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' 3433 08254187 

V\ \ 

Men of Mark in South Carolina 

Ideals of American Life 

A Collection of Biographies of Leading Men 

of the State 



Editor of "The News and Courier" 


Illustrated with Many 
Full Page Photo-Steel Engraved Portraits 


Washington, D. C. 







Copyright, 1907 

Men of Mark Publishing Company 





HON. WILLIAM H. BRAWLEY, LL. D., Charleston 

Judge United States District Court, Ex-Congressman. 


President Courtenay Cotton Mill. 

A. E. GONZALES, Columbia 

President The State Company. 

J. C. HEMPHILL, Charleston 

Editor The News and Courier. 


HON. J. H. HUDSON, LL. D., Bennettsville 

Ex-Judge Circuit Court, South Carolina State Senator. 

J. E. MCDONALD, ESQ., Winnsboro 

Ex-President South Carolina Bar Association. 

HON. W. D. MORGAN, Georgetown 

Banker, Mayor of Georgetown. 

REV. J. A. B. SCHERER, PH. D., LL. D., Newberry 

President Newberry College. 

HENRY NELSON SNYDER, LITT. D., LL. D., . . . . Spartanburg 

President Wofford College. 


Banker and Planter. 


"MEN or MARK IN SOUTH CAROLINA" is not history but 
biography; biography, however, that is absolutely essential to 
the making of history. Its special purpose is to tell the story of 
the men who have attained some distinction in the complex life 
of the state ; those who have builded better than they knew, and 
who have been regarded by an advisory board of fair-minded and 
accomplished men as worthy to be included among the builders 
of a great state. The unit of measurement adopted in their 
selection was not ancestral distinction, or great possessions, or 
political preferment, or social station, but individual achieve- 
ment; so that in this work account is given of those who have 
lived to some purpose, whether in country district or populous 
community, whether in industrial enterprise or professional 

Naturally and unavoidably, the character of its citizenship 
is influenced largely by the history of the state. The self-reliance 
of the pioneers who redeemed this territory from the wilderness, 
their patience under suffering, their complete mastery of adverse 
and apparently hopeless conditions in the beginning of things, 
their genius for government, their military prowess, their purity 
of life, their loyalty to principle and their simple faith in the 
eternal verities, have set their seal indelibly upon the life and 
character of the state. In the many revolutions, political, mili- 
tary and social, through which South Carolina has passed since 
the first settlement of the French colony under Ribault at Port 
Royal in 1664, its people have remained steadfast to a remarkable 
degree in their loyalty to principle. There have been many and 
sore dissensions among them at times, changes in government and 
political forms, invasions by hostile and predatory enemies, great 
depressions in commercial and industrial activities, and regularly 
recurring periods of political irresponsibility ; but out of all these 
afflictions the state has been delivered by the inherent virtue of 
its people. From the Founders, with their high conceptions of 
obedience to constituted authority, of fidelity to the family, of 
faith in God, the state has taken its character. Its part in 
resistance to British tyranny and in the making of the Republic, 


its devotion in opposing the more insidious and destructive 
encroachments of the Federal power, created largely by its own 
unsuspecting faith in the good morals of other commonwealths, 
its courage in victory and its fortitude in defeat, these and other 
phases in the development of South Carolina have been amply 
set forth in other works. From the formation of the colony to 
the close of the War for Southern Independence, South Carolina 
dominated the political thought of the country, and the principles 
of government formulated by its statesmen are the principles 
which must prevail if government of the people, by the people 
and for the people is not to perish from the earth. 

Notwithstanding that so much of the intellectual energy of 
the state was employed in the higher reaches of politics, there 
was never a time in the history of colony and state when South 
Carolina did not also lead in industrial and commercial 
achievement. It was in this nursery that the cultivation and 
manufacture of cotton received its initial impetus, that practical 
railroading in America began, and in the defence of Charleston 
that the utility of armored vessels and torpedo craft was first 

Not only did South Carolina lead in government, but like- 
wise in finance and commerce. It was not until after alien hands 
had been laid upon her that any shadow rested upon the public 
credit of the state or lustful touch upon the integrity of the 

South Carolina today is what South Carolina was in the 
past. There have been many changes. It has seemed that the 
better days of the state would be forgotten in the confusion of 
the times, but even the winds and waves of popular tumult obey 
the command of a great people with character. The energy 
which in former times was devoted to the science of politics and 
government is now employed in the development of the larger 
and more varied life upon which the state has entered. The 
Men of Mark in South Carolina are the men who are doing 
something for the state. The story of their lives and work will 
be told in these volumes. They are worthy of the state only to 
the extent that they are loyal to the best traditions of the state. 


State Editor for South Carolina. 

'.jj " 

., 77. C . 


A~~SEL, MAETIN FREDERICK, governor of South Caro- 
lina, was born in the city of Charleston, South Carolina, 
December 12, 1850. His father, John J. Ansel, of Wur- 
temburg, Germany, came of a good and prosperous family, and 
when quite a young man sought his fortune in America. He 
was a skilful master mechanic, having received his degree in a 
celebrated technical institute of that country. He married, in 
Philadelphia, Fredrika Bowers, of Germany. They settled first 
in Charleston and later went, with a colony of friends and coun- 
trymen, to Walhalla, where the old home is still occupied by 
members of the family. Mrs. Ansel was a woman of great force 
of character and exerted a most potent influence in directing the 
energies and efforts of her children, who reflect great credit on 
the careful home training they received. 

Martin F. Ansel inherited a strong constitution, which was 
developed and strengthened in his youth by outdoor sports and 
a fondness for riding and driving horses. He was about four 
years of age when his parents removed to Walhalla, and his early 
life was spent in that village, engaged in the usual home tasks. 
Later the discipline of the workshop developed strength and gave 
ideas of precision, exactness and regularity. He afterwards 
clerked in a village store and here had the opportunity of 
studying human nature and learning something of people. His 
educational advantages were limited to attendance at the village 
school, reading, and the privileges of the literary society in New- 
berry college, which was, for a time, located in Walhalla. 

Mr. Ansel studied law under Major James H. Whitner, was 
admitted to the bar before he was twenty-one years of age, prac- 
ticed nearly four years in Franklin, North Carolina, and went to 
Greenville, South Carolina, in January, 1876. He took an active 
part in the exciting Hampton campaign of that year. In 1882 
he was elected a member of the legislature from Greenville 
county and was reflected in 1884 and in 1886, each time heading 
the ticket in the Democratic primary election. In 1888 he was 
elected solicitor of the eighth judicial circuit, which office he held 


for twelve years, voluntarily retiring at the expiration of his 
third term, January, 1901. 

Mr. Ansel has always enjoyed a large and lucrative practice 
at the bar. He has been associated from time to time with some 
of the most prominent lawyers in the upper part of the state; 
among them, James S. Cothran, George G. Wells, and Thomas 
P. Cothran. He is a fluent, forcible speaker, and is learned in 
the law. As solicitor of the eighth judicial circuit, and as 
the state's prosecuting attorney, he was fearless, impartial and 
faithful in the discharge of his duties. 

Mr. Ansel is a member of the Masonic fraternity, including 
Blue Lodge, Royal Arch, and Knights Templar, and is also an 
Odd Fellow. He is an elder in the First Presbyterian church 
of Greenville. In politics he has always been a Democrat, and 
has taken an active part in political affairs. In 1902 he made 
the canvass for governor before the Democratic primary and 
received a very handsome vote. So much strength did he 
develop that his friends persuaded him to make the canvass again 
in the summer of 1906, and he received the nomination in the 
primary election, leading his competitor, Honorable R. I. Man- 
ning, by over ten thousand majority. One of the main issues 
in the campaign was the state dispensary for the sale of liquors. 
Mr. Ansel's platform was in opposition to the state dispensary, 
and in advocacy of county local option, as between prohibition 
and county dispensaries. His nomination was followed by his 
election, and he entered upon the duties of his office in January, 
1907, for a term of two years. The vote he received was very 
flattering and clearly showed that he had a large place in the 
esteem and confidence of the people. 

Mr. Ansel is a man of high ideals, is deeply interested in 
young men, and is cordial and courteous to all. He is a strong 
supporter of the schools and of all benevolent and charitable 
institutions. He is eminently a man of the people, and is fre- 
quently called upon to address public gatherings in all parts of 
the state. Able and conscientious, and having the courage of his 
convictions, he is proving himself worthy of the high honor 
conferred upon him by the people of his state. 

Mr. Ansel has been twice married. His first wife was 
Ophelia Speights, daughter of the late Mr. A. M. Speights, for 


many years editor and proprietor of the Greenville "Daily News." 
Mrs. Ansel died, leaving three children, of whom two daughters 
are (1907) living. The present Mrs. Ansel was Mrs. Addie 
Hollingsworth Harris, daughter of Mr. C. L. Hollingsworth, a 
leading attorney of Pickens, South Carolina, and a man of influ- 
ence and unusual strength of character. 

Mr. Ansel has a most delightful home in Greenville, South 
Carolina, to which he is strongly attached, and he also has large 
interests in Pickens county. He is interested in agriculture, and 
is frequently in the field and on the farm. By close attention 
to business, careful management and economy, he has accumu- 
lated a good property. He has always taken an active interest 
in the material development of his city and state, has been a 
recognized factor in the industrial development of upper South 
Carolina, and is directly interested, as stockholder and director, 
in a number of enterprises. 


HEYWARD, DUNCAN CLINCH, ex-governor of his 
native state, was born in Richland county, South Caro- 
lina, June 24, 1864. His parents were Edward Barn- 
well and Catherine Maria (Clinch) Hey ward. A few years 
before the War between the States his father removed from 
Colleton county to his plantation in Richland county, where the 
family remained while military operations were in progress in 
the lower part of the state. His mother was a daughter of 
General Duncan L. Clinch, United States army, a worthy repre- 
sentative of one of the most prominent families in Georgia. The 
Heywards have long been distinguished in the history of South 
Carolina. The first known ancestor in this country was Daniel 
Heyward, who came from England about 1672. For several 
generations the Heywards lived in what is known as the "low 
country" and were extensive rice planters. They were very suc- 
cessful in the management of large plantations upon which large 
numbers of negro laborers were employed. As was the case with 
other families in that section, the control of hundreds of slaves 
and the management of large estates developed in them the 
ability and gave them the training for command which has 
brought them to the front in times of war and fitted them to 
direct large enterprises of other descriptions since the profits of 
the rice industry have been reduced by the opening of extensive 
rice fields in Louisiana and Texas. 

In childhood and youth Duncan Clinch Heyward was strong 
and well. His tastes and interests were such as were common to 
the sons of South Carolina planters. He was fond of hunting, 
fishing, and horseback riding, and in each of these sports he was 
recognized as an expert. After the war the family returned to 
the plantation in Colleton county and within a few years the 
father and mother of the subject of this sketch were removed 
by death. Thereafter his home was with his grandmother, Mrs. 
Clinch, who spent the winters in Charleston and the summers in 
the mountains of Georgia. The youth attended private schools 
in Charleston, the Cheltenham Military academy in Pennsyl- 


vania, and completed his public education in Washington and 
Lee university, Lexington, Virginia. 

The active work of life was commenced in Colleton county, 
in 1887, at which place and time Mr. Heyward took up the 
ancestral occupation of rice growing on the plantation which he 
had in part inherited. While conducting his planting operations 
he resided at Walterboro, where he soon became known as a 
studious and thoughtful as well as a practical and forceful 
citizen. In the "low country" the maintenance of a military 
company of whites in the midst of an overwhelming population 
of negroes is absolutely necessary. Mr. Heyward was elected 
captain of the Combahee Mounted Riflemen, Troop F, South 
Carolina volunteers, and discharged with signal ability the duties 
of that difficult position. He also became a member of Knights 
of Pythias, of the Masons and Odd Fellows. In the Pythian 
order he rapidly rose from one office to a higher until he was 
made grand chancellor of the grand domain of South Carolina. 
In this position he formed many warm friendships and attained 
a popularity which was the beginning of the efforts to make him 
governor of South Carolina. At the solicitation of his friends, 
he announced himself a candidate in the fall of 1901, the Demo- 
cratic primary election being held in the summer of the following 

His race in 1902 was one of the most remarkable in the 
history of the remarkable state of South Carolina. He had never 
been a candidate for political office, and to the vast majority of 
the voters he was personally a stranger, while his opponents were 
men who had been in politics for many years and were generally 
known by reputation and personally to the electors. But Mr. 
Heyward had formed a strong organization throughout the state 
among his personal friends, who exerted themselves in his behalf 
without reward or hope of reward, and as the campaign pro- 
gressed he w r as soon looked upon as the leading candidate for 
governor. He went into every county in the state, following the 
South Carolina custom in which the candidates for all state 
offices canvass the state together, debating the issues and pre- 
senting their claims. In the first Democratic primary election 
none of the five candidates received the necessary majority, and 
a second election was held, in which the candidates to be voted 
for were Heyward and W. J. Talbert, former congressman and 


one of the most experienced politicians in the state. In this 
first election Heyward received 36,551 votes and Talbert 18,218. 
In the second primary two weeks later Heyward received 50,830 
votes and Talbert 40,494, Heyward being nominated by a major- 
ity vote of 10,336. Mr. Heyward was subsequently elected 
governor, without opposition, as the Democratic candidate, and 
took office on January 22, 1903. At the expiration of his two- 
year term he again received the Democratic nomination for 
governor, this time without opposition, something which had not 
happened in South Carolina for at least a score of years. He 
was, of course, reflected also without opposition. 

During his administration as governor Mr. Heyward 
strengthened his hold upon the people of the state, but soon 
after his second election he announced that he would retire from 
politics at the end of his term. His administration of the office 
was marked by firmness, conservatism, and business judgment. 
He stood strongly for the education of the masses, for the com- 
mon schools, and for the colleges; he recommended the passage 
of the law against child labor in the factories, and urged the 
enactment of a compulsory education measure, but without suc- 
cess. In the campaign in which he was first elected the whisky 
question was not an issue, inasmuch as all the candidates then 
agreed upon the support of the dispensary system. While Gov- 
ernor Heyward adhered to his support of the dispensary, he, in 
his message to the general assembly, did not hesitate to call 
attention to the dissatisfaction with certain matters in connection 
with the system. In the matter of pardons he was extremely 
conservative, and he recommended the passage of the act creating 
the board of pardons at the session of 1906. 

Throughout his administration Governor Heyward main- 
tained a firm stand for the enforcement of the law. In one of 
his messages he urged the general assembly to make an especial 
appropriation for the enforcement of the law in cases of lynching 
and similar crimes where the evidence is difficult to obtain. He 
pledged his own credit to obtain money for the employment of 
detectives to secure evidence against white men who were accused 
of lynching a negro at Eutawville, and in all cases of this 
character he was active in sustaining the prosecuting officials to 
secure convictions. His policy had a marked effect in bettering 


conditions in South Carolina, making lynching much less safe 
and easy. 

In the fall of 1905 Governor Heyward was elected president 
of the Standard Warehouse company, capital $500,000, with 
headquarters at Columbia. He then announced that he would 
reside in Columbia and engage in business at the expiration of 
his second term as governor of South Carolina a plan which 
was carried out at the appointed time. 


ADRICH, JAMES, judge, was born in the village of Barn- 
well, South Carolina, July 25, 1850. He is the only 
son of the late James T. and Isabel C. Aldrich. His 
paternal ancestors in America, George and Catherine (Seald) 
Aldrich, emigrated from Derbyshire, England, to Massachusetts 
Bay, landing on November 6, 1631, thence removed to Mendon, 
Massachusetts, where the family resided and some of the descend- 
ants still live. In 1799, Robert, the grandfather of James 
Aldrich, left Mendon and settled in Charleston. For more than 
forty years he had charge of the commercial wharves of that 
city; and, upon his death, in 1851, the owners of the wharves 
erected a monument to his memory in old St. Philip's church- 

James Thomas, the fourth son of Robert and the father of 
James Aldrich, was born in Charleston, but moved to Barnwell, 
South Carolina. Here, in 1847, he married Isabel Coroneous, 
the fifth child of the late Angus Patterson. He was a leader 
of the South Carolina bar, and was often urged to aspire to high 
political position, but accepted only a first lieutenancy in the 
Confederates States army, serving during the war. He died in 
1875. He was characterized by love for the law and general 
literature, and by integrity and sincerity. 

Alexander and Elizabeth Patterson, the maternal ancestors 
of Mrs. James Aldrich, were of Scotch extraction and lived in 
Robeson county, North Carolina. Here her father, the Honorable 
Angus Patterson, was born in 1790, but in 1807 he moved to 
Barnwell. He was an honored and successful lawyer. To Angus 
Patterson belongs the unique distinction of having represented 
his county, Barnwell, in the general assembly continuously from 
1818 to 1850. The first four years he served as a member of the 
house of representatives, and the remaining twenty-eight years 
as senator, during the last twelve of which he was president of 
the senate. 

The subject of this sketch possessed, in childhood, a sound 
physique, and was devoted to boyish sports. He was fond of 
reading, especially of biography. His mother, an intellectual 


and educated woman, guided his reading and aided him in every 
way. His father was of decided literary ability and often read 
to his children, explaining as he read. The subject of this sketch 
attended the preparatory school of the Rev. B. F. B. Perry until 
about 1862, when, his father being in the Confederate service, 
the family lived on a plantation upon the Edisto river. Here 
he studied under the guidance of his mother until the fall of 
1864, when he, with the family, returned to Barnwell. 

In 1865 the Federal army, under General Sherman, was 
marching upon South Carolina, and Barnwell was in the line of 
march. James Aldrich, then but fourteen, volunteered to join 
first a Confederate States company and then a state company, 
but was both times rejected because too young. President Davis 
had recently declared that "the seed corn of the Confederacy" 
must be preserved. He then joined an independent company 
known as a "cradle and grave company," composed of boys and 
old men. Dr. Roper, founder of the Roper hospital in Charles- 
ton, was a refugee in Barnwell, and, in the winter of 1864-65, 
raised such a company, which the youth joined. The company 
served until the Federals had passed through and beyond the 
vicinity of Barnwell. 

James Aldrich took with him, for the use of the company, 
his father's carriage horses and wagon. On returning home he 
went among his father's farmer friends in a part of the country 
where the Federal troops had not been, and collected a partial 
supply of sorely needed provisions for his destitute family. 
These troops had destroyed the South Carolina railway from 
Branchville to Montmorenci, taken or killed the mules, horses, 
etc., and destroyed the wagons. The merchants of Barnwell had 
been burned out and were anxious to procure new goods. Here 
he saw his opportunity to provide for the necessities of his 
family. He hauled goods for the merchants from Branchville 
to Barnwell, about forty miles, until the railroad was rebuilt. 
He then farmed for two years, working as a laborer. 

From 1867 to 1869 he studied in the village schools of Barn- 
well, after which he entered Washington college at Lexington, 
Virginia. General Robert E. Lee was the president of the 
college ; but, upon his death and in his memory, Washington and 
Lee university was established. James Aldrich remained at the 
university until June, 1872, when, his means becoming exhausted, 


he had to abandon his hope of taking the A. M. degree. While 
in college he was an active member of the Graham-Lee Literary 
society, representing it on several occasions. In 1872 he returned 
to Barnwell, where, under his father, he studied law; and, on 
January 20, 1873, was admitted to the bar. He settled in Aiken, 
where he practiced law up to 1889, and early became one of the 
foremost attorneys at the bar. 

Soon after settling in Aiken, Mr. Aldrich aided in organizing 
the "Palmetto Rifles," of which he was elected first lieutenant 
and afterwards captain. This company, during the "Radical" 
days, kept the peace in the city and county. It took part in 
numerous fatal Republican riots, such as Ellenton, Rouse's Bridge 
and others. The Republican governor disbanded the Palmetto 
Rifles and called in their arms, but the men reorganized as a 
social organization, purchased sixteen- shooting Winchester Rifles, 
and continued to protect life, society, and private property until 
after Governor Hampton was inaugurated. 

Like most Southern men, Judge Aldrich, prior to 1876, took 
an active part in public affairs. He opposed fusion tickets, and 
advocated a straight-out Democratic nomination. In the May, 
1876, Democratic convention he urged the nomination of a Demo- 
cratic ticket and cast the first vote in that convention for a 
straight-out nomination, but the convention was not ripe for the 
move. In the same year, however, the fight prevailed, and 
Governor Hampton became the nominee of the "unterrified 
Democracy" and redeemed the state. The subject of this sketch 
took an active part in that ever-memorable campaign. 

Judge Aldrich was elected a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives for his county, Aiken, for ten years, from December, 
1878, to December, 1884, when he declined reelection; but he 
was again elected in December, 1886, and served to December, 
1889. He was active in committee work and chairman of several 
important committees. 

In December, 1889, Judge Aldrich was elected judge of the 
second judicial district of South Carolina, then composed of the 
counties of Aiken, Barnwell, Hampton, Beaufort and Colleton; 
to these Bamberg was afterward added. In nearty fifteen years 
he never missed a term of court. To dispose of work he fre- 
quently heard cases at night. Though not oldest in age, he is 
the judge now longest in commission, and during his long service 


has presided at many of the most important and exciting cases 
tried in the state, and his decisions are quoted as authority 
throughout the United States. 

Judge Aldrich, as circuit judge, is ex officio a member of 
the court en bane, the court of highest and last resort in the state 
of South Carolina. (See article V, section 12, constitution of 
1895.) It is convened by the chief justice whenever two or more 
justices of the supreme court desire it, to consider questions of 
constitutional law, or any other important cause. All of the 
justices of the supreme court and circuit judges sit together, 
except the circuit judge from whom the appeal is pending, and 
the decision of the majority of the justices and judges sitting is 
final and conclusive. 

Judge Aldrich has always taken an active part in education. 
He assisted in organizing the Aiken institute, and was its first 
president, and has also been an active member of the South 
Carolina Historical society. He is a past master of the Aiken 
Masonic lodge, a member of the Episcopal church, and has fre- 
quently represented his church in the convention of the diocese. 

In 1903 Judge Aldrich published "A Short Sketch of the 
Lives of James Thomas Aldrich and His Wife, Mrs. Isabel 
Coroneous Aldrich." Several biographies of Judge Aldrich have 
been published; one on page 3 of "Men of the Times," South 
Carolina, by J. C. Garlington, in 1902, and another on page 43, 
volume 3, of "The National Cyclopedia of American Biography," 
by James T. White & Company, of New York, in 1893. 

Judge Aldrich was married December 15, 1874, to Miss 
Fannie Lebby. Three children have been born to them, one of 
whom, Mrs. Huger T. Hall, is now (1907) living. 

Judge Aldrich's address is Aiken, South Carolina. 

Vol. I S. C. 2 


Grace Hill, county Antrim, Ireland, December 27, 1829. 
His parents were Joseph and Margaret (Warden) Bailey, 
both of Scotch-Irish descent. They had eleven children, of 
whom the subject of this sketch was the youngest. 

Until his fifteenth year Thomas Bailey attended the village 
academy. A natural taste for outdoor life made him desire to 
become a farmer, which was the occupation of his father, but 
the latter preferred for him the occupation of a merchant, and 
apprenticed him to a firm in Ballymena, four miles from his 
home. Here he worked for four years, walking home every 
Saturday night. By close and systematic attention to his work 
he won the confidence and esteem of his employers, and formed 
those careful business habits which have characterized him 
through life. He was next employed by Baker Brothers, a firm 
of well-known Quaker merchants in Dublin. They promoted 
him rapidly and soon made him superintendent of the store, a 
position which he held for three years. During this time he 
studied at night, preparing himself to enter Trinity college. He 
changed his mind, however, and went to London, where he 
pursued a course of study in the British and Foreign Society 
school preparatory to going abroad as a missionary. He was at 
this time a Moravian in religious faith. After finishing the 
prescribed course he was sent out by the society as a missionary 
to the island of St. Thomas, in the Danish West Indies. He 
entered upon what he expected to be his life work, but an attack 
of fever undermined his health and his physician ordered him 
to Santa Cruz, where he energetically and successfully ministered 
to churches and gathered the young into Bible schools. While 
a missionary in Santa Cruz he became acquainted with Baron 
Joseph von Bretton and his wife, and her sister, Miss Alice 
Kierulff. For the latter he formed a strong attachment and they 
were married in the home of the baron. She was his faithful 
and efficient helpmeet until her death in 1886. 

About the time of his marriage his religious views under- 
went a change. He resigned his position as missionary and with 


his wife came to the United States and settled in what was then 
Edgefield district, South Carolina. Here he joined the Gilgal 
Baptist church, and was baptized by the Rev. E. L. Whatley. 
He was soon called to the pastorate of Baptist churches in that 
part of the state and preached with great acceptance. He 
remained in Edgefield two years and moved to Alabama and 
preached to churches in Dallas and Lowndes counties. In 1867 
he moved to Iowa, and for a short time was pastor at Newton, 
but the climate proving too severe for the health of Mrs. Bailey, 
he returned to Alabama and resumed the work he had so recently 
laid down. 

In 1874 Dr. Bailey was elected secretary of the mission work 
of the Alabama Baptist state convention, and became a resident 
of Marion, in that state. He remained in this position until 
January, 1886. During this period he visited the churches, dis- 
trict associations, preached, and made addresses on missions and 
education, in all parts of the state, and was instrumental in 
greatly building up the churches and increasing their interest 
in missions and in other forms of benevolence. Having been a 
foreign missionary, he w T as well equipped for this work. The 
eleven years he spent in this position were full of arduous toil 
and great self -sacrifice ; but his iron constitution, clear intellect, 
and strong sense of humor, together with a genial disposition, 
enabled him to endure the hardships without serious injury. 

In December, 1885, he was elected corresponding secretary 
of state missions for the Baptists of South Carolina. He entered 
upon his work the first of January, 1886, and has been unani- 
mously reflected every year since. His life is as full of work 
as ever, as he is constantly visiting churches and public gather- 
ings all over the state. The degree of D. D. was conferred upon 
him by Howard college, Alabama. 

Dr. Bailey possesses a fine intellect, which has been cultivated 
by diligent study and wide reading. He is a preacher of great 
ability and a platform speaker of unusual power. He is a man 
of wisdom and good sense, one who understands human nature, 
and who is broad-minded and sympathetic. He readily compre- 
hends the situation, is quick to decide, and when he reaches a 
conclusion he acts without hesitation. Always hopeful, cheerful, 
and encouraging, he is a safe counsellor and his advice is sought 
by churches and pastors throughout the state. During his twenty 


years of service in South Carolina the work has grown rapidly 
and the denomination he represents now has the largest member- 
ship of any in the state and is in all respects an efficient and 
honored body of Christians. He is a strong advocate of the 
cause of education, and of all judicious forms of benevolent and 
charitable work. He is well informed on all topics of current 
interest. Although never active in political affairs, he is in 
sympathy with the Democratic party. His favorite form of 
relaxation is working in his yard and garden. 

Of the seven children of Dr. Bailey by his first wife six 
are living in 1907. Before her marriage the present Mrs. Bailey 
was Sue McMillan, of Barnwell county, South Carolina. She 
studied under Dr. W. B. Johnson, one of the leading educators 
in the state, and is a woman of superior graces and fine intel- 
lectual attainments. 

The address of Dr. Bailey is Number 519 Hampton avenue, 
Greenville, South Carolina. 


BARNWELL, JOSEPH WALKER, lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Charleston, South Carolina, October 31, 
1846. His parents were William Hazzard and Catharine 
Osborn Barnwell. His father practiced law for a time and then 
became a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal church. For 
twenty-one years he was rector of St. Peter's church in Charles- 
ton. He was a man of fine talents, high character, industrious, 
courageous, an eloquent preacher, and a public-spirited citizen. 
His wife (who was born a Barnwell) was a woman of excellent 
attainments and gentle and kindly disposition, whose influence 
upon her son was strong, helpful, and enduring. The earliest 
ancestor of the family to locate in this country was Colonel John 
Barnwell, who came from Dublin, Ireland, and settled in Charles- 
town (since 1783 spelled Charleston) in 1701. He commanded 
the expedition against the Tuscaroras in 1711, was colonel in the 
Yemassee war of 1715, and in 1719 was sent to England by the 
colony to negotiate its transfer to the crown. His son, Colonel 
Nathaniel Barnwell, was aide to General Oglethorpe in the expe- 
dition against St. Augustine in 1740. Robert Gibbes Barnwell, 
son of Colonel Nathaniel Barnwell, was speaker of the house of 
representatives and president of the senate of South Carolina. 
He was a delegate to the continental congress and a congressman 
in 1791, and a valiant soldier in the Revolution, in which war 
he received no less than seventeen wounds. 

In childhood and youth Joseph W. Barnwell was healthy 
and strong. He was fond of books and of games of all kinds 
that were common in his locality. Until he was six years of age 
his home was in Charleston. During the next nine years he lived 
in Beaufort from May to November and passed the remainder 
of the year on his father's plantation on Broad river, Port Royal 
island, ten miles from Beaufort. He studied at Beaufort college, 
and the schools of B. R. Stuart and A. Sachtleben, both at 
Columbia, at the Citadel during the war, and later at the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina. He also studied for a time at the 
University of Gottingen in Germany. Although he acquired a 
broad education, he never took a professional course. In order 


to take these courses of study he was given by friends $2,500, 
but paid back the entire sum after he commenced professional 
work. From January 1, 1864, to December 7 of the same year 
he was at the South Carolina Military academy, and on the day 
last named he received a severe wound in an engagement near 
Tulafinni, South Carolina. From early boyhood he had felt that 
he was destined for the bar. He was admitted to practice in 
1869, and in January, 1871, he commenced active work in his 
profession. His success was assured at the start. And he not 
only made his way as a lawyer, but his talents and energy 
brought him political honors. In November, 1874, he was elected 
a member of the state house of representatives from the Charles- 
ton district. In this capacity he served for two years, and with 
Honorable George A. Trenholm sustained the policy of Governor 
Chamberlain in his attempt to secure reform in the state govern- 
ment. At the close of the term he declined reelection. In 1890 
he was a candidate for attorney general on the Haskell ticket, 
in which political contest Judge Alexander Cheves Haskell and 
Benjamin R. Tillman were opposing candidates for governor. 
In 1894 he was elected to the state senate, in which he served 
two years, when, owing to a change in the district, the office was 
abolished. In 1900 he again became a member of the state senate 
for a term of four years, at the expiration of which time he 
declined to be a candidate for reelection. For several years he 
served with ability and fidelity as chairman of the Democratic 
party in Charleston county. He has also been prominent in the 
social and literary life of Charleston. He has been president of 
the Charleston club and of the South Carolina Historical society, 
vice-president of the Charleston literary society and of the 
Carolina Art association, and chairman of the managers of the 
St. Cecilia society. In all of these positions he has won high 
commendation. Through these societies, and in various other 
ways, he has done much to maintain and still further develop 
appreciation of art and literature and the higher pleasures and 
refinements of life in the cultured city in which he lives. Among 
his plans for the future is the bringing of McCrady's "History 
of South Carolina" down to date a work which it is much to 
be hoped he will carry out. His reading has been wide and 
varied, including, as he says, "all kinds from the Bible down." 
He finds his relaxation in a month's holiday each year at Flat 


Rock, North Carolina, and in reading everything he can find 
time to read. In politics he has always been a Democrat. His 
religious affiliation is with the Protestant Episcopal church, in 
which he is deeply interested. 

On January 23, 1883, Mr. Barnwell was married to Miss 
Harriott Kinloch Cheves, daughter of Dr. Charles M. Cheves 
and Isabella Middleton. Of their five children three are living 
in 190T. 

His postoffice address is Number 48 South Battery, Charleston, 
South Carolina. 


BEAWLEY, WILLIAM H., LL. D., judge United States 
court for the district of South Carolina, was born in 
Chester, South Carolina, May 13, 1841. After taking the 
usual preparatory course he entered the South Carolina college, 
from which institution he was graduated in 1860. In April, 

1861, he enlisted as a private in the sixth regiment South Caro- 
lina volunteers. He was with this command at the time of the 
attack upon Fort Sumter and soon afterward went with it to 
Virginia. He participated in all the battles in which his regi- 
ment was engaged until his military career was cut short at the 
battle of Seven Pines, where, late in the afternoon of May 31, 

1862, he received a wound which necessitated the amputation of 
his left arm. This compelled him to remain for three months 
in the hospital at Richmond. He then returned home, and, his 
father having died meanwhile, took charge of the plantation, 
until April, 1864, when, partly to recover his health, which had 
been much impaired, and partly for the completion of his 
education, he ran the blockade and went to Europe, where he 
remained for study and travel until November, 1865, when he 
sailed for home. 

Upon his return he studied law, and in 1866 he was admitted 
to practice. He was elected solicitor of the sixth circuit in 1868, 
was reflected in 1872, and in 1874 resigned that office upon his 
removal to Charleston, where he became associated in the practice 
of law with the Honorable W. D. Porter, and subsequently, upon 
Mr. Porter's retirement from the bar, became associated with 
Joseph W. Barnwell, Esquire. He was elected to the legislature 
from Charleston in 1882, and by successive reelections remained 
in the legislature until his election to congress in 1890, having 
been chairman of the judiciary committee of the house during 
the last years of his service there. During such service his skill 
as a man of affairs, and his mastery of public problems and 
ability to dispel the illusions of the hour and present questions 
in their true light, soon secured to him respectful attention and 
influence. His delicate political tact, and astute judgment of 
human nature, with his great force in debate, made him at once 

-" : ~ 


a powerful ally and a formidable adversary. His speech in 
opposition to granting the railroad commission full power to fix 
rates, without giving any right of appeal, has been conceded to 
be one of the ablest arguments ever made in the South Carolina 
legislature. His appeal to the house, in 1886, in behalf of the 
sufferers from the great Charleston earthquake of that year was 
one of those impassioned bursts of orator}^ heard only from gifted 
speakers on rare occasions. His influence in the legislature, and 
position as chairman of the judiciary committee, made him the 
acknowledged leader in the house of representatives at the time 
of his retirement in 1890, when he was elected to the fifty-first 


Possessing scholarly attainments, a complete master of the 
English language, with accurate and comprehensive knowledge of 
the public issues of that day, he entered congress fully equipped 
for the work before him. In March, 1892, the people of the 
United States became acquainted with his ability and power 
through his speech in the debate on the silver question in oppo- 
sition to the Bland bill for free coinage at the ratio of sixteen 
to one. This speech elicited most favorable and extended com- 
ment from prominent men in public life, and the leading news- 
papers of the country, and was regarded as one of the most 
valuable utterances on that question, evincing careful study and 
preparation and thorough knowledge of the subject. The closing 
paragraph of that speech was referred to by many of the leading 
newspapers as a model of style as well as sentiment, and the late 
Speaker Reed pronounced it "worthy of the finest old Stoic who 
ever talked philosophy." 

His speech on the bill to repeal the Sherman Act, in 
September, 1893, elicited like favorable comments, and again 
demonstrated his fitness for leadership in public affairs, so that 
it was with great regret that many of his constituents learned 
of his retirement from congress in February, 1894, to accept the 
appointment from President Cleveland as United States judge 
for South Carolina, an appointment which was offered without 
any intimation of his desire for that office. 

His career as a judge has been marked by the same ability, 
steadfastness of purpose, and adherence to principle which had 
characterized his previous public life. His pure style and 
vigorous language have added much to the value of his decisions, 


which have covered a wide field, embracing, among others, ques- 
tions of admiralty, patent law, and prize law. 

His occasional addresses have exhibited a wide range of 
thought and scholarship, and are marked by great felicity of 
diction. Among the latest of such addresses is one delivered at 
Chester on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone of a 
monument to the Confederate dead of that county, May 10, 1905. 
It is doubtful that any address of recent years on the causes of 
the War between the States has awakened more public interest 
in all parts of the country. "Harper's Weekly" has referred to 
it in a recent editorial as "an oration admirable in thought, word 
and spirit, which we commend to the attention of such readers 
as can by any means lay hands upon it. It is a discourse of so 
much charm, and put together with so fine a sense of harmony, 
that it could not be properly presented in fragments, as extracts 
could not do it justice." One of the most scholarly men of the 
South has written of it: "It has conspicuous merit as history, 
rhetoric, sentiment. Its language is perfect, and its spirit lofty; 
proud, but not arrogant; conciliatory, but not deprecatory; dig- 
nified, catholic, patriotic." 

The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the South 
Carolina college at its centennial celebration in 1905. 

The address of Judge Brawley is Charleston, South Carolina. 


BRIGGS, HENRY, banker, was born at Pickensville, South 
Carolina, October 12, 1851. He is the son of Alexander 
Sloan Briggs and Anna La Bruce Robinson. His parents 
were members of large and influential families, thrifty, substan- 
tial, honorable country people, worthy representatives of a large 
class for which upper South Carolina is noted. His mother still 
(1907) lives in Greenville. His father at one time was secretary 
and treasurer of the Spartanburg and Union railroad. 

Henry Briggs grew up in sight of the Blue Ridge mountains, 
and early developed a vigorous constitution, and through life he 
has been strong and healthy. He attended the schools in the 
tow r ns of Greenville and Spartanburg. In early life he entered 
a store as a salesman, and gradually worked himself into more 
responsible positions. He commenced his business career in 
Greenville in 1870, when he was employed as a clerk in the 
general merchandise store of Williams & Whitmire, later with 
Mr. Jack Whitmire. He left this position to become bookkeeper 
and head clerk for Mills & McBrayer, general merchandise. In 
1876 he formed a copartnership with Frank Hammond, under 
the firm name of Briggs & Hammond. About this time he 
was elected an alderman of the citv and did excellent work as 


chairman of the street committee. In 1884 he formed a copart- 
nership with his brother, George Briggs, and Captain O. P. Mills, 
and bought out and consolidated the business of Briggs & Ham- 
mond and Mills & McBrayer. He retired from the consolidated 
business in 1890 and moved to Florence, Alabama, where he lived 
one year, engaged in the house contracting business. He returned 
to Greenville and established the American bank, one of the best 
banks in upper South Carolina, of which he has been president 
ever since. He is also connected as director with many business 
enterprises in Greenville and other places. 

Mr. Briggs came to Greenville a poor boy, but by diligence, 
industry, economy, exemplary habits, and courteous manners he 
has built himself up in the confidence and esteem of the people, 
and has become one of the most reliable and substantial business 
men of Greenville. Except the position of alderman, he has 


never held public office. Twice he was a candidate for mayor, 
and lacked only a few votes of being elected. He is a Democrat, 
but, being a quiet, conservative man, he has never taken a con- 
spicuous part in party politics. He is a Mason and a Woodman 
of the World, and is affiliated with the Baptist church. He owns 
considerable real estate in and around Greenville, and is consid- 
ered an authority in all matters of business investments. Having 
struggled himself in early life, he knows how to encourage and 
help young men who are trying to build themselves up by 
industrious habits and correct business principles. 

Mr. Briggs married Emala Louisa McBee, a member of one 
of the oldest and most influential families of Greenville. They 
were married April 18, 1883, and have one son now (1907) living. 

The address of Mr. Briggs is Greenville, South Carolina. 



BRISTOW, ABNER ALONZO, merchant and board of 
trade president, was born in Bennettsville, Marlboro 
county, South Carolina, April 22, 1854. His parents 
were Abner Nash and Ann Elizabeth Bristow. His father was 
a merchant and for some time held the office of judge of probate 
for Marlboro county. He was noted for earnest purpose and 
devotion to his home and friends. In religion he was a Baptist, 
and for many years he served the local church of that denomi- 
nation, in which he held the office of deacon, with great fidelity. 
The first ancestors of the Bristow family came from England 
and Wales, and, like their descendants, they were prominent in 
the intellectual and public life of South Carolina. 

In his boyhood and youth Abner Alonzo Bristow lived in 
the village in which he was born. He was slender but active, 
and, while he was fond of reading, he was also interested in 
outdoor sports, especially hunting and fishing. Fortunately for 
himself, as it proved in later years, he had regular tasks to 
perform. When quite young he was required to work a large 
garden, and by degrees he learned all the varied kinds of farm 
work. In this way he was taught habits of industry and early 
rising, and was led to see that constant, unremitting labor was 
the only road to success. This training also taught him how to 
cope successfully with the great difficulties which were caused by 
the changed conditions brought about by the War between the 
States. He attended the village school until he was fifteen years 
of age. The death of his father at this time compelled him to 
give up all hope of obtaining a public education. 

The section in which he lived had been devastated by the 
war and he felt that he must find employment that would enable 
him to support himself and aid his mother and sisters, who were 
then largely dependent upon him. His first position was that of 
clerk in a country store in Marlboro county, where he commenced 
work in September, 1869. His earnestness and fidelity secured 
his advancement and led to his connection with some of the 
leading merchants of the state. In 1877 he went on the road 
as a representative of a firm of manufacturing clothiers, and he 


has continued until the present time, and with great success, a 
traveling salesman. On February 1, 1892, he entered the retail 
clothing business in Greenville, South Carolina, as a member of 
the firm of Smith & Bristow, to which he gives the time that is 
not required on the road, and which, largely through his efforts, 
has been a marked success. During the past twenty-eight years 
he has represented, in the Carolinas, three manufacturers. Of 
these, two went out of business, and for the past fifteen years he 
has traveled for Hamburger Brothers & Company, of Baltimore, 

Mr. Bristow has served four terms of one year each as 
president of the Greenville board of trade. As business required 
him to be out of the city a large part of the time, he declined 
reelection at the end of his first term of service, but he has been 
kept in office to the present time. Largely through the wise 
and energetic leadership of its president, the board has induced 
various enterprises to locate in Greenville, has secured concessions 
from the railroads in the matter of freight charges, obtained 
better facilities for travelers, and the erection of a new passenger 
station. Mr. Bristow is a director in various industrial com- 
panies, and is a hard worker for the interests of his city and 
state. By example and precept he has done much to maintain a 
high tone of life in the community, and by his integrity and his 
careful training of those who have worked under him he has 
greatly helped many young men to secure a good start on the 
road to success. The first strong impulse to strive for the prizes 
of life came from the necessity of helping his widowed mother 
and his sisters. He has not been able to read extensively, but 
has kept well informed regarding current events. 

