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Full text of "Memories of the crusade : a thrilling account of the great uprising of the women of Ohio in 1873, against the liquor crime"

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02510 6524 

,^Gc 977. 1 St49m 

Stewart, Eliza Daniel-, J816- 
1908. 

Memories of the crusad 



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Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/memoriesofcrusadOOinstew 






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MEMORIES 
OF THE_- ^-^nSADK 

A 

Thrilling Account 



Great Uprising of the Women of Ohio in 

1873, AGAINST the LiQUOR CrIME. 



Mother Stewart. _ 

THE LEADER. 



^^ Peace hath her victories 
No less renowned than rear." 
— Milton. 



— fp^.OC, 

(SECOND EDITION.) ^^ ^ tYX 



COLUMBUS, OHIO: 

WIXXIAM G. HrBBABD 4 CO. 

18B9. 



Allen County Public Library 
900 Webster Street 

Fort Waynl^N 46801^ 



1230997 

V To MY EVER DEAR SISTERS OF THE CrUSADE WHO 

^ still remain in the field, and to the memory 
e of those who have received their discharge 
^ and gone home, are these memories of the 
\] Crusade lovingly dedicated by 

THE AUTHOR. 



Entered accordiug to Act of Congress iu the year 1888, 

By MISS MATTIE CAMPBELL, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



Contents. 



Chapter I. 

First Steps in the Temperance Work. — Modest 
Beginnings. — Notes of the War.— The Ever 
Present Saloon. — Influence on the Students of 
the University. — An Appeal to Ministers and 
Professors. — Resolution carried into Ministe- 
rial Meeting 17 

Chapter II. 

War Closed. — Disastrous Effects of the Drink 
upon Soldiers. — My first Work in the Temper- 
ance Cause in Springfield, Address at Allen's 
Hall. — Visiting the Court-room, Address the 
Jury and Win the Case. — Appeals for Help 
from Drunkards' Wives. — Received first Bap- 
tism in my Peculiar Field of Labor. — Second 
Case in Court. — Letter from a Drunkards' 
Wife. — A Drunkards' Reply 27 

Chapter III. 

In Court, Presence of Ladies, Exciting and 
Affecting Scenes. — Verdict of Jury for Plain- 
tiff. — Case Appealed 53 

Chapter IV. 

Committee of J^adies Visit Council with Peti- 
tions. — First Mass-meeting at Lutheran Church. 
— Call to Osborn, Organization of the First 
Woman's Union. — Visit a Saloon on the Sab- 
bath. — Second Mass-meeting. — Crusade opens 
in Fredonia and Jamestown, N. Y. — God's 
Answer to the Scoffing Philistine 60 

Chapter V. 

The Uprising at Hillsboro and Washington C. 
H. — Scenes and Events as Narrated by the 
Press 92 



6 contents. 

Chapter VL 

Progress of Work in Springfield. — Fermented 
Wine. — Springfield Organization. — Presenta- 
tion of Plan of Work. — Pledge Presented in 
Church and Sunday-school. — A Strong De- 
mand that Men Shall Vote for only such as 
will Enforce the Laws 105 

Chapter VII. 

Glad News Pouring in. — Uncertainty of its Suc- 
cess in Large Places. — Discouraging Advice. 
— First Visit to a Saloon-keeper. — Visit from 
Reporter of Cincinnati Commercial. — Letting 
out of Troubled Waters. — Views of Mr. Brown, 
Cincinnati Gazette Reporter, on the Springfield 
Situation, — Further Report of Hillsboro 119 

Chapter VIII. 

Further Reports of Washington C. H. — Wilming- 
ton takes up the Work. — New Vienna. — 
Waynesville. — Franklin 140 

Chapter IX. 

Organizing a Band and Moving out. — Visiting 
the Lagonda House, Addressing the Throng 
on the Street. — Report and Sketches by J. R. 
Chapin, of Frank Leslie^ s. — Mass-meeting. — 
Reports of the Crusade. — Scene at Spangs. 
— Incident. — Arrival of Dr. Lewis and Van 
Pelt 160 

Chapter X. 

Second Visit to Osborn, Leading out the Band. 
—Spread of the Work 186 

Chapter XI. 

Morrow. — Trial of the Crusaders. — Greenfield. — 
Xenia. — First Surrender and Exciting Scenes. 
— South Charleston. — London. — Alliens 205 



CONTENTS. J 

Chapter XII. 

Enlisting the Children. — Marysville. — Columbus 
Convention, Resolutions and Plan of Work. — 
Sprinkle of Politics 226 

Chapter XIII. 

Moving into New Headquarters. — Liquor Men's 
Petition to Council. — WestviUe Organized. — 
Middletown. — Bellefontaine. — Kenton ; Chil- 
dren's Meeting. — Sidney. — Marion. — Ash- 
land. — Letter from the Sick-room. — Letter 
from the Penitentiary 246 

Chapter XIV. 

Chillicothe. — Visit to Emmet House. — Liquor 
Men's Meeting. — McArthur. — Marietta. — 
Children's Home. — Women on Picket Duty. 
— Gallipolis 270 

Chapter XV, 

Working Men's Mass-meeting. — -Called to a 
Serious Experience. — Somerset. — Story of 
Major B. — Clark County Organization. — Ex- 
citing Election, — Called to Pomeroy. — Mid- 
dleport. — Ironton. — Dayton.- Story of the 
White Hyacinth 293 

Chapter XVI. 

Constitutional Convention at Cincinnati. — Call 
to Bucyrus. — Visit the Convention. — Pitts- 
burgh. — Fairmont, W. Va. — Return to Pitts- 
burgh. — A Thousand Women on the Street — 
Crusaders Watching the Legislators, — Smug- 
gling Liquor. — Crusading a Beer Wagon 315 

Chapter XVII. 

Mt. Vernon. — Troy. — Eaton. — Delaware. — 
Cedarville. — Incident at Newark, Prophecy. 
Urbana. — Lagonda House. — Bucyrus; Second 
Visit. — Outrages upon the Crusaders. — White- 
ley's Speech 334 



5 CONTENTS, 

Chapter XVIII. 

Cleveland, Another Sore Trial. — Cincinnati Cru- 
saders Arrested. — Pittsburgh Crusaders Im- 
prisoned ; Riot Averted. — Chicago Mob. — 
Portland, Oregon. — Cleveland Mob. — Cali- 
fornia Outrages. — Political Aspects of the 
War 361 

Chapter XIX. 

First State Convention at Springfield. — Work in 
the State. — Defeat of License. — At Perrys- 
burg. — Tiffin. — Franklin. — London 387 

Chapter XX. 

Meeting of Committee at Delaware. — Mixing up 
in Politics. — Call to Chicago. — Reports of 
Meetings. — Big Rapids, Michigan. — Jackson, 
Michigan.— First National W. C. T. U.— 
Appeal and Plan of Work. — Benefits of the 
Crusade. — Reports of the First Six Months 
Work in Springfield. — Enumeration of Benefits 
of the Crusade 407 

Chapter XXI. 

Tales of the War. — Incidents and Anecdotes, 
Amusing and Pathetic 438 

Chapter XXII. 

Work in Virginia. — Waterford. — Lincoln. — 
Hamilton. — Leesburg. — Blue Ribbon Move- 
ment. — Col. Realf — Franklin, Ind. — Louis- 
ville. — Chattanooga, Tenn 484 

Chapter XXIII. 

Atlanta, Ga. — Cold Water Templars. — First 
Public Meeting in Dr. Height's Church, 
Organize First Union. — Dr. Norcross' Church. 
— First Colored LTnion at Storrs' Institute. — 
Griffith. — Macon. — Forsytiv — Chattanooga. — 
Reports from Members of Committee. — Bloody 
Copiah. — Retrospection and Summing up 510 



PUBLISHERS' STATEMEKT 



In presenting this book to the pubUc, the publishers 
desire to say: — 

ist. As to its merit : It is thriUingly interesting in 
its matter, and deeply instructive in its lessons. Its 
style is easy and natural — good English, enriched by 
vigorous Anglo-Saxon. It contains some imperfec- 
tions — the perfect book has not yet been published. 
But the manner and matter of this book are such as 
to make it worthy of a place in every public or 
private library. 

2nd. As to the subject "The Crusade:" There has 
perhaps not occurred during the present century, if 
during any century since the first of the Christian 
era, any movement that has been more wonderful 
in its phenomena and its operations, and extensive 
in its general results, than the ' ' Woman's Temperance 
Crusade." It was the cradle of new views of Home 
and its relations to Government, and a thousand 
statutes have been modified, or repealed, or made 
new, as the result of the influences started in the 
Crusade. Millions of people have changed their 
views on the position of woman. The Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union has been organized, 
with 200,000 members and more than thirty depart- 
ments of work for women. Hundreds of avenues 
for the employment of women have been opened, 
largely as the result of discussions vrhich grew out of 
the Crusade. So that in stores and business estab- 
lishments alone, we presume there are a million 
places occupied by women and girls now that were 
occupied by men before the Crusade. We can only 
hint at the results of the Crusade in this statement. 
To write a complete history of such a warfare in 
all its ramifications cannot be done. Many have 
attempted to "write up the Crusade." Some have 
done it poorly and some well, but we claim that for 



lO PUBLISHERS STATEMENT. 

two reasons — viz.: her extensive personal experience 
in the work and knowledge of the subject, and her 
ability to present the facts, no one is better fitted to 
write a good account of the " Crusade" than Mother 
Stewart. It is sufficient to add, v/e think, she has 
done her work well. 

3d. The "Leader." Why do we call Mother 
Stewart the "Leader?" There were many leaders — 
every town had its leader — and there were those 
who went from town to town to speak and pray and 
organize and lead the women. Yes, we admit it ; 
God quickly made Captains and Colonels and Com- 
manders out of timid women, who had never known 
their powers till God called them out. But in Ohio 
there was an old pioneer school teacher, with great 
faith, large brain and invincible purpose and wonder- 
ful endurance, who was already in the field and 
had been for years, doing what she could, who 
by natural endowments and divine call took her 
place as a Deborah to lead the hosts. And while 
other leaders visited a few towns and did a good 
work^ our author dashed along the lines of forces 
through Ohio from the lake to the river, and from 
the East to the West, everywhere, Sheridan-like, 
inspiring the forces by "her presence, and firing the 
multitude with her speeches. When the liquor men 
telegraphed from Pittsburgh through the Associated 
Press to all the papers: "The Crusade is dead" — 
quickly a fast train took Mother Stewart from Ohio 
more rapidly than Sheridan's black horse bore him 
to meet his defeated troops ; and quicker than Sheri- 
dan's troops rallied to victory, did the praying 
women of Pittsburgh and Allegheny follow Mother 
Stewart down the street to the public park, and 
while she addressed them the wires flashed the 
message to all the dailies : "A thousand women are 
on the march with Mother Stewart." Her silvery 
hair and clarion voice stirred the multitudes in other 
States and in Scotland and England. Hence the 
public press called her "the leader." Frances E. 
Willard called her "the leader." Hence w^ called 
her the leader because she was the leader. 

4th. Our duty. The temperance people owe a 
debt of gratitude to all the old leaders that have 



PUBLISHERS STATLMENT. I I 

Stood the exposure and abuse that comes to those 
who do the pioneer work. Very few of the temper- 
ance workers ever got adequate pay for their services. 
Mother Stewart was among the poorly compensated 
and was a hberal giver. Now she is the old soldier, 
broken down in the long struggle. The government 
pensions its veterans. No hero of bloody carnage 
ever so well deserved a pension or a monument, as 
she who has stood in the van, and by her ability, 
her intelligence, courage and life, helped to remove 
the enemies of home and of women. Mother 
Stewart has been a prohibitionist from the start, and 
has suffered much for the cause. At one time, when 
Mother Stewart had every power of body and mind 
and heart absorbed in this mighty struggle with the 
enemy of our homes, financial disaster was added to 
the already over-burdened soul. One with less courage 
and faith than she would have forsaken the public 
duty and attended to personal interests. But she 
heeded it not. Even the venomous tongue of slan- 
der assailed her, but, while it almost crushed her 
tender, sensitive heart, she hid her great agony from 
the world and hasted on, crying piteously to her 
Savior to shield her while she continued the tem- 
perance battle, saying but little in defense of self and 
much in defense of Temperance, but little in defense 
of her home, and everything in defense of your home 
and mine. A more self-sacrificing heroism the world 
seldom sees. 

Reader, you and I owe to Mother Stewart a debt 
of gratitude. This generation owes Mother Stewart 
more than it can pay. The next generation will 
hardly be able to pay the debt they will owe for the 
vantage ground held by them because of the battles 
fought by Mother Stewart and her compeers. Will 
temperance people show their gratitude by purchas- 
ing her book ? The profits go to her, and it is hoped 
the sales will support her declining years. Let all 
who feel an interest in the matter send for an agency 
for it, to i\Iother Stewart, Springfield, Ohio, or to 

The Publishers. 



SKETCH OF MOTHER STEWART, 

By the Editor of the Daily Republic of Springfield^ 0:^ 




W' 

J OTHER STEWART is a remarkable woman 
^ and she has had a remarkable career. She 
is one of those individuals who seem to have 
been born to meet the demands of special emergen- 
cies. Mother Stewart was possessed of qualities 
which enabled her to become eminent in two great 
public crises — first, during the war, when she became 
prominent in her earnest and very effective work in 
the line of relieving the needs of Union soldiers in 
hospital and in the field. She was a mother, indeed, 
to thousands of soldiers, who gave her the title which 
she has honorably borne ever since. It was, how- 
ever, in the great and spontaneous uprising and 
crying appeals against the wrongs and hurt inflicted 
by the liquor saloons, which moral revolt was known 
as "the Crusade," that Mother Stewart performed a 
work which gave her a personal fame on both conti- 
nents. She was one of the first of the world's 
women to raise the banner of revolt, and so great 
was her zeal, and so robust and boundless her 
courage, that she accompanied her prayers and her 
marchings upon the streets with an attack — with the 
gospel in one hand and the law in the other — upon 
the saloon-keepers themselves. 

Mother Stewart, with her keen, flashing eyes, and 
her glistening white hair, was always a striking figure 
on the platform, and her clear, ringing tones reached 
the remotest person in her immense audiences. She 

• Knowing that there were few persons who knew Mother Stewart 
better than the proprietor of the Springfield Republic, we suggested to 
him the jiropriety of hla giv-ing us a little dketi'h of her. He cordially 
responded with this strikiug and worthy trilnite.— Publisheks. 



SKETCH OF MOTHER STEWART. 1 3 

had the capacity to so put the enormity of the Hquor 
traffic and the harm and suffering it causes, before 
audiences as to fire the hearts of the people. The 
writer had the honor to call Mother Stewart a 
" Wendell Phillips in Petticoats," and the phrase 
followed her around the world, for Mother Stewart 
was called from America to Europe, and aroused 
public sentiment in various parts of England, Scot- 
land and Ireland. While on a tour in Europe — 
which I made afterv/ards — I found her well spoken 
of by leading philanthropists and reformers, as a 
woman who had increased popular sentiment in 
behalf of the great cause of total abstinence. For 
whatever partisan political sentiments my honored 
friend utters, she alone is responsible. I did my 
best to keep her in the Republican ranks ! 

Mother Stewart is a Western woman, of Revolu- 
tionary stock. Colonel Guthery, one of the old 
Revolutionary heroes, and among the earliest settlers 
of the Northwest Territory, and founder of Piketon, 
Ohio, was her grandfather. She was early left an 
orphan and is emphatically a self-made woman as the 
term goes, but more truthfully, as I have intimated in 
the foregoing, a woman endowed for a special work. 
In the very adverse circumstances of those early days, 
she acquired a good education, and a good part of it 
was acquired at home by the blazing wood fire, en- 
livened by frequent application of the " shell bark " 
or "pine knot," and as advantages improved, by the 
"tallow dip." She acquired quite a reputation as 
one of the first educators of early times. It was said 
to be enough for her students applying for a county 
certificate, to bring an indorsement from Mrs. Stewart, 
to secure success. From her maternal ancestry she 
inherited her fearlessness and hatred of wrong, and 
from her father, who was a Southern gentleman, 
in the sense used sixty and seventy years ago, she 
inherited her high sense of honor. From both parents 
she obtained a mixture of Scotch-Irish that gives her 
the sturdy traits of the one and the humor of the 
other. 

Clifton M. Nichols. 

Springfield, 0., April 20, 1 888. 



Preface, 



m 




T WAS to me a very pleasant coincidence that, 
on my sixty-fifth birthday, April 25th, iSSi, 
I received a very kind note from Mr. C. M. 
Nichols, editor of the Springfield (0.) Republic, say- 
ing that in the issue of that day he would ask me 
editorially, in behalf of the public, to write my 
biography, mentioning my work during the war, the 
Crusade, and my work in Great Britain. In his 
editorial he said : 

" In behalf of our citizens we hereby ask our dis- 
tinguished townswoman, Mother Stewart, that she 
give to the public her autobiography, with a full 
history of her career during the war ; of the birth, 
progress and culmination of the Crusade, with an 
accurate and detailed account of the part she took 
in it ; and a detailed history of her reception and 
work in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of her 
work after her return to this country. 

" Mrs. Stewart should undertake this work now, 
while she is in full possession of all her faculties, and 
is able to do the matter full justice. 

" It should be made into a book of good size, 
should be illustrated and then sold by subscription. 

' ' We have no doubt a list of people who would 
want the book could be made up in a short time, 
in this city and in the State, sufficiently large to 
justify its publication. The work could be written, 
illustrated, printed, bound and put on the market in 
this city, and go forth as a Springfield book. 

" Mrs. Stewart has done good service in the Total 
Abstinence cause on both continents, and a record of 
her work should be made uj) and preserved." 



PREFACE. 1 5 

I felt very grateful to Mr. Nichols and the citizens 
on whose behalf he made the request, and fully in- 
tended to respond by preparing such an account as 
he indicated. I felt especially flattered at the sug- 
gestion that it be made a " Springfield book." Noth- 
ing could have given me greater pleasure. It was 
with this thought, when I did begin the work, that I 
gave more space and a more minute account of the 
temperance work in my own city than I otherwise 
might have done ; and more than may seem necessary 
or just to the general reader. 

But besides this, we of Springfield do claim priority 
in the great woman's temperance uprising, though 
not originally in the form recommended by Dio 
Lewis. Our work had opened with sufficient sensa- 
tion and enthusiasm to attract the public attention 
and that of the press over the country ; and Dio 
Lewis, always eager for an opening to present his 
theory of dealing with the saloon, said, when on his 
way to Ohio, that he was going to learn what we of 
Springfield were doing. 

Some two years later, Prof. D. W. DeLay, now of 
Kansas, made a similar request, backed by many 
others, as he said, very generously offering to take 
charge of the publishing, and relieve me of any care 
or solicitude in the matter. 

There has also been a general wish expressed by 
the temperance friends that I would write the story 
of the Crusade, knowing my position in it would 
enable me to give it from personal observation and 
participation. 

But the calls for help in the field continued to 
come, and the need seemed so great that I could not 
see my way clearly as yet to entirely abandon the 



1 6 PREFACE. 

field. The time came, however, that failing strength 
admonished me that my day for active work was 
well-nigh past; and then I discovered, too, that I 
had made a mistake in not heeding Mr, Nichols' sug- 
gestion to undertake and prosecute the work while 
in full possession of all my faculties. The overstrain 
of years of hard work had been a severe tax on the 
nerves, and the mind was growing weary. The task 
has consequently been one of a good deal of labor; 
and the result comes far short of the standard in liter- 
ary merit that I could wish, and that I am vain enough 
to believe I could have more nearly attained, if I had 
not delayed so long. The delay also so changed the 
circumstances as to make it impossible to carry out 
the original plan of publication. 

Then, when I entered upon my experience in the 
Crusade, spite of my effort to keep it in reasonable 
limits, omitting so much that I desired to give (the 
fact is, of that wonderful story " the half can never 
be told "), I was obliged to leave all other matter for 
a future day. If this volume, which I submit to my 
friends with a great deal of modesty, shall find favor 
in their eyes, I shall feel encouraged to follow it with 
"The Crusader in Great Britain." 



^^t 




CHAPTER I. 




First Steps in the Temperance Work. 

CANNOT remember when I was not an 
abstainer. Having in my young girlhood 
made a profession of reHgion, and united 
with a church that by its DiscipHne forbade the 
use of all intoxicants, and living in a community 
where the use was a rare exception, I had neither 
inclination nor temptation for their use. In my 
own home we have never used or kept them, ex- 
cept in the camphor bottle, and when this was to 
be filled, my husband would take the bottle to the 
druggist and have the gum put in with the alco- 
hol, to avoid the appearance of evil in carrying 
a bottle of unmedicated liquor home. 

We have long since learned that even the bottle 
of camphor is not an absolute necessity in a well 
regulated household, or at least that it is called 
into requisition scarcely once in a twelve-month. 
But, in whatever direction my mind and heart 
were turned in Christian work, I found the liquor 
question continually thrusting itself forward as a 
serious and continual hindrance in all Christian 
effort. The results of the traffic were everywhere 
apparent and the evil was rapidly growing. 

(2) 17 



1 8 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

In our pleasant little town, nestled down in a 
curve of the Hocking river, and surrounded by 
a low range of hills, was located the Ohio State 
University, the oldest of our many educational 
institutions in the State. It had, in bygone 
years, had a fine patronage, and had sent forth 
many a young Samson and David to valiant 
servdce in the world's great battle-fields, and we 
were still proclaiming the merits and advantages 
of the O. U. , inviting parents to bring their sons 
to our University. " Place healthful." "Com- 
munity intelligent, moral, temperate." "Moral 
and spiritual welfare of your sons jealously guard- 
ed, " etc., etc. 

And the good, confiding parents did send their 
sons, not a few of them, and we manufactured 
them into drunkards ; or what was equivalent, we 
tolerated the liquor saloon among us, which did 
the work in a more finished style than we would 
have been likely to, and sent them back to the 
parents with the blighting appetite fastened upon 
them, entailing a lifelong battle, or an early con- 
quest of the remorseless foe. 

Why, I wonder, in the name of common 
sense, do not college and university towns see to 
it that liquor is kept out of their limits for self- 
ish interest, if for no more exalted reason ? Such 
towns generally receive their main support from 
the institution of learning. Why cannot the 
people see that whatever contributes to the pros- 
perity of the college, bringing students, must 
result in their own advantage, and that nothing 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 9 

can so commend an educational place to parents 
as a sober, temperate community, a Prohibition 
town ? Is it not liquor blindness that afflicts the 
people ? 

It was not supposed to be the duty of the 
Faculty, nor of the Trustees, nor the mer- 
chant, nor the doctor, certainly not the law- 
yer, nor even the minister, to raise a voice or to 
interfere with the liquor seller ; it might create 
enemies and injure popularity. 

We did, indeed, make some little show occa- 
sionally of stirring up the question, by way, 
possibly, of quieting a too vigilant conscience. 

I remember one such occasion, when some of 
the more thoughtful citizens called a meeting and 
discussed the subject in somewhat serious, if not 
practical fashion. But to the close observer it 
was noticeable (and an assurance that no prac- 
tical results could follow) that certain gentlemen 
made themselves very prominent, showing with 
much legal lore what was and what was not law, 
advising "moderation, " " not too hasty, " "not 
too rash," and when a resolution was offered 
looking like business, they always managed to 
negative or table it 

At length, however, a very nice petition was 
drawn up and circulated for signatures, addressed 
to the gentlemanly and considerate saloon-keep- 
ers, setting forth that the public sentiment was 
not in favor of their business, and would they not 
be so obliging as to give it up ? 

But upon its being presented to one of these 



20 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

gentlemen, he ran his eye carefully down the col- 
umn of names, then remarked in a rather puzzled 
manner, ** Well, yes, but how is this? many of 
these names are among my best customers." 
Another coolly replied, as he set his hat back at 
an independent angle, "You talk about public 
sentiment. I tell you I have public sentiment 
on my side. It is the almighty dollar that wins, 
and I am going to have it." 

Poor fellow ! he thought he was on the winning 
side, but he did not win the almighty dollar, 
though he did make drunkards of his boys, one 
of whom was miserably crushed on the railroad, 
while in his pocket was the bottle which he had 
learned to love in his father's saloon. 

But nothing came of our little temperance 
spasm ; the business went on and flourished, 
doing its part of the preparation of our own young 
men, as well as those of the University, for their 
final ruin. Somewhere about 1858, I think, we 
organized a Good Templar's Lodge, which, how- 
ever, did not continue long. And it was about 
this time that I gave my first temperance lecture 
to a Band of Hope, in Pomeroy. I had forgot- 
ten it till reminded of it some time since, by the 
Superintendent, Rev. S. Stivers. 

Then the dark pall of war overspread our land, 
and our brave men from hills and valleys, from 
city and hamlet, hastened to respond to their 
country's call. Everywhere recruits were coming 
in and being sent to the front, or to the drill camp, 
antl everywhere was the soul-destroying drink. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 21 

and the more heartless foe than those they were 
hastening to meet on southern fields, ready to 
deal it out, for the sake of getting the soldier's 
meagre pittance. Often the stars and stripes 
floated high over the man-traps, ostensibly to 
proclaim the keepers' patriotism, but in reality to 
advertise their business. 

In our town the commander, seeing the conse- 
quences of the too liberal patronage of these 
dens by his men, ordered a search and confisca- 
tion of any liquors found. The captain led his 
men through the town to a nest of Irish shanties 
on the outskirts, where they discovered an old 
woman with a little belivered liquor with a due 
admixture of burnt sugar, dead mice, etc., and 
poured it out. Of course the morals of the 
soldiers and the peace of the community 
demanded it. 

But returning and following up orders, they 
were much gratified to report that upon diligent 
search they found not a drop of intoxicating 
Hquors in these patriotic places. The business, 
always true to its precedents and traditions, by 
some means known to the trade, finding favor and 
immunity according to demand. 

Our brave boys marched away to fight the 
battles of their country, and many laid down 
their lives for the old flag on southern gory fields 
or in prison pen. And so these vigilant dealers 
had to turn again to citizens and college boys for 
patronage, and the destruction went on. Not 
only were reports of frequent excesses among 



22 MEMORIKS OF THE CRUSADE. 

the students rife, but of church members, and 
even officials as well, bringing reproach upon the 
cause of religion by their intemperate indulgence. 

I had by agitation, with voice and pen, tried to 
call the public attention to the subject, till it had 
come to be understood that Mrs. S. was a very 
proper person to look after this department of 
the public welfare. I remember on one occasion, 
being at tea at Prof. A. 's with Prof. B. and others. 
The subject of the growing evil was being dis- 
cussed, all declaring something ought to be done; 
the reputation of the University and the town was 
suffering. At length I said I would go home and 
draw up a paper for them to sign as Professors 
of the University. "All right," said Prof. B. 
" I will sign any paper you will prepare, but get 
Pres. H.'s name first." Prof. A. said, "Yes, I 
will sign any paper you may write, but get Dr. 
P. 's name (the Presbyterian minister) first," We 
will be very brave for the right if only some one 
else will take the responsibility and draw the fire. 
I have had a long experience with this kind of 
bravery, and I really believe I have been very 
patient with it. 

I hastened to draw up m}- paper for the profes- 
sors and ministers to sign, the purport of which 
was, that the increase of intemperance in the 
place demanded more earnest and fearless denun- 
ciation of the evil and warning against it from 
pulpit, platform and professor's chair, and that- 
they would henceforth preach more fearlessly 
and pointedl}' on the subject. I took my paper 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2$ 

and sought Pres. H., but he was out of town. 
I may say here, that when I did see him, he 
seemed really very glad that I had taken the 
matter in hand. "It is absolutely necessary 
that something should be done ; hope you will 
be able to accomplish something; you are the one 
to do it. But situated as I am, of course it 
would not do for me to take any extreme step." 
No power on earth or above the bottomless pit 
has such influence to terrorize and make cowards 
of men as the liquor power. Satan could not 
have fallen on a more potent instrument with 
which to thrall the world. Alcohol is king ! 

I must, I suppose, have been all these years 
in my legitimate line of duty, for it has been the 
decision uniformly, when a disagreeable thing 
was to be done, a risk to be taken, or sacrifice 
to be made, " Oh, you are the very one for the 
place," and if at any time I should drop a word 
about enemies, abuse, slander, misrepresenta- 
tions, ' ' Oh, " the answer was, ** you don't mind, '* 
"that don't hurt you," "you don't care for such 
things." Ah, the Lord and I have had many an 
awful time together over just this. But we will 
come to that subject further on. 

Failing to find Pres. H. I hurried away to the 
Presbyterian minister, but oh, how I was startled 
at my presumption and realized my insignificance 
as I entered his presence. Why, I was nothing 
but a woman, and I had had the temerity to ap- 
proach a minister with the seeming, at least, of 
dictating his duty to him, and as he scanned my 



24 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADE. 

paper, I could see that something of the same 
thought was in his own mind. I hastened to 
explain that I knew, of course, that he preached 
against intemperance as against all other sins, but 
it really seemed that the evil was increasing so 
fearfully that it was coming to demand more 
special attention. " Well, yes, he did certainly 
preach against all sin. He would keep my paper, 
and confer with BrotherF.," theMethodist minis- 
ter. That was fully as much as I had hoped for. 
That evening he called to return my paper and 
say he had not been able to see Brother F. But 
while he was in, Mr. F. came to the door and I 
invited him in, and till nine o'clock I labored 
with those good ministers, to induce them to say 
they would preach special sermons, or in some 
special manner handle the subject in their pulpits. 
I gave them case after case of church members 
who had been charged with drinking and who 
were bringing reproach on the cause oi' Christ. 
One, even, had been made a member of the offi- 
cial board of the church while on a regular spree. 
"Oh, they could not believe it; of course I had 
heard it, but then we could not believe all we 
heard." At length the Methodist minister sug- 
gested that they each preach a temperance ser- 
mon the next Sabbath, but the other could not 
see the necessity ; he had no one, he .said, in his 
congregation that he knew needed preaching to 
on the subject. Oh, I thought, what a confes- 
sion for a minister to make ! He would have 
known if his mind had been turned in that direc- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2$ 

tion, and certainly there were enough in the 
town that needed admonishing. It was not long 
till my good brethren discovered that it was not 
alia piece of excited imagination on my part, and 
that even while we talked the deadly curse was 
doing its work. Shall not the minister "watch 
as they that must give account " ? 

Some time after this, there was a District 
Meeting of the ministers of the Methodist Church 
in our town. Now, I thought, this would be a 
good time to bring the subject before this body 
of Reverends ; but how ? I v/as not a minister, 
not even a layman, but it ought to be done. 

After serious reflection, I wrote a very harm- 
less looking resolution, so I thought, carried it 
to the meeting, and, taking my seat behind one 
of the brethren who looked as though he might 
be relied on, (do not know who he was), dropped 
my resolution into his hat. He noticed my move- 
ment, and picking it up, read it and nodded 
approval. As I recollect, it amounted to about 
this : 

' ' Resolved, That in view of the fact that intem- 
perance is greatly on the increase among us, we 
will preach more frequently and pointedly than 
we have ever done before, and that we will handle 
the subject with ungloved hands." 

When opportunity offered, my friend read his 
resolution, very kindly concealing the fact that 
it emanated from a woman. It elicited a lively 
discussion. Brother B., known and noted for his 
staunch principles then and ever since, rolled 



26 MEMORIES 07 THE CRUSADE. 

back his sleeves and fought bravely for the reso- 
lution. He sought to point out to the brethren 
what fearful strides the evil v/as making, and how 
it was, everywhere, a snare to souls and a great 
hindrance to the success of their work of soul- 
saving. 

Rev. S. , the chairman, could not endorse that 
resolution, or give his sanction to anything of 
the kind ; he was a ' ' conservative m^an. " * ' The 
language of that resolution was too strong."' 
" Handle with ungloved hands, " savored of mob 
law, which he could not give countenance to. 
(I noticed a report recently of a Temperance 
convention where this same Rev. brother spoke, 
and was still on the conservative list. He " did 
not think he had ever been quite as radical as 
many others." I did not think he had either.) 

But the brethren disposed of my little fire- 
brand, by resolving that they would each preach 
one sermon to each of his several charges, in the 
year, on the Temperance question. 

This was during the war, a quarter of a century 
ago, and in comparison with what has been done 
in these later years, looks so insignificant that it 
would almost seem that an apology was due the 
reader for taking so much of his time ; " little 
drops of water," as compared to the great down- 
pouring torrents that have since flooded our land. 

But no one can understand after these years 
of effective labor, and when it has become the 
popular thing for woman to do, what even these 
timid efforts to awaken ministers and people cost 
a woman. 



CHAPTER II 




War Closed — Disastrous Effects of the Dnnk upon 
Soldiers, 



IaR — terrible war — who can ever recount 
the long list of evils that accompany and 
follow in its wake ? 1 he long four years' 
agony was past. The bloody strife was ended, 
and our boys came home — those of them who 
had not given their hves and shed their blood to 
wash the black stains of human slavery off the 
pages of their country's history. Not the least 
of the long list of evils accompanying army hfe 
is that of intemperance, and many of our soldiers 
returned with the appetite, acquired in the army, 
fastened upon them. And so the curse, more 
fearful than southern slavery, has ever since been 
steadily gaining upon us. 

The great influx of Europeans, with their habits 
of drink, their ignorance of what "liberty" 
means, their disregard for the laws and institu- 
tions of the land in which they have found 
homes, their unscrupulous eagerness for gain, 
their shrewdness in manipulating politicians, 
caucuses and elections, intimidating business 
men, bribing legislatures and courts of justice — 
these influences, with the indifference and timid- 
ity — may I say cowardice ? — of Christians, have 

27 



28 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

done their work, and to-day, notwithstanding all 
that has been done, we are in the hands of the 
enemy and at his mercy. If it had not been for 
the labors and trumpet voice of such men as 
Lyman Beecher, Father Hunt, Dr. Jewett, and a 
few others along the line, and the occasional 
waves of temperance reform that have from 
time to time been set in motion, we would in- 
deed now have been without hope. As it is, 
the ship is well-nigh stranded, and it will require 
a mightier struggle, more united effort than 
Christians have yet dreamed of, to bring her 
safely to port. 

In the year 1870, the law of 1854, known as 
the Adair law, or a section of it, was so amended 
as to give the wife or mother of the drunkard the 
right to bring suit in her own name against the 
saloon-keeper or liquor-seller, for damages for 
selling to husband or son. In Springfield, 
where was now our home, havdng moved from 
Athens here in 1866, we had our seasons of 
spasmodic agitation in a very mild form, not 
calculated to hurt anybody's business or feel- 
ings. 

In the winter ofi87i, a few meetings were 
held in Black's Opera House, with large attend- 
ance and considerable display of fireworks over 
" the great evil " But it was deemed advisable 
to deal very cautiously and prudently with the 
rum-seller. Moral suasion was recommended, 
but I believe no one was named, or offered to 
put the theory into practice. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 29 

I remember, we were about this time greatly 
terrorized by an organized gang of burglars, who 
nightly plied their business with little moles- 
tation till some citizens actually sought 
homes elsewhere in consequence. A reporter 
for the Cincinnati Commercial, reporting our 
temperance meetings and methods recommended, 
announced that when we got the liquor dealers 
all moralsuaded into decent, law-abiding men, we 
were going to try our hands on the burglars. 
But the burglars received the first attention, 
however. They were, with their bold fetes of 
robbery, making things so lively for us that a 
detective was at length employed. Some were 
caught, and a few sent to the penitentiary, and 
the burglar business was, for the time at least, 
effectually closed out. But the liquor business 
remains to this present. Why ? 

Anticipating the usual winter's spasm, and 
concluding I, as well as any one, might put the 
ball in motion, I prepared a lecture which I 
delivered on January 22, 1872, in Allen's Hall, 
to a large and intelligent audience. As far 
as I know, this was the first lecture on the sub- 
ject of temperance delivered by a lady in our 
city. Here I date my first important move- 
ment in my temperance warfare, though I 
had, as opportunity offered, lectured elsewhere 
on the subject. It may, indeed, because of 
results that grew out of it, be called my first step 
in the Crusade. And I find it necessary, in the 
interest of historic truth, to give a large share of 



30 MORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

credit to my warm friend and advisor in all the 
years of my labors and trials, C. M. Nichols, 
Editor of the Spnngfield Republic, as the origi- 
nator of the Crusade. He may, very probably, 
as well as many others, be quite surprised at this 
statement, but it is one of the small things 
that throughout all history have brought about 
results so far beyond what, at the time, could be 
foreseen from so apparently insignificant a cause. 
Mr. Nichols was at the meeting and from an ex- 
tended report in the Ripitblic of the next day, 
January 23d, I copy the following : 

"The Liquor Traffic, How to Fight it. Mrs. 
E. D. Stewart's address at Allen's Hall, on 
Monday evening, Jan. 22nd. The Law and the 
Gospel. Allen's Hall was well filled Monday 
evening on the occasion of an address on the 
Liquor Traffic by Mrs, E. D. Stewart. The 
speaker gave an expression of her feeling of un- 
fitness for so important a task as that assigned 
her, and then proceeded in an interesting and 
able address to show that she was fitted in an 
eminent degree for the performance of just such 
a work." 

I had on the day before put on — not my 
Sabbath attire — and while others were going to 
the house of worship, I was walking the streets 
to ascertain from my own observation the status 
in our cit}' on the Sabbath, while Christians 
were worshiping in the sanctuary, 

I am glad, in turning to the above report, to 
see the heading, "The Law and the Gospel, " 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 3 1 

as it is to me most valuable testimony of my 
attitude and views of the methods to meet the 
great crime of the age from the first. The law 
for the sinner, the Gospel for the penitent, 
whether dealer or drunkard. And this is my atti- 
tude to-day. I have, however, worked hard 
many times in directions that I knew were not 
the most effective, simply because people 
could not see the best way, and I felt that any 
work was better than nothing. Agitation, if it 
only saves from dead inaction and indifference, 
for still, as in the long ago, while good men sleep, 
the enemy is busy sowing tares. He never 
sleeps. 

At the close of my address, Mr. Nichols came 
to me and suggested that I ask the ladies of the 
audience to pledge themselves to hunt up the 
drunkards' wives and encourage them to prose- 
cute the rum-sellers under the Adair law, for 
selling to their husbands, and to stand by them 
in doing so. The ladies readily responded by 
a rising vote. But, while I knew that they then 
meant it, I felt quite sure that most of them would 
falter if a test should come. It was years ago, 
and before the Crusade and custom had made it 
comparatively easy to do such work. 

Those ladies would to-day cheerfully pledge 
themselves, and keep their pledge too. A 
wonderful growth has occurred through the edu- 
cation and courage received in the Crusade, as 
well as the spiritual baptism that came down 
upon the women. 



32 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Two days after our meeting, I called at the Re- 
public office, when Mr, Nichols exclaimed : "Oh, 
see here ! a case under the Adair law is being 
tried right now in Justice Miller's court. Get 
some of your ladies and go in." I had my mis- 
givings about getting the ladies, but did not say 
so. I knew better than a gentleman could, 
what the effect upon woman's mind had been 
of the all-time teaching that they must not 
seem to know anything about the saloon or 
men's drinking, it was not lady-like. 

I went at once and called on one lady, but she 
was "busy and could not go." So I went in 
alone and sat till the court adjourned for dinner. 
I could not help noticing that the good old justice, 
who was a Christian man, was gratified at my 
presence, as was also the prosecuting attorney, 
my young friend, G. C. Rawlins, and of course 
the defense was not. 

When the court adjourned, I hastened off to 
the eastern part of the city, where I felt quite 
sure I should find some ladies upon whom I 
could rely. But "they all," with one exception, 
began "to make excuses." The exception was 
Mrs. S. M. Foos, a lady whose heart always 
goes out to the sorrowing, the needy, and the 
friendless, Where a friend is needed, there is 
she, walking in the footsteps of the lowly One. 
And though wealth, brilliant 'talents, social posi- 
tion, all give her open sesame into the most 
fashionable circles, she chooses to walk in the 
path the Master hath trod, giving her life to good 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 33 

works and alms deeds. Yes, she would come 
as soon as she could dispose of some home 
duties. Upon my return to the court room, the 
attorney for the prosecution asked me if I would 
not make the opening plea to the jury. I 
answered that I could not think of such a thing. 
He insisted that I could do it. I protested that 
the thing was impossible. But he, intent upon 
winning his case, this being the first and a test 
case under the Adair law in our city, was dis- 
posed to avail himself of all the means he could 
bring to bear, and still urged me to it. I began 
to think right fast, and asked if he thought I could 
do any good by it, adding that I came in to 
give encouragement to the court, himself and 
that poor woman. " Yes, " he responded, "I 
know you can." Then, I said, I will think of it. 
" Very well," he replied, "if you decide to doit,, 
let me know, and I will show you the law ta 
read to the jury. " Taking my paper and pencil,, 
I took notes of the testimony as the case pro- 
ceeded. And I do know the Lord helped 
me, for new as was the work, and strange and 
novel my situation and surroundings, and weak 
the testimony, I was enabled to catch the strongest 
points in clear and concise form. No one, I 
am sure, could be more surprised at this than 
myself The testimony being mainly from the 
habitues of the saloons, was weak and unreliable. 
Some of them deliberately and without flinching 
perjured themselves. One for the prosecution, 
the justice ordered from the stand. 

(8) 



34 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The strongest witness, with one exception, 
was the Httle son of the drunkard, a child some 
ten years old, having been permitted by the 
justice to be sworn, because of his intelligence 
and manly bearing, though legally under age. 
The court room was crowded with saloon-keepers 
and their customers, a motley crowd, blear-eyed, 
bloated, bruised, dirty, unsightly, degraded 
humanity. The attorney for the defense was 
one of the ablest lawyers of the bar, always the 
liquor men's advocate. There sat that pitiful, 
friendless woman and her two little boys, in their 
scant and faded garments, alone. The wretched 
husband and father had by some means been 
spirited away out of reach. 

Towards evening I went to Mr. Rawlins and 
asked him how near the testimony was in. "It is 
almost in, " said he ; "will you address thejury ?" 
I said I would try. He then handed me the book, 
pointing out the portion to be read to thejury. 
I took it and familiarized myself with it. By 
this time the testimony being closed, Mr. Raw- 
lins addressed the court, saying he wished to 
make a few remarks and also a request. The 
request was that Mrs. Stewart be permitted to 
make the opening plea to the jury. 

Of course the court had no right to object, as 
I, or any one else may, in our State, appear in a 
case before a Justice's or Mayor's court. But 
none but admitted lawyers may appear before 
the upper courts. Besides, I saw that the 
Justice was very willing that I should, and the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 35 

opposite counsel had to acquiesce, though I saw 
by the ill-concealed smile, while he mumbled 
something that I could not quite catch, that he 
was saying to himself, " Now we will have fun. 
This old woman will make a muddle of it, and a 
fool of herself, and we will have rare fun picking 
her to pieces." -f x^P^nQQ*^ 

I took my law book in hand, ^and addressing 
the jury, said I found myself in a novel position, 
but I made this attempt to plead the case of my 
sister, because I knew I could speak for her as 
no man could. I then read the law, adding, they 
needed no comment on it from me. They under- 
stood its meaning. I was glad that now our 
women might come into the courts and prosecute 
the rum-seller for the destruction of their hus- 
bands and homes. I was glad, too, that in 
my State were men, good and true, before whom 
these cases might be tried. (I may say here, that 
while this was the nicest sugar-plum I had, it 
was well deserved in this case, for they were all 
good and true men.) I then took up the points 
of testimony I had caught and showed that the 
man, when not under the influence of liquor, 
was a kind husband and father, providing for 
tlie necessities of his family. That even when 
occasionally giving way to his appetite it had 
been proven that he was able to earn from $6 to 
$9 per week. But through the influence of 
drink furnished by the man now arraigned, he 
had become so worthless and incompetent that 
the wife and mother, besides her regular domestic 



36 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

duties, was obliged to labor to earn the means 
of support for her family. Yes, it was said the 
drunkard's wife may come into court and prose- 
cute for the ruin of her husband, but who will 
stand by her ? Who will befriend her ? Who 
will defend her ? And you see the array against 
her. I simply waved my hand towards that 
motley mass without looking towards them, but 
saw that the jury did. I proceeded to say, this 
woman, who I hoped would pardon me, was 
branded as the drunkard's wife, and must wear 
the brand forever. And you noticed that as on 
the witness stand, being strung up to the utmost 
tension, she detailed her sufferings and wrongs, 
— a sight to touch and melt the stoutest heart to 
pity — that crowd stood there leering and jeering 
in Satanic mirth at her misery. And these little 
boys, as they had noticed, precocious and intel- 
ligent beyond their years, were branded, and 
would carry the brand to the grave, — The 
Drunkards Child. In closing I charged the 
jury that they deal with this woman as they 
would that others should deal with their wife or 
daughter. And as they dealt with her, might 
God deal with them. I had not spoken five 
minutes till I saw that I held the jury in my 
hand, but did not know the extent of the mis- 
chief I had done the dealer in woe till his attor- 
ney arose to defend him. If he had prepared 
any defense for his client, he certainly had for- 
gotten it. He gesticulated vehemently, declared 
it was "infamous to bring a female in to influ- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 37 

ence the court and jury. He should think Mrs. 
Stewart would be ashamed to thus come into 
court. She had much better have been at home 
attending to her legitimate duties." 

The jury, after a brief retirement, brought in 
a verdict of ^loo and costs. This, as I have 
said, was the first case that had came up under 
the Adair law in Our courts, and considering the 
desperate fight made by the defense, aided by 
his associates in the business, and the weakness 
of the testimony for reasons already stated, it 
was decided to be a very fair verdict. Of course 
the liquor vender appealed to the upper courts, 
where the " female " was not permitted by the 
law of the State to go into the courts to influence 
jury, or anyone else. But, after long delay, 
and staving off, and the liquor men boasting 
that they had money enough to fight that poor, 
friendless woman as long as she chose — the 
lower court was sustained, except the damage 
was cut down to ;^40, if I remember correctly. 
The unheard-of occurrence of a woman pleading 
a case in court, produced quite a sensation. The 
papers sent it abroad, far and near, and the 
lawyers and other gentlemen of the city so 
chaffed my good friend, Esq. Spence, for letting 
an old lady beat him, that he became quite un- 
friendly towards me. And I, having noticed 
that while he was speaking to some point of 
law as the case progressed, the foreman laid his 
head back and slept, could not resist the tempta- 
tion to tell him that I could keep the jury awake 



38 MEMORIJiS OF THE CRUSADE. 

and he could not. I am most happy to record 
here, however, that Mr. Spence, who is my near 
neighbor, is to-day one of the very warmest 
friends I have, though we differ widely on 
the temperance question, I am sorry to say. 
The Springfield Advertiser of the next day gives 
the following report of the case : 

"Argument of Mrs. E. D. Stewart to a Jury in 

THE Whisky Case — Mother Stewart in 

THE Role of a Lawyer. 

"Geo. C. Rawlins, Esq., brought suit against 
Barnet Trickier for Mrs. Mary Hukins before Esquire 
Miller, laying damages at $300 for the sale of liquoi 
to her husband. Mrs. Stewart was present and heard 
the evidence in the case. When it was all submitted 
and the case was closed as far as the evidence was 
concerned, Mr. Rawlins addressed the court, stating 
that Mrs. Stewart had been present, snd heard all the 
evidence, and he requested that she be granted per- 
mission to address the jury on behalf of the plaintiff. 
The court granted the request, and Mrs. Stewart, 
taking a ponderous volume in her hand,proceeded to 
address the jury. The argument she made on this 
occasion was one worthy of her sex and of the bar. 
She was placed in such a position that she could ap- 
preciate the situation. It was a woman speaking in 
behalf of one of her sex, and she could portray to the 
jury the circumstances of the injustice, cruelty and 
hardships which Mrs. Hukins suffered from the whisky- 
seller. Mrs. Stewart spoke for a half an hour, and 
alluded with telling effect to the sneers which had 
greeted the poor woman, Mrs Hukins, when on the 
stand. She also spoke of the moneved interest which 
backed up the defense. 

' George Spence, Esq., followed Mrs. Stewart, and 
attributed to women all the rights which they 
claimed, but stated that this manifestation was for 
the ynirpose of working upon the prejudices of the 

*' Mr Rawlins closed the anrument m the case and 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 39 

paid a high compliment to the speech of Mrs. 
Stewart. The jury returned a verdict of $100 for the 
plaintiff." 

The notoriety given to this case led the poor 
women to fancy that I must know a good deal 
about law, or that I was at least a friend that 
• could sympathize with them, and so they came to 
me to tell their sorrows and to ask counsel or 
assistance. 

But I do not remember any case of special 
importance until October, 1873. The fore part 
of this month a woman came to me, saying 
friends had sent her with the assurance that I 
would do something for her. It was the same 
old, old story repeated — oh, who knoweth how 
many times! — of wretchedness, woe, misery, pri- 
vation, neglect, want, pinching poverty, and dis- 
grace for her and her children, and this last 
not by any means the least in the catalogue of 
misery. This woman, so broken in spirit, mind 
and body, by what she had passed through, 
was of an old, respectable Virginia family, and 
had never known what want was till brought to 
it by her husband's drinking. Her brother, 
since deceased, was at that time Chaplain to the 
upper house of Congress, a Doctor of Divinity, 
and had been editor of the Southern Methodist. 
When called to Baltimore in my work sometime 
afterwards, I made his acquaintance, and found 
him a Christian gentleman. But the sister had 
unfortunately married a man who soon developed 
an appetite for liquor. He had drifted from one 



40 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

place to another till her family had about lost 
sight of her. When she came to me, she, with 
her three very bright children, was living in a 
poor tenement in one of the poorest quarters in 
the city. Her neighbors and only associates were 
the lowest class of foreigners, and like herself, 
cursed by the drink. With stifling sobs and the 
tears streaming down her poor, careworn face, she 
told her story. While my heart melted for her, it 
seemed to me to be a hopeless case. I said to 
myself. It is no u^e, I must send this woman 
away, we cannot compete with the liquor 
scourge. But the next thought was,"No, you 
dare not send her away, she will haunt you in 
your dying hour. Then came the thought, " only 
thro2igh prayer.''' And I decided to do what I 
could to help her." Here I received my full 
baptism into the work of trying to ' ' rescue the 
perishing." 

Thenceforth everything else was given up, 
and in the 5'ears that have come and gone since, 
this has been the moving, actuating force of my 
life ; and I have ever since felt hurried with 
the great overburdening thought that they are 
dropping into eternity whether we are waking 
or sleeping. And when I have been speeding 
over the country as fast as wheels and steam 
could carry me, or across hill and dale — often in 
very primitive conveyance — in sunshine or storm 
— addressing thousands, organizing and leading 
out bands of my crusade sisters, persuading men 
to sign the pledge and regain their lost manhood, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 4I 

urging Christian men to do their duty and wipe 
out the curse at the ballot-box, I have been 
supremely happy. This I say, not because I 
have not loves and longings, hopes and ambitions 
and aspirations, as otliers have. 

How I could enjoy the sweets of home, sweet 
home, and how I yearn, and grow homesick, 
often, as I go up and down the land, for that 
dearest spot on earth, and the loved who are 
lonely because I am not there ! How I could 
enjoy the pleasures of cultivated society, the 
esthetic pleasures that wealth can buy ! I can 
hardly think there is another on earth that could 
enjoy with such exquisite pleasure the delights 
of reading, the acquaintance of the great, the 
learned, the good, through their works. How 
my heart hungers for the gratification of my 
taste in art, in music, in communing with nature, 
the grand old woods, the tiny flowers, the song 
of birds. Elsewhere I have told of the limited 
opportunities and struggles of my young life. 
But I hoped on bravely that a more auspicious 
time and more favorable opportunities would 
come. But the burdens, not the pleasures, of 
this life seem to have been my portion, and I 
am content, content ! Nay, verily, that is not the 
word. Oh, the blessedness of working for Jesus ! 
There is another feature that is not understood 
by the world. It is assumed that one stepping 
out of the sphere prescrioed by custom must be 
possessed of a sort of obtuse nature, devoid of 
and not understanding the softer, gentler traits 



42 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of character; possessing, instead, a coarse, defiant 
nature which says, ' 'I don't care what people say 
or think." 

A very little reflection would correct this 
mistake, and save many a tear caused by the 
unjust and unfeeling criticism of the world. In 
the first place, the obtuse, the indifferent to the 
good or bad opinion of others, are also selfish 
and unfeeling, and hence cannot be interested 
to any great extent in the weal or woe of human- 
ity, unless through some personal motive. 

How often have I heard women say, "/have no 
need to work in the temperance cause, my hus- 
band, my sons, are safe " (and not infrequently^ 
too, when the world knew they were far from it). 
But what a dwarfed, starved soul that Christiaa 
must possess who cannot see any reason above 
self for stretching out the hand to poor, perish- 
ing humanity. It has often been asked of me, 
"What has caused her to take the stand she 
has? What is it that so impels her?" And as 
the world demanded a reason that it could un- 
derstand, the very plausible one, many would 
suppose, has been manufactured to meet the 
case and sent out, that my husband was at some 
time a very intemperate man and had abused 
me terribly. This would be a fearful reason, ta 
be sure. But I am happy to say I never saw 
my husband take a drink of liquor in my life, 
unless it might have been ciderof his own make, 
in the olden times. He made a profession of 
religion at the age of sixteen, and united with 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 43 

the church, and has the reputation of living a 
consistent life. The fact is, my Heavenly Father 
gave me a sympathetic nature, a heart easily 
affected by the sufferings even of the lowliest of 
the brute creation ; but with this, a keenly sen- 
sitive nature and a strong love of approbation. 
You can faintly conjecture what one possessing 
such traits must suffer from the blind, unjust criti- 
cisms, the sneers and slanders of the world. 
Painfully alive to everything of the kind, going 
upon the platform, my eyes instantly scan my 
audience and I take in almost at a glance the 
feeling and sentiment. If there is prejudice, indif- 
ference, curiosity or sympathy with me or my 
subject, I see or feel it all, — the whispered com- 
ment, the exchange of a look. Sometimes, I 
may say not often, I have found my audiences 
so lacking in sympathy for my subject that I 
found the first thing to be done was to break the 
ice that enveloped them, a more exhausting 
task than two or three ordinary efforts. But 
the suffering, — I wonder if it can be possible that 
any other has suffered as I have ? not so much 
from the liquor vender, for I had reason to expect 
hard things from him. 

Indeed, with a few rare exceptions, I have little 
to complain of from the fraternity. They knew 
I was trying to do their business all the harm I 
could. If that were all, looking at it from their 
standpoint, what wonder that they would say 
hard things of me ! I was prepared for that. But 
I must believe that most of them do understand 



44 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

that I mean no ill-will to them outside of their 
business ; and some of them have so given me 
to believe. But from sources unexpected, un- 
looked for, have come the bitterest trials and of 
consequence, so much the harder to bear. Oh, 
how I cried to my Father to give me the confi- 
dence of the people. I felt I vmst have it to do 
the work He had put into my hands. But when 
positive falsehoods were circulated, apparently 
for no other purpose than to break me down 
and destroy my influence, and this from the 
least expected sources, I was staggered, almost 
blinded with pain. It was all so inscrutable to 
me. Oh, what tears I shed ! If my chamber could 
testify, what nightly hours of weeping would it 
reveal ! 

What did impel me ? Simply, I heard my 
Father call me and I ran gladly to do his bid- 
ding, and I am so glad ; I can never tell how 
great an honor I feel it to be, that He hath 
counted me worthy. Oh, to be counted among 
the harvesters in the field, if only the humblest 
gleaner! Oh, to believe I shall come by and by, 
bringing in my sheaves ! 

What are worldly pleasures, esteem, renown, 
the pleasures of sense, gratification of even re- 
fined tastes, compared to the blessing of them 
that are ready to peiish, or to the "well done" 
of my Father in the presence of the angels when 
the day's work is done. 

But I have left my poor woman waiting much 
longer than I did that day. I thought very fast, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 45 

and decided that if I acted at all I must at once 
and hold her while she was in hand. I knew 
very well that if the liquor-seller got intimation 
of any intention to interfere with his little pas- 
time of ruining men and starving their famiUes, 
he would manage by bribe or threats to induce 
the woman to change her mind. Or, if her 
wretched husband should find out that there was 
danger of his supply being cut off, he would find 
means to put a stop to proceedings. 

Oh, Christian friends, has it ever dawned upon 
your minds what horror it must be for a poor, 
helpless woman to find herself in the power and 
at the mercy of a creature who has drowned out 
all his manhood, all the loving, tender, husbandly 
feeling, and, possessed only with a raging thirst 
for drink, becoming a very demon at the bare 
thought of his indulgence being interfered 
with ? I told her I would take her to a law firm 
and see what we could do; and throwing on 
my wraps, took her to the office of Mower & 
Rawlins, the junior partner being my young 
friend who had prosecuted the other case. I 
stated her case to them, and asked if they would 
undertake it for her, on contingency of a fee if 
they gained it, as the woman had not a dime with 
which to buy a loaf of bread for her children. Mr. 
Rawhns answered at once that he would take the 
case if I would join him in it. I said yes, I 
would do anything in my power to help her. 
We arranged to take the case before the Mayor's 
court, and set the time for the next Thursday, 



46 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

October i6. Now came to me the incipient 
ideas of dealing with the Hquor question that 
were soon to be developed so wonderfully in the 
Crusade. Only through prayer, I said. But the 
Christian women must be awakened and brought 
to feel that they have an interest in the question, 
and something to do. I sent notes to, and in- 
vited ladies of known piety and respectability, of 
the various churches, to come to the court room 
on Thursday, as a liquor case was to be tried at 
that time. 

My friend, Mr. Nichols, had told me when I 
should have another liquor case, to let him 
know, and he would have a reporter on hand. I 
informed him that we had another case on hand 
and he said he would send in a reporter. 

I sent word to nearly all the ministers of the 
city that we were going to prosecute a liquor- 
seller for a poor woman, "would they come?" 
" Oh yes, certainly." I remember I sat in my 
own church the Sabbath before the trial and 
heard Bishop Wiley make such an appeal as he, 
of all men, was able to make, for the Memphis 
sufferers from yellow fever. But my heart was 
with my poor client, and the thousands such as 
she, who were suffering terrors from the liquor 
scourge — compared to which that of the yellow 
fever was scarcely to be named. At the close 
of the service I went to my minister and asked 
him if he ever went into the court room. He 
looked quite puzzled, but after catching his 
breath a little, he answered that he never had, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 47 

but if it were necessary he could go. I said 
while the Bishop was making that grandly elo- 
quent appeal, I, too, had a great burden on my 
heart, and added that we were going to have a 
prosecution before the Mayor's court, for a 
drunkard's wife, "would he come?" Yes, he 

would. I said, bring Sister and come, but 

as I looked into his face, I sav/ he was saying, 
"No, I wont. " lie had just married a new wife, 
and of course a court room was no place for his 
wife. Something also prevented his attendance. 
But my good brother became a very enthusi- 
astic helper ere long. Before the case came on 
I sat down and wrote the following appeal. 
Here again I know the Lord helped me. I carried 
it to Mr. Nichols, telling him here was a paper 
on which I had done my best, with prayers and 
tears; and asked him to give it a place in the 
Republic, with an editorial, maintaining the 
impression that it was written by and not for a 
drunkard's wife, for I had abundant material 
from which I wrote, and he accordingly did : 

An Appeal to the Women of Springfield. 

Women of Springfield, My Sisters : — My misery 

has become greater than I can, bear. I know not 

which way to turn. I have no one to whom I can 

go for redress, for protection — no one but God. 1 

am a drunkard's wife This, to those who have had 

the experience, explains all, and tells my pitiful tale, 

better than any words I can command. Yet these 

are surrounded with the same difficulties, the same 

trials, and are lacking the same helps that I am. 

They have, indeed, their Hves and hearts so full of 

their own miseries, that they have no room for mine. 



48 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

And if they had, are as helpless as I myself am, ta 
alleviate their own sorrow, without a thought of help- 
ing others. My story is a brief one, and so like hun- 
dreds and thousands of others that you hear of daily, 
till they have become such a matter of indifference 
to you that I fear you will pass it by unheeded. 
Yet, oh, I pray you for God's sake, listen to me. 

I was once young and gay and happy, as any of 
you are. I was raised respectably and tenderly, and 
held my place in the best circle of society. When 
twenty, I married a man whom I loved — intelligent, 
upright, honorable, sober — as I thought. I had never 
seen him drink, and did not know he ever tasted any- 
thing that would intoxicate. We started in our ovv^n 
happy home, with bright prospects for the future. 

So bright and happy were those days, gone forever. 
But alas ! I directly found that my husband, when he 
met his old associates, would con>e home with the 
smell of liquor on his breath. I will not weary you 
with a repetition of the common story of neglected 
business, the going down, down, the loss of our little 
Eden, the gradual change in my husband's nature, 
from one of the most tender and loving, to a moody, 
morose, abusive husband and father. So changed, 
so besotted and imbruted has he been made ty this 
consuming appetite, that he is an object of loathing 
and terror to those who once were thrilled with delight 
by the sound of his approaching footsteps. 

So low have we sunk, that a miserable hovel in one 
of the lowest quarters of the city furnish us — not a 
home, (that word for me andmy helpless children has 
no longer any meaning), but a precarious shelter from 
the elements. 

So destitute have we become, that the poorest fare 
barely saves us Irom starvation. Our clothing is so 
poor and scant that my children are no longer able 
to attend school, and if they were, the older ones are 
becoming unable to bear the taunts and jeers of the 
other more fortunate children, who call their father 
a drunkard, and them, a drunkard's children. 

We hear the sweet music of the Sabbath bells call- 
ing the happy, the wealthy, the fortunate to Sabbath 
School and the sanctuary. But not for us do they 
chime forth on the still, balmy air of these beautiful 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 49 

Sabbath mornings. No place there for the drunk- 
ard's family. If we should attempt to go in our 
faded and patched garments, you, my sisters, to 
whom I make this appeal, extorted by the depths of 
misery and woe, would be so shocked and horrified 
as to show it, andadd to our mortification and distress ; 
for our conaition makes us sensitive and keenly alive 
to every such manifestation. 

No peaceful Sabbath-days for us, though we are in 
a Christian city, boasting its twenty churches, with 
their respectable, well-dressed audiences. Oh, do 
ministers of Christ ever remind you that while you 
sit there so comfortably, listening to the sweet sounds 
of the gospel, there are men, women and children 
who never enter your churches? who, while you are 
praying and praising in the sanctuary, are living in 
the midst of scenes of drunken brawls and Sabbath 
desecration ? Oh, do those ministers ever remember 
us in their prayers ? 

Do you, oh my happy sisters, ever think to put up 
a prayer for the drunkard's family ? We are told 
that the law is now on our side, and are exhorted 
to go into the courts and prosecute those more than 
murderers, the liquor-sellers. But how little do people 
know of the difficulties that surround the drunkard's 
wife. The shame and mortification of a public expos- 
ure, a woman's ignorance of law, and the fear of 
doing something wrong; the difficulty of getting such 
witnesses as will testify to the facts necessary to a 
successful prosecution ; the shrinking from appearing 
in a court-room alone, among a low class of drinking 
men, whom the dignity of the Court cannot restrain 
from jeering and making low, coarse remarks ; where 
even respectable (?) lawyers can be bought for a price 
to plead against her, using low, personal attacks, when 
the facts fail them. 

Could one, of all the Christian women of this city, 
be induced — even for the love of Christ — be induced 
to come and sit by her side — her husband forbidding 
her, and using his authority or perhaps violence to 
prevent it ? Besides, what has a poor drunkard's wife 
to offer a lawyer to prosecute her case ? Oh, sisters, 
sisters ! poverty, wretchedness and black despair are 
settling down upon me ; I have no way to turn. 

(4) 



50 MEMORIKS OF THE CRUSADE. 

Willingly would I give my life ! Oh, I -would 
gladly go to the stake, if by that means my once noble 
husband could be restored to his family, to himself, 
to his God ! But I see no way for me, and am 
tempted, so sorely tempted, to take my own life and 
end my misery, and am only restrained because of 
my poor children; and yet how can I save them from 
the fate of infamy and pauperism ? It seems to me 
I shall go mad. Help me, oh sisters, for the dear 
Christ's sake. As you hope for mercy at his hand in 
the great day, hear and heed my appeal. Fain would 
I go and kneel to each of you, and tell you my woe 
if I could. Oh, stop only a few moments and consid- 
er my case. Stop in the midst of your happiness and 
gayety, your occupations with dress and amusements, 
and consider the hundreds of poor drunkard's wives 
and children in the city, who have no one to help or 
befriend them. 

You, my fortunate sisters, have the power to close 
these drinking-dens ; you could bring happiness once 
more to these aching hearts. Give us a few moments 
of your happy hours in your closets. Appeal to God 
for us; use your influence with the men who rule our 
city. Oh, if you only would combine, and demand 
that these holes of destruction should be closed, it 
would be done at once. Will you do it? I ask it 
for myself and helpless children; for the hundreds of 
women and children in like situation. The winter is 
coming on and we have nothing with which to meet 
it. The Benevolent Society will again do its utmost 
to relieve the extreme cases of suffering and want. 
God bless those noble women for their noble efforts, 
but after all, how meagre is the supply, and it does 
not, cannot touch the root of the matter. 

I have heard that in nearly all your churches you 
have societies working for the help of women in 
heathen lands. For this I am thankful ; I would not 
have you do less. How sweet it must be to have the 
privilege of helping the needy. May you reap an 
abundant harvest. But, oh, while you are tluis 
laboring, do not forget your sisters here in this Chris- 
tian land, who are as degraded and as effectually shut 
off from the gospel as if in the remotest heathen 
lands. In the name of our Blessed Master, who 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 5 1 

when he was on earth went about doing good, oh, 
sisters of Springfield, help us. 

A Drunkard's Wife. 

I do not know whether there ever was any 
event or circumstance in the world's history, 
however solemn, that somewhere in it d'd not 
protrude itself the whimsical or the ludicrous. 
Certainly, all through our wonderful Crusade, so 
full of the most exalted experiences, as also of 
the most sad and pathetic, ever and anon would 
some incident thrust itself in that took on all 
the airs of a first-class farce. In this instance, 
in the midst of the excitement and inquiry in 
regard to the letter and its author, one poor fellow, 
feeling very sure the case fitted him, conceived 
the idea that it was his wife that wrote that letter, 
and he would answer it, so he would ; and he did, 
and the editor, always ready to oblige, very 
kindly let him expose himself to ridicule by 
publishing it. The rest, who found themselves 
thus photographed, pretended not to recognize 
the likeness, and kept silent. 

I copy from the Repiiblic, October 17: 

AN INEBRIATE HAS HIS SAY. 

After the publication of his Nicholas Nickleby, in 
wlvi h the character of Squeers, the finished country 
school master, is prominent, Dickens is said to have 
received k^tters from all parts of England, the writers 
bemg country school-masters, each believing himself 
the original of the character, and each threatening 
leg il proceedings, personal chastisement, and all sorts 
of terrible things. 

A few diys ago the Republic published a commu- 
nication from a " Drunkard's Wife," which seems to 
have created quite a commotion, every dissipated 



52 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Benedict in the community thinking the communica- 
tion an emanation from his own decidedly better half, 
either in person or by proxy. 

One such has been moved to send the annexed 
note, which we take the liberty of inserting, notwith- 
standing a subsequent request from the writer to sup- 
press it. No names being mentioned, nobody need 
take it as personal, and a point is made, which is 
worthy of consideration. Here is what a drunkard 
says : 

To the Editor : — I find in this week's Republic a 
communication from a " Drunkard's Wife," wherein 
she laments sorely over her drunken husband. I 
would merely suggest to this drunkard's wife, that it 
might be possible that she made me a drunkard. 
Had she been the loving angel that she was when I 
married her, the probability is that she and her chil- 
dren would now be all right. 

Drunkard. 

Much inquiry was made of the editor and my- 
self about that drunkard's wife. One most 
excellent lady came to me to inquire if I knew 
her to be really a worthy woman. If she really 
deserved to be helped, of course the case should 
be looked after. It had struck the good Christian 
people of our city as a most astonishing thing 
that even one woman could be suffering as the 
author of this letter seemed to be. They had 
not seen, had not thought, ornoticed, and could 
with difficulty be made to believe it, so indiffer- 
ent were the good people, at this time, to the 
drink question in our midst. 



'^'si^^^^ef^^k^ 



CHAPTER III. 




In Cowt — Exciting and Affecting Scenes. 

)N THURSDAY, October i6, by previous 
arrangement, we appeared in the Mayor's 
court to prosecute our suit. Several 
ladies were also present. But the defense, using 
their prerogative, had the case adjourned over to 
the next Tuesday, the 2ist., which was all in our 
favor, however, as the reporters made quite a 
sensation of the affair, especially mentioning the 
fact that a large delegation of ladies of promi- 
nence in the churches and in society was present. 
My next move, in the interim,was to write out 
something over thirty copies of a petition to the 
City Council, praying them to exercise the author- 
ity vested in them by the law known as the 
" McConnelsville Ordinance," to close up or 
abate all tippling houses or places of habitual 
resort for drinking purposes, as nuisances. With 
the utmost difficulty I succeeded in enlisting ladies 
to circulate these petitions. At this day, after 
the women have had so thorough a training of 
over thirteen years, it will hardly be possible to 
realize what were the obstacles to be overcome 
in those first days of the work. 

53 



54 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

When the next day for trying our case came, 
a company of ladies went with me to the lawyer's 
office where we met our friend and her children 
and escorted them to the court room. The first 
light snow of the season had fallen, making the 
air raw and bleak and the walking bad by the 
mixture of snow and mud. My poor friend was 
dressed in a very light, faded, though scrupulously 
clean calico dress, and noticing the other ladies 
warmly clothed in black, she expressed her mor- 
tification to me. I told her not to mind, it was 
just as I would have it. The case had by this 
time attracted much attention. The room outside 
the bar was crowded with men and there was an 
increased number of ladies in attendance. My 
ministerial friends failed to appear, except Rev. A. 
Meharry, then our Presiding Elder, who has since 
gone to his reward, and Rev. Weatherby, of the 
Baptist church, whom I had not known before. 
But I noticed him, as the case went on, standing 
and watching with deep interest, while the tears 
ran down his manly face. We succeeded, in spite 
of the opposition, in getting a good, honest jury 
impanneled. The attorney for the defense evi- 
dently felt far from comfortable ; I fancied his 
knees shook just a little. The fact was, he had 
not only to face that jury of respectable citizens 
on the wrong side of a very bad case, but a whole 
array of Christian ladies besides. A gentleman 

present remarked that Mr. W had rather 

have seen ten lawyers at the table than Mother 
Stewart. The probability is if I had been young 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 55 

and handsome, it would have altered the case. 
Noticing that he attempted to confuse and irritate, 
with the hope of throwing me off my balance, 
the ladies became very indignant, and sending to 
me to come to them, told me not to mind him ; 
I had as good a right to examine the witnesses 
as he had. I told them not to be alarmed, but 
to continue in prayer ; everything was going in 
our favor. I wrote on a slip of paper, ' ' Oh, do 
pray for us," and sent it to Mr. Meharry, who 
sat at the Mayor's side. By request of my col- 
league, I made the opening charge and the open- 
ing plea to the jury. In my plea I did not forget 
to remind them of the woman's scant and unsea- 
sonable garb, pointing also to the poor, ragged 
shoes of the youngest child — a pair of her sister's 
old cloth shoes, too large and no protection 
against the snow and mud, while the man who 
had robbed them of their protector and provider, 
sat there so comfortably muffled up in his heavy 
overcoat. 

The case wore on till time to adjourn for tea. 
The attorney for the defense expressed the hope 
that we might have a good, quiet time after tea, 
as the visitors — by which we understood him to 
mean the ladies — would most probably not return. 
But instead of the ladies not returning, more 
came, and indeed some were so interested that 
they did not go home to tea, but remained in the 
court-room. A little after ten o'clock the case 
was given to the jury, who, after fifteen or twenty 
minutes retirement, returned, and the foreman 



$6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

reported a verdict for the plaintiff of ;^300, the 
amount sued for. 

Mr. Rawlins remarked to me that he did not 
know what we should do for our juror's fees. 
He supposed they would have to wait till we 
could collect the money. One of the gentlemen 
started out saying, " I donate my fee." The 
next followed, saying, " I donate mine." The 
ladies just then saw where the cheer came in, and 
made a lively closing by waving of handkerchiefs 
and clapping of hands, and the men outside the 
bar took it up and gave three rousing hurrahs ! 
But early next morning the liquor men were out 
in force, and pledged themselves to sustain the 
saloon-keeper in appealing his case. And it was 
nearly four years before a final decision was 
reached, which did, however, sustain the Mayor's 
Court. 

What an outcry is made by those tender- 
hearted gentlemen about taking the bread out of 
the mouths of tJieir wives and clnldren if th(?re is 
any encroachment made upon their murder-mills. 

The Springfield Reptibhe of the next day gave 
the following report of the case : 

Another Dealer in Blue Ruin Brought to Grief 

UNDER THE ADAIR LaW. 

The case wherein Mrs. Anna Saurbier sues Karl 
Niehaus and his sister, Mrs. Busjam, for damages in 
$300, by reason of liquor sold to her husband. Jacob 
Sourbcar, the defendants running a \o\v gin null with 
the usual grocery attachment on East Main street, 
came to trial before tlie Mayor on yesterday (Tuesday) 
afternoon, consuming the time from two until eleven 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 57 

o'clock, P. M. The lobby of the court-room was 
crowded, and, notwithstanding the forbidding aspect 
of the weather, a large number of ladies found seats 
within the bar, and seemed to regard the proceedings 
with feelings of the deepest interest and sympathy, 
nearly all remaining until the end was reached late in 
the evening. 

The presence of these Christian ladies, represent- 
ing some of the best families of our city, was a new 
and pleasant feature, and was no doubt a pleasure 
and support to the suft'ering woman obliged to pass 
through such a painful ordeal. The persistency and 
patience with which they sat through tlie long hours 
of the afternoon and evening, and the close attention 
paid to the testimony (often extremely affecting), the 
long-winded and purely technical arguments of coun- 
sel on disputed points, and the cross-firing of dull 
details of law. showed conspicuously that their attend- 
ance was purely a matter of principle, and their inter- 
est in the case and cause real and unfeigned. The 
plaintiff was aLo present with her little ones^ three in 
number, aged respectively fifteen, twelve and nine. 
The woman Busjam and her brother Niehaus sat 
beside their attorney, seeming not best to relish their 
position, and no wonder. The jury consisted of 
Messrs. Charles Rabbitts, E. S. S. Rouse, T. B. Peet, 
J. R. Squire, Chas. H. Peirce and C. B. Hauk. 

Witnesses were first examined to show that Mr. 
Sourbear was a good mechanic, capable of supporting 
his family if he stuck to business, but through habits 
of intoxication he had lost one place after another, 
and had become a sot, scarcely knoAving what it was 
to go to bed sober. 

The plaintiff herself v/as put upon the stand. Hers 
was that old, old story, heard in magistrates' courts 
any day and many times a day. Born and brought 
up in good circumstances, as she herself said " never 
to know what want was ; " married with good pros- 
pects, but after a few years reduced to wretched 
poverty; forced, although in very delicate health, to 
labor unceasingly ; obliged to send her young children 
among strangers, thus depriving her of the only 
gleam of light on her dark pathway ; all, through the 
dissipated habits, lack of resolution and unfaithfulness 



58 MEMOKIliS OF THE CRUSADE. 

of one who had sworn to love, cherish and support 
her and hers; who was good, kind and attentive 
when sober and in his right mind, but who had seem- 
ingly yielded to the wiles of the tempter past the power 
of resistance, until he was a burden upon the already 
overburdened woman. 

The litde children, a boy and two girls, bright^ 
pretty and interesting, also gave in their testimony in 
th:^ir ova artless way, telling liow, tmie after time, 
they had been to take their father away from the place 
where he got his poison, often before their eyes, having' 
j ust as much as they could do to get him home. When 
warned to desist and furnish him no more liquor, the 
saloon-keepers laughed scornfully and said, '-If the 
Mayor and all the lawyers were there, they would sell 
him liquor as long as he paid." By their own testi- 
mony, it was only after the ruin was accomplished, 
and the victim unable to " pay," that he was thrust 
out and told to go home to his family. 

In fact, the testimony of the children made the 
case. The boy, particularly, was to the point; he 
could neither be confused nor made to contradict 
himself under the most adroit cross-examination. 

Once the elder daughter broke down in her testi- 
mony, and was obliged to leave the stand in a fit of 
weeping. At six o'clock a recess was taken for supper, 
and the hearing resumed at half-past seven. The 
testimony for the defense was soon got through with, 
consisting chiefly of simple denials of statements on 
the other side. Mrs. E. D. Stewart then addressed 
the jury, opening for the plaintiff, setting forth in 
language that went to the heart of every listener, the 
situation of affairs as shown by the evidence, and 
appealing for justice for the unfortunate and deepljr 
injured woman and her children then in court. E. 
S. Wallace, Esq., counsel for the defense, followed. 
Mr. Wallace's position was rather an unenviable and 
undesirable one, but as a lawyer he made the best 
presentation possible for his client, and at least from 
a professional standpoint acquitted himself without 
discredit. 

George C. Rawlins, Esq.. closed for the plaintiff. 
His effort was a line one; ))oints well taken and well 
put, and inspired by the righteousness of his cause 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 59 

and the sympathy of his audience, made an eloquent 
and powerful appeal. Mayor Hanna then presented 
the case to the jury, who retired and aiier an absence 
of fifteen or twenty minutes, returned a verdict 
through their foreman, Mr. Chas. Rahbitts, in favor of 
the plaintiff for the full amount of damages claimed. 
Counsel for the defense gave notice of an appeal. 

i next prepared a p.^per for the ministers of 
the city in the form of a pledge, to the effect 
that they would preach, simultaneously, each 
from his own pulpit, unannounced, morning or 
evening, from the text, ' Am I my brother's 
keeper?" This I took and handed in to the 
Pastors' Monday morning meeting, but was too 
modest to go in myself and explain my motive, 
(have grown som.e since), Vv-hich was sensational, 
to arouse the Christian people. I hoped they 
might all preach at the same hour, and when 
this came to be known, and that they had all 
preached from the same text, it would create not 
a Httle excitement and discussion. Upon com- 
paring notes, they found that it would not be 
convenient to preach at the same time. However, 
they did agree to preach a temperance sermon, 
and I think all, white and colored — with perhaps 
a single exception — preached from my text. 

"O the anxi us voices calling 
From the mountain Seir to-day ; 

From the trodden down and feitered 
From the ranks in Rum's affray. 

Watchman, is hope's banner there, 

High above this daik despair? 

" Back the watchman sends the answer, 
'Out beyond the darkest night, 

Lo! the day bieaks in :ts splendor; 
Help is coming, right is might ! 

Soon will sound from sea to sea, 

Seir's inhabitants are free !" 




CHAPTER IV. 



Visit to a Saloon on the Sabbath. 



THIS time it became necessary to col- 
lect my petitions, for I felt hurried to get 
the work on as fast as possible. I put a 
card in the paper, asking the ladies having the 
petitions to leave them in care of Mrs. R., a 
clerk in the Republic office. But, no indeed, 
they presumed I was going to publish their 
names and they could not think of such a thing. 
So I had to travel all over the city to gather 
them up. One lady had only obtained one 
name to hers. Another had taken hers some 
where and forgotten it, and so on. Nevertheless 
when I got them gathered up, I found 600 had 
given their names. A great many gentlemen 
were eager to sign, but I was impressed that 
this work was for the women. If I had taken 
more time I have no doubt but I could have 
procured twice as many names. But oh, the 
weariness and labor of it all. The world sees 
the result of benevolent or philanthropic effort, 
and if it proves successful they applaud. Little 
do they dream what it costs. I was slowly 
coming up out of a long experience of invalidism, 

60 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 6 1 

when I had not expected ever to be able to 
walk a quarter of a mile again. Of course the 
exertion laid me on my bed again, but only for 
a few days. I could not afford to be ill now. I 
invited another committee of ladies, members of 
the various churches, to accompany me to the 
Council Chamber to present our petitions. And 
again I exhorted them to continue in prayer. 
Indeed I asked whoever I could reach to help us 
with their prayers. I was so exercised on the 
subject that I was ready to call on everybody 
to help. I now think of a young man that I 
appealed to in the Council Chamber, as I passed 
him, to pray for us. He looked startled for a 
moment, then with much seriousness replied, 
"Yes, I will." I give below the report of our 
visit to the Council, as found in the Springfield 
Republic of the next day : 

The City Fathers Visited by The Mothers. 

The City Council chamber, at the regular meeting 
of the municipal legislature on last (Tuesday) evening, 
was the scene of a remarkable gathering and pro- 
ceedings. Remarkable in some points of view and 
in others not at all so. 

Just before the commencement of business, a dele- 
gation of about 25 women, representing the wives, 
mothers, daughters and sisters of our fair city, 
appeared and were assigned seats in the lobby of the 
house. After the usual routine of opening had been 
accomplished, a member announced their presence, 
and moved a suspension of the rules of Council in 
order to give the visitors an audience. The motion 
was carried, and stepping within the bar, Mrs. E. D. 
Stewart proceeded to address the members, stating 
that she held in her hand, and would present for the 
consideration and action of Council, a petition signad 



62 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADE. 

by over 600 women of the city, praying Council to use 
all means in their power to close the liquor saloons 
in the city, and put a stop to the traffic carried on in 
them. The petition is as follows : 

We, whose names are under written, ladies of the 
city of Springfield, respectfully call upon you for the 
immediate suppression of " all ale, beer and porter 
houses and all houses or places of notorious or habit- 
ual resort for tippling or intemperance" within the 
city limits, and we invite your attention to the 199th 
section of the Municipal Code, which we believe ex- 
plicitly clothes you with this authority. 

By the provisions of the 199th section of the 
Municipal Code — under the 5th head, Porter Houses, 
etc., — Councils of incorporated cities are author- 
ized to regulate, restrain a.ndJ>ro/n'd!ta]e,heev and 
porter houses or shops, and houses and places of noto- 
rious or habitual resort for tippling or intemperance. 

Mrs. Stewart accompanied the presentation of the 
petition with an address, using strong language and 
indisputable facts and arguments to impress upon the 
mmds of the gentlemen the extent of the evil of in- 
temperance in our midst at the present time, and the 
rapid strides it was making among the young men of 
the city, who are through this agency going to ruin. 

Mrs. Stewart claimed that the business was illegal 
and illegitimate and ought to be suppressed. The 
lady had no faith in the license law. We have in 
Springfield seventy-five or more saloons, each doing 
its share in the v/ork of destruction. Close them 
up, and our beautiful city would become famous the 
country through as a temperance town, and desir- 
able as a place of residence to the best class of peo- 
ple. Men of means and intelligence would be 
attracted here from all quarters; property would 
materially increase in value, and our prosperity would 
be assured from that hour. Mrs. Stewart said that 
she had been approached by women in agony because 
of their sons who frequent these places. One who 
had walked the streets at the midnight hour in 
search of her own son, had said that many an unsus- 
pecting mother would be surprised if she could look 
into these places, as she had done, and see who were 
there. Some had proposed to take the law into their 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 6t, 

own hands, and execute summary justice by " clean- 
ing out " the pestiferous holes, but they had with diffi- 
culty been dissuaded from a course as sure to injure 
only themselves. 

The times are hard and money scarce. Why not 
stop this tremendous drain and worse than waste, 
when money is so much needed for the necessaries 
of life. Mrs. Stewart said that while she spoke, 
many good men and women all over the city were 
praying for the success of the movement, and closed 
by appealing to the Council to earnestly and carefully 
consider the petition. 

Mrs. Guy, who accompanied the above named 
lady, v/as then introduced and presented a supple- 
mentary petition to same effect as the first, bearing 
the names of sixty ladies and gentlemen, also lead- 
ing citizens, making some remarks of a fitting nature. 

Mr. Thomas moved to refer the petition to a select 
committee of three members. Mr. Smith wished to 
refer it to the Police Committee. Mr. Thomas' motion 
was carried, and the President named that gentle- 
man, Mr. Stewart and Mr. Grant as such committee. 
Thereupon the ladies retired and Council proceeded 
with regular business. 

While we v/ere treated most courteously and 
a committee appointed to v/hich the petition 
was referred, it was not to be expected, since 
one of the councilmen was a Distiller, another a 
Brewer, and a third a Lawyer, that any action 
would be taken on it. My object was to arouse 
the people and tins much was accomplished. 

But as I copied the above, a sadness that no 
words of mine can express came over me. Oh, 
zy that body of municipal lawmakers had heeded 
the prayer of that nearly 700 of the best citizens 
of Springfield, how different would be the situa- 
tion to-day to what it is, and what a long list of 
crime, murders, suicide, woe, poverty and 



64 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

wretchedness would have been averted. To-day 
(1887) we have more than double the number of 
saloons, crime of every sort is on the increase, 
and one of those men — yes, I think two, if not 
more — that I addressed that night might be 
living to-day if they had heeded the appeal and 
banished the curse from the city. 

There seemed to be a little danger of the press 
giving too much credit to one individual for the 
interest of the cause. I knew very well that if 
it should seem to the public that this agitation 
was only a little tempest in a teapot by one 
woman, it would not command the attention it 
would if it should seem to be an uprising of the 
people, and would soon blow over. I went to 
my good friend, the editor, and asked him to 
please keep me in the background — (he naively 
remarked that he did not think that could be 
done) — let it seem that everybody had risen up 
against the business. And I asked him to pray 
forme. He seemed surprised and touched, and 
looking up he said, "Yes, I will, Charley (the 
local) and I both will, and we will help you other- 
wise too." Oh, how from m.y heart I thanked 
him. How encouraged and strenghthened I went 
away, he little knew. And he and Charlie kept 
the promise. Some time after this, upon going 
to the office, my friend said, ' ' Oh, see here, I 
promised to pray for you ; at first I forgot, but 
afterwards I did." Not a solitary instance of 
forgetfulness, I reckon. 

To make it seem that it was a spontaneous 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 6$ 

/prising of the people, I urged other ladies to 
write on the subject. One lady, Mrs. J. A. S. 
Guy, to whom I sent a note requesting her to 
write, after taking the subject under prayerful con- 
sideration, passing a sleepless night over it, 
arose the next morning and prepared a paper 
which she presented to the City Benevolent 
Society, of which she was Secretary, at the next 
session. This was to the effect that, in conse- 
quence of the poverty and want of so many 
families in the city, almost entirely due to the 
liquor traffic, as had come to our knowledge in 
our benevolent work, a committee be appointed 
to wait on the ministers at their Monday morn- 
ing meeting and request their co-operation in 
inaugurating a series of public mass meetings, 
more effectually to arouse and enlist the citizens 
in a warfare against the liquor business. A com- 
mittee of three ladies was accordingly appointed, 
Mrs. Guy, Mrs. Cathcart, and Miss Mary Cloakey. 
The conference was most satisfactory ; the min- 
isters pledged themselves to sustain and assist 
the ladies in any measure they might deem wise 
to inaugurate. 

I was called away from the city for a few days 
at this time, and was not at this conference. 
Upon my return, I found the ladies arranging 
for their first mass meeting, which was accord- 
ingly held in Mr. Hamma's Church, the English 
Lutheran, on the night of the 2nd of December. 
The plan adopted and so successfully carried 
out for many months, was to have a good choir 

(5) 



65 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of singers under a competent leader ; a presiding 
officer, who should conduct the services, which 
were singing, reading of Scripture, one or more 
prayers, with two or three brief addresses on 
some phase of the temperance question by gen- 
tlemen or ladies, as should happen to be arranged 
by the committee appointed to take charge of 
this work. On the programs prepared for these 
meetings were found ministers, lawyers, physi- 
cians and prominent business men, and also 
many ladies who astonished themselves not less 
than everybody else with their well considered, 
well written, and gracefully delivered essays or 
lectures. 

Of a goodly list of these ladies I now recall, 
Mrs. Jason Phillips, Mrs. S. M. Foos, Mrs. 
Thos. Bean, Mrs. Rev. Button, of the Univer- 
salist Church ; Mrs. R. Thomas, Miss Ogden, 
Mrs. M. W. Baines. The latter lady, who had 
already attracted some attention by her pen, I 
remember was, after a good deal of persuasion 
by Mrs. Guy and myself, induced to prepare a 
paper early in the course. It was not long till 
she was called into the field as one of the most 
popular lecturers, and has since made herself a 
praiseworthy record in the temperance cause, both 
on the platform and with her pen. The con- 
tagion from our revival was beginning to spread 
to adjacent towns, and I was being called to 
"come, wake up the women." The impression 
seemed to be deepening and spreading, that 
somehow through the influence of women the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 6/ 

fight must be made against this terrible enemy 
that had so long defied men, whether arraigned 
by law or gospel, and was day by day growing 
stronger, bolder and more defiant. 

On the first of December a committee was 
sent by the citizens of Osborn, a flourishing vil- 
lage in the adjoining county of Greene, to invite 
me to come and arouse their women. I went 
down and found the people, under the leadership 
of that devoted man of God, Rev. Cummings, 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church, much stirred 
up on the subject and ready for action. 

Here is an item of history, which has escaped 
the notice of the various chroniclers of the rise 
and fall (?) of the Crusade, which is, that to 
Osborn belongs the credit of forming the first 
regularly organized Woman's Union, or League, 
as we called our organizations at first, with offi- 
cers and constitution, in tlie State, 

I sat down and prepared a constitution just 
before going to the meeting, and at the close of 
the meeting, with the assistance of the pastor, 
we organized by electing Mrs. A. B. Lee, a 
refined and estimable lady, as President, and 
Mrs. Hargrave, also a lady of fine education and 
good position, as Secretary, with a full list of minor 
officers and a very large list of members. 

Feeling much encouraged by the success of my 
meeting, I proposed to return to the city to 
be present at our first mass meeting; but the 
minister and friends insisted that J must remain 
over, as they had use for me the next night also. 



68 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

One of the ministers of the city had been invited 
to lecture on the next evening, which he did 
to the great satisfaction of the people, using 
with some alteration the sermon he had recently 
preached on the subject in his own pulpit. I 
followed him, narrating some quite touching 
incidents that friends had written me. The 
minister was quite reanimated himself by his 
effort and the evident gratification of his audi- 
ence, and on the following Sabbath, in his own 
pulpit, again preached on temperance, to a very 
large audience, quite eclipsing his former effort. 
I heard much comment and eulogy of the sermon. 
"Especially," said one, "those incidents he 
related, wer'n't they touching? There was hardly 
a dry eye in the house. " What were they ? 
Humph ! Had stolen my thunder. I leave it to 
the court to say if it was quite fair. And 
especially when my stock in hand at that time 
was rather limited, and not quite so well assorted 
as I have been enabled to collect in the course 
of the succeeding years. I think I may as well 
tell another little incident here, though it occured 
several months later. 

