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Price \s. 6d. {Conducted by George C. Whitfield.) Vol. VII. No. LXXIII. 



MEN OF MARK 

A GALLERY OF 

CONTEMPORARY PORTRAITS 

OF MEN DISTINGUISHED IN THE SENATE, THE CHURCH, IN SCIENCE, 

LITERATURE, AND ART, THE ARHV, NAVY, 

LAW, MEDICINE, ETC. 

THREE PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE BY LOCK AND WHITFIELD, 

WITH BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES BY 

THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

ADMIRAL SIR A. COOPER KEY, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
HON. SIR LEWIS W. CAVE. 
RICHARD NORMAN SHAW, R.A. 




LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, AND RIVINGTON, 

CROWN BUILDINGS, l88, FLEET STREST. 
{Alt rights reserved.) 

'NIIARY, 1882. 




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Sold by most Chemists, and the Sole Maker, H. Lamplough, 2x3, Holbom, London, 

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OSLER'S TABLE GLASS AND CHINA. 



PATHWAYS OF PALESTINE, 

A NEW WORK ON THE HOLY LAND, 

BY 

H. B. TRISTRAM, F.R.S., Canon of Durham. 

IlLVSTRATED WITH EXQUISITE PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON THE SPOT BY 
FRANK MASON GOOD. 

Volume I. is now ready, price One Guinea-and-a-half. 

MESSRS. SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON, 

Crown Buildings, 188, Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

MEN OF MARK. 

Volumes I., II., III., IV., V., and VI., elegantly bound, cloth gilt, or 
any of the separate Monthly Parts, may still lie had of all Booksellers, 
or from the Publishers, 

MESSRS, SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, AND RIVINGTON, 

Crown Buildings, i88, Flsst Stkbet, London, B.C.- 



MEN OF MARK 

A GALLERY OF CONTEMPORARY 

PORTRAITS 

OF MEN DISTINGUISHED IN THE SENATE, THE CHURCH, IN SCIENCE, 

LITERATURE AND ART, THE ARMY, NAVY, 

LAW, MEDICINE, ETC, 

PHOTOGRAPHED FROM LIFE BY LOCK AND WHITFIELD, AND 

OTHER EMINENT PHOTOGRAPHERS, WITH BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL 

NOTICES BY THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A 

SEVENTH SERIES. 



LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, AND RIVINGTON, 

CROWN BUILDINGS, l88, FLEET STREET. 



CHISWICK PRESS :— C. WHITTINGHAM AND CO., TOOKS COURT, 

CHANCERY LANE. 



CONTENTS. 

ADMIRAL Sir A. Cooper Key, K.C.B., F.R.S. . . . r 

f Hon. Sir Lewis W. Cave 2 

I Richard Norman Shaw, R,A 3 

The Right Hon. Lord Carlingford .... 4 

Dr. William Benjamin Carpenter 5 

Dr. Plumptre 6 

Hon. Sir James Charles Mathew, LL.D 7 

The Right Hon. George Osborne Morgan, Q.C, M.P. ... 8 

LuMB Stocks, R.A 9 

Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C, K.C.B 10 

Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S 11 

Sir Michael Costa 12 

Admiral Sir John Edmund Commerell, K.C.B., V.C 13 

William Frederick Yeames, R.A 14 

Admiral Sir Sydney Colpoys Dacres, G.CB 15 

Duke of Argyll 16 

Alfred Tennyson 17 

Very Rev. Dean Bradley 18 

Henry Irving 19 

Dr. B. W. Richardson . 20 



CONTENTS. 

The Bishop of Liverpool 21 

Rev. Canon Barry, D.D 22 

Hon. Sir Edward E. Kay 23 

Richard Ansdell, R.A 24 

Lord Charles Beresford, R.N 25 

Henry Hugh Armstead, R.A 26 

Captain Bedford Pim, R.N 27 

Hon. Sir Joseph Chitty 28 

Joseph Edgar Boehm, R.A 29 

Frank Dicksee, A.R.A 30 

Frank Holl, A.R.A 31 

Charles Thomas Newton, C.B., D.C.L 32 

John MacWhirter, A.R.A., H.R.S.A. 33 

Dr. Siemens 34 

Bishop of Colchester 35 

Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley 36 




ADMIRAL 

SIR ASTLEY COOPER KEY, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., D.C.L. (Oxon.), 
FIRST SEA LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY, 

570N of the late Charles Aston Key, Esq., by Anne, daughter of 
3 the Rev. Samuel Lovick Cooper, of Great Yarmouth, was born 
y in 1821, and educated at the Naval College, Portsmouth, where 
s he obtained the first medal and a lieutenant's commission in the 
« navy, which he entered in 1835. He was junior lieutenant of 
the " Gorgon " in 1 844, and was officially mentioned for rescuing her on being 
stranded at Monte Video. His book, descriptive of the operations which 
resulted in the recovery of the ship, displayed marked ability and clear- 
ness of thought. In 1845 he was wounded in the action of the Obligado, 
whilst in command of the " Fanny," and displayed a gallantry which earned 
his early promotion to commander's rank. After three years' service in the 
" Bulldog " on the coasts of Italy and Sicily, he was made a captain in 
1850. He served in command of the "Amphion" during the Baltic 
campaign, taking part in the capture of the forts of Bomarsund and other 
operations. When the honours were distributed he was nominated a C.B. 
{i 855). Placed in command of the " Sans-pareil " and a squadron of gunboats, 
he served at Calcutta during the Indian Mutiny, and received the thanks of 
the Governor-General. Soon afterwards he commanded a battalion of seamen 
at the capture of Canton, where he secured with his own hand Commissioner 
Yeh, as he was in the act of escaping over a paling at the back of his yamun. 
On his return to England he was chosen to represent the navy on the Royal 
Commission appointed to consider the state of our defences ; and in 1 860 he 
became captain of the steam Reserve at Devonport. He passed to the 
" Excellent " in 1 863, and found himself in first charge of the great develop- 
ment of the iron plate and heavy gun. The great changes In gunnery 
necessitated the creation of a new office at Whitehall, and Captain, afterwards 
Rear-Admiral Key filled the post of Director-General of Naval Ordnance 
until i86g, when he became Superintendent of Portsmouth Dockyard. He 
was next appointed second in command in the Mediterranean and Superinten- 
dent of Malta Dockyard ; and was President of the Royal Naval College, 
Greenwich, from 1872 till 1876, when he became Commander-in-chief on 5ie 
North America and West India Station. He was promoted Vice-Admiral 
in 1873, and appointed principal A.D.C. to the Queen in 1879. Sir A. 
Cooper Key has been since 1879 First Sea Lord of the Admiralty under 
two successive administrations. 



f' 



THE HON. SIR LEWIS WILLIAM CAVE, 

JUDGE OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE, 

S the eldest son of the late William Cave, Esq., of Desborough, 
Northamptonshire, and was bom on the 3rd of July, 1832. 
He entered Rugby School in 1 847, and proceeded from thence, 
as Crewe Exhibitioner, to Lincoln College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A., taking a second class in Classics in 1855. He 
did not take his degree till long afterwards, in 1877. He was called to the 
bar by the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple in Trinity term, 1859. 
having previously obtained a first-class certificate of honour and merit. He 
joined first the Midland and afterwards the North-Eastern circuit. He 
was appointed a Revising Barrister in 1865, Recorder of Lincoln in 1873, 
one of Her Majesty's Counsel in 1875, and a Bencher of his Inn in 1877. 
In t88o he presided, with great ability, over the Royal Commission 
appointed to inquire into the existence of corrupt practices at Parliamentary 
elections in the city of Oxford. In March, 1881, soon after the termination 
of that important inquiry, he was nominated a Judge of the Queen's 
Bench Division of the High Court of Judicature, in succession to Sir 
Henry Mather Jackson, whose lamented death, after being appointed a 
judge, but before being sworn in, is without parallel in our judicial history. 
The promotion of Mr. Cave to the bench gave great satisfaction to the 
members of the legal profession. One of their leading organs in the press 
observed that " the appointment must be pronounced in every way satis- 
factory. The new judge has long been known as a learned, able, and clear- 
headed lawyer ; and he is, happily, young enough to make a career on the 
bench." Sir Lewis Cave has edited several standard legal works, viz. : — 
" Stone's Practice of Petty Sessions" (7th edit., 1861) ; the third volume of 
the thirtieth edition of "Burn's Justice of the Peace" (1869) ; "Addison 
on the Law of Contracts" (1869) ; " Smith and Soden's Manual of the Law 
of Landlord and Tenant" (1871); and "Addison's Wrongs and their 
Remedies" (5th edit., 1879). In conjunction with the Hon, Edward 
Chandos Leigh, he published " Crown Cases reserved for consideration, and 
decided by the Judges of England" (1861, &c.). He married, in 1856, Julia, 
daughter of the late Rev. C. F. Watkins, Vicar of Brixworth, Northampton- 
shire. 



fc- . 



RICHARD NORMAN SHAW, RA.. 

ARCHITECT, 

AS bom in Edinburgh in 1831, and passed the first seven years 
of his professional life in the office of the late Mr. William 
Burn, during which time he also worked as a student at the 
Royal Academy, gaining the silver medal and a special prize 
of books in 1852. In 1853 he gained the gold medal, and in 

cted the Travelling Student for two years. On his return he 
published a book of sketches — the result of his journey — and it met with a 
most favourable reception. Subsequently he was with Mr. George Edm'und 
Street for nearly four years ; and in 1862 he began to practise on his own 
account. His first work of any importance was Leyes Wood, in Sussex', 
executed about 1868, drawings of which were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. This was followed by Preen Manor, a large house in Shropshire 
(drawings exhibited in 1870), and Crayside, Northumberland, for Sir William 
G. Armstrong (exhibited in 1872). Lowther Lodge, a well-known edifice, 
and a red brick house for Mr. J. P. Heseltine, at Queen's Gate, were executed 
about the same time. Pierrepont, a large house near Farnham, having a 
magnificent hall with open timber roof, and Adcote, near Shrewsbury, with 
a larger and still more important hall, spanned by massive stone arches, are 
perhaps the best of Mr. Shaw's works. Besides many houses for eminent 
painters, Mr. Shaw has built seven houses on the Chelsea Embankment, 
including " Cheyne House," " Old Swan House," and " The Clock House ; " 
the " New Zealand Chambers " in the city ; Messrs. Martin's Bank ; a large 
addition to Messrs. Baring Brothers' offices ; the " Albert Hall Mansions," 
and the elaborate brick building for the Alliance Assurance Company, now 
in course of construction at the corner of Pall Mall and St. James's Street. 
He is also building at the present time a large and costly house called 
" Flete," near Ivybridge, entirely of dressed granite with limestone walling. 
It is as rich throughout as a house well can be, and is a splendid piece of 
workmanship. Mr. Shaw was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1872, and a full Member in 1878. The advance which recent years have 
seen in our domestic architecture is unquestionably due to the genius of Mr. 
Shaw. He has introduced an adaptation of the old Dutch and English 
house which, besides being beautiful, satisfies every practical want, and bids 
fair to drive all other styles out of the field. 