In estimating the relative strength of various specified influ- 
ences which have helped him in his work, he names that of home 
as paramount, and notes the fact that the influence of his mother 
on his moral and spiritual life was very strong. School and 
early companionship were helpful, but, for want of time and 
facilities, private study amounted to but little. Contact with 
men in active life he has found exceedingly helpful. In earlier 
years hunting was his favorite mode of relaxation, but in recent 
years he spends the little time he can take from business in visits 
to the mountains. The only prominent fraternity of which he is 
a member is the Royal Arcanum. He has never held or sought 


political office, but he has always been a member of the Demo- 
cratic party. His religious affiliation is with the Baptist church, 
in which he has held the office of deacon since 1898. He has also 
been greatly interested in, and very helpful to, the two Baptist 
educational institutions in his town. 

In reviewing his life, Mr. Bristow finds that he has been 
successful, but adds that unremitting effort has been the price he 
has paid. The "early to bed and early to rise" habit was formed 
from necessity when a boy, and it has never been broken. In 
reply to a request that from his own experience and observation 
he would offer suggestions as to the principles, methods and 
habits that will contribute to the strengthening of sound ideals 
in American life and be most helpful in enabling young people 
to win true success, he says: "In determining any question, of 
however great or little importance, ask one's self the question, 
'Is this right?' if so, do it; if not, let it alone. Strive to do 
as much as possible for your employer, and do it thoroughly. 
The reward will come when you least expect it. Don't think 
more of pay-day than your work; let work be done promptly 
and thoroughly and pay will grow larger. Never guess a thing 
is done when you are asked by those in authority. Either know 
or see that it is. Work to obtain a finished education, and, above 
all, build character." 

On December 1, 1885, Mr. Bristow was married to Miss 
Annie Hudson, daughter of Joshua Hudson, one of the most 
distinguished jurists in South Carolina. Of their three children, 
all were living in 1907. 

The family residence is Number 229 Broadus avenue, Green- 

/ / 

ville, South Carolina. 


Anderson Phosphate and Oil company; president of the 
Anderson Chamber of Commerce, and vice-president of 
the Peoples Bank of Anderson, was born at Anderson, South 
Carolina, October 28, 1860. His father, John Peter Brown, a 
lawyer and a graduate of the University of Virginia, was second 
lieutenant in Moore's regiment in the army of the Confederate 
States of America at the beginning of the War between the 
States. Because of poor health, which followed military service, 
he was forced to return home. He retired from his profession 
of the law, and lived upon his plantation until his death in 1879. 
His father's grandfather, Edward Vandiver, was a soldier of the 
Revolution, and shared in the battle of Eutaw Springs. His 
family was from Maryland, and originally from New York state. 
Through his mother, Mrs. Julia (Reed) Brown, a Christian 
woman of culture and education, whose influence over her son 
was strong, he is descended from Cornelius Hammond, who was a 
member of the Maryland house of burgesses, from Anne Arundel 
county, in the seventeenth century. Colonel LeRoy Hammond, 
Colonel Samuel Hammond, and Captains Samuel, George and 
Joshua Hammond, were in the Continental armv and served in 


the Revolutionary war. His grandfather, the late Judge J. P. 
Reed, was a native of Anderson county, a lawyer of note in his 
state, who was elected to congress on the Democratic ticket imme- 
diately after the War between the States; but was prevented 
from taking his seat at Washington by the rules which governed 
during the period of reconstruction. Samuel Brown, another 
ancestor, was a large planter and merchant at Townville, South 

Frederick Brown had a strong and healthy boyhood; and 
by his father, who was a planter, he was trained to assist in all 
kinds of work which had to be done on the plantation. His early 
years were passed in the country, in Fork township, Anderson 
county. He attended the country schools near his home, and 
even in his early boyhood he was exceptionally fond of books. 
But it was not until he was eighteen years of age that he had 

* St*.C7('?sftT'7& Ls{7/r27&.rjt4 




, W32 



any advanced schooling, and then he remained but one year a 
member of W. J. Ligon's high school at Anderson. He was 
recalled to his home by the death of his father, in 1879. 

After some years passed on his father's plantation, he took 
a position as salesman with Bleckley, Brown & Fretwell, at 
Anderson, South Carolina, September 1, 1885. From the first 
his determination was formed to make whatever he undertook a 
success, regardless of the hard work or the time which might be 
required. He has always felt that the habit of regular daily 
employment which was formed on his father's plantation in his 
boyhood has been of great advantage to him, not only because 
"regular work keeps a boy, as well as older people, out of mis- 
chief," but still more because the habit of persevering diligence 
is the most important part of the equipment of a business man. 

He has resided at Anderson, engaged actively in business 
life, since 1885. During these twenty years and more he has had 
an interest in many of the more important business enterprises 
of his town. He is president of the Anderson Phosphate and Oil 
company; president of the Anderson Chamber of Commerce; 
president of the Anderson Real Estate and Investment company; 
president of the Anderson Improvement company ; vice-president 
of the Peoples Bank of Anderson; vice-president of the Ander- 
son Traction company; and he is a director in the following 
corporations: The Farmers' Warehouse company, the Bank of 
McCormick, the Brogon Cotton mills, the Toxaway Cotton mills, 
the Riverside Cotton mills, the Orr Cotton mills, the Cox Manu- 
facturing company, and the Ninety-Six Cotton mills. He is also 
a director of the countv fair association. 


Identified by conviction and choice with the Episcopal 
church, he is a vestryman, and treasurer of Grace Protestant 
Episcopal church. 

He served four years as alderman of his city, representing 
the first ward. He is a member of the Masonic order, and has 
advanced from the Blue Lodge to the degree of Shriner. He is 
also a member of the Commercial club of Anderson, of the Com- 
mercial club of Charleston, and of the Columbia club; and he is 
one of the vice-presidents of the South Carolina club. 

His political affiliations are with the Democratic party. 

He married Miss Mamie McCrary, November 16, 1887. 

Vol. I S. C. 3 


He offers to the boys and young men of South Carolina a 
piece of practical advice, which his own experience leads him 
to emphasize: "Do not change your position too frequently. I 
worked in one corner store from 1885, when I began at twenty- 
five dollars a month, until 1900, when I had become the senior 
member of the firm, at which time I sold out my interest in that 
business and began manufacturing." 

The address of Mr. Brown is Anderson, South Carolina. 


wU^ ^r- 


BROWN, JOSEPH NEWTON, lawyer, business man, and 
banker, has been prominently identified with the practice 
of law in his part of the state and with the business 
interests of Anderson since the close of the War between the 
States. He was born near Anderson, December 16, 1832. His 
father, Samuel Brown, w r as a merchant and a planter, a solid 
business man, who held no public office, but made activity and 
integrity in business his leading aim in life. His mother, Mrs. 
Helena T. ( Yandiver) Brown, like his father, had strong religious 
convictions and much of practical benevolence in life; and they 
both gave religious training to their son from his earliest years. 
His father's father was John Brown, a native of Baltimore, 
Maryland, of English descent. His mother was a descendant of 
Jacob Van der Weer, a Dutch settler of New York in 1650, who 
served in the Dutch army which captured from the Swedes Fort 
Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware,) in 1655, and settled 
there. Edward Yandiver, Colonel Brown's great-grandfather, 
was a Revolutionary soldier, who fought at Eutaw Springs; and 
he had six sons who were preachers of the Baptist church, among 
whom Reverend Sanford Yandiver, Mrs. Brown's father, was 

A hearty, healthy country boy, he enjoyed the sports of 
hunting and fishing; and he early became habituated to moderate 
labor on the farm with the negroes who belonged to his father; 
and this, he feels, gave him "health and strength, and the habit 
of perseverance." He attended the country schools within reach 
of his home the old field schools; and when an accident to his 
father interrupted his attendance at school, he took a place as 
clerk in his father's store. Later he attended the classical school 
of Wesley Leverett, at Williamston, South Carolina. 

In 1855, when he was twenty-three years old, he entered 
mercantile life at Laurens, South Carolina. Soon afterward he 
began the study of law in the office of Colonel J. H. Irby; and 
was admitted to the bar in 1858. With his preceptor he formed 
a partnership as the law firm of Irby & Brown, which was 
dissolved by the death of Colonel Irby, in 1860. A partnership 


with Colonel R. P. Todd was then formed; but in 1861 both 
partners entered the Confederate army, the former attaining the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel of the Third South Carolina regiment, 
while Mr. Brown, by successive promotions, became the colonel 
of the Fourteenth South Carolina volunteers. 

Enlisting as a private in Company D, Captain James M. 
Perrin, Gregg's regiment, on Sullivan's Island, January 11, 1861, 
he was transferred on March 5 to Morris Island, where he served 
through the bombardment of Fort Sumter. Returning to Lau- 
rens, he organized Company E of the Fourteenth South Carolina 
volunteers, and as captain of that company reentered the service, 
August 16, 1861. On February 20, 1863, he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of that regiment; and he became colonel of the 
regiment on September 17, 1863, continuing in that command 
until the close of the war. He commanded the regiment in most 
of the important battles from Chancellorsville until April 2, 
1865, when he was captured at the fall of Petersburg and was 
held as a prisoner of war at Johnson's Island until July, 1865. 

As senior colonel, McGowan's brigade, he commanded the 
brigade in the battle of the Bloody Angle, Spottsylvania court- 
house, Virginia, May 12, 1864. He had commanded his regiment 
in the battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, and with the First 
regiment, Colonel McCrary's, his men were the first troops to 
enter Gettysburg. He was severely wounded at Gaines's Mill, 
June 27, 1862, and at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. He participated 
in most of the battles of Stonewall Jackson's corps. His military 
record appears in Caldwell's "History of McGowan's Brigade." 

After his release at the close of the war, Colonel Brown 
removed to Anderson, South Carolina, and in October, 1865, 
formed a partnership with the Honorable J. P. Reed, then 
solicitor of the Western circuit, which continued until 1874. For 
the next six years he practiced his profession alone; while from 
1880 to 1888 he was in partnership with J. L. Tribble and 
William S. Brown. In 1888 he virtually retired from the prac- 
tice of his profession, having acquired from a large and lucrative 
practice a handsome competence. 

In his political relations always a Democrat, he has voted 
the regular ticket, even for W. J. Bryan. Although he "differed 
from him on financial questions," he "was unwilling to be a 


In 1886 and 1887 he was a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives; and he drew up the bill for refunding the state debt, 
and took an active part in advocating the sale of the Columbia 
canal by the state of South Carolina to the city of Columbia. 
He is a director in the Anderson Cotton mills, and the Gluck 
mills. He is a public-spirited citizen, and has contributed largely 
to the various manufacturing interests of the city and has given 
ten thousand dollars to the Anderson Public library. In August, 
1872, he took a leading part in organizing the State Savings 
and Insurance Bank of Anderson, as he also did in forming the 
National Bank of Anderson, in January, 1873, a bank which 
"paid good dividends for nineteen years, and closed up the 
business in September, 1891, paying the stockholders $470 per 
share on each $100 share invested." Throughout this period, 
Colonel Brown was president of the bank. Colonel Brown and 
the other officers of the bank recall with pride the fact that when 
that bank was closed "it stood eighth in point of success in the 
United States, and third in the South." It was for several vears 


the pioneer in making small loans to farmers to enable them to 
purchase their supplies for cash; and it was a strong factor in 
beginning to make Southern planters and farmers financiers, by 
teaching them the value of ready money. 

On February 28, 1866, Colonel Brown married Miss Lizzie 
Louisa Bruce, daughter of Thomas and Nancy Bruce, of Ander- 
son. They have had one daughter, Miss Varina D. Brown. 

Colonel Brown has been a member of the Baptist church 
for over fifty years, and a deacon in that church for more than 
thirty years. 

Whatever measure of success he has attained in his profession 
and in business life, he attributes to "industry, perseverance, and 
a strong will." "Diligence," he says, "insures success." To the 
youth of South Carolina he commends as most helpful in attain- 
ing true success in life, "Industry, economy (by which I do not 
mean stinginess), temperance, honesty, fair dealing." And to 
young lawyers he adds: "Above all things, inspire in your 
clients confidence that the interest of the client is your first and 
leading thought, from the beginning to the end of your relations 
with him and his affairs." 

His address is Anderson, South Carolina. 


BUIST, GEORGE LAMB, lawyer, was born in Charleston, 
South Carolina, September 4, 1838. He was of Scotch 
extraction. His earliest ancestor in America was the 
Reverend George Buist, D. D., who was born in Fifeshire, in 
Scotland, in 1770, and was graduated at the University of Edin- 
burgh. He came to Charleston in 1793 upon the call of the 
Scotch Presbyterian church of Charleston, and became the min- 
ister of that church. Reverend Doctor Buist was an eminent 
divine, the author of two volumes of sermons, and was for some 
time the head of the College of Charleston. 

The father of George Lamb Buist was George Buist, and 
his mother's name was Mary Edwards (Jones) Buist. George 
Buist was an attorney at law by profession, and held for many 
years, and until his death, the office of judge of probate, or 
ordinary, for Charleston county. He was also a trustee on many 
educational boards, and was one of the commissioners of the 
Orphan House in Charleston. His marked characteristics were 
his sterling integrity, a fund of rational common sense, and a 
wise and honest heart. 

The early life of the subject of this sketch was passed in the 
city of Charleston, South Carolina. His physical condition in 
childhood and youth was good ; he was fond of athletic exercises, 
and as a boy was devoted to outdoor sports, though his special 
tastes and interests lay in the lines of reading and public speak- 
ing and delivery. The influence of his mother was particularly 
strong upon his intellectual, moral and spiritual life. He had no 
difficulties to overcome in acquiring an education, but availed 
himself of the best advantages offered him by the schools and 
colleges of his native city. His chief line of study was in the 
classics and rhetoric. A part of his studies were pursued at the 
New Jersey academy at Burlington, New Jersey. From there 
he went to the Charleston college. He studied law of his own 
accord, in his father's office, and was admitted to the bar in 
January, 1860. He felt early the necessity for providing for 
obligations which he had assumed, and applied himself earnestly 
to the practice of his profession, soon building up a large and 

J^? 4 

/ e^z^ j2^ 




lucrative business. He married, early in life, Miss Martha 
Allston White. They have had ten children, seven of whom 
are still living. Mr. Buist always attributed his success in life 
to the effect of his early home influences. He has long been a 
man of mark in his native state and city. When the War 
between the States broke out, he went into the Confederate States 
army as a lieutenant of the Palmetto Guards and served in the 
Iron Battery on Morris Island in command of the eight-inch gun ; 
afterward he became captain of the Palmetto Guards artillery, 
and, eventually, rose to the rank of major of artillery, and served 
in that capacity until the surrender of General Johnston's army. 

After the war was over, he returned to the practice of his 
profession, and having been elected to the South Carolina legis- 
lature, he served for three years in the house of representatives 
and for sixteen years was senator from Charleston county. 
During his service in the house he was chairman of the Ways 
and Means committee, and after he became senator he served as 
the chairman of the Finance committee of the senate. 

In a recent number of "The News and Courier" the following 
just tribute was paid to Mr. Buist for one of the greatest services 
ever performed by him for the community in which he lives and 
by which he has been highly honored for many years: 


"A community such as Charleston should at all times be 
represented in the state legislature by her best and ablest men. 
Whether they are in the minority or the majority, their influence 
cannot be destroyed, and the work that representatives and 
senators of this county performed years ago is still bearing fruit. 
This is strikingly illustrated by the following, taken from a 
Columbia 'State' editorial of May 25, replying to a correspondent 
who defended the dispensary: 


;i 'Does he know that for years a dispensary opponent had 
no more chance of fair treatment in either the executive or legis- 
lative branches of the government than a Republican? Does 
he remember the metropolitan police in Charleston? Does he 
remember that magnificent appeal to South Carolinians made in 
the senate by George Lamb Buist in a vain endeavor to arouse 
some members of the majority to a realization of the enormity 
of the offence being perpetrated against the people of Charleston 


in depriving them of local self-government? Like an old lion, 
surrounded by enemies, Major Buist made the greatest speech 
those halls had heard for twenty years, and probably the greatest 
they will hear for twenty years to come. And with what result? 
The same treatment that would be accorded a wounded lion 
bravely facing a band of Zulus armed with assegias!' 

"The "metropolitan police' has long since ceased to be other 
than an unpleasant memory, and not only has the eloquent 
remonstrance of ex-Senator Buist been fully vindicated, but it 
remains in the memories of men to be used as an argument in 
the fight to free the state of the miserable whiskey system which 
made the metropolitan police possible. 

"We risk nothing in saying that throughout South Carolina 
the ability and courage which Charlestonians displayed in legis- 
lation, when they w r ere opposed by an overwhelming and enven- 
omed majority, is recalled with respect and pride by these same 
opposers whose ears have later been opened to words of truth 
and soberness." 

Other important public services were rendered by Mr. Buist, 
especially along educational lines. He was a trustee of the Col- 
lege of Charleston, and was for many years a commissioner of 
the public schools. Mr. Buist was an enthusiastic Mason, and 
held the office of master of Franklin lodge. He was always 
identified with the Democratic party and never changed his 
political or party allegiance upon any issues. He was a member 
of the Episcopal church, and was for many years chairman of 
the vestry of St. Paul's Episcopal church, Radcliffeboro, in 
Charleston. He was always a busy man, and allowed himself 
little relaxation except an annual trip to Saratoga Springs, New 

Mr. Buist's philosophy of life consisted in a grateful and 
contented nature. He believed that to have the approbation of 
a good conscience and the esteem of all good people was better 
than riches or worldly eminence. 

Since this biography was prepared for the printer, Mr. Buist 
died about midnight of Thursday, May 30, 1907, at his home 
in Charleston. 





bin? -tan, Zi 


GAPEKS, ELLISON, D. D., was born in Charleston, South 
Carolina, October 14, 1837. His parents were William 
and Susan (McGill) Capers. His father was a distin- 
guished and eloquent divine of the Methodist Episcopal church 
and one of its first bishops in the South. He founded the 
missions of his church to the negroes in South Carolina and 
wrote a catechism for their use, and also a useful work for the 
moral training of children. He ably edited the "Southern 
Christian Advocate," and served efficiently as a missionary to the 
Indians in the Southwest. The earliest paternal ancestor to 
settle in America was William Capers, a Huguenot of France, 
who had fled to England to escape religious persecution. About 
the year 1690 he settled upon grants of land from the "Lords 
Proprietors," in Christ church parish, on the seaboard of South 
Carolina. Capers Island and inlet were named for this family. 
William Capers, the grandfather of Ellison Capers, was one of 
Marion's captains in the Revolution, and his brother, G. Sinclair 
Capers, also fought under the same great leader. The first 
ancestor on the maternal side to come to this country emigrated 
from Ireland and became a farmer in Kershaw county. 

The childhood and early youth of Ellison Capers were passed 
in the city of his birth, but in his twelfth year his father removed 
to Anderson county, and he was appointed to the arsenal in 
Columbia. He was graduated from the South Carolina Military 
academy, Charleston, November 18, 1857. No degree was given 
then. The stirring address to the class made by his brother, the 
superintendent, Major Francis W. Capers, made a strong impres- 
sion upon him. He was of vigorous physique and was especially 
fond of horses and outdoor exercise, including tasks in the flower 
and vegetable garden. He served as resident graduate and 
assistant instructor in mathematics and rhetoric in the Citadel in 
1858. His inclination was for the profession of law, and he com- 
menced the study in the office of Hayne & Miles in Charleston. 
Upon his return, in 1860, from Winnsboro, where he taught in 
Mt. Zion academy during the intervening year, he recommenced 
the study of law. On February 24, 1859, he was married to 


Charlotte Rebecca Palmer, fourth daughter of John Gendron 
and Catherine Cutrurier (Marion) Palmer, a scion of the distin- 
guished Dwight family of America, of St. John's Berkeley, and 
moved to Winnsboro, South Carolina. In 1860 he was elected 
professor in the Citadel with the rank of second lieutenant, in 
which position he was highly regarded by the cadets and his 
superior officers. 

In 1861 he was commissioned major of the First regiment, 
South Carolina rifles, for the Confederate service, and assisted 
General Pettigrew in the organization and drill of that splendid 
command. He commanded the light battery on Sullivan's 
Island during the siege and bombardment of Fort Sumter. When 
Colonel Pettigrew resigned, to go to Virginia, Major Capers 
succeeded to the command. He resigned in 1861 and joined 
Colonel C. H. Stevens in organizing the Twenty-fourth South 
Carolina volunteers, as lieutenant-colonel. He did gallant service 
with that regiment on the coast of South Carolina and at 
Wilmington, North Carolina, during 1862. On James Island he 
led a gallant charge in which the One Hundredth Pennsylvania 
regiment was driven back half a mile and twenty-two of their 
number captured. This was the first conflict on James Island, 
which later became the scene of many engagements and skir- 
mishes. At Secessionville, Colonel Capers received the thanks of 
Generals Evans and Smith for the gallant service he rendered. 
In May, 1863, with Gist's brigade, he was ordered to the relief 
of Vicksburg, where he was in a bloody battle. He commanded 
the left wing of the brigade from sunrise to midday, being 
severely wounded in his left leg and his horse killed. At Chicka- 
mauga he was again severely wounded. In 1863, at Dalton, 
Georgia, he was promoted colonel, and served with conspicuous 
gallantry at the head of his regiment. He commanded Gist's 
brigade in the siege of Atlanta and the battle of Jonesville. At 
this battle the commanding general complimented him and his 
brigade for their brilliant deportment against Sherman's assault. 
In the desperate battle of Franklin, Tennessee, Colonel Capers 
was a third time severely wounded. In February, 1865, he was 
promoted brigadier-general. He was assigned to General John- 
ston's army in North Carolina and placed in command of his old 
brigade. Throughout the war he had proven in every position 
his absolute fidelity and devotion to his country's cause. 


In 1866 General Capers was elected secretary of state for 
South Carolina, and such was the exigency of the time that he 
remained in that position even while studying for the Episcopal 
ministry, in which he was ordained in May, 1867, by Bishop 
Davis. He then tendered his resignation as secretary of state, 
but it was declined by Governor Orr until the legislature could 
meet, and General Capers held the great seal of South Carolina 
until July, 1868, when he turned it over to F. L. Cardoza, a 
negro representative of Federal usurpation. 

For twenty years he remained the well-beloved minister of 
the mountain parish of Greenville, South Carolina. He then 
went to Columbia as the rector of Old Trinity, and for five years 
the people of that parish were blessed in having the guidance 
of his strong yet gentle hand. He was elected bishop of South 
Carolina in May, 1893, and consecrated in the July following. 
The degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by the University 
of South Carolina in 1892, and by the University of the South 
in 1893. After the death of the Right Reverend Thomas Under- 
wood Dudley, chancellor of the last-named institution, Bishop 
Capers was elected to succeed him in June, 1904. He is a Mason ; 
a member of the S. A. E. Greek fraternity; of Camps Sumter 
and Hampton, United Confederate veterans; of the Historical 
committee of the Grand Camp, United Confederate veterans; 
and of the Historical Society of South Carolina. In 1882, at a 
Democratic convention, he was nominated, without his knowledge 
or consent, state superintendent of education. He positively 
declined to accept the position, deeming it inconsistent with his 
ministerial duties. 

He impressively states that the period of the stupendous 
struggle of the South for sacred rights were years of feeling, 
impulse, impression, and resolution, which could but leave their 
indelible mark and influence in directing brain and heart. "To 
this impress I owe the convictions and resolutions which ulti- 
mately brought me to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
church." To the "Confederate Military History," edited by 
General Clement A. Evans, and published in Atlanta, Bishop 
Capers contributed chapters 1-16 inclusive, embracing the Con- 
federate history of South Carolina. Save for one year spent in 
Selma, Alabama, he has held no charge beyond his own home 
state. Upon his consecration as bishop, his devoted parishioners 


there sent him a magnificent Episcopal ring as a testimonial of 
their regard. 

Blessed in a devoted wife, the embodiment of womanly 
virtues, the guide and inspiration of their seven surviving chil- 
dren, he resides in Columbia in one of the old-time mansions of 
the place spared from Sherman's fire and invested farther with 
the historical reminiscence of having been the one in which 
General Lafayette was entertained on the occasion of his visit 
to Columbia in 1825. Here, with nought of regretful retrospect 
of his own efficiency in the years of our grand Southern struggle, 
honored and beloved of all, his waning years are peacefully 

His address is 910 Barnwell street, Columbia, Richland 
county, South Carolina. 


GAEEY, JAMES PEELE, lawyer, railroad president, and 
director in many corporations, was born in Oconee 
county, South Carolina, on April 27, 1858. His father, 
John W. L. Carey, a farmer and for many years tax collector for 
Pickens district, combined great popularity with strict integrity 
and attention to the public business, and was never defeated at 
the polls. On his mother's side Mr. Carey is a direct descendant 
of the Kentucky pioneer, Daniel Boone. 

Largely dependent upon his own exertions in securing 
opportunities at school, even in his boyhood, he was early taught 
the value of time and the need of persistent and continuous 
industry if one is to succeed in life. He early felt the wish to 
fit himself for the practice of law; and his first strong impulse 
to strive for the prizes of life he feels that he owes to "the 
hardships of a country boy's life and the feeling that there was 
something higher in life possible," with proper effort. After 
such opportunities for education as were afforded in the country 
schools at Old Pickens, he studied at Adger college, where he 
won all the prizes offered to his class. He was graduated from 
this institution with first honor and received therefrom the 
degree of A. B. in June, 1880. 

In April, 1883, he began the practice of law at Pickens. In 
September, 1885, he married Miss Lynda Troupe Lovett. They 
have six children, all living in 1907. 

While Mr. Carey has never desired to be known as anything 
else than a public-spirited lawyer, he has served the community 
in various other ways. He is president of the Pickens Railroad 
company; he is a director in most of the corporations of the 
county, and is attorney for many of them. He has acted as 
special judge in the courts of South Carolina. In 1906 he was 
elected by the opponents of the state dispensary a member of 
the legislature and received the most flattering vote ever cast in 
Pickens county. At a conference held before the legislature 
convened, Mr. Carey, and Mr. Cothran of Greenville county, 
were chosen to draft a bill to be presented to that body. They 
prepared the "Carey- Cothran Local Option bill," which passed 


both houses, was signed by the governor, and made the dispen- 
sary system in South Carolina a thing of the past. 

He early became a member of the Presbyterian church; and 
he has been an elder in that church for nearly twenty years. 
Politically, he is identified with the Democratic party. He has 
found exercise and relaxation in hunting, fishing and gardening. 
To the young people of his state he commends as the key to 
success the cardinal virtues, "truthfulness, honesty, reliability, 
strict attention to business, and performance of duties without 
regard to consequences." 

His address is Pickens, South Carolina. 


CARLISLE, JAMES HENRY, LL. D., educator, was born 
at Winnsboro, Fairfield county, South Carolina, May 
4, 1825. His parents were William and Mary Anne 
(Buchanan) Carlisle, who came to America from County Antrim, 
Ireland, about 1818. His father was a physician of excellent 
character and attainments, and his mother, though for many 
years an invalid, was a woman of firm yet gentle character and 
exerted a powerful influence for good upon the mental and 
spiritual life of her son. 

In early life James Carlisle lived in the country. He had 
no regular tasks which involved manual labor to perform, and 
his tastes and interests were those common to boys of his age 
and place. His health was good and he had no special difficulties 
to overcome in securing an education. He studied in the common 
schools of Mount Zion, Winnsboro, and Camden, in South Caro- 
lina, and after securing his preparatory education he entered 
the South Carolina college at Columbia, from which he was 
graduated as second honor man with the degree of A. B., in 
December, 1844. Want of means prevented him from taking a 
post-graduate course and compelled him to enter at once upon 
the active work of life. Conditions, as well as personal inclina- 
tion, favored his becoming an educator, and in January, 1845, he 
commenced teaching in Columbia, South Carolina. His college 
education, together with well-directed private reading in the 
fields of general literature, more especially history and biography, 
furnished him with an unusually good equipment for his pro- 
fession, and his success as a teacher was both marked and rapid. 
In 1854, Wofford college, Spartanburg, South Carolina, was 
organized, and Mr. Carlisle was elected professor of mathematics, 
which position he held until 1890, when he became professor of 
moral science and astronomy. In 1875 he was chosen president 
of the college. He discharged the duties of that office until 1902, 
when he resigned and became president emeritus. 

In 1872 the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
the Southwestern university, Georgetown, Texas. 


Not only in the line of his profession as an educator has he 
won distinction, but, in recognition of his worth and ability, and 
with confidence in his wisdom and patriotism, he was chosen by 
his people a member of the famous convention of 1860, which 
passed the ordinance of secession, and was also elected to the 
state legislature, in which he served from 1863 to 1865. His 
unwavering courage and high determination to faithfully and 
loyally serve his state during those crises in her history were 
exemplified in such manner as to place his name high upon the 
scroll of patriots and statesmen who gave their best services to 
South Carolina in the time of her greatest need. 

The war over, he continued the quiet pursuit of educating 
the young, and by precept and example taught his pupils not 
only the learning of books, but also the great lessons of how to 
meet and conquer adversity and how to lay broad and deep the 
foundations upon which the South was to renew the structure of 
its civil life and show the world the most wonderful example of 
a people triumphing over defeat and oppression that its history 
has ever recorded. 

Doctor Carlisle has led too active and busy a life to have 
much opportunity for writing books, but he has done some 
literary work of a high order, among which may be mentioned 
the editing of the "Lives of Arnold and Ascham" for the Chau- 
tauqua circle. His religious connection is with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, of which he has long been an honored 
and efficient member. 

On December 12, 1848, he married Miss Margaret Jane 
Bryce, daughter of Robert and Jane (Shand) Bryce, of Colum- 
bia, South Carolina. Of their three children, two are living 
in 1907. 

At the ripe age of eighty-two, Doctor Carlisle is still vigor- 
ous both in body and in mind, and in the evening of his days, 
full of years and honors, the object of the love and veneration 
of hosts of friends and former pupils, all of whom join in 
wishing him the brightest blessings and the most peaceful joys. 

The address of Doctor Carlisle is Number 174 College Hill, 
Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


A*TOK, umor 


GARY, JOHN CURTIS, was born in Oconee county, near 
the site of old Pickens court-house, eight miles north- 
east of Seneca, South Carolina, July 10, 1848. He is 
the son of Captain John W. L. Cary and Martha M. (Curtis) 
Cary. His father was a carriage builder and, in later years, a 
farmer. For twelve years he was tax collector for Pickens dis- 
trict. For a few months in 1863 he was captain of his company 
in the Confederate army. While on the South Carolina coast 
he was kicked by a horse and permanently disabled. 

John Curtis Cary is descended from an ancient and illus- 
trious English family. Its earliest known ancestor was Adam 
DeKarry, Lord of Castle Karry, of Somerset county, England, 
in the twelfth century. The name originally was Kari. Henry 
Cary, Lord of Kursdon, was, through his mother, Mary Boleyn, 
a cousin of Queen Elizabeth. For many years he served as 
governor of Berwick and \varden of the borders. It was he who 
suppressed the rebellion of the north. From him were descended 
the earls of Devon and Monmouth. Patrick Cary, the poet, was 
a member of this family, as were also two members of the cele- 
brated London company of 1620, namely, Sir George and Sir 
Henry Cary. The son of Sir George, a second Sir Henry Cary, 
fought in the army of Charles I, and, upon the success of par- 
liament, was heavily fined. In 1651 he was again put under the 
law, and his large estate, Cockington, was confiscated. Three 
years later he emigrated to Virginia, but, on the restoration 
under Charles II, returned to England, where he died. 

The son of Sir Henry, above noted, was a celebrated literary 
character. He was dignified by James I with the Scotch title 
of Viscount of Falkland. His son, Lucius, the second Lord of 
Falkland, was secretary of state to Charles I and was the typical 
cavalier of his race. 

Among the members of this family who came to Virginia 
was Colonel Miles Cary, who came over from Bristol, England, 
and served in the Colonial Council of Virginia under Governor 

Vol. I S. C. 4 


Not all, however, of the Gary family were supporters of 
royalty. A notable exception was afforded by Archibald Gary, 
a member of the Virginia convention of 1776, and conspicuous 
for zeal and ability. He was a type of the Colonial capitalist, 
owning a large iron furnace and mills, which Tarleton, of 
unsavory memory, committed to the flames. 

Archibald Gary was familiarly styled "Old Iron." This 
sobriquet was appropriate for more reasons than one, for Archi- 
bald Gary suggested iron, not only by his commercial dealings, 
but by his character and conduct. He was as pronounced a 
patriot as some of his ancestors were royalists. To him a mon- 
arch by any other name was equally odious ; and when, as later, 
some misguided spirits proposed to make Washington king, 
others equally misguided proposed to make Patrick Henry dicta- 
tor, Archibald Gary hurled his defiance at the popular hero in 
these words: "The day of your appointment will be the day of 
your death; for, before the sun sets, you will find my dagger in 
your heart!" 

One of these early Englishmen in Virginia was the father 
of James Gary, who was the father of Captain John W. L. Gary, 
who in turn was, as stated, the father of John Curtis Gary. 

John Curtis Gary's maternal ancestry dates back to the 
famous Kentucky hunter and pioneer, Daniel Boone. Martha 
M. Gary was born in what is now Oconee county, and was the 
granddaughter of Nathan Boone, a descendant of Daniel Boone. 

In youth John Gary was healthy and strong. His early life 
was spent in the country, and he was trained to perform all 
kinds of farm work customary at that time. His early life and 
development were materially influenced, in every way, by his 
mother. Being but thirteen years old when the War between the 
States broke out, and left at its close in poverty, he encountered 
great difficulty in acquiring an education. Nevertheless, he 
derived general culture from early study of that best of classics, 
the Bible. Then, and later, he was interested in reading the 
lives of men who have left their impress upon the times, among 
whom he names George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Napoleon 
Bonaparte, and Grover Cleveland. 

John Gary studied in the common schools of the country, 
and prepared for college in Thalian academy, taught by Rev- 
erend J. L. Kennedy, a famous educator of that time. While at 


the academy, in 1864, he responded to the call for sixteen-year- 
old boys, and enlisted in the Confederate army. He served six 
months, was second lieutenant of Company I, First regiment of 
South Carolina militia, with which he remained until the close 
of the war. On returning home he promptly reentered Thalian 
academy, where he studied until August, 1866. In the fall of 
that year the appointment of beneficiary from Pickens district 
to South Carolina college was offered him, but as his father had 
recently died, he declined to leave home. During 1867 he studied 
under Professor W. J. Ligon, of Anderson, while the year 1868 
he spent at home on the farm. 

Mr. Gary's active life work began in 1869, as a clerk in a 
general merchandise store at Walhalla. Later he held engineer- 
ing positions with various railroads ; was employed as bookkeeper 
and paymaster for a railroad contractor; on account of the panic 
of 1873 returned to the farm for a brief period, assisted in the 
survey of a railroad from Greenville, South Carolina, to Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina ; and then became a clerk in a general 
merchandise store at Seneca, South Carolina, where he remained 
until 1876. 

In the fall of 1876, that memorable year in the history of 
South Carolina politics, Mr. Gary became a candidate for county 
clerk. He was an enthusiastic admirer of General Wade Hamp- 
ton, and he threw into the campaign all the ardor and energy of 
his young manhood. Though defeated, he received a flattering 
vote. Mr. Gary now turned his attention again to business. This 
he could not enter on his own account ; for, from the close of the 
war till this time, he had saved not a cent for himself; every 
dollar of his earnings, above his necessary personal expenses, 
having gone to his mother and to the support and education of 
younger brothers. He accepted the agency for the great cotton 
merchants, George H. McFadden & Brother, of Philadelphia and 
Liverpool, and up to 1890 he was their representative for western 
South Carolina and northeastern Georgia. In addition to his 
service for the firm, he improved many opportunities to do 
business for himself, and thus laid the foundation for his more 
recent operations. He built the well-known Keowee hotel, at 
Seneca, in 1880, and sold it in 1889. In the year last named he 
organized the Lockhart Railroad company, was elected its presi- 
dent and treasurer, and had the road open for business by June, 


1900. Mr. Gary owns about 2,000 acres of land in Oconee county 
and gives much attention to practical farming. He is president 
of the Seneca Oil Mill and Fertilizer company, and is an earnest 
promoter of the manufacturing interests of the New South. 

In 1893 he sold his water power on Little river, in Oconee 
county, to Charleston capitalists and superintended the construc- 
tion of a large cotton mill for the Courtenay Manufacturing 
company. In the following year he purchased of the officers of 
the Lockhart mills their water power and other property, which 
had been obtained for the purpose of erecting a cotton mill at 
Lockhart Shoals, on Broad river, Union county, South Carolina. 
He reorganized the company and erected Mill No. 1 with 25,000 
spindles and 800 looms. This mill was completed in 1895 at a 
cost of $650,000. Mr. Gary was treasurer and general manager 
of the company from its reorganization in June, 1894, until 
November, 1895, when he was elected its president and treasurer, 
which positions he still (1907) retains. On May 25, 1905, the 
capital stock of Lockhart mills was increased to $1,300,000 for 
the purpose of building Mill No. 2, which has been completed. 
This mill contains 25,000 spindles with a full complement of 
looms and other machinery. 

In politics Mr. Gary is a lifelong and active Democrat of 
the gold wing. He has represented his county in several state 
conventions of his party, and, in 1884, he represented it in the 
congressional convention of the third district of Seneca. In this 
convention, in a brilliant speech, he renominated Mr. D. Wyatt 
Aiken for congress. Mr. Aiken received the renomination from 
the convention and was reflected. In the same year Mr. Gary 
was a delegate to the Democratic National convention which 
nominated Grover Cleveland. 

Mr. Gary is deeply interested in the schools of his town, and 
has served as a member of the board of trustees and as secretary 
of the board. He is a Mason. In religion he is a Presbyterian, 
holding the office of elder in this church. To the j r oung he 
advises soberness, integrity, and perseverance. 

On February 12, 1885, Mr. Gary was married to Miss Mary 
Frazer Livingston. They have had one son, Whitner Livingston 
Cary, who is now (1907) living. 

Mr. Gary's address is Lockhart, Union county, South Carolina^ 


GOKER, JAMES LIDE, LL. D., manufacturer and finan- 
cier, was born at Society Hill, Darlington county, South 
Carolina, January 3, 1837. He was the son of Caleb 
and Hannah (Lide) Coker. His father was a merchant and 
planter, whose business was extensive. He held no public office 
except that of magistrate for his district. He was distinguished 
for integrity, close attention to business and for sound judgment. 
His family, and that of Mrs. Coker, were representatives of the 
highest type of character. On his paternal side, James Coker 
was descended from Thomas Coker, who came to South Carolina 
from Virginia about 1740. On his maternal side, his early 
ancestors in this country were John Holloway, who was born in 
Virginia in 1719, and whose parents are supposed to have come 
from England; and Robert Lide, who was born in Virginia in 
1734 and was of Welsh descent. These all settled on the Pee Dee 
river, and their descendants are still numerous in that locality. 
Robert Lide was a major in Marion's celebrated brigade in the 
Revolution, was commissioner for the Cheraws in 1784, and the 
following year he was a justice in Darlington county. 

James Coker had no difficulties in obtaining an education, 
and the schools which he attended were of the best. He studied 
at Saint David's academy, Society Hill: the Arsenal academy; 

/ 7 \J +j t 

and at the South Carolina Military academy, known as the 
Citadel, 1853-57, but did not graduate. Later he attended the 
Harvard University Scientific school, in which he studied chem- 

\j / 

istry and botany and attended lectures on zoology, in 1858, but 
did not take a degree. 

The active work of life was commenced in 1858, as a planter 
at Hartfiville, South Carolina. His own personal preference 
determined the choice of his occupation. With his work of 
planting he, after the war, united that of merchant and carried 
on affairs until 1905. From 1874-81 he was a member of the 
firm of cotton factors known as Norwood & Coker, at Charleston, 
South Carolina. He also entered the banking business and 
engaged in manufacturing. He became president of the National 
Bank of Darlington, of the Bank of Darlington, and is now 


president of the Bank of Hartsville. In the manufacturing line 
he has been president of the Carolina Fiber company, making 
paper from wood fiber, since 1890; president of the Southern 
Novelty company since 1899; was director of the Darlington 
Manufacturing company, 1885-1902; and director of the Harts- 
ville Cotton mills since 1902. 

On the opening of the War between the States he entered 
the Confederate service as captain of Company G, Ninth South 
Carolina infantry. In 1862-64 he was captain of Company E, 
Sixth South Carolina volunteer infantry, and 1864-65 was major 
of the same regiment. In 1863 he was so severely wounded as to 
be disabled for active military service, and was elected a member 
of the legislature, in which capacity he served for two years. 
He published (1899) "The History of Company E, Sixth South 
Carolina Volunteer Infantry," which is interesting to the sur- 
viving members of that company and their families, to the 
relatives of members who have died, and to the general reader; 
while it may be valuable to the future historian. Mr. Coker has 
been deeply interested in education, and, as it was his earnest 
desire that the facilities for study keep pace with the growth of 
the town, he urged the establishment of an advanced educational 
institution at Hartsville, and was practically the founder of the 
Welsh Neck high school, which, with its strong faculty and 
hundreds of students, has become one of the principal centers of 
learning in that part of the state. 