I was called to one of our large cities to 
help the Crusaders celebrate Fourth of July. 
The meeting took the form of a picnic and 
was held on the Fair Grounds. There was a 
very good attendance, and besides myself there 
were three gentleman orators. I shall never 
forget my agony and tears and almost despair 
as I sat listening to the rythmical flow of elo- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 6g 

quence from the lips of the Rev. , "Oh," I 

cried in my distress, ' ' my Father, my Father, 
why hast thou called me here to stand by the 
side of such strength and eloquence? I, so 
little and weak. Oh, what shall I do? " Had to 
do the best I could. A day or two after my 
return home, my feet feeling a little chilly, I 
took from my library Talmage's NttJier Side of 
New York, and sat down by the kitchen stove 
to toast my toes a little. Opening at random — 
oh, why here is my reverend friend's elo- 
quent address, verbatim ad literatum from begin- 
ning to end. Oh, pshaw ! It did not seem half 
so bad to be extinguished and annihilated by 
Talmage, certainly not at second hand. Isn't 
it amazing how much human nature there is in 
folks ? 

A lady sent to ask me to come to her house 
on a Sabbath, during the hour of service, and 
see the throngs of men that went through an 
alley at the rear of her house and through a back 
entrance into one of the principal saloons. I 
was not able to go at the hour of preaching, but 
on the afternoon of Sabbath, 14th of December, 
I went. I had, with earnest prayer, considered 
the matter and finally decided what I would do 
if Providence seemed to favor, but kept my own 
counsel. I could not foresee what might possi- 
bly be the result, or what censure very well- 
meaning people might attach to me. So I 
determined that if my purpose should fail or bring 
disaster I would alone bear the consequences. 



^O MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

My husband was at that time looking after some 
business matters in the South. My niece I knew 
would either insist upon going with me at all 
hazzards, or would at least be greatly distressed 
lest some terrible thing should befall me. The 
dear ladies also, who were standing so bravely by 
my side, would either have tried to dissuade me 
or asked to go with me. I had a purpose in the 
step I was about to take that I felt I could not 
fully explain to others, and decided to keep my 
own counsel. I sat an hour in my friend's sitting- 
room, seeing men coming and going through 
the alley that ran between Central M. E. Church 
and my friend's residence on High street, and the 
building in which the saloon was located on 
Main street. A walk well laid with tanbark led 
into the saloon ; and if it had not been for the 
stained windows of the church, the preacher 
could have seen the throng passing as he stood 
in his pulpit. I have promised that when this 
"cruel war is over," — when? — I am going to 
prepare a lecture on stained windows. We 
church people stain our windows so that we 
cannot look out, the saloon men stain theirs so 
we cannot look in, and so the work of death goes 
on by a sort of tacit agreement or compact. My 
friend said one Sabbath morning she saw a man 
go in with a sweet looking baby in his arms. I 
suppose he had encouraged the good wife and 
mother to go to meeting that morning, with the 
promise that he would take care of the baby. 
Taking advantage of her absence, he had taken 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 7 1 

the baby with him into that dreadful place to get 
his morning's dram, she, dear, confiding soul, 
feeling very grateful for the opportunity of once 
more joining the worshipers in the sanctuary. I 
have ever since felt it my duty to advise ladies, 
when they leave husband at home to watch baby, 
to leave some one to watch husband. 

At the end of an hour I said, "If I had a dis- 
guise I would go in there ;" and asked the lady if 
she could furnish me one. She thought a 
moment, and said, "Yes, I can;" and brought 
a large waterproof circular that enveloped me to 
my feet, and a black and white check gingham 
sun-bonnet having a corded front coming well 
over the face, a cap crown and deep cape. I took 
off my glasses, put back my hair and donned my 
outfit. I have always flattered myself that I 
made a very respectable looking old Irish woman. 
As I passed out I turned to the lady and her 
daughter and said, "Oh, now pray for me as you 
never prayed before in your lives !" They went 
with me to the gate that opened into the alley, the 
daughter saying afterwards that she went to keep 
guard, that if any harm befell me she would 
give the alarm to their next neighbor. But I 
was not thinking of danger, I felt buoyed as if I 
was treading on the air. I entered one door — as 
I did so a large, colored man came out, dressed 
quite nicely and with a very shiny hat on. I do not 
know what I said to him, but upon my return 
from England, the first Sabbath as I was on my 
way to church a colored man, sitting with others 



72 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

under an awning, sprang up and coming forward 
offered his hand, bowing very politely, welcomed 
me home, asked me if I did not remember hav- 
ing met him that Sabbath morning as I entered 
Stubbe's saloon, and what I said to him. I did not 
remember, but he proceeded to assure me he had 
not drank a drop in the three years since. I 
would be glad to know he has not to the present 
time. I passed the third door before reaching 
the saloon where the drinking was going on. 
There were young men standing at the counter 
drinking, and some older men sitting about the 
place. 

I had intended, if I saw anyone with a glass 
that I could be sure held liquor, in his hand, to 
quietly take the glass and walk out. But I 
could not feel sure that what those young men 
were drinking was liquor, so I saw I would 
have to call for something myself, but was greatly 
puzzled as to what to call for. I desired to make 
two cases at the same time against the saloon- 
keeper. One for selling distilled liquors by the 
glass to be drank on the premises, under our 
State law, and the other for selling on Sunday, 
under the Sunday ordinance. ]?ut I was rather 
afraid to ask for whisky or brandy, lest I might 
be suspected as a spy. I found afterwards that 
I might have bought by the drink or demijohn, 
without creating any suspicion. I asked the bar- 
tender if 1 could have something to drink. He 
asked what I wanted. Here again I was quite at 
my wit's end, for I did not know one wine from 



-^ 




M\ KIKSI CLASS 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 73 

another, but at a venture I asked if he had any 
sherry wine. He set a bottle and two small 
glasses on the counter, one having a little water 
in it. I did not understand what the water 
meant, but presumed he thought as I was a 
woman I would not care to take mine " straight," 
as gentlemen do. I picked up the bottle and 
started to pour out the wine, but I did not know 
just how much would be called a drink, and 
as I found my nerve force giving way quite op- 
portunely, so that my hand trembled, and as I 
wanted to implicate him as far as possible, I re- 
quested him to pour it out for me, remarking 
that I felt rather badly. He accordingly poured it 
out for me. I asked the price, and he said a dime, 
which I laid down, and picking up the glass 
walked out. 

I have often, in telling this adventure, enjoyed 
the decided frowns that cloud the gentlemen's 
brows when I tell them I acted on the principle 
that in some things women are cleverer than they 
are. There is always an instant lighting up, 
however, when I add that I knew if that had 
been a woman behind the counter, she would 
have jumped at me like a cat. But I knew too 
that that man would have to stop to work out 
the problem as to what was best to be done in 
the case, and while he was working out his 
problem I would be able to put a safe distance 
between us. Upon reaching the alley I looked 
back and saw him in the yard, with hands spread, 
a picture of amazement. I took my glass home 



74 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and sealed it up for future use. Why did I take 
so remarkable a step for a lady ? is a very natural 
question, and some, not understanding the mo- 
tive that actuated me, v/ere not slow to criti- 
cise me. One reverend gentleman did so in my 
presence. 

By those who could not and never have been 
able to comprehend the motives that then and 
through the subsequent years influenced and 
impelled me, of course I cannot make myself 
understood. I will say this much, however : I 
had seen that though our city had a Sunday 
ordinance, by which those dens could be closed 
on the Sabbath, yet the law was set at naught by 
the back doors always being open. I was told 
that I could have gone into every saloon in 
the city that morning and bought any amount, if 
I had sought the back entrance. The city offi- 
cials knew this, from highest to lowest ; the 
business men knew it ; church people knew it, 
ministers knew it, but no one seemed to think 
it any of his business. It came out later that the 
keeper of this same saloon, it being opposite 
one of our largest churches, had enticed our 
little boys, on their way to Sunday School, into 
the place and given them candies saturated with 
brandy. And, as I have said, the minister from 
his place at the altar could have seen the trains 
of men thronging b)-, if the windows had not been 
made of elegantly stained glass. I saw that some 
extraordinary means must be used to compel 
the attention of the people to the condition our 
city was in. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 75 

In short, the people must be shocked into some 
sort of hfe and interest, as the physician, being 
called to a patient and finding him in a comatose 
state that must terminate in death if not speedily- 
relieved, takes a heavily charged battery and 
sends a strong current of electric fiuid through 
his system, with the hope of shocking him out of 
his insensible condition into life. 

Sensation ! again you say ; and I say. Yes, I 
insist it is a legitimate means ; and so would you 
if your house was on fire or your child had fallen 
into the water. 

On the Tuesday evening following (December 
1 6) we were to have our second mass-meeting, and 
I wished to call out a large audience, and I hoped 
this one saloon and possibly others might be 
sufficiently alarmed to respect the law for a Sab- 
bath or two thereafter. Monday morning I 
started to the Republic office, intending to give 
to the local enough of what I had done to create 
curiosity and call out the desired crowd. But I 
was very much surprised to find that my secret 
was already on the street, I had supposed the 
saloonist and his customers would prefer to 
keep silent. When I reached the office the editor 
sprang up, grasped my hand and exclaimed, ' 'God 
bless you 1 I never saw such a woman before in 
my hfe. I could not have done such a thing. " 
I found the local busy, scribbling away as for life, 
at the unusual incident. I explained to him that 
I wanted to control that bit of news. No, he 
insisted that it was now out and it was his sen- 



76 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

sation. I told him I had a purpose in it and 
could not be thwarted, so, by dint of a little 
scolding, I succeeded in getting the following 
item to the public: 

The Temperance Meeting. 

If the general tone of public opinion and senti- 
ment is regarded at this time, there is no need to urge 
people to turn out and attend the mass temperance 
meeting at the Central M. E. Church to-morrow even- 
ing. The people will be there en masse, and it will only 
be a question of where to put them. A new feature, 
never before introduced and of a decidedly sensational 
nature, will characterize the meeting, and if you want 
to know what it is, go early and stay to the close. It 
will cost nothing. And then go to the tea-party. 

The tea-party referred to was a Boston Cen- 
tennial Tea-party, given by the ladies of the 
Benevolent Society, held at the City Hall, follow- 
ing the temperance meeting. 

We had a crowded house and hundreds went 
away unable to get in. After the speakers on 
the program had got through, being introduced 
by the chairman as having something out of the 
usual line to present, I took my glass and exhib- 
ited it to the audience, producing quite a flutter 
of excitement. I told the story, " How Thought 
my first glass of liquor, " and asked if there were 
any gentlemen there who would come forward 
and prosecute tho liquor-dealer for breaking the 
Sunday ordinance, adding that I stood ready to 
be a witness in the case. Gentlemen had told 
me it was not necessary for anyone else to appear. 
I could just go and make my affidavit in the case 
and have him fined. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, JJ 

I told them I knew that very well, but I 
wished to see some of the gentlemen show their 
hand. It had come to be rather fashionable for 
gentlemen meeting me as I came and went in 
my work, to grasp my hand and exclaim, ' ' God 
bless you. Mother Stewart, go on," and I had 
begun to think it was about time for some of them 
to come on. Several did indeed rise in the audi- 
ence and pledge themselves to attend to it. But 
after waiting until the latter part of the week 
without hearing from them, I wrote notes and 
hired a boy to deliver them to several gentlemen, 
requesting them to meet me at the Mayor's office 
the next morning. But they did not make 
their appearance. Rev. J. W. Spring, of the M. 
P. Church, however came and acted as prose- 
cutor. I had, early in the week, stepped into 
the saloon and laid down, under vehement pro- 
testations from the proprietor and his clerk, the 
price of the glass, that they might not be able to 
get up a little side current, as they hoped, because 
of my carrying off the glass. 

I also directed the policeman to return both 
glass and wine when I was done with it. Though, 
if I could have had a little more help at the time, 
by having the wine analyzed, I could then have 
made another case for selling impure liquors. 

The man was fined $10 and costs, this being 
the first time a case had been made on him 
though he had been arraigned before ; and this 
was the heaviest sentence that had been assessed 
up to that time, or that was for several years 
afterwards. 



78 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The people were beginning to wake up and 
public sentiment was setting against the saloon, 
and it was getting easier for officers to do their 
duty. 

Editor Bickham of the Dayton {O .) Journal \s 
responsible for the name by which we and our 
work will henceforth be known, he being the first 
to employ it, as far as I know, in an editorial that 
appeared in t\\Q Jo2tr?ial, and was copied by our 
Republic, v/ith the following remark : 

Mother Stewart cannot complain that she has not 
plenty of newspaper backing. Here comes the Dayton 
Journal and talks in this vigorous manner : 

"One woman in Springfield is disturbing the whole 
city -not an unusual thmg for a woman to do, how- 
ever, as they have in times past changed the course 
of whole empires. The lady to whom we refer is 
Mrs. Stewart, who is on a Temperance Crusade 
against liquor-selling. She is determined to banish 
the trade from Springfield, and has got herself rein- 
forced by a battalion of resolute women, who are 
making it hot for saloon-keepers. 

"Last Sunday sl^.e disguised herself, entered a saloon 
and purchased a glass of liquor, which she carried 
away with her. Tuesday night she rallied her forces 
at a public meeting, displayed her glass of liquor on 
the platform, made a telling speech, invoked a lawful 
assault upon the saloon-keeper and was vigorously 
sustained in her proposal. That saloon-keeper will 
have to shut up shop." 

In the month of November, I think it was — 
have not the exact date at hand — I was invited 
to lecture in New Carlisle, a very pleasant village 
in tlie western part of our county. 

The citizens had, hy action of their Council 
under the McConnclsville Ordinance, closed up 
the saloons in their town. But they were greatly 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 79 

annoyed by a saloon which was started just out- 
side of the corporation, and enticing men and 
boys out where they could indulge in even 
greater excess than when in the more public 
part of town. I remember I urged the ladies 
to go in committee or company, take their 
knitting and sit with him, and sit or knit him 
out. I told them if they would only undertake 
it they could knit him to death. 

But they had not the courage, and by just 
that much missed the credit of being the origina- 
tors of the Crusade or saloon visitation. Said 
they had no one to lead them. Only a few weeks 
later, all over the State were seen bands of women 
marching the streets, entering saloons and pray- 
ing the keepers to give up their soul-destroying 
business. I think I must beg the reader's indul- 
gence while I give a few extracts from a very 
full report of our second meeting, found in the 
Republic of the 17th, as I wish to do what I can 
towards transmitting to posterity a unique deliv- 
erance of legal reasoning and conclusions by our 
municipal Solons, that cannot find its parallel 
outside of liquor legislation. I may add that 
our city law-makers have held their own up to 
the present time, now fourteen years, and so has 
the liquor business, with its long train of crimes, 
misery and death, and in a continually increas- 
ing ratio. The same brewer has just been re- 
elected to Council at our recent Spring elec- 
tion: 



80 memorihs of the crusade. 

The People versus the Liquor Traffic — Im- 
mense AND Enthusiastic Mass-Meeting at 
Central M. E. Church — Addresses by Rev. 
J. W. Spring, Rev. Mr. Allen, Mr. J. A. 
Jackson, and Mother Stewart — A 
Glass of Liquor Bought on Sunday 
Exhibited to the Audience — What 
THE La\v in the Case is. 

The large and fine audience-room of the Central 
M, E. Church was filled with an immense audience 
Tuesday evening, the occasion being that of the 
second Temperance Mass-Meeting, held under the 
auspices of the Ladies' Benevolent Society. Not only 
was every seat in the body of the house and the 
gallery filled, but chairs were brought into the aisles 
and occupied, and hundreds of people were com- 
pelled to stand. Yet the exercises were of such a 
deeply interesting nature that there was no bustle or 
confusion, except as the speakers were applauded, 
and even those who were without seats remained 
,until the last. Vocal and instrumental music, as at 
the first meeting, formed a part of the program, and a 
part that was very pleasing and acceptable. Mr. J. 
Lamar Coleman led the music. Rev. C. W. Ketcham, 
pastor of Central Church, presided. * * * Another 
person (C. M. Nichols) was called upon, but declined 
in favor of the famous Mother Stewart, and her ap- 
pearance was greeted with applause. Mrs. Stewart 
gave a resume of the campaign thus far, spoke of the 
poor woman whose brother was a President of a 
Southern College, but whose husband was a com- 
mon drunkard. This woman came to her to get 
help. The habits of her husband were so bad that 
she was obliged to break up her household and take 
her children and leave the city. 

From this had sprung the work already done. It 
had been asked. Why don't you women go to work ? 
And they had gone to work, and now they needed 
help. The people did not know how much iniquity 
was going on in the city. 

As Mrs. Stewart stepped upon the platform she 
set a glass tumbler with a scarlet liquid in it, carefully 
covered with a white paper to prevent its evaporation, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 8 1 

upon the table by her side, and the very appearance 
of the tumbler was making a very good speech of itself. 
Mrs. Stewart said she bought that glass of liquor at 
a saloon on Main street, within a stone's throw of the 
Central Methodist, Congregational and First Presby- 
terian church edifices, on Sunday last. * * * 

Mrs. Stewart then asked the men of Springfield, 
would they prosecute this case, and several hands 
were held up as token that they would. Scores of 
women held up their hands to show their determi- 
nation to aid in the work, and we have no doubt 
they meant business in the way of suppressing the 
traffic in Springfield, and that active operations will 
commence at an early day. 

Mrs. Stewart then read the oath of office of the 
city officers, councilmen, etc., as follows: 

"State of Ohio, Clark Co., ss : Personally ap- 
peared before me, a Notary Public in and for said 
county, the undersigned, who being duly sworn, 
deposes and says that he will support the Constitu- 
tion of the United States ; of the State of Ohio, and 
will perform faithfully and punctually the duties of 
office to which he has been elected. Sworn to and 
subscribed, etc., etc." 

She then read the extract from the 199th Section 
of the Municipal Code. 

The petition of six hundred women of Springfield, 
to the City Council was then read. 

Mrs. Stewart next read the following extract from,; 
the report of Council Committee on the above peti- 
tion : 

<' * * * We also give it as our deliberate judg- 
ment that the matter to which this petition refers is 
of such transcendent importance as to demand of this 
Council the exhausting of every means within its 
power to divest it of its capacity for making misery 
and crime within our midst. The univeral sense of 
the Christian world condemns drunkenness as a crime: 
* * * And if this be so upon recognized prin- 
ciples, measures are demanded to prevent and pun- 
ish it. 

"The temperance movement throughout the land 
has suffered more from the indiscretion of its friends 
than from the open opposition of its enemies. We 

(6) 



82 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

are therefore not in favor of recommending the 
Council to grant what is asked for by the petitioners." 

She then gave the action of the Council assembled 
December 2nd, 1873, in the adoption of the follow- 
ing two resolutions out of the five submitted with 
the report of the committee appointed to report on 
the petition of the 600 ladies : 

"Resolved, That the indulgence in intoxicating 
drinks, whereby neglect and want are brought home 
to the family, is a crime against nature, and it is ex- 
pedient to exercise any authority or impose any 
punishment necessary to prevent it. 

" Resolved^ That it is an apparent and acknowl- 
edged fact that there is an indulgence in intoxicat- 
ing drinks in this city which deprives families of 
peace, comfort and proper support, and that there are 
those who take in exchange for their drinks the 
money known to be needed for family support, con- 
trary to law." 

The effect of the addresses, and particularly that of 
Mrs, Stewart, was electric and most wholesome. Many 
persons in the audience were so influenced by what 
had been said that they appeared ready and anxious 
to put their hands to the work. 

It was to me a subject of wonder and gratitude 
how the Lord led us, opened the way and sup- 
plied our needs, in this new and wonderful 
work. Early in our movement I began to wish 
some one might be inspired to write our songs 
for us. As in the political campaigns, more 
especially during our war, the songs that were 
written, and sung by the people, had a great in- 
fluence in winning our cause. We all know how 
Mrs. Howe's " Battle Hymn" fired all hearts, 
both at home and on the field, to do and to suffer 
unto death for their country. If only some one 
might be raised up now, to give us such songs 
as would catch the popular ear, — be caught up 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 83 

by the boys on the street, everywhere on the 
lips of the people, what an inspiration it would 
be for our work. Behold you, in the "Gospel 
Songs" that we commenced to use in our first 
mass-meetings, were just what we needed ; and 
very soon floated out all over the land, ' ' All 
hail the power of Jesus' Name, " "Jesus, Lover 
of my Soul, Let me to Thy bosom fly," "Rock 
of Ages, cleft for me," "Nearer my God to 
Thee," and hundreds and thouands were in- 
spired to fall into ranks by these glorious war 
songs of the Crusade, even the saloon-keepers 
themselves often taking up the refrain. I remem- 
ber one such in Ironton, who, though unyield- 
ing, yet the songs, together with the prayers 
and tears of the women, so haunted his memory 
and disturbed his peace that he could be heard 
walking his room in the night, singing the songs he 
heard the women singing in theii daily visitations 
to his saloon. 

From the beginning of this remarkable work, 
all the old-time, stale, and often coarse and ques- 
tionable anecdotes that had been in times past 
reckoned as wonderfully telling were entirely dis- 
carded ; no place for them. And he who at 
anytime attempted to introduce them very soon 
discovered his mistake. The spirit that pervaded 
the whole movement was earnest, solemn, devo- 
tional, the atmosphere seeming to say, "No 
time for trifling here." 

Among my first thoughts in the work was 
how to enlist the young people, especially the 



84 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

young men. If the excitement fell short of the 
young people we would only succeed in part. 
How could they be enlisted ? became an absorb- 
ing thought. One morning, while my heart was 
burdened with this subject, a young man called 
and introduced himself to me and offered his 
services in any way he might be able to aid the 
cause, just what I had so felt the need of. It 
may to-day look like a very trifling incident, but 
at that time it was a source of great encourage- 
ment, and I received it as from the Lord and in 
answer to my cry to Him. And my young 
friend did prove himself a most valuable helper. 
I am happy to record that this gentleman, Mr. 
A. H. Griffith, has never swerved from his prin- 
ciples, but has given his strong influence and 
help to other young men who were in the toils 
of the destroyer or being tempted to their ruin. 
I was one morning passing along Limestone 
street, intent on some duty connected with my 
work, which now absorbed all my time, when Mr. 
G. Harry Phillips, — brother of PhilHp Phillips, 
the world-renowned singer, — who was standing in 
the door of his office, handed me a paper, saying, 
" Mother Stewart, I wish you could inaugurate 
that method of work in Springfield." I took 
the paper home and read a thrilling account of 
a lecture having been delivered in Fredonia, N. 
Y., by Dr. Dio Lewis, of Boston, on temperance, 
and the result. I shall never forget the last 
paragraph of this wonderful account, dated 
Tuesday morning, just as it went to press, saying. 



MEMORIES OF- THE CRUSADE. 85 

"The women are marching 127 strong." It 
thrilled me like the blast of a trumpet, and 
does yet whenever I recur to it. "Oh ! " I said, 
' ' yes, I wish we could inaugurate such a move- 
ment in our city, but of course that would be 
impossible." The paper containing this account, 
with the issue of the next week, through the 
kindness of Mrs. E. McNeil, — "one of the few 
original Crusaders that have remained in active 
service up to the present time," — accompanied 
by a very interesting letter, is before me. Says 
Mrs. McNeil: 

Our first visiting of saloons was on Decem- 
ber 15, 1873. The previous week Dr. Dio 
Lewis came to this place to meet a lecture 
engagement, — his subject, "Our Girls." The 
Good Templars were then in ascendency here, 
and they were looking for a speaker for their 
quarterly meeting, which would be the next 
Monday evening. They urged Lewis to stay 
over for that meeting. He said he had nothing 
for temperance prepared, as he had given very 
little thought to the subject for some time. They 
still urged him to give an impromptu talk. He 
said he had a lecture engagement for Jamestown 
on Monday evening, and then he was to go from 
there to Ohio. If they v/ould have their meet- 
ing on Sunday evening he would stay and do 
the best he could Now, I will let the report as 
found in the Censor o( December ly, 1873, tell 
you of that meeting. 

This, and that of the next week are in the 
main correct, though a few explanations are neces- 
sary. We went the rounds of the saloons and 
drug-stores until most of them locked us out; they 
did not otherwise treat us ill. 

I think we went the rounds five times, then 



86 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the leader, Mrs. Judge Barker, (an Episcopal 
lady) proposed a change, to stop the visits and 
look after and provide for the suffering poor. 
The excitement did not wear out the following 
year ; and with myself and a few others it has 
never worn out. 

The reporter tells of the unlooked for enthu- 
siasm of that meeting, but he does not tell the 
cause. The Holy Spirit descended upon that au- 
dience, and its power, if not manifested in simi- 
lar manner, was felt as sensibly as on the day of 
Pentecost. I there received a baptism that has 
kept me to the work all these years. It was not 
Dio Lewis that so moved that audience, he was 
just as much surprised as any one. 

You will see by the paper that the next Mon- 
day, the 22nd, we finished our permanent organ- 
ization, and we named it the "Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union." The reporter left out the 
word Christian, because many of the members 
were Good Templars and objected to that part 
of the name. This was the voice of the men 
who favored us, but the women always clung to 
the full name. Our weekly meetings have never 
been discontinued. Dear Mrs. M. A. Tremain 
made the first prayer in a saloon. She is now in 
glory. 

In one saloon we visited they had a large bil- 
liard table at one end, and some young men un- 
dertook to keep up the rolling during our relig- 
ious exercises, but during the prayer one of the 
ladies laid her hand on one of the balls. That 
evening one of the young men went to the leader 
and apologized ; and three years after another of 
those young men confessed that during that 
prayer he was convicted and never found peace 
until he gave himself to Christ. No liquor has 
been sold in our town for eight years. 

The Fredonia Censor of December 17, 1873, 
with sensational headlines, tells of the large and 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 87 

enthusiastic meeting on Sunday evening, the 
14th, addressed by Dr. Lewis, who gave his plan 
of visiting the saloons, which in his boyhood he 
had seen his mother and her neighbors prosecute 
with such remarkable success. Remarks of in- 
dorsement were made by a number of influential 
gentlemen and a call was made for the ladies who 
sympathized with the cause to rise up, and nearly 
every lady in the house stood up. A committee 
was appointed to take the names of fifty ladies to 
serve as a visiting committee, but many others 
were enrolled. Mrs. A. L. Benton, Mrs. L. 
Williams, Jr., Mrs. Dr. Fuller and Mrs. J. W. 
Armstrong were named as a committee to draft 
an appeal to the liquor dealers ; and a meeting 
was announced for Monday morning at lo 
o'clock. 

At the hour appointed there were three hundred 
men and women present, and the Committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose the previous evening 
submitted and the meeting accepted the follow- 
ing appeal : 

In the name of God and humanity we make our 
appeal : Knowing, as we do, that the sale of liquor 
is the parent of every misery, prolific in all woe in this 
life and the next, potent alone in evil, blighting every 
fair hope, desolating families, the chief incentive to 
crime, these, the mothers, wives and daughters, rep- 
resenting the moral and religious sentiment of our 
town, to save the loved members of our households 
from the strong temptation of drink, from acquiring 
an appetite for it, and to rescue, if possible, those that 
already have acquired it, do earnestly request that 
you will pledge yourself to cease the traffic here in 
those drinks forthwith and forever. We will also add 
the hope that you will abolish your gambling tables. 



55 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

After a season of prayer and consultation, the 
ladies withdrew to the rooms below to arrange the 
details of their march, the brethren continuing in 
prayer and conference. During the deliberations 
it was suggested that they not only pledge their 
moral support to the ladies, but a money support 
also, and a long list of names is given, each sub- 
scribing ;^i,ooo. Mass-meetings were arranged 
for every Sunday evening, and prayer-meetings 
for every night through the week. 

About half-past twelve, over one hundred ladies 
marched forth on their mission, led by Mrs. 
Judge Barker and Mrs. Rev. L. Williams. Little 
did they know that they were setting in motion 
chords that would ere long vibrate around the 
world, touch the hearts of the Christian people 
and awaken an interest in the cause of temper- 
ance such as had not before been known. 

The paper of the following week reports the 
progress of the work and permanent organization 
of the Union, with the following pledge : 

We, the undersigned women of Fredonia, feeling 
that God has laid upon us a work to do in the cause 
of temperance, do hereby pledge ourselves to united 
and continuous effort to suppress the traffic in intoxi- 
cating liquors in our village zmtil this icork be accom- 
plished ; and that we will stand ready for united effort 
upon any renewal of the traffic. We will also do what 
we can to alleviate the woe of the drunkard's family, 
and to rescue from drunkenness those who are pur- 
suing its ways. 

This society shall be known as The Woman's 
Temi)erance Union of Fredonia. 

To this pledge is appended the names of 142 

married and 63 single ladies, with the following 



MEMORIJiS OF THE CRUSADE. 89 

officers : President, Mrs. Geo. Barker ; Vice 
President, Mrs. Dr. Barker ; Secretary, Mrs. L. 
A. Barmore; Treasurer, Mrs. L. L. Riggs, with 
a large Board of Directors. 

This paper also reports the organization of the 
ladies of Jamestown, after a lecture of Dio Lewis 
on Tuesday evening, and their visiting the saloons 
on Wednesday the 17th. Sixty-two ladies 
formed this band, but more were added each day. 
They called their association "The Ladies' Tem- 
perance Society, auxilliary to the Jamestown Total 
Abstinence Society." Mrs. A. Hazeltine was 
made President ; Mrs. W. S. Carnahan, Secre- 
tary ; Miss Jennie Barrows, Treasurer. 

The ladies of Jamestown did not follow up this 
form of work very long, but, as their sisters of 
Fredonia, they received an inspiration that pre- 
pared them for effective work in the great white 
ribbon army of to-day. 

Only a few days after these stirring events in 
Fredonia and Jamestown, the whole country was 
thrilled by the report of the uprising of the 
women of Hillsboro, Washington C. H., Wil- 
mington, Morrow, New Vienna, and ere long 
hundreds of other places. Where did it stop ? 
Will it ever? Nay, not till the liquor curse shall 
have been swept from off the face of the earth ; 
and nevermore shall be heard in all the green 
earth the wail of the Rachels because of their 
children slain by this Herod of the nineteenth 
century. 

The church had not kept up to the apostolic 



90 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

standard of piety, faith and aggressive work. In- 
fidelity as to the power of faith, the visible 
answer to prayer, had formed a lodgment in the 
church. And no wonder ! A mighty force in the 
church, the greater part numerically and spirit- 
ually, was virtually neutralized by the false inter- 
pretation and teaching of Paul's injunction, "Let 
your women keep silence in the churches. " Added 
to this, the worldly-mindedness, the strife after 
wealth and place of so many influential leaders 
in all the churches, what wonder that the enemy 
took advantage of it, and taunted us with our 
lack of power, and our failure to make headway 
against the increasing power of sin, and our ina- 
bility to bring the world to Christ ! 

What wonder that infidels were growing more 
bold and defiant ! It was a natural consequence 
that one, wise in his own imagination, should 
stand forth and defy the people of God, saying, 
" Give us a prayer-gauge. If your God hears 
and answers prayer, give us a test, and we will 
believe you." God's people seemed to be dumb- 
founded. They did know ; they held the witness 
deep in their hearts that God is a prayer-hear- 
ing and a prayer-answering God. But how to 
answer this scoffing Philistine they knew not. 
Behold you ! God, our God, from out the 
Throne of His ineffable glory, answered, "I do, I 
zt'i'// hear and answer the cries of my people." 
"And to prove it beyond a peradventure, and for 
all generations to come, I will call forth my 
weakest instruments, my hand-maidens, and set 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 9 1 

them in battle array against the most powerful 
enemy of mankind, before whom strong men in 
Church and State cower in the dust. And it 
shall be unto them, according to their faith. I 
will give the enemy into their hand." "They 
that trust in me shall never be confounded." 

Lo ! on every street in all the land were 
seen frail, timid women, marching with bowed 
heads and silent lips, but abounding joy in 
their hearts, carrying the word of life into the 
dark lurking places of sin and crime. There 
pleading with sinners and offering pardon in the 
name of Jesus to the vilest ; there kneeling and 
crying to God on their behalf; and He, as in 
the olden time. He heard and answered when 
His people cried to Him, did hear and did an- 
swer, and the enemy fell before them as the leaves 
of autumn before the wind. The world was 
aroused ; the infidel was answered ; and the 
end is not yet. Our God is marching on. " The 
Lord giveth the word ; the women that publish 
the tidings are a great host." 




CHAPTER V. 




The Uprising at Hillsboro and Washington C. H. 

'R. LEWIS delivered his lecture on " Our 
Girls," at Hillsboro, Ohio, December 22d, 
1873. At the close of his address he 
announced that he would speak to as many as 
would come to hear him, on the following night, 
on temperance ; and gave some hints of a plan 
which he would explain and recommend, for a 
campaign in the interest of society. The follow- 
ing evening, December 23, the Doctor gave his 
lecture and his plan to a large and enthusiastic 
audience. He maintained that the people of 
Hillsboro could close the dramshops in their town 
if the women only had the energy, persistence 
and true Christian spirit. So forcibly did he 
present the subject that a motion to put the new 
idea into execution was carried by a rising vote. 
It was his custom to call secretaries to the 
stand and have the audience furnish the names 
of ladies of standing and respectability, who, it 
was presumed, would be willing to enter into the 
movement, even though they might not at the 
time be at the meeting. In a very short time 

92 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 93 

the names of seventy-five ladies were enrolled, 
and a committee of three ladies, Mrs. E. J. 
Thompson, Mrs. P. J. Evans and Mrs. E. L. 
Grand Girard, was appointed to write an appeal 
to be read to the liquor dealers by the commit- 
tee of visitation. At the next morning's meeting 
the ladies put their names to the following com- 
pact : 

' ' We, the ladies whose names are hereto 
appended, agree and resolve with God's help 
we will stand by each other in this work, and 
persevere therein until it is accomplished, and 
see to it, as far as our influence goes, that the 
traffic shall never be revived." 

Seventy- five men at this meeting gave their 
names as moral and pecuniary support or back- 
ing to the women. For the rest we will let Mrs. 
Thompson, the leader, tell her own story, as she 
does for Mrs. Bolton's contribution in the Cen- 
tennial Temperance volume. She says : 

I was not present at the lecture, but prepared, as 
those who watch for the morning ; for the first gray 
light upon this dark night of sorrow. 

Few comments were made in our house upon the 
new line of policy till after breakfast the next morn- 
ing, when, just as we gathered around the hearth-stone, 
my daughter Mary said very gently, " Mother, will 
you go to the meeting this morning ? " Hesitatingly 
I replied, " I don't know yet what I shall do." My 
husband, fully appreciating the responsibility of the 
moment, said, "Children, let us leave your mothei 
alone ; for you know where she goes with all vexed 
questions; " and pointing to the old family Bible, left 
the room. The awful responsibility of the step that 
I must needs next take was wonderfully relieved by 
thought of the " cloudy pillar'' and "parted waters" 



94 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of the past; hence with confidence I was about 
turning my eyes of faith '-up to the hills" from 
whence had come my help, when in response to a 
gentle tap at my door, I met my dear Mary, who 
with her Bible in hand and tearful eyes, said, "Mother, 
I opened to the 146th Psalm, and I believe it is for 
you." She withdrew, and I sat down to read the 
wonderful message from God. As I read what I had 
so often read before, the Spirit so strongly " took of 
the things of God," and showed me new meanings. 
I no longer hesitated, but in the strength thus imparted 
started to the scene of action. Upon entering the 
Church I was startled to find myself chosen their 
leader. The old Bible was taken down from the 
desk and the 146th Psalm read. Mrs. General 
McDowell, by request, led in prayer, and although 
she had never before heard her own voice in public 
prayer, on this occasion the " tongue of fire" sat upon 
her, and all were deeply affected. Mrs. Cowden, 
our Methodist minister's wife, was then requested to 
sing to a famili..r air, 

*' Give to the winds thy fears, 

l{r)pe, and be undismayed ; 
God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears, 

He will lift up thy head." 

While thus engaged, the women (seventy- five in 
number) fell into line, two and two, and proceeded 
first to the drug-stores, and then to the hotels and 
saloons. On the first visit to the drug-stores, two 
signed the pledge the ladies had prepared for drug- 
gists. But one of the druggists, a Dr. Dunn, made 
a show of stubborn resistance ; and at length brought 
suit against the ladies for " trespassing and obstruct- 
ing his business." 

While the women here and elsewhere proposed 
to follow their plan strictly of simple appeal, 
prayer and song, supposing that against such 
warfare there could be no law, they very soon 
learned their mistake, and in spite of themselves 
found they were liable to be arraigned before the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 95 

courts to answer to the charge of interfering with 
the legitimate business of making drunkards and 
destroying homes. And the further tliey went, 
the more complex and inexplicable they found 
the laws pertaining to the liquor question. And 
to their great astonishment they found, too, that 
they were largely in the interest of the nefarious 
business. 

The reporter of the Cincinnati Gazette writes 
as follows of the scene and its effect on the spec- 
tators, upon the moving out of the first band : 

On Christmas morning, all preliminaries being 
arranged, one hundred and fifteen women, (this 
according to Mrs. Thompson is inaccurate), filed out 
of the church, formed a procession and marched to 
the drug-stores. They went with trembling limbs 
and anxious hearts. It was to them a strange expe- 
rience, a new idea. It seemed subversive of all 
recognized rules of womanly conduct. The thought 
of going into the low part of the town and entering 
one of those vile dens which respeciable people 
abhorred at a distance ; of kneeling in sav/dust and 
filth, and pleading with bloated and beery saloon- 
keepers, was overwhelming to their finer sensibilities 
and shocking to their modesty. They shrank from 
the task half in doubt and half in fear. But, again, 
they thought of the drunkards that were reeling 
home from the saloon every night — perhaps into their 
families — and of the temptations that were lying in 
wait for their children in the future. Their misgiv- 
ings left them, and personal considerations no longer 
had any weight. 

It was not long till the man Dunn closed his 
door on them, and they, no ways daunted, went 
on with their prayers and songs in the street, 
kneeling, as a reporter ot the scene says, "in the 
snow." Finally, taking a hint from the ladies 



96 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of Washington Court House, they decided to 
have a tabernacle erected in front of the drug- 
store. In a few hours the enthusiastic brethren 
who were aiding and abetting these good ladies 
had a tabernacle ready, and the women took pos- 
session and went on with their glorious work. 
But their man was not to be circumvented so 
easily. A lawyer was called to his aid, and the 
ladies were arraigned for interfering with his 
lawful (?) business. A court trial followed, the 
case was argued at length, pro and con. The 
temporary injunction was dissolved on some tech- 
nicality. The case was next appealed to the 
District Court, but nothing finally came of it, I 
believe. 

I happen to find among my papers a copy of 
the Fayette County Herald, a weekly paper pub- 
lished in Washington C. H., being the next issue 
after the women started their work there. The 
headlines are duly sensational. 

"The Ball Opened! 

"A Detachment of Women Marching the 

Streets of Washington ! 

" Prayer and Singing in the Saloons! 

"A Prayer Meeting Seven Hours Long, etc ! 

" Liquor Emptied into the Streets ! " 

After giving an account of Dr. Lewis' lecture 
and the proceedings of the meeting, similar to 
that at Hillsboro, the report proceeds : 

On motion of Dr. Lewis, a committee of ladies 
was appointed to draw up an appeal to our citizens 
engaged in the liquor business. The Chair appointed 



MEMORItS OF THE CRUSADE. 9/ 

Mrs. George Carpenter, Mrs. A. C. Hurst, Mrs. E. 
A. Pine, to serve on this committee; Mrs. R. Ogle 
was then added to this committee of appeal. 

The Chairman of this committee, Mrs. M. J. Car- 
penter, who drafted the appeal, is a daughter of one 
of Ohio's most famous pioneer Methodist preachers, 
Rev. James G ilruth, a man noted for great courage and 
energy, as well as flaming oratory. No doubt to these 
inherited traits of character was due the indomitable 
energy and zeal that so fitted her for a leader, and 
resulted in giving to Washington the honor of being 
the first town that closed out the saloons in the 
Crusade. 

Closing appeals of stirring power were made by 
Dr. Lewis and Rev. A. C. Hurst, and after a vote of 
thanks to Dr. Lewis for his work among us, the meet- 
ing adjourned to meet in the Methodist Church and 
hear the report of the committee appointed. 

The meeting Thursday evening was one of deep 
interest and feeling. After prayer and singing, the 
committee on appeal presented the following for 
adoption : 

APPEAL. 

** Knowing as you do, the fearful effects of intoxicat- 
ing drinks, we, the women of Washington, after 
earnest prayer and deliberation, have decided to 
appeal to you to desist from this ruinous traffic, that 
our husbands and sons be no longer exposed to this 
terrible temptation, and that we may no longer see 
them led into those paths that go down to ruin, and 
bring both soul and body to destruction. 

" We appeal to the better instincts of your hearts m 
the name of desolated homes, blasted hopes, ruined 
lives, widowed hearts ; for the honor of our commu- 
nity ; for our prosperity ; for our happiness ; for our 
good name as a town; in the name of God, who will 
judge you, as well as ourselves; for the sake of your 
souls, which are to be saved or lost, we beg, we 
implore you to cleanse yourselves from this heinous 
sin, and place yourselves in the ranks of those who 
are striving to elevate and ennoble themselves and 
their fellow-men ; and to this we ask you to pledge 
yourselves." 

After twice reading, the appeal was adopted, and 

(7) 



98 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

many prayers and earnest words uttered, and the 
meeting adjourned to meet Friday morning in the M. 
E. Church, at 9:30 o'clock, December 26th, 1873. 

Meeting met pursuant to adjournment, in the M. 
E. Church. 

Services opened by singing and prayer, and reading 
of the Scriptures. One hundred copies of the appeal 
to be presented to the dealers in intoxicating drinks 
were ordered printed and circulated throughout the 
community. Mr. John S. Foster and Mr. Allen Hegler 
were appointed to attend to the business. 

After a call for volunteers, and responses by many 
additional names, Mrs. J. L. Van Deman and Mrs. 
D. McLean were appointed to lead the procession, 
and Mrs. George Carpenter was appointed Captain 
and reader of the appeal. Mrs. A. E. Pine was 
elected to lead the singing. 

Now came the most interesting movement of this 
meeting. More than forty of our best women in the 
community were to go forth on their errand of mercy. 
There was much trembling of heart, much taking 
hold of God, much crying and supplication in prayer. 
Such a scene was never witnessed in Washington. 

Down the central aisle of the church marched 
these women to their work, while the brethren con- 
tinued in prayer to Almighty God, that he would be 
with these people as they go from place to place with 
Christian song and prayer, to appeal face to face in 
their various places of business, to those men who 
are at work selling liquor. 

At one place they were met with a "God bless you, 
ladies," and an immediate signing of the appeal. 

Thirteen places in all were visited, with the proprie- 
tors of which the following exercises were held: 

I. Singing; 2. Prayer; 3. Singing; 4. Prayer; 
5. Reading of appeal; 6. Promise to call again. 

The novel procession created the wildest excite- 
ment on the streets, and was the subject of conver- 
sation to the exclusion of all other subjects. 

The work of the ladies was thoroughly done. Not 
a den escaped. Into the front door, filling the front 
room and back room too. Prayer, followed by Bible 
arguments in answer to the excuses of men. Down 
into the cellar, everywhere they go with the same 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 99 

eloquent plea: " We pray you, stop this; we mean 
you no harm, we beg you to desist." In tears the 
mothers, wives and sisters plead their cause till late 
in the afternoon. The result seemed to te meagre 
for the first day's work, but to every stubborn will 
was kindly given the promise, '' We will call again 
to-morrow." At one place the front door was locked, 
but afterwards opened and an entrance gained. 

At the evening meeting in the Presbyterian Church, 
a report in detail was given by the Secretary of the 
ladies. Miss T. M. Ustic, and with much prayer and 
singing, a meeting was appointed for Saturday morn- 
ing in the Presbyterian Church. 

Saturday morning, though a very inclement one 
and one unusually busy to most women with families, 
a large number of ladies met in the Presbyterian 
Church, and after some consultation it was decided 
to prepare two pledges, one to be presented to the 
druggists and the other to the dram-sellers. After 
much earnest consecration to the work, began one of 
the most remarkable days ever seen in the town. It 
was agreed that the brethren would stay in the Church 
and pray for God's blessing on the ladies, so long as 
they were on their mission ; and that they might know 
that we were at work, the great bell at the church 
tolled out at the close of every prayer. This prayer- 
meeting continued for seven hours. 

Saturday evening a meeting was held at the M. E. 
Church, and stirring addresses were made, and a 
grand union meeting of all the churches arranged for 
Sabbath-day. 

Sunday morning a large audience assembled in the 
M. E. Church, and was addressed by Rev. A. C. 
Hurst, Rev. George Carpenter and Mr. Armstrong. 
In the evening the meeting was presided over by Mr. 
P. C. Morehouse, and addressed by Messrs. Gardner, 
Pine, Ustic and Rev A. C. Hurst. 

Monday, December 29th, 1873. — Promptly at 9 
A. M., a still larger attendance at the Presbyterian 
Church announced that the enthusiasm was still on 
the increase. Singing and prayer and a total absti- 
nence pledge from beer, wine, cider and all intoxi- 
cants, were the order. This pledge was freely circu- 
l;<ted through the day, and large numbers enrolled 
their names. 



lOO MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The ladies were kindly invited to dine at the Fire- 
man's Hall, and after a substantial lunch, the line of 
march was taken up to the Presbyterian Church, 
where they were joined by the gentlemen, and a 
straight course taken for the establishment of Messrs. 
Anderson & Keller, all the bells in town pealing out 
a grand anthem of praise, a glad music for such an 
occasion. On arriving at the place of meeting, the 
following order of exercises was carried out. 

I, Singing; 2, Prayer by Rev. A. C. Hurst; 
3. Singing; 4. Rolling out of whisky barrels; 
5. Pouring out of liquor. 

An ax was placed in the hands of the women who 
had suffered most, and swinging through the air came 
down with ringing blows, bursting the heads and 
fk)oding the gutters of the street. One good woman 
putting her soul into every blow, struck but once for 
a barrel, splashing Holland gin and old Bourbon high 
into the air, amid the shouts of the immense multi- 
tudes. Four casks and one barrel were forced open, 
and the proprietors all the time giving a hearty con- 
sent. As the last cask was opened, Mr. Anderson 
made a ringing speech, followed by three cheers for 
King David Anderson. Then Mr. Keller mounted 
a cask and made a similar speech, followed by three 
cheers for Keller. After a prayer by Rev. George 
Carpenter, the multitude quietly dispersed. 

The temperance meeting on Monday was fairly red- 
hot with enthusiasm. The report of the committee 
of visitation was read and the temperance pledge 
signed by a large number of men and boys. Such 
singing, hearty applause, cries of "good, good " were 
never before heard in Washington. 

Mr. Anderson and Mr. Keller were present and 
addressed the audience with much earnestness and 
the best of feeling. 

Following this thrilling report is an account 

of a poor lad, who, in a written appeal to the 

ladies, told that he was at work in a saloon ; he 

would be glad to get out and go to school, but 

had to work for his own support. At once a call 

was made for pledges of help, and resulted in 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. lOI 

promises to board and assist for twelve months. 
Again the report of work proceeds : 

Tuesday mornhig, more than ever before met in 
the Presbyterian Church, and after an hour's prayer, 
singing and conference, they started on the fourth 
day's round. Prayer-meeting was held all morning, 
till a messenger announced victory number two. 
Anthony Abbot had signed the pledge and was will- 
ing to pour out his liquor. Again the bells pealed 
forth the "glad tidings of great joy," and again the 
services of song and prayer began : 

I. Prayer by Rev. George Carpenter; 2. Rolling 
out of barrels ; 3. Ax application to barrel heads; 
4. Fire application to old Bourbon; 5. Cheers by the 
multitude. 

All this was done with the greatest magnanimity 
and enthusiasm. A stream of " mixed drinks," 
whisky, gin, port wine, brandy, etc., in one steady 
stream on its way to Paint Creek. After a speech by 
Anthony Abbot, who announced his intention to start 
a grocery, and hoped the people of Washington 
would patronize him a little, the doxology was sung, 
and the crowd quietly dispersed." 

I have given this very extended report of the 
beginning of this wonderful prayer movement, 
because it presents very clearly not only the 
method adopted, but the spirit actuating those 
who entered into it, as also the feeling of very 
many who signed the dealer's pledge, and rolled 
out their liquors to be emptied into the gutter. 

I have found that it has been almost impossible 
for people at a distance from the scene of this 
marvelous uprising to understand it. And it 
indeed seems that one not in the atmosphere, a 
looker-on, can hardly comprehend it. It was 
entirely unlike any other Christian effort of which 
the world has ever known. Persons at a distance, 



I02 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

judging from their knowledge of the Hquor busi- 
ness, the men engaged in it, and the method of 
conducting it, can not comprehend what influ- 
ence, unless it were mob violence or terrorizing, 
could induce them to yield up their property to 
be destroyed before their eyes, without resistance. 
And in many quarters, even to-day, the impres- 
sion still prevails that the '' Women's Whisky 
War," was a sort of spontaneous outburst of the 
class of lowly and poor women, who by their 
sufferings and abuse from drunken husbands had 
been wrought up to a pitch of frenzy and fury that 
swept them headlong into the wildest excesses. 
In many quarters I have been told that "We 
here have a prejudice against the Crusade ; " or, 
' * Our women could not do that kind of work ; " 
" We are different here from you Western 
women ; " " Oh, we here are very conservative. ' * 
Very often have I had to vindicate my Crusade 
sisters from these false impressions. In the East 
it was supposed that because of our Western 
life — as the dear good friends imagined on the 
borders of civilization — we were not under the 
decorous restraints of more cultured and refined 
society farther east. 

In tlie South, as it had always been presumed 
that Southern ladies were much more soft and 
gentle, as well as retiring in their manners, it was 
not so very surprising to them to hear that our 
women were "out thronging the streets and 
crowding into the liquor groceries and arguing 
with the men over their business; " though of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. IO3 

course it was very shocking, and they could only 
give their unqualified censure and disapproval to 
such unlady-like conduct. 

I was careful not to refer to the Crusade work 
in my lectures in the South, as I did not desire 
to antagonize the women against such work as I 
hoped to induce them to take up. But at length 
ladies would become anxious to hear about that 
strange work. And as I have told them of the 
wonderful baptism that came down upon the 
women and carried them out of themselves up 
into a holier atmosphere than they had ever known 
or dreamed of before, enabling them to overcome 
their shrinking and timidity and go out joyfully 
to offer the gospel of pardon and peace to the 
lowest class of men in the land, on condition of 
repentance and giving up their murderous busi- 
ness, how the tears would rain down their cheeks, 
and how they would beg, " Oh, tell us more, 
tell us more." 

In England, also, the impression had been 
received through some of our American papers, 
especially New York papers, that were either the 
organs of the liquor trade, or for political or 
money considerations, sympathizers, that it was 
the lower class of women, armed with whatever 
weapons they could get hold of, were making a 
war of extermination upon the " public houses" 
and "licensed victualers' " establishments. Such 
a scene as they had pictured of our holy war, and 
conducted by the class they supposed — a class 
that we do not ?ee, as a class, in our smaller 



104 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

towns in this country, or scarcely in our cities 
away form the seaboard, certainly not in such 
numbers as to move by concerted action on the 
streets — would be a terror indeed. 

Even many of the temperance friends were 
only undeceived by my explanation of the work 
and the women engaged in it. It was worth 
everything for my vindication that I could say 
that the leader of the first band of Crusaders that 
moved out in Ohio was the daughter of one of 
our Governors ; that ladies or the highest station, 
as also of deep piety and respectability, were 
leaders and constant, earnest workers ; that 1 
had led out a Governor's wife, wives of Judges, 
Congressmen, State Legislators and of noted 
Divines. 




CHAPTER VI 




Fertnented Wine — Springfield Organization. 

lUR third mass-meeting in Spring-field was 
held on December 24th, and in this meet- 
ing came from one of the speakers, a 
minister, the first inkling of politics. The gen- 
tleman took occasion to refer in severe terms to 
the Prohibitionists and Democrats, and sought to 
prove that the Republican party was a prohibition 
party. His remarks, however, were met at once, 
on the part of several gentlemen, by a strong 
disclaimer of any partisan intent, but asking 
the aid and co-operation of all parties. 

The fourth public meeting was held on the 30th 
of December, with no abatement of numbers or 
interest, Mrs. M. W. Baines being the main 
speaker. And here was made the first attack 
upon fermented wine at the Lord's table. Mrs. 
Baines had seen the disastrous results of present- 
ing this " cup of devils" to the man struggling 
with his appetite for strong drink. 

She spoke her sentiments fearlessly and with 
feeling. But while she was admitted to be a 
lady of ability, she was not at that time a pro- 
fessor of religion. And the blind, not able to dis- 
cern the truth, at once took great alarm. Here 

105 



I06 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

was a woman, not a professor of religion, attack- 
ing the sacred ordinance of the Lord's Supper, 
Not a little agitation was caused. 

Some time after this, she was called to Zanes- 
ville to lecture, and here again declared her 
views on the subject. The city papers took up 
the matter and rated her in no measured terms 
for presuming to attack the holy ordinance. It 
was sacrilegious. People did not at that time 
seem to be able to distinguish between a condem- 
nation of a great wrong in the ordinance and con- 
demnation of the ordinance itself The agitation 
of this subject of sacramental wine originated in 
Springfield, and was brought up in our State 
Convention some months later by our Brother 
Spring, a report of which will be found in its 
proper place. 

These items, which may seem rather trivial 
to the reader, do serve as indices of our growth, 
and as such I give them. And this reminds me 
that at our first National Convention, held at 
Cleveland, a member of our committee on "Ap- 
peal and Plan of Work," presented a resolution 
in committee, praying physicians not to use 
alcoholic liquors in treating our sick, saying we 
had rather they should die sober than live 
drunkards. This was suggested to her mind by 
discovering that her family physician — a home- 
opathist — had been administering alcoholic stim- 
ulants to her only son, who was in ill health. 
While we were in warm sympathy with her, we 
were sure the sisters would not entertain such a 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. lO/ 

resolution. We advised her instead of our incor- 
porating it in the report, to submit it as her own 
to the Convention ; and she did, but it was at 
once tabled as too extremely "radical." I did 
not know, however, that the accustomed bearer 
of dispatches to the wilderness was credited with 
this additional sin till I saw in the next day's 
paper an item from dear Miss Willard saying, 
" Mother Stewart was not the author of the ob- 
jectionable resolution. " 

The Springfield Republic of January 7, 1874, 
gives the following report : 

Women's Temperance Association — Organiza- 
tion OF A New Society — Plan of Opera- 
tion — Officers, Etc. 

This meeting was held in the First Presbyterian 
Church;, immediately after the union prayer meeting 
was closed, Wednesday morning. The meeting was 
called to order by electing Rev. J. W. Spring to the 
Chair. The Chair then stated the (.bjectof the meet- 
ing ; that the ladies of Springfield organize them- 
selves into an association, and work upon some defi- 
nite plan that they may deem best. Mrs. E. D. 
Stewart then stepped to the front and made a 
neat, pointed speech, in which she enlightened her 
sisters on their duties to God and humanity. No, 
she rather urged upon them v>'hat they already saw 
was so very necessary ; then presented the report 
of the committee to which this matter had been re- 
ferred. 

committee's report. 

Your committee would recommend the following 
plan: That the ladies call a meeting to organize a 
temperance association and elect a President, Treas- 
urer, Secretary and one Vice President from each 
ward, and that these officers constitute an executive 
committee, whose duty it shall be to provide work 



I08 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

for sub-committees whom they shall appoint for each 
ward, each ward to be divided mto districts, and a 
committee for each district appointed, whose duty it 
shall be to circulate books provided with the head- 
ings herewith submitted, one for the raising of money 
and the other a i ledge for co-operation. 

These committees shall raise all the money they 
can, and get all to sign the pledge of co-operation ; 
and also, electioneer for the temperance cause, see 
all the men they can, and when they cannot see the 
men, get their wives and daughters to join them in 
the work of inducing their husbands, sons and broth- 
ers to join in the work of electing officers who will 
pass a prohibitory law, and carry out the law to the 
letter. Also let this executive committee of women 
call in such of our business men as they choose to 
select as an advisory committee, to meet them from 
time to time in their meetings. 

Let the great work now be to elect at our spring 
election men who will pass a prohibitory law, and 
if we fail in this measure, fall back on any other plan 
thought to be most advisable, and prosecute the work 
till the next election. We deem it important to keep 
this work in the hands of the women of our city. Let 
them continue, as they have begun the work, to be 
the prominent characters in the movement. Also let 
a committee of men be appointed whose duty it 
shall be to visit the pastors of the African Churches, 
the German and the Catholic, and get them en- 
listed to use their efforts toward the suppression of the 
evil. 

Wm. a. Barnett, ") 

Chas. Rabbitts, I^ Committee. 

E. C. MiDDLETON, ) 

Your committee recommend the following as the 
headings for the subscription and pledge : 

" AVe, the undersigned, agree to pay the sum an- 
nexed to our names monthly for one year from Jan- 
uary ist, 1874, to the Treasurer of the Ladies' Tem- 
perance Association of Springfield to be applied for 
meeting the expenses attending their action in the 
suppression of the liquor traftic in the city of Spring- 
field. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. IO9 

' ' We the undersigned, without respect to creed or 
party ^ agree to unite for the suppression of the liquor 
traffic in Springfield, O. 

*' And for this end, in connection with all other 
justifiable and practical means, hereby pledge our- 
selves to vote for such men only to fill all municipal 
offices at our coming Spring election whose position 
is unmistakable in favor of Temperance Laws and 
\h.e\r faithful and impartial execution, and who will do 
all in their power, if elected, to bring about this much- 
desired reform." 

After reading the above, which was unanimously 
adopted, the meeting went into an election of officers, 
which resulted in the following election : 

President, Mrs. E. D. Stewart ; Vice Presidents, 
ist ward, Mrs. Wm. A. Barnett ; 2nd ward, Mrs. Dr. 
Teegarden; 3d ward, Mrs. Thos. Finch ; 4th ward, 
Mrs. John Foos ; 5th ward, Mrs. Jas. Kinney ; Sec- 
retary, Mrs. J. A. S. Guy ; Treasurer, Mrs. S. W. 
Cathcart. It was thought best by the meeting to have 
an Advisory Committee of gentlemen, and the fol- 
lowing persons v.-ere elected : Wm. A. Barnett, E. 
C. Middleton, Chas. Rabbitts, Rev. J. ^^■. Spring, 
P. P. Mast. 

There were said many good things during the talk, 
but this is about as good as any. A speaker said 
that gentlemen kept saying to her, "The women are 
doing a noble work, and doing just what they ought 
to do," and they said this without blushing too. But 
is it the women's work ? No, it is the men's, and 
they know it, and they could crush intemperance out 
without our aid if they would ; but we women intend 
to set them an example, and by God's help and united 
effort we will succeed. 

I am happy to record that the ladies who were 
on that morning elected as my co-workers and 
counselors were in truth " elect ladies, " certainly 
no one in all the campaign was more highly 
favored. Always ready both to give advice and 
to second any suggestion for the advancement of 
our work. 



no MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

I trust it may not seem a discrimination when 
I mention the names especially of our Secretary, 
Mrs. Guy, our Treasurer, Mrs. Cathcart, and 
Mrs. Foos, as I was brought into closest asso- 
ciation with them, and I am glad to say in all 
these following years they have maintained their 
places as my discreet advisors and warm friends. 
This was the second regularly organized society in 
Ohio, the first as already mentioned being formed 
at Osborn. We adopted a constitution similar 
to that of the ladies of Osborn. 

The Cincinnati Gazette of the next day, in a 
report of this organization says, " All the ladies 
who belong to this organization have great influ- 
ence in the city." 

Our Temperance agitation had begun to at- 
tract visitors from abroad. Among these was a 
Mr. S. M. Douglass, then of Columbus, now of 
Rochester, N. Y., a zealous temperance man. 
He was so stirred up by attending some of our 
meetings and witnessing our work, that upon re- 
turning home he induced his Lodge of Good 
Templars to send for me. I went over on the 
8th of January. That morning and ride are a 
memory apart. A heavy sleet had fallen and 
covered every tree and shrub and plant and 
spear of dead grass with an incrustation of 
fretted silver, and from everything hung myriads 
of glittering gems that reflected the sun as it struck 
them in all the rays of the rainbow or of all 
precious stones. But, like all earthly riches and 
beauty, so evanescent, even while you looked 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. Ill 

and admired they melted and faded away. And 
I also remember that the pleasure of the ride was 
greatly enhanced by the company of Capt. and 
Mrs, Hall, of Connecticut, who were returning 
after a visit to friends in our city. 

The Captain told me he had followed the sea 
for thirty years, sailing around the world and 
into almost every port in it, without touching a 
glass of anything that would intoxicate. But 
what use of his telling it ? His very presence 
proclaimed him a gentleman of correct habits 
and pure life, a true gentleman. An active, 
vigorous man, though well advanced in years, 
with the complexion of a young girl. The Hfe, 
whether good or ill, makes its record and leaves 
its indelible marks on the man whether he will 
or no. 

From the Columbus State Journal, January 9, 
1874, I copy the following report: 

Mother Stewart in Columbus, 

Mrs. E. D. Stewart addressed an audience in Ses- 
sions' Hall, on Thursday evening, 8th inst. , which was 
one of the largest and most enthusiastic temperance 
meetings ever held in the city, and the relation of her 
experience as a spy in a saloon on Sunday was really 
exciting. At the close of her lecture she called on the 
ladies of the audience who were willing to take an 
active part in pushing forward the work of temper- 
ance to stand up, which was responded to by all. 
The gentlemen were then invited in the same manner, 
and a general rise was the result. Mrs. Stewart 
seemed surprised at this, and remarked that if they 
had the womenof Springfield with the men of Colum- 
bus, "noble work could be accomplished." This was 
the first note sounded in Columbus of the glorious 
work that was soon to occupy all minds and hearts 



112 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of the women here, as everywhere else over the State. 
Only a few weeks later, at Columbus, was held the 
grandest and most enthusiastic meeting ever held in 
the State up to that time, but only to be followed by 
others like to it, in other places^ as the work ad- 
vanced. 

A foul murder, committed on the 12th of January, 
in one of the murder-mills of our city, by the keeper 
and his wife, on one of their victims, served to greatly 
swell the temperance tide, which was steadily on the 
rise. 

We had by this time established our morning tem- 
perance prayer-meeting, — the meetings of the " week 
of prayer " merging into our temperance prayer-meet- 
ings, an account of one of which I clip from the Re- 
public of January 12th inst. As these reports give 
the status of the week and the sentiment of the 
workers quite as well as I could, I prefer to copy 
from them. 

"The prayer-meeting this morning (Monda)') at the 
First Presbyterian church was fully attended. Rev. 
Mr. Spring, in opening the meeting, suggested that if 
the men engaged in the soul-destroying business of 
dram-selling would abandon it, every encourage- 
ment would be given them by the community in any 
legitimate calling. 

Rev. Dr. Clokey followed by prayer and remarks, 
in Avhich he compared the mission of the praying 
people of Springlield to that on which Christ sent his 
apostles, when their peace should abide on those who 
received them, but the dust should be shaken from 
their feet as a testimonial against those who rejected 
them. 

Mr. Middleton followed with specific objects of 
prayer, especially for the keeper of the saloon where 
the murder was committed, and for the keeper of the 
saloon in our most respectable hotel, that the hearts 
of these men who Avere dragging to destruction so 
many of our young men might be converted from 
the error of their ways. He also prayed fervently 
for the newly-elected directors of the Lagonda House, 
that they might be led to do the right. (In regard to 
the saloon in the building.) 

Mr. T. J. Finch said he thought a proper object of 



MEMORIKS OF THE CRUSADE. II3 

prayer was the young men who were on the down- 
ward road. He knew there were fathers and mothers 
at that meeting whose sons were reehng in the 
streets, and yet they were unconscious that they 
drank. 

J. W. Jarrett said he started this morning to invite 
a saloon-keeper to this prayer-meeting. He met him 
on the way and found him very wiUing to talk with 
him on the subject, and although he declined to come 
to the meeting, he asked that the meeting would 
pray for him. That saloon-keeper was Mr. Wm. 
Stubbee. 

The hymn commencing"Show pity, Lord, "etc., was 
sung, followed by prayer by Dr. McKnight,who earn- 
estly prayed the Lord to give Christians the necessary 
faith that even this man might be converted and re- 
claimed. 

Rev. Mr. Hamma was glad to hear this turn of the 
movement. While he was in favor of the law, he 
was also in favor of the Gospel, — the Gospel of love. 
What we were, more than the liquor-sellers of Spring- 
field, was by the grace of God. 

Rev. Mr. Bennet, in his prayer, referred to Christ 
mingling with wine-bibbers until he was called one, 
and that it was our mission to labor for their reforma- 
tion. 

Mother Stewart made a speech in a voice trem- 
bling with emotion. She said she thanked God that 
one saloon-keeper had been touched, and hoped 
that he would forever renounce his nefarious busi- 
ness. Good news for the temperance cause was 
coming to us from different parts of the State. At 
Washington, Wilmington and Hillsboro the people 
were awaking to the necessity of crushing out the 
evil. In Washington forty heroic women marched 
out of a prayer-meeting, while prayers were ascending 
up to the throne of God, asking Him to aid them in 
their noble work, and the bells kept tolling, encour- 
aging them and telling them they were being prayed 
for. These noble women visited every saloon-keeper 
in the place, asking each and every one to quit his 
evil business, and telling them they were being prayed 
for. Now, here in this city, before many prayers 
had been. offered up for this class, one had come vol- 

(8) 



114 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

untarily forward and asked for prayers — he had run,as 
it were, to meet us. This was encouraging; and she 
hoped ere long to hear the bells ringing, prayers as- 
cending, and the women of our city marching on to 
victory in this glorious cause. God could and would 
help if we earnestly asked His aid. One young man 
had said he was willing to give $io to help stop this 
accursed business in our midst. He was a mechanic 
in one of our manufactories. Another said he was 
willing to forego drinking and give the money thus 
saved to suppress intemperance. This was also en- 
couraging. She spoke of mothers coming to her and 
asking if something could not be done to save their 
boys ; and a father whose hair was whitened with 
age and who was seemingly bending over the grave, 
had said to her, "My heart is broken. Crush out in- 
temperance and save others from the agony I have 
endured." She hoped the interest would keep on 
increasing until success would be the reward. In 
after remarks, when some one had suggested prayer 
for distillers as well as saloon-keepers, Mrs. Stewart 
said she would like the lawyers prayed for also, that 
they might have power and courage to prosecute the 
liquor cases that may come before the courts. 

The subject for the meeting to-morrow morning is 
prayer for a revival in all the churches. The meet- 
ing was one of profound interest. 

Our work is becoming almost overwhelming. 
The interest is spreading and deepening from 
day to day. My whole time has long since been 
entirely absorbed. Rising in the morning, my 
first thought is, what shall come to my hand to- 
day ? Upon going up to the morning meeting, 
calls and appeals come to me for help to find a 
husband or son, for counsel or sympathy or pecu- 
niary aid, or to visit the Mayor's Court with 
some pitiful woman to see if anything can be 
done to save her boy from the prison and dis- 
grace — to save her husband, to hear the never- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. II5 

ending tales of woe. Oh, where is the end? 
Can it ever come ? All the day busy, some- 
times unable to reach home, even for dinner, till 
the street lamps light the way. So weary, so 
feeble indeed, that often, as I have turned my 
steps homeward, I have looked at passers-by in 
their carriages and wondered why they did not 
in pity stop and take me home. But how could 
they know ? My work stimulated and animated 
my whole soul, and the looker-on called it 
physical force, and often I would be congratu- 
lated upon my perfect health. I have heard 
ladies in the work say, "Oh, if I only had the 
vitality that Mother Stewart has." But how little 
they knew of the weariness, physically, in which 
I went forth. It seems to me that hundreds of 
times in the weariness and pain of the night, 
when paying the tribute mother nature insists 
upon for over-strain, I have said,"Now, certainly 
I have gone the very last day I can, I must yield 
it all up." But, as the poor, overburdened house- 
wife said, when I would get up and get "lim- 
bered out, " I would go on again through the day, 
and so, with little variation, have I gone all these 
years. 

I could stop here and write a homily, if it were 
advisable, on the preservation of health for the 
sake of the greater amount of good the Christian 
could do in a healthy body. Ah, what could I 
have done if I had had perfect health ? What 
could I not do, even yet, though beyond the line 
of three score and ten, if the tenement had not 
been prematurely disabled ? 



Il6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Our fifth mass-meeting was held on the even- 
ing of January 13th. A most excellent and in- 
structive address was delivered by Mrs. John 
Foos, which I am sure would be well worth in- 
serting here if the accumulating matter did not 
admonish me that I will be obliged to omit much 
that would be valuable as showing the different 
stages and progress of our work, or swell these 
pages to inadmissable proportions. The Republic 
of the 14th says, at the close of this admirable 
address, which was enthusiastically applauded by 
the audience : 

Mrs. E. D. Stewart read a pledge to total absti- 
nence from intoxicating liquors, and proposed that 
it be circulated in the house for signatures, and sug- 
gested that all pastors of churches and superintend- 
ents of Sunday Schools circulate the same among 
those of their charges. Misses Rilla Cathcart, Matie 
Ballard, Anna Foos and Lida Ellsworth circulated 
the pledge, and Mrs. Stewart subsequently announced 
that 287 signatures had been secured ! 

The young ladies were coming up finely with 
their aid and influence. The above named be- 
longed to families of the highest standing in the 
city. Our "Y's" are to-day our pride, our 
joy and hope. 

The following resolutions were brought forward 
by Mr. C. M. Nichols, and adopted, having been pre- 
sented at a previous meeting by Rev. R. P. Thomas: 

Whereas, The hquor traffic in this city is doing 
no one any good, and many people great harm, 
therefore, 

Resolved, ist. That it ought to be abolished. 

2nd. That all opponents of the traffic should join 
hands and commence work. 

3rd. That the friends of reform need money to 
prosecute their work. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. II7 

4th. That the six hundred women, with Mother 
Stewart at their head, are doing a good work and 
ought to be sustained and helped by all honest peo- 
ple. 

5th. That we at once recruit and enroll an army 
large enough to enforce our demands, and then issue 
a summons to surrender. (At this time,thirteen years 
later, the summons has not yet been issued. Why ?) 

6th. That the City Council should adopt an ordi- 
nance in accordance with the 1 99th section of the mu- 
nicipal code. * * * And having adopted it, 
make provison for enforcing it. 

7th. That we should elect only such men to muni- 
cipal offices as will make wholesome laws and com- 
pel people to respect and obey them. 

Mr. Barnett, as one of the advisory committee, re- 
ported at this meeting that the ladies had a fully- 
matured plan to secure material aid and pledges of 
co-operation. Committees of women had been ap- 
pointed who would canvass each ward. At the 
close of the meeting the following piece was sung : 

'• The land our father's trod, 
The favored land of God — 

Light of the age — 
Intemperance doth defame, 
And with its lurid flame 
Becloud thy glorious name — 
Thy history's page. 

" Arise, ye sons of light, 

And slay this withering blight— 

Our country's shame! 
Wipe out its cursed stain, 
And break the galling chains, 
Where e'er ths tyrant reigns, 
His guilt proclaim. 

"The truth in love declare, 
But ne'er to speak forbear — 

Hence evermore, 
Oh, let the watchword be, 
Temperance and Liberty ! 
And Death or Victory t 

Till time is o'er. 



Il8 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Heav'n will your efforts bless 
And crown them with success, 

And keep you free ; 
The temperance flag shall wave 
High o'er the monster'* grave ; 
Then chant His praise who gave 

The victory ! " 




CHAPTER VII. 



Letting Out of Troubled Waters, 




EWS comes, glorious news of the spread 
of the Crusade. Wilmington, Greenfield 
and Franklin, with other smaller places, 
have entered upon the Holy war. As v/e come 
together in our morning meetings, telegrams are 
brought in, creating the wildest enthusiasm. 
Oh, if we could only start that form of work here ! 
But the enemy is so formidable, and with all the 
interest and enthusiasm now manifested by our 
people, I greatly fear the test would not give us 
enough women to make it a success. While 
some are sayingthey are ready to visit the saloons 
and urging me to form a band and lead them out, 
I find by private canvassing that the majority, as 
yet, shrink from that form of work. But this I 
dare not tell, lest I discourage those who are 
eager to go. But the most discouraging part of 
it is, that it is considered doubtful, even by Dr. 
Lewis, whether that form of work could be made 
successful in the larger towns and cities. 

Gentlemen are saying to me, after I have used 
all my powers of eloquence to stimulate the 
sisters to a sufficient degree of enthusiasm to 

119 



120 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

enlist — and I hope I have about succeeded — 
"Better not go too fast, Mother Stewart;" "Better 
not attempt it, than attempt and make a failure ;" 
" Better make haste slowly." Oh, dear, how I 
have toiled, and wept, and prayed, now more 
than three months. It seems to me that is slow 
enough haste, in all conscience. 

I do not say this new work is tJie way to close 
out the liquor business, but a way, and where 
being tried is proving wonderfully successful. In 
all the past efforts in the temperance cause, the 
drinking places have not been closed up. The 
great reform movements, such as that of the 
Washingtonians, were not directed against the 
saloon; and while undoubtedly for a time the 
sales were greatly reduced and very probably 
some places closed for lack of sufficient patron- 
age, enough were always left to supply the 
demand and to serve as man-traps, ever ready to 
lure back to his ruin any poor fellow who was 
too weak to withstand the temptation. And 
alas, alas ! how many were thus lured again to 
their final destruction, while a new army has been 
recruited from our own dear boys. How soon 
might men with the freeman's ballot in their 
hands, arrest this ever on-surging tide of woe, if 
they would. But, since they will not, we must 
do what we can. I do thank the dear Lord that 
He is awakening the women and callir.g them 
from their long, lethargic sleep of indifference 
upon the subject. But our trouble here is not 
only the number of places, but the class of men 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 121 

engaged in the business. The towns that have 
taken up the work are comparatively small, and 
the citizens are known to each other. There is 
a less per cent, of foreigners engaged in the 
business, and men of American birth are more 
easily reached by the pleadings of the Christian 
women, especially where they know them per- 
sonally. When ladies that they know and respect 
for their Christian character come to talk with 
them, they are shamed out of their business. 
But our liquor-dealers are nearly all foreigners ; 
have been used to selling and drinking all their 
lives, and care only for the money they can get 
out of the sale. 

My first visit to a saloon-keeper was to Mr. G. 
D., who was almost done selling. Accompanied 
by Mrs. Cathcart, I went to his home, a little out 
of the city. It was a very pretty place, which 
he had bought with the money he had obtained 
of many a poor man in exchange for his soul- 
destroying drink. But while he had dealt tlie 
poison to others, he had also partaken freely of 
it, and he was now slowly dying — a pitiable look- 
ing object. I tried to talk with him as well as I 
could ; spoke of his and my locks whitening for 
the grave. Yes, he said, his hair had been 
very black, but some nine years before Mrs. 
Gillet and other ladies (whose boys he was ruin- 
ing) had combined to prosecute him for selling 
liquor, and had treated him very badly. He 
stood them a strong fight, but they beat him and 
had him sent to jail, where he lay for three weeks. 



122 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

"That was what turned my hair gray," said he. 
"It was pretty hard to have it thrown up to my 
children that their father was in jail." Yes, but 
this poor, dying man did not seem to think of 
the many poor wretches that had been sent to 
jail through drinking his liquors, nor of their 
children taunted with their fathers being drunk- 
ards as well as in jail. The difference is in the 
point of observation. 

Mr. D. charged that the druggists did much 
more damage than he did, and yet because they 
pretended to sell only for medicinal purposes, 
they had immunity from prosecution. He knew 
that many a man that would not be seen going 
into a saloon would go to the drug-store and get 
his flask filled and carry it away in his pocket. He 
knew all about the druggists' selling. He had 
been employed by them for many years as tester 
of the quality of their liquors. I asked him if 
it was his opinion that there were any pure liquors 
to be had. He answered that he did not believe 
there was a bottle in the city. 

It is the universal complaint of saloon-keepers 
that the druggists sell right along, and are per- 
mitted to, everywhere. And everywhere the 
temperance people have repeated the uniform 
complaint that the druggists are hardest to reach. 
Claiming their privilege under the law to keep and 
sell for medicinal purposes, they take advantage 
of their opportunity to sell to drinkers, and it 
seems almost impossible to reach them. In one 
place, I was told of a very respectable doctor 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 123 

and member of the Legislature, who had an ingen- 
ious arrangement in his store, where a gentle- 
man could go to a shelf, where was a faucet just 
above, turn the faucet, fill his glass and drink, 
lay down his change and walk out ; no questions 
asked, no word said. 

I had a very interesting conversation with a 
traveler for a wholesale house in Cincinnati, who 
explained that he only sold to the "legitimate 
trade," the druggists; he did not sell to saloons. 
I asked him about how much a druggist doing 
ordinary business would sell in a year for strict- 
ly legitimate purposes. He said two or three 
barrels. In small places they might not need 
more than twelve or fifteen gallons. I do not 
make the sweeping assertion that all druggists 
disregard the law, but certainly a large class of 
them do. 

Still referring to my files, I see that at our next 
mass-meeting the interest was increasing. I will 
only quote from the extended report a speech 
by J. H. Beadle, the Commercial reporter, who 
said he had been sent by Mr. Halstead to write 
up this Women's Temperance Movement, which 
was being published through the State. He had 
been at Washington C. H,, where the women 
had started, at Greenfield, at Wilmington, and 
other places. He thought from all he had seen 
and heard, that the Washington plan was the 
best for small places ; that saloon-keepers could 
and would resist law measures ; that they could 
raise plenty of money to do this ; but when pray- 



124 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ing Christian women entered their doors and 
prayed for them and their families, and that God 
would open their eyes to the fact that they were 
dealing out death and destruction, the saloon- 
keeper had no alternative but to quit. He did 
not know how this plan would work in a city of 
this size, and thought it might be wise to use the 
law. Another point this speaker made was, the 
importance of the friends of temperance electing 
men to nominating conventions, so that they then 
would be sure of electing men of their choice, and 
said it was folly to wait until candidates were nom- 
inated in other interests, and your choice limited 
to men who do not represent your ideas, some of 
whom are sure to be elected, and the temperance 
cause would not be benefited by your votes (very 
wholesome doctrine this). I also see that my 
young friend, A. M. Griffith, made a good speech, 
saying he thought the work needed more young 
blood in it, and he had decided to cast in his lot 
with the friends of the cause. 

At this meeting I presented the following res- 
olution, which was adopted by a rising and almost 
unanimous vote : 

Resolved^ That we, citizens of Springfield, will not 
patronize any grocery or place of business where in- 
toxicating liquors are sold as a beverage. But, if any 
person now engaged in the trattic will quit the busi- 
ness, we will not only give him tii ? right hand of fel- 
lowship, but we will also give him a due portion of our 
support and patronage, with others of our fellow-citi- 
zens who are engaged in honest and honorable busi- 
ness. 

And now I have come to the point where, in 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 12$ 

justice to myself as well as to historical truth, I 
am compelled to refer to a feature that early in- 
truded itself in our work, and has been, in the 
hands of certain parties, a source of great trouble 
and grief to me all through it. And although 
the world, or, I should say perhaps, the women, 
have wonderfully grown out of much ignorance 
and narrow prejudice in the march of events, 
there are yet some who seem unable to keep up 
with these events, but still stand ready to cry 
out in alarm at anything that is not in accord 
with their preconceived notions. I presume 
even those who do not know me personally, in 
following me thus far, will be prepared to be- 
lieve that what I have been convinced is ri^^/it, 
I must indorse, whatever be the consequences. 
And thus it was, from my own observation, and 
more from my own experience in life, I had long 
since learned that woman was not man's equal 
before the law. That to live her life as God de- 
signed all rational beings should, she must be 
not only unhindered by unjust laws, but pro- 
tected, as man was, by those that are just. This 
I had maintained with voice and pen. But woe 
is me! I was indelibly branded "strong- 
minded," "woman suffragist," which were epi- 
thets not a whit behind, no, even more scath- 
ing than that of "abolitionist," for there was a 
little consideration for one who braved public 
prejudice for another, even though that other was 
a " nigger." But that a woman should clamor 
for Aer rights — want to go through the mud to 



126 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the polls — want to go and vote with horrid men, 
drunkards and all — she might live with such, 
forever, and who cared ? She might go through 
mud, or what not, to procure a means of subsist- 
ence for herself and children, who cared ? But 
an ambitious woman meddling in politics, want- 
ing office ! Oh, dear, it was too utterly awful ! 
Now you are scarcely able to suppress a smile at 
this array of a scare-crow stuffed wath saw-dust 
or old ra^s. But you must know the class of 
sweet women — who are always so happy to de- 
clare "they have all the rights they want ;" ' 'they 
are perfectly willing to let their husbands vote 
for them " — are and always have been numerous, 
though it is an occasion for thankfulness that they 
are becoming less so. But they have much to 
do in making public sentiment on the subject, 
and they are always louder in declaring that they 
don't want to vote — not they — than the suffragists 
are in asking the right. They were sufficiently 
numerous in the beginning of our work to make 
a great deal of trouble. It is a fact not generally 
known, but nevertheless true, that among the 
beginners of the temperance movement, those 
that came and stood by m\- side first were be- 
lievers in the principle of suffrage ; others, though 
believing in, were reticent about it. But in our 
work, as it presented itself to us, there was no oc- 
casi )n then for introducing the suffrage question. 
But those good, satisfied sisters suspected some 
hidden intent, and rushing into the papers gave 
the alarm. Oh, why was it that this demon of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 127 

discord was permitted to show its deformed 
head at the very beginning of our work. 

I have before me a report by Beadle, corre- 
spondent for the Cincinnati Commercialy of his 
visit to Springfield and of the meeting in which 
he participated, making some sharp, possibly in 
a degree just, criticisms, though we did not 
think so, I am satisfied that our methods were 
the best and only way we could work at the 
time, and they did arouse and eventually enlist 
a very large portion of our best citizens. 

But unfortunately he asserted that our work 
promised to split into three currents ; one for 
temperance, another for religious revival, and the 
third for woman suffrage. No word had been 
uttered on the subject in any meeting, pro or 
con, by any one. 

Mr. Beadle called on me, the morning before 
the meeting, and interviewed me at considerable 
length in regard to my work and the temper- 
ance outlook in our city. And his report of the 
interview is very fair, as his reports of me always 
were. While he did not endorse my views en- 
tirely, he was always fair and generous in his re- 
ports of my meetings. He went with me to differ- 
ent points to write up the work for his paper, and I 
have always counted him as among my warm 
personal friends. I know he did not intend to 
do me a personal injury. But, oh, how I have 
suffered from that letting out of the waters. It 
gave color and shape to what before had neither 
color nor shape. And there was no possibility 



128 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of arresting the impression that went out every- 
where from it. Mr. B. , very much to my sur- 
prise, persisted in our interview in bringing for- 
ward the suffrage question. I could not under- 
stand why, but as he insisted upon my giving my 
views, I did so frankly and honestly, but in no 
way connected it with our work in hand, and re- 
minded him that this was strictly a private con- 
versation ; and again, as he was leaving, I re- 
quested him to bear in mind that this part of the 
conversation was strictly confidential, and he as- 
sured me that he considered and would respect 
it as such. Upon his return to the city, I told 
him of my astonishment at his report and re- 
minded him of his promise. ' ' Oh, " he answered, 
with a conscious smile, ' ' that I got from others. " 
I am glad to say I never knew who they were. 
But I learned, to my surprise and grief, that 
there were a good many swept into that wonder- 
ful work, as I suppose always have and will be 
into every good work, who were not able to 
grasp the deep meaning thereof, nor to take in 
the great and glorious lesson God designed to 
teach his children through it of love and charity 
and forbearance one with another, as well as 
with the liquor-seller. We shall have gone a great 
way towards convincing the world of the gen- 
uineness of our religion, and bringing sinners to 
accept it, when we have learned well the lesson of 
tolerance and forbearance and charity among our- 
selves. I found this spirit of discord a source of 
much anxiety and sorrow to the mori, earnest 
and practical in many places. 



MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADE. 1 29 

I had seen from the beginning that we had 
entered into a struggle with a foe that was 
strong and unscrupulous, as well as strongly 
backed with political and financial influence ; and 
I saw that it would take all the combined strength 
of the Christian Church to overcome it. I there- 
fore exerted myself as far as possible to enlist 
all, of whatever name, in our cause, and if we 
could have entirely laid aside our sectarian preju- 
dices and personal ambitions and jealousies, we 
would have accomplished much more than we 
did. 

The liquor-seller had, if not a respect for re- 
ligion, at least a sort of superstitious awe and 
fear of the church. They have said to me, ' * We 
thought the whole Christian Church had risen up 
against us, and we knew it would be of no use 
to attempt to stand out against them." Yes^ 
and they wonder always why the church 
could ever tolerate such an abomination ; and 
since it had, they had less respect for it. A 
wonderful confession, and one to suffuse the 
Christian's cheek with shame. It was virtually 
saying that the church had the power to put an 
end to the liquor traffic if it would — an honest 
and truthful admission of the power and influence 
of a faithful church. But what grief and humil- 
iation we suffered when they discovered that it 
was only a part of the church that had risen up 
against them, and even these were not always 
harmonious among themselves. How I exhorted 
my sisters everywhere to stand together, only 

(9) 



130 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

in our united strength could we hope to prevail. 

What wonder that many went back to their 
death-dealing- business ag;ain ! 

Springfield being so much larger than those 
towns that had taken up the visiting method, it 
was a subject of serious question whether we 
could make that method successful. Mr, Brown, 
of the Cincinnati Gazette, having visited our city 
after witnessing the work in the smaller towns, 
expressed his doubt of the Lewis method suc- 
ceeding in a city of the size of Springfield, say- 
ing it was only calculated to be effective in coun- 
try towns of 3,000 or 4, 000 and under. He adds, 
' 'I would not have it understood that Mrs. Stewart 
is alone in pushing forward the cause. She has 
several talented coadjutors, among whom are 
Mrs. M. W. Baines, whose missionary spirit has 
led her into other towns, and Mrs. S. M. Foos^ 
wife of one of the wealthiest men in Springfield, 
herself a woman of rare ability. To these ladies 
the temperance cause is indebted for many excel- 
lent addresses and much other valuable service, 
but whether they are in favor of following the 
steps of Mrs. Hadley and Mrs. Runyan, of Wil- 
mington fame, and lead a band of women through 
mud and rain into dens of wickedness, I do 
not know. " Mr. Brown's doubts were most sat- 
isfactorily answered onh* a few days later. Our 
Executive Committee had been very active in 
collecting evidence against the rum-sellers for 
illegal selling, and many cases had been reported 
and the keepers fined. A second petition was 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I3I 

prepared by order of the Executive Committee 
and duly presented to the City Council, asking 
again for an ordinance to prohibit the sale of 
liquors under the McConnelsville Ordinance, of 
which we will hear a few days hence. But 
while we have been so busy in our city, so have 
the friends all over the country, calling meetings, 
organizing, getting ready for the conflict, and in 
many places moving out on the enemy. The 
papers are almost wholly occupied with reports 
of the uprising. Is the millennium indeed com- 
ing? My great perplexity is, how to select 
from so much. The history of the work in 
Springfield, if fully written up, would fill a large 
volume, as would an account of the movement 
in almost any place where it was prosecuted. 
No full history is possible any more than was 
that of the Great Rebellion. 

It is true that the main features of the move- 
ment were very similar everywhere, but at the 
same time every locality had its peculiar features, 
controlling influences and incidents, both pathetic 
and humorous. But all were so thoroughly ab- 
sorbed in the work, so thoroughly a part of it, 
that they neither had time nor thought for look- 
ing on or taking note of passing events. 

A reporter for Hillsboro,in a Cincinnati paper 

under date of January 15th, gives the following : 

The woman's temperance movement in our town 
still continues and the excitement, pervading the 
entire community at this time, certainly exceeds any- 
thing we have witnessed in Hillsboro during a resi- 
dence of over twenty years, excepting only that oc- 



132 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

casioned by the news of the firing on Sumter at the 
outbreak of the RebelHon. 

Last week the ladies who had been laboring so 
faithfully to persuade the liquor-sellers to abandon 
their death-dealing traffic,appeared to be discouraged 
by their want of success, as the stubborn enemy still 
refused to yield, in spite of their prayers and entreaties. 
At this juncture it was suggested that the Macedon- 
ian cry for help be sent over to our neighboring town 
of Washington C. H., where the ladies had already 
achieved a grand success in a similar movement, al- 
though commenced two or three days after ours. 
The good women of Washington promptly responded 
to the call and on Monday last four of the most active 
leaders in the work, namely : Mrs. Rev. Geo. Car- 
penter, Mrs. Judge McLean, Mrs. Judge Priddy and 
Miss Anna Llstic,came over,accompanied by Mr. P. 
E. Morehouse, Superintendent of the Washington 
Union Schools, and Mr. C. S. Dean, teacher in the 
High School department. On Monday night our 
large Music Hall was densely packed, and stirring 
and eloquent addresses were delivered by Messrs. 
Dean and Morehouse, who gave a history of the 
movement in Washington, in which they had actively 
co-operated with the ladies. Their story was listened 
to with the deepest of interest, and aroused every 
temperance man and woman to a determination to 
renew the conflict at once and never give it up until 
victory is won. At the suggestion of Mr. Dean it 
was determined that the temperance men here should 
adopt the plan pursued at Washington, and hold a 
continuous prayer-meeting in one of the churches, 
while the ladies were visiting the saloons, and that at 
the close of each prayer the bell be rung to encour- 
age the ladies with the thought that fervent prayers 
were ascending to God for their work. 

The ladies were greatly encouraged by the visit of 
their sisters from Washington, and a new impulse was 
given to the work. 

From the Cincinnati Gazette, under date of 

January 26th, I copy a very correct report of the 

work in Hillsboro from the beginning to that 

date: 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 33 

<« * * * Dr. Dio Lewis, on the 22nd of December 
last, visited Hillsboro by invitation of the local Lec- 
ture Association and addressed us. At the close of 
the lecture he announced that he would remain and 
on the next evening speak on the subject of temper- 
ance. At that meeting he broached his plan for a 
campaign against the enemy and enlisted a large 
number of ladies in the enterprise, besides securing 
the names of many gentlemen to "back" the move- 
ment. From here he went to Washington C. IL, and 
inaugurated a like work, whence this has been often 
called the Washington C. H. movement. Since that 
time Hillsboro has been the scene of constant excite- 
ment. 

Every morning at 9 o'clock the basement of the 
Presbyterian Church is filled with women and men 
who meet for prayers. After an hour's devotional 
exercise, the women start upon their round of visita- 
tion. They enter each saloon, drug-store and hotel 
with their "dealer's pledge," asking the proprietors 
t.> sign it. When met with refusal they sing and 
pray, plead and exhort, beseech, implore and sing 
and pray again, until the dealer yields to their en- 
treaties or it is time to go elsewhere. Every night 
meetings are held in the audience-room of the Pres- 
byterian or Methodist Church, or else in our com- 
modious Town Hall, 

These rooms are crowded nightly, and the meet- 
ings are full of interest. More than four weeks of 
such labor have passed, and instead of flagging, our 
zeal steadily increases. All denominations are 
represented ; all parties, all classes, all colors, are 
represented. The leading spirits are the women of 
our mo?t influential families, and with them march, 
and work, and kne^l, and pray, the representatives 
of every circle in our village society. On the first 
morning of their visiting, their pledge was signed by 
J. J. Brown and Laybert Isam.en, druggists. These 
men had nobly shown their Christian integrity and 
honesty by the willingness, even earnestness, with 
which they responded to their duty. Dr. W. R. 
Smith, another druggist, signed reluctantly, and w^ith 
a promise that is thoroughly unsatisfactory to all who 
are in earnest in the matter. His position as an 



134 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

elder in the Presbyterian Church, and his earnest- 
ness heretofore in pubHc prayer, had caused many to 
hope for better things from him. 