3 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD CARLINGFORD. 

LORD PRIVY SEAL, 

S the youngest son of the late Lieutenant-Colonel Chichester 
Fortescue, of Ravensdale Park, Co. Louth, brother of Lord 
Clermont, to whose title Lord Carlingford is the heir-presump- 
tive. He was born on the i8th of January, 1823, and became 
a student of Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1844, obtaining a first class in classical honours. In 1846 he gained the 
Chancellor's prize for an English Essay on the " Effects of the Conquest of 
England by the Normans," and in the following year he proceeded to the 
degree of M,A. He entered Parliament at the general election of 1847 as 
one of the members for the county of Louth, which he continued to represent, 
in the Liberal interest, until February, 1874, when his candidature was 
unsuccessful. Mr. Chichester Fortescue held a junior Lordship of the 
Treasury under Lord Aberdeen in 1854-55, the Under-Secretaryship of 
State for the Colonies, in 1857-58, and again in 1859-65. In the latter year 
he was made Chief Secretary for Ireland, and he held that responsible post 
down to June, 1866. On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet in 
December, 1868, he resumed that office, from which he was transferred in 
1870 to the Board of Trade. Just before retiring from office in February, 
1874, Mr. Gladstone recommended the Queen to bestow a peerage on Mr. 
Chichester Fortescue, who was accordingly created Baron Carlingford. In 
consequence of the introduction of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Land Bill in 1881, 
the Duke of Argyll resigned his seat in the Cabinet, and his office of Lord 
Privy Seal. Lord Carlingford was thereupon appointed to succeed his 
Grace in that office, and towards the close of the Parliamentary session he 
had charge of the Land Bill during its passage through the House of Lords. 
The great majority of the Peers were notoriously hostile to the Bill, and it 
was largely owing to the tact, moderation, and conciliatory spirit displayed 
by Lord Carlingford, that they were induced to allow the obnoxious measure 
to become law. His lordship is Lord- Lieutenant of Essex, a magistrate and 
Deputy-Lieutenant for the county of Louth, and a magistrate for Somersetshire. 
Lord Carlingford married in 1863 Frances, Countess Waldegrave, daughter 
of the late John Braham, Esq. This lady died in 1879, 

4 



1 



WILLIAM BENJAMIN CARPENTER. 

C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

jS the eldest son of the late Rev. Lant Carpenter, LL.D., an 
I eminent Unitarian divine, and brother of the late Miss Mary 
g Carpenter, of reformatory and Indian fame. He was born at 
^ Exeterin i8i3,and,havingreceivedhisgeneraleducationunder 
y his father, entered the medical profession, studying first at 
the Medical School of Bristol, then at University College, 
London, and afterwards in the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated 
M.D. in 1839. For a time he practised medicine in Bristol; but removed 
to London in 1843, and was soon afterwards appointed Examiner in Physio- 
logy and Comparative Anatomy in the University of London, and Professor 
of Medical Jurisprudence in University College. These offices he held 
until he was appointed, in 1856, Registrar of the University of London. 
In 1 86 1 the Royal Medal was awarded to him by the Council of the Royal 
Society for his contributions to biological science. In 1868-70 he took a 
principal part in expeditions fitted out by Her Majesty's Government for 
the exploration of the Deep Sea, which have yielded results of great impor- 
tance to physical and biological science. The honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws was conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh, August ist, 
1871. Dr. Carpenter presided over the British Association at its meeting at 
Brighton in the autumn of 1872, when he delivered a remarkable inaugural 
address, having reference chiefly to the mental processes by which are formed 
the fundamental conceptions of matter and force, of cause and effect, of law 
and order, the basis of all exact scientific reasoning. In 1873 he was elected 
a corresponding member of the Institute of France ; and in 1875 he was 
nominated a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Civil Division). Dr. 
Carpenter is the author of "Principles of General and Comparative Physio- 
logy," " Principles of Human Physiology," " A Manual of Physiology," 
" Principles of Mental Physiology," " The Microscope and its Revelations," 
an " Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera," and some able 
papers in the " Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology," in the " Reports " 
of the British Association, in the "Quarterly Geological Journal," and in the 
" Philosophical Transactions." He resigned, in 1879, the office of Registrar 
of the University of London ; and, on the first occurrence of a vacancy in 
the Senate to be filled by the Crown, was nominated a member of that 
body. 

5 



THE VERY REVEREND 

EDWARD HAYES PLUMPTRE, D.D., 

DEAN OF WELLS, 

AS bom on the 6th of August, 182 1, and became a scholar of 
University College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A.,takinga 
double first-class, in 1844. He was soon afterwards elected a 
Fellow of Brasenose College, and in due course he proceeded 
to the degree of M. A. He was appointed Chaplain at King's 
College, London, in 1847, Professor of Pastoral Theology there in 1853, 
Prebendary of Portpool in St. Paul's Cathedral in 1863, and Professor of 
the Exegesis of the New Testament at King's College in 1864. Mr. 
Plumptre was Assistant Preacher at Lincoln's Inn from 1851 to 1858, Select 
Preacher at Oxford from 1851 to 1853, and at several subsequent periods, 
and Boyle Lecturer in 1866-67. He has also been Examining Chaplain to 
the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, Examiner in the School of Theology at 
Oxford, Grinfield Lecturer on the Septuagint in that University, and Prin- 
cipal of Queen's College, Harley Street, London. In 1869 he was presented 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the rectory of Pluckley in Kent, and in 
1873 he became, by exchange with the Rev. E. J. Selwyn, vicar of Bickley, 
in that county. For four years he was one of the Old Testament Company 
of Revisers of the Authorized Version of the Bible appointed by Convocation. 
In 1875 he received the honorary degree of D.D. from the University of 
Glasgow ; in 1879 he was appointed one of the Archbishop of Canterbury's 
Examining Chaplains; and on December 21st, 1881, he was installed Dean 
of Wells. Dr. Plumptre has published new translations of the tragedies of 
Sophocles and .<^schylus, and he is at present engaged on a version of 
Dante. He is the author of " Lazarus, and other Poems," and of " Master 
and Scholar," with other poems, original and translated. His theological 
works, which are very numerous, include " King's College Sermons ; " 
" Theology and Life ; " " Biblical Studies ; " Notes on the Book of Proverbs, 
in the " Speaker's Commentary ;" paper in the " Bible Educator," of which he 
was editor ; " Christ and Christendom," being the Boyle Lectures for 1866 ; 
" Infidelity refuted by its own Concessions ; " Notes on the first three Gospels, 
the Acts of the Apostles, and 2 Corinthians, in Bishop Ellicott's " New Testa- 
ment Commentary for English Readers ; " Notes on the Book of Proverbs, in 
the " Speaker's Commentary," and on Eccjesiastes, St. James, and the 
Episdes of St. Peter and St. Jude, in the Cambridge School Bible, and 
" Movements in Religious Thought — Romanism, Protestantism, Agnosticism "' 

(1879)- 

6 



THE HONOURABLE 

SIR JAMES CHARLES MATHEW, LL.D., 

JUDGE OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, 

SS son of Charles Mathew, Esq., of Lehena House, Cork, by his 
? marriage with Mary, daughter of James Hackett, Esq., of Cork. 
B The celebrated Father Mathew, whose labours in Ireland in the 
I cause of Temperance are still held in grateful remembrance, 
J was his uncle. Mr. Justice Mathew was bom at Lehena House 
of July, 1830, and received his academical education at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he was Senior Moderator and Gold Medallist in 1850. 
He was called tothe Bar by the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn in Hilary 
Term 1854, having in the previous November obtained the Inns of Court 
studentship. He joined the Home Circuit, of which he was for many years 
the Attorney-General, until he ceased to go on circuit in consequence of the 
increasing claims ofhis business in London, Besides enjoying a large general 
practice, the learned gentleman more particularly devoted his attention to 
mercantile law, in the most important cases relating to which his name almost 
invariably appeared. It has indeed rarely fallen to the lot of any barrister to 
acquire such a monopoly of the choicest and most lucrative work as that 
enjoyed by Mr. Mathew. None among his contemporaries had a higher 
reputation for learning, readiness, and accuracy. His numerous engagements 
in commercial law did not prevent him from taking a brief for the Crown in 
the celebrated Tichbome trial, where his capacity for dealing with facts 
rendered him a valuable colleague. In March, 1881, he was appointed by 
Her Majesty to fill one of the two vacancies on the bench in the Queen's 
Bench Division of the High Court of Justice, caused by the deaths of Lord 
Chief Justice Cockburn and Lord Chief Baron Kelly. On this occasion he 
received the customary honour of knighthood. His appointment is one of 
the few instances of a member of the junior bar being elevated to the judicial 
bench. Sir James Mathew is the second Catholic Judge in England since 
the period of Catholic Emancipation, the first Judge of that faith being Mr. 
Justice Shee. Shortly after his appointment the University of Dublin con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL.D. honoris causA. He married, in r86i, 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the Rev. Edwin Biron, vicar of Lympne, Kent. 

7 



THE RIGHT HON. 

