 

His medicine chest is still preserved in the library 
of Catharine hall. 

By his will dated 1st of May, 1719, Dr. Adden- 
brooke bequeathed above 4000 after the death of 
his wife upon trust to hire, fit up, purchase, or erect 
a building fit for a small physical hospital in the 
town of Cambridge for poor people, and he directed 
that any poor sick person of any parish or county 
should be admitted if there should be room and the 
revenue would answer. 

The trustees (a) expended 817. 3s. 3d. in the 
purchase of a garden and of divers tenements for 

(a) The trustees appointed by the court of chancery in 1758, were : 

James Burrough, esq., (afterwards sir James Burrough), master of 
Caius college. 

John Green, D.D., master of Corpus Christi college, afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln. 

Roger Long, D.D., master of Pembroke hall. 

William Richardson, D.D., master of Emmanuel college. 

John Sumner, D.D., provost of King's college. 

Edmund Law, D.D., master of Peterhouse, afterwards bishop of Carlisle. 

Thomas Chapman, D.D., master of Magdalen college. 

Hugh Thomas, D.D., master of Christ's college. 

Lynford Caryl, D.D., fellow, afterwards master of Jesus college. 

Francis Sawyer Parris, D.D., master of Sidney college. 

Kenrick Prescott, D.D., master of Catharine hall. 



150 ADDENBEOOKE'S HOSPITAL. 

the site of the hospital; 3073. 8s. k\d. in the 
building and about the ground; and 119. Is. 5d. 
in furniture. By the above expenditure, some great 
losses, taxes, and law charges, the capital was 
reduced to 1804. 16s. d. whereof 1600 was in 
the 3 per cents. 

On the 30th of April, 1766, a public meeting of 
gentlemen of the university, town, and county was 
held at the hospital, at the instance of the trustees, 
in order to devise means to support the institution. 
The vice-chancellor and mayor were desired to 
issue circular letters soliciting subscriptions, which 
they accordingly did, and this appeal met with 
such success that the hospital was opened for the 
reception of patients on Michaelmas day in that 
year. 

On the 30th of May, 1767, the royal assent was 
given to an act of parliament (7 Geo. III. cap. 99), 
whereby a corporation by the name of the president 
and governors of Addenbrooke's hospital in the town 
of Cambridge was established. The lord-lieutenant 
of the county for the time being was constituted 
president, and the chancellor and vice-chancellor of 
the university, the bishop of Ely, the high-steward 
of the town, the high-sheriff of the county, the repre- 
sentatives in parliament for the county, university, 
and town, and the mayor for the time being, together 
with all contributors of 21 or upwards at one time, 
all annual subscribers of two guineas and upwards, 
and the physicians and surgeons, were constituted 
governors. 

Due provision was made for transferring the hos- 



ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL. 151 

pital, and the funds in the hands of the trustees, 
to the president and governors, and the act directs 
that general courts shall be held four times in 
every year, or oftener if occasion should require. 

Numerous donations and bequests have been made 
to this hospital. Amongst them we may enumerate 
the following: 

Her Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria, (1847) 105 ; 
H.E.H. Albert Prince Consort, (1847) 105; H.R.H. Albert 
Edward Prince of Wales, (1861) 100; Mrs. Ackers and 
Mrs. Graves (1779) five messuages in Cambridge ; Miss Barker 
(1791) 363. 15s. 10^.; Mr. Edmund Baron (1787) 200 stock; 
rev. Edward Betham, M.A., fellow of King's college, (1784) 
300 stock; Mr. John Bowtell (1813) 7000 stock; Mrs. 
Cawthorne (1767) six acres of land in Barnwell; Mrs. Catha- 
rine Collignon (1832) 1000 stock; Mrs. Cotton of Welwyn 
(1832) 225 ; Mrs. Cranmer of Quendon hall, Essex, (1844) 
584. 13*. 4<i ; rev. James Devie, vicar of Standground, (1802) 
200; Robert Leslie Ellis, esq., M.A. of Trinity college, 
(1845-59) 464. la. Id.; Mr. Fison (1849) 450; Mr. Robert 
Franks (1783) 200; William Greaves, esq., M.A., (1789) 200; 
rev. John Griffith, B.D., minor canon of Ely, (1861) about 4000 ; 
John Hall, esq., of Weston Colville (1826-39) 210. 10s.; Miss 
Ann Hatton of Longstanton (1842) 200; Miss Elizabeth 
Hatton of Longstanton (1846) 1200; Isaac Hawkins, esq., 
(1802) 800 stock; rev. William Hetherington, M.A., fellow of 
Eton college, (1768, 1779) 550 ; rev. James Hicks of Wilbraham 
Temple (1825) 200 ; Mrs. Hicks of Wilbraham Temple (1825) 
200; Mr. Harman James (1815) 200; Soame Jenyns, esq., 
M.P., (1767, 1788) 150; Abraham Jobson, D.D., vicar of 
Wisbech S. Peter, (1822-1824) 200; rev. Frederick Kellar, 
vicar of Kelshall, (1809) 300; Thomas Lombe, esq., (1801, 
1802) 352. 10s.; John Henry Manners, duke of Rutland, 
(1802, 1824) 210; Charles Maynard, viscount Maynard, (1828) 
1140; Moore Merideth, B.D., fellow of Trinity College, 280 
stock; Mr. Joseph Merrill (1803, 1806) 600; Richard Moss, esq. 
of Milton on Thames (1847) 500 ; A. Newton, esq. of Lich- 



152 ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL. 

field, (1811) 200; Francis Godolphin Osborne, lord Godolphin, 
(1802, 1822) 315 ; Jonathan Page, esq. of Ely, (1840) 500 ; 
Mr. Robert Peck (1805) 200; Christopher Pemberton, esq., 
(1851) 450; rev. Robert Beresford Podmore, M.A., vicar of 
Kirby Monks, (1843) 200 ; John Russell, duke of Bedford, 
(1824, 1832) 205; Mr. Samuel Salmon (1849) 800; Miss 
E. F. Sell of Bassingbourn (1859) 500; rev. Joseph Shaw, 
B.D., fellow and sometime master of Christ's college, lands 
at Willingham; Mr. Daniel Slack (1810) 338. Is. 8<Z.; 
rev. Thomas Spencer, M.A., fellow of Trinity college, (1781, 
1790) 200; Edward Stadderd, esq. of St. Ives, (1782, 1783) 
300; George Thackeray, D.D., provost of King's college, 
(1851) 1000 stock; John Torkington, D.D., master of Clare 
hall, (1815) 200 stock; John Trigg, esq. of Melbourn Buiy, 
(1823) 200; Mr. Bates Francis Tunwell (1806) 250 stock; 
Miss Ann Turner (1844) 200 ; Mrs. Mary Watts (1837) 200 ; 
Mr. Samuel Widnall of Grantchester, florist, (1840, 1842) 
440. Is. 3d. ; Mrs. Wortham of Royston (1828, 1829) 250 ; 
Philip Yorke, second earl of Hardwicke, (1767, 1790) 600; 
Philip Yorke, third earl of Hardwicke, (1803) 150. 

In 1822, two wings were added to the hospital, 
and the colonnade in front was erected from a design 
by Charles Humfrey, esq. 

The Board-room contains portraits of Mr. John 
Bowtell ; John Newling, esq., alderman, many 
years treasurer of this hospital ; and Frederick 
Thackeray, M.D. 

The hospital contains upwards of one hundred 
beds. 

During the year ending Michaelmas, 1861, there 
were six hundred and eighty-one in-patients, and 
one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine out- 
patients. The total number of patients cured from 
the opening of the hospital to the above date, was 
sixty-three thousand four hundred and sixty-nine. 



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ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL. 153 

The annual income of the hospital is about 
3000. Of this sum nearly half arises from rents 
of estates and interest on stock. 

The amount of stock standing in the public funds 
in the name of the president and governors at 
Michaelmas, 1861, was 43,448. 5*. Sd. Of this 
sum 2,675. 17s. Id. belongs to the building fund. 

A Samaritan fund was established in 1806. 

The parochial clergy and certain clerical members 
of the university visit the hospital in rotation. 

Certificates of attendance on the practice in this 
hospital are recognized by the university, the 
college of physicians, the college of surgeons, and 
the society of apothecaries of London. 




THE OLD PERSE SCHOOL. 



THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

STEPHEN PERSE, born at Norwich in 1550, was 
matriculated as a sizar of Gronville and Caius college 
12th of November, 1565. He migrated to S. John's 
college and went out there as B.A. 1568-9. Re- 
turning to Caius college he commenced M.A. 1572, 
and soon afterwards became a fellow; he took holy 
orders, but subsequently changed his profession to 
physic, being created M.D. 1581. He practised the 
medical profession in Cambridge and acquired great 
wealth. At the time of his death which occurred 
30th of September, 1615, he was the senior fellow 
of Caius college. He was interred in the chapel 
of that house, where is a large mural monument, 
with his figure in his doctor's robes, and the following 
inscription : 



THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 155 

PILENOMEN STEPHANVS COGNOMEN PERSE VOCATVM, 
. SOLA DEO SOLI VITA CORONA FVIT, 
CVM VIVENTE DEO REMANET MIHI VITA PERENNIS, 

JAMQVE CANO SOLI nANTOTE AOHA 0E&, 
HwEC MORIENS CECINI LECTVRO PERSEVS IPSE, 

NON VLLI MELIVS QVAM MIHI NOTVS ERAM. 

CHRISTIN, SVRNAMDE, STEPHAN PERSE I RIGHT, 
SOLE LIFE WITH GOD ALONE, MY CROWNE, MY LIGHT, 

WITH LIVING GOD ETERNALL LIFE I LIVE, 
THIS NOW MY SONG, TO SOLE GOD PRAISE I GIVE, 

THIS EPITAPH BY ME PERSE WAS DEVIZ'D, 
TO NONE ELSE BETTER WERE MY THOVGHTS COMPRIZ'D. 

Hie Stephanus Perse, Medicinse Doctor, per Quadraginta 
annos Socius hujus Collegij, requiescit, qui moriens donavit 
quinque mille Librarum, quibus annul Redditus ducentarum et 
quinquaginta Librarum emerentur, ut ex ijs, Socij sex, sex 
scholares, sex Eleemosinarij, Ludimagister et Hypodidasculua 
alerentur, et Stipendia Custodis hujus Collegij et quatour 
Seniorum Sociorum, et Sociorum Jocosse Franckelande augeren- 
tur, Qui legavit quingentas Libras ad Cubicula suis Socij s et 
Scholaribus in Collegio sedificanda, Qui Grammaticam Scholam 
ad centum Discipulos recipiendum idoneam et domum ad suorum 
Eleemosinariorum habitationem extrui, Viamque a villa Cantab, 
ad Pontem Stirbrigiensem, ex relictis Bonis perfici, ultima vol- 
untatate mandavit. Vixit annos 65. mortuus est ultimo Sept. 
Anno 1615. 

He has latin verses in the university collection 
on the death of queen Elizabeth and the accession 
of James I. 1603. 

Notwithstanding the large sums he gave to cha- 
ritable uses, he was not unmindful of his relatives 
and friends. Amongst his bequests to personal friends 
is the following in favour of his more celebrated 
contemporary William Butler, fellow of Clare hall: 
"Item, to Mr. William Butler of Cambridge, physi- 



156 THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

cian, to make him a ringe in token of my especial 
love to him 3. 6s. 8d." 

By his will, which is dated only three days be- 
fore his death, he gave to his executors and others 
certain lands, part of the site of the dissolved house 
of Augustinian friars, in order to erect and build 
thereon a grammar free-school, with one lodging 
chamber for the master and another for the usher, 
and he willed his executors to use their best means 
for obtaining two hundred marks theretofore given 
by Mr. Thomas Cropley and Mr. Bridon, (o) to such 
an use and action when it should go forward. He 
also empowered his executors with the approbation 
of the justices of assize, to make ordinances for the 
school, and directed that the schoolmaster and usher 
should be graduates of the university of Cambridge, 
the schoolmaster M.A. and the usher B.A. at least. 
On every avoidance of those places, he willed any 
that had been educated in the same school, if found 
fit, should have preferment thereto before others. 
He farther willed, that five-score scholars born in 
Cambridge, Barnwell, Chesterton, or Trumpington, 
and no more nor any other should be in the said 

(a) William Bridon, M.A. of Clare hall (who dwelt on the Market hill 
in the parish of S. Mary the great) in or after 1589 gave by will 100 
marks towards founding a grammar school in Cambridge, or for some 
other work for the encouragement of learning. 

Thomas Cropley, M.A., of Clare hall, by will dated 24th of November, 
1607, and proved before Dr. Thomas Jegon, vice-chancellor 17th of 
July, 1609, bequeathed 100 marks for the founding of a free grammar 
school in Cambridge, or for some other charitable work of perpetuity 
and especially for the maintenance of learning. This sum to be joined 
to the bequest of Mr. William Bridon to the like purpose. 

It is unknown whether Dr. Perse's executors succeeded in obtaining 
these bequests. 



THE PERSE GRAMMAE SCHOOL. 157 

free school taught and instructed, and those freely. 
The schoolmaster was to be paid 40 and the 
usher 20 per annum. In all elections to the six 
scholarships founded by him at Caius college, 
he willed that such as had been instructed and 
taught in his free -school for three years at least being 
fit scholars, should be elected and advanced before 
any other, and that in all elections to the six fellow- 
ships founded by him in the same college, his 
scholars being fit, should be elected and preferred 
before any other. 

The school was erected soon after Dr. Perse' s 
death, and ordinances for its government were made 
by his executors, (a) with the approval of the justices 
of assize, (i) the 10th of February, 1623-4. 

In 1686, George Griffith, M.A., who was for 
thirty-four years master of the school, bequeathed 
100 as a supplement to its revenues. 

An information with a view to the better manage- 
ment of this school and the other foundations of 
Dr. Perse, was filed in the court of chancery in or 
about 1833. Answers having been put in, the cause 
was heard 31st of May, 1837, before lord Langdale, (c) 
master of the rolls, who declared that the school 
was exclusively entitled to the interest of the 100 

(a) Valentine Carey, bishop of Exeter ; Martin Perse ; and Robert 
Spicer, gentlemen. 

(6) Sir James Ley (afterwards earl of Marlborough), and Sir John 
Doddridge. 

(c) His lordship (when Mr. Bickersteth) had himself as one of the four 
seniors of Caius college been a trustee of Dr. Perse's benefactions In or 
about 1830, he voluntarily returned to the college nearly 800 which had 
been paid him out of the Perse fund, but to which he conceived he was not 
justly entitled. 



158 THE PERSE GRAMMAE SCHOOL. 

bequeathed by Mr. Griffith, and to the income of 
an estate in Freeschool lane. His lordship ordered 
a reference to the master as to the property of the 
trust, and directed him to approve of new schemes 
for the general administration of such property and 
the future conduct and management of the school. 

On the 31st of July, 1841, sir Giffin Wilson, the 
master to whom the cause stood referred, made a 
report respecting the property applicable to the pur- 
poses of Dr. Perse's benefactions,^ 1 and approving 
of schemes as to the general administration of the 
property and application of the income, and as to 
the conduct and management of the school. These 
schemes were in due course confirmed by the court 
of chancery. 

The annual payment to the master of the school 
is fixed at 300, and to the usher 150. 

The scholars are to be taught in all instruction 
and learning fit to be learnt in a grammar-school, 

(a) The following is an account of the estates and funded property then 
applicable to Dr. Perse's benefactions, with the gross annual income thereof : 

TOWN OF CAMBRIDGE : School and houses of the master 
and usher; the almshouses and garden adjoining; and four' 
houses in Freeschool lane . . . . 61 

ESSEX : Manor of Prating hall ; Frating hall farm ; 
Paine's farm in Great and Little Bentley ; Dairy farm in 
Frating and Bentley; Crabtree farm in Great and Little 
Bentley and Bromley; Hockley farm in Frating and Elm- 
stead ; Frating woods ; Portion of tithes in Much Bentley ; 
Lamb's farm in Chich Saint Osyth ; messuage and land in 
Alresford, Elmstead, and Frating . . . . 1727 3 

SUFFOLK : Land in Lawshall . . . 35 

NORFOLK : Land in West Dereham . . 90 

STOCK : 23,100 3 per cent, consols . . . 693 

2400 New South sea annuities . . . 72 

2678 3 

The school is entitled to 24 per cent, of the net income. 



THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 159 

and also in writing, reading, arithmetic, and elemen- 
tary mathematics. 

Each free scholar is to pay a fee of 20s. on 
entrance, and for his instruction in reading, writing, 
and arithmetic, 10s. entrance-fee, and also 10s. per 
half-year. 

An assistant usher to teach writing and arithmetic 
is to be appointed, and provision is made for his 
remuneration. 

No more nor any other than the one hundred 
free scholars are to be taught in the school, except 
further sufficient help besides the assistant usher, 
be provided by the master and usher with the assent 
of the supervisors. Paying scholars are to pay 5 
for entrance and 20s. per half-year. 

The free scholars are to be elected quarterly 
by the supervisors, after public advertisement of the 
number of vacancies. 

Scholars are not to be elected under ten nor above 
fourteen years of age, and no scholar is to continue 
in the school longer than the Midsummer vacation 
next after he shall have attained the age of eighteen. 

When there is any scholar's place void, a poor 
man's child is to be preferred to it before a rich, 
so that he make suit for it in time. 

An examination as to the proficiency of the 
scholars in classical and mathematical learning, i* 
to take place at Midsummer yearly by two persons 
being M.A. at least appointed by the supervisors, 
and not being the master or usher, and provision 
is made for prizes in books and for payment of the 
examiners. 



160 THE PERSE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

The places of schoolmaster and usher are not 
tenable with a fellowship or any ecclesiastical living, 
except for six months in the former case and twelve 
in the latter. 

The supervisors of the trust and the patrons of 
the school are the master and four senior fellows 
of Caius college. 

In pursuance of directions contained in one of 
the foregoing schemes, the school with the houses 
of the master and usher were soon afterwards rebuilt 
from the designs of John Smith, esq., architect. 
The fine open timber roof of the old school was 
replaced on the new. 

On the west wall of the school is a framed 
board, whereon is inscribed as follows: 

Jeremy Taylor . Fellow of Gonville and Caius college . 1633. 
Bishop of Down Connor and of Dromore, 1660-1. 



Charles Clayton, Browne Medallist 1833-34. 

Fellow of Gonville and Caius college . 1836. 

William Brown, Fellow of S. John's college . . . 1843. 

WilliamW.Hutt,Fellow of Gonville and Caius college. . 1845. 

John Wisken, Fellow of Gonville and Caius college . 1848. 

Peter H. Mason, Tyrwhitt's Hebrew scholar . . . 1851. 

Fellow of S. John's college .... 1854. 

Joseph Prior, Fellow of Trinity college .... 1860. 

STEPHANVS PERSE, FVNDATOE, ANNO DOMINI MDCXV, QVI 
FACIT PER ALIVM FACIT PERSE. 

The school nourished greatly in the seventeenth 
century, during the masterships of Thomas Lover- 
ing and George Griffith, and it is probable that 
the admission books of the colleges would furnish 
many additional names to the foregoing list. 



THE OLD CHARITY SCHOOLS. 

ABOUT the middle of 1703 a voluntary sub- 
scription was opened under the patronage of Dr. 
Symon Patrick, bishop of Ely, and with the 
encouragement of Dr. Richard Bentley, archdeacon 
of Ely, and several of the heads of colleges, for 
the establishment of charity schools in the town of 
Cambridge. 

From an entry then made in the books of the 
charity, the design appears to have been to train 
up poor children in the knowledge and practice of 
the Christian religion, as professed and taught in 
the church of England, and to teach them such other 
things as might be most suitable to their condition ; 
in order to which, schoolmasters and mistresses were 
to be appointed and directed by the ministers and 
lecturers in the town and liberty of Cambridge, with 
the licence and approbation of the bishop, to teach 
all the children to say the church catechism, and 
such collects or prayers in the church liturgy, to- 
gether with short graces, as the ministers and 
lecturers should judge proper to be used by them 
in the schools and at home. They were to take 
care that all the children should be brought to church 
twice every Lord's day, at the beginning of divine 
service. The boys were to be taught to read, write, 
and cast accounts ; the girls to read, write, and work. 

VOL. III. M 



162 THE OLD CHARITY SCHOOLS. 

The ministers and lecturers were to meet every 
quarter, to take care of the good government of the 
schools, and some of them every month, to examine 
into the improvement of the children in the several 
particulars above mentioned, and to hear them say, 
and instruct them in, the church catechism, in some 
parish church. They were also to take care that 
a fair account should be kept of all receipts and dis- 
bursements, ready for the view of all the contributors, 
or others who might have reason to desire to know how 
the charity was disposed of. 

The rev. William Whiston, M.A., Lucasian pro- 
fessor, and catechetical lecturer at S. Clement's, 
was one of the chief promoters of the establishment 
of these schools. He preached at Trinity church 
on the 25th of January, 1704-5, from 2 Tim. iii. 15, 
when the several teachers of the schools appeared 
with the poor children under their care in number 
about three hundred. This sermon was printed 
under the title of Charity schools recommended, 
being republished amongst his Sermons and Essays 
upon several subjects 1709, when he appended 
A Particular Account of the Charity Schools in Cam- 
bridge. He acted as treasurer of the schools from 
their establishment till 1710, when he was expelled 
the university for heretical opinions. The rev. 
Godfrey Washington, M.A., fellow of Peterhouse, and 
minister of S. Mary the less, then took the principal 
care of the schools till his death in 1729. (ft) 

(a) See Memoirs of the Life of Mr. William Whiston, 2nd edit. 116, 
125, 316 ; Whiston's Hist. Pref. to Primitive Christianity reviv'd, 109, App. 5 ; 
Whiston's Sermons and Essays, 99-144. 



THE OLD CHARITY SCHOOLS. 163 

The following is a list of the principal donations 
to these schools : 

Sir Isaac Newton (1709) 10; William Worts, esq., M.A. 
of Catharine hall (1712) 30 per annum ; Charles Otway, LL.D., 
fellow of S. John's college (1720) 300; John Covel, some- 
time cook of Christ's college (1722-24) 150 ; Mrs. Ann Kobson, 
of Great S. Andrew's (1733) 50 ; John Newcome, D.D., master 
of S. John's college (1765) 50; John Porter, butler of 
Trinity college (1773) 100; Mrs. Elizabeth Hide (1777) 150; 
rev. Thomas Spencer, M.A., fellow of Trinity College (1782-1790) 
100; Lynford Caryl, D.D., master of Jesus college 100; 
Mr. Robert Franks (1783) 50; Leonard Chappelow, B.D., 
professor of arabic (1784) 50 ; Mr. Cheetham(1787) 100 ; Mrs. 
Toms (1789) 50; Mrs. Barker (1792) 100; a clergyman 
(1792) 50 17s. Qd. : a friend by the rev. Charles Simeon, M.A. 
of King's college (1794) 215; Thomas Lombe, esq. (1801) 
200; Joseph Merrill, bookseller (1805) 200; rev. Robert 
Tyrwhitt, M.A. of Jesus college (1809) 50; rev. William 
Farish, M.A., Jacksonian professor (1836) 100; a friend by 
rev. H. H. Swinny, M.A. of Magdalen college (1842) 50 ; Charles 
Perry, bishop of Melbourne (1847) site of the schools in Russell 
street. 

The several schools now under the management 
of the governors or to which they have the privilege 
of sending scholars, and the average number of 
children under instruction are as follows : 

BARNWELL (established 1835). 
Boys . . . . .202 

Girls .... 89 

Infants < < .140 

431 

KING STREET. 

Boys (established 1856) , t 88 

Girls (established 1816) . , 80 

Infants (established 1826) . .91 



164 THE OLD CHARITY SCHOOLS. 

S. PAUL'S. 

Boys (established 1845) . . 254 

Girls (established 1845) . 172 

Infants (established 1828) . . 160 

586 

CASTLE END. 

WBoys (established 1808) . .164 

WGirls (established 1847) . 100 

Infants (established 1826) . . 123 

387 



1663 

From Mr. Worts' s annuity and land at Fulbourn, 
purchased with part of Mr. Covel's benefaction, 
42. 10s. per annum is obtained. The annual 
subscriptions for the year ending Michaelmas, 1861, 
were 230. 95. Qd. In the same period 189. 11s. 6d. 
was collected after sermons preached for the charity, 
and 384 and upwards was received in pence paid 
by the children. The ordinary expenditure during 
the year was 889. 3s. llfrf. 

The incumbents and curates of the several 
parishes are ex-officio governors of these most excel- 
lent and beneficial schools. 

(a) This school is not under the management of the governors, but they 
pay 15 per annum towards the expences and have the privilege of sending 
children to it. 

(6) Carried on from its establishment till 1861 at the sole charge of the 
rev. W. F. Witts, M.A., fellow of King's college and curate of S. Giles. 



BRITISH SCHOOLS. 

THESE schools situate in Fitzroy street, are under 
the controul of the British School society, established 
4th August, 1840. 

Mr. Samuel Salmon (1848) bequeathed 300, and 
William Adams, esq. (1849) 100 to the school. 

The average number of scholars for the year 
ending Michaelmas, 1861, was as follows : 

Boys . . . . .97 

Girls . . . . . 118 

Infants . . . . . 154 

369 

The income principally arises from the children's 
pence and an allowance from government. The sub- 
scriptions during the last year were less than 70. 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

THIS school in Victoria road Chesterton, was 
established at a public meeting, held at the Guild- 
hall, 6th December, 1847. 

By deed dated 4th June, 1849, the site of the 
school was conveyed to Thomas lord bishop of Ely, 
and his successors upon trust to permit the premises 
and all buildings thereon to be used as a school 
for children and adults, or children only of the 



166 ALMSHOUSES. 

labouring manufacturing and other poorer classes in 
the borough of Cambridge, such school to be always 
conducted upon the principles of the established 
church, and to be open to government inspection. 

The site, buildings and fittings of the school cost 
about 850. 

The school is supported by donations and sub- 
scriptions aided by a grant from government. 

Christopher Pemberton, esq., in 1850 bequeathed 
,100 to the school. 



ALMSHOUSES. 

HOSPITAL OF S. ANTHONY AND S. ELIGIUS. This 
hospital, originally designed for lepers, was founded 
in the parish of S. Benedict by Henry de Tangmer, 
burgess of Cambridge, who died about 1361. 

By an indenture dated 28 January, 17 Henry 
VIII. [1525-6], the mayor bailiffs and burgesses 
demised to Robert Brunne and Margaret his wife, 
the leper's house, commonly called the Spetyl house, 
with the appurtenances situate and lying at the 
soiith end of the town, together with a garden to the 
same adjacent, with all appurtenances, to hold to them 
for their lives and the life of the survivor, to receive 
leprous men and women into the same, and to 
collect the alms of Christians, with other profits 
and emoluments to the use behoof and sustenta- 
tion of the house aforesaid, and the leprous men 
and women being in the same, and to appoint under 
them a collector or collectors of alms and other profits. 



ALMSHOUSES. 167 

The mayor and aldermen had the government 
and patronage till 1836, when they were transferred 
to the municipal charity trustees. 

Six widows are now maintained therein. 

The endowment consists of an annual allowance 
from the Borough fund, lands at Fulbourn, a small 
annual rent payable out of lands in the parish of 
S. Benedict, and money in the public funds. 

Eichard Chevin, burgess and baker, by will in 
1559 gave the profits of lands in Chesterton held 
for the residue of a term of ninety-nine years. 

Catharine Smith, widow of William Smith, D.D., 
provost of King's college, in 1621 gave 50 to the 
corporation, who in consideration thereof, covenanted 
to pay 4 per annum to the poor lame diseased 
and impotent people resident in these almshouses. 

Thomas Day in 1681, gave on S. Thomas's day 
in every other year, twelve grey or russet warm cloth 
coats for the twelve poor men or women that in- 
habited the Spital house. 

Gilbert Ives, who died in 1825, gave 200 for 
certain purposes which terminated in 1851, when 
the remaining portion of the fund was transferred 
to the trustees of this hospital. 

Mrs. Anne Turner, in 1844 bequeathed 400 
for augmenting the allowance of the inmates. 

William Mortlock, esq., sometime alderman, in and 
before 1848, collected 308. 9s. Qd. for the further 
endowment of this hospital. 

Mr. Samuel Salmon in 1848 bequeathed 400, 
William Adams, esq., in 1849 200, and Miss 
Harriet Simpson in 1860 100 in augmentation of 



168 ALMSHOUSES. 

the endowment which was also increased in 1861 by 
the sum of 94. 10$. realised by the sale of Stokys's 
almshouses. (o) 

In 1852 the old hospital was taken down and the 
site, for which the improvement commissioners paid 
300, thrown into Trumpington street. 

A new hospital in Henrietta street, S. Andrew 
the less, having been erected from the designs of 
R. R. Rowe, esq., architect, the inmates removed 
thereto on Michaelmas day 1852. 

The cost of the new hospital was 1075. 9s. 2d., 
of which sum the corporation paid 481. 135. 2J. 
The residue was defrayed by the sums received for 
the site of the old hospital and the old materials. 
The sum of 305. 19s. was also raised by subscrip- 
tion. Of this sum 266 was applied to the cost of 
the building and the balance in augmentation of the 
endowment. 

At the east end of the present hospital are tablets 
thus inscribed : 

The Hospital of Saint Anthony and Saint Eligius, founded 
in the Parish of Saint Benedict, in or about 1361, by Henry de 
Tangmer, Burgess of this Town. 

Here re-erected at the charge of the Town, aided by 
Voluntary Contributions, in the Mayoralties of William Warren, 
and Elliot Smith, Esquires, 1851 and 1852. 

(a) These almshouses were erected by Matthew Stokys, M.A., registrary, 
and one of the esquire bedels of the university, about 1585, in Wall's lane, 
now called King street, in the parish of the Holy Trinity, and endowed 
by bis will, dated 17 November, 1590, with leasehold estates. The leases 
having long since expired, the charity commissioners directed the alms- 
houses to be sold, and the proceeds applied as an augmentation of the 
endowment of the hospital of SS. Anthony and Eligius. 



ALMSHOUSES. 169 



There are also in front statues of S. Anthony and 
S. Eligius, (given by Mr. Howe the architect and 
Messrs. Bell the builders) the arms of the town and 
of De Tangmer, and the emblems of the patron saints, 
(a bell and tau cross for S. Anthony, and a hammer 
and horse-shoe for S. Eligius). 

By a deed dated Tth August, 1851, the corporation 
covenanted to keep the new hospital in repair. 

In addition to the money payments the inmates 
receive certain small allowances of bread weekly from 
S. Peter's, Clare, Pembroke, Corpus Christi, King's, 
Queens', S. Catharine's and Trinity colleges. 

JACKENETT'S ALMSHOUSES. At Easter, 1469, the 
mayor bailiffs and burgesses conveyed to Thomas 
Jackenett and Thomas Eben and their heirs, a parcel 
of ground next the churchyard of S. Mary the great, 
for building almshouses thereon, subject to the yearly 
rent of I2ot. Jackenett shortly afterwards erected 
four almshouses for the poor of both sexes on this 
ground and upon part of the churchyard, (for which 
he had the licence of the bishop of Ely and the 
master and fellows of King's hall). He likewise 
built a high chamber over the almshouses which 
he directed should be let for a yearly rent to be 
applied to repairs, the payment of the rent to the 
corporation, and for an anniversary in the church 
of S. Mary the great, for the souls of himself, 
Agnes his wife, and of all faithful Christians de- 
ceased. 

These almshouses were taken down in 1789, and 
others erected in King street, then called Wall's 
lane. 



170 ALMSHOUSES. 

The following augmentations of this charity have 
been made: Nicholas Scott (1677), 50; William 
Morden (1678), 20; Thomas King (1684), 50; 
Joseph Merrill (1805), 48 per annum. 

The almshouses, which consist of eight separate 
rooms in one building, are inhabited by poor and 
infirm widows and single women, elected by the 
inhabitants of S. Mary the great. 

KING'S COLLEGE ALMSHOUSES. Margaret, wife of 
Roger Fawkener, in or about 1472, founded four 
almshouses for four poor women, opposite the church 
of S. Mary the great, on the site now occupied by 
the senate house. 

In 1504 these houses were taken down and the 
materials removed to King's college. The provost 
and fellows of that society rebuilt them immediately 
afterwards, and again about 1828. 

The present almshouses are in Queens' lane, near 
King's college, and therein reside four poor persons, 
who receive daily from the college the remains of 
the commons, and during the long vacation a joint 
of meat in turn. They have also an allowance of 
coals at Christmas, a small quarterly stipend, and 
part of the sacrament money. 

QUEENS' COLLEGE ALMSHOUSES. Andrew Doket, 
D.D., president of Queens' college, and rector of 
S. Botolph's, by will in 1484, left three small tene- 
ments in the parish of S. Botolph, for three poor 
women, to be nominated by the college. 

These almshouses, in which eight poor women 
are now maintained, were rebuilt in Queens' lane, 
northward of the college, in 1836. 



ALMSHOUSES. 171 

The following have been benefactors to these 
almshouses : Robert Mapletoft, D.D., dean of Ely, 
and master of Pembroke hall (1676); Henry James, 
D.D., president of Queens' college (1701); Ferdinando 
Smythies, B.D., fellow of Queens' college (1725); 
Isaac Milner, D.D., president of Queens' college 
(1820). 

CAIUS COLLEGE ALMSHOUSES. Reginald Elie, of 
Cambridge, freemason, in or before 1536, gave to 
Gonville hall, by his executor William Buckenham, 
master of that society, a house in Michael lane, 
divided into three habitations, for three poor people 
to dwell in, to be put therein by the master of the 
college. He also gave lands in the fields of Barton, 
Grantchester, Comberton, and Chesterton, then worth 
20s. per annum, for the repair of the house. 

Three small ancient houses, on the northern side 
of Caius college, are still occupied as almshouses, 
the inmates being placed therein by the master of 
Caius college. 

Under the will of Stephen Perse, M.D., and the 
orders of the court of chancery relating to his bene- 
factions, each of the almspeople receives 4 a-year. 

THE PERSE ALMSHOUSES. Stephen Perse, M.D., 
by his will dated 27 September, 1615, gave directions 
for building near his free school, six several low 
tenements of one room a-piece, for habitation of six 
several almsfolk, being poor aged unmarried people, 
of the age of forty years at the least, out of the 
parishes of S. Edward and S. Michael, and in de- 
fault of a competent number there, of the parish of 
S. Benedict. 



172 ALMSHOUSES. 

The appointment of the alrnspeople is vested in 
the master and four senior fellows of Caius college. 

Under the orders of the court of chancery re- 
specting Dr. Perse' s benefactions each of the alms- 
people is entitled to 26 per annum. 

The almshouses were rebuilt on the old site in 
1862. 

WEAY'S ALMSHOUSES. Henry Wray, of Cambridge, 
stationer, by will dated 11 June, 1628, gave certain 
estates in Cambridge to his two grandchildren, with 
a proviso that in the event of their dying unmarried 
under twenty-one or without issue of their bodies, 
certain leasehold houses in Wall's lane in Trinity 
parish, should remain and be for an hospital to help 
to maintain poor widowers and widows, of equal 
number and equal portions, that his freeholds and 
copyholds should be for the maintenance of the 
hospital, that a leasehold estate held of Bene't 
college should be sold, and that with the produce 
and other his personal estate lands should be bought 
for the maintenance of the hospital. 

His grandchildren died at about four years of 
age, and in 1631 commissioners of charitable uses 
made a decree establishing the hospital, and di- 
recting that there should be maintained therein four 
poor widowers and four poor widows inhabitants 
of Trinity parish, to be elected by the vicar, church- 
wardens, overseers, and six other of the more sub- 
stantial parishioners. 

These almshouses, which are situate in King 
street, were re-erected a few years since. They are 
endowed with houses in the parish of All Saints', 



ALMSHOUSES. 173 

a house orchard and fen land in Fenditton, and an 
annuity of 14 paid by the university as compen- 
sation for a leasehold house in Great S. Mary's, taken 
for the site of the senate house. 

KNIGHT'S AND MORTLOCK'S ALMSHOUSES : Elizabeth 
Knight, of Denny Abbey, spinster, by will dated 
18th May, 1647, directed her executor immediately 
after her decease to lay out 440 in building an 
almshouse with six firings for six poor people, in 
such convenient place as he should think fit, and 
also for the purchasing of lands to pay 3 a year 
a piece to six poor people to be maintained therein, 
and for the reparations thereof. She also directed 
that there should be always placed therein two poor 
widows and four poor godly ancient maidens, 
whereof one of the said maids to be of Bene't 
parish, if there should be any capable and willing 
to accept it, and that after the decease of her 
brothers and sisters and her executor, the mayor 
and greater number of aldermen of the town of 
Cambridge should have the placing in of the said 
poor people for ever. 

By indenture dated 18th April, 1648, between 
the mayor bailiffs and burgesses of the one part, 
and Thomas French, alderman, of the other part, 
reciting the will of Elizabeth Knight, and reciting 
that the said Thomas French (her executor) had 
made his election to build the almshouses in the 
town of Cambridge, the mayor bailiffs and bur- 
gesses demised to the said Thomas French, his 
executors administrators and assigns, all that piece 
of waste ground lying in a triangle at a place called 



174 ALMSHOUSES. 

Jesus lane end in Cambridge, between the highway 
leading from Jesus lane towards Barnwell on the 
one part, and the way leading from Wall's lane 
towards Barnwell on the other part, and the then 
lately erected breast work on the third part, for 
the term of ninety-nine years from the day of date, 
at the annual rent of sixpence payable at Michael- 
mas if demanded. 

On 29th September, 1657, the mayor bailiffs and 
burgesses in consideration of a fine of 5 demised to 
the said Thomas French, his executors, &c., three 
roods of waste land at the end of Wall's lane where 
an old pound had formerly stood, for eighty years 
at a peppercorn rent, with a proviso that after his 
death the profits should be and enure towards the 
repairing and upholding Mrs. Knight's almshouses 
on the other side of the way. 

On 29th September, 1686, the mayor bailiffs 
and burgesses in consideration of the surrender of 
the last mentioned lease, and of the payment of Is., 
demised the premises to Andrew Craske, baker, his 
executors, &c., for eighty years at the annual rent 
of 205., such rent during the first fifty-one years of 
the term to be applied in upholding and repairing 
Mrs. Knight's almshouses where most need should be 
adjudged and thought fit by the mayor and three 
of the antientest aldermen. 

The ground comprised in the first of the above 
leases is the site of the almshouses and the houses 
adjoining, the fee simple of which and of the other 
estates of this charity is now vested in trustees 
appointed in pursuance of the provisions of the 



ALMSHOUSES. 175 

Municipal Corporations Act, who elect the inmates 
of the almshouses. 

The estate purchased with the legacy of the 
foundress consisted of about sixty acres of land in 
the open fields of Swaffham Prior in lieu of which, 
on the enclosure of that parish, was allotted 
29A. IE. 26p. tithe free. 

William Staine, M.D., by will dated 2nd February, 
1679-80, gave 50 to the hospital of Elizabeth 
Knight, his sister [in-law], in such manner as 
Dorothy his wife, and his sister [in-law], Mary 
Robson, should devise. Mrs. Staine, by her will 
dated 16th May, 1688, directed the yearly sum 
of 3 to be paid to the poor inhabiting the alms- 
houses founded by her sister Elizabeth Knight* 
This sum was charged on certain lands, but (by 
some process which is not very obvious) the charity 
has in lieu of this rent charge eight acres of fen 
land in the parish of Bottisham. 

William Mortlock, esq., sometime alderman, and 
for many years the vigilant and indefatigable trea- 
surer of this charity, in 1818 gave 500 for rebuilding 
the almshouses. In 1826 he gave a further sum of 
200 for repairs and subsequently other sums for 
the same purpose. He is therefore justly considered 
as a second founder. 

STORY'S ALMSHOUSES: Edward Story, sometime 
a bookseller in Cambridge, who was buried at Great 
S. Mary's, 5th of February, 1692-3, by will dated 
29th of January preceding, gave and bequeathed 
his real and personal estate to his son Edward Story 
(afterwards M.B, and fellow of Magdalen college) 



176 ALMSHOUSES. 

and the heirs of his body, with remainder, if he 
should die without issue, to trustees to erect ten 
almshouses in the town of Cambridge for four 
widows of ministers of the church of England, two 
widows and one maiden of the parish of S. Giles, 
and three widows of the parish of the Holy Trinity, 
every widow and maiden to be forty years of age 
at the least, and to have yearly 10, a gown of sad 
coloured cloth about the value of 20s. at Christmas, 
and two pair of shoes and a pair of stockings at 
Christmas and Midsummer. 

Edward Story, the son, died without issue in or 
about 1710, and the almshouses were erected in the 
parish of S. Giles' about 1729. Those of the clergy- 
men's widows were in Northampton street, and the 
others in a place adjoining called the Tan yard. 

By order of the court of chancery the allowances 
to the almswomen are much augmented, and the 
number has been increased as follows : clergymen's 
widows, six ; maidens of Trinity parish, four ; widows 
of S. Giles', three ; and maidens of that parish, two. 

New almshouses have been erected near Mount 
Pleasant, in the parish of S. Giles, from designs by 
James Walter, esq., architect. They were first 
occupied at Michaelmas, 1844. 

The almshouses are endowed with estates in the 
parishes of S. Giles', S. Mary the great, the Holy 
Trinity, Chesterton, and Impington. 

The following donations and bequests have been 
made for augmentation of the income of this charity : 
Peter Stephen Goddard, D.D., master of Clare hall 
(1781), 426. 2s. 9rf. for the clergymen's widows; 



ALMSHOUSES. 177 

rev. William Cole, M.A., of Milton (1782), 193. 12s. ; 
rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., fellow of Jesus college, 
and Thomas Lombe, esq., 300 stock for the alms- 
women of S. Giles and Holy Trinity ; an anonymous 
benefactor (before 1819) 100 for the clergymen's 
widows; William Lunn (about 1828) 100 for the 
clergymen's widows. 

THE VICTORIA ASYLUM. In 1837 a society was 
established for the erection of almshouses for decayed 
members of benefit societies. 

The following donations and bequests have been 
made to this society: Ebenezer Foster, esq., (1837- 
1843) 80. 5s.-, Mr. George Fellowes (1843) 100; 
Mrs. Anne Turner (1844) 100 ; Mrs. Barker (1847) 
100; Mr. Samuel Salmon (1848) 300; William 
Adams, esq. (1849) 456 ; Christopher Pemberton, 
esq. (1850) 100 ; Miss Jane Page (1852) 50 ; Mr. 
Atkins of Chesterton (1854) 600; Joseph Stanley, 
esq. (1856) 50; Mr. J. Watson (1859) 50; Miss 
Harriet Simpson (1860) 100. 

200 was also raised for the building fund from 
a horticultural fete in Trinity college cloisters in 
September, 1839. 

The society has a considerable sum invested in 
the funds, on mortgage, and in the savings bank, and 
the subscriptions amount to about 120 per annum. 

The asylum, in which reside twelve inmates, 
elected by the subscribers, is situate in Victoria 
road, Chesterton, and was erected from the designs 
of Mr. George Brad well, architect. 

On 16 March, 1841, the earl of Hardwicke, lord 
lieutenant of the county, R. G. Townley, esq., M.P., 
VOL. in. N 



178 ALMSHOUSES. 

sir Alexander C. Grant, M.P., the committee and 
trustees of the society, the mayor and council in 
their formalities, the members of the lodges of Free- 
masons, Ancient Druids, and Odd Fellows, in ap- 
propriate costume, members of numerous friendly 
societies, the society of Social Brothers, the order of 
Rechabites, and the Cambridge Temperance Society 
went in procession, with bands of music and banners 
from the Guildhall to Great S. Mary's church, where 
divine service was performed, the sermon being 
preached by John Graham, D.D., vice-chancellor (now 
bishop of Chester) from Psalm civ. 23. On leaving 
the church the procession was again formed, and 
proceeded to the site of the building, where the 
first stone was deposited by the earl of Hardwicke, 
with the usual masonic ceremonies, after which 
the procession returned in the same order to the 
Guildhall. One hundred and thirty of the sup- 
porters of the society afterwards dined at the 
Red Lion hotel, the earl of Hardwicke in the 
chair. 

THE ROYAL ALBERT ASYLUM. On 27th January, 
1846, a society called the Royal Albert Society was 
established, having for its object the providing an 
asylum for its decayed members. 

In 1852 Miss Jane Page bequeathed 100 and in 
1860 Mrs. Martha Elizabeth Frohock, of Melbourn 
place, bequeathed her library, consisting of about 
three hundred volumes, to the society, and Miss 
Harriet Simpson 50. Charles Finch Foster, esq., 
alderman, has given above 100 and Miss Cotton 
of Rhadegund buildings above 130. 



ALMSHOUSES. 179 

A considerable sum has been recently raised for 
augmenting the endowment, by a subscription in 
honour of the memory of his late royal highness 
the prince consort. 

The asylum, which is to accommodate twelve 
inmates, elected by the subscribers, is situate on 
Hills' road. It is a handsome structure in brick of 
various colours, Messrs. Peck and Stephens being 
the architects. 

The first stone was laid by Charles Balls, esq., 
mayor, 28 June, 1859. 

On that day the Mayor and Council with the 
trustees committee and members of the society, 
members of the lodges of -Odd Fellows, of the 
order of Ancient Shepherds, and of the Cambridge 
Amateur Musical society, assembled at the Guild- 
hall and thence proceeded to Great S. Mary's 
church. The service and Coronation anthem were 
performed by the college choirs, assisted by the 
members of the Cambridge Amateur Musical society. 
An excellent sermon having been preached by 
Harvey Goodwin, D.D., dean of Ely, from Acts x. 38, 
a collection amounting to 42. 17s. was made for 
the benefit of the charity. 

From the church a procession was formed to the 
site of the asylum. A band of music was in at- 
tendance and every part of the route was densely 
thronged with spectators. 

A hymn written for the occasion was sung before 
the stone was lowered and after that ceremony 
(during which the band played God save the Queen) 
the dean of Ely offered up a prayer for the success 

N2 



180 ALMSHOUSES. 

of the undertaking. Handel's Hallelujah chorus was 
then performed by the band and orchestra, and the 
procession having been again formed returned to the 
Guildhall, where in the evening about one hundred 
gentlemen, under the presidency of the Mayor, 
partook of a repast, after which a further sum of 
48. 7s. 6d. was collected for the charity. 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 

SIR THOMAS WHITE'S CHARITY. Sir Thomas White, 
alderman of London, the munificent founder of S. 
John's college in Oxford, by deed dated 1st July, 
1566, gave to this town 104 every twenty-fourth 
year, whereof 100 to be lent to four poor young 
men of honest name and fame, occupiers and in- 
habitants, freemen and clothiers to be preferred before 
all others, every such young man having 25 without 
interest for ten years, so as he dwell within the town 
or the suburbs thereof for such period, and finding 
sufficient sureties or pawn for the repayment. At 
the end of the ten years the money to be lent to four 
other poor young men in like manner. None to 
receive the money more than once. 

The last payment to this town was in 1859. 

This charity is under the management of the 
municipal charity trustees. 

CONDUIT CHARITIES. In 1574 Andrew Perne, D.D., 
dean of Ely and master of Peterhouse, suggested that 
the town of Cambridge might derive a good supply 
of water from the Nine Wells, in the parish of 
Great Shelford. The design was revived by James 
Montagu, D.D., the first master of Sidney college, 
afterwards bishop of Winchester, and at length in 
1610 was carried into effect at the joint charge of 
the university and town, according to a plan of 



182 MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 

Edward Wright, M.A., of Gonville and Gains college, 
one of the best mathematicians of the age. 

The water was conveyed from the Nine Wells, 
partly through the common grounds of Trumpington, 
and partly through the fields of Cambridge to Trum- 
pington ford, and thence to the town by a newly 
formed channel. 

By an indenture, dated 26th October, 1610, Thomas 
Chaplyn, esq., lord of the manor of Trumpington 
Delapole, conveyed to the chancellor masters and 
scholars, and mayor bailiffs and burgesses, such 
part of the soil of the new channel as was situate 
in Trumpington, together with six feet of the soil 
on every side, the university paying 1 annually, 
which was to be employed in scouring, cleansing, 
and bettering a certain portion of the channel. 

In 1614 the university and town erected a con- 
duit on the Market hill. It was commonly called 
Hobson' s conduit from an erroneous supposition that 
it had been erected at the cost of Thomas Hobson, 
the celebrated carrier. 

Stephen Perse, M.D., by will, in 1615, gave 8 
annually for the maintenance of the banks of the 
new river that supplied the conduit on Market 
hill. This sum has since been increased to 16 per 
annum. 

Thomas Hobson, by will in 1630, gave lands in 
Swinecroft, towards the maintenance of the conduit, 
he also gave 10 for heightening it. 

Edward Potto, alderman, by will in 1632 gave 
two messuages in S. Edward's for repairing the 
conduit and the pipes belonging to the same. 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 183 

The land in Swinecroft was sold for the site of 
Downing college, and the money laid out in purchas- 
ing land in Over. 

Joseph Merrill in 1805 bequeathed 400 for 
maintaining the conduit and pipes, and 300 for 
fencing, railing, or keeping in repair the watercourse. 

On the enclosure of Great Shelford, 200 was 
paid by the university and town for the purchase 
of land immediately adjoining the Nine Wells. 

In 1855 the old conduit was taken down and a 
new one erected at the charge of the corporation, 
from the designs of Gordon M. Hills, esq., architect. 
The old conduit was soon afterwards re-erected at 
the northern end of the conduit stream near Trum- 
pington street. 

In 1861 an obelisk with a suitable inscription 
was erected at the Nine Wells, by a subscription 
raised by Charles Finch, esq., the treasurer of the 
charities. 

CRANE'S CHARITIES. John Crane, M.A., (a) by will 
dated 26th June, 1651, and a codicil thereto dated 
20th September in the same year, directed his 

(a) Mr. Crane, who was a native of Wisbech, was an eminent apothecary. 
William Butler, M.A. of Clare hall, the Esculapius of his age, lived in his 
house, and left him a great part of his estate. Edward Hyde (afterwards 
earl of Clarendon) when about twenty years old was taken ill at Cambridge 
and was attended by Mr. Crane. He calls him " an eminent apothecary 
who had been bred up under Dr. Butler, and was in much greater practice 
than any physician in the university." Mr. Crane, who was lord of the manors 
of Kingston wood and Kingston S. George in Cambridgeshire, was sheriff 
of that county, 16 Car. I. He died 26th May, 1652, set. 81, and was buried 
in Great S. Mary's, in the chancel whereof is his monument. In addition to 
the charities above mentioned he bequeathed 100 to the university to be 
lent gratis to an honest man, the better to enable him to buy good fish and 
fowl for the university, having observed much sickness occasioned by 
unwholesome food in that kind. 



184 MISCELLANEOUS CHAEITIES. 

executors to purchase lands for charitable purposes, 
in favour of the university of Cambridge, and the 
corporate towns of Wisbech, Cambridge, King's 
Lynn, and Ipswich, each body to receive a year's 
rent in rotation. 

As respects the university, he directed the rent to 
be given by the vice-chancellor, the Regius professors 
of divinity, law and physic, the chief apothecary of 
the town, and the master of Caius college, to poor 
sick scholars. 

Of the rent payable to the town of Cambridge 
200 was to form a stock for loans of 20 each to 
poor young men freely for twenty years, and after 
this stock was raised, the rents were to be applied 
for relief of poor prisoners for debt or of poor 
women or men being in want. 

Mr. Crane's benefaction to the town is now under 
the management of the following distributors : the 
vice-chancellor, the Regius professors of divinity, 
law and physic, the chief apothecary of the town, 
the mayor and four members of the town council 
elected annually. The treasurer of the borough 
receives one fifth part of each year's rent of the 
charity estates, which are situate at Fleet and 
Holbeach in the county of Lincoln. 

The vice-chancellor of the university also re- 
ceives one fifth part of each year's rent. 

Under a scheme for regulating Mr. Crane's 
charities which was sanctioned by the Court of 
Chancery, 25 November, 1859, his benefaction to 
this town is to be applied for the benefit of such 
hospital or hospitals, or other institution or institu- 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 185 

tions of a charitable nature within the borough, 
or some parish contiguous thereto, as the distri- 
butors at a meeting held by them in the month 
of January in each year shall think proper to 
nominate. 

A sermon is preached at Great S. Mary's before 
the Mayor and Council on the second Tuesday in 
October in every fourth year in commemoration of 
Mr. Crane's charities. The last of these sermons 
was preached in 1861 by the rev. John George 
Howes, M.A., incumbent of S. Mary the less and 
chaplain to the mayor. 

FORRESTER'S CHARITY. Susannah Forrester, of 
S. Margaret, Westminster, widow, by deed dated 
17 September, 1726, conveyed to trustees an estate 
in the parish of All Saints, upon trust, after pro- 
viding for repairs, &c., an annual sermon at All 
Saints' church, and for an annual dinner for the 
officers and servants of that church and the trustees, 
to pay the residue of the rents and profits equally 
amongst five poor ancient widowers and five poor 
ancient widows of the parish of All Saints, and of 
sober life and conversation, for their lives if they 
should so long continue to inhabit that parish. 