But action has been postponed in his case, as 
personal friends trust that by private persuasion he 
may be brought to see the error of his ways. 

Of the fourth druggist, more anon. His name it 
is "tegus" to dwell upon : it is William Henry Harri- 
son Dunn. Of the saloons, that of Joseph Lance 
was soon closed. It was a hard place, known as the 
''Lava Bed." After a prayer-meeting or two Joe 
was arrested for illegal selling of liquors, and stands 
over to court on two indictments. He is a clever 
fellow who got into a bad business. His establish- 
ment is closed, never to reopen, and he is selling fish. 
They are known as "cold-water fish," and find ready 
sale in these cold-water times. The saloons kept 
respectively by Dr. Roch and William Schwartz, 
held out longer, but two weeks siege brought them 
to terms. They re-shipped their liquors to Cincin- 
nati and sold out their traps at auction. The ladies 
attended in force, anxious to secure mementoes. It 
was fun to see our pious sisters stringing home from 
this sale, lugging bottles, tumblers, beer-mugs and 
decanters. One good mother in Israel, hugging to 
her bosom a long-necked fancy botde with a marble 
arrangement to its mouth, and a pictured label 
lettered "Whisky," was an object for contemplation, 
as she stood waiting to get one of those "pretty 
glasses with handles to them," before she Avent home. 

The women left their measure for a hundred pairs 
of shoes, more or less, with Roch, and he is now 
pegging away at his trade with an easy conscience 
and satisfied face. Mr. Schwartz has bought a stock 
of groceries, and bids fair with the patronage of the 
temi)erance people to do a good business. Billy is 
said to be about the happiest man in town since his 
"change of base," as he thoroughly hated his former 
occupation. 

Of the other saloons and hotels, none have as 
yet come fully to their duty, though their trade in 
liquor is cut down to such an infmitesimal figure as to 
be virtually extinct. A liide back-door work is 
going on, but they all know that spies are thick 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I35 

about them, an J those who fear not God have a 
wholesome respect for law, as it will be enforced 
under the present circumstances. I understand that 
a number of indictments will probably be found by 
our grand jury, which sits this week. These, if 
secured, will help out the praying handsomely. 
Meanwhile the battle wages around Dunn's drug 
store. It is felt that until he surrenders nothing 
further can be accomplished. His yielding would 
be speedily followed by a rout and capture of the 
rest. Daily, scores of women visit him to sing and 
pray. On Friday last, for the first time, they found 
his d"'or locked in their faces, so that their prayer- 
meetings have since been held on the pavement in 
front of his establishment. 

It is a thrilling sight to see these women commun- 
ing with their Maker before his store, while he sits 
communing with himself within. It is sincerely to 
be regretted that he has allowed himself to be thus 
placed as an obstacle to the progress of the work. 
His high sense of honor and frank, open disposition 
would have inclined him to a better course, but he 
has unfortunately yielded to the influence of corrupt 
counselors in this matter. They have nothing to 
lose by their action, while he suffers severely in 
pocket and public esteem by being used as a protec- 
tion for worse men. Of course, sooner or later he 
must surrender ; no man can stand long against the 
moral power of the whole community when it is 
brought to bear at short range on him. (The sequel 
proved that the reporter reckoned without his host.) 
An Irishman standing across the street the other day 
watching the women before this store, removed his 
stub pipe, blew out a contemplative cloud of smoke 
and blurted out: ''Och! begory ! they'll jist pray 
the boots off of him." The fact is, the Lord is at 
the head of this movement, and will no doubt prove 
a match for Mr. Dunn. (And he did, for the man 
never prospered in his business afterwards, but 
succeeded meantime in giving the temperance friends 
much trouble.) 

Turning a corner on last Saturday afternoon, I 
came unexpectedly upon fifty women kneeling on 
the pavement and stoiie steps before this store. A 



136 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

daughter of a former Governor of Ohio was leading 
in prayer. Surrounding her were the mothers, wives 
and daughters of former Congressmen and Legisla- 
tors, of our lawyers, physicians, bankers, ministers, 
teachers, business men of all kinds. Indeed, there 
were gathered there representatives from nearly 
every household of the town. The day was bitter 
cold, a piercing north wind swept the street, chilling 
us all to the bone. The plaintive, tender, earnest 
tones of that pleading wife and mother arose on the 
blast and were carried to every heart within reach. 
Passers-by uncovered their heads, for the place 
whereon they trod was "holy ground." The eyes of 
hardened men filled with tears, and many turned 
away saying they could not bear to look on such a 
sight. When the voice of prayer was hushed, the 
women arose and began to sing softly a sweet hymn, 
some old familiar words and tune, such as our moth- 
ers sang to us in childhood days. We thought, "Can 
mortal man resist such eflbrts?" An old rough- 
visaged farmer, wiping the tears from his eyes with 
his fists, ejaculated, '"Pears to me like a rail would 
go through that door mighty durned quick." Then 
the'women kneel and once more the earnest tones of 
prayer are borne upon the breeze. So, from 10 a. 
M. to 4 p. M. the work goes on, the ladies relieving 
each other by relays. 

Close by is the residence of the Hon. John A. 
Smith, our former M. C, and now our delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention. His noble, warm- 
hearted wife has provided a bounteous lunch to 
which the workers resort, then away to kneel and 
I)ray. The effect upon the spectators is indescribable. 
No sneer is heard, scarcely a light word is spoken. 
The spirit of devotion is abroad, and those who 
would scorn to pray themselves, yet feel that here 
is something wiiich they must at least respect. 
Many a ' 'God ble>-.s them" falls from lips unaccustomed 
to use the name of Deity only in blasphemy. '1 here 
is not a man who sees them kneeling there, but feels 
that if he were entering Heaven's gate and one of 
these women were to appear, he would stand aside 
and let her go in first. Our work is not attended 
with what is called enthusiasm, or rather the enthu- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 37 

siasm has been g'uided to a purpose. We propose to 
settle this thing forever while we are at it. Our 
good citizens have raised a subscription, in the form 
of a '"'guarantee fund," to assist this movement. This 
now amounts to about $13,000, and can easily be 
raised to $100,000 if necessary; a little opposition 
will run the figures up indefinitely. A little experi- 
ence with Judge Steel would no doubt teach the 
whisky men that it is illegal to sell liquor contrary to 
law, a seeming plain proposition, but one which they 
seem slow to heed. 

I have tried to give a full and yet as brief an 
account as possible of our work here. It is a weary 
struggle. Delicate women have for a month past 
trudged through storm and slush, and knelt in filthy 
rum-holes, and on cold pavements, offering up their 
lives and health as a free sacrifice to the good of 
mankind. The end is not yet, but their hearts grow 
stronger, their faith brighter, their prayers more 
earnest with each day. Whatever outside scoffers 
may say, we of Hillsboro will hereafter have no 
sneer for women, and no sneer at prayers. I should 
perhaps speak of the thorough Christian spirit that 
pervades the community. As the breath of roses 
ladens the air of summer evenings, so the pravers of 
these women seem to be diffused by the January 
winds, and to fall in blessing on every heart. The 
feeling is one of yearning love and pity for those 
who stand out against their duty to their fellow men. 
It is true that some of us remember at times that 
our Master once used the scourge on evil men, and 
we feel as though one or two of these recreants 
should be driven from God's temple, but the spirit 
of kindness reigns, and instead of blows our people 
favor invitations and entreaties. Yet back of Mercy, 
Justice stands, and when the one can not persuade 
the other will surely compel. 

Later. — I have just learned that a dispatch has 
been received from Cincinnati that $16,000 have 
been raised there to ''back" our whisky men. Send 
it along, gentlemen, currency is scarce up here, but 
we will see you and go double. Cincinnati can not 
force a thing on this community which we will not 
have. "F." 



138 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The observant reader will not fail to note the 
very evident quickening of the hitherto inactive 
and inoperative male conscience in regard to the 
laws which had for so long remained a dead 
letter ; and this was a notable result everywhere. 
The sight of gentle, frail women turning out in 
the most inclement weather, marching through 
rain, snow or sleet, entering the vilest of dens, 
amid the fumes of liquor and tobacco — a place 
they had always been taught they should not 
seem to see in passing, or even refer to — and 
there kneeling and crying to God to have mercy 
upon and touch the heart of the seller — or, 
being locked out, kneeling on the pavement or 
frozen ground and thus continuing their devo- 
tions through the whole day, and into days and 
weeks, was indeed a sight to quicken the sensi- 
bilities of any Christian man into wonderful 
activity. What wonder, when he saw his own 
wife and daughter among them, if many a man 
under the impulse of the newly awakened con- 
science and regard for his wife, felt as though it 
would be a source of satisfaction to "go in and 
clean 'em out." Many a time this would have 
been done, especially where insult or disrespect 
was offered to the women, if the women had not 
stood between their husbands and the offenders. 

Ah, me ! if they had not lapsed into their old 
lethargic indifference as soon as the exciting 
scenes passed from their sight, wc would not 
to-day, thirteen years later, be, to all human 
appearances, as far from the fruition of hope as 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 39 

we were then. Then, indeed, the Lord had 
virtually given the enemy into our hands ; but 
the men failed to come up and hold the citadel 
after we had taken it. "We tliought the whole 
Christian world had risen up against us, and we 
knew it would be no use to try to withstand 
them," said the saloonist. 

Alas ! alas ! we had come in sight of the 
promised land, but through their business and 
political complicity with the traffic they were 
shorn of their moral strength and we were not 
permitted to enter in. And so have we been 
wandering, and the probability is that we shall 
continue to wander in this wilderness of sin till 
we make up the measure of our forty years, as 
the children of disobedience did in the long ago 
for a less heinous offense. Who can count, or 
who will stand for the souls that shall go down 
to the drunkard's eternity as the years roll on. 




CHAPTER VIII. 




Reports of Washington, Wilmington^ New Vienna, 
Waynesville and Franklin 



I^HOUGH I have quoted quite at length 
from the reports of the beginning of the 
work at Washington C. H., I find in the 
history of their work sent me by the President, 
Mrs. Carpenter, some further accounts that I 
am sure will be of interest. 

Mass-meetings were held nightly, with new 
victories reported constantly, until Friday, Jan- 
uary 2d, one week from the beginning of the 
work. At the public meeting held in the even- 
ing the Secretary reported every liquor-dealer 
unconditionally surrendered, — some having 
shipped their liquors back to the wholesale 
dealers, others poured them into the gutters, 
and the druggists all had signed the druggists' 
pledge ( which was to the effect that they would 
sell only on the physician's prescription for 
medicinal purposes and mechanical uses). Thus, 
a campaign of prayer and song had in eight days 
closed eleven saloons and pledged three drug- 
stores to sell only on prescription. 

140 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I4I 

At first men had wondered, scoffed and 
laughed, then criticized, respected and yielded. 
Morning prayer and mass-meetings continued to 
be held and the pledge circulated, and commit- 
tees sent out to aid the movement elsewhere. 
( I may say here that the point of contention 
between Hillsboro and Washington was that 
Hillsboro moved out a day or two in advance 
and therefore claimed precedence as to time, 
and Washington rid the town of the saloons in 
little over a week, and so claimed precedence as 
to results, and indeed because of their wonderful 
success it was at first known as the "Washing- 
ton movement. ") To proceed with the narrative : 
Early in the third week the discouraging news 
came that a new man had come to open up in 
one of the deserted saloons, and that he was 
backed by a whisky house in Cincinnati to the 
amount of ^5,000, to break down the movement. 
On Wednesday, January 14th, the whisky was 
unloaded at his room. About forty women 
were on the ground and followed the liquor in, 
and remained, holding an uninterrupted prayer- 
meeting all day and until eleven o'clock at night. 
The next day, though bitter cold, was spent in 
the same place and manner, without fire or 
chairs, two hours of that time the women being 
locked in while the proprietor was off attending 
a trial. On the following day, the coldest day 
of all the winter of 1874, the women were locked 
out, and stood on the street holding religious 
services all day long. Next morning a tabernacle 



142 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

was built in the street just in front of the house, 
and was occupied for the double purpose of 
watching and praying. But before night the 
sheriff closed the saloon and the proprietor sur- 
rendered. 

A short time after, on a dying bed, this four- 
days liquor dealer sent for some of the women 
to tell them their songs and prayers had never 
ceased to ring in his ears, and begged them to 
pray again in his behalf. So he passed away. 

But there were two places outside the corpor- 
ation that the ladies saw must be closed or the 
work of death still go on. I will let my friend 
Beadle, in his own peculiarly lively fashion, give 
this part of the Washington "Whisky war." 
He says: 

I reached Washington at noon of January 20th, 
and seeking Mr. Beck's beer-garden, found him in a 
state of terrible nervousness, as the ladies had spent 
the forenoon in his place. He evidently regarded 
me as a spy, but was much molified when I answered 
that I was only a journalist, and made voluminous 
complaints in high Dutch and low English. 

"I got no witnesses. Dem vimen, dey set up a 
shob on me. But you don't been a bitual drunkard ? 
Oh, no, you don't look like him. Veil, coom in, coom 
in. Vat you want, peer or vine? I dells you dem 
vimens is shust awful. Py shinks, dey build a house 
right in de slitreet und shtay mit a man all da\, a 
singin' and oder foohshness. But dey don't get in 
here once again already." 

In obedience to his instruction I had entered by 
a side door — the front was locked and barred — to 
find four customers indulging in liquor, beer and 
pigs'-fect. One announced himself as an original 
granger, the second as a retired sailor, while the 
others were non-committal. They stated that two 
spies had just appealed for admission. Men who 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I43 

would come in and drink, they were habitual drunk- 
ards under the Adair law. I find it everywhere to 
be the great horror of saloon-keepers. It allows 
wife, child, or other relative particularly interested, 
to prosecute for sale of liquor to husband or father, 
and almost any one may prosecute for sale of liquor 
to an habitual drunkard. 

Hereupon Mr. Beadle indulges in a little 
moralizing on the constitutionality of the law, 
and the chance it made here for black-mailing. 
It is always a question with some men when a 
law proves itself efficient against the liquor traffic, 
whether it is constitutional, and lest it may be, 
they hasten, under bribe or lash of the liquor- 
archy, to break its force, as that of the Adair 
law was broken shortly after this. 

He continues : 

Mr. Beck kept open house all that night. The 
sounds of revelry were plainly heard in town, and in 
the morning several drunken men came into town, 
one of whom tumbled down in a livery-stable and 
went to sleep in the manger, from, which he was 
carried to the lock-up. 

Matters were evidently coming to a crisis, and I 
went out early; but the ladies reached there in force 
just before me. I met Mr. Beck hurrying into town 
to consult a lawyer, or as he phrased it, "to see mine 
gounsel, ven I no got a right to my own broperty." 

The main body of the ladies soon arrived and took 
up a position with right center on the door-step, the 
wings extending each way beyond the corners of the 
house, and a rearward column along the walk to the 
gate. In ludicrous contrast the routed revelers who 
had been scared out of the saloon, stood in a little 
knot fifty feet away, still gnawing at the pigs'-feet 
they held onto in their hurried flight, while I took a 
convenient seat on the fence. The ladies then sang : 

" Oh, do not be discouraged, 
For Jesus is your friend ; 
He will give you grace to conquer 
And keep you to the end." 



144 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

As the twenty or more clear, sweet voices mingled 
in the chorus — 

*' I'm glad I'm in this army," 

the effect was surprising. I felt all the enthusiasm of 
the occasion, while the pigs'-feet party, if they did 
not feel guilty, certainly looked so. Tlie singing was 
followed by a prayer from ]\Irs. Mills Gardner. 
She prayed for the blessing of God on the temperance 
cause generally, and in this place in particular, then 
for Mr. Beck, his family and friends, and all that 
pertained to him, and closed with an eloquent plea 
for guidance in the difficult and delicate task they 
had undertaken : it was emxinently fitting to the place 
and the occasion. As the concluding sentences were 
being uttered, Mr. Beck and his " gounsel " arrived. 
The ladies paid no attention to either, but broke 
forth in loud strains : 

''Must Jesus bear the cross alone? 
No, there's a cross for me." 

Then the lawyer borrowed some of my paper, 
whispering at the same time : '' I must take down 
their names; guess I shall have to prosecute some of 
them before wc stop this thing." 

I should need the pen of an Irving, and the pencil 
of a Darley, to give any adequate idea of the scene. 
On one side, a score of elegant ladies, singing with 
all the earnestness of impassioned nature; a few 
yards away a knot of disturbed revelers, uncertain 
whether to stand or fly ; half-way between, the 
nervous Beck, bobbing around like a case of fiddle- 
strings with a hundred pounds of lager beer fat hung 
on them, and on the fence by the ladies a cold- 
blooded lawyer and excited reporter, scribbling 
away as if their lives depended on it. It was painful 
from its very intensity. 

The song ended, the presiding lady called upon 
Mrs. Wendell, and again arose the voice of prayer, 
so clear, so sweet, so full of pleading tenderness, 
that it seemed she would, by the strength of womanly 
love, compel the very heavens to open and send 
down in answer a spark of divine grace that would 
turn the saloon-keeper from his })urpose. The sky, 
which had been overcast all morning, began to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I45 

crear, the occasional drops of rain ceased to fall, and 
a gentle south wind made the air soft and balmy. 
It almost seemed that nature had joined in the 
prayer. Again the ladies sang : 

" Are there no foes for me to face," 
with the camp-meeting chorus, 

"Oh, how I love Jesus, 

Because he first loved me." 

As the song concluded, the lawyer suddenly stepped 
forward and said: "Now, ladies, I have a word to 
say before this performance goes any further. Mr. 
Beck has employed me as attorney. He can not 
speak good English and I speak for him. He is 
engaged in a legitimate business, and you are tres- 
passing on his property and right. If this thing is 
carried any further you will be called to account in 
the court, and I can assure you the court will sustain 
the man. He has talked with you all he desires to. 
He does not want to put you out forcibly ; that 
would be unmanly, and he does not want to act 
rudely. But he tells you to go. As his attorney, I 
now warn you to desist from any further annoyance." 

Again the ladies sang — 

" My soul be on thy guard, 
Ten thousand foes arise," 

and Mrs. Carpenter followed with a fervent prayer 
for the lawyer and his client ; but they had fled from 
the scene, leaving the house locked up. 

After taking counsel, the ladies decided to leave 
Mr. Becks premises and take a position in an adjoin- 
ing lot. They sent for the " tabernacle," a rude 
frame building they had used in front of Slater's 
saloon. This they erected on an adjoining lot, put 
up an immense light to illuminate the entrance to the 
beer-garden, and kept up a guard from early morning 
till midnight. 

Legal proceedings were at once instituted and two 
weeks afterwards the following dispatch appeared in 
the Cincinnati papers : 

"Washington C. H., Feb. 4.— Tell Beadle, of 
the Commercial, that my gounsel has had demperance 
meeting and tabernacle abated as a nuisance. 

Chas. Beck." 

(10) 



146 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

It was too true. An injunction was granted 
and then the temperance people had recourse to 
law. A Mrs. Frazler brought suit against Sul- 
livan and Beck, under the Adair law, and the 
former was soon compelled to surrender. Mr. 
Beck held out for a sb.ort time, then yielded 
good-humoredly to the ladies, and the place was 
once more clear. 

It was the first great victory of the campaign, 
the first demonstration of the power of women 
to do what men, with fifty years legislation, had 
failed to accomplish. The bells of the town 
rang out with joy. Great excitement prevailed 
and the chief business for a few days was the 
interchange of congratulations. 

Wilmington, the county seat of Clinton 
county, was the next place to fall into line. As 
I see by the county paper of January 8th, Rev. 
A. C. Hirst, of Washington C. H., hastened 
over to tell the neighbors the glad tidings, that 
a way had been found by which the rum-seller 
could be reached, what the glorious result had 
been in Washington, and with fervid eloquence 
so wrought up the good people of Wilmington 
that they at once with enthusiasm set to work, 
men and women, to organize for the siege. I 
note the familiar names of those days : Revs, 
Bingman, Runyan, Richards, Kelly, Mary 
Hadlcy and Mrs. Runyan. On the evening of 
January 8th, the men effected an organization 
and adopted the following resolution : 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I47 

^^ Resolved, That this meeting pledge its support to 
the ladies of Wilmington in the temperance move- 
ment, with our sympathy, prayers and means." 

Whenever the men came and stood by the 
women with their means, moral, and if need be, 
legal support, it was found to be a very convinc- 
ing argument to the average rum-seller's mind. I 
have maintained, first and last, that the move- 
ment was not woman's nor man's, but God's; 
but that every man and woman had a duty to 
perform in forwarding it. 

It will yet require the wisdom, prayers, means 
and labor of Christendom, men and women of 
whatever creed or station, to conquer this hydra- 
headed demon, the liquor traffic. The reason 
that we have not long ago conquered it is that 
we have not united our strength against it, as we 
should have done. 

The day we do, the bells will ring out peans 
of gladness all over the land, for the victory will 
be ours. 

The following preamble and resolutions, pre- 
sented by Rhoda Worthington, have a good, 
strong ring to them : 

Whereas, We, the women of Wilmington, are 
called upon, we believe in the Providence of God, to 
act in the suppression of the gigantic evil, the sale of 
intoxicating drink in our midst. 

Whereas, Not a single mother in our broad and 
otherwise free land, can fold her loved child in her 
arms, either son or daughter, and say without a fear, 
" My child is safe from the fell destroyer, my en- 
deared home is secure from its invasion " for the 
proudest, the noblest and bravest on earth share a 
like fate, once drawn into the whirlpool of this mon- 
ster, intemperance, and 



148 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Whereas, The suppression thereof is not the work 
of a day or an hour, and when the places of sale are 
once closed the work is merely begun, and as we 
believe " in union there is strength," therefore be it 

Resolved, ist. That we keep ourselves organized, 
either to ourselves or in conjunction with the noble 
ntien who are alike with us interested in the cause, 
laying aside all conflicting opinions of different names, 
presenting a solid front to the foe, not only to sup- 
press this great evil, but to prevent it from ever again 
entering our borders. 

2nd. That such organization shall meet as often as 
deemed necessary, at such time and place as may be 
designated, acting as a vigilance committee on the 
subject; and when any person may give reasonable 
ground for suspicion of being engaged in the traffic, 
care in the love of Jesus be extended to such an one 
without delay. 

3rd. That whatever success may crown our efTorts 
in this direction, all thanks, all praise, and all honor 
belongeth to Him alone to whom all praise and honor 
is due. 

Would that all, everywhere, had always re- 
membered this third resolution. 

On Monday, the 5 th, the women marched out 
forty-three strong, while the church-bells pealed 
forth to the dismayed rum-sellers, * ' The women 
are coming." Thus under the leadership of 
that beautiful, sweet-spirited Quakeress, Rhoda 
Worthington, the women of Wilmington opened 
up a battle. Mrs. Runyan, wife of the Metho- 
dist minister of the place at the time, was in- 
duced by the earnest entreaties of the good 
Quaker ladies to join them, and very soon her 
tongue was loosed and her hitherto buried talents 
brought into requisition in behalf of the glorious 
cause, as a popular lecturer. Though, as she 
has told me, she could not at first entertain the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 49 

thought, it wns too terrible, and she even brought 
her keen-edged sarcasm to play on the reverend 
brother who came to preach this new and un- 
heard-of mode of warfare. Very many ladies 
have said that at first they had a great struggle 
with themselves to evercome their prejudice and 
to see their duty, but, taking it up, such a 
blessed baptism came upon them as they had 
never experienced before, and which they would 
not exchange for all the previous religious expe- 
rience of their lives. Some who had been pro- 
fessors of religion long years, when going forth 
bearing the cross and the reproach, and kneeling 
in those dark abodes of sin for the first time in 
their lives, had their souls bathed in such a flood 
of ineffable bliss as they had never before con- 
ceived. 

Very few of us, living in homes of ease and 
social surroundings, ever had occasion to prove 
our love of the Master in any work that did not 
receive the laudation of the world. Jesus now 
called to His hand-maidens, "Daughter, wilt 
thou follow me even into the haunts of vice and 
crime ? Thou wilt find there many a wandering 
sheep." And responding, we received into our 
own souls the true riches of which the world 
knoweth not. 

With the practical beginning indicated above, 
the Wilmington women made a short campaign 
of it. Among the women here was found our 
present talented State Secretary, Mrs. Antoinette 
Clevengrer 



150 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

New Vienna, a small place in Clinton County, 
became quite noted because of the conflict the 
women had there, especially with one man. They 
began their work on January 13th, and in a week 
all the saloons were closed but two, one kept by 
a German woman, the other by J. C. VanPelt, 
who, because of his low, coarse manners and ex- 
treme profanity, acquired the name of the wick- 
edest man in Ohio. He swore that all the prayers 
of all the women in New Vienna would never 
move him, and that he would baptize tlie women 
with beer if they came to his place. When they 
did come, he ordered them to leave within a 
specified time. They returned the next day, 
and while praying that the Lord would baptize 
him with the Holy Spirit, he threw a bucket of 
dirty water on them, saying with a profane oath, 
"I'll bapdze you." More water was thrown, 
but the ladies kept on. Then he resorted to 
beer, throwing it up to the ceiling, and letting 
it come down where it would. The ladies con- 
tinued their devotions. 

At length his beer began to get low, and he 
had to turn the vessel to one side to dip it. Just 
then one of the ladies sprang forward and with 
the utmost good humor begged Mr. VanPelt to 
let her assist him, and she held his vessel atilt for 
him, so he could the more easily dip his slop. 
This was so unexpected a turn, that it quite van- 
quished him, and his rage gave vv'ay to a half sup- 
pressed smile. Tb.c ladies drew off their forces 
and repaired to the Friends' meeting-house. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 151 

The day was a very cold one, but the church 
was made warm by a large, red-hot stove. And 
as they gathered about it and began to thaw 
out, they have assured me that such fumes and 
perfumes as arose from their drab shawls, muffs 
and water-proofs certainly were unprecedented 
in a Friends' meeting. I have always had a sort 
of theory of my own, that the grimes and soils 
of earth would not stick to a Friend's garments, 
but I have to make an exception in the case of 
beer, for the ladies reported that those neat and 
tasteful bonnets of theirs, with the white ribbon 
ties, unmistakably bore marks of their conflict 
with sin. 

On the morrow they returned to the charge. 
But the enemy flourished an ax and ground his 
teeth with rage. He was arrested by the men 
for illegal selling and put in jail, bailed out, re- 
arrested, and again bailed out. His bitterness 
and determination intensified. No surrender for 
him. But it was observed that his place was 
directly on the line of railroad land. 

The ladies sent to railroad authorities and asked 
permission to occupy that particular position of 
ground directly in front of Mr. VanPelt's saloon, 
which of course was granted. Lo ! Mr. Van- 
Pelt was checkmated, and the ladies went on 
with their devotions. He had indeed acquired 
a widespread notoriety, but it was not paying. 
Those women had sat down as Grant did before 
Vicksburg, determined to fight it out on that 
line if it took all winter and summer. They 



152 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

were regular, devout, persistent. They divided 
their time between the woman, Rice, and this 
last citadel by the railroad. The customers fell 
off. They could not crowd in past the women. 
Mr. VanPelt grew serious. He began to reflect. 
Was he struck under conviction ? We will give 
him the benefit of the doubt. 

At length he sent out his proposals of capita* 
lation. The people could not at first believe he 
was sincere, or meant it in good faith. But he 
sent for the ministers and made a full surrender 
to them and the women. 

He requested Rev. D. Hill and Rev. H. H. 
Witter to roll out the barrels, and seizing an ax 
he said, this was the same he had used to terrify 
the ladies, and striking it into one barrel after 
another, the liquor flowed into the gutter while 
the ladies stood by singing joyful songs of thanks- 
giving for this blessed ending of their siege. 

A week later, VanPelt was in Springfield with 
Dr. Lewis, and addressed an immense audience 
in Black's Opera House. I made him a subject 
of close observation and stud}'. I was disposed 
to believe him sincere ; but knew from all his 
previous life experience, he could not at once, 
if ever, rise to the high plain of the Christian prin- 
ciple of doing right because God demands it. 
I was led to believe that the hope of bettering his 
condition financially had a good deal to do with 
his action. He had never before had any other 
means placed before him, and it is possible that 
from the assurance of the friends that they would 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 53 

help him, and the encouragement given by Dr. 
Lewis to go into the lecture field, it may have oc- 
curred to him that it would pay even better than 
selling liquor. 

It was certainly more respectable, and people 
made much ofhim. I felt much solicitude lest dis- 
appointment would disgust and turn him aside, 
and felt sure financial success was very essential, 
and helped him what I could. 

Dr. Lewis had even raised his hopes of going 
to Europe with him in the interest of the temper- 
ance cause. 

But the poor fellow was doomed to a great 
disappointment in the matter of money. He did 
not succeed as a lecturer. His own story, told 
in very poor English, and so tinctured with pot- 
house phraseology, soon became thread-bare, only 
being tolerated at any time by the hope of saving 
him. The people were not as liberal as they 
should have been, I fear; they are not apt to be. 
I was told of his going to one town to speak, but 
getting scarcely enough to pay his expenses, 
and that the saloon-keepers told him if he had 
spoken for them, they would have handed him 
five dollars apiece. It takes grace to withstand 
such pro and con arguments as these. 

He was heard of afterwards in Wilmington, 
keeping a very low, disreputable place, and was 
suspected of setting fire to the house of the 
Friends' minister who had attempted to prose- 
cute him. The last I heard of him. he was in a 
western penitentiary. Alas, the seed had not 
depth of earth. 



154 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Waynesville, in Warren county, is a pleasant 
village on a beautiful declivity overlooking the 
Miami river and valley. Here the ladies opened 
up the work with great energy on the i8th of 
January. Led by Mrs. Jane Jones, a minister 
of the Friends, they visited Raper's saloon. As 
they filed in, Mrs. Jones extended her hand to 
the saloon-keeper, saying, "How's thee?" and 
asked permission to pray with him, which he 
courteously granted ; and leaning against the 
bar they all knelt, and Mrs. Jones, in a spirit 
humble and touching, cried, "Our Father in 
Heaven, who knowest the inmost thoughts of 
all hearts, who cannot be deceived, and will not 
be mocked, we come again in a sense of our 
own weakness, needing great help from Thee, 
to do what little is in our power for the relief 
and salvation of Thy creatures and to Thy honor. 
We come again in the name of Jesus, asking 
Thee to put words in our mouths and wisdom in 
our hearts, when we talk to this, our dear brother. 
We implore Thee to bless his dear family. We 
ask again, as we have often asked before, that 
Thou wouldst send Thy word with power into 
the heart of this dear brother, that he may give 
up this terrible sin that has so long kept him 
away from God. Thou who hast moved so 
many hearts, in mercy condescend to move 
upon the heart of this man, that he may no 
longer endanger his immortal soul. Oh. help him 
to say, ' Let others do as they may, as for me, I 
will get rid of this traffic, which is the cause of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 55 

SO much sin and suffering. ' Oh, Lord, have we 
not seen and suffered enough of this great evil, 
which fills our land with ruin, till our country is 
trembling on the verge of destruction ? Often, 
we know this brother has trembled at Thy word, 
like Felix of old, but still stands where he did, 
saying, * Go thy way for this time, when I have 
a convenient season, I will call for thee. * 

Lord, bless this man who sits here writing. 
Give him wisdom, that he may know the truth 
in all its beauty and importance ; and grant him 
power to convey that truth unto others, to the 
good of their souls. Impress upon his heart that 
many, yea, very many are dependent upon him, 
that if his own soul were all that he imperiled 
it were enough ; but that thousands look to him 
for exact truth. He cannot say, ' Am I my 
brother's keeper?' for the souls of many may 
be dragged do^-nto perdition by error and false- 
hood. Help him to realize the importance of 
his words. And may Thy blessing rest upon all 
this assembly, and finally may we meet again 
at thy right hand, we ask for Jesus' sake. Amen. " 

It was not long till Mr. Raper surrendered and 
gave up his business. When he notified the 
women that he proposed to give up, they came 
in procession, sang and praised God, while the 
band discoursed sweet music; a:id the cannon, 
having also been brought out for the occasion, 
sent the glad news reverberating up and down 
the valley between the hills for many a mile. 
Then it was not very long till another keeper 



156 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 

yielded. His little son, some ten or eleven years 
old, taking a lively interest in the affair, in- 
sisted that the cannon must be brought out also 
for his father's surrender, and as much demon- 
stration made as over the surrender of their 
neighbor, which was done, greatly to the delight 
of the little fellow. 

It was noticeable in many instances that the 
children of the saloon-keepers felt keenly the 
disgrace that attached to their father's business, 
and were glad as any one when they gave it up. 
One of the saloon-keepers here had sold liquor 
against the wish of his wife, who was a very 
worthy woman. She was so opposed to his busi- 
ness that she would not accept any of his ill-gotten 
gain for her support, but worked at dress-making 
by which to earn her living. When her husband 
quit selling liquor and went into another busi- 
ness, she gave up her work. But the sad truth 
must be told, that it was not long till he went 
back to his soul-destroying business, and the 
brave-hearted woman took up her dress-making 
again. 

To another man here, the ladies upon his sur- 
render presented a Bible appropriately inscribed. 
He seemed so pleased and so determined to live 
a new and better life, that he said he would 
treasure the gift al\va\"s, and when he was buried 
he wanted it placed on his heart. But, in this 
case, the wife's influence was so adverse that he 
went back to selling liquor again, and it was not 
long till he died a violent death, the exact nature 
of which I cannot recall. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 157 

It was in Waynesville that the Crusade found 
Miss Esther Pugh, who has since developed such 
grand talents, and is known by the White Rib- 
boners everywhere as our efficient and faithful 
treasurer. The man at Corwin, just across the 
river from Waynesville, and near the railroad 
station, did not surrender, though the women 
continued to visit and pray with him for a long 
time. In this case the word was verified which 
saith, ' The wicked shall not live out half his days. ' ' 
While dealing out the deadly poison to others, 
he imbibed it all too freely himself, and it was not 
long till fatal disease fastened itself upon him 
and he was laid on the bed of death. His wife, 
who had opposed him when he seemed disposed 
to surrender in answer to the pleadings of the 
women, now became alarmed, and asked him if 
she might send for the priest to pray with him. 
' ' No, ' ' he exclaimed, " it is too late. Oh, if I had 
only yielded when the Christian women prayed 
for me and begged me to give up my business ; 
but now it is too late." So he died. The wife 
went on with the business, and was still seUing 
the last time I passed down the road. The great 
danger of tampering with sin is its hardening in- 
fluence upon heart and conscience. 

Franklin began the Crusade on January 21st. 
There were seven saloons, and four were closed 
by the 3rd of February. I deem it important to 
mention that in Franklin a band of Christians 
had held weekly meeting for some two or three 
years before the great uprising, to pray for the 



158 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

overthrow of the liquor traffic in the country. 
Another evidence that the Lord was impressing 
on the hearts of his people in so many different 
places, that while He had borne long with the 
great evil and even had seemed to wink at the 
ignorance and indifference of the people, He was 
now calling them to repentance, and to active 
warfare against the great, overshadowing sin of 
the age, as works meet for repentance. The 
citizens raised a guarantee fund to sustain the 
ladies in any cases of prosecution that might de- 
velop out of their work. They also formed a 
Temperance Union to watch the future opera- 
tions of any who might attempt to intrude their 
traffic upon them. Pity that they so soon grew 
weary in well doing. 

On one occasion a band of eighteen ladies, one 
a devoted woman of eighty two years, visited 
a .saloon-keeper, considered the hardest in the 
place, entering unexpectedly at 6 o'clock in 
the m.orning. They had only left him at 
midnight the night before. At 9 o'clock he 
locked his door, telling his clerk to let the ladies 
out when he pleased, but to let no one in, and left. 
A large and sympathetic crowd stood outside, 
awaiting the turn of events. And public senti- 
ment was setting so strongly in favor of the 
iadi.s that the least insult or rudeness shown 
them would have resulted in violence on the 
part of the men. The rest of the sisters, with 
the men, tarried at the church for their usual 
morning prayer-meeting. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 59 

At the close, they formed their hne of march 
to make their usual visitation. Coming to this sa- 
loon where their sisters were in prison, they 
stopped and joined them in singing the sweet 
songs with which they were whiling away the 
hours of their durance. At noon warm dinners 
were brought them. In the course of the after- 
noon the proprietor sent his attorney to offer a 
compromise. But he was assured that uncondi- 
tional surrender was the only terms. His saloon 
was closed. Miss Sarah Butler, quite a young 
lady, but a devoted Christian, did effective service 
here. 

The reporter of the New York Tribune, of Dr. 
Lewis' party, was so struck with her devout, 
plaintive supplication, as well as with her remark- 
able utterance before Hunger's saloon, that he 
reported the prayer entire to his paper. 

At the Columbus Convention, among others 
being called out, she gave in such simple, unaf- 
fected, yet touching manner, an account of the 
work in Franklin, that in that great assembly of 
twelve hundred there was scarcely a dry eye. 




CHAPTER IX. 



Visit to Lagonda House — Dio Lewis a^id Van Pelt. 

N SPRINGFIELD our work was grow- 
ing in numbers and influence, but all too 
slowly for my impatient heart. And I 
was coming between two fires, I might almost 
call it, for while some were growing very impa- 
tient to move out, others were either as yet de- 
cidedly opposed to the crusade method or un- 
able to bring themselves to the point cf taking up 
such a fearful cross as it seemed to them then. 
To add to ray trouble and perplexity, many of 
the brethren were doubtful of the expediency of 
the method in so large a place. I was not my- 
self sanguine of an ultimate success. But I could 
see that the whole community was in a state of 
expectancy, even the saloon-keepers were look- 
ing for us. It seemed that we had come to a 
point in our work where there was nothing left 
for us but to go forward, or lose much vantage- 
ground that we had now attained. 

Other cities were waiting to see what Spring- 
field would do, and if she would be able success- 
fully to carry on the visiting method. The bur- 
den became almost too heavy to be borne. I 

160 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. l6l 

really wished the Lord would lay me on a bed 
of sickness, that I might feel relieved of this ter- 
rible agony of suspense and responsibility. How 
I wept and prayed in the night-time, the walls of 
my chamber, if gifted with speech, could testify. 
Our morning prayer-meetings were well attended 
and much interest was manifest, but how to con- 
centrate this interest into a united, determined 
purpose of action, was the sore and perplexing 
problem. Frequently, as our meetings were in 
progress, word by letter, messenger or telegram 
would be brought in, of the success of the work 
elsewhere, and with the best logic and eloquence 
I could command, I endeavored to fan the 
spark of enthusiasm the news would excite into 
a flame. Several of our brethren also spoke 
very earnest and encouraging words. Among 
these I remember especially our Rev. Brother 
Clokey, of the U. P. Church and Rev. J. W. 
Spring, of the M. P. Church. 

It was now announced that Dio Lewis was about 
to return to Ohio to give a month's campaign 
to help forward the work in various parts of the 
State. Our Executive Committee not thinking 
it advisable to invite him to Springfield, the La- 
dies Benevolent Society telegraphed him to come 
to us on February nth. 

But the fever of enthusiasm did reach a suffi- 
cient height by the loth to enable a devoted 
band of twenty -two women to answer to the call 
for volunteers at the close of the morning meet- 
ing, to file out into the ante-room, where we, 

(11) 



1 62 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

in a few hurried words of consultation, came to 
an understanding of the mode of procedure. 
The day before, indeed, feeHng that I must take 
up the work if alone, I had visited some four 
places, the Lagonda House being one, and so 
got an understanding of the various entrances to 
the place. It turned out, however, that I was 
not the only one, for sisters Cosier, Schaffer and 
Kinney also made visits to three or four places, 
so that our vv'ork of visiting saloons may date 
from the 9th of February. But we m.oved out 
in band and solemn procession the next day. 
As we reached the door I turned to the brethren 
who remained in the sanctuaiy, and begged them 
to continue in prayer, and gave them our watch- 
word, "I will go in the strength of the Lord 
God, I will make mention of thy righteousness, 
Thine only." Ah, who that fell into line and 
marched out can ever forget that first moving 
out ! The silent uplifting of the heart to God, 
the cry for strength, for wisdom to say the right 
words, for grace to m.eet in the spirit of our 
blessed Master whatever trial of faith or patience 
might come to us, the trepidation at the thought 
of visiting those low and loathsome places that 
we had always been taught were the haunts of 
the low, vile and abandoned. It was certainly 
a new and strange path in which to follow the 
Friend of sinners. Somehow, we had not before 
thought that the command, "Take up thy cross 
and follow mc," had meant even into such dark 
dens of iniquity. What had it meant ? In 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 163 

times past we had understood it, deny thyself 
of some httle worldly gratification in the way of 
amusement or dress. And even in these minor 
matters we had, with rare exceptions, ceased to 
be distinguished from the world around us. 

But now we had, indeed, taken a solemn ad- 
vance step. How weak we felt, and how we 
realized the need of help from on high. Thus 
we moved out, in great trembling, with bowed 
head, but with eye of faith steadfastly fixed on 
the Cross of Calvary, going forth to try to 
rescue the perishing. Oh ! to help bring the 
world to the foot of the cross ! 

A holy inspiration filled our souls, and as the 
bell rang out its peals at the close of each 
prayer as a message of encouragement sent 
after us, saying, "Courage, brave hearts, we are 
praying for you, we are praying for you, " we 
felt a sweet and holy joy come into our souls, a 
new, glad experience that buoyed us as if tread- 
ing not upon the earth, but the air. Lo ! we 
were walking with Jesus. To-day, time has 
brought us thirteen years further on the way, 
yet thousands will still testify to the blessed joy 
and peace that they experienced as they entered 
those haunts of sin, knelt there and cried to God 
to deliver us from the curse of drink, to save 
our husbands, to save our boys, to save the 
liquor-seller himself, from the fearful conse- 
quences of his wicked business. Then those 
sweet songs that many a poor, wretched drunk- 
ard had heard his sainted mother sing in the old, 



l64 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

far-away home of his childhood, the gentle word 
of persuasion to the dealer, to the young man, 
or the gray-haired frequenter that we found in 
the grog-shop ! How many times have I heard 
the assertion, ' * I would not exchange that 
experience for all the rest of my life." Most of 
our sisters supposed the happiness came from 
taking up this peculiar form of Christian duty, 
but I am satisfied that it was the joy and peace 
that will always come from a willing and obedient 
following of the Lord, whithersoever he may 
lead. 

It had been with many, a fearful struggle to 
yield up their preconceived ideas of what was a 
lady's place, and what the world might think 
and say. Not a few carried the subject to their 
closets, and there on their knees fought the battle 
with self and pride before the Lord, till He gave 
them strength and they came forth anointed 
for the war. As I was passing up street one 
morning, a little, timid minister's wife met me, 
and grasping my hand, exclaimed: "Oh, 
Mother Stewart, what shall I do f It seems to 
me that I ca7i not take up this work." I said, 
* 'Never mind, my dear, it will come all right. ' ' A 
short time after, this little woman walked out by 

the side of Sister C at the head of a band ; 

and as they knelt. Sister C said: "Pray, 

Sister H ; yes, you must pray;" and she 

did, and such a holy baptism came down upon 
her that as she walked she held to Sister C's 
arm, exclaiming, ' 'Oh, I am so happy, I am so 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. l6$ 

happy ! I am so glad you made me take up my 
cross!" Thenceforth it was a dehght to do 
whatever work came to her. 

In my own case I hardly know how it was, 
but from the day when I decided to help my 
poor friend by taking her case into court, I have 
never felt any shrinking or misgiving as to my 
holy calling to the work. As I have already 
said, I heard my Father's voice and I hastened 
to do his bidding. And I scarcely ever lifted 
up my voice to the Throne, whether in the dark 
lurking-places of vice and crime, or without on 
the cold pavement, in the snow and mud, or on 
the frozen ground, but I felt like shouting aloud 
the praises of my God for the privilege, and I 
have never ceased to wonder and to praise Him. 
Oh, shall I take up the song on the other shore 
before very long ? 

And yet there was something about this 
work so solemn, so pathetic, so approaching 
the funeral procession, that, though I led out, I 
suppose, hundreds of bands, I could never, even 
to the last, look upon the sight without weeping. 
I either had to be a part of it in the ranks or 
hasten out of sight. 

No wonder that strong men, looking upon it, 
broke down and wept like very children ; and 
no wonder that the infidel declared, as I heard 
him, "I am not a Christian. I don't know 
whether there is a God up yonder, or not. But 
when I cam.e into the city and saw those women 
kneeling on the streets before the saloons, and 



l66 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

heard their prayers, I said, if there is a God in 
Heaven Ke will hear and answer those prayers. " 
It seems to me the angels must have looked 
down from their bright abode upon those scenes 
with awe and wonder and pity. 

I can now recall the names of but few of 
that little consecrated band that fell into line 
that day, saying to the Master, "Here am I; 
send me." But some I know, after waging a 
good warfare and witnessing a good profession, 
have laid down the weapons of warfare and the 
cross, and gone up to wear the crown forever 
more. 

Of these promoted ones, I recall our beloved 
sisters Emmet, Mitchell, Schaffer, Guard, 
Ogden, Winters, Middleton,Cummingsand Olds. 
Sister Spring, always so humble and modest, so 
exemplary in life, }-et, as she declared, though a 
minister's wife for ten years, she had never taken 
up her cross in public, her voice had never been 
heard in prayer. How she shrank that morn- 
ing from the duty, asking to be excused, but 
when I spoke of her example and influence as a 
minister's wife, and the only one present, it was 
all that was needed. She promptly took her 
place and walked with us to the last, becoming 
most capable in prayer and all needful work — 
to the end of her short, beautiful life, in her far 
western field, ever a strong temperance worker, 
as well as an efficient helpmeet for her husbaixl. 

I remember my beloved Sister Cosier, now 
Phillips, walked by my side that morning, as she 



MEJIORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 16/ 

has all these intervening years, in the sweet 
spirit of sisterly confidence and helpfulness. 
Sister Kinney, who had been obliged to take 
the subject to her closet and there settle it, had 
nevertheless got it settled some days before, — 
how effectually the years have told — and had 
been quite impatient to move out. Sister Otstot 
I remember as she stood by me at the Lagonda 
House door. 

On this first morning of our moving out, the 
whole city was in a state of great excitement 
and the streets were thronged with people. The 
saloon-keepers had been expecting us for some- 
time, and had their pickets out to watch and 
report any approach of the dreaded women. 
The question was, how to reach the saloon 
Vv^ithout the word out-running us and so being 
locked out, this at first being considered by the 
saloon-keepers as a sort of defeat. 

I desired also to visit the most prominent 
saloon first, this being in the basement of the 
Lacf'onda House, corner of Limestone and High 
streets. To reach it from the First Presbyterian 
Church, where our morning meetings were held, 
and from which we marched out, required a 
march around two sides of the square. I led 
the band up Main to Limestone, then south on 
Limestone to the front entrance, through v/nich 
I had learned, in my visit of the day before, an 
entrance to the saloon could be had by a stair- 
way leading from the office. But the ladies not 
quite understanding my bit of strategy, preferred 



1 68 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

to move around to the outside door This we 
found locked — the spies had got in a little ahead. 
It was in front of this door that we held our first 
Crusade service, and Sister Kinney offered the 
first prayer. A great concourse of people, men, 
women and children, carriages, wagons, etc., 
had gathered and fairly blockaded the street. I 
turned to a policeman (how nice they were to 
us in those days ) and said : " If I could have 
a dry-goods box to stand on I would address 
the people. " He motioned to the office v/indow 
and said, "Go up there." Some gentlemen 
were in it and I asked them if I might occupy 
it. They bowed their assent, and asking my 
young friend Wilburn, of the hotel, to lead the 
way, I here made my first street speech in the 
Crusade, to a most respectful and attentive 
audience. Profound quiet and order prevailed, 
and I believe a move towards molesting us 
would have been a signal for a general battle. 

Here again is an instance followed by very 
unexpected results. 

Mr. J. R. Chapin, special correspondent and 
artist, sent out by Frank Leslie to write up and 
take sketches of the Ohio Women's Whisky 
War, arrived in Springfield just after we had 
made our rounds, gathered up the facts and 
made sketches of the street scene before the 
Lagonda House and that at Zischler's the next 
day ; also took photographs of Dio Lewis and 
of Mother Stewart, both in ordinary garb and in 
her disguise with the Sunday glass in hand. These 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 169 

came out in Frank Leslie s Weekly for February 
28th. Where they all found their way would 
be hard to tell. It was said that a thousand 
copies were sold in Springfield. One copy 
reached the hands of my respected friend, Bailie 
Bucannan, of Dumbarton, Scotland. Mrs. M. 
E. Parker, of Dundee, W. Vice Templar of the 
Grand Lodge of Good Templars of Scotland, in 
her visiting of the various local lodges visited 
Dumbarton, and being entertained by Bailie 
Bucannan, the conversation was of course largely 
of the wonderful news of the uprising of the 
women of the West. The bailie brought out 
a copy of Frank Leslie, that by some means had 
come into his possession. Mrs. P, is a very 
enthusiastic woman, and deeply interested in all 
phases of the temperance v.-ork. She insisted, 
though the paper was much worn b)' the handling 
it had had, that she must have it. "Oh," she 
exclaimed, "I wish we could get Mother Stewart 
to Scotland." This hope she did not give up, 
though it was more than a year before she 
realized it. 

At the close of our exercises at the Lagonda 
House, we again formed our procession and 
marched to the saloon in the Murray House, 
now the St. James. Finding that also locked, 
we had our prayers and songs on the sidewalk. 
Thence we visited a very notorious place, kept 
by a woman, on West Main street, known as 
"The Bank. " Here we were permitted to enter, 
and passing to the room in the rear, held our 



I JO MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

devotions there, while the crowd of customers 
were taking their drinks at the bar in the front 
room. From here we visited Wm. Stubbe — 
where I had bought my "first glass of liquor." 
His place was closed. We then adjourned to the 
church, where we disbanded for the day, but to 
meet the next morning at the same place in an 
all-day prayer-meeting, which, by arrangement 
of Mrs. Guy, our Secretary, was to be held. 

On this evening our mass-meeting was held in 
the Central M. E. Church, and Sister Schaffer 
and Mother Stewart made their report of the 
first day's Crusade work in Springfield, to an 
immense audience. 

The Springfield Repuhtic, after giving a full 
report of our first day on the street, proceeded 
with the following remarks, suggested by the 
action of the saloon-keepers in locking us out : 

% * * It is submitted to the saloonists above 
referred to, if their action to-day has not been 
cowardly and strongly in contrast "vvith that of their 
visitors. Certainly, if their business is honest, 
respectable, and legal, they have nothing to fear, 
and as shown in this first trial, the temperance 
women are not to be deterred by closed doors or 
fastened shutters. If they are doing anything in 
violation of law, creating any breach of the peace, 
or interfering with legitimate business, the remedy is 
ready to the hand of everybody requiring it. It 
seems to be the plan of campaign agreed upon, that 
close watch is to be kept, and the women kept out 
liy lock and key. Would it not be more courageous 
and manly, and less sneaking, to admit them ? 

This new movement on die part of our women 
has special and extraordinary significance, dis- 
tinguishing it from that in other places, owing to the 
fact that this is the first \\xc<t of any considerable 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. IJl 

size in which the visitation plan has been put to the 
test. 

The result will therefore be regarded with the 
most intense interest all over the country. The 
women appreciate the situation, and cherish a spirit 
in accordance with the demand upon tliem. 

Our siege was now begun, and our first day 
out had served to settle our purpose to follow it 
up, whatever the result might be. But what a 
conflict it proved to be ! Hundreds had signed 
the pledge and forsaken the dram-shops ; a 
sentiment had been created against the 
business, so that many others were shamed out 
of patronizing them ; the trade was very per- 
ceptibly falling off; but we had two large 
breweries and one distillery, that in many 
instances agreed to furnish liquors gratis till the 
siege should be raised. The manufacturers and 
wholesale dealers of Cincinnati, Dayton, and 
elsewhere, also sent out their drummers and 
circulars to influence the saloon-keepers to stand 
their ground, saying they would see them 
through. 

As refuting the general supposition every- 
where, except on the field of action, that it 
was the drunkard's wives only that had risen 
up in their desperation and beleaguered the 
saloons ; and answering the oft-repeated question 
where the work was going on, " Why don't the 
women who have suffered most from intemper- 
ance now come forward to help rid themselves 
and their neighbors of the curse ?" an Incident, 
as related by one of our ladies this first day out, 



1/2 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

is in order. She says : " After our prayers on 
the sidewalk before the Murray House, as we 
were about moving away, one of the ladies 
turned to a miserable inebriate standing near, 
and said: * Your wife ought to be with us.' A 
fierce light came into his eyes as he answered, 
^ Pd kill her if she was f " This poor woman 
had silently, uncomplainingly, borne her heavy 
burden for years ; had tended and cared for him 
through illness brought on by drink. She had 
no doubt watched, waited and prayed that her 
husband might be delivered from his terrible 
bondage. Now, when the army was investing 
this city of her sorrow, she could not, dared not, 
lend a helping hand, for fear of that imbruted 
husband. 

On the morning of the i ith, after a season of 
waiting before the Lord, we again marched out, 
seventy-five strong. But it happened that at 
this hour I had an appointment to meet a 
drunkard's wife at the Mayor's ofiice, to help 
her look after her drunken husband, so that I 
was not with the sisters in their rather novel 
experience with Mr. Zischler, but joined them 
as they reached the depot eating-house. 

That wonderful "WhiteWednesday" in Spring- 
field ! Alas ! alas! We shall never sec another 
such ! The interest was sustained without any 
abatement for eight hours. And the attendance 
steadily increased until it was found that the 
lecture-room could not accommodate the peo- 
ple. The auditorium was thrown open and soon 
filled. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 73 

The thought of an all-day prayer-meetings as so 
much else of practical work and methods, was 
the result of the nightly vigils and earnest pray- 
ers of our competent and ever vigilant Secretary. 
It was a new and startling experience for some 
of our good ministers and laymen, who had ex- 
pressed many misgivings as to the expediency of 
such an experiment, to see the sisters take their 
places as leaders for the hour, read the Scrip- 
tures, pray and speak with the ease and intelli- 
gence of the brethren and the added fervor and 
emotion of women ; and in an old, conservative 
church where woman's voice was an unknown 
factor in devotional services. What was coming 
to pass in these latter days ? 

The same paper, in reporting our morning work, 
says : 

It was stated briefly, yesterday, that while the mass 
was congregated in the church, doing what could be 
done there in the case, picked corps of women were 
out upon the streets, making the rounds of the saloons 
or rum-holes as Dr. Lewis truthfully calls them,meet- 
ing with much encouragement, as compared with the 
experiences of the first day's encounter. As stated, 
they were invited by Mr. Zischler, whose place on 
Market street they visited, into his dance-hall in the 
third story, and arrived there the proprietor mounted 
the music-stand and read two chapters from the 
Bible — that from Genesis describing the fall of 
Adam, and another. The ladies set a good example 
in the attention they paid, but when it came their 
turn Mr. Zischler was so ungallant as to withdraw, 
saying he must attend to his business, but invited 
them to remain as long as they pleased. Not at all 
surprised that a man engaged in such a business 
should shun the company of Christian ladies, they 
proceeded, sang their hymns, and prayed beseech- 



1/4 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ingly, closing, as usual, with the Icng metre Dox- 
ology 

" Praise God from whom all blessings flow." 

That an advance was made this day, and a break 
in the enemy's stronghold at least started, is shown 
by the fact that the women were permitted to enter 
the billiard-room attached to the Lagonda House 
saloon, and to hold their religious exercises there. 
At Dotzy's place, just north of Main street on 
Market, no entrance was effected, and the band of 
devotees at once kneeled upon the pavement, the 
sound of their voices in prayer being clearly dis- 
tinguished above the noise of the street. 

An adjournment ard cessation of operations were 
made until 2 p. M., and about twenty of the women 
accepted an invitation from Mr. J. L. Berry, to dine 
at his restaurant on Market street, where they v,'ere 
most hospitably entertained. In the afternoon, the 
first advance was made upon Mr. Bradley's place, on 
the east side of Market street, a few doors from Mr. 
Zischler's. Here the proprietor showed good sense, 
and won the favor of spectators and all, by admit- 
ting the delegation, and giving them all the facilities 
the place afforded to go on with their exercises. All 
thistime a great crov/dof men and boys, of all classes, 
extending across the sidewalk and into the street, 
regarded the proceedings, and the reporter is of the 
opinion that it was not alone owing to the presence 
of the police that good order was maintained. At 
prayer time, nearly every head was uncovered, and 
as the women started to leave, a way was cleared for 
them. A crowd, estimated at a thousand people, 
falling in at the rear. 

A few minutes were spent at the depot eating 
house, (on the outside, per force of circum- 
stances,) and then the ladies turned their atten- 
tion to "Spang's," on the opposite corner, for 
the vicinity of the depot is a favorite place for 
this business. Here there was an "episode." 
The door was closed, and Mrs. Kinney, trj'ingit, 
found it fast. The ladies asked me to step onto 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 75 

the door-steps and address the great mass of 
people that were gathered on the street. I as- 
cended the steps, but as I was beginning to 
speak, the proprietor threw open the door and 
shouted out " Mother Stewart, get down from 
here, you are trespassing! I don't want any tres- 
passing here ! These are my premises, I pay 
my rent, and I don't allow you here ! Get away, 
every one of you !" I made a move to step 
down, as I did not know but I might be tres- 
passing, and I desired to avoid any legal compli- 
cations in the outset of our Crusade. But I 
think a hundred voices from the crowd cried out, 
"Stay where you are !" "You have good back- 
ing !" " Don't you move." Just then Mr. Flem- 
ing, chief of police, sprang up the steps and 
siezed the man by the arm, thrust him back into 
his saloon, followed him in and explained to 
him that the people were in sympathy with 
an d would protect the Crusaders, and that a 
hand laid on Mother Stewart would be the 
signal for rasing his place to the ground. There 
were also three hundred workmen looking on 
from the windows of the great Champion Ma- 
chine Shops, just across Market Square, and ready 
at a move to avenge any violence or insult of- 
fered us. 

Beadle, in his report of the affair, says : 

*'A gentleman of rather quiet style afterwards 
said, * If that fellow had touched one hair of Mother 
Stewart's gray head, his house would have been 
leveled to the ground ; and he proceeded to say that 
there is nothing more curious in the phenomena of 



1/6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the movement than the general respect, amounting 
almost to love or hero-worship, which some of the 
wors-t bummers and saloonists feel for the good 
ladies engaged in it. Mother Stewart has warm 
friends among the worst people of Springfield.' " 

When I had finished my address and was about 
to step down, Mr. Spangenburg opened his door, 
seeming as bright and pleasant as a May morn- 
ing. 

I turned and shook hands with him, bidding him 
** good-bye." "Good-bye, good-bye. Mother 
Stewart," he responded, "come again." The 
chief had done his work well, and I think this 
place as good as any to bear a grateful testi- 
mony to the kind and watchful care of the 
Springfield police during nearly our entire street 
labors. More than once has a kind-hearted po- 
liceman given me the support of his arm, as he 
walked with me at the head of the band. 

If a time came when it was evident that a 
change in their care or watchfulness was appa- 
rent, it was no fault of theirs. After a time, as 
we learned, they were admonished by their supe- 
riors that a little less zeal in guarding the Crusad- 
ers might be necessary to retaining their places. 
For myself, I am happy to record that from that 
day to this I have always found our policemen 
to be my warm friends. And I take pleasure in 
adding, that wherever I have had occasion to 
ask aid or information of a policeman, whether 
in New York, St. Louis, London or Belfast, I 
have found them courteous and seeming to 
take pleasure in giving me any aid or informa- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I// 

tion asked, and I know I have passed on with 
an added pleasure myself for the brief exchange 
of friendly words. I suppose the law of kind- 
ness, or the principle that " like begets like, " 
has a general application. If, instead of finding 
fault with them, citizens would sustain them in 
the discharge of their duties, they would take 
them out of the control of the political bosses, 
and have much better service from them. 

An incident connected with our visit to this 
place came to my knowledge only recently, 
nearly eleven years after that memorable day, 
but of such thrilling interest to me that I am 
sure the reader will be glad of its insertion here. 
A young man with whom, and his efficient wife,^ 
I have for some years been associated in relig- 
ious and temperance work in my city, in a 
conversation remarked that ' ' the first place he 
met me was in a saloon." "Why," said I, "is 
it possible ? Where was it ?" " On the corner of 
Washington, I was in getting my flask filled. I am 
sorry to say that in those days, as so many others, 
I was in the habit of using liquor. The saloon- 
keeper said, 'I hear that' — (an adjective not best to 
repeat) ' old Mother Stewart is coming with her 
band, and if she does, ' he swore by his Maker 
he would kill her. I said to myself, ' No, you 
will not. ' I had my flask in my pocket, and I 
determined if he raised his arm to strike, or a 
revolver to shoot, I would stand between him 
and you. That was the last liquor I bought 
and the last time I visited a saloon. Shortly 

(12) 



178 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

after this I went to the morning meeting, told 
my story and signed the pledge, and that is the 
secret af my affection for Mother Stewart." 

I can never tell the feeling that thrilled my heart 
as my young friend related this deeply interest- 
ing story, I had been made to feel by both him 
and his wife that I held a large place in their 
hearts, but did not know he had been ready even 
to risk his own life for me. Very precious to 
my ear now is the word " mother " as it falls 
from their lips. 

It was not long till my son in the Gospel, as 
I now call him, sought and found Jesus, and at 
once, with the co-operation of his wife, began to 
work for the salvation of souls, and at this 
writing are in the itinerant ranks in a Western 
Conference, doing blessed work for the Master. 

Returning to that memorable "White Wednes- 
day." The meeting at the Opera House was a 
glorious ending of the day. Not less than 1,500 
people thronged out to hear Dio Lewis, and see 
"the wickedest man in Ohio," VanPelt. Be- 
fore seven o'clock, the sidewalks and stairways 
were crowded by people awaiting the opening 
of the doors. Says the reporter : 

At half-past seven a commencement was made. 
Mr. C. M. Nichols acting as chairman, supported on 
either hand on the stage, by Dio Lewis, VanPelt, 
Mother Stewart, Dr. Clokey, E. C. Middleton, the 
** Press Gang," and others. Mr. A. O. HutTman led 
the singing with which the exercises were opened. 
Rev. J. L. Bennett offered prayer. After singint; 
another piece the chairman introduced the refornn d 
saloonist, J. C. VanPelt, who was received with ap- 
plause and spoke as follows : 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 79 

" It is not my intention to enter into any argument 
on this subject, but only relate how the ladies con- 
ducted the work in New Vienna. 

" I was the last to be visited on the first day of their 
going out. After repeating their visits for many days 
they came to the great end for which they were 
working. I never beUe^-ed they could work it 
as they did. It would take a hard-hearted man in- 
deed to withstand the pleadings of the mothers in 
their beautiful prayers. I began to feel, several days 
before my surrender, that I was wrong. I did not 
even consult my legal advisors, as they said I should, 
and I thank God I did not. I endeavored in various 
ways to convince the sisters they were wrong, and 
argued with them, to get the best of them. But when 
they came to me with tears in their eyes, and told 
of the little ones suffering for the dimes I was taking 
in, I could not resist, and I began to reflect upon the 
■wrong I was doing. Upon all this came word from 
Cincinnati wholsale liquor men, 'Can you hold out a 
year, if we will furnish you all the liquor you can 
sell in a year.' As much as to say, if I would do 
the dirty work, they would stand back and laugh 
under cover. All the other dealers in the place had 
signed the pledge. I was the only one left, and I 
began to feel that I was almost the worst man in the 
universe, with my hand not only against my fellow 
men, but against God. For four weeks I withstood 
their p'eadings. This day a week ago I told the 
sisters I wuuld give them my answer at such a time. 
Before the time arrived I made up my mind to sur- 
render. Would I send my stock back to Cincinnati? 
No, that would be wrong. At one o'clock the bell 
rang for the peojile to come together. At 2 o'clock 
those ladies came down the street in funeral file, 
(most appropriate description of the Crusade March.) 
They marched up in front of my place and prayed 
God to help me. It seemed as if the prayer would 
never cease going up. I rushed to the door and said, 
' Ladies, I have determined to quit, I want no more 
proof of your sincerity,' (loud app'ause.) I called 
on Brother AVitter and Brother Hill, two ministers 
of the place, and told them I had something for them 
to do. I said I could go to prison, but it was the 



l80 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ladies to whom I would surrender. I then asked 
the ministers to please carry out the whisky. They 
were terribly willing, and out it went. I gathered up 
that same ax that I had threatened the women with, 
and drove it as near through those barrels as I could, 
and out ran the whisky. Such a shout as went up I 
never heard before, and never will again till I stand 
before God. The tears ran down their cheeks like 
a fountain stream, and so it ended." 

Mr. Nichols then introduced Dr. Die Lewis, 
who said he wanted to say something against 
wine drinking, against "nice drinking. " The 
most eminent men in the legal profession on the 
other and this continent say that nine-tenths of 
the crime committed comes from moderate drink- 
ing. Clergymen have been heard to advocate 
the introduction of light wines in place of whisky, 
gin, ale, and other liquors. One who so held, 
visited Europe and wrote back that he took the 
back track and was sorry he had ever held his 
former opinions. 

Dr. Lewis held that those who were engaged 
in adulterating liquors were doing a good work 
for the temperance cause, and should be en- 
couraged. 

People say, if we only had pure liquors like 
our grandfathers had, we should last as long as 
they by using them. But there is a difference 
between the habits of our grandfathers and our- 
selves which prevents it. It would be an im- 
mense contribution to the temperance cause if 
wine and liquors killed in three days. If your 
mothers and grandmothers had drank as we 
drink, the nation would have gone to ruin long 
ago. 

In Paris, every man, woman and child over 
fifteen drinks wine. Lord, save us from ever 
reaching such practices. "I mourn," said the 
speaker, "that wine is kept in so many houses, 
'just in case of sickness,' and that doctors will 
prescribe the use of liquors for the lungs. It is 
all poisonous." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. l8l 

There are three classes of drinkers: ist, those 
who get drunk habitually ; 2nd, those who 
drink sometimes and get drunk occasionally ; and 
3rd, those who drink with kid gloves on their 
hands. 

It isn't drunkards who make recruits for the 
drunkards' army from among the boys. It is 
the man of influence in a town, educated and 
wealthy, whose example is followed by the young, 
and who drink wine. That women themselves 
sometimes work evil in this direction, was shown 
by an instance coming under the speaker's per- 
sonal observation. Respectable people should 
strive to create such a sentiment in every com- 
munity as will make drinking disreputable. Dr. 
Lewis said he conceived the idea thirty-five 
years ago that women could work saloons and 
liquor-selling out oi existence. In the place 
where he lived, a number of lads were made 
drunk in a saloon- Considerable excitement was 
created and the women held a prayer-meeting. 
Eighty-four won^en started down to the rum-hole 
with a beautiful banner. They were warned not 
to go in and passed on to the next. The keeper 
said he would stop if the rest would. Four out 
of five signed a pledge to stop. 

The women went back to the first place, prayed 
and sang. They went several days in succession 
and were met with indifference. The r^'sult was 
that one morning at 9 o'clock he poured his 
Hquors into the gutter, and there has been none 
sold in that place since, a period of more than 
thirty years. 

He referred to the success of the movement in 
several towns that had taken it up, and said Xenia 
would move out on to-morrow. They have a 
committee of four hundred, who will divide into 
four sub-committees and commence work. In 
four weeks from to-morrow, he predicted there 
will not be a place in Xenia where you can get 
a drink of liquor. 



1 82 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

He claimed that this was soil peculiarly adapted 
to the temperance plant. It has taken root and 
flourishes for the first time. He proposed to re- 
turn to Massachusetts and open the work in 
Worcester ; (but he did not find the New England 
soil adapted to this new method of warfare on 
the saloon.) 

Mother Stewart was called upon and gave a re- 
sume of the work in the city for some four months 
previous. She had to-day invited that poor 
woman whose case she had taken into court four 
months ago, to come to the meeting to-night 
and see if her heart would not be cheered with 
hope, and she is here. Our work, however, 
while we have had much to encouarge, and the 
people are aroused as never before, has some 
peculiar features and many obstacles to en- 
counter. The number of women enlisted was 
not sufficiently large. More recruits were wanted 
for the women's army. On Monday a fev ladies 
visited several saloons. Yesterday something like 
twenty and to-day seventy-five, moved out in 
band form. A great throng gathered in the 
streets, but they were perfectly respectful and 
orderly. 

Dr. Lewis then moved that a committee of 
three ladies be elected to draft an address to the 
liquor-dealers. This was carried, and Mrs. Guy, 
Mrs. Foos and Mrs. Baines were made such 
committee, to report at a future meeting. 

In a similar manner C. H. Schafter, A. O. 
Huffman, T. J. Finch and Charles D. Hauk 
were appointed Secretaries, to prepare a list of 
names of ladies to be added to the committee of 
visitors. 

While this was in progress, at the suggestion 
of Dr. Lewis, opportunity for two-minute 
speeches from persons in the audience was given, 
and John C. Miller ( Probate Judge ), Gen. J. 
W. Keifer, Rev. J. L. Bennett, Rev. J. W. 
Spring, Mr. L. H. Olds, lAIr. A. R. Ludlow 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 83 

(since candidate jn the temperance ticket for 
Governor, and always our staunch friend ), Rev. 
B. Seever, Rev. M. Button and Rev. Dr. Wise- 
man, responded to calls, causing considerable 
enthusiasm, and maintaining the interest to the 
close. A very large list of names was reported 
by the Secretaries, and thus closed a day in 
Springfield standing apart from all other days in 
its history as the ' ' White Wednesday of the 
Great Temperance Uprising." 

I copy as full a report of this memorable day 
from the Republic, of the 12th, as the limits of 
these pages will permit : 

Peaceful Revolution ! 

A White Wednesday in Springfield! 

February ii, 1874, a Day Long to be Remem- 
bered — The All-day Prayer-Meeting — 
March of the Women's Temperance 
Army — Exciting Experiences — 
Dig Lewis and Van Pelt at 
the Opera House in the 
Evening. 

Wednesday, February nth, will be remembered 
in the history of our city as the " White Wednesday." 

It was the first occasion on which the people of 
Springfield ever spent the entire day in united prayer 
for the success of the temperance cause and the out- 
pouring of the Holy Spirit. An account of the All- 
Day prayer-meeting up to one o'clock, has already 
been printed in our columns. 

At one o'clock Rev. Joseph Bennett took charge 
of the exercises, Mr. Peter Schindler leading the 
singing, assisted at the organ by Mrs. Black. The 
chairman read a portion of Scripture, selecting the 
story of the Prodigal Son, applications of which were 
made in various ways to the present use. Prayer 
was offered for the safety and recovery of the young 
man who came forward and expressed a desire to 



184 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

forsake a life of sin. Mr. Bennett related a remark- 
able instance of Divine power which transpired 
under his observation during his college days, in 
which a whole class of scoffers were overcome, one 
of their number becoming an able preacher of the 
word. At 2 o'clock Rev. Mr. Bennett was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. A. L. Wilkinson, the new pastor of 
the First Baptist Church, Mr, A. O. Huffman con- 
ducting the singing. 

At this hour the battalion of outside workers re- 
formed for another advance and started out, going 
at once to Mr. Charles Bradley's place, on the East 
side of Market street. They were made the subject 
of prayer by the meeting, Rev. Mr. Button leading. 
Mr. Spring asked those who desired prayers to rise. 
Prayers were then offered by Messrs. E. C Middle- 
ton, J. C, Christie and P. P. Mast. Remarks were 
made by Rev. Mr. Ellsworth, and Mr. Middleton 
reported that Beck, the last of the liquor-sellers 
at Washington C. H., had surrendered. At 3 o'clock 
Rev. Mr. Hamma took charge of the exercises. Of 
all the meetings he had ever attended, this, he 
thought, was one of the greatest. He then proposed 
that another of the same kind be held on Wednesday, 
February i8th, and the suggestion was adopted by a 
rising vote ; and the meeting was announced to be 
held in the First Presbyterian Church, from 9 o'clock 
in the morning until 5 in the evening. At this stage 
of the proceedings it was apparent that the room 
v/as uncomfortably crowded, many ladies being 
obliged to stand in the aisles and door-ways, and it 
was stated that hundreds were standing outside 
desiring to obtain admittance. This being the fact^ 
it was decided by a vote to repair to the audience- 
room above. 

Within ten minutes from the time of this announce- 
ment, the large upper room was absolutely packed, 
and the same was true of the gallery. 

Prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Hamma, and Rev. 
Dr. Clokey addressed the audience, exi)res>ini; his 
thanks to God for what He had already acromjilished. 
Meanwhile, Dr. Dio Lewis, of Boston, and Mr. J- C. 
VanPelt, the reformed liquor-seller, of New Vienna, 
Ohio, had arrived and had been welcomed on the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 85 

platform ; and ^vhen ?vTrs. Stewart had closed an 
account of the work of the women during the day, 
Dr. Lewis was then introduced. He made a few 
very interesting remarks, then introduced J. C. Van 
Pelt, who gave an account of his experience, similar 
to those already reported as being given at the 
evening meeting. 

At 4 o'clock Rev. J. "W. Spring took charge of the 
meeting ; Mrs. Stewart called for volunteers for the 
saloon visitation. Perhaps a hundred women arose 
while the audience joined in singing, led by Mr. 
Huffman. Mr. McGookin thanked God that He 
had put it into the hearts of these women to prose- 
cute this work. 

Mr. Spring asked those who desired prayers to 
rise, and Mr. Van Pelt arose. Prayer was offered. 
We may say here that the appearance of this man on 
the platform affected the audience to tears, and his 
remarks throughout were very heartily approved and 
applauded. After a few more remarks by Dr. Lewis, 
the meeting closed. 




CHAPTER X. 




Second Visit to Oshom — Spread of the Work. 

(AYS our city reporter : 

Nothing shows the importance of the great 
movement now in progress in the Buckeye 
State, or the universal interest taken in it by the 
people of the whole community and country, more 
than the efforts made by the leading journals to give 
full details of operations at every point. 

There were present at all our meetings here yester- 
day, to write up matters for their respective journals, 
Mr. M. P. Handy, of the jV. V. Tribune (who 
accompanies Dr. Lewis on his journeyings ), Mr. 
Chamberlain, of the Cincinnati Enquirer, Mr. Brown, 
of the Gazette, \k^dX wicked Beadle, of the Commercial, 
and Mr. Stevens, of the Sandusky J^egister. 

MEETING THURSDAY MORNING, FEBRUARY I2TH. 

At 9 o'clock the auditorium of the Central M. 
E. Church was filled with an audience of men 
and women. At this meeting a committee on 
street-work was named, with IMrs. James Kinney 
as leader or Chairman of Band work, and Mrs. 
J. C. Miller as Secretary. There were also 
more gentlemen added to the Advisory Com- 
mittee. A very large list of ladies* names was 
presented to this meeting, comprising the most 
prominent ladies of the city. And while all did 
not feel called, or at least respond to the call, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. iS/ 

to fall into line with those who visited the 
saloons, yet many did, and most of those who 
did not find the grace or could not muster the 
courage to join the band work, did do very 
helpful work in other departments. 

Our headquarters were at this time in the 
First Presbyterian Church. Here the Crusaders 
each morning met for a season of prayer and 
song, and then forming into one band after 
another, moved out, making the round of visits. 
It was no doubt a trying ordeal for Mr. Saloon- 
keeper to receive bands in measured succession, 
often as many as six or seven marching in. As 
the head of the column would step in, a song 
would be started ; at the close of the song the 
leader, or some one she would call upon, would 
offer a prayer, then an appropriate portion of 
Scripture would be read by one to whom this 
duty had been assigned ; the dealers' pledge 
would then be presented, with a few gentle 
words of persuasion or appeal ; another song, 
another prayer, and a friendly "good-bye," 
with a promise to call again. A deep-drawn 
sigh of relief, and may be some not-repeatable 
words would escape from Mr. Saloon-keeper's 
perturbed bosom, and "Now!" he would ex- 
claim, "for my customers; I'll have the more 
for this call !" But lo ! here is another band at 
his door, with the same salutation of song, the 
same ceremony of prayer, reading the Scripture, 
pleading, presentation of pledge, and "good- 
bye." "Now! — No! — here comes a third. 



1 88 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

a fourth, a fifth, a sixth, a seventh ! Has the 
whole Christian world risen up against my 
business ? I wonder they did not long ago ! 
But will it never come to an end ?" 

If the doors were closed, all the same, the 
song and the prayer, and the reading of the 
Word went on. While the sisters would gen- 
erally look upon a "lock-out" as a sort of 
defeat, or at least a thwarting of their purpose, 
I saw that instead of being a disaster, it was 
often an advantage, as we had so many more 
auditors on the street than we could have in the 
saloon. It excited the sympathy of the throng 
for the women, and their indignation against the 
saloon-keeper, and we obtained many more 
signers to the pledge ; and I was often struck 
with the respect and reverence manifested for 
the Scriptures. Even after the novelty of the 
Crusade visitation had in a degree passed off, 
the reading of God's Word would fasten the 
attention of men who had rarely read or heard 
it since the old family Bible was read by father at 
the altar in the old home, or the thrilling stories 
were taught by mother as they stood by her 
knee. I am here reminded of an incident that 
occurred in our city. Sister Wirtz, being able 
to read German, carried her German Bible with 
her into a saloon one day and read a selection 
from it. When she had finished, a man came 
to her and asked where that portion of Scripture 
was, saying: "Certainly that message was 
meant for me." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 89 

On Thursday, February I2tli, after our morn- 
ing meeting, having been called to Osborn, — 
where, on the first of December I had formed 
the first "Women's Temperance League," as 
we then called our organizations, in company 
with Mrs. Teegarden, Mrs. Cathcart and Mrs. 
Baines, — I went down again to help these pioneer 
ladies to organize for the new method. 

Our meeting at night was large, and the 
people were full of enthusiasm over this new way 
of combating the liquor fiend, and eager to see 
the ladies try it on the saloons of their town, 
thinking, as they did nearly everywhere, "we 
have the worst liquor-cursed community here in 
the whole country." The next morning, after 
the usual season of waiting before the Lord, we 
formed into line and moved out. We first 
visited the saloon across the square, held the 
usual devotions and made our appeal to the 
keeper, who, while he treated us civilly, mani- 
fested unmistakable indications of standing a 
siege. 

Having a little matter of business of my own 
to attend to, I left the ladies here, telling them 
I would come up with them at the next place. 
As I came near the place where the ladies were 
praying, a boy met me, seeming quite alarmed, 
and told me that ' ' That man where the ladies 
were praying was going to blow the ladies up ! 
he had scattered powder on his porch for the 
purpose." " O, " I said, " I reckon not. " "Oh, 
yes," he said, "he is drunk, and is very mad ! — 



igO MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and he has a couple of dogs that he says he is 
going to set on the ladies." So I concluded I 
would do the watching while the sisters prayed. 
I found them kneeling on the porch in prayer, — 
the saloon door was locked — and I saw that 
powder was strewn all over the porch. The 
miscreant undoubtedly expected the ladies in 
stepping on the powder would ignite it, and 
thus set fire to their clothing ; there had been 
rain, however, and the porch was sufficiently 
damp to prevent its igniting. I gathered up 
some of the powder and have it here in my 
cabinet — a trophy of the women's "whisky 
war," by the side of some minnie-balls that I 
dug out of a tree on Chickamauga battle-field, — 
trophies of that other war in the interest of human- 
ity. But the man did not make his appearance. 
Tiie gentlemen of the town were very indignant 
when they heard of his cowardly attempt to set fire 
to the ladies. "But the dogs!" Oh, yes, they were 
there! — two beautiful, white "spitz," their ears 
put forward and wagging their tails, manifesting 
a great deal of good-natured interest in the pro- 
ceedings. 

Among the incidents of the Crusade on 
Friday, February 13th, I notice that two bands 
moved out in the morning from the First Pres- 
byterian Church. That led by Mrs. Kinney 
and Mrs. Cosier made their first call at the 
" Bank," kept by Mrs. Johnson, who gave her 
promise before the ladies left that she would 
attend meeting that evening at the Central M. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I9I 

E. Church, which she did, and arose among 
those requesting prayers. 

By request of the prisoners in the station- 
house, that place was visited. It was a solemn 
occasion. Several of the prisoners shed tears 
and expressed contrition for their wrong-doing, 
saying all their trouble was brought upon them 
through drink. 

The ladies next stopped at Karl Niehaus's 
den, but found the door closed. "This," says 
the evening paper, "may be regarded as the 
starting point of the movement in Springfield. 
It was against this man Niehaus that Mrs. 
Saurbier four months ago obtained judgment of 
;^300 for selling her husband liquor. Through 
the interest taken by the ladies in that case at 
the time, arose the sentiment which has resulted 
as we see daily." (This poor, wretched man 
appealed his case to the Court of Common Pleas, 
but long before the case reached a decision he 
had been summoned to appear before a higher 
tribunal, and one from which there is no appeal, 
to answer for the deeds done in the body. ) 
While the women were on the outside praying 
in the rain and mud, those inside were making 
discordant music on some instrument, and finally 
came to the door with their beer-mugs and 
drank, intending to insult the ladies. "Spang" 
was also visited again, and found to be in a very 
amiable mood. 

On Saturday morning, February 14th, I joined 
the sisters again, and found them full of enthu- 



192 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

siasm and hope. It was announced on this 
morning in the prayer-meeting that not a drop 
of whisky, as such, could be bought in Spring- 
field, And how we rejoiced when the news of 
our first surrender, by a young man in the West 
End, was brought in. Sister McClintoc and I 
sprang to the bell-rope, and with desperate effort 
swayed tha?t ponderous bell up in the steeple, 
and with clang and reverberation sent the glad 
news over the city. 

The good effect of our work was telling on 
the city. Hundreds were signing the pledge ; 
scores were encouraged to make the fight for 
their lost manhood, and once more walked 
among their fellows, redeemed from the curse of 
a debasing appetite. The business was becom- 
ing badly crippled and the keepers alarmed. 

The men having liquor in connection with 
groceries found that public sentiment was getting 
to be so strong against the liquor that they were 
losing their best customers. 

Undoubtedly many saloon-keepers would have 
surrendered if it had not been for the support 
they received from the manufacturers and whole- 
sale dealers of Cincinnati and Dayton, as well as 
those of our own city. A gentleman visited the 
city about this time and made the round of the 
saloons to ascertain the effect of the Crusade 
upon the business. The universal complaint 
was that their business was "nearly ruined;" 
" Trade cut down one half ;" " Trade cut down 
three-fourths;" "If this keeps on much longer 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 93 

we will have to go under." He visited the 
clothing and dry-goods merchants and inquired 
how it affected them. "Oh!" the cheerful 
answer came, ' ' grandly ! I am making nearly 
one-half more sales than before it begun !" 

The baker was visited : "Oh, yes ; it makes 
my business better ; poor fellows that used to 
come in and ask for a loaf of stale bread now 
buy the best, and more of it." The butcher: 
* ' Yes, yes ; my business is improved ; men who 
scarcely ever bought meat, or occasionally an 
inferior piece, now come in and order a roast, or 
a steak, as the fancy strikes them, — and pay for 
it, too !" Homes where only wretchedness and 
poverty and want had reigned were now filled 
with joy and gladness. How the wives and 
mothers wept tears of joy and praised God and 
blessed the Crusaders, and how the little children 
spatted their little hands in glee, that their father 
was now a sober man. The children began to 
wear shoes and better clothes, and to attend the 
day- and Sunday-Schools ; the wife, whose gar- 
ments had been so shabby that she was ashamed 
to be seen on the street, now had a decent suit 
in which she could go to the sanctuary. I find 
an item in the daily paper that is additional 
testimony in this line, though the date is some 
weeks later. In his rounds on Monday morn- 
ing, the reporter called at one of our largest 
manufacturing establishments, and looked into 
the foundry. The foreman remarked with pride 
that every "floor" was full, and pointed to 

(13) 



194 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

some thirty molders, sober and hard at work, 
with the remark that ' * such a thing had never 
occurred before in his experience," the fact 
being notorious that the Monday after pay-day 
a number of hands are expected to be disabled 
from their Sunday's excesses. 

Our Tuesday evening meetings were kept up 
still with unabated interest, always thronged with 
eager listeners. At these meetings every phase 
of the temperance question was discussed by 
the prominent business and professional men of 
the city, as well as the ministers and the ladies, 
often developing rare, latent, talent, especially 
among the ladies. The conduct and tone were 
strictly of a religious character, and our music con- 
ducted by the best musicians of the city. 

There was a solemnity about the work that 
seemed to awe and touch all hearts. Our songs, 
as I had hoped, were taken up on the lips of the 
men and boys on the street. Men who had been 
accustomed in the past to sing their bacchanalian 
songs as they staggered home from their nightly 
revels, were now heard on their way from our 
temperance meetings singing our Crusade songs. 

The people are thronging out into their several 
homeward streets. The night is clear and frosty 
and the sound of sweet song is floating out on 
the air from manly voices. Hear! 

" I am coming to the cross ; 

I am poor and weak and blind : 
I am counting all things dross, 
I shall full Salvation find." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I95 

The refrain comes floating back from another 
street : 

" I am trusting, Lord, in Thee, 
Blest Lamb of Calvary, 
Humbly at Thy cross I bow, 
Save me, Jesus, save me now." 

From the West End comes, 

" Rescue the perishing, care for the dying, 

Snatch them in pity from sin and the grave." 

Again floats back a final stanza that seems to 
be the best suited to the singer's condition and 
feehngs, and dies away in the distance : 

" But all thro' the mountains, thunder-riven, 

And up from the rocky steep, 
There rose a cry to the gate of heaven, 

* Rejoice ! I have found my sheep !' 
And the angels echoed around the throne, 

'Rejoice ! for the Lord brings back his own.' " 

It seems almost beyond belief, considering the 
apathy and indifference of to-day, except of the 
faithful few, that any day and any hour of the 
day or evening, our meetings were crowded by 
men and women. 

We held a meeting every morning from 9 to 
10 o'clock, and every important business house 
in the city was closed during the service. As 
you passed along the streets you would see the 
card on the door, "Closed from 9 to 10." I 
never heard of any one's business, except that of 
the saloon-keeper, suffering by it. 

The most prominent business men took an 
active part, presiding and speaking, ministers of 
all denominations worked in perfect harmony. 



196 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

And while the new CathoHc priest, Father Sidley, 
did not join us, he did preach temperance to his 
people, and has continued through all these years 
to wield a good influence for temperance among 
his people. And our editors were keeping the 
world posted as to the progress of our work, and 
strangers were coming from other cities to wit- 
ness this marvelous uprising. We, early in the 
work, inaugurated Sabbath afternoon meetings. 
These we started in the largest church, but it at 
once overflowed into the lecture room. Then we 
opened in another church at the same hour, and 
it overflowed into the basement. 

We were in this state of white-heat when one 

of these visitors. Dr. D , of Cincinnati, came 

up, and in one of our Sabbath meetings told us 
that having heard of the great temperance excite- 
ment in our city, he had caught up his gripsack 
and started for the scene of the battle, feeling a 
glow of enthusiasm, as he sped onward, at the 
thought that he was actually going to witness 
this wonderful phenomenon with his own eyes. 

It was my habit to pass from one to another 
of these meetings, noting and reporting progress. 

I remember on one occasion, I said I was an 
old-fashioned shouting Methodist, and I felt then 
like shouting the praise of God as I witnessed 
such blessed results of our labors. At the close 
of the meeting, our Rev. Dr. Clokey, of the 
U. r. Church, grasped my hand, saying, "Mother 
Stewart thinks none but a Methodist can shout 
over this work, I feel like shouting myself." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 1 9/ 

Precious and faithful servant of the Most High, 
he never knew the strength and encouragement 
we received from his prayers, in our behalf, that 
seemed to lay hold on the arm of the Lord ; and 
from his counsels when he drew from the store- 
house of God's word, as I never heard any other 
minister with such aptness and unction, the treas- 
ures, " new and old." Though the feebleness 
of age was upon him, he would be with us 
every morning to watch the progress of the 
work, only yielding at last to overpowering 
weariness. " Write," saith the angel ; " Write, 
Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord, for 
they rest from their labors, and their works do 
follow them." 

Sometime since a " guarantee fund " had been 
subscribed, amounting to ;^ 150,000, I think it 
was. We were near the fruition of our hopes ; 
and it only needed a little stronger support on 
the part of the men, in demanding the enforce- 
ment of the law, to make a perfect work of it. 
But that support did not come. Like those in 
so many other places, they had taken up the 
mistaken notion that the Lord was going to re- 
lieve them of all responsibility by giving their 
work into the hands of the women. And so they 
quietly waited to see the women grapple with, 
and as they hoped, throttle the hydra-headed 
monster. 

But we were still full of hope, and our hearts 
were almost hourly cheered by the news that 
was pouring in from all quarters. At our mom- 



198 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ing meetings a telegram would be handed me 
saying, ' ' We commenced work to-day, the 
women are marching," or, "Another surrender 
to-day," "Two more surrenders," "Three, four 
to-day." Then we sang 

" All hail the power of Jesus' name." 

Again a letter is put into my hand, saying, 
"We closed our last saloon yesterday. Oh, I 
wish you had been here. We celebrated our 
jubilee with ringing of bells and bonfires, and songs 
of triumph ; and oh, everybody is so happy, we 
love everybody. Only think of it! We slept 
last night without a saloon in the place. Not a 
drop of liquor to be had." Then we sang, 

" Praise God from whom all blessings flow." 

All the principal towns in the State had taken 
up the work, or were preparing to. The flames 
had spread like fire in the prairies. They had 
lapped over into Indiana and Pennsylvania. The 
sparks had flown on the wings of the wind — or 
flashed along the wires — and caught in the prairies 
of Illinois and Iowa, and in the timbers of Tvlich- 
igan. West Virginia, up in the mountains, was 
moving. New York city was holding meetings 
and soon entered into the work with such lead- 
ers as Mrs. IT. E. Brown, Mrs. Knox, Mrs. 
McClees, who have continued steadfast and faith- 
ful to the present. And so with Brooklyn, where 
Mrs. Hart and Mary C. Johnson were active 
leaders. In Philadelphia a most remarkable 
work was done, Mrs H. N. K. Goff and other 
competent ladies leading the hosts. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. I99 

The Pacific coast was falling into line. A 
spark had flown wild and lit way in the mountains 
of East Tennessee, and kindled a blaze in Green- 
ville, the home of Ex-President Johnson. Rev. 
R. D. Black, an Ohio man, was stationed there ; 
and his wife, a talented and pious lady, upon 
hearing of the glorious work in Ohio, called the 
Christian ladies together, organized, and led them 
out. And they succeeded in closing out all but 
one or two of the drinking places in the town. 
The Ex-President would come and stand at a 
respectful distance, with his hands in his pockets, 
using language more forcible than refined in re- 
gard to that ' ' Yankee woman who had come 

down there to make the Southern ladies unsex 
themselves." There might have been some little 
personal solicitude in regard to the equalizing of 
supply and demand. 