GEORGE OSBORNE MORGAN, Q.C, M.P., 

JUDGE ADVOCATE-GENERAL, 

!? LDEST son of the Rev. Morgan Morgan, Vicar of Conway, 
i\ Carnarvonshire, by Fanny, eldest daughter of John Nonnen 
V of James Street, Buckingham Gate, merchant, was born in 
& 1826 and educated at Friars' School, Bangor, and afterwards 
i at Shrewsbury School, while still in the sixth form of which 
he obtained the Craven University Scholarship at Oxford. He was succes- 
sively an Exhibitioner of Balliol College, Scholar of Worcester College, and 
Stowell Civil Law Fellow of University College. He obtained a First Class 
in Classics, the Chancellor's (English Essay) and Newdigate (English Verse) 
Prizes, and the Eldon University Scholarship, He was called to the bar in 
1 853, and at first went the North Wales circuit, but afterwards practised at the 
Chancery bar, where he acquired a very extensive practice. Mr. Morgan is 
the author of several legal works which are regarded as standard authorities. 
He was made a Queen's Counsel in 1869, and elected a Bencher of Lincoln's 
Inn. He first entered Parliament in 1868 as member for Denbighshire, which 
county he has continued to represent down to the present time. On entering 
Parliament he took an active part in the passing of the Bill for the abolition 
of Religious Tests at the Universities, and he carried through Parliament an 
Act for facilitating the granting of sites for places of Public Worship. In 1 870 
he first introduced a Bill, generally known as the Burials Bill, for authorizing 
the performance of burial services other than those of the Church of England 
in parish churchyards. This measure finally became law at the close of the 
session of 1880. On the accession of Mr. Gladstone to office, in May, 1880, 
Mr. Morgan was appointed Judge Advocate- General. In that capacity he 
carried through the House of Commons the Act for the Abolition of Corporal 
Punishment in the Army, and the Army Consolidation Act, i88r. He has 
also taken much interest in the Land question, and presided over the select 
committee on Land Titles and Transfer, in 1878-79. Besides publishing 
pamphlets on Land Law Reform in England, and other political subjects, he 
is the author of translations of portions of Virgil into English hexameters. 
Mr. Morgan is a magistrate for Denbighshire, and was formerly one of the 
original governing body of Shrewsbury School. He married, in 1856, Emily, 
second daughter of Leopold Reiss, Esq., of Broom House, Eccles. 



LUMB STOCKS. 

ROYAL ACADEMICIAN, 

VS born at Lightcliffe, near Halifax, on the 30th of November, 
1 8 1 2, and educated at Horton near Bradford, where he acquired 
some taste for drawing, under the tuition of Mr. C. Cope, father 
of Mr. Charles West Cope, the present Royal Academician. 
Mr. Stock's pupilage in line-engraving was commenced under 
, in 1827, and on the completion of the term of his articles, in 
1833, the already able engraver was at once engaged by the proprietors of 
several of the annuals then in the meridian of their popularity. For the 
" Literary Souvenir," the " Amulet," and the " Keepsake," he was commissioned 
to engrave plates after Stothard, Sir W. Beechey, Cattermole, Herbert, and 
others. Succeeding these, he engraved for " Finden's Royal Gallery of British 
Art" the picture by Maclise, "Fitting out Moses for the Fair," "Nell Gwynne," 
after Charles Landseer, and "The Christening," after Penry Williams. Then 
followed the larger beautiful and well-known work, " RafTaelle and the 
Fornarina," after Sir A. W. Callcott, a commission from the Art Union of 
London ; and " The Glee Maiden," after R. Scott- Lauder, for the association 
for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland ; for which society he subse- 
quently engraved " The Ten Virgins," after J. E. Lauder, " The Gentle 
Shepherd," after Wilkie, and " Nannie," after T. Faed, R.A. In 1846 he 
commenced the engraving of " The Dame School," from Webster's well- 
known picture ; and, on its completion, " The Rubber " was undertaken, after 
the same painter. In 1853 he was elected an Associate- Engraver of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1855 was made a member of the new class, thereby 
being eligible to the rank of Royal Academician. The engraving of " Bed- 
Time," after W. P. Frith, R.A., was produced in 1853, followed by " Many 
Happy Returns of the Day " ( 1 859) and " Claude Duval," both from pictures 
by the same painter. For the " Queen's Gallery " series he also engraved 
plates after Mulready, Leslie, Uwins, Philip, Faed, and other artists. Mr. 
Stocks was elected a Royal Academician in j 872, in which year he completed 
his most important work, "The Meeting of Wellington and Bllicher after the 
Battle of Waterloo," from the original picture by Daniel Maclise, R.A., in the 
Palace of Westminster ; subsequently he has engraved " The Silken Gown," 
after T. Faed, R.A., " The Odalisque," after Sir Frederick Leighton, P.R.A., 
and " Dr. Johnson in the Ante-Chamber of Lord Chesterfield," from the 
picture by the late E. M. Ward, R.A., in the National Gallery. 

9 



MAJOR GENERAL SIR HENRY EVELYN WOOD, 



S a son of the late Rev. Sir John P^e Wood, Bart, and nephew 
of the late Lord Hatherley. He was born in 1 838, and educated 
at Marlborough School. In 1852 he entered the Navy, and 
served in the Naval Brigade at the siege of Sebastopol. At 
the unsuccessful assault on the Redan, on June 18, 1855, while 
carrying one of the scaling ladders he was severely wounded. For his 
services he obtained the Crimean Medal, the Order of the Medjidie, and was 
made a Knight of the Legion of Honour. He next entered the, Army and. 
served with great distinction as a Brigade Major in the Indian Campaign of 
1858. In 1859-60 he commanded the first regiment of Beatson's Irregular 
Horse, and received the Victoria Cross and the thanks of the Indian Govern- 
ment for his gallantry in hunting down the rebels in the Serongl jungle. In 
1873, being a Lieutenant-Colonel of the 90th Infantry, he accompanied Sir 
Garnet Wolseley to the Ashantee war, and organized a native force, which 
he commanded with other troops in the affairs of Essaman and on the road 
from Mansu to the river Prah. Afterwards he commanded the right wing of 
the army in the battles of Omoaful and Ordahsu, and the capture of Coomassie. 
Served throughout the Gaika war of 1878 in command of a column, and was 
several times mentioned in despatches. Throughout theZulu war of 1879 he 
served in command of No. 4 Column, and as Political Agent he raised a contin- 
gent of 1,000 friendly Zulus, known as " Wood's Irregulars." Two days after 
the British reverse at Isandhlwana he surprised and defeated a force of several 
thousands of the enemy. He defended the fortified camp at Kambula Hill, 
and performed other services much noticed at the time. On his return to 
England he was received by the Queen in person, and invested with a 
knighthood. During the war with the Boers in South Africa Sir Evelyn 
Wood won fresh honours. After the disastrous defeat of the British troops 
and the death of Sir George Colley, the chief command devolved on Sir 
Evelyn Wood, who, obeying loyally the orders of the Ministry, although him- 
self opposed to the arrangement, on the 1 8th of March concluded peace with 
the Boers. Not only has General Wood distinguished himself in both the 
naval and the military services of the country, but in 1870 he entered the 
Middle Temple and was called to the Bar in 1874, shortly after his return 
from the Ashantee war. 



HENRY BAKER TRISTRAM, 

M.A., F.R.S., LL.D., CANON OF DURHAM, 

S the elder son of the Rev. H. B. Tristram, student of Christ 
Church, Oxford, Vicar of Eglingham, Northumberland (son of 
the Rev. T. Tristram, Prebendary of Salisbury, by Louisa, sister 
of George, fifth Viscount Barrington), by Charlotte Mary, daugh- 
ter of T. Smith, Esq., of the Inner Temple, by his wife, Hon. 
Mary, daughter of the Right Hon. J. H. G. Hutchinson and the Baroness 
Donoughmore. He was born in 1822, educated at Durham School and Lincoln 
College, Oxford, graduated 1 844 second class in classics. After spending some 
time in foreign travel he was ordained in 1845. For a short time he was 
secretary to Sir Charles Elliot, K.C.B,, Governor of Bermuda, and acting 
Naval Chaplain under Earl Dundonald. Returning from America in 1849 
he held successively the Rectory of Castle Eden, and the Mastership of 
Greatham Hospital, Durham. From ill health he spent several years in 
Mediterranean countries, exploring the Sahara, Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria, 
and devoting his attention specially to natural history and geology. To 
Palestine he has made four distinct scientific expeditions. The results of his 
travels have been given to the public in many works. The chief of them are 
" The Great Sahara," " The Land of Israel," " The Natural History of the 
Bible," which has passed through eight editions, " Bible Places," " The Land 
of Moab," '■ The Seven Golden Candlesticks," " Scenes in the East," 
" Daughters of Syria," &c. Canon Tristram is now engaged on a new serial 
work, " Pathways of Palestine " (Sampson Low and Co.), which, besides 
embodying every new feature that came within his observation during his 
recent visit (1881-2) to the Holy Land, derives some interest from the 
numerous permanent photographs with which it is illustrated. He has 
also been a voluminous writer of more strictly scientific works, and a 
constant contributor to scientific and theological periodicals, to the " Con- 
temporary Review," " Good Words," " Churchman," Smiths' " Dictionary of 
the Bible," &c. He was for eight years a sectional Secretary of the 
British Association, and has taken a prominent part in Church Congresses 
almost from their establishment, and in the Convocation of York, and is a 
Secretary of the Church Missionary Society. In 1868 he was elected F.R.S., 
and the University of Edinburgh conferred on him the degree of LL.D. in 
recognition of " Scientific Research devoted to Scriptural Illustration." In 
1874 he was appointed Canon of Durham, and in 1879 he declined Lord 
Beaconsfield's offer to submit his name to Her Majesty for the Bishopric 
of Jerusalem. He married in 1850 Eleanor Mary, youngest daughter of 
P. Bowlby, Esq, late of H.M. 4th Regiment, a distinguished Peninsula 
and Waterloo veteran. 