On March 28, 1860, Mr. Coker was married to Susan Arm- 
strong Stout. Of their ten children, seven are now (1907) living. 

That in early manhood Mr. Coker chose a wide field for 
usefulness, and that his opportunities in that direction have been 
well improved, the present condition of Hartsville, as compared 
with its past, amply proves. When he commenced operations 
there in 1857 he had a plantation. There was a postoffice near 
by, and a few scattering houses and that was all. In the 
Hartsville of today there are churches, academies, stores, facto- 
ries, banks, railroads, the telegraph and telephone, and a marked 
development of agricultural resources. The credit of the incep- 
tion of the plan of enlargement and improvement belongs to 
Mr. Coker, and, in a great measure, the conversion of the plan 
into tangible results has been due to the genius, the energy, the 
good judgment, and the business ability which he has displayed. 


He has proved himself a patriot, an unselfish worker for the 
good of others, a man of high ideals and noble purposes, together 
with the graces of culture and piety. His achievements have 
been remarkable and his conspicuous success has been fully 
deserved. In recognition of his character and services, South 
Carolina university, when celebrating its Centennial, in 1905, 
conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. 

The postoffice address of Mr. Coker is Hartsville, Darlington 
county, South Carolina. 


GOLCOCK, CHAKLES JONES, JK., educator, principal 
of the Porter academy, of Charleston, South Carolina, 
was born in Beaufort district, South Carolina, on Jan- 
uary 17, 1852. His first American ancestor on the father's side, 
Doctor Henry Woodward, came from the Barbadoes; and inter- 
married with his descendants were men and women from England, 
Scotland, and others of French Huguenot stock. Captain John 
Colcock came from Essex, England, to Charlestown, South 

Among the distinguished ancestors of Principal Colcock 
have been his father; his great-grandfather, Charles J. Colcock, 
of the court of appeals of South Carolina, who was president of 
the bank of the state ; and Judge William Smith, of the supreme 
court of New York. 

His father was a planter, energetic, of rare good judgment, 
and of a high order of executive ability; a magnetic personality 
such as exerts great influence in any city or community. He was 
the originator of many enterprises of a public nature. From 
1861 to 1865 he was commander of the Third Military district, 
and colonel of the Third South Carolina cavalry. 

His mother (Mrs. Lucy O. Horton Colcock) was of English 
extraction. A most devout Christian, her influence on her son's 
character was marked. She died when he was eleven years old. 
Her early training left in him a "desire to do his utmost toward 
realizing her ambition for him"; and in the fulfilment of this 
desire he was constantly encouraged by his father. This home 
influence led him to pursue most assiduously his private studies. 
His own tastes, too, led him to study and reading; and he was 
especially interested in mathematics. Books of natural science 
and stories of adventure and history he enjoyed. 

After a few years of preparatory training he entered the 
Holy Communion Church institute in Charleston, taking the 
classical course; was at the College of Charleston for two years; 
and later he matriculated at Union college, Schenectady, New 
York, to pursue a course in civil engineering. From Union he 



was graduated in 1875, with the degree of C. E., and a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa. 

Upon graduation he was made tutor in Union college, hold- 
ing this position for three years. Returning to his home, he 
became a planter. In 1885 he was appointed to the department 
of mathematics and sciences at the Porter academy, Charleston, 
South Carolina. So efficient was his work here that he became 
head master of the academy in 1890, a position of influence which 
he still holds. His greatest service to the public has been ren- 
dered through his work as a teacher. 

He intends to edit and publish a series of mathematical text 
books. He has written a work, now in press, entitled "A His- 
tory of the Progenitors and Some Descendants of Colonel Ann 
Hawkes Hay." 

In December, 1883, he was married to Patti Lee Hay, daugh- 
ter of Samuel J. and Susan C. Hay, of Barnwell, South Carolina. 
They have had two children, one of whom is now (1907) living, 
Miss Erroll Hay Colcock. 

He is a member of the Sons of the Revolution; the Hugue- 
not society; the Commercial club, of Charleston; and the South 
Carolina Historical society. He is affiliated with the Episcopal 

He advises young people to make worthy friends in youth, 
and so to regulate their conduct in later life as to retain these 
same friendships. He says: "Where principle is involved, at 
any sacrifice act upon the conviction of right. In other cases, 
consult expediency. Idleness is the 'root of all evil.' Have an 
object in life that can be reached, and continually strive to 
reach it," 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 


GOTHRAN, THOMAS PERRIN, lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Abbeville, South Carolina, October 24, 1857. 
His parents were James S. and Emma C. (Perrin) 
Cothran. His father was a distinguished lawyer, who was 
solicitor of the eighth judicial circuit for several years, was 
subsequently elected judge of the same circuit, in which position 
he won the highest regard of the people for his ability and 
impartiality. While serving as judge he was elected to the 
United States house of representatives, of which body he became 
an influential member. 

Until his thirty-fifth year the home of Thomas Cothran was 
in the village in which he was born. After completing the pre- 
scribed course in its high school, he studied law at the University 
of Virginia two sessions, 1877-78, and in 1882 he took the summer 
law course at this institution. He commenced the practice of 
law in Abbeville, January 1, 1879, and remained there twelve 
years. In 1891 he removed to Greenville, South Carolina, and 
on January 1, 1892, became a member of the firm of Cothran, 
Wells, Ansel & Cothran, of which his father was the senior 
member. Subsequently, after the death of his father and of 
Captain Wells, he, with his younger brother, W. C. Cothran, 
formed a partnership with State Senator Dean, under the firm 
name of Cothran, Dean & Cothran. 

In politics Mr. Cothran has always been a Democrat. In 
1904 he was elected a member of the house of representatives 
from Grenville county for the term 1904-06, and soon won recog- 
nition as an able and conservative member. In 1906 he was 
reflected and was one of the authors of the celebrated "Carey- 
Cothran Local Option bill," the passing of which destroyed the 
state dispensary. As a lawyer he has won a high reputation for 
ability, fairness, and skill. He is assistant division counsel of 
the Southern Railway company. 

Mr. Cothran belongs to several orders, including the Masons, 
Odd Fellows, and Elks. His religious connection is with the 
Presbyterian church. He enjoys social life, is a close student, 
and a discriminating reader, keeping well informed regarding 


current events. On January 6, 1886, he was married to lone 
Smith, of Abbeville, South Carolina. She died July 29, 1887. 
His address is Greenville, South Carolina. 


Charleston, South Carolina, February 4, 1831. His 
grandfather, Edward Courtenay, who came to Charles- 
ton in 1791, was a native of Newry, County Down, Ireland; he 
was a member of the Protestant family of that name which, long 
resident in the north of Ireland, was a branch of the historic 
family of that name in England, dating back to the Norman 
Conquest. He was an excellent scholar and able teacher, who 
for many years conducted one of the best and most widely known 
schools of the higher grade in Charleston. 

William A. Courtenay had only a limited education, and 
entered upon a business life in his fifteenth year. Previous to 
the war, he, with his elder brother, the late S. Oilman Courtenay, 
conducted a large publishing and book selling business on Broad 
street, Charleston. Mr. Courtenay was a "book man" in the 
wider sense as applied by James Russell Lowell to himself. He 
enjoyed the personal friendship and esteem of such leaders in 
the literary life of the Old South as William Gilmore Simms, 
Henry Timrod, and William J. Grayson. The war, however, 
destroyed this book business. 

From early manhood Mr. Courtenay had been an enthu- 
siastic member of the Washington Light infantry, a corps which 
furnished several general officers to the Southern Confederacy. 
In the War between the States he responded to the first call to 
arms, served with fidelity in South Carolina and Virginia, and 
rose to the rank of captain. Returning home from the war, 
William A. Courtenay became, and for many years continued, 
active in the shipping business, managing steamship lines to 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, with their related com- 
mercial connections. During this active period, Mr. Courtenay 
became president of the Charleston chamber of commerce, con- 
tinuing for three years. In 1879 he was elected mayor of 
Charleston and served eight years. Later he removed to the 
upper section of South Carolina and founded a cotton mill enter- 
prise at Newry, where he lived until his removal to Columbia 
several years ago. Ten years of success have crowned this effort 






in a new field. Mr. Courtenay represents South Carolina on the 
Peabody Education trust; he has received the degree of LL. D. 
from the University of Tennessee, and also from the South Caro- 
lina college. His deep interest in education during his mayoralty, 
when he served as a school commissioner, induced the commis- 
sioners to name one of their new school houses after him. 

As mayor of Charleston, Doctor Courtenay was a working 
official and left enduring proofs of his devotion to the public 
interest. Perhaps his greatest public service was rendered when 
the city of Charleston was nearly destroyed by the earthquake of 
August 31, 1886. The city had survived four bombardments and 
many cyclones, and the world had come to regard the spirit of 
her people as invincible. But up to that time so disastrous an 
earthquake had never occurred in the United States. The boldest 
spirits quailed before so overwhelming a calamity, and councils 
were divided as to the best means to rehabilitate the stricken 
city. Although they met with some opposition, the plans of 
Mr. Courtenay were approved by the great majority of the most 
intelligent citizens, and were carried into effect with most grati- 
fying results. 

He substituted granite blocks and flagging for plank and 
cobblestone roadways and brick pavements; caused heavy flag- 
ging to be placed on the High Battery to resist the force of 
cyclones and storm-tides ; converted the undesirable and neglected 
location at the west end of Broad and Beaufain streets into the 
"Colonial Lake"; caused the removal of the city hospital from 
a building wholly unsuited to one much better adapted to the 
needs of patients; caused the police station to be removed to a 
better location and criminals to be more humanelv cared for; 

/ / 

renovated the City Hall building and improved the City Hall 
park. He effected a two-per-cent. reduction in the interest on 
the ante-bellum six-per-cent. bonds, thus saving the city a consid- 
erable sum each year. He changed the fire department from a 
political to a nonpartisan force, in which one hundred men now 
do more and better work than thirteen hundred volunteers once 
did. Finally, he established the William Enston Home, an insti- 
tution designed, in accordance with the will of William Enston, 
"to make old age comfortable," and laid out the attractive village 
which is now the home of about one hundred men and women 
who, in earlier life, had lived in their own happy homes. At his 


suggestion, the legislature founded the "Historical Commission 
of South Carolina," of which he was the chairman for years. 

No sketch of Doctor Courtenay's life could be complete 
without reference to his untiring and munificent efforts in aid 
of Southern literature and history. He has not only prepared 
and published invaluable historical annals, but he has assisted 
with voice and pen and purse in publishing the definitive edition 
of the poems of his friend, Henry Timrod; the "Life of Wil- 
liam Lowndes"; the "Poems of Carlyle McKinley"; "Lederer's 
Travels," and many elegant biographical brochures. He has 
recently published a superb edition de luxe of "Early Voyages 
to Carolina," which in paper and typography probably surpasses 
any work heretofore issued from the printing press of the South. 
In June, 1906, he presented to the Charleston library four hun- 
dred rare and valuable bound volumes, relating in the main to 
South Carolina history; and he has commissioned an eminent 
artist to paint for that historic institution portraits of eight of 
South Carolina's most distinguished statesmen and litterateurs. 

Doctor Courtenay's address is Columbia, South Carolina. 





COWARD, ASBURY, LL. D., superintendent of the South 
Carolina Military academy, for many years principal 
of the King's Mountain Military school, from 1882-86 
state superintendent of education for South Carolina, brigadier- 
general of militia, was born at Hyde Park plantation, eastern 
branch of Cooper river, in what was then Charleston county but 
is now Berkeley county, in South Carolina, September 19, 1835. 
His father, Jesse Coward, was a rice planter, "forceful, fond of 
reading," whose ancestors came from England to the United 
States. His mother, Anne Keziah DuBois, who died when he 
was but three months old, was descended from a French family 
who had resided for some generations in the Southern states. 

The first nine years of his life were spent in the country, in 
the sports and early studies of a healthy, active boy. After he 
was nine he attended regularly the schools of Charleston; but 
he spent his vacations in the country, and he was intensely 
interested in athletic games and in hunting, fishing and horse- 
manship. Books of travel and adventure (among them Frois- 
sart's Chronicles), and books upon natural history, furnished the 
reading which interested him most deeply in his youth; and he 
has always pursued reading along these lines. The only diffi- 
culties which he encountered in acquiring an education, he says, 
came "from his fondness for out-of-door sports." After attend- 
ing the day schools in Charleston, he entered the South Carolina 
Military academy as a cadet, and was graduated from that 
institution in November, 1854. He read law for some time, 
completing the usual course of preparation for admission to the 
bar under the direction of W. B. Wilson, Esquire, of Yorkville, 
South Carolina. 

In January, 1855, at Yorkville, South Carolina, he began the 
work of his life as educator. He was "co-founder and principal 
of the King's Mountain Military school." His father had died 
in 1850 ; and his choice of a life work was due to his own 
preference. He continued co-principal of the King's Mountain 
Military school until the breaking out of the War between the 


States. Entering the Confederate army as captain in the adju- 
tant-general's department, in the field he was promoted major in 
the same department after the battle of Malvern Hill, and a few 
months later was made colonel of the Fifth South Carolina regi- 
ment. With the exception of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 

he was in all the great battles of General Lee's armv until the 


close at Appomattox. For forty-one years, since the war, he has 
been serving in connection with the military institutions; and 
for five of these years he was a brigadier-general of militia. At 
the close of the war he became, in 1866, the sole principal and 
proprietor of the King's Mountain Military school, and he held 
that position until 1886. He was elected state superintendent of 
education in 1882, for a term of two years; and in 1884 was 
reflected, serving another term of two years, with efficiency and 
acceptance. In 1890 he became superintendent of the South 
Carolina Military academy, known as the Citadel academy, of 
Charleston, South Carolina. 

Identified with the Protestant Episcopal church, Colonel 
Coward is also a Mason, a member of the St. Andrew's society, 
and a member of the Knights of Honor. He has served as grand 
dictator of the Knights of Honor. In political convictions he 
is with the Democratic party. 

He married Miss Eliza Corbett Blum, December 25, 1856. 
In answer to the question as to his first strong impulse to strive 
for prizes in life, he writes: "I am not aware that I have won 
any prizes, except a good wife." They have had seventeen chil- 
dren, of whom two daughters and two sons are living in 1907. 

Identified with the educational work of South Carolina, 
through his service for two terms as state superintendent of 
education, and still more closely identified with the educational 
interests of the state through his lifelong administration of 
military schools, which have had a marked influence in shaping 
the ideals of the boys and young men of South Carolina, Colonel 
Coward is remembered with esteem and affection by a great 
multitude of the citizens of his state who have been his students. 
South Carolina college, at Columbia, South Carolina, conferred 
upon him, in 1896, the honorary degree of LL. D. 

The address of Colonel Coward is Charleston, South Carolina. 


DAVIS, ZIMMERMAN, for the last sixty years a resident 
of Charleston, alderman of that city from 1891 to 1899, 
chairman of the commissioners of the city hospital, 
mayor of Charleston, pro tempore, for the year 1899, prominently 
identified with the commercial and social interests of the city, 
and from 1880 secretary and treasurer of the Charleston Water 
Works and the Charleston Water and Light company until May, 
1906, when he was appointed general agent for the lower portion 
of South Carolina of the Southeastern Life Insurance company, 
of Spartanburg, South Carolina, was born at Monticello, Fair- 
field county, South Carolina, October 8, 1834. 

His father, William Kincaid Davis, was a planter. The 
earliest known ancestor of the Davis family in America, Rev- 
erend David Davis, came from Wales and settled (1710) in New 
Castle, Delaware. Another ancestor, William McMorris, an 
emigrant from Belfast, Ireland, about 1740 settled in Fairfield 
county, South Carolina. A great-grandfather, James Davis, was 
an officer in the Revolutionary war; and another great-grand- 
father, James Kincaid, was a captain of cavalry under Generals 
Marion and Sumter in the Revolution. 

His boyhood was passed on a farm until he was twelve years 
old. In that year the family removed to Charleston, South 
Carolina, where he still (1907) resides. 

He studied at the Charleston high school, and later at the 
College of Charleston ; but he did not complete his course. While 
a member of the junior class (but not until after he had taken 
the sophomore prize for elocution, giving evidence of that interest 
in and capacity for public speaking which has marked his later 
life), he was obliged to leave college and enter business life by 
reason of reverses in business experienced by his father. He has 
all his life been known as a wide reader, fond of the best of 
English and American prose, especially interested in "all histo- 
ries, ancient and modern; and above all, in the Bible." 

Upon breaking away from his college course and taking up 
business, he became (1853) a clerk in the cotton commission 
business. From 1857 to 1865 he was a partner in the firm of 

Vol. I S. C. 5 


Adams, Frost & Company; from 1866 to 1876 he was a partner 
in the firm of Reeder & Davis; and from 1886 to 1889 in the 
firm of Davis & McCall, cotton factorage and commission. In 
1880 he was made secretary and treasurer of the Charleston 
Water Works and the Charleston Light and Water company 
a position which he held until recently, when he entered the life 
insurance business. 

In December, 1860, his business career was interrupted by 
threatenings of the outbreak of the War between the States. He 
served in the Confederate army from December, 1860, until 
April, 1865, the entire period of the war. He was a private in 
the Washington Light infantry from December, 1860, until 
April, 1861 ; then successively third lieutenant, second lieutenant 
and first lieutenant, from April, 1861, to 1862. He became a 
captain in the cavalry, and served as such from 1862 to 1864, 
when he was promoted colonel of the Fifth South Carolina 
cavalry, Butler's brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, serving 
as colonel from October, 1864, until the close of the war. 

Identified by his convictions with the Democratic party, he 
has not varied in his allegiance to that organization. He was 
secretary of the Democratic State convention (in 1876) which 
nominated General Wade Hampton for governor. As president 
of the Survivors' association of Charleston, he presided and made 
the opening address at the meeting of the citizens of Charleston 
on the occasion of the death of Jefferson Davis, December 11, 

Colonel Davis is in constant request for addresses upon civil, 
religious, military, and political subjects, both in his own city 
and in other parts of the state. 

He is a member of the Masonic fraternity ; of the Charleston 
Commercial club; of the South Carolina society; of the South 
Carolina Historical society; of the Camp Sumter United Con- 
federate veterans, and was commander of the Camp from 1889 
to 1891. He is a member of the Sons of the Revolution, and 
is vice-president of the society. He has been president of the 
Alumni association of the College of Charleston, and he is vice- 
president of the South Carolina Historical society. He was 
grand marshal of the Grand Lodge of Masons from 1874 to 1885 ; 
and he has been grand treasurer of the Grand Lodge for the 
last twenty-one years. He is also brigadier-general of the First 


brigade of the South Carolina division of the United Confederate 
veterans, having been annually elected by his comrades of the 
state for the past seven years. 

His favorite forms of exercise and amusement are horseback 
riding; hunting; shooting with gun, rifle and pistol; billiards, 
and gardening, with floriculture. He is identified with the Bap- 
tist church. 

On November 10, 1857, he married Miss Cornelia Mclver; 
and of their eight children, six are living in 1907. 

The wide acquaintance, the public spirit, and broad interests 
of General Davis, and a genial capacity for friendship with men 
without sacrifice of independence and personal convictions, have 
given him a very large circle of acquaintances and friends in the 
city with which his life has been for three-score years so closely 


DEAN, GEORGE ROSWELL, was born in the post village 
of Calhoun, Anderson county, South Carolina, January 
25, 1844. He was the son of Reverend Charles Pinckney 
Dean and Lucinda Caroline Horton. The immediate ancestors 
of his parents were immigrants from Virginia, where the for- 
bears of his father were located at Alexandria as early as 1750. 
Adam Broyls, the ancestor of his mother, was of German birth 
and one of the settlers at the historic Germanna, on the Rapid 
Ann river, in Spottsylvania county, in the early part of the 
eighteenth century, and noted as the seat of iron manufacture in 
Virginia by Governor Alexander Spotswood, "the Tubal Cain of 
America," who brought thither from Germany many operatives 
employed by him. These were the progenitors of many of the 
most highly respected citizens of the country. In religion they 
were members of the Lutheran church. 

The father of the subject of this sketch was a minister in the 
Baptist denomination and served acceptably in many churches. 
He was noted for his sincere piety, unobtrusive charity, kind- 
liness of spirit for his fellows, and devotion to his family. The 
mother was a woman of fine Christian character, and her influ- 
ence upon her son was beneficent and enduring. 

George R. Dean was a healthy and robust lad and fond of 
outdoor sports, with a decided ingenuity in mechanics. His 
youth was passed partly in the village of his birth and partly 
in the country, as the residence of his father varied with his 
pastoral charges. The tasks of the lad were those which usually 
fall upon a country boy. He was fond of reading, and was 
charmed with the "Pilgrim's Progress," and later with the lives 
of heroes and great commanders of the past and present. His 
primary education was in the village school under John Wesley 
Leverett. He later attended Furman university, and took the 
degree of B. A. at the South Carolina Military academy in 1865. 
For a time he taught school at Belton, South Carolina, to acquire 
means for continuing his education; in the meantime devoting 
his spare time to the study of medicine. He attended the South 
Carolina Medical college in 1866-67, and the Jefferson Medical 


college, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1867-68, and was grad- 
uated from the last-named institution, with the degree of M. D., 
in 1868. He subsequently attended the Polyclinic class at Phila- 
delphia in 1889-90, and performed bi-annual hospital work in 
Philadelphia and New York. A great stimulant to success in his 
studies and professional career was the opposition of his family 
and friends to his abandoning life on a farm for that of a 

He served gallantly in the Confederate States army, rising 
from a private soldier to the command of a company with the 
rank of captain. 

He has been engaged in farming and the practice of his 
profession, and has won honorable recognition as a citizen, physi- 
cian, and surgeon. He served as a member of the South Carolina 
assembly, 1886-87. He has been the censor of the Medico- Chi- 
rurgical college since 1898, and served as president of the South 
Carolina Medical association, 1902-03, and as president of the 
South Carolina Regimental surgeons, 1902-03. He is also a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, of the order of Knights and 
Ladies of Honor, and also of the South Carolina, Southern, the 
American Medical, and the American Geographical associations. 
In 1902-03 he was president of the Association of Southern Rail- 
way surgeons. 

In religion he is a Baptist. In politics he has been constantly 
identified with the Democratic party, and he has been zealous in 
his efforts to promote the best interests of his community, state 
and country. While he holds in just reprobation the despoilers 
of his state, he favors the enactment of stringent laws to prevent 
peculation, private and public, and deprecates mob violence, 
insisting that the majesty of the law should constrain and prevail. 

He holds that the way to success in life is by adherence to 
moral precepts and pertinacity of purpose, that one should select 
his profession or vocation and give his energies persistently to 
thorough achievement. 

He married, December 16, 1868, Hattie E. Camp, daughter 
of William C. and Tabitha (Harris) Camp. Ten children were 
born to them, of whom five four daughters and one son are 
now (1907) living. 

His address is 112 North Church street, Spartanburg, South 


DREHER, JULIUS DANIEL, third president of Roanoke 
college, was born in Lexington county, South Carolina, 
October 28, 1846. He is the eldest of the eleven children 
ten sons and one daughter born to John Jacob and Martha 
Elizabeth (Counts) Dreher. His ancestors on both sides of the 
house came from Germany and settled in the counties of Lexing- 
ton and Newberry before the Revolutionary war. His father 
was a man of influence in his community, a planter and mill-: 
owner, and for many years was treasurer of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of South Carolina. To his strong religious 
nature were added a conscientiousness and thoroughness that 
made a lasting impress upon the character of his son. 

Julius Dreher spent his boyhood in the country. His fond- 
ness for books and study had to be restrained for fear of injury 
to his health. He continued in school, however, until he became 
of military age in 1864, when he enlisted in the Confederate 
service, where he remained until the surrender of General Joseph 
E. Johnston, at Greensboro, North Carolina, in April, 1865. His 
father's home, lying in the line of Sherman's march, near Colum- 
bia, was desolated like so many others of that fair region. In 
the gloom of defeat, and in the face of reverses, the native pluck 
and the generous ambition of the young man began to assert 
themselves. He determined upon a college education, and four 
years were spent in securing the necessary means part of two 
years at work on the farm and in his father's sawmill, and the 
rest of the time in teaching school at Pomaria, South Carolina. 
In 1869 he entered the junior class at Roanoke college, 
Salem, Virginia, and graduated in 1871 with the degree of A. B. 
Up to this time, and indeed later, his face was turned to the 
profession of law, but, immediately upon his graduation, his 
alma mater, recognizing his marked ability, offered him a subor- 
dinate position in the faculty. This he accepted, but for a year 
he pursued privately the study of law under the direction of 
Professor John B. Minor, of the University of Virginia. He 
was later advanced to the position of assistant professor of 
ancient languages, and still later to that of professor of English 


language and literature. The latter department he developed 
along modern lines, and laid the foundation for a thorough 
English course in the college. In 1875 he was made financial 
secretary a position which brought into play his keen business 
insight and his remarkable energy, forces then much needed, for 
the college was considerably in debt and had no endowment 
whatever. Associated with Doctor David F. Bittle, the first 
president of the college, and entering sympathetically into his 
plans, he caught the spirit of that forceful and unselfish man 
and became a real power in the institution. Doctor Bittle died 
in 1876, and was succeeded in 1877 by Reverend Thomas W. 
Dosh, D. D., and w T hen the latter resigned, in 1878, Professor 
Dreher stood forth as his logical successor. He was elected to 
the position in spite of the fact that he came to it as one of the 
youngest college presidents in the country. From that time until 
his resignation, in 1903, after a quarter of a century of loyal 
and successful service, his name and work became completely 
identified with Roanoke college, and, in a broader sphere, with 
the progress of education in the South. 

Through his efforts the Bittle Memorial library was built in 
1879, to be greatly extended by an annex in 1894. The number 
of volumes in the librarv was increased to 23,000. He conceived 


a broad though definite policy for the college, looking to the 
enlargement of its constituency, the securing of money for current 
expenses, the building up of the endowment fund, the improve- 
ment of its teaching force and facilities for instruction, and the 
modernizing of its courses of study. In all these he succeeded 
in spite of difficulties that would have baffled a man of weaker 
faith and less indomitable will. He encouraged instructors to 
study abroad with a view of returning to the college as pro- 
fessors. The institution thus became a more effective teaching 
force and gathered about it a more decided literary atmosphere. 
At the end of his administration, five members of the faculty 
had had an aggregate of seventeen years of post-graduate work 
in American and foreign universities. Through his influence 
the college became favorably known throughout the country and 
received many and often generous gifts and bequests. Patronage 
was attracted from twenty-five states and the Indian Territory, 
and also from a number of foreign countries, particularly from 
Mexico, Japan, and Korea. Three-fifths of the graduates of 


the college up to 1903 received their diplomas at the hands of 
President Dreher, and he was personally acquainted with every 
alumnus. Through his acquaintance with students from the 
Orient and with Japanese, Chinese, and Korean officials, who at 
various times visited the college on his invitation, he became 
deeply interested in the development of those countries. 

Doctor Dreher has traveled in every state and territory in 
the Union, has visited Alaska, and has made one tour in Europe. 
He has an unusually wide acquaintance among men of distinc- 
tion in all walks of life, particularly among those engaged or 
interested in educational work. He has been a member of many 
associations and conferences that had in view the promotion of 
education, of international arbitration, and the social and moral 
betterment of all classes, including the Indian and Negro, and 
has been for years a vice-president of the Indian Industries 

There are few, if any, men in the South better informed 
than he in regard to the educational movements in our country 
since the War between the States. He was a member of the 
Provisional committee which in 1898 called, and aided in organ- 
izing, the Conference for Education in the South. He has 
manifested much interest in the improvement of library facilities 
in the Southern schools and towns. He has written much on 
education and kindred themes, on the training of Japanese, 
Korean, and Choctaw Indian students at Roanoke, and on ques- 
tions of public interest, particularly in condemnation of lynching 
and all forms of lawlessness. Besides his inaugural address, he 
has published many others, including "College Endowments," 
delivered before the Educational Association of Virginia; "The 
Benevolent Spirit and Higher Education," before the same body ; 
"Colleges North and Colleges South," before the National Edu- 
cational association ; "Education in the South," before the Amer- 
ican Social Science association; "Public Libraries as a Means of 
Popular Education," before the Conference on Race Problems; 
"Education During and After School Days," before the Confer- 
ence for Education in the South; and "The Education of the 
Negro in the South," before the Southern Educational association. 

Doctor Dreher believes that one of the most important prin- 
ciples that can be instilled into the minds of young Americans 
is the lesson so constantly pressed upon him by his father, that 


whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well. That he 
learned this lesson thoroughly appears in all that he does. No 
man is more careful even of minute details than he. But in 
analyzing his career and accounting for his success, there must 
be associated with this habit of thoroughness his concentrated 
energy of purpose, his executive ability, his polished address, his 
broad grasp of principles, and his high standard of honor and 

In a career crowded with arduous duties, Doctor Dreher has 
never neglected the amenities of life. With the social instinct 
well developed, and with an immense fund of anecdote and inci- 
dent, he is everywhere a welcome visitor, and nowhere more so 
than where there are children. For relaxation he relishes a good 
novel, and he enjoys an occasional jaunt with rod and line. 
While deeply interested in politics, he prefers to be independent 
of strict party lines. In his religious views also he is equally 
broad, though he has been a lifelong member of the church of 
his ancestors the Evangelical Lutheran. For many years he 
has been a vice-president of the Evangelical Alliance for the 
United States, and he has always taken a lively interest in the 
work of the Young Men's Christian association. 

Doctor Dreher's mother, a woman of strong character and 
energetic nature, is still (1907) living. Seven of her eight living 
sons were educated at Roanoke college, and she may well be 
proud of the contribution of her family to the cause of education. 
One son has taught at Selwood, South Carolina, for years; 
another has been for twelve years superintendent of the city 
schools of Columbia, South Carolina; and a third, now corre- 
spondent of the Associated Press in Berlin, Germany, taught for 
some time in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

In addition to other honors that have come to him, Doctor 
Dreher received in 1874, from Roanoke college, the degree of 
A. M. ; in 1881, from Williams college, Massachusetts, the degree 
of Ph. D. ; and in 1905, from his alma mater, the degree of 
LL. D., being the first alumnus upon whom she bestowed this 
honor. His resignation at the Semi-Centennial of the college in 
1903 was the occasion for words of the highest commendation 
on the part of the newspapers North and South, and of tributes 
by distinguished commencement speakers, such as Governor 


Montague, of Virginia; President Dabney, then of the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee; President Denny, of Washington and Lee 
university; and Professor Charles W. Kent, of the University 
of Virginia. 

In the report of the United States Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for 1903, pages 1313-1314, an appreciative tribute is paid 
to Doctor Dreher's work for Roanoke college and the cause of 
higher education. 

During the summer following his resignation, Doctor Dreher 
continued in the service of the college in order to prosecute 
further the work of enlarging and remodeling the main building, 
an enterprise set on foot and carried far toward completion 
through his efforts. After that, although not lacking opportu- 
nities to engage in other work, he resided at his ancestral home 
at Selwood, South Carolina, devoting the greater part of his 
time to reading, study and writing, until he was appointed, on 
August 2, 1906, a consul at Tahiti, Society Islands, by President 
Roosevelt, whom Doctor Dreher has known personally for some 

On September 5, 1906, Doctor Dreher married Miss Emeline 
Kirtland Richmond, of Richmond Hill, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 
who was educated at Vassar college, and Avho, like her husband, 
has traveled extensively in America and in foreign lands. 

Doctor Dreher entered upon his duties at Tahiti, October 
30, 1906. He will there have an opportunity to continue, under 
favorable conditions, the study of ethnology, to which he has 
long devoted special attention. His whole life work has proved 
his deep interest in the solution of that question of race-traits 
and race-relations which is so intensely vital to the future of 
the United States. 


man and bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, was born December 20, 1839, at Boydton, Meck- 
lenburg county, Virginia; the son of David Duncan and Alice 
Amanda Needier (Piedmont) Duncan. His father was a teacher, 
devoted to his work, not merely as a duty, but as a delight, and 
with those characteristics of personal habit and punctuality which 
are essential in that calling; while the mother had no less 
influence on the intellectual as well as the moral and spiritual 
training of the boy. He was a genuine boy, healthy in body, 
fond of the outdoor life of his country and village homes, but 
also a great reader, especially interested in literature, history, 
biography, and poetry, as well as in books on religion and morals. 
Under such conditions it was inevitable that he should have 
an education; and fortunately the way to one was not as hard 
as it is with some. He studied at the preparatory school of 
Randolph-Macon college, and entering WoiTord college at Spar- 
tanburg, South Carolina, he was graduated in June, 1858, at the 
age of eighteen. A strong sense of duty made him choose the 
ministry as his profession; and the year after graduation he 
was admitted to the Virginia annual conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and was stationed at Elizabeth City, 
North Carolina. 

During nearly all the time of the War between the States he 
served as chaplain in the Confederate army, and then returned 
to service in the pulpit. After occupying several stations, in 1875 
he was elected professor of metaphysics in Wofford college and 
remained there until 1886, when he was elected a bishop of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He received the degree of 
D. D. from Emory college, Georgia, and Central college, Mis- 
souri, in 1880, and that of LL. D. from Trinity college, North 
Carolina, in 1903. In politics he has always been a loyal member 
of the Democratic party. 

On March 19, 1861, he was married to Medora Rice, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Herndon and Caroline Wallace Rice, of Union, 


South Carolina. They have had three children, all of whom are 
(1907) living. 

Respect for the rights of others, strict attention to one's own 
duties, and constant maintenance of absolute trustworthiness, as 
taught by his parents, he commends to young men of the present 
day as, in his belief, the basis of true success in life. 

His present address is Number 155, North Church street, 
Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


^ - ..- - J7. 7 . 


EIDSON, JOHN DANIEL, farmer and merchant, was 
born in Edgefield, South Carolina, December 3, 1845. 
His parents were James Russell and Caroline (Bouk- 
night) Eidson. His father was highly esteemed for kindness 
and liberality and served his community as trial justice, school 
trustee, and captain of a company of militia. 

In early life John Eidson was strong and well. His home 
was in the country, and, while he liked his books, he was fond 
of horses and of outdoor life. After he became large enough to 
help on the farm he had regular, but not excessive, tasks to 
perform. He attended the schools near his home until he was 
fifteen years of age, when the War between the States broke out 
and he entered the Confederate States army, in which he served 
for three years. Returning from the war, he had no opportunity 
to continue his education, but commenced work as a farmer under 
the guidance of his father. In 1868 he taught school, but a year 
later he gave up his position and became a merchant. In con- 
nection with the business of the store he also carried on the work 
of farming, and he has been continuously engaged in these lines 
until the present time. Some years ago he added brokerage to 
his other interests, and it has grown to considerable importance. 
He owns and controls two four-gin outfits, the Hunger & Smith 
systems (up-to-date in every respect) ; one in the town of John- 
ston, and the other about one mile east of that place. He is also 
proprietor of the Johnston Roller Flour mills, located in the 
town of Johnston, and one of the largest flour mill properties in 
the state. His natural ability, together with close application 
to business and strictly honest dealing, has brought him great 
success and given him an enviable reputation. In January, 1907, 
he was elected president of the Bank of Johnston, a strong 
financial institution. 

He has been warden and intendant of his home town (John- 
ston), and president of the Johnston Educational Joint Stock 
company. He is a member of the Masonic order, a past dictator 
in the Knights of Honor, and a past chancellor commander in 
the Knights of Pythias. In politics he has not been an active 


worker, and has never held or sought public office, but he votes 
regularly with the Democratic party. His religious connection 
is with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in which he is 
an active and efficient worker, and has held the offices of steward 
and district steward. 

In estimating the relative strength of various influences 
which have been helpful in his efforts to win success, he places 
contact with men in active life first of all. As in boyhood days, 
he still enjoys getting out of doors, and has a marked taste for 
fine horses, of which he keeps several at his farm. For recre- 
ation he chooses traveling, and by this means he has become 
acquainted with a large section of the country. 

Mr. Eidson is interested in all the great movements of the 
day, and especially those which tend to the betterment of the 
conditions under which we live. He believes that righteousness 
should be both preached and practiced, and in response to a 
request that he would make some suggestions regarding the 
habits, methods, and principles which in his opinion will help 
the youthful readers of his biography to attain success, he says: 
"Young men should strive to be independent by seeking positions 
of usefulness, honestly performing duty, never shirking, and 
never using intoxicating liquors or tobacco in any form." 

On December 18, 1873, Mr. Eidson was married to Miss 
Anna Herbert. Of their four children, three are living in 1907. 

The postoffice address is Johnston, Edgefield county, South 





E MANUEL, PHILIP ALBERT, son of Simon and Maria 
Cochrane Emanuel, was born at Brownsville, Marlboro 
county, South Carolina, May 3, 1847. His father was a 
merchant and planter. For forty years he was captain of militia 
and postmaster of his village. He was noted for uprightness 
of character and business integrity. His political influence was 
weighty. He also exerted great influence in the religious circles 
of his community. At the time of his death he was deacon in 
the Baptist church of Brownsville. On his father's side, Mr. 
Emanuel's earliest known ancestors came to America from Eng- 
land; on his mother's side, they were Scotch-Irish. The history 
of his mother's family is found in "Thomas's History of Marl- 
boro." Many of the relatives of his mother were distinguished 
in the Revolutionary war. 

From childhood, Philip Emanuel was subject to severe 
attacks of asthma. He was a lover of books from an early age, 
and a great reader of all kinds of literature and of science. His 
early life, until he was fourteen or fifteen years of age, was 
passed at Brownsville. He was reared on a farm and learned to 
plough and hoe, and also to keep his father's mercantile and post- 
office accounts. His mother's influence on his intellectual, moral 
and spiritual life was notable. 

Up to the beginning of the war young Emanuel studied in 
Brownsville academy and in a private school. These studies he 
followed with a course at Hillsboro Military academy. Through- 
out his course he read omniverously, devouring religious, politi- 
cal, philosophical, and scientific works, as well as other lighter 
reading. His reading taught him that an ambition to rise to 
the issues of life and meet them like a man is noble. This he 
has endeavored, step by step, to do, though conscious that his 
health and environment had placed limitations upon his probable 
success. He was among the leaders in forming a cadet company, 
rebelling, and leaving Hillsboro, North Carolina, Military insti- 
tute, for Charleston, South Carolina, in the late summer of 1863. 
That was the end of his schooling. 


During the War between the States, Mr. Emanuel was a 
member of the Washington Light infantry, Company A, Hamp- 
ton legion, Gary's brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. After 
the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox, in 1865, Mr. 
Emanuel began clerking for Francis Murphy, in Charleston, 
South Carolina. In 1876 he commenced the study of law on his 
plantation on John's Island. In February or March, 1877, he 
removed to Aiken, read law under D. S. Henderson a few months 
and, in 1877, was admitted to practice at the bar. However, he 
did not confine himself to the practice of law. He planted, and 
operated a cotton mill and gins on John's Island until 1877, his 
brand of cotton being regarded with favor in Europe. He was 
one of the founders of, and is now (1907) attorney for, the 
recently organized Farmers and Merchants Bank of Aiken, South 

Mr. Emanuel has been a deacon and is now an elder in the 
Presbyterian church. He has never cared for political life as it 
has existed in South Carolina since 1877. He was a member of 
the State Democratic convention which sent delegates to Chicago 
to nominate Grover Cleveland. He has served as mayor of 
Aiken. During his term he helped to bring about the electric 
railway connection with Augusta, Georgia. His administration 
disentangled the finances of his city and placed its credit upon 
a solid basis. 

Mr. Emanuel has also been interested in practical science. 
He discovered that sulphate of aluminum and sulphur heated 
together in a closed retort produced a remarkably good quality 
of oxide of aluminum, and the sulphur could be recovered as 
sulphurous oxide (or acid gas). This process he patented about 
1890. In 1898 he also patented in the United States and Europe 
improved galvanic batteries. In order to develop manufactures 
of products of Aiken county clays into alumina, he demonstrated 
in a laboratory the practicability of his method. The panic in 
1893 compelled him to abandon his investigations, but, before 
doing so, he convinced himself that the clay mines of South 
Carolina would, in the future, become the basis of an immense 
investment of capital, the only problem being that of available 
fuel supply. 

Mr. Emanuel has been commander of Barnard E. Camp 
No. 84, United Confederate veterans, but declined reelection. He 


has since been elected colonel of the regiment composed of all the 
camps of United Confederate veterans of Aiken county, South 
Carolina. He is a Democrat in politics. His relaxation is found 
in field sports of all kinds. His ideal in life has been not so 
much to shine in any profession as to make the most of the 
opportunity afforded by his environment to be a useful member 
of human society. He has been ambitious to make his life a 
success, but to be a good, rather than a great, man. His biogra- 
phy has been published by Garlington and others. 

On December 24, 1868, he married Miss Amelia Josephine 
Wilson, daughter of Major I. K. Wilson. 

His address is Aiken, South Carolina. 

VoL I 8. 0. 6 



>VANS, JOHN GARY, lawyer, legislator, veteran of the 
Spanish war, ex-governor of South Carolina, was born 
at Abbeville, October 15, 1863. His father was Nathan 
George Evans, a soldier, who neither sought nor held any public 
office, and whose most marked characteristic his son declares to 
be that he was "a fighter." His mother was Ann Victoria Gary, 
and her son feels that her influence was strong upon his intel- 
lectual development and in his moral and spiritual life. A full 
genealogy of the Evans family has been compiled by James 
Evans, of Philadelphia. 