Yes, the glad news is sweeping around the 
world. Here comes a paper from Bremen, Ger- 
many, sent by some unknown friend, telling all 
about the " VVomens' Whisky war in Ohio." 
The one all-absorbing topic is the Ohio Crusade. 
Ministers preach about it and pray for it. In 
stores, places of business, street corners, club- 
rooms, the fireside, the theme of press and peo- 
ple is the Crusade. 

It has been my purpose to convey, as far as 
possible, a correct idea to the reader of the 
influences that set in motion and controlled the 
women's uprising against the liquor crime. And 
yet I feel all the time that I am not succeeding. 



200 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

It is, indeed, almost an impossibility for one who 
has not been a participant, or at least an eye- 
witness of the movement, to form a correct 
judgment of it. Many have visited the scenes 
with their minds prejudiced against it, but I 
scarcely ever saw one such who did not change 
his opinion upon seeing it for himself. 

I have in my travels met persons who declared 
very emphatically that they "did notapprove of, 
did not believe in the Crusade." But a little in- 
quiry would disclose the fact that they only had 
their knowledge from hearsay. 

The following from the editor of the Springfield 
Republic, who was, from the first, a close observer 
and warm supporter of our work, will perhaps 
convey the true animus of the work better than 
I am able to. He says : 

Certain journalists at a distance are criticising the 
women's movement in Ohio with some severity, and 
the immense amount of worldly wisdom they exhibit 
is something fearful to contemplate. These persons 
are well-meaning and clever fellows, doubtless, but 
the fact is that they don't know anything about the 
matter ! 

The telegraphic reports and newspaper accounts 
that come under their notice have failed to give the 
spirit of the movement, and have certainly failed to 
give an adequate idea of its power. Our friends 
abroad may as well understand at the outset that a 
mighty revolution is in progress in Ohio; and such 
a revolution as has not been seen on the face of the 
earth in a hundred years — or in fact a thousand 
years. We are having such a great awakening as 
men now living have never known before. Persons 
heretofore having no belief in the supernatural, or 
faith in what is known as prayer, have become con- 
verted by the spirit and power of this movement, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 201 

and are glad to feel and to acknowledge that the 
women are inspired by God's Spirit and nerved and 
strengthened by Almighty power. Liquor-sellers say 
"We don't know what to do. We can't resist these 
praying women! If the men would approach us we 
would kick them out," — and they would, too, if their 
muscle proved equal to their desire. ' ' But, these 
women pray and sing so beautifully that we cannot 
resist them ! If they keep coming we will be forced 
to surrender." Can any man clothed in his right 
mind object to such a work as this ? It may be that 
things are said and done by persons that are not 
judicious. This cannot be avoided. The spirit of 
the movement, however, is Christ-like and grand. 

It was a source of grief and many tears that 
**some persons," as the editor observed, said 
and did unwise things. Many were swept into 
the movement by the excitement and the eclat 
that seemed to attach to a Crusader, but did not 
comprehend the deep, spiritual meaning and 
significance of the work. They seemed to see in 
it an opportunity for acquiring a little notoriety, 
or possibly of displaying talents they thought 
they possessed. Of course such elements, where- 
ever found, created discord and did harm. But 
such things are encountered in every channel of 
benevolent work, proving a trial of patience, but 
there seeming to be no way to avoid it. These 
were not of those who continued in well-doing. 

On Wednesday, February i8th, another all- 
day prayer-meeting was held, the interest being 
sustained to the close. And at the same time the 
visiting of saloons was prosecuted with great 
enthusiasm. This evening I was called to " Con- 
gress Hall," a very excellent neighborhood, 
some three miles from the city, where the ladies 



202 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

organized themselves into a sort of relief corps, 
to assist their sisters in the city, and passed the 
following resolution : 

We, the undersigned ladies of Congress Hall, send 
greeting to the ladies of Springfield, bidding them 
God-speed in their noble work against the liquor 
traffic. And we hereby form ourselves into a volun- 
tary committee, ready to march to their aid when- 
ever called upon. 

To this, nearly the entire audience of ladies ap- 
pended their names. And they did come and 
give valuable aid, as did the ladies of other neigh- 
borhoods. 

These good ladies also passed a resolution 
pledging themselves not to buy any goods or 
groceries of any one in Springfield who also 
sold liquors. This was a very telling stroke upon 
some of the grocers, especially the redoubt- 
able Zischler, who had a large country patron- 
age. 

At the close of our meeting, I went out to take 
the carriage for home, and lo ! the whole hori- 
zon in the direction of my house was illumi- 
nated, and great tongues of fire were leaping up 
against the western sky. "Oh," I exclaimed, 
"My house is on fire." The friends tried to 
allay my alarm, but to little purpose. INh' hus- 
band and niece were both out that evening and 
my house was alone. The liquor men knew I was 
doing all I could to ruin their business, though 
they had no reason to think I would do them or 
theirs any personal harm. But I presumed they 
had taken advantage of my absence to set fire to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 203 

my home. I requested my friend to drive as fast 
as he could. He tried to quiet my fears by tell- 
ing me the fire was quite beyond my place, was 
too far south. But by this time I could not 
talk. How slowly the horses crept over the 
ground. Oh, I wished they would rise and fly 
through the air. I had, when I entered upon 
my work, so foolishly said I had "laid all upon 
the altar." How little did I know what that 
involved? I had, indeed, expected that the liquor 
men would slander me and say evil things of me; 
but my beautiful home I had not thought of. 
No stately palace, but my Jioine, and the last of 
what was once at least a comfortable compe- 
tence, and dearer, now that I, as I supposed, saw 
it crumbling into ashes, than ever before. And 
there were my worldly goods, the furnishing that 
made it home. My books, precious souvenirs 
and keepsakes of dear ones who had gone. 
There was my mother's old wedding ring, a lock 
of her golden hair, though she had been in the 
grave more than fifty years. Oh, why didn't 
the horses fly? When we reached the city limits, 
I directed the gentleman to strike into such a 
street as would bring me soonest home — the 
shortest route. Striking into High street, my 
friend said, ' ' Why, there is no one on the street. " 
I thought "No, everybody knows Mother Stew- 
art's house is on fire, and the whole city is 
there." 

By this time the smoke and cinders were en- 
veloping us ; and not till we turned into my own 



204 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

street, a square from my house, was my agony 
of alarm relieved. 

Thank God, my home was safe. I had, indeed, 
wrongfully suspected the saloon-keepers. It 
was an unimportant building, though in a line 
with mine, farther west. But by that experience 
I learned some important lessons. One was that 
we do not know till we are placed in the crucible, 
how strong are the influences that control us. 
And another was that when we are in dead earn- 
est, we are not likely to hesitate as to ways or 
means, but will take the shortest and most effec- 
tive way to accomplish our purpose. And thus 
will it be when the Christians of this nation come 
to see the liquor curse in its enormity, with its 
woe and misery. 

They will no longer parley as to expediency, 
or whether it will affect their political interests, 
but as one man will arise and sweep it off the 
face of this fair land. 




'•"WipISlEIP^^BSrTWTj; 



CHAPTER XI. 




First Surrender and Exciting Scenes. 



THINK the next town after those I have 
already mentioned, to take up the Crusade 
work, was Morrow, in Warren county. 
This town, though well situated, lying on the 
east bank of the Miami, with a good country 
surrounding, and having many intelligent citi- 
zens, was impoverished and demoralized to an 
alarming degree by the saloons, — being fifteen 
to eleven hundred population. The ladies, 
hearing the wonderful news of the work in those 
towns, sent Miss Henrietta G. Moore as their 
embassador to the ladies of Wilmington, with 
the Macedonian call, ' ' Come over and help 
us!" They accordingly sent over two of their 
most efficient workers, Mary Hadley, a minister 
of the Friends' denomination, and Mrs. Runyan, 
wife of the Methodist minister, who, with their 
glowing reports of their work and success, their 
enthusiasm and encouragement, soon had a 
band of sixty women organized and marching 
through the streets and visiting saloons, — the 
brethren, as usual, remaining in the sanctuary 
to pray. Among those who tarried at the altar 

205 



206 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

that morning was the venerable, war-worn soldier, 
Louis Fairchild, who had met the enemy in 
many a fierce conflict, and had been treated to 
their strong knock-down arguments, rotten eggs 
and accompaniments, for more than a generation. 
But he was still full of hope and zeal, and ready 
to help forward this new method of dealing with 
them. But the field was a hard one, and the liquor 
men, or saloon-keepers more correctly, for one, at 
least, was a woman, were unyielding. Henry 
Schied, proposing to follow the example of Dunn, 
brought suit against the temperance people for 
interfering with his business, naming over a 
hundred ladies, with several gentlemen, in his 
appeal to the courts for protection in his ' ' legiti- 
mate business and orderly house." The case 
was tried at Lebanon before Judge Smith. Forty 
ladies marched in Crusade file to the hall of 
justice. The ladies of Lebanon furnished them 
a sumptuous banquet, and the interest in the 
case was intense. 

The temperance friends had the best of coun- 
sel, and the Judgf, deciding impartially on the 
merits of the case, dissolved the injunction, 
holding that the women's singing and pra)-ers 
in or before a saloon c^^uld not be considered as 
illegally interfering or obstructing his business. 
The people of Morrow made it an occasion of 
great rejoicing ; the band paraded the streets, 
playing their most inspiring music, followed by 
a great procession of men, women and children. 
All the church and school-bcUs in the town pealed 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 20/ 

forth their most exultant clangor, while two or 
three locomotives lying on the tracks, joined in 
with screeching whistles and bell accompaniment. 
The Crusaders hastened to the sanctuary with 
prayers, songs and speeches, to express their 
gratitude to God for their victory. Hundreds 
of the people in the surrounding country, hear- 
ing the tumult from afar, supposed the town 
must be in flames and hastened to the scene and 
swelled the crowd and the glad discordant 
jubilation. 

But it was too much for the respectable saloon- 
keeper, Schied — he closed up and left the 
town. I neglected to say in the proper place, 
that in the list of obstructionists that the respect- 
able liquor-vender presented, were Dio Lewis, 
VanPelt and others, who happened that morn- 
ing, February l/th, to be passing through the 
town, and while the train made its necessary 
halt, they stood on the platform shaking hands 
with the Crusaders and saying words of encour- 
agement. It was not long until the council 
passed the " McConnelsville Ordinance," and 
closed out the business in Morrow — for the time. 

Among that faithful and determined hundred 
women was a young teacher of rare talents and 
ability, who had suffered much through those 
dear to her, at the hands of the liquor-sellers, 
and lost her position — though so competent a 
teacher — through the revengeful influence of 
some of those "noble, generous-hearted fellows" 
ia the School Board. But she was destined for 



208 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

a much wider field of action. She has long 
since proved herself one of the most powerful 
advocates of our cause before the public, every- 
where winning laurels for herself and the cause 
to which she has devoted her life, — Miss Henri- 
etta G. Moore. 

At Greenfield, a very pretty littl-e town in 
Highland county, the women began their work 
on January 12th, and in six weeks eleven saloons 
were closed and three druggists had signed the 
dealers' pledge ; and it was not long till all were 
closed, a blessed work, by the combined efforts 
of women and men. And here, as everywhere, 
were incidents of most touching character that I 
would be glad to relate, and my readers to know, 
but the fear of swelling this volume to undue 
proportions restrains me. If admissible, I 
could write on and on of these wonderful scenes. 
Greenfield has had a peculiar and varied experi- 
ence on the liquor question. In 1865, a very 
great excitement was caused by the murder of a 
worthy young man as he was quietly passing a 
saloon on the street ; a shot aimed at some party 
in the saloon found a lodgment in the young man 
in the street, with fatal results. The victim was 
the son and only support of an aged and feeble 
widow. There was no law to reach the case, but 
a large number of the respectable ladies of the 
town, after some secret counsels, accompanied 
by the bereaved mother, proceeded to the saloon 
and with axes and other weapons knocked in the 
heads of barrels and casks, and demolished bot- 
tles and fixtures 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 20g 

There was law in our great State to meet 
this case. It called them a mob, rioters, dis- 
turbers of the peace, destroyers of valuable (?) 
property ; they had interfered with a man's lawful 
business. The prosecution, in the list of ladies 
complained of, named one who stood at a dis- 
tance, in no way participating, but seeing the 
liquor leap out of a barrel as a lady brought 
down the ax upon it, she clapped her hands, — 
she was, perse, an abettor ; but he was very care- 
ful not to name the mother of the murdered 
young man. Of course the women were arrested 
and had to appear before the Grand Jury. But 
by the good management of their counsel, Hon. 
Mills Gardiner, they were acquitted, after a 
hearing of a week. No ! let no woman presume 
that she may lift her puny arm to protect her 
boy from those dens of destruction. She may 
not exercise even the mother instinct given 
the dumb brute for the protection of her young; 
neither shall she have the privilege of helping to 
make such laws as would close those places! 
Oh, no ! that would be shocking, unwomanly, 
a thing not to be thought of. But thanks be to 
the Lord, in our extremity He devised a way. 
What wonder that on every street in all the 
State floated out on the air in plaintive strains — 

" What a friend we hare in Jesus, 
All our sins and griefs to bear ; 
What a privilege to carry 

Everything to God in prayer." 

And what wonder we held with such tenacious 

(14) 



2IO MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

faith to the arm of Omnipotence while we pleaded 
that He would avenge us of our enemy. 

But the blessed Crusade is no longer restrain- 
ing men from their deadly work ; they are doing 
a thriving business in crazing men and exciting 
their baser passions to deeds of violence and 
murder. 

During our campaign for the prohibitory 
amendment, I was passing through Greenfield, 
when a man boarded the train and proceeded to 
tell the passengers of a terrible, double murder 
that had been committed near there two nights 
before, and saying that the murderer was then 
undergoing his examination. He had come into 
town on Saturday and became intoxicated. On 
going to his buggy to start for home he found 
some one had taken his buffalo-robe. Parties 
standing near suggested that it might be a couple 
of young men — naming them — who also lived in 
the country, and were in the habit of coming 
into town on Saturdays and, of course, getting 
drunk, and often committing some mischief, 
more for the love of it than from viciousness. 
There was no proof, however, that in this 
instance they were the offenders. But the man 
was just in the condition to be greatly excited 
over the supposed offense, and upon reaching 
the home of the young men, he called to them 
to come out. One went out to him, when he 
deliberately shot him ; the other followed and 
was also shot, but the wound did not prove to be 
immediately fatal. The murderer rode on home 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2 1 I 

and the poor, widowed mother went out and 
dragged her dead boy in, and by some super- 
human power got him onto the bed ; then the 
wounded and dying boy was brought in. And 
through the weary hours of the night she passed 
her time in going from one to the other with her 
plaint of woe. When discovered by some of 
the neighbors next morning, she was still going 
from one bed to the other, so nearly insane that 
she did not seem to know v/hich was dead or 
which dying, with her heart-rending wail: "Oh, 
who could hurt my poor boys ! Oh, who would 
murder my darling boys ! They were all I had, 
and they were so good and loving !" They were, 
indeed, known to be industrious, taking good 
care of the farm and devotedly loving and tender 
towards their mother. But like so many other 
young farmers, and old ones too, they had the 
habit which led to their destruction. 

A few weeks later I was called to Greenfield by 
the W. C. T. U.,when I learned that the murderer 
was out on bail and was at one of my meetings. 
I never heard the finale, but suppose he was 
acquitted, as he boasted he would be. Oh ! will 
men never, never come to a sense of their duty 
in regard to this accursed traffic in the souls of 
men ? 

At Xenia Dio Lewis organized the women's 
praying bands, or Crusaders, on February nth, 
before coming to Springfield. Being blessed 
with a large number of ladies of superior intelli- 
gence and sterling piety, who were backed by a 



212 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

strong force of men worthy of such wives, noth- 
ing less than glorious victory was to be expected. 
Before me lies a letter addressed to the Cincin- 
nati Gazette, dated February 13th, from which I 
copy the following : 

If anyone has the impression that the women en- 
gaged in this work are not of the best and most 
influential in Xenia, there could not be a greater 
mistake. If their names were given they would be 
recognized as the equals of the first women in any 
city in the United States, but they would shrink from 
any unnecessary publicity. Judged by the standard 
of intelligence, social position, financial standing and 
Christian character, they rank among the foremost. 
Their meeting, this dreary, wet morning, at 9 o'clock, 
was full of ardor. Many encouraging facts were 
given, showing how fully the movement has the 
support of the citizens. Mr. Davis Piper had oifered 
to furnish carriages from his livery stable, to be 
placed around the *' Shades of Death," for the 
accommodation of the women, if they wished to hold 
the situation later in the night. Mr. Richardson 
offered his large omnibus to move the ladies from 
one point to another during the work. Mine host 
Bradley, of the St. George, also tendered a carriage 
for the same purpose. 

The women's meeting sent their greetings to 
their sisters in Springfield by a telegraph dis- 
patch, citing First Corinthians, 15th chapter, 
58th verse. 

Says the Commercial reporter : 

I left Xenia with the impression that it was too 
rigidly conservative for the temperance war ; a week 
after I returned and found the city ablaze with 
excitement, — at least five hundred ladies were in the 
movement, either directly at work or assisting those 
who were. 

Every respectable family in the place was repre- 
sented. The Scotch Seceders, who are numerous, 
were i)eculiarly active. Ladies wlio had obeyed St 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 213 

Paul's ( supposed ) injunction most religiously, now- 
prayed in the streets with the fervor of Methodist 
exhorters. Ministers who had written elaborately 
to prove that Christians should sing only the metrical 
version of the Psalms, in accordance with the creed 
of that church, now sang the song to the inspiring 
tune of "John Brown's Body." 

The wall of separation between the various 
churches seemed completely broken down. Here- 
tofore the attentive observer hearing a prayer could 
distinguish by the tone and style whether it was 
Seceder, Methodist, or other Sectarian ; but now 
the nicest ear could not distinguish — all prayed just 
alike. All seemed as sisters in Christ, and the 
sanguine were led to hope that this movement would 
even lead to a complete union between the sects. I 
was witness to one most remarkable scene, probably 
the most thrilling in the course of this movement. 
On Whitman street, in a space of six hundred yards, 
were nine saloons, several of such bad repute that 
they were known as "Shades of Death," "Mules 
Ear," "Certain Death," "Hell's Half Acre" and 
" Devil's Den." Visiting this locality I found five 
bands of ladies at work. 

Miss Laura Hicks, teacher, had brought her entire 
school of young girls to the work for the afternoon, 
and they were singing in front of Gleason's saloon. 
On each side extended a long line of spectators, 
leaving only a narrow space in the middle of the 
street. Led by their teacher, the children were 
singing— 

"Say, Mr. Barkeeper, has father been here?" 

Those familiar with that song will remember that 
the child is represented as seeking his father through 
all his usual haunts, and finding him in jail for some 
offense committed when drunk ; that he then inter- 
cedes with the jailor and finally convinces him that 
it was not his father who did the deed, but liquor 
that drove him wild. 

There was more than one among the spectators to 
whom that song represented literal fact. Again the 
children sang, then extracts from Scripture were 
read, and a lady with a clear, sweet voice offered 
the following prayer : 



214 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

" Oh, Lord, our hope in time of need, we prostrate 
ourselves in the dust before Thee to beg for the Hves 
of our fathers, our brothers, and our sons. Oh, God, 
help us to save dying men ; help us to rescue the 
idols of our love ; — dying men are all around us, 
they crowd us in the streets; we look upon them in 
our homes, we shed tears of bitter anguish because 
we cannot save them from this traffic of death. Oh, 
Lord, our God, consider our tears, our breaking 
hearts, and send us help to fight this monster of 
intemperance. How long ! oh. Lord, how long ! 
must we suffer on and on, while we have left the 
power to suffer? Oh, God, consider the tears of the 
oppressed, for on the side of the oppressor is power, 
which Thou alone can crush. Give us, oh, give us 
back our brothers, who are swept away by this 
torrent of intemperance ; come, dear Lord, and 
touch the hearts of the dealers in ardent spirits; send 
down Thy spirit on this poor man who still turns a 
deaf ear to our pleading, — he will not listen to us. 
Oh, do Thou soften his heart that he may know our 
agony and cease to put evil in the path of those we 
love. Give us access to the heart of this man ; bless 
him, Lord, bless him with the riches of Thy grace. 
Send Thy ministering Spirit upon him and his family. 
We know not how to plead as we ought ; we know 
not the way to his heart. Oh, grant that no weak 
or foolish act of ours may injure the cause of Christ 
or throw discredit on our good work. Do Thou 
guide and control us, make our weakness strength 
and teach us how to pray and labor as we ought. 
Oh, Lord, our God, wilt Thou not listen to the 
prayer of those made desolate by rum ? Here, 
bowed before Thee, are widows and orphans, made 
such by this traffic we must call accursed, for Thou 
hast cursed it in Thy holy word. Oh, God, withhold 
the hand of him that would put the bottle to his 
neighbor's lips. We feel encouraged to labor on 
against this traffic, which Thou hast condemned. Oh, 
teach us how to work and give us the victory: grant 
that the rule of law and temperance may be set up, 
and that righteousness may Ihnv as a river, and the 
knowledge of the Lord cover the whole earth • then 
will our sons no longer fall before those who lie in 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 21 5 

wait for their souls ; and bring us all, both ihe dealer 
and those who fall by the traffic, to see more clearly 
the light of Thy truth, and finally unite us at Thy 
right hand, we ask for Jesus' sake. Amen." 

I had just returned to the hotel after this scene 
when [ heard a great shout in the street, and soon 
after all the bells in the city commenced ringing. 
At the same time there arose a prolonged cheer from 
the Granger's Convention just across the street from 
the hotel, and it was evident that something unusual 
had happened. 

Going out I saw crowds of people thronging 
towards Whitman street, and heard on every hand 
in joyful accents, "The Shades of Death has sur- 
rendered!" The good news proved true, and I 
found Whitman street thronged with people. A 
little before 3 o'clock, as it appeared from the general 
account, Mr. Steve Phillips, of the " Shades of 
Death," invited the ladies to enter, and announced 
that he gave up everything to them, and would never 
sell anything intoxicating in Xenia again. Then the 
ladies, joined by the spectators, sang "Praise God 
from v/hom all blessings flow," w-hile the liquors 
were rolled into the street. A half-barrel of black- 
berry brandy, the same of high-wines, a few kegs of 
beer, and some bottles of ale and whisky were soon 
emptied into the street, amid the shouts of the enthusi- 
astic multitude. The leading lady then announced that 
if Mr. Philips went into any other business in Xenia, 
they should feel it a duty to support him. A dispatch 
was sent to the Grangers ( the State Grange was in 
session in Xenia at the time,) eliciting three cheers, 
and all the bells were set ringing in honor of the first 
victory. When I arrived the liquor had mostly col- 
lected in one depression in the street, and such a 
stench went up — "a rank offense that smelt to 
heaven," — as made me think it a very fortunate 
thing for somebody's stomach that the liquor had 
been poured out. Of the women around, some were 
crying, some were laughing, a few alternatly singing 
and returning thanks. One elderly lady in the edge 
of the crowd was almost in hysterics, but still shout- 
ing in a hoarse whisper, such as one often hears at 
camp-meeting : ' ' Bless the Lord ! O, bless the 



2l6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Lord!" She had the appearance of a lady in good 
circumstances, and a citizen informed me that she is 
ordinarily one of the quietest, most placid of women. 
One of her sons died of intemperance, and another 
is much addicted to liquor. 

On every side nothing was witnessed but smiles, 
laughter, prayers, hand-shaking, and congratulations. 
The "Shades of Death" was considered by the 
temperance people as the *' back-bone of the rebel- 
lion," and within twenty-four hours four more saloons 
surrendered. The movement continues with una- 
bated vigor, and only twelve more saloons remain. 
Twenty-nine have been closed. 

Many of these elect ladies I know personally 
and count among my warmest friends. The 
leader — and inspiration, I may say — of the move- 
ment from the beginning, Mrs. Monroe, is the 
wife of one of the leading business men in the 
place, a devoted member of the United Presby- 
terian Church, and a lady of most charming and 
winning manners. The attitude she took is the 
more remarkable when we consider the extreme 
conservative views always maintained by the 
church in which she was reared, in regard to 
woman's position and work in the church. But 
she gives us the key, when referring to those re- 
markable days, — which she never does without 
manifesting the deepest feeling. She says that to 
the kindly e couragementand advice Dr. Marley, 
one of the Methodist ministers of the city, 
she chiefly owes her attitude then, and as a 
consequence, her work of the subsequent years. 
She has continued faithful and true to the present 
time, and is at this writing filling the office of 
State President with peculiar competence and 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 21/ 

acceptability. I also recall Mrs, Judge "VVinans, 
Mrs. Dodds, Mrs. Moore and Mrs. Wilson 
among that goodly company of Xenia Crusaders. 
Of the ministers who gave their prayers and 
counsel, were Rev. Dr. Marley, Revs. Bedell, 
Ralston, Carson, Morehead, Schaffer and Starr, 
and of citizens a regiment. 

South Charleston, a pretty and prosperous 
town in our county, Clark, opened the war on 
the saloons the same day we did. Of the work 
in this town, I find myself possessed of a 
description written, at my request, about the 
time I sailed for England, by Mrs. Virginia 
Holmes, one of the most active leaders. Read- 
ing it this morning, more than a dozen years 
after the events so vividly portrayed, my heart 
thrilled and the tears sprang to my eyes as it 
brought back the scenes of those wonderful days. 

She says : 

The women of to-day have, through a baptism of 
suffering, developed a new phase in the history of 
their sex. Men for ages have been worshiping, not 
God, but a hideous serpent, whose mammoth propor- 
tions have enabled it to swallow relentlessly myriads 
of votaries, who have offered themselves living 
sacrifices to its insatiable demands. 

The mother or wife readily recognizes in this crea- 
ture Strong Drink, and in its victuns, father, hus- 
band, sons. In the fear of the Lord, and praying 
for his guidance and protection, taking the sword of 
the Spirit, and the shield of faith, with the helmet 
of salvation, and the banner of our Savior's love 
over us, we marched straight into the presence of our 
enemy. He raised his head, shot out his forked 
tongue and thought to frighten us. 

But we said in the name of the Lord Jesus and 
suffering humanity we come. And as the mouths of 



2l8 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the lions of old were stopped, so was the power of 
this beast to harm restrained, and the semblance of 
death fell upon him for about the space of four 
months. But, alas, even in this seeming death he 
deceived the too confident, who were thereby thrown 
off their watch-tower. Nevertheless the nation has 
been aroused as never before, and though we did not 
succeed in entirely conquering our enemy, we did 
awaken the public sentiment, and the work goes on, 
and will till we do gain the victory. 

Fancy the strangeness of the work ; we, who had 
never in all our lives entered one of the dens, where 
the beast made his lair, were brought face to face 
with him day and night, till his hated visage became 
familiar. We did also make the discovery that some 
rum-sellers at least were susceptible of better im- 
pulses than their business engendered or fostered. 
Though we watched their bars incessantly to prevent 
the traffic, they treated us with uniform courtesy with 
but few exceptions. One instance I think of, on a 
bitter cold morning, when our patrols were almost 
perishing with cold, two ladies entered one of the 
most dreaded saloons. The keeper professed great 
solicitude for their comfort, and proceeded to close 
all ventilation, and with bar-room stove at white- 
heat, and about a dozen stalwart tobacco chewers 
spitting all over it, the situatic>n was fearful. They 
came near fainting, but they did not yield their post 
till, fortunately, a couple of their sisters hearing of 
their situation, came and called them away to another 
point. The wife of this man assisted him in the sale 
of liquor, and vindicated the female character even 
in wickedness, for while the men were usually polite 
she was abusive. 

But the charity that endureth all things, hopeth all 
things, sustained this consecrated band of women 
through all trials, whether of patience, faith or phys- 
ical endurance. 

Our Crusade lasted eight weeks, in the months of 
February and March, in the midst of the most in- 
clement weather. Day after day we marched the 
streets, watching inside and out of saloons, never al- 
lowing a moment in which an unobserved sale could 
be made. We met alternately at the two churches 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2ig 

for prayer and business meetings in the morning, and 
again in the afternoon, in order to form our Une of 
march to the saloons, at each of which we formed 
our positions into two hnes, one on each side of the 
pavement. Then we sang those precious hymns that 
will always be remembered as the rallying cry of the 
army that expect yet to take the citadel of this arch- 
enemy of mankind. And then such petitions would 
ascend as have seldom touched the great heart of the 
Father, because they were carried straight to the 
throne on the strong pinions of faith in His beloved 
Son, and direct answers came as a benediction to all 
hearts. 

We were armed with the various pledges for saloon- 
keepers, property-holders, druggists and drinkers, 
and constantly presented them through committees 
appointed for the purpose. We sought in all our in- 
tercourse with those engaged in the business to have 
our hearts controlled by the charity that suffereth 
long and is kind, that is not easily provoked. And 
we relied firmly upon our Savior's promise, "My 
grace is sufficient for you," and we were not con- 
founded. Our male citizens did all they could under 
the circumstances for our comfort and the advance- 
ment of our cause. In one instance they achieved 
almost a miracle. We held two mass-meetings each 
week in the Town Hall, which were the largest and 
most enthusiastic meetings ever held in our place. It 
was at one of these, after the work had been pro- 
gressing some time, and the weather bitterly in- 
clement, that a large-hearted gentleman proposed to 
raise funds for the building of a church right in the 
enemy's stronghold, there being a vacant lot just 
suited for the purpose. This occurred on Friday 
night. The money was raised, and all the carpenters 
and men gave an herculean lift to the wheel,and the 
next day — Saturday — at 2 o'clock, our church was 
regularly dedicated to the service of God, and stood 
there before us a monument of faith and works, with 
floor, roof, windows, seats and glowing stove, all com- 
plete. 

How thankful we felt for this special providence 
in our favor. Our Church overlooked the whole rum 
traffic in our place. From it the saloon-keepers could 



220 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

hear the voices of prayer and supplication ascending 
in their behalf, and in its erection they saw a deter- 
mination of purpose that thoroughly awed them. It 
was not long till they began signing our pledge, one 
at a time, till every saloon was emptied, swept and 
garnished — scrubbed out, I should say, and groceries 
put in. 

Never shall I forget the night on which we received 
the intelligence of our first very important surrender. 
Our meeting was unusually crowded that night, and 
near the close a messenger brought us the glad tidings, 
when instantly all were on their feet ; and accom- 
panied by our brass band, we poured forth like the 
sound of many waters, 

" Praise God from whom all blessings flow." 

We then formed a triumphal procession, and men 
and women and children marched to the saloon. The 
band serenaded them while those most interested 
shook hands with and congratulated them as they 
stood in their door. Who will blame us for feeling 
unspeakably happy ? for we saw the light gleaming 
over the hill tops. 

At each surrender we had all the church and 
school-bells ring out their loudest peals. All our 
ladies who could, went into the work, for this was 
no partisan movement ; all distinction of church, pol- 
itics and cast was ignored, and the sound of thanks- 
giving went up as that of one voice. Religiously 
speaking, we had a short millennium. Oh, how 
glorious it was! 

But this sin-cursed world of ours is not well adapted 
to a millennial condition. The arch enemy has not 
yet been chained, or entirely shorn of his power to 
hurt, or work evil. What a consolation it is to the 
weary toiler that the Savior has said, " Fear not, 
little flock, it is your Father's good pleasure to give 
you the kingdom," with the blessed assurance, "Ve 
shall reap if ye faint not '' After our village was en- 
tirely jnirged, we found our work very much dam- 
aged by a small country saloon about three miles out. 
So we called a council of war and decided to march 
against it. And iiere again our brethren came to our 
aid. They hauled great tjuantities of wood and 
piled it near this house, and furnished us with con- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 221 

veyances. Thus aided, we boldly moved out into 
the woods and weather, and commenced our camp- 
ing gypsy-fashion. We made a log fire well heaped 
up, drew our conveyance near the fire, and having 
provided ourselves with heavy wraps, we commenced 
our picket guard, never omitting our religious ser- 
vices. 

The melting snow made the ground uncomfort- 
able, so we procured some boards, and what with 
our buffaloes and comforts we managed nicely. The 
many had by this time dwindled to the few, the true 
and the tried, those who had put on the whole armor. 
A strange sight we must have presented in our 
gypsy camp, minus the tents. Singing, praying and 
eating, for we did not forget each day to partake of 
our picnic dinner, jointly contributed. Our hearts 
v/ere warm and glad. For were we not instruments 
in the Father's hands for the pulling down of the 
strongholds of crime and sin ? 

I must tell of one bitter morning when the snow 
had fallen so deep, and it was altogether so unpro- 
pitious that only two of us went out. We found no 
blazing fire, but dead, black logs, all covered over 
with snow. I went through the snow and asked for a 
broom, which was kindly lent me. We then swept 
off the snow as well as we could, and with some? 
kindlings we had brought with us, we proceeded to 
kindle a fire. Slow work, but accomplished at last. 
We drew our carriage near the fire, then unfastened 
our horse and found him as sheltered a place as 
possible. But the poor creature was a pet and a 
hot-house plant, and protested vigorously against 
crusading in such dreadful weather. We encouraged 
him with kind words, and did our own duty and 
came home at night with health unimpaired, which 
seemed to us a most special providence. Several 
similar demonstrations of determination convinced 
the besieged that we were inexorable as fate, and in 
two week's time we had the pleasure of bringing his 
liquors to our church, where with singing, prayer 
and much thanksgiving we poured it into the street, 
fondly but foolishly hoping that the last stream of 
poison that had so long desolated our fair heritage was 
forever dried up. For a short time our village seemed 



222 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

an Eden. But soon the same old serpent lifted his 
head again, and our forces were no longer in the 
field to dispute his right. Well may we cry, "How 
long, oh Lord, how long?" 

LONDON. 

Among the earliest to fall into line was Lon- 
don, the county seat of Madison county, a town 
of some three thousand inhabitants, and sur- 
rounded by a wealthy farming community. At 
the breaking out of the war there were six 
churches and twenty five saloons. A peculiar 
feature of the county is the monthly stock sales, 
which brings, on such occasions, a large con- 
course of people not only from the county, but 
from the surrounding counties, and from other 
States. This fact will largely account for the 
large number of saloons as compared with 
churches and population. 

The leading citizens were more than usually 
intelligent and energetic. And so, as might be 
expected, the work was entered upon by men 
and women with a determination that meant 
victory. 

In the list of ladies I note Mrs. B. T. Custer, 
Mrs. B. Custer, Mrs. Toland, Mrs. Dr. Sharp, 
Mrs. Lincoln, Mrs. Col. Ross, Mrs. Dr. Jones. Of 
the ministers, Rev. C. W. Finley, a saintly man 
of the Presbyterian church, who has since received 
his discharge and gone home to the kingdom of 
the blessed ; Kev. T. H. Munroe, of the Metho- 
dist, who has also passed over, and Rev. Glover, of 
the Universalist church. The Catholic ch- -ch, 
with Rev. Father Conway as their leader, also did 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 223 

a grand work. It was a noteworthy fact that the 
first surrender was made by Howard, a member of 
that church. The women were also backed by 
all the prominent business men of the place. 
But the struggle was a hard one, for the liquor 
fraternity manifested quite as decided a deter- 
mination to maintain their ground. But through 
the signing of the pledge, for nearly the entire 
community signed, their business was badly 
crippled. The men rolled up a big guarantee 
fund for emergency, and during the hour of 
morning meeting, business was suspended. Every- 
thing was done to aid the Crusaders and contrib- 
ute, as far as possible, to their comfort. In a 
report before me, dated February 3rd, the writer 
says, "The surface of the ground, this morning, 
was covered with a slippery sheet of ice, making 
it difficult and even perilous to navigate, but 
some one had thoughtfully sprinkled salt before 
the various saloons, so that the ladies might be 
at no inconvenience during the devotional exer- 
cises. " 

The weather much of the time was extremely 
cold and inclement that winter, and, as it was 
generally the order for the saloon-keepers to 
lock their doors upon the women, the brethren 
put their sympathy into tangible shape by con- 
structing a tabernacle and mounting it on wheels, 
putting in a stove and making it quite comfort- 
able. 

When the ladies wished to visit or devote any 
time to a special place, horses were hitched to 



224 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

this unique meeting-house and it was drawn in 
front of Mr. Saloon-keeper's place of operations, 
and here the ladies would watch and pray and 
sing as long as they would judge expedient. 
Then the horses would be again hitched on and 
they would move forward to the next point oi 
attack. On one occasion, while the ladies were 
praying in front of the door of one of the gallant 
fraternity, he attempted to set a ferocious dog on 
them. But the dog, more human than the 
human, or less animal than his master, refused 
to obey. If he could have had the power of 
speech, he would probably have said, " Is thy 
servant a dog, that he should do this thing?" 
At all events, he manifested a wonderful inter- 
est in the ladies' performance and stood by good- 
naturedly wagging his tail while they sang and 
prayed. As I am a warm friend to dogs, I take 
great pleasure in recording that as between the 
ladies and the saloons their sympathies were al- 
ways unmistakably manifested on the side of the 
ladies. I am more than half inclined to believe 
they are more capable of judging between right 
and wrong, what is respectable and what is not, 
than we give them credit for. The ladies in 
their visitations soon discovered that the baker 
they were patronizing, under the guise of a 
grocer, also sold liquors. So they declined to 
patronize him any longer, and arranged that those 
who did not go out onto the street should bake 
the bread for those who did. But the work soon 
became so absorbing as to call out all their forces, 



I 




MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 22$ 

SO that they had to give up their baking and 
se:it their daily orders over to Springfield to our 
Brother Berry, for temperance bread. Of course 
victory perched on their banners, as they richly 
deserved. 

ATHENS. 

My old home began the Crusade visiting the 
same day that we did, February loth. Many 
of the scenes and incidents were most thrilling. 
The work was prosecuted with great energy and 
vigilance, but with a spirit of Christian charity 
that led those refined, deHcate women into the 
lowest and vilest places, and by their appeals, 
songs, prayers and tears, changing them into 
sanctuaries, where the proprietors and inmates 
joined in the songs of praise for their deliverance 
from a life of sin. Among this noble band I 
recall Mrs. M. C. DeSteiguer, Mrs. Angela 
Brown, Mrs. Alice Brown, Mrs. A. C. Brown> 
and many others of my co-workers and friends in 
that other war. One of these, of my little "Needle 
and Thread Band " of those days, I heard of not 
long since way down in Alabama, charming the 
ears and captivating the hearts of those Southern- 
ers for her cause, Mrs. Angela C. Davis. 

Lancaster also began work on February loth. 
It was a hard field, but the hosts were led and 
cheered on by such grand women as Mrs. General 
Ewing and Mrs. Reece, sister of General and 
Hon, John Sherman, and much effective work 
was accomplished. 



(15) 



CHAPTER XII. 



Enlisting tJie Children — Columbus Convention 




N CASTING about for ways and means 
to advance my work and to reach and 
enlist all classes, my thought was early 
drawn to the children. I felt the great need of 
such influences being brought to bear directly 
upon their minds, to counteract and fortify them 
against the saloon, that was an ever-present snare 
and source of temptation. And I visited the 
Sunday-Schools, as my time would permit, for 
this purpose. Then, as others entered the work, 
we appointed a committee of ladies to take 
charge of this work, visit the several Sabbath- 
Schools and enlist teachers and children as far as 
possible. We have always found that it is not 
hard to enlist the children in a good cause, if we 
care to make the effort. Our children had be- 
come greatly excited over our work, especially 
after our Crusade began. We accordingly ar- 
ranged for a children's meeting on Sabbath after- 
noon, February 22nd, at 3 o'clock, in Black's 
Opera House. The reporter says of that meet- 
ing : 

What would have been the result had Sunday 
afternoon been at all ])leasant, is difficult of imagina- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 22/ 

tion. The Boston Jubilee building would hardly 
have entertained all the boys and girls in the city 
who would have turned out for that mass-meeting at 
the Opera House at 3 p. m. As it was, the house 
was packed to the very limit. Away back in the 
gallery a crowd of little fellows were hanging on by 
their eyeHds to the windows, and every aisle had its 
ranks of persons standing, and still many went away 
disappointed of even a glimpse. There was that in 
the eye and manner of even the young people which 
showed that they knew why they were there ; and 
meant all they expressed in their manner. And the 
speaking and singing were strictly in accordance 
with the attendance. Altogether it was a grand 
affair, and such a meeting as gives support and sta- 
bility to any good cause and those engaged in it. 

This was the first children's meeting of the 
Crusade, and at it I remember that great mass 
of boys and girls at my call sprang to their feet 
to pledge themselves for temperance. One bright 
little girl came to me, and in a whisper asked if 
she could sign the pledge and eat mince pies. 
"Why, yes,my dear, ' ' I answered, * 'if your mamma 
will not put any brandy in her pies. She could 
then sign the pledge and eat mince pies too. " * * I 
have signed the pledge " she replied. I told her 
to ask her mamma not to put brandy in anymore, 
so she could eat mince pie without breaking her 
pledge. The mother of that little girl was a 
Christian lady, but had not dreamed of the 
stumbling-block she was putting in the way of her 
child. The child, though so young, saw the in- 
consistency. 

Some of our Crusaders found that they had a 
little crusading to do at home before they could 
with much success appeal to the saloon-keeper. 



228 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

They would be met with the very pertinent ques- 
tion, " Have you crusaded your own cellars and 
closets before coming to me? What about your 
home-made wine, your wines and brandies for 
your pies, cakes and puddings?" 

They would quietly withdraw and have a lit- 
tle liquor pouring of their own, not down in the 
bills. Not, however, making as clear a sweep of it 
as my friend Mrs. Parker and her husband of 
Dundee, Scotland, after hearing Gough upon 
his first visit to that country. They went home, 
gathered up all their bottles of wine, poured out 
the wine, broke the bottles and sent the goblets 
after, not supposing the goblets could possibly 
come into use if they had no liquor. 

I found there were a good many women who 
did not quite take in the full meaning of the injunc- 
tion, "Touch not, taste not, handle not. " One 
poor woman who was having a sad time with her 
husband because he was being ruined by drink, 
appealed to me to help her prosecute the liquor- 
seller. I began investigating, lawyer-fashion, to 
see what there was in the case, with the leading 
question, "Do you know that man sells whisky to 
be drank on the premises?" " Oh yes, " she said, 

" I saw him selling to Mr. M when I had 

gone in to buy some brandy for mince pies." 
" Why," said I, " my dear, is it possible you use 
brandy in your pies?" " Yes'm," she answered. 
" Don't you ever do it again. Will you promise 
me?" "Yes'm." Here, this woman had been 
cultivating^ her husband's appetite with her own 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 229 

hands, then turning and crying out to me to help 
her save him from the consequences. Besides, 
she had given away her power against the liquor- 
seller by patronizing him herself. Some years 
after the Crusade, being called to one place 
where the women had done a grand work in the 
campaign, I incidentally heard of one of the good 
sisters saying a few days before, " If it were not 
for the looks of the thing, I would go to the 
saloon across the street and get some brandy for 
my mince pies." Not even yet had she learned 
to "shun the very appearance of evil. " 

And this reminds me of a good minister in 
Michigan whom I heard vehemently denouncing 
the liquor and the liquor-seller and the whole 
business. "Why," said he, " I would not be 
seen going into one of those places. If I had 
occasion to go I would send some one else!" 

MARYSVILLE. 

The calls for help are pouring in. The day 
is breaking and the long night of sorrow, may 
we not hope, is passing away. 

On the evening of February 2ist, Saturday, 
upon my return from my day's work, I found my 
friend, Mrs. Sharp, of Kingston, awaiting me. 
She had been commissioned by the ladies of 
Marysville to come and bring me to them, to 
organize and lead them out. I sent them a dis- 
patch to be in their Church on Monday at 3 
o'clock, and I would be with them ; that being 
the first train by which I could reach them. 



230 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Arriving at the place, we went immediately to 
the Church and found a good audience awaiting 
us. In an hour I had them organized, the band 
formed and marching on the streets, while the 
bells pealed out the news, "The women are 
marching." 

Oh, those inspiring bells! The "Bells of 
Shandon on the river Lee" never thrilled the 
heart of the poet as did those Crusade bells the 
hearts of the Crusaders. Two ladies living on 
the outskirts of the town had not heard of the 
meeting till the bells told them the women were 
marching. They hastily threw on their wraps 
and came, almost running, to join their sisters. 

In that band of eager, devoted women I noticed 
one bowed nearly half down with some spinal 
affliction. Yet she was laboriously keeping up 
with the rest. Her face told of much physical 
suffering, possibly mental, too. Yet she could 
not forego the happy privilege of joining her 
sisters in that holy warfare. Dear Jesus, Thou 
hast many such who would follow Thee even 
to the cross as they of old. 

As we made our several calls, we found one 
man who was disposed to draw the ladies into a 
discussion on the healthfulness of his beverage 
of the beer tub, and one lady caught the bait. 
She assented that beer was " in sickness very 
beneficial," and added that she was herself using 
it for her health. I saw the good lady was giving 
her cause away to that saloon-keeper and hast- 
ened to the rescue. I told her it would be well 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADIJ. 23 1 

for her to give up its use, as it was all a delusion 
about its possessing the health-giving properties 
ascribed to it. She said her doctor advised it. 
"Then," said I, "change your doctor." I 
learned afterwards that the physician was her 
brother. In the course of my lecture that even- 
ing, I took occasion to speak of the manufactur- 
ing and handling of the stuff; stealing a glance 
towards the lady, I noticed this caused quite a 
grimace of disgust. 

Our mass-meeting at night was a grand affair. 
I was requested at the close of my lecture 
to call for a guarantee fund. The responses 
came in briskly for a time, but at length 
began to slacken up somewhat. Just then a 
gentleman called out, "I see I made a mis- 
take. Put me down for another hundred dol- 
lars. " Another called out, "I am as rich as he 
is, put me down for another hundred." A third 
said, " I have no money, but I have a good horse 
and buggy, put them down for me. " A fourth 
said, "put me down for a horse and buggy. " 
And thus in a few minutes a fund of several 
thousand dollars was pledged to the work. 

I tell you those guarantee funds were potent 
persuasives. The saloon men understood and 
felt the force of money, sometimes, when they 
were not moved by prayer. They knew that 
meant enforcement of law, and they knew they 
broke the law every day. I had told the ladies 
I would give them just nine days in which to 
close out the half-dozen saloons in their town. 



232 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

But that guarantee fund, added to the women's 
prayers, pleadings and songs, finished up the 
work in six. 

The last saloon was closed, the bells were 
ringing ! Oh, how they rang, how they rever- 
berated out over the plains for miles and miles 
away. They kept on the glad peal after peal. 
The country people dropped their work, caught 
up their horses, their carriages, their wagons, 
everything available ; and men and women and 
children hastened away to the town. And still 
the bells pealed on. The town filled with peo- 
ple, the women were marching and the people 
fell into line, and truly there was "great joy in 
that city." One of the saloon-keepers having 
rolled out his liquors, and insisted that the Cru- 
saders should themselves have the happiness of 
knocking in the heads with their own hands, 
swept and garnished his place and prepared a 
sumptuous dinner for the Crusaders, with the in- 
vitation for each to bring a friend. 

When the repast was ended, the ladies seeing 
where an after-piece would come in nicely, two 
of them taking each a hat, passed among the 
guests, received a very nice donation, which they 
tendered their generous host, quite sufficient to 
enable him to open up a more respectable busi- 
ness. Another of the fraternity, finding his oc- 
cupation gone, and now that his better self had 
an opportunity to ivssert itself, began to feel 
ashamed of his business and himself for having 
been engaged in it, declared he was going to ' 'do 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 233 

what the devil had never done, — leave Marys- 
ville." And he departed with the intention, as 
it was understood, of finding a more respectable 
business elsewhere. 

But a fearful testing-time came to many a 
poor toper. After the excitement subsided 
they found that tyrant, appetite, was still alive, 
and the more imperative because of the enforced 
abstinence. There was not a drop of liquor to 
be had, not even a drug-store where they could 
get it without an order from a physician, so read 
the druggist's pledge. A physician told me some 
of his experiences which were at times very amus- 
ing. Their pleas were often quite ingen- 
ious, some bordering on the pathetic. A man 
would hasten in, apparently much excited, and 
report that his wife was very ill ; would the 
doctor make him out an order for some liquor 
for medicine ? But the doctor being shrewd 
enough to suspect the true state of the case, 
would propose to call and see the sick woman 
first. This would put quite a different aspect on 
the affair, and the thirsty husband would with- 
draw, remarking that he did not think it would 
be worth while. 

What a bitter cold night was that 23rd of Feb- 
ruary ! Though my kind hostess did her best to 
make me comfortable as possible, I did not get 
warm the whole night. Up, however, by the 
first dawning, and driven by the Rev. March 
some eight miles in that crisp, stinging atmos- 
phere to take the train for Columbus, where our 



234 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

great State Convention, which had been called 
by Dr. Lewis, met that day. 

Though I write all the time with the fear of 
seeming too minute and tedious in detailing the 
work and scenes of the Crusade, I yet desire to 
give as clear an idea of it as possible without 
wearying the reader. I also wish to make this 
all too imperfect history sufficiently accurate 
for a sort of reference in years to come. For 
this reason I give the reports as I find them in 
the papers, wherever I can, rather than from 
my own memory. And I now quote, though 
the report be rather extended, the account of 
our first State Convention in the interest of the 
Crusade. 

The morning meeting, Tuesday, February 
24th, was given to the work in Columbus, help- 
ing the ladies to organize and encouraging them. 
I felt, however, that rather a serious mistake was 
made in the decision to rule the brethren out 
from any participation. There were some of the 
best men, ministers and laymen, in Columbus, to 
be found in the State. I need only to mention 
Revs. Keene, Gardiner, Wallace, with many 
others whose hearts were overflowing with sym- 
pathy for the Crusaders, and whose knowledge 
and judgment were most necessary in that pecu- 
liarly hard field. I learned, indeed, that in the 
course of a month the ladies saw the mistake 
and invited the brethren to their councils. Diver- 
sity of gifts and labors, but community of inter- 
ests. " Ye twain shall be one flesh." Neither 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 235 

man nor woman alone, but unitedly we shall 
take this world out of the hands of Satan and 
wicked men and rule it in righteousness. From 
the press of the next day I copy : 

The Temperance Convention this afternoon, for 
more perfect organization of the woman's work, was 
the most harmonious and enthusiastic, as well as the 
best managed Convention which has met here for 
many years. 

By 2 p. M. most of the seats in the City Hall were 
filled, there being at least *i. 200 persons, representing 
all parts where the movement has been in progress, 
and where it is not yet started. The Convention was 
called to order by the Rev. W. B. Chadwick, of 
Columbus, and on his motion Dr. Lewis was unani- 
mously chosen Chairman. C. M. Nichols, of the 
Springfield Republic, and Rev. Mr. Badgely, of Millers- 
burg, were named as Secretaries. Mother Stewart, of 
Springfield, was then escorted upon the stand and 
offered prayer. This somewhat unusual proceeding 
was most happily conceived, and the audience pre- 
served a deep and reverent silence during the short 
and touching supplication. The assembly then sang, 
" All hail the power of Jesus' name." 

Dr. Lewis invited the delegates from all places 
where the women's war had been carried on, to send 
their most active workers upon the platform, and 
some fifty ladies came forward. 

On motion, a committee on permanent organiza- 
tion was named, consisting of five ladies and three 
gentlemen. Mrs. Eliza Thompson, Chairman ; Mrs. 

B. J. Custer, of London ; Mrs. Mary Brown, Mrs. 
Conway, of Cedarvilie; Mrs. McCabe, of Delaware; 
and Messrs. Stewart, Gardiner and Keene. 

The following were named a Committee on Reso- 
lutions; Mother Stewart, Chairman; Miss Lizzie 
McFadden, of Cadiz; Mrs. M. W. Baines, of Spring- 
field; Mrs. Lowe, of Xenia ; Mrs. Dr. Sharp, of 
London ; Mrs. Sarah Pollard, Columbus, and Messrs. 

C. M. Nichols, Fuller, and J. M. Richmond. 

*It was estimated that there were 1,500 or 1,800 delegates 
besides citizens. 



236 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The Committee retired, and the Chairman called 
for volunteer speeches from old workers. The first 
call was for Mr. VanPelt, who came on the stand 
and spoke very briefly. One delegation sent for- 
ward Mrs. Timmons, of Clarksburg, Ohio, who 
gave an account of the work there. After singing, 
the Xenia delegation sent Mrs. Findlay forward to 
represent them, who gave an exceedingly interesting 
account of the work there. Dr. Lewis read a letter 
from the women of Lancaster to the women of 
Columbus, announcing that a thousand women in 
the former place were willing to work in the cause. 
The assembly indulged in three cheers. Mr. Tal- 
mage read a letter of encouragement from Mrs. 
Reese, sister of General Sherman. The assembly 
sang '' Glory, glory Hallelujah," and Miss L. Sewell 
was called to the stand and spoke at some length. 
Miss Kate Dwyer, of Greenfield, was called to speak 
for that place, and gave a most affecting account of 
six weeks labor there, — all dealers having signed the 
pledge but one, and she hourly expected a dispatch 
announcing his surrender. 

Miss Sarah Butler being called to represent Frank- 
lin, gave a relation so plaintive and touching that 
half the audience were moved to tears. She gave 
an account of an instance where a saloon-keeper had 
employed some men to furnish the music for a dance 
he intended to have. When these musicians appeared 
the ladies were engaged in singing and praying 
before the saloon. These men were so affected by 
the scene that they told the saloonist they did not 
think that playing and dancing and singing and pray- 
ing were intended to go together, and they went 
away and had no dance. 

The Committee on Permanent Organization now 
reported the nominations: 

President — Mrs. H C. McCabe, of Delaware. 

Vice- Presidents — Mrs. E. J. Thompson, Hillsboro; 
Mrs. Rose Stewart, Cedarville; Mrs. ^l. G. Carpen- 
ter, Washington C. \\.\ Jklrs. Amanda Clark, New- 
ark ; Miss Kate Dwyer, Greenfield ; Mrs. Rev. 
Wyant, Mt. Vernon ; Mrs. Rev. Dr. Hatfield, Cin- 
cinnati ; Mrs. John Walker, Logan ; Mother Stewart, 
Springfield; Mrs. Rev. Runyan, Wihnington ; Mrs. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 237 

Z. T. Walters, Marietta ; Mrs. Gen. Ewing, Lancas- 
ter ; Mrs. Granville Moody, Ripley ; Miss Kate 
Shallcross, Gallipolis; Miss Virginia Copeland, 
Zanesville ; Mrs. E. Shurr, Bellefontaine ; Mrs. L. C. 
Allen, Tiffin; Mrs. E. C. McVilly, Mrs. Judge 
Mayo, McArthur ; Miss Rebecca Rice, Professor in 
Antioch College, Yellow Springs ; Mrs. Rev. Joseph 
Clokey, Middletown; Miss Henrietta G. Moore, 
Morrow; Mrs. Rev. Wm. Jones, Findlay ; Mrs. David 
Spangler, Mrs. Brown, Athens; Mrs. Hortensie 
Beeman, New Lexington ; Miss Maggie Beatie, 
Ashland; Mrs A. W. Swapel, Mrs. Rev.Wm. Herr, 
Dayton. 

Secretary — Miss Kate Gardner, Columbus. 

Treasurer — Mrs. Mary Brown, Columbus. 

Executive Committee — Mrs. Maria Bates, Mrs. R. 
A. S. Janney, Mrs. A. E. Tremaine, Mrs. L.Desselum 
and Mrs. Joan Galloway, all of Columbus. 

Advisory Co??wiittee — A. A. Stewart, Hon. Chan- 
cey Olds, Hon. E. E. White, all of Columbus. 

The Committee on Resolutions, through its Presi- 
dent, Mother Stewart, made the following report of 
Platform, which was adopted section by section, by 
a rising and unanimous vote. 

Resolved, That the success of the Ohio women's 
movement in behalf of the temperance reform has 
given us substantial assurance that the traffic in and 
use of intoxicating drinks can and will be removed 
from the State and Nation. 

Resolved, That in the prosecution of this work, we 
rely on Divine assistance, secured through fervent, 
persistent, and importunate prayer to Almighty God, 
offered in faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and with 
hearts filled with love for souls. 

Resolved, That faithful and persistent prayer must, 
as an inevitable result, be accompanied by efficient 
personal and organized work. 

Resolved, That in addition to contributions of 
money generously and freely given, it is recommended 
that the men aiding the women's work to suppress 
intem.perance in our communities, and the women 
who carry on the work, avoid all envy, hatred, 
maUce, and all uncharitableness, all bitterness of 
speech, and denunciation of the men engaged in the 



238 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

liquor traffic, to cultivate their acquaintance and 
kindly feeling, and by all honorable and practicable 
means to assist them in changing from a business 
injurious to society, to some other remunerative 
to themselves and beneficial to community. 
Mrs. E. D. Stewart, 
Miss Sarah Pollard, 
Miss Lizzie McFadden, 
Mrs. H. J. Sharp, 
Mrs. M. W. Baines, 
C. M. Nichols, 
H. J. Fullerton, 
J. M. Richmond, 

Committee. 

After considerable miscellaneous business and an 
able speech from Mother Stewart, the meeting 
adjourned till 7:30 p. m. 

The evening meeting was quite as enjoyable as 
that of the afternoon, and still more encouraging. 
Some 1,500 people were present, and all were inter- 
ested. Senator Goodhue was called to the chair and 
prayer was offered by Rev. George Carpenter, of 
Washington C. H. Volunteer speeches were called 
for, and the audience called out several speakers, 
there being frequent singing between the speeches. 
After short addresses by the Chairman and Dr. 
Lewis, VanPelt was called and spoke briefly. 

There was a persistent call for Mrs. M. McC. 
Brown, but she was worn out with the work and 
could not speak. Miss Moore, of Morrow, gave an 
interesting account of the work there, with their 
peculiar difficulties. 

Mrs. Eliza J. Thompson, of Hillsboro, daughter of 
Ex-Governor Trimble, spoke, like a brave lady, of 
the conflict there, and stated that what had been 
done had just taught them how to work. Loud calls 
brought Mother Stewart to the front, who spoke with 
her usual power. She told of many ladies who had 
entered upon the work in feeble health, and were 
much improved, and she thought this work would 
save the women as well as the men of the country. 

( What I said was prompted by the call for 
"strong lungs." I responded that I thanked 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 239 

the Lord that I had strong lungs, and spoke of 
the benefit that many women who thought they 
were confirmed invahds, had already received 
from the out-door exercise, as well as the stimu- 
lus received from living for a purpose, devoting 
heart and talent for the welfare of mankind. 
When I had taken my seat. Dr. Lewis sprang 
up and came to me with the enthusiasm of a 
boy, saying some kind words about the practical 
common sense, and that my assertion in regard 
to the improvement of the health of the women 
was invaluable to our cause. It was just in the 
line of his teaching as a health reformer ; and 
many had been prophesying that the women 
would kill themselves by the fatigue and 
exposure.) 

Miss Stone, of Marietta, spoke briefly of the work 
in general, but could not report much progress in 
Marietta. Rev. Mr. Hamma, of Springfield, was led 
forward and introduced by Mother Stewart, to the 
intense delight of the audience, and gave an eloquent 
resume of the work there. Rev. W. M. Grimes, of 
Cadiz, spoke briefly, and Dr. Lewis set forth a plan 
of work for the campaign ; and by a rising vote the 
meeting returned the thanks of Ohio to Dr. Lewis, 
who was now returning to Massachusetts, and this 
enthusiastic meeting closed, everybody feeling that 
they had been greatly encouraged by this glad inter- 
change of greetings and experiences to return home 
and prosecute the work with renewed vigor. 

To my friends, Beadle, of the Cincinnati Com- 
mercial, and Brown, of the Gazette, I am chiefly 
indebted for the foregoing generous but strictly 
truthful report of that great meeting. And 
those two papers, as nearly every other in the 



240 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

country, daily devoted column after column to 
the wonderful work. But alas ! and alas ! these 
two, now combined with the two editors in one 
sanctum, have no generous word of encourage- 
ment for our cause. 

I received many more calls at this meeting to 
"come and help" than I could respond to. 
Two ladies had come to Springfield to take me 
to their town, Coshocton, to help them organize 
and lead them out ; but I had left for IMarysville. 
As soon as I could see — as I thought — the time 
to go to them, I telegraphed, asking if they still 
wanted me. They answered, "No, we are 
at work; do not need outside help." Thus, 
while the ladies in many places shrank at first, 
as feeling their own weakness and need of aid, 
yet by some strange, impelling influence they 
were constrained to go forward, so many of them, 
too, astonished beyond measure at themselves. 

I wish the reader to pause for a moment and 
reflect that the wonderful meeting above re- 
ported, the spirit and life of which was con- 
tributed by the women, was almost fourteen 
years ago (I write this November 29, 1887), 
and that the women had not had the training 
and experience of the women of to-day. Indeed, 
many of them, till their lips were unsealed in the 
saloon or on the street, had never publicly 
spoken a word for their Savior or heard their 
own voices in prayer. But oh ! what showers 
of blessings descended upon them ! What joy 
and peace came into their hearts ! 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 24 1 

A SPRINKLE OF POLITICS. 

The Prohibition State Convention met the 
same week of our Convention, February 26th, 
at Mt. Vernon. 

I have already intimated that the politicians 
were watching our prayer movement with no 
little solicitude as to " How will this affect our 
party?" They were also anxiously, though very 
cautiously, putting forth their hands to steady 
the ark. Now that the Prohibitionists had 
come together in their annual convention so 
soon following ours at Columbus, they thought 
they saw some sinister meaning in it, and began 
loudly to charge the Prohibitionists with want- 
ing to " lug in politics," " trying to gobble the 
crusade!" and expressed a good deal of holy 
indignation. Considering these facts, the fol- 
lowing extracts, taken from a report of this 
Convention as found in the Cincinnati Gazette of 
the 27th, may not be uninteresting : 

The history of the Prohibition party of Ohio is 
getting to be an alarming study for politicians. A 
few years ago Jay Odell, a wealthy and benevolent 
citizen of Cleveland, who had spent large sums of 
money in relieving the wants of widows and orphans, 
the victims of intemperance, became convinced that 
he could do better service for humanity by directing 
his means to the suppression of the traffic which 
caused all this misery. He therefore stopped short 
in his charitable and educational bequests and threw 
his whole energies into the prohibition movement. 
The nucleus of a party was soon formed ; money 
was raised to publish a paper, distribute tracts, and 
keep lecturers in the field. In the first election in 
which the party appeared, it cast two thousand votes; 

(16) 



242 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

at the next, over four thousand, and last fall — as 
Republican politicians knew to their sorrow — up- 
wards of ten thousand. 

The record of such a growth was sufficient to 
encourage the leaders in the movement, and they 
were going on to another vigorous campaign, when 
help came from an unexpected quarter, — the woman's 
temperance movement suddenly broke out. What 
the men had been vainly trying for years to accom- 
plish by legal coercion the women began to do by 
moral suasion. But widely different as are the 
principles of the two methods, the prohibitionists 
could not fail to see that the women were preparing 
the way for their work better than they could ever 
hope to do it themselves. Therefore many of them 
came forward and wanted to father the movement 
and carry it in their arms. True friends of the cause 
saw danger in this, and politicians hailed it as an 
opportunity. An attempt was made — such as I 
described at Columbus— Wednesday, to set the two 
factions by the ears. And the effort was well-nigh 
successful. Men of one idea have always been 
intolerant of anything that crosses the path of their 
purposes, and so the friends of prohibition in the 
Columbus meeting Wednesday morning, developed 
a spirit of obstinacy that threatened a conflict 
straightway. (Viewed from the other side a differ- 
ent conclusion was reached. — M. S.) 

At the convention, yesterday, however, the advo- 
cates of the law insisted that they were in full 
sympathy with the gos])el method of operation, and 
there the difficulty will likely stop. 

THE PROHIBITION CREEL'. 

In conversation with an intelligent member of the 
convention, yesterday, I gathered some ideas which 
may serve to illustrate their faith and purposes. 

A proliibition law now would be of no use. The 
attemjns to carry out even the existing temperance 
laws prove failures, because the burden of enforcing 
them falls on a very few men in every community, 
who cannot stand against tlie combined strength of 
the licjuor interest. First of all, tem|K"rance ofiicers 
must be put in place of the corrupt party men, who 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 243 

now have the execution of the laws in their hands. 
The second condition of success is an unquestionable 
law on the statute books, prohibiting the manufac- 
ture, importation or sale of intoxicating drinks in 
the commonwealth. But, neither prohibition officers 
can be elected, nor a stringent law enacted, until the 
prohibitionists as a political party are in power in 
the State. Therefore, the chief aim for the present 
is to accumulate votes. The gentleman acknowl- 
edged there could be no lasting success of the pro- 
hibition movement until all the political parties of 
the country resolve themselves into temperance and 
anti-temperance elements, and formed two great 
national parties, divided on the issue of prohibition. 

Furthermore, the prohibition party must exist 
permanently, and always be in the majority ; for the 
moment the anti-temperance men get in power pro- 
hibitory laws will be ineffective, because not enforced. 
In Maine and Massachusetts, — where it is claimed 
prohibition has been a failure — the law was executed 
by its enemies. Put it in the hands of its friends 
and that will be the last of whisky. Nothing can be 
expected from either of the present political parties, 
because temperance can never be made more than a 
side issue in election contests. Prohibitionists insist 
on a square fight on the sole question of temperance, 
and all overtures or attempts at compromise from 
either Democrats or Republicans will be rejected 
with scorn. 

On woman suffrage prohibitionists were divided in 
their own ranks, and very likely would not have 
carried it any longer had not the late temperance 
crusade burdened them with so heavy a debt to the 
women. There will be no retreating from that issue 
now, and prohibition and woman suffrage in Ohio, 
at least, must sink or swim together. 

He also gives the following resolutions of 
indorsement as adopted by the Convention : 

Whereas, The manufacture, sale and consump- 
tion of intoxicating liquors is in open violation of 
the law of God, cTnd antagonistic to the moral, social 
and political well-being of society ; and 

Whereas, The Christian women of Ohio are 



244 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

seeking to eradicate this evil, by the instrumentahty 
of prayer to Almighty God, and Christian, womanly 
entreaty with liquor-sellers against their destructive 
traffic ; therefore 

Resolved, That we, as delegates to the State Con- 
vention of the Prohibition party of Ohio, in conven- 
tion assembled, do hereby congratulate the noble, 
self-sacrificing women of Ohio in their success, and 
assure them of our sympathy and co-operation with 
them and all other agencies of the temperance 
reform. 

Resolved, That we will not only unite our prayers 
with our sisters, to Almighty God, but we will call 
upon our brethren in Ohio to assist in making 
permanent the benefits of this moral uprising by the 
execution of law against all engaged in the liquor 
traffic, and to seek through the ballot-box the speedy 
enactment of such prohibitory laws as shall extinguish 
the evil of intemperance from our State. 

It was no doubt disappointing to the temper- 
ance party, considering that they were the first 
political organization to indorse the prayer 
movement, that the Crusaders not only declined 
to recognize their overtures of co-operation, but 
turned the cold shoulder. What would have 
been the consequence to-day if the women had 
then taken their stand by their natural allies, is 
a question of solemn interest. 

The women have grown marvelously since ; 
but so has the liquor power. Those who were 
so industriously manipulating the Crusade to 
"save the party," have great occasion to con- 
gratulate themselves. The party was saved, 
and so was the liquor traffic, and it is stronger 
to-day than ever before. 

I am glad to record here, besides the Hon. 
Jay Odell, mentioned by the reporter as among 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 245 

the first Prohibition standard bearers of our State, 
and the strong friends and supporters of our 
organization from the first to the present hour, 
the names of Hon. Gideon T. Stewart, Rev. A, 
M. Thompson, D. D., Professor of Otterbein 
University, Rev. E. K. Brown, D. D., President of 
Wesleyan Female College, and husband of our 
briUiant Mattie McClellan Brown, Hon. Ferdi- 
nand Schumacher, Hon. J. H. Doan, Bro. Silver; 
our D.S. Morrow, — who will not belong to a 
church that will not give the same privileges to 
his wife that it would to him, — our venerable 
Father Ware, Thomas Evans, Jr., A. A. Stewart, 
and Dr. Barnes — a gO( d array of strong and 
true men, of which any party or cause may justly 
feel proud. Brothers Evans and Stewart have 
recently passed away. How the veterans are 
falling ! 




CHAPTER XIII. 




Westville, Middletown, Belief ontaine , Kenton, 
Sidney , Marion, Ashland. 

\\\ 

HILE we were absent at Columbus, those 

who remained at home to "hold the 
fort," had not by any means been idle. 
The band work went on, and on Wednesday, 
another " White Wednesday, " they took pos- 
session of our new headquarters in the Stone 
Church, so generously put at our service by Mr. 
John Bookwalter. And with appropriate cere- 
monies, conducted by Dr. Clokey, it was dedi- 
cated to our work. 

Henceforth, from here, after the morning sea- 
son of prayer, they formed their bands and 
marched out, returning at noon for lunch and a 
short season of rest, then re-forming and out for 
the afternoon ; often also making special visits 
in the evening. I wish I could give the entire 
list of these hundreds of honorable Christian 
women who did such faithful work reaching into 
the long months. But their record is on high. 

There were man}- ladies who did not find it 
possible, either from lack of health or other 
reasons, to join the street work. But they formed 

■JIG 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 24/ 

committees on refreshments, divided the city 
by wards, and the committee for each ward — 
there being five wards at that time — prepared a 
nice noon-day lunch at headquarters for a week at 
a time. And thus, throughout the long weeks of 
the campaign, the toilers on the street — and the 
work was very wearying — were supplied with 
the best the city afforded, by their sisters. 
Among these servers of tables were ladies occu- 
pying the highest positions in the land ; one, I 
think of, whose husband sat on the Supreme 
Bench of the Commonwealth. And another 
who has since occupied the enviable position of 
"First Lady of the Land. " 

And this was the case in other places as well. 
I will here, however, take occasion to correct a 
statement that I have met in the East, that I 
had the honor to be associated with Mrs. Presi- 
dent Hayes in the Crusade. While our beloved 
Mrs. Hayes was in fullest sympathy with the 
Crusade, as she always is with every good work, 
she was at that time occupied with the duties of 
her position, her husband being Governor of the 
State. Some of her relatives entered actively 

into the work. An aunt living in C , being 

in too delicate health to go out on the street 
with the other ladies, would take some bit of work 
in her hand and drop into a saloon near, and chat 
kindly with the keeper, very much, however, to 
the detriment of his business. 

No one, however thirsty, who had a particle 
of self-respect remaining, would brave the pres- 



248 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ence of that refined, Christain lady, by calling 
for a drink. 

Speaking of my friend, Mrs. McK , "re- 
minds me of a little story," as our Lincoln used 
to say, at my expense. I had, by exposure in 
my work, contracted a severe cold, with sore 
throat and hoarseness, that threatened to silence 
me for a time. A prospect rather alarming, for 
I was hastening from point to point to rally the 

forces and urge on the battle, Mrs. McK , 

seeing my condition, kindly prepared me a bottle 
of vinegar, white sugar and cayenne pepper, such 
as she had found beneficial in relieving a rather 
serious cough with which she was troubled. I 
put it into the outside pocket of my waterproof, 
for convenience, that I might if possible relieve 
my hoarseness by the time I reached my next 
appointment. But it was urged, I must call at the 
Gazette office before I left, to see "the boys," 
one of whom had been my student in other 
years, but now needing to sign the pledge, 
which with the others he did. The editor had 
taken a cold that was giving him much trouble, 
and about which his mother felt a good deal of 
solicitude. In the midst of my interesting con- 
versation with the young men and their signing 
of the pledge, she bethought her of my med- 
icine, and stepping up to me, fished it out of my 
pocket,and holding it up, insisted upon "Will's" 
tasting it. She was sure it was just what he 
needed. But oh, ni}- ! what a laugh it raised 
among the boys. And I — I could not just see 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 249 

where the laugh came in. I think, if I remember, 
the boys called it "sold." I concluded there- 
after to ' ' shun the appearance of evil " by keep- 
ing my bottle out of sight. 

But the enemy was far from indifferent all this 
time. In the very beginning of our work many 
of the saloon-keepers appealed to the law to pro- 
tect them in their "rights." And it was fre- 
quently found that the servants of the people, 
placed in office to execute the laws, were so in 
the power of these men that they were able to 
find a great deal more law to protect them in 
their nefarious business than to protect the women 
In their pious effort to save souls. We have already 
recorded, as one of the first moves in our city, 
that over 600 women had appealed to the council 
to pass the McConnelsville ordinance, a just and 
righteous measure ; and it would have proved of 
incalculable benefit to the city, saving tens of 
thousands of dollars, as well as the infinite gain 
in health, happiness and morals. This petition 
was signed by the best women in Springfield. 
But the council, without any public remonstrance, 
refused to grant it, giving, as we have shown 
elsewhere, the most unique reason for their non- 
action ever rendered by men laying claim to a 
common amount of brains. 

But now comes a petition to this august body, 
signed by some 250, seven-tenths, at least, of 
them being of the foreign, German and Irish pop- 
ulation, and mostly saloon-keepers, demanding of 
the Council that they instruct the mayor and 



250 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

police to enforce the law, keeping the sidewalks 
unobstructed. This, of course, was meant for the 
Crusaders. The petition was granted by a vote of 
seven to three. There had been no complaint made 
or notice taken of the obstructions on sidew'alks 
before, though often the obstruction from build- 
ing material, dry goods boxes, bars of iron, 
whisky barrels, beer casks, was such as to not 
only endanger one's apparel, but their limbs as 
well, especially after night. 

The law was enforced, and the Crusaders gave 
the prescribed space — four feet — standing and 
kneeling on the curbstone or in the gutter. A 
wonderful thing is the law and free government 
of which we have made such boast. I remember 
of hearing of a gang of slaves, chained together, 
being driven through the streets of Richmond, 
Virginia, on their way to the Southern sugar 
and cotton plantations, on a Fourth of July, 
singing as they marched, 

" Hail Columbia, happy land." 

No one now living will ever witness such a sight 
again in this country, for our boys in the blue 
and the gray together, though in opposing lines, 
washed out the foul stain of the crime of slavery 
with their blood. But long since that, here in 
the North, boasting of freedom and libert)-, — 
have the best women of this or any land been 
arrested, imprisoned, mobbed, spit upon, abused, 
wounded by infuriated beings in the shape of 
men, set on by the liquor-dealers, only because 
they went in the name of their Master to plead 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 251 

with them to give up their soul-destroying busi- 
ness. All this time the politicians crying out 
against the, "Negro outrages in the South;" 
while the laws at home were inadequate to pro- 
tect their own wives and daughters from these 
worse than southern slave-drivers in their native 
towns. And this same power has the nation by 
the throat to day. 

On the 26th, two days after our Convention,! 
took the train to Urbana, was met by Rev. 
Calbfus and driven some six or eight miles to 
Westville. Met the ladies in prayer-meeting. 
Had a large mass-meeting at night, organized 
everybody for the work ; and next morning led 
out the little band to visit the three or four places, 
including the tavern. 

How precious was that season of prayer as we 
knelt on the frozen ground before that village 
tavern, and how I wanted to shout aloud the 
praises of Him who had called us to this blessed 
work. 

I do not believe that little praying band will 
ever forget that morning. It was not long till 
they reported the liquor business closed out 
there. After seeing the sisters well started in 
their work, I was driven back to Urbana and 
took the train down through Springfield, not 
stopping. Mr. C. M. Nichols boarded the train to 
accompany me to Middletown. Looking out, I 
saw the sisters on duty ; some marching in that 
solemn, silent fashion, others before some saloon. 
Reaching Osborn, where I had organized and 



252 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

led the sisters out, I stepped onto the platform 
to see if they were at their post. Brother Massie 
seeing me, motioned with a sweep of his hands 
to the other side. There they were across the 
square, faithfully at work. On, down, coming 
to Franklin, while the train halted Mr. Butler 
came in, and throwing up my window, said, 
"Look, Mother Stewart, seethe women keep- 
ing guard over Munger. " I have no language 
to express my deep emotion as I looked upon 
that scene. These women by prayer and faith 
had closed all but this one gate of death. This 
one man had stubbornly refused to yield. He 
had many times laid himself liable to prosecution 
by his flagrant violation of law ; and the men 
had said "give him up to us and we will find a 
shorter way to close him out. " But they begged, 
"Let alone, peradventure the Lord will give us 
that man's soul." And so, in sunshine or storm, 
days and weeks, there they sat outside that 
dreadful place. Angels, keeping guard over a 
man's soul. Yes, angels, though clad in the 
habiliments of earth, and I think their kindred of 
the upper skies must have looked down with 
intensest pity and sympathy on that sight. It 
was not long after this, however, till the men, 
unable to bear it longer, brought suit against the 
man, and he was sent to prison and his place 
closed. But behold how soon the sym.path}' of 
the community is excited in behalf of this class 
of law-breakers. It was not long till it was re- 
ported that Munger's prison life was seriously 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 253 

affecting his health. A petition was circulated 
and numerously signed and presented to the 
authorities for his release, and the prison doors 
were thrown open to him. No such sympathy 
or leniency for any of his many victims that I 
ever heard of, though they might He in jail, week 
in and out, and their helpless families become a 
public charge, or starve. 

We were met and entertained at MIddletown, 
by Rev. Joseph Clokey and lady, who had made 
arrangement for the meeting. 

It is enough to say that this earnest young 
minister was the son of our Dr. Clokey, and 
what a combined host for every good work were 
he and his intelligent lady. 

It seemed that the whole city had come together 

for that mass-meeting. The reporter said it was 

a "grand success." 

The hall accommodates nearly two thousand 
people, and was crowded to its utmost capacity. 
Every inch of standing room, even in the aisles, was 
occupied, and hundreds stood for two hours and a 
half. Upon opening the services with music by the 
combined choirs of the town, and prayer by Rev. 
Jos. Hill, Mr. C. M. Nichols, of the Springfield 
Republic, being introduced, delivered a short but 
witty oration, which met with great applause, after 
which Mother Stewart told what she knew of the 
work, etc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clokey both spoke, Mrs. C. 

most effectively. Rev. Mr. Graham also spoke. 

A guarantee fund was desired for carrying on 

the work, and I was requested to make the 

appeal for it, which I did. During this exercise 

a poor, broken-down specimen of the liquor- 



254 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

seller's workmanship made his way through the 
crowd and gained a position near the platform, 
and called out that he would give "five cents !" 
The poor fellow grinned as if he thought he had 
done a real cute thing, and there were enough 
who were ready to raise the laugh, I felt not a 
little solicitude lest the rabble should get away 
with the solemnity of the meeting. Raising my 
hand I stood in silence till they quieted down ; 
then I called their attention to the poor, dirty, illy- 
clad, intoxicated man standing there, made in the 
image of his Maker, but all marred and ruined 
by the liquor-seller ; an object of pity and com- 
passion rather than merriment. Though so 
intoxicated as to be simple, yet he was able to 
see that I was calling attention to him. A sense 
of shame and mortification crept over his face, 
and the audience was most respectful thereafter. 
The Crusaders opened up their work the next 
day and accomplished a great deal, though this 
was one of the hardest fields. I very well re- 
member the dear friends here gave me ^20 for 
my services. It was the first that approached 
anything like that sum, and I was really almost 
frightened over it, and counseled with Brother 
Nichols about it. I was afraid I might come to 

place my thoughts too much upon the oh, 

dear ! might become " greedy of filthy lucre" 

in my work, l^ut he assured me it was all right 
for me to take it. It has not been very often 
that I have been subjected to this kind of 
temptation. But it is not of this that I am 
writing, and I do not complain. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 255 

Tuesday afternoon, March 3d, Rev. Mr. 
Hamma and I set out for Bellefontaine, arriving 
in the rain and near meeting time. I had sent 
a card to the Cincinnati papers saying I had lost 
my memorandum of engagements, and on that 
account might fail to fill some of them ; and so 
the friends here were uncertain about my coming 
till we arrived. But the word went out, and 
though the rain came down, the largest church 
in the city soon filled and overflowed, and 
another church a square away was opened. I 
stood and talked for an hour at the first, while 
Brother Hamma spoke in the other ; then we 
exchanged pulpits, passing each other on the 
way. Next morning at 9 o'clock I met the 
ladies at the Court-house — their headquarters — 
for prayer and business meeting. 

Here, on her wheeled couch, lay a poor, little 
sufferer of long years, having been brought up 
so she could join the sisters in their prayers and 
songs, and with gentle, loving words encourage 
the repentant saloon-keeper or drinker; and 
here she tarried for a week, giving with her sweet 
patience in suffering, and bright, hopeful coun- 
tenance, inspiration to the dear Crusaders. Very 
tenderly did the blessed Savior carry this little, 
suffering pet lamb in his bosom through the 
weary years of pain and trial. The world has 
long since heard of, and many a saved railroad 
man and his family are praising God for Jennie 
Smith. 

At ten o'clock we formed our procession and 



256 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

moved out to visit the saloons, led by a brass 
band playing the airs of our Crusade songs. 
The tears would well up and overflow as I 
marched. Who could help being affected by 
such scenes? The streets were muddy and the 
sidewalks wet, but some of the good brethren 
ran and brought strips of carpet and spread for 
us to stand and kneel on. One keeper stipulated 
that we must only come within certain limits of 
his door, — that was the "dead line." I went 
up to him, however, shook hands and talked 
with him, and found he was not near so terrible 
as he wanted to make us believe, though he 
reiterated that his prescribed line was the ' ' dead 
line." I told him it should yet prove the line 
of everlasting life to him. I stepped back and 
stood with my sisters. After looking at me for 
a few minutes, he turned to his clerk and ordered 
him to ' ' bring out a chair for that old lady ; the 
rest must stand, " — his way, I suppose, of show- 
ing a bit of grim humor, or, his better nature 
may have been touched by the sight of so aged 
a woman out on such a peculiar mission. 
Though he assured me, over and over, that he 
never would surrender, it was not many days 
until he did. 

We called at one place owned by a man that 
some had assured me was a hopeless case. We 
were led to think there was little hope there ; 
but we went in, he making no objection, and 
had our usual services. When I turned to shake 
hands with him, upon leaving, he said he would 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 25/ 

like to have a private conversation with me. I 
was taken very much by surprise, and from the 
impression given me was in doubt as to his 
sincerity. I told him I would have to take the 
twelve o'clock train ; — but Sister Shurr invited 
him to come to her house, where I was stopping, 
and see me after we had visited the other saloons. 
Before we got home he was there and sent for 
me. Our interview was a most solemn one, and 
to me a very instructive one. 

The poor man was stricken with deep contri- 
tion and wept freely as we prayed. He said he 
had kept a saloon for fifteen years, and part of 
the time had kept a very bad place, but no one 
had ever before come to him to tell him he was 
doing wrong. They had prosecuted him ' ' over 
there" — the Court-house was just across the 
street — and had made it cost him a great deal ; 
and the attorneys, too, while prosecuting him, 
would at the same time have a bottle in their 
pockets. But no one had ever talked to him 
before about it. 

I was obliged to leave him and take the train 
for Kenton. A fearfully rainy time ! Mr. Miller, 
editor of the Republican, met me and took me to 
his home. It was still raining when we drove 
to the church. A lad near the door said as I 
ascended the steps, "Ye can't get in there! 
You couldn't get a seat if you did !" But I 
managed to get in, though the house was 
densely packed — almost walking on the people, 
for even the platform was crowded. But that 



258 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

boy outside was on my mind. I told the sisters 
about him, and said I wished I could meet all 
their children. They were wonderfully quick 
in those days to grasp an idea and act upon it. 
"Let us have a children's meeting to-morrow 
morning?" they said. They asked the superin- 
tendent of the schools to permit the children to 
come at nine o'clock for half an hour. 

After returning from the meeting, the weary, 
but happy Crusader was delightfully serenaded 
by the brass band. 

The next morning, upon going to the church, 
there were those dear, bright boys and girls 
waiting for me, and they cheered me roundly as 
I stepped upon the platform. They seemed, 
too, to understand, or guessed where the cheers 
ought to come in as I talked, for they were fre- 
quent and hearty. This was the first children's 
meeting ( excepting the Sunday mass-meeting in 
my city, already mentioned ) in the Crusade, 
and from it resulted a flourishing Band of Hope 
that was kept up for many years, — until the 
superintendent's health failed. 

Sometime after this as I was passing up the 
road, upon reaching Kenton, I threw up the 
window to see if an}' of the friends I knew might 
be at the train, when a lot of the dear boys I 
had addressed that morning gathered around, 
and with great enthusiasm began to tell me what 
they were doing in the temperance work ; the 
girls were also circulating pledges and getting 
signers. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 259 

Last fall I was called to a town to speak, and 
after meeting closed, a young man came and 
introduced himself, saying he was one of the 
boys I addressed that morning at Kenton, and 
had been a member of ' ' Mother Stewart's Band 
of Hope," as it was called. He was engaged in 
teaching ; was an intelligent and interesting 
appearing young man, and I learned was highly 
esteemed for his moral and Christian character. 
And again, being at our National Convention in 
Minneapolis last year, I met another of those 
Band of Hope boys, who was there filling a 
place of usefulness in life. Who can ever know 
how far the streams of blessing shall reach that 
started in that Kenton Children's Meeting? 

After the children's meeting I met the ladies 
in their morning meeting, then marched with 
them to the saloons. At one place, as I talked 
to the proprietor, the tears trickled down his 
face as he exclaimed, ' ' Oh, I know so much 
better than you do the enormity of this traffic," 
and he turned away to hide his emotion. He 
was an American, while his partner was a Ger- 
man and did not seem to be in the least affected 
by our visit or appeal. This was quite generally 
the difference between our native-born saloon- 
keepers and the foreigners. Those of the old 
countries had always been accustomed to their 
beer in their homes, at their meals, everywhere, 
from childhood, and it was very hard to make 
them see that there was any harm in drinking or 
selling it. Many of the native-born had gone 



260 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

into the business without thinking much about 
it, only that it was an easy and quick way to 
make money. But when visited by ladies whose 
standing they knew, — many of whom they knew 
personally, and in whose sincerity and piety they 
had unbounded confidence, it troubled their 
consciences and made them ashamed of their 
business. Dry-goods merchants have said, "If 
the ladies should visit my place of business with 
such songs and prayers I should conclude it was 
a bad business, and get out of it as quick as 
possible." Again, when these men heard the 
plaintive voice of prayer and our songs, — some of 
them the same that mother had sung in the old 
home, in the days of their childhood, — it was 
not so surprising that repentance and forsaking 
their sin followed the awakening of conscience. 
After we had made our calls, the band escorted 
me to the depot, and sang as we waited — 

" Nearer my God to Thee, — 
Nearer to Thee." 

And as the train sped away they sang — ■ 

" Shall we gather by the river, 

Where bright angel feet have trod ; 
With its crystal tide forever, 

Flowing by the throne of God ; 
Yes, we'll gather at the river, 

The beautiful, the beautiful river — 
Gather with the saints at the river, 

That flows by the throne of God." 

I stood on the platform catching the last dying 
cadences of the song, being held by that saintly 
man, Dr. Waddell, who has since gone over to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 26 1 

"gather with the saints by the river." When 
we ran into the depot at Bellefontaine, Rev. Mr. 
WilHams sprang on, exclaiming, "Oh, Mother 
Stewart, I want to tell you the good news first! 

J J has surrendered !" As the train 

stopped for dinner, I hastened off with Brother 
Williams to see and congratulate my friend upon 
his brave, manly act. I found him at his place 
of business, looking cheerful and happy. I spoke 
a few words, and away to the train for Sidney. 
He had gone into the morning meeting and 
attempted to tell his story, but overcome by 
emotion, dropped on his knees by Jennie Smith's 
couch and finished, while the tears rolled down 
his cheeks and fell on her hands. And there on 
his knees he signed the dealer's pledge. He 
stood bravely for a time. I remember his send- 
ing me the message, "I am standing fast ; am 
not making as much money, but I sleep sounder T 
I fear the friends, as in some other places, for- 
got to redeem their pledge to support him in his 
new business. Upon returning to B. sometime 
afterwards, I was greatly pained to learn that he 
had gone back to his liquor-selling. I called on 
him and he invited me to dinner, and I went and 
had a deeply interesting visit with him and his 
wife. When we parted he repeated over and 
over, " I mean to get out of the business !" and 
called back after me as he left, "You'll see; I 
will get out of it !" I am glad to say that though 
I did not have the pleasure of seeing him and 
his family on my last visit to B. — they being 



262 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

out of town — I learned that he was out of the 
liquor business. May the Lord save him and 
his with an everlasting salvation. 

It is a pleasure to record here that to a kind 
word spoken in this man's saloon for me, by a 
gentleman from my city, inspiring him with 
confidence in my sincerity, was largely due his 
surrender. I am sorry I never knew the gentle- 
man's name, but glad to record the deed with its 
result, and leave the moral with the reader, 

I reached Sidney too late to join the ladies on 
the street, but met several at tea, then addressed 
a crowded mass-meeting and assisted in a busi- 
ness meeting after the public meeting. Then a 
company escorted me to my stopping place and 
remained with me till time to take the midnight 
train. 

I neglected to say that a committee of two 
ladies and a gentleman had been sent over from 
Marion to Bellefontaine to engage me to stop at 
M. as I passed through to Ashland, for Friday 
evening. I could not see how it could be done, 
but the gentleman had the faculty of talking me 
into his view of things. He figured the matter 
out, and they returned to announce and arrange 
for the meeting on Friday ; and I was working 
up to his schedule. I reached Marion about 
four o'clock in the morning, — a rainy, dismal 
morning. My friend met and drove me to his 
elegant and comfortable home, where I caught 
a little sleep ; — but up again, too ill to eat any 
breakfast, — and out to the nine o'clock business 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 263 

meeting, then a public meeting ; organized the 
ladies and led them out to visit the saloons, the 
rain still falling. It was court week, and the 
town was full of people, and as we stood or knelt 
before the saloon crying to Heaven for deliver- 
ance, or sent out on the damp, murky air the 
wail — 

' Jesus lover of my soul, 

Let me to Thy bosom fly," 

men stood with uncovered heads in the rain, 
while the tears coursed down their cheeks. One, 
I was told, was so overcome by the scene that 
he had to support himself by the lamp-post, and 
at length had to be led away. We disbanded at 
twelve, but met again at half-past one, and I 
stood and talked to a crowded house of men and 
women till time to take the train for Ash- 
land, — the people said two hours, — I don't 
know. 

Again the band escorted me to the train, and 
at Ashland we had another large audience. The 
next morning early I took the train for home. 
I remember I was very weary, as I fancy I had 
a right to be by this time, and had curled up as 
best I could in my seat to get a little sleep, if 
possible, and was just opening the gates of 
dreamland when the sound of sweet music fell 
on my ear. I started up, saying, " Oh, there is 
a band somewhere," when I discovered it was a 
mother in the coach singing a lullaby to her 
baby, — a case of Crusade on the brain, perhaps. 

The foregoing may give a glimpse of the 



264 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADK. 

excitement everywhere, and of the work that 

had come so strangely into my hands. I was 

now almost fifty-eight years old, but it seemed 

that my youth was renewed like the eagle's, and 

there was a glad buoyancy of spirit and a song 

in my heart, as I traveled night and day rallying 

the armies of the Lord and urging on the battle. 