MRS. GOODALL'S CHARITIES. Mrs. Elizabeth Good- 
all, by will dated 7th June, 1809, left an estate which 
was sold for 527. 5s. 3d. the proceeds to be lent to set 
up or assist sober, honest, and industrious tradesmen 
in business in the town of Cambridge, no person to 
have more than 100. 

She also bequeathed 425 consols, the dividends 
to be applied in placing out children apprentices, 



186 MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 

belonging to the parishes of S. Mary the great, the 
Holy Trinity or S. Edward, such children or their 
parents not being relieved by the parish. 

CAMBRIDGE EEFUGE. This institution designed for 
the reformation of fallen women was established in 
1838, and is situate southward of Christ church which 
it immediately adjoins. 

William Adams, esq., in 1849 bequeathed 220, 
and Christopher Pemberton, esq., in 1850, 100. 

THE FEMALE SERVANTS' TRAINING INSTITUTION, 
established by the late rev. James Scholefield, M.A., 
Regius professor of greek, is in Park side, Parker's 
piece. Christopher Pemberton, esq., in 1850 be- 
queathed 100 to the institution. 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

THE CAMBRIDGE UNION SOCIETY, established in or 
about 1811, by the union of several smaller societies 
of the like nature, has for its objects the promotion 
of debates, the maintenance of a library, and the 
supply of newspapers and other periodicals. (a) 

The founders of the society were Henry 
Bickersteth lord Langdale, sir Frederick Pollock, 
sir Edward Hall Alderson, hon. Henry Robert 
Pakenham, George Chad (British Minister at the 
court of Berlin), John Samuel Martin Fonblanque, 
Frederick Vandermeulen, rev. John Gay Girdle- 
stone, S.C.L., and the rev. C. Holworthy. 

The earlier records of the society are imperfect. 
Amongst those whose names are preserved as having, 
at successive periods, held office in the society, or 
taken part in its debates, we find the earl of 
Abingdon, A. S. Adair, H. Alford, C. Austin, 
Churchill Babington, M. T. Baines, A. F. Bayford, 
E. Beales, lord Belper, R. M. Beverley, J. W. 
Blakesley, G. Brimley, P. Borthwick, C. A. Bristed, 
C. Buller, H. M. Butler, W. D. Christie, sir A. E. 
Cockburn, lord Cranworth, sir E. J. Creasy, sir 
R. B. Crowder, J. W. Donaldson, C. J. Ellicott, H. 
Fawcett, earl Fitzwilliam, O. Flintoff, J. C. Franks, 

(a) In the Cambridge Portfolio, 176, is a paper on this society by 
George Venables, M.A., fellow of Jesus college. 



188 SCIENTIFIC AND LITEEAKY INSTITUTIONS. 

Harvey Goodwin, hon. A. Gordon, sir James R. G. 
Graham, earl Grey, John Hampden Gurney, Russell 
Gurney, A. H. Hallam, H. Fitzmaurice Hallam, 
T. E. Hankinson, Julius Charles Hare, James 
Heywood, R. C. Hildyard, A. J. B. Hope, W. B. 
Hopkins, W. G. Humphry, A. Huxtable, J. M. 
Kemble, B. H. Kennedy, C. R. Kennedy, lord Kerry, 
A. W. Kinglake, S. Laing, W. G. Lumley, sir E. 
Bulwer Lytton, lord Macaulay, K. Macaulay, H. 
Maiden, B. H. Malkin, lord John Manners, F. Martin, 

F. 0. Martin, J. F. D. Maurice, C. Merivale, W. J. 
Metcalfe, R. M. Milnes, marquess of Normanby, sir 
James Parker, James Payn, T. P. Platt, W. M. 
Praed, M. Prendergast, sir T. N. Redington, J. H. 
Rohrs, sir John Roniilly, Hugh James Rose, viscount 
Royston, C. J. Selwyn, T. Sheridan, Augustus 
Stafford, Leslie Stephen, A. Steuart, John Sterling, 
lord Strathedeii and Campbell, viscount Strangford, 
Jelinger C. Symons, lord Teignmouth, W. M. 
Thackeray, Connop Thirlwall (bishop of S. David's), 
T. Thorp, J. Tozer, R. C. Trench, G. O. Trevelyan, 

G. S. Venables, C. Pelham Villiers, Horatio Wadding- 
ton, S. H. Walpole, W. Whewell, Rowland Williams, 
and sir George Young, bart. 

Dr. Wood, then vice-chancellor, and the proctors, 
in March, 1817, went to the society's meeting, 
and commanded the members to discontinue their 
discussions as inconsistent with academical disci- 
pline. A petition complaining of this interference, 
signed by several masters of arts and noblemen, 
members of the society, was presented to the duke 
of Gloucester, chancellor of the university. The 



SCIENTIFIC AND L1TERAKY INSTITUTIONS. 189 

members of the society also presented a remonstrance 
to the vice-chancellor, in which they demonstrated 
that each member on an average did not bestow 
more than ten hours per annum in attendance on 
the society's meetings, and that none could bestow 
more than forty hours. They denied that the society 
interfered with the studies of the members, and for 
proof stated that they had amongst them three uni- 
versity scholars, seven chancellors medallists, twelve 
Browne medallists, and several who had attained the 
highest mathematical honours. They alleged that 
the union tended to diminish attendance on other 
clubs and meetings, whose conduct was likely to be 
less orderly as their objects were less intellectual. 
They agreed (if the society could not be tolerated 
on other terms) to exclude political as they had 
ever done theological subjects, and they prayed 
that the society might not be put down at that 
particular period, when the suppression of societies 
bearing accidentally the same name might induce 
those unacquainted with the university to suppose 
it had been suppressed from political motives, and 
that its members had been guilty of seditious or 
treasonable language. To this remonstrance the 
vice-chancellor declined any answer as unnecessary. 
Ultimately the society was allowed to resume its 
meetings on the understanding that there should be 
no discussion on political questions, except such as 
fell within a floating period of twenty years anterior 
to the time of discussion. This restriction was abol- 
ished in 1830, and now the debates may be on any 
subject not strictly theological. 



190 SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

The society met for many years at the Red Lion 
hotel. It afterwards had spacious apartments ad- 
joining the Hoop hotel, whence in 1850 it removed 
to its present commodious rooms which are situate 
at the back of the southern side of Green street. 
The principal room in which the debates are held 
had been previously a Wesleyan meeting house. 

A building fund which now exceeds 350 has been 
recently established, and is rapidly accumulating. 

The society possesses a good historical and general 
library, containing nearly eight thousand volumes, 
besides a large and valuable collection of old news- 
papers bound in volumes. The news-rooms are pro- 
fusely supplied with newspapers and other periodical 
publications. 

The number of members in June 1862 was four 
thousand four hundred and thirty-two, of whom 
nearly three hundred are contributing members. 

THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY was es- 
tablished 15th November, 1819 for the purpose of 
promoting scientific inquiry, and of facilitating the 
communication of facts connected with the advance- 
ment of philosophy and natural history. (a} 

(a) For particulars respecting the formation of this society see Otter's 
Life of Clarke, ii., 362, 477; Cambridge Portfolio, 121; and Jenyns's 
Memoir of Professor Henslow, 17. 

An attempt was made in 1683 to establish a Philosophical society at 
Cambridge, which was to co-operate with the Royal society. The chief 
promoters were Isaac Newton, Lucasian professor; Edward Paget, of 
Trinity college; and Charles Montagu (afterwards earl of Halifax). The 
famous Henry More, D.D. of Christ's college, promised to join the society, 
but it appears from a letter from Newton to Francis Aston, dated 23 Feb., 
1683-4, that the project was abandoned from the want of persons willing 
to try experiments. Weld's Hist, of the Royal Society, I., 305. 

A literary society called the Zodiac club was established in the uni- 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 191 

The society was incorporated by a charter granted 
by William IV. 3rd August, 1832. 

The meetings were held in the Museum of the 
Botanical garden till 1st May, 1820, when the society 
took possession of rooms in a large house in Sidney 
street, opposite to the entrance of Jesus lane; whence 
in the autumn of 1833 it removed to a house in All 
Saints' passage, erected from the designs of Charles 
Humfrey, esq., architect, and held by lease of S. 
John's college. It is a spacious and convenient 
structure, having an excellent lecture room. In 

versity, 10 Dec., 1725. It consisted of twelve members denominated from 
the twelve signs. In 1728 six additional members were elected who were 
called after six of the planets, but the original name of the society was 
retained. Nichols's Lit. Anecd., vi., 228. 

In 1758 the wranglers of the year established a club, called the Hyson 
club, which existed in 1774 when Isaac Milner was admitted a member. 
Milner's Life of Milner, 9. 

A society for the promotion of philosophy and general literature was 
established at Cambridge, 18th of February, 1784. The original members 
were Isaac Milner, Jacksonian professor, afterwards president of Queens' 
college; William Coxe, M.A. of King's college; Joseph Jowett, LL,D., 
Regius professor of civil law; Joseph Dacre Carlyle, M.A. of Queens' 
college, afterwards professor of arabic ; William Atkinson, M.A., fellow of 
Catharine hall, and afterwards fellow of Christ's College ; Henry William 
Coulthurst, M.A. of St. John's college, afterwards fellow of Sidney College ; 
and William Farish, M.A. of Magdalen college, afterwards successively pro- 
fessor of chemistry and Jacksonian professor. To these were afterwards 
added William Pearce, B.D., fellow of S. John's College, afterwards dean of 
Ely and master of Jesus college ; Samuel Vince, M.A., afterwards Plumian 
professor; Busick Harwood, M.B., professor of anatomy; Richard Relhan, 
M.A. of Trinity college ; Thomas Jones, M.A., of Trinity college ; Richard 
Person, M.A., fellow of Trinity college, afterwards Regius professor of 
greek; J. F. F. Emperius, M.A. of Queens' college; Thomas Martin, B.D., 
professor of botany ; Miles Popple, M.A., fellow of Trinity college ; J. J. 
Brundish, M.A., fellow of Caius College; Smithson Tennant, M.B., after- 
wards professor of chemistry ; F. J. Hyde Wollaston, afterwards Jacksonian 
professor; and Henry Ainslie, M.A., fellow of Pembroke hall, afterwards M.D. 
For want of adequate support this society was dissolved within two years 
after its foundation. Milner's Life of Milner, 19. 



192 SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

this house is also deposited a good scientific library 
and the museum of the society. (a) 

A news-room in connection with the society was 
established 22nd May, 1821. A few years since 
however, circumstances occurred which rendered it 
expedient to dissolve the news-room. 

The society, which numbers above five hundred 
members, has published nine volumes of transactions 
and part of a tenth. 

The contributors to the transactions, wherein are 
papers of great merit and value, are : G. B. Airy, 
LL.D., astronomer royal ; James Alderson, M.A. ; 

D. T. Ansted, M.A. ; C. Babbage, M.A. ; H. F. 
Baxter, M.R.C.S.L. ; B. Bevan ; H. J. H. Bond, M.D., 
Regius professor of physic; sir D. Brewster; Peter 
B. Brodie, M.A. ; Arthur Cayley, M.A. ; W. Cecil, 
M.A. ; James Challis, M.A., Plumian professor ; S. H. 
Christie, M.A. ; W. Clark, M.D., professor of anatomy ; 

E. D. Clarke, LL.D., professor of mineralogy ; H. 
Coddington, M.A. ; Homersham Cox, M.A. ; James 
Gumming, M.A., professor of chemistry; Augustus 
De Morgan, B.A. ; E. B. Denison, M.A. ; J. W. 
Donaldson, D.D. ; S. Earnshaw, M.A. ; R. L. Ellis, 
M.A. ; W. Farish, M.A., Jacksonian professor; Osmond 
Fisher, M.A. ; H. Goode, M.B. ; Harvey Goodwin, 
D.D. ; George Green, B.A. ; Olinthus Gregory, LL.D. ; 
J. Hailstone, M.A., Woodwardian professor ; J. 
Haviland, M.D., Regius professor of physic; R. B. 
Hayward, M.A. ; J. S. Henslow, M.A., professor 
of botany ; sir J. F. W. Herschel ; Hamnett 

() An account of this museum by the rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., is 
in Cambridge Portfolio, 127. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 193 

Holditch, M.A. ; W. Hopkins, M.A. ; T. Jarrett, M.A., 
Regius professor of hebrew ; Leonard Jenyns, M.A. ; 
Philip Kelland, M.A. ; George Kemp, M.D. ; Joshua 
King, LL.D., Lucasian professor; S. Lee, D.D., Regius 
professor of hebrew; John Leslie, professor of ma- 
thematics, Edinburgh ; R. T. Lowe, M.A. ; J. W. 
Lubbock, M.A. ; Francis Lunn, M.A. ; W. Mandell, 
B.D. ; J. C. Maxwell, M.A. ; W. H. Miller, professor 
of mineralogy; Arthur Augustus Moore of Trinity 
college ; Pierce Morton, M.A. ; H. Moseley, M.A. ; 
Robert Murphy, M.A. ; Matthew O'Brien, M.A. ; J. 
Okes, M.B. ; Richard Owen, Hunterian professor in 
R.C.S. ; G. E. Paget, M.D. ; Robert Pearson, M.A.; 
J. B. Phear, M.A. ; Richard Potter, M.A. ; Joseph 
Power, M.A. ; S. P. Rigaud, Savilian professor of 
astronomy, Oxford ; J. R. Rohrs, M.A. ; R. W. 
Rothman, LL.D. ; Adam Sedgwick, M.A., Woodwar- 
dian professor ; Archibald Smith, M.A. ; Francis 
Gybbon Spilsbury ; J. F. Stephens, F.L.S. ; G. G. 
Stokes, M.A., Lucasian professor; W. H. Thompson, 
M.A., Regius professor of greek; John Tozer, LL.D. ; 
William Wallace, professor of mathematics, Edin- 
burgh; Henry Warburton, M.A. ; Hensleigh Wedg- 
wood, M.A. ; William Whewell, D.D. ; Robert Willis, 
M.A. ; and J. R. Young, professor of mathematics, 
Belfast college. 

THE CAMBRIDGESHIRE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY was 
established 10th of March, 1824. 

THE PHILO UNION OR CAMBRIDGE LITERARY SOCIETY 
was established 8th of July, 1826, for the discussion of 
all topics except those of a theological nature. It has 
a well supplied news-room and an useful library. 

VOL. III. O 



194 LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 

The society originally met at the Woolpack inn, 
on the eastern side of Sidney street, whence it re- 
moved to the Wrestlers inn, Petty cury, and finally 
to the commodious premises on the western side of 
Sidney street which it now occupies. 

The number of members is about two hundred 
and thirty. With a few exceptions they are in- 
habitants of the town. (a) 

THE CAMBRIDGE RAY CLUB was established 27th 
of February, 1837, for the cultivation of natural 
science by means of friendly intercourse and mutual 
instruction, and adopted its title in commemoration 
of the great naturalist John Ray, formerly fellow 
of Trinity college, and the anniversary is held on 
the Wednesday nearest to the 29th of November, 
being the day on which it is supposed Mr. Ray 
was born. (6) 

The following is a list of the present and former 
members and associates: J. C. Adams, M.A., Lown- 
dean professor ; H. Airy, B.A. ; D. T. Ansted, M.A. ; 
John Anthony, M.B. ; F. Archer, B.A. ; C. C. Bab- 
fa) On the 9th of January, 1784, was established in Cambridge a 
society for promoting useful knowledge, which was commonly deno- 
minated the Book club. The number of members was limited to fifty. 
It met weekly at the Bull inn, and had a good library containing 
above two thousand volumes. This society was dissolved in or about 
1841. 

(b) It was the custom of the late professor Henslow to receive at his 
house upon the evening of each Friday in full term such members of 
the university as took an interest in natural history. These hospitable 
receptions, which tended greatly to encourage and support the study 
of botany and zoology amongst the undergraduates, commenced on 
the 15th of February 1828, and were regularly continued until the end 
of the year 1836. Their discontinuance led to the formation of the Ray 
club. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 195 

ington, M.A., professor of botany ; Churchill Babing- 
ton, B.D. ; W. P. Baily, B.D. ; John Ball, M.A. ; 
R. C. Barnard, B.A. ; J. Barton, B.A. ; T. W. Bed- 
dome, B.A. ; Edward Bell, B.A. ; F. P. Blackwood, 
Capt. R.N. ; E. N. Bloomfield, M.A. ; W. Borrer, M.A. ; 
G. J. Brownlow, B.A. ; S. Charles, M.A. ; Hamlet 
Clark, M.A. ; W. Clark, M.D., professor of anatomy; 
R. B. Clifton, M.A.; D. W. Cohen, M.D. ; W. T. 
Collings, M.A. ; Gr. R. Crotch ; J. dimming, M.A., 
professor of chemistry; W. Davies; W. H. Drosier, 
M.D. ; J. W. Dunning, M.A. ; Howard Warburton 
Elphinstone, M.A.; H. Evans, M.A.; Osmond Fisher, 
M.A. ; A. W. Franks, M.A. ; R. T. Frere, M.A. ; 
Frederick Fuller, M.A. ; W. L. P. Garnons, B.D. ; 
J. C. Gorst, M.A. ; D. F. Gregory, M.A. ; J. W. 
Haslehurst, B.A. ; H. Hanson, B.A ; G. Henslow, M.A. ; 
J. H. Henslow, M.A., professor of botany; H. W. 
Hoffman; F. J. A. Hort, M.A. ; J. S. Howson, M.A.; 
R. Hudson, M.A. ; T. Me Kenny Hughes, M.A. ; G. M. 
Humphry, M.D. ; E. G. Jarvis, M.B. ; H. G. Jebb, 
B.A. ; W. T. Kingsley, B.D. ; C. D. Larbalestier, B.A. ; 
R. G. Latham, M.D. ; Lester Lester, F.L.S. ; W. A. 
Lewis, M.B. ; E. Liveing, M.B. ; G. D. Liveing, M.A., 
professor of chemistry; F. du Bois Lukis; W. C. 
Lukis, M.A. ; F. L. Mackenzie ; W. Matthews, M.A. ; 
J. C. Maxwell, M.A. ; W. H. Miller, professor of 
mineralogy; A. G. More, F.L.S. ; W. C. Newnham, 
M.A. ; E. Newton, M.A. ; G. E. Paget, M.D. ; S. G. 
Phear, M.A. ; J. H. Pollexfen, M.A. ; R. Potter, M.A. ; 
J. A. Power, M.A. ; Joseph Power, M.A. ; T. A. 
Preston, M.A. ; J. J. Pulleine; A. Ransome, M.A. ; 
S. H. Saxby, B.A. ; A. F. Sealy, M.A. ; Adam Sedg- 

02 



196 LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 

wick, M.A., Woodwardian professor; P. A. Simpson, 
M.A. ; J. J. Smith, M.A. ; T. B. Sprague, M.A. ; James 
Statter; G. G. Stokes, M.A., Lucasian professor; 
W. H. Stokes, M.A. ; Gr. Strachey, B.A. ; Henry Cum- 
berland Stuart, M.A. ; Frederick Townsend, M.A. ; J. 

B. Wilson, M.A. ; T. V. Wollaston, M.A. ; C. Wolley, 
M.A. ; and F. B. Wright, B.A. 

The society consists of twelve members and not 
more than six associates. No person above the de- 
gree of B.A. can be an associate. 

The late professor Henslow was an honorary 
member of the club, but it was expressly provided 
that no other person residing in Cambridge should 
possess that rank. 

THE CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY was estab- 
lished in May, 1840, for the encouragement of the 
study of history, architecture and antiquities, and 
the object of the society is to collect and to 
print information relative to the above mentioned 
subjects. 

The society has published several curious and 
interesting works and communications. 

Subjoined is a list of the authors and editors of 
the publications of the society and the contributors 
to its transactions: C. C. Babington, M.A., professor 
of botany ; Churchill Babington, B.D. ; H. Brad- 
shaw, M.A. ; T. Brocklebank, M.A. ; W. K. Clay, B.D. ; 

C. H. Cooper, F.S.A. ; Gr. E. Corrie, D.D. ; B. M. 
Cowie, B.D. ; sir Henry Dryden, bart. ; A. W. 
Franks, M.A. ; C. W. Goodwin, M.A. ; James Goodwin, 
B.D. ; J. O. Halliwell, F.S.A. ; C. Hardwick, M.A. ; 
J. S. Henslow, M.A., professor of botany; H. R. 



LITEEARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 197 

Luard, M.A. ; J. E. B. Mayor, M.A. ; C. H. New- 
march, M.A. ; J. Rigg, B.D. ; W. G. Searle, M.A. ; 
J. J. Smith, M.A. ; E. Venables, M.A. ; E. Ventris, 
M.A. ; Albert Way, M.A. ; Gr. Williams, B.D. ; R. 
Willis, M.A., Jacksonian professor ; and H. A. Wood- 
ham, LL.D. 

The society possesses a small library and a 
collection of antiquities. The latter is deposited in 
the Fitzwilliam museum. 

Its meetings are now held in the Philosophical 
society's house. 

THE CAMBRIDGE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY was estab- 
lished 19th of November, 1846, for promoting the 
study of ecclesiastical architecture, arrangement and 
decoration. (a) 

The society, which meets in the Philosophical 
society's house, has a small library, and a good 
collection of drawings and photographs. 

(a) In May, 1839, was instituted the Cambridge Camden society for 
promoting the study of ecclesiastical architecture and antiquities and the 
restoration of mutilated architectural remains. It flourished here till 
1846, when, a great secession taking place, such of its members as re- 
mained transferred it to London, and gave it the title of the Ecclesiological 
society. 



ALL SAINTS. 

IN order to distinguish it from another church 
also dedicated to All Saints which formerly existed 
near the Castle, this was anciently designated 
the church of Allhallows in the Jewry, (a} or All- 
hallows by the hospital. (6) It is said that this 
church was given to the abbey of S. Alban in 
the time of Paul 14th abbat (1077-93.) It was 
subsequently granted by William Sturmi de Can- 
tabrigia to the nuns of S. Rhadegund, who in 
1180 obtained its appropriation,^ and on the dis- 
solution of their house it passed to Jesus college. 
The parish of S. Rhadegund is said to have been 
united to this about 1291. (d) 

The church is an unpretending structure prin- 
cipally in the late perpendicular style. The side 
windows have been much altered. Clerestory windows 
in dormers have been ingeniously added without 
disfiguring the roof. At the western end is a tower 
with an archway, under which is the footpath. 

The chancel erected by Jesus college in 1726 
at a cost of 199. 4s. 2d. is of brick, in the miser- 
able style which too generally prevailed at that 
period. 

The nave has four-centred arches and a rich double 
hammer-beam roof with small pierced panels. 

(a) The Jews settled in Cambridge 1073, and left it 1291. 

(6) That is the hospital of S. John the Evangelist which stood opposite. 

(c) Vol. i. 356. (d) Vol. i. 359. 




V23W SfflffiWESJ &X3L SAESHTiS 



ALL SAINTS. 199 

The altar-piece is composed of columns support- 
ing an entablature and broken pediment of the doric 
order, under which is a copy of the Salvator Mundi 
of Carlo Dolci. 

The font is of good perpendicular. 

At the eastern end of the north aisle was a chapel. 
In 1724, the step by the altar remained with a 
niche in the north wall, wherein had been placed 
the image of a saint. On the pedestal were two 
shields, one having a coat of arms (barry of six), 
and the other a rebus, which is supposed to have 
designated the name of Armstrong. 

On one of the bells is inscribed 

sono am'mabus mortuorum sriJ amibtts bftentium, 1406. 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel. 

Isaac Barrowe, M.D. [1616] and Anne his wife, relict of Geo. 
Cotton of Banfield hall, Essex, esq. [1589]. Erected Sept. 1631, 
by Eliz. wife of sir Philip Llanden of Lincolnsh. bart. in re- 
membrance of a great deal of love never to be forgotten showed 
unto her by Dr. Barrowe who had married her grandmother. 

Susanna wife of Hen. Mordaunt of Thunder-ley, Essex, esq., 
18 Dec. 1622. 

Joh. Hammond, vintner, June 1628>) 

Martha wife of Rob. Luckin, M.A. of Sid. coll., 19 Jul. 1628. 

Parents of Geo. Potter of Sid. coll. and Eliz. ; father, 8 May, 
1658, mother 11 Aug., 1666. V 

(a) He kept the Dolphin tavern. The following verses referring to 
him were formerly on a brass near the altar: 

Spiritus ascendit generosi Nectaris Astra, 
Juxta altare Calix hie jacet ecce Sacrum, 
Corporum Ai/ao-Tso-e'i cum fit communio magna. 
Unio tune fuerit Nectaris et Calicis. 

(6) This absurd epitaph does not disclose the Christian names of the 
deceased. 



200 



ALL SAINTS. 



Cha. Strachie, M.B. (only son of Kob. Strachie, M.D.) 23 Feb. 
1687-8. 

Kich. Shipton, B.A. Trin. coll., 7 Jul. 1692, set. 23. 

Dorothy wife of Will. Strange, merchant, 24 Dec. 1698, 
set. 63; Walter their son, B.D. and fell, of Sid. coll. 15 Mar. 
1697, ag. 40 ; B. Dent, 7 April, 1743, ag. 73 ; Aylmer, 22 Apr. 
1745, ag. 53. 

Tho. D'aye, esq., 3 Jan. 1701, set. 39. 

Rich. Bassett (in whom the ancient and noble line of the 
Bassetts of Fledborough in Nottinghamshire, who came in with 
Will, the conqueror, is extinct) 7 Dec. 1702, ag. 87 ; Edw. 
Jolley, esq. 1705, set. 80; Eliz. his w. 10 May, 1707, ag. 77. 

Ambr. Bonwicke/") sch. S. Job. coll., 5 May, 1714, aet. 23; 
Phil, his bro., 14 Mar. 1714-5, set. 18. 

Mrs. Lucy Vernon, d. on journey between Spalding and 
Much Hadham, 6 Dec. 1720. 

Will. Williams, S. Job. coll. (only son of Will. rect. of 
Stoke upon Team, Salop) born cal. Apr. 1713, d. 11 cal. 
Mar. 1731. 

Susanna Forester widow (dau. of Edm. Salter, gent.) born in 
this parish June, 1655, d. in S. Margaret's, Westminster, 
31 Jan. 1732, and who left an estate for the benefit of the parish. 

Edw. Salisbury, organist Trin. coll., 7 Jul. 1741, ag. 35; 
Margaret his mother, 24 Dec. 1749, ag. 85 ; Susanna Stephens, 
12 Feb. 1663. 

John Newling, alderman, 4 Feb. 1748, ag. 33. 

Salusbury Jones, M.A., fell. S. Joh. coll. and chapl. to bp. 
of Carlisle (2 son of Joh. of Galltvayman co. Denbigh, esq.) 
31 May, 1763, ag. 28. 

Joh. Powell, B.D., fell. Trin. coll., 3 Feb. 1765, set. 43. 

Hen. Neve (ed. in Charterhouse) S. Joh. coll., prid. id. Jun. 
1768, set. 16. 

Will. Weales, 5 Mar. 1773, ag. 73 ; Mary his wife, 23 Apr. 
1774, ag. 75; Eliz. their dau., 8 Feb. 17..., ag. 8. 

(a) His father Ambrose Bonwicke, sometime master of Merchant 
Taylor's school, published his life under the title of " A Pattern for young 
students in the Universities, set forth in the Life of Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke, 
sometime Scholar of S. John's College, Cambridge." Lond. 12mo. 1729. 
Oxf. 12mo. 1816. 



ALL SAINTS. 201 

Ja. Gifford, alderman, 7 Dec. 1774, ag. 60 ; Martha his wife, 
2 Oct. 1769, ag. 57; Rob. their son, 30 Mar. 1775, ag. 4; 
Harriet Elizabeth their dau., 7 Nov. 1775, ag. 6 mo. 20 days. 

Tho. Prince, apothecary, 4 Sept. 1782, ag. 58. 

Will. Norfolk [alderman] 6 Feb. 1785, ag. 86; Susan his 
wife, 22 Mar. 1773, ag. 63. 

Will. Gifford, gent., 10 Dec. 1786, ag. 41. 

Anne wife of Joh. Lettice and dau. of Joh. Newling, 6 id. 
Jan. 1788. 

Sam. Munk, pens. Trin. coll., 1 Jan. 1791, at. 18. 

J. E. Ives, S. Joh. coll., prid. id. Nov. 1791, set. 20. 

Joh. Masters, 18 June, 1793, ag. 67. 

Hen. Kirke White of S. Joh. coll., b. 21 March, 1785, 
died 19 Oct., 1806. (Medallion by Chantrey.) 

Warm with fond hope, and Learnings sacred flame, 
To Granta's bowers the youthful Poet came; 
Unconquer'd powers th' immortal mind display'd, 
But, worn with anxious thought, the frame decay 'd. 
Pale o'er his lamp, and in his cell retir'd, 
The Martyr Student faded and expir'd. 
O Genius, Taste, and Piety sincere, 
Too early lost 'midst studies too severe ! 
Foremost to mourn was generous Southey seen : 
He told the tale, and shew'd what White had been: 
Nor told in vain, far o'er the Atlantic wave 
A wanderer came, and sought the Poet's grave. 
On yon low stone he saw his lonely name, 
And rais'd this fond memorial to his fame. (a) 

W[illiamJ S[myth]. 

Joh. Edm. Lodge of Ingleton, Yorkshire, and of Trin. coll., 
b. 7 Jul. 1789, d. 1 Feb. 1808. 

Tho. Cubitt, schol. Trin. coll., 4 Nov. 1811, set. 23. 

Ja. Gifford [sometime alderman] (eld. son of Ja., alderman) 
21 Jan. 1813, ag. 73 ; his sixth son Lucius Hen., lieut. R.N., 

(a) This tablet was erected by Mr. Boott an American gentleman, who 
found that the only previously existing memorial of the gifted poet, was a 
plain stone in the chancel, inscribed " HENRY KIRKE WHITE," and which 
is still to be seen. 



202 ALL SAINTS. 

died off Toulon, 26 Sep. 1812, ag. 29; his seventh son Theo- 
philus Joh. lieut. 52 reg., killed in battle in Portugal, 14 Mar. 
1811, ag. 23. 

Rich. Nethercoat Cooke, sch. Trin. coll. (eld. son of Rich., 
esq., of Kent) 3 non. Jan. 1819, set. 23. 

Tho. Blundell, B.A. sch. Trin. coll., 3 Mar. 1819, set. 22. 

Cha. Field (only son of Cha.) Trin. coll., 14 Mar. 1825, 
set. 19. 

Sam. Parr Howe Eyre, schol. S. Joh. coll. (younger son 
of rev. Ja. of Solihull, Warw.) 1 Feb. 1826, ag. 21. 

Eliz. Theodora, wife of Sam. Hunter Christie, esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., eld. dau. of Cha. Claydon, b. 21 Jun. 1784, d. 27 
May, 1829. 

Alex. Scott Abbott, surgeon, [sometime alderman] 30 Sept. 
1843, ag. 53 ; Jane his wife, 16 Nov. 1844, ag. 55 ; Cha. 
Graham their son, 7 Feb. 1837, ag. 6. 

Will. Bate Strong, Trin. coll. 3 Nov. 1843, ag. 29. 

Hen. Mackenzie, schol. Trin. coll. 13 Oct. 1853, ag. 25, 
bur. in cem. of S. Luke, Chelsea; Fran. Lewis Mackenzie, 
Trin. coll. 15 Mar. 1855, ag. 21, bur. in churchyard of 
Madingley. Only sons of lord Mackenzie, one of the judges 
of the supreme court of Scotland. 

In the old churchyard. 

Elizabeth wife of Joh. Forlow, 15 Aug. 1783, ag. 58 ; 
John Forlow [alderman] 27 Aug. 1789, ag. 58. 

Matilda wife of Nich. marq. Spineto, 13 kal. Sept. 1812, 
set. 26. 

Joh. Ince Straghan, pens. S. Joh. coll. (born in Barbados) 
28 Nov. 1830, jet. 25. 

Elliot Macro Smith [sometime alderman] (son of Tho. and 
Cath.) 25 June, 1845, ag. 62 ; Harriet his wife, 12 Mar. 1849, 
ag. 71>) 

(a) In the chancel is a large stone on which there has been a mag- 
nificent brass. It is probable that it commemorated Richard Holme, 
licentiate in both the laws, canon of York and Sarum, and master of King's 
hall, who died 1424. (See Vol. II. 205, 223.) 



ALL SAINTS. 203 

In the new churchyard. 

Elizabeth Maddison, 27 Aug. 1849, ag. 75. 

Harriott wife of Dennis Adams, 30 Jan. 1853, set. 42. 
(A fine marble statuette.) 

Henry Erskine Howe, 1st classical professor at Melbourne 
university, appointed July, 1854, d. 5 Feb. 1855, ag. 29. 

John Pratt, organist to King's college and the university for 
53 years, d. 9 March, 1855, ag. 83. 

Cordelia wife of William Whewell, D.D., master of Trin. 
coll. 18 Dec. 1855, ag. 52. 

George Brimley, M.A., Trin. coll. 29 May, 1857, ag. 37. 

John Gillam Bell, solicitor, b. 24 Feb. 1826, d. 14 March, 1859. 

In this church was a famous gild called the gild 
of All Saints, (0) and we find mention of the lights 
of the holy sepulchre and the crucifixion. 

There were formerly inscriptions in the church to : 

Nich. Waller of Sid. coll. and Gray's inn (eld. son of G. Waller of 
Beverley, esq.) 24 Feb. 1631. 

Edw. Goring (eld. son of an esq.) Trin. coll. 1661, set. 17. 

Rich. Nicolson, B.A. of S. Joh. coll. (young, son of Rich, of Fenwick, 
Yorksh.) Ash Wednesday, 1674. 

Geo. second son of Geo. Meriton of Northallerton, Yorksh. and Mary 
his wife, 14 Aug. 1680. 

In 1724 there was in the churchyard an ancient coffin stone, embellished 
with angels and a cross flory extending all over it. 

The registers which commence in 1538, record the following burials : 

1540, Apr. 30, Joh. Belt, fell, of King's hall. 

1541-2, Mar. 8, Geoffrey Blythe, LL.D. master of King's hall. 

1622, Sept. 1, William Gayer, D.C.L. chancellor of the diocese of Ely, 
[a noted latin poet]. 

1628, Apr. 15, Francis Brackyn, esq. [sometime recorder.] 

1631-2, Mrs. Gayer [probably the widow of Dr. Gayer.] 

1642, Sept. 30, Rob. Allot, M.D. of S. Joh. coll. 

1720, Jul. 12, Joh. Agate, D.D. of Sid. coll. 

1720-1, Jan, 26, Eliz. Ewin, widow, said to be 104 years old. 

1721, Sept. 10, Tho. Ewiii, alderman. 

1730, Aug. 26, Rob. Green, D.D. of Clare hall. 

1747, Nov. 19, Rich. Allin, B.D. fell, of Sid. coll. 

(a) It appears from the statutes of this gild, dated 1473, that the prin- 
cipal day was the Sunday next after the feast of All Saints. The officers 
were an alderman, two masters, a clerk, and a dean. At every general 



204 ALL SAINTS. 

William Dowsing, the fanatical iconoclast, visit- 
ing this church 1 Jan. 1643-4, thus records his 
proceedings : " We brake down divers superstitious 
pictures and 8 cherubims." 

Thomas Hill, D.D., master of Trinity college, 
(1645-53), established a lecture in this church. 

Amongst the eminent men who have been min- 
isters or curates, may be mentioned Lionel Gatford, 
D.D. ; Lynford Caryl, D.D. ; John Jortin, D.D. ; 
Edward Otter, bishop of Chichester ; Edward Daniel 
Clarke, LL.D., and Thomas Smart Hughes, B.D. 

In 1859, it was agreed to take down the pre- 
sent church and erect another on the southern side 
of Jesus lane immediately opposite Jesus college, 
on a site given by the master and fellows of that 
society. Above 4000 has been subscribed, (o) and 
a plan has been prepared by Gr. F. Bodley, esq. 
architect. 

We have already mentioned Mrs. Susannah 
Forester's charity, (6) and Knight's and Mortlock's 
almshouses. (c) Other benefactors to the church and 
poor have been : Will. Headley, 1588, 46s. 8d. 
yearly to the poor ; Rob. Strachie, M.D., of Bishop's 

day the alderman was allowed a gallon of ale, each of the masters and 
the clerk a pottle, and the dean a quart. The clerk was also allowed lf>d. 
yearly and the dean 8d. The vicar had 4s. 4d. yearly. On the death 
of a brother or sister, 30 masses were to be sung, and 4rf. a week was 
allowed for brethren or sisters fallen into old age or great poverty. A 
supplemental statute bears date 1504. MS. Baiter, xxxvi. 171. 

(a) Trinity and S. John's colleges have given 500 each ; Dr. "VVhewell, 
master of Trinity college the same sum; Jesus college (besides the site) 
100 ; Dr. Turton, bishop of Ely, the rev. W. C. Sharpe, B.D., late vicar, 
and lady Affleck, 100 each; Dr. Bayes, the rev. F. Martin, M.A., fellow of 
Trinity college, and Mr. Thomas Howe, 50 each. 

(b) Vol. III. 185. (c) Vol. in. 173. 



ALL SAINTS. 205 

Stortford, 1704, a silver flagon weighing 36oz. ; 
Anne, his widow, 1706, 30 interest to the poor; 
Cha. Ashton, D.D., master of Jesus college, 1726 and 
1748, 28 to the fabric ; Hen. Bromley, lord Mont- 
fort, 1748, an altar-piece ; Onesiphorus Berridge, 
rector of Alderchurch, Lincolnshire, 1748, a velvet 
pannel ; Sam. Forlow, 1777, 10s. a year to the poor ; 
Eob. Franks, 1783, 100 the interest to the poor. 

The ancient religious and academical foundations 
within this parish, were the nunnery of S. Rha- 
degund, (0) (now Jesus college), the hospital of S. 
John the Evangelist, (6) (now S. John's college), the 
house of S. Francis, (c) (now Sidney Sussex college), 
and King's hall, (d) (now part of Trinity college.) 

In this parish were formerly famous inns called 
the Dolphin, w the White Bear, (/ > and the Sun. w 
The Blue Boar which still exists, is of considerable 
antiquity. 

The Friends have a meeting house in Jesus lane. (A) 

(a) Vol. I. 354. (6) Vol. II. 58. 

(c) Vol. ill. 1. (d) Vol. n. 194. 

(e) The Dolphin was at the corner of what is now called All Saints 
passage, but which was for centuries called Dolphin passage. Archbishop 
Cranmer vacated his fellowship at Jesus college, by marrying the niece of 
the landlady of the Dolphin, and after his marriage lived with her at this 
inn. Many years afterwards we find her derisively termed black Joan of 
the Dolphin. In the early part of the seventeenth century, the judges of 
assize lodged at the Dolphin. Over the door was the motto in greek, latin, 
and english, " Drink or begone." 

(/) At the White Bear in Trinity street, the committee for the asso- 
ciated counties during the civil war, held their meetings. 

(ff) Vol. II. 247. The Sun which ceased to be an inn about 1840, 
occupied the site of the Master's court, Trinity college. 

(A) For many years past there have not been any of the society resident 
in Cambridge ; it is therefore only occasionally used for purposes of worship. 
The Free Library was kept therein from 1855 to 1862, and it is now let 
as a Temperance hall. 



206 ALL SAINTS. 

A street in this parish, which since 1836 has 
gone by the unmeaning name of Park street, was 
previously known as Garlic fair lane, being so called 
because on or near its site was until 1808, holden 
yearly on the vigil and feast of the assumption of 
B. V. Mary (14, 15 Aug.), a fair which had been 
granted to the nuns of S. Rhadegund by king 
Stephen, (a) and which ultimately obtained the name 
of Garlic fair. 

On the southern side of Jesus lane, opposite to 
Jesus college, stood an ancient mansion called S. 
Rhadegund's manor-house. In a chamber window 
were the arms of Hen. VIII. and of Goodrich, bishop 
of Ely. It was pulled down in or about 1829. 

(a) Vol. i. 354. 



S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

ABSALOM, rector and patron of this church, gave 
the same, about 1226, to the prior and convent of 
Ely; and Greoffry de Burgh, bishop of Ely, soon 
afterwards appropriated the same to the office of 
sacrist in that monastery. On the dissolution it 
passed to the dean and chapter of Ely, who are 
patrons of the benefice. 

Near the church stood a gate, called Barnwell 
gate, which was erected in 1267 during the wars 
between king Henry III. and his barons. The 
church and parish were on this account anciently 
denominated the church and parish of S. Andrew 
without Barnwell gate. 

The gild of S. Catharine in this church is men- 
tioned in 1500. 

James Stanley, bishop of Ely, on the 12th of 
December, 1606, changed the feast of dedication from 
S. Andrew's day to the day of the feast of the resur- 
rection of our Lord. 

In 1650 the church was so decayed that it was 
ready to fall, and the parishioners being unable 
to repair it, the commissioners appointed for pro- 
viding preaching ministers recommended that this 
church should be united to Trinity church. Shortly 
afterwards however, it was rebuilt, principally through 
the munificence of Christopher Rose, alderman. 



208 S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

The church erected by Mr. Rose and his co- 
adjutors (and in which the old materials were to 
some extent employed) was a low mean structure 
with a tower (rebuilt 1772). There was a plain 
octagonal font. 

The present church designed by Ambrose Poynter, 
esq. architect, and erected by subscription, (a) was 
consecrated by Dr. Allen, bishop of Ely, 19 Oct., 
1843. 

The structure is of stone. There is a good tower 
at the western end, but the only chancel is a 
shallow recess. 

The interior has galleries at the western end and 
on each side. The eastern window is filled with 
stained glass. 

The font is octagonal in the perpendicular style. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church. 

John Collins of Leicestershire, B.A. scholar of Christ's coll. 
3 id. Jul. 1618, set. 22. 

Eic. Humfrey, son of Bic. Humfrey, esq. and born at 
Hanfield, Essex, fell. com. of Chr. coll. 7 Aug. 1659, set. 18. 

(a) The subscription was set on foot in 1836. The principal contributors 
were Frederick Thackeray, M.D. ; Tho. Hall Fisher, esq. ; and Mr. Tho. 
Stamford Woodley, 110 each. Tho. Fisher, esq.; Geo. Langshaw, B.D., 
vicar ; Joseph Truslove, esq. ; James Law, sometime alderman, 105 each. 
Christ's college, 105. Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland, 100. 
Dean and chapter of Ely, 100. Mrs. Redfarn, 100. James Wood, D.D., 
dean of Ely and master of S. John's college ; and Edward Fa veil, some- 
time alderman, 57. 10s., each. Geo. Archdall, D.D., master of Emm. 
coll., 55. Mr. Moses Browne ; and W. N. Heale, esq. of Christ's coll., 
52. 10s., each. Emmanuel college, 50. Miss Hatch, 50. Above 
500 was realised by a bazaar held in the Guildhall, 15th to 18th of 
Nov. 1837. 



S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 209 

Isaac Aleyn, eldest son of Giles Aleyn, esq. born at Haxley, 
Essex, died in Christ's coll. 26 Jul. 1661, set. 16. 

Chris. Eose, esq. [alderman] 30 Aug. 1664, the chief re- 
builder of this (once ruin'd) church, who bequeathed to the 
minister of this place for ever, the yearly sum of 10, who 
in consideration thereof, is to preach his commemoration sermon 
every 30th of August. 

Edw. Osborne, B.A. of Eman. coll. 6 Sept. 1668, son of 
Thomas Osborne and Anne his wife, and born at Mundham, 
Norfolk, 14 Feb. 1648. 

James Kobson, gent, alderman, 27 Sept. 1676, set. 48; 
James Eobson his son of Caius coll. student in civil law, 
6 March, 1686, aet. 22 ; Catharine Eobson, daughter of aid. 
Eobson, 14 Feb. 1709, tet. 38 ; Jane his widow, 1727, 
aet. 88. 

Dan. Yate, M.A. fell. Eman. coll. 18 Mar. 1676, aet. 28. 

Joh. Wolryche, esq. student of Christ's coll. 1679, aet. 16. 
Erected by his only brother sir Tho. Wolryche of Dudmaston, 
Salop, bart. 

Henry Cornwall, LL.D. 29 Sept. 1699, set. 58 ; Susanna his 
sister, wife of Joh. Baines, cook, 17 Nov. 1700, ast. 42. 

Joh. Bernard, gent. stud, of Sid. coll. 1 May, 1703, 
aet. 18. 

Tho. Fairmeadow, M.A. rector of Ansty, Herts, and sometime 
fell, of Chr. coll. 15 June, 1711, jet. 67. 

Dr. John Edwards, formerly fell, of S. Joh. coll. a learned 
and pious divine, laborious and useful writer, and an excellent 
preacher, 16 Apr. 1716, ag. 79; Catharine his wife, 14 Jan. 

1743, ag. 81 ; her brother's widow, Mary Newcome, mother 
of rev. Dr. Joh. Newcome, master of S. Joh. coll. 24 Aug. 

1744, ag. 83 ; Dorothy Newcome, her daughter, 30 Jan. 1758, 
ag. 73. 

Eob. Cha. Stoddart, stud, of Chr. coll. 5 Feb. 1732, set. 20, 
son of the vicar of Eglingham, Northumberland. 

Will. Boys, 16 Dec. 1722, set. 29, only son of Will. 
Boys of Kelsale, Suffolk, clerk, and Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter of sir Tho. Cullum of Hawsted, in the same county, 
bart. 

Gilman Wall, apothecary, 19 Jan. 1760, ag. 36 ; Mary 
VOL. III. p 



210 S. ANDEEW THE GREAT. 

Davies, wife of Morgan Gwynn Davies, esq. and daughter 
of Gilman and Elizabeth Wall, 2 Feb. 1782, ag. 30 ; Lydia 
Wall, daughter of Gilman and Elizabeth, 21 Jul. 1789, ag. 32 ; 
Gilman Wall, apothecary, 15 March, 1790, ag. 67 ; Mary 
Wall, 23 Jan. 1796, ag. 75. 

Will. Ashby, youngest son of Shukburgh Ashby, esq. of 
Blaby, Leicestersh. and stud, of Chr. coll. 27 Aug. 1760, 
aet. 22. 

Tho. Wiseman, aid. and J.P. mayor 1749 and 1760, 20 
Apr. 1764, ag. 71. 

Leonard Chappelow, B.D. arable professor 48 years, and 
sometime fell, of S. Job. coll. a very pious and learned 
man, 14 Jan. 1768, ag. 75; Mary his relict, 30 Jul. 1779, 
ag. 88. 

Geo. Fowler, fel. com. Chr. coll. 20 Jul. 1775, set. 28. 

In Memory of Captain James Cook, of the Royal Navy, 
one of the most celebrated navigators, that this, or former 
ages can boast of; who was killed by the natives of Owyhee, 
in the Pacific Ocean, on the 14th day of February, 1779 ; 
in the 51st year of his age. Of Mr. Nathaniel Cook, who 
was lost with the Thunderer Man of War, Captain Boyle 
Walsingham, in a most dreadful hurricane, in October, 1780, 
aged 16 years. Of Mr. Hugh Cook, of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, who died on the 21st of December, 1793; aged 
17 years. Of James Cook, esq. commander in the Royal 
Navy, who lost his life on the 25th of January, 1794; in 
going from Pool, in the Spitfire Sloop of War, which he com- 
manded; in the 31st year of his age. Of Elizabeth Cook, 
who died April 9th, 1771, aged 4 years. Joseph Cook, who 
died Sept. 13th, 1768, aged 1 month. George Cook, who 
died Oct. 1st 1772, aged 4 months. All children of the first 
mentioned Capt. James Cook by Elizabeth Cook, who sur- 
vived her husband 56 years, and departed this life 13th 
May, 1835, at her residence at Clapham, Surrey, in the 
94th year of her age. Her remains are deposited with those 
of her sons, James and Hugh, in the middle aisle of this 
church. 

Mary wife of Job. Bones, 30 Aug. 1786, ag. 29; Joh. 
Bones, solicitor, 21 Nov. 1813, ag. 66. 



S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 211 

Job. Fisher, 1795, ag. 79 ; Elizabeth bis wife ; Thomas 
their son, 1839, ag. 93; Sarah his wife, 1834, ag. 73; Sarah 
and Harriet their daughters. 

Job. Favell, 14 May, 1804, ag. 64; Elizabeth his wife, 
13 Oct. 1840, ag. 93 ; John Favell, their son, ensign 20th foot, 

4 Nov. 1799, of wounds in action at Baccum, interred in the 
cathedral of Leyden ; Samuel Favell, their son, capt. 61st foot, 
fell at Salamanca, 21 Jul. 1812; William Anthony Favell, 
their son, ensign 61st foot, fell near Toulouse, 10 Apr. 1814; 
James Favell, their son employed in exploring the shores of 
Africa, died from effects of the climate at Delagoa bay, 13 
Apr. 1823; Thomas Favell, their son, comm. R.N. 31 July, 
1833, ag. 52 ; Edward Favell, their son [sometime alderman], 

5 June, 1854, set. 67, 

Tho. Thackeray, surgeon, 27 Nov. 1806, ag. 70. His 
afflicted family in erecting this tablet to his memory, forbear 
to fill it with superfluous praise and useless lamentation. May 
they who knew him best and loved him most, praise him in 
their future lives, by a remembrance of his example and an 
imitation of his virtues;^) Lydia, his widow, 8 Oct. 1830, 
ag. 93. 

Joseph Butcher, solicitor [and alderman], 25 Feb. 1814, 
net. 71. 

Joseph Wilson, stud, of Chr. coll. 1 Apr. 1815, set. 19. 

Susan wife of Hen. Gunning, 28 Mar. 1817, ag. 42 ; Hen 
Gunning [M.A.] esq. bedel for upwards of 64 years, died at 
Brighton, 4 Jan. 1854, ag. 88, 

Ja. Fowler Taylor, second son of Job. Taylor, esq. of 
Bradford house, near Bolton, and stud, of Eman. coll. 7 May, 
1821, ag. 25. 

Jane, wife of G[eo.] B[usby] White, town clerk, 11 Oct. 
1826, ag. 38, 

Cha. Job., Fred., and Hen., children of Cha. and Mary 
Humfrey; Mary Humfrey, 12 Mar, 1828, set. 50. 

Jean Baptiste Goussel, teacher of the French language in 

(a) This inscription, which has been much admired, is closely copied 
from one in Stanford church, Worcestershire, by sir Edward Winnington, 
to the memory of Anne his wife, who died in 1794. Gent. Mag. xcvi. 
(2) 134, 304. 

P2 



212 S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

this university more than 40 years, born at Nancy in Lorrain, 
died at his residence Emmanuel lane in this parish, 9 June, 
1832, ag. 72. 

Emily, dau. of Kob. and Mary Ann Willis, 1 June, 1836, 
ag. 3 ; Hen. their son, 9 Oct. 1842, ag. 5 mo. 

Geo. Langshaw, B.D. fell, of S. Joh. coll. and for more than 
seven years the faithful, indefatigable and self-denying incum- 
bent of this parish, 20 Feb. 1843, ast. 37. 

In the old churchyard. 

Ja. Fletcher, aid. and sometime mayor, 8 Aug. 1706. 

Joh. Edw. Browne, of Christ's coll. 3 non Nov. 1815, born 
at Norwich 6 id. Apr. 1796, eld. son of Joh. Hen. Browne, 
LL.B. master of Hingham school, Norfolk. 

Tho. Walt. Clarke Darby, of S. Joh. coll. 13 Nov. 1819, 
ag. 18, 5th and last surviving son of lieut.-col. Darby of 
Bath. 

Ja. Fowler Taylor, of Eman. coll. 7 May, 1821, ag. 25. 

Field Dunn Barker, aid. and sometime banker, 7 Mar. 1823, 
ag. 53. 

Charlotte Elizabeth Mill, born at Bishop's college, Calcutta, 
6 Sept. 1831, died at Cambridge, 1 Oct. 1843. [An inscription 
on the other side of this monument is so placed as to be 
illegible.] 

Hen. Joh. Cramer, of Trin. hall, B.A. 4 kal. Jul. 1844, 
set. 30. 

Sarah, widow of Joseph Fayrer, M.A. of Clare hall, vicar of 
S. Teath and preb. of Endillion, Cornwall, 27 Sept. 1844, 
aet. 59. 

wife of Luke Jones, M.A ag. 36. 

In the new churchyard. 

William Gasson, B.A. sch. Chr. coll. 29 Jan., 1849, ag. 29. 

Hen. Will. Gunning, stu. Chr. coll., b. at Bath 1829, 
drowned 1849. 

Rev. Edm. Cory, 25 Nov. 1850, ag. 43 ; Fred. Cory, 30 Jan. 
1856, JBt. 50. 



S. ANDEEW THE GREAT. 213 

Bob. Walker, vie. of Dunton, Beds., b. 29 Sept. 1780, d. 
20 Jan. 1852. 

Hen. Mitchell, surgeon, b. 1 Nov. 1818, d. 1 Mar. 1853. 

Field Dunn Barker, 5 Oct. 1856, ag. 58. 

Elizabeth, wife of rev. Joh. L. F. Russell, M.A., 19 June, 
1858, ag. 43. 