SIR MICHAEL COSTA, 

MUSICAL COMPOSER, 

AS born at Geneva, 4th February, 1810. His father was an 
Italian, of Spanish extraction; his mother was a native of 
Switzerland. Early giving proofs of musical talent, he was 
placed under an efficient master, and afterwards sent to the 
Conservatorium at Naples, of which Zingarelli was the prin- 
cipal. His first instructor in composition was the celebrated Giacomo 
Tritto. When his academical career was completed, Costa produced his 
first opera, "II Carcere d'lldegonda," at the Teatro Nuovo. His next 
attempt was " Malvina," for the San Carlo, a work which has been 
performed at the principal Italian theatres. In 1828 he visited England, 
and assisted at the Birmingham Musical Festival. In 1831 he assumed the 
bdton of conductor of Her Majesty's Theatre, and soon afterwards he 
produced three ballets — " Kenilworth," " Une Heure i Naples," and " Sire 
Huon," which were highly successful. In 1837 he produced his opera, 
" Maiek Adel," for the Italian Opera at Paris. Under Mr. Lumley's 
management of Her Majesty's Theatre he brought out his " Don Carlos," 
which is considered his masterpiece in the operatic line. Signor Costa 
became conductor successively of the Philharmonic Concerts (1846), the 
Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden (1847), the Sacred Harmonic Society 
(1849), and the Handel F'estivals {1859). His great work, the oratorio of 
"Eli," produced at the Birmingham Musical Festival of 1855, at once 
raised its author to a high rank among contemporaneous composers. Signor 
Costa received from a body of noblemen and gentlemen, presided over by 
Lord Willoughby de Broke, a massive piece' of plate, as a testimonial of 
esteem and admiration. His oratorio, entitled " Naaman," brought out at 
the Birmingham Musical Festival of 1864, was also a great success. He 
withdrew, in 1869, from the Covent Garden musical direction. He was 
knighted by the Queen at Windsor Castle, 14th May, 1869, and in the 
following month the King of WUrtemberg conferred on him the Royal 
Order of Frederick, as a mark of the admiration entertained by his Majesty 
of the oratorio of " Eli," performed under the composer's direction at 
Stuttgart in the previous November. Sir Michael Costa is also a Knight 
of the Turkish Order of the Medjidie, has received the Cross of the 
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle, and the Order of the Golden Lion of the 
House of Nassau, and is a Knight Commander of the Crown of Italy. 



SIR JOHN EDMUND COMMERELL, 

K.C.B., V.C, 
VICE ADMIRAL, 

ON of J. W. Commerell, Esq., of Stroud Park, Horsham, was 
born in 1829. Entering the Royal Navy in 1842, he served in 
China and South America, and was present at all the opera- 
tions in the Parana {1845-46), especially at Punta Obligado, 
where he assisted in cutting the chain which defended the river. 
Afterwards he served in the Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia, and as 
Lieutenant of H.M.S. "Weser" was present at Sebastopol, and in several 
operations of the Sea of Azof ; he was twice mentioned in despatches, and 
received the Victoria Cross for hazardous service in the Putrid Sea. He 
commanded H.M.S. "Fury" in 1859, and in July of that year he led a 
division of seamen in the attack on the Taku Forts. For this service he 
was highly praised in dispatches, and promoted to H.M.S. " Magicienne," in 
which ship he served during the subsequent operations in China. In 1866 
he was in command of H.M.S. " Terrible," and rendered active service in 
laying the Atlantic cable. Hecommanded H.M.S. " Monarch "on particular 
service in 1868-69, ^""^ '" 1872-73 he served as Commodore of the second 
class, and senior officer in command of the Cape of Good Hope and West 
Coast of Africa. In August, 1873, when reconnoitring with an expedition 
up the Prah to endeavour to discover the position of the Ashantees, the 
boats were fired upon from the banks, and he was so dangerously wounded 
as to necessitate his relinquishment of the command of the station. After 
going to Capetown for the cure of his wounds. Commodore Commerell 
returned to England, when he was nominated a K.C.B., and appointed a 
Groom in Waiting to the Queen. Sir Edmund Commerell was second in 
Command of the Mediterranean Fleet from July, 1877, to October, 1878, 
and was a Lord of the Admiralty from October, 1879, to May, 1880. He 
became a Rear-Admiral in 1877, and Vice-Admiral 1881. 

13 



WILLIAM FREDERICK YEAMES, 

ROYAL ACADEMICIAN, 

^ESCENDED from an old Norfolk family, was born i8th 
g December, 1835, at Taganrog, on the Sea of Azof, South 
^ Russia, of which port his father was British Consul. During 
g( the years 1842-3 he travelled with his family through Italy. 
1} After returning to Russia and spending the winter at Odessa, 
the family went to Dresden, and there remained till tne spring of 1848, when 
it removed to London. Mr. Yeames received his first instruction in art 
from Mr. George Scharf, who taught him drawing and anatomy. The 
young artist also practised drawing from casts in the studio of Mr. J. 
Sherwood Westmacott In 1852 he left England in order to advance his 
art-education in Italy; and studied at Florence under Professor Pollastrini, 
and Signor Raffaelle Buonajuti. Subsequently he spent eighteen months in 
Rome, and at length, in 1858, he returned to England. In 1859 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy " The Staunch Friends," a subject-picture 
of a jester and his monkey. In 1861 he was represented there by "II 
Sonetto"and "The Toilet;" in 1862 by "Rescued," a boy saved from 
drowning; in 1863 by "The Meeting of Sir Thomas More with his 
Daughter after his Sentence to Death;" in 1864 by "La Reine Mal- 
heureuse," Queen Henrietta Maria taking refuge from the fire of the Parlia- 
ment ships in Burlington Bay ; and in 1 866 by " Queen Elizabeth receiving the 
French Ambassadors after the news of the Massacre of St Bartholomew." 
Among his other pictures are " The Dawn of the Reformation ; " " Lady 
Jane Grey in the Tower;" "The Fugitive Jacobite;" Alarming Footsteps;" 
" Dr. Harvey and the Children of Charles I. ; " " The Old Parishioner ; " 
" The Path of Roses ; " " The Appeal to the Podest^ ; " " Flowers for Hall 
and Bower;" "The Christening;" "Pour les Pauvres;" "The Suitor;" 
*' La Contadinella ; " " The Last Bit of Scandal ; " " Campo dei SS. Apostoli, 
Venice;" "Waking;" "Amy Robsart" (purchased in 1877 for the nation 
by the Royal Academy in its capacity of executor of the Chantrey Bequest 
Fund) ; " When did you last see your Father ? " ; " By the Seaside ; " " La 
Bigolante : Venetian water-carrier " (his diploma work, deposited on his 
election as an Academician) ; " The Finishing Touch : green-room at 
private theatricals ; " " Here we go round the Mulberry Bush ; " and " II 
dolce far niente." Mr. Yeames was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1866, and an Academician in 1878. 

14 



ADMIRAL SIR SYDNEY COLPOYS DACRES, 

GOVERNOR OF GREENWICH HOSPITAL, 

a son of the late Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Dacres, and brother 
jf General Sir Richard James Dacres, Constable of the Tower 
jf London. He was bom at Totnes, Devonshire, in 1804, and 
iducated at the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth. He 
intered the Navy in 1817, and in October, 1828, when Lieu- 
tenant on board the " Blonde," he effectively co-operated with the French 
army in reducing Morea Castle, the last stronghold of the Turks in the 
Peloponnesus. Appointed a Commander in 1834, he cruised on the north 
coast of Spain in the "Salamander" and the "Gorgon," for several years 
during the Carlist War ; and for his services he received from the Queen of 
Spain the Order of the Laurelled Cross of St. Fernando. At the time of 
the Crimean War he was Flag-Captain to Sir Charles Napier. He received 
the command of the " Sans Pareil," and greatly distinguished himself in the 
attack (17th October, 1854) on the sea defences of Sebastopol, where his 
ship received, in her hull alone, as many as thirty-two shells. Soon after- 
wards Captain Dacres took charge of the port of Balaklava, where his 
praiseworthy conduct won the admiration of the Army and the goodwill of 
all. His health giving way in November, 1854, he was obliged to pass the 
winter at Malta for his recovery. In February, 1855, he was appointed 
Superintendent of the Packet Service at Southampton, and later in the same 
year Superintendent of the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard, and the Royal 
Hospital, Haslar. After his promotion to flag rank (1858) he served as 
Captain of the Fleet, and as second in command in the Mediterranean. He 
then obtained command of the Channel Squadron, composed of six ironclads 
and frigates, the first squadron of that class assembled. In June, 1866, he 
was appointed Second Naval Lord of the Admiralty under Lord Derby's 
Administration, In December, 1868, on the Conservative Government 
retiring from office, and Mr. Childers being appointed First Lord of the 
Admiralty, Sir Sydney Dacres was made First Naval Lord, and he held 
that post till November, 1872, when he vacated it on his appointment as 
Visitor and Governor of Greenwich Hospital. He became a full Admiral 
in 1870, and was created a G.C.B. in May, 1871. Admiral Sir Sydney 
Dacres is a Commander of the French Legion of Honour; and has received 
the Order of the Redeemer of Greece, the Crimean medal with two clasps, 
the Turkish Order of the Medjidie of the third class, and the Portuguese 
Order of the Tower and Sword. 