Letters of sympathy and encouragement came 

to me from many sources. Here is one from 

the sick-room : 

Dear Sisters : How I long to be with you in 
this glorious war against the iniquitous liquor traffic 
and intemperance, but I am denied the privilege, 
having been confined to the house by sickness for 
the last fifteen years ; and though I cannot give you 
my bodily presence, I am with you in spirit, and 
hope and pray that you may be successful in your 
good work. Mrs. Thos. Edmondson. 

The following intensely interesting letter will 

show that even within prison walls, and behind 

bolts and bars, we were watched and prayed for 

with deep interest. 

Ohio Penitentiary, Columbus, 

February 24, 1874. 
Mrs. E. D. Stewart: 

Madam : God speed the movement inaugurated 
by the brave women of Springfield for the suppres- 
sion of the liquor traffic. May the tidal wave rise 
higher and higher and spread wider till the last drop 
of the intoxicating beverage is swept from our land. 
At the commencement of our chapel service on Sun- 
day morning, our dear, good Chaplain prayed most 
fervently for the great work, and audible responses 
came from earnest and sincere hearts of tlie hundreds 
of prisoners who were brought to their present con- 
dition by acts committed when luuler the intluence 
of ardent spirits. At the ])rayer and experience 
meeting, held on Sabbath afternoon, one man said : 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 265 

** I was many years a sailor ; have been on board all 
kinds of vessels, from a canal-boat to an ocean 
steamer ; have never had command of but one 
vessel, and that came from the hands of its builder 
in perfect order, but when I came ashore I under- 
took to run the vessel, of which I was commander, 
with whisky, and that is why I am here to-day, and 
I thank God for it, for he has converted my soul, 
and through his grace I mean to be a free man for- 
ever." 

Another said: "Brethren, you have all seen a 
steam engine, — how exact and regular in all its 
movements when built by an experienced workman, 
properly lubricated, and the steam power is employed. 
So with the human body, it comes from the plastic 
hand of the Great Master Builder, perfect and com- 
plete, and when the motive power — the heart — is 
lubricated with the grace of our Divine Master, it 
accomplishes the object for which it was made. I 
did not follow the teachings of my sainted mother, 
but in the devious ways of sin, with my machinery 
lubricated v/ith vile whisky, I ran the downward 
road until I landed in the Ohio Penitentiary." 

Of the new prisoners who come almost daily to the 
Chaplain's office, from the beardless youth to the 
hoary-headed men of advanced years, a very large 
proportion who answer the question, " How came 
you to get into trouble ?" answer, " I was under the 
influence of whisky when I committed the act that 
brought me here." 

A few days ago an old man, sixty-three years of 
age, who had been a school teacher for forty years, 
under a sentence of three years for stealing a horse 
when drunk, came to the office under the influence 
of liquor given him by the sheriff" who brought him 
here. 

What we want. Mother Stewart, is more and still 
more of the prayer suasion, for prayer is the key, 
which, when turned by the hand of faith, unlocks 
God's richest treasures. By earnest prayer and 
loving faith the omnipotent arm of Jehovah will 
uphold you in your work of love, and in due time 
" ye shall reap if ye faint not." 

Respectfully, 



266 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

It is plain from the above letter that it is not 
only the low and ignorant that are brought to 
pay the felon's penalty through drink. The 
talent there manifested would bless mankind if 
it were not for the drink, — the accursed drink. 
And who shall answer at the bar for this waste 
of Heaven's richest gifts to man ? 

Akron, a business and manufacturing rival of 
Springfield, took hold of the Crusade in down- 
right business fashion ; and what earnestness and 
faith and power they developed ! 

A hundred women issued a call for a meeting 
to be held March 4th, but before they moved 
out, twelve days later, there were seven hundred 
and sixty-one enrolled. All-day prayer-meetings 
and evening mass-meetings were held for some 
ten days. Then on the i6th of March they 
formed into line and marched forth in the rain. 
I did not visit Akron during the Crusade, and 
so have recourse to the " History of the Great 
Temperance Reform," by Rev. James Shaw, 
for these items ; also for the statement that the 
spring election turned upon and was carried in 
favor of temperance. The McConnelsville ordi- 
nance was passed April 7th; the mayor, police 
and city solicitor united in enforcing the laws 
and bringing offenders to justice, and that the 
Beacon ( its editor being in full sympathy 
with the Crusade ) rendered valuable aid. Of 
this host of ladies I can now recall but few 
names — Sisters Mann, Monroe, and Uhlcr. I 
also recall — who could forget — that grand helper 



MEMORIKS OF THE CKUSADK. 26/ 

who has stood by us through all the following- 
years, Hon. Ferdinand Schumacher, with Broth- 
ers Rhodes and Buchtel. 

Alliance, with its University neighbor, Mount 
Union, early fell into line, led by Mattie McClel- 
lan Brown, who had for years before the 
women's uprising been doing a grand work as 
Worthy Chief Templar, and editor of the A//ia?ice 
Mirror, and her gallant husband. Rev. E. K. 
Brown, D. D., now President of the Wesleyan 
Female College, Cincinnati ; Dr. Hartshorn, 
President of Mt. Union College; Mrs. M. B. 
Reese, who has long since made herself a 
national reputation as a lecturer, and Mrs. M. 
E. Griffith, who has also taken her place as 
among the efficient and popular lecturers of the 
country. 

In Cadiz the work was entered upon and 
prosecuted with the greatest of enthusiasm, and 
it was not long till a glorious victory was 
achieved and celebrated with glad shouting, 
ringing of bells and firing of cannon. No such 
demonstration ever witnessed in the town, except 
upon the news that Lee had surrendered at 
Appomatox. 

To their beloved minister. Rev. W. M. 
Grimes, more than any other, they were indebted 
for the speedy overthrow of the liquor power. 
For earnestness and cheerful enthusiasm, I 
scarcely ever saw his equal, and I never met 
him but I felt inspired with a new impulse for 
our blessed cause. But he, too, has been called 



268 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

to join the great company before the Throne, 
leaving the world the poorer for the loss. 
Among the ladies were Mrs. W. C. Brown, 
President ; Miss Lizzie T. McFadden, Mrs. Dr. 
Drummond, Mrs. Walter Craig, and Mrs. E. M. 
Slemmens. 

At Jackson C. H. those eminent Christian 
ladies, Mrs. C. V. Long, Mrs. E. Mackley, 
Mrs. Robbins, Mrs. Sutherland, Mrs. Vaughn 
and Mrs. Carr, were sustained in their holy work 
by their ministers, the editor of the Jackson 
Standard, Mr. D. Mackley — who has also been 
discharged and gone home — and a goodly num- 
ber of the substantial business men ; and a 
blessed work was done. 

Of Ravenna, I have no record at hand, and 
did not happen to be called there during our 
campaign. But Ravenna gave us our second 
State President and National Recording Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of whom we 
are justly proud, of whom all the world has 
heard and will hear more. 

How I wish there might be a biographical 
account given to the world of the long list of 
Ohio women whose hearts were fired, whose lips 
were touched as with a live coal from off the altar, 
and their intellects illuminated by grace from on 
high, and who have since gone forth into an 
hundred fields, helping to garner the harvest for 
the Master. 

Yellow Springs, our nice, little, literary neigh- 
bor, seat of Antioch College, early entered upon 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 269 

the work and prosecuted it with enthusiasm, and 
much good was accomphshed. But they have 
found, as we have everywhere since, that the 
blow dealt with such nerve and muscle and 
unerring aim, did not finish, only stunned the 
brute for a season. 

At Hamden, on the Marietta and Cincinnati 
road, the people, men and women combined, — 
husbands giving up nearly all business interests 
and standing by their wives, — and of course a 
blessed result followed. Some came in from the 
country to help. One devoted Methodist sister, 
who was so wonderfully gifted in prayer, Mrs. 
Foster, came some miles to help. She has gone 
to join the company who have no need of prayer, 
but are continually before the Throne, giving 
praise and thanksgiving to God and the Lamb. 
Of this band of determined men and women, the 
names come to me of Mr. and Mrs. Ray, Dill, 
my kinsman Campbell, Burtenshaw, McKinnis, 
Hon. H. S. Bundy, parents of our present 
Governor's wife, Mrs. Foraker, with their daugh- 
ter. Miss "Dide" — my namesake; also my 
esteemed friend Ohmer, who was once a noted 
proprietor of a beer-garden in Cincinnati, but 
had come to see that money earned in honorable 
business had not only a much greater staying 
quality, but brought much more respectability 
and happiness. 

Oh, I wish I could tell it all, all the wonder- 
ful story of this greatest, most glorious war of 
all the ages. But again I am admonished that 
these pages are multiplying beyond limit, and I 
must sorrowfully desist. 



CHAPTER XIV 




Chillicothe, Emmet House, McArthur, Marietta 
and Gallipolis. 



FIND in a copy of the Scioto Gazette of 
March i8, 1874, the announcement that 

^ " Mother Stewart arrived in ChiUicothe 
on Thursday, the 12th, and attended the after- 
noon meeting." 

From the meeting we marched to Dennison's 
saloon, he having promised the ladies that he 
would surrender his liquors to be poured out, if 
they would buy his furniture and fixtures. 
When we reached his place, the liquor was 
carried out and poured into the gutter in the 
presence of a great crowd of people. The Com- 
mercial reporter who reported the scene said : 
" As the liquor ran down the gutter towards the 
Scioto, one poor, little bit of humanity clapped 
her hands and shouted, ' Oh, now my papa will 
never get drunk any more!'" I suppose the 
poor child thought that was the last of the whisky 
business. 

From a beer-cask I addressed the people 
while the work of spilling went on. In studying 
the obliging saloon-keeper, who was quite a 

/70 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2/1 

young man, I was led to question his entire 
honesty in the matter ; but it was not in our line 
to test the strength or quality of the liquors 
submitted to be poured out. I heard afterwards 
that he opened up again with quite improved 
appearances, the presumption being that he had 
not made a bad thing of it. 

The Gazette reports the immense mass-meet- 
ing on the same evening at the First Presbyterian 
Church, addressed by Mother Stewart and 
Beadle, as probably the largest that ever assem- 
bled in that edifice before. The excitement 
was so great that an hour before the time stated 
for meeting the house was crowded to overflow- 
ing. 

On Friday we visited some of the saloons. 
The ladies had said a good deal about Captain 
Bowers, of the Emmett House, and expressed a 
strong desire that I should go with them to call 
on him. I had not, from their remarks, been 
able to gather any very definite idea of the gen- 
tleman, or why they were so anxious for me to 
see him, except that he kept a bar in connection 
with his hotel. But as soon as I met him I saw 
that we had made a mistake, that no possible 
good could come of anything we could say to 
him ; but I conducted the interview with him, 
since we were into it, with what discretion I 
could, as I saw he was disposed to be anything 
but courteous, and to anger me if possible. 

In the course of the conversation he declared 
that he would not close his bar. I answered 



2/2 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

that perhaps he would, notwithstanding his 
declaration now. " Oh ! " said h e, "you threaten, 
do you ?" " No, " I told him, * ' the good sisters 
would pray for him, and peradventure the Lord 
would touch his heart." The sisters were just 
then about to sing, when he strode to the door, 
making his heels ring on the marble floor, and 
throwing the door open invited us out. The 
ladies were greatly distressed at the unexpected 
turn the affair had taken, because of the insult 
to me. But I assured them that I did not regard 
it in the least, and that I knew good would come 
of it to our cause. They were about to move 
away, but I requested them to sing that precious 
old hymn, 

"A charge to keep I have 
A God to glorify," 

saying we must at least have one prayer before 
we left. 

After the singing we knelt and offered prayer 
for our friend, then departed. But the end was 
not yet. The trouble with the affable Captain 
was that he would sell liquor to whomsoever 
would pay for it; and he did a gieat deal of 
harm by it. But he prided himself on keeping 
a first-class house, and to be visited by the 
Crusaders, as any other common sinner, was, from 
his point of view, a very grave insult ; besides, 
his rival, the Warner House, was just across the 
way, and of course the proprietors were exulting 
over his discomfiture. It was almost like being 
stricken with leprosy to be visited by the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 273 

Crusaders, and thus have their sins published to 

the world. 

When the Captain found that the sympathies 

of the people were with the ladies, he concluded 

he had made a mistake, and caused it to be 

circulated that he did not "invite " (? ) the ladies 

out, but into the parlor. Accordingly the ladies 

inserted the following card in the Scioto Gazette : 

We, the ladies of Chillicothe, engaged in the sup- 
pression of the liquor sale in this city, desire to refute 
over our own signatures, the rumor generally circu- 
lated, that Captain Bowers, of the Emmett House, 
tendered us the use of his parlors on the occasion of 
our recent visit, in which to hold religious services. 
Captain Bowers did not mention the fact that we 
could use the parlors of the Emmett House, either 
directly or indirectly, except in reply to a question 
asked by Mother Stewart, as to what course he would 
pursue if some of the mothers or wives of the men to 
whom he daily dispensed this liquid destruction 
were to come and seat themselves in his bar-room. 
He replied that he would tell them it was no place 
for them, but that the parlor was the place for ladies. 
We take this method of refuting the rumor, because 
it has placed us, even in the eyes of some of our 
friends, in a false light. 

Mother Stewart, Springfield, 
Mrs. Col. Bond, 
Mrs. Nelson Carlisle, 
Mrs. F. E. Armstrong, 
Mrs. Hamill, 
Mrs. Abernathy, 
Mrs. W. W. Graham, 
Miss Kate Graham. 

These names were of the best families of Chil- 
licothe, Mrs. Col. Bond was the mother of the 
editor of the Scioto Gazette, whose wife, by the 
way, formerly Miss Frank Currier, of Athens, 
was a niece of ours. 

(18) 



2/4 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The news of Captain Bowers' discourtesy to 
the ladies spread far and wide over the country, 
and as the traveling world, as well as the rest of 
mankind, was largely in sympathy with the 
Crusaders, when strangers arrived at the depot 
their first inquiry of the hackmen would be, 
* ' At which hotel was it that the Crusaders were 
insulted?" and upon being told, v/ould say, "I 
can't go there ; drive me to another." I under- 
stood the Captain declared that Mother Stewart 
had injured him to the amount of five hundred 
dollars. As the children say, I didn't go to, 
and it is with me an open question whether it 
was I or he that did it. 

Upon leaving the Emmett House we visited 
the Warner House. The proprietor met us at 
the door, welcomed us in, led the way to the 
parlor, sat down and talked with us, bade us 
hold our meeting there, and when we were 
through escorted us to the door, politely invited 
the ladies to call again, and bade us good-bye, — 
no more sincere, very probably, than the Cap- 
tain, but certainly more politic. A few weeks 
later I was passing up by stage-coach from Ports- 
mouth and some other points down the river, 
and as the coach line, as well as the Emmett 
House, belonged to Mr. Emmett, the Waverly 
distiller, the passengers were taken to this house 
if they did not otherwise direct. As the coach 
rolled up to the door the clerk sprang out to 
receive the passengers, but upon his offering to 
help me out I told him I could not stop at the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2/5 

Emmett House. "Why?" he demanded. I 
answered that I had been turned out of that 
house. He "did not believe it !" he gallantly 
responded. I called to the driver to set me 
down at the Warner House, which he did, and 
as I bade him good-bye I requested him to give 
my compliments to Captain B., and tell him I 
was Mother Stewart. ( May be this was another 
spasm of Topsy's wickedness, to which I am 
subject upon occasion.) 

I suppose the proprietor had noticed the 
occurrence across the way ; at all events he was 
waiting to receive me with extended arms, 
ushered me in and treated me to the best the 
house afforded, which made me very comfort- 
able, and for which I paid value received. 

But to return to our meetings. On Friday 
evening the Good Templars tendered me an 
open reception. The Worthy Chief, Dr. Frank 
Miessy, was one of our Ohio University boys, a 
grand, good fellow, and substantial supporter of 
the Crusaders. On Saturday morning I addressed 
a large meeting of the boys and girls, this being 
the third in the Crusade. Here, as everywhere, 
the children were greatly excited and interested 
in the Crusade. Ah, many of them knew what 
it meant to be a drunkard's child. Many had the 
inherited taint coursing through their veins, and 
if they did not surrender to the inborn craving 
they would only escape through a life-long 
battle. "Oh," said a lady as we entered the 
church that morning and looked into the faces 



2/6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

of those hundreds of children, " if we can only 
save these dear children our labor will not be in 
vain." 

Sitting just in front of me as I talked, was a 
little, shrinking, thinly-clad, pale-faced boy. I 
needed no one to tell me he was a drunkard's 
child. A few years later I was again in Chilli- 
cothe, and as my friend drove me out he was 
telling me of the wonderful Blue Ribbon work 
in the town. I asked about a dentist of whom 
I had heard a good deal, — he had married one 
of my students. "Oh, "said he, "he has signed 
the pledge and is doing well, and here he comes 
now," Looking in the direction he indicated, 
I saw a gentleman of very respectable appear- 
ance approaching, leading a couple of bright, 
well-clad children. The boy's eyes were fairly 
dancing with glee as he came up. " Oh !" said 
he, "I know Mother Stewart!" This rosy, 
romping boy was my pale-faced boy of that Sat- 
urday morning. 

Our wonderfully successful meetings greatly 
alarmed the liquor fraternity ; they began to see 
that their craft was in danger, and that some- 
thing must be done, so they advertised a meet- 
ing for Saturday night, to be addressed by 
Judge Safford, who had covered himself with 
glory of a certain sort by appearing as the prose- 
cuting lawyer for the renowned Dr. Dunn, 
against the ladies of Hillsboro. Mr. Beadle, 
after our McArthur meeting, returned expressly 
to report this very unique meeting, the only one 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2'J'J 

of its kind in the annals of the press of that or 
any other time. Of his vivid and lengthened 
description I can only give place for a part, 
simply as testimony from an impartial source as 
to the grade or class of the two elements, the 
Crusaders and the saloons. Mr. Beadle says he 
could not think of giving a full report of that 
gathering to his readers. He says : 

The meeting this evening in opposition to the 
women's movement, was a success as to numbers, 
but in nothing else. Soon after dark the crowd 
began to set towards the City Hall, and in a short 
time a tumultuous mass filled the room with the steam 
of beer and the fumes of vile tobacco. I saw a dozen 
or twenty women walk up to the door with escorts, 
then pause suddenly, and after a hurried consulta- 
tion, turn away with that peculiar look people have 
when they get into the wrong pew. But inside, a 
few feet from the reporter's table, sat Madame Mary 
Yeager, ex-keeper of a beer-garden. I was told there 
were three ladies in the back part of the house, but 
in a careful look I failed to find them. But the 
crowd — the masculine crowd! Descend, ye tuneful 
Nine, and Noah Webster, rise from the tomb to give 
me polysyllabic strength to describe them. Such an 
assemblage, in sad and sober truth, I never saw 
before since the days when the Chicago Tribune sent 
me to report an anti-war meeting in Wall street. 
Such fearful old mugs, such low-browed, stubby- 
haired sons of humanity as filled the front seats, it 
would be hard to equal anywhere outside of the 
large cities. I was particularly struck with the ap- 
pearance of one genius with a roaming red nose, 
pig eye and soap-fat chin, who held an enormous 
club-cane in his hand and started the applause. He 
possessed a horrible fascination for me, and his pres- 
ence so near seriously interfered with my duties. 
Beside him sat a nondescript, — I should have guessed 
him as a Corkorian, caught young and partly domes- 
ticated, or a Buckeye taken in infancy and reared on 
Irish whisky. These two fellows are fixed forever 



278 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

in my memory. They will haunt my happy hours; 
they will lead the scenic march in more than one 
night-mare. 

* * * Taken as a whole, I never could have 
believed that the fine, old, respectable city of Chilli- 
cothe could have vomited forth such a crowd. If 
any unprejudiced visitor could have seen both and 
compared this with that at the meeting on Thursday 
evening, I think he must per force have come out 
convinced that the wildest vagaries of the praying 
women's movement were simple, cold indifference 
compared with what the situation called for. 

After some detail of the speech, which was a 

conglomerate of slang, profanity, blasphemy and 

abuse of the Christian ladies and clergy, the 

reporter proceeds : 

I trust I am not easily excited to anger or disgust, 
I know I am not given to cant, and I am persuaded 
that those who have read these letters will not accuse 
me of too great reverence for religion or temperance, 
but I know I but speak the simple truth when I say 
that this night's performance has been, in all its par- 
ticulars, a deep and damning disgrace to Chillicothe. 
The last seven weeks comprise nearly all my knowl- 
edge of the moral society of this eastern country, 
but in five years in the far West I never attended a 
meeting half so disgraceful. I have heard Brigham 
Young swear like a pirate in the pulpit, but that was 
in a rude country, with a rude religion, and he did 
not profess anything better. 

But that such a meeting as this could have been 
held, or such a speech made by a Judge in a Chris- 
tian country, is something I never would have 
believed on another's evidence In one respect only 
is this better than the territories; if such a speech 
had been made in any of the Western towns in 
reference to their women, the men would have 
snatched the speaker out of the stand and hanged 
him to the nearest tree. It was at once the most 
indecent, profane and shameful harrangue I ever 
listened to. 

I have given this strange report at the risk of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 2/9 

criticism for inserting such an account in a nar- 
rative of the work of Christian women, but I 
have a purpose in it. This is simply an intima- 
tion of the vile and indecent spirit that was 
manifested by the low creatures who were insti- 
gated and set on by the liquor men, often 
developing in mobs, with acts of violence towards 
the humble, Christian women. 

I may be repeating, but I must reiterate over 
and again in these pages, that peradventure 
the Christian men of the nation may be led to 
pause, ponder, and promptly act ere it is too 
late. This same spirit of mad misrule and 
resistance to the restraints, both of moral and 
legal influences, fostered by the liquor power, is 
as strong, yes, far stronger at the present, than 
in any previous period of our history. These 
defiers of the law have grown more bold by their 
successes. It is this class that controls the 
political parties, and to whom the demagogue 
and the office-seeker pander. The riots in Cin- 
cinnati and Chicago are examples of what they 
may do upon any pretext. And yet, for their 
services in helping to ** save the party," men in 
the highest places in the gift of the people, 
Christian men, join in demonstrations of grati- 
tude, in banquets, where "wine and speeches 
were both good," in gifts of gold-headed canes, 
"magnificent gold watches," to the leaders 
of this class. Priest and people joined hand and 
glove with them. 

Monday, March i6th, found me at Mc Arthur, 



280 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

my old home in the days of my teaching. The 
meeting was held in the Court-house, a "thou- 
sand people," says my companion duvoyage. 
The ladies had already done a noble work, and 
all the drinking places but one were closed. In 
the audience that night I noticed old Sister 

S , now over the four-score line, sitting 

patiently on a hard, backless seat through all 
the long service. When I expressed my wonder 
that she was able to endure such fatigue, she 
answered, ' ' Oh, it seemed as though I could sit 
there all night !" she was so glad and thankful 
for the blessed work. Her youngest son, who 
had been keeping a saloon and had been a hard 
case, had been persuaded to give up the busi- 
ness. No wonder the poor old heart was full of 
joy and gratitude. 

The next morning I met the ladies in the 
morning meeting. It was their custom after 
their daily prayer meeting, to visit the one 
remaining place and hold their services on the 
pavement at the head of the stairs leading down 
into his saloon, — he did not permit them to enter 
his place. On this morning I requested the ladies 
to allow me to precede them a few minutes. I 
walked in and introduced myself to Mr. O'Keif, 
the proprietor, who received me very cordially 
and was quite willing to talk, but not to promise 
to give up his business. I learned afterwards 
that he taunted the ladies by telling them that if 
they had ' 'kept Mother Stewart a little longer he 
thought he would have surrendered ; — he came 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 28 1 

pretty near it while she talked to him," which I 
have little doubt was simply a new way of annoy- 
ing them. Some months after this I was on a 
train from Athens to Logan, when a man entered 
the coach and throwing his overcoat on the seat 
in front of me, addressed me very familiarly, and 
asked if I did not remember him — he was 
O'Keif, of McArthur. He seemed anxious to 
talk — told me of losing his wife, and of his little 
■daughter that he was then going to see ; said he 
wanted to put her into a school of his church. 
I tried to reach him by telling him how much 
better it would be for his church if he would give 
up selling and drinking liquor. He seemed 
quite delighted with my apparent interest in his 
church, saying, ' ' Why, Mother Stewart, you 
would make a first-rate Catholic," which I sup- 
pose was the highest compliment he knew how 
to pay me. But -I doubt if he has ever given up 
either selling or drinking, unless the latter has 
cut short his life. 

The ladies took me to visit the Union schools, 
where I addressed the children from the steps of 
the building while they stood on the green in 
front, many of their mothers — who had been 
-my students in the days of other years — stand- 
ing near me. Not a few tears were shed as we 
remembered, ah ! so many, that in their youth- 
ful school-days were as happy and full of hope 
as these, but now gone, never to return. 

My next point was Marietta, where, when a 
young lady, I had attended Seminary. Here, 



282 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

too, were the evidences of time's relentless work. 
So many gone, so few remaining. Hon. George 
Woodbridge, so well remembered in those long- 
gone days as an active, earnest Christian, was 
still here, and, as was to be expected, a strong 
supporter of the Crusade. Soon after my arrival 
my hostess, Mrs. W., told me there was a gen- 
tleman living near that she wished me to see. 
He was of one of the best families ; had a gentle, 
cultured wife and two interesting children. But 
his appetite for the intoxicating cup was getting 
the mastery of him, and if he could not be 
reached soon his friends feared it would be too 
late. I felt my own weakness, and my faith 
seemed almost to have forsaken me. I said to 
myself, "It is of no use; I cannot reach the 
case!" But I did not dare to confess it, so I 
went with my friend, crying in my heart to the 
Lord for help. The gentleman received us very 
kindly, and we were able at once to enter into 
conversation with him. The result was, that 
after a season of prayer he gave me his hand 
that he would quit his cups then and there, and 
he did. 

It was the Lord's strength and mercy made 
manifest in human weakness. Dear, brave boy ; 
he had a desperate battle before him, but his 
last words when I went to bid him good-bye 
before leaving the city, were : "I will make the 
fight, and I mean to stand." How my heart 
was drawn out to him. There is a feeling, I am 
sure, akin to motherhood in my heart for those 
dear bo>'s that the Lor^l haih given me. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 283 

Here in this old " Mound City," the oldest 
town in the State, we had a two-days county 
meeting, with the usual crowd of people. 

I visited the saloons with the ladies, and 
found one man who had been dealing out the 
deadly stuff for eleven years, though he was now 
only twenty-one. But he did not taste it him- 
self, and was so well aware of its deleterious effect 
that he was careful to turn his head away while 
drawing or handling it for others, lest he might 
be affected by the scent of it. 

The sisters were full of hope that this man 
would soon surrender. I told them he was the 
hardest, and would be the last man in the city to 
surrender. I really felt sorry when I saw their 
disappointment and surprise, but tried to explain 
to them that a man, knowing so well the con- 
sequences, and yet deliberately dealing it out to 
others, was devoid of either heart or conscience 
through which to be reached. That is the kind of 
man that will cut his fellow's throat for the 
money he will find in his pocket. He did not 
surrender. 

I was driven out to visit the Washington 
County Orphan's Home, the model institution 
of the kind in the State. I hope to find space 
elsewhere to give the history of its origin as 
told me by my class-mate of our Seminary days. 
Miss Catharine Fay. Nine-tenths of these little 
ones, so carefully sheltered there, were subjects 
of the public charity because their fathers, and 
some, because their mothers too, were drunkards. 



284 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The children here had, with everybody else, 
become greatly excited over the Crusade, that 
they hoped was going to shut up all the saloons 
and stop all the drinking. 

Mrs. Hart, the matron and a real mother to 
the little ones, as they loved to call her, told me 
that the children one day asked her if they too 
might have a prayer-meeting. She said they 
might ; they gathered in the play-room, and as 
they knelt, she said, now we will first have a sea- 
son of silent prayer. In a few moments, she said, 
a little girl eleven or twelve years old, broke out 
in supplication, stifled with sobs and tears, for 
her father, that the Lord would save and make a 
sober man of him. Then there was silence again, 
and next a little colored boy eight years old broke 
forth for his father ; he would choke and break 
down, then go on again. And so the Orphan's 
Crusade prayer-meeting went on. It was not 
long till a man came to the Home to take away 
two of the little ones. He had been a very in- 
temperate man, so much so that his wife had 
been obliged to bring her children to the Home 
and seek employment for herself as a servant, to 
obtain food and shelter. But the dear Crusaders 
had got hold of the man and induced him to 
sign the pledge. And when he came to him- 
self, he sought out his wife and besought her to 
live with him again. Dr. Hart, with whom she 
was living, in order to encourage the man and to 
keep watchful guard over him, gave them rooms 
in his own house. There they again set up their 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 285 

household gods, brought their little ones home, 
and were once more a united, happy family. 
About the same time a poor inebriate, whose 
wife was dead and his five children in the Home, 
came to see them. His children gathered about 
him and began to plead, "Father, sign the 
pledge," "father, sign the pledge, " "Oh, father, 
please sign the pledge." The youngest was not 
able to talk, but it joined the rest, clapping its 
little hands, and with pleading, inarticulate sounds 
besought father to sign the pledge. It was more 
than the poor, broken father could stand, but he 
made excuse that he could not write his name. 
" Oh," they cried, " Mother Hart will write your 
name. Mother Hart will write your name, " and 
she did. 

Who would like to persuade those little ones 
that they were mistaken, that God does not hear 
even the cry of a little child ? Those children 
learned a lesson of faith in prayer that will never 
be forgotten. 

I reached home on Friday evening, March 
2 1st, and hastened upon Saturday morning to 
learn what news of the battle. On Market street 
a gentleman came hurrying along and asked me 
if I wasn't going to the " liquor pouring." "Is 
there a surrender?" "Yes, around on Main 
street." I fell into line on "double quick." 
When I arrived upon the scene, the sisters and 
everybody else were there. Mrs. Kinney, Mrs. 
Mast, and others were making lively work in 
that saloon. And amid great rejoicing the bot- 



286 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ties, flasks, jugs and casks were brought out 
and hurled into the ditch. One bottle, however, 
my brother Spring rescued from destruction, 
and presented me as a souvenir. There it is in 
my collection of trophies of " the war. " The 
street was full of people, and how the anthem 
swelled up, 

" All hail the power of Jesus' name." 

My pulpit, an empty beer-cask, being just in 
place, I was helped up onto it and proceeded to 
address the crowd. (I met a gentleman in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., the other day, who said he was in 
our city at the time, and present at the li^quor- 
pouring, and reminded me that as I steppedjDnto 
the cask I remarked, ' ' We had the enemy under 
our feet," but he added, " he is not yet quite 
under." Sad is the pity.) As I stood there, I 
looked down and saw the little, timid minister's 
wife I have spoken of before, standing near, sing- 
ing and clapping her hands, apparently oblivious 
to all earthly surroundings, while her face shone 
like that of an angel. Sister Hamma has long since 
become an active and very efficient laborer in the 
missionary and other benevolent works of her 
church. That holy baptism of the Christian women 
is still bearing fruit in all the churches ; and the 
healing streams from that Crusade fountain are 
flowi:>g around the world. It is proper to say, be- 
fore leaving the subject, that the woman who had 
surrendered was liberally helped to bear the loss 
of her liquors by a large contribution. 

I have frequently spoken of the interest the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 28/ 

children everywhere took in the Crusade. In 
our city this was especially the case. The boys 
were always on hand, often acting as volunteer 
scouts to go forward and explore, and bring back 
information of the situation. I called them my 
body-guard, and I believe if the saloon-keepers 
had attempted to molest me — of which I was in 
no fear — the boys would have fought my battle 
for me. 

Some of the young ladies had organized a band 
of little girls and taught them to sing appropriate 
pieces, and would lead them out to visit the 
saloons on Saturday afternoons. On this Satur- 
day I led them ; we visited several places, and it 
was a touching sight to the throng of people 
gathered to see and hear them. The people 
from all over the county were in the habit of 
coming in on Saturdays to witness the Crusade. 
What wonder that many a stalwart farmer, as he 
looked upon the women kneeling on the curb- 
stone, praying to God to soften and change the 
saloon-keeper's heart and make him give up his 
business, were often wrought up to a high degree 
of excitement. And seeing those little things 
standing there, more than one knowing from 
bitter experience what it meant, sing 

"Father, dear father, come home," 
or, 

" Pray, mister saloon-keeper, has father been here?" 

was it surprising that as he furtively brushed 
away the tears he would exclaim : ' ' Seems to 



288 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

me it would relieve a fellow's feelings a good 
deal to go in and clean 'em out!" 

A little later on, a Children's Association was 
formed under the leadership of Mrs. Guy, our 
Secretary, the more to interest the children and 
teach them to hate and shun the drink as their 
deadliest enemy. They met on Saturday morn- 
ings. To one of these meetings came a wee bit of 
a boy, in dress and long curls — Forest Lehman 
— with a penny to give to Mother Stewart, and 
with a little speech, expressing his idea of the 
cruelty of the saloon-keepers, that made it neces" 
sary for such aged women as Mother Stewart to 
go out against them. A gentleman held him up 
in his arms as he made his little speech. 

That penny is among my richest treasures, and 
that baby boy is growing up to a sober young 
manhood. 

It was becoming apparent that most of the 
liquor-sellers who could be reached by persuasion 
and prayer, had now yielded. The next thing 
to be done was to prevent all we could from 
going into the saloon, and save as many who 
were drinking as possible, and so the form of 
work called "picketing" was inaugurated, and 
women all over the State were seen in twos, or 
possibly more, standing or sitting, or more likely 
pacing to and fro in the bleak wind or rain or 
snow, with paper and pencil in hand, soliciting 
signers to the pledge, or taking the names of 
any who had the hardihood to pass them into 
the saloon for their drinks. It took a man of a 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 289 

good deal of courage, if he had any self-respect, 
to pass those ladies and get his drink. Many a 
man was persuaded to sign the pledge, and 
turned away henceforth to live a sober life. 
Often the pickets would be out by the early 
dawn, and many a thirsty fellow who hastened 
as soon as he was up to wet his parched throat 
was greatly astonished to find the picket guards 
quietly waiting for him. One such in our city 
scurried off to a rather small concern near the 
Market street bridge, thinking to get his morn- 
ing glass unobserved. Great was his astonish- 
ment upon coming up to the back door to find 
himself face to face with the ladies, who were 
personal acquaintances. There was no retreat for 
him. He burst into a laugh, drew out a dollar 
from his pocket, handed it to the ladies "for 
the cause," and left with quite as quick a step as 
he came. The sentinels would keep their posts 
until relieved by a relay. Often men, touched by 
the sight of such patient endurance, would hasten 
away and bring warm boards or bricks for their 
feet, or lay down bits of carpet, or bring shawls 
and robes to wrap them in, and in the rain or 
snow stand and hold an umbrella over them. 
Some good lady would send them a cup of coffee 
and a hot roll. It was not uncommon for several 
to go out together in the evening and remain 
quite late, guarding places where young men 
were accustomed to meet for their nightly drink- 
ing, billiards, or card-playing. From a lady in 
one town I received a note saying, " It is night ; 

(19^ 



290 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

I am sitting here in front of 's saloon, the 

last in the town," and as she finished her letter 
she wrote, "There, it is midnight, and I have 
for the first time seen 's saloon closed." 

A good many have criticised our picket work 
rather severely, saying it exasperated the saloon 
men, but as I have said, it was becoming mani- 
fest that about all whose hearts had not been 
made impervious by their business had yielded. 
Now the question was to save as many of their 
victims as possible. It required even more self- 
sacrifice to keep guard by the door of one of 
these places alone, or with one or two com- 
panions, than to march with the band ; there 
was also more exposure and weariness in remain- 
ing at their post one, two, or may be three hours 
at a time, than in the band visiting. 

My Sister Phillips has just given me this : She 
and another sister were on duty before a saloon 
for the noon hour, when a company of near a 
dozen men came hurrying up to get their mug 
of beer on their way from the shop, but halted 
when they saw the ladies. Mrs. Phillips opened 
her Bible and commenced reading. Some of 
the more thirsty concluded they would just have 
to slip past her and get their drinks ; but as she 
read she slowly paced to and fro before the door. 
One became interested in the reading and insisted 
upon the others coming near to hear it. And 
thus she promenaded and read chapter after 
chapter till the men discovered they had only 
time to get their dinners, and hurried away. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 29 1 

Considering the wonderful results of the prayer 
method, it was not surprising that many were 
growing a little fanatical and disposed to treat 
with contempt anything in the line of law. But 
without the abatement of a jot of the power of 
prayer and the influence of the Crusade in 
awakening and enlisting thousands in the cause, 
yet withall there was need of constant watchful* 
ness, the soundest of judgment, and the appliance 
of all methods to insure a victory over such a 
wily foe, 

I had foreseen that while the brethren were 
all absorbed and expectant of a victory through 
our prayers, the saloon men would, by their 
political intrigue, get their friends into office and 
defy us. This had caused me much anxiety, 
and as I came and went I rang the changes on 
the notes of warning to the brethren at home 
and elsewhere, urging them to prepare in time, 
and watch with vigilance, or the liquor men 
would beat them at the polls. At length our 
Advisory Committee at home passed a resolu- 
tion requesting me to remain at home and help 
them work up the public sentiment for the com- 
ing election. I accordingly recalled a series of 
engagements and went to work. 

There is no abatement of zeal on the part of 
the women nor of excitement throughout the 
country over the ** Women's Whisky War." 
The papers are teeming with accounts, — whole 
pages given to the reports of mass-meetings, 
organizations, bands moving out, surrenders. 



292 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

liquor-pourings, closing out, — sixty, seventy, 
nearly a hundred telegrams in a day from as 
many different places; no place so hardened 
that the Crusade cannot reach it, and no place 
so given over to drunkenness and its accompany- 
ing vices but was greatly blessed, even though 
the saloons might not all be closed. It looked 
as if we were going to take the world. 

I remember as I stood in our prayer-meeting 
one morning, the news coming in from various 
quarters of the glorious work, a telegram came : 
" Gallipolis has organized, and the women are 
marching." "Even Gallipolis!" I exclaimed; 
" Is it possible that old, French river town can 
be moved ? Then certainly Springfield, or any 
other place, might have hope." It was even so, 
for there, too, were found men and women of 
piety and determination, who only needed some 
intimation of a way to combat the curse that 
held such undisputed sway in their town — a 
way they never had heard of, and with enthu- 
siasm they grasped at it. 

Among the ladies here I recall Miss Maxon, 
Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Aleshire, and Miss Shallcross, 
and they were sustained by a corps of good, 
strong men. 



^^^^^'^e^ 



CHAPTER XV. 




Story of the White Hyacinth. 



^'S THE time for election drew near, our 
men went to work in dead earnest. A 
call for a temperance mass-meeting to 
be held in Black's Opera House, was signed by 
the mechanics and working men of the city, their 
names filling two newspaper columns. The men 
pledged themselves to be present and to do all 
they could to secure a full attendance. A request 
also came from the colored voters for a meeting 
in Black's Opera House for their benefit, before 
election. 

And still the calls are coming for help ; my 
correspondence has become a heavy task, and 
my telegrams amount to dollars per day. I 
must pause here and make an apology, or an 
explanation to some of the dear friends who felt 
aggrieved because I paid no attention to their 
calls, — sometimes being repeated. This was the 
case with Zanesville, Steubenville, London, 
West Liberty, and I think some others. These 
calls came in my absence, and for some reason 
would not reach me till it would be too late for 
me to respond. I can only say I was in no way 

293 



294 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

responsible, and that it was a source of much 
regret. I know very well that audiences dislike 
to be disappointed, and that it weakens confi- 
dence in public speakers. When it has depended 
upon myself I have never failed to meet my 
engagements, and never disappointed an audi- 
ence, — unless prevented by illness, and then 
very rarely — though often to meet my engage- 
ments I have made long, night journeys, endured 
great fatigue, and stood before my audiences 
when only the oblivion to self caused by absorp- 
tion in my theme, sustained me. 

Matters at home were coming to a white heat. 
I felt that I was not needed, and that in many 
places the brethren were not thinking of the 
jeopardy that threatened them, — as some told 
me after election, ** We did not think about the 
election " — so I set out again. 

Having to wait a few hours at Morrow, the 
friends invited me to come to their meeting and 
address them. I went, and gave them what was 
on my heart, as to the coming opportunity for 
our friends or foes, whichever should make the 
best use of it. While I noticed that a few 
demurred at anything but prayer, the majority 
seemed to grasp the thought. One gentleman 
endorsed me warmly, sa)'ing he was sure I was 
right. He had o\-crheard a conversation recently 
on the train among a party of the fraternity; 
they were saying the Crusaders had nearly scared 
them out of their boots; but " a reaction was 
coming! areaction was coming !" Some of these 



MEMORIES .OF THE CRUSADE. 295 

brethren — who were from other places — insisted 
upon my going to their towns to help awaken 
the voters, but my time was taken up, and I 
sped on my way and — fell among friendSy who 
made a grave mistake, or it would have proved 
so if I had not swallowed down the insult for 
the sake of the cause for which I was almost 
ready to lay down my life. This was the first 
deep wound I received in my work. It caused 
me much alarm, too, lest the liquor men would 
get hold of it and use it against us. From only 
one other place, which even exceeded this, have 
I received uncivil or unkind treatment. A few 
individuals have been able on occasions to cause 
me great suffering, but from the hundreds every- 
where I have had only love and kindness, and 
their love is buried deep in my heart of hearts, 
and will there abide for aye. But they can never 
know what rest and inspiration and hope they 
gave me, nor how much better I was able to 
work and endure because of it. 

I reached the place in the afternoon, and found 
the ladies, with a large crowd of men, women, 
and children, at the depot awaiting my arrival. 
There was a saloon near, and the ladies insisted 
upon my addressing the crowd in front of it. I, 
as everywhere, endeavored to do everything the 
friends asked of me, though weary from my long 
ride, and was expected to address two other 
meetings — being helped onto a beer-cask I pro- 
ceeded to address the crowd, a large number of 
whom I saw were voters. I exhorted them to 



296 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

see to it that they put in nomination good and 
true men to be voted for at the approaching 
election ; to stand for the right, as true and loyal 
citizens of this great Republic, etc. I do not 
remember much, however, that I did say, but it 
was in that vein. I then proceeded with the 
ladies to their afternoon meeting and addressed 
them. But I perceived something uncanny in 
the atmosphere and was sorely perplexed, but 
unable to account for it. 

At the close I was driven to Mr. D 's, 

where I was very kindly entertained. But a 
little before time to go to the evening meeting, 
two ladies called, and one proceeded in very 
decided tones to inform me that they could not 
have any party politics brought into their work, — 
it would break it up, for they had Democrats 
as well as Republicans among them. The lady 
with her was a Democrat. ( I have been amused 
to notice that women are as strong partisan 
politicians as men, though spurning with scorn 
the imputation of "meddling with politics.") 
This lady, to whom my catechiser seemed to 
pay so much deference, she assured me, '* would 
certainly leave them if anything of the kind was 
brought in, and they could not get along with- 
out her," and much more of the same sort. I 
was of course shocked at such an attack, and 
greatly puzzled to know what in the world I had 
said or done to give such umbrage. What could 
it be that could warrant such discourteous treat- 
ment ? Upon asking an explanation, she 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 297 

declared that I had urged the voters to vote the 
Republican ticket at the approaching election. 
I tried to say she was very much mistaken, but 
oh, no ! she would not hear me ; — I had said 
what she charged ! I held my peace, but saw 
with sadness that they had ruined me for the 
evening's lecture. 

The ladies had hardly left when a gentleman 
called and informed me that he was President of 
the Women's League, and that he wished to 
inform me that they could not have anything 
like party politics brought in ; they were of both 
parties. I said I had not said one word about 
parties. ' * Oh, yes, I had ; his hired girl was 
present and heard me, and they could not con- 
sent to my speaking if I proposed to say any- 
thing more of the kind !" I felt myself thor- 
oughly insulted. I could not remember that I 
had even used the expression "this grand 
RepubMc," till some one recalled it to my mind. 
He insisted upon my promising not to offend 
any further, as the condition of my addressing 
the meeting. I sat there silently struggling 
between my sense of self-respect and the inevit- 
able disaster to the cause, if this should reach 
the ears of the enemy. 

It was growing late, and I had not yet settled 
with myself whether I could crush down my 
personal feeling and go to the church, when a 
couple of the ministers called for me. They had 
become uneasy and the audience was growing 
impatient. I conquered self for the sake of my 



298 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

cause, and went with the ministers. And I did 
the very best I could ; but who can conceive 
what distress I felt, and how hard the effort to 
give those people what would be a benefit to 
them, and yet not incur their further displeasure. 
I could not tell what would or would not offend. 
I was, too, by this time, getting a little into 
Topsy's mood, "so wicked," and turning to the 
gentlemanly Presidc7it, I, with demure and sub- 
dued "demeanor," as Samantha Allen would 
say, asked his permission to say something I felt 
very necessary to be said. He very graciously 
gave his consent, and I thanked him for the 
privilege. I could notmakeout whether he saw 
the point or not — rather thought he did not. 

When I had finished he thanked me for my 
"excellent address," as he patronizingly called 
it. I had no word of reply, but I thought, "You 
little know how much better I could have done 
for you if you had not so deliberately insulted 
me." 

I do wonder if any other lecturer ever had 
this kind of experience. I have been told since 
that Horace Greeley was, in the days of slavery 
agitation, called upon by the lecture committee 
of a certain town where he had been called to 
lecture, and instructed that he must not touch 
the slave question there. This was a little com- 
fort to me, on the principle that " misery loves 
company." If those good friends have paid any 
attention to my position as to political parties, 
they have long since seen the blunder they made, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 299 

but they have not had the manliness or womanli- 
ness to acknowledge it. The dullness of some 
persons is often amazing, sometimes amusing 
and sometimes not a little vexatious. I have 
learned, now and then, that some bright-idead 
man would declare that I was a Democrat, and 
hired by that party ; and again a specially sharp 
man would express himself as convinced that I 
was employed by the Republicans. If such be 
the case, both parties have proved to be very 
poor paymasters, and I have some heavy out- 
standing claims. I have not as yet received a cent, 
and I hereby notify whomsoever it may concern, 
to call and settle, for I need the money awfully. 
I was really glad to hasten on, next morning, 
and pick up heart as well as I could for my next 
appointment, which was Somerset, where I 
met a warm reception. I addressed a mass- 
meeting that night ; next morning met the ladies, 
organized and led them out. They gave me to 
march by my side the most venerable lady in 
the place — a woman of sincere piety and beloved 
by all. She was so affected that she could 
scarcely stand, and I begged her to stop at a 
house till we returned, and then join us again. 
But oh, no ! she insisted upon going with her 
sisters, though she trembled at every step. I 
noticed that the saloon-keepers' respect for her 
was such that her presence and her kind words, 
as she addressed them as neighbors and friends, 
shamed them. I was much surprised and rejoiced 
upon returning to this town in our "amendment 



300 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

campaign," to find this venerable saint, whom I 
presumed had long since put off the mortal and 
gone up, still witnessing a good profession for 
Jesus. 

Before going to the meeting that morning, my 
hostess told me she had a great sorrow on her 
heart, that she had never trusted to her lips 
before. But she felt it might be a benefit to the 
cause to tell it to me ; and so she told of her 
brave and beloved brother, who had fought so 
gallantly in the service of his countiy, — had 
never drank till coming home he was made much 
of, and invited by convivial companions to join 
them in their social gatherings, the taste was 
acquired and he became a confirmed inebriate. 
His property went, and yet he went on down. 
' 'Often, ' ' said she, ' 'did my husband and I watch 
him home on the cold winter nights, lest he 
would fall by the way and freeze to death." Yet 
he was so high-strung and sensitive that they 
dared not let him know they did. He became 
despondent, and hinted at self-destruction, in 
despair of ever overcoming his appetite. And 
still the liquor men sold him the soul-destroying 
poison. He had now become such a slave to 
his consuming thirst that he took the wood his 
little boys had managed to cut, — little fellows 
eight and ten years old, with which to buy some 
school-books — hauled it to town and sold it for 
rum to slake the insatiable thirst. But the end 
came. Returning one night from town very 
much under the influence of liquor, he went to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. ^OI 

the cupboard and seizing the laudanum bottle 
drained it. Soon becoming crazed he tried to 
shoot his wife and children, then drove them 
out into the snow and cold of that bitter January- 
night, the wretched wife on the eve of confine- 
ment. And there they had to cower till one of 
the little boys ran a half-mile to the nearest 
neighbor and brought help. The men obtained 
an entrance, and overcoming the poor maniac, 
bound him onto the bed. It was not long till 
he fell into the deadly slumber from which there 
was no awakening. Thus miserably perished 

the once gallant Major B . The neighbors 

came to the assistance of the bereaved and desti- 
tute family ; the ladies furnished the children 
with clothing so they could go to Sabbath- 
School. And when the Sabbath came they pre- 
pared to go, but the eldest, little more than a 
child, burst into tears and turning to his mother, 
exclaimed : ' ' Oh, mother ! I cannot, I cannot 
go; — I am a drunkard's child !" Is it possible 
for the world ever to know what the drunkard's 
children suffer in shame and mortification, even 
before they are able to express it in words ? The 
silent pondering of their little, burdened minds 
over it ; why they can not have nice, comfortable 
homes, clothes, nice food, and happy times, like 
other children, and why their mamma is so sad 
and cries so much, and why their papa is not 
nice and manly, and does not love them like 
other men do their children. 

Oh ! I cannot bear it ! Will not the people 
ever hear the cry of these helpless innocents ? 



302 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

My friend went on while she pointed to a place 
across the street, "That man," said she, 
** whom we prosecuted for the murder of my 
brother, swore in court that he had not sold him 
a glass of liquor in a year, though it was proven 
that he sold him the liquor that caused his death. 
Oh," she exclaimed, "I cannot go into that 
place ; I cannot pray for that man !" And yet 
that grief-stricken sister did find strength not 
only to go with us into that man's place, but to 
kneel there and pray for him ! Oh, boundless 
grace ! 

We were becoming impressed with the fact 
that we must look beyond the present methods 
for extending and perpetuating our work, for to 
the most sanguine and enthusiastic it was be- 
coming evident that we had entered upon a long 
and bitter struggle. It would be wisdom to 
organize and train all the forces we could enlist 
for the war, though it might be for years or a 
lifetime. 

The ladies of our Executive Committee, upon 
consultation, decided to call a County Conven- 
tion, to be held in Black's Opera House on the 
3rd of April. When the day arrived, having 
previously requested the ladies to assemble at 
our headquarters, we there formed in procession, 
five hundred strong, and marched to the Operr^ 
House, — a solemn, affecting sight. There was 
a large delegation from the county — a crowded 
house, and the same enthusiasm characterized 
this that had been manifested at our first mass- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 303 

meeting at the opening of the campaign five 
months previous. 

Looking over the old file of papers of those 
days, I see that Captain Perry Stewart, who had 
in the other war done valiant service for his 
country, was made Chairman of the meeting, 
and Mr. C. M. Nichols and Rev. J. W. Spring, 
Secretaries. Stirring speeches were made by 
General Keifer, since Speaker of the House in 
Congress, S. Bowman, Esq., A. R, Ludlow, D.S. 
Morrow and other prominent business men, as 
well as ministers and ladies. A county organiza- 
tion was effected, with Mother Stewart President, 
Mr. Wm. Barnett and Mrs. S. W. Cathcart, 
Vice-Presidents for the city, with one gentleman 
and one lady for each township. The duty of 
these township Vice-Presidents was to act as 
President of their respective townships, organize 
and superintend the work in tlie same. Mrs. J. 
A. S. Guy was made Secretary and Captain P. 
Stewart Treasurer. Thus was formed the first 
county organization in our State ; Madison 
county, in our district, being the next. We held 
meetings once in three months in different parts 
of the county, where we reported the progress 
of the work and encouraged each other to con- 
tinuance and steadfastness in our labors. 

Now the time for our Spring election had 
come, and for the first time in the history of our 
city all minor interests were merged in this all- 
absorbing one of the temperance question. The 
nominations were made with reference to this 



304 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

question alone. Of course the liquor men were 
becoming desperate. They had always in the 
past been more watchful of their interests than 
had the Christian people of theirs. And so it 
was when our work opened up, as has already 
been stated, we found a distiller, a brewer, and 
several of their sympathizers, composing our city 
council, and the same in kind in the minor 
offices. 

But the better class of citizens were coming to 
see where they had made their mistake, and a 
desperate struggle was inaugurated. The liquor 
men finding their business so damaged financially 
by the Crusaders and brought into greater dis- 
repute than ever before, saw their chief hope 
was to control the election and get men again 
into office who would paralyze all efforts towards 
legal restraint. 

Our Advisory Committee labored dihgently 
to put their forces into as good shape as possible. 
But some of them had not been trained in the 
school of election tactics, and it would not have 
fared so well for us if our staunch friend, Wm. 
R. Calhoun, former Chairman of the Republican 
Executive Committee, had not come home from 
Pittsburgh expressly, as he said, to vote with the 
lovers of law and order. He fell to work, helping 
with his experience and might, till the polls were 
closed on Monday night. There is no doubt 
that much of the success was due to his energetic 
aid. 

We had appointed another of our "all-day 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 305 

prayer-meetings " for election day, and while the 
men worked outside securing votes, we ceased 
not to cry to the Lord of our hosts to give us 
the victory. The brethren came in from time 
to time to report the news from the field. As was 
our custom for such meetings, the leaders were 
changed each hour. I was engaged to be at 
Pomeroy that week and had to leave at one 
o'clock, but took my hour to lead from eleven 
to twelve o'clock. 

But I was really glad to get away before the end, 
for it seemed to me I could not bear a defeat. 
I ran to the telegraph office and requested the 
operator, Mr. Parsons, to wire me at Pomeroy 
the result; I could by that time bear it, 
whatever it might be. The excitement and 
the voting and the praying went on. The sua 
went down, but there was no abatement, and 
the women still waited before the Lord. At 
length ten o'clock came, and the news of the 
result was brought in. That house of the Lord 
never witnessed such a scene before nor since. 
The men that had worked so faithfully all day 
came pouring in, and the wildest joy and enthu- 
siasm were manifested. Oh ! I don't know 
what we would have done in those days if we had 
not had that grand old doxology with which to 
give vent to our emotions. How that vast 
crowd of men anc? women did lift up their voices 
in — 

" Praise God from whom all blessings flow." 

Men who had not before participated in our war 

(20) 



306 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

on the whisky were swept away with enthusiasm 
to-day, and coming into the meeting sprang onto 
the pews and made ringing speeches. We had 
carried the city by a majority of 400. When I 
reached Pomeroy the telegram was awaiting me. 
How can I tell the joy and gratitude that filled 
my heart ? I have not the words. But it was 
worth many a league of travel in the night time 
and the buffeting storms. 

This was thirteen years ago, and to-day ( 'Sy ) 
is election again, but it is a very tame affair. 
The liquor men are not disturbed over the 
possible outcome, for many a man that did vote 
against them that day now casts his ballot side 
by side with them for the same candidate, to 
"save the party !" 

I took the train for Cincinnati, thence by 
steamer up the Ohio to Pomeroy. We did not 
arrive on Tuesday evening as expected, but 
early Wednesday morning. The dear friend of 
my young girlhood and of a long life, Mrs. 
Paine, with Rev. Mr. Davies and others, were 
waiting to receive me. The other friends (?) 
having won a victory at the polls, and hearing 
that I was to be up Tuesday evening on the 
' ' Ohio No. 4, " concluded to get out the band and 
to fire off the cannon as a salute, ' 'over the left. " 
They drew their cannon to the brow of the 
precipitous hill back of the town, and fired their 
salute about the time I ought to have been up, 
but I was not in ran^r or sound, and the paper, 
in reporting the matter, got it badly mixed up, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 307 

and made it read that the te^nperance friends 
serenaded Mother Stewart and fired a salute in 
her honor. So the saloon-keepers lost their 
labor, their ammunition and their fun. 

A precious time did I have with my Pomeroy 
friends, as I always do ; and the value of their 
love and friendship is above that of fine gold. 
Revs. Mr. Davies, of the Presbyterian Church, 
and Frampton, of the M. E. Church, were the 
ministers, and their competent and pious wives, 
with others equally as efficient, were laboring faith- 
fully, but against fearful odds, there being a 
large number of saloons, and a large population 
of miners of foreign birth as patrons. 

At Middleport, two miles below, where the 
Council had passed the McConnelsville Ordi- 
nance upon petition of the citizens, the sisters 
had but a short experience of crusading, but the 
enthusiasm was still kept up under the leader- 
ship of Mrs. Fisher, a peculiarly gifted English 
lady of the Mary Fletcher type. Here also a 
host of friends received me and we had crowded 
meetings. 

Returning, I stopped at Ironton, and found 
the ladies, under the management of Mrs. Rev. 
Mitchell, doing a grand work. We announced 
a children's meeting for the afternoon before I 
was to leave, and the dear children were all wild 
with delight that they were going to have a 
temperance meeting of their very own. The little 
Jew children, as gleeful as the rest, were clapping 
their hands and saying, ' * Oh ! we are going to 



308 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 

see Mother Stewart, too !" But a short time 
before the meeting word came that the * * Fleet- 
wood" was crippled and would be indefinitely 
delayed, and in consequence, to meet my next 
engagement, I had to take the first boat down, 
which bore me away just as the children were 
gathering. It was a real source of sorrow to 
myself as well as disappointment to the children, 
and I never ceased to feel sorry that the dear 
boys and girls of Ironton were cheated out of 
their "very own" temperance meeting. 

It will be beyond the limit of this narrative to 
even name, much as I would like to do so, the 
more than a hundred places to which I was 
called during this wonderful campaign, I must 
content myself with the mention only of such as 
will serve to give the reader as correct an idea 
as possible of this remarkable women's move- 
ment, with such results and incidents as may add 
interest, and for which I can vouch either from 
my own observation or reliable information. 

Among the many hard fields was that of 
Dayton, where was a large foreign element ; and 
where the citizens, even a large portion of the 
church members, having become indifferent by 
long custom or through business interests 
dominated by the liquor power, seemed not to 
take much interest in the work. There were, 
however, a brave few that dared, even here, to 
take up their cross and go out to this unequal 
warfare. 

How my heart was stirred even to pain, as 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 3O9 

one day passing through and having to wait for 
my train, I went out to seek the Crusaders. 
I found them, under the leadership of Mrs. 
Dr. Herr, kneeling on the pavement. They 
were crying to God to touch the hearts of the 
hquor-sellers, and make them to see the wrong 
they were doing to their fellow-men, and to give 
up their business and turn to God, while a large 
crowd of rough and hardened men — largely for- 
eigners — stood by making various comments. I 
could see there was little soil there for the seed, 
and little hope for the toilers. And yet in this 
city was much hard work done, persecution en- 
dured, and not a little good accomplished. One 
of my dearest friends, Mrs. Dr. Adams, who has 
long since gone over to her beautiful mansion 
on the glory shore, was, with her husband and 
family, in Dayton the winter of '73-4, boarding 
at the Phillips House. While she was a lady of 
advanced views in many directions, yet, when 
she heard of the peculiar form of work taken up 
by the women in so many places, she felt really 
shocked. " Certainly," said she, " it cannot be 
the duty of woman to so work. I cannot give my 
endorsement to anything so entirely out of the 
line of woman's work as this." But one cold, 
wintry morning she heard in strange, sweet 
measure float out upon the air from the saloon 
below — 

" Rock of Ages cleft for me, 
Let me hide myself in thee." 

Very plaintive to the ear of that tender-hearted 



3IO MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

woman sounded the strains as they floated up 
past her toward the Throne. "Ah!" said she, 
"the Crusaders are in that dreadful place." 
After a few moments reflection, as the cry again 
arose — 

'• Nearer my God to Thee, nearer to Thee, 
E'en though it be a cross that raiseth me," 

she said, "Well, if I cannot endorse the move- 
ment I can at least show those devoted women 
my sympathy," and she went down and stepped 
into the door. "Oh," said she, "what a sight 
met my vision ! There were those consecrated 
women on their knees in that loathsome place, 
crying to God to touch the heart of that saloon- 
keeper with the finger of His love and pity, and 
to save those present from his destroying influ- 
ence. They prayed for the gray-headed men, 
the men in the prime of their manhood, the 
young boys ( for they were all there ), who 
through the curse of drink were wasting their 
precious time and jeopardizing their souls. Oh, 
what a sight! The room was full of the fumes 
of liquor and tobacco, and the drinking and 
smoking went on as the prayer ascended. All 
my prejudice was swept away in a moment. I 
thought of my own darling boy, just merging 
into manhood, and dearly as I loved him I felt 
that I would gladly follow him to the grave 
rather than see him come to the condition of one 
of these." (She was a very fine elocutionist). 
As the band arose from their knees she com- 
menced repeating: 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 3II 

*' No, comrades, I thank you, not any for me ; 
My last chain is riven, henceforward I'm free ! 
I -will go to my home and my children to-night, 
With no fumes of liquor their spirits to blight, 
And with tears in my eyes I will beg my poor wife, 
To forgive me the wreck I have made of her life. 
I have never refused you before ! Let that pass, 

For I have drank my last glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass ! 



"Just look at me now, boys, in rags and disgrace, 
With my bleared, haggard eyes, and red, bloated face I 
Mark my faltering step and my weak, palsied hand, 
And the mark on my brow that is worse than Cain's brand ; 
See my crownless old hat, and my elbows and knees, 
Alike warmed by the sun or chilled by the breeze. 
Why, even the children will hoot as they pass, — 

But I've drank my last glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass. 



"You would hardly believe, to look at me now, 
That a mother's soft hand was once pressed on my brow, 
When she kissed me, and blessed me, her darling, her 

pride. 
Ere she lay down to rest by my dead father's side ; 
But with love in her eye, she looked up to the sky. 
Bidding me meet her (Aere, and whispered "good-bye." 
I will do it, God helping ! Your smile I let pass, 

For I've drank my last glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass. 



"Ah! I reeled home last night — it was not very late, 
For I'd spent my last sixpence, and landlords won't wait 
On a fellow who 's left every cent in his till, 
And has pawned his last bed their coffers to fill. 
Oh! the torments I felt, and the pangs I endured ; 
And I begged for one glass —just one would have cured, — ■ 
But they kicked me out-doors ! I let that, too, pass, 

For I've drank my last glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass ! 



312 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

"At home my pet Susie, with her Foft, golden hair, 
I saw through the window, just kneeling in prayer, 
From her pale, bony hands, her torn sleeves were strung 

down ; 
While her feet, cold and bare, shrank beneath her scant 

gown, 
And she prayed — prayed for bread, just a poor crust of 

bread. 
For one crust — on her knees, my pet darling plead, 
And I heard, with no penny to buy one, alas ! 

But I've drank my last glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass ! 

" For Susie, my darling, my wee six-year-old, 
Though fainting with hunger, and shivering with cold. 
There on the bare floor, asked God to bless me ; 
And she said, "Don't cry, mamma ! He will! for you see, 
I believe what I ask for !" Then, sobered, I crept 
Away from the house, and that night when I slept, 
Next my heart lay the pledge ! — You smile ! Let it pass. 
But I've drank my l;st glass, boys, 
I have drank my last glass ! 

" My darling child saved me ! Her faith and her love 
Are akin to my dear, sainted mother's above! 
I will make her words true, or I'll die in the race, 
And sober I'll go to my last resting place ; 
And she shall kneel there, and weeping, thank God 
No drunkard lies under that daisy-strewn sod. 
Not a drop more of poison my lips shall ever pass. 

For I've drank myl'St glass, boys, 

I have drank my last glass.'' 

Every eye of the habitues of the saloon, as 
well as of the Crusaders, was bathed in tears. Her 
husband, a man not gi\en to expression of emo- 
tion, stood leaning against the door sobbing 
aloud. As she closed she dropped on her knees 
and poured out her soul in a flood of eloquent 
appeal to the Throne of grace — the first time 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 313 

she had ever heard her own voice in audible 
prayer. 

That night she dreamed some one gave her a 
white hyacinth, and that she sent it down to the 
saloon-keeper. At the family breakfast-table 
the next morning, she caused quite a little 
amusement by telling her dream. 

But returning to her room, what was her sdr- 
prise at seeing her white hyacinth setting on the 
dressing-case! A lady had sent it in to her 
daughter in acknowledgment of some kindness 
rendered. "Oh, Pearlie !" she exclaimed, 
"there's my white hyacinth. May I send it 
down?" "Yes, mamma," said the little girl. 
*'So I sent it," said my friend, "with the request 
that the saloon-keeper would care for the little 
plant while it remained in bloom. I thought it 
would be one object of brightness to cheer the 
women as they made their daily visits to that 
terrible place. It was not long till a young man 
— as was his custom — came in for his morning 
glass. But as he opened the door a new and 
strange odor for that place came floating to him, 
mingled with that of the liquors. It arrested his 
attention, and for a moment stayed his eager 
footsteps. It was to that young man as if the 
gates of memory had swung backward and 
revealed a glimpse of home and mother in an 
atmosphere laden with the perfume of sweet 
flowers and song of birds. He stood for a 
moment transfixed, then espying the little vase 
on the counter, he walked quietly forward, and 



314 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

stooping almost reverently over it, he smelt the 
perfume and fondled the petals, then turned and 
walked out. He told the incident to a comrade, 
adding: " It carried me back to the dying bed 
of my mother. My mother was passionately 
fond of flowers, the hyacinth especially ; she 
cultivated them, — had them in her room. As 
she lay dying she held a spray of white hyacinth 
in her hand, and when I looked for the last time 
upon her pale, sweet face, as she lay in her 
casket ready to be carried from my sight forever, 
she still held a spray of white hyacinth in her 
hand. I could no more have drank a glass of 
liquor there than in the presence of my dead 
mother." 




CHAPTER XVI. 




Pittsburgh — A Thousand Women on the Street. 



'UR State Constitutional Convention was 
in session in Cincinnati during the winter 
of our Crusade, framing a new Constitu- 
tion, to be submitted to the people for their 
acceptance or rejection. And among the various 
subjects considered by the framers, came the 
ever-disturbing liquor problem, and it was dis- 
covered that the liquor men were bringing all 
their money and political influence to bear upon 
the delegates to get a license clause inserted in 
the instrument. The Crusaders took the alarm 
and a call went out from Akron for a Mass-Con- 
vention of the temperance men and women of 
the State. 

This call was sent out on the I2th of April, 
and on the 22d there assembled in Cincinnati a 
delegation of the best class of the citizens of the 
State. The meeting had been announced for 
the Ninth Street Baptist Church, but it proved 
inadequate to accommodate the throng that 
gathered, and they adjourned to Wesley Chapel, 
the largest church in the city. One hundred 

315 



3l6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and forty-one Leagues and seventy-three counties 
were represented. 

My work being in the field, and the calls still 
pouring in, I did not expect to attend, — I have, 
indeed, always felt more in my legitimate work 
when out organizing and rallying the army than 
in the council chamber. 

The Crusaders in Bucyrus were having a 
peculiarly hard time with the liquor men and 
their allies, which were not only the low drunk- 
ards, but the city Mayor and his officials also. 
So they wrote me to come to them for the even- 
ing of the 2 1st, but my friends at home insisted 
that I must go with them to Cincinnati. I tele- 
graphed I could not go at that time. Rev. 
Baltzly telegraphed back : "It will be very 
disastrous to us if you do not come now." It 
was now twelve o'clock, and the train left at one. 
I ran to Rev. Mr. Hamma for advice. He said 
"go," and rising from the dinner-table, bade me 
sit down and eat my dinner, while he ran to the 
telegraph office to notify them that I was com- 
ing, and to the livery-stable to order a hack. 
By the time I had eaten a hasty dinner he had 
the hack in waiting; I sprang in and was driven 
a half mile to my home, made my toilet and 
away to the depot, another half mile, in time for 
my train. The sisters still insisted that I must 
return in time to accompany them to Cincinnati 
next morning. 

On the Sandusky train, — but how to reach 
Bucyrus, which was on the Ft. Wayne road, — 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 317 

or how to get out again, I did not know. The 
conductor, however, very kindly assisted me in 
making out my route. I reached Bucyrus at 
seven o'clock and a large committee was waiting 
to receive me. I told them I must leave at nine 
o'clock by private conveyance in order to catch 
the down train from Cleveland, which passed 
Gallon at eleven. 

Brother Baltzly said if that was the case he 
would have a carriage in waiting. I swallowed 
a little supper, went to the church and delivered 
what words of encouragement I could. At nine 
o'clock Brother Baltzly notified me that my time 
was up and carriage at the door. I left that 
faithful and devoted couple of temperance evan- 
gelists, David and Hannah Tatum, to close the 
meeting, and set off across the country eleven 
miles for Gallon, and beat the train in by twenty 
minutes. When it came I boarded it and arrived 
in Springfield about three o'clock, drove home, 
caught a little sleep, and was up and at the 
depot by seven, ready to join my friends for 
Cincinnati, which we reached about ten. 

I never looked upon a more intelligent and at 
the same time enthusiastic and determined, 
thoughtful body of men and women. 

The chronicler says : * ' The church was capable 
of holding tv/o thousand persons, and through- 
out the sessions it would be crowded, part of the 
time almost to suffocation." 

The first subject of consideration, and that for 
which the Convention was called, was the license 



3l8 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

question pending in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. The sentiment was strong and unanimous 
against licensing the traffic in any shape or form. 
A committee was appointed to draft a memorial 
to the Convention, and after a brief consultation 
a paper was brought in, and with slight modifi- 
cation was adopted, and a large committee of 
ladies was appointed to convey the memorial to 
the Convention. 

Another subject was in reference to appealing 
to Congress to abolish the revenue on all intoxi- 
cants as a beverage, the object being the out- 
lawry of the traffic by the withdrawal of its 
recognition by Congress as a legitimate business 
and as a means of raising a revenue, and also 
of the laws providing for its protection in com- 
mon with other useful industries. But this was 
abandoned, and instead it was decided to ask 
Congress to prohibit the importation of intoxi- 
cating liquors. It was undoubtedly the timely 
assembly and appeal of this representative body 
of the Christian people that decided the delegates 
to submit a separate clause to be voted upon at 
the same time with the Constitution. 

I did not remain to tlie close of this remark- 
able Convention, having an engagement for 
Pittsburgh on the evening of Thursday, the 23d. 
I reached home a Httle after nine o'clock, having 
traveled o\er three hundred miles, spoken at 
least an hour at Bucyrus, and put in a good part 
of a day at the Convention since one o'clock the 
day before. I am forgetting to say that I had 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 319 

company all this time — Mrs. Dr, Holmes, a 
dearly loved niece, who had not visited me 
before for years. But being a lady of both piety 
and good, practical sense, she heartily acquiesced 
in the necessity that compelled my absence. I 
got a pretty good night's rest and next morning 
was up and off to Pittsburgh. 

No doubt the question has occurred to the 
reader more than once, how it was that I could 
leave my home in this fashion at a moment's 
notice and be absent indefinitely. Not an un- 
natural question to be asked of a woman, and I 
do not know but this is as opportune a time and 
place as I can find to enlighten the minds of my 
good-natured readers. I shall, indeed, take 
great pleasure while whirling along over the 
country towards Pittsburgh, in telling what to 
me has always been one of the most remarkable 
incidents of my eventful life. I have already 
mentioned that for years I was an invalid, with 
expectation of living but a sho^t time. 

It was during this time that my foster brother 
and kinsman, Mr. Campbell, not knowing how 
very ill I was, became impressed that I needed 
some one that would be more to me, and could 
do more for me, than any hired help I might 
get. So, in conference with his estimable wife 
and one of his daughters, it was decided that he 
should bring the daughter to me. He brought 
her to me and from that day to this she has been 
to me in the richest and dearest sense a daugh- 
ter. The world will never know her worth, her 



320 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

devotion and sacrifice for me, for she will not 
permit my telling it, and shrinks from anything 
like calling attention to herself She will be 
really distressed, no doubt, when she discovers 
that I have said even this. A Providence child 
she has been, and my right hand in all these 
years, so that going or coming I have no solici- 
tude as to my home. If I and my husband are 
at home, we are cared for with the gentle 
thoughtfulness that would be given to her own 
parents. 

If I am gone, I know Mr. Stewart is cared for 
as if I were at home. If we are both absent, I 
am sure my home interests are as safe as if we 
were there. She acts as my secretary in my 
absence, and always manifests the deepest 
sympathy with me and my work, and the liveliest 
interest in the temperance cause. Thus have I 
been by a gracious Providence enabled to give 
my undivided attention to my work, as I never 
could have done without her invaluable love and 
sympathy. 

I arrived in Pittsburgh Thursday evening, and 
found a warm welcome and precious home with 
Mrs. S. B. Robison, the claim upon which I 
have not yet relinquished. Friday morning I 
met the ladies at headquarters, in the afternoon 
a prayer-meeting, at night a very large meeting 
in Dr. Noble's church. 

I was booked for Fairmont, \V. Va. , — up 
among the mountains on the B. & O. road — for 
Saturday, and had to leave early Saturday morn- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 321 

ing. But the Pittsburgh ladies insisted that one 
day's help would not serve their purpose ; the 
work was languishing, and the liquor men were 
influencing the press to say the Crusade was a 
failure and that the work was dying out in Pitts- 
burgh. They said if I could not remain, then I 
must return to them. I told them to announce 
a County Convention for the next Wednesday, 
work the matter up well, see that all the bands 
of both cities, as well as those of other parts of 
the county, were on hand in full force, and I 
would be back on Tuesday evening. I proposed 
to play a game with those brave saloon-keepers, 
and felt pretty confident I would win. 

Saturday morning, off for Fairmont, down 
through Wheeling, and out among the moun- 
tains. (This day I was fifty- eight years old.) I 
reached Fairmont after night, — a dismal, rainy 
time. I was glad to rest till Sabbath evening, 
when I addressed a large union meeting in the 
M. P. Church. The next morning I met and 
organized the ladies and led them out to visit 
the saloons. Walking by my side was that 
eminent Christian lady, ex-Governor Pierpont's 
wife. When invited to join us, "Yes," she 
said, "if my influence will be of any use I will 
give it cheerfully." The first man we visited, 
after we had finished our devotions in front of 
his place appeared at an upper door, and seem- 
ing to have something important on his mind, 
began, "Now, ladies," but as it was notour 
mission to "argufy" we quietly passed on, not 

(21) 



322 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

a little to his disgust. The last man we visited 
kept a tavern near the depot, and sold liquors or 
had a saloon in connection. The sisters were 
very anxious that I should talk to him. He was 
out, 1 remember, doing something to his fence. 
I approached him and tried as well as I could to 
talk to him, but while I cannot remember a 
word I or he said, I have still the impression 
that my words were pitifully weak and lacking 
in force, and that he seemed wholly untouched 
and indifferent. Oh, how weak and inefficient 
did I feel at such times ! What miserable failures 
my appeals seemed to be ; and for the matter of 
that, what miserable failures ha\'e all my efforts 
seemed, whether in private appeal or on the 
platform, or in the pulpit! Oh, how have I 
ransacked my brain for more earnest, more 
effective words to convey the thought that was 
burning within ! and }et is any word in the 
English language adequate to paint the liquor 
business, the crime and horror of this Christian 
land? 

Years rolled away, and one Sabbath morning 
found me at my church in Springfield, when a 
fricml brought a stranger to me. saj'ing the 
"gentleman wished an introduction to Mother 
Stewart." Upon being presented, he asked me 
if 1 did not remember him? As I could not 
recall liim, he told me he was the man I had 
talked to by his fence at Fairmont in West Vir- 
ginia ; recalled the conversatii>n, that it seemed 
he had not forgotten, ;uul s.iitl he had long since 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 323 

given up liquor selling. He had moved west, 
had sought and found Jesus, and was now a 
saved and happy man. 

At night we had another large meeting in the 
M. E. Church, and on the morrow I set out 
again for Pittsburgh, which I reached about 
seven o'clock. Before I could take my supper 
a carriage with a delegation of ladies was in 
waiting from Lawrenceville, a suburb some four 
miles distant, to take me to address a mass-meet- 
ing for them. It was somewhat late, but the 
crowd was waiting patiently, and some gentlemen 
occupying the time. The enthusiasm here was 
so great that for once I was alarmed lest I should 
be picked up and carried to the platform. After 
the meeting I returned to the city. 

On Wednesday morning we assembled in Dr. 
Howard's church. I conducted the meeting, 
calling out gentlemen and ladies, till towards 
noon word came to the stand that the business 
men had come in, on their way to dinner, to hear 
the Ohio Crusader, and their wish must be grati- 
fied. We adjourned to meet at the same place 
at two o'clock, announcing that we would then 
form our procession and march across the bridge 
to the " Diamond, " in Allegheny City, and there 
hold our meeting. 

At the hour appointed we came together and 
formed our line, starting with about 500 ladies, 
marching through some of the principal streets, 
adding bands and companies as we went. Cross- 
ing the bridge, all the Allegheny bands met us 



324 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and fell into line. The streets were thronged 
with a great mass of men, women and children. 
When we reached the "Diamond" I asked 
some of the gentlemen how many ladies were in 
the procession. They said " it would be safe to 
say a thousand." I took my pencil and paper 
and wrote to the Associated Press, " A thousand 
women on the streets in Pittsburgh ; great 
enthusiasm, but entire order." 

I won the game, didn't I ? Yes, and if the 
politicians had kept their hands off we would 
have won the final victory long ago. But ' ' our 
party" was of more consequence than the souls 
of men, and the battle is still on. 

The "Diamond" seemed to be a mass of 
humanity, and belonging to Zacheus' family, the 
people were unable to see me. Some of the ladies 
said, "These people must see you, Mother 
Stewart, if we have to hold you on our shoul- 
ders. " So, upon consultation with the gentle- 
men, boxes were brought and a stand improvised. 
The day, however, was so windy, that the crowd 
could not hear, and finally a motion was made 
to adjourn to. Dr. McMillan's church, a large 
edifice near. The people did not wait to hear 
the motion carried, nor upon the order of their 
going. There we finished up, and from there 
Dr. Davidson took me down to his church at 
the " Point," and with onl\' time for a hasty tea I 
addressed another audience, returning to Mrs. 
Robinson's after the meeting. I fancy this will pass 
for one day's work. Oh, it seems to me that to-day, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 325 

nearly fourteen years after, if the fire, zeal and 
enthusiasm were burning in the hearts of the 
people as on that day, even with the added years 
and broken health, I could do it again. Never 
again sliall I see those days return. 

On Thursday I met the ladies in morning 
meeting, then visited the city jail and talked to 
the prisoners. In the afternoon I met the ladies 
again, and at the twilight hour addressed an out- 
door meeting. At night we had what had been 
announced as a business men's meeting. The 
ladies desired me to make a call for a guarantee 
fund to aid them in prosecuting their work, and 
I made the attempt. A few responses came 
quite promptly, but they began to com£ at 
greater intervals. At length a gentleman came 
to me and said private!}-, " Mother Stewart, the 
business men sent me to say to you that a fund 
cannot be raised that way in Pittsburgh. The 
only way it can be raised will be for the ladies 
to get blanks printed and call on the men at their 
places of business and take their names, with 
the amount, privatel)'. Pittsburgh is built on 
IV hi sky P' 

Alas ! and alas ! their words proved truer than 
they at that time realized. I was passing through 
the city on the 4th of July, four years later, and 
having to wait sometime, my attention was called 
to the elegance and completeness of that great 
structure, the Union Depot. I also visited some 
of the offices, all seeming to be perfect in all 
their appointments. A few days later, as I stood 



326 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

in Cooper In-stitute, New York, addressing a 
meeting, I had occasion to mention Pittsburgh. 
When I took my seat, a gentleman came to me 
and said, "Mother Stewart, do you know that 
Pittsburgh is in flames?" No, is it possible? 
"Yes." So I found on my return — when it 
became possible and safe, after the railroad 
strike of '"j^, to attempt to return to my home. 
Again I had to make a halt in Pittsburgh, and 
where I had seen and admired that magnificent 
building, now lay a heap of black ruins, and 
along the various tracks running away out of the 
city were the irons only of hundreds of cars, 
and in many places the charred remains of their 
freight, with great piles of grain yet smoulder- 
ing. I asked a gentleman, "Did liquor have 
anything to do with this?" "Oh, yes," he 
responded. " On that next morning you could 
have seen a thousand drunken men lying about 
on those hills ! " I asked another : ' ' Yes, "said 
he ; "if the Mayor had not ordered the saloons 
closed when he did, in all probability the whole 
city would have been laid in ashes." Ah, yes, 
I thought, Pittsburgh is indeed built on whisk}-, 
and I fancy those good gentlemen, if they could 
have foreseen and averted that calamity and 
disgrace to their city, would gladly have given 
half a million of money to the temperance cause. 
Am! who knows, peradventure, if they had in- 
vested such a sum for the furtherance of the 
cause and the enforcement of the laws, that 
great destruction might have been averted? 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 32/ 

At the close of our meeting a number of ladies 
and gentlemen accompanied me to the depot, 
and at one o'clock I took the train for home. 
Dear old Pittsburgh, a host of friends I claim 
there. How warm has always been the greeting 
they have given me. 

The liquor dealers and manufacturers were 
seriously feeling the effect of our work. They 
had endured for a time, supposing the excite- 
ment could not last, but when it went into weeks, 
then months, and their customers by the 
thousands signed the pledge, and their sales fell 
off till their business seemed on the verge of 
ruin, they saw that something more than worrying 
and annoying the Crusaders must be done. Says 
one of the dailies about this time: 

The day when the liquor dealers laughed at the 
women's movement has passed. Whatever the secret 
of its success and however ridiculous it at first ap- 
peared, it now seems very formidable to all who 
depend for income upon the manufacture or sale of 
whisky or beer. Not that they anticipate the con- 
version of the whole people to total abstinence 
principles, or breaking up of the liquor business, or 
any permanent disastrous effects upon them or their 
calling ; but already they have been very much 
embarrassed. Hundreds of liquor stores have been 
temporarily and permanently closed; a large number 
of persons have gone out of the business. The de- 
mand for both spirituous and malt liquors has won- 
derfully fallen off. One place in Southern Ohio, 
which formerly took one hundred barrels of beer a 
day from Cincinnati, now takes none. There is a 
great change in public sentiment, as shown in the fact 
that in many communities liquor selling and liquor 
drinking are now considered alike disreputable. 
Many towns have passed and are enforcing prohibi- 
tory laws as strict as the State statute allows. These 



328 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

things are calculated to breed alarm ; they do, and 
the result is seen in a depression of prices and a 
panic among the liquor dealers in almost every town 
as soon as the women take up the line of march. 

But these worthy gentlemen had a reserve 
force to fall back upon in their extremity that 
had not hitherto failed them — the potent, pliant 
politician. And now they turned their attention 
to the State Legislature. 

Early in April a bill was introduced into the 
Ohio General Assembly to so amend the munici- 
pal code as to take away from town or city corpora- 
tions the right to prohibit the sale of ale or beer, 
and the keeping open of tippling houses within 
their limits. This was known as the Pearson bill, 
and was intended to annul the ordinances that 
were so effectually breaking up their business in 
the smaller towns all o\'er the State. Both the 
liquor men and the friends of temperance were 
watching the movements of the Legislature with 
closest attention, and as soon as it was known 
that this bill was pending the}' rallied their 
forces. The liquor men sent in their trusty 
representatives, armed with rolls of greenbacks 
and political clubs. The Crusaders sent up their 
praying women, with the new instruction to 
"watch" — the)' were coming to see that it 
would be necessary to "watch" — and pray. 
When the word went out that the bill was before 
the House, the Columbus ladies had the bells 
rung and in an hour the hall was filled with 
women who "watched the words and votes of 
every member with exasperating closeness," 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 329 

as said a looker-on. It was due to the vigilance 
of these women that the bill did not pass. On 
the last night of the session of the House, Satur- 
day, April 18th, three hundred ladies " sat up 
with the mennbers " till midnight, and so defeated 
any adverse legislation for that term, — and I 
suspect those solons adjourned in a soberer 
mood than if the ladies had not been present. I 
cannot help wondering how it would have been 
if a goodly number of those ladies had been 
there throughout the session, by right of equal 
citizenship, or how it would now be if they had 
been there in the years that have followed. 

My publisher has just related to me a scene 
that he v/itnessed during the session of the Legis- 
lature, that is of so much interest that I feel 
impelled to add it here. He says, " I looked out 
of my window here and saw a band of Cru- 
saders marching up the street ; reaching the 
corner, they turned into High street, crossed 
over, and entering the gate of the Capitol 
grounds they proceeded up to the Capitol, — 
I, with many others, following. They marched 
in and formed a circle under the dome, and there 
sang their sweet, plaintive songs and offered up 
their humble petitions to God that the law-makers 
of our State might be so endued with wisdom 
and courage that they would be able to withstand 
the potent influences that were being brought to 
bear by the liquor-dealers, and to enact such 
righteous laws as would relieve our beloved State 
from the curse of liquor. Many of the mem- 



330 MEMOKIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

bers stood by with uncovered heads and in awe- 
struck silence, while the eyes of not a few were 
dimmed with tears. As that venerable and saint- 
ly woman, Sister was offering up the final 

prayer in such eloquent strains as I had seldom 
listened to before, the last rays of the setting 
sun streamed out and poured a flood of light 
through the Avestern corridor upon that strange, 
solemn scene. It fell upon the face of the sup- 
pliant and illuminated it as with a halo from the 
upper skies. It caught a solitary tear lying upon 
her pale cheek and changed it into a glowing 
diamond." "Oh," said he, while his placid 
Quaker blood seemed to leap through his veins 
with an unwonted impetuosity, " if a Raphael 
could have caught that scene, what a picture it 
would have been to give to succeeding genera- 
tions of one of the most impressive scenes of the 
Crusade ! " 

And so the liquor fraternity were foiled for the 
time, the old topers whose supplies had been cut 
off were suffering the horrors of unassuaged 
thirst ; what next could be done ? Various 
ingenious devices were resorted to, most general- 
ly with disastrous and ignominious results. 

At one place a closed-out dealer ordered up a 
little stock by express from Cincinnati on the 
si)', but by some mysterious telegraphy the 
news reached the Crusatlcrs, and they were on 
hand at the depot to enter their protest against 
its delivery. It was sent forward to the next 
town, but by the time it arrived the ladies were 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 33 1 

waiting for it, and as there seemed to be no 
possibility of eluding the women it was shipped 
back to Cincinnati. At another place, a man 
who had surrendered, apparently in good faith, 
aroused the suspicions of the Crusaders by cer- 
tain movements, and they decided it would be 
well to keep an eye on him. His place adjoined 
a dwelling with an upper porch ; here they 
stationed a couple of ladies to do picket duty. 
Provided with a dark lantern they awaited 
developments. About eleven o'clock a wagon 
drove up very quietly in front of the place, and 
as quietly — speaking only in whispers — some 
persons proceeded to unload a barrel, which they 
were about to convey to the cellar, when a 
brilliant light flashed upon the scene. There 
was a sudden and embarrassing pause, then the 
barrel was reloaded and driven briskly away. 
Some obliging hucksters attempted, and success- 
fully for a time — till some one discovered their 
game — to smuggle a few jugs out of Cincinnati 
under their goods and wares, to deliver to 
their thirsty customers. Another device was 
by a pedestrian — emulating a German saloonistin 
his palmiest days in expanse and rotund pro- 
portions — taking excursions through the country. 
There seemed to be not a little mystery about 
his coming and going, and it was noticeable that he 
was always warmly welcomed by the forlorn old 
topers. Upon investigating, it was found that 
he had got a tinner to fit around him a tin vessel 
which held a few quarts of whisky, supplied with 



332 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

a faucet, and with a cup in his pocket he was 
prepared, for a consideration, to wet the parched 
Hps of Dives, or whoever was able to patronize 
the unique walking demijohn. ' ' Prohibition does 
not prohibit." I remember having heard a 
temperance lecturer of the anti-prohibition kind 
declare that " prohibition in Maine was a failure, 
because to his certain knowledge liquor ivas 
brought into the State in egg-sJielhy 

Mary Hadley tells this story of crusading an 
ale wagon: "The women of Wilmington had 
pretty effectually closed the liquor out and 
brought the business into such bad repute that 
those who were still attempting to sell had not 
the hardihood to replenish their stock in open 
daylight, or in sight of the Crusaders. They 
knew they were on the watch for any consign- 
ment per railroad. The supply was running 
low, when a wagon drove into town with a load 
of ale and attempted to deliver to the needy 
dealers. But Friend Hadley saw it, and at once 
hastened to put herself between the wagon and 
tjie saloon, and began praying with all her might 
to tiie Lord to send some of the sisters to her 
help. It was not long till a reinforcement came. 
The driver was in a great dilemma ; he attempted 
to move on to another saloon, but the ladies 
also moved on ; another, and tlic ladies kept b}- 
his side ; yet another, and the)- also mo\-ed on. 
He concluded to give it up and leave, when a 
not very bright lad sprang forward and caught 
the horses by the bridle and hold them. By 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 333 

this time the news of the situation had reached 
the church, where a meeting was in progress, 
and the Crusaders came in a body to the scene 
of action, and surrounding the driver and his 
wagon in the street, there sang and prayed with 
him until he seemed at his wit's end. Sister 
Worthington, the President, had hastily pre- 
pared a pledge for him to sign that he would 
never enter the town again on such busi- 
ness, when the marshal appeared and ordered 
the boy to let go of the horses. The man 
whipped up his team and fled, not stopping till 
he put a good many miles between him and the 
Crusaders. 

The boy being a little below ordinary intelli- 
gence, the obstruction on his part was not 
actionable. Though not very bright, his sym- 
pathies were with the women, as was always the 
case with such, as well as the boys of the street 
everywhere." 




CHAPTER XVII. 



Outrage Upon the Crusaders — White ley's Speech. 



'ROM the reports that are coming in from 
^1 the hundreds of battle-fields, all of which 
would be intensely interesting if our 
limits would permit, I find it not a little difficult to 
select so as to give a clear statement of the prog- 
ress of the movement. At hand, however, is 
a stereoscopic view of a street scene in Mount 
Vernon, which also recalls the report given ot 
the work in this very pretty county seat of Knox 
county, by Mr. Handy, of the New York Tn'bune. 
The view represents a picket-house or shanty 
standing against the wall of a building and in 
close proximity to the inevitable saloon door. 
Two good-looking ladies are sitting inside and 
three others are standing near ; the ubiquitous 
boy in the foreground, with some men in the 
rear. In this town the Crusaders closed twenty- 
three saloons in twelve days. Mr. Handy says: 

This thrifty town may well claim the championship 
for a remarkably successful fight with the liijuor 
dealers. When I visited it less than two weeks ago, 
I found twenty-eight i)laces where liquor Avas sold. 
The most jjrcimincnt and influential business men in 
the place advised the women not to begin the move- 
ment, believing tliat failure was certain and that 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 335 

failure in Mount Vernon would greatly retard the 
progress of the movement in Northern Ohio, where 
it was just being introduced. Dio Lewis came, 
however, and in two days persuaded the women to 
make the trial. 

The women went on the streets, while the men 
showed their sincerity by closing their places of 
business and repairing to the churches for prayer. 
The enemy took fright at once. The saloons con- 
sidered most formidable gave way first, others 
followed in rapid succession, and to-day I find that 
of the twenty-eight liquor stores here twelve days 
ago, only five have not surrendered. 