The following eminent men have been vicars or 
lecturers (a) of this parish: William Perkins, B.D., 
fellow of Christ's college; Paul Baines, fellow of 
Christ's college ; Ralph Cudworth, fellow of Em- 
manuel college, afterwards rector of Aller; Thomas 
Edwards, author of Gangrsena; Thomas Hill, D.D., 
successively master of Emmanuel and Trinity col- 
leges ; Thomas Tenison, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury ; (6) John Mickleborough, professor of 
chemistry; William Bennet, fellow of Emmanuel 
college, afterwards bishop of Cloyne ; Temple 
Chevallier, B.D., now professor of mathematics and 
astronomy in the university of Durham ; and George 
Langshaw, B.D., fellow of S. John's college. 

To the before mentioned benefactions of Christopher 
Rose we may add the following : Robert Crocheman 
and Cassandra his wife before 1278 gave lands in 
this parish to the prioress and nuns of S. Rhadegund, 
to find a chaplain to celebrate in this church. Anne 
Bedel, widow, in 1500 bequeathed goods and money 
to the church and for service at the altar of S. Mary 
and to the gild of S. Catharine. John A'Loft in 

(a) The lectureship in this parish, established in the reign of Elizabeth, 
was suppressed in or about 1620, but was revived a few years afterwards. 

(b) During the plague years, 1665 and 1666, Mr. Tenison courageously 
kept at his post and with perfect safety to himself. On his leaving the 
benefice the inhabitants presented him with a piece of plate. 



214 S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

1509 gave money and a house and garden for ser- 
vices. Archbishop Tenison, formerly vicar, in 1715 
bequeathed 50 to repair the fabric. Mrs. Anne 
Robson in 1722 gave a silver flagon and almsdish. (0) 
Thomas Green, bishop of Ely, augmented the vicar- 
age in 1730. The executors of William Stanley, D.D., 
dean of S. Asaph, in 1734 gave 200 to augment 
the vicarage; and, in 1756, John Mickleborough, 
B.D., sometime vicar, bequeathed 100 for the like 
purpose. Edward Noyes, esq., in 1801 bequeathed 
27, the interest to repair his tomb and the surplus 
to the poor in bread. Thomas Carrington in 1820 
bequeathed 20, the interest to the poor in bread. 
Thomas Wicks, cook of Emmanuel college, gave 
the altar piece in 1833. Elizabeth Cook, widow 
of the great capt. James Cook, by will 8 April, 
1833, gave 1000 consols, the dividends to re- 
pair the monuments of herself and family, 2 to 
the minister, and the residue to five poor aged 
women of good character not receiving parish relief. 
The rev. John Cooper, M.A., late vicar, gave 
bells. William Knowles, esq., of 9 Wilton street, 
Grosvenor place, Middlesex, in 1855 bequeathed 
166. 3s. &d. consols, the dividends to be distributed 
yearly to ten elderly women of good character. 

A small portion of this parish is included in 
S. Paul's ecclesiastical district. 

The ancient monastic and academical foundations 
in this parish were, the house of Dominican friars 

() An old chalice belonging to this church, and weighing 8 oz. 13 dwt., 
has the following barbarous inscription : 

THIS FOE SENT TANDROS PARES IN KAMBREGE. 



S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 



215 



(now Emmanuel college), God's house (now Christ's 
college), S. Nicholas' hostel, (fl) Hud's hostel, (6) and S. 
Michael's hostel. (c) 

The baptists (d) have a large chapel in S. Andrew's 

(a) A hostel of S. Nicholas, situate in the parish of S. John the 
Baptist, was purchased of Simon Dallyng, clerk, by Henry VI. for the 
site of King's college. It is probable that at that period the students 
migrated to this parish. 

The hostel of S. Nicholas was situate on the eastern side of S. Andrew's 
street (anciently termed Preachers' street). In 1582 this hostel is designated 
as the messuage of Simon Watson. It became the property of Emmanuel 
college soon after the foundation of that house, and sir Henry Killigrew 
gave 140 in order that a portion of it might be converted into lodgings 
for Laurence Chaderton, the first master of the society. 

Fuller was much misinformed as to the site of S. Nicholas hostel, 
stating that it stood opposite Christ's college (whereas it was on the same 
side of the street), and that it was in his time a private house with the 
public name of the Brazen George. 

He adds that the scholars were as eminent for hard study as infamous 
for their brawling by night. 

Amongst the distinguished men of S. Nicholas' hostel, which was 
appropriated wholly or chiefly to students in canon and civil law, were : 
Rowland Lee, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, died 1542-3 ; John 
Dakyn, LL.D., archdeacon of the east riding of York, died 1558 ; Michael 
Dunning, LL.D., principal of the hostel, chancellor of Norwich, and arch- 
deacon of Bedford, died 1558; John Rokeby, LL.D., civilian and diplo- 
matist, died 1573; and Eliseus Price, LL.D., civilian, died about 1605. 

(6) Now the Castle inn opposite Emmanuel college. 

(c) S. Michael's hostel is said to have stood on the site of the inn 
called the Brazen George, which is now occupied by the Post Office and 
adjacent buildings. It was apparently disused as a hostel before 1521. 

(d) The founders of nearly all the dissenting congregations in Cambridge- 
shire, were Francis Holcroft, M.A., fellow of Clare hall and ejected vicar of 
Bassingbourn, and Joseph Oddy, fellow of Trinity college and ejected 
vicar of Meldreth. Mr. Oddy died 3 May, 1687, and Mr. Holcroft 
(who had been much persecuted during the reign of Charles II.) 6 
Jan. 1692-3. 

When James II. granted a general toleration to the dissenters, those 
residing in Cambridge set up a meeting-house on Hog hill (now S. Andrew's 
hill) in the parish of S. Benedict. The famous Joseph Hussey was their 
pastor from 19 Oct., 1691, till Jan., 1719-20, when he, removed to 
London, leaving behind him an audience of above one thousand persons 
and a church of more than one hundred and fifty members. He was 



216 S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

street, erected in 1836, (on the site of a former 
one) from the design of John Smith, esq. architect. 

born at Fordingbridge, Hants., 31 Mar., 1660, died in Hoxton square 
near London, 15 Nov., 1726, and was author of various theological 
publications including above thirty sermons preached at Cambridge. 

During Mr. Hussey's pastorate the presbyterians withdrew and estab- 
lished a meeting-house in Green street. 

Fresh dissensions ensued on his departure from Cambridge. In 
1721 a portion of his congregation seceded and fitted up as a meeting- 
house a stable and granary in a place called the Stoneyard in Great 
S. Andrew's. This new congregation was split into two in 1723, the 
seceders having a meeting-house in Barn well. 

The Stoneyard congregation was further divided by disputes between 
the anabaptists and psedobaptists. The former fitted up as a meeting 
house a barn called Miller's barn in Great S. Andrew's. It was opened 
16 April, 1726. 

The congregations of Stoneyard and Miller's barn were soon afterwards 
re-united and met again in Stoneyard, 9 Nov., 1727. A mixed com- 
munion was established and Andrew Harper was appointed minister. 
He was succeeded, in 1745, by Geo. Simpson, M.A. of Aberdeen, a rigid 
baptist. After many disputes the meeting house in Stoneyard was for 
a short time closed, but was subsequently occupied by the baptists, who 
in 1759 invited Robert Robinson to become their pastor, and after two 
years of trial he accepted the office. He was born at Swaffham, 
Norfolk, 8 Oct., 1735, and died at Birmingham, 8 June, 1790. He was 
a man of great learning and author of The History of Baptism, Eccle- 
siastical Researches, and other works. At the close of his life he adopted 
anti-trinitarian opinions, declaring however that he was "neither a 
socinian nor an arian." 

The meeting house at Stoneyard was rebuilt in 1764 and thenceforth 
became known as S. Andrew's meeting. 

To Mr. Robinson succeeded Robert Hall, M.A., a man of consummate 
ability and exemplary piety, who continued here till 1806. He subsequently 
settled at Leicester and ultimately at Bristol, where he died 21 Feb. 
1831, set. 67. His works, with a biographical memoir by Olinthus Gregory, 
LL.D., were published, Lond. 6 vols. 8vo. 1833. 

Mr. William Adams, who died 7 Aug. 1849, bequeathed 330 to this 
congregation for clothing the poor. 

Charles Finch Foster, alderman, in 1858 gave a handsome mansion in 
S. Andrew's street as a residence for the minister of this chapel. 

In the chapel are memorials for : 

Rev. Rob. Roff, 29 Nov. 1850, ag. 51, twelve years minister. 

Rich. Foster [sometime mayor and alderman] 2 Apr., 1859, set. 77. 
In simple reliance upon his Redeemer he adorned his doctrine by a zealous 



8. ANDREW THE GKEAT. 217 

The independents have also a chapel in Downing 
lane. (a) 

The once noted inns, the Falcon, (6) the Brazen 

and cheerful discharge of the duties of public and private life. By a 
large hearted beneficence, combined with a firm adherence to his own 
principles, he gained the love and esteem of all classes. 

In the small burial ground adjoining are several monuments, including 
one to : 

Tho. Hovell [sometime mayor] 30 Apr., 1837, ag. 80. 

(a) The early history of the Cambridge dissenters i,s alluded to in the 
preceding note. The congregation of which Joseph Hussey was pastor 
was originally presbyterian, but independeat or congregational views 
predominating, the presbyterians in 1696 withdrew to Green street. 

The congregation of Downing lane represents that of Hussey, and the 
following is a list of his successors in the ministry : 

1722, Mr. Throgmorton ; 1734, Mr. Dadley; 1736, Mr. Shire; 1739, 
John Conder; 1757, Mr. Sibly; 1763, Mr. Darby; 1768, Joseph Saunders; 
1789, Mr. Gardner; 1806, William Harris; 1818, Rob. Lee; 1820, Sam. 
Thodey; 1848, Geo. Burden Bubier; 1855, Mat. Trotter; 1859, Tho. 
Campbell Finlayson. 

John Conder, born at Wimpole, 3 June, 1714, removed from Cambridge 
to Homerton, where he died 30 May, 1781. He was D.D., author of various 
publications, including two sermons preached at Cambridge, and a man of 
much piety and worth. 

William Harris, who on leaving Cambridge became tutor at Hoxton 
academy and LL.D., was author of Grounds of Hope for the salvation of 
all dying in infancy : an essay. Lond. 8vo. 1821. 

We cannot ascertain at what period the congregation removed from 
Hog hill to Downing lane, nor when the existing chapel was erected, but 
it was probably shortly before 1792 when a Church and King mob made 
an attack on the building. Cooper's Ann. of Camb. iv. 445. 

In the chapel is a tablet in memory of: 

Rev. Joseph Saunders, 28 Aug. 1788, ag, 50, twenty years pastor. 

On the wall outside is another commemorating : 

Joseph Thodey (bro. of rev. Sam.) 27 Oct, 1835, ag. 32. 

Mary Lythell, widow, in 1801 settled 400 stock to augment the income 
of the minister. 

William Mason, shoemaker, (compiler of a collection of hymns) gave 
to the trustees of this chapel, on the death of his son (who is still living) 
the residue of his personal estate and effects. 

Adjoining the chapel is a neat residence for the minister. 

(&) The Falcon was given in 1504 to the prior and convent of Barnwell, 
by Richard King, of Wisbech, and Agnes his wife, for services for their 
souls and the souls of their ancestors. 



218 S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 

George, (a} and the Bishop Blase (6) were wholly or 
partly in this parish. The Castle, the Birdbolt, (c) 
and the Wrestlers, (d] which still exist, are inns of 
some antiquity. 

Although it has long ceased to be an inn, many of the buildings 
remain. The galleries which surround the court yard were used on 
occasion of dramatic performances. 

When, in 1565, William Fulke (afterwards master of Pembroke hall) 
was expelled from his fellowship at S. John's, he lodged at the Falcon 
and supported himself by the delivery of public lectures there. 

Koger lord North of Kirtling, lord lieutenant of the county and high 
steward of the town, who died in 1600, appears constantly to have used 
this house when he came to Cambridge. 

It was frequented by the gentlemen of the county as late as 1731, 
when they met here and entered into a subscription for the relief of the 
sufferers by a fire at Barnwell. 

The street in which the Falcon stood is called the Petty Cury, which 
it appears from ancient deeds is synonymous with Little Cookery. See 
Cooper's Annals of Camb,, i. 273; Notes and Queries, 1 ser. iv. 120, 194; 
Communications to Camb. Antiq. Soc., i. 63. 

Part of the Falcon was in the parish of S. Mary the great. 

(a) The Brazen George is mentioned in 1521 as belonging to Thomas 
Warde. 

(6) The Bishop Blase, which was partly in the parish of S. Benedict, 
occupied the site of the house known as Llandaff house, which was 
erected by Richard Watson, bishop of Llandaff, but has since his death 
been used as private schools. The conversion of the inn into a dwelling 
house for the bishop occasioned the following epigram by Mansel (after- 
wards bishop of Bristol) : 

Two of a trade can ne'er agree 

No proverb can be juster 

They've taken down Bishop Blase ye see 

To put up Bishop Bluster. 

(c) In a licence from Henry Butts, D.D., vice-chancellor, to William 
Pether, 2nd March, 1630-1, this house is called the Hanging Birdbolt. 

(d) The Wrestlers and adjoining messuages were conveyed by John 
Hills and Frances his wife to William Crane, gent., 21 Sept., 1656, for 
440. 

An opinion long prevailed that Jeremy Taylor was born at this house. 
It is certain, however, that he was a native of the parish of the Holy 
Trinity. 







OLD HOUSES, 

PETTY CURY, S. ANDREW THE GREAT. 




REMAINS OF BARNWELL PRIORY. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. . 

THE history of this parish, which is not un- 
frequently called BARNWELL, (O) is connected with that 
of the largest and most important monastic insti- 
tution in the town. 

BARNWELL PRIORY. In or before 1092 Hugolina 
wife of Picot sheriff of the county of Cambridge, 
was taken dangerously ill at Cambridge. She 
was given over by the king's physicians and other 
medical men who were called to her assistance. 
Upon this she vowed to God and S. Giles (whom 
she regarded as her peculiar patron) that if she 

(a) It is said to have derived its name from a well or spring to which 
children (barns) resorted yearly on the eve of S. John the- Baptist to 
amuse themselves with wrestling and other sports. 

Parts of Barnwell are in the parishes of S. Benedict and the Holy 
Trinity. 



220 g. ANDREW THE LESS. 

recovered she would establish a house of religion 
and dedicate the same to God and S. Giles. To 
this vow her husband assented. Three days after- 
wards she perfectly recovered, upon which she and 
her husband, after consulting Remigius (a) bishop of 
Lincoln (in whose diocese Cambridge was then 
situate), built a church to the honour of S. Giles 
with convenient apartments near the castle of Cam- 
bridge, in which they placed six canons regular, 
under the superintendence of Geoffrey canon of 
Huntingdon, a very religious man. Picot gave 
to this society the churches of S. Giles Cambridge, 
Guilden Morden with the chapel of Redreth, Tad- 
low, Bourn with the chapel of the castle and the 
chapel of Caldecot, Comberton, Madingley, Rampton, 
Harston, and Hinxton. Also two parts of the tithes 
of all the demesnes of all his knights pertaining to 
the barony of Bourn in Cambridgeshire: viz. of 
Quy, Stow, Waterbeach, Milton, Impington, Histon, 
Girton, Oakington, Rampton, Cottenharn, Lolworth, 
Trumpington, Haslingfield, Harlton, Eversden, Toft, 
Caldecot, Kingston, Wimpole, Croydon, Hatley, Pam- 
pisford, and Aldewinde. 

In 1112 the canons removed to a new and spacious 
monastery erected at Barnwell (6) by Pain Peverel, 
who had been standard bearer in the holy land to 

(a) Anselm archbishop of Canterbury is said to have been consulted 
with Remigius respecting the foundation, but he was not archbishop till 
1093, and Remigius died 7 May, 1092. Anselm is not named in Picot's 
charter of foundation. That charter speaks of canons regular, but it may 
be doubted if the rule of S. Augustine were adopted by the canons before 
their removal to Barnwell. (Cf. Dugdale Monast. ed. Caley, &c. vi. 38.) 

(b) On this place Godilo a man of great piety, leading a solitary life, 
had built a little oratory of wood to the honour of S, Andrew the apostle. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 221 

Eobert duke of Normandy, and to whom Henry I. 
granted the estates of Picot, which had been for- 

But being dead a little before, had left the place without inhabitant and 
his oratory without a keeper. 

Henry I. granted the site (13 acres) to the canons at the request of 
Pain Peverel. By the same charter he gave them the tithes of his 
demesnes of Cambridge, and confirmed the grant of the churches of S. Giles 
and Comberton. 

Charters of confirmation were given by Hervey and Nigellus bishops of 
Ely, and Theobald archbishop of Canterbury. 

William Peverel confirmed the donations of Pain his father, and more- 
over gave half a hide of land in Bourn. 

Ralph de Waterville gave the advowson of Burton upon Strather in Lin- 
colnshire, and the grant was confirmed by his sisters Ascelina de Waterville 
and Maud de Diva, and by William Fitz Otho who married his niece Maud. 

Hugh Domesman, prior, gave 140 acres of land and many houses in 
Cambridge, and two hides of land in Madingley. 

Sir Everard de Beche contributed largely to the rebuilding of the church 
during the priorate of Robert Joel. 

Eustace de Picot in 1193, gave lands in Madingley. 

Geoffrey Peche is said to have given the church of Harston to find 
habits for the canons, but this was perhaps only a confirmation, as that 
church occurs in Picot's charter. 

William de Kilkenny, bishop of Ely, in 1256 bequeathed to the priory 
200 marks for founding two divinity exhibitions at Cambridge. 

The following lands in Cambridge were given before 1273: Earl 
David, 2 acres before the gate of the church ; the countess Maud, 2 
acres; Dunnig (great grandfather of Hervey Dunnig) and Maud his 
wife, 55 acres; Alketille, 50 acres; Hervey Dunnig, 3 messuages; 
William, son of Baldwin Blangermun, 2 messuages and 92 acres ; William 
Waubert, 4 acres; Steph. de Haukeston, 7 acres; Joel, father of prior 
Robert, a messuage and 6 acres; Tho. Toylet, 51 acres, a croft, and 15d. 
rent; Walt, de Wyshunden, 10s. rent; Roys, son of Reginald de Marisco, 

2 acres ; Isabel de Nedingworthe, one acre ; Eustace de Nedeham, half an 
acre; Acius Frere, 4 messuages, 6 acres, and 13s. rent; Joh. le Kaleys and 
Basilia his wife, 40 acres; Tho. Plote, a messuage and 5 roods; Rich. 
Bateman, 12s. rent; Earth. Gogging, 2 acres; Will, de Preston, 2 mes- 
suages ; Nich. de Hemingford (son of sir Will, de Hemingford) 3 acres ; 
William Clerk, a messuage and lands; Adam Weriel, 2 messuages and 
a croft ; Jer. de Bernewelle, a messuage ; Geoff, de Bernewelle, chaplain, 
a messuage and 5 acres; Rich, de Stanesfeld, a messuage; -Hen. Melt, 

3 acres ; Geoff. Melt, a messuage and 5 roods. [The benefactions of Rich. 
Bateman and Geoff. Melt were purchased with monies given to acquit 
them of Judaism.] 



222 8. ANDREW THE LESS. 

felted by his son Robert who fled the kingdom on 
a charge of treason. Pain Peverel augmented the 
endowment and increased the number of canons. 
On occasion of the removal of the canons to their 
new habitation, there was a vast concourse both of 
the clergy and laity, including the burgesses of 
Cambridge. 

The church erected by Pain Peverel was replaced 
by a larger one built during the priorate of Robert 
Joel, and dedicated to the honour of S. Andrew and 
S. Giles, 11 kal. Maii, 1191, by William Longchamp, 
bishop of Ely, who granted forty days indulgence 
upon the occasion. 

King John gave the prior and convent 10 in 
silver, and on 27 April in the first year of his 
reign [1199], granted them the town of Chesterton 
at fee farm. He also granted them a fair at Barn- 
well commencing on Midsummer eve. (a) 

On the death of William Peverel (the second 
founder's son) the patronage of the priory passed 

Robert de Fulburn in 1276, gave a stone house opposite S.. Sepulchre's 
church, and at his death in 1286, forgave 300 marks owing to him by the 
house, to which he bequeathed abundance of silver cups and dishes, a great 
collection of books and other things. 

Joh. Keynsham, alderman, about 1502, gave a messuage for a yearly 
obiit for his soul and that of Joan his wife. 

Rich. King, of Wisbech, and Agnes his wife, in 1504 gave the Falcon in 
the Petty Cury, and a messuage, &c. near the gate of the friars preachers in 
Cambridge, on condition that the convent performed certain annual services 
for their souls and the souls of their ancestors. 

(a) The charters of John were confirmed by Hen. in. Edw. I. 
Edw. II. Edw. III. Ric. II. Edw. IV. and Rio. III. 

Edw. II. by a charter, 15 Oct. 1313, freed the prior and convent from 
tallages for all their estate in Cambridge. 

Richard II. by a charter granted during his residence in this priory, 
16 Oct. 1388, extended the duration of the fair belonging to this house. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 223 

to Hamon Peclie who married his daughter, and from 
him to his son Gilbert who died before 1217, his 
grandson Hamon who died 1241, and his great 
grandson Gilbert. The latter by a deed dated at 
Barnwell the first Sunday in advent, 1256, gave 
the canons free leave to elect a prior, reserving to 
himself and his heirs merely the power of con- 
firmation, and a limited right of taking possession 
during a vacancy. This deed was confirmed by 
Edw. I. 12 May, 1284. 

In 49 Hen. III. the prior was summoned to 
parliament, but the summons was not repeated. 

In 1266 the adherents of the insurgent barons 
committed great excesses at the priory, and con- 
ducted themselves with extreme insolence towards 
the prior. The next year the king came to Cam- 
bridge which he fortified. With him came his 
brother Richard earl of Poictou and Cornwall, 
and king of the Romans, who lodged in this priory. 
As soon, however, as the king had left Cambridge 
it was retaken by the insurgents who would have 
destroyed this house but for the intercession of 
Sir Hugh Peche and his brother. The prior not- 
withstanding his devotion to the royal cause was 
subsequently treated with great ingratitude by 
William de S. Omer, the king's justiciary, who 
quartered himself and his family on the prior for 
a year, and wound up all by fining him for an 
alleged misdemeanour. 

In the night of S. Blase's day (3 Feb.) 1287-8, a 
terrible flash of lightning set fire to the tower of 
the church. The fire which raged all that night 



224 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

and till sunset the following day did great damage 
to the church and other buildings. The necessary- 
repairs appear to have been effected by 6 March, 
1288-9, when the church was reconciled by John 
de Kirkeby, bishop of Ely. 

John de Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury ? 
made a visitation of this priory. 

Previously to the arrival of Edw. I. at Cambridge 
in March, 1293, the royal cofferer deposited 1000 
in the dormitory of the priory, and during the 
king's visit his chancellor John de Langton lodged 
in the priory. The royal horses to the number of fifty 
were at Barnwell under the care of Adam de Kiston. 

The chancellor of the university in 1294, ex- 
communicated the prior and one of the canons for 
refusing to obey his citations. They appealed to the 
archdeacon of Ely. He was inhibited by the bishop's 
official who absolved the parties on their giving 
security till the arrival of the bishop. 

Edward II. was at the priory 18th 19th and 20th 
of Feb. 1325-6. 

During the great riot in June, 1381, the insur- 
gents made a violent attack on this house, treading 
down the prior's close and cutting and carrying 
away a great number of trees. On the 23rd July, 
Thomas Arundel, bishop of Ely, directed his letter 
requiring the clergy to admonish all persons guilty 
of these outrages to make restitution or compensation 
and in the event of three monitions proving ineffec- 
tual, they were to incur the greater excommuni- 
cation. 

In Sept. and Oct. 1388, Richard II. resided in 



8. ANDREW THE LESS. 225 

this priory and held the parliament there. On 
27 Sept., John Fordham, bishop of Ely, made his 
profession of obedience to the see of Rome in the 
choir of the conventual church before archbishop 
Courtenay, and the king being present gave him pos- 
session of the temporalities of the see. 

Disputes between the prior and convent and the 
corporation of the town, which had occasioned a 
variety of legal proceedings, were terminated by 
an award of arbitrators made 22 Jan. 1505-6, 
and on 18 June, 1506, another award was made 
for terminating disputes between this house and the 
university. 

The prior of this house was ex-officio the crown 
receiver of all taxes payable by the clergy of the 
diocese of Ely. 

Synods of the diocese were frequently held in 
the conventual church, and at one of them John 
Alcock, bishop of Ely, delivered a discourse which 
he caused to be printed with the punning title : 
" Gallicantus Johannis Alcock Episcopi Eliensis ad 
confratres suos curatos in sinodo apud Bernwell xxv 
die mensis Septembris, A.D. 1498." In another 
synod held here 9 July, 1528, the celebration 
of mass in "ruggid gownes" was prohibited, and 
rectors and curates were forbidden to use the new 
translation of the Bible. About the close of 1529 
Nicholas West, bishop of Ely, preached in the 
church of this priory against Hugh Latimer, whose 
sermons in behalf of the reformation were then 
causing much controversy. 

The judges of assize usually lodged at this priory. 
VOL. m. Q 



226 S. ANDREA THE LESS. 

We find mention of the chapels of S. Peter or 
the infirmary chapel ; S. Mary and S. Edmund ; 
and S. Hugh or the almonry chapel ; the gilds of 
S. Mary, S. Catharine, (a) and S. Nicholas; and of 
the altars, lights and images of S. Mary, S. Giles, 
S. Christopher, S. Catharine, S. Nicholas, the Holy 
Sepulchre, S. Augustine, and S. Thomas. 

The house was surrendered to Hen. VIII. 8 Nov. 
1538, by John Badcock prior, and six canons. (6) 

(a) There was a house called Seynt Kateryns house in the street of 
Barnwell which was leased by the prior and convent of Barnwell to 
Stephen Neylson for eighty years at the rent of 5s. by indenture dated 
31 Jan. 12 Edw. IV. [1472-3]. It consisted of a hall with two chambers 
in the upper part of the hall, a garret over both chambers, a kitchen in 
the lower part of the hall and a rye chamber. The lessees granted that 
the aldermen, brethren and sisters of the gild of S. Catharine might at 
their pleasure dine together and hold the gild in this house. 

(6) The following is a list of the priors : 

1092, Geoffrey. -He survived the removal to Barnwell where he was 
buried. 

1113, cir. Gerard. 

Hie. Norrel, resigned after two years and went to France. 

1116, cir. Hugh Domesman, prior twenty years. 

Rob. Joel, prior thirty-three years, lived three years afterwards, 

bur. at Barnwell. 

1197, Robert occurs. 

1207, cir. Will, de Devon, died 25 Jan., 1213-4, bur. at Barnwell. 

1213, Nov. 2, Will, de Bedford, died a few days afterwards, bur. at 
Barnwell. 

1214, Ric. de Burgh, died soon after election, bur. at Barnwell. 

1215, cir. Laur. de Stanesfeld, died in thirty-eighth year of his priorate, 
bur. at Barnwell. 

1 253, cir. Hen. de Eye, resigned in the third year of his priorate, died 
fourteen years afterwards, bur. at Barnwell. 

1256, cir. Jolan de Thorley, resig. 1266, bur. at Barnwell. 

1266, Oct. 11, Simon de Ascellis, M.A. Oxon. resigned 1297, died same 
year, bur. at Barnwell. 

1297, Benedict de Welton, received temporalities 3 Jul. resigned 1316. 

1316, Dec. 3, Fulk. 

1329-30, Joh. de Quy alias Oxney. 

1340, Dec. 23, Joh. de Brunne. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 227 

The site of the priory, the tithes of the parish, 
and lands which had belonged to the priory, (a) were 
granted 38 Hen. VIII. to sir Anthony Brown, K.G. 
and 6 Edw. VI. to Edward Fiennes, alias Clinton 
lord Clinton, afterwards earl of Lincoln. (6) 

1350, Ralph de Norton, received temporalities 1 Jul. 

1383, cir. Tho. de Canterbury. 

1392, Job. Bernewell alias Outlawe. 

1408-9, Jan. 14, William Downe, died 1428. 

1428, Joh. Chateriz, received temporalities 3 Dec. 

1434, Joh. Page, received temporalities 22 Mar. 1434-5. 

1441, Joh. Poket, received temporalities, 24 May, d. 28 Aug., 1464, bur. 
at Barnwell. 

1464, Sept. 24, Joh. Whaddon, received temporalities, 27 Oct. resig. 
10 Nov. 1474. 

1474, Nov. 26, Will. Tebald, received temporalities, 14 Dec. 

1489, Sep. 3, Joh. Leveryington, received temporalities, 14 Feb. 1489-90. 

1495, Will. Rayson alias Cambridge, received temporialites, 18 Dec. 

1522, Tho. Rawlyn alias Cambridge, received temporalities, 10 Jul. 
resig. 15..., died 1543. 

1530, cir. Nic. Smith, resig. 1534, living 1551. 

1534, Nov. 24, Joh. Badcock, afterwards rector of Upwell, died about 
1562. 

Laurence de Stanesfeld, prior, was author of The Sufferings of the 
Saints, 3 vols. 

Ralph de Coggeshall, the historian, who died about 1230, is said to 
have been sometime a canon of this house. 

Amongst those buried in the priory, were Pain Peverel, many of the 
family of Peche, sir Everard de Beche, Rob. de Fulburn, Tho. Toylet, 
Acius Frere, Maud Picot, and sir Thomas Cheyne (1489.) 

(a) The estates of the priory at the dissolution were valued at 
256. 11s. lOd. per annum according to one account, and at 351. 15s. 4</. 
according to another. 

In 1540 there were found in the priory church six bells weighing 25 cwt, 
and the materials of the church were valued at 65. Is. 2d. 

(b) Lord Clinton married Elizabeth the widow of sir Anthony Brown. 
The site was the property of Thomas Wendy, esq., as early as 1556. 
On 2 Aug. in that year the corporation deputed the mayor and some of 
the aldermen to go to Mr. Wendy with an honest present, and to 
commune with him concerning the buying of Barnwell or otherwise 
having the same as they can agree. In 1650 it was the estate of another 
Tho. Wendy, esq. Soon afterwards (but how or at what precise time we 
have not ascertained) it came to sir Thomas Chicheley of Wimpole, who 

Q2 



228 S. ANDEEW THE LESS, 

A register of the priory, a fine volume on vellum 
extending from the foundation to about 1297, was 
formerly the property of Richard Farmer, D.D., the 
noted antiquary. At the sale of his library in 1798 
it was purchased by Mr. Gough, who bequeathed it 
with his other vast topographical collections to the 
Bodleian library at Oxford. An abstract by Thomas 
Rutherforth, rector of Papworth, S. Agnes, was pub- 
lished by John Nichols, P.S.A., Lond., 4to, 1786. (a) 

The common seal appended to the surrender is 
large and oval, having thereon a prior in full canoni- 

exchanged it in 1659 for an estate at Orwell with Neville Alexander 
Butler, attorney-at-law. He resided here and it is recorded that he was 
the first owner of the priory who lived therein since the dissolution. 
He died March, 1674-5, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son 
Ambrose Butler, who died March, 1685-6, when it came to his posthumous 
daughter Vere, who dying 1689 it was inherited by her uncle John Butler, 
LL.D., rector of Wallington, Hertfordshire, who died in May, 1714, when 
it descended to his eldest son Jacob Butler, M.A. of Christ's college, and 
barrister-at-law. He was a most eccentric character, and in 1756 sold it 
to George 'Riste, alderman of Cambridge, for 10,500, and after a suit 
in chancery for specific performance it was conveyed in 1760. Mr. Riste 
by will dated 17 Feb. 1761, devised it to trustees for sale. Anne, wife of 
Joseph Bentham, alderman of Cambridge, and sister to Mr. Riste, in 1763 
conveyed it to Thomas Panton, esq. Under a settlement made on the 
marriage in 1767 of his son of the same name the estates ultimately 
passed to Priscilla Barbara Elizabeth, baroness Willoughby of Eresby, 
wife of Peter lord Gwydir, and the hon. Peter Rob. Drummond Burrell 
their son, by whom it was sold in 1813 to James Geldart, M.A., then of 
Trinity college, afterwards LL.D. of Trinity hall and rector of Kirkdeighton, 
Yorkshire. He disposed of considerable portions. The residue belongs 
to his sons. 

It was formerly customary for the corporation of Cambridge to visit 
Barnwell priory annually on the 16th of June, when the proprietor re- 
galed them with gammons of bacon, stewed prunes, cream, strong beer, 
and cake, the corporation sending wine and sugar. The custom was kept 
up in 1669. It probably originated before the dissolution. 

(a) See also some account of Barnwell Priory in the parish of S. 
Andrew the Less, Cambridge, by Marmaduke Prickett, M.A., chaplain of 
Trin. coll. Cambr. 8vo. 1837. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 




THE ABBEY CHUBCH, 1838. 



cals with a pastoral staff bearing in his left hand a 
book. The inscription " Sigillum Ecclesiae Sancti 
Egidii de Bernewell." Another seal was oval with 
two figures beneath a double canopy, one mitred 
giving the benediction with a crosier in the right 
hand, the other in a mass habit caressing a hind 
and intended for S. Giles. Below beneath a sepa- 
rate arch a canon of S. Augustine kneeling. The 
inscription " Sigillum prioris et conventus de Berne- 
well ad causas." 

THE ABBEY CHURCH. The ancient parochial 
chapel of Barnwell has long been known by this 
designation, although it is conjectured with much 
apparent reason, that it was merely a chapel attached 
to the church of the priory. It was served by one 
of the canons until the dissolution, when it was 
placed under the charge of a clergyman nominated 
by the owner of the priory estate, who held the 
great tithes as impropriator. 



230 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

William Bagley, minister of Barnwell from 1649 
till his death in 1665, received for serving the cure 
16 per annum from the impropriator. The com- 
missioners for providing preaching ministers in 1650 
recommended that those parts of the parishes of 
S. Benedict and the Holy Trinity, which are situate 
in Barnwell, should be united to S. Andrew the 
less. 

About 1835 the advowson was purchased by the 
rev. Charles Perry, (now bishop of Melbourne). 

The most eminent ministers of this parish have 
been Richard Hurd, afterwards bishop of Worcester; 
Richard Farmer, afterwards master of Emmanuel 
college; Richard Relhan, the botanist; and William 
Pulling, an extraordinary linguist. George Fisk, 
LL.B., now prebendary of Lichfield and vicar of 
Great Malvern, the author of A Pastor's Memorial of 
the Holy Land and other works, was minister 
1833 to 1835. 

This church or chapel which measures only 70 
feet by 18, is a plain early english structure without 
aisles. There is no external separation of nave and 
chancel, but the traces of a rood-screen and gallery 
may be perceived cutting off about one-third of the 
area eastward for the latter purpose. (a) It has plain 
long early english windows, and two good doorways 
of the same character. The west end has a pair 
of lancets, and the east end a triplet with shafts and 
mouldings. (6) There are remains of a piscina, and 

(a) The rood screen richly carved, coloured, and gilt, was remaining 
in 1826. 

(6) The east window is engraved in Brandon's Analysis; the south 
doorway and east window in Notes on the Cambridgeshire Churches. 




INTERIOR OF THE EAST END. 



8. ANDREW THE LESS. 231 

on the north side of the altar is an ancient coffin 
lid. 

In 1846, the structure having become much dila- 
pidated, was closed as unfit for divine service, but 
in 1854 the work of restoration was undertaken by 
the Cambridge Architectural society, and has been 
carried out with much propriety. The incorporated 
society for building churches contributed 130. 

At the west end two apertures in the gable, 
which had evidently contained bells, have been re- 
opened, and two bells of good tune are now placed 
therein. 

Since 1856 it has been again constantly used for 
divine worship, although it has ceased to be the 
church of the parish. 

There are 200 free sittings. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

At the western end of the churchyard are six tablets, re- 
moved in 1854 from the chancel. They commemorate numerous 
members of the family of Butler, commencing with Thomas 
Butler, esq. of Gray's inn, barrister at law, (son of Nicholas) 
bur. at Orwell, 1 Feb., 1621, and concluding with Jacob Butler, 
esq. of Gray's inn, M.A. of this university, who died 28 May, 
1765, ag. 84, and Kose his wife who died 5 May, 1778, ag. 87. 
Also the following persons connected with the family : Ambrose 
Aglionby, esq. of the Inner Temple, barrister at law, bur. at 
Orwell, 22 Nov., 1651 ; Edward son of Joh. Moore, bp. of Ely, 
by Rose his wife (daughter of Neville Alex. Butler) bur. here, 
9 March, 1690 ; Mrs. Bodendike, wid. of Jacob Bodendike of 
S. Martin's-le-grand, London, goldsmith, bur. here 5 Nov. 1729, 
ag. 92. 

Three of the tablets relate to Jacob Butler, of whom it is 
said (or more correctly speaking who says of himself), " His in- 
variable steadiness in the cause of liberty would have intitled him 



232 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

to rewards in any age or country where virtue was not a crime, 
and corruption the safest path to honour. As his sentiments 
relating to the public were founded in principle, so was his 
conduct in private life; wherein it would be hard to decide 
whether his conjugal affection, his firmness in friendship, or 
benevolence in charity truly Christian, shone the brightest ; 
for he was conspicuous in all. In the year 1754, to stem the 
venality and corruption of the time he offered himself candidate 
to represent this county in parliament, unsupported by the 
influence of the great, the largess of the wealthy, or any interest 
but that his single character could establish, the esteem of all 
honest men and lovers of their country. But when he found 
the struggles for freedom faint and ineffectual, and his spirits 
too weak to resist the efforts of its enemies, he contented himself 
with the testimony of those few friends who dared to be free, 
and of his own unbiassed conscience, which, upon this as well as 
every other occasion, voted in his favour; and upon these 
accounts he was justly intitled to the name of the OLD BRITON." 
This modest account is followed by curious particulars of various 
law-suits in which he was engaged. The conclusion is " He 
feared his God ; he honoured his king ; he despised his foes ; 
and valued his friends." 

CHRIST'S CHURCH, situate on the Newmarket road, 
was opened 24 May, 1839, and consecrated by 
Dr. Allen, bishop of Ely, 27 June in the same 
year. The cost of erection, which exceeded 3800, 
was defrayed by subscription^ and by grants from 

(a) The principal subscriptions are subjoined : Jesus coll., 300 ; rev. 
Cha. Perry (now bishop of Melbourne), 200; Mrs. Perry of Moor hall, 
Essex, rev. Will. Carus, M.A., fell., Trin. coll., and Chris. Pemberton, esq., 
100 each; rev. Joh. Brown, M.A., vicemaster of Trin. coll., and rev. Ja. 
Will. Geldart, LL.D., 52. 10s. each ; Trin. coll., S. Peter's coll., Queens' 
coll., Pembroke coll., Corpus Christi coll., Christ's coll., Miss A. Perry, 
Tho. Mortlock, esq., M.A., rev. Geo. Will. Craufurd, M.A., fell. King's coll., 
Edm. Davy Mortlock, B.D., fell. Chr. coll., A. Gordon, esq., of Wandsworth 
common, rev. Algernon Langton Massingberd, M.A. of Trin. coll., a Johnian 
(by rev. H. Jackson), John Grafton, alderman, and James Peterson Twiss, 
each 50. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 



233 




CHRIST'S CHURCH. 



the incorporated church building society and church 
building commissioners. 

It stands north and south and is of brick with 
turrets at the angles. Ambrose Poynter, esq., was 
the architect. 

There are galleries at the west end and on either 
side. The church contains 1400 sittings, half being 
free. 

A commodious vestry hall on the western side 
of the church was erected 1863. 

The conveyance of the site from John James, D.D. to the church building 
commissioners, bears date 29 Aug. 1837. 

By an instrument dated 21 Oct. 1839, the pew rents are assigned for 
stipends to the minister and clerk. 

Under an instrument executed by the church building commissioners, 
the bishop of Ely, the patron, and the incumbent, bearing date ? January, 
1846, this has become the church of the parish to all intents and purposes. 

There is a substantial parsonage house on the northern side of New- 
market road, nearly opposite the church. 



234 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church. 

Fred. Will. Broughton, S. Job. coll. 7 Nov. 1846, ag. 22. 
Erected by teachers and children of Jesus lane Sunday school. 

Joh. Doudney Lane, B.D. rect. of Forncet S. Peter's, Norfolk, 
formerly curate of this parish, and fell, of S. Joh. coll. b. 27 
Nov. 1812, d. 27 Apr. 1847. 

Rev. Rob. Charnley Paley, B.A. of S. Joh. coll. missionary 
in Western Africa, where he died 1 Apr. 1853, ag. 24 ; Louisa 
Mary Anne, his widow died on voyage home, 6 May, 1853, 
ag. 26. Erected by teachers and children of East road girls 
Sunday school. 

In the old churchyard. 

Mary Cath. Eomilly, b. 25 Sept. 1784, d. 7 Dec. 1847 ; Lucy 
Mary Romilly, b. 28 Jul. 1797, d. 4 Apr. 1854, daughter of 
Tho. Pet. Eomilly, esq. of London and Jane Annie his wife. 

Joh. Dan. Leach, stud, of S. Joh. coll. 5 Sept. 1849, ag. 24. 

Joh. Jos. Vernon, sch. of Cath. hall (son of rev. Will. 
Vernon), 29 Dec. 1850, ag. 22. 

Jonat. Holt Titcomb, esq. b. 8 Dec. 1786, d. 1 Oct. 1851. 

Harriet Ellen Sealy, youngest daughter of lieut.-gen. B. 
W. D. Sealy, died at Ventnor, 16 Jul. 1855, ag. 25; Mary 
Anne, wid. of lieut.-gen. Sealy, 2 Oct. 1859, ag. 71. 

Tho. Smith, curator of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 28 Oct. 
1859, a3t. 65. 

In the new churchyard. 

Sarah Pomfret Smith, wife of Elliot Smith, aid. 3 Sept. 1854, 
ag. 48. 

Elizabeth, wid. of lieut. Sam. Bromley, R.N. of Aldboro', 
Suffolk, 25 Jul. 1856, ag. 69. 

Joh. Lock Bailey, surgeon, b. 16 Jan. 1818, d. 17 Nov. 1856. 

Elizabeth Humphreys, dau. of Major Humphreys, Hon. 
E.I.C.S. 11 Mar. 1858, ag. 85. 

S. PAUL'S CHURCH on the Hills' road, to which 
an ecclesiastical district is assigned, was opened 
for service 17 May, 1842, the cost of erection 



S. ANDKEW THE LESS. 235 

being defrayed by subscription^ and grants from 
the incorporated church building society and the 
church building commissioners. It was consecrated 
by Dr. Allen, bishop of Ely, 15 Oct. 1844. 

It is a brick structure with a tower. The architect 
was Ambrose Poynter, esq. 

There are galleries on the sides and at the western 
end. The church will accommodate 900 persons, 
and there are free sittings for half that number. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS: 

In the new churchyard. 

Andr. Murray, curator of the Botanic garden, 4 Jul. 1850, 
ag. 45. 

Susannah, wife of W[ill] J[ay] Bolton of Caius coll. 4 Dec. 
1850, ag. 27. 

Tho. Kattee, 29 Mar. 1855, ag. 34, Elizabeth his mother, 
13 Dec. 1850, ag. 64. 

(a) The following -were amongst the contributors: Adelaide, queen 
dowager, 20; rev. Cha. Perry (now bishop of Melbourne), 200; Caius 
coll., 100; Chris. Pemberton, esq., and Miss A. Perry, 100 each; rev. 
Joh. Brown, M.A., vice-master of Trin. coll., 62. lOa. ; Jesus coll., 50 ; 
Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland, chancellor of the university, rev. 
Jos. Romilly, M.A., registrary of the university, Edm. Davy Mortlock, B.D., 
fell, of Christ's coll., and Mrs. Perry of Regent's park, London, 50 each. 

The conveyance of the site from Caius coll. to the church building 
commissioners, bears date 10 Feb. 1842. 

By an instrument dated 7 August, 1844, 10 per annum from the pew 
rents are assigned to the clerk, and the residue to the minister. 

The governors of queen Anne's bounty, on 13 March, 1845, accepted 
1000 for the further endowment of this church. 

An order by the Queen in council, approving of the bounds of S. Paul's 
district (wherein is comprehended a small portion of the parish of S. 
Andrew the great), was made 30 June, 1845. 

By an instrument dated 15 July, 1845, the right of patronage is vested 
in the rev. Charles Perry, his heirs and assigns. 

A handsome parsonage house has been erected immediately adjoining 
the church. The site was conveyed to the church building commissioners 
by Caius coll. 13 Feb. 1852. 



236 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

Eliz. Anne, only child of Claudius Germas of S. Job. coll. 
16 Dec. 1852, ag. 26. 

Mary Ann Owen, wid. of Cha. Owen, esq. of Chelsea, 
19 Apr. 1857, ag. 83. " She was well known in this town during 
many years, for her warm hearted and unwearied labours for 
the spiritual and temporal good of others, especially of the 
unhappy and erring of her own sex." 

Anne Jane, wife of rev. Edw. Geare, M.A. 29 May, 1860, 
ag. 47. 

Kev. Geo. Pearce, M.A. of Trin. hall, 3 Dec. 1860, ag. 90. 

Rear Adm. Digby Marsh, 5 Jan. 1863, ag. 68 ; Adelaide his 
wife, 14 Feb. 1861, ag. 53. 

S. MAEY MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, STURBKIDGE. A 
hospital for lepers was established in this parish 
before 1199, when the lepers recovered in the king's 
court a free tenement in Comberton, of which Alan 
de Berton had disseised them. 

About 1211 king John granted them a fair in 
the close of the hospital on the vigil and feast of 
the Holy Cross yearly, and this is supposed to 
have been the origin of the famous Sturbridge fair. 

In 1278 it was presented that the advowson of 
the mastership of the hospital belonged to the 
burgesses of Cambridge, but had been taken away 
from them by Hugh de Norwold, bishop of Ely, 
also that the warden of the hospital did not sustain 
any lepers therein as of right he ought to have done. 

The master of the hospital was in 1340 by the 
name of the rector of Steresbrigg charged 27s. to 
the ninth then levied by parliament, 

John Fordham, bishop of Ely, 19 July, 1390, 
granted 40 days indulgence to all aiding the susten- 
tation of this chapel. 



S. ANDEEW THE LESS. 237 

In the valuation of first-fruits made 1534, Stur- 
bridge chapel is rated at 10. 10s. per annum. (a) 

This small but most interesting chapel, consists 
of a chancel and nave. 

(a) In 1376 the corporation made an ordinance prohibiting any burgess 
to take Sturbridge chapel to farm, except to the use of the mayor and 
bailiffs, under the penalty often marks, or to keep market there or make 
any booth there. 

In 1441 there was a suit in exchequer by John Arundell, the warden 
of this chapel, against the late bailiffs of Cambridge as to the right of 
stallage in the chapel yard. He obtained a verdict in his favour. 

On 7 August, 1497, John Fynne, LL.B., perpetual incumbent of this 
free chapel, with the assent of John Alcock, bishop of Ely, the patron, 
and the prior and convent of Ely, demised to the mayor, bailiffs and 
burgesses of Cambridge all lands, and tenements, meadows, feedings, 
pastures, &c. belonging to the chapel (except the chapel itself and fourteen 
feet on every side and at each end) for ninety-nine years at 12 a year, 
and finding yearly on the feast of the nativity of B. V. Mary, and placing 
before the image of B. Mary Magdalen in the said chapel five tapers of 
wax of equal weight and all together weighing 3 Ibs. 

On 27 Sept. 36 Henry VIII. [1544] Thomas, bishop of Ely, the dean 
and chapter of Ely, and Christopher Fulnetby, incumbent of the chapel, 
demised to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses the chapel and all its lands 
(except the advowson) for sixty years at 9 per annum. 

By a survey made Feb. 37, Hen. VIII. [1545-6] it appears that the 
chapel was endowed with 26A. 3R. of land in Cambridge, Chesterton, Ditton, 
and Landbeach. The gross value was 10. 18s. 2d., and the clear value 
5. 18s. 2d. per annum. 

Queen Elizabeth, 22 Feb., 1596-7, leased the chapel and lands to the 
mayor, bailiffs and burgesses for twenty-one years at 9 per annum. 

In 4 James I. the chapel was granted by the crown to Joh. Shelbury 
and Phil. Chewte, gent. 

There were complicated law proceedings, which terminated in 1622, 
between Thomas "Willys and Richard Willys, esquires, and certain burgesses 
of Cambridge as to the right of erecting booths in the chapel yard. The 
burgesses appear to have been ultimately successful. 

The chapel subsequently passed with the Barnwell priory estate to 
George Riste, esq. In 1780 it was sold by his devisee Mrs. Anne Bentham 
to John Gillam, esq. from whom it came to Frederick Markby (afterwards 
alderman), who on 19 Jan. 1816, sold it for 160 to the eminent architec- 
tural antiquary, the rev. Thomas Kerrich, M.A. who presented it to the 
university. By the conveyance dated 29 May, 1817, that body entered 
into a covenant to keep the fabric in repair. 



238 S. ANDREW THE LESS. 

The east window is square, plain, probably per- 
pendicular ; the windows on either side norman, with 
rich jamb-shafts and zigzag arch-mouldings; there 
is a wide segmental-headed doorway on the south 
side, with a norman hood-mould, but not part of the 
original work; it cuts through the string-course 
which is good norman, carved with the saw-tooth; 
the side walls were raised when a new roof was put 
on ; the present roof is perpendicular open timber- 
work, good and simple ; there has been a vault, 
either built or intended, of which the two eastern 
vaulting-shafts remain. On the exterior at the east 
end are two strings ; the lower one under the window 
is worked with the saw-tooth, the upper with the 
triple billet. The chancel-arch is rich norman, 
with shafts having good scallop caps and moulded 
bases; the arch is recessed on the west side only, 
which is much richer than the east side, and has 
zigzag, lozenge, and a sort of norman ball-flower 
ornaments. 

The nave has an original window on each side, 
but the west window has been destroyed. The roof 
is plain perpendicular, similar to the chancel, and 
is supported on the original norman corbels, which 
have been built lower down for that purpose. 

There are good north and south doorways. The 
latter has a bold projecting hood-mould. 

In 1843, 84. 15s. Id. was laid out in the repair of this chapel. Of this 
sum 30 was contributed by the rev. Richard Edward Kerrich, M.A. son of 
the donor. The residue was paid from the university chest. 

Under a grace of the senate passed 13 Nov. 1844, this chapel was used 
as a place of worship by the labourers employed on the construction of the 
Eastern Counties railway. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 239 

On the exterior walls of the nave are two strings, 
similar to those at the east end, the upper one here 
serves for a cornice; there are very good carved 
spring-stones to the copings at the east and west 
ends. (a) 

MIDSUMMER FAIR. This fair originally granted to 
the prior and convent of Barnwell for 3 days (in- 
creased to 15 by Richard II.), was formerly held 
by the corporation under lease from the prior and 
convent of Barnwell, but by the award of 1505-6, 
it became the absolute property of the corporation, 
subject to a small rent. By an act passed in 1850, 
the duration of the fair is limited to three days after 
the day of proclamation (22 June). Although now 
of little importance, it was very famous about a 
century since, figuring as Pot fair in many of the 
ballads and satirical effusions of that period. 

STURBRIDGE FAIR. This, formerly the most flou- 
rishing mart in the kingdom, is still held annually 
on land near Sturbridge chapel. Its history would 
occupy a volume. It must suffice here to state, that 
although anciently attached to the hospital at Stur- 
bridge, it has been for centuries the property of the 
corporation, to whom it was regranted by queen 
Elizabeth, who also gave the university extensive 



(a) See Antiquities of St. Mary's Chapel at Stourbridge, near Cambridge, 
&c. by Job. Sell Cotman, Yarmouth, fo. 1819. This work contains the 
following engravings: 1. N.W. view, 2. S.W. view, 3. N. doorway, 4. 
S. doorway, 5. Interior, 6. Details. These plates are also to be found in 
Cotman's Architectural Etchings. 

The cap of the chancel arch is engraved in Rickman's Gothic Architec- 
ture, the south doorway and window in Notes on the Cambridgeshire 
Churches, and a window in Brandon's Analysis. 



240 8. ANDREW THE LESS. 

privileges which have been abrogated by a recent 
local act of parliament. The fair nominally com- 
mences 18 Sept. and continues till 10 Oct. but there 
is now little business except on 25 Sept. known as 
Horse fair day. 

MISCELLANEOUS. There were great fires in Barn- 
well in 1717, 30 Sept. 1731, and 16 Dec. 1757. 
That of 1731 was so destructive that the church 
and six houses only escaped. The number of houses 
consumed was fifty. 

A timber building near Sturbridge fair was long 
used as a theatre. During the performance 27 Sept. 
1802, when the house was crowded to excess, a false 
alarm of fire was raised by some miscreants who 
were never discovered. In the rush to get out, 
three girls and a boy were trampled to death and 
many persons were much injured. This theatre 
was pulled down in 1806, and another having been 
erected in that part of Barnwell which is in S. 
Benedict's, it was opened 19 Sept. 1808. This was 
in its turn superseded by the present theatre in 
Newmarket road, S. Andrew the Less, which was 
opened 19 Sept. 1814, and is still used during the time 
of Sturbridge fair, and occasionally at other periods. 