»5 



THE DUKE OF ARGYLL, K.T., 

^NLY surviving son of the seventh duke, was bom at Arden- 
% caple Castle, Dumbartonshire, in 1 823, and before he succeeded 
]\ his father, in 1847, he had won a reputation as an author, a 
m politician, and a public speaker. As Marquis of Lome he 
)S> took an active part in the controversy in the Church of 
,3cotiana relating to patronage, and was regarded by Dr. Chalmers as an 
important and valuable adherent. His pamphlets on this subject exhibited 
great literary ability. In the House of Peers his Grace was a frequent and 
powerful speaker on such subjects as Jewish Emancipation, the Scottish 
Marriage Bill, the Corrupt Practices at Elections Bill, the Sugar Duties, 
Foreign Affairs, the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, the Scottish Law of Entail, 
and the Repeal of the Paper Duties. During the administration of Lord 
John Russell he gave the Government a general support, at the same time 
identifying his political views with those of the Liberal Conservatives. In 
1852 he accepted office in the Cabinet of the Earl of Aberdeen, as Lord 
Privy Seal, and after the breaking-up of that ministry he retained the same 
office under the premiership of Lord Palmerston. In the latter part of 
1855 he resigned the Privy Seal, and became Postmaster-General. In 
Lord Palmerston's Cabinet of 1859 the Duke resumed the office of Lord 
Privy Seal, which he exchanged for that of Postmaster-General on Lord 
Elgin being sent, in i860, on his second special mission to China. He was 
re-appointed Lord Privy Seal in i860, and continued in that office till 1866. 
On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet in December, 1868, his Grace 
was appointed Secretary of State for India, and he held that position till the 
downfall of the Liberal Government in 1874. In the ensuing session 
he warmly supported the measure introduced by the Conservative Govern- 
ment for transferring from individuals to congregations the patronage in the 
Church of Scotland. When Mr. Gladstone regained power in 1880 the 
Duke was once more appointed Lord Privy Seal, but in April, 1881, he 
retired from the Cabinet in consequence of a difference with his colleagues 
on some of the provisions of the Irish Land Bill. His Grace is the author 
of various highly-esteemed works, of which we have only space to mention 
"The Reign of Law" {1866), "Primeval Man" {1869), and "The 
Eastern Question" (1879). 

16 



ALFRED TENNYSON, ESQ,, D.C.L.. F.R.S.. 

POET LAUREATE, 

pHIRD son of the late Rev. G. C. Tennyson, was born at his 
s father's parsonage at Somerby, Lincolnshire, in 1809. While a 
£ scholar at Louth Grammar School he gave evidence of his poetic 
^ geniusby the publication of a small volume of " Poems "to which 
i his brother Charles was also a contributor. In due course he 
proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, where in 1829 he gained the 
Chancellor's Medal by a poem in blank verse entitled " Timbuctoo." In 
1830 he published " Poems, chiefly Lyrical," and the collection was followed 
by another volume of " Poems" {1832), and " The Lover's Tale" (1833). But 
his fame dates from 1842, when he brought out an augmented edition of his 
" Poems" in two volumes. It was at once apparent that the author of the 
" Mort d'Arthur," " Locksley Hall," the "May Queen," and the "Two Voices" 
was entitled to take the first rank among English poets, a reputation which 
was more than sustained by the two great works that followed. His series 
of elegies" In Memoriam" (1850), a tribute of affection to the memory of 
Arthur Hallam, son of the eminent historian, raised him to so high a position 
in popular estimation that when he was made Poet Laureate, on the death of 
Wordsworth, the appointment was hailed with universal satisfaction. From 
that period he has been acknowledged as the greatest poet of his time. 
Possessed of a private fortune, Mr. Tennyson has passed most of his life in 
studious retirement, chiefly- — of late years— at his charming residence in the 
Isle of Wight. He received the honorary degree of D.C. L. from the University 
of Oxford in 1855, and in 1869 he was elected an honorary Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. His later works include " Maud and other Poems" 
(1855). "The Idylls of the King" (1858), "Enoch Arden" (1864). "The 
Holy Grail" (1869)^ "The Window, or the Songs of the Wrens" (1870), and 
"Gareth and Lynette," (1872). In the edition of his works published in 
1872 the various " Idylls of the King" are conveniently arranged, not chrono- 
logically, as they first appeared, but according to their proper order in the 
Arthurian Legend. Among his dramatic compositions are " Queen Mary 
(1875). "Harold" (1876), and "The Cup," a play which was successfully 
represented at the Lyceum Theatre in 1881, Mr. Irving taking the principal 
character. 

17 



THE VERY REV. 

GEORGE GRANVILLE BRADLEY. D.D., 

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER, 

S a son of the late Rev. Charles Bradley, who was for" many 
years vicar of Glasbury, in the county of Brecon, and some 
time incumbent of St. James's Episcopal Chapel at Clapham, 
Surrey. He was born in 1821, and educated under Dr. 
Arnold at Rugby, from which school he was elected to an 
open scholarship at University College, Oxford, where he was a favourite 
pupil of Dean Stanley, who at that time was tutor. He took his Bachelor's 
degree in Easter term, 1844, as a first class in classical honours, and in 1845 
obtained the Chancellor's prize for a Latin essay, his subject being " The 
Equestrian Order in the Roman Republic." Having been elected to a 
Fellowship in 1846, he proceeded M.A. in 1847. Mr. Bradley was one of 
the assistant masters of Rugby School for some years, under Dr. Tait and 
his successor, Dr. Goulburn, and was elected in 1858 to the Head-Master- 
ship of Marlborough College, on the preferment of his predecessor, Dr. 
Cotton, to the bishopric of Calcutta. Mr. Bradley took holy orders in 1858. 
At Marlborough he was remarkable for his successful administration, his 
sound scholarship, and his constant effort to make the education of a great 
public school wide, large, and many-sided, so as to meet the increasing 
wants of the age. He gave the best possible scope at Marlborough to the 
study of modern languages and science, and his examination before the 
Public School Commissioners was suggestive of many important reforms 
and improvements, most of which have been carried into effect. In 
December, 1870, he was elected to the mastership of University College, 
Oxford, in the place of the. late Dr. Plumptre. The honorary degree of 
LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of St. Andrews, February 
25. 1873. He was appointed examining chaplain to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in 1874; was Select Preacher at Oxford, 1874-5; ^""^ ^^'"^ ^^e 
post of honorary chaplain to the Queen, 1874-76. In October, 1880, he was 
nominated a member of the Oxford University Commission in the place of 
Lord Selborne, resigned. He was appointed a Canon of Worcester in 
February, 1881, and in the following month of August was nominated by 
the Crown, on the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone, to the Deanerj' of 
Westminster, in succession to the late Dean Stanley. 

iS 



HENRY IRVING, 

ACTOR, 

jAS born on 6th February, 1838, at Keinton, near Glastonbury, 
' Somersetshire, and educated at Dr. Pinches' school in George 
. Yard, Lombard Street, London. When fourteen years old he 
[ entered the office of an East India merchant, but the love of 
, Shakespeare and dramatic literature, which began at a very 
early age, led him to seek fame and fortune on the stage ; and he made his 
first appearance in public on the boards of the Sunderland Theatre in 1856. 
Thence he went to Edinburgh, where he remained for two years and a half ; 
and in September, 1859, he appeared at the Princess's Theatre, London. 
Finding that the monopoly of important characters deprived him of all 
chance of winning distinction, he quitted London at the end of three months, 
with the determination not to return except with an established claim to a 
prominent position. After a brief engagement at Glasgow, he went to 
Manchester, and continued to act there till 1865. From January, 1866, to 
the autumn of that year, he played at Liverpool and Manchester, and in 
October, 1866, he appeared at the Sl James's Theatre, as Doricourt in " The 
Belle's Stratagem." His next impersonation at this theatre was the 
gambler, Rawdon Scudamore, in Dion Boucicault's drama, " Hunted Down ; " 
and for a long time he was associated with a great variety of characters, such 
as Robert Macaire, Bill Sikes, Harry Dornton, Charles Surface, Young Marlow, 
Captain Absolute, and as Digby Grant in "Two Roses." In 1871, he 
appeared at the Lyceum Theatre, with which he has ever since been 
identified. Here his earliest successes were Jingle in "Pickwick," and 
Mathias in " The Bells," followed by Charles L, Eugene Aram, Richelieu, 
Philip II., Louis XL, and Vanderdecken. Hamlet, his first Shakespearian 
impersonation (October 31, 1874), created a great sensation, and it is now 
generally admitted that by his rendering of this and other Shakespearian 
characters, Mr. Irving has placed himself" at the head of English actors. 
Mr. Irving is now the lessee and manager of the Lyceum Theatre, where 
his most signal triumphs have been achieved. 

19 



BENJAMIN WARD RICHARDSON, 

M.D„ LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

S the only son of Benjamin and Mary Richardson, of Somerby, 
in the county of Leicester. His mother was the eldest daughter 
of Richard Ward of the same village. He was born at Somerby, 
October 31st, 1828, and was educated at the school of the Rev. 
W. Y. Nutt, of Barrow-on-the-Hill, from whence he proceeded 
to Anderson's University and the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, to commence 
his career in medical science. He took the diploma of the Faculty of 
Physicians and Surgeons in 1850, graduated in medicine at the University 
of St. Andrew's in 1854, and 'received the honorary degree of M.A. from the 
same university in 1859, and of LL.D. in 1877; became a member of 
the Royal College of Physicians in 1856, and was elected a Fellow in l86r. 
He gained the Fothergilian Gold Medal in 1854 for an essay on the diseases 
of the child before birth, and the Astley Cooper Prize of A300 in 1856 for 
an essay on the coagulation of the blood. In 1865 Dr. Richardson con- 
ducted an experimental research on the nature of the poisons of the spread- 
ing or contagious diseases. This ended in the detection of a special 
poisonous product, common in these poisons, to which he gave the name of 
"septine." In 1866 he invented the application of ether spray for the local 
abolition of pain in surgical operations. He introduced methylene bichloride 
as a general anatsthetic, discovered the controlling influence of nitrite of 
amyl over tetanus and other spasmodic affections, and instituted a large 
number of researches on the restoration of life after certain forms of sudden 
dissolution. He originated, and for some years edited, the "Journal of 
Public Health " and the "Social Science Review." Dr. Richardson's prin- 
cipal contributions to medical and scientific literature have been directed to 
the advancement of medical practice by the experimental method. The 
results of his valuable researches on " Alcohol in relation to its action on 
Man" were fully explained in the Canton Course of Lectures delivered by 
him before the Society of Arts in 1874-5. Dr. Richardson was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1867, and Croonian Lecturer in 1873. He 
is a member of many scientific societies both at home and abroad. He has 
been President of the Medical Society of London, and four times President 
of the St. Andrew's Medical Graduates' Association. In 1869 he succeeded 
Lord Jerviswoode as Assessor for the General Council in the University 
Court of St. Andrew's. At the Social Science Congress held at Brighton in 
1875 he delivered a presidential address which gave rise to much discussion. 
In it he gave a sketch of an imaginary " model City of Health " to be called 
Hygeia. Dr. Richardson's most recent researches have been directed to the 
study of the diseases incidental to modern civilization — diseases of modern 
life. 