With some curiosity as to what the late liquor- 
sellers thought of the movement and its effect, I went 
to a bilMard-room which, when I was here before, 
was the most popular drinking place in town, being 
crowded every night with young men who rank high 
in Mount Vernon society. The proprietor, an Irish- 
man with the physique of a trained prize-fighter, had 
told me that " the thing would not work in Mount 
Vernon, and that they (meaning the ladies) had 
better not try it on." I now found him in a much 
more tranquil frame of mind, as he stood dispensing 
lemonade and soda to old topers, who have now to 
be content with such mild substitutes for the old- 
fashioned toddies and punches. ' ' How do you feel 
after your surrender?" I asked. "Never better — 
never so well in my life," was the prompt reply. "I 
don't know anything about getting religion, but a 
fellow who has just been converted must feel some- 
thing like I have felt for the last week. I actually 
enjoy going to church. Somehow or other every- 
thing looks bright. The best day's work I ever did 
was hanging out the white flag on my saloon." 
*' But you will go into the old business again when 
this excitement dies out ?" " Not if I know myself. 
I wouldn't be able to hold my head up if I did ; I 
couldn't look a lady straight in the face ! No, sir, 
I don't know what has come over me, but whisky 
selling don't appear to me now as it used to. Besides, 
everybody seems to look upon me so differently now. 
The very men that used to drink at my bar think 
more of me, and as to the ladies — why, sir, some of 



336 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 

the best ladies in this town have been in my dining- 
room with their husbands to dinner since I closed 
out." " Has your business suffered by your stopping 
the sale of liquor ?" " Not a bit of it, so far." 

This man, when making his change and clear- 
ing up for a refreshment house, placed on the 
wall ill conspicuous letters, " God bless the 
\yomen." 

At the hotel I found the landlord actually bragging 
that he had been the first man to surrender, while 
his wife was putting on her bonnet and shawl to 
attend the daily prayer-meeting. A commercial 
traveler was about leaving the hotel with a bundle of 
samples under his arm, when the landlord exclaimed: 
"You need not go out at this time of day, sir; you 
won't find a res;'ectable store in town open now !" 
"Why ?' asked the astonished drummer. " Because 
it's prayer-meeting hour,"' was the reply. '"Every 
day, between nine and ten o'clock, everybody goes to 
the prayer-meeting."' Surprised, myself, I went out 
on the street and found tnat the stores and shops 
were indeed closed at this hour, when merchants, 
mechanics, and housekeepers in country towns gen- 
erally are busiest. I went to the Episcopal church. 
Few places of amusement are ever more crowded. 
Every seat was filled, and men and women stood in 
the aisles and thronged the vestibule. The inclosure 
wiiliin the altar-rail was occupied by clergymen, 
every denomination appearing to be represented. 
The meeting, to use a homely Western expression, 
run itself. Nobody presided. The meeting j^ro- 
gressed with the greatest religious fervor till a young 
man suddenly made his appearance and crowded his 
w.iy to thepulpit, where, facing the audience, with an 
excited gesture he called their attention. '-L.ndies,'' 
he said, " I have come to tell you that I can't hold 
out any longer; I, too, give in. I shall not sell any 
more liquor, and 1 waul to sign the pledge." 

The scene may possibly be imagined, but 

hardly described. It w;is but a few moments till 

the sexton was in the steeple, and with swing and 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 337 

clang and reverberation the bell was proclaiming 
"another surrender!" and the other bells in joy- 
ful chimes pealed back ' ' we are so glad ! we are 
so glad! thank God! thank God!" thus giving 
expression to thousands of hearts. It looked as 
if the victory would soon be won. Ah, me ! 
Troy, our very pleasant neighbor in Miami 
county, twenty miles west of Springfield, opened 
up the Crusade with great earnestness, led by 
Mrs. Dr. Meeks, Mrs. Riley, the venerable 
mother of Mrs. Monroe, our present State Pres- 
ident, Mrs. Lewis, and a goodly number of 
other ladies equally as devoted and determined. 
Being also supported by all the best men in the 
place, they did a blessed work in closing saloons, 
obtaining signers to the pledge, visiting the 
prisoners in the jail, and holding prayer-meet- 
ings every morning. These morning meetings 
they kept up some years after the Crusade had 
passed away. Among the saloon-keepers here 
was a German, who, because of his imperfect 
knowledge of English, got a very confused idea 
of the whole matter. For the better under- 
standing of the case it is necessary to explain 
that in the band that daily made the round of 
the saloons, was dear Sister P- — -, who, by an 
injury, had been affected so that her head nodded 
incessantly. Being locked out here, they stood 
in line on the pavement in front of his saloon. 

The old beer dispenser, supposing Sister P 's 

affliction to be a part of the whole, told his 
worriment after this fashion : 

(22) 



338 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

' ' Dem Crusader vimmens, dey comes here und 
dey sings Rockenages shplit for me, und dot old 
voman she shist shtand dere und keeps a nodden 
her head und a nodden her head, und I can't 
rest, 'cause I hear dem vimmens a singin' Rock- 
enages shpHt for me, und I see dot old voman a 
nodden her head und a nodden her head. I 
goes to bed, but I can't schlafe, for all de time 
I hears dem Crusaders a singin' und I see dot 
old voman a nodden her head, und I tells my 
frow to hght de gas, but it do no good, I shist 
hear dem vimmens a singin' Rockenages shplit 
for me, und I sees dot old voman a nodden her 
head, und a nodden her head, und I sells out 
und goes away," which was just what the good 
women wanted. 

I was standing in the church one night in 
Eaton, Preble county, addressing everybody — 
for everybody attended temperance meetings in 
those days — when a telegram was handed me, 
saying: " Richmond has closed its last saloon," 
and of course " everybody" sprang to their feet 
and sang our grand, old doxology. Richmond, 
a neighbor, a few miles distant, and across the 
line in Indiana, had early taken up the Crusade, 
and through the leadership of Sisters Dennis and 
Martha Valentine, and a strong force of helpers, 
had done a good work, the faithful women not 
being exempt from the severe trials that tested 
the faith and courage of the Crusaders nearly 
everywhere. l^ut I think the telegram was 
premature, aiul indceii I believe they did not 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 339 

finally succeed in closing all the places, though 
they made the most of the " Baxter law " while 
it lasted; — a very effective species of license law 
which was passed a little later. But even this. 
Indiana was not permitted to enjoy the benefit 
of very long. It was too damaging to the trade, 
and it endangered the politicians' heads, too. So 
by the "judicious" (?) use of a few thousand 
dollars — I have heard it said it took forty thou- 
sand dollars — the honorable Indiana law-makers 
were made to see their way clear to its repeal. 

Here at Eaton I found the Crusaders hard at 
work, but of the sisters I now only recall Mrs. 
Rev. Cassett, of the M. E. Church, and Mrs. 
Judge Chambers. They were working with 
great enthusiasm ; had closed several saloons, 
and were full of anticipation of complete victory. 

I never heard such prayers as those of Sister 
Cassett's. She seemed to reverently enter into 
the presence of the King, and as a little child, 
in faith and confidence, made her plea. But I 
found the brethren so absorbed and carried away 
with the thought that God had given this great 
national crime into the hands of the women to 
dispose of, that, though the spring election was 
just upon them, they had not thought of making 
any preparation to meet the issue at the ballot- 
box. I did my best to make them see their 
duty, and trust I succeeded, at least in part. 

It is a singular fact that to one of the Greek 
letter fraternities of the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, in Delaware, belongs the credit of calling 



340 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Die Lewis to Delaware, and consequently the 
inauguration of the Crusade in that pleasant 
college town. 

The Doctor had been invited to deliver a 
literary lecture, but being so full of enthusiasm 
over the success of his great temperance hobby, 
and finding no temperance organization in the 
town — except, indeed, a small one of Prohibi- 
tionists that the dear, good man did not take 
kindly to, however — he put the question to the 
audience whether he should proceed with his 
literary lecture, as per engagement, or present 
the temperance question. The audience voted 
for temperance, and the meeting was organized 
by electing Dr. Lewis chairman. Dr. Merrick, 
M. D. Coville and Cyrus Pratt were named as 
an Advisory Committee. 

Dr. Lewis, in a short address, presented his 
plan of work, and was followed by a number of 
the professors, ministers, and prominent business 
men, indorsing the movement and pledging 
support to the ladies, who unanimously pledged 
themselves to enter upon the work at once, and 
the next day more than a hundred Crusaders 
were visiting the saloons. This being the home 
of the first State President, Mrs. M. C. McCabe, 
who was supported by Mrs. Thomas Evans, Jr., 
Mrs. Clawson, Mrs. Lindsey, and a host of 
others of like piety and refinement, of course 
much effective work was done, and much good 
accomplished for the college as the result of 
calling the great temperance apostle. Another 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 34 1 

grand help to the cause of temperance in Dela- 
ware, was the publishing there by Dr. Barnes 
and Thomas Evans, Jr , for several years, that 
best of temperance and Prohibition papers, the 
Delaware Signal. 

This list of noble temperance workers and 
advocates would not be complete if the name of 
Dr. F. Merrick, former President of the Uni- 
versity, were omitted. No man in the State has 
stood stronger, truer, all these years. Bringing 
his learning and piety, with voice and pen to 
encourage and advance every legitimate phase 
of the work for the exterminsftion of the liquor 
curse. 

Cedarville,in Greene county, had three saloons, 
but it also had some of the best women in the 
State, who organized on the 7th of February 
and went to work to win. It goes without say- 
ing, that they won. Mrs. Dr. Stewart, Mrs. 
Rev. Morton and Mrs. Harper were leading 
spirits here, v/ith enough of like faith and zeal 
to keep the Crusade fires burning on the altar 
through these subsequent years. Of the brethren 
who worked and prayed, and have up to to-day, 
I am glad to record Rev. Dr. Morton, Paul 
Tomlinson (and writing this name reminds me 
that I must add, and gave ), Dr. Stewart and 
Mr. Mitchell. 

In Ripley, on the Ohio river, the hosts of the 
Lord were marshaled and led by Gen. Granville 
Moody, the ** fighting parson," and his wife, 
" Betsy," with the same bravery and determina- 



342 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

tion that he exhibited when leading his " 74th " 
Ohio boys at Stone river and other fields of 
carnage. I remember crossing his path some- 
where during our campaign. He was so hoarse 
from incessant work that he could only speak in 
whispers, but full of enthusiasm. These two 
servants of the Most High have both laid down 
the weapons of earthly warfare, henceforth to 
wear the conqueror's crown forever more. All 
denominations united in most cordial fraternity, 
not excepting the Catholics. 

But I must confine myself to an extract from 
the Secretary's report of one day's work : 

Mr. Hauser, the German druggist, who at first 
declined to sign the pledge, sent for the ladies and 
gave his name most willingly. Mr. Scholter promised 
by his country, his God and his wife, never to sell 
another drop of intoxicating liquor, and we know he 
has kept it in the face of strong entreaty to the 
contrary. Mr. Reinert received the ladies the first 
day, but the second closed his door. Down on their 
knees the ladies fell upon the pavement, in snow and 
sleet, with a most pitiless wind blowing. Men stood 
with uncovered heads, and the crowd wept. A 
commander of our navy, who has faced death and 
danger, said he could not endure this sight, and 
tears coursed over his face. Close against the pane 
a mother bowed in prayer, and a moment later the 
door was opened and Mr. Reinert said: "Ladies, 
I will quit the business ; send a committee of your 
business men to me" They went, and he has 
arranged to dispose of his stock. 

In Dr. W. C. Steel's " Women's Temperance 
Movement," I find a letter describing the street 
work in Newark, from which I must copy a few 
extracts, not only to convey an idea of the im- 
pression made upon the minds of men who 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 343 

witnessed it, but also because of the remarkable 
prophecy it contains, which is even now being 
fulfilled. Says the writer : 

Never shall I forget the touching and imposing 
spectacle that burst upon my view as I beheld walk- 
ing, calmly and solemnly, over two hundred ladies, 
representing our best society, enshrined with silence 
and beautified by tears. The streets were crowded 
by thousands as they moved, and many a head was 
uncovered as the ladies passed as if they had a 
special power from God. * * ;!< Men stood 
there, not in ridicule, that probably had never heard 
a fervent prayer before, with uncovered heads and 
tearful eyes, as if impressed that the angels of heaven 
were hovering above them. * ^ Even a laugh at 
such a time seemed to jar discordantly on such 
enchanting silence, for they seemed in that touching 
immobility as if in communion with God. Laugh 
as I have, ye that read my letter, at its magic power ; 
but when one reflects that it is our mothers, our 
wives, our sisters, that are praying, weeping, beseech- 
ing and asking in the name of humanity, in the name 
of God, to overcome an evil that has ruined millions 
of the human race and filled our jails and prisons, 
unless one be destitute of feeling they cannot look 
upon such scenes unmoved. As the ladies passed a 
house, yesterday, the husband stormed and the wife 
laughed ; but no sooner had that multitude of solemn 
women commenced singing 

"Nearer my God to thee," 

than the husband burst into tears, and throwing his 
arms around his wife, he said : " My dear wife, I 
cannot resist that song. I am now convinced that it 
is the power of God that moves that column. Go 
and join them, and may God bless you." * ^l^ * 
The epoch that crowned this movement will never 
be forgotten. It is just in its infancy; it will not 
only sweep over the Republic, but knock at all the 
doors of Europe for admission, and women will at 
last, by this movement, have an epitaph written upon 
that which is less perishable than marble — upon the 
hearts of untold millions — by the touching pen of 
gratitude. 



344 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Urbana, our neighbor, fourteen miles north of 
us, a pretty, flourishing town of five or six 
thousand inhabitants, and enough praying 
women to make a strong Crusade force, early 
opened the work with the enthusiasm and zeal 
that conquers. 

Mrs, Sallie Hitt, a host in herself, was made 
leader, and with Mrs. Smith — who has passed 
over to her inheritance, — Mrs. Shiras, Mrs. 
Beal, and a host of such Christian matrons, v.-ith 
a goodly number of enthusiastic young ladies, a 
vigorous warfare was waged and a glorious 
victory gained. Sister Hitt holds among her 
chief treasures, sixteen licenses, "scalps," as 
she calls them, and with commendable pride 
exhibits them as taken from the enemy, that 
many having surrendered to her their authority, 
granted by the United States, to kill their fellow 
men. 

The sisters gave me this, from the many 
incidents that occurred in their work, as ever\ - 
where, which, if they could only be gath 
ered up, would make a book of themselves, and 
of deepest interest : "A young man of a town 
in Indiana had married and started in life, full of 
hope for bright years to come. But like so 
many another, he had for years indulged in the 
fatal glass, and even after marrying, though 
devotedl)- attached to his wife, it had not 
occurred to him that there was an\- danger ahead, 
or that for her sake it would be well to stop. It 
was not long, however, till he foinid himself in 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 345 

the embrace of the deadly serpent and power- 
less to extricate himself. In despair he bade his 
wife good-bye, saying, if he could not break the 
chain that bound him he should never return. 
He went out an aimless wanderer. Providence, 
however, had not forsaken him, and his steps 
were turned to Ohio ; but on, aimlessly he went, 
till one day he found himself in the vicinity of 
Urbana, at the parting of two ways. He sat 
down to rest and reflect. When he arose he 
pondered for a while, which of the two ways 
that lay before him he should take, but without 
any reason clear to himself, took the one leading 
into Urbana. The Crusade was in a blaze, the 
Crusaders were on the streets, meetings were 
being held morning and night. He made his 
way, with everybody else, to these meetings, and 
some of the sisters found him and induced him 
to sign the pledge. Then he told it all ; his 
ruin through the drink, his despair and his 
deserting his wife. Those ladies went to work, 
procured him employment, some better cloth- 
ing, and wrote to the wife, sending her money 
with which to come, rented a house, and it was 
not many days till those two, parted by the 
drink fiend, were re-united by the blessed 
Crusaders, and started once more with much 
better assurance of success in life, because the 
husband was now a sober man. 

ALL ABOUT THE LAGONDA HOUSE. 

A very perplexing case was early presented 
to the Crusaders of our city. It might, indeed, 
be called very complex. 



346 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Our new Lagonda House, at which we made 
our first call, was owned by a joint stock com- 
pany, composed of some of our most respected 
citizens, a goodly number of them church mem- 
bers. The inevitable saloon, with card and 
billiard attachment in the construction of the 
house, was of course known and assented to by 
the stock-holders. It was rented to a very fine 
gentleman, who sub-rented the basement to 
another very clever man, he to a third, and he 
to yet another the billiard department. This 
hotel was directly across the street from our 
headquarters, and we found our neighbor, the 
proprietor, a very affable and obliging gentle- 
man. He frequently called over at headquarters 
and offered any assistance from the hotel in his 
power, and very generously furnished a dinner 
for the ladies, of which we partook with thank- 
fulness, not forgetting the usual ceremony of a 
vote of thanks, nor to offer our prayers in his 
behalf, before we departed. But we could not 
shut our eyes to the fact that the saloon under 
the hotel was doing its deadly work, as the rest 
were. A committee was sent to some of the 
stock-holders, but they responded that they had, 
in renting the house, relinquished all control to 
the lessee. A committee called on that gentle- 
man, but he assured the ladies that he had no con- 
trol whatever over the basement ; it was leased to 
another gentleman, and it would be the proper 
thing to call on him. The)- called on him, but 
while he seemed quite disposed to oblige the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 347 

ladies, it was out of his power ; Mr. had 

taken the premises for a certain time, and he 
was powerless. He was bound by the terms of 
his lease, as the proprietor of the hotel was to 
the directors, to use said premises for such pur- 
poses and no other. The closing up would be 
a great loss to the share-holders, as well as 
lessees, etc. But if they would see the stock- 
holders and get them to release him- ■. It 

seemed a sort of apparatus very like the crooked 
hollow log in the fence, through which the 
historic pig made such fruitless attempts to reach 
the coveted corn on the other side of the fence. 
Somehow the ladies always found themselves on 
the same side of the fence they started from. 
Then we attempted guarding the door, but the 
business did not seem to be in the least damaged. 
This claiming to be a high-toned concern, was 
patronized by a large class of young men that 
would not be seen in the ordinary drinking 
places ; here clerks and others crowded to spend 
their evenings. At length a gentleman quietly 
informed me that the customers passed down 
through the office, and not only set the picket 
guard at naught, but made merry at their futile 
attempts to prevent their sinful indulgence. I 
accordingly — upon a conference with the guard 
— took two of the ladies into the office and asked 
the clerk if he would oblige me by furnishing 
the ladies with chairs. "Oh, certainly!" and 
they took up their position at the head of the 
stairs. Their experience, they reported, was 



348 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

full of novel and rather exciting interest, and 
not less so seemed that of the young gents who 
hoped to indulge their appetites without the 
knowledge of the Crusaders, of whom they had 
come to entertain not a little fear, mingled with 
profound respect. But they could not forego 
their accustomed indulgence, especially when 
such a convenient arrangement offered. The 
ladies said they often had all they could do to 
preserve their gravity, as one and another would 
come springing along, perhaps whistling some 
cheerful air, just taking the first step down, 
when they would find themselves face to face 
with those quiet ladies. The sudden check in 
step and whistle, the look of blank astonish- 
ment, the guilty blush, the embarrassed bow 
and sudden retreat were really funny. 

Then there came a time upon my return from 
work elsewhere, when some of the Crusaders 
asked me to try to infuse a little new enthusiasm 
into the work. Some were growing discouraged, 
and there was an impression among man}- that 
the Lagonda, or any of the more stylish saloons, 
should receive the same attention as the lowest. 
I sent a card to the evening paper, requesting a 
full attendance of the Crusaders the next morn- 
ing. The next morning we came together in 
force and marched out, making our first halt in 
front of the hotel. It was rather a trying time 
for the gallant proprietor, as there was a medical 
association in session in the citj-, and many of 
the delegates, as well as other travelers, were 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 349 

stopping with him, and of course their sympa- 
thies were with the Crusaders. But I fear the 
proprietor never quite forgave me afterwards. 
The suspicion had crept into my brain that our 
affable landlord was coquetting with the inno- 
cent and unsuspecting ladies in order to avert 
the odium that would attach to his house if the 
Crusaders should visit it as they did other low 
doggeries. 

By this time it had been discovered by gentle- 
men looking after such matters, that this un come- 
at-able saloon had, like all others, been guilty of 
illegal selling, and prosecutions were iminent. 
Now overtures were made to the Crusaders that 
a surrender would be made to them of the drink- 
ing department if they would interfere to arrest 
the prosecution, and consent to the billiard 
department remaining. They would fix it up 
ever so nice ! and it would be innocent amuse- 
ment ! and the ladies could come in any time, 
day or evening, and witness the games. 

A committee was appointed to act in the case, 
but one of the ladies thought it best to counsel with 
me before they should decide. I told them it would 
only be justice to the Crusaders who had worked 
so hard and endured so much, to let them, by 
vote, decide the question. I had a pretty strong 
impression that many of those sisters, if they 
understood the case clearly, — especially the old- 
time Methodists — would hardly see their way to 
indorsing billiard halls and billiard playing. I 
did not, however, give any opinion of my own, 



350 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

but told the committee I would go up and learn 
what I could of the matter. The fact was, I did 
not approve of the Crusaders interfering to arrest 
the course of the law in such cases — though I 
did not say this either. We were professing 
not to meddle with the law, and I felt that we 
had no more right to meddle with the just en- 
forcement of the law in the proper hands than 
we had to take it into our own. A good many 
of those law-breakers over the country, when 
they found themselves in danger of prosecution, 
with heavy fines and costs, suddenly became 
very penitent, and appealed to the ladies to 
stand between them and justice. But somehow, 
before I reached headquarters, the word had 
gone out (hovv' strangely things will go ! ) that 
" Mother Stewart opposed the measure, was 
opposed to billiards," and all the rest of it. 
And so Mother Stewart again became the one 
to be sent to the wilderness, as she had often 
been before, and was many times after. Who- 
ever thinks the path of a reformer is all strewn 
with roses has little knowledge of the facts. 
However, the little scheme came to naught. I 
am happy to record that the proprietor of the 
saloon soon severed all connection with the 
business, and has for years been a member of 
the church and an active Prohibitionist. 

BUCYKUS — SECOND VISIT. 

I have mentioned the fact of my first visit to 
Bucyrus. It was not long after this — the 5th of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 35 I 

May — that the ladies had a serious trouble. 
Bucyrus has a large population of the lower 
class of foreigners. Ignorant, beer-drinking, 
they were willing tools of the saloon-keepers, to 
do their bidding when told they were in danger 
of being deprived of their swill. Of course, in 
such a community, the liquor men had mayor 
and police of their own electing. 

A proclamation was, on the above date, issued 
by the mayor, notifying the women — these were 
native-born Christian ladies — to refrain from 
their praying on the streets. This brave mayor, 
the more effectually to enforce his proclamation, 
swore in some fifty low, drunken ruffians, and 
armed them with hickory bludgeons, bought 
with the people's money, with which to make 
war on those praying women. The President of 
the League, Mrs. O'Fling, was a frail little body 
at least seventy years old, and so small that an 
ordinary man could pick her up in his arms and 
carry her as a child. 

This old saint was set upon as she led her 
band, by those ruffians, pushed into a cellar- way 
and her arm lacerated to the bone, and dragged 
by one of them a square or more, till she 
appealed to a barber, and he came to her rescue. 
He ordered the fellow to desist, saying that 
was his premises, and she had a right to pray 
there if she pleased. 

Another of the same gentlemen (?) assaulted 
a lady while on her knees, praying, and dragged 
her quite a distance from her comrades, order- 



352 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ing her to remain there. But she answered, "My 
mother is there, and I will go to her." Three dif- 
ferent times he thus dragged her away, till a: 
length she dropped on her knees and cried to God 
in his behalf, when he walked way, saying he 
would have nothing more to do with the matter. 
This lady, also a very little mite of a woman, was 
Mrs. Robinson, daughter of the President, and has 
since become known as among the most powerful 
revivalists in the United States. The ladies 
insisted upon being arrested if they were guilty 
of any offense, but protested against being 
set upon and pushed and dragged as if they 
were riotous, drunken men. Most of these 
special police were drunk at the time. The 
editor of the Bucynisjotirnal says : 

They experienced every indignity but a square 
blow ; such cowardly blows as could be secretly 
given, seizures, and violent pushes, amounting in 
effect to blows, were given continually. But the 
brave band held its ground, retired from the pave- 
ment to the curb in l^ront, stood at bay and defied 
the cowards, who, if they had had any manhood 
whatever, would have suffered themselves blows and 
kicks without number mther than thus to have out- 
raged manhood by such treatment of women. 

The writer was ])resent and only writes what he 
saw and heard. One miserable dog, who has not 
done an honest da)'s work for years, approached 
two ladies, and standing opposite them, after they 
had brought the specials to bay and defied them, 
ciu'sed and blasphemed in vindication of his man- 
hood. (Utterances I omit.) 

Such outrageous conduct from a miserable coward, 
sworn in to preserve order, was intolerable, and we 
went immediately to the mayor's office. Here the 
mayor was engaged in assessing a fine of five dollars, 
with a dollar for costs, on a stranger by the name of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 353 

Ferguson, a gentleman from Delaware, who had 
committed the heinous enormity of saving a lady 
from falling into a cellar into which she had been 
pushed by one of the mayor's pets. 

If, now that the excitement has passed, the 
fine remains unremitted, it is downright robbery. 
We are sorry that this is not actionable. If the 
mayor be an honorable gentleman he will refund it; 
if it stands unrefunded it stands a ruffianly outrage 
upon a citizen's liberties and rights, without any 
excuse or palliation whatever. A more damnable, 
iniquitous series of infernal outrages were never 
offered to ladies, and these the wives, daughters and 
mothers of the best men in this community, suffering 
these infamous outrages because they dared to sing 
and pray on the streets against drunkenness. 

The editor again appealed to the mayor and 
obtained this much: "My instructions to the 
special police are, to use no violence, either to 
the women or to the men. And if any such 
violence has been used, I shall instruct the police 
immediately to desist from it. " This, the editor, 
Mr. Hopley, immediately caused to be printed 
on hand-bills and freely circulated. This in- 
formed the citizens of what rights they had 
remaining, and several warrants were sworn out 
against these policemen for assault and battery, 
which intimidated the ruffians so the ladies were 
not molested when they next went out. 

But you are impatiently waiting an oppor- 
tunity to ask, where were the husbands, fathers 
and sons of these women? Simply out of sight, 
or under solemn promise to their wives and 
mothers, under whatever circumstances might 
befall, not to interfere or lift hand or voice in 
their defence. The liquor men would have 

(23) 



354 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 

delighted in such opportunity — would have 
liked nothing so well. The result would have 
been a general riot and bloodshed. Gen- 
tlemen told me they stood with clenched fists 
and grinding teeth, looking on, exerting the 
utmost self-control to restrain themselves from 
rushing into that drunken mob and protecting 
their defenseless wives. One man who loved 
his wife most tenderly, when he found the 
threatening storm was gathering, told her he 
could not let her go out and expose herself to 
the fury of those wretches. So she acquiesced 
and rem?.ined at home till the husband came in 
for dinner, when he exclaimed: "Wife, it is 
wrong for me to detain you from joining your 
sisters. I tell you how we will fix it. We will 
send the older children to school and I will 
remain with the baby, — and do you go and join 
your companions. If there is no one else 
to take care of the baby, I will be obliged to 
stay with it, and shall not see the wretches if 
they do insult you." And so the dear, little 
woman hied away to join her comrades, while 
the husband remained at home enduring intense 
solicitude for his beloved wife. 

The news of the outrages upon the Crusaders 
at Bucyrus flashed over the country, creating 
great excitement and indignation. 

Just at this time I was on my way to Upper 
Sandusk)-, and I sent a telegram to the lkic}rus 
friends to mcvt nie at the station. When I 
arrivctl the}' were waiting for me; I spoke what 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 355 

words of cheer I could, and sped on, promising 
to come to them as soon as possible. Friday, 
the 8th, I telegraphed them I was coming with 
a large delegation of ladies and gentlemen. 

They met us at the train and escorted us to 
the church where they held their morning meet- 
ings. The poor ladies were very much depressed 
and discouraged, and Sister O'Fling explained 
that she feared I would be disappointed, but by 
advice of the brethren they had declared a truce 
for a time, and would not go out that day. The 
brethren had said they would prosecute some of 
those ruffians who had so maltreated the women. 
I said I would like a little information ; a truce 
was an agreement between two hostile forces to 
cease hostilities for a specified time. If, now, 
the other party — the liquor men — had agreed 
also to cease their selling for the given time, it 
was a proper compact, and it would be all right 
to keep it. "Oh!" said the President, "I 
see !" (I saw they were in danger of letting 
the saloon-keepers claim a triumph over them.) 

Just then Col. Butterfield, brother-in-law of 
the world-renowned Pere Hyacinth, arose and 
remarked that he had always been a conserva- 
tive, but when he, yesterday, in the justice's 
court, saw a venerable lady bare her arm to the 
elbow, and expose it, all lacerated to the bone 
by one of the cowardly ruffians hired by the 
mayor to abuse those defenseless women, he 
became a radical, and he was a radical hence- 
forth forever. "Now," he added, "I do not 



356 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

propose to offer any advice, but I will express a 
hope, which is made up of desire and expecta- 
tion : I hope the ladies will move out." Accord- 
ingly the procession was formed and the ladies 
took up their line of march. 

As I was too weary to join them in the march, 
Col. B. procured a carriage and I was driven 
after, and came up with the band as they were 
singing in front of Shaw's saloon. This man 
had been very rough and insulting to the ladies, 
but it was said of him, when not under the 
influence of liquor, he was a decently behaved 
man. He stood on his step, leaning against the 
door, and there was quite a crowd around, but 
they were orderly and respectful. I studied the 
man while the ladies were praying, and when 
they arose to sing I stepped out of the carriage 
and approached him, introducing myself and 
shook hands with him. "Oh," he said, "lam 
a pretty clever fellow, if people treat me right." 
I told him I meant to treat him right, and talked 
with him a (ew minutes as well as I knew how. 
When the sisters had finished their song, I knelt 
and offered up a prayer with such utterance as 
came to me. I do not know what I did sa}-, 
except that we did not come to set up our 
own righteousness above others; we were all 
sinners, only saved by grace. When I arose he 
stepped down to me, saying. ' Mother Stewart, 
I want to take )-ou b>' the hand again ; that was 
a first-rate prayer; you can pray at my place 
any time." Then he corrected himself, — " Not 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 357 

here, but at my house ; come and pray at my 
house with my wife and family any time." I 
thanked him and said, "I would be most happy 
to do so when I came again," and I intended to 
remember the invitation and promise, but it 
turned out that I did not visit Bucyrus again. 

After the Crusaders had made their visits to 
the several places, no molestation being offered, 
they escorted me to the public square, where a 
large crowd had collected, and I stood in the 
carriage and addressed them, then knelt and 
prayed with and for them. A photographer, I 
learned afterwards, taking advantage of the 
strange scene, turned his camera upon and 
caught it. 

I have given this, as other similar cases, not 
simply to narrate the facts, but for a double 
purpose, and while I propose to avoid all prosy 
moralizing, I write with the hope that the 
thoughtful reader will see and lay to heart the 
moral for every loyal citizen who loves his 
country and the liberties our fathers shed their 
blood to bequeath to us. Oh, why is it that 
men cannot learn the lessons these scenes were 
calculated to teach ? These poor, frail women, 
wherever insulted and abused, or imprisoned, 
were doing greatly more than they knew or 
thought of, in proving to the better portion of 
the men of the nation that our liberties have 
already passed into the hands of the lowest, 
most dangerous classes, and these are swayed by 
the liquor power as they will. The lesson was 



358 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

not heeded ; our men, for the sake of the politi- 
cal influence of that power, have not only per- 
mitted such outrages in silence, but have bowed 
and cringed to those miscreants till all our holy 
institutions are jeopardized, and it is only a 
question of time when anarchy and misrule shall 
triumph. Is not this the case in every city in 
our land to-day ? Oh ! would that I could utter 
some word that men would hear and heed ! 

WHITELEY's speech — A FIELD NIGHT IN THE 
SPRINGFIELD CITY COUNCIL CHAMBER. 

Though the petition of the 600 ladies of 
Springfield to the City Council, praying that 
honorable body to pass the McConnelsville 
Ordinance, had so signally failed, the women 
were by no means disposed to give the matter 
up. A few weeks later, another appeal was 
prepared by our very efficient Secretary, Mrs. 
Guy, and duly presented to the Council by a 
committee of gentlemen appointed for the pur- 
pose, and — laid on the table. But the ladies of 
the Executive Committee kept the matter in 
mind, and frequently urged the brethren to insist 
upon its being brought forward and acted upon. 
They were very much surprised, and not a little 
indignant, at length, to find that the gentlemen 
were not disposed to urge the matter till after 
election. But after a good deal of animated 
discussion, it being put to vote, the gentlemen 
carried their point, and it was permitted to lie 
in peace till after election. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 359 

At length, on the night of the 19th of May, 
in the course of deliberative legislation, the 
time for action on the long pending petition 
came up. One member was absent, and the 
friends of the petition, seeing defeat if brought to 
a vote under the circumstances, moved to lay it 
on the table for one week. This the opponents 
voted down. There was nothing for it now but 
the final vote and certain defeat. At this 
juncture Mr. Wm. N. Whiteley, who had not 
spoken before, arose, saying he had a few remarks 
to make on the subject under discussion. 

It was now 9:45 p. m. He proceeded with 
the most remarkable temperance speech in all 
this remarkable campaign, or any other, I pre- 
sume. It must be stated here that Mr. Whiteley 
is not a public speaker in any sense of the word. 
But I had long before this discovered, in conver- 
sation with him, that he held strong common- 
sense views, and was well posted as to the evils 
that result from tolerating the liquor traffic. 
Says the reporter: 

It was emphatically the champion temperance 
speech of the Crusade, and one of the sort sometimes 
heard that are not reportable. An hour passed ; 
another, and still another, with Mr. Whiteley still in 
the midst of his review of the ordinance as it stood, 
clause by clause, and section by section, together 
with eloquent allusions to the temperance cause here, 
and the work of the women, to the surprise of the 
audience, who knew the speaker's resemblance to 
General Grant, in that he never makes speeches. 
The hours passed till long after midnight, the lobby 
thinned down to three persons, and some of the 
members retired to the ante-room to talk of the 



360 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

prospect of a short nap before morning, or to while 
away the time with a cigar. About three o'clock an 
ample lunch was brought in from the adjacent 
restaurant, and through all, the speaking went on 
without a pause, except once, and only once, tor a 
drink of water which the speaker took. 

Mr. Whiteley declined to yield the floor e.xcept for 
an adjournment. He made some splendid points, 
proof against argument or sneers, saying that the 
people demanded something of the kind, and a 
majority had so expressed themselves .^t the recent 
election. The day dawned, the sun arose, gas was 
turned off in the chamber, but there was no sign of 
weariness on Mr. Whiteley's part. He stood as 
steadily and spoke his words as plainly and glibly as 
at the beginning. 

At 5:30 a motion was put and carried by a large 
majority for adjournment. To the last hour Mr. 
W.'s effort was really grand in its eloquence and 
directness, his earnestness seeming to increase every 
moment. 

It is to be remembered that this speech was 
addressed, not to a crowded house of enthusiastic 
listeners, but to less than a dozen sleepy, indiffer- 
ent councilmen, "Many a polished orator," 
says the reporter, ' ' might have gained a lesson 
from this speaker, both in language and manner." 

After speaking for sez'tii hours and three-quarters 
the gentleman declared that he felt as bright as 
the morning star, and could go on till noon if 
necessary. 

And so the " day of doom " for our ordinance 
was deferred. 



'^'^^^^V?:?^^ 



CHAPTER XVIII. 




Pittsburgh Crusaders Imprisoned — Riot Averted. 

^BOUT the 1 2th of May, I received letters 
from Cleveland and Cincinnati by same 
mail, asking me to come to them, the 
Secretary of the Cincinnati Union saying their 
work was languishing and they needed to take a 
new departure. The Secretary of the Cleveland 
Union wrote ( I copy from the letter before 
me ), "We want you to speak for us at a mass- 
meeting Thursday evening, May 2ist, on the 
relation of band work to the temperance move- 
ment, and to do all you can to get the ladies out 
onto the street to pray. We have done as well 
as could be expected for eight weeks, and we 
feel that we need a little help. " 

I was at the time engaged for a series of meet- 
ings in Pennsylvania, but wrote to each that I 
would be with them as soon as possible, giving 
Cleveland the first date, as I was nearer to that 
city than to Cincinnati. Upon my arrival I 
found they were not ready for me. The Secre- 
tary had been away, was weary, and sent her 
husband to tell me this. The good sisters did 
not seem to realize the value of my time, but 

SGI 



362 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

my calls were so urgent I felt that I could not 
lose any time unnecessarily, so my hostess, dear 

Sister P , sent a notice to the press for an 

evening meeting, and though the time was so 
short, there was a very fine audience. I an- 
nounced at the close that I would meet the 
Crusaders next morning. The hope had been 
expressed by the Secretary's husband that I 
might in a few days get the ladies so aroused 
that I would be able to lead five hundred onto 
the street again. 

Nothing was said to me of the advic<^ having 
been given to the ladies by some of the leading 
men to give up their street work, nor of their 
promise that if they would, they — the gentlemen 
— would take measures to enforce the laws and 
to prosecute any who should lay themselves 
liable. The women were left in uncertainty as 
to the best plan of prosecuting their work, but I 
knew nothing of all this till afterwards. There 
was quite a full meeting the next morning, and 
we had a precious season of prayer and counsel. 
A gentleman present — not a professor of religion 
-said, "there had not been such an evident 
manifestation of the power of the Holy Spirit 
since the first day of the Crusade." The sisters 
were wrought up to the highest degree of enthu- 
siasm, and ready to act upon any suggestion, 
and I knew if I got them out, that was the 
auspicious time. I closed my address by asking 
how many ladies would join me,- I would be 
sorry to lca\-e Cleveland without the pri\iloge 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 363 

of praying on the street with them. Nearly 
every lady in the church arose to her feet. 

Just then a lady made her way through the 
crowded room to the platform and said, * ' We 
don't think it advisable to move out onto the 
street." As the Secretary had written me to 
come to them for this purpose, I, of course, was 
not a little surprised, and in the only curt tone I 
ever used to anyone in my temperance work I 

asked who she was ? "Airs. Rev. , " was 

the reply. I turned to the Secretary and told 
her this woman had said it was not thought 
expedient to form the procession. This seemed 
to disconcert her, and she deliberated a little 
while, the ladies still standing. Finally she re- 
marked that "all ladies who felt free to, would 
fall into line and follow Mother Stewart. " 

About two hundred ladies formed in line, but 
all felt that we had had a douche of cold water, 
but could not tell from whence. I learned after- 
wards that this lady, the President, and three or 
four others, remained to sit in judgment on 
Mother Stewart, who was still unconscious of 
the cause of the trouble. As we moved along, 
the Secretary informed me that the mayor had 
ordered that the Crusaders should not stop or 
pray on the street, but there was one saloon- 
keeper who permitted the ladies to go into his 
place, and there was a vacant lot where they 
had the privilege of praying. We visited those 
places and then marched to the public square, 
where, from the stand, I addressed the great 



364 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

crowd that had gathered. They were quiet and 
respectful. 

In the afternoon I met and addressed the 
Band on the West Side, and led them out. We 
all felt it to be a blessed occasion. At night we 
had a public meeting, but before I reached the 
evening meeting I found there was a fearful 
thunder-cloud over my head, but still ignorant 
of source or cause. By this time I noticed that 
the Secretary's manner towards me had changed. 

Rev. Mr. Nast, son of tl)e venerable Dr. 
Nast, editor of the MctJiodist Apologist, pre- 
sided. Before opening the meeting, he asked 
me if I had seen the papers of that day. I 
said I had not. He seemed greatly disturbed, 
and said there were infamous attacks upon me 
in them. The German paper had a most 
indecent article in reference to me. He made a 
grand opening address, so kindly endorsing me, 
and made some scathing charges upon the press 
and the beer-drinking German population — he 
being a German himself. 1 followed him as well 
as I could, but you can imagine what my feel- 
ings must have been. 

At the clo.se of the meeting that big-hearted 
Brother Preston and his wife took me to their 
home in East Cleveland. He has since gone 
over to the other shore, and I believe he has 
received his reward, for he was to the wounded, 
fainting toiler, in very deed, a good Samaritan. 
He was so filled with indignation because of the 
systematic persecution tliat had been set upon 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 365 

me, that he could not find words to express it. 
The next day he took me out to dinner with 
those blessed, saintly Shakers, who, with their 
gentle, loving words of sympathy, soothed and 
encouraged me. Friend James promised Brother 
Preston that he would bring a company of his 
household in to the evening meeting. That 
afternoon I met the ladies again, and after the 
services I saw them form their procession, Mrs. 
S. K. Bolton, a lady who has since won a wide 
reputation in the field of literature, led the band, 
while I was so prostrated by the experiences I 
had been passing through, that I was obliged to 
take my bed to recuperate for the evening. But 
lo ! I had become a terror to the whole city ! 
The mayor had been notified, and had sent out 
a squad of policemen to see that I did not tip 
the city into the lake, or do some other dreadful 
thing. It seemed a Providence for me that I 
was not able to accompany the band. One of 
the mayor's valiant men hurried up to Mrs. 
Bolton and asked her if she was Mother Stewart ! 
Mrs. Bolton was young and handsome — 
Mother Sewart indeed ! He was very sorry 
to intrude upon her, but he had orders from 
the mayor to see that the women should not 
stop a moment on the street, and he would 
have to arrest them if they attempted to 
pray on the street. One of the city papers, 
commenting on this outrage upon the Christian 
ladies, said: "That same day, three several 
times the writer had seen the sidewalks obstructed 



366 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

by crowds, once by a dog fight, yet no notice 
was taken of it by the poHce. " 

That night there was a crowded house. Friend 
James had his company of quiet, praying women 
filling two pews just in front, and near me. A 
note was sent up before I commenced my lecture, 
requesting me to speak on " Radicalism versus 
Conservatism in the Temperance and all other 
reform work," with the names of fifteen gentle- 
men attached, and a foot-note saying, ' ' and a 
thousand more." I never spoke with greater 
ease in my life. The cheers were frequent and 
hearty throughout. Did the blessed, soothing 
influence and prayers of those pious Shakers 
help me ? Yes. And my Father did sustain 
me in that trying ordeal. Here are letters at 
my hand saying words too kind and flattering to 
repeat in regard to the success and results of my 
last night in Cleveland. 

This was my second great wound in my work. 
I may possibly have been too tedious in the 
narrative, but the persecution inaugurated at 
that time did not end there. I have not had the 
honor of suffering imprisonment for the sake of 
my cause, as my sisters did in different places, 
but I was in perils oft, among — politicians — 
wasn't it? though it took me a good while to 
understand it. It was a matter of no little 
speculation with mc as to zvho it was and what 
the motive that stirred up that commotion and 
set the mayor and his police to hounding me. 
There were not half a dozen of the Crusaders 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 36/ 

who were not in warmest sympathy with me, 
and I have many times since had evidence of 

their abiding friendship. Mrs. P , the lady 

who entertained me, told me, Friday morning, 
that a howling mob of ruffians passed through 
the street in the night and it was their presump- 
tion that they were seeking the house where I 
was stopping. I heard nothing of them, how- 
ever. 

The Cleveland Leader of the next day, in a 
very full account of Thursday's proceedings, 
says : 

Word had been brought to the police headquarters 
that terrible things were to be done. It was there 
rumored that Mrs. Stewart was to lead a band of five 
hundred women upon the street ; that they intended 
to hold services upon the pavement, and bid defiance 
to the police and to the law in general. That this 
rumor was groundless, is well known by any who 
are conversant with the tactics adopted by the ladies. 
But the police authorities were alarmed at any such 
demonstration, and determined to prevent it. A 
sergeant and six or eight men who had been present 
for drill, were ordered to the scene of action. The 
word that the police were coming soon gathered a 
large crowd to see the ladies arrested and enact 
Pittsburgh and Cincinnati in our midst. Every 
loafer and lounger along the street fell into line, 
bound to see the fun. The saloon-keepers along the 
route were radiant with happiness, and several of 
them fell into line. During the conversation between 
Mrs. Bolton and the sergeant, a man named A. 
Bradfield, who lived upon the West Side, a respect- 
able man and a local minister, expressed the opinion 
that the interference of the police was uncalled for. 
This led to a reply from an officer, who thereupon 
arrested Mr. Bradfield and marched him off to the 
station-house. He was charged upon the blotter 
with obstructing an officer in the discharge of his 



368 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

duty. Judge Abbey accepted bail and Mr. Brad- 
field was set free. * * * Consistency is a jewel 
that does not shine in certain quarters. A squad of 
eight police was sent to clear the pavement of some 
forty odd women who possibly might pray upon the 
sidewalk, while last evening some forty or fifty men 
stood for half an hour on the corner of Superior 
street and the public square, listening to the fiddling 
of a wandering tramp. A little while later, three 
crowds were gathered on the corner of Superior and 
Seneca streets; in the center of one another peddler 
was giving vent to music. In another a ventriloquist 
made himself heard, and the third was a quack of 
another stripe. It was expected that a squad of 
police would come in sight, but they did not, and 
ladies who passed those corners were obliged to step 
into the street on account of the blockade of the 
pavement. 

I never have known the origin of this affair, 

but I have good reason to believe, and others 

have told me they knew it was because of my 

knov/n Prohibition principles. Cleveland is built 

on beer I 

THE NEW DEPARTURE COME. 

The Christian women of Cincinnati com- 
menced their work by a called meeting on Feb- 
ruary 6th, held in the First Presbyterian church 
and presided over by Mrs. Rev. Chas. Ferguson. 
They at once entered upon systematic and ener- 
getic work, and were subjected to the usual 
treatment of ridicule, insult, abuse, stones and 
mud. (Our Prohibition brethren will take notice 
that wc got the mud before they did.) But the 
brave Cincinnati Crusaders went on, neither 
failing nor faltering. Pledges were diligently 
circulated and a lartje list of sisfners obtained. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 369 

Thus they aroused the public and increased their 
numbers and strength to take up the street work, 
still holding public meetings and reaching out to 
the suburbs and forming other Leagues, till the 
liquor-dealers began to see that the Crusaders 
meant business, and taking alarm they declared 
"Something must be done, " for, like Demetrius 
of old, they saw their craft was in danger, and 
so, like their renowned predecessor, they turned 
to stir up the whole city against these women 
who, like Paul, were interfering with their un- 
godly gains. 

Immediately upon my return from Cleveland 
I liastened to the assistance of my sisters in 
Cincinnati. The crisis had already come, the 
brave Mayor Johnson (I like to do my part 
towards handing these illustrious names down to 
posterity) and his police, instigated by the 
liquor men, had 

" Descended like a wolf on the fold, 
With their cohorts all gleaming with purple and gold," 
or something else, and arrested forty-three ladies 
and marched them off to prison. It was coming 
to be the fashionable thing to make war on 
women ! It showed off manly traits of bravery 
and gallantry to such good advantage ! Making 
war on men has its disadvantages, you know. 
The brave policeman may possibly meet his 
match in physical strength or prowess, and he 
may get the worst of it — get his head jammed or 
his regimentals damaged, or worse still, his head 
taken off at the next election ! No such danger 

(24) 



370 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

in making war on women ; and so Cincinnati 
added to her long list of grand and glorious 
achievements, that of arresting these Christian 
ladies, wives of ministers and other respectable 
citizens. Their offense was, that they prayed 
for sinners. 

This execution of law, by the way, Avas expost- 
facto, the Crusaders not having any knowledge 
of the mayor's intended proclamation, and 
having marched out twenty minutes before it 
was published ; I have not the list of these 
ladies, though many are personal friends. 

Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, the leader, is the wife of 
a Baptist minister ; Mrs. Rev. McHugh has 
gone up to the courts above ; Mrs. Rev. \V. I. 
Fee was especially obnoxious and dangerous — I 
think she must have weighed nearly a hundred 
pounds, maybe not more than ninet}', avoirdu- 
pois — and though she is a woman of few words 
and low voice, she was so remarkably gifted in 
prayer that a reporter took one of her prayers 
as she uttered it on the street. Of course such 
a woman ought to go to jail — or State's prison. 
Then there were Mrs. Moore, Mrs. Huddleson, 
the Secretary, Mrs. Rev. Ferguson, Mrs. Fisher, 
T\Irs. Whitridge, Mrs Dr. Dalton, Mrs. Bishop 
Clark, Mrs. Geo. l^eecher and Mrs. I\IcKinle\-. 

What a pity Cincinnati could not have fore- 
seen the oncoming Crusaders in time to have a 
frowning and bristling bastile ready for such 
offenders against the peace and safet\' of that 
cit}' of pure morals and just adn-:inistration of 



MEMOKIES OF THE CRUSADE. 3/1 

law, I think it will be well enough for her, if 
she has been able to meet the expense of rebuild- 
ing her recently demolished court-house, to 
provide herself with a bastile. Who knows but 
any day again some Christian women may take 
it into their heads to pray that God may avert 
his reserved judgments that are hanging over the 
city. I would advise that she appropriate her 
saloon tax for that purpose. 

I spent several days with the sisters, address- 
ing mass-meetings in the various churches at 
night, women's meetings mornings and after- 
noons ; marched with them to the Fountain 
esplanade, and from a table addressed the crowds 
there ; again to some church, where from the 
steps I spoke to the people who still followed 
us. The sisters told me that in these gatherings 
they found poor creatures who said they had 
never heard of Jesus, the Friend of sinners. 
Yes, it was the discreet thing for the mayor to 
imprison these women ; they were carrying to 
hungry, starving souls the bread of eternal life. 

I remember that in one of my addresses I 
exhorted the sisters to cease praying for the 
saloon-keepers and pray for the business men of 
the city. Dr. F., referring to it afterwards, 
said: " Mother Stewart, you must have been 
inspired to utter that, for our great trouble here 
is the total indifference of the business men to 
the true interests of our city." I may say that 
the forty-three women being arraigned before 
Judge Marchant, pleaded "not guilty," and 



l']2 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

after some show of investigating the case, were 
discharged, as the defendants were innocent of 
any willful intent of breaking the law. But they 
were admonished that they "must not do it 
anymore." Upon what is Cincinnati built? 

On the evening of May 23d I was standing 
addressing a great mass meeting in New Castle, 
Pa., when a telegram dated Pittsburgh, May 23d, 
was handed me. It was addressed to me, saying : 
"Ladies arrested yesterday, but going out in 
full force this afternoon, ready to die for the 
Master if need be. Pray for them." Signed R. 
E. Graves. We at once sent back a telegram 
of sympathy and encouragement. 

I recently wrote my friend, Mrs. Lord, now 
of the South, but then Mrs. Hill, the very 
efficient Secretary of the Pittsburgh Union, for 
an account of that never-to-be-forgotten day and 
its scenes in Pittsburgh. I had it oft repeated, 
but desired to let one of the brave participants 
tell it in her own language. She writes : 

Our praying bands had been on the streets for 
some weeks before we were arrested, though threats 
had been made from almost the first. The liquor 
trade was so affected by our street meetings that the 
liquor dealers became furious, and at last desj^erate. 
It would be impossible to tell the insults and out- 
rages we received from these people. At last a 
majority of the wholesale and retail dealers signed a 
petition asking the mayor ( Blackmore) to remove 
the {)rayiiig women from the streets, — we "hindered 
and destroyed business, and we were common 
nuisances," etc. The litpior dealers' association also 
took action against u ;, so a formidable strength was 
brought to bear upon the mayor. We were notified 
if we cunlinuecl our saloon visiting and jn-aying we 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 373 

would be arrested. " It was an intrusion upon 
public rights ! It must be stopped ! We must pray in 
the churches or at home !" The liquor men con- 
cluded to arrest the ladies. "Then," they said, ''the 
Crusade would subside." But the truth was, there 
were so many praying women the jail could not hold 
them, nor the work-house, so here was a dilemma. 
Meantime we continued our street work, and one 
morning while conducting a meeting on the side- 
walk in front of Liddle's wholesale house, on Liberty 
street (isn't that a misnomer), two policemen 
arrested thirty-tuo cf tis ! 

The wildest scenes ensued, and in a short time 
the street was densely ]jacked with an angry mob, 
and threats were heard on every hand against the 
liquor men and the officers. ( Here, it must be 
understood, that the masses were with and not against 
the Crusaders.) A riot seemed imminent. I climbed 
upon a barrel of whisky which stood upon the side- 
walk, and got the attention of the people. I appealed 
to them to let the law take its course, and not dis- 
grace our city by violent resistance. I talked quite 
a time to quiet the people, then the crowd gave way 
and we walked two and two behind the policemen 
towards the city lock-up, several squares distant. 
As we marched, we sang the old hymn — 

" All hnil the power of Jesus' name, 
Let angels prostrate fall. 
Bring forth the ro>al diadem," 

and the thousands upon the street took up the refrain, 

" And crozi'n Him Lord of all.^' 

Just imagine thousands and thousands singing that 
glorious anthem, and we marching to prison. I 
could not do justice to those hours behind the bars. 
We were not in the jail, but the lock-up, — a place of 
temporary confinement where vagrants are kept 
until they have a hearing and are sent to the work- 
house or set free, as the case may be. Oh ! the poor, 
wretched beings we sav/ in there, — all graduates 
from the saloons— some who should have been in a 
hospital. My God! Never shall I forget that day ! 
The Christian women and the poor wrecks, some of 
them far gone, but rum the cause of it all ! There 



374 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

we were, all huddled together in that filthy pen. 
We sang and prayed and advised them, and I hope 
some good was done. 

In the meantime, the noise outside grew louder 
and louder, till it seemed like the roar of a mighty 
tempest. We hushed our songs and prayers and 
listened with trembling to the angry multitude out- 
side. Sometimes we would hear the words " Pull 
them down!" "Clean them out!" — meaning the 
liquor houses — ''Burn them down!" etc Then 
there came a lull in the angry tempest, and while we 
stood inside trembling and quaking, uncertain what 
was going to occur next, all at once a great cheer 
burst forth, and the words, "Clear the way for the 
ladies!" rang out. 

Then was sung outside — 

" Rock of Ages cleft for me, 

Let me hide myself in thee." 

Mrs. Robison had got together a large band of sisters, 
made her way through the densely crowded streets 
to the prison, and there that woman marched and 
countermarched her band before the prison, talked 
and advised as only she can do. soothed and quieted 
that great mass of maddened people, and no doubt 
saved bloodshed. The song still went up outside, 
and we inside still taking up the refrain. She held 
the people in check till a deputation came from the 
mayor and threw oi:)en the prison door and begged 
us to go forth free, so as to save the city from riot 
and anarchy. 

The liquor men who had caused our arrest were 
greatly frightened ; they had not counted on such an 
outburst of indignation on the })art of the j)eople. 
When we j)assed out of that prison, for squares and 
scjuares it was one mass of human beings. 

Tlic ladies were cited to appear before the 
mayor to answer to thcchari^c of obstructing tiie 
streets and interfering with legitiinate (?) busi- 
ness. Says an eye-witness, "The mayor, when 
the ladies filed into the court-room and took 
their places in the criminal's dock before him, was 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 375 

as pale as a sheeted ghost. As he knew not 
what to do, and was too thoroughly frightened 
to do anything if he did, he referred them to the 
upper court. When they made their appear- 
ance before the Judge, he told them they had 
committed no offense and were as guiltless as 
he was, and discharged them. As they left the 
court-room, they struck up the long-metre dox- 
ology, which was caught up all along the line by 
thousands of voices, reaching to the headquarters 
half a mile distant. I never witnessed such a 
scene in my life." The first time, I presume, in 
history that the length of that old doxology 
could be measured by the half mile. 

Thus were the Pittsburgh Crusaders impris- 
oned, released, and escorted in triumph back to 
headquarters by thousands of brave-hearted men, 
who with difficulty — and only upon the earnest 
appeal of those devoted women — were restrained 
from wreaking revenge upon the instigators of 
that dastardly outrage. Among those impris- 
oned women was a venerable, white-haired lady, 
]\Irs. Black, widow of one of Pittsburgh's most 
beloved ministers. By her side walked her 
brave, devoted son, to keep oversight of his 
idolized mother, and he too was imprisoned — for 
his filial devotion. I am sorry I have not the 
names of all that immortal thirty-two at hand — 
they should be "graven with an iron pen and 
lead in the rock forever," that the fact might 
be given to the generations to come that the 
noblest women of the land and ao-e were incar- 



3/6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

cerated in vile prison-pens with loathsome 
criminals, not for any crime committed, only 
seeking to rescue men from eternal ruin through 
the accursed drink. God grant that this thrilling 
recital may live and be read from one genera- 
tion to another, even after this fair Republic 
shall have become a thing of the past, as I 
greatly fear me now that it will through the 
destructive influence of this same liquor curse, 
so that our children's children may know the 
reason w^hy. Among the consecrated women 
who did such noble work for humanity in one of 
the hardest fields, was Mrs. S. B. Robinson, a 
lady of piety, refinement and high social position 
and influence, and possessed of the most remark- 
able talent of any lady I have found in the v.'ork, 
for managing, controlling and pouring sweet and 
savory oil on all troubled waters; Mrs. Collins, 
the first President, wife of Rev. Collins of the U. 
P. church; Mrs. Hill, now Mrs. Lord, of Savan- 
nah, who has proved her ability as secretary, 
organizer and lecturer — the latter in Great Britain 
as well as this country ; Mrs. Matchett, Mrs. 
Swift, and INIrs'. Watson, who as Committee of 
the National W. C. T. U., has done such grand 
work in her efforts to secure a day for temp- 
erance in the week of prayer; Mrs. Morris, Miss 
Pearl Star, one o{ my little ' ' Needle and Thread" 
girls of war times, and who developed such 
talents for work as lecturer and writer as have 
made for her a \\idc-sj)read reputation ; Mrs. 
Gormly, dear Mother Van Horn and a host of 
others. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 37/ 

In recounting these events of our Crusade, 
one is led to exclaim : What a curious, compli- 
cated institution is the law ! Here are men, low, 
vile, and criminal, made so by the liquor traffic, 
which is sustained and protected by the law 
which should be for the protection of society. 
And here is a company of Christian ladies im- 
prisoned in the same den for lifting their voices 
against a traffic that thus imbrutes hum.anity. 
Mrs. Hill says she climbed upon a whisky barrel 
that was obstructing the sidewalk, to try to quiet 
that throng of angry men, when the policeman 
arrested and led her off to prison znd left the whis- 
ky barrel standing. I give it up, and concede, as 
our good husbands so often remind us, we 
" women don't know anything about law. " 

As I have, in rehearsing the foregoing expe- 
riences of myself and sisters, become somewhat 
exercised in mind, and, as a good Methodist 
preacher used to call it, " religiously vexed," I 
think I had better go on and " tell it all " and 
make a chapter of it. 

THE CHICAGO MOB. 

Chicago being under the control of the liquor 
element, the dealers, backed by a large popula- 
tion of the lowest, most ignorant class of 
foreigners, had it, of course, all their own way. 
To further their own interests and defy the better 
class of citizens, they decided to appeal to the 
council to repeal the Sunday saloon closing 
ordinance. 



37^ MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

The Christian ladies hearing of this, five 
hundred of them came toijether in counsel, and 
on March 15th, a committee of one hundred 
and fifty was commissioned to present to the 
council a remonstrance signed by sixteen thou- 
sand women. Other ladies remained to pray 
while the delegation went on their mission. 
The Superintendent and Captain of police refused 
to give the ladies protection or place in the 
Council Chamber, and as they quietly marched 
through the streets they were set upon by a 
howling mass more nearly allied to fiends of the 
bottomless pit than human beings inhabiting a. 
land professing to protect all its citizens, even 
the weakest, in their rights. 

The v/omen meekly presented their remon- 
strance, but immediately, and in their very faces 
the ordinance was repealed, and Satan and his 
minions triumphed in Chicago. The Chicago 
Ti/JU's of the 17th says: 

The onset of a howling mob of ruffians upon a 
committee of respectable ladies that visited the 
Council Chamber last ISIonday night, to remonstrate 
against the repeal of the Sunday tippling law, cannot 
be characterized in the terms of condemnation that 
it deserves. It was the most vile and disgraceful 
demonstration of the spirit of ruffianism ever wit- 
nessed in this city. Probably not another city in 
any civilized country on the globe has ever witnessed, 
in time of ])eace, a performance so unspeakably 
brutal. * =•= •"'= It was the outspew of the slums 
and groggeries and brothels ; it was the grand army 
of pimps, loafers, blacklegs, thieves and drunken 
roughs, marshalled to defend scoundrelism and 
indecency against the protest of virtue; ladies were 
so terrified iliat some fainted, others covered their 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 379 

faces with their hands and hurried away as best they 
could, trying to escape from that howhng, blasphem- 
ing throng of thousands. They were jostled and 
spit upon, and the hats of gentlemen trying to protect 
them knocked off. 

It is no use following this sickening detail 
further. None of those raging hyenas, as far as 
I know, were ever brought to account for their 
conduct, 

I do know that a few months later I was in 
the city at the time of their election, and many 
of their polling places were in the saloons, and 
Christian men went in and voted with those out- 
ragers of all human and divine law ; and the 
status is not changed to this day, neither 
have those Christian men learned wisdom, 
though, as they on that day sowed to the wind, 
they have recently reaped the whirlwind in their 
Anarchist riots and Haymarket massacres, as 
also did Pittsburgh reap in her railroad riots, 
and Cincinnati in her court-house burning and 
slaughter. 

Does it pay to ' ' Fear God and keep his com- 
mandments?" 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 

From Mrs. Izar, a Methodist minister's wife, 
and one of the participants, I have substantially 
the following : On that far North-western Pacific 
coast the Christian ladies caught the Crusade 
inspiration from the marvelous reports that came 
speeding over mountain and vale from their 
Eastern homes. It so fired their hearts that 



380 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

they, too, took up the work and had good 
success. Some saloons were closed, many 
signed the pledge, and where men had always 
hitherto passed in and out of the saloons at all 
hours of the day as a matter of course, to get 
their liquor, it became disreputable to be seen 
thus patronizing a rum-hole, and the patronage 
largely fell off. 

All the saloon-keepers but one or two treated 
the ladies civilly. But finally one brave fellow 
thought he would emulate his eastern brethren 
and acquire a little notoriety at the same time, 
and so he made his complaint and had the 
Crusaders arrested and marched off to prison for 
singing and praying on the street. The ladies 
calmly went on with their singing and praying. 
The chief of police offered to release them on 
their own recognizance, but they refused to 
leave. When the Judge made his appearance, 
a gentleman filed a general demurrer, and took 
the ground that " singing and praying" was a 
a devotional exercise, and that every person in 
the United States was at liberty, under the Con- 
stitution, to worship God according to the 
dictates of his own conscience, and that the 
complaint on its face alleged a statement of facts 
that could not amount to disorderly conduct. 
The court promptly sustained the demurrer and 
discharged the ladies. 

I am most happ)- to record the fact that one 
man in the United States took a correct position 
in regard to the Crusade, and that one judge 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 38 1 

was found to sustain him, if we did have to go 
to the boundaries of civilization to find him. 

CLEVELAND COVERS HERSELF WITH GLORY (?) 

It was not to be expected that Cleveland 
would sit quietly and see so humdrum a place 
as Chicago acquire such a national reputation for 
fighting women without some sort of effort to 
surpass her ; of course not. It was only a few 
days after, that the opportunity offered. 

On March 19th, a band of ladies, led by Miss 
Bearby, M. D., marched out upon the street 
and at once were followed and surrounded by a 
great throng of ruffians that came pouring from 
the saloons and low dives, and began to insult and 
abuse the ladies while kneeling on the street in 
prayer. As the women bore this all patiently 
without resentment, it seemed rather to excite 
the fury of the mob than to shame them, and 
they thereupon proceeded to administer kicks and 
blows. Mrs. McCarty was struck by a wretch 
with his clenched fist, Dr. Bearby was kicked, and 
Miss Stoney fainted away. 

A gentleman who tried to protect and rescue 
the ladies, was struck in the face by a German 
who had noticed his efforts. Attempting to 
defend himself, a crowd of more than a hundred 
surrounded, kicking and striking him, cutting a 
great gash upon his head. As he was struggling 
to defend himself and make his escape, bleeding 
and ready to faint, a couple of gentlemen, 
providentially it would seem, drove along in a 



382 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

buggy and succeeded in placing themselves 
between the mob and their victim, who by this 
timely aid was enabled to reach his own home, 
where he sank on the floor, a pitiable object of 
wounds and bruises. He lay for some time in the 
doctor's hands, on the brink of the grave. The 
ladies were at length rescued from their perilous 
condition by the police, and escorted to the 
church, — all this because a band of praying 
women had gone out in a Christian (?) city, on 
deeds of charity intent, 

I shall be told that these women were interfer- 
ing with at least a legalized business, trespassing 
on legal rights which invited that sort of retalia- 
tion. But I answer, the women never thought 
of meddling with any other business ; never heard 
of their crusading the baker or the butcher, not 
even the milliner, unless they happened to have 
a good supply of greenbacks. It must be a dan- 
gerous sort of business that arrays the Christian 
mothers and wives of a whole country against it, 
and leads them to adopt such extraordinary meth- 
ods for its ovctrhrow, even in the face of its 
legal protectors. The women had no voice in 
legalizing it. If their voices could have been 
heard it would not to day be resting so securely 
under the protection of the strong arm of the law. 
They are not even permitted to enter their pro- 
test at the ballot-box — though every man with a 
thimbleful of brains knows they would, with 
only one chance, vote it out ot existence. There 
was nothing else left them, — the more shame to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 383 

our fathers and husbands. And yet — and yet, 
these fathers and husbands, to-day, vote with 
this very class of wretches and for their candi- 
dates — ' ' to save the party ! ' * There is a fearful 
responsibility resting on a government that toler- 
ates and fosters such an unmitigated abomina- 
tion, and the reckoning has to be met. My God, 
where will it all end ? 

CALIFORNIA FALLS INTO LINE, 

though a few months later. In Alameda, Cal, , 
an election, under the provision of the Local Op- 
tion Law, was held on July 2nd of this year, 
1874. 

The temperance ladies, Miss Sallie Hart being 
their leader, had a tent erected in the vicinity of 
the polling place, with the hope of influencing 
voters in the interest of temperance. The word 
went into San Francisco, and as soon as they 
could get their forces together, the German 
saloon-keepers sent out one hundred and fifty of 
their willing tools, who marched through the 
streets, being headed by the U. S. Fourth Artil- 
lery band, and being joined by a large concourse 
of similar spirits, blockaded the streets and poll- 
ing place, insulting most shamefully both men 
and women ; especially wreaking their venom 
on Miss Hart, shrieking, cursing and crying 
' ' down with her! " "Drive her from the streets!" 
"Take her home, or we will kill her!" Later 
in the day they prepared an effigy — (I wonder if 
certain leaders of one of the parties in the cam- 
paign of 1884 did not get their ingenious idea 



384 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

from these high-toned fellow citizens?) — formed 
in procession and proceeded, not to burn, but 
to bury Sallie Hart in a sand bank. 

Men who were familiar with the lawless scenes 
of the mining days said they never Avitnessed any- 
thing approaching the shameless proceedings of 
this day. The poor, infuriated wretches thought 
they had achieved a great victory, but they only 
succeeded in making themselves a by-word and 
a stench in the nostrils of all decent people. 

I will admit that this class of "our fellow cit- 
izens" had already inspired in the breasts of the 
political leaders, a high degree, if not of respect, 
at least of wholesome fear. 

Our work had been in progress but a (ew 
weeks till the ever-alert politican began to in- 
quire, " How will this affect my party?" 

Under date of February 25th, I find this in a 
Pittsburgh paper from a Cincinnati correspond- 
ent : 

POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE WAR. 

The women earnestly strive to unite religious de- 
nominations and steer clear of politics in this move- 
inent, but it cannot be without political eflect, what- 
ever may be said to the contrary. It is not uncom- 
mon to hear the remark that 't'ns thing will break up 
the Republican party if it goes on much longer." On 
the other hand it is a notable fact that the leading 
Democratic newspapers in the Stale have looked with 
something very like disfavor upon the whole move- 
ment. The trutli is, I suppose that both of the exist- 
ing political parliL's will lose strength by accessions to 
the ranks of the prohibitionists, who, at the last gen- 
eral election jiolled about ten thousand votes, and 
therefore have already a pretty respectable nucleus. In 
fine, the effect will bj ancnhor step in the direction of 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 385 

freeing men from old party ties. It still remains to 
be seen whether the approaching election this fall will 
be seriously affected. * -^ If the success of the women 
and the talk of the street are trustworthy indications 
of the drift of public sentiment, the temperance party 
will be largely in the majority." 

But the fall election proved the writer of the 
above to be mistaken in his forecasting. The 
Republicans succeeded in getting what they, with 
quite a flourish, called a temperance plank, in 
their platform that season; but while it was a 
most insignificant expression in regard to the 
subject of temperance, it did hold, by the spe- 
cious promise intimated, very many honest but 
credulous temperance men in the ranks, while it, 
at the same time, alienated enough of the liquor 
men, or maddened them so that they turned to 
the Democrats, and the Republicans lost the 
election. 

Then they jerked their frail plank out, and 
charged their poor, Crusading wives with break- 
ing up the party. From year to year since, the 
contest between the two parties has been to se- 
cure the liquor vote, each trying to outdo the 
other in fulsome flattery of citizens of foreign 
nationality, thus creating and strengthening the 
very distinctions our form of government was de- 
signed to eradicate. 

In the name of our fathers, who bequeathed it to 
us, I ask what right any German, or Irish, or 
French, or Italian, or any other white or black cit- 
izen has, as such, to governmental or party con- 
sideration. If a man is not an American citizen. 



386 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSAUl.. 

he has no business to meddle with political 
affairs ; and if he is not satisfied with our institu- 
tions, as he finds them, let him by all means 
return whence he came. If he has decided to be- 
come a citizen, let him be content with such laws 
and usages as the native born citizen is glad to 
accept. What right has he to claim special con- 
sideration above the native ? If not arrested, 
this continual thrusting of the foreign element 
forward and above the natives in every political 
contest will bear its fruit not very far hence. 

It is a very amusing game for demagogues to 
play at now for the sake of the offices and spoils, 
but let the thoughtful lover of his country look 
to this matter, before he finds this great fabric 
for which our fathers gave their lives, lying in 
ruins at his feet. 







CHAPTER XIX. 




First State Convention at Springfield. 



T WAS becoming apparent that a free 



interchange of views among the workers, 
and a thorough organization of the State, 
were needed. Accordingly, upon a call by the 
Executive Committee, Mrs. M. C. McCabe, 
Chairman, a State Convention met in Springfield 
on June i/th, at ten o'clock, in the English Lu- 
theran Church, and was duly opened by prayer 
and singing. 

I must stop here to say that in October of 1887 
our State Convention again met in Springfield, 
and in the same church, thirteen years after the 
first one. We made it a reunion and anniversary 
of this W. C. T. U. State Convention. It was 
presided over, not by a gentleman — that would 
seem funny now — but by our graceful and com- 
petent President, Mrs, H. L. Monroe. We had 
with us our first President, Mrs. M. C. McCabe, 
our first Secretary, Mrs. F. W. Leiter, and our 
first Treasurer, Mrs. E. J. Thompson, (our sec- 
ond President, Mrs. M. A. Woodbridge, not 
being present), with a goodly number of the old 
war-worn veterans from all over the State. How 



388 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

glad we were for this reunion, and how our hearts 
swelled and thrilled as we recounted all the way 
the Lord had led us. This Convention was only 
one of forty State and Territorial Conventions of 
this year of grace 1887, and we, though a full 
representation of our State, were only a fraction 
of the 250,000 women in our own land .that are 
banded together, with the vows of God upon us, 
never to lay down the weapons of our warfare 
till the blessed bells, the Crusade bells, shall 
once more ring out, but with a sweeter, gladder 
sound than ever before, proclaiming liberty 
throughout all the land, to all the people, from 
the liquor scourge. Besides, we remembered 
the thousands more in all lands who have 
joined our ranks and are waging the same war- 
fare with us. Behold what hath God wrought ! 
Blessed be His name forever more. Amen, 

The Convention organized by electing Mrs. E, 
J. Thompson, President, but she very modestly 

requested that Dr. , now Bishop Walden, be 

made Chairman in her stead. Vice-Presidents : 
Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, Cincinnati ; Mother Stewart, 
Springfield; Mrs. Bishop Thompson, Delaware; 
Mrs. Rev. Keep, Oberlin ; Mrs. Johnson, Lima ; 
Mrs. Reed, Mansfield ; Mrs. Peebles,Portsmouth ; 
Mrs, E. J. Thompson, Hillsboro ; Mrs, Dr. 
Bowls, Bridgeport; Mrs. Jacobs, Clyde; Miss 
Kate Thompson. Alliance; Secretary, Mrs. F. 
W. Leiter, Mansfield; ist Assistant Secretary, 
Prof. Shirtlcff, Oberlin ; 2nd Assistant Secretary, 
Mrs. H. Bartram, Marion. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 3S9 

There was a very general representation of all 
parts of the State, of both men and women ; an 
intelligent body of Christians, and great good- 
feeling and enthusiasm were manifest. 

A committee on business or plan of work was 
appointed, consisting of one from each Congres- 
sional District, in the following order: Rev. \V. 
I. Fee, Rev. Dr. C. H. Paine, Rev. Dr. Brew- 
ster, Rev. J. H. Montgomery, Rev. S. P. John- 
son, Mrs. H. L. Haag, Mrs. Chas. Beery, 
Mother Stewart, Mrs. E. C. McVitta, Mrs. E. 
Sullivan, Miss H. Maxon, Rev. D. A. Randall, 
Mrs. H. G. Carey, Mrs. I. R. Prichard, Mrs. 
A. C. Davis, Mrs. R. C. Graves, Mrs. M. E. 
Griffith, Mrs. M. Sperry, Rev. S. K. Dissett. A 
part o-f the duties of this committee was that of 
preparing the resolutions. 

As always in those days, at such gatherings a 
portion of time was set apart for reports of the 
work and general speaking. Men as well as women 
participated in these exercises, which were greatly 
enjoyed and very profitable. I remem.ber, 
with lively interest, the fact that in speaking of 
the condition and needs of the temperance cause, 
quite a number of men and women declared that, 
" now for the jint time in their lives," they saw 
that women must have the ballot to help close 
out the liquor curse in the country. This was so 
noticeable that a reporter who had not himself 
measured up to such an advanced position, re- 
ported that the ' 'old suffragists made themselves so 
conspicuous with their suffrage views that it might 



390 MEMORIES OF THE CKL'SADE. 

have been mistaken for a Suffrage Convention." 
But the fact was, it was not the " old suffragists." 
They were equally surprised with the reporter, 
but held their peace. Yes, these men and wom- 
en had for the ^^ first time in their lives'' obtained 
an insight into the abomination of the liquor 
traffic and the places where sold, the class that 
frequented them, the money and political power 
and the intrigues by which they controlled elec- 
tions and legislation in their own interest. No 
wonder they saw the need of woman's ballot at 
the polls, as well as her prayer at the saloon. 
But the great majority of mankind are slow to 
come to the truth, and what is a greater pity, 
they are always intolerant of those who do take 
ground in advance of them. So in this case these 
advanced thinkers were subjected to such scathing 
criticism as to very soon silence them. 

We had a very animated time over our reso- 
lutions, or more strictly, over one of them. The 
Constitutional Conv^ention had submitted a new 
constitution, to be voted upon on the i Sth of 
August. At the same time was to be submitted a 
separate clause on the license question. In view 
of the coming fight with our enemy over this 
clause, I brought in the following resolution : ' 

"Resolved, That we, not as partisans, but as 
Christian citizens, will unceasingly oppose the 
giant c\il of intemperance by personal, social and 
political influence, by the press, by the pulpit 
and by prayer." 

As first presented to the C(immittcc, it l.ickcd 
the explanatory clause. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 39 1 

There was a strong fight made on the resolu- 
tion, or rather that one very alarming word, " po- 
litical." I could not understand it. I supposed 
all understood that we were entering upon the 
most important contest ever waged in the State 
up to that time. They certainly understood that 
the temperance work must now take on a politi- 
cal feature. While we had, by God's help, done 
a glorious work in closing so many places of 
drinking, reforming so many drinkers, and even 
closing distilleries and breweries, yet the law was 
largely on the side of the traffic, and the liquor 
men would move all machinery under Heaven 
to fasten license upon us ; and our last state 
would be infinitely worse than before our work 
began. I was very much astonished that any 
temperance worker should oppose such a resolu- 
tion. I had entered into the fight against liquor 
with the black flag unfurled — I meant death to 
the trade, and I did not dream but everybody 
else meant the same. But I had already been 
subjected to some masked batteries, though I 
could not understand why. Now, again, there 
was an influence at work that I could not yet un- 
derstand. The Chairman indorsed it and en- 
gineered it through the Committee, and told me 
that when he should read it in Convention, he 
would procure me permission to speak on it. 

But, somehow, permission was not obtained. 
It did, however, elicit a very animated discussion, 
which occupied nearly the whole afternoon, and 
was adjourned over to the evening session. I was 



39-2 MEMORIES O? THE CRUSADE. 

Still unable to understand the animus underlying 
the opposition to that little word political. I 
must, in justice to the Crusaders, explain that the 
opposition came chiefly from the brethren. Upon 
going up for the evening meeting, as I approach- 
ed the door I saw a group of three or four men 
standing near, and as I approached them I heard 
one say, " there she is now;" and turning to me 
they very courteously addressed me — and — com. 
menced feeding me taffy — (Oh. dear, dear ! I beg 
everybody's pardon, — but I could not think what 
other word to use). They hoped that I, with my 
great influence, would go in and make a speech in 
favor of the proposed amendmejit to strike out that 
obnoxious word, for the sake of harmony, }-ou 
know, etc. I told them I should do no such thing. 
I did not expect to speak again, but when it 
came to a \-ote I s'.iould certainly vote against 
striking out that objectionable word, as they 
were pleased to call it. ( I wonder if the friends 
who are still glorying in the victory of that cam 
paign ever guessed where the real battle was 
fought ?) I told the gentlemen I expected to work 
up to the night before election, doing all I could 
to defeat license, and I did not propose to go 
about over the State with a padlock hanging to 
the corner of m\' mouth. Stupid as I had been 
heretofore, I began to perceive now that I was in 
the presence and hands of wire-pulling politicians, 
and was glad when I saw Rev. Spring, a man 
that I knew was honest and true, approaching. 
I called him to me and told him that here was an 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 393 

impromptu caucus and invited him to join us, ex- 
plaining the gentlemen's proposition. He very 
promptly said he should not agree to the elimi- 
nation of that word. If it was voted out he 
should leave this branch of the temperance work 
and go to the Prohibitionists, which he did not 
wish to do. We went in, and upon opening the 

proceedings, dear Sister L was put forward. 

She, in the innocence of her soul, thinking it was 
only to pour oil on the troubled waters, made a 
very pathetic appeal, not devoid of a few tears. 

About the close of her speech one of the afore- 
said gentlemen came up to me and said in a low 
voice, "Now, Mother Stewart, is your time." 
" Why," said I, "may I speak?" "Oh, yes," he 
answered. The dear man had given me credit 
for so much more tenderness of heart than I 
possessed, that he thought now surely I would 
be so touched by that appeal, " for the sake of 
peace and harmony, and to please one little 
woman" (she wasn't little by ever so much), 
that I would yield. I, however, was not looking 
at it in that light, and wondered that he should 
suggest to me to follow her. I was glad, however, 
for the opportunity, as were a good many others. 
I don't know what I said, and I never could ac- 
count for the flow of words that came to me, nor 
the result, for I carried the Convention with me, 
only upon the belief that the Lord helped me to 
frustrate those scheming men who were ready 
to risk the cause for which we had worked so 
hard, — "for the sake of the party." I know I 



394 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

was as much astonished at the result as any one 
present 

A few years since, I spoke in Carey, and after 
I closed a gentleman came up, shook hands and 
asked if I did not remember him. I was sorry to 

tell him I did not. "I am Mr. W , " said he. 

" Don't you remember that some gentlemen met 
you at the entrance of the Opera House in 
Springfield, at your first Convention, and tried to 
influence you in regard to your resolution ? I was 
one of them." "Oh, yes," said I, "and that 
was a political intrigue." " Yes it was," said he, 
frankly. 

Thus has it proven through all the struggle 
v.-ith the liquor power, that men who cared more 
for the success of their party than for the welfare 
of the people and the countr}', have been found 
mixing in with great apparent zeal and interest, 
but in fact to hold those in check who might be 
so radical, or insist upon such radical action, as 
would alienate the liquor men from their party 
and send them over to the other. 

It has been mj- misfortune, ( is it a misfortune ?) 
to incur the disapprobation of this class of poli' 
ticians, and many of the good sisters were made 
to think that it was very wrong to do or say any- 
thing that might injure the party to which their 
hu.^bands belonged. But the Crusade form of 
work was passing awa)-, and we had not entirely 
closed out the saloons, and some were even now in 
places beginning in stealthy fishion to sell again. 
Evidently we had not u.sed all the means in our 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 395 

power, and had fallen short. Now some of the 
Crusaders began to appeal to their husbands to 
vote the curse out. But we were told to go and 
pray, there were other more important questions 
before the people. The Southern question was not 
settled, the negro and the union citizens in the 
South must be protected. This, to many, was 
a very effective argument, for their sympathies 
were readily enlisted for the oppressed, and the 
sisters were not expected to know that our State 
or any other individual State had nothing to do 
with that question — of course not, when more 
than half the voters did not. 

As soon as apolitical canvass came on, we were 
told we must not bring our temperance up now^ 
— must let our meetings go over till after elec- 
tion ; after the questions growing out of the war, 
after the tariff question, etc. , then our demands 
should be considered. Ah, if the grand, old Re- 
publican party had, in strong, unmistakable dec. 
laration, indorsed prohibition directly upon that 
Crusade uprising of the women, they might 
possibly have lost their first election, they would 
certainly have parted company with a large fol- 
lowing of the liquor men who hold their place in 
the party simply to control it. But they would 
ultimately have triumphed ; for all good citizens 
would have rallied to its standard and the Re- 
publican party would have gone down in history 
as the Great Party of Moral Ideas, and with a 
record such as no other ever had, nor can it 
now have. Its blind leaders cheated it out of 



396 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

its last opportunity. But this is not all ; Ohio 
would long since have been under prohibitory 
law, with many another State following after. 

Years have passed, and the leaders are still 
intriguing, and still trying to steer their political 
craft, which has become awfully leaky, between 
Scylla and Charibdis, and still many good men 
and women are hoping that "sometime" they 
will land us safely in some blessed harbor of 
Prohibition. 

" What of the other party?" Nothing at all. 
They — in the North, I wish explicitly to be 
understood — never professed to be anything but 
a liquor party, never made any pledges, and 
consequently never broke any. They are purely 
and avowedly the liquor party and they never 
led us to expect anything else of them. And 
yet it is in history that about as many laws 
prohibiting or restraining the traffic have been 
passed by Democratic as Republican legisla- 
tures. The patent fact is that these parties 
are simply striving to retain, or obtain, control 
of the government, regardless of the means 
by which that control is obtained or of the 
true interests of the people. It is conceded 
that there are good and true men in both these 
parties, but that is of no consequence, since they 
can have no control of the party. And now, 
since I am on tiie subject, I will add that the 
"tax law " that the Republican party boasts of 
having given to the people as a temperance 
measure, is not what the temperance people 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 39/ 

demanded — is not what we want. It was a 
measure which the large dealers gladly assented 
to for the hope of "taking the question out of 
politics," and it is an infraction of the spirit of 
the Constitution of our State. If this party can 
pass laws to restrict and regulate, why can it not 
pass a law to prohibit ? If it is only able to do 
one and not the other, then it cannot meet the 
demands of the people and the times. 

But I have wandered off a long ways from the 
Convention, and must hasten back. Our work 
had been, a wonderful training school for the 
women, teaching them self-reliance, and develop- 
ing ability to pray and speak in public assemblies, 
to lead meetings and bands, organize leagues, 
and preside over and conduct Conventions and 
business meetings with parliamentary precision, 
as well as womanly grace. Quite a number 
were, by this time, giving considerable time to 
traveling, lecturing and organizing. It was not 
a little surprising, therefore, to some of us, that 
the Business Committee should decide that it 
was necessary that the State Executive Com- 
mittee "employ agents for the next two months 
to call and attend County Conventions, superin- 
tend the more complete and thorough organiza- 
tions of townships, villages and local leagues." 

"That the State Executive Committee be 
instructed to take such measures as will secure 
the necessary funds for carrying out the above 
plan." [The women had hitherto done their 
work, chiefly trusting to the Lord and the 



398 MEMORIES O? THE CRUSADE. 

liberality of the people, without stipulation.] 
Further matter of pondering was that these four 
agents were all gentlemen and of one political 
party, and some of them were of my aforesaid 
interviewers. 

Our State Union was organized with — Presi- 
dent, Mrs. H. C. McCabe, of Delaware ; Secre- 
tary, Mrs. F. W. Leiter, Mansfield ; Treasurer, 
Mrs. E. J. Thompson, Hillsboro. 

A Vice-President for each District was elected 
as follows : ist, Mrs. Rev. W. I. Fee, Cincin- 
nati ; 2d, Mrs. E. D. Moore, Cincinnati ; 3d, 
Mrs. Belle Parshall, Lebanon ; 4th, Mrs. Rev. 
Wm. Herr, Dayton; 5th, Mrs. Dr. G. G. 
Hackaedon, Lima ; 6th, Mrs. Jennie Brown, 
East Toledo ; 7th, Mrs. C. A. Beery, Chilli- 
cothe ; 8th, Mother Stewart, Springfield ; 9th, 
Mrs. Anna Sabin, Richwood ; loth, Mrs. H. 
Brown, Findlay ; nth, Mrs. R. B. Wilson, 
Gallipolis; 12th, Mrs. B. M. McMillen, Circle- 
ville; 13th, Mrs. Rev. J. F. Ohl, Zanesville ; 
14th, Mrs. L. M. Albright, Upper Sandusky; 
15th, Mrs. Angella C. Davis, Athens; i6th, 
Mrs. Rose Wood, Martin's Ferry; 17th, Mrs. 
Mary B. Reese, Alliance; i8th, Mrs. Briggs, 
Wadsworth ; 19th, Mrs. J. C. Bateham, Paines- 
ville ; 20th, Mrs. J. C. Delamater, Cleveland. 

It was not a little gratifying, in looking over 
the newspaper reports of the Convention, to 
come across the following, which I had for- 
gotten : 

Mrs. Huddclson, of Cincinnati, moved that in 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 399 

view of the Christian heroism and self-denial of 
Mother Stewart, as manifested in her earnest and 
constant labors for the great cause of Temperance 
during the past eight months, 

Resolved, That the Convention tender her its 
appreciation of her devotion to the cause of her 
Master and her race, and that it help her with its 
prayers. Which was adopted. 

As an indication of our growth, the following 

from the Springfield Republic will be interesting 

to the reader: 

A cloud as large, fully, as a man's hand, appeared 
above the Convention horizon just before the time 
for adjournment. Rev. J. W. Spring, of this city, 
introduced a resolution to abolish the use of fer- 
mented wine at church communions. A lively 
discussion ensued. An amendment was offered 
recommending that unfermented wine only be used 
at such service. 

Mr. Middleton moved a substitute to the effect 
that it be recommended to churches to consider the 
propriety of dispensing with the use of fermented 

wine at communion. Mrs. , of Cleveland, 

hoped the Convention would not be so fanatical as 
to entertain such a resolution. Resolution, amend- 
ment and substitute were then laid on the table by a 
vote of 87 to 55. 

It is justice to Brother Spring, who introduced 
the resolution, to say that he had in his minis- 
terial work witnessed the fatal consequences of 
presenting the cup of fermented wine to the 
reformed man struggling against his besetting 
sin. It will also be just to the'^ Chairman, who 
forestalled action upon the resolution by giving 
his own decision against it, to say that in a 
conversation with Mrs. H., a few days later, in 
my presence, he said that he did not at the time 
understand the nature of the resolution. 



400 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

But haven't wc grown ? 

The occasion of our first State Convention was 
one of strengthening of purposes, obtaining 
broader views of the work and the great battle 
we had entered upon. It was a grand benediction, 
and we all buckled on our armor with renewed 
hope, faith and zeal, and hastened away to our 
several fields of labor. 

A BUSV CAMPAIGN AND HARD-FOUGHT BATTLE. 

During all the summer, rarely leaving the 
State, giving time and such talent as I had, I 
did my best to help defeat the license clause to 
the Constitution. I organized my own District 
at once, then off, without waiting to arrange 
routes and thus shorten distances between 
points. The calls came from the most opposite 
extremes of the State, and I endeavored to fill 
them in the order of their dates. This caused 
much unnecessary travel and heavy expense, for 
in those days I had no fax'ors in the way of 
reduced fare on any railroads, nor for many 
years after, being too modest to make applica- 
tion. I always think, with pleasure, of a single 
exception. I was findiiig my way to one of the 
C(Hmty seats in the eastern part of the State, and 
liad taken passage on a new road leading" to the 
town, when a gentleman entered the car, and 
coming near where I sat, inquired if INIother 
Stewart was al)Oiud. I answered that I was 
Mother Stewart, whereupon he handed me a pass 
over his road, he being the President. It was 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 4OI 

not the amount — for that indeed was small — but 
the kindly act was infinitely more to me than it 
cost him. Its rarity, I may say singularity, has 
caused me to remember it with grateful pleasure 
all these years. 

I am reminded here that one of the many 
pleasant experiences and happenings that came 
to me was, that a lady at our National Conven- 
tion in Minneapolis introduced herself, saying 
she heard me lecture in Carrolton twelve years 
before, and remembered my peculiar subject, 
"A Screw Loose," suggested by the yet un- 
settled condition of the new road-bed. When 
I told her of my favor on the road by the Presi- 
dent, but expressed my regret that I had 
forgotten the gentleman's name, "Yes," she 
said, "that was my husband." 

Many other Crusaders also did valiant service 
in the new phase of work, that of influencing the 
voters to vote against license. We held conven- 
tions, mass meetings, street meetings, grove 
meetings, and nearly everywhere had large aud- 
iences, and some pretty exciting experiences. 
At Perrysburg, in the northern part of the State, 
I spoke in front of a store, standing on a dry 
goods box. While a saloon-keeper across the 
way, with the assistance of some lewd fellows of 
the baser sort, with some sort of musical instru- 
ment, endeavored to produce a discordant counter 
attraction. A mild-mannered missile, in the shape 
of a small mud ball, was sent over as an argu- 

(26) 



402 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADE. 

ment on the other side of the question, but it 
fell harmless at my feet. 