An act of parliament for enclosing the open fields 
of this parish received the royal assent 14 Aug. 
1807. The award thereunder bears date 20 April, 
181 l.H The effect of this inclosure was marvellous. 

a. r. p. 

(a) The inclosable lands were . . . 1097 1 

The old inclosures . . . 37 3 34 

Streets, roads, and drains . . 21 2 29 

1156 2 24 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 241 

From being the most inconsiderable parish in the 
town it soon became the most densely populated. 

A chapel of ease was erected near the Mill road 
about 1828 and pulled down in August, 1838. It 
stood on a portion of the land now used as additional 
churchyards by the parishes on the southern side of 
the Cam. 

This cemetery, which was purchased by subscrip- 
tion, (a) was consecrated by Dr. Turton, bishop of 
Ely, attended by the parochial clergy and the mayor 
and council in their formalities, 7 Nov. 1848. 

In the centre of the cemetery is a spacious and 
stately chapel with a handsome spire. The archi- 
tect was Geo. Gilbert Scott, esq. R.A. The rev. 

Allotments in lieu of tithes were made to the representative of Thomas 
Panton, esq., the rector of S. Botolph, the vioar of S. Andrew the great, 
Corpus Christi college, and S. Peter's college. By the act the tithes of 
Jesus college called S. Rhadegund's tithes were to remain. 

The allotment in lieu of the right of soil was made to Peete Musgrave 
as assignee of the corporation. 

Parker's piece, Jesus Green, Midsummer common, Butt green, Stur- 
bridge fair green, Coldham's common, and other lands were excepted from 
the act. 

(a) The subscription, which originated at a public meeting held at 
the Guildhall (the mayor in the chair) 5 Nov. 1844, amounted to 
5000. The principal contributors were: Trin. coll. 400;. S. Joh. coll. 
200 ; S. Peter's coll., Caius coll., Corp. Chr. coll., Cath. hall, Jesus coll., 
Hugh Percy, duke of Northumberland, chancellor of the university, and 
Tho. Mortlock, esq. M.A., 100 each; John Graham, bishop of Chester, 
70 ; Chris. Pemberton, esq., and rev. Joh. Brown, M.A., fell., Trin. coll., 
65 each; Ralph Tatham, D.D., master of S. Joh. coll., and Will. Whewell, 
D.D., master of Trin. coll., 60 each ; Trin. hall, Chr. coll., Emm. coll., 
Geo. Maddison, M.A., vie. of All Saints, Joh. Cooper, M.A., vie. of S. 
Andrew the great, Cha. Perry, bishop of Melbourne, Gilb. Ainslie, B.D. 
master of Pemb. coll., Benedict Chapman, D.D., master of Caius coll., 
William French, D.D., master of Jes. coll., Edm. Davy Mortlock, B.D., 
fellow of Chr. coll., and rev, Fr. Martin, M.A., fellow of Trin. coll., 
50 each. 

VOL. III. R 



242 8. ANDREW THE LESS. 

Dr. Whewell, master of Trin. coll. contributed 
largely to the erection of the structure. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL in Union road, 
dedicated to S. Andrew, was erected from a design 
by A. Welby Pugin. The altar was consecrated 
27 April, 1853, by Dr. Wareing, bishop of Ariopolis, 
after which a sermon was preached by Dr. Wiseman, 
bishop of Melipotamus. 

The principal dissenting places of worship in this 
parish are Eden chapel in Fitzroy street, for parti- 
cular baptists, {a) the Wesleyan chapel in the same 
street, and Zion chapel in East road for baptists. 

The abbey schools in River lane, are in con- 
nection with the established church, and were 
erected in 1856 from designs of Mr. R. R. Rowe. 
They consist of two rooms measuring 40 feet by 
20, opening into one with class rooms to each. 

The extensive works of the Cambridge Gas com- 
pany are in this parish. 

Three railways 1 ^ pass through this parish, wherein 

(a) The congregation formerly met in Green street, and the following 
inscription in Eden chapel commemorates a once well-known minister whose 
body was removed from Green Street: " Near this Tablet lie the Remains 
of the Rev. John Stittle, who after having faithfully preached the Gospel 
more than thirty years, entered into the joy .of his Lord July 22nd, 1813, in. 
the 87th year of his age. ' The memory of the just is blessed,' Prov. x. 7." 

(b) These are : 

1. The Great Eastern main line from London by Ely and Norwich to 
Yarmouth. The portion between Newport and Norwich was opened 
29 July, 1845. 

2. The Great Eastern branch from Cambridge to Newmarket, Bury, 
and Haughley where it communicates with the line from London by 
Ipswich to Norwich. 

3. The line from Cambridge by Potion and Sandy to Bedford, where 
it communicates with the London and North "Western lines to Bletchley 
and Oxford. 



S. ANDREW THE LESS. 243 

is situated the Cambridge railway station, an ex- 
tensive structure which has been recently much 
improved. 

Two other railways diverge from the Great Eastern main line at short 
distances from Cambridge, viz. : 

A branch from Chesterton to S. Ives (opened 17 Aug., 1847), where 
it communicates first with a line to Huntingdon, and secondly with one 
by Somersham, Chatteris, and March to Wisbech. 

A branch from Shelford to Shepreth, where it communicates with the 
Great Northern line to Royston and Hitchin. 







S. BENEDICT S. 



S. BENEDICT. 

THIS parish is much scattered. One portion ad- 
joins the church, another comprises part of Mill 
lane, a small part of the western side of Trumpington 
street, a considerable part of the eastern side of 
that street, the northern side of Lensfield road, the 
western side of Regent street, and part of Tennis 
court road and Downing street, whilst a third por- 
tion is in Barnwell. 

Edward of Cambridge and his mother gave this 
church to S. Alban's abbey, between 1077 and 1193. 
In 1279 the patronage was returned as in sir Giles 
de Argentyn, knight by hereditary right. About 



S. BENEDICT. 245 

1319 John de Argentyn died, seised of the advow- 
son, which in 1350 was purchased of sir John de 
Argentyn, knight, by some of the leading members 
of the gild of Corpus Christi, and upon the founda- 
tion of Corpus Christi college the king gave licence 
for the appropriation of the church to the master 
and fellows, but no appropriation actually took place 
till 1578, being, as it is thought, the latest instance 
of an appropriation which can be adduced. Since 
that period the church has been served by a clerk 
instituted on the presentation of the master and 
fellows. 

In 1291 the church was valued at 6. 135. 4< 
per annum, but in 1534 at only 4. 9s. 9Je?. (0) 

In 1729 Thomas Greene, bishop of Ely, gave 
200 for the augmentation of the benefice and ob- 
tained the like sum from the governors of queen 
Anne's bounty. The 400 was in 1757 invested in 
the purchase of land at Willingham. The governors 
of queen Anne's bounty also gave 200 in 1759, 
200 in 1810, and 1000 in 1814. These sums have 
been invested in the purchase of land, and 1350. 17s. 
3 per cent, reduced bank annuities. 

The tower of the church is of great antiquity. 
Mr. Rickman believed it to be anterior to the year 

(a) The following passage occurs in the inquisition taken before the 
commissioners for preaching ministers, 23 Oct., 1650: "The 'Parishe of 
St. Benedict is neither parsonage nor Viccaridge nor hath allowance be- 
longinge thereto for Maintenance of a Minister that they know of, but at 
the present is supplyed by Mr. Barker at the Charge of the Parishe." 
The commissioners suggested that so much of this parish as lay between 
S. Botolph church and the Spitalhouse should be united to S. Botolph's, 
that the Barnwell portion should be united to the parish of Barnwell, and 
the residue of this parish to S. Edward's. 



246 S. BENEDICT. 

1000. (a) The long and short masonry is clear and de- 
cided. It has a baluster double belfry (6) window, and 
the semicircular arch from the tower to the church is 
curious from its varied ornament and very rude carving. 

(a) See his Observations in Archaologia, xxvi. 39. Since those observa- 
tions were written the plaister and rough cast which obscured the masonry 
have been removed. 

(6) The university had been accustomed to ring the bell of this church 
to convene clerks to extraordinary lectures. Alan, the rector, however, 
denied them this privilege, and much strife ensued between him and the 
chancellor and university on this account. At length, by the intervention 
of Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely, a composition was effected, the rector 
consenting for ever to permit the bell to be rung in a civil and honest way, 
as it had theretofore been accustomed to be done, so as the clerk of the 
church were satisfied for such ringing in the usual manner. This com- 
position was sealed by the bishop at Shelford, on Wednesday next after the 
Sunday on which letare Jerusalem is sung, 1273. 

The bells of this church, which the university used " to ring to acts 
and congregations," being " much out of frame and almost become uselesse," 
the heads and presidents of the university in 1650 contributed 30s. towards 
the repair, first taking an acknowledgement under the hands of the church- 
wardens that they thankfully received it " as a free gift of the University." 

Fabian Stedman, clerk of this parish about 1650, invented the art of 
change ringing. Stedman's Principle, Stedman's Slow Course, Stedman's 
Triples, and Stedman's Caters are well known, as is also the Cambridge Sur- 
prise. His Campanologia or the Art of Ringing improved, was printed 
12mo. 1677. 

Three of the bell inscriptions are curious : 
On the first bell : 

Of all the bells in Bennet I am the best 
And yet for my casting the parish paid lest. 1610. 
On the fifth bell : 

Non nomen ficti, sed Nomen Benedict!. 
On the sixth bell : 

This Bell was broke and cast againe 

By John Draper in 1618, 

as plainly doth appeare; 

Church Wardens were 

Edward Dixon 

for one, 

who stode close to his Tacklyn, 

and he that was his Partner then 

was Alexander Jacklyn. 



S. BENEDICT. 247 

The residue of the church is partly early english 
and partly decorated. 

The north aisle was rebuilt and enlarged in 1853 
from the plans of Messrs, Ritchie and Brandon, who 
added a spacious porch. The design and execution 
of the work are alike excellent, and the handsome 
timber roof of the aisle is particularly worthy of 
commendation. 

In this church were gilds of Corpus Christi, S. 
Augustine, and S. Catharine. Mention is also made 
of Scala Cceli,^ and the image of S. Catharine. 

This church was ordinarily used for divine ser- 
vice by the society of Corpus Christi college pre- 
viously to the erection of their chapel in or soon 
after 1579. In 1519-20 pope Leo X. empowered 
the master and fellows to grant extensive indul- 
gences to such as should attend the public procession 
of the college on Corpus Christi day, or should 
be of the congregation at mass in this church on 
that day or its vigil. 

The vestry at the western end was formerly used 
as the court of the archdeacon of Ely. 

William Dowsing makes the following notes re- 
lating to " Benet Temple," under date 28 Dec. 1643 : 

There was ij superstitious Pictures, 14 Qherubims and 2 
Superstitious Ingraveings one was to pray for the soul of 
John Canterbury & his Wife. Mr. Russell Church Warden 
he lent 100 to the Parliament and sent to them a Horse 
& maintained him at his Charg & lent Col. Cromwell 100 
pound to pay his Souldiers, & an Inscription of a Mayd praying 

(a) A place to which was conceded the like advantage as a visit to the 
Scala Sancta or Scala Coeli at Rome. 



248 S. BENEDICT. 

to the Sonne & the Virgin Mary, thus in Latin "Me tibi 
Virgo Pia Gentier comendo Maria ;" " A Mayd was born from 
me which I comend to the oh Mary" [1432]. Kichard Billing- 
ford did comend this his Daughter's Soule. 

In the north aisle is a brass, which, although the 
inscription be gone, has been, through Dowsing' s 
absurd description of it, identified as the monument 
of Eichard Billingford, D.D. chancellor of the uni- 
yersity and master of Corpus Christi college, who 
died 1432. It is supposed that the inscription which 
Dowsing so grossly misunderstood was " Me tibi 
Virgo pia Genetrix commendo Maria." 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel* 

*Ja. Cranidge, cit. & joiner of London, and master of the 
worthy noble science of defence, 5 Jan. 1617-18. 

*Joh. Pierse, stud, of Cath. hall (son of Joh. Pierse, esq. 
of Bedal. Yorksh.) 11 cal. Feb. 1652-3, set, 20. 

Tho. Chaplyn, M.A. of Cath. hall, rect. of Wareham, Dorset. 
31 Aug. 1667, set. 46. 

Tho. Russell, bapt. 10 Dec. 1587, bur. 22 June, 1673. 

*Hen. Gostlin, B.D. fell. C. C. coll. 9 Jan. 1674-5, set. 28, 

*Sandys Peyton, gent, (son of Hen. Peyton, esq. of the 
family of Isleham) 8 June, 1682, set. 47 ; Margaret his wife, 
17 Jan. 1687-8. 

*Hen. Tilbe, stud, of C. C. coll. (son of Hen. Tilbe of Kent) 
14 kal. Aug. 1702, get. 16. 

Tho. Fox [aid.] ... Jul. 1710. 

*Will. Bacon, 1728, set. 55 ; Margaret his wife, 1736 ; Joh. 
their son, 1728, set. 24; Fearnehead their dau. wife of Edw. 
Searle, 1733, set. 25 ; Nathaniel Bacon, M.A. their son, 1738, 
set. 33. 

Ric. Dunthorne [an eminent astronomer] 3 Mar. 1775, ag. 64 ; 
Elizab. his wife, 8 Jan. 1789, ag. 74. 

* Those thus marked have been removed or are not now visible. 



8. BENEDICT. 249 

Job. Randall, Mus.D. prof, of music, 18 Mar. 1799, ag. 83 ; 
Grace his wife, 27 Apr. 1792, ag. 60 ; Anne his dau.-in-law, 
wife of Edw. Randall (formerly Anne Mayor), 8 Mar. 1797, 
ag. 29. 

Cha. Skinner Matthews, M.A. (3rd son of Joh. Matthews, 
esq. of Belmont co. Heref. and Elizab. his wife) sch. of Trin. 
coll. and the first elected fell, of Down, coll., drowned whilst 
bathing in the Cam, 5 Aug. 1811, ag. 26. 

Pearse White, town clerk, 3 Jul. 1819, aet. 45 ; his nephew 

of same name ; Fred. White, M.A. d. at Madras, 

30 Sept, 1816, ag. 30 ; Cha. White, d. at Milledgville in Georgia, 
12 Sept. 1812, aet. 29. 

Dame Elizabetha Maria Harwood, only dau. of rev. sir Joh. 
Pershall, bart. of Hales Owen, Salop, and the city of Oxford, 
and relict of sir Buswick Harwood, knt. M.D., F.E.S. & S.A., 
prof, of anat. and Down. prof. med. 10 June, 1836, ag. 73. 

Will. Woodcock Hayward, solicitor, 7 Feb. 1838, aet. 40. 

Edw. Randall, solicitor [author of legal and political tracts], 
youngest son of Dr. Randall, prof. mus. 22 Dec. 1840, ag. 75 ; 
Mary his second wife (formerly Minoch), 14 Nov. 1827, ag. 63. 

Susannah, wife of rev. Geo. Coulcher, M.A. incumbent, b. 
22 Jul. 1804, d. 13 Mar. 1842. 

Jos. Jonath. Deighton [aid.] 31 Aug. 1848, ag. 56. 

In the old churchyard. 

Joh. Mere, esquire bedel, who gave in 1558 two dwelling- 
houses in this parish to the university, and a remembrance to 
the vice-chancellor and all the officers of the university present 
upon the day of his commemoration in this church. 

Tho. Grumbold, free-mason, bur. 15 Aug. 1657. 

*Isaac Tillot, sch. of C. C. coll. 13 Dec. 1669. 

Francis Woodward, carver, an excellent artist, 1 Mar. 
1710-11, jet. 57. 

Sam. Newton, 27 Sept. 1718, aet. 64 ; Elizab. his wife, 21 
Aug. 1723, aet. 56; Elizab. his dau. wife of Ben. Watson, 
2 Feb. 1721-2, aet. 36 ; Ben. Watson, 6 Mar. 1717, set. 47. 

*Nath. Bacon, twice churchwarden of Great S. Mary's, 1722. 

*Cobb Audley, stud, of C. C. coll. b. 7 June, 1705, bur. 
26 Jul. 1723. 



250 S. BENEDICT. 

Sarah, dau. of Sam. Newton, gent. 9 Feb. 1724-5, set. 30. 

Elizab. wife of Geo. Grumbold, 13 Jul. 1737, set. 57 ; Will. 
Job. and Tho. tbeir sons. 

"Against this stone 
Move not a bone." 

Eebecca, wid. of rev. Joseph Berry of Watton, Norf., 10 
April, 1762, set. 72. 

Joshua Wilkinson, B.D. fell, and tutor of C. C. coll. 7 June, 
1814, set. 43. 

Mary wife of Rob. White, town-clerk, 22 Sept. 1815, ag. 66. 

Rev. Joh. Bullen, 1 Oct. 1822, ag. 67. 

Gilbert Ives, 10 June, 1825, ag. 78; Ann his wife, 24 Feb. 
1808, ag. 60. 

Joh. Newby, chapel-clerk of Trin. coll. 10 Oct. 1828, ag. 68 ; 
Elizab. his wife, 5 Aug. 1787, ag. 23. 

Will. Wentworth, surgeon, 26 Oct. 1832, ag. 38. 

Rev. Rob. Lascelles, 31 Jul. 1839, ag. 60. 

Eliza wife of Zach. Scrope Shrapnel, B.A. S. Pet. coll. 6 Dec. 
1845, ag. 30 ; Laura Oath. Shrapnel, 10 Sept. 1842, ag. 3 weeks. 

In the new churchyard. 

Eliza Ann Waring, 30 Nov. 1849, ag. 45. 

Sarah Metcalfe, relict of Henry Metcalfe, esq. of Hawstead 
house, Suff. 8 Jan. 1850, ag. 50. 

Edw. Cranwell, 22 years sub-librarian of Trin. coll. 24 Aug. 
1350, ag. 56 ; and two daughters. 

Ernest Fred. Fiske [M.A.] 4 Nov. 1850, ag. 35. 

Martha, wid. of rev. W[ill] Bond, M.A. rect. of Wheatacre, 
Norf. 5 Mar. 1851, ag. 91 ; Sophia Anne, 4 dau. of Henry J. H. 
Bond, M.D. 21 Mar. 1855, ag. 14; Frances dau. of rev. Will, 
and Martha Bond, 20 May, 1857, ag. 57. 

Elizab. wife of rev. Joh. Hind, M.A. late fell, and tut. Sid. 
Suss, coll., 19 Aug. 1851, ag. 57. 

Rob. Evans, rect. of Coveney and many years vie. of Everton, 
Notts. 12 Jan. 1852, ag. 81. 

Joh. Hen. Haslop, med. stud., b. 8 May, 1833, d. 9 Mar. 1856. 

Jos. Stanley, 5 May, 1856, ag. 87. 

Matt. Gent, sometime curate, 16 Dec. 1857, ag. 30. 

Rob. Temple, late of Madeira, 18 Jan. 1859, ag. 46. 



S. BENEDICT. 251 

Cath. Montagu Fisher, wife of Will. Webster Fisher, M.D. 
Down. prof, med., and sister of Hen. Annesley Woodham, LL.D. 
sometime fell. Jes. coll., b. at Newbury, Berks, 30 Nov. 1829, 
d. at Cambridge, 6 April, 1860. 

Cha. Asby, aid. 17 Jul. 1860, ag. 70. 

Eic. Bankes Harraden, [artist and author of Cantabrigia 
Depicta] 17 Nov. 1862, Sophia his wife, 27 Jan. 1861. 

Amongst the distinguished persons who have been 
ministers of this parish may be enumerated : Richard 
Sterne, archbishop of York ; Thomas Fuller, D.D. the 
church historian; John Spencer, D.D. dean of Ely; 
Thomas Greene, bishop of Ely; Robert Moss, D.D. 
dean of Ely; Elias Sydall, bishop of Gloucester; 
Robert Masters, B.D. the historian of Corpus Christi 
college ; and John Lamb, D.D. dean of Bristol. 

The following is a succinct account of bene- 
factions to the church and poor: Joh. Raysoun, 
rector, in 1382 bequeathed service books and vest- 
ments, and a house (a) for the residence of his suc- 
cessors; Tho. Scot, baker, in 1563 twenty shillings 
a year for a sermon and to the poor; Mr. Smith 
1629 a cup of silver gilt with a cover; Tho. Ilobson, 
the renowned carrier, a folio Bible, (6) and 6s. 8d. 
yearly to the minister for a sermon the Sunday 
before Michaelmas, with Is. to the clerk; Joh. Priest 
1658 a silver flaggon; Dame Dorothy Clarke, widow 
of sir Symon Clarke, in 1669 3 a year for a sermon 
and to the poor ; Tobias Smith, tobacco pipe maker, 
5 to buy two pieces of plate, 1670 ; Tho. Russell, 
woollendraper, 5 to be lent to a poor tradesman ; 

* 

(a) Taken into Corpus Christi college on the appropriation. 

(b) Printed in black letter by Rob. Barker, 1617, and still preserved in 
the vestry. 



252 S. BENEDICT. 

Ric. Sheldrake, fell, of C. C. coll., 1684, a handsome 
velvet cushion for the pulpit ; Will. Bacon, of the 
Mitre tavern, vintnor, 1725 a brass sconce ; Gilb. 
Ives, who died 1825, gave in his lifetime and by will 
land and 230 for various purposes, also 800 for 
erecting and endowing four almshouses, but the 
latter sum has been lost, the bequest being contrary 
to the mortmain act. 

One of the maidens in Mrs. Knight's almshouses 
must be of this parish and in certain events the 
poor of this parish are entitled to election to Dr. 
Perse's almshouses. (a) 

In this parish are comprised Addenbrooke's hos- 
pital, Downing college, and parts of Corpus Christi, 
King's, and S. Catharine's colleges. 

The hermitage of S. Anne, (d) the hostel of S. 

(a) Vide ante, p. 173. 

(6) This hermitage, situate in Trumpington street, was founded by 
Henry de Tangmer, burgess, who died about 1361. He gave it to Corpus 
Christi college, but the corporation afterwards possessed themselves of it 
by violence. 

In 1399 the bishop of Ely granted an indulgence to all who would assist 
in supporting this chapel and in relieving sir Joh. Bernewell the chaplain 
and hermit. 

In 1458 Walter Smyth, B.D., rector of S. Benedict's, was licenced by 
the bishop of Ely to perform divine service in this chapel, either in person 
or by proper chaplains, which licence was renewed to many of the suc- 
ceeding rectors. 

On 16 August, 1546, the mayor brought into the hall 2 albs with the 
appurtenances, a chalice, a mass book, and a bell belonging to this Her- 
mitage, which were delivered to the treasurers for safe custody. The chalice 
was afterwards sold for 40s., and an order was made that the chapel and 
house should be viewed by the supervisors of the town, and sold to the 
highest bidder by piecemeal if any would buy it so and if not in gross. In 
1549 the chapel was sold to Rob. Chapman and Chris. Francke for 11. 
It would seem that this bargain extended only to the materials, for the site 
(known as the Armitage) was leased by the corporation to William Wulfe, 
1579-80; Joh. Tidswell, 1596-7; Giles Robson, 1633; Ric. Dickenson, 



S. BENEDICT. 253 

Augustine, (0) and the hospital of SS. Anthony and 
Eligius were in this parish. The latter edifice was 
taken down in 1852. (6) 

A house in this parish which went by the name 
of the White Horse is famous in history as having 
been the place in which those students and graduates 
of the university, who in the earlier part of the 
reign of Henry VIII. favoured the reformed doc- 
trines were accustomed to meet. They were deri- 
sively termed germans, and the White Horse became 
known as Germany. (c} 

1657; rev. Job. Blithe and Elizab. his wife, 1699; Sam. Pect, aid., 1730; 
Will. Musgrave and Maria his wife, and Tho. Bartlet and Dorothy his 
wife, 1759; and Joseph Finch, ironmonger, 1789. It was sold to the latter 
8 May, 1790. 

The dimensions were towards Trumpington Street 144 feet, towards the 
east 146 feet, on the north 73 feet, and on the south 63 feet. It was 
occupied by one large house and seven cottages fronting the street, and in 
the rear were several outbuildings (including a large barn) placed around 
a yard once used as a tan yard. On part of the site was subsequently 
erected the dwelling house of the late John Haviland, M.D. 

(a) ItVood between S. Augustine's lane and Plotes lane, on or near the 
site of the new buildings of King's college. It probably succeeded that 
hostel of S. Augustine situate in Milne street in the parish of S. John the 
Baptist, which was granted by the master and fellows of Clare hall to 
Hen. VI. for the site of King's college (vide Vol. I., p. 195). 

Thomas Stackhouse, D.D., master of Michaelhouse, 1520, who died in 
or about 1533, was sometime principal of S. Augustine's hostel. 

(6) Vide ante, p. 167169. 

(c) The White Horse evidently formed part of the estates of John 
Canterbury, clerk of the works at King's college, which were granted to 
Catharine hall by Cath. Miles, widow (in compliance with the will of her 
husband Will. Miles, gent.), 4 April, 24 Hen. VII. [1509]. & Cath. Coll. 
Documents, 64. 

The master and fellows of Catharine hall on 1 Jan., 4 Edw. VI. [1550-1], 
granted a lease of the White Horse to [Joh.] Emmanuel Tremellius, the 
celebrated hebrew teacher, for 30 years at 3. 14s. 8d. per a"hnum. On 
26 May, 2 & 3 Phil. & Mar. [1556], it was sold by the college with other 
adjoining property to Joh. Mere, M.A., esquire bedel. 

The White Horse appears from the grant of Cath. Miles and the con- 



254 S. BENEDICT. 

The Bull hotel, erected in or about 1831, oc- 
cupies the site of an inn previously known as the 
Black Bull, and which was in existence as early as 
4 Edw. IV. (a) The Eagle hotel, formerly called the 
Eagle and Child, is also of considerable antiquity. 

veyance to Mere, to have occupied the site of the house, now belonging to 
King's college, which adjoins the Bull hotel on the north. Camb. Port' 
folio, 364, 532. 

(a) At that time it belonged to Michaelhouse. It was given to Catha- 
rine hall by John Gostlin, M.D., master of Caius college and Regius pro- 
fessor of physic, who died 1626 (vide Vol. I., p. 337). 



S. BOTOLPH. 

THIS church was appropriated to the prior and 
convent of Barnwell by Eustace, bishop of Ely 
(1197-1215), with the reservation of a stipend to 
a vicar. 

On an exchange between Gonville hall and Corpus 
Christi college in 1353 the former agreed to procure 
for the latter the patronage of this Church, from 
Mary, countess of Pembroke, who had contracted 
to purchase it for her college. In the same year 
the prior and convent of Barnwell were empowered 
by the bishop of Ely to transfer all their right in 
this church to Corpus Christi college, upon condition 
that they paid four marks annually for the same. 

In 1432 there was a dispute as to the augmen- 
tation of the vicarage. Geoffrey Couper, the vicar, 
was summoned before the chancellor of the university 
to answer the complaint of the master and fellows 
of the college, and not appearing was pronounced 
excommunicate and perjured. From this sentence 
he appealed to the archbishop's court. 

In August 1439 there was a dispute between the 
prior and convent of Barnwell and Corpus Christi 
college as to the patronage of this church which 
was adjudged to belong to the college. 

In the same year and during the incumbency 
of Andrew Doket the church was re-established as 
a rectory. 



256 S. BOTOLPH. 

In 1446 a dispute which had arisen on the sub- 
ject of the payment of the 4 marks per annum to 
Barn well priory was referred to the arbitrament of 
John Fray, chief baron of the exchequer, and others 
who determined that the payment should be con- 
tinued, but that the convent should deliver up all 
their evidences and assist the college as much as 
possible in getting the church appropriated. How- 
ever in 1459 the college bought off this pension for 
100 marks, and in the following year sold the ad- 
vowson, with a tenement and garden, to Queens' 
college, for 80 marks, reserving to themselves the 
liberty of making use of the church for divine service 
as often as they should have occasion and were 
obliged by statute. 

The prior and convent of Barn well in 1470 un- 
successfully contested the right of Queens' college 
to present to this church. 

In 1291 the vicarage was taxed at 2. 13s. 4d. and 
a pension of the prior of Barn well at the same sum. 
In 1534 the rectory was taxed at 2. 14s. 4Je?. 

The rectory has been augmented as follows: in 1737 
the governors of queen Anne's bounty gave 200 ; 
in 1748 Queens' college 200; in 1749 the governors 
of queen Anne's bounty 200; in 1784 the trus- 
tees of David Hughes, B.D. 200; in 1785 the 
governors of queen Anne's bounty 200 ; in 1814 
the same governors from the parliamentary grant 
200. (fl) 

(a) The following are extracts from the inquisition taken 23 Oct., 1650, 
before commissioners for providing maintenance for preaching ministers : 

" The Parish of St. Bottolphe hath neither Parsonage nor Viccaridge 
belonging to theire Church that they know of. 



S. BOTOLPH. 257 

On the inclosure of Barnwell an allotment was 
made to the rector of this parish in lieu of tithes. 

There was a lecture here in 1620, but it was pro- 
bably of short continuance, (o) for in or about 1691 
Symon Patrick, bishop of Ely, established an after- 
noon Sunday lecture and allowed 30 a year to the 
lecturer. This appears to have terminated with that 
prelate's life. 

The church which is throughout in the perpen- 
dicular style is spacious and picturesque. 

The tower (J) has a large western window inserted 
about 1841 when the church underwent a restoration. 

"That Queene's Colledge receaves twentye shillings per Annum for a 
howse called the Parsonage House. And Three pounds fifteene shillings 
and eight pence per Annum for Tythe Corne and have usually provided 
them a Minister till of late yeares. But at the present they are unprovided 
both of a Minister and maintenance." 

The commissioners recommended that the parish of S. Mary the less 
and a part of the parish of S. Benedict should be united to this parish. 

(a) The lectures at Great S. Andrew's and Trinity churches having been 
suppressed, John Preston, fellow of Queen's college (afterwards master of 
Emmanuel), announced his intention of preaching at S. Botolph's on a 
Sunday afternoon, at three o'clock, after Great S. Mary's sermon. Dr. 
Newcombe, commissary to the bishop of Ely, came however to S. Botolph's 
and commanded that there should be evening prayer only, and no sermon ; 
but after his departure Mr. Preston, encouraged by the minister, the earl 
of Lincoln, and others in the church, preached his sermon, and on account 
of the delay occasioned by the commissary's interference the common 
prayer was omitted to enable the scholars to attend prayers in their college 
chapels. On the following day the commissary complained to the king at 
Newmarket, and a letter being sent to Dr. Scot the vice-chancellor and the 
heads of colleges, Mr. Preston was cited before them for his disobedience, 
and, after some correspondence with the bishop of Ely, was ordered to 
declare his opinions respecting forms of prayer in this church on a given 
Sunday, which he did in a manner that neither displeased his own party 
nor gave his enemies any great advantage. 

(fe) The four bells are inscribed with the names of SS. John, Andrew, 
Margaret, and Mary Magdalen; "Ora pro nobis," being on three of 
them. 

VOL. III. S 



258 S. BOTOLPH. 

The nave has four lofty drop arches with octa- 
gonal piers on either side. There is no clerestory. 

Annexed to the south porch is a small chapel now 
used as a vestry. 

The chancel, which is apteral, is separated from 
the nave by a very good rood screen. 

The font is in the Jacobean style with a canopy 
of corresponding character. 

The roofs of the nave and chancel have been 
plaistered over. Those of the aisles and the south 
chapel are very good specimens of timber work. 

The altar piece representing the Crucifixion was 
presented in 1819 by John Smith, university printer, 
who brought it from Antwerp. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel. 

Tho. Plaifere, D.D. of S. Job. coll. Marg. prof, of divinity, 
4 non. Feb. 1609 [1608-9], t. 47, (with painted bust.) Erected 
by Alice bis widow. 

*Joh. Campe, 23 May, 1632. 

Job. Hayes, univ. printer, 28 Nov. 1705, ag. 71 ; Elizab. his 
wife, 13 Sept. 1705, ag. 76. 

Job. Brewer, bricklayer, 21 Nov. 1706, set. 56 ; Eliza wife 
of Will. Pitches, 18 Jun. 1741, ag. 72. 

Tho. Cooper, native of Salisbury, stud. Qu. coll. 13 Feb. 
1740-1, ag. 21. 

Joshua Aungier Oct. 1760. 

Tho. Walker, LL.D. advocate in Doctor's commons and some- 
time fell. Qu. coll. b. 9 Sept. 1702, d. 16 Sept. 1764; Elizab. 
his wid. 24 Apr. 1780, ag. 62. 

Mary wife of Tho. Hyde, merchant, 24 Feb. 1770, set. 26. 

Tho. Bennet [LL.B. esquire bedel] 18 Mar. 1770, ag. 70; 
Cath. his wife, 1 Mar. 1729-30, set. 35; and four of their 
children. 

The inscriptions marked * have been destroyed or are now invisible. 




<wr 



S. BOTOLPH. 259 

Joseph Thorpe, B.D. pres. Cath. hall, 5 Mar. 1775, ag. 55. 

Mary wife of Tho. Preston, vie. of Scawby, d. at Scar- 
borough, 15 Jul. 1776, aet. 31, bur. in chancel of Scawby; 
Susanna wife of rev. A[nt.J F[ountayne] Eyre, residentiary of 
York, d. at Barnborough, 2 Nov. 1776, set. 28, bur. in chancel of 
Doncaster. Erected to memory of their children by Kenrick 
Prescot, D.D. master of Cath. hall and Mary his wife. 

Eic. Hayles, surgeon, 16 Apr. 1781, ag. 67 ; Martha his wife, 
25 Nov. 1799, ag. 78 ; and four infant children. 

Ja. Essex, F.s.A. eminent for his skill in architecture and 
antiquities, 14 Sept. 1784, ag. 63 ; Ja. only son of Ja. and Elizab. 
Essex, 3 May, 1757, ag. 2 yrs. 10 mo. ; Meliscent only dau. of 
Ja. and Elizab. Essex, and wife of rev. Job. Hammond, M.A. 
22 Jan. 1787, ag. 30. 

Tho. Peacock of Cath. hall (son of rev. Will. Peacock, rect. 
of Danby Wiske, Yorksh. and Elizab. his wife) 23 May, 1786, 
ag. 21. 

Elizab. Eyre, dau. of rev. Ant. Fountayne Eyre and Susanna 

his wife 1786; Mary wife of Kenrick Prescot, D.D. 

mast, of Cath. hall, 5 Oct. 1788, ag. 62. 

Job. Houghton, esq. of Baguley, Chesh. 26 Nov. 1788, ag. 22. 

Will. Lillie, stud. Qu. coll. (son of Joh. Lillie of Sleaford, 
Line, and Judith his wife, dau. of Cha. Beauvoir, esq. of Guernsey) 
28 Nov. 1788, aet. 22. Erected by his grandmother Elizab. 
Beauvoir. 

Patr. Beales, 20 Oct. 1792, ag. 42; Mary Curtis, 6 Mar. 
1806, ag. 58 ; Sam. Pickering Beales, 4 May, 1836, ag. 71 ; 
Martha his wife, 11 Mar. 1834, ag. 65. 

Frances Wollaston, 3rd dau. of Ric. and Martha Hayles, and 
wife of rev. F. J. H. Wollaston, Jacksonian prof. b. 18 Oct. 1760, 
d. 8 Oct. 1804 ; and two of their infant children. 

Hannah Middleton (only dau. of Pet. Middleton, esq. of 
Whitby and Sarah his wife, and niece of Joh. Lodge Hubbersty 
of Line, inn, barrister-at-law, and sen. fell. Qu. coll.) b. 1 Sept. 
1790, d. 30 May, 1812. 

Herb. Eaban, fell. com. Qu. coll. 7 June, 1818, ag. 32. 

Edw. Tornson, statuary and mason, 4 Jul. 1829, ag. 56 ; 
Lewis Tomson his brother, 26 Mar. 1832, ag. 49 ; Tho. Tomson 
their brother, 12 Feb. 1849, ag. 74. 

S2 



260 S. BOTOLPH. 

In the old churchyard. 

Will. Archer, aid. sometime mayor, 23 Sept. 1616, get. 71. 
Judith Clay, 30 Oct. 1664. 

"This Stone doth Speake to tell thee that this Dust 
Once living Clay, Quickened with earth & trust 
Death And the Grave did Modestly invite 
As Friends to be her Convoy into Light." 

Nic. Goldsbrough, bur. 13 May, 1666; Mary his wife, bur. 
19 May, 1685 ; Kob. their son, bur. 30 Sept. 1701 ; and two of 
his children. 

Kob. Grumbold, 7 Dec. 1720, ag. 82 ; Bridget his wife, 
28 Oct. 1721, ag. 85. 

*Will. Scarfe, aid. sometime mayor, 25 Apr. 1724, set. 53. 

Barbara Pepys, last surviving child of Kog. Pepys, esq. of 
Impington and sister of Cha. Pepys, esq. 17... 

Job. Burges [univ. printer] 16 Apr. 1802, ag. 54 ; Susannah 
his wife, dau. of Will, and Ann Kaster, 23 Apr. 1795, 
set. 50. 

Owen Stone, schoolmaster, 30 May, 1815, ag. 64 ; Cath. his 
wife, 14 Apr. 1814, ag. 68; Mary their dau 

Hen. Hodges, esq. M.A. Emm. coll. 14 Jun. 1820, ag. 53. 

Will. Weeks Morris Bennett, stud. C. C. coll. 20 Apr. 1830, 
ag. 25. 

Will. Key, many years steward to Ric. vise. -Fitzwilliam 
and curator of the Fitzwilliam museum, 18 Sept. 1834, 
ag. 82. 

Job. Smith, 26 years printer to the university, b. in this 
parish, 12 Sept. 1777, d. at Thetford, Norfolk, 16 Aug. 1840. 

Fred. Thackeray, M.D. Emm. coll, 18 Jun. 1852, ag. 78. 

In the new churchyard. 

Kath. Frances Beales, b. 25 Sept. 1812, d. 2 May, 1857. 
Will. Hampton Gabbett of Trin. hall, b. 27 Jan. 1846, d. 30 
Dec. 1862. 

In 1506 mention is made of the rood light and 
Trinity light. 



S. BOTOLPH. 261 

William Dowsing thus records his exploits here 
under the date of Jan. 1643-4: 

We digged up the Stepes & brake down 12 Popish Inscrip- 
tions. 

Amongst the eminent rectors and curates of this 
church have been: Andrew Doket, first president of 
Queens' college; Beilby Porteus, bishop of London; 
Isaac Milner, D.D. dean of Carlisle; and Samuel 
Vince, Plumian professor. 

Thomas de Cambridge, a friar minor, before his 
entrance into religion gave land to find a chap- 
lain continually to celebrate in this church. (a) In 
15 Bic. II. Robert Newport and others had licence 
to give 4 A. SR. OP. of land and 6 A. of meadow for 
a chaplain in this church. Richard Andre we, alias 
Spicer, burgess, gave in 1459 money and lands to 
Queens' college for the maintenance of a bible clerk 
there and the observance of an annual obiit in this 
church; Thomas Johnson, citizen and haberdasher 
of London, in 1563 gave, for wood and coals to the 
poor, 40s. per annum; Joh. Lanham in 1657 gave 
a small estate at Toft; Adam Newling, alderman, 
gave in 1696 205. per annum; John Brewer, brick- 
layer, in 1706 gave 50 to buy land for the poor. 

Queens' college, the Pitt Press, and portions of 
Pembroke, Corpus Christi, and S. Catharine's colleges 

(a) From an indenture, dated 1330, in the Grey friars' convent at Bab- 
well without Bury S. Edmund's, between Tho. de Cambridge and Tho. de 
Abyton, vicar of this church, it appears that the former gave lands and 
tenements to his nephew Joh. Breton for the purpose of finding a .chaplain, 
but that he was unfaithful to his trust. The purport of the deed is that 
the donor, at the instance of his sister dame Joan de Creke, was willing 
to release Breton from his obligation on paying 40s. a year for 20 years 
for the said charitable purposes. 



262 S. BOTOLPH. 

are in this parish, wherein were situate the hostels 
of S. Bernard/"' S. BotolpV" and S. Cross, (c) and 
the hermitage at the small bridges. (d) 

The Cardinal's Cap, an inn of some repute, stood 
on a portion of the ground now occupied by the 

(a) S. Bernard's hostel, which was in 1456 the property of Queen's 
college, was in 1535 sold by that society to Corpus Christi college in which 
it is now included. It abutted towards Trumpington street on the west. 

(5) S. Botolph's hostel, situate between the church and Pembroke 
college fronting Pennyfarthing lane (now known as S. Botolph's lane), was 
in Fuller's time occupied by Wenham a cook. Some collegiate character 
was then retained in the building. 

(c) S. Cross's hostel is said to have occupied the site of the old Tennis 
court and Corpus Christi college orchard. 

A hostel of the same name is mentioned 19 Ric. II. as belonging to the 
S. John's hospital, and being south of a curtilage belonging to the nunnery 
of Stratford atte Bowe, which abutted upon Scole lane towards the east. 
It is probable that this hostel was soon afterwards absorbed into Clare 
hall or Trinity hall, and that thereupon the scholars of the hostel migrated 
to the house in S. Botolph's which obtained the same name as that which 
they had left. 

(d) Joh. Fordham, bishop of Ely, in 1396 granted an indulgence to all 
who should contribute to the repair of the small bridges, also a licence for 
service in the chapel there. 

Hen. IV. on 31 Oct., 1399, granted certain customs for two years to 
Joh. Jay, the hermit, for repair of the bridge and causeway between 
Cambridge and Barton. The grant was renewed for two years longer 
in 1401, and in 1406 another grant for two years was made to Thomas 
Kendall the then hermit. 

On Michaelmas day, 1428, the corporation granted that the willows 
growing on the causeway between and near the small bridges, and in and 
near the garden of the hermitage there, should be for the use of the hermit 
for the repair of the causeway, his hermitage, and the slippery and ruinous 
way over the bridge and causeway. 

Richard Dekyn, who in 1494 held of the corporation a garden 
enclosed near the hermitage at the rent of two shillings, was probably 
a hermit. 

The site of the hermitage was leased by the corporation to Oliver Grene, 
20 Sept., 31 Eliz. [1589], It was in 1790 leased for a long term to Patrick 
Beales, from whom it came to his brother S. P. Beales, esq., who erected 
thereon a substantial mansion and mercantile premises now occupied by 
his son Patrick Beales, alderman, who purchased the reversion from the cor- 
poration in 1839. 



S. BOTOLPH. 263 

Pitt Press. It was discontinued as an inn about 
the beginning of the present century. 

The Small Bridge, (o) consisting of a single iron 
arch, was built by the corporation in 1841 in the 
place of a wooden structure which had been re- 
peatedly reconstructed. At the same time the ap- 
proaches were widened and much improved. (6) 

A considerable part of the hamlet and manor of 
Newnham is within this parish. (c) 

(a) The term Smallbridges is still prevalent. This may be explained 
by the circumstance that the Cam was formerly at this point divided into 
two branches and there was a bridge over each (vide Vol. I., p. 290). 

The street known for centuries as Smallbridge street has long had the 
inexpressive appellation of Silver street. 

(b) The cost of the bridge and of the improvement of the approaches 
was 1956. 15s., towards which the conservators of the Cam contributed 
300 ; Trinity hall, 50 ; the duke of Northumberland, chancellor of the 
university, 50 ; and colleges and individuals various sums which made the 
whole subscription 739. 15s. 

(c) See under S. Mary the less. 



S. CLEMENT. 

THE nuns of S. Rhadegund obtained this church 
about 1222 by the donation of Hugh son of 
Absolom. (0) It was appropriated at an early period, 
a vicarage being endowed, and passed on the sup- 
pression of the nunnery to the master and fellows 
of Jesus college. 

In 1254 this church with the vicarage was valued 
at 7 marks. In 1534 the vicarage was rated at 
4. 5s. 8d., and the chantry at 7. 11s. Sd. 

The benefice has been thus augmented: James 
Yorke, bishop of Ely, 200 in 1800 ; the governors 
of queen Anne's bounty 200 in 1801 ; Jesus college 
200 in 1810 ; the governors of queen Anne's bounty 
300 in the same year, and in 1815 800 from the 
parliamentary grant. (b) 

Dr. Laurence Chaderton, the first master of Em- 
manuel college, was for many years lecturer here 
"with great profit to his auditors." About 1691 
Symon Patrick, bishop of Ely, established a Sunday 
afternoon lectureship in this church, allowing 30 
a year to the lecturer. The office was held by 

(a) Vide Vol. i., 357. 

(6) The inquisition taken 23 Oct. 1650, before the commissioners for 
providing maintenance for preaching ministers, contains this passage : 

" The Parishe of S. Clements hath neither minister nor any thing for the 
maintenance of a minister." 

The commissioners recommended that S. Sepulchres should be united 
to this parish. 




<smi\uriK.<DKo 



S. CLEMENT. 265 

William Whiston, Lucasian professor, till Oct. 1709, 
when he resigned in consequence of exceptions to 
his doctrine, for which in the following year he 
was banished the university and deprived of his 
professorship. 

The nave of the church has five pier arches on 
either side. The four western are early english 
(but distorted by settlements so as to appear four- 
centred) and the eastern decorated. 

The perpendicular clerestory is manifestly an ad- 
dition to the original structure. 

The side aisle walls are late perpendicular, and 
the aisles have been widened. This is shewn by the 
north-east window which is early english, altered to 
perpendicular and out of the centre of the present 
aisle. (o) 

There is a rich early english door on the south 
side which must have been removed from its original 
position. This door was restored in 1842. 

The chancel arch which is plain may be early 
english. 

The chancel which is of brick was erected in or 
about 1726. It is separated from the body of the 
church by a screen of the Corinthian order, sur- 
mounted by a circular pediment, and the altar is 
surrounded by Corinthian pilasters. 



(a) On a beam in the north aisle is inscribed the name of Thomas 
Braken, esq., and the date 1538. He was mayor 1524, 1529, and 1543, and 
member of parliament for the town from 1531 till his death in 1545. On 
the dissolution of Barnwell priory he obtained a grant of the manor of 
Chesterton which had belonged to that house. It is probable that he was 
buried at Chesterton, where is an altar tomb without an inscription, but 
bearing his arms. 



266 S. CLEMENT. 

There is a good plain perpendicular font. 

The tower (0) and spire, designed by Charles 
Humfrey, esq., were erected in 1821 with a be- 
quest of the eminent antiquary, the rev. William 
Cole, M.A., who died in 1782. Over the doorway 
is Mr. Cole's motto "DEUM CoLE," (6) which although 
peculiarly appropriate has been somewhat fastidiously 
objected to. The vane on the spire is surmounted 
by the crest of the architect. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel.^ 

Eudo de Helpringham, clerk, sometime mayor, 8 June, 1329. W 

Phoebe, wife of Edw. Withnoll, pastor of the church of 
Christ, and dau. of Ja. Percevall of Cambridge, 13 kal. Dec. 
1658, set 22 [a brass.] 

Will Pedder,gent. 30 Jul., 1683 ; Will, his son, 13 Mar. 1697-8. 

Mat. Wildbore, 4 Aug. 1689 ; Francis Brackenbury, 20 Mar. 
1699-1700 ; Kath. wife of each of them successively, 10 Dec. 1706. 

*Tho. Sowersbye, gent., 30 Jun. 1695, aet. 94 ; Mabell his 
wife, 8 Sept. 1673, set. 64. 

*Ad. Newling, aid. 13 Mar. 1696-7, set. 68; Elizab. his 
wife, 1686, aet. 68. 

Dan. Love, aid. capt. of the trained bands, a true subject to 
the Queen, and a lover of his country, 6 Mar. 1707-8 aet. 52 ; 
Martha, his wife, 29 Mar. 1715, aet. 49. 

(a) Before the erection of the tower the bells were hung in a wooden 
structure on the north west side of the churchyard. 

(6) Since to old Cole (Heaven rest his soul, 

Who lov'd God's worship holy ;) 
This spire we owe, we've placed below 
His motto " DEUM COLE." 

Camb. Chron., 8 Mar., 1822. 

(c) The inscriptions marked* have been destroyed or are now invisible. 

(d) The inscription in Lomhardic characters is much defaced, and the 
name has been read as " Youn de Helysingham." Eudo de Helpringham, 
was mayor 1318, 1319, 1324, 1325, 1326, and 1327. 



S. CLEMENT. 267 

*Oliver Pangbourn, 13 Jan. 1720-1, set. 87. 

Kog. Thompson, esq. 17 Dec. 1750, ag. 82 ; Sarah his wife, 
18 Feb. 1763, ag. 51. 

Mary Benson, 23 Jul. 1762, ag. 70; Elizab. Johnson, late 
kinswoman of Tho. Doe Benson, 8 Apr. 1758, ag. 12. 

Phoebe wife of Will. Anderson, 29 Sept. 1762, ag. 48. 

Kob. Hodson, 3 Apr. 1763, ag. 58 ; Mary his wife, 27 Jan. 
1769, ag. 53. Erected by their eldest son Will. Hodson. 

Kev. Will. Cole, M.A. of Clare hall, vie. of Burnham, Bucks, 
who resided chiefly at Milton, co. Camb. and was a magistrate 
and deputy lieut. of that county, 16 Dec. 1.782, aet. 68. 

Cha. Martindale, gent. 14 Oct. 1788, ag. 70 ; Judith Mar- 
tindale [his wid.] 18 Jan. 1799, ag. 72. 

Josiah Neale, 8 May, 1792, ag. 74 ; Ann his wife, 27 May, 
1802, ag. 78 ; Ann their dau. 19 Jan. 1826, ag. 62. 

Will. Hodson, B.D. sen. fell, and vice-master of Trin. coll. 
6 Oct. 1793, ag. 49. 

Joh. Whittred, esq. (eld. son of King Whittred) aid. J.P. 
and sometime mayor, 21 Jun. 1795, ag. 77 ; Mary his wife, 
12 Jan. 1801, ag. 91. 

Will. Scott, 11 Mar. 1808, ag. 66 ; Elizab. his wife, 15 Apr. 
1812, ag. 66 ; three of their children. 

Sarah wife of Fra. Joh. Gunning, solicitor, 9 Nov. 1832, 
ag. 33. 

Outside western wall of north aisle. 

Joseph Gray, 23 years apothecary of Addenbrooke's hospital, 
b. 11 Mar. 1761, d. 12 Mar. 1808. Erected by the governors 
of the hospital. 

In the old churchyard. 

*Rog. Thompson, brewer and benefactor to the town and 
parish, 19 April, 1645, ag. 74. 

*Will. Challis, 3 Jul. 1659. 

*Jeffrey Best, waterman and benefactor, 19 Apr. 1662. 

*Ann wife of Nic. Eagle, aid., and mother of 9 sons and 2 
daughters, 15 Jul. 1688. 

*Dan. Love, 20 Dec. 1693, jet. 75. 



268 S. CLEMENT. 

In the new churchyard. 

Job. Eaden [j. P. and sometime aid.] 29 Nov. 1852, ag. 79 j 
Anne his wife, 14 Jul. 1858, ag. 81. 

Caroline wife of Hen. Eaden, 13 May, 1856, ag. 59. 

In this church were gilds of S. Clement (a) and 
Jesus, and we find mention of the Rood chapel, the 
chapel of S. Mary and S. Nicholas, and the lights of 
S. Clement, S. Christopher, S. Erasmus, S. Mary, 
Jesus, and the Holy Trinity. 

Before 1278 Robert Aungier gave 5 marks annu- 
ally for the celebration of the mass of B. V. Mary in 
this church. In 1325 William de Lolleworth, clerk, 
settled lands in Cambridge and Chesterton for two 
chaplains daily celebrating at the altar of S. Nicholas 
in this church. In 1352 William Horwoode, sometime 
mayor, augmented the endowment of Lolleworth' s 
chantry. In 1473 Thomas Walter gave 20s. a year 
for his obiit to be kept by S. Clement's gild. In 
1559 Richard Chevin gave 10$. a year for two ser- 
mons and the repairs of the fabric, and William 
Richardson gave 13s. 4d. a year to the poor. In 
1568, Henry Hodson gave 10s. a year for a sermon 



(a) The statutes of this gild, dated 1431, are in Trinity college library, 
and there is a transcript in MS. Cole XLV. 1. 

It was governed by an alderman, two masters, a clerk, and a dean 
elected annually. 

The annual meeting was on the Sunday after Low Sunday, and there 
was also a morrow-speech on the Sunday after Michaelmas. 

The members were forbidden to go to law until they had first laid their 
case before the alderman. 

At the general meetings the alderman was allowed a gallon of ale for 
himself and his guests, each master and the clerk a pottle, and the deau 
a quart. 

The clerk and the dean had each 20d. a year for wages. 



S. CLEMENT. 269 

and the poor. In 1593 Lambert Damps, gave 145. 
a year, and Tho. Ellys 6s. 8d. a year to the poor. 
In 1645 Roger Thompson gave 2s. a week amongst 
four poor widows. In 1662 Jeffery Best, water- 
man, gave the annual interest of 20 to the poor. 
In 1692 Thomas Sowersbye gave 12-5. a year to 
the poor, and in 1696 Adam Newling, alderman, 
gave 20s. a year. 