HON. SIR EDWARD EBENEZER KAY, 

JUDGE OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, 

S a son of the late Robert Kay, Esq., of Brookshaw, Bury, 
Lancashire, and brother of Sir James Kay Shuttleworth, Bart., 
late Secretary of the Committee of Council on Education. He 
was bom on the 2nd of July, 1822, at Meadowcroft, near 
Rochdale, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took 
his Bachelor's degree in 1844, and proceeded M.A. indue course. Having 
resolved to adopt the law as his profession, he read for some time in the 
chambers of the late George Lake Russell, Esq., and in Trinity Term, 1847, 
he was called to the bar by the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. He 
became authorized Reporter in the Court presided over by Lord Hatherley, 
then Vice-Chancellor Wood, and published "Kay's Reports" and part of 
" Kay and Johnson's Reports." In 1866 he obtained the honour of a silk 
gown. Mr. Kay practised, as Queen's Counsel, in the Court presided over 
successively by Vice-Chancellor Wood, Vice-Chancellor Giffard, Vice- 
Chancellor James, and Vice-Chancellor Bacon. He relinquished the leader- 
ship of that Court in April, 1878, and confined his practice thenceforward to 
the House of Lords and special business. He was appointed by the Crown 
to fill the vacancy in the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice 
caused by the resignation of Vice-Chancellor Malins (now the Right Hon. 
Sir Richard Malins), and he accordingly took the oath of office, before the 
Lord Chancellor, on March 30, 1881. Shortly afterwards he was knighted 
by the Queen at Windsor. Mr. Justice Kay is a magistrate for Norfolk, in 
which county he owns the estate of Thorpe Abbotts, near Scole. He 
married, on April 2, 1850, Mary Valence, second daughter of the late Rev. 
William French, D.D., Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, and Canon 
of Ely. 

23 



RICHARD ANSDELL, 

ROYAL ACADEMICIAN, 

AS born in Liverpool in 1815, and educated in the Bluecoat 
School of that town. He was originally intended for some 
business calling, but destiny ordained that he should be an 
artist. The line in which he first distinguished himself was in 
the painting of animals and field sports, with occasionally an 
out-door historical subject The first pictures he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy (1840) were "Grouse Shooting" and "A Galloway Farm, the 
property of the Marquis of Bute." In 1841 he exhibited "The Earl of 
Sefton and Party returning from Shooting ; " and in 1842 his " Death of Sir 
W. Lambton, at the Battle of Marston Moor " attracted notice by its spirited 
treatment In 1843 appeared " The Death," a scene in the deer-hunt; and 
in 1844, " Mary Queen of Scots returning from the chase to Stirling Castle." 
In 1846 he exhibited for the first time at the British Institution, the subject 
of his picture being " The Drover's Halt — Isle of Mull in the Distance," 
and the same year at the Royal Academy, "The Stag at Bay." In the 
following year appeared at the Royal Academy " The Combat," a companion 
to the last picture; and in 1848. "The Battle of the Standard," a work of 
considerable power. In 1856 Mr. Ansdell accompanied Mr. Phillip, R.A., 
to Spain, and again in the following year he journeyed there alone, making 
the neighbourhood of Seville his sketching ground. The result of his visits 
to the Peninsula was remarkable. The scenery of North Britain, with the 
incidents appropriate to it, were abandoned in favour of those of the sunny 
south, and a richer tone of colouring was adopted. In that line appeared 
"The Water Carrier" and "Mules Drinking" in 1858, followed by " The 
Road to Seville," "Crossing the Ford, Seville," " Isia Mayor — Banks of the 
Guadalquivir," and " The Spanish Flower Seller." In i860 he made a 
slight diversion to English subjects in " The Lost Shepherd," and " Buy a 
Dog, Ma'am ? " but the next year he again showed his predilection for 
Spanish life and scenery. Among his subsequent productions was the 
" Hunted Slaves," given in aid of ^e fund for the refief of the distressed 
Lancashire operatives. Mr. Ansdell was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1861, and a full member in 1870. Since that time he has been 
a regular contributor to the annual exhibitions of the Academy. 

24 



LORD CHARLES WILLIAM DELAPOER 
BERESFORD, 

CAPTAIN R.N., 

S the second son of the Rev. John Beresford, fourth Marquis 
of Waterford, by his marriage with Christiana Julia, fourth 
daughter of the late Colonel Charles Powell Leslie of Glass- 
lough, CO. Monaghan. He was born at Philiptown, co. Dublin, 
Feb. lo, 1846, entered the Royal Navy at the age of thirteen, 
obtained his Lieutenant's commission in 1868, and was advanced to the 
rank of Commander in 1875. He served successively in the "Marl- 
borough," the " Defence," the " CHo," the " Tribune," the " Luchez," the 
" Research," the Royal yacht " Victoria and Albert," and the " Galatea." 
In 1872 he was appointed Flag Lieutenant to the Commander-in-Chief at 
Devonport. He received the gold medals of the Royal Humane Society 
and of the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane Society for having on three 
occasions jumped overboard and saved lives at sea. On one of these 
occasions he was attired in heavy shooting clothes, and his pockets were 
filled with cartridges. At the time of the bombardment of Alexandria, 
Lord Charles Beresford was in command of the gunboat " Condor." In the 
action of the nth of July, Lord Charles Beresford greatly distinguished himself 
by his plucky conduct. The ironclad " T^m^raire," which got ashore at the 
commencement of the engagement, was safely assisted off by the " Condor." 
Then the formidable Marabout batteries — the second strongest defence of 
the port of Alexandria — were effectually silenced. This latter success was 
in great part owing to the gallant way in which the " Condor " bore down 
on the fort and engaged guns immensely superior to her own. So vigorous 
indeed was the attack on the big fort that the Admiral's ship signalled 
"Well done, 'Condor.'" It was ascertained that the Khedive, who had 
taken refuge with Dervish Pasha at Ramleh, was in great danger. Arabi 
Pasha had sent a body of troops to guard the palace, and ordered them to 
kill the Khedive, but Tewfik and Dervish managed to bribe the men, and 
to communicate with Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour, who despatched the 
" Condor " inshore to keep the Egyptian troops in check. When it was 
found that the city of Alexandria was in flames, the task of restoring order 
and punishing the looters and incendiaries was intrusted to Lord Charles 
Beresford. Several of the scoundrels detected in the very act of setting fire 
to houses were summarily shot in the great square, and those caught plun- 
dering were flogged. For his services, Lord Charles Beresford was specially 
promoted to the rank of Captain, nth July, 1882. His lordship represented 
the county of Waterford, in the Conservative interest, from 1874 till 1880. 

*5 



HENRY HUGH ARMSTEAD, 

ROYAL ACADEMICIAN, 

S born in London, June i8, 1828, and received his artistic 
education at the School of Design, Somerset House, Leigh's 
khool, Maddox Street, Mr. Carey's School, and the Royal 
\cademy. Among his masters were Mr. M'Manus, Mr. 
Herbert, R.A., Mr. Bailey, R.A., Mr. Leigh, and Mr. Carey. 
As a designer, modeller, and chaser for silver, gold, and jewellery, and a 
draughtsman on wood, he has executed a large number of works. Among 
those in silver, the most important are the " Charles Kean Testimonial," the 
" St. George's Vase," the " Doncaster Race Plate," the " Tennyson Vase " 
(a silver medal being obtained for that and other works in Paris, 1855), and 
the " Packington Shield." His last important work in silver (for which the 
medal from the 1862 Exhibition was obtained) was the " Outram Shield," 
which is always on view at the South Kensington Museum. His works in 
marble, bronze, stone, and wood include the South and East sides of the 
podium of the " Albert Memorial," Hyde Park, representing the musicians 
and painters of the Italian, German, French, and English Schools, and some 
of the greatest poets. There are also four large bronze figures on the *' Albert 
Memorial " by Mr. Armstead, viz., Chemistry, Astronomy, Medicine, and 
Rhetoric. He also designed the external sculptural decorations of the new 
Colonial Offices — reliefs of Government, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, 
Australasia, and Education ; statues of Earl Grey, Lord Lytton, the Duke of 
Newcastle, the Earl of Derby, Lord Ripon, Sir William Molesworth, Lord 
Glenelg ; and also reliefs on the facade of Truth, Fortitude, Temperance, 
and Obedience. Mr. Armstead designed the whole of the carved oak panels 
{beneath Dyce's frescoes) in Her Majesty's Robing Room in the New 
Palace, Westminster, illustrating the life of King Arthur and the history of 
Sir Galahad ; also the external sculpture of Eatington Park, Warwickshire, 
the large fountains in the fore-court of King's College, Cambridge, the 
marble reredos of "The Entombment of Our Lord," at Hythe Church, 
Kent, and other works, including the effigy of Bishop Wilberforce in 
Winchester Cathedral. Mr. Armstead was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1875, and an Academician in 1879. 