Passing his boyhood in a village, and possessed of fairly 
good health, he found his two strongest tastes and interests 
during childhood in books and fishing. While Governor Evans, 
like other boys who were born at about the time of the War 
between the States, was trained to the performance of "chores 
about the house," he does not think that this had any particular 
effect either way upon his character. 

By the easy circumstances of his family, the way to a liberal 
education was opened to him without the need of work by him 
for self-support. He was prepared for college at Cokesbury 
Conference school. He entered Union college at Schenectady, 
New York; but left that institution in his junior year. His 
habits of reading were already formed; and from his boyhood 
he had found especial delight in history, biography, and essays. 
The law as a profession was his own personal choice; and he 
began the study of law as a clerk in the office of his uncle, 
William T. Gary, in Augusta, Georgia. He was admitted to 
the bar of South Carolina in 1887, and settled in Aiken, South 

In 1888 he was elected a member of the house of represen- 
tatives of South Carolina, and in 1890 he was reflected, from 
Aiken. In 1892 he was elected (still from Aiken) to the state 
senate, where he served for two years. In 1894 he was chosen 
governor of South Carolina, serving until 1897. In 1895 he was 
elected president of the State Constitutional convention. 


At the breaking out of the war with Spain, in 1898, 
Governor Evans was commissioned major in the United States 
volunteer service. He served on the staff of Major-General 
Keifer. Transferred to Havana, on the staff of Major-General 
Ludlow, he was placed in charge of the city government of 
Havana. He organized the first court after the American order 
in those islands. He was commissioned May 12, 1898, and was 
mustered out in May, 1899. 

He is a member of the Democratic party. He has been for 
years a director of the Bank of Aiken, and a director of the 
Carolina and Georgia railway. 

He is a Mason, a Knight of Pythias, a Woodman of the 
World, and a member of the Order of Red Men. In college he 
was a member of the Delta Phi fraternity; and he is now a 
member of the Union College Alumni club, of the Delta Phi club, 
of the Waterbury club, and of the South Carolina Historical 

/ / 

society. He is an attendant upon the services of the Episcopal 
church. His favorite modes of exercise and amusement are fish- 
ing, horseback riding, and planting and gardening. 

Governor Evans places the influence of his early home first 
in importance in shaping his later life. He says: "I came in 
contact there with men in active life who stimulated my ambi- 
tion, and with women who were proud of my successes. Private 
study was made necessary, and furnished the weapons for later 
contests." Questioned as to the source of his first strong impulse 
to win political prizes, he writes: "I was always ambitious. I 
entered politics from a deep sense of the injustice done my uncle, 
M. W. Gary, by the ring of politicians in South Carolina; but 
afterwards I became deeply interested in the problems which 
concerned us in our state." 

Governor Evans was married on December 15, 1897, to Miss 
Emily Mansfield Plume, daughter of David Scott Plume and 
Abbie Cameron Plume, of Waterbury, Connecticut. They have 
had one child. 

Their residence is Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


in 1898 candidate for governor of South Carolina, was 
born at Laurens, South Carolina, December 1, 1864. His 
father, J. C. C. Featherstone, was an attorney at law and a 
member of the legislature of South Carolina ; and his son speaks 
of him as characterized by "thoroughness and conscientiousness." 

The earliest American ancestors of the family were two 
brothers Featherstone, who emigrated from London to Virginia, 
settling in Culpeper county. 

His early years were passed in Anderson, South Carolina. 
In his boyhood he was trained to the performance of certain 
regular tasks which involved manual labor. His opportunities 
for study in school were restricted. He was compelled to leave 
the high school before graduation and to engage in work for 
self-support. When he was sixteen he entered a printing office 
and spent a year in learning that trade, but the fact that his 
father was a lawyer, and the vivid impression made upon him 
by scenes which he witnessed as a boy in the county court-house 
while court was in session, inclined him strongly to the study 
of the law. 

After a year in the printing office he became a clerk in a 
mercantile establishment, engaging in that occupation from the 
time he was seventeen until he was twenty. The study of law 
then engaged his attention and filled his time; and after he was 
admitted to the bar he took up the practice of law at Laurens, 
South Carolina, in 1887. 

Mr. Featherstone has never held political office. He was a 
trustee of the graded schools of Laurens for a number of years, 
and in 1898 he was a candidate for governor of South Carolina. 
He failed of election by less than four thousand votes. 

In his political convictions and relations he has always been 
identified with the Democratic party, giving his hearty allegi- 
ance to the measures and the candidates of that organization. 

He is a member of the Methodist Church, South, and is 
steward of the Methodist church at Laurens, and superintendent 
of the Sunday school of that church. 


On October 10, 1903, he married Miss Lura Lucretia Pitts. 
They have had three children, all of whom are living in 1907. 

Mr. Featherstone is a Mason, and a member of the Knights 
of Pythias. He finds amusement and exercise in horseback 
riding, hunting, and fishing. As suggestions to young Ameri- 
cans designed to promote their true success in life, he writes: 
"Honesty and perseverance and hard work are the requisites to 
success in life. My advice to young men is, be sober, honest and 
industrious. This will insure you true success. Without these 
virtues, success is not possible." 

The address of Mr. Featherstone is Laurens, South Carolina. 



FICKEN, JOHN FREDERICK, the only son of John 
Frederick and Rebecca (Beversen) Ficken, was born in 
Charleston, South Carolina, June 16, 1843. His parents 
were natives of Hanover, Prussia, who settled in Charleston early 
in the nineteenth century. His father was a merchant, who was 
highly successful, his probity and ability justly securing him 
universal esteem. 

The son, after having the advantages of the best private 
schools of his native city, matriculated as a student in the 
College of Charleston. The momentous struggle of the South 
for constitutional rights began during his collegiate course, and 
he was soon enrolled in the Confederate States army in the 
defence of his section, serving efficiently when needed at various 
times in the vicinity of Charleston and Georgetown, on Sullivan's 
Island, and at Fort Johnson in Charleston harbor. He subse- 
quently became a member of the German artillery, Company B, 
under command of Captain Franz Melchers, and served with 
that company at Battery White, near Georgetown, South Caro- 
lina. By a special order of the secretary of war, he, and other 
members of his college class, were for a few months detached 
from service in the field to enable them to complete their college 
course, being momentarily subject to recall. In the meanwhile 
they performed garrison duty in Charleston as occasion required. 
He was graduated from the College of Charleston with the 
degree of A. B., in 1864, and at once rejoined his command at 
Battery White, but his health from childhood being delicate, 
gave way, and he was detailed for duty at the headquarters of 
Major- General Samuel Jones, commanding the department of 
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, and served in this position 
continuously under the several department commanders until the 
dissolution of the department by the conclusion of hostilities. 

The pious counsels of his devoted mother had a potent influ- 
ence with him in directing his energies. He was a close student, 
and fond of reading, his preference being for works of history. 
He early decided upon the profession of law, and after the close 
of the war he entered upon its study in the office of the late 

''ifrta Lj&mpsrtZA. 


Colonel John Phillips, in Charleston. In 1869 he went abroad 
and took a course in civil law in the University of Berlin; 
returning to Charleston in 1870, he commenced the practice of 
law. His alma mater, the College of Charleston, conferred on 
him the degree of Master of Arts the same year. 

In politics Mr. Ficken has been a consistent Democrat and 
constant in his advocacy of the best interests of his native state, 
his party, and his country as he held each. In 1877 he was 
elected a member of the house of representatives of the state of 
South Carolina, in which he served continuously and acceptably 
until his resignation, in December, 1891, to enter upon the duties 
of mayor of Charleston, South Carolina, to which he had been 
elected for the term of four years, at the conclusion of which he 
declined to become a candidate for reelection. His administra- 
tion was a progressive one, his final review presenting the city 
as materially prosperous and in an improved financial condition. 

He has been a consistent member of the Lutheran church, 
with which his ancestors were identified. 

Of a social nature, he has cheerfully given his influence for 
good when he deemed it opportune. He is a member and an 
ex-president of the German Friendly society of Charleston, South 
Carolina, a time-honored organization founded in 1766. He is 
also prominent in the Masonic fraternity, having attained the 
thirty-third degree of the Scottish Rite. His determination, as 
he states it, "to be true to his own manhood, honest in all his 
dealings with others, and to strive for thoroughness in every 
work undertaken," has secured the legitimate result success and 
the esteem of his fellow-citizens. He has served as a member 
of several State Democratic conventions, and was a member of 
the National Democratic convention which met at St. Louis, 
Missouri, in 1876, and which body nominated Samuel J. Tilden 
for the presidency of the United States. Mr. Ficken is president 
of the board of trustees of the College of Charleston, a trustee 
of Newberry college, of South Carolina, and of the Medical 
college of South Carolina. 

In 1902 he accepted the presidency of the South Carolina 
Loan and Trust company, which financial position he still (1907) 
holds, and also continues in the practice of his chosen profession 
as a member of the law firm of Ficken, Hughes & Ficken. 


Mr. Ficken has been twice married; first, on May 30, 1871, 
to Margaret B. Horlbeck, daughter of Henry Horlbeck, Esquire, 
of Charleston, South Carolina. She died in 1873, leaving one 
child, Henry Horlbeck Ficken, who is now associated with his 
father in the practice of law. Mr. Ficken married second, on 
January 12, 1887, Emma Julia Blum, only daughter of the late 
Colonel J. C. Blum, of Charleston, South Carolina. 

His address is 94 Rutledge avenue, Charleston, Charleston 
county, South Carolina. 



>OSTER, ALFRED HARRISON, merchant and planter, 
was born in Union county, December 7, 1835, the son 
of Joseph Foster and Minerva Margery (Means) Foster. 
His father's occupation was that which the son has followed, 
merchandising and planting. The earliest known ancestor of the 
family in America was Reginald Foster, who came from England 
and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts, about 1638. One of his 
descendants, Abiel Foster (the grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch), was a graduate of Harvard college and a member of 
the house of representatives, and later of the senate of New 
Hampshire, and president of the senate; a member of congress 
from New Hampshire for several terms, and distinguished by 
the close personal friendship of General Washington. Abiel 
Foster was present when Washington resigned his commission 
in 1783, and his face is depicted in Trumbull's picture in the 
rotunda of the capitol at Washington. His great-grandson is 
now in possession of an exceptionally fine miniature of President 
Washington, which was given to Abiel Foster by General Wash- 
ington in token of esteem and friendship. 

Born in Union county, and passing his early life in village 
or country, Alfred Foster's education began at home and con- 
tinued in the country schools within his reach, was completed, 
so far as schools have educated him, by attendance upon the 
village academy of Spartanburg. He then became a clerk in his 
father's store and engaged with his father in the business of 
planting as well as store-keeping. 

When he was twenty-six the outbreak of the War between 
the States appealed strongly to his love of his own common- 
wealth; and he promptly volunteered (April 13, 1861), serving 
for a year as captain of Company F, Fifth South Carolina 
volunteers. He was then elected captain of Company D, Pal- 
metto sharpshooters, and served as such during the remainder 
of the war. He took part in the first battle of Manassas, 1861, 
and in all the principal engagements of the Army of Northern 
Virginia excepting Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He was 
with General Longstreet in his East Tennessee campaign. At 


Appomattox, April 9, 1865, at the time of the surrender, he was 
in command of his regiment. 

Three years after the war he began, in 1868, the business of 
merchandising at Union, South Carolina, which he has continued 
until the present time (1907). He has also been a planter during 
most of these years. 

He votes and acts with the Democratic party. By education 
he affiliates with the Presbvterian church. 


On August 31, 1876, he married Miss Hettie V. Brandon. 
They have had four children, of whom three are living in 1907. 
His address is Union, South Carolina. 


F BASER, HUGH WILSON, of Georgetown, South Caro- 
lina, constructing civil engineer, since 1903 cashier of the 
Peoples Bank of Georgetown, and since January 1, 1906, 
mayor of Georgetown, was born June 30, 1872, in the city where 
he still resides. His father, Samuel Sidney Fraser, was for 
years identified with the fire insurance business of that city, and 
served as chairman of the Democratic County committee in 1876, 
and was county treasurer from 1877 to 1882. His mother was 
Mrs. Sarah McLeod (Wilson) Fraser. His father's family was 
descended from John Fraser, who emigrated from Scotland about 
1730 and settled in the Sumter district. The earliest known 
American ancestor of his mother's family was Hugh Wilson, 
a Huguenot exile from France, who settled in the Charleston 

Mr. Fraser is one of the group of well-educated young South 
Carolinians who, through their love of mathematics and out-of- 
door life, and their perception of the growing possibilities of 
commerce and manufacture in the South, have been led to choose 
the work of practical constructing engineers in helping to develop 
the natural resources of the New South. His early life was 
passed in the village of Georgetown, where the opportunities 
afforded by good schools were open to him; and from his very 
earliest boyhood he w r as exceptionally fond of reading. He 
attended the South Carolina Military academy, and was grad- 
uated in 1891 with the degree of Bachelor of Sciences, having 
done his best work as a student in mathematics, engineering and 
history. At once he took a place as rodman on the survey of 
the Norfolk, Wilmington and Charleston railway in North Caro- 
lina. As constructing engineer, he was engaged on the Florida 
Central and Peninsula railroad at Savannah, from 1893 to 1894. 
In 1895-96-97 he was engaged upon drainage work in Florida. 
During 1898-99 and 1900 he was in the United States Engineer 
service. From 1900 to 1903 he filled a position in railroad work 
in Georgia and Tennessee. 

On the 18th of April, 1900, Mr. Fraser married Miss Kathe- 
rine Parkhill, daughter of R. C. Parkhill, of Monticello, Florida. 


They have had three children, all of whom are living in 1907. 

In 1903 he determined to establish himself at Georgetown, 
South Carolina, and he was elected cashier of the Peoples Bank 
of Georgetown, a position which he still fills. The people in 
his native town have shown their confidence in his ability and 
their kindly feeling toward him by electing him mayor for a 
term of two years from January, 1906. 

During his college course Mr. Eraser was a member of the 
Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. He belongs to the Associated 
graduates of the South Carolina Military academy, and is a 
member of the Engineers' Association of the South. He is a 
Mason, a Knight of Pythias, and a member of the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. In his political party relations 
he is a Democrat. His religious affiliation is with the Protestant 
Episcopal church. He finds healthful exercise and recreation in 
walking and playing golf. He gives to young Americans as the 
keynote of success: "Work! The majority of the younger gen- 
eration do not seem to understand that work is necessary." 




P0BLIC T ^^ - 





>RETWELL, JOSEPH JOHN, son of Joseph Y. and 
Nancy Louisa Russell Fretwell, was born at Anderson, 
South Carolina, March 21, 1849. His father was a 
farmer, a captain in the state militia prior to the war, and a 
man noted for honesty and truthfulness. 

In boyhood Joseph Fretwell was blessed with perfect health. 
He passed his early life in the country, amusing himself with 
outdoor sports, hunting, fishing, and riding, and also assisting 
in feeding stock on the farm and often working as a hand. He 
had little time for reading, but biographies of great men inter- 
ested him most. He attended an "old-field" country school, and 
later took a business course at Bryant and Stratton's college in 
Baltimore, graduating about 1874. 

After the close of the war, Mr. Fretwell's father, then over 
sixty years of age, turned over his farm to his son of sixteen, 
placing upon him the responsibility of making the crop with the 
help of three or four hands. He made and gathered two crops 
and was well contented with his work. But one day, while in 
the field gathering corn with a negro boy, a buggy drove up and 
he was summoned to Anderson, a village of less than two thou- 
sand inhabitants, to clerk in a store. Upon his arrival he was 
employed as a helper in a general merchandise store, conducted 
by Mr. Sylvester Bleckley. Nothing was said about salary, but 
the youth entered upon the work before him with great interest 
and enthusiasm, working day and night with the determination 
to succeed. 

Five years later Mr. Bleckley made partners of three of his 
clerks, including young Fretwell. From that time the business 
flourished, and in the three years following the partners made 
considerable money. In the meantime Mr. Fretwell had mar- 


ried Miss Mary Catherine Bleckley, the second daughter of his 
former employer. He now asked for an increased share in the 
business, and from that time on the firm was composed of Messrs. 
Sylvester Bleckley, Elijah W. Brown and Mr. Fretwell, all 
equally interested. Fifteen years of business success followed, 
the trade becoming very large, when Mr. Brown withdrew from 


the firm, leaving Messrs. Bleckley and Fretwell in charge. They 
now discontinued the sale of general merchandise, taking up live 
stock, vehicles and harness. For thirty years Messrs. Bleckley 
and Fretwell were in business together, their relations being most 
harmonious. Mr. Bleckley was a man of strong impulses, gen- 
erous, but a strict disciplinarian, hewing to the line. Coming 
from ancestors who were alike rigid in their ideas and honesty 
of purpose, Mr. Fretwell easily fell in with the business views 
of his senior partner ; and, since the death of the latter, has tried 
to follow, in every respect, his teaching and example. 

At the death of Mr. Bleckley, Mr. Fretwell, who was made 
his executor and the trustee of the Bleckley estate, bought out 
the interest of his deceased partner and continued in business. 
He organized the Peoples Bank of Anderson with a capital of 
one hundred thousand dollars, and was made its president. He 
is president of the Anderson Hardware company; a director of 
the Peoples Furniture company of Anderson, and of the Isa- 
queena Cotton mills at Central, South Carolina ; president of the 
Peoples Oil and Fertilizer company, the Fretwell-Hanks com- 
pany, the Oconee County Railway company, and of the Anderson 
Guaranty and Trust company, which he has recently organized. 

With one exception, Mr. Fretwell has taken an active part 
in promoting all the mills that have been organized in and 
around his city, subscribing to their capital stock and giving 
them encouragement in other ways. The first cotton mill built 
in Anderson, the Anderson Cotton mill, was largely indebted to 
the interest taken by Mr. Fretwell's firm, and he was one of 
eight committeemen who laid the plans by which the mill was 
organized in one day's time. 

Mr. Fretwell has assisted many young men in taking part 
in different enterprises of his city and county, and is proud of 
their success. He has also assisted in all public enterprises of 
his town and county. He is not a club man, neither is he an 
officeholder, except that, in 1876, he was captain on Governor 
Hampton's staff. 

He owns the old homesteads of his father and grandfather, 
on one of which he is maintaining in comfort the old slave who 
"toted" him in childhood. 

Mr. Fretwell warns the young men of the South to avoid the 
use of whisky and tobacco in every form, and the practice of 


lying. These three evils he regards as the curse of the country. 
"If," says he, "our Southern young men want to forge to the 
front in agriculture and manufacturing, they must learn to load 
light and come often." He advises close application to business, 
punctuality, honesty, and temperance. The liberation of the 
slaves meant, in his judgment, the liberation of the South. 

Having already accumulated more than a hundred thousand 
dollars, and being in a fair way to become a millionaire in the 
next ten years, Mr. Fretwell takes a pardonable pride in the 
degree of success he has achieved, and believes that, being the 
husband of a contented and happy wife, with a family of eight 
happy children, he can easily take the first place among his 
neighbors in true happiness. 

Mr. Fretwell is a Democrat in politics, and a Baptist in 

His address is Number 737 Church street, Anderson, South 


FUR MAX. CHARLES MA XXIX G, soldier, planter, 
teacher, lawyer, and since 1893 professor of English 
literature in Clemson college. South Carolina, was born 
at Societv Hill. Darlington county. South Carolina. July 8. 1840. 

V * ' V 

His father, the Reverend James Clement Furman. D. D.. one of 
the most widely known Baptist ministers of the South, was 
president of Furman university, and was a member of the Seces- 
sion convention of his state. The earliest known ancestor of the 
family in America was John Furman. who came from England 
with Endicott and settled at Salem. Massachusetts, in 1628. 
Among his distinguished descendants, kinsmen of the subject of 
this sketch, may be named Richard Furman. D. D.. 1755-1825. 
the first president of the triennial Baptist convention, a leader 
in denominational education ; and James Kincaid. the great- 
grandfather of Professor C. M. Furman. of Scotch-Irish descent, 
who settled in South Carolina before the Revolutionary war. 
served as captain under General Marion; and after the war 
became a well-known planter and merchant, erecting the first 
cotton gin in South Carolina. 

To his mother. Harriet E. (Davis) Furman. he owes much, 
intellectually and spiritually. He writes: "She died when I 
was nine ; she trained me very carefully in the practice of the 
duties of religion." His first nine years were passed in the 
country, then for three or four years he resided at Charleston ; 

/ * *. 

and afterward at Greenville. South Carolina. The circumstances 
of his father's family were such as to make the acquisition of 
an education easy for him : and the traditions of the family were 

\. i 

in favor of scholarship. He "never did a day's work with his 
hands, until he entered the armv." In his bovhood he was fond 

/ V 

of reading, and he has read widely all his life. Hunting had 
an engrossing interest for him in childhod and early manhood. 


He studied at the High school of Charleston, from 1851 to 
1853 ; and he was graduated from Furman university in 1859. 
Choosing the profession of law. he read with the law firm of 
TThaley & Lord, at Charleston, until the war interrupted his 
studies. He entered the army. May 9. 1861. as a private in the 

Men of 

"Wfc_ ^ C 

HEV ^\ 




Palmetto Guards, the Second South Carolina regiment, in which 
he served until January, 1863, when he was transferred by 
exchange to Earle's Light battery on the South Carolina coast. 
In July, 1863, he was elected lieutenant in Company H, Six- 
teenth South Carolina volunteers; and shortly afterward he was 
promoted to the captaincy of the same company, remaining with 
that company until he was paroled after Johnston's surrender. 

After the war he was a farmer from 1865 to 1868; then as 
professor of mathematics at Bethel college, Russellville, Ken- 
tucky, he taught from 1868 until 187T. From 1878 until 1892 he 
practiced law in Greenville, South Carolina. He was assistant 
United States attorney for South Carolina from 1886 to 1889. 
In 1893 he was elected professor of English literature at Clem- 
son college, South Carolina; and he still (1907) fills that chair. 

He has always been identified politically with the Demo- 
cratic party. In college he was a member of the Chi Psi 
fraternity. His denominational relations are with the Baptist 
church. His favorite forms of sport and relaxation are bird- 
hunting and trout-fishing. 

Professor Furman married Miss F. E. Garden, in February, 
1864; and of their six children, four are now (1907) living. 
He married a second time, December 23, 1887, Miss Sallie Villi- 
pigue; and they have three children. 

Professor Furman, in suggesting to young Americans such 
views of American life as may be helpful toward success, writes : 
"I do not think that American life is different from any other, 
except that there are greater opportunities for making money. 
I think that dishonesty is our national sin. The two things all 
young men should guard against are 'graft' and drunkenness." 

His address is Clemson college, South Carolina. 

Vol. I S. C. 7 


president of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad, was born 
in the town of Summerville, state of South Carolina, on 
the 15th day of August, 1834. He was the son of the Reverend 
Philip Gadsden and his wife, Susan Brantford Hamilton. His 
father was rector of the Protestant Episcopal church of St. 
Paul's, Summerville. His character was marked by the qualities 
of simplicity and piety. 

The ancestors of the Gadsden family in South Carolina were 
Thomas and Elizabeth Gadsden, who came from England in 
1720 and settled in Charleston, South Carolina, Thomas Gadsden 
being the king's collector of customs. Among Mr. C. S. Gads- 
den's distinguished ancestors were Brigadier- General Christopher 
Gadsden of Revolutionary fame, Bishop Gadsden of South Caro- 
lina, and General James Gadsden, who negotiated the Gadsden 
purchase when minister to Mexico. General James Gadsden was 
aid-de-camp to General Andrew Jackson in the Seminole war. 

Christopher Gadsden's physical condition in childhood was 
healthy and robust. His tastes were for laborious outdoor exer- 
cises, such as cutting trees and wood for family use, and the 
enjoyment of outdoor sports. Up to the age of fourteen he lived 
in Summerville, attending his father's school, and then went as 
a cadet to the South Carolina Military academies in Columbia 
and Charleston. Graduating at the age of eighteen at the South 
Carolina Military academy, he joined a party of engineers 
engaged in railroad surveying in Mississippi, Ohio, and other 
parts of the West. In 1854 he returned to South Carolina and 
was employed in early surveys of the Charleston and Savannah 
railroad, now a portion of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad; 
and on completion of this line, took charge of the surveys of 
what was then the Port Royal railroad, now the Charleston and 
Western Carolina railroad. He was engaged in this survey and 
construction up to and including the War between the States. 
During that war Mr. Gadsden was in the military service for a 
short time along the coast of South Carolina, but upon urgent 
representations as to the necessity of the construction of the 


Port Koyal railroad for the purpose of coast defence, returned 
to the construction of said road, and was thus employed when 
Sherman's march through South Carolina terminated all enter- 
prises of this character. 

Mr. Gadsden's mother was of a strong intellectual and moral 
character, and had large influence upon the development of the 
life and character of her son. His father's means were limited, 
and he, therefore, accepted a beneficiary cadetship of the South 
Carolina Military academy. The thorough mathematical train- 
ing obtained by him at that academy fitted him for the pursuit 
of civil engineering in connection with the railroad work referred 
to above. He was graduated fifth in a class of nineteen at the 
South Carolina Military academy in 1852. He was largely influ- 
enced in the choice of his profession in life by General James 
Gadsden, his uncle, then president of the South Carolina railroad 
and afterwards minister to Mexico. 

On the 9th day of May, 1861, he married Florida I. Morrall. 
Seven children have been born to them, of whom four are now 
(1907) living. 

The main influences which have impressed themselves upon 
Mr. Gadsden's career have been, first and foremost, the influence 
of his home life; next, the exacting discipline of military train- 
ing, and the association in railroad service with men of high and 
strong character. After the close of the war, Mr. Gadsden was 
again associated with the Charleston and Savannah railroad in 
its reconstruction, then was in charge of it as superintendent for 
thirty-four years. Afterwards, in the consolidation of the Plant 
System and the Atlantic Coast Line railroads, he occupied the 
positions, respectively, of vice-president and president of different 
sections, and finally as second vice-president of the consolidated 
railroads known as the Atlantic Coast Line System. 

He has held various public positions, having been an alder- 
man of the city of Charleston for twenty successive years, and 
chairman of the board of visitors of the South Carolina Military 
academy. Mr. Gadsden's life has been mainly devoted to rail- 
road construction and management, but he has found time to 
give much thought and labor to current local, municipal, and 
state affairs, and has rendered great service to his native city in 
these regards. He is a member of the association of the Sons of 
the Revolution, being president of the South Carolina branch, 


and is also vice-president of the Alumni association of the South 
Carolina Military academy. He is a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal church. Outdoor exercises on horseback and in walk- 
ing have been his special modes of relaxation. He believes that 
the true principle of success in life is to be careful in the selection 
of one's life work, and to be constant in carrying out the object 
selected. His own career is a striking example of the soundness 
of this philosophy. 

The address of Mr. Gadsden is Number 64 Hasell street,, 
Charleston, South Carolina. 


GAGE, GEORGE WILLIAMS, lawyer, was born Feb- 
ruary 4, 1856, near Fair Forest, Union county, South 
Carolina. His parents were Robert J. and Martha 
(Williams) Gage. His father was a planter who was noted for 
his kindness of heart, clearness of intellect, and sound judgment. 
In 1835 he was a member of the general assembly from Union, 
and in 1863 he served on the board of visitors of the South 
Carolina Military academy. His mother, though an invalid 
nearly all of her life, was a woman of fine intellectual endow- 
ments, remarkable social charms, and deep piety. She was a 
great help to her children in their studies, even after they 
reached the higher grades, and was kind and helpful to all to 
whom she could render service. The first paternal ancestor in 
this country was John Gage, who came from Coleraine, Ireland. 
His father was Robert Gage, who lived and died in the old 
country. John Gage located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 
1800, and two years later removed to Union, South Carolina. 
He was the father of Robert J. Gage. On the maternal side, 
the first ancestor in America was Richard Williams, who came 
from Glamorganshire, Wales, and was living in Taunton, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1637. Edward Williams, father of Martha Wil- 
liams Gage, was fifth in the line of descent from him. For a 
long period this branch of the Williams family resided in Maine, 
and several of its members were prominent in public affairs. 

In childhood and youth George Gage lived in the country. 
His health was delicate, but his tastes were for outdoor work 
and sport, and being much in the open air gave him increased 
bodily vigor. The devastation caused by the War between the 
States placed the family in limited circumstances, and made it 
necessary for him, at a comparatively early age, to take up the 
various kinds of work which a boy on the farm is able to per- 
form. This experience taught him "the value of doing things 
for one's self," and proved of great benefit in later years. From 
1864 to 1871 he attended the inferior schools which at that time 
the country supplied. In the year last named he entered Wofford 
college, from which institution he was graduated in the summer 


of 1875 with the degree of A. B. In the following October he 
entered the employ of the Carolina Savings Bank, Charleston, 
South Carolina, where he remained for three years. Afterward 
he studied law at Vanderbilt university, from which institution 
he was graduated in 1880 with the degree of LL. B. In this 
course he also won the "Founder's Medal" for scholarship in 
law. Immediately after his graduation he opened a law office in 
Chester, South Carolina. For a time he was associated with his 
uncle, by marriage, the late Giles J. Patterson, and the late 
T. C. Gaston, and afterward for several years with J. K. Henry. 
His natural ability, thorough preparation, and excellent judg- 
ment, soon won for him a large and lucrative practice. In 1898 
he was elected circuit judge, which office he still holds, having 
been reflected by the legislature in 1906. The political honors 
that have come to him are those of member of the Chester City 
council, 1884; presidential elector, 1888; member of the State 
Constitutional convention, 1895, and member of the State legis- 
lature, 1897. 

His principal difficulties in acquiring an education came 
from the necessity of strict economy. During the five years in 
college his expenses were only eleven hundred dollars. The 
books which he has found most helpful in fitting him for and 
aiding him in the work of life, he names as the Bible, ^orks 
on history, psychology, biography, and law. His first strong 
impulses to strive for the prizes he has won came from his 
admission to college at the age of fifteen and a day spent in a 
court room at Spartanburg about 1873. He was left free to 
choose his profession, and his purpose to study law was formed 
during his second year in college. In estimating the relative 
strength of various influences which have helped him in attain- 
ing success, he names those of home first. He states that his 
mother exerted a strong and inspiring influence upon his life, 
and that his parents had almost constantly at their country home 
men and women of culture and character. Next came the influ- 
ence of college, especially for its bringing him into contact with 
Doctor Carlisle, who then became, and who still remains, a great 
force in his life. Since marriage, his wife has been most encour- 
aging and helpful. 

Judge Gage has never joined any fraternal order or social 
club, finding his best entertainment with his family, his books, 


and his friends. In politics he is a lifelong Democrat. His 
religious affiliation is with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. He has never paid attention to athletics, but he enjoys 
horseback riding as a means of exercise and relaxation. His 
public services have been largely in the line of efficient and 
fruitful efforts to improve the streets, secure and maintain public 
utilities, keep the schools of his town to a high standard, and to 
strengthen the church with which he is identified. He is quick 
to see the merits of a case, and he states his views concisely and 
convincingly. Though never attempting to force his opinions 
upon others, he is free to state his convictions at suitable times, 
and he does so without regard to their effect upon his popularity. 
When they are in the right, he is always ready to take the part 
of the weak, and he cheerfully commends good conduct of the 
obscure and unknown. 

In order to help young people who may read his biography, 
Judge Gage says that any falling short of what he had hoped to 
do in life has been due to "the failure to always realize that the 
prizes of life lie in 'this day.' 

On December 21, 1881, Judge Gage was married to Janie, 
daughter of Captain J. Lucius and Margaret Hemphill Gaston, 
thus becoming allied with some of the oldest and most highly 
honored families of the South. Of their seven children, six are 
living in 1907. 

The home of the family is in Chester, South Carolina. 


GILLAND, THOMAS McDOWELL, lawyer, ex-member 
of the house of representatives, and for a term, from 
1884, solicitor of the third circuit, was born in Oakley, 
Chester county, South Carolina, July 6, 1848. He is a son of 
Kev. James R. Gilland, a Presbyterian minister and a teacher, 

/ / * 

at one time professor in Davidson college. 

He was born in the home of his grandfather, Dr. W. S. 
Gibbes. His mother, Mrs. Mary Caroline (Gibbes) Gilland, was 
a daughter of Dr. Wilmot S. Gibbes, a granddaughter of Chan- 
cellor DeSaussure, and a descendant of Robert Gibbes, chief 
justice of South Carolina in 1708. 

His father, who was and is a practical teacher as well as a 
preacher, prepared him for college. His son writes: "It was 
while I was under my father's training that I acquired a con- 
tempt for all meanness and prevarication which has followed me 
I trust as a characteristic throughout my life." At the time 
when he would naturally have entered college, the breaking out 
of the War between the States, and the call of his state for the 
service of its old men and its boys, took him into the South 
Carolina state troops, where he served as first lieutenant of his 
company. At the close of the war there was little opportunity 
for well-paid employment, and he continued at home prosecuting 
his studies. In 1866 he taught school for a year in the lower 
part of Richland county, and in this year saved enough money 
to take him to college. In 1867 he entered the South Carolina 
university, and continued a student there for one year as long 
a time as the funds at his disposal would support him. He then 
taught school for a year in Franklin county, Pennsylvania. The 
next year he taught at Hagerstown, Maryland; and while teach- 
ing he began the study of law in the office of Major Henry Kyd 
Douglas, formerly a member of the staff of General Stonewall 
Jackson, by whom Mr. Gilland was prepared for the bar. 

Returning to South Carolina in the early part of 1870, he 
took up his residence for the practice of law at Kingstree, in 
Williamsburg county. In 1880 he was elected to the house of 
representatives from that county, serving for one term. In 1884 


he was elected solicitor of the third circuit and served for one 
term. In 1895 he was a member of the Constitutional convention 
called to prepare an amended constitution for the state of South 

He is allied with the Democratic party. By religious con- 
viction he is connected with the Presbyterian Church, South. 

On April 1, 1877, he married Miss Louise Brockinton. They 
have had eight children, two of whom died in infancy, while six 
are living in 1907. The oldest son of the family, having taken 
an academic course and a professional course in law at the South 
Carolina college, is now associated with his father in the practice 
of law. 

His address is Kingstree, Williamsburg county, South Caro- 


GLENN, JOHN LYLES, lawyer and banker, was born 
in the country, where the present village of Lowryville 
stands, Chester county, South Carolina, April 26, 1858. 
His parents were Ephraim Lyles and Louisa Holmes (Carter) 
Glenn. His father was a physician in Chester county for many 
years. He was successful in his profession, and by his high 
character and kindly disposition won the confidence and esteem 
of those who knew him. His health becoming impaired, he 
removed to York county, South Carolina, and gave most of his 
time to the cultivation of a farm. The earliest ancestors of the 
family to settle in this country came from the north of Scotland. 
Of these, Nathan Glenn, who lived in Cumberland county, Vir- 
ginia, about 1735 bought a large tract of land along Broad river 
in what is now Union county, South Carolina. His brother, 
James, purchased a tract on the other side of the river, now 
Chester county. The Glenn family was well represented in the 
war of the Revolution. James Glanton Glenn, a son of Spillsbey 
Glenn, and grandson of Nathan Glenn, just named, married Eliza 
Lyles, and from this marriage was born Dr. Ephraim Lyles 
Glenn, the father of John Lyles Glenn. Eliza Lyles was a 
daughter of Ephraim Lyles, who was a son of Colonel Aromanus 
Lyles, of the Revolution. The Lyles were among the earliest 
settlers along Broad river, and one of the family, Aromanus, who 
was born in 1748, was the first white male child born in Fairfield 
county. He reached the rank of colonel in the Revolution. The 
family has long been prominent in public affairs. The Carter 
family, into which the father of the subject of this sketch mar- 
ried, settled in Maryland, but about the time of the Revolution 
they removed to Chester county, South Carolina, and have always 
been respected and influential. 

In childhood and youth John Lyles Glenn was well and 
strong. His home life was pleasant; and though she died when 
he was only thirteen years of age, his mother exerted a powerful 
and enduring influence upon him for good. Among other things, 
she helped him to overcome a naturally indolent disposition. At 
that time the schools in his neighborhood were very poor, and he 





had to change schools or teachers every year. Because of this 
his early education was defective. He succeeded, however, in 
preparing for and securing admission to Wofford college. He 
took the full course of study in this institution and was grad- 
uated therefrom, with the degree of A. B., in 1879. Having read 
law for a year in the office of Patterson & Gaston, in Chester, 
South Carolina, he then studied for one year, 1880-81, in the law 
department of Vanderbilt university. In the fall of the year 
last named he commenced the practice of law in Chester, South 
Carolina, which he has continued with great success. For a 
number of years he has given a large part of his time to railroad 
and other corporation cases, in which line he takes a high rank 
among the lawyers in his state. He has long been district counsel 
for the Seaboard Air Line railway, and attorney for the Lan- 
caster and Chester railway and for local cotton mills. Mr. Glenn 
was associated in the first years of his practice with T. E. McLure, 
Esquire, the firm being Glenn & McLure. This partnership was 
dissolved by the untimely death of Mr. McLure. Mr. Glenn then 
practiced alone until the formation of the firm of Glenn & 
McFadden in 1894, S. E. McFadden, Esquire, being the junior 
member of the firm. This firm is one of the best known and 
most successful in upper South Carolina. 

For some years prior to 1903, in which year he became its 
president, he was a director and the attorney for the Exchange 
Bank of Chester, South Carolina. He has always taken a deep 
interest in the welfare of his town and state. For several years 
he was chairman of the board of trustees of public schools in 
Chester and did much to elevate the character and increase the 
efficiency of these schools. He was chairman of the commis- 
sioners of public works when water, sewerage and electric lights 
were installed in Chester. He was active in the building and 
improvement of the church of which he is a member. He was a 
member of the Constitutional convention of 1895, and is now 
(1907) a trustee of Wofford college. In 1898 he was elected 
to the state senate, but at the end of the term he declined a 

In regard to the influences, aside from those of home, which 
helped him greatly in his struggle for success, Mr. Glenn says 
that entering college was a turning point for the better in his 
life. It awakened an ambition to do something in the world, 


and the faculty of Wofford college did much to help him. In the 
choice of a profession he was free to follow his own inclination. 
He has never taken a course in physical culture, but finds plenty 
of exercise and recreation in looking after the affairs of his farm. 
When in college he joined the Chi Phi fraternity, and he is now 
a member of the Blue Lodge and Chapter Masons, at Chester. 
In politics he has always been a Democrat. His religious con- 
nection is with the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is 
an active and efficient member. 

In response to a request for suggestions which will help young 
Americans to win success in life, he says : "Too many desire and 
expect success without being willing to work sufficiently for it. 
They expect that which they do not really deserve. They are 
not willing to labor and wait. They expect results too quick." 
Mr. Glenn is a man of strong convictions, but he is always 
tolerant of the opinions of others. 

On April 26, 1883, Mr. Glenn was married to Miss Alice 
Hall. Of their nine children, eight are now (1907) living. Mrs. 
Glenn, on her father's side, is a descendant of the Halls of Fair- 
field, and, on her mother's side, of the Hardins of Chester. 

The postoffice address of Mr. Glenn is Chester, South Caro- 



/ ' f.. 


GOSSETT, JAMES PLEASANT, son of Pleasant Tollison 
and Elizabeth (Steen) Gossett, was born at Rich Hill, 
Spartanburg county, South Carolina, September 23, 
1860. His father was a planter and breeder of live stock; a 
Jeffersonian Democrat of the old school ; and a firm believer and 
advocate of the doctrine of "states rights and a general govern- 
ment of carefully defined powers." 

According to tradition, the family is of Norman origin, and 
were strong Protestants. A branch settled in France, but took 
refuge in England upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
in 1685. Mr. Gossett's paternal great great-grandfather, John 
Gossett, is supposed to have descended from this family and to 
be related to the family of the same name now in England. 
He came to America just prior to the Revolution and settled in 
Virginia. In 1777 he enlisted in the Continental army and served 
throughout the war. The name "Steen," the mother's family 
name, is Scandinavian and indicative of solidity and strength 
of character. The early possessors of the name lived in Norway 
and Denmark, one being an officer in the army of Gustavus 
Adolphus at the time he invaded Germany to rescue the Protes- 
tants from the tyranny of the house of Hapsburg. Mr. Gossett's 
maternal great great-grandfather, James Steen, was born in Ire- 
land, near "The Vow" in County Antrim, Province of Ulster, 
about 1734. He came to America about 1755, and settled in 
Union district, South Carolina, where he married. He fought in 
the Revolution and was killed in the battle of King's Mountain, 
October 7, 1780. 

The Steens are Scotch-Irish, and have a familv crest, or 

s / 

coat-of-arms, which has been in use for more than two hundred 
and fifty years. Its rightful color is Presbyterian true-blue, 
which symbolizes fidelity. It represents the fabled Phoenix bird 
rising from its own ashes, with extended wings ready to fly 
away an emblem of faith in God and hope of immortality. 
They also have a genealogical history which runs back for several 
hundred years and includes the celebrated Dutch painter, Jan 


Steen, whose paintings are on exhibition at the Koyal Museum 
and Picture Gallery at The Hague. 