William Dowsing, who visited this church 24 Dec. 
1643, and 1 Jan. 1643-4, says : 

We brake down 30 Superstitious Pictures, divers of the 
Apostles, the Pope Peters Keies. 

In this parish were S. Clement's hostel, (a) Har- 

(a) Job. Cotworth, doctor of both the laws, principal of this hostel, died in 
Sept. 1535. By his will dated 18th and proved 24th of that month, he 
desired to be buried in the chapel of S. Nicholas in the church of S. Clement, 
and bequeathed to the vicar 6s. 8d., to the church 20s., and to the poor in 
half-penny loaves 12s. He willed that his body once dead should be put 
into a coffin of boards and therewith buried, and that at the dirige the uni- 
versity should have no groats because they said there was no purgatory ; 
and he bequeathed 2s. to the bellman for the redemption of his habit. 
(MS. Baker, VI. 210). 

The following were members of this hostel : Rob. Clyffe, LL.D., warden 
of Manchester, and chancellor of the diocese of Ely, died 1538; Ric. 
Sampson, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, died 1554; and Griffin Trygan, 
LL.D., an eminent civilian, died about 1562. 

This hostel which adjoined S. Clement's church on the south, and was 
of considerable extent, was devised to the corporation by Richard Chevin, 
burgess and baker, by his will dated 20 June, 1559, subject to certain 
annual payments for charitable purposes. 

In 1582 the corporation designed to erect on part of the land at the 
back of this hostel a house to set the poor to work, and for reformation of 
idle persons. 

Part of this hostel was converted into seven almshouses, leased by the cor- 
poration to John Cropley, B D , and Ann his wife, 1609-10, to Francis Jermin 
and others 1696; to Tho. Jermin and others 1714; to Tho. Nutting and 
others 1724; and to the churchwardens and overseers 1733, 1753, 1769, and 
1781. The last lease expired at Lady-day 1802. 



270 S. CLEMENT. 

leston place, (a) Wimpole hall, (6) and Sedge hall. (c) 
The Great bridge^ is partly situate in this parish 

(a) In 5 Hen. IV. Ivo de Harleston died seised of a manor in this parish, 
which extended into Newnham, Coton, Chesterton, Waterbeach, Fordham, 
and Enhale. 

William Grey, bishop of Ely, on 16 June, 1466, empowered the principal 
fellows and scholars of the hostel, called Harleston place, to celebrate divine 
service without note in their chapel or oratory within their hostel for three 
years (MS. Baker xxx. 40.) 

The lane in which it stood situate immediately northward of S. Clement's 
church, was anciently known as Harleston lane. It subsequently acquired 
its present appellation of Thompson's lane from the family of Thompson who 
had a large brewhouse there from about 1520 to about 1750. This brew- 
house, subsequently occupied by Andrew White, LL.D., alderman, John 
Purchas, John Haggerston, and two successive Richard Fosters, has recently 
been converted into an iron-foundry by the present owner Swann Hurrell, 
alderman. 

(6) Wimpole hall was situate near the Great bridge on the western side of 
Bridge street. It belonged to the abbat and convent of Bury S. Edmund's. 
In 14 Edw. III. it was in the tenure of Ric. de Adinton, at the annual rent of 
4s. 6d., having been previously held during his life by Geoff, de Costiseye. 
In 3 Ric. II., Rog. le Forbychhour, held at the like rent, the house which 
had been occupied by Ric. de Adinton. It is not then called Wimpole hall 
and it may therefore be inferred that it had ceased to be used for academi- 
cal purposes. 

(c) Sedge hall which is supposed to have been at one period occupied 
by scholars, occurs in a deed of 1563. It appears to have abutted on 
the river. 

(d) It is from the bridge which occupied this spot at a very early date, 
that the town derives its name. 

By inquisition taken in 1276 it appears that the bridge was then im- 
passable, and that Robert del Estre, the sheriff of the county, levied various 
sums by hidage in certain hundreds of the county for the repairs of the bridge, 
that a great part of these sums had not been employed to the uses designed, 
and that whilst the bridge was impassable the sheriff provided a barge and 
exacted for passage sums which he appropriated to his own use. It was also 
presented that Richard Prest, the keeper of the sheriff's prison, took away 
planks from the bridge by night in order by delaying the repairs to augment 
the sheriff's profits. 

In 1278 the bridge was presented as in a scandalous state of decay, 
and it was found that the reparation and rebuilding was a charge on the 
owners of certain lands in the county held by that tenure. 

On 3 March, 1348-9, a royal commission of inquiry was issued as to the 
liability to repair the bridge then much dilapidated. 



S. CLEMENT. 271 

which was formerly inhabited by many considerable 
merchants and traders. 

On the Great bridge was placed the cuckingstool 
for the punishment of scolds. (a) 

Commissions for the repair of the bridge were issued 17 May> 1362 ; 21 
April, 1383; 12 Feb., 1390-1; 15 Feb., 1393-4; 14 July, 1413; 24 June, 
1423 ; 6 July, 1478, and at many subsequent periods. 

The bridge was rebuilt in 1482 by a rate on the owners of pontage lands 
aided by a toll. 

The pontage lands are situate in Barton, Bourn, Boxworth, Caldecot, 
Childerley, Conington, Dry Dray ton, Duxford, Ellisley, Eversden, Grant- 
ch ester, Hard wick, Histon, Hokynton, Landbeach, Lol worth, Longstanton, 
Over, Papworth Agnes, Papworth Everard, Swavesey, Toft, Westwick, and 
Whittlesford. 

The Great bridge was carried away by a flood, 6 Sept. 1594. 

The timber bridge which succeeded to that demolished in 1594, was 
taken down in 1754, when a bridge of stone was erected, the cost of 
which was 1327, raised by subscription. It must have been very badly 
built as it was presented as ruinous and in decay at the town sessions 
held 10 Oct. 1799. 

The present bridge was erected in 1822, by a subscription which ex- 
ceeded 2400. The conservators of the Cam gave 400, the university 
200, Magdalen college 200, and the corporation 150. The bridge, 
which is of iron, was designed by Arthur Brown, esq., and built under 
the superintendence of the county magistrates. 

(a) In 1594 the corporation recovered damages against one Andrews for 
pulling down the cuckingstool. The town treasurers in 1604 charge 20*. for 
a new cuckstool, and in the following year 9s. for timber to it, and 10*. for 
iron work. In 1624 they make the following charges : 

"MAKING UP A CUCKING STOOLE. 

" Item, for Worke about the bridge for the cuckyn stoole with ne piece 
" of tymber ijs. vjd. 

" Item, for 2 pullies, xijc?. 

" Item for 3 boultes with teies and Cotterills belonginge to them, ijs." 

In 1663 there occurs a payment of 12s. to Luke Home for setting up 
the cuckingstool and there is a charge for setting up the cuckingstool in 
the accounts for 1673. 

At a sessions held 4 Feb. 1745-6, an order was made for payment of 
1. 6s. Qd. to Aid. Pretlove, for a ducking chair at the Great bridge. 

The rev. William Cole, the antiquary, relates that when he was a boy he 
saw a woman ducked for scolding. The chair hung by a pulley fastened to a 
beam about the middle of the bridge. On the back of the chair was en- 
graved the devil laying hold of scolds, &c. Sometime afterwards a new chair 



272 S. CLEMENT. 

A small public house called the Half Moon, on 
the Quay side, would appear to have been once a 
tavern. It has been much noticed on account of a 
date in arabic numerals on the beam which crosses 
the entrance to the yard. Some antiquaries read this 
date as 1332. Others with more probability consider 
it to be 1552. 

There is a tradition, which seems entitled to no 
great weight, that Oliver Cromwell once resided in an 
ancient house in White Bull yard. 

Many houses and other buildings in this parish 
have been recently taken down to make room for a 
new lodge for the master of S. John's college. Some 
of these buildings near the river, which were of re- 
mote antiquity, are supposed to have formed part of 
an estate which belonged to the abbey of Bury S. 
Edmund's for many centuries and up to the dissolution 
of that monastery. 

was erected in the place of the old one, having the same devices carved on 
it, and well painted and ornamented. This was taken down on the re- 
building of the bridge in 1754. 

At the sessions held 18 July, 1765, the court at the request of the grand 
jury, ordered the ducking chair to be made and set up at the Great bridge. 
On 16 April, 1766, the court ordered payment of 1. 15s. 6d. to Charles 
Day, joiner, for making a ducking chair, and 3. 2s. 5d. to Samuel Booth, 
whitesmith, for iron work to the same. 

On 24 August, 1663, the corporation ordered the bench, called "Lyers' 
Bench," by the Great bridge, to be repaired at the charge of the town. 




S. KITWAKU'S. 



S. EDWARD. 

THIS church is dedicated to S. Edward the king 
and martyr, and not, as has been often erroneously 
stated, to S. Edward the confessor. It was granted 
to the priory of Barnwell by Hugh de Norwold, 
bishop of Ely (1229-54). In 1254 it was valued at 
3 marks, and in 1291 at 2. 135. 4d. and a pension of 
the prior of Barnwell 13s. 4e?. per annum. In a 
return made to Fordham, bishop of Ely, in 1402, 
the annual value is given at 10 marks. 

On 21 Feb. 1445-6, the prior and convent of 
Barnwell granted the advowsons of the churches of 
S. Edward and S. John to king Henry VI., (o) who 

(a) In 1291 this church was valued at 2. 13s. 4d., and a pension of the 
prior of Barnwell at 20s. per annum. Having been conveyed by the prior 
and convent of Barnwell to Henry VI., that monarch granted it to King's 
college. It was taken down and its site covered by the college buildings. 

VOL. III. T 



274 S. EDWARD. 

on 21 March following, granted the advowson of 
S. Edward to the master and fellows of Trinity hall. 
On 10 Nov. 1446, S. John's was united to this 
church, which was appropriated to Trinity hall: 
the vicarage to be suppressed on the next avoidance, 
the church being thenceforward served by a stipen- 
diary curate, appointed by the master and fellows, 
who were bound to pay annually to the bishop a 
pension of 2<M and to the archdeacon of Ely 4s. 8^. 
for procurations and other dues. It was also stipu- 
lated that the parishioners should pay yearly 20d. 
for Peter pence, and 11s. for Ely silver. (a) Notwith- 
standing the union of the two churches the parish of 
S. John was deemed to be legally subsisting for 
temporal purposes until 29 Sept. 1856, when under 
the Cambridge Award Act it was for all purposes 
united to S. Edward's. 

Before the reformation we find mention in this 
church of the chapels of S. John the evangelist, and 
S. Mary the virgin ; and the altars, images, and lights 
of S. Nicholas, S. James, S. Mary, S. John the baptist, 
S. John the evangelist, and S. Edward. Here were 
also kept the gilds of S. Edward the king, and 
S. Thomas the martyr. 

This church will be for ever memorable, as 
that in which the doctrines of the reformation 
were preached by Thomas Bilney, (6) Dr. Eobert 

() The grants to and from Henry VI., the instrument of union and 
appropriation and other documents connected with the matter are given 
in MS. Baker, xxvii. 317-326; xxviii. 60-64. 

At the time of the union Nicholas Cloos (afterwards bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry) was vicar of S. John's and Roger Bravvbridge of S. Edward's. 

(b) Bilney preached very frequently in this church, in and after 1525, 



S. EDWARD. 275 

Barnes (a) , and Hugh Latimer, (6) all of whom suffered 
martyrdom. It will be seen also that in this church 
are buried two of the translators of the authorised 
version of the Holy Scriptures. 

The tower is early english. The western door 
and the window over it are good modern insertions 
in the ancient style. 

although it does not appear that he had the cure. He was burnt at Norwich, 
19 Aug. 1531. 

(a) Dr. Barnes, who was prior of the Augustinians, preaching in this 
church on Christmas eve, 1525, from the epistle of the day, Gaudete 
in Domino (Phil. iv. 4) declaimed against the superstitious observance of 
holidays; the pride pomp and avarice of the prelates and clergy; the rigour 
and abuses of the ecclesiastical courts; the corruptions and errors of the 
church; and the persecution of the advocates of religious truth. For this 
sermon he was accused of heresy before Dr. Natares, the vice-chancellor, 
and afterwards convened before cardinal Wolsey and other prelates in Lon- 
don. He was obliged to recant. After being in prison nearly three years he 
made his escape and went to Germany. He subsequently returned to 
England and was ultimately attainted of heresy by parliament, and burnt 
in Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. 

(b) In Advent, 1529, Latimer preached in this church quaintly con- 
forming his discourse to the playing at cards, making the heart triumph, 
and exhorting his hearers to serve God in sincerity and truth, and in works 
of mercy, rather than in offerings in the church, setting up candles, gilding, 
painting, and building of churches, giving of ornaments, and going on 
pilgrimages. He was answered by Dr. Buckenham, prior of the Black 
friars, who preached here in the beginning of January following, and whose 
sermon, in imitation of Latimer's, contained repeated allusions to dice. On 
the following Sunday, Latimer replied to Buckenham with great severity, 
but the Romanists prevailed on Dr. John Venetus, a learned foreigner, to 
undertake the defence of the tenets of their Church against Latimer. Dr. 
West, bishop of Ely, also preached against Latimer at Barnwell priory, and 
many others attacked him, especially certain bachelors of divinity of S. 
John's college. The court took up the matter, and although the king seems 
rather to have countenanced Latimer, as being friendly to the then pending 
divorce, yet it seems to have been considered necessary to put an end to all 
further controversy, and a letter was sent by Fox, the king's almoner, to Dr. 
Buckmaster, the vicechancellor, to reduce the disputants to concordance or to 
forbid them to preach until the king's pleasure were known. Latimer, after 
being for a short period bishop of Worcester, was burnt at Oxford, 
16 Oct. 1555. 

T 2 



276 S. EDWARD. 

The rest of the church is late decorated with 
perpendicular additions and alterations. 

The nave has four pier-arches on either side, 
the piers being unusually lofty, and the arches acute. 

The chancel aisles are much wider than those 
of the nave. It is believed that they were used for 
divine service by the societies of Trinity hall 
and Clare hall, before chapels were erected in those 
colleges, Trinity hall taking the northern aisle and 
Clare hall the southern. The northern aisle is 
separated from the chancel by a good perpendicular 
arch. 

The eastern window is of five lights, with a 
circular head, and over the altar are five enriched 
canopies. 

The font which is exceedingly handsome, was 
presented by the Cambridge Camden Society in 1842, 
together with a richly carved canopy cover of oak. 
This font was closely copied from the older one, 
which had become much decayed. The cover which 
is on the model of that at Littlebury, and is sur- 
mounted by the figure of S. John the baptist, was 
executed by J. Groom. The rev. Charles Upham 
Barry, then incumbent, gave a special donation of 
21 to the funds of the Camden society towards 
the expences of this font and cover. 

An inscription on the south side of the altar, 
records that the east end of the chancel was restored 
in 1859, by members of the university, in memory 
of the ten years incumbency of the very rev. Harvey 
Goodwin, D.D., dean of Ely. 

The church was at the same period re-pewed in 




FONT AND COVER.. 

S EDWARDS CHURCH. CAMBRIDGE 



IS. EDWARD. 277 

excellent style. The pulpit and reading desk are 
modern but most appropriate. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel. 

Will. Beck of Middle Temple, London, esq. 1 Dec. 1614, 
set. 51 [with effigy in gown]. 

*Tho. Buck, esq. bedel, 4 Mar. 1669-70. 

Theoph. Dillingham, son of Tho. b. at Over Deane, 
Bedfordsh. archdeacon of Bedford and master of Clare hall, d. 
at Cambridge, 22 Nov. 1678, set. 76; Tho. Dillingham, M.A. 
eldest son of the said Theoph. and Elizab. his wife, fellow of 
Clare hall, b. at Great Hadham, Hertfordsh. d. 19 Dec. 1722, 
set. 60. 

*Cha. Buxton, B.A. fell. Clare hall, 3 son of Eob. Buxton 
of Tibenham, Norf. 20 Nov. 1682, &i. 22. 

Owen Mayfield, aid. and sometime mayor, a constant assertor 
of loyalty and a true son of the church of England as by law 
established, 27 Jan. 1685-6, set. 59 ; Sarah his wife, 23 Aug. 
1684, set. 47. 



Geo. Griffith, M.A. 34 years head master of the school in 
Cambridge, founded by Dr. Perse, 6 Jan. 1686-7, set. 64. 

Judith wife of Tho. Crask, M.D. of S. Joh. coll. 4 Dec. 1704 ; 
Anna Maria, wife of Dr. Tho. Crask of Cambridge, daughter of 
Mr. Joh. Wright of London, 31 (sic] Nov. 1706 ; Tho. their 
son, 28 June, 1707, ag. 16 months. 

Sam. Blithe, D.D. b. at Doncaster, master of Clare hall, and a 
great benefactor thereto, 19 Apr. 1713, set. 79. 

*Hugh Martin, esq. bedel, 6 Aug. 1716, set. 68. 

*Kob. Mapletoft, LL.D. fell. Trin hall, 3 Dec. 1716, set 32. 

Sam. Newton/*) aid. 21 Sept. 1718, ag. 89 ; Sarah his wife, 
5 Nov. 1716, ag. 85 ; Joh. their son, 18 Dec. 1719, ag. 60. 

* Those thus marked are not now visible. 

(a) Samuel Newton, who was a notary public, and held the office of 
registrar to Trinity college, served the office of mayor for the year com- 
mencing Michaelmas, 1671, and during his mayoralty Charles II. visited 
Cambridge. His curious and interesting diary (1660-1717) is preserved in 
Downing college library, and in the Harleian library are two volumes of his 



278 S. EDWARD. 

Will. Scarfe, aid. 6 May, 1724; Tho. his son, 10 Nov. 1719, 
ag. 10 weeks. 

*Joh. Brookbank, LL.D. fell. Trin. hall, official of archd. of 
Ely and chancellor of diocese of Durham, b. at Liverpool, d. at 
Cambridge, 1724, set. 73. 

Frances rel. of Edm. Halfhyde, apothecary, 13 Jan. 1727, 
set. 64; their eld. son Edm. rector of Girton in this county, 
12 Jan. 1739, jet. 56 ; their dau. Elizab. 26 April, 1743, aet. 45 ; 
their youngest son Tho. apothecary, 23 Feb. 1745-6, set. 46. 

Jane daught. of Joh. Kitchingman, M.A. of a Yorkshire 
family and wife of Sam. Kerrich, M.A. of Dersingham, Norf. 
22 Aug. 1731, set. 38. 

Elizab. Hatton, wid. of Corners Hatton of Harborough, 
Leicestersh. esq. and dau. of Tho. Buck of this par. esq. 9 Feb. 
1731-2, ag. 52 ; her son Eic. Hatton of Trin. hall, esq. 19 Aug. 
1735, ag. 24. 

Cha. Morgan, D.D. master of Clare hall, 30 April, 1736, 
set. 59. 

Tho. Fagg, stud. Clare hall, 7 Mar. 1753 ; placed by his 
brother sir Will. Fagg, bart. of Mysole in par. of Chartham, Kent. 

Joh. Mortlock, 26 April, 1754, ag. 80. 

Joh. Wilcox, D.D. master of Clare hall, 16 Sept. 1762, set. 70. 

Tho. Lombe, solicitor, b. at Norwich, 7 Jan. 1719, d. at 
Camb. 3 Oct. 1800 ; Anne his wife, 8 Sept. 1783, ag. 73 ; Mar- 
garet their dau. 1765, ag. 5 ; Margaret his sister, 1759, ag. 38. 

Edw. Lunn, 28 Aug. 1813, ag. 75 ; Anne 2 wife, 16 Jul. 1809, 
ag. 76; Susanna Turner her sister, 9 Mar. 1818, ag. 67. 

Joh. Mortlock, esq. many years chief magistrate of the town, 
and in 1784 elected one of its representatives in parliament, 7 May, 
1816, ag. 61 ; Elizab. Mary his wid. 5 Apr. 1817, ag. 60; Will. 
Mortlock, their youngest son [sometime aid.] 22 .Tune, 1847, ag. 
57, a person of sincere piety and rare benevolence and singleness 
of heart, who in the course of a life spent in doing good, rebuilt 
Knight's almshouses at his sole expence, and effected a large 

manuscript collections. By his will, dated 24 Nov. 1718, he gave to the 
corporation four booths in Sturbridge fair, and in consequence a sermon in 
his commemoration was for many years preached in this church before the 
mayor and corporation on the Sunday before 22 Sept. after which money 
was distributed to the poor of this and the other parishes. 



S. EDWARD. 279 

addition to the endowment of the hospital of S. Anthony and 
S. Eligius. 

Harriet Dennet, wife of Hen. Marshall, 4 Feb. 1844, ag. 45. 

In the old churchyard. 

Rob. Watts, 31 Jan. 1752, [1751-2J, ag. 56>) 

King Whittred, aid. 12 June, 1778, ag. 83 ; Elizab. his wife... 

Joh. Nicholson [bookseller] 8 Aug. 1796, ag. 66 ; Anne his 
wife, 7 Feb. 1814, ag. 84>) 

Will Gilpin, stud, of Trin. coll. son of Will, and Elizab. of 
b. at Cheam, Surrey, 28 Aug. 1789, d. 24 Feb. 1811. 

Ja. Donn, curator of the Botanic garden [author of Hortus 
Cantabrigiensis] 14 June, 1813, set. 56; Ann his wife, 29 Aug. 
1806, ag. 52. 

Rob. Gee, solicitor, 18 June, 1817, ag. 67 ; Elizab. his wife, 
1 April, 1809, ag. 63. 

Joh. Nicholson [bookseller and dramatist] 3 Dec. 1822, ag. 41. ( a 

Rob. Gee [solicitor] 7 Dec. 1833, ag. 67 ; Mary his wife, 
19 Apr. 1837, ag. 63; their dau. Sarah, wife of Walt. Gee, 
rect. of Week S. Mary, Cornwall, 10 Jan. 1846, ag. 54. 

(a) Robert Watts, who dwelt and had a book shop on the western side of 
Trumpington street in this parish, was the first person who established a circu- 
lating library in Cambridge. It was opened about 1745, and comprised a large 
stock of standard mathematical and classical books. He dealt also in maps and 
prints, and acquired the name of Maps. His stock in trade he bequeathed 
to his only daughter Anne, who on 28 March, 1752, married John Nicholson 
of Mountsorrel, Leicestershire, who carried on the business on tbe same 
premises with great success till his death in 1796. He was also well known 
by the name of Maps ; and his portrait, by Reinagle (which has been en- 
graved) is in the university library. He was succeeded by his son John 
who, in 1807, removed the business to a newly erected house at the corner 
of Trinity street and S. Mary's street. Having accumulated a fortune he 
went to reside at Stoke Newington and gave up the business to his son 
John (the author of two or more published dramas). Shortly after the death 
f the latter, which occurred in 1822, the business was disposed of to Mr. 
Thomas Stevenson, alderman, and sometime mayor, a person of much 
literary ability. He discontinued the circulating library. On his -death, 
in 1845, the business was sold to Messrs. A. & D. Macmillan, the survivor 
of whom is an extensive publisher here and at London and Oxford, under 
the designation of Macmillan & Co. The second John Nicholson died at 
Stoke Newington, 25 April, 1825, ag. 70. 



280 S. EDWARD. 

Kob. Nicholson, lieut. E.N. 19 Jan. 1836, ag. 44. 

Joseph Fetch, solicitor [only son of Joseph and Elizab. of 
Wisbeach] b. March, 1779, d. Feb. 1839 of an inflammation on 
the lungs, occasioned by a cold caught at the union workhouse 
while attending his professional duties j Mary his wife, 6 May, 
1838, ag. 58. 

In the new churchyard. 

Hen. Sheen of Clare hall (2 son of rev. Sam. rector of Stan- 
stead, Suff. and Louisa his wife) b. 4 Feb. 1829, d. 22 May, 1851. 

Isaiah Deck [F.G.S.] 5 Nov. 1853, ag. 61 ; Susan his wife, 4 
June, 1863, ag. 70. 

Geo. Crawfurd Heath, M.A. fell. King's coll. 18 Jul. 1860, set.77. 

Will. Edw. Kidler, M.A. fell. King's coll. b. 20 Sept. 1831, 
d. 15 Aug. 1860. 

Kev. Geo. Barber, M.A. 12 May, 1861, ag. 54. 

The following interments here appear in the 
parish registers : 

Edw. Lively, Kegius professor of hebrew, one of the trans- 
lators of the Bible, 7 May, 1605. 

Phil. Stringer, M.A. sometime fell, of S. Joh. coll. afterwards 
esq. bedel, 27 Oct. 1605. 

Kic. Thompson, fell, of Clare hall and rector of Snail well, 
one of the translators of the Bible, 8 Jan. 1612-13. 

North Harrison, town clerk, 9 June, 1635. 

Martin Perse, esq. mayor, 30 Apr. 1636. 

Joh. Boord, LL.D. Regius professor of civil law, 23 Nov. 1684. 

Ja. Ayloffe, fell. Trin. hall, 5 May, 1703. 

Will. Tindale, LL.D. fell. Trin. hall, and minister of this 
parish, 10 May, 1712. 

Whadcock Priest, D.D. of Clare hall, 8 Jan. 1715-16. 

Nathaniel Vincent, D.D. sen. fell, of Clare hall, 30 Mar. 1722. 

Edw. Clarke, M.A. sen. fell, of Clare hall and esq. bedel, 
17 Jan. 1726-7. 

Joh. Gibson, M.A. fell, of Clare hall and eld. son of the bishop 
of London, 5 May, 1731. 

Rowl. Simpson, B.D. rec. of Gaywood, Norf. and sometime 
fell. S. Joh, coll. 11 March, 1736-7. 



S. EDWARD. 281 

Tho. Buck, esq. 9 Sept. 1746. 

Hen. Maiden, clerk of King's coll. chapel, and reputed 
author of an account of that structure, 27 Aug. 1769. 

The proceedings of William Dowsing in this 
church on 1 Jan. 1643-4 are thus recorded by him: 

We diged up the steps & brake down 40 Pictures & tooke 
of 10 Superstitious Scriptures. 

The inquisition of 23 Oct. 1650, taken before the 
commissioners for providing maintenance for preaching 
ministers, contains the following passages : 

The Parishe of Saint Edward is neither Viccaridge nor 
Parsonage. 

That the Masters and Fellowes of Trinitie Hall in Cam- 
bridge receave eight pounds per Annum for rent of a house 
Aunchientlie called the Viccaridge Howse, and have usuallie 
provided a Minister till of late Yeares, and doe repaire the 
Chancell at their own Charge and clayme the duties for 
buryeinge in the Chancell. That there is no present Minister 
to supplie the Cure nor any maintenance. 

The commissioners recommended that S. Benedict's 
should be united to S. Edward's, the latter being the 
fitter church. 

The principal benefactions have been: Thomas 
Ellys, pikemonger (1593) 6s. &d. a year. William 
Harbert (1612) 60, to be invested for the pur- 
chase of fuel annually for the poor. Edward 
Freeman (1778) the interest of 150. Elizabeth 
Goodall (1809) the dividends on 425 consols, 
for apprenticing children of this and other parishes. 
Edward Lunn (1813) the interest of 100. William 
Mortlock, alderman (1821) an altar piece, painted by 
R. B. Harraden, representing Christ and the two 



282 S. EDWAED. 

disciples at Emmaus. (a) Gilbert Ives (1826) the 
interest of 200. There were formerly almshouses 
belonging to this parish, (6) the poor of which are 
entitled to a preference in the election of inmates of 
Dr. Perse's almshouses. 

In this parish, including what formerly constituted 
S. John's, were situate the houses of the Augustinian (c) 

(a) Now in the vestry. 

(6) These almshouses were leased by the corporation as follows, each 
lease being for 21 years at 20s. 

16 Aug. 1645. To Sam. Spalding, aid. and others. 

17 Aug. 1668. To Edw. Stoite, M.D. and others. 
24 Aug. 1710. To Sam. Newton, aid. and others. 
1 Sept. 1719. To Jos. Pyke, aid. and others. 

4 March, 1729-30. To Jos. Pyke, aid. Tho. Matthews, and the 
churchwardens and overseers. 

17 June, 1740. To the churchwardens and overseers. 

16 March, 1757. To the churchwardens and overseers. 

In the first of these leases the almshouses are described as under a long 
chamber called the treasury, then used as a schoolhouse in the occupation 
of John Botewright, gent. The treasury is subsequently stated to be used 
as a corn-chamber. 

(c) The friars hermits of the order of S. Augustine, popularly called the 
Austin friars, settled themselves in S. Edward's, in or shortly before 1290. 
The site of their house may be thus described: towards the north it abut- 
ted on the Pease market, towards the south on the street now called Down- 
ing street, towards the east on the street anciently called Fairyard lane, 
afterwards Slaughterhouse lane, and now Corn exchange street, and towards 
the west on the lane once known as Lurteburgh lane, and now as Free- 
school lane. 

Sir Geoffrey Pitchford is said to have been the founder. 

In 1290 the friars came to an agreement with the prior and convent of 
Barnwell, as rectors of S. Edward, and William the vicar, to pay 4s. yearly 
by way of recompence for the damages arising on account of the houses and 
soil taken by the friars in which parishioners used to dwell, who paid obla- 
tions and tithes, real and personal, to the church of S. Edward. It was also 
stipulated that the friars should not admit the parishioners of S. Edward to 
receive the sacraments of the church, and that all their hired secular servants 
should receive the sacrament in S. Edward's, and make their oblations and 
pay their tithes there. 

At the dissolution the site was granted to William Keynsham, from 
whom it passed to John Hatcher, M.D., Regius professor of physic, who 



S. EDWARD. 283 

and Carmelite friars, (fl) and several minor academical 

died there in March, 1586-7. By his will, in default of issue male of his 
grandsons and nephews, he devised the same to the university to be em- 
ployed as a house for students to be called Hatcher's hall. A portion of the 
estate subsequently became the property of Stephen Perse, M.D., the free 
school and almshouses founded by him being erected thereon. Another 
portion of the site, long used as the Botanic garden, is now in part occupied 
by the newly erected lecture rooms of the university. 

As late as 1789 part of the refectory was standing, being then used as 
the lecture room of the professors of botany. 

The names of the following priors have been preserved : John occurs 
1290 ; Thomas Cressale, D.D., occurs 1418 ; Thomas Swillington, D.D., occurs 
1520, he was suffragan to the bishop of Lincoln; John Stokjs, D.D., who 
occurs 1521, was afterwards provincial and prior of the house at Norwich; 
John Stubbs, D.D., occurs 1522 ; Robert Barnes, D.D., occurs 1524, he was a 
warm advocate of the reformation, a diplomatist, and a voluminous author, 
and was burnt in Smithfield 1540; John Hardyman, D.D., occurs 1536, 
and subsequently signed the surrender to the king. 

Amongst other eminent brethren were Roger Twiforcl, D.D., a celebrated 
preacher, flourished 1390; William Wells, D.D., provincial and a good 
writer for his age, died 1421 ; John de Bury, D.D., a great opponent of the 
Wickliffites, flourished 1460; John Tonnys, D.D., author of learned works, 
died about 1510; Thomas Paynell, diplomatist and classical scholar, 
flourished 1540; and Miles Coverdale, sometime bishop of Exeter, and 
translator of the Bible, died 1568-9. 

(a) The friars of the order of Mount Carmel, commonly called Carmelites 
or white friars, were originally settled in the parish of Chesterton. In or 
about 1249 they removed to Newnham, where they built a number of cells 
with a handsome church, cloister, and all necessary apartments, occupying 
altogether three acres or more. A portion of that site was given by Michael 
Malerbe, and the residue they had by the gift of others and by purchase. 

In 1290 they petitioned parliament that William de Hamelton might 
give them a house in the town of Cambridge where they might build their 
house anew, because at Newnham they suffered many and great inconve- 
niences on account of inundation of waters, so that the scholars could not 
have access to them to hear divinity, nor could they get to the town to 
procure their victuals. On this petition an inquisition was awarded which 
appears to have been favourable. 

The original site of the house in S. John's extended from the street to 
the river, and from land formerly of John Alured to the lane which led 
to the river. 

The prior and convent of Barnwell as rectors of S. John, and Symon the 
vicar opposed the Carmelites building in that parish, on the ground that they 
should lose tithes and oblations which had been payable in respect of the 
houses which occupied the site. The matter being referred to the arch- 



284 S. EDWARD. 

establishments, namely old God's house, (a) and 
the hostels of S. Austin, ( the Holy Cross, (c) S. 

deacon of Ely and his official, it was determined that the Carmelites should 
pay the prior and convent 14s. a year as recompence for all damages which 
they and their vicar should sustain. Subsequently John dePorthors, burgess 
of Cambridge, for easing the Carmelites, settled on the prior and convent 
the yearly rent of 13s. 4d. t and for the remaining 8d. the Carmelites gave 
the prior and convent full satisfaction. This agreement made in Jan. 1294-5, 
was confirmed by the bishop of Ely. 

In 15 Edw. III., John de Caumpes had the royal licence to give to the 
friars a messuage with the appurtenances contiguous to their manse. 

A portion of the garden appears to have been acquired by King's college 
before the surrender. The residue of the site and the materials of the 
house were soon after the surrender granted to Queens' college. 
(See vol. I. 291, 292). 

We subjoin the names of some of the priors: William occurs 1291; 
Richard Hely occurs 1446, he wrote De Adventu Carmelitarum in 
Angliam, and died in London I486; John Hethyngham, who occurs 1450, 
and quitted 1456, wrote Sermones Varies ; John Barret, D.D., occurs 1533, 
he was afterwards canon of Norwich, and a learned writer and died 1563; 
Andrew Barsham, B.C., occurs 1535 ; William Watson occurs 1535-6 ; George 
Legate occurs 1536, and resigned 1538; Clement Hubbard, alias Thorp, 
elected 1538, soon afterwards surrendered the house to Henry VIII. 

The following are amongst other eminent members of this house: 
Humphrey Necton, D.D., the first of the order who graduated at Cambridge, 
died 1303 ; Richard Belgrave, author of Theological Determinations, &c. 
nourished 1320; Thomas de Ely, D.D., lecturer at Bruges, died about 1320; 
Alan de Lynne, D.D., author of Indexes to 33 Authors, flourished 1420; 
John Thorp, D.D., author of the Labyrinth of Sophisms, &c., died 1440. 

(a) See Vol. II. 2-4. 

(b) See Vol. 1.195-197. 

It will be seen that two hostels so called were granted to King's college 
in 1448-9. It is probable that the one which had belonged to Clare hall 
was first taken for the site of King's, that the scholars of the hostel there- 
upon removed to the house which belonged to Denny abbey, Agnes Jacob, 
and John Wering, but that ultimately that hostel also was required for 
the site of the college. 

(c) By a deed dated on the feast of S. Dunstan, 10 Ric. II., the prioress 
and convent of S. Leonard in Stratford att Bowe, conveyed to Thomas 
Kelsaland others a curtilage in Scole lane, abutting on the tenement of the 
hospital of S. John, called the hostel of the Holy Cross, (MS. Baker, 
XXVI. 95). This hostel which was in the parish of S. John, was granted 
by the master and brethren of S. John's hospital to Henry VI., for the site 
of King's college, in exchange for the fish ponds near the hospital. (Baker's 



S. EDWARD. 285 

Edmund,"" S. Edward, S. John,w an d S. Ni- 
cholas. w 

The university library, the schools, the new 
museums and lecture rooms, Clare college, Trinity 
hall, parts of King's and S. Catharine's colleges, and 
the Perse school and almshouses, are situate in this 
parish, as is also a small portion of the Guildhall. 

Within this parish also were formerly two famous 
taverns called the Mitre (e) and the Tuns. (/) 

Hist, of S. John's, ed. Mayor 17). See p. 262, n. (c) and correct that 
note by this. 

(a) See Vol. I. 179,194. 

(b) See Vol. I. 180, 195. 

(c) SeeVoll. 179. 

(d) See Vol. I. 180. 

(e) Randolph has witty verses on the fall of the Mitre Tavern, about 1634, 
and amongst the poems of Christopher Smart is one entitled The Pretty 
Barkeeper of the Mitre, 1741. 

(/) The Tuns tavern which was situate on the Market hill, and partly in 
Great S. Mary's, ceased to be used as a tavern about 1790, when it was 
converted into grocery premises, lately occupied by A. G. Brimley, alderman, 
and the adjacent small public-house still known as the Three Tuns. 

On 17th Nov. 1750, forty-six gentlemen educated at Westminster school 
met at the Tuns according to custom, to celebrate the accession of queen 
Elizabeth, Thomas Francklin, Regius professor of greek, being in the chair. 
At 11 o'clock, as the company were about to disperse, one of the proctors 
entered the room, and a scene of confusion ensued. The proctor cited some of 
the party before the vicechancellor and heads for insulting and interrupting 
him in the execution of his duty. They were found guilty and reprimanded, 
such of them as were in statu pupillari were also fined 6s. Sd. each, and 
Thomas Ansell, LL.B., fellow of Trinity hall, was suspended from his degree 
for contemptuous and disobedient behaviour to the vicechancellor during 
his defence. The case excited great interest at the time, and a pamphlet 
purporting to contain a narrative of the proceedings had an extraordinary 
sale. 




S. GILES. 

WE have already given an account of the estab- 
lishment within this parish of a house of canons, 
which was in 1112 removed to Barnwell. (a) On its 
foundation that house was endowed with the church 
of S. Giles, which however was soon afterwards 
either unjustly taken from or lost by the prior and 
convent of Barnwell, to whom it was restored by 
William, bishop of Ely, in the time of Robert the 
fifth prior, when it was assigned for defraying the 
charge of curing the sick canons and bleeding those 
who were in health. 

In 1254, this church was rated at 3. 6s. ScLj 
and in 1291 at 6. 13s. 4d. per annum. (6) 

The church of All Saints by the Castle, was in 

(a) Vide ante p. 219. 

(b) It does not appear in the valuation made under the act of 1534. 



S. GILES. 287 

1254 rated at 3. 6s. &?., and in 1291 at 4. 13s. 4d. 
per annum. It belonged to the prior and convent 
of Barn well, (a) to whom it was appropriated by Hugh 
de Balsham, bishop of Ely, on the resignation of 
Adam de Buden, towards the maintenance of two 
chaplains, students in divinity in the university, on 
the foundation of William de Kilkenny, bishop of 
Ely. w Ultimately, but at what precise period or for 
what cause we are not informed, the churches of All 
Saints by the Castle and S. Giles were united, and 
all knowledge of the bounds of the former parish 
has long been lost. 

The rectory of S. Giles and the advowson of the 
vicarage, which came to the crown on the disso- 
lution of the priory of Barnwell, were granted by 
queen Elizabeth, in the 4th year of her reign to 
Eichard Cox, bishop of Ely, and his successors. (c) 

In the inquisition taken 23rd Oct. 1650, before 
commissioners for providing maintenance for preach- 
ing ministers, it was thus presented : 

(a) In or about 1290, the friars of S. Mary settled in Catton rewe in the 
parish of All Saints by the Castle, and near that church. They agreed to 
pay yearly to the infirmarer of the priory of Barnwell half a mark in satis- 
faction of all damages occasioned by their taking property which had there- 
tofore paid tithes. 

These friars first settled in Cambridge in or about 1273, but in what 
particular part of the town is unknown. In 1278 it was presented that 
they held one messuage in which they dwelt and where their chapel was 
erected, which messuage they bought of Henry de Berton, rendering to him 
12d. yearly, he acquitting them against the bailiffs of Cambridge of 4d. of 
hagabul to the king. 

The order appears to have been one of the numerous minor orders of friars 
which were suppressed in 1307. 

(b) Baker's Hist, of S. John's, ed. Mayor, 21. 

(c) Particulars of the exchange between queen Elizabeth and bishop 
Cox will be found in Willis's Cathedrals, ii. 338, 339 ; and Bentham's Ely, 194. 



288 S. GILES. 

The parish of S. Giles is an impropriate Parsonage worth 
One hundred and twentye pounds Per annum. John Rouse, 
Esquire, as Lessee for lives to the late Bishop of Ely, being 
the Irapropriator and possessor thereof. But whether any of 
the lives are in beinge the Jurors know not, he liveing remote 
from thence in the County of Suffolk. 

That there is a Viccaridge belonginge to the said Parish worth 
Twelve pounds per Annum. 

That there is at present no supplie of the Cure, the same 
haveinge layd voyd about four Monthes neither have they a 
preachinge Minister. 

The commissioners recommended that S. Peter's 
should be united to S. Giles's, S. Giles being the 
larger church and fitter for use. (a) 

The governors of queen Anne's bounty, in 1792 
granted 200 for the augmentation of the benefice. 

Amongst the eminent ministers of this parish we 
may mention: Samuel Hammond, a noted puritan, 
afterwards preacher at Newcastle upon Tyne ; John 
Spencer, D.D., dean of Ely, and master of Corpus 
Christi college ; Zachary Grey, LL.D., the commen- 
tator on Hudibras; William Farish, Jacksonian pro- 
fessor; and Henry Hutchinson Swinny, sometime 
fellow of Magdalen college, and late principal of 
Cuddesdon theological institution. 

The church is a strange and repulsive medley 
of ancient and modern work. 

The south door has a sharply pointed arch en- 
riched with cheveron and other mouldings, under 
a highly pitched pediment, within which is an 
arch. There is a later stone porch in front of this 
door. 

(a) The two churches have never been united although they have 
usually, if not invariably, been held by the same person. 



S. GILES. 289 

The chancel walls and arch belong to the original 
foundation, the latter having early norman decora- 
tions which are very curious. Lancet windows are 
inserted on the south side. 

The body of the church is early english without 
aisles. The west and south walls are original, the 
former retaining traces of a twin early english 
window. The north wall was removed by the late 
professor Farish, and the building extended north- 
wards to double its original area. A new roof with 
its ridge lying north and south converts the whole 
into one large modern room, with the pulpit (having 
a large and marvellous concave sounding board) 
: at the south end, the font (a plain octagonal one) 
in front of it, and the organ at the north in a horse- 
shoe gallery which extends along the east and west 
sides. The floor below rising gradually northwards 
completes the arrangement. The old chancel is thus 
converted into a lateral recess, and is moreover 
masked by the gallery. (a) 

The altar piece represents the offering of the 
wise men. 



(a) The nave of this church is one of those new brick edifices, which 
is to transmit the taste of this age to future wondering generations. The 
plan is singular ; the seats rise behind each other as in the pit of a theatre, 
an arrangement of which, neither the beauty nor utility are evident. It 
may be very right, and, since it is allowed, no doubt it is, to pull down, or 
to suffer to fall, those old fashioned things called churches, and build up in 
their places something like meeting-houses; but it is not quite evident what 
we gain by the exchange, perhaps no increase of piety, and certainly no 
improvement in taste. We cannot, at least, say with the Ephraimites of 
old, in the pride and naughtiness of our hearts, " The bricks are fallen 
down, but we will build with hewn stone; the sycamores are cut down, but 
we will change them into cedars." Notes on the Cambridgeshire Churches 
[by rev. Geo. Richard Boissier~\ p. 22. 

VOL. III. U 



290 S. GILES. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : 

In the church and chancel. 

Nic. Carr,( a ) [M.D. Begins professor of greek, 3 Nov. 1568, 
t. 45.]; Cath. [his daughter]; Will. James. Only partially 
legible. 

*Anne Water-land, 1717, ag. 63. 

*Will. Typpin, Magd. coll. (b. at Weston Colville, Cam- 
bridgesh.) 9 Dec. 1718, aet. 19. 

Elizab. Gilford, sist. of Joseph Ivatt, 19 Dec. 1800, ag. 78. 

Joseph Warter, M.A. fell. Magd. coll. and jun. proctor, 
7 Nov. 1802, ag. 33. 

Jacob Smith, 28 Feb. 1814, ag. 74. 

Will. WilkinsW of Newnham in this par. [architect] 22 April, 
1815, ag. 64; Hannah^) his wife, 29 June, 1815, ag. 58; 
Hannah, eld. dau. b. 26 Aug. 1799, d. at Southwell, Nott. 
28 Jan. 1852 ; Emm, 2 dau. b. 19 May, 1782, d. 20 Nov. 1841 ; 
Harriet youngest dau. wife of Rob. Woodhouse, M.A. Plumian 
professor, b. 11 Jul. 1786, d. 31 March, 1826. 

Kath. wife [wid.] of Jacob Smith, 8 Nov. 1833, ag. 85. 

In the churchyard.^ 

Harman James, 8 Feb. 1814, ag. 60. 

Ric. Vaughan, b. 10 Nov. 1761, d. 24 Jul. 1816.<<*> 

Elizab. Matilda, wife of Tho. Carr of Bombay [afterwards 
bishop of Bombay], and eld. dau. of Mr. Farish, surgeon of this 
town, d. at sea on voyage home, 1 Feb. 1825, ag. 36; Hen. 
Joh. Will. Carr, her youngest child, 2,1 Dec. 1825, ag. 17 months ; 
Geo. PaleyReade, grandson of the late Ja. Farish, 1 Sept. 18... 

Sarah Apthorp, 16 June, 1833, ag. 74. 

(a) Dr. Carr was buried at S. Michael's. [See Athena Cantab, ii. 263.] 

* These are now invisible. 

(6) Parents of Will. Wilkins, R.A. 

(c) A new churchyard for this and the adjoining parish of S. Peter, is 
about to be formed on Huntingdon road. 

(<<) Richard Vaughan, a most noted person in his day, was driver of the 
Telegraph coach from Cambridge to London. His portrait has been en- 
graved by Dighton, and he is the subject of the mervailous Historic (by 
the rev. Hen. Thompson of S. Joh. coll. now vicar of Chard), which may be 
found in the Sporting Magazine for Jan. 1826, and Cambridge Portfolio, 456. 



S. GILES. 291 

Will. Hunt, esq. barrister-at-law, sen. fell. King's coll. 6 Jan. 
1852, ag. 86. 

Cha. Bell, B.A. Cai. coll. b. 2 Dec. 1831, d. 18 Mar. 1856. 

Blomefield, who visited this church in August, 
1724, states that before the pulpit was a stone with 
the effigy of a man in armour in the middle of it, 
and at each corner a brass shield. On two of the 
shields were: on a fess 3 cocks, and on the other 
two a tun and the letter B which he conjectured 
to be a rebus for Tunby. The stone remains, but 
the brasses have long been gone. 

A gild of S. Giles in this church is frequently 
mentioned in wills made before the reformation. 

William Dowsing thus records his proceedings at 
S. Giles's, 30 Dec., 1643 : 

We brake downe 12 Superstitious Pictures & tooke 2 Popish 
Inscriptions, 4 Cherubims & a holy water Fonte at the Porch 
Dore. 

The principal benefactions have been: Thomas 
Ellys, pikemonger, (1593) 6s. Sd. a year; Eobert 
Bridgman, a house in Bell lane (now Northampton 
street) formerly used as a workhouse ; Harman James 
(1814) the interest of 80 to Addenbrooke's hospital, 
for the benefit of this parish ; Jacob Smith, (1814) 
20s. a year. 

By virtue of a private act passed in 1802, the 
open and common fields, common meadows, and 
other open and commonable lands and waste grounds 
within this parish were enclosed, allotments being 
made in lieu of great and small tithes. (a) Under a 

(a) The act contains a proviso preserving the right of Trinity college to 
an ancient watercourse used for conveying water from certain springs in 
this parish into the conduit within that college. 

u2 



292 S. GILES. 

clause in the act, a trial took place in the court of 
King's Bench, at Guildhall, London, 20 Jan., 1803, 
to determine the right of soil in the common and waste 
lands in the parish. The plaintiffs were the corpora- 
tion, and the defendants Merton college Oxford, 
Jesus and S. John's colleges Cambridge, and Sir 
Charles Cotton of Madingley, bart., but the defence 
was entirely confined to the claim of Merton college. 
After a lengthened investigation the jury returned a 
verdict in favour of the corporation. 

THE ROMAN STATION was situate in this parish and 
the adjoining parishes of S. Peter and Chesterton. (0) 

MANOR OF MERTON HALL. In this parish, but 
extending also into the parishes of S. Peter, Grant- 
chester, and Chesterton, is a small manor belong- 
ing to the warden and scholars of Merton college, 
Oxford, and commonly known as the manor of 
Merton hall. 

In March 1269-70, the estate in Cambridge, or 
the principal part of it, comprising a messuage, sixty 
acres of land, and 60s. 2d. rent, was conveyed to the 
scholars of Merton by Richard Dunning and William 
de Manefeld, (6) at the instance, and expence of the 
founder Walter de Merton, who in his charter of 
addition and enlargement dated in 1270, grants to 
his scholars, the lands and rents formerly of Richard 

(a) See Babingtori's Ancient Cambridgeshire. See also a paper by pro- 
fessor Babington on roman interments by the side of the so-called Via 
Devana near Cambridge, in Communications to Cambr. Antiq. Soc. II. 289. 

(5) The estate descended from father to son as follows : Eustace 
Dunning, Hervey Dunning, Eustace Dunning, and Richard Dunning. 

The second Eustace Dunning conveyed it by way of pledge or mortgage 
to John de Castle Bernard, from whom it descended to his son William 
de Castle Bernard, whose heir was William de Manefeld. 



Si GILES. 



293 




PYTHAGORAS's SCHOOL. 



Dunning and William de Manefeld in Cambridge 
and the parts adjacent. 

The messuage is a stone grange of the end of the 
twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century, but 
so much spoiled by modern alterations that very little 
of the original character remains. One or two of 
the windows on the first floor are good specimens 
of transition norman work. It has had an external 
staircase, and the ground room has been vaulted, but 
scarcely a vestige of either is now discernible. 

This building from the time of its being acquired 
by Merton college (a) has been in the hands- of the 

(a) There must be excepted an interval of about seventeen years, during 
which the manor belonged to King's college (vide vol. I. 184, 199.) There 
is no reason however to suppose, that during that brief period the messuage 
was used otherwise than theretofore. 



294 S. GILES. 

bailiffs or tenants of the college, in the records of 
which it is as early as 1355, referred to as their 
stone house in Cambridge, called Merton hall. 

About the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth 
it acquired the name of the house of Pythagoras, and 
it was subsequently called the school of Pythagoras. 
There is a tradition that it was used for academical 
lectures, but for this there does not appear to be the 
slightest foundation. (a) 

Within this parish are situate the Observatory, 
Story's almshouses, the cattle market, and portions 
of Magdalen college, and of the grounds of King's, 
S. John's, and Trinity colleges. The primitive 
methodists have a chapel in S. Peter's street in 
this parish. (6) 

(a) Once there prevailed an opinion that this house before it came to 
Merton college was the infirmary of the hospital of S. John. Originating 
in a pretentious and somewhat absurd article in Grose's Antiquities, and 
adopted by Gough in his British Topography, and the additions to Camden's 
Britannia, it was proved to be entirely erroneous by the rev. Joseph K ilner, 
sometime fellow of Merton college, in a privately printed work in folio, 
without date, entitled "The Account of Pythagoras's School in Cambridge; 
as in Mr. Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales, and other notices." 
This work is quite a curiosity: its title gives no real indication of the con- 
tents ; the author devotes one hundred and fifty-eight pages to what might 
easily have been got into four ; introduces irrelevant topics ; wanders from 
point to point in an incomprehensible fashion ; though learned, acute, and 
undoubtedly in the right, contrives to obscure his meaning in a wilderness 
of words ; and lastly, gives only brief and unsatisfactory abstracts of the 
most pertinent documents, whilst others appear in extenso. 

His book having no date it may be proper to state that Mr. Kilner 
died 3 June, 1793, set. 73, and is buried at Cirencester in Gloucestershire. 

(6) Re-erected 1863, on the site of a smaller one. 

A building on Pound hill, formerly a methodist chapel, is now used 
as a charity school. 




FONT IN GKEAT S. MART 6. 



S. MARY THE GREATS 

THIS may be considered the principal parish in the 
town. From a very remote period the church has 
been used by the university for religious services, and 
for several centuries the principal proceedings of that 
body took place therein. There are also instances 
of the meetings of the Corporation taken place here, 
and here the consistory court of the diocese is still 
ordinarily held. 

(a) Reference may be made to a very interesting paper on this church, 
by the rev. Edmund Venables, M.A. in the Transactions of the Cambridge 
Camden Society, 248-291. 



296 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

It is called S. Mary the Great to distinguish it 
from another parish, the church of which is also 
dedicated to S. Mary, but this appellation is com- 
paratively modern, that church having been originally 
dedicated to S. Peter. 

In old records this church is also frequently termed 
S. Mary's by the marketstede. 

The advowson anciently belonged to the crown. 
By charter 23 March, 6 John, that monarch granted 
this church to Thomas de Chimelye, and by another 
charter dated the following day, the king with the 
assent of de Chimelye granted to Gervase his chap- 
lain of Westminster, the perpetual vicarage for his 
life, he rendering to de Chimelye and his succes- 
sors one bisant at the feast of S. Michael yearly. 
Edward III. granted the church to the master and 
fellows of King's hall, who under the royal licence 
obtained an appropriation. It subsequently passed 
with the other estates of King's hall, to Trinity 
college, who now own the rectory and appoint a 
perpetual curate. 