From Perrysburg I went to Toledo, and spoke 
Sabbath morning in a church. I do not remem- 
ber where, but do remember that it was a fear- 
fully hot July day. In the afternoon I addressed 
an audience in an orchard in East Toledo. I fell 
into the hands of, and was kindly entertained 
and cared for by that big-hearted couple of tire- 
less workers, both in the Church and temperance 
cause, D. N. Trowbridge and wife. Early on 
Monday morning Mr. Trowbridge took me to 
call on several of the temperance people, with 
the hope of enlisting them more fully in the con- 
flict that was each day waxing more intense. 
We visited and had a very pleasant interview 
with Ex-Governor Lee, who manifested much 
interest in the cause. We also called on a min- 
ister — I am rather glad to say that I cannot re- 
member his name — who declared very emphati- 
cally that he was not going to work unless 
" they " paid him. Brother Trowbridge, with- 
out a word, put his hand in his pocket and taking 
out the contents (of course I did not see the 
amount, but it was a snug little roll), handed it to 
him and drove away. Another call was on Dr. 
Tenney, a friend of my Marietta Seminary days. 
I met him at our recent State Prohibition Con- 
vention, in Toledo (May 24, 25, 188S). and he 
told me that he did, as I suggested, go out and 
do what lie could to help win our victory. The 
ladies have in the years that have passed done a 
great deal of hard work in Toledo. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 403 

At Tiffin, I was speaking in the yard of one 
of the churches, when the h'quor men sent a poor, 
intoxicated man into the audience, who made 
his way as near as possible to me with the pur- 
pose of saying something, when I called the at- 
tention of the people to the fact that the trade 
had sent us in a specimen of their handiwork in 
effacing the image of the Creator and substitut- 
ing that of a brute. The poor creature was not 
so drunk but he caught an idea of what I was 
saying and that he was the subject, and with 
some degree of shame he suffered himself to be 
led quietly away. 

At Napoleon, I addressed the people from the 
portico of the Court House, following that grand 
and eloquent man, Rev. Dr. Marine, of Indiana. 
A trial of a liquor case was in progress in the 
town, and there was great excitement. While I 
was speaking a few eggs were thrown into the 
audience, but T believe only one person was hit. 
A drinking man present went to Esq. Haag, who 
was prosecuting the case, and told him that he 
had been a drinking man, had always, been here- 
tofore on the side of the liquor men, but, said he, 
** When it comes to this, that alady shall be thus 
insulted, I am done, and henceforth I am with 
the other side. I have called to ask to be sworn, 
for I know enough to close every saloon in town. " 

An urgent call came from Franklin. * * A hor- 
rible murder and suicide has been committed and 
we need you." The saloons were beginning to 
open up again and of course the consequences 



404 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

were following closely after. As soon as I found 
I could go, I telegraphed them. When I arrived 
it was nearly meeting time, but the telegram had 
not reached them. But a committee of ladies 
came together in counsel and in a few minutes 
they had boys out over town with bells, crying, 
' ' Mother Stewart ! Mother Stewart ! at the Bap- 
tist Church corner !" and by the time to com- 
mence we had a good gathering, I standing on a 
platform of boxes, while my audience stood 
in the yard and on the street. Here was where 
the sisters had done such faithful work, but, as 
nearly everywhere, the men had failed to hold 
the ground the women had taken. 

There was a poor woman in town whose hus- 
band was a drunkard, and when under the in- 
fluence of liquor abusive and dangerous, often 
threatening her life. She was the sole support 
of herself and five children. She went to the 
town authorities and told her situation, saying 
she was afraid for her life, but they told her not 
to be alarmed, there was no danger. She went 
to some of the temperance men, but they, too, 
told her to go home, there was no danger. One 
hot July day the poor thing did a heavy washing 
to earn bread for herself and children. When the 
evening came she brought in and folded her great 
basket of clothes, and she and the children 
retired. About ten o'clock the man came in, 
crazed with drink, took a gun and shot his wife 
and then himself The children, abed in the 
same room, witnessed the shocking tragedy and 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 405 

gave the alarm. When the neighbors arrived 
both were dead and a river of blood had flowed 
from the bed across the room to the hearth. A 
saloon-keeper made a few cents by selling the 
liquor, two lives were sacrificed and five 
children were thrown upon the charities of the 
world. And this is a Christian land! 

The ladies of London, wonderfully practical 
and rich in expedients to advance the cause, 
took advantage of the monthly stock sales for this 
purpose. These occasions always called together 
a large crowd of people, not only from all 
over the county, but frequently from long dis- 
tances. The ladies sent for me to come to them 
on one of these occasions. With the help of our 
lamented Brother Finley and others, the ladies 
arranged for me to speak from the Court House 
portico, it being on the corner of two of the most 
prominent business streets. It was a strange, 
weird scene. The portico is reached by a 
flight of several stone steps, which made conven- 
ient seating for the ladies, On this the Crusa- 
ders found seats. Men stood wherever they 
could find standing room inside the Court House 
yard or outside on the street. Over all, the 
clouds hung low, ashen and sombre. The stock 
men were out in the main street, but in sight and 
sound, riding their horses up and down, crying 
their qualities and prices ; others in a lively com- 
petition of bidding, added to the sound of voices. 
Mixed in were parties driving yokes of oxen, or 
leading patient meek-eyed cows into the throng. 



400 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

On the portico stood a gray-haired woman, with 
what powers of oratory she possessed striving to 
show men the dangers threatening our fair Com- 
monwealth if we failed to defeat the license 
scheme of the liquor men ; and urging them, as 
they loved their homes and country, to vote for 
the best interests of the same. • 

So, going and working up to the day before 
election, I addressed an out-door meeting in the 
afternoon from the Court House steps in Urbana, 
took the train home, went direct from the cars 
to the City Hall and addressed a fine audience of 
my colored, voting fellow-citizens — or yours, I am 
not a voter, I am only a woman. I reached home 
at eleven o'clock at night. If I had gone the 
next day and offered to add my vote to my labors 
on the side of the best interests of humanity, I 
would have been fined and imprisoned and who 
knows what not — because I am a woman. 

But thus it was, we fought and won the battle, 
and defeated the liquor clause in the constitution 
by something over seven thousand votes, though 
nearly every secular paper in the State was 
against us and in the interest of the liquor men. 
We, at the same time, did our best to defeat the 
Constitution, so that if we were beaten on the 
license issue we might escape through the failure 
of the adoption of the Constitution, and it too 
was defeated. The people of Ohio said emphatic- 
ally, WE WILL NOT HAVE THIS SUM OF ALL 
VILLAINIES FASTENED UPON US- 



CHAPTER XX. 



Enumeration of the Benefits of the Cnisade. 

^^ N SEPTEMBER a call was made by the 
^5^ President, Mrs. McCabe, for a meeting of 
the State Executive Committee, to try to 
devise some answer to the oft-repeated inquiry, 
"What next shall we do?" The Crusade form 
of work had ceased, and in many places the 
women were at a loss to know what to do, or 
how to keep up the interest and carry forward 
the work. What a bewilderment of joy it 
would have been to those dear, tried and 
puzzled Crusaders to have had poured into 
their laps — their laps couldn't begin to hold them 
— the instructions, the helps, the hints, the leaflets. 
Union Signal (a whole magazine of itself), and 
books "too numerous to mention," that the 
sisters of to-day are feasting on and fairly rioting 
in, on the endless branches of work that have been 
taken up in the past years. But we were then still 
feeling our way, and, with prayer and tears, look- 
ing to the Lord to lead us on. 

We met at Delaware and had a very pleasant 
session, discussing and recommending various 

407 



408 MEMOKII S OF Tlirl CIX'SADI-:. 

methods of prosecuting our work. One that was 
recommended by the sub-committee and indorsed 
by the whole, w^as to prepare for watching the 
legislature. Our McConnelsvii'.e Ordinance had 
been threatened the year before ; and it was now 
evident that a desperate move would be made on 
the legislature by the liquor men to break down 
what little refuge of law we had. This plan, 
evolved after not a little reflection, was to instruct 
the county unions to select, say, three of their 
best members for such a mission, including at 
least one gentleman, holding them as "minute 
men," ready to go upon summons of a commit- 
tee at the Capital and give a week to watching 
and working with the members — thus through- 
out the session, or at least when the liquor 
question should be brought forward, keeping 
vieriiant oversicfht of our law-makers. But, as I 
have said, while this suggestion was unanimously 
adopted, it was not acted upon. I never learned 
wh)\ Possibly it was considered too aggressive, 
ma\' be looked too much like ' ' mixing in politics." 
But we have long since come to see the necessit)' 
of watching our Solons. In our own State we 
have a little lady standing tluimgh the long session 
all >nc, watching with intense vigilance the action of 
the Legislature on her Scientific Instruction Hill. 
(Since this writing she has succeeded, though 
the law is not all she asked.) The prohibitory 
feature of the ordinance was repealed that win- 
ter, and the Adair law was so crippled by the 
amendment making it necessary to give ten days 



•Mrs. F. W. Leiter. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 4.O9 

notice before prosecution, as to virtually render 
it of no effect. 

I was filling a series of engagements in Penn- 
sylvania, when the call for the meeting reached 
me, the last point being Meadville, After my 
evening lecture, I went from the church to the 
depot and waited till twelve o'clock, then took 
the train and reached Delaware about one o'clock 
next day; did not get my breakfast till after one. 
The loss of sleep, fatigue and fasting brought on a 
sickening headache. But I continued to work 
with the committee, and we were about closing up, 
when a gentleman came in from a political con- 
vention that was in session in the city. He, in 
very polite fashion, explained that he had been 
commissioned as a committee of one by the con- 
vention to come and invite the ladies to visit that 
body. The delegates desired so much to hear 
the Crusaders ; they did not know of our meeting 
when they arranged for theirs ; they were very 
sorry. He was himself a Crusader and felt a 
deep interest in the temperance work, etc. It 
must have been that I was again overtaken with 
a spasm of the immortal Topsy's ailment, for I 
suggested to my neighbor to move that we accept 
the invitation, and she did. Tb.e motion was 
seconded and after several counts. during which I 
could see that the chairman v-'as not a little dis- 
turbed in mind, it was carried, and the presiding 
officer, not a little reluctantly, led us in proces- 
sion to the City Hall. 

The speaker was in the midst of an exposition of 



4IO MEMORIIS OF THE CKUSADE. 

the evil deeds of the other party ; whether it was 
timed for the occasion I could not say. When he 
was through, our chairman was invited to introduce 
some of her lady speakers. She presented two, 
who spoke for a few minutes. I think she had 
her doubts about putting Mother Stewart forward 
in a political meeting. But there seemed to be a 
demand for me, and she sent the Secretary of the 
meeting to take me to the platform. As I have 
said, I was very weary and my head was aching 
fearfully. I did not know when I stepped forward 
what I should say, but started out with the 
remark that finding ourselves mixed up in a 
political meeting, it would be necessary for us 
Crusaders to define our position, lest we might 
be misunderstood. Sister Reese just then came 
to my rescue by saying, " Step onto that plank 
in the platform. Mother Stewart, " referring to the 
rather narrow and very weak plank this party had 
inserted in its platform that year in regard to 
temperance. Looking down at my feet with a 
blush of mortification, I responded that I could 
not stand on it, my feet were too large. This was 
more wickedness, and was not relished very well. 
But there were a good many gentlemen there 
who saw and expressed their appreciation of the 
point. I told them that while we gave all honor, 
to men, in whatever party, who enrolled themselves 
with us, the Crusaders were all prohibitionists 
-whether they knew it or not, that was the fact. 
I had never heard a Crusader offer up a prayer, 
whether in the loathsome den where eternal woe 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 4II 

was dealt out at a few pennies a glass, or on the 
hard, frozen ground, ^but the cry was always, ' ' Oh 
Lord, wipe out the curse." There were enough 
present to endorse the sentiments I uttered and 
as I passed out they said some very kind words. 
But I have never been invited to address a politi- 
cal meeting of that complexion since, and, as far 
as I know that was the last open attempt to 
"capture the Crusaders," I was, I have not 
much doubt, however, laying up wrath for myself 
against the " day of wrath," that was revealed 
only a few weeks later. 

In October I was called to Chicago by our now 
world-renowned National President, Miss F. E. 
Willard, who had been made President of the 
union there,and had entered with great earnestness 
and enthusiasm into the work, — which earnestness 
and enthusiasm have been increasing with each 
succeeding year in geometrical ratio. I spent a 
week in the city, — our Sister M. E. Griffith, now 
temperance evangelist of Kansas, was there at 
the same time. Our first meeting was a citizens' 
mass meeting, held in the First M. E. Church, 
Dr. Thomas then being pastor, and Dr. Ryder, of 
the Universalist Church, presided. For many 
reasons this was an important meeting. It was 
among the earliest moves of our wonderfully 
efficient and far-seeing President. The place, 
the men, ministers, lawyers and business men 
that helped to compose that assembly, giving 
character to it by their unqualified indorsement, 
combined to make it an important initiation of 



412 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

many such that have followed. But with all, 
Chicago stoutly maintains high license. Not high 
enough, however. I see the City Collector sug- 
gests that the license will have to be raised to 
prevent the further multiplication of saloons, but 
nothing said about the reduction of drinks, or of 
the souls sent through these wide-open gates to 
eternal woe. And I see that a Judge has recently 
decided that a saloon-keeper indicted for selling 
liquor to a young girl, that caused her ruin, was 
not guilty because the law readspmiors, and this 
was only ONE! Smart people, those Chicagoans. 
Sensible, very ! Why didn't they impose a high 
license on those Haymarket assassins, instead of a 
high gallows? I wonder if there can be found ten 
righteous men in this Sodom by the sea? Let us 
see, there is the editor of the JV. JV. CJiristnan 
Advocate ,2,Vid. Dr. Judkins.and Dr. Herrick John- 
son, (but he opposes the ballot in woman's hand ; 
he'll come to it beautifully, though, before this 
cruel war is over). Van Fleet, that might}- nian 
with his hand on the " Lever;" Hobbs, and Geo. 
C. Hall, and — and — who else? I believe the Lord 
is counting in the women in this case of emergenc}\ 
Mrs. Carsc, Mrs Hobbs, Mrs. Rounds, and then 
our ubiquitous President, is there a good deal, 
too, with a brigade of white ribbon soldiers, all 
working and praj'ing with their might. But 
what (^f our meeting? I will introduce the editor 
of the N. \V. ChristiaN Advocate, who will report 
it better than I can : 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 413 

THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN CHICAGO. 

A great temperance meeting took place in the First 
Methodist Episcopal church, Oct. 29th evening, 
which is the sign of the opening campaign against 
intemperance in this city. The church was filled 
with people of all denominations, assembled for the 
one purpose of commencing a war in defense of 
sobriety. Dr. W. H. Ryder, Pastor of St. Paul's 
Universalist church, was chosen chairman. Addresses 
were made by Rev. Dr. W. W. Everts, Pastor of the 
First Baptist church, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Pastor of 
the First M. E. church, Miss Frances E. Willard, 
President of the Woman's Temperance Association; 
Hon. Emory A. Storrs, and others. Dr. Everts 
thought public opinion should be directed to the one 
point of suppressing the four thousand saloons of 
Chicago. As long as these dens were in existence it 
would be impossible to prevent young men from fall- 
ing victims to intoxicating liquors. Dr. Everts is 
right. But how is this "Giant Grim" to be overthrown ? 
The doctor gave point to his remarks by instancing 
Evanston, a place of ten thousand people, where 
there is not a grog-shop in existence. Dr. Thomas 
expressed himself as heart and soul with the move- 
ment. He advocated the right of women to vote, as 
one of the means of reforming the country. Miss 
Willard gave an interesting account of the recent 
temperance Convention held at Bloomington, 111., and 
announced a programme of temperance meetings for 
this week in various parts of the city. Hon. Emory 
A. Storrs, who is a lawyer of high standing in his 
profession, delivered a forcible address, in which he 
showed that the claim that drunkenness is due largely 
to impure liquors, was a deception and a fraud. He 
urged that the only safety was in total abstinence. 
Make drinking intoxicating liquors disreputable as 
gambling is disreputable, and it would be a long 
step toward reform. Mr. Storrs urged that complete 
organization of the friends of temperance must be 
effected and diligent work must be done. 

The best speech of the evening was made by 
"Mother" Stewart, the woman who began "the 
Crusade " in Ohio. She struck several nails on the 



414 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

head as follows : I come to you as a committee of 
one to say that the way to advance our cause is for 
every man and woman to exert themselves to the 
utmost in the suppression of the crime of drunkenness. 
The evil is one of gigantic proportions, but it can be 
put down if the people will it. I thought this even- 
ing of the text, ** Righteousness exalteth a nation, 
but sin is a reproach to any people." I charge you 
with being a nation of drunkards, and you have been 
asleep to the existence of the evil. Many of our 
ministers have gone down to their graves drunkards. 
This is a terrible fact, but upon investigation it has 
proved to be correct. The church is to blame for 
it, and I do not charge the church wrongfully. Its 
members have slept at their posts, and we have 
what you see — a nation of drunkards. The number 
of saloons in every city of the United States is largely 
out of proportion to the number of churches. In 
New York there are sufficient saloons to reach ten 
miles, six stories high, and in your own city you have 
four thousand saloons. Are we a Christian people ? 
Each one of these saloons can do more damage in 
one Sabbath than all your churches put together can 
counteract. It is a pitiful sight to see women have to 
rise up and plead with men only to keep the laws. What 
would the world have said if the men had allowed 
the women to turn out during the late war and meet 
the enemy ? But women are now facing a more ter- 
rible foe than our soldiers had to face, and it is 
necessary that both men and women should join in 
this work. There is no issue involved in the present 
elections which so vitally affects the interests of the 
country as does this temperance question, and it is 
the duty of every man during this election to vote A)r 
men who will assist in supi)ressing the evil of intem- 
perance. I say to you men to-day, the whisky ring 
represents you and your wives and daughters, and 
that ring rules you with a rod of iron. (Applause.) 
You are going to have an election in a few days, and 
many of the balloting places are in saloons. You will 
not have ballot-boxes in saloons when your wives 
and daughters have votes. Men talk so much about 
the ])olicy of exjiediency, but I say there is no policy 
but the policy of right. ( Applause.) What can be 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 415 

more deplorable than to have our country ruled by- 
whisky and our sons and husbands dragged to eternal 
woe. Your laws against drinking are merely sops 
thrown to you by the liquor-dealers. Among your 
laws you have one which provides that a man shall 
obtain a certificate of his good moral character before 
he can become a saloon-keeper. The very idea of 
the thing ! It is an utter impossibility for such a man 
to have a good moral character. If women had made 
such a law, men would say, " It is just what we can 
expect from them." (Laughter, and "Hear, 
Hear. " ) I say if the liquor trafhc were stopped, 
your taxes would soon be cut down. I want you men 
to understand that from this traffic, sixty-one million 
dollars goes into the treasury of the United States, 
and it takes ninety million dollars to keep up this 
wicked traffic. I ask you to put these figures in your 
hats, and when you go to the polls look at these 
figures and vote for the suppression of the evil which 
must destroy the country. I appeal to you to crush 
out this traffic before the country is destroyed by it. 
( Applause.) 

There is the true ring of the reformer in these 
sentences, which will bear examination, as an address, 
which cannot be said of mere " gush." The sug- 
gestion that polling places will be removed from 
saloons when women vote, will prove itself true to the 
conscious prescience of every person. It is time we 
men began to see more clearly than we do the de- 
moralizing tendencies of this aUiance of politics and 
whisky, which is so patent to every one, when he 
comes to the exercise of the highest prerogative of an 
American citizen, the casting of a vote for the men 
who are to carry on the functions of his government. 
Before the meeting adjourned, a first-rate committee 
was nominated to thoroughly organize for effective 
work in the temperance cause throughout the city. 
Dear people, be moving everywhere. 

It w^as at this meeting, to the best of my recol- 
lection, that I uttered the first word in the Cru- 
sade campaign on the subject of woman suffrage. 
This statement I know will surprise many who 



4l6 MEMOKIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

have heard that by my "persistent lugging in of 
woman suffrage, I had broken up the work in 
my State." In response to Dr. Thomas' assertion 
that it would be necessary to put the ballot into 
woman's hand before we would be able to over- 
come the evil, I said, when that time came, the 
polling bo.xes would not be found in the saloons, 
as was the case in Chicago at that time. It does 
not look on the face of it as though that declara- 
tion was worthy of death, docs il ? 

A few weeks after, in Eaton Rapids, Mich., 
the Methodist minister in whose church I spoke, 
having seen the report of this meeting, and being 
himself a warm advocate of equal suffrage, called 
mc out on the subject. I explained that I had 
not mentioned the subject in connection with my 
Crusade work, but now, bt.-ing called on for my 
views, I felt free to give them. Even then, and 
under such circumstances, it was pretty near 
worth my life to do it. But it was known that I 
held this view, which was reason enough for 
bitter persecution. I am not lonesome now, for 
I have a great army of white ribboners with me. * 
Hut I cannot leave this Chicago mass-meeting 
wi.houL leLrring to one other fict that to me 

I am linppy to record ili:\t .it thnt [greatest convontii^ii 
ever licl'l ill this or .iiiy other c uintry, .May 30, 31, iSSS, in 
Iiidi.iHapolis, the Prohibition party, with scarcely a nien- 
tiona''le opposition, reafliriiicil their ciulorseinent of equal 
MifTra;:;- irre'^iiccti'-'c of sex. .Vnd IVances E. Willaul and 
Sam -mall, liithero leaders of the opposite wings, step' od 
onto the plank aiul stooil theri' with clasprd hands, while 
the Convention, amid the wavintj of handkerchiefs and 
wildest enthusiasm, drove the golden spike of eternal jus- 
tice iiilv) it, nailing it lirnily to the platform forever. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 417 

had much significance. It has been stated that 
Dr. Ryder, of the Universahst Church, presided. 
I, being the stranger, was last on the programme. 
When my turn came, the Doctor took me by 
the hand and led me to the front of the plat- 
form, where we stood for a few moments in silence, 
while the audience greeted us with prolonged 
applause. It was one of the happiest experiences 
of my life. I had seen from the beginning that 
it would require the unitedefifort of ^//Christians 
of all names to overcome the enemy ; and I had 
in a quiet way done what I could to enlist in our 
ranks members from all Churches, not forgetting 
those of the Universahst denomination. Not 
that they were reluctant to aid, for I have gen- 
erally found both ministers and people of that 
church sound on the temperance question, many 
of the ministers among the strongest advocates 
of the cause. But some of our good orthodox 
friends were not sure whether the great call to 
go out into the vineyard was a general one. 
Here, after the toil and the tears, was my spirit 
cheered as by a cluster of the grapes of Eshcol. 
A veteran Methodist of more than forty years, 
and a learned divine of the Universalist Church, 
standing hand in hand in the blessed work, while 
that vast audience with a good will shouted, 
"Amen." 

Yes, one of the most blessed features of our 
work was the breaking down of the sectarian 
barriers that had so long prevented united 
Christian effort for the advancement of the 

(27) 



41 8 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADL. 

Redeemer's kingdom. It was not a little amus- 
ing to hear our sisters say, after a short associa- 
tion in our Crusade, "Why, I don't see but they 
arejustlikeus. " "Why, she prays just like a Meth- 
odist, " or "I never thought I could come to 
feel so much at home with the Methodists." " I 
love those Baptist sisters as well as I do those of 
our own church." How blessed it was to come 
to feel that we all belonged to the same house- 
hold of faith, and were, in very deed, all one in 
Christ Jesus. 

After closing my engagements in Chicago, I 
filled a series of engagements in Michigan, be- 
ginning at Muskegon, thence to White Hall, 
then through tlf5 dense forests thirty miles by 
private conveyance to Pent W^ater, where I first 
met our dear Sister E. J. Gray, who was leading 
the work up in that forest region. She afterwards 
returned to Ohio, and for several years served 
with unflagging zeal and energy as our State 
Treasurer. From Pent Water I went to Big 
Rapids. Here dear Sister Hood, the President, full 
of zeal and enthusiasm, devised quite an ingenious 
method of getting out an audience. Some of 
the good citizens had been considerably exercised 
on the subject of Spiritualism, and as I walked 
along the board sidewalks, I saw at short distances, 
pastc(.l on the boards, "Mother Stewart will 
lecture tonight on Spirits!" Somewhat ambigu- 
ous, but we had a good audience ; interrupted 
however by the cry of " fire !" about the time 
we got fairly into our subject, which soon took 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 419 

our audience. In those Michigan lumber regions 
a fire has more than ordinary terrors. This was 
a business house in the most crowded part of the 
town. While the firemen worked hour after 
hour, the W. C. T. U., having organized for the 
purpose, stood by them with hot coffee, and 
guarding them from the ever present temptation, 
the saloon. Thus they stood guard till 2 o'clock 
in the morning. The business men expressed 
their gratitude in warmest terms, saying it was 
due to the ladies that the fiiemen were kept 
sober and able to at length subdue the flames 
without the destruction of property that would 
otherwise inevitably have followed. We were 
not interrupted the second night. In my 
route I spoke in one of Michigan's pleasant col- 
lege towns, and was entertained by the matron 
of the institution, a very intelligent and pious 
lady. I asked her if the students gave much 
trouble to the professors. "Oh no," she an- 
swered, she heard of no cases of discipline. Did 
they have no trouble in regard to their drinking 
or visiting the saloons? "No," none that she 
heard of The next morning, before I left, a 
lady who lived near the college called on me, 
and with so much feehng that she could not 
keep back the tears, said she felt that she must 
come and unburden her heart to me. There 
was a liquor-seller next door to her who was 
ruining the students ; he had a chamber only 
across a narrow alley from her own, where nightly 
the students were in the habit of gathering, after 



420 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the professors had retired, and drinking and 
having what they, poor deluded creatures, called 
a "good time." She begged me to see if some- 
thing could not be done to save them. But I 
had to leave. If I could have had the informa- 
tion before my lecture, perhaps I might have at 
least "ventilated " the case. So often it has oc- 
curred that the very facts that I could have used 
to good purpose would not reach me till it would 
be too late. 

My last meeting in the series was at Jackson, 
where I was entertained by a minister of the i\I. 
E. Church, who on Sabbath morning broiled 
the beefsteak in most appetizing fashion, and 
made a delicious cup of coffee, then took a car- 
riage and drove me to a church and preached 
me a good sermon. It was a woman, of course. 
Rev. Mary T. Lathrop, of whom all the world has 
long since heard. 

FIRST NATIONAL W. C. T. CONVENTION. 

A twelve-month had rolled around, our Cru- 
sade spirit had spread far and wide. State after 
State had fallen into line. But there was yet 
much land to be possessed and regions beyond 
to be reached, and the "praying women" were 
still looking to the Lord for guidance. One of 
them, Mattie McC. Brown, who had been in the 
field for years before the Crusade, with pen 
and voice urging on the Good Templar hosts, 
was spending a season at Chautauqua that 
summer. And here, while before the Lord, the 
thought of a National Convention was impressed 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 42 1 

upon her mind. She hastened to communicate 
it to other " praying women. " A counsel was 
held and the result was, a National Convention 
was called to meet in Cleveland, November i8th. 
This call was responded to by a large representa- 
tion of women from all the States where our 
work had been taken up. The enthusiasm, the 
good feeling and loving greetings of the dear 
sisters, many of whom I had organized and led 
onto the street, others whom I had been called 
to help, with many others whom I had never 
met before, were very cheering to the weary 
Crusader. 

The Convention was duly organized by elect- 
ing Mrs. Jennie F. Willing, of Illinois, as Chair- 
man, with a Vice - President from each State 
represented. Miss Aureta Hoyt, of Indianapolis, 
Ind., and Mrs. Mary Burt, Auburn, N. Y., 
were elected Secretaries; Mrs, W. A. Ingham, 
Cleveland, Treasurer. 

A very full and fair report of the proceedings 
of this first National Convention was given by the 
various papers represented. Among these, I 
may name the National Tempera?ice Advocate, hy 
its editor, J. N. Stearns; the Cincinnati C*!?;;/- 
nicrcialjhy the regular reporter, Mr. Loomis, and 
the Cincinnati Gazette, by Col. Furay. 

The various committees were appointed and in 
due time brought in their several reports, which 
were acted upon by the Convention. The elec- 
tion of officers resulted as follows : 

President, Mrs. Anna Wittenmyer; Corre- 



422 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

spending Secretary, Miss F. E. Willard ; Record- 
ing Secretary, Mrs. Mary C. Johnson ; Treasurer, 
Mrs W. A. Ingham ; with some twelve Vice- 
Presidents. 

From a lengthy report lying before me, I see 
that upon the convention being declared organ- 
ized and ready for work. Mother Stewart, of 
Springfield, Ohio, moved the appointment of a 
Committee on Plan of Work, and Mother Stew- 
art ; Mrs. Z. G. Wallace, of Indiana; Mrs. Allen 
Butler, of N. Y.; Mrs. J. S. CoUins, of Pennsyl- 
vania ; Miss F. E. Willard, of Chicago, 111., were 
appointed, and Mrs. H. N. K. Goff and Mrs. 
M. McC. Brown were added by request. 

This committee, out of much free discussion, 
interchange of views and earnest prayer, brought 
forth the first Appeal and Flan of Work of the 
National Union. The committee working on it 
till time for adjournment at night, put it into 
the hands of Miss Willard and Mrs. M. McClel- 
lan Brown, our Secretaries, who finished it, and 
on their knees at 2 o'clock in the morning, first 
submitted it to the Lord for His acceptance and 
blessing ; and the next morning it was presented 
to the convention. The following is a copy of 
this: 

ADDRESS AND PLAN OF WORK PRESENTED BY THE 

UNDERSIGNED COMMITTEE TO THE WOMEN'S 

NATIONAL CONVENTION. 

APPEAL. 

Women, sisters, mothers in all lands, give your at- 
tention to the facts herein stated and let them awaken 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 423 

in your humane hearts all the noble instincts of your 
twofold nature. 

The liquor traffic is the greatest curse of our race. 
It is undermining our nation by violating the spirit 
and letter of its Constitution (which was framed for 
the protection of the weak against the strong), by an- 
tagonizing all the noble principles upon which it is 
founded, by paralyzing all our institutions, civil, intel- 
lectual, moral and religious, by perverting the cardi- 
nal issues of human destiny, life, liberty and love, 
which embody " the pursuit of happiness." 

This traffic is draining our financial resources with- 
out compensation, hoarding up the millions in an 
unholy monopoly ; collecting them pitilessly off the 
poor, misguided vassals of the drink-demon. The 
moneys thus expended every year exceed the expen- 
diture on all the humane and intellectual enterprises 
of the land. It is equal every year to all that has 
ever been expended in church enterprises since the 
landing of the Mayflower. Counting the loss of time 
of the intemperate, this outgo of the nation's property 
would load a train of wagons, with a ton of gold to 
each wagon, thirteen miles long. 

Poverty and suffering everywhere result to the 
lower classes. Among the highest classes, usefulness 
and genius are quenched in the rum-glass. Grog- 
shops are ten times as frequent as both churches and 
school-houses. To the want of improvement of the 
lower classes we must add a nine-fold commission of 
crime. The imbecility, insanity, idiocy, ignorance 
and wickedness of the nation are mainly due to this 
use. The care of these and other classes of sufferers 
imposes unjust burdens on good citizens. Our per- 
sonal liberty is violated. Our homes, which should 
be the paradise of earth joy, are devastated by the 
curse. Our temporal existence is imperiled, and who 
can predict the generating power upon generations 
yet to be. 

One hundred and fifty thousand lives are sacrificed 
every year in our nation alone. Nor is this a merely 
temporal sacrifice of the nation's kings, born to rule in 
the earth and over the higher realm of their own 
great natures ; but an eternal sacrifice of the im- 
mortal sons of God, for " no drunkard shall enter the 
Kingdom of Heaven." 



424 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSAUE. 

For this criminality there is not the shadow of an 
excuse. The almost universal demand for stimuli is 
abnormal and not essential. 

It is the result of the stimulants themselves. The 
drinking always precedes the crying demand for 
drink, either remotely or immediately. Supply this 
abnormal demand, as has been the rule, and it in- 
creases ad infinitum. The whisky market was never 
glutted. But in the interests of the whole human 
race, remove, abolish the drink system and the de- 
mand is gone. 

By a wonderful dispensation from the Divine 
Ruler, attended by unmistakable signs of power and 
approval, the women of this nation have been set 
apart as the apostles of the Temperance Gospel. The 
ponderous truth of this gospel is — The liquor traffic is 
depressive, ruinous, criminal, and ought to engage the best 
energies of the people for its abolition. 

Women, whose keen perception takes in all the 
terrors of the curse ; women, whose earnest sympa- 
thies, intensified by a love both human and divine, 
penetrate to the depth of human wretchedness; 
women, whose hope through faith in the Master 
Leader spans the chasm of human impossibilities ; 
women, who respect neither "times," "seasons," 
" policies," " expediencies, " nor "financial practica- 
bilities," but only justice and right, because it is 
right ; women, love-inspired, God empowered, may 
throw themselves into the breach between humanity 
and its curse, may stand in the vanguard of this great 
movement until the whole ruling public is borne 
across the abyssmal transition from the superstitious 
notion that "alcohol is food" to the scientific fact 
that "alcohol is poison;" from the pusillanimous con- 
cession that "intemperance is a great evil," to the 
responsible conviction that the liquor traffic is a 
crime 

l''illed only witli aspirations for the ennoblement of 
our falling humanity, to its native kingship and the 
heritage of princes of peace, prosperity and purity — 
women, sisters, mothers of all lands, let us arise and 
go forward, doing whatsoever the hand findeth. 
claiming the omnipotent promise, " Lo I am with you 
alvvay, even unto the end." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 425 

We hereinafter submit a plan of work which will 
afford methods for every locality. 

Respectfully submitted in the bonds of Christian 
love. 

Mother Stewart, Springfield, Ohio, Chairman of 
Committee. 

Mrs. Governor Wallace, President State Womens' 
Christian Temperance Union, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mrs. Allen Butler, President State W. C. T. U., 
Syracuse, New York. 

Mrs. Rev. Collins, Ex-President W. C. T. U., 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Mrs. Dr. Black, President W. C. T. U., Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Miss Frances E. Willard, President W. C. T. U., 
Chicago, Illinois. Secretary of Committee. 

Mrs. H. N. K. Goff, Corresponding Secretary W. 
C. T. U., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. M. McClellan Brown, Secretary Committee, 
and Right Worthy Vice Templar International Order 
of Good Templars. 

PLAN OF WORK. 

/. — Of Organization. 

Organization is the sun-glass which brings to a 
focus scattering influence and temperance union in 
any State, city, town or village. 

//. — Of Making Public Sentiment. 

The evolution of temperance ideas is in this order : 
The people are informed, convinced, convicted, 
pledged. With these facts in view, we urge : 

ist. Frequent temperance mass-meetings, 

2nd. The careful circulation of temperance liter- 
ature in the people's homes and in saloons. 

3rd. Teaching the children in Sabbath-schools and 
public schools the tthics, chemistry, physiology, and 
hygiene of total abstinence. 

4th. Offering prizes in these schools for essays on 
different aspects of the subject 

5th. Placing a copy of the engraving known as 
"The Railroad to Ruin," and similar pictures,on the 
walls of every school-room. 

6th. Organizing temperance glee clubs of young 



426 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

people, to sing temperance doctrines into the people's 
hearts as well as heads 

7th. Seeking permission to edit a column in the in- 
terests of temperance in every newspaper in the land, 
and in all possible ways enlisting the press in this re- 
form 

8th. Endeavoring to secure from pastors, every- 
where, frequent temperance sermons and special 
services in connection with the weekly church prayer- 
meeting and the Sabbath-school, at stated intervals, 
if they be only quarterly. 

9th. Preserving facts connected with the general 
subject and with our work, in temperance scrap- 
books, to be placed in the hands of special officers ap- 
pointed for this purpose. 

///. — Of Juvenile Temperance Societies. 

Catholicism's wisest words are these, " Give us the 
first ten years of the children's lives, and you may- 
have the rest." 

In our judgment one of the great hopes of the 
ultimate triumph of temperance reform lies in the 
thorough training of the youths of the land in such 
principles and practices of temperance as will show 
them the fatal dangers of drinking and criminal guilt 
of selling liquors, and to that end we earnestly 
entreat the friends of the cause, and especially the 
pastors of churches and superintendents of Sunday- 
schools throughout the land, to take immediate meas- 
ures, in their respective cities and towns, for the 
formation and perpetual continuance of temperance 
societies to be composed of the children and youth. 

IV.— Of the Pledge. 

If nobody would drink, then nobody could sell. 

ist. Urge the circulation of the total abstinence 
pledge as fast and as far as facilities permit, life sig- 
natures being sought, but names being taken for any 
length of time, however brief. 

2nd. Have a s|)ecial pledge for women, involving 
the instruction and pledging of themselves, their 
children, and so far as possible, their households ; 
banishing alcohol in all its forms from the side-board 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 42/ 

and the kitchen, enjoining quiet, persistent work for 
temperance in their own social circles. 

3rd. Earnestly recommend ladies to get permission 
to place a pledge book in every Church and Sabbath- 
school room, where it shall be kept perpetually open 
in a convenient place, indicated by a motto placed 
above it. Also that each member of our union keep 
an autograph pledge book on her parlor table, and 
carry one in her pocket. 

V. — Of Sacramental Wine. 

We do not see that the passage " Woe unto him 
that putteth che bottle to his neighbor's lips," has in 
it any " saving clause" for the communion table. We 
know that many, who have thought their appetite en- 
tirely overcome by months of abstinence, have fallen 
by the odor and taste of the cup at the Lord's table. 

We strongly recommend our unions everywhere 
to appoint a committee of ladies in each church, who 
shall seek to enlist the pastor and church officials in 
offering only unfermented wine at the communion 
table. 

VI. — Of the Anti treat League. 

"Come, let's take something together," has been 
to thousands the key-note of destruction. Labor for 
the organization of a league which shall enroll as 
members those who, though not yet ready to sign 
the pledge, are willing to refrain from "putting 
the bottle to their neighbor's lips," by pledging 
their honor that they will neither be " treated " nor 
"treat." 

VII. — Temperance Coffee Rooms. 

If we would have men forsake saloons, we must 
invite them to a better place, where they can find 
shelter and food and company. 

Let there be open small, neat coffee rooms, with 
reading rooms attached, which the ladies might sup- 
ply with books and papers from their own homes, 
and by solicited funds. 

When practicable, there should also be Friendly 
Inns, connected with which might be provided, for 
those willing to compensate by their labor for their 



428 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADt. 

food and lodging, a manufacturing shop, comprising 
various trades. 

VII . — Homes for Inebriate Women 

Should be estabHshed in all the cities, our unions 
soliciting aid trom the State and municipal govern- 
ments and from the general public for this purpose. 

IX. — The Reformed Men's Clubs, 

Recently projected in New England, will be power- 
ful auxiliaries in our work, and we urge the Women's 
Unions to help establish them in every community. 

X. — Bureau of Information. 

Already, by means of correspondence, our chain of 
unions has been a medium of communication be- 
tween parents and their absent sons, by means of 
which the former in their homes lent a helping hand 
to the latter amid their temptations. 

We suggest careful attention to this important 
branch of our beneficent task. 

XI. — Counter Attractions of Home. 

Much has been said about our negligence in ren- 
dering our homes attractive, and our cuisine appetiz- 
ing ; and not always without reason. We therefore 
recommend that in our unions, essays on the science 
and art of making home outwardly wholesome and at- 
tractive, be read ; books on that subject circulated, 
and all possible effort made to secure a more scien- 
tific attention to the products of the kitchen, and a 
higher aesthetic standard for the parlor. 

XII. — Home Missionary Work. 

We recommend the continuance of private visita- 
tion to those who drink and to those who sell, being 
careful to go in a spirit of prayerful and helpful 
kindness. 

XI J I. -Gospel Temperance Meetings. 

We recommend our Unions to hold such meetings 
in the streets, billiard halls and churches, protracting 
if the interest shall warrant it, offering the Gospel 
Cure for intemperance, going through the audience 
to get persons to come forward and sign it, to th? 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 429 

tune of "Jesus lover of my soul," investing the act 
with all the solemnity and enthusiasm of a religious 
service. 

XI V. — Foufiiains. 

We urge our unions everywhere to signalize the 
coming hundredth birthday of America, by erecting 
in village and town and city, fountains of water in- 
scribed with such mottoes as shall show what sort of 
drink the women of America believe in, and as shall 
be a sermon in their persuasiveness to our fathers, 
brothers and sons. 

XV.— Of Money. 

Our cause cannot forego the sinews of all war, be it 
peaceful or profane. We must have money. Our 
financial plan asks each member to give a cent a 
week toward the temperance cause, and we urge this 
feature as one of great importance. 

Let us say that all needed information under any 
or all of the preceding heads will be gladly furnished 
on application, with stamp, to our Corresponding 
Secretary, Miss Frances E. Willard, Chicago, 111. 

XVI. — Try sting Time With God. 

Our work came forth to us from God. The mir- 
acle of the Crusade was wrought by prayer. Let us, 
women of America, and of all lands, dedicate the 
evening twilight hour to prayerful thoughts about 
this greatest of reforms. 

Wherever we are, let us lift up our hearts, whether 
alone or in company, in the closet or on the street, 
and ask God's blessing on the temperance work and 
on those whom it would help. Let us form the habit 
of keeping sacredly at heart some moments of this 
hour, as our trysting time with God. 

CONCLUSION. 

Dear sisters, we have laid before you the plan of 
the long campaign. Will you work with us ? We 
wage our peaceful war in loving expectation of that 
day " when all men's weal shall be each man's care," 
when '' nothing shall hurt or destroy in all my holy 



430 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

mountain, saith the Lord," and in our day we may 
live to see America, beloved mother of thrice grate- 
ful daughters, set at liberty full and complete forever, 
from our deadliest foe. 

This report of our Committee must be con- 
sidered, for that stage of our work, as a ver>' 
good and suggestive production. It will serve, 
too, to indicate the phenomenal growth of this 
greatest branch of the world's work carried for- 
ward by women, by comparing it with the last 
annual address of one of this same committee, 
now and for the last eight years President of the 
National Union. This address, almost a poem 
in faultlessness and beauty, as well as so full of 
report of past and suggestions for future work 
as to nearly take one's breath away — not to men- 
tion the forty reports of as many superintendents 
of departments in this great field of portioned 
out labor — conveys a good idea of the work 
done by the W. C. T. U. in the past year of 
1887. Yet I must maintain that this comely, 
young giantess, only now fairly entering into 
her teens, made, as the human infant, her most 
rapid growth and development in the first year 
of her existence. We are to consider the pecu- 
liar call and nature of the work with the fact 
that few women had ever had any previous 
training or knowledge of benevolent enterprise. 

Tlicre was a good deal of disappointment 
among many of our women, as well as others, 
and a disposition to "give it all up," because it 
had not turned out as they expected. They had 
entered into the work with the confident expec- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 43 1 

tation that through prayer alone the liquor busi- 
ness would be destroyed, and not a few ' * went 
back and walked no more with us." And the 
repeated questions that came to us from such as 
were not able to see the effect in the awakening 
of the people, nor to take in the broad meaning 
of the great uprising, were, " What has been 
the result?" "Has it done any good?" and 
when they saw the saloons opening up again, it 
was not surprising that such should ask, ' ' After 
all, has it not been a failure?" To these, the 
Rev. H. H. Wells, Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
of our State, having had opportunity for obser- 
vation, gave the following ansv/ers : " These," as 
he adds, ' 'being only a few of the more impor- 
tant things gained by the wonderful Crusade. 
Eternity alone can unfold the entire fruit of the 
work." 

BENEFITS OF THE CRUSADE. 

1. It called attention to the evils of intemperance. 

2. It aroused public sentiment against it. 

3. It made saloons odious in the eyes of young 
men. 

4. It has resulted in organized effort against the 
evil. 

5. It has produced a large amount of temperance 
literature. 

6. It developed thousands of workers among 
women. 

7. It was a great spiritual blessing to those engaged 
in it. 

8. It has drawn Christian churches nearer to each 
other. 

9. It has enlisted the church in the war against 
rum. 



432 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 

10. It has led ministers to preach on the subject 
faithfully. 

11. It has closed large numbers of saloons in the 
country. 

12. It has reformed vast numbers of drunkards. 

13. It has resulted in the opening of rooms for 
young men. 

14. It has awakened political action, 

15. It defeated license in Ohio, August 18, 1874. 

I have at hand a full report by our efficient 
Secretary, Mrs. Guy, by which I am aided in 
giving the following brief summary of the first 
six months' labor in Springfield : 

The special duty of the Executive Board from 
its organization had been to appoint and take 
charge of all mass-meetings, arranging programs, 
engaging speakers, raising funds for current ex- 
penses, publishing and circulating literature, con- 
ducting children's meetings and appointing com- 
mittees for special work. 

This left the bands free to prosecute their sa- 
loon visiting. Pledges were circulated from the 
beginning, and hundreds, yes thousands, signed 
them ; and many a saved man will forever bless 
the day the Crusaders found and persuaded him 
to begin a new life. 

Upon request of the Board, one of our pas- 
tors, Dr. McKnight, of the First Presbyterian 
Church, wrote a very valuable tract on the liquor 
problem in Springfield. 5,000 of these, 3,000 
in Englisli and 2,000 in German, were put in the 
hands of voters. Home talent, almost entirely, 
was utilized, a good proportion being ladies, in 
conducting and addressing our mass-meeting's. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 433 

The Secretary reports thirty mass meetings, at 
which seventy-five different speakers made ad- 
dresses. One day was devoted to the County 
meeting, two to the State Convention. Four 
all-day prayer-meetings were held. Regular 
prayer-meetings were held once per week for 
twenty weeks, twenty-two Sunday afternoon 
meetings, and six children's meetings were held. 
These, besides the prayer season by the Crusad- 
ers every morning and afternoon before moving 
out. Many meetings were also held in the vil- 
lages and school-houses through the county. It 
was in going to one of these that our Secretary 
came near losing her life by the horse running 
away. She was so seriously hurt as to be dis- 
abled for two years, and, indeed, never entirely 
recovered from her injuries ; and so became our 
first martyr for the Crusade. The Committee also 
had printed i,ooo copies of hymns and Psalms 
and Scripture texts for the use of the bands in 
their street work, with 500 hymns for use in the 
mass-meetings. Besides all this, the bands, 
assisted by gentlemen, kept up meetings nightly 
for a number of weeks at headquarters, to engage 
the young men in the shops and draw them from 
the saloons that were using every device to draw 
them back into their meshes. The saloon-keepers 
of our city being mostly foreigners, not many 
were induced to give up their business, though 
their trade was almost ruined. The city officials 
were stimulated and encouraged for quite a season 
to see that the laws were more rigidly enforced ; 

{2&) 



434 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and a larger number of offenders than ever before 
were brought to justice. 

The time — six months — having expired for 
which the first officers were elected, a meeting 
was held July 15, 1S74, for the election of new 
officers. Mrs. Jas. Kinney was elected Presi- 
dent ; Mrs. Wm. Grant, Mrs. H. H. Morrell 
and Mrs. E. C. Middleton, Vice Presidents; 
Mrs. R. L. King, Secretary ; and Mrs. I. Cob- 
lentz, Treasurer. 

Of the officers for the following years, I recall 
Mrs. Kinney as being re-elected for a number of 
years, and serving with great acceptability, suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. J. B. Wirtz, Mrs. Jas. Anderson, 
Mrs. J. A. Dinwiddle and Mrs. Wm. Burns, 
each in her turn, by untiring energy and zeal, 
manifesting her devotion to the cause. Secre- 
taries : Mrs. J. R. Squires, Mrs. L. Hamma, 
Miss E. W. Bushnell, Miss Sallie Cavileer, the 
last named serving with faithfulness and efficiency 
for a number of years. Miss M. Hamilton is 
serving at the present time. 

These, with the co-operation and prayers of a 
large number of women, called into the work in 
the beginning, and with the addition of recruits 
from time to time, have kept the Crusade fires — 
more sacred than those of "Vesta" — aflame, 
spite of all discouragements and through the 
long years, until to-da\- their hearts, with those 
of our sisters everywhere, are made glad by the 
glimpse of the day-star of hope arising over the 
eastern hill-tops, which will ere long dispel for- 
ever this loni;- niijht of sorrow. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 435 

I regret that I am not now able to give all 
the names of the ladies who were brought out 
by our Committee in the organization of our 
mass-meetings ; the arrangement being that on 
each programme there should be one or more 
ladies. Among the number, besides those I 
have already had occasion to mention, I do recall 
the names of Mrs. Thos. Bean, Mrs. Edw. Book- 
waiter, Mrs. J. Philips, Miss E. Ogden, Mrs. R. 
P. Thomas, Mrs. C. H. Button, Miss Lizzie 
Wright. 

The treatment of the subject, in its various 
phases, seemed almost to have been worn thread- 
bare by the male orators of the past, but women, 
from the woman's point of view and the woman's 
heart, gave it a freshness and an interest hither- 
to unknown. The talents these ladies displayed 
and the enthusiasm they brought into the work 
was both a surprise and an inspiration to their 
audiences, and it was very soon observed that 
the audiences elected in favor of lady speakers ; 
and this preference was noticeable everywhere. 

In other towns and cities where the work 
prevailed, in Ohio and neighboring States, the 
results were more or less wonderful. As a gen- 
eral footing up of the first year, I quote a few 
paragraphs from Rev. W. C. Steel's "Women's 
Temperance Movement;" though even this is 
a very meagre showing of the blessed results. 
No pen or tongue has ever been able to tell 
it all. 

I. There is 3l great reduction of moral evi/ ; 2,000 



436 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

liquor-saloons closed, and a half a hundred (many 
more, indeed) cities and towns entirely freed from the 
rum-traffic, must result in lessening the amount of 
human evil to an extent that can not be estimated. 
The mayor of one of the redeemed cities declares 
that already crime has been lessened there fully nine- 
tenths! 

2. There is a great improvement in the social con- 
dition of the people. Men have found their lost 
manhood; families heretofore dependent on charity 
have become self-sustaining; pauperism has decreased; 
schools are filling up. In one town, twenty-five 
children of former drunkards who never went before, 
are reported as regularly attending school. 

3. The religious advancement of each community 
in the region of the Crusade is marked and glorious. 
The churches are filled; in Southern Ohio, it is said 
a hundred per cent, more people attend church than 
ever before. Those who filled the saloons on the 
Sabbath are now in the churches. Vast numbers 
have been soundly C07iverted to God ; for this has been 
a thorough work. Hundreds of weak-willed drunk- 
ards have bowed at the cross and become strong 
in God. Very many liquor-sellers have bowed at the 
same altar with their former victims, and are enrolled 
as members of Christ's church. Christian unity has 
beenpromoted, and those who fought together, and 
were companions in arms, rejoice in the fellowshipof 
their common victory. One of the difficult problems 
of our Christianity — how to unite together the 
churches in small towns — has been solved Increased 
spiritual power has been acquired ; men, and especially 
Christian women, have been ciuickened in newness 
of life. 

4. A sound moral sentiment has l)een formed, so 
that stringent temperance laws can now not only be 
jjassed, but will be sustained. 

5. The sale of into-xicatinglicpiors has been materi- 
ally lessened. The report of the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue shows a decrease of $360,000 in 
the tax on licjuors in the States of Ohio and Indiana 
for the month of February. 

Brandt iS: Co., distillers, of Hamilton, Ohio, assert 
that their sales have fallen off $150 a day. The de- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 437 

crease in the sale of beer and ale in Cincinnati for 
the month of February amounted to $130,000, as com- 
pared to January. \V.L.Herr,a large wholesale dealer 
in liquors in Cincinnati, says his business is nearly 
ruined. These are stubborn facts, and point their 
own moral. 

6. Rum-selling and rum-drinking have both be- 
come disreputable, and are under social ban. -^ -'- 

Taxation has been lessened. — Clearest demonstration 
has been given of the f^ict that intemperance fills our 
jails, alms-houses, and lunatic asylums; so that 
sixty cents out of every dollar we pay in taxation is 
taken from our pockets by the liquor-traffic. When 
the saloons are closed, expenses for the weaklings 
and criminals of society are immediately reduced ; so 
that already news greets us from the regions of the 
Crusade that the jails in some places are empty, and 
the heretofore dissipated drone has become industri- 
ous. 

Let political economists take heed. 

Churches have been purified, not by church trials, but 
through the moral force of a sound Christian senti- 
ment on the temperance question. Everywhere 
this evil had penetrated into the churches. A prom- 
inent minister in Cincinnati asserted that if every 
brick put into the churches in Cincinnati by the 
liquor interest were removed, half the churches would 
tumble down. This may sound like an exaggeration, 
but it is a well-knovvn fact that in some shape or 
form the liquor traffic has intrenched itself behind 
our church altars. Prominent officers in the churches, 
professed Christians, men of wealth, rented theirbuild- 
ings for the sale of wine, ale or beer, and drank it 
occasionally ; and the canker was in the very heart 
of the church. But this temperance revival, religious 
in its character, has made thorough work in the 
churches where it has prevailed. Men who had been 
compromising with sin have confessed their folly 
with tearful penitence, and to-day hundreds of 
churches are purer and stronger than they ever were 
before. 




CHAPTER XXI. 

TALES OF THE WAR. 

Quaker Humor — Incidents and Anecdotes, Amus- 
ing and Pathetic 

[OR sly humor and quiet shrewdness, 
commend me to a Friend ; and especially 
a Crusade Friend. In taking in the 
points of a situation, and in turning all to 
advantage for the cause which seemed a part of 
their lives, they could not be excelled. 

Their quaint, tasteful garb, and especially that 
sober bonnet, with the always clean, white rib- 
bons tied under the chin, the clean, clear com- 
plexion and placid countenance, that must be 
the fruit of a temperate life and a meek spirit, 
wholly disarm the unwary sinner ; and what 
wonder that they have everything their own way, 
and enjoy it too. 

I have often wished I could have been a 
Quaker, but the insurmountable barrier — if all 
things else had been propitious — is, that dirt has 
a perverse disposition to stick to me, and I have 
an unshaken faith that Quakers are born exempt 
from this calamity. I do remember me that 
Van Pelt's beer fell indiscriminately upon Friend 
and Methodist. But I am fain to believe, after 

4;« 



MEMORItS OF THE CRUSADE. 439 

the evaporation around the fire in the meeting- 
house, the stains were less legible on Friend 
than Methodist. Certainly no one has ever 
discovered any lingering stains on our dainty 
Treasurer, Anna R. Hussey. 

From one who was there, I have this account 
from Clarkesville, a small town in Clinton 
county, and in near vicinity to Wilmington. 
The women organized for Crusade work on 
January nth. Shortly after this, word came 
that a couple of lawyers were coming down 
from Wilmington to defend an old woman who 
had been brought to trial for illegal selling. 

The question with the women was, what was 
to be done about it. Generally, the saloon- 
keepers and their customers filled the court- 
room and had everything in their own interest. 
Friend Hadley, President of the Crusaders, 
hastened out and gathered what forces she could 
and had them on hand, pretty well filling the 
court-room when the attorneys arrived. 

The lawyers looked aghast when they found 
themselves face to face with those peaceful-look- 
ing Crusaders. Just before adjournment, a slip 
of paper was passed up to the mayor, asking 
permission for the women to be heard a few 
minutes. The request was granted and Abigail 
Hadley proceeded to address the court, or more 
strictly the attorneys. One slipped out, but 
not beyond the range of her voice, which she 
made a little distinct for his benefit. She spoke 
of the poverty and crime they were making 



440 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

themselves responsible for, and the orphans they 
were helping to make in defending the liquor- 
seller. She expressed the hope that as they lay 
on their pillows at night their pale, pinched faces 
might haunt their sleepless vigils. The ladies 
obtained permission of the mayor to sing and 
pray at each adjournment, and at the close they 
proposed to escort the lawyers to the train. 

'Squire threw up both hands and begged 

the ladies not to show them such marked atten- 
tion, promising that he would never be seen 
again in Clarkesville on such business. At last 
reports the promise had not been broken. 

But it was soon announced that another case 
was to be tried on a certain day, and a couple of 
lawyers were coming down on the train to defend 
the saloon-keeper. The Crusaders, led by their 
Quaker President, marched in procession to the 
train, met the gentlemen when they arrived, and 
escorted them up (the depot is nearly a half-mile 
from town ), singing hymns as they marched. 
One lawyer found it necessary to go into the 
hotel ; the ladies quietly followed. He came 
out and went into a confectionery ; the ladies 
stood by the door and sang hymns till he was 
ready to move on. The energy with which he 
masticated the Indian weed, as they went march- 
ing along, was interesting to behold. These 
experiences with the Crusaders of Clarkesx'ille 
have left an indelible impression on the minds of 
those gallant expounders of the law. 

This visiting saloons was not entirely new 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 44I 

work for Friend Hadley. Some eight years 
before she had felt impressed with the duty of 
visiting and laboring with the liquor-sellers, and 
taking her Bible and other religious literature, 
would go in and read to them and those who 
were found with them. She thus continued 
visiting and reading in one place till the man 
gave up selling, removed his liquor counter, and 
supplied himself with a better business, the tract 
reading being continued. Others were visited 
with more or less good results, she telling them 
when they came up between her and God when 
she went to pray, she felt that she had to come 
to them, as she wanted no one but Jesus in that 
place. 

BOARDING UP A SALOON. 

At a small place in the North-eastern part of 
the State, a saloon-keeper had established him- 
self on ground belonging to the railroad, to be 
convenient to the railroad boys ; so obliging — to 
himself The Crusaders visited him, talked and 
plead with him to give up his wicked business. 
They sang their sweetest songs and prayed 
most fervently, but to no purpose. Mr. Saloon- 
keeper was too greedy of gain and saw too good 
a thing in that special locality to give it up. To 
all appearance he was master of the field. 

But the ladies had set out to win ; and it has 
generally been observed that when they set out 
they "get there." They called a solemn 
council, the result of which was that a request 



442 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

was quietly dispatched to the President of the 
road, asking a lease of that special spot of 
ground, and the grant came promptly. A load 
of lumber was forthwith dumped on the premises 
and before Mr. Saloon-keeper was able to take 
in the situation, carpenters were erecting a board 
barricade, ten feet high, around his castle, with 
no visible outlet. This so changed the face of 
things that the gentleman of jugs and casks was 
only too glad to capitulate upon terms offered 
by the enemy. 

RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL. 

This case I had from my friend, W. E. Preston, 
Esq., of Cleveland. I also saw the subject 
myself, a short time after his reclamation, and 
again in November, during the session of the 
National Convention in that city. The poor 
man had now come down to the border of the 
grave ; his long years of dissipation had prema- 
turely aged and broken a once magnificent 
physical as well as mental manhood. 

One day, as Mrs. John Coon and her band 
were out, they were accosted by a prematurely 
aged, white-haired man. The prayers, songs 
and pleadings of the women had touched his 
heart, and he was induced to sign the pledge. 
Then Mr. and Mrs. Preston took him to their 
own home, and though sunken so low, and so 
unseeml}' in dress and appearance, they gave 
him a nicely furnished room and clean, comfort- 
able bed, such as I presume he had been a 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 443 

Stranger to for many a long day. ' ' And there, " 
said the penitent, ' ' I found Jesus, and there I 
saw my mother." We may say this was the 
imagination of his weary brain, but he was firm 
in the belief, and it seemed to be a great source 
of comfort to him, that his beloved mother 
returned from the evergreen shore to welcome 
her wandering boy back to the paths of upright- 
ness. 

The man proved to be Col. William H. West- 
brook, who was an officer in the Confederate 
army, and had served under General Beauregard. 
He married a young lady of respectable connec- 
tion living in Richmond, Virginia, and for a time 
they lived happily. But the demon drink 
became his master and drove him forth a wan- 
derer and a vagabond, and his wife and little 
daughter mourned him as dead. Though they 
had sought him long, no trace could be found till 
the Crusaders found him on the verge of the preci- 
pice. He had also lost the whereabouts of his 
family, but our Good Samaritan set about the 
task of finding and communicating the good 
tidings to them. In due time the wife came, 
and under that hospitable roof the two long- 
sundered were, with fitting ceremony, reunited, 
and the golden circlet again placed on the bride's 
finger. 

I have before me a letter written by a sister of 
the Colonel's to the praying women, overflowing 
with expressions of gratitude for the rescue of 
her brother, and giving an affecting account of 



444 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the meeting of the returning prodigal v. hh t:: : 
venerable father of ninety-four years, who, while 
the tears rained from his almost sightless balls, 
clasped him to his heart, exclaiming, "The 
dead is alive and the lost is found." 

A TRAVELER TELLS THIS : 

" I was in Springfield during the Crusade and 
had gone into a saloon and called for a glass of 
beer, and was just about to raise it to my lips 
when Mother Stewart led her band of praying 
women into the place. Seeing me with the glass 
in my hand, she said, ' Young man, set that 
glass down,' and I set it down. Turning to her 
sisters, 'Let us pray for this young man,' said 
she, and they knelt there on the floor of that 
saloon, and she did pray for me. You may 
laugh, men, but I have not tasted or wanted a 
glass of beer since. " 

I have no recollection of the occurrence. It 
may have been Sister Schaffer or some of the 
other elder sisters, and so with the following, I 
cannot myself recall it, but many incidents of 
the kind have been crowded out of my 
memory by the swift following of busy work 
and travel. But all the same, blessed be the 
Lord, who did own our efforts in the salvation 
of many souls. 

"AFTER MANY DAYS." 

My good Brother Minich visited New York 
not long since, coming back rejoicing to bring 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 445 

mc this message : ' ' While in the city, " he said, 
" I availed myself of the opportunity I had long 
wished for, to visit Jerry McAuley's ' Helping 
Hand,' and with others tried to tell what won- 
derful things the Lord had done for me, and 
mentioned the fact that I came from Springfield, 
Ohio. As soon as I had sat down a man arose 
and said, ' I have reason to praise God for a visit 
to Springfield, Ohio, the home of Mother 
Stewart. I am a commercial traveler, — have 
been for many years, and have traveled over a 
large portion of the country. In my travels I 
found myself in Springfield during that wonder- 
ful crusade of the women of Ohio against the 
liquor saloons. I was one morning just coming 
out of a saloon when Mother Stewart led her 
band up to the door. She halted me with the 
startling question : "Young man, do you love 
Jesus?" I made a confused, but not very 
reverent answer to the effect that I did not care 
anything about her Jesus, and passed on. But 
I never got rid of that question, "Young man, 
do you love Jesus?" I went on for years, 
traveling to and fro, but that question stayed 
with me always, and at last became so importu- 
nate for an answer that I was compelled to cry 
to the Lord Jesus for help and deliverance, and 
today I am saved through the blood of the 
Lamb. God bless Mother Stewart, the Cru- 
sader of Springfield, Ohio.' " 



446 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

AND YET ANOTHER. 

A lady of St. Paul, Minnesota, sought me out 
at our National Convention in Minneapolis, to 
tell me of a young man who came from the East 
and did a grand work in the temperance field. 
His eloquence always reminded her of George 
W. Bain; but his health failed and he went 
down. On his death-bed he charged her with a 
message to Mother Stewart, saying, " Tell her 
she found me in the gutter, in Sharon, Pennsyl- 
vania, and set me on my feet, inspiring me to 
make the fight for my lost manhood. To her I 
owe my rescue from the drunkard's grave. " I do 
not remember, but the blessed Lord knoweth 
and to Him alone be all the glorj'. 

WHY HE LOVED THE CRUSADERS. 

Said my esteemed friend, Mr. L of Red 

Oak, Iowa, "I want to tell you. Mother Stewart, 
why I love the Crusaders. Sometime since, I was 
traveling in the northern part of the State, when 
night overtook me in the country. I called at a 
neat looking farm house and asked of the lady 
permission to stop over night. She answered 
that I could do so if I could take care of my 
team myself; her husband was absent. I was, of 
course, able to accept the conditions, and after a 
comfortable meal of the luxuries of farm life, I 
sat down by the glowing fire to have a chat with 
the lady. I noticed that though the place was 
evidently new, everything betokened neatness 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 447 

and thrift. In the course of conversation the 
lady told me they were from Ohio. It was not 
a great while after the Crusade. So I remarked, 
as she was from Ohio, I supposed she knew all 
about the Crusade, which seemed to have proved 
a failure, had it not? 'Oh, no,' she answered 
with eagerness, 'don't say it was a failure; it 
was a blessed success, — certainly in our case. 
When the Crusade came to our place, a little 
town in the northwestern part of the State, it 
found my husband keeping a saloon. The praying 
women visited him and sang and prayed with him 
and besought him to sign the dealer's pledge. 
And he did sign it and poured out his liquor. It 
was his only way at the time of supporting his 
family. But the friends rallied around him and 
helped him. Then one kind brother told him he 
had land in Iowa, and if he would move out 
here he would let him have a farm on reasonable 
terms and easy payments. He thankfully accept- 
ed the generous offer, and we moved here, 
opened up this farm, built this house, and my 
husband has just gone to the county seat to-day 
to make his last payment. No ! no ! the Crusade 
was a glorious success.' " 

CAUGHT IN A FIX. 

In one town the Crusaders made a call upon 
an old German saloonist, taking the precaution 
quietly to send a squad of their force to the rear 
of the saloon. The old man caught a glimpse 
of the approaching band in front, and hastily 



448 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

threw up a back window and leaped out, leaving 
the field to his son and the Crusaders, when lo! 
he found himself in the midst of the rear guard. 
By this time the battalion in front was taking 
p-?aceable possession of the evacuated fort, when 
Hans called out in great excitement, "Taddy! 
Taddy ! come yur, I got te Crusaders!" "I 
can't ! " the old man cried back, " I got te Cru- 
saders, too !" 

ONE THAT GOES TO MAKE UP " EVERY SORT." 

This, from another town, reminds me of the 
quaint saying of my venerable old uncle, when 
referring to a person of any peculiar or singular 
trait of character, " If there was not that sort 
there would not be every sort." The Crusaders 
visited one saloon-keeper who was very abusive, 
and with much excitement and noise drove them 
out. In the band thus driven out was a lady 
seventy years old. As the ladies left, a gentle- 
man came stepping in and inquired what all that 
fuss was about. ' 'Why, " said the man wnth white 
apron and broken English, "dem Crusaders, dey 
comes here and tamage my peesness. To you 
pelong to dem Crusaders?" "Oh, no," the gen- 
tleman answered, " I have nothing to do with 
them, and to prove to you that I have not, I will 
take a glass of beer." "Well, den, you treats de 
gompanx', den I knows you doan pelong to dem 
Crus ulers !" And he disgraced his manhood by 
buying the drinks and treating the rabble that 
liad crowded in. That venerable, gray-haired 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 449 

woman was his mother, "Oh, well," you say, 
" he was a lo vv, worthless fellow. " You are very 
much mistaken, my dear friend, he was a good (?) 
deacon in the church. 

" DID THE CRUSADE BREAK UP ANY FAMILIES?' 

Here is a case in point. In one place a woman, 
whose husband was bitterly opposed to the 
Crusade, joined the band. The husband forbade 
her going out, but she told him she must "obey 
God rather than man, " and went on. He remon- 
strated, but she still said she must " obey God 
rather than man," and marched out with her 
sisters. At length, he told her that if she did not 
give up her crusading he would leave her, and she 
said she must "obey God rather than man," and 
fell into line. Finally he decided that he ' ' would 
not bear it, so there now, and he would leave, so 
he would." And he packed his trunk and "lit 
out. " In the course of a week he returned and 
told his wife if she would quit her crusading he 
would come back. She said she must ' ' obey 
God rather than man," and went crusading. Oh, 
well, he came home anyhow. 

THIS FROM HILLSBORO WAS TOLD BY "ONE WHO 
WAS THERE." 

A half-dozen of the young men of "our set" 
had been out of town and were not posted as to 
the situation. Of course they must "drop in 
and have something before separating." He 
says, "We had just arranged ourselves in the 

(29) 



450 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

familiar semi-circle before the bar and had our 
drinks ready and cigars prepared for the match, 
when the rustle of women's wear attracted our 
attention, and looking up, we saw what we 
thought a crowd of a thousand ladies entering. 
One saw among them his mother and sister, 
another had two cousins, and yet another unfor- 
tunate found himself face to face with his pro- 
spective mother-in-law. Had the invisible prince 
of pantomime touched us with his magic wand, 
converting all to statues, the tableau could not 
have been more impressive. For one full minute 
we stood as if turned to stone ; then a slight 
motion was evident, and lager beer and brandy 
smash descended slowly to the counter, while 
cigars dropped unlighted from nerveless fingers. 
Happily, at this juncture the ladies struck up, 

' Oh, do not be discouraged. 
For Jesus is your friend.' 

It made a diversion, and the party escaped to 
the street, "scared out of a year's growth," 

CRUSADING A BEER-CASK. 

One of the early results of our Crusade was to 
make it not quite so desirable f^r the beer wagon 
to stop before the door in broad daylight, as had 
been the custom. So the discreet citizen, who 
was in the habit of ordering his cask, concluded 
that an earlier hour would be desirable. Accord- 
ingly tile brewer's wagon might be heard rum- 
bling along by break of day, and before the 
onlinary cili/.en was out. Occasionall}' an extra- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 45 I 

ordinary one would be astir, and sometimes 
make a note. One of these happened to see the 
wagon stop at his neighbor's and quietly transfer 
a cask of the foamy beverage to the cellar and 
drive on. The waggish, early citizen was at once 
seized with the Crusade spirit, and going into 
the house, hunted up an apron and tied it on — as 
well as a man knows how. I never saw a man 
that ever could tie a woman's apron on right — 
never ; he will get it hitched up one side or 
.skewed around halt way, or slopping down over 
his feet. But our friend equipped himself in his 
apron, then donned his wife's sun-bonnet, and 
taking her "Gospel Songs," sallied forth and 
perched himself on the cellar door and began to 
sing Crusade songs in lusty fashion. He was a very 
fine singer and soon a commotion was raised in 
that neighborhood. The lady was seen moving 
uneasily about and casting furtive glances 
through the window at the singer. At length 
some one from the street called to him to know 
what upon earth he was doing there. He coolly 
replied that he was ' ' crusading that beer-cask 
down cellar." 

ONE ON MOTHER STEWART, 

Which I have had some doubt about giving, hui 
have finally decided to, upon the principle that 
the "cheerful giver" should cheerfully take. 
But I must beg the reader's pardon for the not 
very elegant though forcible form of expression. 
A young acquaintance of mine was, during 



452 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

our Crusade, engaged in delivering ice for an ice 
firm in the city. It was in the line of his busi- 
ness to deliver to a saloon-keeper, where he one 
day, upon taking in his ice, heard a man who, it 
seemed, was thinking of opening a saloon, asking 
the proprietor's advice on the subject. " Nine," 
said the advisor, "es ist nogute, dem Schruaters 
is shist awful, I wouldn't shtart a shaloon now. 
While dem Schruaters be about es ist no gute. 
Und dere ist dot Mutther Shtuart, she call efery 
poty her pruther und her schwister, und I awt 
her pruther und I avit her schwister. But she's 
a hell of a feller. Nine es ist no gute, I would 
not shtart a shaloon now." 

SAITH THE WORD, "THE WICKED SHALL NOT LIVE 
OUT HALF HIS DAYS." 

Many were the indications that He who called 
the women to such a strange and holy warfare 
had a special guardianship and jealous care over 
them. And to human observation many were 
the instances where the judgments of an offended 
God fell upon those who dared to molest or 
make them afraid. Very great were the indig- 
nities and insults heaped upon the sisters of P 

by the liquor-sellers and their loafing customers. 
One morning a set, to the number of six or eight, 
went through the sacrilegious performance of pre- 
tending to take the sacrament in the presence of 
the Crusaders, as they made their accustomed 
call at the saloon. They used beer and crackers 
for the sacred emblems. Some of these men, when 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 453 

not under the saloon influence, assumed to be in 
some degree citizens worthy of respect. A few 

brief years after the Crusade I visited P , 

when this incident was related to me, and also 
the startling fact that every one of those men 
had been already summoned to their last account, 
and most, if not all, had gone out by some unnat- 
ural death. 

APPARENT ANSWER TO PRAYER IN JUDGMENT. 

A couple of years after the Crusade, I was at Belle- 
fontaine. Upon leaving, my friend, Mrs. Shurr, 
accompanied me to the train, and as we were 
walking on the platform we passed a rather 
elderly woman of medium height, dressed in rusty 
black. After we had passed her. Sister Shurr 
said, "Mother Stewart, look at that woman; turn 
and look at her." I did, but saw only a very 
commonplace looking old woman. When seated 
in the waiting room I asked why she desired me 
to look at that woman. "That woman," said 
she, " was struck dumb in answer to prayer. 
She and her husband kept a very bad drinking 
place here near the depot." (I had visited it 
with the Crusaders). "The praying bands vis- 
ited and prayed with them," continued Sister 

S , "and the man would have surrendered, 

but his wife would not let him. At length she 
went away somewhere and the Crusaders took 
advantage of her absence and induced the man to 
sign the dealer's pledge and give up his business. 
But when she returned she was furious. She 



454 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

cursed the women, and swore and raved, and 
compelled her husband to open up his saloon 
again. She did not cease to curse the women, 
and blaspheme, till they finally took her as a 
subject of special prayer and asked the Lord to 
close her mouth or silence her in someway. One 
morning when she arose she found herself unable 
to speak, and she never spoke afterwards, though 
she kept on at her soul-destroying business, 
making signs for the price of her beverage of 
eternal woe," She died a year or two after, and, 
as far as I know, she never recovered her 
power of speech. My friend remarked in closing, 
"That is only one of many such instances of 
answer to prayer." 

CONFESSION OF A SHIPWRECKED SOUL. 

One of my co-laborers one day called on a 
friend and there met the lady's son-in-law, who, 
with his wife, was boarding with her mother. He 
told my friend he wanted a private conversation 
with her, and led her into the parlor. When 
seated, he in great anguish of spirit told her he 
felt himself on tlie verge of ruin from his uncon- 
trollable appetite. ' ' Oh, " said he, * ' do pray for 
me; get some of your Crusade sisters to help you 
pray for me. Oh, you do not know how I 
blessed the Crusaders, though I seemed unfeeling 
and rough. I did honor them and I hoped they 
might close up the saloons. I have tried so hard 
to give up the drink. I have taken my money 
home and given it to Lou (his wife) and told 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 455 

her to hide it, lock it away in the drawer where 
I could not get it, and then I would get up in the 
night when she was asleep, and hunt up and steal 
the money and go out and get my drinks. Oh, 
don't tell Lou, she don't know how bad I am. I 
have gone into the cemetery and thrown myself 
on my mother's grave and cried to God, if there 
ivas a God, to deliver me from the curse, but all 
to no purpose. Oh, can you help me?" We did 
pray for the poor fellow, and when the Blue Rib- 
bon movement swept over the country he signed 
the pledge with so many others, and we hoped 
he was saved, and for a time he seemed to have 
triumphed over his enemy. But no, the saloons 
remained and the temptations were ever in his 
way. He has gone to the grave before the noon 
of his manhood, with the great army that no man 
can number, and who regardeth it? 

A SUDDEN CHANGE OF SENTIMENT. 

A young wife, when the Crusade started in 
her town, declared she should die if she went 
out on the street with the praying bands. But 
all too soon her husband was brought home one 
evening by a policeman. Now she felt that she 
should die if she did not go. She went out and 
saw face to face the man who had sold her 
husband the liquor. She appealed and pleaded 
apparently in vain. She fell on her knees in prayer. 
An unseen listener was her husband, who had 
come again to appease his appetite. He rushed 
to her side and pledged himself never to drink 



456 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

again ; and to the joy of the Crusaders the 
saloon-keeper promised to quit the business. 

AN APRIL-FOOL MEETING IN NEW ORLEANS. 

A waggish newspaper man in New Orleans 
concluded to make a first of April point on the 
Crusade. He announced the evening before, 
that on the next morning at a church and hour 
named, Mother Stewart, the Ohio Crusader, 
would appear with the purpose of opening the 
Crusade in New Orleans. At the appointed hour 
a large assembly, overflowing with curiosity, had 
gathered, but Mother Stewart was entirely igno- 
rant of the fact — has always been sorry, however, 
that she could not have been there. But long 
since, the successors of the Crusaders, the White 
Ribbon army, have invaded the Crescent City, 
and gained peaceable possession. On the first 
day of April, eleven years afterwards, I had the 
pleasure of sending greetings to our Committee, 
who were holding such conspicuous and honor- 
able place in the great Exposition being held 
there. Bound to take the world ! 

THE daughter WON. 

In Darbyville, a little country town in Pickaway 
county, the women made a clean sweep. Upon 
visiting one place, the young daughter of the 
keeper joined the Crusaders, and going to her 
father threw her arms about his neck, exclaim 
ing, " Oh, father, father!" but her feelings for a 
time checked her utterance. The man became 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 457 

greatly agitated, saying, "Why, Sis, what is it?" 
"Oh, father, sign the pledge! Oh, father, quit 
selHng the Hquor !" she succeeded in uttering, 
amid her sobs. It was short work there, and 
the news flew to the church, when one of the 
young men sprang to the bell-rope and shouted 
as he leaped to the swing and clang of the bell, 
" Hallelujah ! Hallelujah ! Hallelujah ! " Another 
man at this place signed the pledge, quit the 
business and went to farming, and has not repent- 
ed it since. He says, "Whereas bad luck and 
misfortune followed him all the time he sold 
liquor, and it seemed impossible for him to get 
on, now the tide is turned and everything he puts 
his hand to seems to prosper. " 

OUR CRUSADE DOG 

Was not the least interesting feature of our work 
in Springfield. I have before mentioned the 
curious, inexplainable fact that in several places 
even the dogs, whose masters were saloon-keep- 
ers, invariably manifested an interest — and may 
I say, sympathy — for the Crusaders. As I am a 
friend to dogs I like to record these curious 
instances, where they certainly seemed able in 
some way to discern between the right and the 
wrong, and unmistakably took the right side. 
Tell me why. Who can ? 

A poor, forlorn specimen was this of the 
canine family, rather large and of the regu- 
lation "yellow," not prepossessing in the least 
when he first cast in his lot at headquarters 



458 MEMORIES OF THE CK'J.^.-.. 1- 

with US and joined the band. It was not 
long, however, till his new associations told 
on his general appearance. If he did not 
acquire more self respect, he certainly acquired 
a much more cheerful countenance and at-home 
manner, as well as a fuller habit and more glossy 
coat. We never knew whence he came nor 
where he lodged. It was my supposition that he 
had followed his master from the country into the 
city and became lost, and by some fortuitous 
accident found his way to our headquarters. But 
each morning he was in waiting at the door when 
the ladies arrived, ready to move out with the 
first band. He would fall into line and march by 
the side of the leader till we came to the first 
saloon, then he would sit down and patiently 
wait till the exercises closed, when he would take 
up the line of march again with the rest of the 
Crusaders. He manifested a decided preference 
for the ladies ; could not be induced to make 
friends with men at all. Sister Patterson told me 
that she went out with the first band one morning, 
Mrs. Prof Stuckenberg being the leader. Upon 
reaching the first saloon they proceeded to sing 
and then knelt before the saloon, Mrs. Stucken- 
berg leading in prayer. Being near her, she 
happened to look up and saw the dog sitting 

near Mrs. S and licking her cheek. 

For quite a time the friends held nightly meet- 
ings at headquarters, to give the young men who 
had signed the pledge a place of entertainment 
and draw them from the saloons. More than one 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 459 

lady has told me that going alone from these 
meetings the dog would join himself to her and 
walk by her side to her door, then go his way. 
We had a children's band that met every Satur- 
day morning. The last time I saw our dog was 
at one of these meetings. He had established 
himself in front of the "baby row, " on the front 
seat, as of right, and when a gentleman attempted 
to remove him he told him in very emphatic 
language that he did not propose to be interfered 
with in the discharge of his responsible duties. 
I had to interfere in doggy's behalf, and he 
quietly lay down and maintained his post through 
the meeting. But a little while after the meet- 
ing, upon going to headquarters, some of the 
ladies met me in tears, exclaiming, " Oh, Mother 
Stewart, some one has killed our dog," It was 
even so ; the poor creature had been disposed of 
by some who had not appreciated his demonstra- 
tions of friendship quite as highly as others of us 
had. We did really grieve for the loss of our 
faithful and devoted friend. It was certainly a 
most remarkable manifestation of animal instinct, 
bordering very nearly onto reason and affection, 
not easily to be accounted for. 

SAVED AT LAST. 

Rev. W. I. Fee, D. D., published the follow- 
ing strange account in one of the Cincinnati 
papers at the time of its occurrence. "One 
day," says he, "alawygr came to my house. 
Rum had ruined him. He was not intoxicated at 



460 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSAUE. 

the time, however. He asked a private interview. 
He said, ' You see what I am now. I am the son 
of pious Methodist parents, who now reside in a 
distant city. Their hearts are well-nigh broken 
by my prodigality. A few days since, I aban- 
doned all hope of reform and made up my mind 
either to drink myself to death or to end my days 
in a more summary manner. I had almost lost 
all desire for reformation, when I learned that the 
bands of praying women were on the streets of 
this city. Curiosity led me to follow them and 
listen to their prayers and songs. Oh, how it 
revived the days of my boyhood, and my subse- 
quent prodigality. I was filled with remorse. I 
felt that I was hopelessly lost. And now,' con- 
tinued he, * I will relate the strangest incident 
of my life at the risk of being called a fool. ' 
Pointing to his left ear, * Five years since, ' he 
went on, ' I entirely lost my hearing in that ear, 
till yesterday, when I heard the temperance 
women sing. 

** 'Previous to this, for years I had only been 
familiar with the vilest songs. But since yester- 
day, the songs sung by those women have been 
sung and played in my deaf ear as if played upon 
an instrument, or sung by a human voice. No 
other songs obtrude, only religious songs are 
sung. This gave me hope.' Looking intently 
at me, he said, ' Will you believe me ? I hear 
them now ; there it is, — 

"Show pity. Lord, O Lord, forgive." 

*' ' Now it changes, — 

" Rock of ages cleft for me." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 46 1 

' ' 'Sung loud enough for you to hear it. Listen, 
now it sings, — 

" Depth of mercy, can there be 
Mercy still reserved for me?" 

' * ' Now do you think there is any hope for 
me?' 

"I answered, 'Yes, but it will not avail for 
you to depend on those songs, you must look to 
Christ.' Looking sorrowfully at me he said, 
* Don't take away my only hope.' 

" ' He left me. A few days afterwards I was 
called to see him in one of the hospitals. His father 
was with him and a dispatch had been sent to 
his mother to come to the city and see him die. 
Although almost delirious, he recognized me in 
a moment, and began to talk about the songs of 
the women sounding in his ear. He begged me 
to pray for him, and to ask the praying women 
to pray for him also. A number of days elapsed 
before I could again visit the hospital. I went to 
learn the particulars of his death. Imagine my 
surprise when I learned that he was rapidly re- 
covering. I hastened to his room and a smiling, 
happy face met me. He said, ' I want to leave 
this evening for my home.' Said he, ' I am 
saved. The prayers of my dear mother and the 
praying temperance women have been instru- 
mental in leading me to Christ.' Said he, 'You 
thought that my strange experience was the re- 
sult of mania-a-potu. But believe me when I 
tell you that these songs are now ringing in that 



462 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

ear. I hear nothing else. This moment I 
hear, — 

' Jesus, lover of my soul, 
Let me to thy bosom fly.' " 

A GOOD DEED REQUITED AND AN EVIL ONE 

PUNISHED. 

The Crusaders of M , during their work, 

found it necessary to prosecute a case, and went 
to a law firm to secure the aid of one of the 
company. They decided to consult the senior 
partner, he being not only quite a good lawyer, 
but a man of temperate habits, while the junior 
partner was quite intemperate, and was not con- 
sidered as beingas well up in his profession as the 
other. The attorney heard their statements, got 
all the information from them in regard to the 
case he could, then turned about and betrayed 
them, and took the case for the saloon-keeper 
against them. The other lawyer came forward 
and offered to carry their case through for them. 
He sobered up, signed the pledge, and from that 
day .started up-grade in his profession and in the 
esteem of the people. And it was not long till 
he was on the Judge's bench, by the will and 
pleasure of his constituents. 

The senior partner, by the same stages, but 
in inverted scale or down-grade, losing his prac- 
tice, losing the respect of the community, losing 
his self-respect, left the place. The last I 
heard of him he was in one of the frontier min- 
ing towns in Colorado, keeping a billiard saloon. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 463 

The three following facts were not Crusade 
stories exactly, but given me during my work, 
and I give them here because of the important 
lessons contained in them. 

THE FATAL DOMESTIC WINE. 

This from Col. B , the sad-hearted father 

of the young man, a devoted Christian and 
earnest temperance worker. His son was a 
more than ordinarily bright, wide-awake young 
man, but wayward and disposed to seek his 
comrades in the haunts of dissipation. An inevita- 
ble consequence was, he came to love the 
drink, and was hastening to ruin, when the Good 
Templars reached out the rescuing hand and 
gathered him into the Lodge, and kept brotherly 
watch over him. Then a blessed revival of re- 
ligion occurred in the town, and young B 

was found at the mourner's bench, and soon pro- 
fessed faith in Jesus and united with the 
Church. Everything went well with him for 
some six months. But one day he and a young 
friend concluded to take a day of recreation 
in fishing. The mother of his friend very kindly 
seconded their project and put up a bountiful 
lunch. 

Then she went to her closet and brought out 
a bottle of nice, domestic wine — her own make 
(she was a prominent member of the church), 
saying to her son, "You must have one of my 
bottles of wine, lest you should get wet, or for 
some reason should need it." "Yes," the son 



464 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

answered, "mother, put it in." And so they 
hastened away for their day of pleasure. When 
the dinner hour came, the young friends sat 
down to enjoy the good things they found in the 
basket. The bottle was brought forth and 
uncorked, the tempting wine poured out and 

presented to B^ . He hesitated, remembered 

that it had well nigh proved his ruin ; remem- 
bered his obligation as a Good Templar, as a 
member of the church, a follower of Christ. 
But here the temptation came in such innocent 
guise,- they two alone, they were hungry and 
tired, the wine was ruby and aromatic ; and it 
was ''domestic ivinc." "My mother made it 
herself," argued the friend. Oh ! why was there 
no ministering angel near enough to dash that 
fatal cup to the earth as he reached forth his 
hand and carried it to his lips? No one was 
thus commissioned to interfere while the poor, 
weak-willed young man made the brief battle 
with his enemy and was vanquished. Though 
who shall say that his mother, from the battle- 
ments of her home in glory, did not look down 
with eyes of pity, as she saw her poor boy thus 
hurled from his rock of safety into the abyss 
again ? The old, slumbering appetite was aroused 
as the tiger in the jungle, and must now be 
appeased. U[)on returning to town he hastened 
to his old haunts and became insanely intoxi- 
cated. The barriers were swept away and on he 
went from place to place, calling for drinks, till 
at one saloon, the keeper seeing his condition, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 465 

and probably fearing the consequences to him- 
self if he sold more to him when in that condition, 
refused to let him have any more, and put him 
out. He went away, but soon returned with a 
gun and discharged it at the keeper. It was 
fortunate for them both that his hand was too 
unsteady for a deadly shot, but his victim was 
wounded and he a criminal. He fled from home 
and remained in hiding for a time, then return- 
ing in the night, picked up his little effects and 
became a homeless wanderer, but told his father 
before leaving that he would make one more 
fight to save himself, but, said he, ' 'the memory 
of that act ( of furnishing her wine ) shall haunt 
that woman through all eternity." He went 
out into the night and his father saw his face no 
more. 

REMORSE. 

T. Demorest, at that time Worthy Chief 
Templar of Kentucky, gave me the following : 

"I stood," said he, "by the bedside of a 
young man who was writhing in the agonies of 
that horror of horrors, delirium tremens. His 
mother also stood by, enduring unutterable 
anguish at the sight of her son's sufferings. 
When not in his paroxysms she would beg him 
to tell her where — how he acquired the appetite 
for drink. He evaded her questions for quite a 
time. At length, as she still pressed the ques- 
tion, he answered: "Mother, if you must 
know, I learned to love the wine-cup at your own 

(30) 



466 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

table. " The young man to-day fills a drunkard's 
grave, and the mother, remorse having dethroned 
her reason, is in a mad-house." 

LAMENTATIONS, V. J. 

A gentleman told me this of a young friend of 
his: "He was a carpenter by trade, and an 
industrious and good workman. But he would 
have periods of drinking, and when these came 
on he would deliberately lay down his tools as 
if going to meet an engagement, and go onto a 
regular 'break-down.' I have asked him why 
he did so, and his answer was, * I cannot help 
it. ' * Well, but you can help it before you begin. ' 
' No,' was his answer, *I viJieiitcd the appetite, 
and when these periods come I would drink if I 
died.' On one occasion, under the spell of the 

fearful craving, he went to the town of U , 

drank to intoxication, and went and lay down 
on the railroad track ; but he probably became 
somewhat sobered up before a train passed, and 
for the time the terrible catastrophe was averted, 
liut again the raging thirst seized him, he went 
to U -, drank as before, went again in despair 
and deliberately laid himself down on the track 
and in the night three trains passed over him." 

"WOMEN HAVE ALL THE RIGHTS THEV WANT." 

This bitter cold spell recalls another such, a 
few winters since, in the midst of which a sad, 
weary woman rang at my door and claimed my 
hospitality. 



MKMORUS OF THE CKUsAD... 46/ 

The snow and the cold held on and my guest 
found herself for a time storm-bound. During 
her stay her story came out. She was from Penn- 
sylvania, was, or had been the mother of three 
children, and still the wife of a drunkard. Her 
husband had, by his continual indulgence, 
made her life for years one long agony. He 
wasted his earnings on drink, and in time 
incapacitated himself for earning, so that she was 
obliged, by her needle, to support herself and her 
children. But what was worse than this, even, 
was his furious and abusive temper when under 
the influence of liquor. What blood-curdling 
pictures were those she gave of the drunkards 
home. Whole nights had he kept her and her 
children in terror. On one occasion he came 
home insanely drunk, locked the door, took his 
axe, sharpened and examined the edge, telling 
the children he was going to chop their mother 
up ; and she and they knew if anything, however 
trivial, should go wrong, he would carry out the 
threat. He laid her on the floor and would go 
through the motions as if he was going to strike, 
the wretched victims of this horrid pastime not 
daring to resist or protest, the wife keeping a 
cheerful smile, saying, " Why, John, I know 
you are only in fun," while she could hear her 
heart beat ; and this, through long, weary hours 
of the night, with no deliverance near, till the 
effect of the liquor at length overpowered him 
and he sank into a beastly stupor. Such a 
system of terrorizing threw the elder daughter 



46S MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

into St. Vitus' dance, and it was not long till, 
just as she was merging into young womanhood, 
so sweet and beautiful to the yearning mother's 
heart, death claimed her as another added to the 
long list of victims to the curse. Such a life 
became unbearable, and she found herself 
obliged to seek a home elsewhere. 

But her children ! The great Keystone State 
had decreed that the father is the lawful and 
rightful custodian of the children. Should she 
quietly yield her children to the hands of such a 
father ? She set herself to devise some means 
of rescue. She had a brother in Kansas to 
whom she would take the little daughter, but 
how to get possession of her was a serious 
problem. She bethought her of a relative in 
this State to whom she appealed for help, and 
he wrote to the child to make him a visit. Then 
the mother followed and picked up her child on 
the way, and from town to town she made her 
way, she lecturing on temperance and the little 
girl reciting pieces to meet their expenses, till 
at last she reached her brother and placed her 
stolai property in his hands. Now she was 
working her way back to try to steal the other 
piece of her own flesh and blood. But while 
she bemoaned the poor little fellow's lot, saying 
she knew these bitter days and nights he was 
thinly clad, and must be suffering with cold and 
hunger, as the tramping father led him from 
place to place, she also realized that she was 
now a criminal, and if caught would be punished 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. ^Gj 

as such a crime deserved. I never heard whether 
she succeeded in her second criminal attempt to 
steal, or whether she was caught and justly 
punished in accordance with the righteous and 
equitable laws of the great State of Pennsylvania. 