Young Gossett was brought up in the country ; he was strong 
and robust, and fond of athletic sports of all kinds. His father, 
at the time of his son's birth, was a prosperous planter and slave 
owner, but he lost all in the war. The mother died in 1869 and 
the father in 1870, leaving eight children. Their property was 
sold at ruinous prices to satisfy pressing debts, in consequence 
of which the children were left homeless. This was during the 
trying days when the state was overrun by the negro and the 
carpetbagger, then by the Kuklux Klan, and later by the Federal 
troops; each, at such times, thought first of himself, and little 
provision was made for the destitute. There were no charitable 
institutions in which the orphans could take refuge and they were 
scattered among neighbors and relatives. James was assigned to 
Eli Bryant, a farmer, near Glendale, Spartanburg county, to 
work until twenty-one years of age, at which time he was to 
receive "a horse, bridle and saddle, and $50 bounty," with no 
mention made as to the quality of the horse. The old man was 
unlearned, but a hardy and rugged yeoman, who, by hard labor 
and economy, had accumulated means. He rose before day, and, 
with plow in the field, waited for light to run the furrow. Here 
he remained until the stars came out at night. The boy was 
with him, learning all kinds of farm work. He loved work and 
the fields, but longed for books and school. These, to the old 
man, were vain and hurtful. Realizing that if he were ever to 
be more than "a hewer of wood and drawer of water" it must 
be by his own efforts, the boy pressed the old man time and 
again either to send him to school or release him. Both alter- 
natives being refused, James deliberately and openly left, without 
a change of clothing or a cent in his pocket. He finally settled 
at Colerain, Union county, with C. P. Brown, an old friend of 
his father, who paid young Gossett seventy-two dollars, with 
"board and washing," for his first year's work. Mr. Brown was 
a prosperous merchant and planter and encouraged the boy's 
ambition for an education. He aided him in saving, in three 
years, one hundred dollars, with which sum the youth, on Jan- 
uary 1, 1878, entered the high school at Pacolet, South Carolina, 
under Professor L. B. Haynes. Though eighteen years old, 
James was assigned to class work with children of ten and 


twelve; but his determination to succeed overcame all obstacles. 
He bought provisions, hired his cooking done, and paid his own 
way with the proceeds of his earlier savings and of cotton raised 
while in school. In his teachers, especially Professor John G. 
Clinkscales, he found fast friends. In 1880 he secured a first 
grade certificate to teach in Spartanburg county, and taught for 
three months with complete success. He then accepted a position 
as salesman in the store of Rogers & Clinkscales, remaining 
during 1880-81. In 1882 he accepted the position as salesman 
and traveling agent with Wilkins, Poe & Company, of Green- 
ville, South Carolina, remaining until 1886, when he entered the 
service of William Brice & Company, wholesale hardware mer- 
chants of New York City, as traveling salesman. Upon the 
death of Mr. Brice, in the fall of 1887, Mr. Gossett went with 
the Bay State Shoe and Leather company, of New York City, 
traveling for them until 1902. He assisted in the organization 
of the Williamston Oil and Fertilizer company, and served as 
its president from 1895 to 1902. In 1899 he organized the Bank 
of Williamston, and became its president January 1, 1900. He 
also became president and treasurer of the Williamston mills 
December 14, 1901, both of which positions he still holds. 

In 1876 he was a member of the ; 'Red Shirt" organization, 
which overthrew negro domination and reestablished white 

Mr. Gossett is a Master, Royal Arch, and Council Mason, 
a member of the South Carolina Bankers association, the South 
Carolina Traffic association, the Cotton Manufacturers Associa- 
tion of South Carolina, the American Cotton Manufacturers 
association, and the American Asiatic association. 

Mr. Gossett was married on November 20, 1883, to Miss 
Sallie Acker Brown, the eldest daughter of Doctor Benjamin 
Franklin and Sallie Wideman Brown. Eight children have been 
born to them, five of whom are now (1907) living. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gossett reside at "The Oaks," their home, in the beautiful 
little town of Williamston, South Carolina. 


HAMER, ROBERT PICKET, of Dillon, Marion county, 
South Carolina, planter, and president of the Ilamer 
Cotton mills, was born at Little Rock, Marion county, 
on the 15th of September, 1838. His father was a planter, a 
magistrate, a commissioner of public buildings, and a man whose 
whole life was characterized by an interest in good citizenship, 
Robert Cockran Hamer. His mother, Mary Bethea Hamer, died 
when her son, Robert P. Hamer, was but one year old; and one 
of his aunts cared for him through his boyhood. His father's 
family were of English descent, and the first American ancestors 
of whom they have a record settled in Maryland. 

His boyhood was passed in the country ; and the poor health 
which he knew as a little child led him to delight in the out-of- 
door life of a plantation, particularly in the live stock, and, most 
of all, in horses. It was part of the wise plan of his father 
always to keep the boy employed, certain duties about the home 
and the farm inculcating orderly habits and giving to him, even 
in the early years of his boyhood, a sense that he was trusted 
by his father and that he was of use. 

He attended the Little Rock academy; but his health con- 
tinued so delicate that his father was unwilling to allow the 
son to attend college. He began the active business of life for 
himself in planting and farming in 1859. Before he had reached 
middle life he became a large and prosperous land owner, owning 
nearly three thousand acres of desirable land, and cultivating 
about eight hundred acres, while some six hundred acres are in 
pasture land, and fourteen hundred acres are of fine timber. 
From eighteen acres of his cotton land he recently gathered three 
thousand six hundred pounds of seed cotton per acre in one year's 
crop. As a planter, Mr. Hamer has interested himself in varied 
agriculture, peas, forage, corn and fodder, sharing his attention 
with cotton ; while thoroughbred horses and Jersey cattle receive 
a share of his attention. 

After attaining decided success as a farmer, Mr. Hamer 
interested himself in banking and manufacturing. He is a direc- 


tor of the Merchants and Farmers Bank, of Marion, South 
Carolina, and he is president of the Hamer Cotton mill. 

He has never offered himself as a candidate for public office, 
although his fellow-citizens have frequently requested him to do 
so. He has contented himself with the practical service which 
he could render to the public interests of his community as 
commissioner of roads and as school trustee. 

During the War between the States he saw a year of service 
as a private in the Confederate army. He is connected with the 
Democratic party, and declares that he has never changed his 
allegiance, "unless the avowed advocacy of Cleveland as a can- 
didate should be considered a change from Democracy." Mr. 
Hamer is also a member of the order of Masons. He is connected 
with the Methodist church. He has found sufficient exercise 
and amusement, he says, "in his daily business"; and following 
diversified pursuits as he has done in combining farming with 
manufacturing and banking, it is evident that the relaxation 
which comes from a change in the kind of effort put forth is 
made possible in the routine of Mr. Hamer's daily business. 

He was married to Miss Sallie D. McCall on the 31st of 
October, 1859. They have had fourteen children, nine of whom 
are living in 1907. 

Vol. I S. C. 8 


HASKELL, ALEXANDEE CHEVES, soldier, lawyer, 
jurist, financier, and business executive, was born in 
the Abbeville district, South Carolina, on September 
22, 1839, the son of Charles Thomson and Sophia L. (Cheves) 
Haskell. He is the scion of an old American family of English 
origin, which antedated the Revolutionary era. Elnathan Has- 
kell came to South Carolina with General Howe when he took 
command at Charleston, and left the army with the rank of 
major, subsequently settling in St. Matthew's parish, near Fort 
Mott, South Carolina. Here he married Charlotte Thomson, a 
daughter of Colonel William Thomson, who commanded the 
Carolinian Rifle rangers, organized in the state in 1775. Major 
Haskell's death took place on December 21, 1825, at Zantee, his 
country estate in Orangeburg district, South Carolina. 

Among the children of Major Haskell was Charles Thomson 
Haskell, father of Alexander Cheves Haskell, who was born in 
1802. The elder Haskell was a prominent planter, and gained a 
wide celebrity in many portions of the state for his hospitality, 
genial companionship, and many other excellent traits of char- 
acter. For a number of years he served in the South Carolina 
house of representatives, and was generally active in the public 
life of the state. On December 1, 1830, he married Sophia L. 
Cheves, daughter of Langdon Cheves, of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, and they had a family of ten children, of whom Alexander 
C. was the sixth in order of birth. 

In early years, as was the custom in the best Southern fam- 
ilies, Alexander Haskell was educated at home under private 
instructors. When about fifteen years of age he attended a school 
for some time at Charleston, South Carolina. In 1856 he entered 
South Carolina college, at Columbia, from which he was gradu- 
ated with high honors in 1860. Among his classmates was T. M. 
Logan, who subsequently rose to the rank of brigadier-general 
in the Confederate army, and left a noble record of conspicuous 

On January 3, 1861, young Haskell enlisted as a private in 
Company D, First regiment, South Carolina Volunteer infantry, 



under the command of Colonel Maxcy Gregg. The original term 
of enlistment for the regiment was six months, but at the expi- 
ration of that time it was reorganized, and Mr. Haskell was 
appointed adjutant, which rank he retained until November, 
1861. At that time Colonel Gregg was advanced to brigadier- 
general, and Adjutant Haskell received appointment as his chief 
of staff with the rank of captain, continuing in this position 
until the death of General Gregg at Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
in 1862. He continued on staff service under General Gregg's 
successor, General Samuel McGowan, and also under General 
Abner Perrin. In March, 1864, he was appointed colonel of 
the Seventh South Carolina cavalry, and continued in command 
of that regiment until the surrender of General Lee's forces at 
Appomattox. On this occasion he was detailed by General Wil- 
liam H. F. Lee to surrender the Confederate cavalry to General 
Merritt of the Federal army. 

During his years of military service, Colonel Haskell saw 
active duty from Sullivan's Island to Appomattox. He was 
engaged in the battles of Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, Cold Harbor, and many other important engagements 
incident to the campaigns in which his command took part. At 
the battle of Malta-dequeen Creek, in May, 1864, he was seriously 
wounded, and still carries the ball. He was also wounded and 
left on the field among the dead at Darbytown, near Richmond, 
on October 7, 1864. Previously he had sustained wounds at 
Fredericksburg, on December 12, 1862, and at Chancellorsville, 
in May, 1863. 

Upon his return from the army at the close of the war, 
Colonel Haskell began his civic career as a school teacher at 
Abbeville, South Carolina. In connection with his duties as 
schoolmaster, he simultaneously took up the study of law, which 
profession he had decided to follow. In December, 1865, he was 
admitted to the South Carolina bar, and in the same year was 
elected to the lower house of the state legislature from his native 
county. He served two years in this body, during which time 
he also pursued the practice of law, and at the end of the term 
was elected judge of the district court at Abbeville. He had just 
fairly entered upon his judicial duties when he was elected to a 
professorship of law in South Carolina university, at Columbia. 
Consequently, he resigned the judgeship in September of the 


same year to enter upon his professorship. He held the chair 
of law until July, 1868, when he was made a presidential elector, 
and took an active part in the state campaign in behalf of the 
Democratic national ticket, with great credit to himself and 
important results to the party. 

At the close of this campaign he opened a law office in 
Columbia, and shortly thereafter associated himself in the prac- 
tice of his profession with Joseph D. Pope, a partnership which 
lasted until December, 1877. In the last named year he was 
elected associate justice of the supreme court of South Carolina, 
and during a career of two years on the bench gained much 
distinction for his wide legal learning as well as for his distinct 
judicial qualities. Two years before the expiration of his term 
on the bench he resigned to accept the presidency of the Char- 
lotte, Columbia and Augusta railroad. This office he held until 
1889. Meanwhile, in 1883, he was elected president of the Colum- 
bia and Greenville railroad, which has subsequently merged with 
the former company. In his administration of these roads he 
exhibited a high order of executive ability, and showed himself 
to be a skillful financier. When they passed under a new owner- 
ship he became the chief leader in the organization of the Loan 
and Exchange Bank of South Carolina, to the presidency of 
which he was elected in 1886. He remained at the head of this 
bank until 1897. In December of that year he effected the con- 
solidation of the Loan and Exchange Bank with the Canal Bank, 
the latter going into liquidation, and its president, Mr. Edwin 
W. Robertson, becoming president of the Loan and Exchange 
Bank, with capital raised to $150,000. In 1902 the Central 
National Bank of Columbia, capital $100,000, was absorbed by 
the Loan and Exchange Bank, the capital of the latter being 
raised to $300,000. In July, 1903, the bank was converted into 
the National Loan and Exchange Bank of Columbia, with a 
capital of $500,000. Since his resignation as president in 1897, 
Judge Haskell has been vice-president, and still occupies that 
position in the National Bank. 

During the memorable campaign of 1876, Judge Haskell was 
chairman of the Democratic State Executive committee, and his 
part in the politics of the state was commendable both for wis- 
dom and generalship. At its close, when the dispute over the 


governorship had reached an acute stage, he was chosen to repre- 
sent the state at Washington to secure the recognition by the 
Federal authorities of General Wade Hampton as governor. 
After six weeks of unremitting effort, General Hampton was 
recognized and popular government vindicated through his per- 
sistence, ability and tactful conduct of the situation. From 1887 
to 1889 he was, through appointment by President Cleveland, 
one of the directors on behalf of the United States government 
of the Union Pacific railroad, and was chairman of the com- 
mittee which originally reported the plan followed in the final 
adjustment of the relations growing out of the situation. He 
was in this capacity associated with Mark Hanna, Judge Savage, 
Franklin H. McVeagh, and Frederick R. Coudert, as government 
directors. In 1890 he led the opposition to Governor B. R. 
Tillman, and received the nomination for governor as a protest 
against the issues of that well-known gubernatorial campaign. 

Judge Haskell has achieved notable success in several fields 
of endeavor. He is a brilliant lawyer, a capable jurist, an expe- 
rienced financier, a strong executive and organizer, a forceful 
advocate, whether of the cause of a client or the larger issues of 
the people, and he made an excellent record on the field of battle. 

He has been twice married. First, on September 10, 1861, 
to Rebecca C. Singleton, daughter of John and Mary Singleton, 
of Richland county, South Carolina, who died on June 20, 1862, 
leaving one daughter; and second, on November 23, 1870, to 
Alice V. Alexander, daughter of A. L. and Sarah H. Hillhouse 
Alexander, of Washington, Georgia, and sister of General E. P. 
Alexander, of Savannah. By his second marriage he had ten 
children, all of whom are now (1907) living. His second wife 
died on October 29, 1902. 

His address is Columbia, Richland county, South Carolina. 


HASKELL, JOHN CHEVES, lawyer, planter, and legis- 
lator, was born on a plantation in Abbeville county, 
South Carolina, October 21, 1841. His parents were 
Charles Thomson and Sophia Lovell (Cheves) Haskell. His 
father was an energetic and industrious man, of imperious dispo- 
sition, who owned and successfully managed a large plantation. 
Although he did not seek public life, he served for two years as 
a member of the state legislature. His mother was a daughter 
of Langdon Cheves, whose father came from Scotland and whose 
grandfather was a banker near Glasgow. Langdon Cheves 
removed to Charleston, South Carolina, and practiced law there 
with great success until he was elected to congress, where he 
served as chairman of the Ways and Means committee and suc- 
ceeded Henry Clay as speaker of the house, in which position he 
served for two terms. Later he became president of the Bank of 
the United States. After several years' service in this capacity 
he resigned and accepted the position of chairman of the com- 
mittee under the treaty of Ghent. Later he became judge of 
the circuit court of South Carolina. After resigning from this 
position he removed to Georgia, where he became a successful 
planter. The earliest ancestors of the family to come to this 
country were named Thomson, who came from Wales and settled 
in Massachusetts. Some members of the family were prominent 
in the war of the Revolution. One of them came to South 
Carolina with General Gates, married and made his home in 
Charleston, and conducted farming operations on a large scale 
in Orangeburg county. 

Until he was seventeen years of age, John Haskell lived on 
his father's plantation in Abbeville county. He attended the 
local schools and then entered the famous school of Searle, Miles 
and Sachtleben, in Charleston, where he was prepared for college. 
His favorite books were works on history and biography 
especially Plutarch's Lives. In December, 1859, he entered the 
South Carolina college, at Columbia. Here he remained until 
the opening of the War between the States. Early in April, 
1861, he entered the Confederate States army and was serving 

SKfi efjWarkl 


on Sullivan's Island as courier and volunteer aide to Colonel 
Richard Anderson when Fort Sumter fell. He was promoted 
junior lieutenant of Company A, First South Carolina regulars. 
After the surrender of Fort Sumter the company was equipped 
as a light battery and was sent to Virginia soon after the first 
battle of Manassas. He reached the rank of colonel, took part 
in many battles, and won the esteem of his commanders and of 
his comrades. After the close of the war he located in Missis- 
sippi, and for ten years was engaged in planting, but during the 
last two years of the time he read law, and at the expiration of 
that period he was admitted to the Mississippi bar. In 1877, 
Mr. Haskell removed to South Carolina and was elected a mem- 
ber of the state legislature and by successive reelections continued 
in that capacity until 1896. During the last four years of his 
legislative service he was chairman of the Ways and Means com- 
mittee. When the Tillman forces gained control of the state, 
Mr. Haskell resigned from the legislature and since that time he 
has not held public office. For two years after returning to his 
native state he gave much time to planting. He then removed 
to Columbia, where, when not engaged in legislative duties, he 
practiced law with great success, until 1890, when he became 
receiver of a railroad and also of a company which was engaged 
in mining coal and iron ore and operating furnaces at Bristol, 
Virginia. He was engaged in this work until 1896, when he 
received an injury which disabled him, temporarily, from active 
service. He is a member of the D. K. E. fraternity and of the 
Clariosophic society of the South Carolina college. In politics 
he has always been a Democrat. His religious affiliation is with 
the Protestant Episcopal church. 

In 1865, Mr. Haskell was married to Sallie Hampton, daugh- 
ter of General Wade Hampton, of South Carolina, who died in 
1886. In 1896 he married Lucy Hampton, daughter of Colonel 
Frank Hampton. Of his four children, by his first wife, all are 
living in 1907. 

His postoffice address is Columbia, South Carolina. 


27, 1859, in Sumter, South Carolina. He is the son 
of William F. B. and Mary L. Charles Haynsworth. 
His father was a lawyer, a commissioner in equity, and county 
treasurer under the Hampton administration. The earliest known 
paternal ancestors, the Haynsworths and Furmans, moved in the 
middle of the eighteenth century from Virginia to South Caro- 
lina. Mr. Haynsworth's paternal grandmother was a Morse, from 
Connecticut. His maternal ancestors, the Charles family, moved 
to the state from Philadelphia at about the same time as did 
also other of the maternal relatives, i. e., the Lides and Pughs, 
of the old Welsh Neck settlement. 

Mr. Haynsworth's early life was passed at Sumter. For 
three years he attended Furman university. He came of a family 
of lawyers. His father, grandfather, and other of his relatives, 
followed this profession. This fact influenced his choice of the 
same line of work. For a time he taught school, studying law 
meanwhile. Later he entered upon the practice of his profession. 

Mr. Haynsworth has held offices in his county and on city 
boards of education. He is a member of the Chi Psi college 
fraternity and of the Knights of Pythias. He is a Democrat in 
politics; in religion, a Baptist. His relaxation he finds in the 
pursuit of agriculture. 

On June 27, 1898, he married Clara B. Talley. Seven chil- 
dren have been born of this marriage. 

Mr. Haynsworth's address is 103 E. Calhoun street, Sumter, 
South Carolina. 



town of Walterboro, Colleton district (now county), 
South Carolina, April 19, 1849, and was a son of Daniel 
S. Henderson and Caroline Rebecca Webb, his wife. His father 
was a lawyer of prominence and for some time a member of the 
general assembly of South Carolina. His marked characteristics 
were honesty, fair dealing, and Christian fortitude. The Hen- 
dersons had come to America from County Armagh, in the north 
of Ireland, and the Webbs from England. Benjamin Webb, his 
great-grandfather, married, in 1763, Rebecca Pinckney, a daugh- 
ter of Major William Pinckney, sometime master in chancery, 
and sometime commissary general of the province of South 
Carolina, and brother of Chief Justice Charles Pinckney. Mrs. 
Webb was, therefore, a first cousin of Charles Cotesworth Pinck- 
ney and Thomas Pinckney, distinguished soldiers of the United 
States army, and diplomatists. Her brother, Colonel Charles 
Pinckney, was a distinguished soldier and statesman of the 
Revolution, and her nephew, Charles Pinckney, was four times 
governor of South Carolina, a United States senator and some- 
time United States minister to Spain. 

Young Daniel S. Henderson was healthy as a child, and 
fond of study. His mother died while he was yet quite young, 
and he was reared by a relative a woman of excellent qualities 
of mind and heart whose influence upon him was beneficent and 
enduring. He was raised up in his quiet little native village and 
attended the Walterboro academy until old enough to attend 
college. His spare moments were spent in reading history and 
travels, so that his preparatory training had well fitted him to 
win a scholarship at the College of Charleston, where he was 
graduated in 1870 with the first honors of his class. The war 
had left his family poor, and the young student had to work 
his way through college, but, with that energy and intelligence 
which has always characterized him, he succeeded as few in such 
circumstances do. For a short time after leaving college he 
studied law in the office of Simons and Seigling in Charleston. 


At the expiration of this period he went to Chester, South Caro- 
lina, as a school teacher. His manly bearing, self-reliance and 
thorough methods won him success as a teacher. In his spare 
moments he continued the study of law. In 1872 he was admitted 
to the bar and went to Aiken, South Carolina, and opened an 
office. He made friends rapidly, and those friends were not long 
in finding out that he was an unusually able young man, and his 
rise in his profession and in business was rapid. During the 
troublous campaign of 1876, when South Carolina was redeemed 
from the disgraceful rule of ignorant, illiterate native whites, 
half savage negroes, aliens, and a general combination of thieves, 
young Henderson came to the front as a leader in the struggle 
for white supremacy, honesty, and decency. When six hundred 
respectable and prominent citizens of the State were arrested and 
haled into court for complicity in the Hamburg riot of that year, 
he defended them, and the manner in which he conducted that 
defence won for him a lasting reputation as one of the ablest 
lawyers of the state. A motion for bail was made before Judge 
Maher and was opposed by the radical Attorney- General Stone 
and United States District Attorney Corbin. General M. C. 
Butler and Colonel A. Pickens Butler were two of the most 
prominent defendants. The trial resulted in a victory for the 

Mr. Henderson also defended, in the United States court, 
those charged with complicity in the riots at Ellenton. He 
there proved himself not only a lawyer of ability, but a stubborn 
fighter of untiring perseverance, coolness, and determination. 
His splendid plea for the defence, and especially his examination 
of the witnesses, was openly praised by Chief Justice Waite of 
the United States supreme court, who presided at the trial. He" 
charged no fee for conducting this defence, but to this day he 
wears a gold watch and chain that were presented to him by the 
people of his county in recognition of his patriotic services to 
his people on this occasion. He declined the Democratic nomi- 
nation to the State senate from his county in 1876. He was too 
young to enter politics. In 1880 he was elected to the State 
senate from Aiken county. He was now a State leader. He was 
the author of the an ti- duelling oath prescribed for office-holders 
in South Carolina. He was an earnest advocate of the legislation 
by which a railroad commission for the regulating of railroad 


traffic was established for South Carolina; of the law against 
carrying concealed weapons; and of the eight-ballot-box law, by 
which the white man's rule was perpetuated through an educa- 
tional test for voters. He retired from the senate in 1884. In 
the same year he was a delegate to the Democratic National 
convention, held in Chicago, which nominated Cleveland for 
president. In 1886 he was a candidate for congress in the then 
second district. His opponents were Honorable George D. Till- 
man, the incumbent, of Edgefield county, and Colonel Robert 
Aldrich, of Barnwell. Mr. Henderson went into the convention 
with ten votes from his home county. Colonel Aldrich had the 
twelve from Barnwell county and the three from the portion of 
Colleton county lying in the district. Mr. Tillman had the 
twenty votes from Edgefield and Hampton counties. For over 
three weeks the convention ballotted without breaking the dead- 
lock. Two of the Colleton delegates were the first to desert their 
favorite and go to Tillman, and finally a Barnwell man made 
the twenty-three necessary to a choice, but Henderson's followers 
from first to last were as immovable in his support as a stone 
wall. In 1895 his county sent him as a delegate to the State 
Constitutional convention, receiving the support of both factions 
of the Democratic party in the party primary. There he was 
one of the leaders. In 1896 he was elected to the State senate by 
an overwhelming majority and was reflected by a like majority 
in 1900. Conspicuous among the legislative enactments to which 
he gave his support on the floor of the senate were the county 
government law ; the law equalizing the taxes of the cotton mills 
and fertilizer factories ; the separate coach law, and the anti-trust 
law. He was chairman of the committee on education. 

In 1902, Mr. Henderson resigned from the State senate in 
order to become a candidate in the Democratic primary of South 
Carolina for the Democratic nomination for the United States 
senate, to fill the seat of John L. McLaurin, whose term was to 
expire March 4, 1903. In that contest he was unsuccessful, but 
ran third in a race in which there were six aspirants, the highest 
of whom was only a few thousand votes ahead of the lowest. 

In 1904, Mr. Henderson was elected president of the State 
Democratic convention, defeating ex-Governor McSweeney by a 
handsome vote. 


Mr. Henderson's law practice is one of the largest in the 
State. He is associated with his brother and a son, under the 
name "Hendersons," and their business extends to all parts of 
the state. He is one of the most graceful speakers in South 
Carolina, and is popularly described as "silver-tongued." He is 
a man of fine presence, one of the foremost South Carolinians 
of today. 

His address is Aiken, South Carolina. 

WE NSW 70$- 






HERBERT, DANIEL OSCAR, lawyer, banker, colonel in 
the South Carolina militia, in 1902 elected member of 
the house of representatives of his state, and reflected 
in 1904 by the highest vote ever received in Orangeburg, was 
born in Newberry county, South Carolina, April 19, 1857. He 
is the son of Captain Chesley W. Herbert, a farmer and magis- 
trate, who was captain of Company C in the Third South Caro- 
lina regiment during the war, from 1861 to 1865, and lost his 
life in the troublous times of 1866. His son speaks of him as 
a man of "quiet and even temper, of stern integrity, and of a 
strongly religious temperament." His mother, Mrs. Elizabeth S. 
Herbert, was his principal teacher in his youth, and he had no 
other teacher until he was fifteen years of age. He says : "I owe 
my education almost entirely to my mother, who devoted herself 
to the education of her children." Her son owes her a deep and 
lasting debt for intellectual and moral influences, which have 
helped to ennoble his life. 

The Herbert family came from England more than two 
hundred years ago, and settled in New York and New Jersey. 
The great great-grandfather of Colonel D. O. Herbert, Walter 
Herbert, was born in New Jersey in 1742, and was living in 
Newberry county. South Carolina, at the time of the Revolu- 
tionary war. His son, Walter Herbert, Jr., born in 1773, was a 
prominent man in that county, a magistrate, and for several years 
a member of the state legislature. His son was also prominent 
as a planter, a magistrate, and a member of the legislature. 

Spending his boyhood in the country, robust of health and 
always well-grown for his age, D. O. Herbert's taste and interest 
in childhood and youth centered first in reading and study; but 
he enjoyed keenly hunting, fishing, and all out-of-door sports. 
He was trained in his boyhood to regular tasks upon a farm. 
This developed a strong physique. He says: "I followed the 
plow and hoe at thirteen and fourteen, and cultivated my own 
crop of cotton and corn when I was fourteen." 

After studying at home under the inspiring direction and 
the careful teaching of his mother, he was for a time in the 


preparatory department of Wofford college, and he was gradu- 
ated from Wofford college in 1878 with the degree of A. B. and 
with the first honor in his class. After a year of post-graduate 
study at Wofford, he received, in 1879, the degree of Master of 
Arts. Two years of professional study followed, in the law 
school of Vanderbilt university, from which he received the 
degree of Bachelor of Law in 1881. He taught school for one 
year. His own preference and choice, after mature deliberation, 
led him to the profession of the law. After some years of 
practice, from 1887 to 1890, as United States postoffice inspector 
he traveled widely through the United States, becoming well 
acquainted with many towns and cities in many of the different 
commonwealths of our country. He has been practicing law in 
Orangeburg since 1890. 

He is president of the People's Bank, which he organized 
in 1901; president of the Cameron Oil mill; president of the 
Building and Loan association, and of other organizations. In 
1899 he was elected alderman of Orangeburg; in 1901 he was 
appointed a member of the county board of education, and from 
1902 to 1906 he served in the South Carolina house of represen- 
tatives, but declined to be a candidate for reelection. While a 
legislator he worked earnestly in the interest of education. He 
was the author of, and strongly supported, the Clemson Scholar- 
ship bill ; and the "Dog Law," under which dogs of the state are 
so taxed as to contribute twenty thousand dollars toward the 
support of the common schools of the state. Every man who 
loves a dog has, in South Carolina, a double reason for caring 
for the good dogs which help to keep open the public schools 
for poor men's children. 

For fifteen years Colonel Herbert has served in the state 
militia of South Carolina, at first in the ranks of the Edisto 
Rifles, in which he has filled every position, from private to 
captain. He served for six years as captain of the Rifles, and 
commanded the company in the Spanish- American war, where it 
was known as Company C of the Second South Carolina regi- 
ment, from 1898 to 1899, and, by all who knew it, was regarded 
as one of the best companies which went from South Carolina 
under Colonel (now General) Wilie Jones. After the company 
and its captain had been mustered out of the United States 
service, Captain Herbert was elected lieutenant- colonel of the 


Second regiment of South Carolina militia, and on January 1, 
1903, he was elected colonel of that regiment. On July 1, 1905, 
Governor Heyward appointed Colonel Herbert inspector of small 
arms for the state militia a position which he still holds with 
the rank of colonel. 

By religious conviction he is allied with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South. In his political affiliations he is a Democrat. 
He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, of the Woodmen of 
the World, etc. His favorite forms of exercise have been base- 
ball, football, and tennis. He says, "the influences of my college 
life and studies at Wofford have been preponderant in such 
success as I have won"; and he places the influence of his home 
as the next strongest in impelling him to success and qualifying 
him to attain it. 

On January 25, 1893, he was married to Miss Julia S. Salley, 
daughter of Mr. A. M. Salley, and granddaughter of Dr. Alex- 
ander S. Salley, of Orangeburg, South Carolina. They have had 
five children, all of whom are living in 1907. 

His address is Orangeburg, Orangeburg county, South Caro- 


HUDSON, JOSHUA HILAEY, son of Dabney and 
Narcissa Cook Hudson, was born at Chester, South 
Carolina, January 29, 1832. Dabney Hudson was a 
tailor by trade, a man small of stature, handsome of person, 
genial and social. Joshua Hudson, the earliest known ancestor 
of this family, the great great-grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch, and a man of English parentage, settled in Amherst 
county, Virginia, in 1745. 

Young Hudson was, as a boy, strong and healthy, fond of 
the usual sports and amusements of boyhood, and devoted to 
books. His early life was passed in the village of Chester. For- 
tunately, regular manual labor was required of him. Serving in 
every way in which a poor boy can help a poor mother, gave 
him the useful discipline which can come only through toil. 

Young Hudson's life was, in every way, greatly influenced 
by his mother. She was a devout Christian, a member of the 
Baptist church, and a woman whose religion rose above form and 
ceremonv and became a matter of character and life. She, in 


part, directed his reading, and thus deepened the impressions she 
had otherwise made upon his mind and heart. He early became 
interested in that greatest of classics, the Bible, which he supple- 
mented with those other inexhaustible reservoirs of wisdom and 
inspiration, history and biography. School, early companionship 
and private study cooperated with the influences already named. 
In these circumstances the boy early developed an ambition to 
become a worthy and useful member of society, and his later asso- 
ciations with men in active life helped him greatly in carrying 
out his purpose. 

The road to an education proved by no means a royal one 
to Joshua Hudson. Straitened circumstances, lack of free time, 
and indifferent school facilities, combined to retard his progress. 
He found it possible, nevertheless, to attend the village academy 
at Chester. Later he was enabled to attend South Carolina col- 
lege. Here he showed the results of his earlier training, for he 
not only completed the college course in December, 1852, but 
received first honors. His alma mater, in which he had thus 


distinguished himself in early life, did not forget him, or lose 
sight of his later career. In June, 1903, the college conferred 
upon him the degree of LL. D. 

Doctor Hudson's serious life work began when, after leav- 
ing college, he accepted the position of teacher of the school in 
Bennettsville, South Carolina ; this work he continued from 1853 
to 1857. Meanwhile he had occupied his spare time with the 
study of law, and, in 1857, he entered upon the practice of this 

From 1857 until January, 1906, when he retired from prac- 
tice, the law, in one or another of its various aspects, demanded 
the attention of Doctor Hudson. From 1857 to 1878 he was a 
regular practitioner in the courts of his state. In 1878 he was 
made circuit judge of the fourth judicial circuit, in which posi- 
tion he continued until 1894, when he was made counsel for the 
receiver of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley railroad. The 
latter position he held until 1900. In January, 1907, he was 
chosen president of the South Carolina Bar association for the 
regular term of one year. He served as member of the South 
Carolina house of representatives in 1858-59, and, again, as state 
senator in 1905-06. In 1896 and 1897 he presided over the Bap- 
tist State conventions. He has also seen military service, having 
served in the Confederate army from 1862 to 1865. Entering 
as a private, he was advanced to the post of drill master in the 
Twenty-first regiment, and then, successively, to the ranks of 
adjutant, major and lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-sixth South 
Carolina volunteers. 

In the midst of his legal, public and other duties, Doctor 
Hudson has found time for literary work, having published a 
volume of "Sketches and Keminiscences," and, also, in 1903, an 
autobiography. He is a Mason, in which order he has held the 
position of worshipful master. In politics he has, through life, 
been a consistent Democrat. In religion he is, like his mother, 
a Baptist. 

Doctor Hudson's life has been too full of labor to allow 
much place for diversion or relaxation. In college he was inter- 
ested in gymnastics. His alternative now to work is rest. In 
answer to the question whether he had in any degree failed to 
accomplish what he had hoped to do in life, and, if so, what 
lessons might be drawn therefrom, Doctor Hudson said : "I have 

Vol. I S. C. 9 


been a worker all my life, but feel now that I might have suc- 
ceeded better if I had been more persevering." The advice he 
has to offer the young is temperance in all things, sobriety, 
morality, piety and diligent toil. 

On May 4, 1854, Doctor Hudson married Miss Mary Miller. 
Of this marriage fourteen children were born, four of whom are 
living in 1907. 

His address is Bennettsville, Marlboro county, South Caro- 


HUNTER, JOHN PIEKCE, from 1880 until 1894 sheriff 
of Lancaster county; from 1894 to 1898 United States 
marshal for the district of South Carolina, headquar- 
ters at Charleston, appointed by President Cleveland; and from 
1900 to the present time (1907) by election and reelection sheriff 
of Lancaster county, is a striking and interesting personality. 
He has hosts of friends in his county and throughout the state; 
and many of them feel that through all his public life he has 
given evidence of living in the spirit of these words of his: 
"While I have always tried to make friends, it is a source of 
gratification to me to know the fact that I have never forsaken 
an old friend in order to make a new one, and that I have always 
tried to be true and square in all my dealings with my fellow- 


He was born on a farm in Lancaster county, South Carolina, 
October 8, 1855. His father was James R. Hunter, a farmer, for 
four years coroner, for twelve years tax collector, and for eight 
years sheriff of Lancaster county "a benevolent, kind-hearted 
man, always ready to lend a helping hand to the poor and needy, 
and writing many official documents gratis, such as leases, deeds, 
etc." His great great great-grandfather, Isaac Hunter, was 
Scotch-Irish, and, coming from Ireland to the colonies, settled 
in Wake county, North Carolina, eight miles above Raleigh. 
Isaac Hunter's grandson, James Hunter, married Amelia Chives, 
and they settled in Lancaster county, South Carolina, in 1818. 
The histories of North Carolina and the history of the United 


States, written by Alexander H. Stephens, mention several of 
the kinsmen of Captain Hunter who were distinguished in the 
political life of the colonies and the states, as well as in the 
Revolutionary war. 

John Pierce Hunter in his boyhood had very delicate health, 
and has never had a vigorous physique; but he has done such 
work and endured such hardships as would have tasked a man 
of the most vigorous constitution. Living as a boy on his father's 
farm in the country, he describes himself as in these early years 
"a dear lover of horses," his greatest pleasure being to ride, 


drive, fish and hunt. From early boyhood he was trained to do 
his share of the farm work, and he liked it, although he was not 
physically strong enough to hold his own with the older laborers. 
His parents were in moderate circumstances, and the help he 
could give in making crops was needed by them and was freely 
given by him. When the crops were in the ground he would 
attend the "old field log cabin schools for a few weeks" before 
gathering crops; and would go to the same kind of schools for 
a short time during the winter. For a time he attended the high 
school at Lancaster court-house. 

His first public work was carrying the mail by star route 
from Lancaster court-house to Camden. This he began to do 
when he was eighteen, in 1873. In the fall of that same year he 
commenced to serve as trial justice, constable and deputy sheriff 
under his father, James R. Hunter, sheriff of Lancaster county. 
He also rode as constable for two trial justices at Lancaster 
court-house. As constable and deput}^ sheriff, he succeeded in 
"slipping on and arresting some very bad and desperate violators 
of the law, and in almost every case without assistance, as he 
was more successful when he went alone." Of his ambition to 
succeed in public office, he says : "My farm work was done from 
necessity, my public work was brought about by the persistent 
encouragement of friends who wished me to do such work; and 
after engaging in such service, I had a desire always to be suc- 
cessful, to do my work well, to render to my friends and the 
county my best services. And I appreciated commendation more 
than money consideration." 

He continued to serve as deputy sheriff under his father 
until the fall of 1880, when he was elected sheriff to succeed his 
father, who had served for two terms and declined to run for the 
office again. His discharge of the duties of the office was fear- 
less, and he carried into it so much of politeness, consideration 
for the rights of others, and prompt and decisive enforcement 
of the law, that he was extremely popular throughout his county. 
He resigned the office of sheriff on April 1, 1894, to accept the 
appointment tendered him by President Cleveland as United 
States marshal for the district of South Carolina, with head- 
quarters at Charleston. This office he held for four years; and 
he made no secret of the fact, when a Republican administration 
succeeded the Democratic, that he was ready to vacate the office. 


He wrote: "Having served under a Democratic administration, 
I cannot afford to go to the Republican party for a job." 

Returning to his old home at Lancaster in April, 1898, he 
engaged in farming; but at the next election for sheriff he was 
again chosen to that office; and he was reflected in 1904. His 
present term of office will expire in 1908. 

Captain Hunter married Mrs. Laura A. Hickson (nee Laura 
A. Fraser), daughter of Rev. Elias L. Fraser, January 13, 1881. 
Their only child, a daughter, is living in 1907. Mrs. Hunter 
died on January 1, 1895. While he was serving as United States 
marshal, Captain Hunter married a second time, Miss Florella 
Meynardie, daughter of Rev. Dr. Elias J. Meynardie, November 
3, 1898. 

Captain Hunter was reared by Methodist parents and speaks 
most respectfully and reverentially of their Christian character 
and their influence upon him. He is a Democrat in his party 
relations, and has always supported the candidates and measures 
of that party. He is a Mason and an Odd Fellow. As in his 
early boyhood, so in his manhood, his favorite forms of exercise 
are horseback riding, hunting and fishing. 

He says to young fellow-citizens : "Honesty, strict adherence 
to what is just and right; sobriety, and the avoidance of the 
popular dissipations of this age," will contribute invariably to 
success in life; and he adds: "I set for myself as an ideal worthy 
of attainment, genuine charity and cordial hospitality; and I 
have had no cause to regret this aim in my life." 

It is very interesting to notice the fact that Captain Hunter, 
after so many years of experience in riding the county and his 
state as constable, deputy sheriff, sheriff and collector, should 
have written recently for one of the newspapers of the state a 
strong article under the caption, "How to Solve the Race Prob- 
lem," in which he advocates very effectively the view that the 
difficulties between the races can be made to disappear "by instill- 
ing morality, politeness and industry into every child, both white 
and colored." In this article he lays great emphasis upon the 
value of politeness and its little forms in the ordinary casual 
meetings and in all the social and business intercourse of fellow- 
citizens with one another. He thinks that people are apt greatly 
to underrate the moral effect of politeness upon character and 
will-power, since will is constantly directed, molded and rein- 


forced by feeling, and politeness in intercourse has a vast effect 
upon the feelings of the man who exercises it as well as upon 
those toward whom politeness is shown. A steady, habitual and 
morally intentional politeness between black people and white 
people, he believes, can be maintained without the slightest 
approach to "social equality"; and instead of endangering race 
purity and the control of affairs by the white race, he believes 
that the inculcation of politeness of manners as a moral duty will 
go far toward abating the gravest dangers of the race problem. 

Taken altogether, the views, and the executive and official 
life and deeds of this exceptional South Carolina sheriff and 
marshal, are exceedingly interesting, and are such as to render 
him in the best sense of the word a "Man of Mark" in his state. 

His address is Lancaster, South Carolina. 

WfJt SSW 7 





IZLAE, JAMES FERDINAND, was born November 25, 
1832, at Orangeburg, South Carolina. His parents were 
William Henry Izlar and Julia E. A. Izlar. His mother 
was Miss Pou. His father was a farmer, but was interested in 
mechanical pursuits. He was intelligent, pious, honest, upright 
and temperate, a noble Christian gentleman of the old school. 

The earliest known ancestor in America was Jacob Izlar, the 
great-grandfather of James Izlar ; he came to this country before 
the Revolutionary war. He was a native of either Germany or 
Switzerland. At any rate, he was German- Swiss. James F. 
Izlar's mother's great-grandfather came from Scotland in 1740. 
Gavin Pou held a position under the king. James Izlar's health 
in childhood was good; he enjoyed books and was greatly inter- 
ested in home and parents; his early life was passed in the 
country. His father, being a farmer, naturally believed in the 
gospel of work, not only for himself, but for his children. He, 
therefore, saw to it that his son, James, until ready to begin his 
preparation for college, lacked no opportunity to enjoy this valu- 
able discipline, especially in the multitudinous lines afforded by 
a farm and farm home. 