In a valuation made 1254, this church is rated at 
twelve marks. In the ecclesiastical taxation made 
by order of pope Nicholas IV. in or about 1291, 
it is valued at 4. 6s. Sd. per annum. In the 
valuation made about 1534, the chantry in this 
church was valued at 10. 6s. 5d. per annum, and 
it is stated that the rectory was appropriated to 
King's hall, there being no vicarage. 

In 1278, there were fifteen several rents amount- 
ing together to 1. 5s. Id. payable out of property 
in the town to this church, four of them were appro^ 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 297 

priated to the maintenance of lights, and two to 
a chaplain celebrating mass at the altar of S. Mary. 

On 9 July, 1290, this church was burnt and 
many houses round it. 

The great altar of the church which arose on 
the ashes of that which had been destroyed by fire, 
was consecrated by the bishop of Ely, 15 March, 
1346. 

In September, 1388, when the parliament met at 
Cambridge, the convocation of the province of Can- 
terbury assembled in this church. 

An entirely new church was commenced in 1478, 
the first stone being laid on 16 May in that year, 
at 6.45 P.M. 

Towards the cost of this structure, Thomas 
Barrow, LL.D., archdeacon of Colchester and master 
of the rolls, sometime fellow of King's hall, gave 
240 ( " } ; king Henry VII. 40. and 100 oaks for 
the roof; John Alcock, bishop of Ely, 70; and 
Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, 20. 
John de Vere, earl of Oxford, who died in 1512, 
was also a benefactor, but to what extent is not 
recorded. 

The rest of the cost was raised by the university 
and others, the proctors being for many years ac- 
customed to ride about the country in order to 
solicit contributions. 

(a) On 21 Jan., 1494-5, the university entered into a covenant to keep 
Barrow's anniversary in this church with prayers for the souls of Richard III., 
Henry VII., Margaret countess of Richmond, &c. The parish priest was 
also every Sunday for ever publicly to recommend the parishioners to re 
member in their prayers the souls of Richard III. and the said Thomas 
Barrow. Amongst other sums to be distributed annually was a penny to 
each of five poor persons in memory of the five wounds of Christ. 



298 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

The church was completed, but without the tower, 
in 1519. 

It is said that Henry VIII. by letters patent dated 
5 Dec. 1535, incorporated the churchwardens (o) of 
this parish with power to hold such lands as were 
not held of the king in chief. 

The eminently learned protestant divine Martin 
Bucer, D.D., was buried in this church in March, 
1550-1 with extraordinary solemnity, but in the 
reign of Mary when the university was visited by the 
delegates of cardinal Pole, Bucer's body was taken 
from its grave and burnt in the market place, 6 Feb. 
1556-7. This church was put under an interdict but 
was ultimately reconciled. 

In 1607, there is a decree of the heads prohibit- 
ing the taking of tobacco in this church during the 
commencement time. This prohibition was by a 
subsequent decree, extended to the occasion of James 
the first's visit to the university in March, 1614-15. 

The following curious account of disorders in this 
church is from a paper sent from Cambridge to 
archbishop Laud in 1636. 

St. Mary's Church at every great Commencement is made 
a Theatre & the Prevaricatours Stage wherein he acts & setts 
forth his prophane and scurrilous jests besides diverse other 
abuses & disorders then suffered in that place. All the year 
after a parte of it is made a Lumber House for y e Materials of 

(a) The ancient mode of electing churchwardens and other parish 
officers on Easter Monday was as follows : Each of the outgoing church- 
wardens nominated one person. Those two nominees chose six others, 
and the eight chose two churchwardens, two wardens of the sepulchre and 
rood lights, and two wardens of the lights of the mass of Jesus. In 
11 Hen. VIII. there were also elected in like manner four auditors of the 
churchwarden's accounts and four keepers of the keys of the chantry 
hutch (viz. the chantry chaplain, the two churchwardens, and another). 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 299 

y e Scaffolds, for Bookbinders dry Fats, for Aumeric Cupboards, 
& such like implements, which they know not readily where 
else to put. The west windows are half blinded up with 
a Cobler's and a Bookbinder's Shop. At the East end are 
Incroachments made by diverse Houses, & the Vestry is lately 
unleaded (they say) with purpose to let it ruine or to pull it 
down. The seats (many of them) are lately cooped high up 
with Wainscot. The service Pulpit is sett in y e midst a good 
distance below y e Chauncell and looks full to the Bellfrie, so that 
all Service 2nd Service and all (if any be) is there read & 
performed that way. 

The Service there (which is done by Trin. Coll.) is com- 
monly posted over and cut short at y e pleasure of him that 
is sent thither to read it. 

When y e Universitie comes in to y e Sermon, the Chancell 
(the higher part of it) is filled with Boyes & Townsmen, & 
otherwiles (thereafter as y e Preacher is) with Townswomen too 
all in a rude heap betwixt the Doctors & the Altar. In the 
bodie of y e Church, Men Women & Scholers thrust together 
promiscuously but in y e place only before y e Pulpit which they 
call y 6 Cockpitt & which they leave somewhat free for Masters 
to sitt in. The rest of the Church is taken up by the Towns- 
men of y e parish and their families, which is one reason among 
others that many Schollers pretend for not coming to this 
Church. Tradesmen & Prentices will be covered when all the 
Universitie is bare. Upon dayes when the Litany is there 
solemnly to be sung by y e Universitie we have not above 3 or 4 
Masters in their habit that come to assist at that service in 
y e Quire, y e rest keep their places, below for the Sermon, 
To which Sermon every Day we come most of us D rs . & all, 
without any other habit butt the Hatt & the Gowne. 

William Dowsing has not given in detail his 
proceedings at this church, which he states he visited 
27 Dec. 1643, and in January following, but in the 
churchwardens' accounts occur these charges : 

. s. d. 

Item paid this year for defacing & repairing 

thewindowes 10 11 

Item paid to the overseer of the windowes . .68 



300 S. MARY THE GKEAT. 

The author of Querela Cantabrigiensis informs 
us that at this period a beautiful carved structure in 
S. Mary's, although it had no imagery or statue work 
about it, was demolished. 

An inquisition taken 23 Oct. 1650, before^com- 
missioners for providing maintenance for preaching 
ministers, contains the following passage relating to 
this parish : 

The Parishe of St. Marie the Greate, is neither Parsonage 
nor Viccaridge to their knowledges, Trinitie Colledge havinge 
usuallie provided a Minister till of late and mainteyned theire 
Chancell at theire owne charge. Alsoe Caius College have 
certaine lands in Steeple Morden and Gilden Morden which 
were given towards the maintenance of a preaching Minister 
in the said parishe, But what the Yearly Vallue is the 
Parishioners know not 

That there is no Minister at present that supplies the 
Cure. 

The benefice has been augmented as follows: In 
1775, Trinity college gave 100; the dowager lady 
Gower 100, and the governors of queen Anne's 
bounty 200. In 1814 the governors of queen Anne's 
bounty gave 1000, out of the parliamentary grant. 
In 1819 the rev. Daniel Cresswell gave 100; the 
trustees of Mrs. Pyncombe's charity 100, and the 
governors of queen Anne's bounty 300. 

We find mention in this church of chapels of 
Corpus Christi, of the Mass, and of SS. Laurence 
and Mary (commonly called S. Laurence), and of 
gilds of S. Andrew, S. Catharine, SS. Christopher 
and James, S. Mary, and the Holy Trinity. 

We subjoin an account of various benefactions 



S. MAKY THE GREAT. 301 

to the church and poor: Alan de Wellis, burgess, 
in 1315 bequeathed half a mark to the gild of S. 
Mary, and a mark to the building of the church. 
John Cotton and others in 1394 endowed a chap- 
lain in this church, with five messuages, two 
gardens, ten acres of land and 66s. 8d. rent in 
Cambridge and Chesterton. Robert Lyncoln, bur- 
gess, in 1450 bequeathed 10 for erection of the 
southern part of the church. John Rygewynn, bur- 
gess, in 1458 gave a messuage for his anniversary 
in the chapel of S. Mary and also 205. towards building 
the south aisle. Richard Andrewe alias Spycer, in 1459 
bequeathed ten marks to S. Mary's chapel, also 26s. 8d. 
to the gild of S. Andrew the apostle for finding 
two wax candles before the image of S. Andrew: 
he moreover gave to the keepers of the chest 
founded by him in the Guildhall, a house in Great 
S. Andrew's and three booths in Sturbridge fair to 
keep his anniversary in this church on the feast of 
S. Gregory the pope. Agnes Lyncoln by will 
in 1465 charged a messuage and land at Newnham 
with the performance of a yearly mass for the souls 
of herself and her husband Robert Lyncoln. Thomas 
Rygewynn, draper, in 1466 bequeathed ten marks 
to the reparations. John Hessewell gave an altar 
hanging with the martyrdoms of SS. Stephen and 
Laurence depicted thereon, two copes of blue cham- 
let, two Lent cloths of chamlet, six altar-cloths, a 
cloth for the crismatory, a pax silver and gilt 
enamelled, and a pair of silver cruets, and by will in 
1467 bequeathed 5 towards making the south aisle. 
Thomas Jackenett, burgess, gave a vestment of white 



302 S. MAKY THE GREAT. 

chamlet, another of red satin with a green cross, 
a suit of vestments of cloth of tissue, an altar -hanging, 
with a front of blue velvet and flowers of gold, 
and by his will about 1469 directed an obiit 
for himself and Agnes his wife to be kept in this 
church on the feast of S. Thomas the apostle yearly. 
John Erlych, burgess, in 1475 founded an anniversary 
for the souls of himself and Alice and Agnes, his 
wives. John Hessewell, alderman, in 1490 gave pre- 
mises in Barton, Whitwell, and Coton, to feoffees in 
trust, and his wife Agnes bequeathed four fish beedys 
in the market to the corporation, who, in 1511 
covenanted to keep in this church for ever, the obiit 
and anniversary of the said John and Agnes on 
S. Leonard's day. Katherine, widow of John Cooke, 
sometime mayor, in 1496 founded an annual obiit 
in this church with a distribution to the poor, and 
in 1504 by her will, made provision for other religious 
services, and bequeathed 10 for a pall. Joan, wife 
of Walter Stroppe, by will dated 1502 gave a mes- 
suage to the chaplain of the chantry of S. Mary 
and S. Laurence for an annual obiit on 26th August. 
Godfrey Charles gave a messuage in the Petty Cury, 
and about 1503 Elizabeth, his widow, gave seven- 
and-a-half acres of land, and two acres of meadow in 
Chesterton. Henry Kile, sometime mayor, founded 
in 1506 an annual obiit on the day of his death. 
Agnes Asshewell in 1506 gave a suit of vestments of 
black velvet adorned with white roses, a chalice 
weighing 16 oz. a silver and gilt Agnus Dei, a pax 
and two cruets silver and gilt. Hugh Chapman, 
alderman, in 1520 bequeathed altar-cloths and corporas 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 303 

cloths, also 4 8s. Od. to the reparations, and Agnes 
his widow, in 1536 bequeathed an alb, an altar-cloth, 
and 20s. Robert Coope, about 1521 directed his 
executors to erect a chapel before S. George, and be- 
queathed a silver cup for a chalice. Thomas Powell, 
draper, about the same period, bequeathed 24 to this 
church. John Whitacres, clerk, in 1538 conveyed 
to Gonville hall, lands in Gilden Morden and Steeple 
Morden, the master and fellows covenanting with the 
churchwardens of this parish, to provide an honest 
priest of this college to say mass twice a week in 
this church and also on every Sunday and holy 
day, help to maintain the service of God, in the 
church and choir. (a) Nicholas Elton, in 1546 gave 
a booth in Sturbridge fair for an annual obiit. 
John Hatcher, M.D., in 1577 gave a clock, which 
with dials and other furniture cost him 33 6s. Sd. 
and under his will dated 1584 and a subsequent 
decree in chancery, forty shillings for repairing the 
same is paid yearly, out of the site of the late Austin 
friars. William Foxton, alderman, in 1589 estab- 
lished a commemorative sermon in this church on the 
second Sunday in November yearly. John Crane, 
M.A., apothecary, in 1631 gave a folio common prayer- 
book and two large silver flagons, and by will in 
1652 bequeathed 20 for the use of the senior church- 
warden for the time being. Julian Home, widow, in 
1636 charged certain houses in this parish with ten 
shillings a year for a sermon on the first Sunday after 
new year's day, and confirmed a gift of her father, 

(a) This is no doubt what is alluded to in the preceding extract from 
the inquisition of 1650. 



304 S. MAEY THE GKEAT. 

Robert Turner, of twenty shillings a year, for a 
sermon in Lent and a distribution to the poor. 
John Ranew, alderman, by will dated 1643, gave 
forty shillings a year for an annual sermon and 
distribution to the poor. Thomas King, and Thomas 
Daye, gave two silver plates in 1680, and the 
latter by will dated 1681, gave 160 to buy land, 
part of the rent whereof he directed to be given in 
coals to the poor. William Worts, esq., by will 
in 1709, gave 1500 for erecting galleries in this 
church, for the use of the bachelors of arts and 
undergraduates, that they might the more decently 
and conveniently hear the sermon, he also set aside 
an annual sum for the maintenance and repair of 
these galleries. Ann Veer, widow, by will in 
1734, gave 200 to purchase an estate, the rents 
to be given yearly to poor housekeepers. Mary 
Munn, by will dated 1796, gave 30 to be in- 
vested for an annual distribution to the poor. 
Joseph Merrill, in 1805 bequeathed 80 to the 
poor. Elizabeth Goodall, by will dated 1809, 
gave stock for apprenticing poor children of this 
and two other parishes. Charles Bottomley, alder- 
man, by will dated 1822, gave 200 to purchase 
land, the rents to be distributed yearly to the 
poor, sick, and aged. 

The tower is a plain substantial structure, 131 
feet in height. It was commenced in 1528, and 
had advanced so far in 1536 that the great west 
window was then glazed. In 1545 some materials 
for the tower were obtained from the dissolved 
houses of the Black, White, and Austin friars. 



S. MAEY THE GREAT. 



305 




It was completed in the period 
from 1592 to 1608, under the 
care of John Pooley, apothe- 
cary, and John Warren. (0) 
To defray the cost, collections 
were made at and shortly be- 
fore that time in the several 
colleges, throughout the parish, 
and at the commencements. 
Amongst the contributors were 
Mrs. Margaret Purefoy of Lin- 
colnshire ; Dr. Andrew Perne ; 

TUWJSK. 

Robert Hare, esq. ; Robert 

Devereux, earl of Essex ; Mildred lady Burghley ; and 
Francis Bacon, solicitor-general (afterwards viscount 
S. Albans). 

The top of the tower has been improved by 
battlements being placed thereon, instead of open 

(a) The memory of this individual is commemorated by the following 
quaint inscription : 

A speakinge Stone 

Reason may chavnce to blame; 

But did it knowe 
Those Ashes here do lie, 
Which brought the Stones 
That hid the Steeple's shame. 

It would affirme 
There were no Reason why, 
Stones should not speake 
Before theyr Builder die. 
For here JOHN WARREN 
Sleeps among the Dead; 
Who with the Church 
His own Life finished. 
Anno Domini 1608, Dec. 17. 

It was intended to have placed a stone spire or broche of 80 feet in 
height on the tower. 

VOL. III. X 



306 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

work of a very incongruous character, and by 
removing certain small balls with which the turrets 
were surmounted. 

The western door-way, an elegant and tasteful 
composition, was erected in 1850 from a plan fur- 
nished by George Gilbert Scott, esq. (a) 

The piers and arches of the nave have very 
excellent mouldings, the spandrels being filled with 
enriched tracery. The clerestory has a remarkably 
fine effect and the oak roof is well designed and 
executed. 

Over the aisles are capacious galleries for under- 
graduates and bachelors of arts. They were erected 
in 1739 from the benefaction of Mr. Worts. (6) Above 
the entrance to the chancel was another gallery for 
the heads of houses, doctors, professors and noble- 
men.^ 5 It was commonly called the throne, and 
was first opened in December, 1754, having been 
designed by James Burrough, M.A., master of Caius 
college. (d) Another gallery for the undergraduates (e} 

(a) The former portal in the Italian style was erected in 1576, when 
sir Walter Mildmay contributed twenty tons of freestone. 

(b) The old stalls in the choir and the screen separating the chancel 
from the nave were taken down at this period. 

(c) A doctor's gallery had been set up in 1610 but it was taken down 
in 1616. 

(d) At the same time the floor of the nave was boarded and fitted up 
with open benches for the Masters of Arts. This part of the church was 
commonly called the pit. 

(e) A faculty for erecting the undergraduates' galleries was granted 
in 1735. A faculty was obtained 24 July, 17^8, for repairing the pit and 
appropriating it to the university. On 20 July, 1819, another faculty was 
applied for, but by an oversight was not taken out. A faculty was obtained 
15 March, 1842, for confirming certain alterations and additions. The 
application for this faculty occasioned protracted and costly litigation (see 
Hallack, v. University of Cambridge, Adolphus and Ellis's Reports, 2 ser. 
i. 593). The faculty for the recent restorations was granted 31 May, 1862. 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 



307 




CHURCH CHEST. 

and bachelors of arts, was built by the university 
at the western end of the church in 1819, from 
a design by William Wilkins, esq. at a cost of about 
2000. This gallery, the enclosed seats under it, 
and the throne were happily removed in 1863. 

The roodloft which was richly carved and gilt, 
was erected in 1522 by John Nunn of Drinkston, 
and Roger Bell of Ashfield in Suffolk, carvers. ( a ) It 
was removed in 1561 at the instance of archbishop 
Parker. 

The elegant stalls in the chancel and the open seats 
in the nave and aisles are entitled to special com- 
mendation. They have been recently executed by 
Messrs. E-attee and Kett of this town from the designs 
of Mr. 



(a) It appears from the contract dated 30 June, 12 Hen. VIII. to 
have been to a great extent formed after the model of one at Gazeley 
in Suffolk. 

(b) The total cost of the recent alterations, including warming ap- 
paratus and gas fittings, was nearly 3400, the whole amount being 

X2 



308 S. MAKY THE GREAT. 

It is intended shortly to erect a reredos from 
Mr. Scott's design. The rev. professor Lightfoot 
has generously promised to defray the cost, which 
will be considerable. 

We understand it is in contemplation to have a 
pulpit (a) in harmony with the other fittings. 

The organ constructed by the famous Bernard 
Schmidt (commonly called Father Smith) was set 
up in 1697. 

All or most of the windows were originally filled 
with stained glass executed by James Nicholson, one 
of the glaziers employed at King's college chapel. 
The stained glass was taken out in or soon after 1566. 
The aisle windows were altered in 1766, when 
unfortunately rich perpendicular tracery was replaced 
by inferior work. 

The ark or church chest of which we give an 
engraving is very fine. It is not improbable that 
the destroyed woodwork in this church was of similar 
excellence. 

The font which bears the date of 1632, may 
be considered a good and curious specimen of that 
period. 



raised by subscription without assistance from the corporate funds of 
the university. 

(a) A pulpit erected in 1618 is said to have been the gift of William 
Atkin, alderman of Lynn, who paid 100 marks for it. His name was, in 
1639, inserted in the roll of the benefactors of the university, but it turned 
out that the money paid by him was a commutation for a mulct for an 
ecclesiastical offence,' and therefore, by a grace passed in 1671, his name 
was expunged. This pulpit, which is probably now in the church of 
Overton Waterville in Huntingdonshire (see F. A. Paley's Notes on 
Churches near Peterborough, 59, 60), was superseded in 1739 by one con- 
structed by Mr. James Essex. 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 309 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : (a) 

In the church and chancel. 

*Rog. Kelke,W D.D. master of Magd. coll. [6 Jan. 1575-6]. 

Job. Warren/") 17 Dec. 1608. 

Tho. Lorkin, (d ) M.D. Regius professor of Physic (b. at 
Frinsbury, Kent), 1 May, 1591, ag. 63 [brass]. 

*Kath. Smythe, wid. of Cha. Smythe, sometime one of the 
robes to qu. Eliz., and mother of Will. Smythe, provost of 
King's coll. 23 Feb. 1612 [brass]. 

Mic. Woolf, (e ) 5 March, 1614, " vir bonus et probus hospes," 
placed by Bartholomew Woolf [brass]. 

*Joh. Hudston, esq., 16 Jul., 1616, "unicus Patris sui Filius, 
inopinato confossus ab homine quodam nefario, Gualtero Priest 
(quern prius periculunv vitae subiturus, in Chirurgi locum sibi 
conduxerat)." 

Will. Butler, sometime fell, of Clare hall, 29 Jan. 1617, 
set 83, " Medicorum omnium quos praesens aetas vidit facile 
Princeps." 

Eliz. wife of Job. Wickstede, (/) gent., and dau. of Tho. 
Pitchard, esq., 7 cal. Jan. 1616. 

(a) Those marked * no longer remain. 

We are grieved to find the recent alterations in the interior of this 
church by no means satisfactory as regards the memorials of the dead. 
The bust of the illustrious physician William Butler remains, but the 
decorated arch within which it was placed has been removed, and the 
figures of Labour and Rest which were placed on either side are also gone. 
The monument of John Crane a munificent benefactor to the university 
and town, has been placed so high that the inscription cannot be read 
without extreme difficulty. Many of the flat stones have been wholly, 
or to a great extent, covered by seats. 

(b) See Athen. Cantabr. i. 343. 

(c) See p. 305. 

(d) See Athen. Cantabr. ii. 102. 

(e) He was landlord of the Rose tavern, and on the brass a rose is 
engraved. 

(/) Joh. Wickstede an alderman, who served the office of mayor in 1613, 
was an attorney and made valuable collections relative to the town, which 
are deposited in Downing college library. He eventually became principal 
of Bernard's inn, London, and was buried at Landbeach, 5 Jan. 1646-7, 
aged 83. 



310 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

Ann, wife of Job. Scott/ a ) notary public, 10 Nov. 1617 
[brass]. 

Job. Crane/ 6 ) esq., 26 May, 1652, aet 81. "Medicus et Phar- 
macopeus praestantissimus, uptote magni illius Butleri, sui seculi 
olim JEsculapii, sequax et ^Emulus, nee non ejusdern in sua 
Arte haeres atque Successor." 

Tbo. Daye,() gent, 17 May, 1681, aet. 70; bis wives Susanna 
and Ann. 

Tho. .Nicholson, gent., sometime aid., 1682, aet. 47. 

*Fran. youngest son of Rob. Sea wen of Molinick in Cornwall, 
gent., 14 March, 1699. 

Isaac Watlington, esq., twice mayor and sometime M.P., 
24 Oct. 1700, art. 60. 

Gerard Herring,^) woollen draper, 20 July, 1703, ag. 57; 
Mary, his wife, 7 Apr. 1715, ag. 63 ; Will, bis brother, 17 Sept. 
1722, ag. 70. 

Eliz. Story, 18 Jan. 1727 ; her husband Edw. Story ;W their 
son Edw. Story, M.B. fell, of Magd. coll. 

Will. Finch, 1731, ag. 64. 

Will. Finch, esq., merchant, 28 Jan. 1762. 

Job. Mortlock, 25 April, 1777, aet. 67 ; Sarah, his wife, 25 
Sept. 1800, ag. 71. 

Dorothy, relict of Job. Ward, esq., dau. of Russell Plumptre, 
M.D., 24 March, 1793, aet. 53. 

Russell Plumptre, M.D. Regius professor of physic, 15 Oct. 
1793, ag. 84; Frances, his wife, 7 Jan. 1786, aet. 76. 

David Fordham,O 5 Dec ag. 57. 

Peete Musgrave,^) 4 Apr. 1817, aet. .61. 

(a) John Scott who was a good herald, and was deputy or marshal for 
the county of Cambridge under the great Camden, compiled accounts of the 
university and of the several colleges. See Cambridge Portfolio, 161, 
162, 236. 

(V) See pp. 183, 303. 

(c) See pp. 167, 304. 

(d) He was, we believe, grandfather of Tho. Herring, archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

(e) See p. 175. 

(/) A noted horse letter, who had stables near Petty Cury. His portrait 
has been engraved. 

(g) Mr. Musgrave, who was an opulent woollen-draper, took a prominent 



S. MAEY THE GREAT. 311 

Cha. Bottomley/") [aid.] 1 May, 1823, ag. 66. 

Eliz. dau. of Job. and Sarah Mortlock, d. at Woodbridge, 
27 May, 1831, ag. 70; Ann, ber sister, d. at Woodbridge, 10 
Jan. 1838, ag. 79. 

Rev. Hen. Claydon, M.A. 2 son of Cha. and Ann Claydon, 
13 March, 1848, ag. 31. 

In the old churchyard. 

Moses Home, 18 June, 1656. 

*Tho. Fowle, sen. [aid.] 1709. 

*Will. Dickenson, bookseller, 26 June, 1718, ag. 49. 

Tho. Markby, 20 Aug. 1790, ag. 63; Sarah, his wife, 14 
Apr. 1787. 

Morris Barford, leader of the band of the Cambridge Loyal 
Volunteers, 29 Aug. 1798, set. 37. 

Sennett Willimott [solicitor], 17 Jan. 1800, ag. 39 ; Ann, 
his wife, 17 Oct. 1827, ag. 56 ; Elizabeth, their dau. 17 Nov. 
1819, ag. 21 ; Mary Ann, their dau. an infant. 

Job. Merrill, aid. 17 Oct. 1801, ag. 70; Joseph Merrill/ 6 ) 
his brother, 13 Oct. 1805, ag. 70 ; Mary, dau. of Job. and Ann 
Merrill, 20 Aug. 1791, aet. 18. 

Job. Cooper, solicitor, 28 May, 1814, ag. 56. 

Elizabeth Goodall/') dau. of Tho. and Mary Goodall, and 
niece to Dr. Goodall, preb. of Norwich, 29 July, 1814, set. 84. 

Sarah, wid. of rev. Tho. Bowman, rector of Martham, 
Norfolk, and sister of Eliz. Goodall, 8 May, 1816, set. 87. 

Hen., son of rev. Job. Clarke of Stavely, Derbysh. 20 Nov. 
1829, ag. 25. 

part in politics at the close of the last century. He was father of Tho. 
Musgrave, archbishop of York, and Cha. Musgrave, D.D. archdeacon 
of Craven. These brethren, born in this parish, were fellows of Trinity 
college, and went out D.D. in the same year (1837), when they preached 
the commencement sermons. It is not probable that both these sermons 
ever were before or ever will be again preached by natives of the. parish in 
which the university church is situate. 

(a) See p. 304. 

(b) See pp. 151, 163, 170, 183, 304. Joh. and Joseph Merrill were 
eminent booksellers. 

(c) See" pp. 185, 304. 



312 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

Joseph Stuart, many years commoncouncilman, 3 Nov. 
1831, ag. 72. 

Fred. Markby, [aid,] formerly of Hauxton, b. 10 Jan. 1777, 
d. 17 Nov., 1836. 

Tho. Markby, esq., LL.B. Trin. hall, b. 13 Aug. 1768, 
d. 28 June, 1838. 

Sam. Peed [solicitor], 29 Aug. 1838, ag. 53 ; Ann, his wid. 
8 March, 1860, ag, 66 ; Ann Maria, their dau., 1837, ag. 17. 

Steph. Thrower [aid.] 14 June, 1843, set. 68. 

Tho. Hallack/") 21 Feb. 1845, ag. 52 ; Ann, his wife, 26 
Dec. 1835, ag. 42. 

Tho. Stevenson/*) b. at Kainton cq. York, 1 June, 1783, 
d. 21 Aug. 1845 j Miriam, eld. dau. of Tho. Stevenson and Eliz. 
his wife, b. 6 Nov. 1809, d, 8 April, 1834. 

In the new churchyard* 

Dan. Macmillan,<) 25 Jan. 1857, ag. 43. 
Cha. Orridge [j. P.] 2 Jan. 1858, ag. 73. 

The following burials appear in the registers : (d) 

Sir Dodd, B.A. Trin. coll. 9 Jan. 1584. 
Mr. Thomas Thomas, W 9 Aug. 1588. 

Mr. Kowlye, (/) preacher of the word of God at Chelmsford, 
Essex, 9 Apr. 1604. 

(a) Mr. Hallack who took an active interest in town affairs, published 
several pamphlets of a local and political character. 

(b) See p. 279. Mr. Stevenson wrote a good account of Fountain's 
abbey, but modestly suppressed his name. 

(o) See p. 279. 

(d) The registers of this parish begin 1559. The earliest book is in 
excellent condition, but on its being re-bound the edges were unfortunately 
cut so deeply as to mutilate some of the entries. 

It is very remarkable that only one marriage is registered from 1642 
to 1648. 

(e) Tho. Thomas, M.A., who had been a fellow of King's coll. was printer 
to the university and author of a latin dictionary. See Athen. Cantab., 
ii. 29, 543. 

(f) Ralph Rowlye, rector of Chelmsford. It does not appear when he 
became rector. He held the rectory of Alphamstone, Essex, 1593-7. 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 313 

Anne lady Herbert,( a) dau. of the countess of Pembroke, 
11 Jan. 1606. 

A footman of the earl of Somerset, drowned when the king 
was at Cambridge, 1614. 

Yelverton Pay ton/*) 22 Apr. 1651. 

Constantius Rodocanates (in the church), 1659. 

Over the interior of the south door are the 
arms of Robert Hare, esq., an eminent antiquary and 
a benefactor to the university and this church. 

Before the south door was a low wide porch, over 
which was a canopied niche. We cannot ascertain 
when this porch was taken down. 

The east end of this church was surrounded by 
houses which were purchased by the corporation in 
1851, shortly after which they were removed. The 
west end was also formerly obstructed by buildings. 
Two shops which stood there were taken down in 
1678, but Jackenetts almshouses remained till 1789. 

The chancel was restored in 1857, from a design 
of A. Salvin, esq. The cost (600) being defrayed 
by Trinity college the impropriators. 

The tower contains a fine peal of twelve bells, 
although we believe ten only are used. (c) The great 

(fl) Only dau. of Hen. earl of Pembroke, K.G. who died 19 Jan. 1600-1, 
by his third wife Mary dau. of sir Hen. Sidney, K.G. 

(b) We presume he was a son of Tho. Peyton (son of sir Edw. of 
Isleham), who married Eliz. dau. of sir Will. Yelverton of Rougham. 

(c) The first peal was rung in 1595. In 1611 the four bells were cast 
into five. In 1622 the bells were recast at the cost of 44. 14s. There 
was at one time a peal of six. To this followed one of eight. The total 
weight of the bells in this peal was 66cwt. 1 qr. 121bs. In 1723 a peal 
of ten bells was set up. On 3 August in the following year the society 
of Cambridge Youths was established. It still subsists. Dr. Charles 
Mason the Woodwardian professor became a member in 1725; Richard 
Dawes, the celebrated critic, in 1731 ; and Samuel Roe, afterwards vicar 
of Stotfold, in 1733. A society of a similar character, consisting chiefly 



314 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

bell is rung daily from 5,45 till 6 A.M. and from 9 
to 9.15 p.M. (a) The clock has quarter chimes, com- 
posed by the eminent William Crotch, MUS.D. (J) 

Within this parish are the Senate-house, a small 
portion of King's college, and the greater part 
of the Guildhall and Market hill. 

The Market hill was formerly in the shape of 
the letter L. 

Between the western side of the hill and the 
church, was a small street anciently called Well street, 
afterwards Pump lane, and more recently Warwick 
street. 

In the night of 16 Sept. 1849, six houses on 
the western side of the hill and on the northern 
side of S. Mary's street, were destroyed by an acci- 
dental fire. 

Under the powers of a special act obtained in 
1850, the corporation purchased the sites of the 
destroyed houses and all the other adjoining houses, 
including the whole of Warwick street. 

The site was soon afterwards cleared, and the 
market stead as it now appears was laid out in 
1855. 

of the younger members of the university, is said to have existed in the 
reign of Elizabeth. The peal of ten weighed 125 cwt. 21 Ibs. The charge 
of casting was 701. Is. Every master of a college contributed 2 guineas; 
about 100 was raised by subscription and the rest of the charge was 
borne by the parish. This peal was completed by the ingenious Mr. Richard 
Phelps, who died 18 August, 1738. The peal was increased to twelve in 
1770, when a new tenor of 30 cwt. was cast and two additional trebles 
were procured by subscription. 

(a) An order was made by the vestry 26 Oct. 1663, that the great 
bell should be rung at 9 o'clock at night and 5 in the morning. 

(b) Chimes were erected in 1671, for which purpose 49. 19s. was 
raised by subscription in this and other parishes. 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 315 

The total cost of this striking improvement ex- 
ceeded 50,000. 

The Market Cross of which mention occurs in 
1467, stood on the south-western corner of the hill, 
and here all proclamations were ordinarily made, as 
they still are on the spot where it stood. 

It was probably in the olden time an imposing 
structure, although we have no certain evidence on 
the subject. In 1726, the corporation empowered 
one of the chief constables to construct a small 
watchhouse or guardhouse adjoining it, and to use 
materials from the cross in the erection. In 1763, 
it is described as a handsome stone square pillar 
of the Ionic order, on the summit of which was 
an orb and cross gilt. It was removed in or soon 
after 1786. 

Near the cross was a spot known as the bull 
ring, where no doubt bulls were formerly baited. 
The stocks at the bull ring in the market place are 
mentioned in a decree of the vicechancellor and 
heads of colleges made in 1606. The pillory was 
also set up from time to time in the bull ring 
and rogues were frequently whipped there. 

There was a fountain in the market place in 1423. 
In or about 1429, the corporation made a bye-law 
to prevent dirt or filth being cast into it. How 
it was supplied, or how long it continued we are 
not informed, but on Hock Tuesday, 1569, the 
corporation made a grant of 205. to George 
Addam, burgess, towards making a fountain in the 
market. 

The conduit erected in 1855 in lieu of another 



316 S. MARY THE GREAT. 

built in 1614, (a) stands in the centre of the market 
stead. On it are small statues of the following 
eminent natives of the town : sir Job. de Cambridge, 
justice of the common pleas ; sir Job. Cheke ; Tho. 
Thirleby, bishop of Ely; Godfrey Goldsborough, 
bishop of Gloucester; Tho. Cecil, earl of Exeter; 
Orlando Gibbons, MUS.D. ; Tho. Hobson ; Jeremy 
Taylor, bishop of Down and Connor; also their 

arms and the arms of the university and town ; 

j 

earl Fitzwilliam, late high steward of the town ; 
and Dr. Andrew Perne, dean of Ely and master of 
Peterhouse, who first suggested the introduction of 
the nine wells water into Cambridge. 

The original houses of the Franciscans (6) and 
the Friars de Sacco, (e) S. Mary's hostel^ and the 
greater part of Paul's inn (e) were in this parish. 

(a) See pp. 182, 183. 
(6) See p. 1. 

(c) See vol. i., p. 6. 

(d) S. Mary's hostel which stood near the north-east corner of the 
Senate-house, belonged to Corpus Christ! college. The names of the fol- 
lowing principals occur: Tho. Forster, 1510; Rob. Child,- 1513; Tho. 
Arthur, 1518; Rob. Cowper, about 1520; Ric. Hyhert, 1521; Will. 
Butts is supposed to have been principal 1524, when he had a lease of this 
hostel. Tho. Arthur was a man of some note and ability. Will. Butts 
who was afterwards knighted, was the well known physician to Hen. VIII. 

This house will be for ever memorable, in consequence of archbishop 
Parker having received part of his education therein. 

In 1565, S. Mary's hostel is described as in the occupation of Tho. 
Pede. It had evidently at that period ceased to be used for academical 
purposes. 

(e) S. Paul's inn fronted what is now the northern side of Market hill, 
but was formerly part of Sheder's or Sherer's lane, subsequently known as 
S. Mary's street. 

The following principals occur: Rob. Halome, 1504; Ric. Wolman, 
1510; Thomas Brygg, 1513-1518. 

Wolman who became LL.D. and dean of Wells, and had other great 
preferment in the church, was a canonist of distinguished reputation. 

S. Paul's inn, which it appears was appropriated to law students, was 



S. MARY THE GREAT. 317 

The Red Lion, (a) one of the principal inns 
in the town is in this parish, within which were 
situate, wholly or in part, other inns, once of great 
renown, as the Rose tavern, (6) the Angel, (c) the 
Devil tavern, (d) the Falcon, (e) and the Tuns tavern . (/) 

probably discontinued as a house of learning, in or about 1535. It was 
subsequently converted into the Rose tavern, on part of which now stands 
Rose crescent. 

A portion of S. Paul's inn must have been in S, Michael's. 

(a) The Red Lion is the property of the trustees of Story's charity, 
having been part of the estate which came to them under the will of Edward 
Story the founder. The Unicorn in Petty cury (part of which was about 
15 years since added to the Red Lion), occurs in 1676. 

(b) The Rose, which was kept for many years by Michael Woolfe and 
his son Bartholomew Woolfe, acquired the cant appellation of Woolfe's 
college (Thoms's Anecdotes and Traditions, 21). The celebrated Pepys 
appears to have been partial to the Rose, and was merry there with his 
academical friends on more than one occasion (Pepys's Diary, i. 252, 258, 
iv. 218). Cosmo prince of Tuscany put up at the Rose when he visited 
the university in May, 1669. An account of the ridiculous conduct of 
Richard Laughton, proctor, in dispersing a convivial party of tories at the 
Rose in 1710 will be found in Monk's Life of Sentley, i. 286. 

The Rose, which occupied the site or part of the site of Paul's inn, 
was disused as an inn about 1814. On the yard and back premises the 
buildings known as Rose crescent were erected about 1826. 

(c) The Angel which we find mentioned in 1649 was probably then 
of considerable antiquity. It was a large inn of repute till about a century 
since, and stood on the north side of Market hill eastward of the Rose. 
Portions of the premises appear to have been in the parishes of S. Michael 
and Holy Trinity. 

(d) The Devil tavern occupied part of the site of Senate-house yard. 
In 1653 it was the post house, and from it in that year started the first 
stage coach from Cambridge to London. It is mentioned as of good repute 
in 1 729 but must have been pulled down very soon after that date. 

(e) See p. 217. 
(/) See p. 285. 

The Black Swan in this parish is an ancient public-house being 
mentioned in 1646. 




CHURCH OF S. MARY THE LESS. 



S. MARY THE LESS. (o) 

THIS church was anciently termed S. Peter's by 
Trumpington gates to distinguish it from another 
church also dedicated to S. Peter near the Castle. 

In 6 Richard I. a jury found that one Langline 
who was both patron and incumbent of this church, 
gave it " secundum quod tune fuit mos civitatis Can- 
tabrigise" to a relation of his, one Segar, who was 
patron and incumbent of it for sixty years and more, 
and subsequently gave it to Henry his son, who held 
it for sixty years, and gave it by his charter to the 
hospital at Cambridge. 

(a) See Annals of the Church of S. Mary the Less, Cambridge. A 
Paper read before the Cambridge Architectural Society, March 19th, 1857, 
by J. W. Clarke, esq., of Trinity College. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 319 

The hospital referred to was that of S. John the 
evangelist, to which house this church was appro- 
priated by Eustace bishop of Ely who came to that 
see in 1197. 

We have already (a) related the circumstances under 
which it was subsequently transferred from the master 
and brethren of S. John's hospital to the master and 
scholars of S. Peter's college. 

S. Peter ad Portam was valued at 6 marks in 1254 
and in the ecclesiastical taxation made in or about 
1291 by authority of pope Nicholas IV. it is rated at 
7. and the scholars of the bishop of Ely as rectors 
of this church for tithes in Grantchester sixpence. 

The church was old and ruinous in 1340 when 
Nicholas de Wisbech had a licence to celebrate divine 
offices within the walls of S. Peter's college, and in 
1350 the chancel fell to the ground. 

A new church was forthwith erected. It was 
dedicated to the honour of Blessed Mary ever virgin (i) 
by Thomas de Insula bishop of Ely on Saturday next 
after the feast of All Saints', 1352. 

Thomas Arundel, bishop of Ely, 31 Dec. i385, 
changed the festival of the dedication of the church 
from the morrow of All Souls day to 11 July. 

In the ecclesiastical valuation made under the act 
of 1534 the chantry in this church was taxed at 

(a) Vol. i. p. 4, Vol. ii. pp. 59, 62. 

(6) Thenceforward the church was properly called S. Mary without 
Trumpington Gates, or S. Mary the Less, to distinguish it from the other 
church of S. Mary, which was called S. Mary by the market or S. Mary the 
Great. 

As an instance of the time it takes to carry out changes of this nature it 
may be mentioned that in a deed dated 1394, the parish is called S. Peter 
without Trumpington gates. 



320 S. MARY THE LESS. 

2. 5s. 2jc?. (0) The rectory being appropriated to 
Peterhouse was included in the valuation of the 
possessions of that college. w 

We have not found mention of any other gild in 
this church than that of S. Mary. 

This church was used by the society of Peterhouse 
for the performance of their divine service until the 
erection of the college chapel in 1632. (c) 

About 1637, Peter Gunning, fellow of Clare hall, 
afterwards bishop of Ely, was the minister of this 
parish. 

William Dowsing, who visited this church 29 and 
30 Dec. 1643, says: 

We brake down 60 Superstitious Pictures, Some Popes & 
Crucyfyxes, & God the father sitting in a chayer & holding a 
Glasse in his hand. 

The inquisition taken 23 Oct. 1650, before com- 
missioners for providing maintenance for preaching 
ministers, contains these passages : 

The parishe of S. Marye the Lesse is an Impropriacion and 
Peterhowse Colledge receave the Tythes both of the Parsonage 

(a) In 1553 a pension of 80s. was paid to Leonard Pollard late incum- 
bent of this chantry then dissolved. 

He was sometime fellow of Peterhouse and vicar of this parish, 
subsequently becoming a senior fellow of S. John's and canon of Worcester 
and Peterborough. He was the author of five homilies edited and corrected 
by bishop Bonner, and published in 1556 (see Athen. Cantab, i. 127, 546). 

(6) In 1403 the bursar of Peterhouse received 6s. 8d. of the abbat of 
Newbow for the tithes of his lecture in the common law school by reason 
he resided in this parish, and in 1456 John Leystoft, vicar of S. Stephen's, 
Norwich, read divinity lectures, and because he resided in this parish paid 
the tithes of them to the bursar. The college also received tithes of fish 
taken in the mill dam in this parish. 

It seems that in 37 Hen. VIII. the rectory was let by the college on 
lease for 10. 9s. 8d. per annum. University and Coll. Documents, i. 113. 

(c) See Vol. i. p. 18. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 321 

and Viccaridge. That they are worth Seaventeen pounds per 
Annum. 

That Peterhowse doth and hath vsuallie provided them a 
Preacher and they know of no other maintenance. 

The commissioners certified that S. Mary the less 
should be united to S. Botolph's, the latter " being the 
fitter Church." 

The benefice was augmented in 1815 by the 
governors of queen Anne's bounty giving 1200 
out of the parliamentary grant. 

It is said that Alan de Walsingham was the 
architect of this handsome church, but no authority 
has been found for the statement. 

The structure is apteral, consisting of a simple 
parallelogram. The division between the nave and 
chancel was made by a screen which is now cut 
down to a level with the tops of the pews. Over 
the screen were the royal arms, painted by Valentine 
Eitz, and presented by him to the parish. The 
painting is now in the vestry. 

The roofs of the two portions of the church are 
different in character. 

The windows are of excellent decorated flowing 
tracery, the east window of six lights, those of the sides 
of four. In the east window which is greatly and justly 
admired, stained glass has been recently introduced. 

In the windows were formerly the arms of the 
family of Argentine, and an inscription commemo- 
rative of William de Whittlesey, bishop of Rochester, 
who was subsequently bishop of Worcester, and 
ultimately archbishop of Canterbury. 

There were chantry chapels on either side, that 

VOL. III. Y 



322 S. MAEY THE LESS. 

on the north being founded by Dr. Thomas Lane, 
and that on the south by Dr. John Warkworth. 
The entrances to these chapels were brought to light 
in the course of recent alterations. 

The vestry was, it seems, formerly the chapel of 
S. Mary. The notion long entertained that it was 
Warkworth's chantry chapel appears to be erroneous. 

There is a handsome octagonal font of third 
pointed work. On six of the sides are the arms 
in colours of the city of London (repeated), the 
bishopric of Ely, the university of Cambridge, S. 
Peter's college, and the town of Cambridge. The arms 
of Pembroke hall were also formerly on this font. 

In the midst of the chancel was a stone having 
a brass plate with an effigy and inscription. The 
effigy was removed long since, but from part of 
the inscription remaining in 1724, it appears to have 
been the tomb of John Holbrooke, sometime master 
of Peterhouse, chancellor of the university, chaplain 
to Henry VI. and a mathematician of high repute. 
He died in June, 1446. 

John Edmunds, D.D. master of Peterhouse, five 
times vicechancellor of the university and chancellor 
of the church of Sarum, who died in 1544, was 
buried in this church. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : (a) 

In ike church and chancel. 

*Tho. Southwell, feU. Pemb. hall, 19 Apr. 1605. Placed by 
his friend Theoph. Field/ 6 ) feU. of same coll. 

(a) Those marked * are no longer visible. 

It is matter of regret that not one of the monuments which were in the 
church and churchyard when surveyed by Francis Blomefield in 1724, can now 
be seen. They have been removed or are concealed under the boarded floor. 

(6) Afterwards bishop of Llandaff and ultimately of Hereford. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 



323 



*Sam. Sandys [M.A.] fell. Peterho. (son of Martin Sandys, 
esq. great grandson of Edwin, abp. of York) b. 19 May, 1653, 
d. 19 Nov. 1676. 

*Dan. Michel, gent, of Bennington, Hertf. [stud. Peterho.] 
24 Dec. 1687, set. 19. 

*Sarah, wid. of Bob. Drake of Camb. gent. dau. of Ja. 
Tompson of Trumpington, esq. 12 Oct. 1713, set. 68. 

*Joh. Kant, esq. 22 Nov. 1719, aet. 57. Anne his 1st wife, 
17 Mar. 1695, aet. 46. 

*Marg. wife of Joseph Story, surgeon and cit. of London, 
2 Oct. 1720. 

*Eliz. wid. of Dr. Browne, mast. Pemb. hall, 8 Feb. 1720. 
Rev. Godfr. Washington of Yorkshire, miu. of this par. 
and fell. S. Pet. coll. b. 26 July, 1670, d. 28 Sept. 1729. 

Mary Law, wife of Edm. Law, bp. of Carlisle and mast. 
S. Pet. coll>) b. 19 Mar. 1722, d. 1 Mar. 1762, and 4 children, 
viz. Edm. [schol. S. Pet. coll.] b. 1 Jul. 1741, 0. S. d. 23 Feb. 
1758; Mary, wife of rev. Ja. Steph. Lushington, b. 27 Apr. 
0. S. 1744, d. 24 Jul. 1768; Eliz. b. 1 May, 0. S. 1746, d. 
5 Feb. 1767; Christian, b. 14 Mar. 0. S. 1752, d. 21 Aug. 
1773 ; Capt. Edw. Christian, b. 1725, d. 1758 ; Dorothy Christian, 
b. 1737, d. 1758. 

Will. Elborne, butler of Peterho. 27 June, 1772, ag. 62, 
erected by the coll. ; Sarah, his wife, 13 Apr. 1790, ag. 64. 
Tho. Hide, merchant, 23 May, 1777, ag. 35. 
Sam. Banks, 12 Jul. 1788, ag. 65; Lydia, his wife, 3 Apr. 
1793, ag. 53. 

Marg. Colville Borthwick, dau. of Pet. Borthwick of Jes. 
coll.W and Marg. his wife, 25 Oct. 1829, aet. 2. 

Joh. Ja. Ibbotson, stud. Peterho. prid. id. Jan. 1831, aet. 22. 
Lydia, wife of Joh. Banks Hollingworth, D.D. formerly 
min. of this parish, and dau. of Eic. Amphlett, esq. of Hadsor 
house, Wore. 24 Mar. 1831, ag. 52. 

Joh. Ja. Hopwood, esq. stud. S. Pet. coll. 11 Jan. 1842, ag. 23. 

(a) Dr. Law did not become bishop of Carlisle till after the death of the 
lady here commemorated, and from the tenor of the inscription it would 
seem that it was not put up till after his death. 

(6) Afterwards of Downing coll., and sometime M.P. for Evesham. He 
died 18 Dec. 1852. 

Y2 



324 S. MARY THE LESS. 

Job. Eickard Barker, M.A. bar.-at-law, judge of court of 
pleas of bor. of Cambr. 29 Jan. 1843, ag. 43 ; his mother Eliz. 
wife of rev. Ja. [Eickard] Barker, M.A. dau. of rev. Hen. 
Turner, B.D. vie. of Burwell, 14 Apr. 1847, ag. 71. 

Agnes, dau. of Gilb. Ainslie, D.D. mast. Pemb. coll. and 
Emily, his wife, b. 24 Jan. 1836, d. 17 Apr. 1844 ; Montague 
their eld. son, b. 11 Apr. 1834, d. 18 Oct. 1852, bur. at Alver- 
stoke, Hants. 

Kev. Ja. [Kickard] Barker, M.A. [Trin. coll.] vie. of Westley, 
Cambsh. J. P. for Cambsh. and Suffolk, 1 Jul. 1850, set. 76. 

In the old churchyard. 

*Marg. wife of Geo. Grumbold, 1 Mar. 1707, and 3 sons 
and 3 dau. 1695. 

" Six harmless Babes, that only came and cried, 
In Baptism to be wasn't from Sin, and died." 

Will. Joh. Hopkins, son of "Will. Hopkins, esq. [M.A.] 
S. Pet. coll. 10 Aug. 1837, ag. 18. 

Bic. Comings, 23 Mar. 1838, set. 68 ; Ann, his wid. 31 Jan. 
1852, set. 71. 

Will. Hen. Tapson, S. Pet. coll. youngest son of Joh. 
Tapson, esq. of London, 15 Jan. 1842, ag. 21. 

Sarah, dau. of Josiah and Mary Brewer, wife of rev. Joh. 
Harrison, B.A. Qu. coll. d. at Chatteris, 3 Mar. 1842, ag. 57. 

Sam. Prest, ... Jul. 1846. 

Kev. Tho. Chubb Howes, M.A. [Trin. coll.] b. 23 Feb. 1814, 
d. 18 Aug. 1846. 

Horace, son of rev. Percival Frost and Jennett, his wife, 
b. 14 Nov. 1843, d. 5 Feb. 1847. 

Will. Key Ridgway, 33 years curator of Fitzwilliam museum, 
1 Aug. 1852, ag. 73 ; Cath. his wife, 11 Apr. 1844, ag. 65. 

In the new churchyard. 

Louisa Lewis, dau. of rev. Joh. Lewis, M.A. vie. of Ingate- 
stone and Bivenhall, Essex, 16 Feb. 1850. 

Edw. Joh. Aug. Glover, b. 23 Oct. 1789, d. 15 June, 1850. 

Edw. Fawcett, 6 Aug. 1850, ag. 47. 

Will. Joh, Steel, B.A. fell. S. Pet. coll. b. at Strennorld 
co. Donegal, 16 Sept. 1831, d. 11 Mar. 1855. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 325 

Hermann Bernard, M.A. Phil. Doct. of the Univ. of Giessen 
in Hesse Darmstadt, many years teacher in the univ. of Camb. 
15 Nov. 1857, ag. 72. 

Dav. King [coroner], 7 May, 1858, ag. 44. 

Kev. Cha. Peers, M.A. incumb. of Walsham le Willows, 
Suff. 28 Nov. 1858, ag. 47. 

Aug. Grafton, It.-col. Bombay army, 17 Apr. 1860. 

Geo. Leapingwell, esq. LL.D. 24 Dec. 1863. 

The following interments appear in the registers : 

Joh. Newell,( a ) priest [fell. Pemb. hall], d. 6 May, 1558. 
Joh. Atkinson/ 6 ) priest, M.A. fell. Peterho. d. 23 Nov. 1558. 
Ant. Mayhew,( c ) M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, d. 19 Oct. 1558, bur. 
21st south of the pulpit. 

Tho. Dixie,W B.D. 25 Sept. 1585. 

Will. Curie, schol. Peterho. 11 Feb. 1586-7. 

Kob. Cooke,W fell. Pemb. hall, 26 Mar. 1590. 

Mr. Hobbes, fell. com. Pemb. hall, 14 Mar. 1590-1. 

Sir Gray/') B.A. schol. Pemb. hall, 20 May, 1595. 

Mr. Wattes, M.A. schol. Pemb. hall, 14 Aug. 1595. 

Will. Brown, schol. Peterho. 27 Sept. 1599. 

Sam. Mathew, son of Toby, bp. of Durham, 17 Jan. 1601-2. 

Edw. Pickard, schol. Pemb. hall, 20 Mar. 1601-2. 

Eltonhead, schol. Peterho. 24 Dec. 1603. 

Joh. Joanes,^) M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 26 Apr. 1 605. 

Geo. Fletcher, schol. Peterho. 10 Oct. 1608. 

Kob. Some, W D.D. mast. Peterho. 10 Feb. 1608-9. 

Tho. Hills, B.A. Pemb. hall, 13 June, 1610. 

(a) A native of London, B.A. 1555-6. 
(6) B.A. 1547-8, M.A. 1555. 