26 



CAPTAIN BEDFORD CLAPPERTON 
TREVELYAN PIM, R,N., 

NLY son of Captain Edward Bedford Pirn, of Weirhead, Exeter, 
was born at Bideford, Devon, in 1826, and educated at the 
Royal Naval School. He went to India in the merchant ser- 
vice, and on his return was appointed a volunteer in the Royal 
Navy {1842). Having been employed for some years in the 
Surveying service, he made the voyage round the world in H.M.S." Herald" 
(1845-51), and was engaged from first to last in the search for Sir John 
Franklin, both through Behring's Straits and Baffin's Bay. He was the 
ofificer who reached the " Investigator," and saved the crew of that ship, be- 
sides being the first man who made his way from a ship on the eastern to a 
ship on the western side of the North West Passage. After visiting the 
Isthmus of Suez, Commander Pim returned to England in 1859, and read 
before the Royal Geographical Society an important paper on the Suez Canal. 
Soon afterwards the Admiralty appointed him to the command of the 
" Gorgon," and despatched that vessel to the river Tyne, with a view of 
popularizing the navy, and encouraging the entry of seamen. His next ser- 
vice was the settling a delicate question with the French respecting the 
fisheries. The " Gorgon " was subsequently despatched to the West Indies, 
and employed on the coast of Central America for the prevention of any 
further filibustering attempts against Nicaragua on the part of General Walker. 
Having exchanged into the " Fury," Commander Pim brought that ship home, 
and paid her off at Portsmouth (1861). He was advanced to the rank of 
Captain in 1868, and was compulsorily retired in 1870, when heat once began 
to qualify himself for a new profession, and was called to the Bar at the Inner 
Temple In 1873. He has since obtained a considerable practice in Ad- 
miralty cases. Captain Bedford Pim represented Gravesend in the House 
of Commons, in the Conservative interest, from 1874 to 1880. Since 1862 
he has been engaged in opening, by his own private efforts, railway transit 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific across Nicaragua. Captain Bedford Pim is 
the author of " The Gate of the Pacific," 1 863 ; " Dottings on the Roadside in 
Panama, Nicaragua, and Mosquito" (conjointly with Dr. Seemann), 1869; 
an " Essay on Feudal Tenures ; " and " The War Chronicle," 1873, being a 
history of the Franco-Prussian war. He is a magistrate for the county of 
Middlesex, and a member of several scientific societies. 

27 



HON. SIR JOSEPH WILLIAM CHITTY, 

JUDGE OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, 

S the second son of the late Mr. Thomas Chitty, and was 
born in 1828, and educated at Eton and at Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he graduated first class in Classics in 1851. 
In 1852 he obtained the Vinerian Law Scholarship, and was 
subsequently elected a Fellow of Exeter College. During his career at 
Oxford, it was not as a scholar only that Mr. Chitty obtained eminence ; 
he equally distinguished himself in the cricket-field and on the river, 
playing in the University Eleven, and rowing stroke in the winning 
boat in the Oxford and Cambridge race in 1852. Mr. Chitty was called 
to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1856, and became a Queen's Counsel in 
1874. He practised chiefly before the Master of the Rolls, and soon rose 
to the position of Leader in that Court. He was for some years Major in 
the Inns of Court Volunteers. At the general election of 1880 he success- 
fully contested the seat for the city of Oxford in the Liberal interest. In 
September, i88r, Mr. Chitty was appointed a Judge of the High Court. 
He succeeded to the Rolls Court on the transfer of Sir George Jessel to the 
Court of Appeal, and shortly after received the honour of knighthood. 
Amongst his Judgments, the best known to the public are those in the 
Prestbury Ritual case and that of Archdeacon Dunbar. He married in 
1858 Clara Jessie, daughter of the late Chief Baron Sir Frederick Pollock, 
Bart. 



JOSEPH EDGAR BOEHM, R.A., 

SijASborn in Austria in 1834. His father held a high position in 
yj the Mint of the Austrian Empire, and formed a collection of 
K works of Art in which every period and nation was represented. 
W Growing up amongst this collection, Mr. Boehm's taste for Art 
^ was gready fostered, his capacity for drawing and modelling 
showing itself even in babyhood. When sent to England, in 1848, Mr. 
Boehm proceeded to study Art in the British Museum, and also at Oxford, till 
1851, when he returned to Vienna and obtained the " Emperor's Prize" at 
the Academy there in 1854, which freed him from the military conscription. 
Mr. Boehm married, in i860, the daughter of Frederick Boteler, Esq., and 
settled in England in 1862. In 1868 he was introduced, chiefly through Sir 
Edwin Landseer, to the Queen, for whom he has since executed many works, 
amongst which are the marble statue of Her Majesty at Windsor Castle, 
relievos and figures in the Albert Memorial Chapel, a statue of Leopold I., 
King of the Belgians, in St. George's Chapel, also one of the late Prince 
Imperial of France, intended for Westminster Abbey, and the monument of 
the late Princess Alice and her daughter,at the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore. 
The principal public statues executed by Mr. Boehm are those of Sir John 
Burgoyne and Lord Lawrence, in Waterloo Place, and of Thomas Carlyle, in 
bronze, on the Thames Embankment. Two colossal statues, in bronze, of 
Sir Francis Drake, and the martyr William Tyndale, are now in progress 
(the latter is intended to be erected on the Thames Embankment), and one of 
Lord Beaconsfield, to be placed in Westminster Abbey. Mr. Boehm was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1876, and Royal Academician 
in 1882, having been nominated Sculptor in Ordinary to the Queen the 
previous year. He is also a member of the Academies of Florence and of 
St. Lucca in Rome, and has just received the first gold medal from the 
International Art Exhibition in Vienna. Mr. Boehm has devoted much 
study to the Anatomy of Animals, of which he has executed many important 
works. He became a naturalized British subject in 1865. 

29 



FRANK DICKSEE, A.R.A., 

pON of the artist T. F. Dicksee, Esq., was born in November, 
fi 1853. At the age of seventeen he entered the schools of the 
i Royal Academy, and while carrying on his studies at that 
V institution, he also spent a great part of the time in the studio 
of Mr. Holliday, working at decorative art. Mr. Dicksee had not long 
entered the Royal Academy schools before he gained a silver medal for 
antique drawing, and a short time afterwards a gold medal for historical 
painting. The subject of the picture for which this was awarded, was, 
" Elijah confronting Ahab and Jezebel in Naboth's vineyard," and was 
exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1876. About this time Mr. Dicksee 
executed several designs for books and periodical illustrations, acid in 1877 he 
exhibited, when only in his twenty-fourth year, his beautiful painting called 
" Harmony," which was bought by the Royal Academy out of the Chantrey 
bequest This picture was one of the first so purchased. It was placed in 
the best position in the Academy, and has since been engraved. It is now 
placed in the picture-galleries of the South Kensington Museum. In 1880 
Mr. Dicksee exhibited his " Benedicta," which was engraved by Mr. Samuel 
Cousins, R.A., and also a portrait group of Sir William and the Hon. Lady 
Welby Gregory. With two exceptions Mr. Dicksee has never sent his 
paintings for exhibition anywhere but to the Royal Academy. These were 
a picture of Miss Elsie Thomson, which appeared this year on the walls of the 
Grosvenor Gallery, and another called " Evangeline," which was exhibited in 
Liverpool. Mr. Dicksee was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1881, the same year in which he there exhibited "The Symbol." His 
" Love Story," which appeared this year at Burlington House, will be fresh 
in the recollection of all. 

30 



FRANK HOm 

ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY, 

ON of the eminent engraver of the same name, was born in 
Kentish Town in 1845, and educated at University College, 
London. In 1861 he entered the schools of the Royal 
Academy. At the distribution of prizes in 1862, he received 
a silver medal for the best drawing from the antique, and also 
the premium of ^10. A picture, " A Mother and Sick Child," was'painted 
by him about this time, as a commission given by a cotton merchant of 
Liverpool; the work was never exhibited. In the competition of the 
students in 1863, Mr. Holl was yet more successful, obtaining the gold 
medal, books, and a scholarship of ^f 25 for two years. " for the best historical 
painting," and a silver medal for the second-best drawing from the life. The 
subject of the painting was " Abraham about to sacrifice Isaac." In 1864 
Mr. Holl made his first appearance as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy 
with two pictures, one being " A Portrait," the other bearing the title of 
"Turned out of Church." He exhibited "A Fern Gatherer" in 1865; 
"The Ordeal" in 1866; "A Convalescent" and "Faces in the Fire"in 
1867 ; and a striking portrait of his father in 1868. At the close of the latter 
year he gained the "two years' travelling studentship for painting" by his 
picture, "The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away," which was 
exhibited at Burlington House in 1869. Among his works exhibited in 
subsequent years were ; " Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a 
stalled ox and hatred therewith," 1870 ; " No Tidings from the Sea," painted 
for the Queen, and "Winter," 1871; "The Village Funeral," 1872; 
"Leaving Home," a scene in a railway station, 1873; "Deserted," 1874; 
"Her First-born," 1876; "Going Home," 1877; "Newgate: Committed 
for Trial," 1878; "The Gifts of the Fairies," "The Daughter of the 
House," Portrait of Samuel Cousins, R.A., "Absconded," 1879; "Ordered 
to the Front," 1880 ; " Home Again ! " 1881 ; also portraits of Major George 
Graham, Sir Henry Rawlinson, Sir Frederick Roberts, Sir James Bacon, 
and Viscount Cranbrook and other portraits. His contributions to other 
exhibitions include : " Want— Her poverty but not her will consents," a 
picture of a woman pawning her wedding-ring; "Doubtful Hope;" and 
" Gone — The Emigrant's Departure." Mr. Holl was elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy on the 19th of June, 1878. 

31 



CHARLES THOMAS NEWTON, C.B.. D.C.L.. 

PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY AT UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE, LONDON, 

S^ON of the Rev. N. D. H. Newton, Vicar of Bredwardine, 
fl Herefordshire, was born in 1816, and received his education 
*J at Shrewsbury School, whence he proceeded to Christ Church, 
» Oxford, of which College he was a faculty studenL He 
" graduated B.A. in 1837, taking second-class honours; and 
M.A. in 1840. In the latter year he was appointed one of the assistants in 
the department of Antiquities in the British Museum, which post he held 
until 1852, when, being anxious to rescue from oblivion some of the ancient 
sculptures on the coasts of Asia Minor and in the islands of the ^gean, he 
obtained the appointment of Vice-Consul at Mitylene. After having spent 
several years in exploring the Archipelago, he discovered at Budrum (the 
ancient Halicamassus) the site of the Mausoleum erected by Artemisia, and 
carried on extensive excavations at Cnidus and at BranchidEC, between 1856 
and 1859. The results of his discoveries consist of a fine collection of 
sculptures from the Mausoleum and other places, deposited in the British 
Museum, which is further indebted to Mr. Newton for a most interesting 
collection of Greek inscriptions, vases, coins, and other antiquities, acquired 
in Asia Minor and the Archipelago, by purchase or in the course of excava- 
tions. Mr, Newton was appointed Consul at Rome in 1859, and held that 
post till January, 1861, when he was placed at the head of the Department 
of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. He was created 
an honorary D.C.L. of the University of Oxford in 1875 ; was nominated a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath in the same year ; and received the 
degree of LL.D., konoris causd, from the University of Cambridge in 1879. 
He is also a Correspondent of the French Institute; a member of the Roman 
Accademia dei Lincei ; and Ph.D., of the University of Strasburg. In 1874 
he was elected an honorary Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, and in 
1 880 he was appointed to the newly established Professorship of Archaeology 
at University College, London. He likewise holds the honorary post of 
Antiquary to the Royal Academy. His wife, a daughter of Mr. Joseph 
Severn, was a distinguished artist. She died in 1866. Mr. Newton has 
published a " History of Discoveries at Halicamassus, &c. ; " " Travels and 
Discoveries in the Levant; " " Essays on Art and Archieology," and other 
learned works. 

32 



JOHN MACWHIRTER, A.R.A., H.R.S.A., 

jJAS born near Edinburgh in March, 1839. He received his 
/ education at the Grammar School of Peebles. After leaving 
\ school Mr. MacWhirter resided in Edinburgh, and there 
7 studied the figure under Robert Scott Lauder, R.S.A., and 
^ John Ballantyne, R.S.A., at the School of Design. During 
this time he made constant excursions to the Pentland Hills and neighbour- 
hood of his birthplace, to paint landscapes and wild flowers. After making 
a pedestrian tour in Bavaria and the Tyrol, Mr. MacWhirter exhibited 
in the Royal Scottish Academy, the subject of his picture being " Gosau 
See," Salz-Kammergut. In the years 1862-3, Mr. MacWhirter visited 
Norway, and in the following year Rome, and as an outcome of these 
respective tours his pictures of " Summer Midnight," '* Mountain Torrent," 
" The Arch of Titus," " The Coliseum," and " The Campagna from the 
Via Appia," followed those already exhibited, and Mr. MacWhirter was 
then made an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1867 Mr. 
MacWhirter renewed his acquaintance with the Isle of Skye, which he 
had visited when a boy of fourteen, and, in the following February, 
exhibited a large sketch of Loch Corinsk, and in the succeeding May a 
finished picture of the same, in the Royal Academy in London, where he 
had, in the meantime, taken up his residence. This landscape was followed, 
in 1870, by " Daybreak," " Depths of the Forest," and " A great while ago 
the world began," &c. Between 1871 and 1878 the following pictures 
appeared in the Royal Academy: " Isle of Skye," " Fisherman's Haven," 
" Caledonia," "Summer Moonlight," " Out in the Cold," " The Lady of the 
Woods," "Spindrift," "Source of a River," and "Over the Border." In 
1877 Mr. MacWhirter visited America, and spent his time chiefly in 
sketching in the Yosemite Valley and the neighbourhood of San Francisco. 
Upon his return from America, Mr. MacWhirter exhibited a small picture 
in the Dudley Gallery, entitled "The Golden Gate." In 1878, "Three 
Graces," and " Vanguard " appeared in the Royal Academy, of which, in the 
following year, Mr. MacWhirter was elected an Associate. He then 
exhibited, in 1880, " Looking down a Valley," " May and June," " The Lord 
of the Glen," and "Sunday in the Highlands." In i88i he visited 
Venice, and upon his return exhibited, in the Dudley Gallery, the " Bridge 
of Sighs," and a "Summer Storm." In the present year we have seen m 
the Royal Academy one of Mr. MacWhirter's finest productions in " Ossian's 
Grave," also " II Penseroso," and the " Highland Auction." He has been 
lately elected an honorary member of the Royal Scottish Academy. 

33 



^rice IS. id. {Conducted by Gborgb C Whitfield.) Vol. VII. No. LXXXIV. 



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CHARLES WILLIAM SIEMENS, D.C.L, F.R.S., 



born at Lenthe, in Hanover, in 1823, and received his edu- 
,tion at the Gymnasium of Lubeck, the Art School of Mag- 
;burg, and the University of Gottingen. In 1843 he visited 
ngland for the purpose of introducing a method of gilding 
id silvering by galvanic deposit, principally the invention of 
his elder brother, Werner Siemens. In 1844 C. W. Siemens again came to 
England, and he has since remained in this country. In the same year the 
process of " Anastatic Printing," invented by the two brothers, was made 
public During the next three years he was chiefly occupied with the 
chronometric governor, which has since been employed by Sir George Airy 
for regulating the motion of his great transit instrument at the Royd 
Observatory. Afterwards he was variously engaged, but mainly in matters 
connected with mechanical engineering. He brought out a double-cylinder 
air-pump, and a simple water-meter which has been very extensively used 
in this country and abroad. Then he turned his attention to the study of 
the dynamical theory of heat and the employment of regenerators for recu- 
perating the heat generally allowed to run to waste. In 1858 he established, 
with his brothers Dr. Werner and Mr. Carl Siemens, the London firm of 
Siemens Brothers, which has since become famous as well for the electrical 
instruments they manufacture, as for the submarine and land lines due to 
their enterprise, four Transatlantic cables, the Indo-European line, the 
North China cable, the Platino-Braziliera cable, and others. For ten years 
(1853-63) Dr. Siemens was engaged with his younger brother Frederick 
upon that invention with which his name has since been principally con- 
nected — the regenerative gas furnace. He then constructed his Sample 
Steel Works at Birmingham, where he introduced the open hearth or 
Siemens process of manufacturing steel. After this success the Landore 
Siemens Steel Company was started, and now produces 1,000 tons a week of 
steel of high quality. Dr. Siemens also introduced the rotatory furnace for 
producing iron direct from the ore. During the last ten years he and his 
firm have devoted much attention to the practical application of electricity, 
and have patented numerous useful inventions. Dr. Siemens has been 
President of various scientific institutions ; he presided over the recent 
meeting of the British Association ; and he has received from many learned 
bodies and foreign Sovereigns marks of recognition of his great services to 
science. 

34 



THE RIGHT REV. ALFRED BLOMFIELD, D.D., 

BISHOP OF COLCHESTER, 

S the youngest son of the late Right Rev. Charles James Blom- 
field, D.D., the distinguished prelate and classical scholar, who 
occupied the See of London for a period of nearly thirty years. 
He was born at Fulham Palace on the 31st of August, 1833, and 
was educated at Harrow School. Afterwards he had a distin- 
guished University career as a member of Balliol College, Oxford. He 
obtained a First Class in Classical Moderations in 1853, and in Liters 
Humaniores in 1854. In the latter year he carried off^the Chancellor's 
Prize for Latin verse. He was elected to a Fellowship at All Souls' College, 
and took the degree of B.A. in 1855, and M.A. in 1857. He was ordained 
Deacon in 1857, and Priest in 1858, by the Bishop of Oxford. He was 
Curate of Kidderminster from 185710 i860; Perpetual Curate of St. Philip's, 
Stepney, from 1862 to 1865 ; Vicar of St. Matthew's, City Road, from 1865 
to 1871, when he was appointed to the Vicarage of Barking, Essex, then in 
the diocese of Rochester. In 1869 he was chosen as a Select Preacher at 
Oxford. He was appointed Archdeacon of Essex in 1878 and Archdeacon 
of Colchester in 1882. In the latter year he was also appointed Bishop of 
Colchester, as suffragan to the Bishop of St Albans, and he received 
episcopal consecration in St Albans Cathedral, from the hands of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury (24th June, 1882). A few days previously he 
had been created D.D., honoris causd, by the University of Oxford. The 
Bishop of Colchester is the author of Memoirs of his father. Bishop Blom- 
field (2 vols., 1863), and of "Sermons in Town and Country" (1871). 

35 



REV. SIR FREDERICK A. GORE OUSELEY, BART. 

PROFESSOR OF MUSIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, 

S the only son of the late Right Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart., 
of Hall Barn Park, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire — a learned 
Orientalist, who was ambassador at the courts of Persia and 
St. Petersburg, and who was created a baronet in 1808. Born 
in London in 1825, he evinced from early childhood great 
talent for music, and at the age of eight he composed an opera, " L'Isola 
disabitata." He was educated privately under the Rev. James Joyce, vicar 
of Dorking, and subsequently entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a gende- 
man-commoner (B.A. 1846; M.A. 1849). Having been ordained deacon 
in 1849, he became curate of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, principally serving 
the sister church of St. Barnabas, Pimlico, and living in the college attached 
to it. When the choir of St. Barnabas was broken up, he collected the 
scattered choristers, and established the musical colony at Lovehill House, 
near Langley, Bucks. Eventually they migrated to the neighbourhood of 
Tenbury, Worcestershire, where, mainly through the exertions and muni- 
ficence of Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley (who had succeeded to the baronetcy 
on his father's death in 1844), a college was founded, of which he is the 
warden, for the education of boys. Here, also, he has erected at his own 
cost, a splendid church dedicated to St. Michael and All Angels, in which 
full choral service is performed daily by the students from the adjacent 
college. He was appointed the first vicar of St. Michael's in 1856, having, 
a short time before, been nominated Precentor of Hereford Cathedral. In 
the warden's house. Sir Frederick Ouseley has formed a musical library 
which is acknowledged to be the most valuable and extensive private 
collection in the kingdom. In 1850 he took the degree of Bachelor of 
Music at Oxford, his "exercise" being a cantata, "The Lord is the true 
God ; " and in 1854 he proceeded to the higher grade of Doctor, for which 
his oratorio, " St. Polycarp," was composed and performed. In 1855 he was 
appointed Professor of Music at Oxford, in succession to Sir Henry R. 
Bishop. He has composed eleven Church Services ; has published over 
seventy anthems, of which the best known is " How goodly are thy tents, O 
Israel ; " and has written admirable treatises on " Harmony," " Counterpoint 
and Fugue," and " Musical Form and General Composition." 

36 



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