James Izlar was blessed with good parents, both of whom 
he tenderly loved; the influence of his mother was especially 
helpful in shaping his character. He was a believer in home 
study, and to the training thus derived he owes much of his later 
success. He was a great reader, devouring books and periodicals 
of all kinds, especially histoiy, biography and law. 

In the acquirement of an education James Izlar encountered 
many difficulties, but energ}^ and perseverance overcame them all. 
In early life he attended the "old field" schools, though these 
were irregular. He prepared for college in Barnwell county and 
was graduated from Emory college at Oxford, Georgia, in the 
class of 1855, with the degree of M. A. 

After graduating, Mr. Izlar taught school at Branchville, 
South Carolina. Next, having a strong bent toward the legal 
profession, he studied law at Orangeburg, South Carolina, under 


Honorable Thomas J. Glover. Mr. Glover was colonel of the 
First South Carolina volunteer regiment ; he was killed in battle. 

Mr. Izlar's business in life has been the study of law. Save 
in his office and on the bench, he has done no professional work. 
For twelve years he held the position of state senator for his 
county, and during eight of these was president pro tempore of 
that body. His retirement from the state senate came only with 
his election, in 1889, by the general assembly, to the bench as 
judge of the first circuit of South Carolina. This position he 
held four years, until the Tillman revolution, when he was 
defeated for reelection. He was, however, at a special election 
held shortly after, elected to the fifty-third congress to succeed 
Judge William H. Brawley, who resigned to accept a federal 
judgeship. Judge Izlar received a majority of about five hun- 
dred votes over his competitor, J. William Stokes, who ran as 
an Alliance Democrat and Reformer. Judge Izlar's majority 
was afterwards cut down by the state board of canvassers to one 
hundred and eighty. He took his seat in congress April 5, 1894. 

Judge Izlar has served as chairman of the Democratic Exec- 
utive committee of his state, as delegate to the National Demo- 
cratic convention of 1884, and as trustee of the South Carolina 
college. The latter office he deems an especial honor. 

Judge Izlar has also been a soldier. He first volunteered 
for twelve months in the First South Carolina volunteers 
Hagood's old regiment and served out this period. The three 
years following he was captain of the Edisto rifles, Hagood's 
brigade, and was a member of the Twenty-fifth regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel C. H. Simonton. Judge Izlar is an Odd 
Fellow and also a Mason. He is a past grand master of the 
state of South Carolina; in the order of Masonry he has filled 
all the chairs in Masonry and Odd Fellowship. For twelve 
years he was the master of Shibboleth Lodge, No. 28, A. F. M., 
of Orangeburg, South Carolina. He is also a thirty-second 
degree Mason, and is the representative near the grand lodge of 
South Carolina for the state of Mississippi. He is a lifelong 
Democrat, and would not on any account change his political 
faith. He is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church, 
holding to this faith by conviction rather than heredity. 

Judge Izlar feels that he has encountered disappointments, 
many and grievous, that his fond ambitions have failed, but that, 


despite reverses, energy, perseverance, and a desire to succeed, 
will conquer all things. 

To the young American he says: "Be sober, be temperate 
in all things, be a Christian gentleman, be honest and truthful, 
be upright in walk and conversation. Read the best authors. 
Study hard. Understand what you read. These are some of the 
things one must do, and live up to, if he would succeed." 

Judge Izlar has been twice married; first, on February 24, 
1859, to Frances M. A. Lovell. They had ten children, seven 
of whom are now (1907) living, and are scattered among three 
states. His second marriage was on November 1, 1906, to Miss 
Marion P. Allston, of Charleston, South Carolina. 

His address is Whitman street, Orangeburg, South Carolina. 


JERVEY, THEODORE DEHON, son of Theodore Dehon 
Jervey and Anne Hume Simons, his wife, was born August 
19, 1859, at Charleston, South Carolina. His father was a 
factor, banker, and, for a time, collector of customs of the port 
of Charleston. He was noted for his liberality and devotion 
to duty. 

The earliest known ancestor of the family in America was 
David Jervey, who emigrated from Bathgate, Scotland, in 1738, 
and in 1740 settled in Charleston. Thomas Jervey, son of David, 
was, in 1778, captain and deputy muster master in the Fifth 
Continental line, Colonel Huger's regiment. As a boy, Theodore 
Jervey was especially interested in books, though otherwise he 
was of an indolent disposition. He was graduated in 1879 from 
the Virginia Military institute. His active life work began at 
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1879, where he began the pro- 
fession of law, a work to which he was drawn by his own tastes 
and native bent. From 1881 to 1886 he was in partnership with 
and assisted the solicitor of the first judicial district of South 
Carolina; and, in 1888 and 1891, he was editorial writer on the 
"Charleston World." Mr. Jervey has been a vestryman in St. 
Philip's church; from 1891 to 1895 he was chairman of the city 
Democratic Executive committee, and in 1892 he was a delegate 
to the National Democratic convention. 

Mr. Jervey has also given some attention to literature, hav- 
ing written "The Elder Brother," a novel. He is a member of 
the Knights of Pythias. His political affiliations have always 
been with the Democratic party. In religion he is a Protestant 
Episcopalian. His chief relaxation is trout-fishing. 

Mr. Jervey confesses to lack of application as his besetting 
sin. He commends to all young people the open profession of 
the Christian religion. He believes, moreover, not only in spir- 
itual health, but in physical; the latter constituting the founda- 
tion upon which the former may be built. He, therefore, advises 
the observance of rational diet and systematic daily exercise in 
the open air. 

Mr. Jervey has never been married. His address is Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 



44TO*. L3KOZ 



JOHNSON, DAVID BANCROFT, LL. D., educator, was 
born in La Grange (West Tennessee), January 10, 1856. 
His father founded, and, until his death, was president of 
the La Grange Female college. In a direct line he is descended 
from John Johnson, who came to America from England with 
Winthrop, the first governor of the colony of Massachusetts. He 
worked his way through the University of Tennessee at Knox- 
ville, from which he was graduated with the degree of A. B. 
with the highest honors of a large class in 1877, and immediately 
took up the profession of teaching as first assistant of the boys' 
high school at Knoxville. In 1879 he was awarded the degree of 
A. M. by his alma mater, and in 1905 the degree of LL. D. by the 
South Carolina college. After some service in the University of 
Tennessee as assistant professor of mathematics, and having 
developed qualities which demanded a larger sphere for their 
full exercise, he entered upon his life work. His rare talent as 
an organizer was recognized, and by his masterful application 
of the true principles of teaching, he infused new life into the 
system of public instruction, and a spirit and enthusiasm among 
the teachers, which prepared the way for his remarkable success. 
He organized graded schools at Newbern, North Carolina, and so 
marked was their success as to attract the attention of educators 
in that and adjoining states. Having demonstrated his executive 
ability and his thorough grasp of school organization and man- 
agement, when the system was adopted by the city of Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 1883, Professor Johnson was called to organize 
it, and in the course of a few years, under his superintendence, 
out of the crude material of the old common school a system of 
public instruction was evolved which is an honor to the state, 
and has become an example after which many of the larger towns 
and cities of the state have modelled their schools. To meet the 
requirement for better teachers to introduce these better methods, 
Professor Johnson, aided by the Peabody board, established in 
1886 the Winthrop Training school for teachers. The legislature 
of South Carolina provided a permanent appropriation for the 
maintenance of one beneficiary in the institution from each 


county in the state, at a cost of one hundred and fifty dollars 
each per session, and afterward made it a full state institution 
under the name of Winthrop Normal college, of which Professor 
Johnson is president. This training school was at the time the 
only one for white teachers in the section embracing the states 
of South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, and Florida. Its 
graduates are teaching successfully throughout South Carolina 
and adjoining states. Professor Johnson has served as an 
instructor in successive state normal institutes, and was presi- 
dent for several years of the State Teachers' association, which 
he reorganized and placed on its present satisfactory basis in 
1888. He organized, in 1889, the State Association of School 
Superintendents, of which he was president for some years. He 
organized the Columbia, South Carolina, branch of the Young 
Men's Christian association, and was its president for years, and 
he was also chairman of the State Executive committee of the 
organization. He is a ruling elder in the First Presbyterian 
church of Rock Hill, South Carolina. He is vice-president of 
the National Educational association, a member of the National 
Council of Education, of the National Geographic society, of the 
National Civic league, the South Carolina Historical society, the 
South Carolina Audubon society, and the South Carolina Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical society. 

In 1902 he organized the South Carolina Woman's associa- 
tion for the improvement of rural schools, which is expected to 
accomplish great things for the country schools of the common- 
wealth. He is a member of the Educational Campaign committee 
for South Carolina, appointed at a convention of representative 
educators in 1903, to labor for the improvement of rural schools 
and the advancement of education in the state. The governor 
of the state, in recognition of his ability and his high educational 
record, appointed him a member of the state board of examiners, 
and also a member and chairman of the special commission of 
three to make an investigation, and report to the legislature for 
action, on the subject of the establishment by the state of a 
normal and industrial college for women. The admirable report 
of this commission led the legislature to found the Winthrop 
Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina, which in com- 
pleteness of plant and character of work is the equal of any 


institution of its kind in the country. Much of the honor of the 
general adoption and success of the graded school system in South 
Carolina may be justly accorded to Professor Johnson. 
His postoffice address is Rock Hill, South Carolina. 


JONES, IKA BOYD, the son of Charles Milton Jones and 
Mary Jane (Neel) Jones, was born December 29, 1851, 
at Newberry, South Carolina. His father was a cabinet 
maker, who, in later life, conducted a carriage and blacksmith 
shop and livery stable in combination. Charles Milton Jones 
was a modest man, actuated by a high sense of honor and duty. 
To him, his word was his bond. Withal, he was prompt and 
industrious, and, in all material matters in the control of his 
family, he was firm in discipline. 

The earliest known paternal ancestor in America was Ira 
Jones' grandfather, John Jones, a French Huguenot, who came 
to Colleton county. On his mother's side, the oldest was James 
Neel, a Scotch-Irishman, who emigrated from the north of Ire- 
land to Newberry county. 

Ira Jones was strong and robust in youth, and passed his 
early life in the village of Newberry. Good educational advan- 
tages were always provided him by his father. He attended the 
Lutheran college at Newberry, from the primary through the 
sophomore class, and then entered as a junior in Erskine college, 
Due West, South Carolina, from which he was graduated in 1870. 

After leaving college, Mr. Jones taught school in Edgefield 
and Newberry counties. From his earliest years, however, he 
had been possessed of an ardent ambition to enter the profession 
of law. While teaching school, he gave close attention to legal 
studies, and, in 1873, was admitted to the bar at Newberry. He 
practiced law in Newberry county from 1873 to October, 1875, 
when he moved to Lancaster, South Carolina, where he continued 
to practice law until he was elected associate justice. 

Aside from minor offices, including those of magistrate, 
intendant, county chairman, and chairman of the congressional 
committee, Judge Jones was elected to the legislature in 1890, 
became chairman of the Ways and Means committee, was elected 
speaker at the close of the term of 1890, and was successively 
elected speaker until January, 1896, when he was elected associate 
justice of the supreme court. He was also vice-president of the 
Constitutional convention of 1895. 


Judge Jones is a Democrat and a member of the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian church. For amusement and relaxation 
he resorts to chess, novel reading and driving. 

On January 21, 1875, he married Rebecca Wyse. Of this 
marriage seven children have been born, five of whom are now 
(1907) living. 

His address is Lancaster, South Carolina. 


JOYNES, EDWARD SOUTHEY, for more than fifty years 
prominently connected with the work of higher education 
in the South; from 1866 for several years professor of 
modern languages and English in Washington college, now 
Washington and Lee university; from 1875 to 1878 filling the 
same chair in Vanderbilt university at Nashville, Tennessee; 
from 1878 to 1882 professor of modern languages in the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee; since 1882 to 1888 professor of German, 
French, and Spanish, in South Carolina college at Columbia, 
South Carolina, where he still resides; was born on the 2d of 
March, 1834, in Accomac county, Virginia. His father, Thomas 
Robinson Joynes, of the Ninth Virginia regiment in the Revo- 
lutionary war, had married Miss Anne Bell Satchell, daughter 
of Christopher and Anne Satchell. His grandfather was Colonel 
Levin Joynes, of the Ninth Virginia regiment in the war of the 
Revolution ; his eldest brother, Judge W. T. Joynes, of the court 
of appeals of Virginia, and Dr. Levin S. Joynes, professor of 
medical physiology in the Medical College of Virginia, have 
been prominent in their respective professions. The family is of 
English descent, and among its members who were prominent in 
the colonial history is Tully Robinson, a member of the Virginia 
house of burgesses at various times from 1702 to 1723. Thomas 
Robinson Joynes was admitted to the practice of law September 
24, 1810; in 1811 was elected to the house of delegates; in 1813 
served as lieutenant of a company in the Second regiment of the 
Virginia militia, and was later promoted captain. He served as 
master commissioner in chancery in the county court of Accomac ; 
as commonwealth's attorney in the supreme court; as clerk of 
that court in 1828 ; as a member of the State convention to revise 
the constitution in 1829; and has left an honorable record as a 
public-spirited lawyer of high character, and of remarkable gifts 
of eloquence. A memorial volume to Thomas R. Joynes was 
edited by the late Dr. Levin S. Joynes, and revised and reedited 
by Levin S. Joynes, Jr., and Edward Southey Joynes, the subject 
of this sketch. 


The early life of Edward Southey Joynes was passed in the 
country, a hearty and healthy boy, fond of hunting, riding and 
boating, yet giving a fair share of his time to reading and study. 
He had the advantages of home instruction given him by his 
father ; he attended the "old field schools" and Concord academy 
in Virginia, Delaware college, and the University of Virginia; 
and from the last named institution he was graduated in 1852, 
with the degree of B. A., receiving the degree of M. A. in 1853. 
From 1856 to 1858 he studied at the University of Berlin, Ger- 
many, hearing, among others, Boeckh, Haupt, Bopp and Benary. 

Although his father had hoped that the son would follow 
the profession of the law, it soon became evident that the work 
of a teacher was to be his life occupation. His first college 
appointment was to the position of assistant professor of the 
ancient languages in the University of Virginia, under Doctor 
Gessner Harrison, from 1853 to 1856, before his study at the 
German university. After his return from Europe he was made 
professor of Greek and German at William and Mary college, 
Williamsburg, Virginia, serving here from 1858 to 1861. 

At the outbreak of the war, as William and Mary college 
was closed, he became chief clerk in the Confederate States War 
department, serving with Secretaries Walker, Randolph, Benja- 
min, and Seddon, an experience to which he owes prompt and 
accurate habits of business and well-developed power of organiza- 
tion. From 1864 to 1865 he was instructor of modern languages 
in Hollins institute, one of the best Southern schools for women, 
where he developed a deep interest in the study of English and 
of the modern languages; and in 1866 he was made professor 
of modern languages and English in Washington college, now 
Washington and Lee university. This recognition of the study 
of English, in a college professorship, was perhaps its earliest 
recognition as a distinct branch of collegiate study instituted in 
the Southern states. From 1875 to 1878 he filled the chair of 
English and modern languages at Vanderbilt university, Ten- 
nessee, and from 1878 to 1882 the same chair at the University 
of Tennessee, on the organization of the first faculty of that 
institution. From 1882 to 1888 he was professor of modern 
languages and English in South Carolina college at Columbia. 
The department prospered under his charge and was divided in 
1888, since which year he has been professor of modern languages, 

Vol. I S. C. 10 


including French, German, and Spanish. For more than fifty 
years a teacher, perhaps there are few men in our country who 
have taught a larger number of college students. A Virginian 
by birth, he has always loved everything Virginian. He is 
thankful for what he has been permitted to know and teach, and 
he is growing old slowly by keeping himself in sympathy with 
the life and aspirations of youth. 

He is the author of several text-books used in schools and 
colleges, and he is now engaged in the publication of still other 

Professor Joynes has made many addresses upon educational 
subjects, several of which have been published. He was closely 
connected with the Rev. Dr. Barnas Sears, the first general agent 
of the Peabody board, and accompanied some of the early tours 
with that eminent gentleman. Thus inspired, he became deeply 
interested in public school work in Virginia, and later in Ten- 
nessee, where he aided in conducting the teachers' institutes. He 
has lectured to many teachers' institutes in South Carolina. He 
was one of the founders of the Winthrop Normal and Industrial 
college for women at Rock Hill, and he is still a trustee of that 
institution. The United States Commission of Education, in its 
"Report" for 1897-1898, included the report made by Professor 
Joynes, after a visit to Germany in 1895, on the industrial edu- 
cation of women in Germany. This report has received wide 

A transplanted Virginian, an apostle for general enlighten- 
ment, he feels a passionate interest in the creation of the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, in behalf of which he addressed a 
cogent and elegant pamphlet to the last legislature of South 

On December 14, 1859, Professor Joynes married, at Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, Miss Eliza Waller Vest. They have had 
five children, four of whom are living in 1907. Professor Joynes 
is identified with the Democratic party, but reserves the right of 
private judgment in passing on its platforms and its candidates. 
He is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church. 

To the young of his state and of the country, to whom so 
much of his life work has been given, he offers these suggestions : 
Assiduous application ; faithfulness in details of work ; integrity 



in all things, with sympathy for the struggles and aspirations 
of your fellows; seek to live, so far as possible, with and for 
others ; and know that selfishness is the bane of life, and the root 
of all evil. 

Professor Joynes' address is University of South Carolina, 


KA M I N S K I, HEIMAN, merchant, was born in Posen r 
Prussia, May 24, 1839. His parents, Joel and Hannah 
Kaminski, were highly respected by the people among 
whom they lived. 

Until he was fifteen years of age, Heiman Kaminski lived 
with his parents. From very early years he was obliged to work 
hard in order that he might not be a burden to others. He was 
willing to work, but, being ambitious, and seeing very little 
prospect of advancement in his native land, he became anxious 
to get to America, in hope that here he would find a more favor- 
able environment. When he was fifteen years of age the matter 
was thoroughly discussed in the family circle, and it was decided 
to allow him to emigrate to the United States. 

He landed at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1854. Here he 
maintained himself for two years, meanwhile attending the high 
school. In 1856 he was obliged to leave school and enter upon 
the active work of life. He became clerk in a mercantile house 
in Georgetown, South Carolina, where he served for a year, when 
his employer sent him to Conway, South Carolina, to work in a 
branch house which had been established there. He remained at 
that place until the spring of 1861, when, on the opening of the 
War between the States, he promptly enlisted in Company B, 
Tenth South Carolina volunteers, Confederate States army. It 
was soon seen that he had an unusual aptitude for organization 
and remarkable executive ability. Because of the possession of 
these qualities, he was detached from his company and placed 
first in the commissary department, and later was promoted to 
the position of regimental commissary. In this position he dis- 
tinguished himself by devotion to duty, which was manifested 
by his untiring efforts to supply not only the necessities but as 
far as possible the comforts of life to the troops. He continued 
with his command until the surrender at Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, in 1865. When the army was disbanded, his pay amounted 
to one dollar and ten cents in silver, and with this sum for his 
cash capital he started for home to again begin his business life. 
In the fall of 1865 he entered a Georgetown, South Carolina,, 


business house in a subordinate capacity, but in 1867 he withdrew 
therefrom and began business on his own account. By honest 
dealing, industry and enterprise, he was enabled to rapidly build 
up a business which has now reached very large proportions. 

Mr. Kaminski has been twice married; first, in 1866, to Miss 
Charlotte Virginia Emanuel (a descendant of the Gomez family, 
who were among the early settlers of this country), who died in 
1880; and second, in 1885, to Miss Rose Baum, whose ancestors 
took an active part in the Revolutionary war. His children, four 
by the first wife and one by the second, are all living in 1907. 

Mr. Kaminski is now president of the Kaminski Hardware 
company; of the Willow Bank Boat Oar company; of the Pee 
Dee Steamboat company; of the Taylor-Dickson Medical dis- 
pensary, a charitable institution; vice-president of the Bank of 
Georgetown and of the Georgetown board of trade, and a director 
in the Georgetown Rice Milling company, and in several other 
local enterprises. Mr. Kaminski has never held or desired public 
office, though he has taken a deep interest in current affairs and 
has held important positions in various civic and mercantile 
bodies. He is a director in the Country club, and has been a 
member of all the social organizations of Georgetown. He has 
always been aligned with the friends of good government, and 
he has been liberal with time and money to aid movements and 
enterprises which had for their end the advancement of the best 
interests of his adopted city and state. 

The address of Mr. Kaminski is Georgetown, South Carolina. 


KNOX, JOHN PATTERSON, Associate Reformed Pres- 
byterian clergyman, was born October 19, 1860, on a 
farm near Davidson college, Mecklenburg county, North 
Carolina. His father, Samuel W. Knox, a plain, honest, and 
energetic farmer, and brave soldier throughout the War between 
the States, in General A. P. Hill's corps, with which he laid down 
his gun at Appomattox, was fond of reading stories that taught 
good lessons and was a faithful follower of Christ; his mother, 
Sarah (McAuley) Knox, a truly pious woman, alive and well at 
seventy- four, has been and is the mightiest influence in his life, 
and he gladly gives her the credit of making him what he is. 
His blood is Scotch-Irish ; the line of descent on the paternal side 
is through his great-grandfather, Robert Knox, from Scotland 
(probably a connection of John Knox, the great reformer), who 
came to America about 1770 and settled in Mecklenburg county, 
North Carolina, and his grandfather, James Knox, who spent 
his life in the same county; on the maternal side, through his 
great-grandfather, Daniel McAuley, of Irish descent, who came 
from Scotland and settled in Mecklenburg county, North Caro- 
lina, prior to the war of the Revolution, and his grandfather, 
Hugh McAuley, who was widely known as a surveyor. He is 
connected with President James Knox Polk, whose mother was 
Jane Knox. 

He was reared on a farm; was robust and healthy, fond of 
all outdoor sports, and a hard worker at all kinds of farm labor. 
This gave him good health, with admiration and respect for 
toilers, and taught regular habits so well that he was never late 
at college. His first strong impulse to strive for success was 
caused by his desire to please his parents; his choice of the 
ministry for a profession was due to the wishes of his parents 
and his own inclinations and circumstances. His record so far, 
and he is still comparatively young, has demonstrated the wisdom 
of his choice. 

He is self-educated ; that is, he had to work between sessions 
in order to make the money to pay for all he got, except the 
primary portion, which he obtained at the public school of the 


county; he was prepared for college at Huntersville (North 
Carolina) high school, under Dr. W. W. Orr, going thence to 
Erskine college, South Carolina, and was graduated in June, 
1887. Later he spent two years in Erskine seminary, and in 1890 
completed his course in Allegheny seminary. During vacations 
from 1881 to 1888 he taught school. ^ 

He was elected elder in the Huntersville Associate Reformed 
Presbyterian church in 1882, and began his career as a minister 
in April, 1890, soon after his ordination, in Rockbridge county, 
Virginia, having three churches, Broad Creek, Bethel and Ebe- 
nezer; in 1891 he became pastor of Hickory Grove and Smyrna 
churches, in York county, South Carolina, remaining there eight 
years. Since 1889 he has been pastor of the Centennial church, 
Columbia, South Carolina, which he built at a cost of $8,000, 
and where he has achieved a marked success in all lines of minis- 
terial work, and has won the respect and esteem of the entire 

Since 1897 he has been chairman of the board of regents of 
the Associate Reformed Presbyterian orphanage, Hickory Grove, 
which he organized, bought the property, and opened on his 
faith in the members of the church and in God who gives all 
things. Since 1894 he has been a trustee of Erskine college, and 
in 1892-94 he was chairman of the board of trustees of Hickory 
Grove high school. 

He thinks that next to the Bible, which he read from child- 
hood with his mother and received her explanations, the books 
most helpful in fitting him for his life work were history and 
biography, especially the biographies of self-made men. He has 
said of the influences in his life: "Home started me; school 
encouraged me; early companionship helped me; private study 
determined me, and contact with men in active life literally 
inspired me to do as they were doing." He believes young men 
should know themselves; that they should have a definite aim in 
life and a clearly marked plan to reach it; and that they should 
recognize the rights of others and stick to an honorable profession. 

During his school and college days he was an enthusiastic 
baseball player, and it remains one of his most enjoyable outdoor 
recreations ; the others are hunting and fishing. He says he has 
failed in some things, but has ever tried to turn failure into a 


spur to urge him to try harder in his next undertaking; that a 
failure, or partial failure, if not a lesson, is worse than a failure, 
if such can be. In politics he is and has always been a Democrat. 

On November 20, 1890, he married Louisa J. Brice, youngest 
daughter of Rev. R. W. and Anna M. S. Brice, of Chester county, 
South Carolina. 

His address is 1120 Richland street, Columbia, South Caro- 


KOLLOCK, CHAKLES WILSON, physician and surgeon, 
was born in Cheraw, Chesterfield county, South Carolina, 
April 29, 1857. His parents were Cornelius Kollock and 
Mary Henrietta (Shaw) Kollock. His father, the son of Oliver 
Hawes Kollock and Sarah James Wilson, was one of the leading 
surgeons of his state, and was noted for his genial temper, great 
kindliness of heart, and self-sacrifice in the amelioration of 
suffering and devotion to his profession. For more than forty 
years he did a most extensive practice in the Pee Dee section and 
was regarded as the surgical authority in that part of the state 
and adjacent North Carolina. His bent was toward surgery. 
His greatest reputation was achieved in abdominal surgery, and 
the results of his operations were often praised by the foremost 
men of that profession. He served as president of the South 
Carolina Medical association, and of the Southern Surgical and 
Gynecological association, and was a member of the American 
Gynecological society, and of other scientific bodies. 

The life work of the son was a natural sequence. The ances- 
tors of the Kollock family were Huguenots who fled from France 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes; and after an inter- 
mediate sojourn in England, settled in America, most of them 
in the vicinity of Boston, Massachusetts. 

Among other distinguished representatives of the family 
have been Honorable Shepherd Kollock, of Delaware, 1750-1830, 
a Revolutionary officer, a journalist, and judge of the court of 
common pleas for thirty-five years, and Reverend Henry Kollock, 
D. D., 1778-1819, a brilliant preacher of the Independent Pres- 
byterian church, of Savannah, Georgia. A brother of the last, 
Shepherd Kosciusko Kollock, D. D., 1793-1865, was also a min- 
ister and an author of note. 

The great great-grandfather of Doctor Charles W. Kollock, 
Colonel George Hicks, was a very prominent patriot in the Pee 
Dee section. South Carolina, before, during, and succeeding the 
war of the Revolution, in which he distinguished himself in the 
command of a South Carolina regiment. 


The subject of this sketch grew up a healthy lad in the 
village of his birth, especially fond of outdoor sports, with less 
regard than he should have had for study. His mother was 
highly endowed intellectually, and a woman of sincere piety. 
Her influence in directing the career of her son was highly salu- 
tary, as was that of his grandmother, Mrs. Charles B. Shaw, who 
lived near Boston, and furnished means for the prosecution of 
his studies. 

He attended Cheraw academy, and later the Virginia Mili- 
tary institute at Lexington, Virginia, from which he was grad- 
uated July 4, 1877. He took a course of professional study at 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1878-1881, graduating M. D. 
He was interne for a year at the Philadelphia (Blockley) hos- 
pital, six months at the Children's hospital, and one year at the 
Wills Eye hospital all in Philadelphia. He attended the post- 
graduate course at the Poly clinic in Philadelphia; and later he 
pursued his studies in London and Paris, attending the eye clinics 
at the Royal Ophthalmic, Guy's, St. Thomas; King's college and 
the Westminster hospitals in London, and in Paris the clinics of 
Panas, deWiecker, Landolt and Galczowski. 

Doctor Kollock commenced the practice of his profession in 
Charleston, South Carolina, which place he deemed offered the 
best field for success in his native state, in which he preferred 
to pass his life. He attributes his success in life to the influence 
of his parents, and largely to his military training, which taught 
him self-reliance. 

Faithful to a heritage of distinction, and to his military 
training, Doctor Kollock has served in the Charleston Light 
dragoons for nineteen years, and has been in command of that 
body as captain for the last four years. He was special military 
aide to President Roosevelt when he visited the exposition at 
Charleston in 1902, under the appointment of Governor M. B. 
McSweeney, with rank of colonel, and he also commanded the 
cavalry escort to the president the Charleston Light dragoons. 
Doctor Kollock is one of the attending surgeons at the Roper 
hospital and at Shirras dispensary, in Charleston, and is lecturer 
on diseases of the eye, ear, throat, and nose, in the Charleston 
Medical school. He has served as a member of the Charleston 
board of health, as a member of the city council and as presiding 
officer of the same as mayor pro tempore of the city for one year. 


He is a member of the American Medical association, the 
American Ophthalmological society, the American Academy of 
Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology, the South Carolina Med- 
ical association, the Medical Society of South Carolina, and the 
Tri-State Medical Association of the Carolinas and Virginia, and 
has served as president of the three last named. He is a member 
of the Greek letter fraternity Alpha Tau Omega, the Charleston 
club, Carolina Yacht club, and St. Andrew's society, of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

He has been constantly identified with the Democratic party 
and is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church. 

He has from boyhood been interested in athletics and finds 
relaxation from the cares and duties of life in hunting, golf, 
swimming, and other outdoor pleasures. 

Doctor Kollock married, on November 10, 1885, Miss Ger- 
trude E. Gregg, of Charleston, South Carolina. She died Octo- 
ber 24, 1904, leaving two children, a son and a daughter, both of 
whom are now (1907) living. On December 11, 1906, he married 
Miss Sarah E. Irvin, of Washington, Georgia. 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 


senator for South Carolina, was born on his father's farm, 
four miles south of Lowndesville, Abbeville county, South 
Carolina, July 31, 1851. His parents were Clement Theophilus 
and Frances Beulah Latimer. His father was a practical farmer, 
whose distinguishing characteristics were strong common sense, 
a positive character and intensely honest convictions. His earliest 
ancestor in South Carolina was his grandfather, James Latimer, 
who emigrated from Maryland and settled near Honea Path, 
Anderson county, about 1790. The family is believed to derive 
its descent from the famous Hugh Latimer, of England. Mr. 
Latimer comes from a family which has always been distin- 
guished for honesty and uprightness of character. 

Asbury Latimer was brought up in the country. In child- 
hood and youth he was strong and well and was fond of exercise. 
At a comparatively early age he was required to put in full time 
on whatever labor was necessary on his father's farm, and thus 
the lessons of industry and of prompt performance of duty were 
early impressed upon him. All his life he has been obliged to 
gain by hard labor every prize that he has attained. He attended 
a preparatory school at Lowndesville, South Carolina, but, on 
account of the War between the States, was not able to attend 

About 1878 he removed to Belton, Anderson county, where 
he engaged in agriculture, which has constituted the principal 
business of his life. He soon became one of the most prominent 
planters of Western South Carolina, and his plantations are 
object-lessons in the proper use and cultivation of farm lands, 
and in the utilization of every variety of farm products. Always 
a man of broad public spirit, he has been closely identified with 
nearly all of the business enterprises of his community, especially 
in the lines of banking and of the manufacture of cotton. 

Mr. Latimer first became interested in politics about 1890. 
He served as chairman of his county Democracy, and was urged 
to enter the race for lieutenant-governor, but declined to do so 
on account of the demands of his private business. In 1892 he 




was elected to congress, and was reflected for five consecutive 
terms by overwhelming majorities. His record as a represen- 
tative was one of hard practical work. A few of his special 
achievements may be mentioned: By hard and persistent work 
with individual members and with committees of congress he 
secured for Newberry college its just claim for damages from the 
Federal government. He introduced and succeeded in getting 
passed in the house a bill requiring corporations in the hands of 
receivers to pay their taxes to the state in the same manner as 
individuals. One result of this act was that $208,000 of past 
taxes due the state of South Carolina was paid into the state 
treasury by one railroad alone. It was largely due to his efforts 
that the system of free rural mail delivery was originated and 
incorporated with the postal system of the government. This 
matter was agitated by him during his first term in congress, and 
his district was one of the first in the country to receive the 
benefits of daily rural mail facilities. He labored earnestly for 
the agricultural interests of his district, and succeeded in very 
greatly broadening the scope of the experimental and practical 
work of the Department of Agriculture. He secured a soil survey 
of his state, from which charts and maps have been made illus- 
trating the character of the soil, the waterways, and the mineral 
deposits a work which has been of great benefit to the people 
of the state. 

In 1902 he entered the race for the United States senate. 
He had as opponents five of the ablest debaters in the state, but 
after a canvass lasting three months he was nominated for the 
office by a majority of 18,000 votes. He was subsequently elected 
by the state legislature, and took the oath of office on March 4, 
1903. During the time that he has been in the senate he has 
gained for himself a national reputation by his efforts to secure 
the aid of the Federal government in the improvement of the 
public roads. His introduction of this measure in the senate was 
looked upon by many of his associates and by a large part of the 
public press as an impracticable scheme, full of the dangers of 
paternalism and bankruptcy. In an able and exhaustive argu- 
ment in support of the measure he succeeded in stemming the tide 
of opposition, and secured a favorable report from the committee 
having charge of the bill. His efforts in this behalf became the 
nucleus of a great movement throughout the country, having for 


its object a general betterment of the conditions of rural life, and 
particularly the securing of good roads. Senator Latimer has 
addressed large and enthusiastic audiences in nearly every state 
in the Union, and many of the state legislatures, on the merits 
of his bill for the improvement of the roads. This work, when 
accomplished, will be inseparably connected with his name. 
Among other measures now before congress, in which Senator 
Latimer is interested, are the bills to reduce letter postage to one 
cent; to apportion to the thirteen original states their proper 
share of public lands for public school purposes, and to drain the 
swamp lands of South Carolina. 

On account of a disagreement between the senate and house 
on the enactment of an immigration bill, a provision was inserted 
in the bill for the appointment of a commission of nine, com- 
posed of three senators, three representatives, and three laymen, 
appointed by the President, for the purpose of making a thorough 
investigation, in the United States and abroad, of the whole 
subject of immigration. Senator Latimer was one of the three 
senators appointed on the commission and sailed for Europe on 
May 18, 1907, landing at Naples on June 1, following. He was 
appointed chairman of a sub-commission, consisting of Messrs. 
Burnett and Howell, members from the house, and assigned to 
the territory of Northern Europe, embracing Northern Italy, 
France, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Scotland, and 
Ireland. After a thorough investigation of this territory, coining 
in contact with immigrants from almost every part of Europe at 
the control stations in Germany and the steamship lines from 
Hamburg, Bremen, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Havre, Marseilles, Glas- 
gow, Londonderry, Cork, and Queenstown, he made quite an 
exhaustive report, setting forth fully the conditions of agricul- 
ture, manufactures, scale of wages paid, and the cost of living 
(including rents and taxes), throughout the territory traversed 
by his sub-committee, and he is now engaged in an investigation 
in the United States of the immigrants who have come to this 
country and their adaptability to conditions here, with a view to 
making a report to congress at the present session. 

In politics Senator Latimer has always been a Democrat. 
He is a member of the Methodist Church, South. 

He has given no special attention to athletics or any modern 
system of physical culture, but finds his chief relaxation and 


amusement in farm and country life. His philosophy of life 
may be summed up as follows : Perform promptly and well every 
duty that presents itself and cultivate temperate, economical and 
industrious habits. 

On June 26, 1877, he was married to Sarah Alice Brown. 
Of their six children, five are now (1907) living. 

The postoffice address of Senator Latimer is Belton, Ander- 
son county, South Carolina. 


E^E, RICHARD DOZIER, was born in Sumter, Sumter 
county, South Carolina, August 5, 1850. He is the son 
of Colonel George Washington Lee and Susan Ann 
Dozier, his wife. His father was an extensive planter and an 
owner of numerous slaves. He served also as commissioner of 
public buildings for Sumter district 1850-60, as Confederate chief 
of commissary for Sumter and adjoining districts 1861-63 
1863-65; was colonel of the Twentieth regiment, South Carolina 
troops, and commanded the Confederate States forces at the battle 
of Dingles Mill, near Sumter, South Carolina, April 9, 1865. 
He was distinguished for his uniform courtesy in manner, ster- 
ling patriotism, untiring energy, and sincere piety. The mother 
of Richard D. Lee was a woman of fine intellect and sincere 
piety, and her influence has been a powerful aid in his efforts to 
win success. 

According to the family tradition, and the historian 
McCrady, a paternal ancestor, Richard Henry Lee, one of the 
English Virginians, settled in 1746 on the high hills of the 
Santee, South Carolina. 

Another paternal ancestor was John McCord, who married 
a daughter of Major Charles Russell; Colonel William Thomp- 
son, of the American Revolution, married another daughter of 
Major Russell, and McCord and Thompson settled in Amelia 
township, on the Congaree, in what is now Orangeburg county. 
Among the ancestors on the maternal side was Leonard Dozier, 
a French Huguenot, who first settled in Virginia and later on the 
Pee Dee, in what is now Georgetown, South Carolina. Colonel 
John White, of Scotch-Irish descent, first settled, in 1710, in 
Christ Church parish, afterward removing to Prince Fredericks, 
on the Pee Dee. Of the sons of these ancestors, paternal and 
maternal, Anthony Lee was an officer under General Sumter in 
the Revolution; David McCord was an officer under his uncle, 
Colonel William Thompson; and John Dozier was a captain of 
volunteers, under General Francis Marion, in the same struggle 
for independence. Anthony White was a member of the Pro- 
vincial congress, which met at Charleston, South Carolina, in 




1775 and 1776. He was also a vestryman in Prince Fredericks 
in 1749, and a warden in 1766. 

The subject of this sketch was christened Richard Henry 
Lee, in honor of his paternal ancestor, but upon the death of his 
brother, John Dozier Lee, a Confederate officer killed in battle 
in 1862, another ancestral name, Dozier, was substituted for 
Henry. He was a healthy and vigorous lad, and was fond not 
only of horses, hunting and field sports generally, but also of 
reading works of history and standard fiction and poetry. His 
early life was largely spent on the plantation of his father in 
Sumter county, but the family residence was in the village of 
Sumter. He attended the preparatory schools of Sumter of Pro- 
fessor Copeland Stiles, 1856-60; the Male academy of Professor 
J. E. Kendrick, 1861-65; the high school for boys of Professor 
A. W. Dozier, 1865-66, and finally the South Carolina college 
(or university as then called), 1867-68. He acted as clerk and 
read law in law offices (as then required by statute), 1870-72, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1872. His profession was the 
choice of himself and parents there having been a lawyer in 
the family for successive generations. He cherished from the 
beginning an ambition to succeed, and his life has, consequently, 
been highly gratifying professionally, and financially, a success. 

He has served as president of the Sumter Bar association, 
and has held offices also in the State Bar association. He is a 
director of the First National Bank of Sumter, and president and 
director of various other business enterprises. He has served also 
as a member of the house of representatives of South Carolina 
from Sumter county, 1882-86; member of the State Democratic 
Executive committee, 1882-90; member of the State Constitu- 
tional convention, 1895 ; and president of the electoral college of 
South Carolina in 1900. In 1906 he was vice-president of the 
State Democratic convention* He gave earnest and active service 
on the hustings in the vital Hampton campaign in 1876, and in 
that against Tillman in 1890, giving evidence of allegiance to 
Democratic principles by inheritance. He is a regular attendant 
of the Protestant Episcopal church. He finds relaxation from 
the daily duties of life in horseback riding, and reading. He is 
also a constant patron of the drama. He served as lieutenant 
in the South Carolina Volunteer troops, 1877-81, and as aide on 
Governor Thompson's staff in the Yorktown centennial in 1881. 

Vol. I S. C. 11 


He is a member of the Phi Kappa Tsi and of the Clariosophic 
society of South Carolina college, and of the Sumter chamber 
of commerce. 

In reply to a request for suggestions to young Americans, 
he says : "Be courageous, not cowardly ; exercise self-control, and 
do nothing in passion; ever exhibit true manliness and strength 
of will, and be steadfast in adherence to truth and an absolute 
rectitude of conduct." And he holds that success in life is to 
be secured by "application to duty, patient industry, unfailing 
courtesy to others, and inflexible integrity of principle." 

He married, April 22, 1875, a cousin, Mary Elizabeth Dozier. 
Of their five children, the three daughters are married, the elder 
son was graduated from the University of South Carolina in 
June of the present year and the younger son is now (1907) a 
student at that institution. 

His address is Number 3 Warren street, Sumter, Sumter 
county, South Carolina. 


E~1WIS, WILLIAM WALLACE, lawyer and educator, was 
born September 23, 1867, in Eock Hill, York county, 
South Carolina. His father, Joseph Newton Lewis, 
cotton and commission merchant, was chief of the division of 
postoffices and postroads of the postoffice department of the Con- 
federate states; his mother, Emily (Snow) Lewis, a refined and 
cultured woman of high intellectual attainments, was a strong 
influence in his intellectual and moral life and helped to inspire 
him with the ambition that has helped him up the ladder of 
success. His ancestry is Welsh. His great-grandfather was one 
of a large family which emigrated from Wales to the colonies 
some years prior to the war of the Revolution. The famous 
Lewis family of Virginia are among his connections. 

Until he was twelve years of age he lived in Baltimore, 
Maryland, and attended the public schools of that city five or 
six years. After his return to his native state he attended the 
graded schools in Chester, going from there to the South Caro- 
lina Military academy, which conferred the honorary degree of 
B. S. upon him in 1889. In order to keep himself in school he 
worked in the afternoon and on Saturdays in a lawyer's office, 
and it was largely that employment which influenced him to 
choose the law for a profession, though the law was a long way 
ahead of him at that time. 