(c) Ant. Mayhew who had been an exile for religion in the reign of 
queen Mary is said to have been one of the principal translators of the 
Geneva Bible published soon after his death. See Athen. Cantab, i. 198. 

(d) Tho. Dixie of Peterho B.A. 1573-4, M.A. 1577, B.D. 1685. 

(e) B.A. 1584-5, fell. 27 June, 1588, M.A. 1588. "%. 
(/) Tho. Gray, B.A. 1593-4. 

(g) B.A. 1596-7. fell. 9 Oct. 1598, M.A. 1600. 

(A) Dr. Some who had been a scholar of S. John's and a fellow of 
Queens', died in his fourth vicechancellorship. See Athen. Cantab, i. 510. 
It seems probable that the date of his interment in the register is erroneous. 



326 S. MARY THE LESS. 

Ds Holland, schol. Pemb. hall,- 24 Jul. 1615. 

Da Upsheir, Peterho. 2 Feb. 1615-16. 

Andr. Perne, 6 Jul. 1616. 

John Brookes of Peterho. 19 Aug. 1617. 

Tho. Turner, D.D. mast. Peterho. 18 Oct. 1617. 

Mrs. Lynne, wife of Mr. Dr. Lynne/ a ) 7 Jul. 1618. 

Joh. Lawrence, B.A. Peterho. 10 Dec. 1621. 

Joh. Stanley, schol. Peterho. 3 Nov. 1622. 

Joh. Durrant,W aid. 18 Jul. 1624. 

Sir Cutherne, schol. Trin. coll. 3 May, 1621. 

Alice, wife to Dr. Palmer, 2 Jan. 1629-30. 

Tho. son of Tho. Hobson, 4 May, 1638. 

Eliz.wife of Will. Harris, minister of this parish, 19 Jan.1638-9. 

Eob. Blackstone, stud. Peterho. 7 Sept. 1639. 

Sir Milse,< c ) B.A. (south side of chancel) 9 Dec. 1642. 

Sam. Lensie, B.A. 14 Mar. 1643-4. 

Mat. Hanscombe, M.A. fell. Peterho. (on north side as you 
go into the chapel) 19 Mar. 1643-4. 

A soldier under capt. Southcott, 28 Feb. 1644-5. 

Mr. Florence Cartye, a minister in Ireland, 9 Apr. 1646. 

Sam. Shippe, stud. Pemb. hall, 6 Aug. 1647. 

Mr. Palmer, W master of Queens' coll. d. 14 Aug. 1647. 

Joh. Calco, stud. Peterho. (in the chancel) 14 Apr. 1649. 

Will. Cooke, stud. Pemb. hall, 14 July, 1653. 

James Clifford/ 6 ) fell. Pemb. hall, (in coll. chapel) 20 Jul. 1657. 

Tho. Knowles, stud. Pemb. hall, d. 16, bur. 17 Mar. 1661-2. 

Hugh Braume, d. 14 Apr. 1662, bur. 16 in Pembr. chapel. 

Bern. Hale, D.D. master Peterho. d. 29 Mar. 1663, bur. 
30th in Peterho. chapel. 

Gabr. Clarke, fell. Peterho. and rain, of this parish, 11 
Dec. 1663, hi the chancel. 

(a) Marmaduke Lynne of Trin. hall, LL.D. 1618. 

(6) It appears from the corporation books that Aid. Durrant who 
served the office of Mayor in 1618-19, was executed for murder. 

(c) Geo. Milles of Peterho. B.A. 1639-40. 

(d) Herbert Palmer of S. John's, B.A. 1618-19, M.A. 1622, B.D. 1631, 
became president of Queens' college in 1644, on the ejection of Dr. Edward 
Martin. 

() Of Warwickshire, B.A. 1651-2, fell. 1 Jul. 1652. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 

Edw. Sterne, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, d. 4 Jan. 1663-4, bur. 
5th in Pemb. hall chapel. 

Kalph Crockford, B.A. fell. Peterho. 13 May, 1665. 

Joh. Francius, M.D. fell. Peterho. d. 11 June, 1665, bur. 12th. 

Theoph. Danckes, B.A. of Jes. coll. (son of Joh.) d. 25 Dec. 
1666, bur. 26th. 

Alex. Greene, B.A. of Peterho. d. 11 Mar. 1666-7, bur. 12th. 

Matth. Wren, bp. of Ely, 11 May, 1667, in the vault joined 
to Pembr. hall. 

Will. Quarles, fell. Pemb. hall, in the new chapel, 15 Mar. 
1671-2. 

Matth.Wren, in the vault in Pemb. hall chapel, 22 June, 1672. 

Joh. Peters, in Pemb. hall chapel cloisters, 7 Jul. 1672. 

Tho. Swinbourne, schol. Pemb. hall, in their chapel, 23 Jan. 
1673-4. 

Anne, dau. of Dr. Joseph Beaumont, 15 Apr. 1674. 

Sam. Bale/*) fell. Pemb. hall, in their chapel, 19 Aug. 1674. 

Will. Sammes, fell. Peterho. 13 Apr. 1676. 

Tho. Eichardson, B.A. Peterho. 15 Dec. 1677. 

Hen. Holder, M.A. sen. fell. Peterho. 17 Dec. 1677. 

Ja. Hawkey, schol. Pemb. hall, 26 Mar. 1681. 

Geo. Wilson, schol. Pemb. hall, 16 Apr. 1681. 

Will. Evers, schol. Pemb. hall, 2 Feb. 1681-2. 

Joh. Gulliver, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 14 Apr. 1683. 

Joh. Glanville, M.A. fell. Peterho. 30 May, 1683. 

Hen. Ardern, M.A. fell. Peterho. 23 Dec. 1683. 

Hen. Hawkey, B.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 23 Aug. 1684. 

Will. Beaumont, M.A. Peterho. 3 Oct. 1686. 

Will. Moses,( 5) esq., in the vault belonging to Pembroke 
hall, 13 Nov. 1688. 

Ben. Kean, B.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 30 Nov. 1688. 

Will. Dickenson, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 17 June, 1690. 

Will. Meade, schol. Peterho. 25 June, 1690. 

Geo. Mapletoft, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 5 Aug. 1693. 

Nath. Coga, D.D. mast. Pemb. hall, 7 May, 1694. % 

(a) A native of Canterbury and vicar of Great S. Andrew's in this town. 

(6) William Moses was fellow of Pembroke hall, 1644, and master 
1655-60. He became a serjeant at law and was a considerable benefactor to 
the college. 



328 S. MARY THE LESS. 

Job. Quarme, schol. Pemb. hall, 13 Oct. 1694. 

Kic. Green, M.A. Pemb. ball chapel, 18 May, 1697. 

Eic. Blyth, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 3 Aug. 1698. 

Hen. Briggs, M.A. fell. Peterbo. 12 May, 1699. 

Will. Banckes,W M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 10 Jul. 1699. 

Joseph Beaumont, D.D. Kegius prof. Div. mast. Peterho. 

1 Dec. 1699. 

Kandolph Tutte, schol. Peterho. 8 Apr. 1700. 

Job. Vesey, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 3 Dec. 1700. 

Eic. Eobin Humphreys, schol. Pemb. hall, 14 Apr. 1702. 

Tho. Crowch, M.A. pres. Pemb. hall, 10 May, 1703. 

Edw. Feast, M.A. pres. Pemb. hall, 29 Jan. 1703-4. 

Tho.Gardiner,M.A.barrister-at-law,fell.Peterho.6Mar.l703-4. 

Tho. Parlett, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, 13 Feb. 1704-5. 

Tho. Browne, D.D. mast. Pemb. hall, d. in London 9 Mar. 
1706-7, bur. 13th in the vault belonging to Pemb. hall. 

Sam. Bale, M.A. fell. Peterho. rect. of Elton, Hunts. 10 May, 
1708, set. 65. 

Job. Tonkin, schol. Pemb. hall, in coll. cloister, 10 June, 1710. 

Eic. Gate, schol. Pemb. hall, in their cloister, 12 Jul. 1710. 

Job. Eant, B.A. Pemb. hall cloister, 13 Apr. 1711. 

Edm. Scrivener, schol. Pemb. hall, cloister, 14 Apr. 1711. 

Harbord Eous, B.A. Pemb. hall, ante-chapel, 6 May, 1711. 

Will. Fownes, M.A. fell. S. Peter's, 20 May, 1713. 

Tho. Boulton, schol. Pemb. hall, in their cloister, 20 Dec. 1714. 

Ealph Witty, M.A. fell. S. Peter's, 14 June, 1717. 

Cha. Tremayne, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, in coll. ante-chapel, 

2 Aug. 1718. 

Gilman Wall, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, in cloister, 18 Jul. 1722. 
Job. Williamson, schol. Peterho. 2 Mar. 1724-5. 
Cha. Beaumont, D.D. late fell. S. Peter's, in ante-chapel 
next to his father's grave, 17 Mar. 1726-7. 

Cha. Eobinson, schol. S. Peter's, 11 Aug. 1727. 

Cha. Slade, schol. Pemb. hall, in cloister, 10 Jan. 1727-8. 

Job. Chibnall, schol. Pemb. hall, 5 Mar. 1730-1. 

(a) Mr. Banckes originally of Trin. coll. was engaged some time before 
his death in preparing an edition of Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius and Gallus 
for the university press. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 329 

Tho. Kichardson, D.D. master S. Peter's, in ante-chapel of 
coll. 2 Aug. 1733. 

Kev. Will. Goodall, M.A. fell. S. Peter's, 18 Aug. 1734. 

Hie. Crossinge, B.D. pres. Pemb. kail, in ante-chapel, 17 
Feb. 1734-5. 

Ja. Jeffery, M.A. fell. Pemb. hall, in ante-chapel, 6 May, 1734. 

Jonas Goddard, schol. S. Peter's, 25 June, 1735. 

Cha. Brackley, schol. Pemb. hall, 10 June, 1740. 

Fra. Powlett, schol. S. Peter's, 10 Dec. 1742. 

Val. Bitz,W 3 Jan. 1744-5. 

Joh. Whalley, D.D. Regius prof. Div. mast. S. Pet. coll. 
in coll. ante-chapel, 17 Dec. 1748. 

Rev. Fra. Nicholson, M.A. fell. S. Pet. coll. 26 Jul. 1759. 

Joseph Tiffin, schol. S. Pet. coll. 15 Dec. 1783. 

Ja. Brown, D.D. mast. Pemb. hall, in chapel, 5 Oct. 1784. 

Fra. Dawes, M.A. sen. fell. S. Pet. coll. 2 Oct. 1789. 

Joseph Girdler, M.A. d. 12 May, 1809, ag. 71, bur. in ante- 
chapel Pemb. hall 18th. 

Tho. Pearne, M,A. fell. S. Pet. coll. 4 Dec. 1827. 

Fra. Barnes, D.D. mast. S. Pet. coll. 7 May, 1832. 

Tho. Veasey, B.D. fell. S. Pet. coll. 28 Apr. 1839. 

Will. Hodgson, D.D. mast. S. Pet. coll. 22 Oct. 1847. 

On the outside of the church at the east end 
are three niches, in which it is said were formerly 
placed images of our Saviour, the Blessed Virgin 
and S. Peter, but the centre niche is of small dimen- 
sions, so that it could hardly have had a statue. 

At the north-west angle of the church is a low 
mean tower, having only one bell thus inscribed : 
Non sono am'mabus tnortuorum scti TJibenttum, 

The church is being gradually restored under 
the superintendence of George Gilbert Scott, esq. 
The roof has been re-constructed, as have also -several 
of the windows on the north side. 

(a) He was a german but lived in Cambridge about fifty years and was 
a painter of some excellency. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 

In ancient times the university annually cele- 
brated solemn service in this church, in commemo- 
ration of Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely, the 
founder of Peterhouse. (0) William Cavendish, master 
of Peterhouse, gave two cloths for the altar of 
tapestry work, with trees and leopards. Eobert de 
Comberton about 1324, endowed a chantry in this 
church. Thomas de Castro Bernardi, master of 
Peterhouse, 1400-18, gave a vestment of cloth of gold 
with orfrays of blue velvet. The executors of John 
Holbrooke, sometime master of Peterhouse, for a per- 
petual memorial of his soul, caused to be made a 
pavement for the choir, with desks of the lower rows. 
Mr. Bomsted, formerly fellow of Peterhouse, in 1455 
gave a chasuble of scarlet velvet with an alb and 
amice. Thomas Lane, D.D. master of Peterhouse, 
1439-73, gave service books and vestments, and built 
a chapel on the north side of the church for the 
celebration of service for his soul and the souls of his 
relatives. (6) Alice Boice, by will, in 1471 directed 
a house to be sold, the proceeds to be distributed 
in works of piety, particularly in a celebration for 
four years for her soul and the souls of others named 
by her. She also gave 10 marks to the repara- 
tions, 20s. for wax and torches for the use of the 
church, 5 marks for mending the chalice, 5 marks 
for mending the vestments, 40s. for repairing the 

(a) See vol. I. p. 2. 

(6) On 4 May, 1445, two altars were consecrated in the nave by the 
suffragan of Lewis de Luxemburgh, bishop of Ely. That to the north in 
honour of S. Mary Magdalen and S. Margaret. That to the south in 
honour of S. John the evangelist. The altar of Lane's chantry was also 
eonsecrated in honour of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin and S. 
Margaret. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 331 

highways, and I2d. to every poor person in the 
parish. Thomas Sympson, in 1496, gave the house 
in which he dwelt at Newnham, on condition the 
churchwardens kept an annual obiit for the souls 
of himself and his wife, and his parents Henry 
Sympson and Agnes his wife. John Warkworth, D.D. 
master of Peterhouse, who died in 1500, in his life- 
time built a chapel on the south side of the church, (0) 
he also gave service books, benches, and four staffs 
of silver gilt for the rectors of the choir. "William 
Kentte, jun. clerk, about 1502 gave 13s. 4c?. a year 
to the poor. Nicholas Grene, burgess and brewer, 
by will 1503, gave 26s. 8J. a year to the corporation 
for an obiit in this church. Henry Horneby, D.D. 
master of Peterhouse, who died 12 Feb. 1517-18, 
founded a chantry in this church, which was fur- 
nished with rich plate and vestments. {6) John 
Chapman, alderman, by will 1549, made provision 
for an obiit to be kept yearly in this church by 
the mayor and corporation. William Ramsey gave 
6s. Sd. a-year to the poor. Andrew Perne, D.D. 

(a) Warkworth's chapel was consecrated gratis by Joh. Alcock, bishop 
of Ely, 12 Oct. 1487, in honour of S. Etheldreda, S. Leonard, S. John the 
evangelist and All Saints. At the same time he granted 40 days indulgence 
to all who should say in the said chapel the mass of S. Mary with the gospel 
Stabat juxta crucem. This indulgence was afterwards extended to the 
hearers. A brief memoir of Dr. Warkworth is given in Athen. Cantabr. 
I. 4, 519. 

(5) With respect to Dr. Horneby's chapel Mr. Clarke observes : " no 
traces remain of any such structure on the exterior ; nor does it clearly 
appear where it could have been placed. The walls north and south were 
already occupied. I therefore conclude that it was within thp church, 
railed off perhaps with parcloses of wood," Mr. Clarke gives from S. Peter's 
college register an inventory with this title : " Pertinencia capellse Magis- 
tro Horneby in cimiterio sanctse Marise extra Trumpington Gates." Dr. 
Horneby is noticed in Athen. Cantabr. I. 19, 525. 



332 S. MART THE LESS. 

dean of Elv and master of Peterhouse, who died 

/ 

1586, gave by will 10s. yearly for a sermon in this 
church, with 20s. to be bestowed on a drinking in 
Peterhouse parlour after the sermon. (a) William 
Scot, alderman, gave 5s. per annum to the poor. 
William Beamond, maltster, in 1590 gave a rent 
charge of 3s. 4d. payable out of the Catharine 
Wheel to a learned preacher, to preach to the edifica- 
tion of the people that man is justified by faith only 
in the merits of Jesus Christ. Mrs. Alice Palmer 
in 1629 gave a silver flagon and chalice. John 
Westfield, (6) M.A. fellow of Pembroke hall, in 1684 
conveyed lands upon trust, to apply the rents in 
apprenticing poor children of this parish. Thomas 
Richardson, D.D. master of Peterhouse, in 171 5 settled 
a rent charge of 40s. for a sermon on Grood Friday. 
Elizabeth Browne, daughter of Dr. Thomas Browne, 
master of Pembroke hall, gave a silver plate and 
cup to administer to the sick at their houses. The 
rev. Francis Gisborne, M.A. sometime fellow of S. 
Peter's college, who died 29 July, 1821, gave by 

(a) Cole says: "A commemorative sermon in memory of y e famous 
Dr. Andrew Perne, Master of S. Peter's College, and Dean of Ely, is 
preach'd here in y e afternoon of ye Sunday before May Day, at w ch ye Vice- 
Chancellor and heads of Colleges after having dined at ye aforesaid College, 
are present, as also ye rest of ye University." Carter gives this account of 
the sermon : " To this church every year in the afternoon of the Sunday 
next after April the 26th, the body of the University repair to hear a Sermon 
(called Mr. Perne's Sermon) ; after which is over, the heads are treated by 
Peter-house College with a cool tankard, and had formerly flowers strewed 
before them, from the church-gate to the church-door." (Hist, of Cam,' 
bridgeshire 40.) 

(6) Mr. Westfield a native of Bedfordshire became fellow of Pembroke 
hall, 1667, but his conscience not suffering him to take the abjuration oath 
he left the college in 1702. He died 4 Mar. 1704-5. It seems he was not 
in orders. 



S. MAKY THE LESS. 333 

will 150. upon trust, to apply the interest every 
Christmas in the purchase of stout Yorkshire woollen 
cloth and flannel for coats, to be distributed amongst 
the most indigent men and women of the parish. 

S. Peter's college and the Fitzwilliam museum 
with portions of Pembroke and Downing colleges are 
in this parish. 

The Carmelite friars had their house at Newnham 
(probably in the part of that hamlet which is 
within this parish) from about 1249 to about 1290, 
when they removed into the parish of S. John 
baptist ; (a) and in this parish were the house and chapel 
of S. Edmund commonly called the White canons, (6) 

(a) Seep. 283. 

(6) The chapel of S. Edmund was in 1278 in the patronage of Luke de 
Saint Edmund by hereditary right. 

In 1290, Cecilia, daughter of Walter the son of William de Saint 
Edmund, obtained the royal licence to give to the master and brethren of 
the order of Sempringham, the advowson of the chapel of S. Edmund. 

The canons of that order, sometimes termed Gilbertines but more usually 
white canons, settled in the same or the following year at this chapel, where 
they continued under the government of a prior until the general dissolution 
of monastic establishments in the reign of Henry VIII. 

They greatly applied themselves to literature and academical disputations. 

In 1312 the prior was charged to a tallage 14s. 4d. for his moveables and 
rents and in 1340 his moveable property was assessed at 8. 

The house was visited by archbishop Arundel, 17 Sept. 1401. 

In 1483 the prior paid the bailiffs of the town for hagabul, 14s. l^d. per 
annum. 

The town in 1499 paid him 40s. for his robe and having his friendship, 
and in 1501 the treasurers paid I6d. for a flagon of red wine and a pottle of 
sweet wine given to him. 

About 1534 the priory was rated at 14. 18a. 8^d. for first fruits and 
tenths. 

The corporation obtained a grant of some of the lands of this house in 
or about 1553. 

The site and other lands were granted by queen Elizabeth to John 
Dodington and John Jackson, 8 April, in the second year of her reign. 

William Gayton occurs as prior in 1497 and Roger Felton in 1508. 



334 S. MARY THE LESS. 

the house of the friars of Bethlehem, (a) the house of 
the friars of the penitence of Jesus Christ commonly 
called friars of the sack, (6) S. Edward's hostel, (c) 
Paternoster hostel, (d) S. Thomas's hostel, (e) and Uni- 
versity hostel. ^ 

The hamlet of Newnham is partly in this parish 
and partly in S. Botolph's.^ 

(a) The friars of Bethlehem settled in Trumpington street in 1257 and 
remained there till the suppression of their order in 1307. There was no 
other house of the order in England. 

(6) See vol. i., p. 6. 

(c) "St. Edward's Hostel, against Little St. Mary's where lately a 
victualling house, called the Chopping Knife." Fuller. 

(d) This hostel which had belonged to John Paternoster is mentioned in 
deeds 23 Edw. I. and 8 Edw. III. as being without Trumpington gate in 
the parish of S. Peter. 

(e) Thomas de Kymberle, burgess and butcher, on Wednesday after 
S. Matthew the apostle 20 Edw. III. [1346] granted to Beatrice Coulynge 
her heirs and assigns, this hostel by the description of a messuage with the 
appurtenances as it lay in the parish of S. Peter of Cambridge without 
Trumpington gates between the messuage of William de Whyats of the one 
part and the messuage of Robert de Codenham of the other part abutting 
at one head on the king's way and at the other on land of Margaret 
Godeman. 

It was soon afterwards purchased by the foundress of Pembroke hall, 
who annexed it thereto. 

Thomas Goldesburgh 10 Aug. 34 Hen. VIII. [1542] conveyed to 
Nicholas Aunger and Elizabeth his wife a messuage in this parish between 
the tenement lately called S. Thomas's hostel on the north and the tenement 
pertaining to the chantry of Blessed Mary the Virgin in the churchyard of 
Blessed Mary the Virgin on the south part, one head abutting on the king's 
way towards the west and the other upon the field called S. Thomas's Leys 
against the east. 

(/) This hostel was conveyed by William de Horwood and Simon de 
Sleford to John de Wystowe and Mary his wife on Friday after S. Michael 
25 Edw. III. It was soon afterwards annexed to Pembroke hall. 

(g) In the Court of Pleas for the town of Cambridge in 1294 Lionel 
Dunig avowed in replevin for rent due from a person who held of him 
by homage fealty and suit at his court of Newnham from 3 weeks to 3 weeks 
and Guy master of S. John's hospital avowed for rent of a different amount 
due from the same person whom he alleged held of him by homage fealty 
and suit at his court of Newnham from 3 weeks to 3 weeks. 



S. MARY THE LESS. 335 

Within this parish but extending into others and 
even into portions of the county was the manor of 
Cotton alias Cayles. (a) 

The manor of Newnham also called Mortimer's belonged anciently to the 
Mortimer family. 

Under a settlement made in 1402 in pursuance of the will of sir Robert 
de Mortimer this manor came to Cecily daughter and coheiress of his son 
sir Thomas de Mortimer of Attleborough. 

She married first sir John de Herling, knt., and secondly John RadclifFe, 
esq. who held this manor of the king in burgage remainder to sir Robert de 
Herling remainder to Anne his daughter and heiress then wife of sir William 
Chamberlain. 

Sir Robert de Herling was slain at Paris in 1435. 

His daughter Anne after the death of her first husband sir William 
Chamberlain, KG., which occurred about 1462 because successively the wife 
of sir John Wingfield and John lord Scrope of Bolton whom she survived. 

In 1474 this manor was settled by sir Robert Wingfield and his wife on 
Edward, bishop of Carlisle, sir John Wingfield, sir John Heveningham, sir 
Henry Grey, Edward Bokenham, Hen. Spelman, William Berdwell, jun. 
Thomas Chamberlain and others as trustees. 

Lady Scrope who died at a great age in 1498, gave the manor to 
Gonville hall. 

On 17 March, 1501-2, the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses gave license to 
Thomas Fincham and Robert Wingfield, esquires, to grant and assign to the 
master and fellows of Gonville hall the manor of Newnham, with all its 
appurtenances, and a water mill called Newnham water mill with a close to 
the same mill adjoining, a close called Newnham close and 99 acres of land 
in the town and fields of Cambridge, holden of the mayor, &c. in burgage, 
saving to the mayor, &c. the rents and services, suit of court and view 
of frankpledge, aids, watches, fines &c. 

Gonville hall leased the manor to the corporation for 99 years from 
Michaelmas, 1507. It is said that thereby the college lost almost all their 
quit rents, a sheepwalk, free bull and boar, and about four acres of land by 
changing doles and bounds and by altering the names of the houses and 
tenements belonging to the manor. 

The corporation obtained a mandatory letter from James I. to Caius 
college for the renewal of the lease, but on the college's address to his 
majesty it was withdrawn and in 1605, one year before the expiration of 
the old lease, the manor was demised for 20 years to William Pagejt for the 
use of Dr Legge, then master. 

Lady Scrope the donor of the manor of Newnham is commemorated by 
the name Scrope terrace being applied to. a handsome row of houses in this 
parish held by lease under Caius college. 

(a). The Cotton family had a manor in Cambridge in the reign of Hen.IV. 



336 S. MAET THE LESS. 

There are three water mills in this parish. They 
are of great antiquity and are known as King's mill, (a) 

In 1 Hie. III. Thomas Cotton paid the bailiffs of the town 15s. a year as 
hagabul for the tenement called Calysse and the lands pertaining to the 
same. 

On 9 October 5 and 6 Phil and Mar [1558] Henry Veiseye in consideration 
of 200 bargained and sold to John Rust alderman, his heirs and assigns 
All that his manor of Cotton hall with its members and appurtenances in 
Cambridge by whatsoever name or names the said manor was or had been 
named, used, reputed, called, or known and all and singular other his lands, 
tenements, meadows, pastures, woods, underwoods, rents, reversions, services, 
commons, wastes, fishings, courts leet, view of frankpledge, liberties, 
franchises, profits and hereditaments whatsoever, set, lying and being in 
the towns parishes and fields of Cambridge, Barnwell, Hinton, Trumpington, 
Granchester, Chesterton, and Coton, or elsewhere in the county of Cambridge, 
to the abovesaid manor of Cotton hall in any wise belonging or appertaining 
or being known taken used or reputed as part parcel or member thereof 
except the free quit rents parcel of the said manor payable by the master 
and scholars of Corpus Christi college. 

Alderman Rust by will dated 19 June 1569 devised his manor of Cayles 
" which was one John Cotton's" to his wife Elizabeth for life, remainder to 
his son Nicholas and the heirs of his body, remainder to his son Thomas 
in fee. 

Aid. Rust had sold 20 acres, 3 roods parcel of the lands of this 
manor, to Oliver Flint, alderman, who sold the same to Thomas Hodi- 
lowe of Cambridge, brewer, to whom in 1574-5 Nicholas Rust released 
all his right and interest. 

The residue of the manor came to Richard Bradly, brewer who sold it to 
Henry Harvey, L.L.B., master of Trinity hall, who by his will dated 1 Nov. 
1584, directed it to be sold. At this period the manor consisted of 60 acres 
of arable with the appurtenances in the fields of Cambridge and Barnwell. 

(a) King's mill is apparently the mill mentioned in Domesday as be- 
longing to earl Alan. 

It afterwards came to the crown and passed to the corporation under 
king John's grant of the town in fee farm, 8 May 1207. 

The mill was anciently under the charge of one of the four bailiffs 
termed the bailiff of the mill. 

On 14 July, 1497 the corporation leased this mill (except the escheats of 
the court of the mill) to William Londes, burgess and miller for 10 years at 
the following annual rents payable to the bailiff of the mill, via: 18, 
twenty four bushels of wheat and 8 10s. for the "porte" of divers things 
to the mill pertaining. 

This and the other two mills pay small rent charges in lieu of tithes to 
S. Peter's college. (Award 2 Dec. 1851, Apportionment 15 Feb. 1853.) 



S. MARY THE LESS. 337 

Bishop's mill, (a) and Newnham mill. (6) 

Trumpington gate which stood near the church was 
erected by Hen. III. in 1266, when he fortified the 
town against the adherents of the barons. It is not 
known when it was taken down. 

At the extremity of the parish was Trumpington 
ford of which we find frequent mention in ancient 
times, it being one of the town boundaries. It has of 
course been long superseded by a bridge. 

(a) Bishop's mill is mentioned in Domesday as belonging to the 
abbot of Ely. On the conversion of the abbey into an episcopal see it of 
course acquired the name of the bishop's mill. 

On 9 Jul. 1507, James Stanley, bishop of Ely, with the assent of the 
prior and convent, demised this mill, a meadow belonging thereto, and 
certain implements to the mayor bailiffs and burgesses for 99 years from 
Michaelmas following at 9. 10s. per annum. 

In a lease of this mill made by the corporation to Thomas Simpson, 21 
August, 1567, the customs as respects the King's mill are declared to be as 
follows: the Bishop's mill shall not grind until the King's mill beginneth to 
grind and shall leave grinding when the King's mill leaveth. If the occu- 
pier of the King's mill do not begin to grind at convenient time and at a full 
water and leave in convenient time or else if he be let by reason that his 
mill stones be in letting or his mill be broken, or hath any other let, so that 
he cannot grind, then the farmer of the Bishop's mill may grind and leave 
at his pleasure. The farmer of the Bishop's mill shall suffer the occupier of 
the King's mill to take part of such grist coming to the Bishop's mill as 
often as the King's mill shall lack grist to grind. 

Bishop Heaton alienated this mill to Queen Elizabeth and it soon 
afterwards came into private hands. 

(6) Newnham mill was in 1278 held by Lionel Dunig under sir William 
de Mortimer. 

In 1333 on a complaint against sir William de Mortimer for erecting a 
fulling mill above his other mill the same was found by inquisition to be to 
the disherison of the king and the bailiffs and men of the town. It was no 
doubt removed forthwith. 

The mill is regulated by a composition made 24th Jan. 1506-7 between 
the corporation and Gonville hall, which sets out the old customs which are 
curious. 

For many years past this mill has been held under lease from Caius 
college, by the proprietor of the Bishop's mill, who is also the lessee of the 
King's mill under the corporation. 

VOL. III. Z 



338 S. MARY THE LESS. 

Coe fen leys in this parish were enclosed under an 
act passed in 1811. 

The river Cam from King's mill to Clayhithe is 
regulated under an act passed in 1851 (repealing acts 
passed in 1702 and 1813). The conservators are 
five justices of the county, three members of the 
university, and three members of the town council. 



S. MICHAEL. 

THIS church was in 1254 valued at only two 
marks. It does not appear in the ecclesiastical 
taxation made a few years afterwards by authority 
of pope Nicholas IV. 

The advowson in 1278 belonged to Matilda atte 
Wolde, daughter of Yfanti. She had it by the death 
of Alfred her brother, who had it by the death of 
Yfanti, who had it by the death of Alice his mother, 
who had it by the death of Ivo Pepesta, who had 
it by the death of his father Reginald Pepesta, who 
had it by descent from his ancestors in the time of 
Henry II. 

On 7 May, 1292, an inquiry was directed whether 
it would be to the damage of the king or any other, 
that Matilda atte Wolde should grant the advowson 
to the chancellor and masters of the university. 
No such grant appears to have been eventually 
made. 

We have already mentioned the grant of the 
advowson by Dera de Maddyngle to Hervey do 
Stanton, his settlement of it on his foundation of 
Michaelhouse in 1324, and the appropriation of the 
church to the master and scholars of that college (a) 
with the other possessions of which it passed to 
Trinity college under Henry the eighth's charter of 
dotation. 

(a) Vol. II. 216, 217. 

Z2 



340 S. MICHAEL. 

Anciently the south aisle was used for divine 
service by Michaelhouse, and the north aisle by 
Gonville hall. 

In 1531, we find mention here of S. Gregory's 
altar of pity, and of our lady altar behind the 
church door. 

Here was interred in 1549, Paul Fagius, a learned 
hebrew scholar, who had shortly before been sent 
to Cambridge by the government. His body was 
taken up by cardinal Pole's delegates and burnt with 
that of Dr. Martin Bucer in the market place, 
6 Feb. 155 6-7, (a) this church being for a time placed 
under interdict as having contained the remains of 
a heretic. 

In 1550 it was in contemplation to unite part 
of this parish to Great S. Mary's, and the other 
part to All Saints. (6) 

William Dowsing thus briefly records his pro- 
ceedings here, 26 Dec. 1643: 

We digged up steps & brake down divers Pictures. 

The accounts of the churchwardens for that year 
contain the following charges: 

. s. d. 
Paid for taking down the cross of the steple 



chancell f 

Item to the workmen when thev were levelling: the) 

* r 1 

chancell ..... j 

Item for levelling the chancell by order of parliament 115 
Item for taking down the cloth in the chancel & the) 

horde } 2 6 

(a) See p. 298. 

(b) Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, II. 46. 



S. MICHAEL. 341 

Thomas Hill, D.D. who became master of Trinity 
college in 1645, established a lecture here. 

In the inquisition taken 23 Oct. 1650, before 
the commissioners for providing maintenance for 
preaching ministers, is the following statement: 

The Parishe of St. Michaell have neither Minister nor any 
maintenance for a Minister that they know of, being alwaies 
till within seaven or eight yeares past provided of a Minister 
from Trinitie Colledge. 

The commissioners certified that S. Michael's was 
fit to be united to All Saints; All Saints, standing 
most convenient for both parishes. 

An accidental fire which occurred in this church 
on Sunday 11 Nov. 1849, just as the congrega- 
tion were assembling for morning service, destroyed 
the roof and did other damage. This occasioned 
extensive repairs and improvements under the super- 
intendence of George Gilbert Scott, esq. About 
3000 was expended, and the church was re-opened 
for divine service 18 Oct. 1850, on which occasion 
sermons were preached by the rev. William Whewell, 
D.D. master of Trinity college, and the rev. pro- 
fessor Scholefield the incumbent. 

The governors of queen Anne's bounty have 
given the- following sums for augmentation of the 
benefice; in 1757, 200; in 1784, 200; in 1789, 
200 ; and in 1793, 200. 

Joan de Benewyck, before 1278, gave a mes- 
suage in this parish for the use of the rector. 
An annual rent of Sd. was anciently payable out 
of a messuage, which in 1278 belonged to Richard 
Bateman, jun. for the sustenance of a lamp before 



342 S. MICHAEL. 

the high altar; Edward Harrison, archdeacon of 
the east riding of Yorkshire and canon of Lincoln, 
by will dated 16 March, 1511-12, desired his 
executors to found a chantry for him in this church ; 
John Blythman, by will, in 1531, charged his lands 
at Fendrayton with an annual obiit in this church ; 
John Graves, in 1666, gave ten bushels of coals 
to the poor yearly; James Duport, D.D. dean of 
Peterborough and master of Magdalen college, gave 
10, for which it was agreed to distribute 125. 
worth of bread amongst the poor on S. Thomas's 
day yearly; Mr. John Pindar, in 1689, gave 15. 
towards buying a bell; Nathaniel Hanbury, B.D. 
fellow of Trinity college and minister of the parish, 
gave a branch in 1713 ; under the will of Anne 
Carrow, dated 1T43, 40. was received for a dis- 
tribution of coals on Twelfth Day annually ; Samuel 
Forlow, by will, dated 1775, gave 10s. a-year for 
a distribution of bread amongst the poor on the 
anniversary of his burial; Mr. John Bowtell, book- 
binder, in 1813, bequeathed to Trinity college 
500 consols, the dividends to be expended in the 
repair of the church and chancel ; Mr. John Hovell, 
by will dated 1820, bequeathed 19. 19s. the yearly 
interest to be given to the poor in bread and coals ; 
the poor of this parish are entitled to a preference 
in the election of the inmates of the Perse alms- 
houses. (a) 

The church which is in Trinity street immediately 
opposite Caius college, is a complete specimen of 
the decorated style, wholly free from ancient inser- 

(a) See p. 171. 



S. MICHAEL. 343 

tions. It consists of a nave, chancel, continuous 
aisles, a tower, and a northern porch. 

The tower which contains four bells stands at 
the south-western angle. It is square and massive, 
and consists of three stages crowned by a parapet 
and surmounted with a little spire, probably placed 
there about forty years since in the room of one, 
which though far from elegant, was not quite so 
insignificant. (a) 

The northern porch and the doorway which has 
been opened on the south side of the tower, were 
designed by Mr. Scott. 

The piers of both nave and chancel are octagonal 
with moulded caps, and the arches are equilateral. 
There is no clerestory. 

The plain and highly pitched timber roof is an 
exact restoration of the original. 

The length of the chancel as compared with the 
nave is remarkable, the former exceeds fifty-three 
feet, the latter is not more than thirty-nine. 

On either side of the chancel are low elbowed 
stalls of oak. These are said to have been brought 
from the chapel of Trinity college when its present 
fittings were erected. 

There was till within the last few years an elegant 
oak screen, separating the nave and chancel. 

In the south wall of the chancel are three fine 
sedilia and a piscina. Adjoining them is a crocketted 
ogee arch leading from the chancel into the south 
aisle. This elegant arch doubtless formed a portion 
of the monument of Hervey de Stanton. 

(a) See south west view of this church in Gent. Maj. LXXXIV. (1) 321. 



344 S. MICHAEL. 

The east window consists of five trefoiled lights, 
between the heads of which are four foliated loops. 
The west window is also good. 

A gallery of more than ordinary ugliness over 
the northern aisle, was removed immediately after 
the fire of 1849. 

Across the eastern end of the north aisle runs 
a partition wall, thus forming a vestry, which con- 
tains a piscina and an old portrait of king Charles I. (a) 

The south east chapel now occupied by the 
organ, has two singular tabernacles^ and a piscina. 

Near the priest's door on the southern side of 
the church is a recess, which it is supposed served 
for an ambry. 

The font which is modern, is very good. 

One of the bells is thus inscribed : 

Charles Newman made mee 1684. 
Michell Pugson Henry Pyke 
Wardens 

The inscription on each of the other, three is 
as follows : 

Christopher Craye made me 1687. 
This church has been for many years ordinarily 
used for the greater episcopal and archidiaconal 
visitations, being found very convenient for the 
purpose, but formerly all the bishop's visitations 
were held at Great S. Mary's. 

(a) This was formerly placed near the pulpit. 

Bishop Jewell's Replie to Hardinge, 1565, his Defence of the Apologia 
of the Church of England, 1570, and Fox's Book of Martyrs were till about 
30 years since chained to a desk in this church. 

(6) An engraving of one of these with conjectural restorations, from a 
drawing by F, A. Paley, is given in the Camden Society's Brasses, 183. 




BCICMABIC.S 



S. MICHAEL. 345 

The workmen employed in 1804 to dig a vault 
for Mrs. Margaret Smith, met with a stone coffin 
very nearly tinder the ogee-headed arch in the 
chancel. About half the lid was wanting, but the 
skeleton which was that of an elderly person re- 
mained entire. There can be little doubt that it 
was that of Hervey de Stanton the founder of 
Michaelhouse. This coffin having been again dis- 
closed during subsequent repairs, was carefully re- 
placed, the following inscription being put thereon : 
HEREBY DE STANTON, 

Founder of St. Michael House, Cambridge, died at York, 
Oct. 18, 1337, and was buried in St. Michael's church, Cam- 
bridge. On repairing the church in consequence of its resto- 
ration after the fire of Nov. 11, 1849, the coffin was found, and 
placed in the situation in which it was originally buried, A.D. 
1850. 

Those who paid this very proper mark of Chris- 
tian respect to his memory, are we believe inaccurate 
as respects both the day and year of his decease. (a) 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS.^ 

In the church and chancel. 

*Joh. Wright of Norfolk, son of Tho. Wright of Weeting, 
stud. Cai. coll. 2 Aug. 1599, placed by his surviving brother. 

*Andr. Vandorne of Bremen, law student, 2 Jul. 1629, aet. 25. 

*Edw. son of Ralph Dod of Shockledge, Chesh. gent. 3 yrs. 
stud. Cai. coll. 26 Sept. 1636, ast. 19. 

Edw. Parker, son of sir Tho. Parker, knt. and Philadelphia 
his wife, stud. Trin. coll. 4 Oct. 1649. 

*Joh. Graves, 4 Jul. 1662. 

*Will. Morden, prid. non. Mart. 1678-9 ; his son Joh: of the 
Middle Temple, esq. 8 kal. Jun. 1685, set. 31. 

(a) See Vol. II. 213. 

(6) Those marked * have been removed, or are not now visible. 



346 S. MICHAEL. 

*Jane wife of Rob. Brady, M.D. 4 non. Mart. 1679. 

Kob. Leeds, 1680. 

*Joh. Case, M.B. sen. fell. Cai. coll. 12 Mar. 1699, set. 18. 

*Sam. Belcher, aid. 2 Nov. 1735. 

Lewis Williams, stud. Cai. coll. eld. son of Joseph Williams 
of the island of Jamaica, esq. 31 Oct. 1741, set. 18. 

*Rob. Carrow, gent. 1 Feb. 1738, set. 69 ; Ann his wife, 29 
Sept. 1744, set. 68. 

*Conyers Middleton, D.D. 29 JuL 1750, set. 67 ; Sarah his 
wife, 19 Feb. 1730, set. 57 ; Mary his 2d wife, 26 Apr. 1745, 
set. 38 ; Barbara Middleton her niece who died a few weeks 
before her, set. 12. 

*Tho. James, printer [who established the Cambridge 
Journal, the first newspaper in Cambridge], 27 Oct. 1750, ag. 40. 

Tho. York, aid. a practitioner of the law, son of Joh. York 
and Leah his wife, dau. of Barth. Webb of Gamlingay, baker, 
16 Jul. 1756, ag. 59. 

Tho. Ellis, gent, of Glanywynne, co. Denbigh, late schol. 
Trin. coll. 12 Mar. 1759, ag. 22. 

Tho. Burrowes, late fell. Trin. coll. [esq. bedel] 7 Aug. 1767 ; 
Alice his wife, 25 Aug. 1757 ; Eliz. their dau. 5 Dec. ..., ag. 73. 

Tho. Purchas, 10 Mar. 1773, ag. 67. 

Sam. Forlow, 12 Oct. 1775, ag. 52; Anne his wid. 14 Aug. 
1806, ag. 74 ; Bob. their son, 12 Feb. 1768, ag. 10 months ; Martin 
their son, 5 June, 1771, ag. 6 ; Sam. their son, 6 Apr. 1782, set. 19. 

Peggy Smith, fourth niece of the master of Gonv. and 
Cai. coll. 30 Oct. 1786, ag. 26. 

Caroline, dau. of rev. Joh. and Mary Porter, b. 25 Aug. 1786, 
d. 3 Apr. 1788. 

*Tho. Green, M.A. libr. of Trin. coll. and Woodwardian 
professor, 4 non. Jun. 1788, set. 51. 

Humphr. Parry, young, son of Dan. and Cath. Jane of 
Crichell, Dorset, 1797, set. 19. 

Joh. Mack, stud. Trin. coll, 14 Dec. 1798, ag. 21. 

*Ann, wife of Maximilian Daw, esq. 26 Apr. 1799 ; her 
sister Sarah wife of Will. Ellis, clerk, 29 Apr. 1799 ; Cath. 
Enby their mother. 

*Joh. Apsey Shepard of Trin. coll. only son of Joh. and 
Rebecca Shepard, 27 Apr. 1801, set. 19. 



S. MICHAEL. 347 

Edm. Parry, stud. Trin. coll. 1803, set. 19. 

*Elizab. Smith, niece of the mast, of Gonv. and Cai. coll. 

18 March, , ag. 32; her mother Margaret, wid. of Jos. 

Smith, esq. of Coltishall, Norfolk, 8 Jan. 1804, ag. 71. 

Joh. Hovell, barr. at law, son of Jlic. and Mercy, 5 Jul. 
1805, ag. 43. 

*Sarah Shepard of Wakefield, eld. sist. of Joh. Shepard, 
8 May, 1806, ag. 49. 

*Joh. Scott of Market Raisin, Lincolnsh. stud. Trin. coll. 

5 June, 1806, ag. 18. 

*G[eo] D[owning] Whittington [LL.B. S. Joh. coll.] [24 Jul.] 
1807 [ag. 26.] 

Joh. Bones, surgeon E.N. 25 Aug. 1807, ag. 31. 

*Hen. Wilding, 8th son of Ja. Wilding of Salop, stud. Trin. 
coll. id. Feb. 1808, set. 18. 

Fra. Hodson [editor of Cambridge Chronicle] 17 Oct. 1812, 
ag. 72 ; Anne his wife and 13 children, including Ja. Hodson 
[editor of Cambridge Chronicle] 23 Feb. 1832, ag. 46. 

Joh. Bowtell, bookbinder (born in par. of Holy Trinity), 
1 Dec, 1813, ag. 59. Erected by gov. of Addenbrooke's hospital 
to which he gave a magnificent legacy. 

Laur. Dundas [of Trin. coll.] 2 son of hon. Laur. Dundas, 

6 Feb. J 818, set. 18. 

Rob. Bones, capt. R.N. and dep. gov. Sierra Leone, 11 Feb. 
1818, ag. 32. 

Tho. Verney Okes [an eminent surgeon], 17 Jul. 1818, set. 63. 

Joh. Shepard, born at Wakefield, vicechancellor of dioc. of 
Ely, chaplain of Trin. coll. and minister of this parish, 17 cal. 
Feb. 1819, set. 68. 

Edw. Rogers, esq. fell. Cai. coll. barr. at law of Inner Temple, 
1 Apr. 1827. 

Rev. Clem. [Rob.] Francis, M.A. fell, and tutor of Cai. coll. 
17 Feb. 1829, ag. 38. Erected by mother, with verses by Southey 
printed in his works, Svo. edit. 1850, p. 180. 

Will. Coe [aid.] 24 Oct. 1831, ag. 86 ; Ann his wife, 15 Jan. 
1821, ag. 73 ; Pet. Wedd, 20 Mar. 1823, ag. 67 ; Ann his wife, 
dau. of Will, and Ann Coe, 14 Sept. 1849, ag. 73. 

Will. Bond, M.A. late fell. Cai. coll. rect. of Wheatacre cum 
Mutford, 7 June, 1832, ag. 80. 



348 S. MICHAEL. 

Elizab. dau. of Offley Smythe, esq. of Topcroft hall, Norf. 
wife of capt. Will. Arthur Irwin of 94th reg. of foot and 
Koxboro' co. Koscommon, 21 Feb. 1834, set. 55. 

Joh. Dan. Hamilton Coles, stud. Trin. coll. kal. Mart. 
1835, set. 20. 

Ja. Scholefield, M.A. Regius prof, of greek, can. of Ely and 
nearly 30 years minister of this parish, 4 Apr. 1853, ag. 64. 

In the old churchyard. 

Joh. Marshall [under keeper of univ. library], 1 Apr. 1819, 
ag. 82 ; Mary his wid. 20 Dec. 1841, ag. 86. 

Joh. Hen. Manners Le Blanc Mortlock, son of sir Joh. and 
lady Mortlock, b. 24 Dec. 1820, d. 27 Mar. 1821. 

Joh. Deighton [bookseller], 16 Jan. 1828, ag. 80. 

Ja. Brown [postmaster and common councilman], 10 Oct. 
1832, ag. 57. 

Cyril Joseph Monkhouse, Westminster schol. of Trin. coll. 
31 May, 1842, ag. 29. 

Francis Joseph, A.R.A. 1 Sept. 1846, set. 81. 

In the new churchyard. 

Alfred Rudge, son of Edw. and Alice Rudge of Fakenham, 
Norfolk, schol. Trin. coll. 3 June, 1851, set. 24. 

Geo. Aug. Robertson Elliott, schol. S. Joh. coll. b. 27 Oct. 
1835, d. 6 Oct. 1855. 

Will. Warwicker, b. 18 May, 1790, d. 29 Oct. 1861. 

The registers record the following interments : 

Tho. Smith, B.A. fell. Cai. coll. 23 March, 1561. 

Mr. Parker, fell. Cai. coll. 12 Apr. 1573. 

Mr. Radolphe, conduct. Trin. coll. 12 Jul. 1583. 

Mr. Button the anatomist of Cai. coll. 6 Apr. 1601. 

Matt. Warren, Cai. coll. 21 June, 1603. 

Andr. Osborn, Trin. coll. 22 Jul. 1603. 

Phil. Crane, Trin. coll. 22 Sept. 1606. 

Hen. Jackson, aid. 18 Feb. 1606. 

Hen. Scarbrowe, Cai. coll. 6 Apr. 1609. 

Ric. Rolfe, Cai. coll. 2 Dec. 1609. 



S. MICHAEL. 349 

Job. Dickinson, Cai. coll. 26 Mar. 1610. 

Will. Tucknye, Trin. coll. 2 Apr. 1610. 

Mr. Haman, fell. Cai. coll. 13 Oct. 1616. 

Si... Cradock, Trin. coll. 4 July, 1620. 

Will. Sheaffe, Trin. coll. 10 Dec. 1620. 

Russell, Cai. coll. 23 Aug. 1622. 

Mr. Pile, Cai. coll. 12 June, 1627. 

S. Bayly, Cai. coll. 3 Dec. 1633. 

Ja. Daniell, Cai. coll. 27 Oct. 1636. 

Edw. Rant, Cai. coll. 29 Oct. 1636. 

Job. Fannion, Cai. coll. 2 Nov. 1636. 

Will Grime, scbol. Cai. coll. 19 March, 1638. 

Ant. French, stud. Trin. coll. 16 May, 1639. 

Joh. Blorafield, B.A. Cai. coll. 21 Feb. 1639. 

Mr. Bogin, Trin. coll. 1660. 

Philip Castleton, fell. com. Cai. coll. 8 July, 1663. 

Burton, stud. Cai. coll. 1663. 

Joh. Ekins, stud. Trin. coll. 8 July, 1664. 

Edra. Fox, stud. Cai. coll. 27 Dec. 1669. 

Arth. Berners, stud. Cai. coll. 4 Dec. 1670. 

Will. Lurking, Cai. coll. 6 July, 1670. 

Joh. Robinson, fell. Cai. coll. 1 July, 1673. 

Joh. Wells, stud. Trin. coll. 22 Aug. 1675. 

Joh. Trenchard, stud. Trin. coll. 25 Aug. 1675. 

Geo. Burlt, stud. Trin. coll. 7 Apr. 1676. 

Joh. Raynbird, stud. Trin. coll. 25 April, 1676. 

Rob. Sherringam, M.A. fell. Cai. coll. 2 May, 1678. 

Dymoke Wyndus, stud. Trin. coll. 17 Sept. 1678. 

Will. Barker, stud. Trin. coll. 23 Oct. 1678. 

Joh. Tristram, stud. Trin. coll. 20 Sept. 1679. 

Joh. Ives, stud. Cai. coll. 28 Dec. 1679. 

Tho. Fowler, fell. Sid. coll. 13 Sept. 1680. 

Si. Bagge, fell. Cai. coll. 6 Feb. 1682. 

Rob. Shelton, stud. Cai. coll. 12 May, 1682. 

Hen. Muriell, stud. Trin. coll. 12 June, 1682. 

Capt. Rob. Muriell, 8 Sept. 1682. 

Will. Spencer, fell. Cai. coll. 19 Sept. 1682. 

Rob. Gilbert, stud. Cai. coll. 21 Nov. 1682. 

Purbeck Richardson, Trin. coll. [esq. bedel] 28 Mar. 1683. 



350 S. MICHAEL. 

Geo. Glascock, stud. Trin. coll. 13 May, 1683. 
Fra. Shouldham, fell. Cai. coll. June, 1683. 
Kic. Callum, stud. Trin. coll. 30 March, 1684. 
Gilb. Hank, stud. Cai. coll. 6 Nov. 1685. 
Job. Horn, stud. Cai. coll. 21 Oct. 1689. 
Job. Ekins, stud. Trin. coll. Dec. 1689. 
Tho. Taylor, stud. Trin. coll. 9 June, 1694. 
Mic. Payne in Trin. coll. chapel, 7 May, 1695. 
Sam. Jessop, scholar, Cai. coll. 20 Feb. 1695. 
Job. Seward, Trin. coll. 21 Dec. 1696. 
Hen. Jenkes, fell. Cai. coll. 1 Sept. 1697. 
Jane Flecher a clergyman's widow, 22 Oct. 1698. 
Job. Billingsley, M.A. in Trin. coll. chapel, 24 Oct. 1698. 
Tho. Morgan, M.A. 18 Feb. 1699; Will. Morgan, M.D. at 
Screthorg, Brecknockshire, executor. 

Noah Gifford, manciple, S. Job. coll. 1 June, 1700. 

Hen. Jennings, clerk, 20 Jul. 1701. 

Ja. son of Ja. Hancox, B.A. Cai. coll. 16 May, 1702. 

Will. Scott Lacie, schol. Cai. coll. 19 Jul. 1702. 

Fra. Hancock, stud. Cai. coll. 13 Nov. 1702. 

Ja. Halman, master of Cai. coll. in coll. chapel, 23 Dec. 1702. 

Edm. Hall, schol. Trin. coll. 3 Oct. 1704. 

Job. Gostlin, M.D. Cai. coll. in coll. chapel, 3 Feb. 1705. 

Kob. Ingham, B.A. Cai. coll. 19 Aug. 1705. 

Kob. Moor, schol. Trin. coll. 16 Mar. 1706. 

Step. Cresser, D.D. in Trin. coll. chapel, 20 Feb. 1710. 

Kichard Bourn, stud. Trin. coll. 18 Dec. 1710. 

Will. Wilby, stud. Trin. coll. 26 Dec. 1710. 

Hen. Sike, LL.D. [Regius prof, of hebrew] 28 May, 1712. 

Job. Amyas [B.D.] fell. Cai. coll. 15 Jan. 1713. 