" HOME IS woman's SPHERE." 

Coming home from my work one day during the 
Crusade, I found a lady with a little girl at my 
house. She at once told me her story, so com- 
mon, so old, as to have ceased to excite atten- 
tion. When she told me her name I remembered 
her, though she was not aware that I knew her. 
Her family was one of the oldest and most 
respectable in the county. It seemed so few 
years since I had seen her, a bright, happy 
young lady, standing before a large audience 
delivering her graduating address. I had not 
seen her since. Here she was, scarcely the 
shadow of her bright, young self Nothing in 
her appearance to recall the proud-spirited, gay 
young girl, but instead, a broken, emaciated 
woman, broken mentally as well as physically, 
old before she had reached her noontide. 

As her story ran, she had married with fair 
prospects of a happy future ; no indication of 
the terrible habit even then fastened upon her 
husband. Her father, a man of wealth, gave 
her a nice farm, and there they started on life's 
journey together. But as the years went on the 
old, old story of the drunkard's wife became 
hers ; and, as she thought, in exaggerated degree. 



4/0 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

She had, finally, through his abuse, became 
afraid for her life, — had gathered a few articles of 
clothing, and taking her child by the hand, 
through the assistance of a friend she secretly 
stole away, reached the railroad and fled, leaving 
the husband — now the terror of her life — in 
peaceable possession of her home. But whither 
should she turn her steps ? She had heard of 
Mother Stewart as the friend of the drunkard's 
wife, and she had come to her in hope of refuge 
and safety. She would do anything, would go 
out to domestic service if only she could find 
shelter for herself and child. Reason was so 
nearly dethroned, and the fear that the husband 
would come and rob her of her child — the only 
possession she had- — that if the bell rang, or she 
heard a step on the veranda, she would clutch 
the child and hasten to a place of hiding. 

It may satisfy the reader's curiosity as to what 
became of her, to say that after all this, she was 
induced to "try him once more," but soon 
found herself obliged to seek a legal separation. 

' WOMEN don't want TO VOTE." 

About this time last year I had taken my seat 
in the car for home, after having held a series of 
meetings in a town in the eastern part of the 
State, when a little, pale-faced, sad-o)'ed woman 
came in and sat down by me. She had not 
been at my meetings, but knew me all the same, 
and proceeded at once to unburden her heart to 
mc. Yes, she was a drunkard's wife, and the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 47 1 

same old story, — how many hundred times have 
I heard it? Will it never end? — of neglect, 
poverty, abuse, the night-long vigils, lest her 
life — which he threatened repeatedly, and for 
which purpose he kept his razor under his 
pillow — should be taken. Hiding all in her 
own heart, even from her own parents, she bore 
it for eight terrible years, till health and endur- 
ance failed, then she took her two little children 
and once more found refuge and protection 
under the parental roof. 

She closed this recital with the sentence: 
"Oh, if women could only vote, how soon 
would the liquor dens be closed and all this 
suffering ended." 

Oh, friends of humanity, how long? And 
how many more shall go to fill up the long list ? 

NEED OF HIGHER LICENSE. 

When in my old home, McArthur, in my 
Crusade work, I was making some calls with 
one of my former pupils, and as we came near 
an old, dilapidated building, she remarked : 
"There is one in here you will like to see," and 
led the way into the house. 

What a picture of squalor and want was that 
which met my sight ! A couple of children in 
dirty rags, with matted hair and unwashed face 
and hands ; — two or three others had made the 
effort to hide by crawling under the bed. On 
the bed — if that spread of soiled and ragged 
bedding might claim so dignified a title — lay a 



4/2 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

wan, sad, prematurely aged woman. Could it 

be possible ? Yes, it was Mary C . When 

I knew her, among the brightest, prettiest, and 
most tidy of her associates ; active and indus- 
trious. What ! what had wrought this unac- 
countable transformation ? 

She had married a young man, apparently 
correct in his habits, with a good trade and 
application to business. The outlook for the 
future was full of bright promise ; but the occa- 
sional dram was indulged ; then, in time, the 
frequent ; then, of course, neglect of business, 
reverses, poverty, confirmed drunkenness, and 
abuse of wife and family. I do not know the 
stages throu£:h which the wife and mother came 
to the pitiable condition in which I found her. 
She had been high spirited and ambitious, but it 
seemed that with the crushing mortification her 
spirits and health had given wa}', and there she 
lay, a bed-ridden invalid. The pinching poverty, 
the neglected, squalid condition of her children, 
nothing had power to arouse her. The neigh- 
bors — after a sort — attended to the needs of the 
family, but there had been times when their 
wants were not supplied till she and children 
were nearly famished, and so broken had that 
wretched mother become that she would beg 
her neighbors to keep the children away till she 
could appease her own hunger. 

The husband ? He had simply left his family 
to their fate, ami was finding a lodging and food 
with a disreputable woman. I was shown the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 473 

deep cut in the door-cheek where a hatchet, 
aimed at his wife in one of his drunken rages, 
had struck, barely missing her head. Perhaps 
a high license might have met this case. 

" MOTHER STEWART, LET THE SONG GO ON." 

I was, during the Blue Ribbon movement, 
working in one of the Western States. Upon 
reaching one town a gentleman and lady met me, 
and, as they drove me to their home, they told me 
of a gentleman in which they felt a deep interest. 
He was a lawyer, a man of high literary attain- 
ments and of polished manners, and had, during 
the war, represented the government at an im- 
portant post abroad as consul. 

There , in the social life with which he was sur- 
rounded, he had acquired a love for the glass. 
This had been a great source of sorrow to his 
many friends. He was a gentleman of so many 
superior qualities, they could not bear to see him 
fall before his insidious enemy. The Good 
Templars had thrown their arms around him and 
set him on his feet, and he had recovered his 
manhood, his self-respect and the respect of 
others. But now he had fallen again, and was 
continually under the influence of liquor. It was 
such a great grief to his family, especially to his 
eldest daughter, a beautiful and accomplished 
young lady, whose grief over the fall of the father 
she idolized was undermining her health. I 
said I wanted to see that gentleman. ' 'Very well, " 
said my friend, "I will try to arrange it, but I will 



474 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

have to try to get hold of him very early in the 
morning, before he goes out. " In the morning he 
hastened down into the city, but too late, his 
friend had gone. However, he found him in the 
afternoon in his office, sleeping off the effects of 

his morning drams. Brother P came to our 

afternoon meeting to say he had found him, and 
would stay by him till he awoke. After our 

meeting, Sister P and I went to the office. 

Our friend had just awakened, and when told that 
IMother Stewart had called, he met me at the 
door and greeted me with the grace and suavity 
of the polished gentleman. That he was making a 
desperate effort to hide the indications of his 
infirmity, I could see. We had a long and, to 
me, very interesting conversation. I presented 
the pledge and asked him to sign it in the name 
of Jesus. "Oh, "he said, "I do not believe in Jesus^ 
I believe in God." For a time I felt my props, 
my foundation were swept from beneath me. 
What had I to offer this soul that was in such 
peril, if he rejected the only refuge I had for him. 
But he signed my pledge and promised ta 
come to my meeting that night. And he came. 
I had a very sweet singer helping, and as was our 
custom in that work, 1 called some reformed 
men to the platform to give their experience. I 
invited my new friend, and the people, I could 
see, were very eager to hear liim, but he was not 
\-ct (juite sure of his self-control. He declined ta 
speak, but added, "I have a speech here," 
placing his hand on his breast, " to deliver some- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 475 

time, but not to-night. " My singer, by my request, 
sang two stanzas of the "Ninety and Nine," and 
I was about to proceed with the exercises, when 
my friend said, "Mother Stewart, let the song 
go on." Ah ! yes, though he thought he did not 
beheve in Jesus, he did want to hear of the ten- 
der Shepherd who went out onto the mountain, 
bleak and wild, to bring back the wanderer to the 
fold. 

" didn't mother STEWART GET 'eM ? " 

My esteemed Brother, Rev. W. D. Milburn, 
the very efficient and successful gospel and tem- 
perance revivalist, has been in the habit, after 
opening up his work, of sending to me to come 
and help him, and I always made it a point to 
answer the call if not otherwise engaged, for I 
felt sure there was work to be done. On one 
such occasion I hastened to him and found he 
was having crowded houses and much interest, 
with a blessed atmosphere which seemed to say, 
"The clouds are big with mercy;" but for 
some unaccountable reason the showers did not 
descend. 

We held several meetings, but could obtain no 
signers to the pledge, though there were many 
who needed to sign. At length the impression 
came to me that the fault must be in the Church. 
Accordingly, at the close of our addresses that 
evening, I told the audience I was going to make 
a request, a thing I rarely did of my audiences, 
but I felt impressed to ask the members of the 



476 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Church if they would oblige me by rising to their 
feet. Of course they very cheerfully complied. 
I thanked them and asked all who had signed the 
pledge to please be seated. Very few took their 
seats, and the trap was so unexpectedly sprung 
that the delinquents had no chance of retreat. 
I went right on, saying that was all right, now 
would those standing just come forward at once ; 
friends would please open the passage. There 
seemed to be nothing else left for them, and they 
started forward. I then, with exclamations of 
thanksgiving, exhorted eve>ybody to come, now 
the ice was broken. And they did throng for- 
ward ; the Church had got out of the way. Sis- 
ter C — 's little, white-headed, wiry son, Guy, 
though so young, seemed to be taking it all in. 
As the Church members came forward, he sprang 
up and dodged around to where his mother sat 
in the choir, and crawling under the seat came 
up by her side and whispered, " Didn't Mother 
Stewart get *em?" 

THE LITTLE MARTYR AND HER MONUMENT. 

In telling of my visit to the Washington 
County Children's Home, I intimated that I 
hoped to give, further on, an account of the origin 
of this model institution. This I have in part 
from the benevolent founder. Miss Catharine 
Fay (now Mrs. Ewing, a classmate and dear 
friend of the long ago, when students in the 
Marietta Seminary), and partly from a very 
deeply interesting account from the pen of the 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 477 

Rev. J. H. Jenkins. Mr. J. says, "To find the 
beginning we must go back at least to the year 
1853. On the then far-off frontier of Arkansas 
a New England mother lay dying. Deserted by 
a drunken husband, she had stood alone amid 
the storms of that winter, lighting against starva- 
tion and for the protection of her five children. 
She sank at last, exhausted. Her eyes had 
closed in death,it seemed, when the sobs and cries 
of the desolate children recalled the mother to 
consciousness. Clutching the physician's hand, 
she said, with a voice husky and weak, *Oh, 
doctor ! will you not see that they find homes ? ' 
He promised. Her eyes closed wearily. She 
was dead. Homes for all but the youngest 
were soon found. Taking this little girl, then 
two years old, on his horse, the kind-hearted 
physician crossed the border, and committed her 
to the keeping of a young woman connected 
with the mission among the Indians. The child 
was delicate and must have been rather remark- 
able for pensive beauty. Speaking of this occur- 
rence afterwards, the young missionary said: 
' As I took that dear, motherless child in my 
arms, I felt such a love as I have never since felt — 
a love, I believe, implanted by God for future 
good.' " Can I not keep her?" was my eager 
question. Days were spent in planning ; nights 
in prayers and tears. But it was of no avail. I 
was but a poor teacher, and many hundred miles 
from home, ' A home for the child was at length 
found and the time for parting came. Then it 



478 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

was that this young guardian found that her love 
for the helpless little one had become a control- 
ling passion. She endeavored to console herself 
with the thought that it was her duty to give the 
child up, and that it could not be otherwise. 
But her great love would not be answered, and 
out of its restless yearning grew a vague purpose 
that sometime she would make a home for such 
children. But in all probability, left to itself, 
this laudable scheme would have in time passed 
from her mind. It seemed, therefore, laid upon 
that mite of humanity to do a deeper work. 
While the young missionary was striving to con- 
quer what she esteemed a sinful sorrow, to forget 
the anguish of the last kiss, when with gentle 
force, she parted from round her neck, the arms 
of the babe clinging as with instinctive dread of 
the dark fate before it, news came that the child 
was dead. In a drunken quarrel between her 
adopted father and mother she had been acci- 
dentally killed. This intelligence fell like a crush- 
ing blow upon that loving heart, already so sore. 
Her health gave way under the combined power 
of sorrow and self- reproach. Being so advised 
by her physician, she returned to Ohio, and 
arrived home weak in body but strong in her pur- 
pose to devote her life to the establishment of a 
children's home." 

Her health came back and she bent all her 
energies to the one purpose of her life. She 
taught school for several years, saving every cent 
of her salary till she was able to buy twelve acres 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 479 

of land. Then buildings must be erected, the 
little stray lambs must be gathered in, provided 
and cared for, and all this my friend did out of her 
meagre earnings, and through her own labors and 
personal supervision, with very little help, except 
as God would, in answer to her cries to Him, 
put it into the hearts of some of the more benev- 
olent people to bring her aid. 

The recital of the toil and trials, even persecu- 
tions, that my friend endured while working out 
the problem to which she had set her life, would, 
if space allowed, read more like the creations of 
3. highly imaginative brain than the hard realities 
of a most practical life. But these, all beautified 
and made glorious by her faith in her mission 
and her trust in God, culminated, after the long 
years of single-handed effort, in the realization of 
her hope — a home for the homeless and a fitting 
monument to the Little Martyr of the Drink 
Curse. 

A BIT OF ROMANCE. 

I have given so many sad and pitiful incidents 
as the result of the liquor curse, that I am glad 
to give this little love story as a sort of silver 
lining to the sombre cloud of sorrow and misery. 

I was engaged by the Ladies' Union of a pleas- 
ant university town for a series of meetings. On 
Sabbath evening I addressed a fine audience of 
young people, and at the close of my lecture 
called for signers to the pledge, and quite a num- 
ber came forward. But the President, with whom 



480 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

I was Stopping, told me after meeting that there 
was one young man at the meeting who had 
failed to sign, though some of his friends had 
seen witli much concern for a good while that 
he was, unaware to himself, passing the danger 
line in his social habits, and they had hoped to see 
him take the much-needed step. He was of good 
fiimily and very popular, and of course there was 
that night, as he stood in the choir, one by his 
side who was very quietly, but with prayerful 
interest, watching him. As soon as the meeting 
was over she hastened to the President and 
unburdened her heart. She had noticed his agi- 
tation as the truth had seemed for the first time 
to flash upon him, that he was already in the 
breakers, with weakened power to contend against 
them. She said while he could not be induced 
to go forward, he stood there as one transfixed, 
gazing intently at the speaker, while his knees 
perceptibly trembled under him. The President 
of the University announced at the close that I 
would address the students at chapel next morn- 
ing. The young lady invited her friend to go, 
saying she would be there, and he promised her 
he would. When the hour came, it found our 
young friend there, and the young lady sat near 
him, though without any words, simply in that way 
testifying her intense interest on his behalf. At 
the close of my address I invited the students to 
come and sign the pledge, and let me pin on 
the badge of blue. I think all, both gentlemen 
and ladies, who did not sign the evening before, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 48 1 

came up and took the pledge. After they had 
hurried away to their classes, I was standing, 
talking with some of the Professors, when a lady 
touched my arm and in a low tone said there 
was a young man in the hall who wished to talk 
with me. 1 went to him and found him with his 
head bowed on the seat before him, weeping and 
manifesting much agitation. I talked to him as 
well as I could, urging the importance of his 
taking the decisive step at once by signing the 
pledge. At length he exclaimed, " Oh, my 
stubborn will r' Said I, "My son, if you have a 
stubborn will, thank God for it. If properly 
exercised it will be your salvation in helping you 
to resist temptation. ' ' We knelt down and prayed 
over it. And having a card in my pocket with 
my own name on it, I handed it to him and 
asked him to put his name down by it, and he 
did so. I met him at the depot a few hours later 
and had an interesting conversation with him 
while we were waiting for our respective trains. 
I told him upon parting, that when I reached my 
next place I would make and send him a badge, 
which I did, and promptly came a manly letter 
in response. He said, " I shall not attempt to 
say how greatly pleased and gratified I was 
when I received and read your letter this morn- 
ing. I hasten to acknowledge its receipt and say 
that I believe the best way for me to shov/ my 
appreciation and express my thanks for the 
interest you have taken in me, is by wearing 
each day the badge you have kindly made and 
(01) 



482 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSAUE. 

presented with your good-will and prayers. I 
accept it with due acknowledgement for the 
honor, as I consider it, and shall Jiow certainly 
hang my banner on the outer wall, — that ij, I 

shall as soon as I get to my home in , and 

you will, I know, pardon me for thus waiting, 
when I tell you that it has been requested of me 
by a young lady at home, that in the event of your 
sending it to me, (and I knew you would), 
she should be allowed the privilege of 'nailing fast 
the colors. ' You can very easily imagine the 
reply a young man would give to such a request. 
I begin to realize that henceforth it is to be with 
me a continual fight with my own nature if I hold 
fast to what I have pledged myself. Yet, I have 
never for a moment regretted the step I have 
taken." 

I had advised him to put himself further out 
of the reach of temptation, by at once going to 
work in the interest of the cause. He says, * ' I 
have al/eady done a little. ( He was in the U. S. 
]\Iail service. ) Our coming election in our State, 
for Governor, is hanging on the result of a strong 
fight being now waged by the temperance and 
anti- temperance men. Last week I proposed to 
my partner in the Mail Service, an E.x-Senator 
and a very strong temperance man. that I would 
do his work for three d:i)s while he went to his 
county and worked for the temperance party. 
He went, and it is now clearly shown that by his 
efforts the sentiment, which before had been 
strongly in favor of the whisky party, was so 



MEMOKltS OF THE CRUSADE. 483 

changed that the county voted to send a temper- 
ance delegate to the State Convention, with the 
help of which the outlook appears quite hopeful. 
Now, I think I helped the cause j?(sf a /t'ttle." 

Their candidate was elected. I heard from 
my dear, brave boy occasionally afterwards, till at 
length came these beautiful wedding cards, that I 
have kept as a sweet reminder of my cherished 
young friends ever since. These were soon fol- 
lowed by a paper giving a glowing account of 
the wedding, with a long list of beautiful and 
useful wedding presents. 




CHAPTER XXII. 




Work in Virgi7iia — Waterford — Lincoln — Ham- 
ilton — Leesbiirg. 

'HE first year of active work and exciting 
scenes had passed, but, though so much 
had been accomphshed, and the women 
so aroused, we began to take in the fact that it 
was only the beginning — the conflict must stretch 
out into the long years. 

The form had changed, but the work must be 
persistently prosecuted. A large army of ear- 
nest lecturers and organizers were entering the 
field. The work was spreading throughout the 
land —throughout the Northern States, I should 
say with more exactness — and my calls still were 
coming from all directions. I wish I might tell 
of the calls and work done in all the prominent 
cities of New York, many of the towns and cities 
of Western Pennsylvania, Indiana, Michigan, 
Illinois and Iowa, in the }'ears succeeding the 
"Uprising." The limits of this volume, how- 
ever, forbid it. Ikit I had long since seen that 
the call was to the Christian women of whatever 
name or nation. How could those of other 
lands than our own be reached ? I had bethought 

4S4 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 485 

me of a committee to be appointed by our First 
National Convention, with instructions to pre- 
pare a letter of invitation to our sisters of all 
Christendom to join us, but for some reason it 
failed of accomplishment, — perhaps the right 
time had not come. But the burden still lay on 
my heart, and I was crying to the Lord to make 
a way possible for me to go and carry my 
message to my sisters across the seas myself, 
when, at the National Temperance Convention 
in Chicago, in 1875, I met Mrs. Parker, of 
Dundee, Scotland, and Mrs. Watson, of London, 
England, who were here as delegates to the R. 
W. Grand Lodge of Good Templars, that had 
just closed its session in Bloomington, Illinois. 
These ladies invited me to come and help them 
open up the work in their country. 

The result was a visit to that country, — a 
warm-hearted reception, and co-operation in 
inaugurating the work of the British Women's 
Temperance Association. But the purpose and 
limit of these pages will not admit of the history 
of these few months of abundant and happy 
work, though if life and health shall not fail me, 
I hope to give it to my friends ere long. But a 
great field in our own beloved land was still 
unoccupied, and now my heart was going out to 
my sisters of the South land. 

It is true that Mrs. Wittenmyer, our first Presi- 
dent, had, in 1 876, visited some points in the South 
and organized a few unions, but the Southern 
ladies did not as yet look upon the work with favor. 



486 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

They had taken the impression that the Crusade 
was some sort of unwomanly demonstration that 
they could not endorse. The sectional prejudices 
had in the past kept us apart and given each 
section erroneous and exaggerated ideas of the 
other, and the war had intensified these senti- 
ments into bitter hate. Neither could believe 
any good could come out of the Nazareth that 
contained everything that we considered wrong. 
Then the political "reconstruction," and the 
forever harping on the "bloody shirt" and 
"lost cause," in every political campaign, by 
unprincipled leaders, was serving to increase the 
hate and widen the breach. Years had gone 
since the war troubles were proclaimed as 
"settled, and we once more a whole, united 
people," yet there was no unity or community 
of interests ; nor could there be while the dema- 
gogues from year to year continued to deliver 
their harangues and excite the ignorant rabble of 
both sections, and thus seek to carry the election 
for their party and their own personal interests. 
Must this go on forever? The Lord showed 
me by the teaching of His Holy Spirit that He 
had given it into the hands of the Christian 
Temperance Women, with the watchword and 
battle cry, ' ' For God and Home and Native 
Land. " to reach out the olive branch of Christian 
sisterhood and to pour the oil of peace on the 
turbid and forever seething sea of political strife 
and sectional animosities. 

And again was I crying to Him, " Here am 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 48/ 

I, send me," when an invitation, unsought on 
my part, came from the Good Templars of 
Loudon county, Virginia, requesting me to 
come and give them a few weeks' work. I 
gladly hastened to respond, and spent a month 
in the spring of 1877, in that delightful section 
of "Old Virginia," working with the Good 
Templars and Friends. By the aid of Mr. J. 
Edward Walker, — one of the Lord's noblest 
men — Mrs. N. A. Beans, the Misses Steares and 
others of Waterford ; Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. 
Jewett, and Dr. Stone and lady, of Lincoln ; Dr. 
Susie Gore, Mr. Thomas Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. 
Hoag, and Yardly Brown, editor of the Telephoney 
Hamilton ; and my young friend, Charlie Han- 
ford, of Guilford ; and indeed, by the co-opera- 
tion of the temperance friends all over the county, 
I was enabled to put in a month of active and, I 
think, profitable work. We formed a W. C. T. 
U. at Lincoln, Mrs. Jewett being made Presi- 
dent. Mrs. Jewett was a sister of that saintly 
man, Rev. Samuel M. Janney, whose home was in 
Lincoln, and who became an honorary member 
of the Union, and a sympathetic and valuable 
counselor. He has since gone up to sit among 
the Elders in his Father's house. 

We also formed Unions at Waterford and 
Hamilton. The sisters at once took up the 
work among the children, and soon after I left 
they joined the brethren with great earnestness 
in the Local Option campaign. 

It was my pleasure to organize the first colored 



488 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Blue Ribbon Club in the South (as far as I have 
any knowledge ), at VVaterford. They seemed 
to possess much more intelligence and thrift than 
the colored people generally through the country ; 
the secret being that two sisters — devoted 
young Quaker ladies, the Misses Steares — had 
opened a school for that unfortunate people as 
soon as it was made possible by the fortunes of 
the war, and had continued their Christian work 
till the results were seen in the community 
enjoying a degree of education, morals and 
prosperity very much in advance of the gener- 
ality of the freedmen. But no one who has not 
been in the South can understand the trials, the 
ostracism, experienced by these young ladies, or 
any, who attempted to reach out a hand to help 
those poor, liberated slaves. 

While in Virginia I was told of a young 
Quakeress of very superior education and refine- 
ment, who came from Philadelphia as soon as it 
was possible after the emancipation, and opened 
a school in one of the towns in that region ; but 
while every one saw and acknowledged that she 
was a lady in the highest sense of the term, and 
a superior educator, — saying they wished they 
could only have such a teacher for their own 
children, — yet they would not give her recogni- 
tion any more than if she had been the lowest name- 
less woman on the street. No one would speak 
to her ; of course no one would give her board- 
ing, — she was obliged to take a room adjoining 
an old colored woman and board with her. Oh, 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 489 

Avhat an army of moral heroes and heroines will 
answer to the roll-call of the Master in that day 
of assizes, and with wondering gladness hear the 
blessed, " Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the 
least of these, ye did it unto me " 

But my Blue Ribbon Club, how grateful they 
were for the interest I showed them. 

At the close of my address the aged men and 
women arose one after another, and with a 
peculiar sort of courtesy, and simple but feeling 
language, expressed their thanks. 

Among the sunniest memories of my life are 
those delightful, leisurely drives with Dr. Susie 
Gore, to the various appointments, over the 
beautiful roads and among the stately old home- 
steads of old Loudon. In one of these — "Oat- 
land," — I was hospitably entertained by Mr. 
and Mrs. Carterand Major and Mrs. Minnegerode. 
This beautiful estate was a "crown grant" way 
back in old colonial times, and had never since 
passed out of the Carter family. 

These dear friends were on the Confederate 
side in the war, but ready to join now with 
might and influence with the Northern Crusader 
against our great common enemy. Major 
Minnegerode was one of the finest specimens of 
southern young manhood I had ever met ; tall 
and finely proportioned, a genial, warm- hearted 
gentleman, a son of that eminent divine. Dr. 
Minnegerode, of Richmond. He was in Gen. 
Lee's army, and it was his misfortune to receive 
the last shot on Appomattox battle-field, only 



490 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADE. 

some twenty minutes before the surrender^ 
which laid him on his back for two years. I 
sometime since saw a statement that Major 
Minnegerode, being in Boston, attended the 
theatre, taking a box. In a few moments 
another gentleman was ushered in, and looking 
up he saw the surgeon of the Federal army who 
came to his assistance on the battle-field and 
tended him with a brother's care, saving his life. 
The recognition was mutual, though long years 
had intervened, and the eager embrace of those 
two men told of an undying friendship formed 
on that battle-field, though one wore the blue 
and the other the gray. 

My last meeting was in the old, aristocratic, 
rebel town of Leesburg. It took a good deal of 
management on the part of the temperance 
ladies to get the door sufficiently opened in this 
old, conservative place to get a hearing for our 
cause, but perseverance and strategy won, and 
our meeting was announced for the court-house, 
and a large audience was gathered, my friends 
from the other towns escorting me in. It was 
very discernible that, though the audience was 
composed of the best class of ladies and gentle- 
men in the town, it was more of curiosity to see 
and hear a "sure enough" Crusader than inter- 
est in the cause that had called them out. As I 
took my seat upon entering, an elderly gentle- 
man came forward and shook hands, giving me 
his name and saying he understood that I was a 
Methodist, and added that he was also. I 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 49 1 

expressed my pleasure and said I had now been 
a Methodist for forty-six years. He answered 
that he had been something longer; so we 
started off the best of friends. He took his seat 
in front of the platform to assist in the singing, 
being a very fine singer. Lawyer Janney pre- 
sided, and our meeting started off in fine style. 

It was just after that wonderful contrivance to 
cheat the simple Christian people and please his 
Satanic majesty, the " Moffett bell-punch" had 
been introduced, and I felt called upon to pay 
my respects to it, and also to the nine ' ' respect- 
able " men who had been endorsed by good 
worthy citizens as competent to wield that 
curiously contrived death-knell, very probably 
by good church members, I turned suddenly 
to my Methodist brother, saying : ' ' My brother, 
has any member of the Methodist church signed 
the petitions of these 'respectable men?' If he 
has, report him to the minister and have him 
turned out; he has no business in the Methodist 
church." Why, mercy ! What had I done! 

That audience fairly screamed, and drowned 
my voice, so that I had to stand there speech- 
less. I could not see any such exciting point to 
that little advice, and became greatly alarmed 
lest the people had in that way decided to silence 
me. But I stood with as composed a countenance 
as possible, till there was a moment's lull, then I 
quietly thanked the audience for their apprecia- 
tion of the point that seemed to have been made, 
but explained that my meetings were always in 



492 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

the nature of religious services, and I hoped 
they would observe the same decorum that they 
would in the sanctuary. From this out there 
was respectful and silent attention. Upon turn- 
ing to my Good Templar brethren for an expla- 
nation, at the close of the meeting,! was informed 
that my dear Methodist brother, who was also a 
Good Templar, was renting one ofhis houses for a 
saloon, and there had been a very serious time 
about it. Sides had been taken, and it had resulted 
in nearly causing a split in the Lodge. One 
gentleman brought his hand down on Brother 
Taylor's knee with startling vehemence, saying 
he would not take five dollars for that. But 
I have been a little careful since about " selling 
out " my Methodist brethren. 

On my return I took in Washington, and by 
invitation of Rev. Rankin, of the Congregational 
church, who was carrying on a Blue Ribbon 
revival, I had the pleasure of assisting him in a 
few meetings. 

I also made use of my prerogative, while at 
the Capital, as an American citizen, to call on 
our Chief Executive, and for lack of anything at 
hand worth saying, I remarked to the President 
that I wished him to understand that I was not 
an applicant for office, and had no axe to grind, 
and )-et if he had anything in the way of a 
consulate, or something of that sort, I should cer- 
tainly very gratefully accept. "Well, now," 
.said he, ' ' I am sorr}' to hear you say you are 
not seeking an office, for Mrs. Hayes is just now 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 493 

in correspondence with the Queen of Madagascar 
— you know they have the Maine Law there. 
She complains that while the representatives of 
all other governments respect her law, our consul 
disregards it, claiming by virtue of the commer- 
cial treaty the right to enter liquors into her 
ports. ' ' Now, " said he, " if it is found necessary 
to recall him, I am sure you would respect the 
law." 

I thanked him and assured him I should most 
certainly respect the Queen's laws. If I failed 
to get my appointment, my luck was not worse 
than that of several others. 

The Blue Ribbon movement followed in the 
wake of our Crusade and gathered in thousands 
of men that otherwise would have filled the 
drunkard's grave. We were glad to give it our 
most earnest support and assistance. I had the 
happiness of being the first to carry that work 
across the Mississippi into Iowa, where it was 
taken up with much enthusiasm and many cases 
of "saved" I could recount if admissible. In 
our own city it was introduced by Col. Richard 
Realf, that brilliant orator, poet, journalist and 
brave soldier. My heart aches and the tears 
will well up as I recall that wonderful, generous 
and genial friend, "son, " as he asked n^e to call 
him. 

What a remarkable and eventful history was 
his. An Englishman by birth, who showed 
unusual poetical genius, even when a boy, and 
by his productions attracted the notice of literary 



494 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

people, among them Lady Byron, who took him 
under her patronage. But his enthusiastic nature 
became enlisted in America and her political 
struggles. Coming to our country, he at once 
espoused the anti-slavery cause, and seeking out 
that old martyr, John Brown, became his secre- 
tary, and only escaped his fate by having gone 
for the time back to England. But returning, he 
made his way into the extreme South and com- 
menced a lecturing tour, when he was discovered, 
taken prisoner and had a thrilling experience, 
barely escaping death several times at the hands 
of the infuriated Southern mobs that surrounded 
him and his escort at the different points on their 
way to Washington. 

At one place he was taken from the hands of 
the officers by the mob, a rope put about his 
neck, and hauled up, once, twice, and again 
they were about to draw him up for the last time, 
when a gentleman who had just arrived on the 
train stepped forward and shamed them for cow- 
ards, and ordered them to desist. Said he was a 
Southern man, a Virginian, was coming to find 
a liome in the Southwest, and was in sympathy 
with them, but he would not see an unarmed 
man set upon in that way, and the next that 
touched the rope would receive the contents of 
his revolver They released him, and being 
taken to Washington, it was found that he was 
not guilty of any overt act, and so he was set at 
liberty. He then enlisted in the Federal army and 
fought bravely, coming near, at different times, to 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 495 

being taken prisoner, where he knew very well he 
would have had no hope of mercy. He brought 
from Chickamauga a testimony of his bravery 
and loyalty to his adopted country in a bullet 
wound, the effects of which he carried to the 
grave. But he added one more to the long list 
of conquered by drink. 

But when Francis Murphy opened his wonder- 
ful work in Pittsburgh, Col. Realf signed the 
pledge and at once took the platform, and brought 
all his earnestness and eloquence into the cause 
and did a grand work. If only Francis Murphy 
had made use of such an opportunity as never 
was given to another man in this country, and 
taken a stand for total prohibition at the ballot 
box and exhorted his army of reformed men to do 
the same, I am honest in the belief that the 
result would have been seen in the great advance 
of prohibition all over the country, and the 
shielding of many of those poor slaves of appe- 
tite who were struggling for deliverance against 
5uch fearful odds, and who did go down again. 
Like many another, he failed to see and grasp 
the great opportunity of his life. 

As an instance of Col. Realf 's power to turn 
«ven small things to account, I am reminded 
that upon calling on me after his arrival, he at 
once noticed and remarked upon my various 
souvenirs that I had as memories of my visit to 
his country. I told him I had something else that 
he would recognize, and brought a little primrose 
that I had cherished, having a solitary blossom 



496 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

remaining, and put it into his hand. He was 
almost overcome by the sight, and with heaving- 
bosom exclaimed, as he held it up and looked at 
it, ' * There is a primrose from dear old England. 
Mother, I'll steal it. " "No, "said I, "myson, }'ou 
shall not, I have .saved it on purpose for you ; " 
and before he started for the hall, I pinned it 
onto his lapel. I was not able to be present, 
but was told that in the course of his lecture he 
called the attention of the audience to the little, 
pale flower and at once burst into a strain of 
eloquence, recalling the scenes of his childhood, 
" Merrie old England," with her green fields, 
laughing little streams with mossy banks, haw- 
thorne hedges with the primrose, daisy and 
harebells nestled under, the lark and nightingale, 
home, sweet home, and mother. It was said 
there was scarcely an e3-e in that audience that 
did not look up at the orator through a mist of 
tears. 

But alas ! alas ! the demon was not to be 
thwarted of his prey. He had years before, 
while under the influence of liquor, through a 
mistaken sense of gratitude, made a fatal mar- 
riage that blasted all his life, and finding no way 
of escape, he, in a moment of despair, caught his 
medicine that sat on the stand by his bed, as he 
lay very ill, tlraincd it to the dregs, and quenched 
forever that strangely eventful life. As a mother 
mourns for a beloved son, so do even now my tears 
rain down for Richard Realf I have no other 
apology to offer for introducing here this imper- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 49/ 

feet reminiscence of that remarkably gifted man. 

Though busy in whatever phase of work I 
found to do, organizing and lecturing for our 
Unions, Gospel Temperance, Blue Ribbon or 
Prohibition, I did not lose sight of the Southern 
field, to which my heart continually turned, 
and for which I was still praying the blessed 
Lord to give me an open door. At length, 
by request of Sister Scott, of Louisville, and other 
ladies from the South, I was made chairman of 
Southern work at our National Convention held 
in Indianapolis in 1879. 

Miss Abby D. Munroe, Miss Jennie Smith, 
Mrs. L. M. Chase, Mrs. M. M. Clardy, Mrs. 
A. M. Linville, Mrs. Dr. J. C. Thomas, being 
my committee. It was some weeks before I 
received my notification of the fact. But I went 
to work with a glad, eager heart, and in ten days 
had the following circular on its way to all the 
prominent papers, secular as well as religious 
and temperance, in the South. 

To the Christian Ladies of tJu Southern States^ Greeting: 

Beloved Sisters : —At our Women's National 
Christian Temperance Convention recently held at 
Indianapolis, a Committee was appointed whose duty 
it should be to open correspondence with the Chris- 
tian ladies of the South and invite their co-operation 
with us in the work of promoting Christian Temper- 
ance 

We feel that the Lord hath called the Christian 
women of our land to a great and holy work, by using 
their influence as followers of the Lord Jesus to stay 
the tide of Intemperance, whose waves are every year 
engulfing so many thousands of souls for whom our 
blessed Savior died. 

1 32) 



498 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSAUE. 

That fell destroyer is blasting more lives, destroy- 
ing the peace and happiness of more homes, causing 
more poverty, sorrow and crime, and ruining more 
souls than all other forms of sin combined, 

Tliis influence woman can use in her own house- 
hold by banishing the wine-cup from her table, the 
intoxicating beverage from her sideboard, by practic- 
ing the priiiciples oi total abstinence herself and 
teaching them to her children. 

And by such blessed example and teaching in her 
own home she does become an influence in her own 
community for the right Again, by combining our 
influence and our prayers we strengthen ourselves 
and each other and become helpers, co-workers with 
our ministers in promoting Temperance and our holy 
religion among the people. 

In our work we usurp no other's prerogative. Ours 
is emphatically and simply woman's work. Neither 
is there any sectarianism or sectionalism in it. 

The beauty of it consists in bringing the women "f 
all denominations together on one broad platform of 
Christian benevolence and philanthropy. The only 
condition, a desire for the welfare of humanity and 
the salvation of souls. 

I am most hapi)y to say that the Convention did 
me the honor of making me Chairman of the Commit 
tee; I say most happy, for my heart has long been 
drawn toward the South ; and 1 have been devoutly 
praying that the Lord would open a door ot com- 
munication for me with the Christian ladies of the 
South, on this vital question. I therefore receive 
this commission as from His hand, praying that He 
may give me access to the hearts ot the sisters of the 
South, and I most earnestly solicit your ])rayers, my 
dear sisters, that we may l)e able by some means to 
bring our united prayers and efforts to bear for the 
destruction of this mighty foe to the church and to 
the peace and welfire of our country. I also respect- 
fully solicit a free correspondence on the subject. In 
the bonds of our blessed Crospel. Yours, 

MOTHKR SrEW.^RT, 

C/iatnnan Committee. 
Sprini^firhi, Ohio, Av. 15///, 1S79. 



MEMORltS OF THE CRUSADE. 499 

I also addressed personal letters to the editors, 
asking their endorsement, hunted up and wrote 
to many prominent persons, especially my 
acquaintances. The editors did, very kindl}', 
publish my letter, and many wrote very kind 
editorials commending m}' work. Among the 
various responses called forth by my circular let- 
ter was one from Mobile, claiming to be written 
by a Jew, which, for its peculiarity, I feel dis- 
posed to copy here : 

"Dear Madam :- I have seen your circular 
addressed exclusively to the Christian ladies of the 
South, and I consider it most appropriate. Christian- 
ity, in its long years of preaching a single doctrine 
oi Christ and Ilun crucified, hasoverlooKed the evils 
following in the wake of the missionary ; tlie greatest 
of which being the evil you are laboring, where 
others have in vain labored, to eradicate. The sav- 
ages of America knew nothing of poisonous drinks 
till Christian civilization planted it among them. 
Christian efforts, as I before said, are so blinded m 
one direction, that honest and true believers in Christ 
overlook the essential teaching of the Savior. Christ 
lived up to the essence of Moses' laws. His last 
hours were spent in celebrating the Passover; show- 
ing he was a good Jew. Go to work and teach 
])eople to live up to the sanitary teaching of old Moses. 
You can do it, and not sacrifice Christian doctrine. 
Ask your Jewish neighbors to explain their mode of 
living and you will learn how to cure drunkenness. 
As I am a sober person and belong to a sober race, 
your appeal does not concern me beyond the natural 
mclination to live in a community, whether Christian 
or heathen, where morality is the rule instead of 
the exception. And as I live in a so-called Christian 
comnumity, where we have drunkards, murderers, 
thieves, etc., I shall glory in your good work." 

He tells of his good, sensible wife and eight 
children, all sober and home-keepers, making a 



500 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

very interesting picture of the Jewish home. I 
confess that for several reasons the letter was 
interesting to me. It seems that with too much 
reason we have it ever thrown into our teeth by- 
Jew, Mohammedan and Heathen, that drunken- 
ness is the Christian vice and curse, and that 
wherever Christian civilization and commerce go, 
the inevitable curse follows in the wake, side by- 
side with the missionary and the Bible. 

I considered my unknown friend's communi- 
cation of sufficient importance to be answered and 
wrote the following : 

Louisville, Ky., Jan. 29, 1880. 

My Dear Sir: — Among my mail forwarded and 
awaiting my arrival here, was your most welcome and 
deeply interesting letter. I have been from home 
now three weeks, traveling and working in the cause 
for which you so kindly express your sympathy. 
This is the reason I did not receive your favor sooner, 
and my apology for not having answered it more 
promptly. I had, indeed, intended to answer at once 
upon reading, but as I was to meet the temperance 
friends soon, I decided to wait and read your letter 
to them, first, and ask them what answer I should 
give to — I wish I could in truth say this " scofiing 
Jew," — upbraiding is the word lam obliged to use 
instead, with too much reason. 

The friends said, Tell him we admit there is too 
much truth in his charge; we deplore it and are work- 
ing to induce a change. They, however, requested 
me to say, while not all the followers of our Christ 
live up to His blessed precepts, neither do all the sons 
of Jacob live up to the God given laws of Moses. 
Man is sinful and prone to evil as the sparks fly 
upward. And the friends further desired me to say 
we are glad to work with you and glad to have you 
work with us for the extinction of this great evil— curse, 
indet-d, uptin our country. 

We can unite thus far, at least, for t'.ie sake of l)et- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 5OI 

tering the community in which we live, and we all 
should be interested, because the effect of eradicating 
the liquor is at once to put a stop to drunkenness, 
murder, theft, and nearly the entire catalogue of 
crimes. I thank you, my dear sir, for the statement 
that Christ lived up to the essence of Moses' law, and 
I may add, (and I k.iovv you will agree with me in 
this), that if we all would live up to His precepts — 
"all things whatsoever ye would that men should do 
to you do ye even so to them, for this is the law and 
the Prophets," (or the fuIfiUing of them ), — if we all 
would observe this rule, there would be no need of 
this call that I make to the women to help, nor for 
my going to and fro among them, to try to induce 
them to see the need of cleansing their own homes 
and teaching their own households the principles of 
total abstinence. 

Great, oh, great, is the need of education on the 
subject. I am prepared from what I know of your 
people, to admit your statement, that ye are as a rule 
a temperate people. I understand also that the 
hygienic laws of Moses, which to so many seem but 
arbitrary precepts, are indeed for the governing of our 
lives, that our health and happiness may thereby be 
promoted. I am also prepared to give witness that 
Sarah's daughters are keepers at home, wifely, moth- 
erly, virtuous. And in regard to the home enjoyments 
and keeping, I have in my mind now a family, once 
my nextneighbors,who were very beautiful exponents 
of the principle. I esteemed them as most valued 
neighbors and friends. I wish I had time to tell you 
of a very dear friend I have in Glasgow, Scotland, a 
daughter of Abraham, but who has accepted Jesus as 
her promised Messiah. The Temperance ladies sent 
her with me to some other towns, and when I intro- 
duced her as a daughter of Israel, the audiences 
would listen with breathless interest, while in her 
low, sweet voice and foreign accent she would try to 
persuade the hearers to a life of total abstinence, 
making her arguments the stronger for her copious 
quotations from the law and the Prophets. I wish, 
too, that I could tell you more than I have time now 
of a friend of mine who believes and is teaching that 
Jesus the Christ.is coming very soon, " looking for His 
appearing" daily. 



502 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

That He will come to Mount Sinai first and there 
call His elect from the four winds, will meet His ene- 
mies on His way to Jerusalem, and will conquer 
them. Going up to Mt. Zion, to His own, who are 
already gathering — all the political movements in the 
East indicating that ere long the Jews shall be in 
possession of Palestine and waiting His coming — and 
will receive Him, for then He will come the Con- 
querer and King of nations. But beholding His hands 
and seeing the prints of the cruel nails, they, with 
wonder and astonishment, will cry out, What ! art thou 
Jesus of Nazareih?" And being revealed to His own 
they will receive Him, the once lowly, despised Naz- 
arene, now the Holy One of Israel, of whom Moses in 
the law and the prophets did write. Oh, I would like 
to live to see the glorious day ! 

But I was assured that to make my work effec- 
tive, I must go and carry my message to my 
Southern sisters. But an expense would nec- 
essarily be incurred, and there were no funds for 
such work. Blessed be the Lord, who in my 
extremity came to my aid, and placed friends as 
I needed in my way. Rev. R. D. Black, of 
Franklin, Ind., one of my "bo\-s" of old Ohio 
University, called me to help him in a protracted 
revival meeting, and this carried me on my way 
towards Louisville, where I proposed to intro- 
duce my work. I also found Brother Frazier, 
of the Christian church, in Franklin He 
was preaching in Alliance, Ohio, when the 
Crusade began there, and had been baptized 
by it into a more earnest devotion to the tem- 
perance part of a whole Gospel than ever 
before, and liad suffered not a little because of it, 
too. But the Lord was honoring him here in 
the love and co-operation of his people. I not 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 503 

only found him a strong ally to help me forward, 
but, by invitation of himself and people, I had 
the honor of being the first woman to occupy 
his pulpit. I also had the pleasure of giving aid 
to the Temperance Reform Club, and held sev- 
eral blessed meetings ; hall full, gallery full, entry 
crowded, stairs down to the street crowded, over 
a hundred- don't remember how many — signed 
the pledge, and started on the upgrade in search 
of their lost manhood. 

At one of these meetings, an inspiration, 
may be an impulse, seized me. The platform 
was quite low, and sitting in front and near 
were a respectable looking young couple, with 
a very sweet, little mite of a baby, about a year 
old, that in its baby restlessness would slip 
down from mamma's lap, and toddle up to the 
platform and clamber up. The mother seemed 
a little disturbed lest it should annoy me, but 
I assured her it did not. When we came to 
call for signers to the pledge, I caught up the 
baby and pinned a blue ribbon on its little 
shoulder, and holding it up, appealed to the crowd 
of young men in the gallery, on behalf of the baby, 
to come forward and sign the pledge and work 
henceforth to protect this ' ' daughter of the regi- 
ment," and all others, from the curse of rum. 

It was received with loud applause, and in a 
few moments the father arose and very gravely 
came forward and signed the pledge." It need 
not be said that the mother very soon followed. 
At the close some of the friends came to me and 



504 MEMORIES OF THK CKUSADE. 

said in undertones, " Mother Stewart, that was a 
grand victory you won. That young man was, 
seemingly unawares, drifting into the whirlpool, 
though his friends had been watching him with 
much solicitude." Praise the Lord, the baby 
saved him. 

Another man signed the pledge the same even- 
ing, who was so under the influence of liquor 
that I felt much concern lest he would not be 
able to keep it. Some years afterwards I met a 

lady in G , in my own State, who said she 

lived at that time in Franklin, and asked me if I 
remembered the man who signed the pledge for 
me when under the influence of liquor, and 
added, he remained steadfast, very soon sought 
the Lord and united with the church, and night 
and morning at the family altar prayed for Mother 
Stewart, and has taught his children to love her 
next to their Savior. Blessed be the name of 
the Lord for his many mercies. I know I have 
been sustained in answer to such prayers. 

I was taken to a beauftiul country church, 
" Mount Hope," two miles out of town, by the 
pastor. Rev. Black, Presbyterian, a Southern man, 
who had not before heard the message given by 
the mouth of a woman, and felt quite sure he did 
not want to ; it was not as he had read Paul. But 
hcnv thoroughly he indorsed and helped me, and 
we were able to open a grand Gospel Temperance 
work in his church, his wife, as the wife of Rev. 
R. D. Black, a helpmeet in the true sense of the 
word. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE, 505 

To Ebinburgh for a few meetings, then, fur- 
nished with letters from Brother Frazier to 
Rev. B. B. Tyler, of the Christian church in 
Louisville, and to Rev. Hamilton, of Little Rock, 
I hastened on to Louisville, where I was met by 
Brother Tyler ; that royal, good fellow, "Tom " 
Demarest, Worthy Chief Templar of the State ; 
Mrs. Carley, my life-long friend, and her daugh- 
ter, the beautiful Mrs. Chess ; Sister Scott, with 
other ladies and gentlemen. My reception was 
of the kind that makes one feel that they are 
among friends, and every lecturer knows how 
much the reception has to do with the success 
of his work. A committee was formed at once. 
Brother Tyler, who had seen just enough of our 
Crusade in Ohio to make him enter with enthu- 
siasm into my movement, put his church, the 
First Christian, at our service, and by his un- 
bounded influence with his people they were 
largely enlisted. 

The Good Templars, of course, co-operated, as 
they have everywhere, with me. I feel that I 
have never in such fitting words as the case 
demands, expressed my obligations, my sense of 
gratitude, to my Good Templar brothers and sis- 
ters. I simply can't. I have not the words. 
Everywhere in my own country and across the 
sea, how grandly have they helped and made the 
otherwise impossible, possible for me. God bless 
the Good Templars ! I shall have withheld a part 
of the truth if I fail to say that my honored 
brother, G. W. Bain, whom all the world honors, 



506 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

had, through the Good Templars Advocate, years 
before introduced me to his Southern readers. 
He at once indorsed and warmly vindicated the 
Crusade, even in the face of some of the eminently 
pious but conservative divines who felt called 
upon to preach and warn the Southern ladies 
against such unwomanly demonstrations. I can- 
not forget — don't want to — the warm grasp of 
his hand the first time I met him, as he exclaimed, 
' 'Oh, Mother Stewart, my people in the South all 
know you ; I followed you all through Great Brit- 
ain and wrote you up in the Advocate. " Giant and 
leader of the platform that he is among his fel- 
lows in the great army, doing such valiant battle 
for humanity, he richly deserves the renown he 
has won. And his charming wife, so timid and 
shrinking then, is to-day the leader of h( r enthusi- 
astic sisters in Kentucky. 

Here, to help now, were Brother " Tom "^ 
Demarest, editor of the Advocate, and Charlie 
Swift, his associate editor. The secular press also 
generously sustained me. ■ We had wonderfully 
interesting meetings. Revs. Lawson and Lewis, 
of the Methodist Church South, also put their 
churches at my service and gave me valuable 
assistance It was a scene that was too much 
fir the gravity of the pastor and other gentle- 
men, when the Crusader quietly stepped onto 
the platform— never before desecrated by female 
sole leather— and invited her co workers, the 
ladies, to take seats on it near her, while they sat 
demure!)- in the congregation. Tliey had never 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 507 

seen it on this fashion before, and hardly knew 
whether they had fallen upon good or evil times, 
but hoped that a new day might be dawning. I 
said to myself, What a grand town Louisville will 
be for a National Convention! Less than two 
years from that time, Louisville entertained the 
National Convention in royal style. The various 
churches of the city were crowded with eager 
and enthusiastic audiences, to hear Miss Willard, 
Ellen Foster and others. 

We formed the first union, with Mrs. Chris- 
topher as President, and she with other ladies 
formed a second union in Portland. These ladies 
at once went to work with good methods and 
zeal, to advance the women's v/ork in their city. 
I must not forget to say that I had only entered 
upon my work, when a telegram came from 
Brother Hamilton, of the Christian church at Lit- 
tle Rock, Arkansas, to Brother Tyler, saying, 
"Come, bring your wife and Mother Stewart. 
Our State Temperance Association is in session 
and I have advertised Mother Stewart for Sab- 
bath, at my church." Oh, dear, what could I 
do? I hastily called a council of some of the 
friends. Was it possible ? There was a door 
already swung wide open way in the Southwest. 
I would came back. But the decision was that 
it could not be. I was already advertised for 
the Sabbath in Louisville, and a disappointment 
would be fatal to my work. Did you ever see a 
naughty child yield just because it had to, and 
could not help itself? Why couldn't I be in two 



50S MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

places at once, just for that occasion? I learned 
afterwards that I had personal friends in Little 
Rock, who went to trains and hotels hunting me. 

I must not leave Louisville without mentioning 
a very happy incident, though I give it in my 
English experiences. At one of my meetings 
in Portland, or West Louisville, a lady was intro- 
duced to me as the mother of a gentleman who 
was a fellow voyager when I crossed the ocean. 
Why, who in the world? " Alf Mullett's 
mother ! " The mother of that great, big-hearted 
man who had taken charge of me, as if I had 
indeed been that refined gentlewoman before 
me. And had told her, upon his return, so much 
about Mother Stewart, that, having just arrived 
from her home in Washington to visit another 
son, and hearing that I was in the city, had come 
from the east end of the city to see and make the 
acquaintance of Alf. 's Mother Stewart. I was 
invited to her son's to dinner, and so had the 
happy aftermath to my acquaintance with my 
always afifectionately remembered fellow traveler. 

My next point, working my way with meetings 
in my own State, was Chattanooga, Tenn., where 
our son Theodore resides, and here was Rev. S. 
Tinker, of the M. E. church, ready to assist 
mc, first insisting upon m\- helping him in his 
revival meeting that was in progress. Our au- 
diences were large and the interest very manifest. 
If many came out of curiosity to hear "a woman 
preach," a few at least remained to pra)'. By 
invitation, 1 met the ministers in their Monday 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 5O9 

morning conference meeting, where they made 
me welcome and manifested much interest in my 
mission, and pledged themselves to support me 
and to bring the subject before the ladies of 
their respective churches, and to arrange for a 
meeting with the ladies on my return. The city 
editors very kindly requested me to let them 
know in what way they could serve me, and gave 
me most flattering notices. 




CHAPTER XXIII. 




Atlanta, Macon, Chattanooga, Bloody Copiah, 
Retrospection and Summing Up. 

m 

HE next town visited was Atlanta, Ga. , 
which has since come to be known the 
world over for its great battle, two years 
ago, and victory for local option, and its more 
recent defeat on the same issue. I was here 
welcomed by those faithful and true workers, 
J. G. Thrower, Worthy Chief Secretary of Good 
Templars of the State, and his excellent wife, 
who took me to their hospitable home, and aided 
me in every way in their power in introducing 
my work. 

I have elsewhere referred to the aid that our 
Good Templar friends have always been so ready 
to give, but I fear our sisters have not known of 
or appreciated their services at their true value. 
And I will take this occasion to add that I am 
also under man)' obligations to the Sons of Tem- 
perance and the National Temperance Associa- 
tion, to whose Secretary, my valued friend, J. N. 
Stearns, I atn a bankrupt debtor for his unswerv- 
ing and always helpful kindness, through all the 
years of m}- labors. 

510 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 5 I I 

As I sat in my room the next morning after 
my arrival, in deep thought and not a little solic- 
itous as to the success of my visit to these very 
•conservative ladies, and wondering if Christian 
people, and especially the ministers, could be 
enlisted, a carriage drove to the door and two 
ladies entered, one bearing a great tea-tray 
banked up with such gorgeous roses, lilies, pinks, 
jessamine, mignonnette, etc., as are to be found 
only in that Southern clime, a token of welcome, 
brought by that charming little woman, Mrs. 
Edw. M. Hammond, author of Georgia Sketclies, 
that had recently attracted so much attention in 
the New York Tribune. How my heart leaped and 
how the tears wanted to help give expression to 
my feelings for such unlooked-for kindness ! 
Mrs. Hammond was an earnest, active Christian 
as well as a lady, who had already acquired 
quite a reputation as a literary writer. Her 
husband, son of Judge Hammond, of the city, 
"was a rising young lawyer, devoted to his wife, 
as well he might be, and ready to assist her 
in all her benevolent movements. I found them 
my strong and efficient supporters. I have taken 
a latitude in speaking of my dearly loved friend, 
as I feel sure she from her modesty would not 
have permitted if living, but she has long since 
gone to join the angels, her beautiful life cut off 
just as she had entered upon what gave such rich 
promise of usefulness. And so has that other 
dearly beloved sister, Mrs. Howes, after many 
years of devotion to her Master's cause, passed 



512 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

over to her reward. How wise, how sympathetic, 
were these two ladies, and how valuable their 
assistance. While the tears will fall as I write, 
I am comforted with the assurance that they, 
with so many of the dear ones who have gone 
on before, are waiting and watching at the beau- 
tiful gate for me. Not many days hence we will 
clasp hands again, on the evergreen shore. 

Yes, one minister. Rev. Virgil Norcross, Mrs. 
Howes' son-in-law, called to say that his con- 
gregation of the Second Baptist, had requested 
him to convey to me an invitation to address 
them on Sabbath evening. 

My first reception was tendered me by Mrs. 
Thrower's Winona Lodge of Cold Water Temp- 
lars, of which Mrs. Thrower had been superin- 
tendent for ten years. She had already sent out 
many young men whom she had trained in that 
Juvenile Lodge, with the principles of total 
abstinence firmly engrafted on their characters. 
That reception is among the dearest memories 
of my Southern work. The ceremonies are 
quite similar to those of GoodTemplary. I was 
taken inti the anteroom, to wait while Sister 
Thrower opened the Lodge, and they transacted 
the necess.iry business. 

When they were ready to receive me, the 
Worth)' Marshal, a )'oung gentleman, possibly 
eleven years old, small even for that age, came 
and offered me his arm, and escorted me into the 
hall and in front of the Worthy Chiefs desk, and 
in a neat little speech presented the visitor, with 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 513 

all the dignity and gravity of a judge, to the 
Worthy Chief. That dignitary, who may have 
been fourteen, in appropriate language, delivered 
a welcoming address, and the Marshal was 
instructed to escort me to the platform — and — / 
sat — down — and — cried. 

A part of the exercises of this meeting was the 
induction of a new member. This was a little 
miss of nine summers, to whom, of course, the 
ceremony was entirely new, yet she performed 
her part with the utmost decorum. I never saw 
any lodge of grown people go through the va- 
rious exercises of the lodge room with more 
precision and seriousness than did these young 
people. To add to the ordeal, the officers had 
recently been elected, and this was the first time 
they had served. After several speeches, a name 
was called with request for a speech, when a 
large man of English type arose in the back part 
of the hall, so full of emotion that he could 
hardly command himself enough to speak, but 
exclaimed, while the tears flowed down his rug- 
ged cheeks, pointing to the Chief, "Oh! if I 
could only have my way, I would say to my boy. 
Stay there forever. If I could only have had the 
opportunities my children have, I might have 
been a very different man. But my father was 
a drunkard, and through the drink he ruined 
himself and ruined his family, and I followed in 
his footsteps. But thank God, through the 
prayers of dear friends I am to-day a saved man, 

(38) 



514 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

and my feet are planted on the Rock, Christ 
Jesus. " 

When I read, with so much interest, two years 
ago, of the one thousand young men that march- 
ed the streets of Atlanta, and helped to win 
that glorious victory over the saloons, I remem- 
bered my young friends of Winona Lodge and 
felt sure that Mrs. Thrower and her Cold Water 
army held a place of honor on that battle field. 

I cannot take leave of my young friends with- 
out giving the following, which was told me as 
taking place a short time before: A commercial 
traveler from Philadelphia arrived in the city on 
Saturday evening and put up at the Kimble 
House. On Sabbath morning he felt, as usual, 
the need of his morning dram, and sought the 
bar, but it was closed. He went out onto the 
street to find an open bar, but not one was to be 
found in the whole city. What did it mean? 
Why, those wicked rebels did really make a 
show of more reverence for God's holy day than 
we of the North are doing. 

Had to do without his accustomed dram, poor 
man. He picked up his paper and in looking 
over ic noticed the announcement of W^inona 
Lodge, at Good Templar's Hall, at three o'clock. 
What was that ? I-'or lack of anything else to do 
he concluded he would go and see. He witnessed 
those children's exercises and became strangely 
interested. And when the}' called for signers to 
the pledge he went up and signed, and some little 
fingers pinned on the blue ribbon, and he went 
forth a pledged abstainer. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 515 

My first public meeting was held in the Trinity 
Methodist, Dr. Right's church, on the same Sab- 
bath, at 4:30. Governor Colquitt had been 
engaged to preside, and introduce me, but being 
-unexpectedly called from the city, he sent his 
"next best man," Professor Lumpkin, in his 
stead. Before me is the report of this meeting, 
as given next day by the Atla?ita Constitutioit. 

It tells of the very fine and intelligent audience, 
and speaks of her who had come to their city to 
commend the W. C. T. U. and its work to 
the Southern ladies, in very kind and flattering 
terms. 

Mrs. Gov. Colquitt was unanimously elected 
Honorary President of the first Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, of Georgia, and in the 
full list of officers before me I find Mrs. Dr. 
E. Q. Fuller, Acting President; Mrs. Judge 
1 lammond. First Vice-President ; also a promi- 
nent mc.nbcr from each of the fourteen churches 
and the several Temperance lodges as Vice- 
Presidents. Mrs. E. M. Hammond, Rec. Sec. 
and Treasurer ; Mrs. M. E. Osborn, Cor. Secre- 
tary. 

Something over two hundred names were 
given at our first meeting, to our Union, and at 
Brother Norcross' church over one hundred 
more gave their names. I nowhere ever formed 
a Union of more competent and earnest women. 
"We can state," says the reporter,. " that the 
movement has among its leaders some of the 
first Christian ladies of the city. " Mrs. Colquitt 



5l6 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

very kindly threw open the drawing rooms of 
the Executive Mansion for our conference meet- 
ings. Dr. Hight was absent in Savannah, helping 
the pastor of that city in a revival meeting. But 
on the following Sabbath he was in his pulpit, 
and in such precious words of commendation 
indorsed the work and the worker that my heart 
was greatly cheered, and I cherish the memory 
still. 

On this same Sabbath evening Brother Nor- 
cross took me to his church, where we had a 
crowded house. At the close of my address, we 
called upon any who wished the prayers of 
Christians to arise, and fifteen or twenty respect- 
able appearing young men arose to their feet. 

In a letter to the Nro) York Tnbune my little 
friend, Mrs. Hammond, spoke of this meeting 
and gave this incident: "A poor woman had 
long prayed for her husband, that he might be 
saved from his appetite for strong drink, but had 
become discouraged. He could not be induced 
to go to church, and the case looked so hopeless 
that she had quit praying for him. But when 
Mother Stewart came she picked up heart again. 
He went to hear Mother Stewart and signed the 
pledge. And it was not long after that he 
sought and found Jesus, united with the church, 
and is now providing bountifully for a happy 
nunily. " In closing, she said, "Is not this worth 
livini^or dying for?" And I said, as I read it 
through my tears, "Amen, worth living or ^/ivV/g" 
for." 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 51/ 

I was taken by Brother Thrower to the Storrs' 
Institute for the colored people, and addressed 
several meetings, and formed a W, C. T. U., 
that devoted Christian teacher in the Institute, 
Miss Lizzie Stevens, being made President. The 
other officers were colored students or graduates, 
and seemed to be as competent for their respec- 
tive duties as any white ladies. This was the 
first colored W. C. T. U. formed in the South. 

I respected the conservative feelings of the 
ladies, and their prejudices against our Crusade, 
so much as not to refer to it until they finally 
asked me to tell them about it in one of our 
social conferences. How glad I was of the 
privilege and as I talked they sat and wiped the 
fast falling tears, and insisted upon my telling 
them more, more. And I remember, too, that in 
a conversation with two of the most intelligent 
ladies on the great problem of how to overcome 
the liquor power, one of them remarked that she 
believed in giving the women the right to vote it 
out, but because of the bitter prejudice on the 
subject she thought it best not to express her 
views. The other lady responded, ' 'and so do I. " 

As a sample of the practical methods of work 
entered upon by the ladies at once, I give the 
following circular that was distributed every- 
where ; in the stores, for merchants to put in 
packages of goods, on the seats of street cars, 
and on rail coaches going out of the city : 



5l8 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

TO ARRAY OUR ENTIRE SEX AGAINST THE SALE AND 
USE OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS; 

To create a universal and moral sentiment against the 
same, and in favor of sobriety, total abstmence, and 
virtue; to impress upon the youth of our day the 
GUILT of selling intoxicating liquors, to be used as a 
beverage, and the fatal danger as well as guilt of 
drinking them, and to inculcate positve sentiments 
and principles against both, as a preparation for the 
temptations and responsibilities of tuture manhood 
and womanhood ; and to endeavor to aid and elevate 
the inebriate, his children and family, and throw 
around them sympathetic and Christian influences, 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of 
Atlanta, will religiously employ all the means God 
places within its reach ! 

As I have said in regard to the ' ' Cold Water " 
army, so, I feel certain, to the faithful, energetic 
and practical work of the W. C. T. Union of 
Atlanta is largely due the victory in that contest 
at the ballot-box with the liquor men. And if 
the Christian women could have had the same 
privilege that was given to the keeper of the lowest • 
doggery in the city, or to the lowest, vilest, 
drunken sot, black or white, Atlanta would in 
the election of 1887 have maintained the immor- 
tal renown she so gloriously won two years 
before, as "the first prohibition city of its size 
in the world." 

While nearly all the ministers in the city 
indorsed our work — even some of those "South- 
ern Brigadiers," occupying churches at that 
time, invited me to unite with them in their revi- 
val meetings,! am obliged, in the interest of truth, 
to mention an exception, though with the deepest 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 5 I9 

sadness. There was one church having two 
congregations in Atlanta that did not indorse 
my work, disapproved of it. Which, however, 
was not unlike the attitude of that church. 
North as well as South, with rare, though 
blessed exceptions. I remember that a lady- 
belonging to one of these churches, who was 
noted for her piety and active Christian work, 
gave us her name and we hoped much from her 
aid and influence. But it was not long till 
she withdrew; her pastor did not approve of 
such work for women. In the other charge of 
the same denomination the ladies were very busy 
preparing for a spectacular entertainment, "Par- 
adise and the Peri," to be given for the benefit of 
their church. Something like a dozen young ladies 
of prominence were engaged to appear on the stage 
in special costume. It was attracting much inter- 
est, and they were expecting a large audience of 
the elite of the city, and a handsome sum as the 
result for their church. I did not hear that either 
of the rectors expressed any disapproval of ladies 
appearing in public under such circumstances. 
And I am not expressing any opinion of my 
own, am only narrating a fact. I had gone on 
farther South when the first matinee, or rather 
afternoon rehearsal, was to take place preparatory 
to the public entertainment. The ladies were 
enveloped in ample, flowing robes of white tar- 
latan, with wings of cotton batting standing up 
from the shoulders to represent angels. As they 
moved about in the robing-room back of the 



520 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

Stage, the wing of one of the ladies swept a gas 
jet that was burning. The heart-sickening details 
of what followed in a moment, as given by a 
reporter who was a witness, is at my hand, but 
too horrible to repeat here. The whole city was 
plunged in gloom by the terrible tragedy. Before 
my return one or two of those ladies had already 
been laid in the grave, while several others will 
carry the scars and shock of that fearful experi- 
ence while they live, as will several gentlemen 
who heroically rushed to their rescue at the risk 
of their own lives. 

After taking leave of the Atlanta Union, the 
following letter was, without solicitation, for- 
warded to me: 

Atlanta, Ga., April 30, iSSo. 

Dear Mother Stewart : — We wish that we could 
go with you through Georgia and urge other women 
to arouse to help you in your good work amongst us. 
It has occurred to us to send after you this, our ear- 
nest endorsement of your efforts, and the expression 
of our warmest sympathy aid fullest confidence, and 
the few of us who can conveniently meet to-day send 
this, trusting that they may be trusted as speaking 
for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Atlanta and the ladies of the city in general, although 
we have taken no time to seek signatures to this 
paper. We commend you to all our friends in this 
and other Southern States, and to Christian men and 
women everywhere, and we hold you in grateful re- 
membrance for the good seed sown in our society 
here. 

Cordially yours, Mrs. A. H. Colquitt. 

Mrs. M. E. Howes. 

Mrs. K M. Hammond. 

Mrs. 15. Y. Sage. 

Mrs. D. H. Sells. 

Mrs. M. E. Osuurn. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 521 

My next point was Griffith, where I was again 
warmly welcomed by Mr. Geo. R. Niles and 
others. But my spirits, in spite of it all, were 
alarmingly running down as I sat in my room 
alone, realizing the greatness of my undertaking 
and fearing that the dear women, remembering 
all they had suffered — and I could see too plainly 
everywhere what the terrible conflict had cost 
them — would not feel that they could co-operate 
with one whose people were responsible, as they 
claimed, for the ruin of their country, when a 
servant entered with such a beautiful tray of 
those sweet Southern flowers. ( I wonder how 
the ladies could know that nothing could touch 
my heart as those delicate tokens of welcome 
and hospitality. ) On the top of the flowers lay 
this card that I love to look at as I write: 

To Mother Stewart, 

With compliments of 

Mrs. Wm. R. Hanleiter. 

How soon were my anxiety and home-sick- 
ness dispelled. Dr. Kendal, of the Methodist 
Church, called on me at once, and bade me 
welcome, and though in the midst of a protracted 
meeting, he introduced me and my work to his 
people, saying: "This is just what I have 
been praying for." Our meetings were well 
attended, and by the Doctor's urgent request I 
remained a week longer than I had intended. 

Rev. Mr. Mundy, of the Baptist Church, also 
took me into his pulpit, and pledged himself and 



522 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

people to my work. We formed a Union, 
making Mrs. Judge Stark, President. The re- 
vival work in Dr. Kendal's church went on after 
I left, and many souls were gathered in. 

At Macon I found Mrs. Angela C. Davis, 
formerly one of our most enthusiastic Crusaders, 
and who has since made for herself a record as 
a very popular lecturer. She had prepared the 
way for me, and Dr. Key put his church at my 
service and gave me valuable assistance, he, too, 
saying, ' ' This work is just what I have been pray- 
ing for." We organized a Union, making Mrs. 
Dr. Key, President, and Mrs. Davis, Secretary. 

My health began to fail me now, and I found 
it necessary to turn my face towards home. But 
I stopped at Forsyth and held a series of meet- 
ings, with the aid of Rev. J. D. Hammond, Dr. 
Moore, and other gentlemen and ladies. Brother 
Hammond was another son of Judge Hammond, 
of Atlanta. He was a scholarly man and an 
earnest, devoted minister. If half the labors and 
sacrifices, with meagre salaries, of those southern 
ministers, after the war had swept over the 
country with its blasting and mildew, could ever 
be told, it would make a wonderfully pathetic 
and touching story. In referring to the two 
divisions of the Methodist Church, Brother 
Hammond said he should never cease to feel 
glad that a three-years' sojourn in a Northern 
college and association with Northern Metho- 
dists, had proven to him that Methodism, 
whether North or South, was one and the same 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 523 

I was growing so ill that I could only go to 
the church and deliver my address, and then, 
leaving the meeting in the hands of the friends, 
hasten to my room, fall on my bed and lie there 
till the next meeting. We formed a Union, 
with Mrs. Col. Adams as President. 

On the evening of my last meeting I noticed 
a very respectable audience of colored people in 
the gallery, and expressed my regret that I 
should not be able to give the colored people a 
meeting, as I had so much desired to. In a few 
moments a very neatly written note was sent 
down, thanking me for my interest in them and 
expressing their sympathy in my work. 

The next morning a lady came to the depot 
as I was about to leave, saying she could not 
let me go without coming to ask me if some- 
thing could not be done for the colored people. 
They were, she said, being ruined by the drink. 
Only a day or two before, as she passed a 
grocery, she saw the keeper literally kick a 
colored woman, who was drunk, out into the 
street, and she fell prone on the ground. I 
turned to Brothers Hammond and Moore and 
they assured me they would at once take the 
matter in hand, and they did. In connection 
with some colored Good Templars they called a 
meeting and organized a Temperance Associa- 
tion, and in reporting the work. Brother H. said 
the colored organization was working with more 
enthusiasm than the white Union. 

If the pretended friend of the colored man 



524 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

would take half the pains to wipe out his dead- 
liest foe that he does to secure his vote for 
"the party," he would prove his sincerity by 
helping him up into a better life and at the same 
time make a better citizen of him. 

If the Southern politicians will stop long 
enough to seriously consider this momentous 
question of the colored vote, instead of forever 
seeking to defraud him out of his right as a citizen, 
he will see that the only solution of the whole 
matter is to wipe out the liquor traffic and give 
the colored man such educational facilities as shall 
make intelligent, thinking men instead of igno- 
rant, debased, half human, half animal beings, 
that must be a continual source of solicitude, a 
heavy tax, and a menace to the community and 
the State. When will the men of this nation 
learn wisdom ? The women of the \V. C. T. 
U., North and South, have long since accepted 
this principle and as far as is in their power are 
acting upon it. 

It was a source of inexpressible grief to me 
that I was obliged to abandon that interesting 
field just as the work was opening up with such 
hopeful outlook. But while I lamented sorely 
that I could not have gone on, I felt that I 
could afford to be sick for a season for the sake 
of what my Heavenly Father had enabled me 
to do. 

I stopped at Chattanooga only long enough 
to meet the ladies, as previously arranged b\' the 
pastors. We organized a Union, making Mrs. 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 525 

Loomis, President, and Miss Kate Lyle, Secretary. 
But I was obliged to leave them without giving^ 
the necessary instruction how to proceed with and 
carry on their work. The consequence was that 
they abandoned their organization, but I am 
happy to say a Union was long since formed 
under more favorable circumstances, that has 
been doing a blessed work. What a glorious 
record they, with the ladies all over the State, 
made in the campaign for Prohibition last fall 
(1887). Ah! Sisters, well-beloved; if you had 
been armed with the citizen's weapon on that 
day of desperate battle with the combined liquor 
power, North and South, you would have stood 
victors when the day was done. 

I recalled other engagements and after our 
meeting took the next train for home. 

Out of the many cheering letters that came to 
me from all parts of the South, I cannot do more 
than give extracts of the more important. 

Two of my Committee, Sisters Chase and 
Clardy, reported from Arkansas. They were ear- 
nestly at work and accomplishing great good. 
Sister Chase, with her husband, had for many 
years been conducting an educational institution 
for the colored people at Helena, but not confining 
her labors to the college, she was traveling,, 
lecturing, preaching and stirring the people upon 
the all-important temperance question, organiz- 
ing, and out of her own means circulating large 
amounts of literature. Sister Clardy giving her 
whole time, seeking opportunities, and finding 



526 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

them, too, to present her cause to educational, 
rehgious and political gatherings. In her report 
she says : "I attended the State Teacher's 
Association and had our Training School for 
Cookery and Temperance Text-book for Public 
Schools, referred to the Executive Committee. I 
also attended the Convention of United Friends of 
Temperance, July 15th, near Hot Springs, and 
made two addresses. I was present at the 
Democratic barbecue at Prescott, August 12th, 
and was allowed twenty minutes to address three 
thousand people on the blessed cause, being 
introduced by the Methodist minister. On 
y\ugust 1 4^1"'' 3.t the same place, I had a similar 
opportunity at an immense Greenback bar- 
becue." She reports seven W. C. T. Unions 
formed, sixteen weeks of incessant work in the 
heat of summer, /fss than a hundred dollars 
recei\cd, nearly every cent, of which she paid 
for traveling expenses, stationery, literature, etc. 
Sister Chase's report was similar in labors and 
results. 

How cheering were the letters of these dear 
sisters, also tlnse of Sister Jennie Smith, though 
busy in her own special work as evangelist for 
the railroad operatives and their families, and 
she and her colleague, Ada Sherman, have been 
busy ever since, and have been the b!e>scd 
insiiuments in the sal\-ation of thousands. I 
found Sister Abba Munroe in Mt. Pleasant, near 
Charleston, S. C, where she had been for twelve 
long }-ears at her post, faithfully training those 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. $2/ 

poor, ignorant, neglected colored people, and 
fitting them for citizenship and for the Master's 
use. She explained what I was well aware of, 
that her position as a teacher of the colored 
people precluded any possibility of her helping 
me among the white ladies. 

Read her report in a paragraph : "My warmest 
sympathies are with you, and be assured, any- 
thing I can I will gladly do, but my duties keep 
me constantly employed. I am principal of a 
•day-school and superintendent of a Sabbath- 
school. During the season we succeeded in 
bringing to consummation the building and dedi- 
cation of a small chapel for the little church with 
which I worship, and the care of it all, from the 
driving of the first to the last nail, devolved on 
me, and it was a great tax upon my time, though 
an untold pleasure to witness the delight of the 
people at the realization of their cherished hopes. 
We started a Band of Hope last winter among 
the children and young people, and this, of 
course, absorbed a great deal of my time." 

This is one of New England's educated and 
refined Christian daughters. Here is her photo- 
graph before me, conveying the idea of a bril- 
liant, magnificent woman, — or it would, if she 
were found in fashionable society, instead of in 
the position of a despised teacher of colored 
people. Of such the world is not worthy, but 
I dare not trust my pen lest it shall say some 
bitter things. I hope and trust that the W. C. 
T. U., North and South, will utter their em- 



528 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

phatic protest against such silly, such wicked 
ostracism of the most self-sacrificing missiona- 
ries in the world. 

Another such, though not of my committee, 
Miss Ufford, near Concord, N. C, wrote: "I 
should very much like to form a prayer union, 
but my time is now nearly all occupied with 
teaching the children. Then, I have a Sunday- 
school to conduct on Sabbath morning, a prayer- 
meeting in the evening, and a meeting on 
Wednesday evening." Besides these, she had 
organized and was superintending a live Band of 
Hope, and was doing what she could for temper- 
ance among the men and women. Why did 
not some one quote Paul's injunction to these 
elect ladies ? ' * Let your ivonien keep silence in 
the cJiurches. 

One lady wrote me from Mississippi : "When 
I saw your circular in the Vicksburg Herald^ I 
was so struck with the magnanimity of the 
Northern people that I was stimulated to make 
another effort in the temperance cause, although 
I had seen enough to dampen the zeal of one 
less despairing than myself." 

Slie tells of riding a hundred miles on horse- 
back, to circulate papers I had sent her, and 
obtain subscribers, but with sorry success. 
Many declared they zvould ?wt take, or read, a 
fnpcr pjihlishcd or ediUd by a ivoman ! Well, 
thank the Lord, the day is breaking. 

From Edwards county. Miss. . Mrs. Jamison 
wrote that she and her husband went to work 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 529 

upon receiving my circular and temperance 
literature, and organized nine Sabbath-schools 
into Temperance Societies, numbering 600 chil- 
dren. At one of their temperance meetings 300 
adults and 48 children signed the pledge — nearly 
a thousand as the result in that county. 

" BLOODY COPIAH." 

I have been very much interested in reading in 
the papers, from time to time, of the remarkable 
fact that Copiah county, Mississippi, — "Bloody 
Copiah" — was actually a prohibition county, 
where there was no liquor ; and as a matter of 
course, crime, of whatever shape, had almost 
entirely disappeared. But I said the world did 
not know that it was the transforming hand of a 
Crusader that was laid on "Bloody Copiah" 
and changed it into "Prohibition Copiah." 

In opening up my Southern work, I was glad 
to remember that one of the first and most 
helpful ladies that came and stood by me in the 
first days of my work, our dear Mrs. A. E. B. 
Ridgely, was now living in Hazelhurst, Copiah 
county. Miss. I hastened to write to her, send- 
ing my circular, with the request that she send it 
to her county paper, indorsing it with an article 
from her own pen. 

She answered at once, but said, while she saw 
the great need of enlisting the women of the 
South in the temperance work, the whole thing 
loomed up before her such a mountain of diffi- 
culties that her heart fainted. "But life is a 

(34) 



530 MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 

succession of overcomings. " It was such an 
unheard of thing for ladies to take part in any 
such pubHc work, that she had httle hope of any 
consideration being given the subject. But she 
sent the appeal to the paper, with an article of 
her own, and wrote me, "The editor of the 
Copiahan, our county paper, published your 
circular and a short article of my own very 
promptly, and called attention to the article in a 
short paragraph. The next issue contained a 
letter from Dr. Rowan, of Beauregard, (in this 
county), calling upon the people to rise up and 
take action in regard to the liquor question in 
their county. (There was no reference, however, 
to the article of the week before. ) Quite a heated 
discussion followed, then a meeting to issue a 
call for a County Convention. The Convention 
was held ; the ladies had been particularly 
invited ; there were not many in attendance, but 
they were invited to sign the constitution and to 
vote upon questions before the house. No word, 
however, acknowledging the origin of the move- 
ment." 

But said my friend, " I thought if they would 
only do all that might be done, you would 
rejoice in that fact, satisfied to remain an un- 
known promoter of good measures. / felt that 
/would." 

I sent Our Union and other paper.-?, which 
Mrs. R. judiciously distributed. A petition was 
circulated against granting the application of the 
saloon-kccpLT in Ilazelhurst for a renewal of his 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 53 1 

license. It was not long till " Bloody Copiah " 
was heralded to the world as "Prohibition 
Copiah." I do not claim for my Crusade co- 
worker, neither does she for herself claim, more 
than that "solitary and alone she put the ball 
in motion." 

I have felt all through the penning of this 
history of my Southern experience, that I ought 
to apologize to my sisters who are to-day doing 
such marvelous work in all fields, for making so 
much of this year's work, for I am sure, to them it 
looks hardly worth the attention I am claiming 
for it. But I would beg them to remember that 
this was in 1880 ( eight years ago). It was the 
beginning. I went by call of the Master, carry- 
ing the olive branch of the W. C. T. U., and 
the people — women and men — gave me a warm 
welcome and cordially co-operated with me in 
planting it in that warm. Southern soil; and 
while it was watered with many a tear and watched 
with almost painful solicitude, in that day of 
small beginnings, I am to-day filled with rejoicing 
that Miss Willard, our President, and others have 
followed and been able in the years since to do a 
blessed work, with the assistance of Mesdames 
Sallie Chapin, who has come to her kingdom 
for such a time as this, Lide Merriweather, 
Mollie McGee Snell, with a whole regiment of 
like faith and work. These, our Southern sisters, 
are pushing the battle to the gates of the enemy, 
and are, by their untiring zeal and practical 
methods, often giving us hints we would do well 



532 MEMORIES OF THE CKUSADl:. 

to act upon. While thus working for their own 
beloved South land, they have gladly joined us 
in bridging the chasm of sectional hate, and in 
pouring the oil of Christ's blessed Gospel of 
peace and good-will to all mankind on the 
troubled waters. And so are we once more a 
united people, — united through the loving mis- 
sion of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union. 

On the 4th of October, 1887, the Ohio State 
Union held its fourteenth annual convention in 
Springfield, where it was organized thirteen 
years before. I deem it appropriate in closing 
this story of the Crusade, to copy a few extracts 
from the address of welcome I had the honor of 
delivering to the delegates on that occasion : 

Thirteen years ago Ohio organized the first State 
W. C. T. Union of the world, little knowing whith- 
erto it would lead. We had come to see that such 
an organization was imperatively needed to syste- 
matically and continuously prosecute the work to 
which we had consecrated our lives. Days of 
beginnings were these, — of laying foundations and 
opening up highways for woman's feet to tread, in 
fields hitherto deemed inaccessible to woman. 

To day, as we naturally cast a retrospective glance 
back over the intervening years, we exclaim, "Be- 
hold what hath God wrought — wrought by the 
hand of woman !" 

In every State and Territory in our beloved land, 
from the State of the midnight pine to the golden 
gate, from the far Northwest to the Keys of the Land of 
Flowers, we are fully organized and actively pushing 
forward our work. Women hitherto separated by 
sectional strifes and prejudices, growing out of that 
other great national sin and conflict, are to-day side 
by side in most loving harmony, vying with each 
other in zeal and good works for home and native 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 533 

land. But not to our own shores was the blessed 
work confined, — the sound thereof has gone out into 
all the world. 

I shall never forget the emotion that thrilled my 
breast as, standing addressing a ladies' conference 
in Belfast, Ireland, on the 21st of April, 1876, a 
telegram was handed me from Mrs. Parker, of 
Dundee, Scotland, dated New Castle-upon-Tyne, 
announcing the glorious news of the organization of 
the British Woman's Temperance Association there. 
This had been the burden of my mission to that 
country, and together, she and I had matured our 
plans, and parting at Glasgow, she going to New 
Castle, and by the aid of the Good Templars, whose 
Grand Lodge was at that time in session there, to put 
our purpose into execution ; I, to Belfast, by invita- 
tion, to speak at the annual meeting of the Irish 
Temperance League. 

And thus Great Britain gladly clasped hands across 
the ocean with us in this holy war. Now, in the 
Queen's possessions, on which they boast that "the 
sun never sets," they are emulating us and provoking 
us to good works. 

When, as fraternal delegate from our National W. 
C. T. U., I attended the meeting of the R. W.Grand 
Lodge of Good Templars in Saratoga, last May, I 
was made very happy by meeting Mrs. Denholm, 
then of London, the Secretary of the first Union I 
formed in Great Britain, now of Cape Town, South 
Africa, and Vice-President of the World's Union for 
the dark continent. And one of our own, a gentle- 
spirited Quakeress, Mary Clement Leavitt, is sweep- 
ing around the world laden with the good news of the 
W. C. T. Union for God and Home and All Lands, 
winning victories and accessions to our cause every- 
where. Think of it! In Japan, in China, countries 
whose gates were only so recently barred to woman, 
and to attempt to enter which would have cost her 
life ; in India, Siam, holding grave counsel with 
crowned heads in the interest of our blessed work. 
And thus, to-day, the vi^orld is girdled with a band 
of white ribbon, and the white-winged dove of prohi- 
bition^ prosperity, purity and peace shall ere long perch 
upon our banner. 



534 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 



What has this phenomenal broadening of woman's 
field brought to her as an individual ? Oh, so much, 
beyond the power of the most vivid imagination to 
have forecast. A spiritual and intellectual develop- 
ment of which we had no previous conception. 
Women, not in the least conscious of the rich gifts 
and powers with which the Father had endowed 
them, having, as their several talents were laid at 
the Master's feet, been called into this great army, 
have astonished the world with their ability to devise, 
plan, organize, thrill and sway great audiences with 
burning words of eloquence, write books, edit and 
publish newspapers, — our Union Signal being a wit- 
ness of which we are justly proud. 

The Secretary reports thirty-eight States, six terri- 
tories, and the District of Columbia, under organiza- 
tion. Forty various branches of benevolent work, 
some of which we had been in doubt as to the right 
or expediency of women entering upon, have we 
taken up in the interest of humanity, and for the 
amelioration of the sorrows of this sin-laden world. 

A mighty force is this W. C. T. U., influencing 
and winning the profoundest respect of municipal, 
educational, corporate and religious bodies and 
legislative assemblies — even of the Executive of the 
Nation. It would seem, indeed, as if the blessed 
Lord were saying to us by the tokens of his favor, 
"Oh, woman, great is thy faith, be it unto thee as 
thou wilt." 

What has it brought to the Christian world ? An 
awakening of conscience and agitation on the drink 
question of which we have no previous record in 
history. 

To the home ? An enlightenment and education 
that shall give to the world a generation of strong, 
brave men, and true, devoted women, who shall 
grasp the standard from our hands as they shall fall 
palsied in death, and bear the colors of Temperance 
and Total Prohibition aloft, and will push the battle 
to the final overthrow of the reign of King Alcohol, 
and usher in the day of gladness for which our eyes 
are grcnving dim with the watching. 

What to the victims of the dread curse ? Restored 
manhood, happy women, glad, shouting, little chil- 



MEMORIES OF THE CRUSADE. 535 

dren, bright, happy homes, where God is reverenced 
and worshiped. What woman does not, to-day, 
remembering all the way He hath led us, exclaim 
from the depths of a heart surcharged with gratitude, 
" I am glad I am in this army ?" 

We have not attained the end of our hope — the 
total annihilation of the curse. Ah, no ! But, 
stimulated even by the apparent defeat we have 
experienced in the past, through intriguing politi- 
cians, bribery and fraud, procured by the liquor- 
dealers' gold at the ballot-box, and even in legislative 
halls, we renew the conflict day by day. We know 
the victory must come. Everything that defileth, 
everything that can hurt in His holy mountain, shall 
be destroyed 3 for the mouth of the Lord God Om- 
nipotent hath spoken it. 




ADDENDA. 




y Wreatb of immortelles. 



AM happy after some pains of inquiry to 
^ present each reader of the preceding pages 
'^ig' with this Uving Boquet of Immortelles that 
shall continue to distill the sweet odors of Christian 
love and charity, and shall increase in marvelous 
beauty as the years roll by. These names of the 
heroic women who meekly, but bravely, bore insult 
and imprisonment, not counting their lives dear unto 
them, for the blessed work to which the Master had 
called them, shall be conned with reverence by the 
coming generations, while with amazement and in- 
dignation they will ask if it can be possible that there 
was a time in this land of boasted freedom when 
Christian women were insulted, and even imprisoned, 
for trying to save their husbands and sons from that 
scourge of mankind, the liquor saloon. 

Cincinnati contributes to the wreath the forty- 
three arrested May, 1874, — as Mrs. Leavitt the 
leader puts it, for " praying on the street," with age 
and nationality, all according to law ! 

Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, leader. Mrs. A. F.Whitman. 



W. Whitridge. 
W. I. Fee. 

C. H. Payne. 
Anna McHugh. 

D. H. Baldwin. 
Dr. Carter. 

C. H. Folger. 
Sarah Shipley. 
Mary White. 



" L. M. McKenzie. 
Miss Ella King. 
Mrs. Mary Frances. 

" J. E. Massey. 
Miss Mary Talbott. 
Mrs. Kate M. Warden. 
Miss Jennie Forbes. 

" Helen Russell. 
Mrs. Susan Sutton. 



ADDENDA. 



Mrs. Mary Whittaker. 

" F. French. 

" Mary A. French. 

" Maria Stevens. 

" Ohve Roseboom. 

" A. V. Crum. 

" Lottie Oldrieve. 

" H. Robinson. 

" Lizzie Hervey. 
Miss Lottie Nunn. 
" Mary Scott. 

Mrs. C. H 



Mrs. E. B. Dalton. 

Miss Anr<a Nunn. 

Mrs. EHzabeth Hopkins. 

L R. Squires. 

Fred. Hambold. 

M. I. Mansfort. 

Mary Warren. 

Ellen Henson. 

E. H. Mann. 

Wealthy Fisk. 

S. R. Elstner. 
Tavlor. 



Pittsburg brings the following thirty-two names 
arrested May 22, 1874, to add to the boquet : 

Mrs. A. W. Black, the leader, with her son, Mr. 
A. W. Black, who always walked by his mother as 
her protector. 



Mrs. Van Horn. 

" Mrs. Matchett. 

" W. W. Morris. 

" Sarah Moffett. 

" Alice Gillchrist. 

" Macken. 
Miss E. B. Carmichael 

" A. A. Starr. 

" Pearl Starr. 

" Lee Starr. 
Mrs Youngson. 

" M. B. Reese. 

" John Foster. 

" Mary CaldweU. 
Miss bessie Black. 



Mrs. J. S. Collins. 

" Johnston. 

" M. Gray. 

" J. L Logan. 

" Grace Hopeful!. 

" M. E. Tutell. 

" A. Hill. 

" Samuel Allinder. 

" W. M. Gormly. 
Miss E Beeson. 
Mrs. D. N. Courtney. 

" Jane Nelson. 

" Martha Woods. 
Miss E. J. Foster. 



McClung. 

Properly enough, Springfield brings her gift of 
two ladies to add to this unique boquet, Mrs. Charity 
Little and Mrs. Nancy Pearson, who were arrested 
on April 13th, 1874, charged with obstructing the 
sidewalk while quietly sitting near Mitsche's saloon. 
The charge was not sustained, though some tremen- 
dous swearing was done to effect it. It was in this 
saloon that a murder had been committed only some 
weeks before, the owners being implicated, causing 
much excitement. Here, however, was the saloon 
still doing a " lawful business," while these Christian 
ladies were arrested for keeping guard over it. 



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