He began his career as a teacher in the graded schools in 
Rock Hill, his birthplace, in 1889, and made such a good record 
that the following session he was made principal of the Yorkville 
graded schools, and remained there two years, 1890-92; in the 
fall of the latter year he went to the Georgia Military institute 
as commandant of cadets, and remained there until 1893, when 
he closed his career as an educator. Meanwhile he had been 
reading law during vacations and as opportunity occurred, and 
in 1894 was admitted to the bar. Since then he has practiced 
with success in Yorkville, and has also been successful in com- 
mercial lines in which his practice incidentally interested him. 
He has been town attorney, and while holding the office compiled 
the provisions of the constitution and acts of the legislature 


relating to corporations, and the ordinances of the town of York- 
ville, both published in 1902. He was president and treasurer of 
the Yorkville Cotton mills, September, 1902, to April, 1905 ; is a 
director of the Yorkville Loan and Savings Bank; member of 
board of governors of the Commercial club; was chairman of 
the board of trustees of the graded schools two years, and since 
1901 has been a member of the board of visitors of the South 
Carolina Military academy. He is colonel of the First Infantry 
regiment, National Guard of South Carolina; a Mason; member 
of the Knights of Pythias; of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon frater- 
nity, and of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In politics 
he is, and has always been, a Democrat. 

He rates the most potent influences in his life in the order 
named: Home, school, and contact with men in active life; and 
as the books that were most helpful in preparing him for his 
life work, the lives of Washington, Franklin, Lee and Jackson. 
He thinks every youth who seeks success should start with integ- 
rity, energy, and a determination to do something for humanity, 
and to be something under the providence of God. 

On December 31, 1890, he married Anna K. Rawlinson; six 
children have been born to them, of whom three are now (1907) 

His address is Yorkville, York county, South Carolina. 


E'NDSAY, WILLIAM CARTER, D. D., Baptist minister, 
was born in Louisa county, Virginia, February 15, 1840. 
He was educated under private tutors, and at the age 
of fifteen was sent to Hanover academy, where he spent four 
years in charge of Colonel Lewis Minor Coleman. He spent two 
years in the Medical college of Richmond, Virginia, expecting to 
enter the medical profession. Before he finished his preparation 
for the practice of medicine he entered the Confederate army, 
and spent four years in the cavalry under the famous General 
J. E. B. Stuart. After the war he decided to enter the ministry 
and spent four years in the Southern Baptist Theological semi- 
nary; then located in Greenville, South Carolina, and subse- 
quently removed to Louisville, Kentucky. His first pastorate 
was in the town of Wilson, North Carolina. He remained there 
from October, 1870, to March, 1871. In October, 1871, he became 
pastor of the Baptist church at Barnwell, South Carolina. Here 
he remained five years, and during his pastorate the congregation 
rapidly increased and the church grew in strength, numerically 
and financially. While pastor in Barnwell he took a course in 
law under Honorable Isaac Hutson, not with the intention of 
practicing that profession, but for his own pleasure and better 
equipment. He says that the courses in law and medicine have 
been of very great advantage to him in the ministry. He resigned 
from the Barnwell church to accept an agency, in the year 1876, 
to raise money for the endowment of Furman university and the 
Southern Baptist Theological seminary. The effort did not meet 
with success, owing to the political disturbances in the state, and 
the financial stringency of the times. 

In August, 1877, Doctor Lindsay accepted the pastorate of 
the Baptist church in the city of Columbia, and is still (1907) 
the honored pastor of the First Baptist church in that city. 
When he went to Columbia there was only one Baptist church 
in that city. Subsequently, after other Baptist churches were 
established, as the city grew, the church of which he is pastor 
became known as the First Baptist church. When Doctor Lind- 
say became pastor of this church it was not considered a specially 


desirable or prominent position, as the church was not strong 
financially and its membership was not large. He has remained 
at his post of duty for about thirty years, and he has seen his 
church grow to become one of the most influential in the city 
and one of the best in the state. He is more popular with his 
own members and with the people of the city than ever, and he 
is held in the highest esteem, not only by the people in that city, 
but also wherever he is known. He has not been very robust in 
health, but he has done a vast amount of work in his study, in 
the pulpit, and in the pastorate. He has met calls for special 
services in Columbia and in other parts of the state. A few 
years ago his church provided him with an assistant pastor, and 
if the people can have their way he will remain in his present 
field the remainder of his natural life. 

Doctor Lindsay has been a close student; he keeps up with 
the thought of the day, is interested in public affairs, reads a 
great deal, and has traveled extensively in this country and in 
Europe. He is a fluent, eloquent and forcible speaker. He knows 
people, understands human nature, has a fine vein of humor, a 
genial disposition, and a warm, sympathetic nature. He is held 
in the highest esteem by the religious denomination of which 
he is a distinguished member, and for many years he has filled 
prominent positions, as a member of the board of state missions, 
and also a member of the board of trustees of the Southern 
Baptist Theological seminary, and for several years he was a 
member of the board of trustees of Furman university. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the Washington 
and Lee university, Virginia. 

The First Baptist church, of Columbia, of which Doctor 
Lindsay is pastor, meets in one of the most historic buildings 
in Columbia. It was in this building that the South Carolina 
Secession convention first met and organized and held its first 
sessions. Owing to the existence of smallpox in the city, and 
which had become epidemic, it was decided to adjourn and meet 
in the city of Charleston, which was done, and the ordinance 
of secession was passed in that city. The edifice of the First 
Baptist church in Columbia is a beautiful and almost perfect 
specimen of the Doric style of architecture; it is kept in fine 
condition, is well located, and is greatly prized by the people of 
Columbia and of the whole state. In addition, it is a monument 


to the liberality and farsightedness of one of its earliest pastors, 
the late Doctor James P. Boyce, formerly president of the South- 
ern Baptist Theological seminary. He was a man of large means 
and but for his large gifts to the building funds such a splendid 
house of worship could not have been built in Columbia in those 
times, and in the early history of the church. Doctor Lindsay 
is a worthy successor of Doctor Boyce, one of the finest and ablest 
men South Carolina ever produced. 

Doctor Lindsay married Margaret Ella Steen, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Steen, of Greenville. They have an inter- 
esting family of sons and daughters. 

His address is Columbia, South Carolina. 


E'TCAS, JAMES JONATHAN, soldier, merchant, and viti- 
culturist, was born at Tiller's Ferry, Kershaw county, 
South Carolina, November 21, 1831. His father, Benja- 
min Simons Lucas, M. D., was an eminent physician and surgeon, 
noted for his intelligence, sound judgment, and amiability. His 
mother, Melita Eleanor (Tiller) Lucas, whose ancestors were 
English and Welsh families well known for their integrity and 
ability, strongly impressed her powerful moral character upon 
her son, to his lasting good. His blood is English, and French 
Huguenot. On the paternal side, the founder of the American 
branch was Jonathan Lucas, who came from England to Charles- 
ton in 1785. He invented a rice mill in 1787, upon which his 
son, Jonathan, made improvements, which were patented in 1808. 
The first ancestor of the family on his father's maternal side to 
settle in America was Benjamin Simons, who came from France 
to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1685, upon the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, and at once took an active part in the affairs 
of the embryo city. His grandson, Benjamin Simons third, was 
a member of the Jacksonboro legislature. 

Lucas arms : Ar. a f ess gu. between six annulets gu. Crest : 
Out of a ducal coronet or, a griffin's head couped, gu. Motto: 
Veritas Vincit. 

Major Lucas lived on a farm until he was sixteen years old. 
He was not robust physically, but that he had the stamina which 
was to be one of his marked characteristics in after years was 
demonstrated when he was only fifteen. One of the negro plow 
hands being taken sick, he offered to do the work. His father 
laughingly doubted both the lad's ability and perseverance. Thus 
spurred, the boy, though unaccustomed to manual labor of any 
sort, took the negro's place and plowed every day for a week 
In youth his favorite occupations were reading and horticulture. 
He received his preparatory education in the country schools, 
which he attended until he was sixteen, when he entered the 
South Carolina Military academy, from which he was graduated 
November 20, 1851. In 1904 the same institution conferred upon 
him the degree of B. S. 


He began his business life in 1852, as a clerk in his uncle's 
hardware store, in Charleston, but the year following he engaged 
in the same line of business for himself, which he successfully 
conducted until the opening of the War between the States. He 
represented Charleston in the house of representatives from 1856 
to 1862, and was the first graduate of the Military academy to 
attain this distinction. Among his notable achievements in the 
legislature were the acts: To appropriate dividends on state- 
owned railway stock; for deepening the entrance to Charleston 
harbor; for presentation of a sword to Captain Nathan George 
Evans, United States army, for gallant services in Indian war- 
fare; and for the first appropriations for the library at the 
Citadel. But the proposal of which he w T as proudest failed, 
because other members of the legislature were not gifted with 
his foresight. This was the recommendation of General A. M. 
Manigault, Colonel Lewis M. Hatch, and himself, members of a 
state commission to reform the militia laws, of a bill authorizing 
the formation and equipment for the field of a select militia 
force of ten thousand men. Opponents ridiculed it as "Lucas's 
standing army" bill, but before Sumter was fired on they realized 
how wise its adoption would have been. In February, 1861, 
while serving as aide-de-camp to Governor Pickens, Major Lucas 
brought forty thousand pounds of powder from the Mt. Vernon 
arsenal, in Alabama, to Charleston without publicity. This was 
used for the reduction of Fort Sumter. 

The history of Lucas's battalion of heavy artillery, which 
he commanded from its organization to the end of the war (when 
he thinks he was the senior major in the Confederate service), 
is a part of the history of the notable and gallant defence of 
Charleston, much of which may be found in official publications. 

Credit is due Major Lucas for the most striking recognition 
given the enlisted men by General Beauregard the naming of 
Battery Tynes, adjacent to the famous Battery Pringle, in honor 
of First Sergeant S. A. Tynes, Company A, Lucas's battalion of 
artillery, who was killed during the defence of Battery Wagner. 
He and his command participated in the capture of the gunboat 
Isaac Smith, in the Stono river, January, 1863; also in the 
famous continuous night and day bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
and Batteries Wagner and Pringle. It was the failure to silence 
Battery Pringle, where Major Lucas commanded, that prevented 


the capture of Charleston from the rear, as Admiral Dahlgren 
had planned. He was in charge of the fortifications on the Stono 
river, which guarded the back door to Charleston for nearly four 
years until the evacuation of that city and its defences. With 
his command he joined General Hardee's army in its retreat to 
North Carolina, where he took part in the battles of Averysboro 
and Bentonville, and was struck five times. One wound might 
have proved fatal had not the musket ball been stopped by a 
suspender button. As a result, he was three weeks in the hospital 
at St. Mary's school, Raleigh, North Carolina, w r here he was the 
pet of fifty young ladies. When the fearful collapse of the 
Confederacy came, he was at home on sick leave. 

In 1865 he removed from Charleston to Societv Hill, Dar- 

> / 

lington county, South Carolina, where by his intelligent culti- 
vation of grapes and wine-making he formed a noted industrial 
show place. His home is one of the most refined and cultivated 
in the state. He is a director of the Atlantic Coast Line Rail- 
road company ; a member of the board of visitors, South Carolina 
Military academy ; and a trustee of the Porter Military academy, 
Charleston, South Carolina. He was president of the Darlington 
Agricultural society for three years; is a life member of the St. 
Cecilia society, of Charleston; is a member of the Huguenot 
society of that city ; was for seven years captain of the "Palmetto 
Guard," Charleston, and trained that company for its brilliant 
career in the Confederate army. He has been a Mason since 
1856. In politics he has always been a Democrat. In religious 
conviction he is an Episcopalian. He is, and has long been, a 
lay reader of Trinity in his home town, and he was elected 
an alternate delegate from the diocese of South Carolina to the 
triennial convention of the American Episcopal church, which 
met at Richmond, Virginia, in October, 1907. 

Hunting and shooting were long his favorite recreations, but 
he has done little of either for some years. His advice to the 
young is: "Be prompt in whatever you have to do, and try to 
do it a little better than your fellows." Fear of being in the 
minority never prevents him from expressing his opinion. He 
never fought a duel, but, in 1856, he was one of the seconds in 
"an affair of honor," in which, fortunately, no blood was spilled. 
He is an open advocate of the code duello on the ground that it 
elevated the tone of society. 


On November 21, 1861, he married Carrie Mclver, daughter 
of Rev. David R. Williams Mclver, and granddaughter of Judge 
Samuel Wilds. Doctor Thomas Smith married the widow of 
Judge Wilds, and adopted her granddaughter, Carrie Mclver, 
changing her name to Smith, three years before her marriage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lucas had seven children, five of whom are 
living in 1907. Mrs. Lucas and J. J. Lucas, Jr., passed into the 

eternal world in October, 1901, within sixteen davs of each other. 


Melita Eleanor Lucas, the youngest daughter, died July 20, 1907. 
The address of Major Lucas is Society Hill, Darlington 
county, South Carolina. 


legislator, was born in Dunklin, Greenville county. 
South Carolina, September 9, 1865. His parents were 
the Keverend A. C. and Ann Kebecca (McCullough) Stepp. His 
father was a Baptist minister and farmer. He was a man of 
strong convictions, very outspoken, with a taste for controversy, 
a close student and a preacher of great power. He was brought 
prominently before the public in 1876 by a controversy with 
Doctor Toy on the inspiration of the Scriptures. He was not 
only able as a writer and forceful in the pulpit, but he was also 
an effective stump speaker, and in this line he did good service 
for the Democratic party. His adopted father, Colonel James 
McCullough, was a farmer, an officer of the Sixteenth regiment, 
South Carolina volunteers, in the Confederate States army in 
the War between the States, a member of the state legislature, 
and a member of the convention which nominated Wade Hamp- 
ton for governor of South Carolina in 18T6. His first ancestor 
in America was Joseph McCullough, who came from County 
Antrim, Ireland, and was one of the earlier European settlers in 
this country. 

When the subject of this sketch was an infant his mother was 
seriously ill, and her brother, Colonel James McCullough, and 
his wife, having no children of their own, adopted him and by 
an act of the legislature had his name changed to McCullough. 
In his early years Joseph McCullough was in good health. 
His home was in the country. He was fond of reading, fishing 
and hunting, and took pleasure in working with the thresher, the 
cotton gin, and other farm machinery. At this time mechanical 
devices for feeding had not been introduced, and he was regarded 
as the best cotton gin feeder in the county. For ordinary farm 
work, however, he had no taste. This fact, together with his love 
for books, led him to study for one of the learned professions. 
He attended the schools in the neighborhood, studied a year at 
Wofford college, and then went to South Carolina college, which 
he entered in 1882 and from which he was graduated, with the 
degrees of A. B. and LL. B., in 1887. The active work of life 



was commenced in September, 1887, as a lawyer in Greenville, 
South Carolina, where he soon secured a large and profitable 
practice. In 1892 he became city attorney, which position he 
held for six years. For several years he was president of the 
Carolina Loan and Trust company, and from 1896 to 1900 he 
was a member of the state legislature. He has held several terms 
of court as special judge; has also conducted a law school for 
one session at Furman university. He has delivered numerous 
addresses on important occasions and written many articles for 
the newspaper press. He is now, and has been for years, a mem- 
ber of the board of visitors of Wofford college. 

In obtaining an education he not only had no difficulties to 
overcome, but he received a great deal of encouragement. He 
says that he is not, in any sense, "a self-made man." Of the 
books which helped him greatly in boyhood and youth he names 
the Bible, history and biography, and the works of Dickens and 
Bulwer. In recent years he has derived much benefit from the 
writings of Tolstoi, Emerson, and Doctor Watson. His first 
strong impulse to strive for the prizes of life seems to have come 
to him from reading biographies of distinguished men and from 
the encouragement given him by Doctor McBryde, president of 
South Carolina college, when, by reason of an attack of fever, 
he had fallen behind his class and was thinking of giving up his 
studies and going back to the farm. Thus incited, he returned 
to college, did the work of four years in three years, and led his 
law class in its final examinations. 

In estimating, by request, the relative strength of various 
specified influences in enabling him to succeed in life, he places 
that of home as first. For some years he lived within two miles 
of his own parents and spent considerable time with them. The 
influence of both his mothers was especially strong for good. 
Next in the scale he places private study; and third, he names 
contact with men in active life. He adds, however, that above 
all these should be placed religious ideas and influences. He was 
free to choose his own profession, and from the fact that he has 
made a success therein, it is evident that his choice was wise. 
He finds his principal relaxation in driving and reading. He 
has taken one course of physical culture, from which he derived 
great benefit. Of the prominent fraternities with which he is 
connected, he names the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of 


Pythias, and Woodmen of the World. He has been high priest 
of the Cyrus chapter of Masons, and president of the "Club of 
Thirty-nine." In politics he has always been a Democrat. His 
religious affiliation is with the Methodist Episcopal church, of 
which he is a prominent member and in which he has held an 
official position for many years. He was chairman of the lay 
delegation to the general conference of his church, which con- 
vened at Birmingham, Alabama, in May, 1906. Together with 
four other jurists and lawyers, he was appointed a member of 
the Vanderbilt commission for the purpose of investigating and 
deciding the legal relations existing between Vanderbilt univer- 
sity and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Several sessions 
were held and a decision was filed settling these issues, which 
had long been a matter of controversy in the church. 

On June 3, 1890, he was married to Miss Maud d'Alvigny, 
of Atlanta, Georgia. Of their five children, three are living in 

In reply to a request for suggestions regarding the principles 
and habits which will most help young people to attain true 
success in life, Mr. McCullough advises them to avoid all intoxi- 
cants; to use tobacco, if at all, in moderation; to care for the 
body; to be systematic, looking carefully after details; and to 
fully master the subject in hand. For reading he recommends 
good literature, and especially the Bible, history and biography. 
By hard and persistent study and effort he has secured a place in 
the front rank of his profession in the state, and by his upright 
life, his courtesy, and his fidelity, he has won a large measure 
of public esteem. At its Centennial celebration in January, 1905, 
South Carolina college conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of LL. D. 

He owns large plantations in the country, but his home, 
which is attractive and to which he is strongly attached, is in 
Greenville, South Carolina. 


McINTOSH, JAMES, a leading professional and business 
man of Newberry, South Carolina, was born at Society 
Hill, in the county of Darlington, South Carolina, on 
Febuary 27, 1838. His father, James Hawes Mclntosh, was a 
merchant and farmer, and a man of strict integrity, and was 
successful in his business and other relations. 

An early ancestor, John Mclntosh, a man of distinction, 
came from Scotland to the Welsh Xeck settlement on the Pee 
Dee in 1750. 

Strong, athletic, and unburdened by labor, save such as he 
chose to perform, young Mclntosh passed in his native village 
a happy childhood. His mother, Martha Gregg Mclntosh, had 
much to do with shaping his moral, spiritual and intellectual 
character, and her influence he regards as the dominant factor in 
his life. School privileges were his from the first. He attended 
the village school at Society Hill, and South Carolina college 
at Columbia. Having a decided leaning toward medicine, he 
resolved to prepare himself for this profession. To this end he 
entered the South Carolina Medical college at Charleston, the 
leading institution of its character in the state. In the year 
1861 he was graduated with distinction. Ten years later he 
supplemented this course with studies in gynecology, and the 
therapeutics of the throat and lungs, in New York city. His 
standing in general scholarship and in his profession has been 
recognized by the South Carolina college and the South Carolina 
Medical college, both of which institutions have honored him, 
and, at the same time, honored themselves, by conferring upon 
him their degrees. 

For the subject of this sketch the serious work of life began 
when, at the opening of the War between the States, he enlisted 
in Company F, Eighth regiment of South Carolina volunteers. 
Soon afterward he was appointed assistant surgeon in the state 
service. Two weeks later the Eighth regiment was mustered into 
the Confederate service, and, as he was anxious to go to Virginia, 
Mr. Mclntosh resigned his commission, joined the same company 
and regiment, and went to that state. He served through the 


summer campaign and was under Kershaw's command at the 
first battle of Manassas. On November 1, 1861, he was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the Confederate States army, and until Feb- 
ruary, 1865, he served continuously at Charlottesville, Virginia. 
After the capture of Charleston, and the destruction of Columbia, 
he was ordered to South Carolina, established a temporary hos- 
pital at Newberry, and continued there until the last of the 
volunteers of the armies of Lee and Johnston had passed through 
to their Western homes. In June, 1865, he entered upon the 
general practice of medicine and surgery at Newberry, South 

Among the positions held by Doctor Mclntosh may be named 
the presidency of the South Carolina Medical association (1876- 
1877) ; trustee of Furman university; president Newberry Build- 
ing and Loan association, and president of the Newberry Savings 
bank. Doctor Mclntosh has also served as chairman of the board 
of commissioners of public works of Newberry, South Carolina, 
for eight years. 

Throughout his life, and in the midst of changing party 
policies, Doctor Mclntosh has been a Democrat. In religious 
faith he is a Baptist. In addressing young Americans he would 
emphasize the supreme worth of character, honesty, honor, and 
truthfulness, and would urge the importance of fidelity to obli- 
gations; of energy, industry, application, and the determination 
to succeed. 

On the 25th of November, 1862, Doctor Mclntosh married 
Miss Fannie C. Higgins. They had four children. On June 13, 
1903, he married Mrs. Sarah B. Boozer (nee Rook), of which 
union two children have been born. Five of the children are 
now (1907) living. 

The address of Doctor Mclntosh is Newberry, South Caro- 


McLAURIN, JOHN LOWNDES, lawyer, legislator, some- 
time member of the United States senate and house 
of representatives, was born at Red Bluff, Marlboro 
county, South Carolina, May 9, 1860, son of Philip Bethea and 
T. J. (Weatherly) McLaurin. He is of Scotch descent, and the 
family tradition records Colin McLaurin, the celebrated Scotch 
mathematician, as the earliest known ancestor. His great-grand- 
father, John Lauchin McLaurin, who emigrated from Argyle- 
shire, Scotland, about 1785, was the founder of the American 
branch of the family, in the paternal line, while his mother's 
forebears were substantially settled in this country before the 

The father of John L. McLaurin, was an extensive planter 
in Marlboro county, a lawyer of marked ability, and a public 
speaker of high local reputation. He served in the legislature 
of the state two terms, entered the Confederate army during the 
War between the States, in which he commanded a company in 
a regiment of South Carolina volunteers, and gave promise of a 
brilliant career, when, at the age of thirty-three, he met an 
untimely death. He was a graduate of Davidson college, North 
Carolina, a man of refined nature, scholarly habits, and much 
intellectual force. At his death he left three children: John L., 
the eldest; Thomas, who died at Englewood, New Jersey, at the 
age of thirteen; and Margaret, who married Throop Crosland. 

His mother was a daughter of Colonel T. C. Weatherly, a 
prominent legislator of the state, and author of the South Caro- 
lina "Lien Law" and several other important measures. After 
the death of her husband she married W. S. Mowry and removed 
to Englewood, New Jersey, where the youth of her children was 
in part passed. 

Mr. McLaurin was educated at Bennettsville academy; the 
academy at Englewood, New Jersey; Swarthmore college, Penn- 
sylvania; Carolina Military institute, and the University of 
Virginia. He was graduated from the Carolina Military institute 
in 1880, and received his degree in law from the University of 
Virginia in 1882. In the year following he was admitted to 

Vol. I S. C. 12 


the bar, and began the practice of law at Bennettsville, South 
Carolina. His training and natural abilities soon gave him a 
commanding place at the bar of the county, and made him a 
strong advocate and a leader in local politics. For some years 
after his admission to the bar he was associated in practice with 
Judge C. P. Townsend, of Bennettsville. 

In 1890 he was elected to the South Carolina legislature, and 
to the office of attorney-general of the state in the following year. 
After a brief career as the chief law officer of the state, he was 
elected to the lower house of congress, and served in that body 
from 1891 to 1897. Here he was a member of the Ways and 
Means committee. Upon the death of Joseph H. Earle, United 
States senator from South Carolina, he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Ellerbe, on May 27, 1897, to fill out the unexpired term of 
that senator. After a vigorous campaign, in which the question 
was submitted to the people of the state, he was regularly elected 
to the United States senate for the term ending March 3, 1903. 

While in the United States senate Mr. McLaurin was a mem- 
ber of the committees on claims, improvement of the Mississippi 
river and tributaries, Indian affairs, manufactures ; organization, 
conduct and expenditures of the executive departments; trans- 
portation routes to the seaboard, and industrial expositions. His 
attitude on public questions was one of dignified independence, 
and his advanced views brought him into sharp conflict with the 
conservatism of his party in the state. On July 25, 1901, the 
Democratic State Executive committee of South Carolina asked 
him to tender his resignation as United States senator, which 
request he ignored as coming from a misunderstanding of his true 
position on important issues to the South. A very clear and 
logical vindication of his political course in congress was made 
in a speech delivered at the annual dinner of the New York 
chamber of commerce in 1901. 

Senator McLaurin's most important speeches while in the 
senate were his deliverances on "The Philippine Islands," Feb- 
ruary 28, 1900, and on "The Repeal of the Ten Per Cent. Tax 
on State Banks of Issue," January 16, 1900. These speeches, 
especially the one on the Philippine policy of the country, were 
marked by careful preparation, cogent reasoning, and a broad 
view of public policy, although they were the chief offenders 
against the more provincial sensibilities of the South. 


On July 11, 1902, President Roosevelt tendered Senator 
McLaurin the position of judge of the United States court of 
claims, which he declined, and at the expiration of his term as 
senator he returned to the practice of law. 

Before entering congress, Mr. McLaurin was, for some time, 
chief of ordnance on the staff of Governor B. R. Tillman, with 
the rank of colonel, and was also captain of a volunteer company 
of militia known as the Gordon Rifles. 

On February 19, 1883, Mr. McLaurin married Nora Breeden, 
daughter of Thomas J. and Sallie Helen Breeden, of Marlboro 
county, South Carolina. They have had six children, all of whom 
are now (1907) living. 

His address is Bennettsville, Marlboro county, South Caro- 


McMANUS, AMOS, of Lancaster, South Carolina, 
ex-sheriff of Lancaster county, ex-member of the legis- 
lature of his state, a veteran of the Mexican war, 
captain of a company in the Confederate army for thirteen 
months, 1861-1862, in the War between the States, was born at 
Lancaster on May 15, 1826. His father was a farmer of sterling 
character, John McManus. His great-grandfather came from 
Ireland to Virginia in colonial times; and his grandfather 
removed from Virginia and settled in the western part of Ches- 
terfield county on Lynch river. 

Born on a farm and the son of a farmer, he early determined 
upon farming as his own life occupation. He attended the com- 
mon schools of his county, meanwhile having excellent health, 
and doing such "chores," and such kinds of more regular and 
more severe work on a farm as his strength and youth permitted. 
He had access to few books besides school text-books and the 
Bible; but he learned to love to read the Book of Books. 

At the outbreak of the Mexican war he joined the army and 
for nineteen months, in 1846, 1847, 1848, he was with the United 
States forces on the border and in Mexico. 

In 1861 he was elected sheriff of his county, serving for three 
years, after he had served as captain in the War between the 
States for one year. 

In 1880 he was chosen as the representative of Lancaster 
county in the house of representatives of South Carolina, serving 
two years, 1881 and 1882. 

He was postmaster of Taxahaw, Lancaster county, South 
Carolina, for four years, 1886 to 1890. 

Connected early in life with the Democratic party, he has 
not, at any time, found reason to swerve from his allegiance to 
that organization, but he has supported its measures and its 

He has been twice married: to Martha Ann Hough on 
December 18, 1849; and a second time to Rebecca Jane Roberts 
on March 31, 1864. By his first wife he had a daughter. 


In his religious belief and worship he is identified with the 
Baptist church. 

A veteran of two wars, an octogenarian who has always 
proved his public spirit by his deeds, he feels that he owes much 
of his outlook upon life and his interest in public affairs to the 
stirring scenes in which he had a part, in 1846-1848, and 1861- 
1865; and to the men in public life with whom he has been 
associated. Many well-wishers in his county and state hope to 
see Mr. McManus live out a full century of useful life. 

His address is Lancaster, Lancaster county, South Carolina. 


McSWEEN, JOHN, of Timmonsville, South Carolina, 
president of the John McSween company, is a business 
man who by his energy, perseverance and probity, has 
built up in a comparatively small place a business such as would 
deserve and command attention in any city of the South. Born 
in Argyleshire, Scotland, December 21, 1847, and entering a store 
in Glasgow, Scotland, as messenger boy, when he was but four- 
teen, he has steadily won his way by industry and fair dealing; 
and now, for thirty-three years a merchant, and for fourteen 
years a banker, his success in business life entitles him to be 
ranked among South Carolina's "men of mark." 

His father, John McSween, was a Gaelic school-teacher, a 
man of piety and character, who did necessary religious mis- 
sionary work while he taught among the Scotch highlanders. 
Both he and his wife, Mrs. Catherine McSween, had a decided 
and deep influence for good upon the character of their son, who 
was the second of the family to come to America. 

Strong and healthy as a boy, making good use of the limited 
opportunity for an elementary education, which was open to him 
in a Scotch country school, John McSween laid the foundation 
of a business education in the public school at Port Ellen Islay, 
Scotland. The "Lives of Eminent Scotchmen," and other biog- 
raphies, early stirred his ambition; and as he met with or read 
of men who had succeeded in life, he says: "I determined, if 
hard work could accomplish it, to succeed, myself." His own 
choice led him toward a mercantile life; and at fourteen he 
became errand boy in a Glasgow store. 

In 1868 he came to South Carolina, and he established him- 
self at Timmonsville soon afterward. In 1873 he began an 
independent business there, on his own account. It has grown 
under his management until it has become the important corpo- 
ration known as "The John McSween Company, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers in General Merchandise," whose spacious building 
is one of the marked features of Timmonsville, while the trade 
of the company is widely distributed through all that section. 


Mr. McSween is president of the company. He is also 
president of the Bank of Timmonsville. He was one of the com- 
missioners to look after the construction of the public buildings 
when Florence county was established. He is a member of the 


Commercial club and of the St. Andrew's society of Charleston. 

In his political associations he is a Democrat. Born of a 
Christian mother, whose religious beliefs and Christian life 
impressed her son deeply, and having a devotedly pious father, 
he early became by conviction and choice identified with the 
Presbyterian church. "The influence of home was paramount in 
my life," he says, "and association with clean companions, and 
good reading," helped to form sound principles and high ideals 
of business life. 

On March 12, 1882, he married Miss Kate Keith; and they 
have two children. 

This successful and honorable merchant, whom all Caro- 
linians who know him would gladly enroll among the natives 
of South Carolina if they might, writes for young men of his 
adopted state this brief advice: "The young man who would 
succeed must be willing to pay the cost of success. He must 
apply himself in earnest. He must use self-denial. He must 
have high ideals of life. He must dare to do right." 

His address is Timmonsville, Florence county, South Caro- 


MANNING, RICHARD IRVINE, son of Richard Irvine 
Manning and his wife, Elizabeth Allen Sinkler, was 
born at Homesley plantation, Sumter county, South 
Carolina, August 15, 1859. The father, a man of equable tem- 
perament and gentle and unobtrusive in manner, was noted for 
his excellent judgment and scrupulous uprightness in life. He 
impressed all as an honorable and just man, and his opinion 
naturally, in matters of moment, was often sought. He was a 
successful planter, and served acceptably in the state senate of 
South Carolina. 

His paternal ancestor, Laurence Manning, was born in Ire- 
land, and emigrated thence prior to the American Revolution 
and settled in Craven, subsequently Clarendon, county, South 
Carolina. He married a daughter of Richard Richardson, a 
distinguished patriot, born near Jamestown, Virginia, 1704, where 
he had been a land surveyor. He removed to Craven county, 
South Carolina, where he engaged in farming. During the Indian 
border wars he commanded a regiment; was a member of the 
council of safety at Charleston in 1775; and for his services in 
quelling a dangerous loyalist revolt in the "back country" received 
the thanks of the provincial congress and was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general. He was a member of the legislative 
council of 1776, and in the provincial congress of South Carolina 
assisted in forming the state constitution. Lord Cornwallis made 
fruitless efforts to gain him over to the royal cause. Made prisoner 
at the capture of Charleston, he returned from the prison of St. 
Augustine and died in a few days near Salisbury, North Carolina, 
in September, 1781. His eldest son, Colonel Richard Richardson, 
commanded the right wing of General Francis Marion's army at 
the battle of Eutaw, and was wounded. Another son, James B. 
Richardson, was governor of South Carolina, 1802-1804. 

The same Laurence Manning, great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was a Revolutionary soldier, and was 
distinguished for his intrepid courage and imperturbability of 
demeanor in moments of great peril, instances of which are 


narrated in "Garden's Anecdotes." He was the first adjutant- 
general of the state of South Carolina. 

His son, Richard Irvine Manning, was born in Sumter dis- 
trict, May 1, 1789; was graduated from South Carolina college 
in 1811; served in the war of 1812; was a member of the South 
Carolina legislature 1822, and governor of South Carolina 1824- 
1826; was state senator, and was elected a member of congress 
from South Carolina in 1834, and died during his term, in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, May 1, 1836. 

The early years of the subject of this sketch were passed 
upon the plantation of his father, and he grew up a healthy and 
active lad, fond of horseback riding and fox hunting. His father 
dying when he was only two years of age, the responsible care 
of the plantation and of his mother and sisters fell upon him 
when he was a mere lad. His training was of great value to 
him. It necessitated daily intercourse with his neighbors in 
varied matters of business and impressed him with the value of 
the golden rule in all his transactions as well as accustoming 
himself to self-sacrifice. 

His mother was highly educated and refined, a sincerely 
pious woman of deep religious faith in whom all considerations 
of selfish comfort and pleasure were always subservient to her 
duty to God, to the cause of humanity and the good of her 
country. The special lines of reading which young Manning 
found most helpful in fitting him for his work in life were, 
primarily, the Bible, with the biographies of men famous in the 
world's progress. After attending the primary schools in the 
vicinity of his birth, he was for two years a student at the Ken- 
more University high school of the late H. A. Strode, in Amherst 
county, Virginia, and later at the University of Virginia, which 
he left in 1879 before completing the course of study. 

He commenced the active work of his life in Sumter county, 
South Carolina, as a farmer in 1880. 

On February 10, 1881, he married, at Richmond, Virginia, 
Lelia Bernard Meredith, daughter of Honorable John A. Mere- 
dith and Sarah Anne Bernard, his wife. Judge Meredith was a 
descendant of Colonel Elisha Meredith, of the American Revo- 
lution. Two brothers of Mrs. Manning, Messrs. Charles V. and 
Wyndham Robertson Meredith, of Richmond, Virginia, are 
prominent members of the Virginia bar. The first choice of 


young Manning was for the profession of law, but his eyesight 
being threatened, he abandoned the study. 

He was elected a member of the house of representatives of 
South Carolina in 1892, and in 1894, although he declined the 
nomination, he was reflected to the house. In 1898 he was elected 
a member of the state senate of South Carolina, was reflected 
in 1902, and served as president pro tempore of that body in 
1905. He was also chairman of the finance committee, a member 
of the sinking fund commission of the senate, and a member of 
the Wade Hampton Monument commission. He was a candidate 
for the Democratic nomination for governor of South Carolina 
at the Democratic primaries in 1906, but failed of success, after 
a hotly contested campaign, in spite of his confessedly greater 
popularity than that enjoyed by his winning competitor. 

Besides developing his planting interests, Mr. Manning has 
proved himself in many ways a progressive and public-spirited 
citizen, and has been influentially connected with various business 
and other enterprises. Among his trusts have been president and 
treasurer of the Masonic Temple association, president of the 
Sumter Compress company, president of the Sumter Cotton 
Warehouse company, president of the Home Building and Loan 
association ; director in the Bank of Sumter, in the Sumter Tele- 
phone Manufacturing company, Sumter Telephone company, 
Sumter Machinery company, Sumter and Wateree Railroad com- 
pany, and president of the Bank of Sumter. He has also been 
connected with other enterprises tending to the improvement and 
development of his community and state. In his party affiliation 
he has been a consistent Democrat, and has always aided in every 
effort to purify elections "the ballot being the foundation stone 
of republican institutions." He believes that "effort should be 
made to rid elections of fraud; that they should be protected 
from the exercise of undue influence so as to arrive at a free and 
untrammeled expression of the popular will." He introduced in 
the house of representatives, in 1894, a rigid Australian ballot 
bill, but it was defeated. He has always taken an active part in 
all legislation touching the assessment and taxation of property, 
and in everything promoting the educational interests of South 
Carolina. He has actively worked for the development of the 
common school system, as well as for the thorough equipment 
and the broadening of the sphere of the institutions of higher 


learning. He is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, is chairman of the vestry of the church at Sumter, and 
its treasurer, and is also treasurer of St. Mark's church at Clar- 
endon, South Carolina. He is a member of the standing com- 
mittee of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of South Carolina, 
chairman of the finance committee of the diocese of its board 
of missions, and of the executive committee of the Young Men's 
Christian association of Xorth and South Carolina. He served 
in the state militia of South Carolina, 18T6-T8. He is a member 
of the following fraternities: A. F. and A. Masons, the Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, and the Knights of Pythias. He has found 
healthful relaxation from the duties of his busy and useful career 
in driving, riding, occasional hunting, and travel when time and 
opportunity have admitted. 

He believes that the principles, methods and habits which 
will prove most helpful to our young people in attaining true 
success in life are: "A regular reading and study of the Bible, 
the study of history and the biographies of those characters 
whose lives and achievements appeal to the student, and, above 
all, to ever aim at the attainment of the highest ideals of citizen- 
ship, with purity of morals and uprightness in character in the 
dailv walks of life: to feel it a duty to take interest in and to 

c/ / 

create, foster and direct a healthy public sentiment in all public 
questions, and to be ever ready to sacrifice private inclination, 
personal comfort, and pecuniary interests, in the discharge of 
duty to God and to fellowmen, with the paramount ambition to 
be useful and valued members of the community." 

His address is 421 North Main street, Sumter, Sumter county, 
South Carolina. 


MELL, PATKICK HUES, Ph. D., was born in Penfield, 
Greene county, Georgia, May 24, 1850. He is the son 
of Patrick Hues and Lurene Howard Cooper Mell. 
His father was a Baptist minister and teacher; from 1842 to 
1856 professor of ancient languages in Mercer university; from 
1856 to 1878 professor of ethics at the University of Georgia; 
and from 1878 to 1888 chancellor of the University of Georgia. 
He was a colonel in the Confederate army, and president for 
many years of the Southern and Georgia Baptist conventions. 
He was the author of a valuable work on parliamentary law, 
and of several books on religious subjects. He was pastor of 
several churches, serving one for thirty years, and his section of 
the country was known as "Mell's Kingdom." He received the 
degrees of D. D. and LL. D. He was a powerful, logical, intel- 
ligent, and profound reasoner, strong-willed, yet ever gentle and 
courteous, possessing great self-control and personal dignity; a 
born ruler and leader of men. 

Among the early ancestors in America should be noted the 
following : John Mell, who emigrated from England in 1677 and 
settled near Charleston, South Carolina; Patrick Hues, an Irish 
patriot, who was exiled from Ireland and in 1772 settled in St. 
Matthew's parish, South Carolina. The Summer, Andrew and 
Baker families, of English descent, removed from Massachusetts 
to Dorchester, South Carolina, in 1696. They were also ancestors 
of Patrick H. Mell. Reverend Wilson Connor, of Irish descent, 
born in 1756 in Marlboro district, South Carolina, was the great- 
grandfather of Patrick H. Mell. 

In childhood and youth the subject of this sketch was "just 
an ordinary boy; healthy, full of play and mischief." He was 
always interested in mechanics and science, possessing, at the 
same time, much love for art and literature. He was city bred. 
His boyhood and youth fell in the War between the States and 
Reconstruction period. At this time all Southern youths had to 
work. Doubtless this necessity developed in the boy habits of 
industry, patience, and self-denial. 


His mother was a woman of culture and Christian character, 
and her influence upon him was, in every way, for good. The 
precepts and example of his father have also proved to him 
through life an inspiration. He was prepared for college by 
his father. In 1871 he was graduated from the University of 
Georgia with the degree of A. B. In 1873 he received from the 
University of Georgia the degree of C. E. and M. E. ; later he 
received from the same institution the honorary degree of Ph.D., 
while the South Carolina college bestowed upon him the degree 
of LL. D. 

In 1873, Doctor Mell assumed the duties of mining engineer 
for a copper mine in Georgia. The professional work of Doctor 
Mell has been in the geological, botanical, and meteorological 
sciences. From 1873, when he commenced his professional duties 
in Georgia, he was for many years a mining engineer. During 
1877-78 he was mining expert for companies in Georgia, North 
Carolina, and Alabama. From 1874 to 1877 he was state chemist 
of Georgia ; from 1878 to 1902 he was professor of natural history 
and geology in the Alabama Polytechnic institute. In 1887 he 
was elected botanist to the Alabama Experiment station. In 1880 
he was elected a member of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, but resigned ten years later. From 1884 to 1893 he 
was director of the Alabama Weather service; and from 1898 to 
1902 director of the Alabama Experiment station. In 1896 he 
was made chairman of the section on botany and horticulture of 
the American association of agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations; in 1898 he was elected vice-president of this body, and 
also director of the Alabama Experiment station. In 1902 he 
was made president of Clemson Agricultural college, and con- 
tinued as director of the experiment station. 

Doctor Mell has, from time to time, declined important 
positions, including the chairs of geology in two leading institu- 
tions in neighboring states in 1890, and the presidency of Mercer 
university in 1893. 