Nic. Parham, fell. Cai. coll. 7 Feb. 1713. 

Phil. Richardson, Trin. coll. 27 Mar. 1718. 

Rice Gibbs, stud. Cai. coll. 14 May, 1719. 

[Lewkenor] Lestrange [LL.B.] fell. Cai. coll. 19 Aug. 1719. 

Job. Hiron, scbol. Trin. coll. 3 June, 1721. 

[Geo.] Granger, formerly of Trin. coll. 31 Jan. 1724. 

Tho. Baker, stud. Trin. coll. 11 May, 1725. 

Rob. Staples, stud. Trin. coll. 19 Dec. 1725. 

Job. Lightwin, M.A. pres. Cai. coll. in coll. chapel, 1 7 June, 1 729. 



S. MICHAEL. 351 

Phillip Farewell, D.D. 11 Dec. 1730. 
Signer Perigrini, 1 Aug. 1735. 

Cams college (a) and a considerable part of Trinity 
college are within this parish, within which were 
also Borden hostel, (6) S. Catharine's hostel, (c) Garret 

(a) Caius college almshouses (see p. 171) which occupy ninety-eight 
square yards, have been recently exchanged with the sanction of the charity 
commissioners, for a piece of land containing three hundred and ninety-two 
square yards near S. Paul's parsonage. It appears from the notice pub- 
lished on the subject, that the will of Reginald Elie, the founder, is dated 
1 April, 30 Hen. VIII. [1539]. 

(6) Borden hostel was doubtless so called from its having been 
originally built of timber. 

We consider it highly probable that it is identical with Ely hostel, 
which was used at one period for the reception of monks of Ely studying 
in this university. 

By letters patent 7 May, 26 Hen. VI. [1448], the provost and scholars 
of King's college were empowered to grant to the master and fellows 
of Clare hall (in exchange) Borden hostel in the parish of S. Michael, with 
a lane or passage from that hostel to the high street, opposite the house 
of the friars minors, which hostel and lane had formerly belonged to 
the prior and convent of Ely. 

Rowland Taylor, LL.D. who suffered martyrdom at Aldham common, 
near Hadleigh, in Suffolk, 8 Feb. 1554-5, was sometime principal of this 
house, which appears to have been for the most part or exclusively appro- 
priated to students in the canon and civil law. 

In 1556, it was an inn called the White Swan, in the occupation of 
Ralph Bikerdike, alderman. The close pertaining to it extended south- 
wardly to the boundary of this parish adjoining that of the Holy Trinity. 

In a conveyance of the White Swan, dated 1564, it is said to have been 
formerly two messuages, one called Clare hall tenement, otherwise Borden 
hostel, and the other Peterhouse tenement. On the south it was bounded 
in part by the tenement late of Simon Trewe, formerly called Paul's inn. 

A conveyance of part of the White Swan, dated 1570, describes it as 
bounded on the north by the tenement or inn called the Blue Boar. 

In 1652, Elizabeth Newton and others conveyed to John Chater and 
Margaret his wife a parcel of ground late part of a close, sometime an 
orchard, belonging to Borden hostel in S. Michael's parish, and abutting 
on Green street towards the south. 

(c) S. Catharine's hostel was on the western side of Trinity street. In 
Carter's time the site of this hostel was occupied by the houses of Thomas 
York, alderman, and Thomas Burrowes, esquire bedel. 



352 S. MICHAEL. 

hostel, (0) S. Margaret's hostel, (i) Oving's inn, (<!) a 
portion of Paul's inn, (d) Physwick hostel, (e) Newmarket 
or S. Gregory's hostel, (/) Tiled hostel,^ and S. 
William's hostel. w 

The town bridge over the Cam known as Garret 
hostel bridge, is situate wholly or principally in 
this parish. 

This bridge was rebuilt in 1591, 1646, 1769, 
(from a design by Mr. James Essex) and 1821, 

(a) Garret hostel, so called from a conspicuous garret or solar (see 
Vol. I. 23), belonged to Michaelhouse, and was enlarged about 1455 (see 
Vol. n. 226.) It now forms part of Trinity college, Bishop's hostel having 
been erected on or near the site. 

John Vaughan, a friend of Erasmus, occurs in 1503, as principal of 
Garret hostel. In the following year he is termed principal of S. William's 
hostel. 

(6) See Vol. I. 106. 

(c) See Vol. n. 236, 237. 

(d) See p. 316. 

By deed dated 20 Jan. 14 Eliz. [1571-2], Isaac Barrow, M.D. and Arm 
his wife, released to Alexander Raie, alderman, all their right in a messuage 
or tenement formerly called Paul's inn, situate in the parishes of S, Mary 
near the market and S. Michael, and by another deed dated 4 Oct. 17 Eliz. 
[1575], aid. Raie and Elizabeth his wife, and John Edmonds, draper, and 
Catharine his wife released to William Burwell, vintner, their right in the 
forefront or forepart of a messuage formerly called Paul's inn. A prolix 
description concludes with a statement that all the premises are situate ia 
the parish of Blessed Mary the virgin near the market. 

(e) See Vol. I. 105, 106; Vol. II. 236, 237. 

(f) Of Newmarket hostel, also sometimes called S. Gregory's hostel, 
Robert Knight, M.A. occurs as principal in 1512. Its site was in or before 
1542, converted into a garden pertaining to Michaelhouse, (see Vol. II. 228.) 

(g) Tiled hostel is supposed to have been between the hostels of 
S. Margaret and S. Catharine, and to have had an entrance in the lane 
between Gonville hall and Physwick hostel. 

Caius says it took its name from John Tyler, once its proprietor. It is 
more probable that it was called Tiled hostel, from its roof being of tile. 

(A) Of S. William's hostel, we know only that John Vaughan was the 
principal in 1604. It is not unlikely that it was merely another name 
for Garret hostel. 



S. MICHAEL. 353 

(having fallen down nine years before). The present 
handsome structure of iron was erected by the But- 
terley company in 1837, at a cost of 960. 16s. Qd. 
of which sum 612. 2*. was subscribed. Trinity 
hall gave 250; Trinity college 150; and Caius 
college 50. 

As to the eastern approach to the bridge, we 
find that the prior and convent of Anglesey on 
Friday the eve of the apostles Peter and Paul 
[28 June], 26 Hen. VI. [1448], granted to the king 
a garden called Henably, between Trinity hall on 
the south and Garret hostel on the north, abutting 
at the east head upon Milnestrete and at the west 
head upon Kingesdiche. The king by a charter 
dated 15 March in the 33rd year of his reign 
[1454-5], granted the same garden to the mayor bur- 
gesses and commonalty of the town, for a common 
passage or way for the commonalty of the town 
from Milnestrete to the water called the Ree. This 
grant was in part recompense of land or soil called 
Strawlane, otherwise Salthithelane, granted to the 
king by the town for the enlargement of King's 
college. 

Portions of the Rose tavern and the Angel inn (a) 
appear to have been situate in this parish. 

On the northern side of Green street the pres- 
byterians had a meeting-house in 1696, and for 
many years subsequently. (6) From the changes which 

(a) See p. 317. 

(b) See pp. 216, 217. 

John Gumming, D.D. was at one period minister of this congregation. 
In 1716 he removed to the Scotch church, Founder's hall, London. He 
was a noted controversialist, and whilst in Cambridge published Remarks on 

VOL. III. A A 



354 S. MICHAEL. 

have taken place, it is now difficult to ascertain 
the exact site of this meeting-house, but it is be- 
lieved that it stood partly in this parish and partly 
in the adjoining parish of All Saints. 

Dr. Bentley's fifth of November sermon. His death occurred 7 Sept. 1729, 
at the age of 44. 

Richard Jones, a pupil of Dr. Doddridge, was for several years minister 
of this congregation. From 1763 to 1769 he was minister of the presby- 
terian congregation, Crosby square, London. He then became minister of 
a congregation atPeckham, and died in 1800, having published an Essay on 
Friendship with God, and some sermons. 

John Stittle, a person of much celebrity in his day, preached here above 
30 years. He died 22 July, 1813, set. 87, (see p. 242). 




MESS*.* FOSTER'S BANK, 
TRINITY STREET. S. MICHAEL'S. 




S. PETER. 

To distinguish this church from that once called 
S. Peter's by Trumpington gates, now S. Mary 
the Less, it was anciently termed S. Peter's by the 
castle and occasionally S/ Peter's beyond the bridge 
and S. Peter's on the hill. 

In 1254, the church was valued at five marks 
yearly. It was soon afterwards appropriated to the 
priory of Barnwell. On the dissolution of that house 
it came to the crown. Queen Elizabeth granted it 
to the see of Ely. 

The church was dedicated to S. Peter and S. 
Paul by a commission dated 3 Aug. 1349. 

On 19 March, 1461-2, John Hessewell, mayor, 
Robert Garland, draper, William Lolleworth and 
Geoffrey Fyssher, bailiffs, and six other inhabitants 

AA2 



356 S. PETER. 

of the town, appeared before William Gray, bishop 
of Ely, in the chapel of S. Mary near the cathedral 
of Ely, to answer to a charge of having violently 
taken Henry Akenborough (a native of the diocese 
of Worcester) from the cemetery of this church, 
whither he had fled demanding the immunities of 
the church. The bishop having examined them 
severally, they submitted themselves to his correc- 
tion, whereupon he absolved them from the penalty 
of excommunication which they had ipso facto in- 
curred, and enjoined them that they should on the 
following day, about 10 o'clock, take Akenborough 
from the Tolbooth, and convey him with all his 
goods, by the midst of the market, to the cemetery 
and church whence he had been taken. 

The great and important gild of S. Peter and 
S. Paul was held in this church, (a) and we find 
mention before the reformation of chapels of B. V. 
Mary and S. Saviour. 

Will. Dowsing has left the following account of 
his proceedings here : 

At Peter's Parish, Decemb. 30, 1643. 

We brake downe 10 Popish Pictures. We tooke of 3 
Popish Inscriptions of Prayers to be made for there Soules, 
& burnt the rayles, digged up the steps & they are to be 
levelled by Wednesday. 

It was found by inquisition 23 Oct. 1650, that 
this parish had neither parsonage impropriation nor 
vicarage, and the commissioners for providing main- 
tenance for preaching ministers recommended that 
it should be united to S. Giles's. 

(a) Copies of the statutes are in MS. Baker, XXV. 361 ; xxxvi. 165. 
Extracts in Cambridge Portfolio, 298. 



S. PETER. 357 

The governors of queen Anne's bounty have 
augmented the benefice by the following grants : 
200 in 1731; 200 in 1750; 200 in 1753; and 
200 in 1787. 

In 1749 the church was disused. In 1760 the 
roof dropt in and the windows were demolished. A 
brief for rebuilding was issued in 1773. It was 
actually rebuilt in 1781, many of the old materials 
being employed. 

The fabric which is without aisles/ a) is only 
41ft. 4 in. in length. There is a neat tower with 
a short but not inelegant steeple. (J) The south 
doorway is a double semicircular arch, standing 
out from the wall with intermediate borders of tri- 
partite ornament sparingly laid on. The west 
window and the belfry arch are good specimens 
of the decorated and perpendicular styles respec- 
tively. Remains of roman bricks or tiles are found 
within the walls. (c) 

The font is very curious, a square basin being 
surrounded with four rudely executed human figures, 
terminating in serpents. (d} It stands on a made-up 
pedestal. 

The church is used four times a week. On other 

(a) There was formerly a south aisle. 

(6) On the steeple was formerly a weathercock, with the letters A. P. 
A. P. It is said that these were affixed to indicate the mutability in 
religious matters of the famous Dr. Andrew Perne, Dean of Ely, 
being taken to mean Andrew Perne a papist, or Andrew Perne a pro- 
testant, or Andrew Perne a puritan. 

(c) Mr. James Essex, the eminent architect, was of opinion that the 
church occupied the site of a roman temple. 

(d) This font is engraved in Archceologia, XVI. pi. 37, fig. 4 ; and in 
Lysons' Cambridgeshire. 



358 S. PETER. 

occasions the parishioners resort to the immediately 
adjacent church of S. Giles. S. Giles's and S. Peter's 
have been held by the same clergyman for three 
centuries or more, but are nevertheless essentially 
distinct benefices. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. (a) 

In the church. 

*Joh. de Cambridge, 6 May, 1386. 

*Hob. Wynne of Magd. coll. son of Rob. Wynne of Dyffrin 
Aled, Denbighsh. esq. 13 Jul. 1745, set. 19. 

Tho. Smith, 5 June, 1696, ag. 31; Tho. and Isabel his 
parents; Mary his sister; Sarah his wife; and Sarah their 
daughter. 

Tho. Smith, aid. 27 May, 1759, set. 70. 

In the churchyard. 

*Pet. Betson, aid. 17 Sept. 1709, jet. 68. 

*Mary Betson, bur. 5 Jan. 17... 

*Hen. Aymes, 17 Sept. 1713. 

*Tho. Townsend, 11 Feb. 1714-15, set. 37. 

*Marg. Love, wid. 22 April, 1716, ag. 67. 

*Edw. Townsend, 28 Dec. 1733, ag. 53. 

Joh. Wood, solicitor, 16 Feb. 1813, ag. 52 ; Grace his wife, 
dau. of Joh. Hemmington of Denny abbey, 30 Nov. 1812, 
ag. 50. 

About 1840, the late rev. Henry Hutchinson 
Swinny, then vicar of the parish, projected the re- 
erection of this church in a handsome style corre- 
sponding to the commanding site and its many 
antiquarian associations. A design by A. Salvin, 
esq. was published. 

The following donations have been made to the 
poor: Thomas Ellys, pikemonger, by will in 1593, 

(a) Those marked with an asterisk are not now visible. 



S. PETER. 359 

6s. 8d. per annum; Isaac Barrow of Wicken, by 
deed in 1617, a yearly rent charge of 1. 6s. Sd. ; 
James Saunders and wife, by deed in 1679, houses 
and land then worth 6. a year. 

Portions of S. John's and Magdalen colleges are 
within this parish. 

The Pickerel inn is believed to be of great 
antiquity, but we have not met with any mention 
of it before 1676. The Cross-Keys contains re- 
mains of old carving of considerable excellence. {a) 

Within this parish and the parishes of Grirton 
and Impington was a hamlet called Howes, which 
had a free chapel. 

(a) See Cambridge Portfolio, 361, 509. 




EXTERIOR, 1841. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

THE church of the Holy Sepulchre and S. Andrew 
is commonly called the church of the Holy Sepulchre 
merely. In former times it was frequently denomi- 
nated the church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Jewry, 
from its being in that part of the town where the 
jews resided. (a) It is also termed the Round church, 
it being one of the four ancient english churches 
of that form.*') 

(a) See p. 198. 

(6) The others are the Temple church, London, S. Sepulchre's, North- 
ampton, and Little Maplestead, Essex. See observations on the origin and 
antiquity of round churches, and of the round church at Cambridge in 
particular, by James Essex, F.s.A. in Archseologia, VI. 163. Mr. Essex's 
paper has considerable merit, but as regards some of the facts connected 
with the history of this church, he was not sufficiently informed. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 361 

It has been suggested, first, that it was originally 
a Jewish synagogue, secondly, that it belonged to 
the Knights Templars. We are well persuaded that 
there is no kind of foundation for either conjecture. 

We have also seen a statement that it was con- 
secrated in 1101, but for this we can find no authority. 

At a very early period it was appropriated to the 
prior and convent of Barnwell a vicarage, of which 
they were the patrons, being endowed. Geoffrey 
de Alderhethe occurs as vicar in 1272. 

- We have elsewhere (0) noticed the foundation by 
William Toylet, of a chantry in the chapel of 
S. Mary within this church, to be served by a 
brother of S. John's hospital, a duty which was 
transferred to one of the fellows when the hospital 
was converted into a college. (6) By a charter, dated 
Sunday after S. Valentine the martyr, 1313, Eichard 
de Hokyngton, chaplain, and Nicholas Jacob of 
Harleton, for the weal of the soul of John de 
Shelford, deceased, and of the souls of his father 
and mother, &c. granted to Nicholas de Harleton, 
chaplain, 28 acres of arable land and certain annual 
rents in Cambridge and Grantchester, for the susten- 
tation of a fit chaplain celebrating in this church. 
On the death or cession of Nicholas de Harleton, 
his successors were to be appointed from time to 
time by the vicar and four of the elder and better 
parishioners, or should they not agree, by the arch- 
deacon of Ely (c) . 

(a) Vol. II. 60. (&) Ibid. 72. 

(c) MS. Baker, xxx. 147. In 1553, a pension of 2. 6s. Sd. was paid 
to Richard Ernam as late incumbent of S. Sepulchre's chantry. 



362 HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

Here was a gild of S. Etheldreda, and we find 
mention of the lights of the Sepulchre, S. Nicholas, 
S. Etheldreda, B. V. Mary, and of the rood or 
crucifixion. 

The church in 1254 was valued at one mark only. 
In Pope Nicholas's taxation made about 1291, the 
prior of Barnwell was rated 6s. 4c?. for a pension 
out of this church. In a return to Fordham, bishop 
of Ely, made in 1402, this church is estimated at 
100 shillings. In the valor of Henry VIII. made 
in or soon after 1534, the vicarage is returned at 
6. 11s. Od. 

At the dissolution of monasteries the vicarage 
came to the crown, although no steps appear to have 
been taken to assert the right, and the church has 
long been treated as a perpetual curacy in the gift 
of the parishioners. 

Will. Dowsing who put in execution the icono- 
clastic ordinance of parliament, visited this church 
3 Jan. 1643-4, and thus records his proceedings : 

Pulchers or Round Parish, Jan. 3, 1643. 
We brake down 14 Superstitious Pictures & divers Idolatrous 
Inscriptions, and one of God y e Father & of Xt. & of y e Apostles. 

In the inquisition taken 23 Oct. 1650, before 
commissioners for providing maintenance for preach- 
ing ministers, the jury found as follows : 

The Parishe of St. Sepulchres have neither Parsonage, 
Viccaridge, Impropriacion or Donative. 

That they have neither Minister nor - Preacher, nor have 
had these eight years. 

The commissioners recommended that this parish 
should be united to S. Clement's. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 363 

In augmentation of the benefice, the governors 
of queen Anne's bounty made the following grants : 
400 in 1784; 200 in 1785; 200 in 1788; 
200 in 1791; and 200 in 1816. In 1785, 
the rev. George Gaskin also gave 100 ; and the 
trustees of Mrs. Pyncombe's charity 100 for the 
same purpose. 

Amongst the incumbents we find William Bucken- 
ham, D.D. master of Gonville hall; Thomas Alcock, 
LL.D. archdeacon of Ely and master of Jesus college ; 
Abraham Wheelock, professor of arabic; James 
Duport, D.D. dean of Peterborough, master of Mag- 
dalen college and Regius professor of greek; John 
Edwards, D.D. of S. John's college; Samuel Ogden, 
D.D. Woodwardian professor; and James Fawcett, 
B.D. Norrisian professor of divinity. 

On 24 Nov. 1823, came on an election of a 
perpetual curate by the parishioners, the votes being 
rev. Hastings Robinson, M.A., fellow and tutor of 
S. John's college, 36 ; rev. Richard Rowland Faulkner, 
of the same college, 34 ; and rev. Francis Russell Hall, 
B.D. fellow of the same college, 14. Mr. Faulkner 
instituted proceedings in the court of King's bench, 
and after a trial at the assizes, that court held the 
election void, the votes having been taken by ballot, 
and in consequence of the rejection of the votes of 
parishioners whose church-rates were unpaid. Even- 
tually Mr. Faulkner was appointed perpetual curate, 
and he now holds the office, having taken the degree 
of B.D. in 1826. 

In September, 1841, a part of the circular aisle 
had fallen in, and repairs of the ordinary kind were 



364: HOLY SEPULCHRE. 




EXTBKIOR, 1814. 

commenced by the parishioners. The Cambridge 
Camden society then stepped in with a view of 
saving the ancient and interesting fabric from a 
restoration manifestly insufficient and inappropriate. 
Anthony Salvin, esq. was employed by the society 
as architect, and a committee was appointed, the 
chairman being the ven. Thomas Thorp, B.D. arch- 
deacon of Bristol, the president of the society. 

The following detailed statement of the alterations 
made by the society, will clearly shew their nature 
and extent, and the previous condition of this most 
interesting structure : 

1. The upper story of the circular tower, containing four 
bells, removed, and a new stone vault, with conical roof, built. 

2. The clerestory windows restored to the original Norman 
form, after the model of one remaining. 

3. The triforium cleared of gallery and thoroughly restored. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 365 

4. The piers underpinned, and strengthened with concrete, 
thoroughly repaired, and based on circular plinth of stone. 

5. The vaulting of the circular aisle, and the exterior 
roofing, reconstructed. 

6. The aisle walls repaired, rebuilt where the fall had taken 
place, and four Norman windows restored in place of the in- 
serted windows. 

7. The whole area of the round part, and the external 
walls within and without, bedded in concrete : the area paved 
with encaustic tiles. 

8. The vaulting aad walls of the circular part plaistered, 
and the whole interior prepared for decorated painting. 

9. A new stone font, with carved oak cover, placed in 
the ancient usual place. 

10. The west doorway repaired and restored, and new 
oak doors added. 

11. The whole of the church within and without dressed 
and pointed. 

12. All the windows of the round part, twelve in number, 
filled with stained glass. 

13. The chancel, with the exception of one arch, and the 
wall above it, entirely rebuilt ; the north aisle, with the ex- 
ception of the entrance arch (from the west) rebuilt and 
extended eastward and flush to the east wall of the chancel 
(including the space formerly occupied by a vestry) ; a new 
south aisle of equal dimensions with the enlarged north aisle 
added, and a turret for two bells, including a vestry in the 
lower stage, added at the north-west angle of the north aisle. 

14. The chancel arch rebuilt and contracted, and a stone 
pierced screen added above it. 

15. The chancel roof repaired and beautified, the roof of 
the north chancel-aisle repaired, beautified, and lengthened by 
one bay to the east ; and new outer roofs, of high pitch, with 
gable crosses, added to both. 

16. The new aisle furnished with a high roof of the same 
kind, so constructed as to leave room for an inner carved 
roof. 

17. The east window filled with stained glass, and the other 
windows of the chancel re-glazed temporarily with plain glass. 



366 HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

18. The walls plaistered and prepared uniformly with the 
round part. 

19. The whole of the pavement laid with glazed and 
encaustic tiles. 

20. A new communion table, and a credence table, of stone, 
erected at the east end, and a new pulpit and reading-desk of 
carved oak set up. 

21. The whole area of the north and south aisles filled 
with carved oak open seats; by which ample accommodation 
is provided for the parish, and the loss of seats in the round 
part, which is now vacant, more than compensated. 

22. The chancel in like manner filled up with longitudinal 
seats, so as to admit of alteration in the event of the arches 
being sometime fitted with their screens. 

The cost of the new works much exceeded 4000, 
nearly the whole of which was raised by subscription. 

A faculty for the alterations applied for by the 
churchwardens, was opposed by Mr. Faulkner the 
incumbent, so far as it included a stone altar (a) and 
credence table. The case was heard in the hall 
of Trinity hall, 25 July, 1844, before the rev. John 
Henry Sparke, M.JL chancellor of the diocese of Ely, 
who decreed the faculty as prayed. Mr. Faulkner 
thereupon appealed to the court of arches, and sir 
Herbert Jenner Fust, LL.D. the dean of that court, 
on 31 January, 1845, reversed the decision of the 
court below with costs, being of opinion that the 
stone altar was not a communion table within the 
meaning of the ecclesiastical law which did not 
authorize the erection of a credence table. 

The faculty was modified in compliance with this 

(a) A view of the so-called stone altar is given in A statement of parti- 
culars connected with the restoration of the Round Church, by the Chair- 
man of the Restoration Committee. Camb. 8vo. 1845. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 



367 




INTERIOR, 1841. 

decision, and the stone altar and credence table were 
removed, a carved' communion table of wood being 
substituted for the former. The church was re-opened 
10 Aug. 1845, when sermons were preached by the 
rev. John Graham, D.D. master of Christ's college, 
afterwards bishop of Chester, and the rev. James 
Scholefield, M.A. Regius professor of greek. 

The entire length of the fabric from east to west 
is 78 feet; the round part is 55 feet in diameter; 
and the chancel and its side aisles are 57 feet in 
width. 

The western doorway is a fine example of the 
early norman semicircular arch, having good 
mouldings embellished with zigzag or cheveron 
ornaments. 

The timber roofs of the chancel and its aisles are 
excellent. 

The east window is filled with stained glass by 



368 HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

Williment representing the crucifixion, S. Mary 
the virgin and S. John the evangelist. 

Of the eight stained glass windows in the cleres- 
tory five represent the Holy Lamb, the Boy bishop, 
S. Etheldreda, the pelican, and venerable Bede. The 
Boy bishop was the gift of the late Mr. Edward 
Litchfield, for many years one of the churchwardens. 

The following are the subjects of the stained glass 
windows, in the circular aisle, (1) The entombment 
and the resurrection (WaiUs), (2) The baptism of 
St. John Baptist (Willimenf), (3) Our Saviour in 
judgment, with evangelistic symbols (Wailes), (4) St. 
Michael and an angel with six wings (Wailes). The 
windows by Wailes were the gift of the late Rev. 
Samuel Wilkes Waud, M.A., fellow of Magdalen 
college. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. (a) 

In the church. 

*Joh. Brakin, gent. 1674, set. 19 (son of Job. Brakin, esq. 
interred in chancel of Lolworth, 1669). 

*Mary, wife of Will. Adams, surgeon, 1 688. 

*Brampton Lowry, printer, 1716, ag. 63. 

Sam. Ogden, D.D. b. 28 Jul. 1716, d. 23 March, 1778. 

Joh. and Deborah Sparke, 1772. Erected by their only 
child Deborah, wife of Geo. Ashby of Hazelbeach, North- 
ampton, esq. 

Renk Labutte, a native of Laval, and teacher of the French 
language in this univ. 18 Apr. 1790, ag. 77 ; Mary his wife 
18 Jan. 1808, ag. 82. 

In the old churchyard. 

*Joh. Lowry, gent, [sometime M.P.] bur. 18 Jul. 1669. 
Jonath. Sharp, organist, S. Joh. coll. 13 Sept. 1794, ag. 48 J 
Sarah his wife, 27 Oct. 1808, ag. 66. 

(a) Those marked with an asterisk are not now visible. 



HOLY SEPULCHRE. 369 

Will. Vitty [solicitor], 28 Dec. 1805, aet. 73. 

Elizab. Murray, wife of capt. Job. Murray, adjutant 1st 
batallion Cambr. Volunteers, b. near Birr, King's co. Ireland, 
d. in Cambr. 16 Feb. 1806, ag. 36. 

Era. Sharp [solicitor], 3 Dec. 1814, ag. 37. 

Ric. Brewin Coe, solicitor, 21 March, 1815, ag. 40. 

Eic. Clarke, 4 May, 1836, ag. 79 ; Mary his wife, 21 Aug. 
1828, ag. 75 ; Mary their only child, relict of rev. Ja. Foulkes 
Roberts, 24 Jul. 1849, ag. 55. 

Hen. Stapylton Bree, Trin. coll. 14 May, 1836, ag. 28. 

In the new churchyard. 
Job. Brown,W 21 Aug. 1863, ag. 67. 

The following gifts have been made to the poor 
of this parish : William Synderton, alderman, by will, 
1544, to be yearly distributed at his dirge 9s. 4J. ; John 
Graves, by will, 1666, ten bushels of coals yearly; 
sir Robert Tabor, M.D. 1677, 405. ; James Duport, 
D.D. 1679, 10. ; James Lowry of Peterborough, mer- 
chant, by will, 1710, 5. per annum; Thomas Greaves, 
alderman, by will, 1750, 12s. a year ; George Sharp, 
turner, clerk of the parish, by will, 1785, 5. 

The Hoop hotel in this parish has long enjoyed 
celebrity. (6) The Ram, now a small inn, northward 
of the church, is mentioned in 1522, and was probably 
once a house of importance, for in 1595, Robert 
Brudenell, esq., kept his shrievalty there. 

The Cambridge Union society (c) is now erecting 
spacious and elegant rooms immediately adjoining the 
south eastern end of the church. 

(a) Author of " Gleanings from Life's Harvest." 

(6) "Onward we drove beneath the Castle; caught 

While crossing Magdalene Bridge, a glimpse of Cam; 

And at the Hoop alighted, famous Inn." 

WORDSWORTH'S Prelude, Book iii. 
(c) See p. 187. 

VOL. III. BB 



HOLY TRINITY. 

IN 1174, a dreadful fire consumed this church 
and damaged most of the others in the town then 
constructed of wood. 

The church was afterwards given to the abbey of 
West Dereham in Norfolk, (a) by William de Yarmouth, 
of Cambridge, vintner. It was appropriated to the 
abbat and convent, a vicarage of which they were 
the patrons being endowed. 

Thomas Arundel, bishop of Ely, on 16 July, 1376, 
granted his license to the vicar and parishioners 
to change the feast of dedication (which then fell in 
the time of Sturbridge fair, when the parishioners 
were much occupied with the business thereby occa- 
sioned) to the 9th of October. 

In 1530, a dispute arose between the vicar and 
parishioners as to the mode of electing the parish 
officers. (6) Dr. Cliffe, chancellor of the diocese, on 
hearing all parties made an order, that from 14 April, 
1531, the election should be made by six persons, 
namely, two named by the churchwardens, two 

(a) This house which was of the Premonstatensian order, was founded 
on the feast of the assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1188, by 
Hubert Walter, then dean of York, afterwards bishop of Salisbury, and 
ultimately archbishop of Canterbury. 

(6) At this period there were annually elected two wardens of the 
church, two wardens of the Sepulchre light, two wardens of the Crucifix 
light, two wardens of S. Erasmus's light, two wardens of S. George's light, 
and two wardens of our Lady's light. The latter were women. 



HOLY TEINITY. 371 

by the four auditors and two by the other four 
nominees. (a) 

The church was visited by William Dowsing, 
25 Dec. 1643. He says: 

We brake downe 80 Popish Pictures & one of Xt. & God 
the Father above. 

In the inquisition of Oct. 1650, relative to preach- 
ing ministers, it was found that this parish had a 
vicarage house worth about 40s. per annum, (6) that 
the parishioners had no settled minister or other 
maintenance for a minister but the said forty shillings 
per annum. The commissioners recommended that 
Great S. Andrew's should be united to this parish, 
and that the Barnwell part of this parish should be 
united to Barnwell. 

In this church there were gilds of the Trinity, 
S. George, the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, S. Clement, S. Catharine and S. Ursula and 
the eleven thousand virgins. We also find mention 
of images and lights of the Salutation of our Lady, 
the Sepulchre, the Rood, and S. Erasmus. 

A lectureship was established in this church in 
1610, but was soon afterwards suppressed for a little 
time. (c) 

Amongst the celebrated vicars, lecturers, and 
curates of this church, may be mentioned Richard 

(a) This mode of election was used in 1572, when the four auditors 
are called counsellors. 

(6) In a deed of 1661, the vicarage house is stated to adjoin an inn 
called the White Horse, and to be situate in Conduit street or Preacher's 
street. 

(c) Various particulars respecting this lecture may be collected from 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iii. 138, 168, 229, 467, 485, 526, 527. See 
also Carus's Life of Simeon. 

BB2 



372 HOLY TRINITY. 

Sibbs, D.D. master of Catharine hall; John Jeffry, 
D.D. fellow of Pembroke hall ; John Preston, D.D. 
master of Emmanuel college ; Thomas Goodwin, D.D. 
president of Magdalen college, Oxford; Thomas 
Seignior, fellow of Trinity college ; John Edwards, 
D.D. fellow of S. John's college; John Warren, D.D. 
prebendary of Exeter; Thomas Herring, archbishop 
of Canterbury ; Charles Simeon, M.A. fellow of King's 
college; Henry Martyn, B.D. fellow of S. John's 
college ; Thomas Truebody Thomason, fellow of 
Queens' college ; James Scholefield, Regius professor 
of Greek; William Carus, M.A. now canon of Win- 
chester; and Charles Clayton, M.A. now rector of 
Stanhope. 

On the dissolution of the abbey of West Dere- 
ham, the patronage of the vicarage devolved on the 
crown, (a) but at length the crown failing to present, 
the bishop of Ely as diocesan supplied the cure from 
time to time by sequestration. Ultimately it came 
to be considered as a perpetual curacy in the bishop's 
gift, and by an order of the Queen in council, 27 
July, 1863, sanction was given to a scheme prepared 
by the ecclesiastical commissioners for effecting an 
exchange between the bishop of Ely and the rev. 
Alfred Peache, of the patronage of the perpetual 
curacy of this church, estimated at 160 per annum 
net, for the rectory of Girton, Cambridgeshire, esti- 
mated at 435 per annum net, with a house. 

(a) The following presentations by the crown may be enumerated; 
Tho. Godwyn, B.D. 5 Dec. 1633; Ric. Sibbes, D.D. 21 Nov. 1634; Rob. 
Tourney, B.D. 4 Sept. 1635; Joh. Howorth, B.D. 13 May, 1636. Rymer's 
Foedera, xix. 440, 536, 776; xx. 133. 



HOLY TRINITY. 373 

In 1254, the church was valued at 20s. and the 
vicarage at 10s. In the taxation of pope Nicholas IV. 
made about 1291, the abbat of Dereham was taxed 
105. for the rectory. In the valor of Henry VIII. 
the vicarage is charged at 7. 6s. 8d. 

The benefice has been augmented by grants from 
the governors of queen Anne's bounty as follows : 
200 in 1742; 200 in 1751; 200 in 1779; 200 
in 1797; 600 in 1811; and 400 in 1812. Mr. 
Peache, the present patron, in 1864 gave 1000 
for the augmentation, to which the ecclesiastical 
commissioners added the like sum. He has since 
offered the commissioners another 1000, which is 
now under their consideration, and it is reported 
that he intends ultimately to raise the endowment 
to 600 a year. 

The church is cruciform, but the nave only has 
aisles. At the west end is a tower surmounted with 
a spire. The tower and spire were much altered 
about forty-five years since, when whatever beauty 
they may have possessed, was entirely obliterated by 
the ignorant craftsmen who were employed. 

The porch was not without merit, but its beauty 
has been greatly impaired by plaster and other 
tasteless alterations. 

The tower opens into the church, the eastern arch 
was altered from decorated to perpendicular, and 
great internal buttresses added in consequence of its 
evident settlement, probably in the sixteenth century. 

The pier arches on the south side are decorated ; 
the clerestory over them and the remainder of the 
nave and transepts perpendicular. 



374 



HOLY TRINITY. 




The transepts are of great beauty. They have 
each two heights of windows on the east side. These 
windows are two five-light windows below, and 
three three-light windows above. They are varied, 
and are peculiarly excellent in their execution. 

The nave, aisles and transepts have handsome 
and substantial wooden roofs. 

About 1834, the old low vaulted decorated chancel 
was taken down, and the present more spacious 
structure erected. We believe no architect was em- 
ployed. The materials are brick and plaster, the 




. the Arv? C .Simtons tune. 



HOLY TRINITY. 375 

details being for the most part contemptible. The 
plaster roof is coloured so as somewhat to resemble 
the timber roof of the nave. Under the eastern 
window is an elaborate but somewhat incongruous 
altar screen. The upper portion of the eastern 
window came from the old chancel. 

The pulpit of artificial stone represented in our 
woodcut, was erected about the same time as the 
new chancel. 

In 1851, the magnificent stone arches that opened 
from the crossing of the transepts, were replaced by 
huge sprawling substitutes constructed of brick and 
plaster. 

There is an organ gallery at the west end. The 
almost incomparable transepts and the south aisle 
are also disfigured by galleries. 

One of the lower windows on the eastern side of 
the south transept contains figures of our Saviour 
and the four Evangelists. This was erected at the 
cost of the late Mr. Charles Claydon, butler of 
Trinity college, to the memory of his parents, Charles 
and Hannah Claydon, who died in 1809 and 1796. 
Some of the other windows in this church have 
stained glass of no kind of excellency. 

MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. (a) 

In the church and chancel. 

Elizab. Peyton, wid. of Rob. Peyton esq. and eld. dau. of sir 
Ric. Anderson of Hertfordsh. knt. [26 April 1659, ag. 53]. 

*Will. Speckes, 1 Dec. 1666 ; Elizab. his wife, 24 Jan. 1693. 

Edw. Lawe, gent. aid. and J.P. 30 May 1676; Edw. Lawe 
gent. Nov. 1682. 

(a) Those marked with an asterisk are not now visible. 



376 HOLY TEINITY. 

Sir Eob. Talbor alias Tabor, knt>) "medicus singularis, 
unicus Febrium Malleus, Carolo 11 ac Ludovico XIV illi 
M. Brittaniae, huic Galliae serenissimis Eegibus, Ludovica? Marise 
Hispaniarum ac Indiarum Reginae, serenissirao Galliarum Del- 
phino, plurimisque Principibus, nee non minorum gentium 
Ducibus, ac Dominis probatissimis " [bur. 17 Nov. 1681]. His 
grandfather Ja. Tabor, esq. registrary of the univ. 16 Jul. 1645 ; 
his father, Joh. Tabor, esq. registrar to the bishop of Ely, 10 
April, 1645 ; his aunts Elizab. late wife of Matthew Whin, 16 Sept. 
1677 ; and Margaret Tabor who died unmarried 24 Nov. 1634. 

Sam. Conant, M.A. fell. Magd. coll. Oxford and rector of 
[Holy Trinity] Dorchester, 18 May, 1706, set. 30. 

*Dorothy, posthumous dau. of Martin Folkes, esq. of Hilling- 
ton, Norf. and Dorothy his wife, b. 26 Oct. 1706, d. 1 Oct. 1710. 

*Susan dau. of Sam. Gatward, esq. and Elizab. his wife, b. 
19 Oct. 1706, d. 19 Dec. 1707 ; Sam. their son, b. 4 April, 1712, 
d. 9 May, 1712. 

Fra. Percy [ald.] (6 ) sometime capt. of the militia in this town 
and descended from the ancient and noble family of the Percys 
of Alnwick castle, in Northumberland, 6 May, 1711, set. 67; 
Margaret his wife, 20 Sept. 1711, ag. 62. They had 6 sons and 
6 dau. Fra. Algernon and Hen. served her majesty aboard the 
royal navy against France, the former after many providential 
and signal deliverances was made capt. of a fourth rate man of 
war, and the other two died in the service, one against Monsieur 
Ponti [at Gibraltar] 1705, the other of a malignant fever at 
Lisbon, 1706. 

Edw. Warren, 10 June, 1722, ag. 71 ; Ann his wife, 22 
March, 1734-5, ag. 75 ; Edw. his son, 26 Nov. 1734, ag. 48. 

Pell March Gatward, son of Pell Gatward, esq. and Sarah 
Rowland his wife, 12 Nov. 1735, ag. 5 mo. 

Pell Gatward, esq. J.P. son of Sam. a celebrated lawyer/*) 
ed. at Eton and Jes. coll. 27 Oct. 1741, set. 32. 

(a) Some particulars of this once celebrated empiric are given in Masters's 
Hist, of Corpus Christi college, 387. It may be added that he was ad- 
mitted a sizar of S. John's college, 19 May 1663, and a fellow commoner, 1681. 

(b) As to this person, his ancestry and descendants, see Collect. Topogr. 
is Geneal. ii. 57-64, 399 ; iii. 401. 

(c) Sam. Gatward was recorder of Cambridge 1711-1741. 



HOLY TRINITY. 377 

Mary, wife of Job. Porter, 18 Aug. 1747. 

Will. Mott, aid. 28 Sept. 1772, ag. 78 ; Mary his 2nd wife, 
26 Sept. 1755, ag. 74. 

Job. Porter, 6 Nov. 1771, get. 71. 

Elizab. 43 years wife of Ric. Mee, gent. dau. of sir Job. Jacob, 
bart. of West Wratting,22 Jan. 1778, ag. 82; Kic. Mee, 28 Dec. 
1791, ag. 83. 

Mary, wife of Will. Jackson, 5 Oct. 1778, aet. 40 ; Will. 
Jackson, apothecary, 19 Feb. 1798, aet. 60. 

Will. Mott, 1785; Susan Mott, 1790. 

Mary Ann, ag. 4 years, Will. ag. 10 months, children of 
Tho. and Eebecca Mott. 

Tho. Hurlstone, of North Cadbury, Somersetsh. 13 April, 
1790, ag. 44. 

Tho. Burleigh James, 17 Jan. 1799, aet. 14. 

Will. Wallis, 20 Nov. 1799, ag. 48 ; Mary his wife, 7 Jan. 
1796, ag. 50. 

Anne Ind, 11 Dec. 1807, ag. 78 ; Edw. Ind, aid. 7 March, 
1808, set. 57. 

Cha. Claydon, 17 Oct. 1809, ag. 51 ; Hannah his wife, 17 
Sept. 1796, ag. 36. 

Job. Ingle, 27 Dec. 1809, set. 48 ; Susannah, his wife, 4 
March, 1836, aet. 76. 

This tablet is erected to the memory of the Kev. Henry 
Martyn, B.D., Fellow of St. John's College and two years 
Curate of this Parish. He gained by his talents the highest 
Academical honours; but counting all loss for Christ, he left 
his native country, and went into the East, as a Chaplain of 
the Hon. East India Company. There, having faithfully done 
the work of an Evangelist, in preaching the Gospel of a Cruci- 
fied Redeemer, in translating the Holy Scriptures into the 
Oriental Languages, and in defending the Christian Faith in 
the heart of Persia against the united talents of the most learned 
Mahometans, he died at Tokat on the 16th of October, 1812, 
in the 31st year of his age. The chief monuments which he 
left of his piety and talents are Translations of the New Testa- 
ment into the Hindoostanee and Persian Languages; and by 
these he, being dead, yet speaketh. Pray ye the Lord of the 
harvest, that he will send forth labourers into His harvest. 



378 HOLY TEINITY. 

Cha. Wagstaff, 15 Jan. 1818, aet. 53; Elizab. his wife, 15 
Sept. 1821, ag. 48. 

Sacred to the memory of the Eev. T. T. Thomason, M.A. 
who in 1797 was elected from Magdalen College to be Fellow 
and Tutor of Queens' College. He was nearly 12 years Curate 
of this Parish. Knowing nothing either in his ministrations or 
for the salvation of his own soul, but Jesus Christ and Him 
Crucified. In 1808 he accepted an appointment as Chaplain 
to the Hon. E. I. Co. with a special designation to the Mission 
Church in Calcutta. There he laboured with great success 
during the space of 18 years, at which time he was constrained 
to return home for the benefit of his beloved wife, who died 
on the voyage. After two years residence in Britain, he re- 
signed his pension and the Church of the Holy Trinity in 
Cheltenham, not enduring to stay in his own country, whilst his 
Translation of the Old Testament into Hindoostanee remained 
unfinished. He therefore returned to his station in Calcutta 
where alone he could have the assistance of learned natives, but 
during the voyage he became so ill, that he was constrained to 
leave Calcutta, and to seek relief in a more genial climate. He 
however only lived to reach the Mauritius where he died on 22nd 
of June 1829, aged 55. In Oriental Languages he had few equals. 
In labours scarcely any man ever exceeded him. In heavenly- 
mindedness and sanctity of life he was what every Christian 
Minister should be, a living example of that comprehensive 
precept " Give thyself wholly to these things." This tablet was 
erected by his affectionate mother E. Dornford. 

Esther, relict of Joseph Dornford, esq. of Deptford road, 
Kent, 13 Jan. 1835, a3t. 82. 

In memory of the rev. Cha. Simeon, M.A. sen. fell, of King's 
coll. and 54 years vicar of this parish who, whether as the 
ground of his own hopes or as the subject of all his ministrations, 
determined to know nothing but Jesus Christ and him crucified 
(1 Cor. ii. 2), b. 24 Sept. 1759, d. 13 Nov. 1836. Erected by 
the congregation. 

Mary Ann, wife of rev. Fred. Hose, M.A. curate, 4 March, 
1841, ag. 36. 

Elizab. relict of rev. Geo. Paddon, M.A. 22 Dec. 1843, ag. 
83. Erected by daughters Elizab. Hills and Jane Purchas. 



HOLY TRINITY. 379 

Hannah, wid. of Rob. Potts, 7 Feb. 1845, ag. 70. 

Will. Jardine Purchas, capt. K.N. 2 Jul. 1848, set. 59 ;( fl ) 
Will. Jardine Purchas, his son, 11 April, 1830, set. 7. 

Anna Horlick Potts<*> wife of Robt. Potts, M.A. of Trin. coll. 
b. 18 April, 1812, d. 11 Oct. 1852. 

In the old churchyard. 

*Joseph Purchas, 1721, ag. 48. 

Cha. Cotton Risley, stud. S. Joh. coll. 2nd son of rev. Joh. 
Risley and Sarah Anne his wife, of Tingewicke, Bucks, 5 Jan. 
1822, ag. 22. 

Will. Metcalfe, printer, 12 Nov. 1824, set. 54; Julia his wife, 
5 Feb. 1845, ag. 73. 

Joh. Ingle, 18 Nov. 1833, aet. 46; Joseph, 2nd son, 9 Jan. 1839, 
ag. 17 ; Mary Ann his wife, 16 Sept. 1863, ag. 70. 

Adam Fitch, 14 Aug. 1840, aet. 63; Theodora his wid. 21 
March, 1865, ag. 67. 

In the new churchyard. 

Ja. Cameron, of Wombwell's Menagerie, No. 2, killed by the 
beasts, 26 May, 1852, ag. 24. 

Isaac Moule, 35 years town crier, 18 Feb. 1854, ag. 77. 

Joh. Page, 4 Feb. 1855, ag. 62. 

Justinian Adcock [solicitor], 10 Feb. 1856, ag. 40. 

Cha. Claydon, 16 Jan. 1860, ag. 71. 

Jannette, 4 dau. of late Tho. Orton, esq. of March, b. 26 March, 
1809, d. 31 Jan. 1862. 

Ja. Martin, 14 May, 1862, ag. 62. 

Hen. Wallis, 15 Aug. 1863, ag. 63. 

Geoffrey de Repham burgess and apothecary, in 
1363 gave by will to his executors four shops and 

(a) Capt. Purchas before he entered the navy was of Christ's coll. He 
was mayor 1828 and 1832. There is a memoir of him in Gent. Mag. 
N. S. xxx. 205. 

(b) Author of a volume of poems. 



380 HOLY TKINITY. 

a garden in Walls' lane, (a) charged with finding in 
this church yearly for ever, a paschale, two pro- 
cessional copes and two torches ; William Edwards, 
Doctor of Decrees, vicar, by will, dated 3 Jan. 1478-9, 
bequeathed a silver pix, and made provision for 
celebration of divine offices for his soul ; Agues Cope, 
widow, by will, in 1494, directed services for her 
soul for twenty years in this church, and gave 20 
marks to the south aisle if the parishioners went 
on with the work ; Emma, wife of Robert Bolton, 
and widow of Thomas Kent, and widow and exe- 
cutrix of John Adams, by will, in 1503, charged a 
messuage, in Cordiners row, (6) with the maintenance 
of a yearly dirge and mass for the soul of the said 
John Adams; Thomas Rede, M.D. by will, dated 
16 Aug. 1504, bequeathed money to the high altar 
and to certain of the gilds in this church, and 
directed a priest to celebrate here for the souls of 
himself, his parents and benefactors, for the term of 
five years ; Hugh Chapman, alderman, by will, in 
1520, gave 10 towards making the south aisle, and 
directed his obiit to be kept in this church for 

(a) There were two adjacent lanes so called: Little Walls lane (now 
Sussex street) and Great Walls lane (now King street). They were so 
called from abutting on the walls of the friary of S. Francis (now Sidney 
college). In the above instance Great Walls lane is no doubt intended. 

There is reason to belive that the above mentioned property is iden- 
tical with the estate now belonging to the parish. By a decree of chancery 
made in 1833 this estate and another in Market street were settled 
in trust to raise 1000 for the repair of the church and subject to the 
payment of such sum and interest, the rents and profits to be applied 
in the repair of the church, the payment of the organist's salary, in pro- 
viding sacramental bread and wine, and generally in discharge of ex- 
pences which had then lately been paid out of the church rate, the balance, 
if any, to be paid to the overseers of the poor. 

(b) Also called Shoemaker's row, now Market street. 



HOLY TRINITY. 381 

twenty years ; Christopher Francke, alderman, by 
will, in 1558, gave to the corporation booths in 
Sturbridge fair, for the annual obiit of himself and 
John Goodwin, sometime one of the bailiffs of the 
town; Thomas Peacock, B.D.. sometime president of 
Queens' college, in 1563, granted 20s. a year out 
of the inn called the Crane, (o) in Shoemaker's row ; 
John Waley, burgess, by will, in 1569, gave 20s. 
to the poor, and 6s. Sd. for a sermon yearly ; Richard 
Killingworth, yeoman, in 1579, erected three alms- 
houses on a piece of land in this parish, formerly 
called Doll's close, and now Maids' causeway (6) ; 
Thomas Ellys, pikemonger, in 1593 gave 6s. Sd. a 
year to the poor; Thomas Emons of Barnwell, gave 
10s. a year to the poor, issuing out of a tenement 
called Cotton hall in Barnwell; Henry Wray, by 
will, in 1628, established eight almshouses for the 
benefit of this parish (e] ; John Austen, by will, in 
1645, gave 5 a year payable out of Paradise close in 

(a) The Crane was devised by the before mentioned Thomas Rede, M.D. 
in 1504 to Agnes his wife, who in 1521 paid the corporation 4d. per annum 
for a common lane from the Market throughout the tenement called the 
Crane. 

The Crane was used as an inn till 1863. 

(b) Killingworth had a lease from the corporation for 99 years, at the 
yearly rent of I2d. on 4 Aug. 1579. Under the lease the right of putting in 
one of the poor persons was after Killing worth's death to be enjoyed by the 
mayor and aldermen, and of another by the twenty-four or common council. 
It does not appear that these rights were ever exercised. The almshouses 
were subsequently in the hands of the officers of this parish, to whom 21 
year's leases were granted by the corporation 16 Aug. 1654; 29 Sept. 1672; 
16 Aug. 1703; 7 Jan. 1723-4; 25 April, 1732; 26 Feb. 1739-40; 29 May, 
1747; 26 Aug. 1754; 11 Jan. 1763; 24 Aug. 1771. In 1723 the almshouses 
had been taken down and the rent of the site was raised from I2d. to Is. 6d. 

It was at one time intended that Downing college should have been 
erected on Dolls close. 

(c) Seep. 172. 



382 HOLY TRINITY. 

Grantchester, for a distribution to the poor on S. 
Thomas's day ; John Dixon, in 1696, gave 20 for 
coals and bread for the poor ; four maidens of this 
parish are entitled to places in the almshouses, 
founded under the will of Edward Story (o) ; William 
Mott, alderman, in 1762, settled 11 a year for two 
annual sermons in this church, (6) and for distribution 
to the poor of this and other parishes ; James Bur- 
leigh, alderman, in 1800, gave an altar-piece; Eliza- 
beth Goodall, by will, dated 1809, gave money for 
apprenticing poor children of this parish (c) ; the rev. 
A. H. Rumboll, curate, (1857-62), gave the glass 
of three windows. 

Southward of the church was a house for legists, 
known as Trinity hostel. The manciple of this hostel 
is one of the persons mentioned as entitled to scholars 
privilege in the schedule, to the great composition 
between the university and town made in 1503. It 
is supposed that this hostel ceased to be used for 
academical purposes about 1540. 

At the back of the southern side of Green street 
and in this parish was a chapel, originally occupied 
by a society of independents, who were succeeded 
by the Wesleyan methodists, who in 1850, removed 
to a spacious chapel in Hobson street, also in this 
parish. 

(a) Seep. 176. 

(6) Aid. Mott who was a wealthy attorney used to attend these sermons 
during his life. The first sermon was preached by John Sharp, B.D. fellow 
of Corpus Christi coll., from this text : " And, behold a certain lawyer stood 
up, and tempted him saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal 
life ?" (Luke x. 25). 

(c) See p. 186. 



HOLY TEINITY. 383 

The celebrated prelate Jeremy Taylor, bishop 
of Down, Connor and Dromore, was born in this 
parish, (a) and baptised 15 Aug. 1613. His father 
Nathaniel Taylor, a barber, married at this church 
Mary Drage, 13 Oct. 1605. He was churchwarden 
of this parish in 1621, and was buried here 30 Sept. 
1630. Mary, his widow, was also buried here 
18 Dec. 1631. 

(a) See p. 218. The situation of the house in which he was born has 
not been ascertained. 



END OF VOL. III. 



CORRECTIONS. 

p. 138, line 17, for 1850, Henry Staples Foster, esq., read 1849, Henry Staples 

Foster, esq. ; 1850, William Warren, esq. 
line 23, add 1862, Henry Smith, esq. ; 1863, Henry Hemington Harris, esq. ; 

1864, 1865, Swann Hurrell, esq. 
p. 324, line 25, for 1814, read 1817. 

line 34, for Edw. Job. Aug. read Colonel Job. Octavius, and jor 1850, 

read 1855. 
line 35, for 1850, read 1858. 



W. Metcalfe, Printer, Green Street, Cambridge.