For several years Doctor Mell was president of the Baptist 
Young People's union of Alabama; from 1899 to 1902 he was a 
member of the Baptist State Mission board. 

Doctor Mell is a voluminous writer. His productions include 
many important papers published in scientific journals, in the 
transactions of scientific societies, and by the United States 


Department of Agriculture, together with a very large number 
of experiment station reports and bulletins on agricultural and 
kindred subjects. He has also written a "Life of Patrick Hues 
Mell, State Chancellor of the University of Georgia" (1895), has 
revised "Mell's Parliamentary Law" (1902), and also revised 
White's "Gardening for the South." He invented the present 
system of local weather signals. This, at first, was known as 
the "Mell" system, and later as the "Alabama" system. It is 
now adopted and used by the United States Weather bureau. 

Doctor Mell is a member of the Southern Historical society, 
the South Carolina Historical society, the Alabama Historical 
society, the Kappa Alpha college fraternity, and the Sons of 
Veterans. He is a fellow of the American Academy for the 
Advancement of Science, and of the Geological Society of Amer- 
ica, and a member of the National Geographic society, and of 
the International Congress of Geologists. Doctor Mell is also 
commander of the Sons of Veterans in Alabama. In boyhood 
he was fond of outdoor sports, and as a man he is deeply inter- 
ested in athletics. In politics he has always been a Democrat; 
in religion he is, as has been indicated, a Baptist. 

On June 15, 1875, he was married to Miss Annie Rebecca 

His address is Clemson College, Oconee county, South Caro- 

VK'tl t")-K 



.- ' 




MEMMIXGER, ALLARD, M. D., was born September 
30, 1854, in Charleston, South Carolina. He is the 
son of Christopher Gustavus Memminger and Mary 
Wilkinson Memminger. His father was a lawyer and was the 
first secretary of the treasury of the Confederate States of 
America. He was noted for lucidity and intenseness in expres- 
sion. Doctor Memminger's most distinguished ancestor was his 
paternal grandfather, Christopher Godfrey Memminger, who was 
an officer in the Austrian army which fought Napoleon at Wag- 
ram. It was due to injuries received in this battle that he finally 
died. Allard Memminger's mother was descended from English 
ancestors, and his grandfather on this side of the house was a 

In youth, Allard Memminger was rather delicate. He was 
reared in city and country. Manual labor was not demanded of 
him; he was, however, required to apply himself closely to his 
books. The influence of his mother upon his character was 
strong in every way. 

Allard Memminger was educated at a private school for boys 
taught by Doctor Henry M. Brims, in Charleston. From this 
institution he went, at the earliest age at which matriculation 
was permitted, to the University of Virginia. Here he took an 
academic course of three complete sessions. After graduating, 
he went home, but afterward returned to the university and took 
a special course in the department of chemistry. He was grad- 
uated in all the schools of chemistry, and then returned to his 
native city and began business as an analytical chemist. In 1878 
he entered the Medical College of the State of South Carolina 
as a student of medicine, continuing meanwhile his business in 
analvtical chemistry, and graduating from that institution in 

*- / > O C3 

1880 as a doctor of medicine and surgery. After this he went 
abroad, visiting the hospitals in Edinburgh, London, Paris, and 
Vienna, with a view to perfecting himself in the knowledge of 
medicine and surgery. With the same object, he also visited the 
Pasteur institute in Paris. While pursuing the profession of an 
analytical chemist, he became chemist for a number of fertilizer 


manufacturing plants, constructing for them, in many instances, 
the acid chambers required in the factories. He conducted, at 
the same time, a very large analytical business, and was appointed 
chemist for the state of South Carolina. He was also offered, 
but declined, a like position in the state of North Carolina. 

He is now professor of chemistry, hygiene and clinical, 
urinary diagnosis in the Medical College of the State of South 
Carolina; professor of general applied chemistry in the College 
of Pharmacy of South Carolina; one of the visiting physicians 
in the city hospital of Charleston; member or ex-member of 
state, national and international medical, pharmaceutical, scien- 
tific and hygienic societies; and corresponding honorary member 
of the Academie Parisienne Francaise des Iwoens. He has been a 
member of the state board of pharmaceutical examiners of South 
Carolina and of the Charleston city board of health. To obtain 
hygienic data for the governments of the United States and 
France, he made an examination of the water used by the city of 
Charleston, a laborious and highly scientific undertaking. He is 
an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical association of South 
Carolina. He is author of "Diagnosis by the Urine" (second 
edition published in 1902) ; "Qualitative Chemical Analysis," a 
brief work (second edition issued in 1904) ; and "Science in the 
Field," a brochure published by the News and Courier Publishing 
company, of Charleston. He has written many articles of scien- 
tific and medical interest on the subjects of water, climate, and 
disease of the kidneys; these articles have appeared in many of 
the leading journals of this country. He has also published a 
special article on "The true Function of a State Medical Exam- 
ining Board," which led to a considerable change in the medical 
laws of South Carolina. The law now in force was, in great 
measure, drawn from this original article, and was framed by 
Doctor S. C. Baker, of Sumter, member of the examining board, 
and Doctor Allard Memminger, of the Medical college. 

Doctor Memminger received the gold medal of honor, and 
a diploma of honor from the Academie Parisienne Francaise 
des Iwoens, for an account of original research on the use of 
fluoride of calcium ; and, at the request of the American Medical 
association, he prepared a paper on the use, by himself, of sodium 
chloride in Bright's disease. He was appointed by the governor 
as one of the commission in the famous trial of Lavelle for wife 


murder. Lavelle, it will be recalled, was convicted by the jury, 
but was afterwards adjudged of unsound mind and placed in 
the state penitentiary. In this case Doctor Memminger wrote 
the report of the minority of the commission. He is the origi- 
nator of an important food for invalids, which has been highly 
recommended by distinguished members of the medical profes- 
sion. He is also the originator of a tablet manufactured by 
Parke, Davis & Company, under the name of "Salt and Iron 
Tablets for Anaemia." He is now occupied in experimenting 
with a new compound for the cure of anaemia and neurasthenia. 

Doctor Memminger was for years a member of several of 
the social clubs, including the St. Cecilia society, the Cotillion 
club of Charleston, and the Charleston club, and he is now a 
member of the new Commercial club of Charleston. Although 
a Democrat, he has never been in politics ; he has, however, been 
examined as an expert before committees of the state senate and 
house of representatives of South Carolina, and before the United 
States Naval committee at Washington. 

Doctor Memminger has never been married. For the 
advancement of social well-being, his advice is: "Train the con- 
sciences of men and women in the highest manner, and then 
there will be less need for so-called laws, which can always be 

His winter address is 34 Montague street, Charleston, South 
Carolina ; his summer address, Richmond Hill, Flat Rock, North 

vol. i a o. i* 


MOISE, MAEION, was born on Sullivan's Island, 
Charleston county, South Carolina, June 14, 1855. He 
is the son of Edwin Warren Moise and Esther Lyon, 
his wife. The father, a prominent lawyer, held the position of 
adjutant and inspector general of South Carolina for the period 
1876-1880. He is of Jewish descent. Abraham Moise, a native 
of Alsace (one of the old German provinces ceded to France in 
1648), emigrated to the West Indies and married the daughter 
of a prominent Jewish family of the Island of Saint Eustatius. 
Upon the memorable insurrection of the slaves in 1791 he fled 
to Charleston, South Carolina. His son, Abraham Moise, born 
in 1799, married Caroline, granddaughter of Meyer Moses, and 
these were the grandparents of the subject of this sketch. 

Marion Moise grew up a healthy and active youth, with a 
special taste for hunting and fishing and but little love for study 
or reading. His early years were passed in the town of Sumter, 
and the circumstances of his father being prosperous, the son 
had no tasks or special duties assigned him as a boy, and he 
preferred to be amused. His mother, however, was an excellent 
wife and parent and exercised a signal influence for good in his 
intellectual and moral life. His special lines of reading were the 
Bible and Shakespeare, and later the legal writers, Blackstone 
and Kent. His preparatory studies were in the schools of Sumter. 
He subsequently attended the Virginia Military institute at Lex- 
ington, Virginia, and finally was a student for a few months in 
1872 of South Carolina college. Deciding upon the profession 
of law, he laid the foundation for his career as a clerk in the law 
office of his father, in Sumter, South Carolina, and the sterling 
character and well-earned success of the parent were potent in 
stimulating the son to exertion, not only toward efficiency in his 
profession, but in other lines of activity. Commencing the prac- 
tice of law, he married, November 7, 1877, Isabel DeLeon, whose 
family name has been distinguished in literature and the arts. 
They have had seven children born to them, of whom five are 
now (1907) living. 


Mr. Moise has filled usefully many positions of trust and 
honor. He served as state senator of South Carolina from 1886 
to 1890, and also as intendant of the town of Sumter, for two 
terms, without remuneration of any kind. He became president 
of the Sumter Cotton mills after the enterprise had been adjudged 
a failure, and by his energetic management its success was 
assured. He has served as vice-president of the Bank of Sumter 
for the past fifteen years, and is further prominent in financial 
circles, being a director of the Sumter Savings bank, and in many 
other business institutions. He has also served as a member of 
the board of school trustees for the Sumter graded schools for the 
past thirteen years. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, 
of the Knights and Ladies of Honor, of the Masonic fraternity, 
of the Euphradian society, and of a number of other organiza- 
tions. He has been constantly identified with the Democratic 
party, using his best efforts for the interests and prosperity of 
his state and country. He is a zealous member of the Jewish 
Congregation Sinai. His relaxation in mature years has con- 
tinued from boyhood in hunting and fishing. 

His precepts for success in life for ambitious youth are to 
"adhere to the simple life of our ancestors; to subdue all desire 
for indulgence beyond one's pecuniary resources, as the trend is 
toward habits of extravagance ; to act uprightly in every relation 
and responsibility of life without ostentation or pretence; to be 
a true man in all things and to concentrate all one's energies 
unflaggingly upon whatever work or duty is undertaken, but, 
lest one fall by the wayside, some short periods of relaxation 
should be taken as often as may seem requisite to the maintenance 
of health. Be ever pure in thought, sincere in utterance, and 
urbane in manner to all, in whatever sphere, exalted or humble." 

His address is 17 Warren street, Sumter, Sumter county, 
South Carolina. 


of Marion, president of the Merchants and Farmers 
bank, and president of the Marion Business league, 
was born in Marion county, South Carolina, May 20, 1851. He 
is the son of Calvin Montgomery, a farmer, who died while his 
son was a child, and of Desda Anderson Montgomery. The 
family are descendants of a Scotchman who came to this country 
in 1735 and settled near the line of Virginia and North Carolina. 

Until he was eighteen years of age, William J. Montgomery 
lived on a farm, where as a healthy and robust young man fond 
of books and sports of field and stream, he divided his time 
between school and manual labor on the farm. Like many of 
America's leading men, he worked his way through both school 
and college. After attending several preparatory schools, he 
took a literary course in Wofford college, where in 1875 he was 
graduated with the degree of A. B. In his college work and in 
after life he has been a great reader, especially of the lives of 
the great men of this and other countries. It was his mother's 
wish and his own desire that he become a member of the legal 
profession. In 1875 he became town clerk of Marion, and while 
in this position he devoted all his spare time to the study of law. 
In 1877 he was admitted to the bar by the circuit court of South 
Carolina, and immediately commenced practice. He has been 
successful as an attorney and also as a banker and a public man. 

He was president of the Merchants and Farmers bank from 
its organization until it liquidated to form the Farmers and 
Merchants bank, of which he is also president. In 1882 he was 
elected a member of the house of representatives of South Caro- 
lina, and again in 1899. He was a member of the Constitutional 
convention in 1895, and was twice elected mayor of Marion. He 
is president of the State Bankers association and of the Marion 
Business league. He attends the Southern Methodist church. 
In politics he is a Democrat of the Grover Cleveland school. 
Hunting and fishing are his favorite forms of amusement. In 
advising young men how to succeed in life, he says: "Strict 


integrity, industry, economy, sobriety, will bring success in any 
line of achievement." 

On December 13, 1877, Mr. Montgomery was married to 
Annie Stackhouse, daughter of Colonel E. T. Stackhouse, of 
Marion county, who at the time of his death was a member of 
congress. Of their six children, five are now (1907) living. 

His address is Marion, Marion county, South Carolina. 


MOOD, JULIUS ANDREW, A. B., M. D., physician and 
surgeon, is of German descent that thrifty element 
which has contributed so largely to the industrial 
peopling of the United States. 

His emigrant ancestor, Peter Mood, from Wurtemburg, Ger- 
many, settled in 1751 in Pennsylvania, the primary destination 
of a majority of the emigrants from Germany, Holland and 
Switzerland, whence they spread to Maryland, the Valley of 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, and thence permeated the 
Southern and Western states. 

In religion they were chiefly of the Lutheran church, and by 
vocation farmers. Depending more upon themselves than upon 
others, they were important factors in the building of this great 
nation, and were especially prominent in the development of its 
mechanical and mining interests. 

The son of the emigrant, Peter Mood, the great-grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch, was born in Oxford, Pennsylvania, 
in May, 1766. In 1798 he removed to Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, where he followed the craft of silversmith and jeweler, in 
which vocation he was succeeded by his son in the establishment 
on King street, so well known. The last, in religion, was of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, in which two of his sons attained 
prominence by their good works. Reverend Francis Asbury 
Mood, D. D., who, being thrown upon his own resources at the 
age of fourteen years, taught a school for colored youth to acquire 
means for his college course. He graduated from Charleston 
college in 1850, and joined the South Carolina conference the 
same year. He served with acceptance on circuits, in stations 
as presiding elder, and in missionary work among the colored 
population; was appointed chaplain in the Confederate States 
army, and assigned to duty in the hospitals in Charleston during 
the War between the States. 

Afterward, having made a tour in Europe, he entered on the 
presidency of Soule university, at Chapel Hill, Texas. Subse- 
quently, on its consolidation with several Methodist colleges into 
the Southern university, he was elected regent of the university 




in 1873. His brother, Reverend Henry McFarlane Mood, remov- 
ing to Lenoir, North Carolina, was president of Davenport 
Female college there 1859-62, and of Columbia Female college 
1862-65. His characteristics were zeal and unostentatious devo- 
tion to the service of the Lord, and a uniform consistency in 
every requirement of the daily walks of life. 

Julius Andrew Mood, the son of Reverend Henry McFarlane 
and Laura Clementine Mood, was born in Lincolnton, Lincoln 
county, North Carolina (where his father was then stationed), 
April 22, 1854. His health was delicate in childhood and youth, 
and his father, like the majority of the ministers of the Methodist 
church, was always in moderate circumstances. 

The son was furnished with no pocket money for personal 
indulgences, and had none save what he earned himself. His 
tastes were, fortunately, for reading, with a decided bias for 
natural history, and he became familiar, while a mere child, with 
the names and growth of plants and trees, and with the habits of 
animals and birds. His desire for an education was controlling, 
and, with the determination to earn the means requisite thereto, 
he entered the printing establishment of Derry, Cook & Perry, 
in Charleston, South Carolina, at the early age of twelve years, 
and continued a type-setter until he had earned enough to pay 
his expenses at college for a year. 

He was prepared for college by ex-Judge W. C. Benet, at 
Cokesbury academy, and was graduated from Wofford college in 
1875, with the degree of A. B. His preference was for the 
medical profession, and he entered the Medical College of South 
Carolina, from which he was graduated M. D. in 1879. He 
subsequently took a post-graduate course in the Medical College 
of New York, 1895-97. While in active and successful practice 
of his profession he established, in 1895, at Sumter, South Caro- 
lina, a private hospital for surgical work, in which successful 
operations on patients from every part of the state have been per- 
formed. Nor are these services of Dr. Mood less to be regarded 
than the performance of other duties to which he felt himself 
impelled. He served as a warden of the town of Sumter; was 
its first mayor when it was chartered as a city; president of the 
board of health ; chairman of the board of school commissioners, 
and also served as surgeon, with the rank of major, in the First 


South Carolina regiment of infantry in the Spanish- American 

Doctor Mood has been twice married: first, on January 13, 
1876, to Alma Archer, of Spartanburg, South Carolina, who died 
March 22, 1882. He married again, March 12, 1883. His second 
wife survives. He has living five children, four by the first 
marriage and one by the last. Doctor Mood is a Democrat and 
a consistent states rights man. Of a distinguished Methodist 
family, he naturally clings to membership in that church. He 
is a member of two fraternal bodies, the Elks and the A. F. & A. 
Masons, and has served as master of Claremont lodge, No. 64, 
Sumter, South Carolina. 

He seeks relaxation in quail shooting, being a keen sports- 
man, and finds riding in an automobile helpful to him in his 
active duties of life. 

His address is 24 South Washington street, Sumter, Sumter 
county, South Carolina. 



Carolina, attorney and counsellor for several railroads, 
for twenty-five years legal adviser and counsel for the 
county of Hampton, ex-member of the house of representatives 
of South Carolina, and for sixteen consecutive years, 1878 to 1894, 
state senator, representing Hampton county, was born February 
25, 1837, in Coosawhatchie, Beaufort county, South Carolina. 
His father, John Moore, w r as a merchant of marked integrity of 
character, good judgment, a high sense of justice, yet of genial 
and kindly nature, who held the appointment of postmaster, but 
declined all elective offices. His mother, whose maiden name 
was Sabrina Woodbury Beard, he speaks of as "a woman of the 
finest attributes, both mentally and morally ; whose character and 
example had a most important effect in forming her son's ideals 
and habits of life." 

His family has been distinguished in our colonial history; 
and nothing proves more conclusively our common American life, 
North and South, than does the tracing of the career of descend- 
ants of immigrants of sterling character, as their children, 
dividing, settled, some in the North and some in the South, 
becoming colonial patriots in Massachusetts and in South Caro- 
lina, their descendants coming to be leaders of their respective 
states in lines of development which differed widely, but in which 
these kinspeople, South and North, held to the same lofty ideals 
of duty which had animated their common ancestors. 

The earliest known ancestor of Mr. Moore in America was 
a son of that John Moore of Clan McDonald, who was killed in 
the infamous Glencoe massacre. His children escaped first to 
Ireland, and then in 1718 came to Londonderry, New Hampshire, 
removing in 1751 to Peterboro. New Hampshire. Of their 
descendants, and ancestors or kinsmen of J. W. Moore, were 
Samuel Moore, representative in the fifth Provincial congress in 
1775, whose son, Samuel Moore, Jr., fought at Lexington; John 
Moore, who was also engaged in the battle of Lexington ; Colonel 
Andrew Todd, of colonial days ; and Honorable Levi Woodbury, 


secretary of the United States treasury and justice of the United 
States supreme court. 

Mr. Moore's early life was passed in the villages of Coosaw- 
hatchie and Gillisonville, which were successively the county- 
seats of Beaufort county. While he was a strong, robust boy, 
and very fond of field sports and athletics, he was still keenly 
interested in studying and reading instructive books. He had no 
tasks involving manual labor; his time was passed in attending 
school, and field sports. 

While his parents directed his studies and reading at home, 
he attended the Beaufort District academy at Gillisonville for 
his preparatory work for college; and in 1856 he was graduated 
with the degree of A. B. from the University of Georgia, receiv- 
ing in 1859 the degree of A. M. from the same university. 

Admitted to the bar, he began the practice of the law at 
Gillisonville in January, 1859. His life has been spent in the 
practice of his profession and in the service of his state and 
county as a legislator, except the four years of the War between 
the States. 

In 1861 he enlisted in the Hampton legion as first ser- 
geant of the Beaufort District troop. In 1862 he was elected 
second lieutenant of Company C, and the same day was appointed 
adjutant of the cavalry of the legion, afterwards known as the 
Second South Carolina cavalry. He took part in all the impor- 
tant engagements in which the legion had a share, and at Brandy 
Station he received a severe wound, by which he was disabled 
for two months; but he returned to the regiment and remained 
with it until the close of the war. 

On May 13, 1868, he was married to Cornelia Elizabeth 
Tillinghast, daughter of Honorable R. L. Tillinghast, a lawyer 
of repute, and state senator. They have had three children, and 
two of them, daughters, are living in 1907. 

In his professional work, Mr. Moore rapidly won clients. 
He was counsel for Hampton county for twenty-five years. He 
has long been the local counsel for the Southern railway, for the 
Seaboard Air Line Railway company, and for the Charleston and 
Western Carolina Railway company. 

He has always been a loyal member of the Democratic party, 
In 1876 he conducted the campaign in Beaufort county as chair- 
man, and was very influential in the creation of Hampton county. 


He was chairman of the State Democratic committee in the cam- 
paigns of 1886 and 1888. He was a delegate to the National 
Democratic convention, in Chicago, when Cleveland was first 
nominated for the presidency. 

The people of his town and county have often honored him 
by election to offices, where they wished his services for the 
commonwealth. He has served as commissioner of the poor, as 
commissioner of public buildings, as magistrate, and in 1866, 
immediately after the war, as member of the South Carolina 
house of representatives. In 1878 he was elected state senator to 
represent Hampton county; and, reflected three times, he served 
for sixteen years consecutively until 1894. In 1900 he was again 
elected to the senate to fill out the unexpired term of a senator 
who died in 1900. 

Senator Moore has also served as brigadier-general and later 
as major-general of the state militia, and as chairman of the 
military committee of the senate; he also was a state delegate to 
the Yorktown centennial. He is a Knight of Honor, and has 
been grand dictator of that order. His church relations are with 
the Presbyterian Church, South. 

He has always felt, and has often said, that the early influ- 
ences of his home have contributed more than any and all other 
causes to such success in life as he may have won. "The feeling 
of obligation and desire to strive for the truly best to be obtained, 
there ingrafted, has accompanied me through life." 

For the young he writes: "I can only give my one rule in 
life: Be faithful, honest and truthful in the discharge of all 
duties. Work steadily for what you are trying to achieve, and 
expect nothing without laboring for it." 

His address is Hampton, Hampton county, South Carolina. 


MOKGAN, WILLIAM DOYLE, financier, banker, presi- 
dent of the Bank of Georgetown, South Carolina, was 
born in New York city on February 5, 1853, son of 
John and Mary Morgan. His parents were natives of Ireland, 
met and were married in New York city, and shortly thereafter 
went South and settled in Georgetown, South Carolina. 

At the time of their advent in Georgetown the subject of 
this sketch was an infant two or three months of age, and subse- 
quently three daughters were born to them, making a family of 
four children. When the War between the States broke out he 
was only eight years old, and the continuance of that conflict 
prevented his receiving the advantages of a liberal education. 
This deprivation of educational opportunities was in part offset 
by attending private schools for short periods and by private 
instruction at home under his father, who was a highly educated 
man, was physically exempt from active war duties on account 
of lameness, and was peculiarly gifted in the art of imparting 
what he knew. 

The father's property interests were swept away by the war. 
At its close he renewed his efforts to again establish himself in 
merchandising, but before he had opportunity to accumulate 
anything he died, in 1866, leaving a widow and four dependent 
children, one an infant. These circumstances suddenly placed a 
heavy burden of responsibility on the subject of this sketch, and 
compelled him to take up the real battle of life at an unusually 
early age and with very inadequate preparation save that of good 
health and a stout heart. His mother filled his young life with 
high ideals and abundant encouragement. He read and studied 
in his spare moments and at night, and applied his working hours 
to the task of supporting the home and family. His efforts 
inspired confidence, and in the course of time this confidence 
served as an important capital. 

Through persistent effort, and a natural fondness for the 
subject, he learned accounting, and, in 1869, obtained a position 
in a drug store to take charge of the books, where he incidentally 
learned something about the drug business. The druggist being 


f7S fcrt 


postmaster at that time, he also performed the duties of assistant 
postmaster. For more than two decades thereafter he occupied 
responsible positions as bookkeeper and accountant for the largest 
business houses of Georgetown, and in April, 1891, was elected 
president of the Bank of Georgetown. This position he has filled 
with signal ability from that time until the present (1907), and 
has also been an active figure in a number of other financial, 
municipal and public enterprises. He was chief of the fire 
department of Georgetown for several years; mayor of the city 
for fifteen years consecutively ; president of several local building 
and loan associations ; and director in various business and other 
organizations. He took an active part in securing the charter 
and promoting the Georgetown and Lanes railroad the first rail- 
road to be built to Georgetown and took great interest and 
devoted much time and energy to securing appropriations for the 
construction of jetties at Georgetown and otherwise improving 
its harbor and waterways. In 1903 he was unanimously elected 
treasurer of the League of American Municipalities, serving three 
consecutive terms without opposition and resigning at the meeting 
of 1906 at Chicago. In recognition of his services as mayor, 
and his efforts for the improvement of Georgetown harbor, the 
citizens of the city, in May, 1905, presented him with an elaborate 
and handsome punch bowl. 

At the annual meeting of the South Carolina Bankers 
association, held at the Isle of Palms, near Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1907, Mr. Morgan was elected president of the asso- 
ciation. He is a member of the Palmetto club, and, as its first 
president, received President Cleveland during the visit of the 
chief magistrate to Georgetown, in 1894. He is also a member 
of the Winyah Indigo society, and the Elks, and president of the 
Georgetown chamber of commerce. In politics he is a consistent 
Democrat, and in religion he is a member of the Roman Catholic 

Whatever honors have come to Mr. Morgan have come 
unsought, and have been the result of a well-founded confidence 
in his integrity and ability. The foundation of this confidence he 
affectionately attributes, in large measure, to his mother's advice 
and inspiration, supplemented by contact, when a very young 
man, with the elderly representative men of his city. "I would 
suggest," he replied, in answer to a question on true success in 


life, "to all young men that they cultivate high ideals of life and 
conduct; to value character and honor above dollars and cents; 
to avoid bad company and bad habits. Never make light of 
serious things. Respect your elders and court their friendship. 
Seek their advice, for their experience will be valuable. Honor 
your father and mother. Lead honest, temperate, pure lives, and 
you will have the confidence and respect of your fellow-citizens 
and business associates. Do your full duty at all times." This 
concise and wise homily, it is needless to add, has been the 
proven philosophy of a life full of good works and conscientious 

Mr. Morgan is unmarried. 

His address is Georgetown, South Carolina. 

f - 


NEWTON, HOPE HULL, of Bennettsville, South Caro- 
lina, lawyer, six years solicitor of the fourth circuit, 
ex-member of the legislature, was born on February 
16, 1845, in the county in which he still resides. His father, 
Cornelius Newton, a planter and a local preacher of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, was a man of great energy of mind and 
body, supremely devoted to duty, self-denying and benevolent, 
generous in gifts of time and money to the service of others, 
humane to his slaves, and an ardent lover and student of books to 
the year of his death at the age of eighty- one. His mother, Mrs. 
Dorcas (Purnell) Newton, was a devout woman and a devoted 
mother, stimulating her son in his studies and molding his char- 
acter by her example and her words. Mr. Newton's ancestors in 
direct line came from England to Virginia early in the eighteenth 
century. His great-grandfather, Giles Newton, came from Hen- 
rico county, Virginia, and settled before the revolution in what 
is now Marlboro county, South Carolina. His son, Younger 
Newton, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, served both in 
the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812. 

Healthy and strong in his boyhood, which was passed in the 
country, Hope Hull Newton early learned to work upon the farm. 
He said: "My father compelled me to work at intervals along 
with the slaves on the farm. It was not a necessity in the family 
economy, but my father regarded it as a necessary part of my 
training for life; and I was thus taught how farm work should 
be done, and, at the same time, I developed a fine physique." 
Learning to read and write at five, he began the study of Latin 
at ten, and Greek at twelve. Books were his great delight in 
childhood; and besides the classics, which he early learned to 
enjoy, he read with avidity the theological books which were to 
be found in his father's library the works of Dick, Wesley, and 
other noted writers. 

He was prepared for college at the Palmetto academy, near 
his native place; and, after four years at Wofford college, he 
was graduated A. B. in 1869, receiving his Master's degree two 
years later. 


Before he entered college the War between the States had 
made its appeal to the young men of his state. When but sixteen 
years old, in January, 1862, he enlisted in Company E of the 
Fourth regiment of South Carolina cavalry ; and he served until 
May 28, 1864, when he was badly wounded at Haw's Shop. The 
war destroyed his father's estate ; and Mr. Newton met and man- 
fully overcame serious difficulties in securing the means with 
which to complete his preparation and take a college course. 

After graduation in 1869 he taught school (at the same time 
studying law) until July 4, 1870, when he removed to Bennetts- 
ville, where he has since resided, and on September 19, 1870, he 
was admitted to the bar. His first strong impulse to strive for 
the prizes of life, he writes, "I owe to the encouragement of my 
father in holding up high ideals for my admiration and imita- 
tion." Home influence first, then school rivalries, and finally the 
contests and rivalries of his professional career, have been his 
strongest incentives to effort, and he estimates their relative 
influence in the order in which they are named. 

In January, 1883, Governor Thompson appointed him solici- 
tor for the fourth circuit, to fill an unexpired term. In 1884 he 
was unanimously nominated for the full term, in which he served 
his state acceptably for four years more. He was elected member 
of the house of representatives of South Carolina, for Marlboro 
county, for the sessions of 1880 and 1881. He secured the passage 
of the stock law for his county in 1880, and in 1881 the Marlboro 
act, thus secured by him, was adopted for the whole state, save 
a few small excepted portions. He was also active in legislation 
affecting railroads; and he was a member of the committee of 
the house which sat during recess and suggested needed railroad 
legislation for the session of 1881. He advocated railroad com- 
missioners with plenary power to compel railroads to comply 
with their regulations; but "plenary power" was not given them. 

He has had extensive business experiences, especially in 
manufacturing, banking, and farming. His earnest efforts to 
improve agricultural conditions by inducing farmers to abandon 
the old system of exclusive cotton culture and diversify their 
operations by raising live stock, and growing grains and fruits, 
while keeping a limited area for cotton, has been productive of 
great good. His own farm shows the benefits of the course which 
he advises others to pursue. He built the first cotton oil mill 


erected in his county, managed it for a time, but at length 
resigned his position as president of the company because he was 
overworked. He has been a director in several banks and is now 
(1907) president of the Union Savings bank, of Bennettsville, a 
young and prosperous institution. 

Mr. Newton has been for years a member of the Marlboro 
county board of education ; and he has shown a deep and intelli- 
gent interest in all that looks to the improvement of the educa- 
tional system and the school work of his county and of the state. 
The veterans of the War between the States have had in him an 
earnest advocate of all measures for their relief and for the care 
of their dependent families. 

A Democrat, Mr. Newton was a member of the straight-out 
Democratic convention of August 15, 1876. He has repeatedly 
served as chairman of the county Democratic conventions of 
Marlboro county. 

Identified with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, he was 
a lay delegate to its general conference at Nashville, Tennessee, 
in 1882, and again to the conference at Memphis, Tennessee, in 

He has been three times married. In 1872 he married 
Martha Johnson, daughter of A. G. Johnson, Esquire, of Ben- 
nettsville; and their son, H. H. Newton, Jr., is now living. His 
second marriage was to Mary E. McRae, daughter of John A. 
McRae, Esquire, of Bennettsville. Of their three daughters, two 
are still living. He was married to Kate McCall Monroe, in 
1888, and of their six children, five are living in 1907. 

Mr. Newton has found his favorite relaxation and exercise 
in horticulture, and especially in viticulture, of which he has 
made a scientific study. 

The suggestion which he offers to the young people of South 
Carolina is deserving of especial attention, because one seldom 
hears such a caution to the young from a man whose own pro- 
fessional career has given evidence of so much hard work. He 
writes: "I have failed lamentably to accomplish the good I had 
hoped to do in life; and because of too much of slavish devotion 
to my office and my secular engagements. If I had my life to 
live over again, I would do less professional work and would seek 
more the companionship of others, to receive and to try to do 
good. For many years I thought that life meant merely work, 

VoL I S. C. 14 


work, work ! But life means rational devotion to professional 
work, with ample time reserved daily for recreation, and specific 
good works for reading good books, meditation, prayer, and for 
human-hearted association with others and particularly with one's 
family. 'Our young people should not overwork themselves, and 
should not be overworked by their employers.' 
His address is Bennettsville, South Carolina. 


NICHOLSON, ALLAN, journalist, was born in Union, 
Union county, South Carolina, August 1, 1875. His 
parents were William A. and Rebecca E. Nicholson. 
His father, who came from Scotland in 1857, was a banker, a 
man of firmness, fearlessness, and strict integrity, whose high 
character and influence caused him to be chosen a member of 
the Constitutional convention in 1895. The mother of Allan 
Nicholson is a woman of fine qualities of mind and heart, and 
has exerted a powerful and an enduring influence for good upon 
her son. 

The subject of this sketch has had many difficulties to over- 
come in the struggle for success. From his birth he has been 
heavily handicapped, which necessitated the attendance of a body 
servant whenever he wanted to move about. In childhood and 
youth he was fond of books. He also enjoyed being in the open 
air and spent a considerable part of the time that could be spared 
from study in riding and driving, which, with attendance at 
baseball games, are still his favorite diversions. His physical 
disability prevented his attendance at a school of any kind, but 
his mother, who was well qualified for the task, superintended 
his reading and study, and, with her assistance, he obtained an 
excellent working education. 

The active work of life was commenced, when he was only 
twenty years of age, as a partner in the firm of Smith & Nich- 
olson, booksellers. In the following spring he purchased the 
interest of his partner and continued the business in his own 
name. About a year later he added a printing plant, which soon 
grew to such proportions that its patronage extended beyond the 
bounds of the state. In February, 1900, he became publisher 
of a newspaper known as "Progress," and six months later, on 
account of circumstances which had not been foreseen, he became 
the editor and the sole owner of the paper. From early years he 
had felt a strong inclination for literary and journalistic work, 
and his connection with the paper has enabled him to develop 
his talents in these directions. It is fortunate for the community 
that in the position which is occupied by Mr. Nicholson it has a 


man of lofty ideals and the highest principles, who consecrates 
his talents to the upbuilding of his town and state, not only in 
what pertains to material prosperity, but also in all that makes 
for the social, moral, and religious uplifting of the people. 

In politics Mr. Nicholson is a Democrat. His religious affili- 
ation is with the Presbyterian church, and for many years he has 
been an active worker in the religious field. For eight years he 
was the secretary and treasurer of the South Carolina Christian 
Endeavor union, and from 1900 to 1904 he was superintendent 
of the Sunday school at the Excelsior Knitting mills. In 1897 
he was elected deacon of the First Presbyterian church in Union, 

In addition to his literary work on his paper, Mr. Nicholson 
is a frequent contributor to the secular and religious press of the 
South and the North. 

His manners and cheerful disposition have caused him to be 
admired and beloved by a large circle of friends, and his genial 
humor, quick wit and kindly consideration for others, make him 
a welcome member of any group of his acquaintances. In the 
opinion of many of his friends he is, so far as Union is concerned, 
entitled to be described by the words used by President Roosevelt 
in speaking of his friend, Jacob Riis, "useful man Number One." 
Mr. Nicholson believes, and he puts this belief into practice, that 
work should be faithfully performed not merely for the accumu- 
lation of wealth, but in order that the worker and the world in 
which he works may be made better thereby. 

The postoffice address of Mr. Nicholson is Union, Union 
county, South Carolina. 




OTTS, JAMES COKNELIUS, a prominent and rising 
young lawyer and politician, of Gaffney, South Carolina, 
was born in Pinckney township, Union county, in the 
same state, June 27, 1869. His father was James Dabney Otts, 
a teacher by profession, who served the Confederacy as a soldier 
under Robert E. Lee. His health was shattered by the hardships 
he underwent while in the army, and he died of consumption, in 
Florida, in 1875. His mother was Ellen Gault, and her paternal 
grandfather, who came from Ireland, was a soldier of the Revo- 
lution and was captured by the British at the battle of Camden. 
Her father was a local Methodist preacher, noted for his piety. 
Her grandmother was a member of the Page family, of Virginia. 
His father's brother, Reverend J. M. P. Otts, D. D., was a noted 
Presbyterian preacher, who filled important pulpits in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, and Wilmington, Delaware, and was the 
author of several books, mostly on travel and religious subjects. 
Like many other young men of the South who were brought 
up in the period following the great War between the States, 
James C. Otts had to contend during his childhood and early 
youth with poverty and privation. The death of his father, 
which occurred when he was a child six years of age, leaving 
his mother practically nothing, necessitated the removal of the 
family, which now consisted of his mother, himself and two 
younger brothers, one of them a mere baby, to a small farm in 
Union county owned by his mother's father. On this farm his 
time was spent, until at an early age, by reason of the responsi- 
bilities placed upon him by circumstances, his boyhood merged 
into manhood. As a boy he was blessed with a strong physique, 
which was developed by outdoor life and labor on the farm, the 
management of which soon devolved upon him, and, aided by 
his brothers and a hired hand, he succeeded in making the farm 
provide a living for himself and the other members of the family. 
In the circumstances, his opportunities for securing an edu- 
cation were necessarily very limited, but at an early age he 
developed a fondness for reading, which fortunately was nurtured 
upon such books as Scott's Novels and Franklin's Autobiography. 


This kind of reading, together with studies in American history 
and such schooling as he was able to obtain at the common schools 
of his county, during the brief periods when he was able to 
attend school at all, furnished him with a fair groundwork of an 
education. To this he added private study, which gave him a 
cultured and well-stored mind. His inability to obtain a colle- 
giate education was the bitterest disappointment of his life, but 
notwithstanding this disadvantage, he persisted in carrying out 
his youthful purpose to become a lawyer. By reading Blackstone 
and other legal works at home, and through the inspiration he 
derived from reading the life of Charles O'Conner, the great 
New York lawyer, which deepened his determination, he prepared 
himself for examination, and in 1897, at the age of twenty-eight, 
he was admitted to the bar and opened an office at Union. Before 
that time, however, while still a farmer, he had entered public 
life through the door of politics. The early nineties were stren- 
uous years in South Carolina. The Farmers Alliance was in 
full swing then, and Mr. Otts identified himself with it and 
became prominent in its councils. This resulted in his being sent 
as a delegate to the Farmers convention in 1890, which suggested 
Mr. Tillman for governor. From that time on he was prominent 
in Union county politics, and was made a member of the State 
Democratic committee in 1892, and in the next year or two was a 
delegate to several state conventions. In 1894 he was elected to 
the house of representatives from Union county at the head of 
the ticket. During this term he framed and introduced the first 
separate coach bill to be acted upon acceptably by the house, but 
the bill did not pass in the senate. In 1895 he was elected to 
the Constitutional convention and took a prominent part in the 
fight for smaller counties. While a member of this convention 
he became acquainted with Colonel George D. Tillman, an elder 
brother of the redoubtable Benjamin, and a strong friendship 
sprang up between them. Colonel Tillman, who manifested a 
deep interest in him, advised him to carry out his long-cherished 
ambition to become a lawyer. 

After his service in the Constitutional convention he gave up 
farming and moved to Gaffney, in Cherokee county, devoting the 
next six years of his life to the practice of law, a pursuit in 
which his strong character, energy, ability, and determination 
have brought him gratifying success and vindicated the wisdom 


of his choice of a vocation. In 1904 he again entered the political 
arena, and although in his previous legislative career he had 
advocated the dispensary system, he was now of a different mind 
and made the race for the legislature as a Prohibitionist. After 
a bitter fight he was again elected to the house, once more leading 
the ticket and receiving the largest majority ever given a candi- 
date for the legislature in Cherokee county up to that time. In 
the legislature of 1904 he was appointed on the steering committee 
in charge of the Morgan local option bill, and on the committee 
of free conference on the part of the house to confer with the 
committee from the senate. He also served on the judiciary and 
military committees of the house, and, with Messrs. Nash and 
Hemphill, prepared and engineered the ten judicial circuit bill 
through the asembly, a work which he considers his most impor- 
tant public service. In 1906 Mr. Otts was a candidate for state 
senator. Like himself, his competitor was opposed to the state 
dispensary, and was a worthy man, but Mr. Otts was elected by 
about six hundred majority. In the senate he has been very 
efficient in various lines and was the recognized leader in the fight 
against the state dispensary system for the sale of liquors, which 
was abolished at the 1907 session. 

Of a strong athletic build, one of his favorite modes of 
relaxation has been to participate in the great national game, 
baseball. He has also evinced a strong predilection for military 
service, and organized the Pea Ridge Bifles, a company of which 
he was captain from 1890 to 1897. He was also captain of 
the Limestone Guards, at Gaffney, during the period including 

As a man of recognized success, though young in years, he 
would urge upon all who desire to attain true success in life the 
value of temperance, of truth, of earnestness of purpose, of manly 
independence. He advocates helpfulness to others, and would 
impress by both precept and example the gospel of right living 
and sober, honest, faithful effort, and diligent perseverance. 

His address is Gaffney, South Carolina. 


PAEKEK, LEWIS WARDLAW, lawyer and manufacturer, 
was born at Abbeville, South Carolina, July 11, 1865. 
His parents were William Henry and Lucia (Wardlaw) 
Parker. His father was a lawyer and banker, who was master 
in equity of Abbeville county from 1856 to 1866, code commis- 
sioner of South Carolina in 1884, and from 1880 to 1888 was a 
member of the state legislature. He was one of the foremost 
citizens of the state, and by all who knew him he was respected 
for his fine qualities of mind and heart. He died in 1905. The 
first paternal ancestors in this country came from Jamaica and 
landed near Charleston about 1730. On the maternal side the 
ancestors settled in Pennsylvania, and removed first to Virginia, 
and thence, about 1750, to Abbeville, South Carolina. Among the 
prominent ancestors of the subject of this sketch were William 
Henry Dray ton, chief justice of South Carolina and a member 
of the colonial congress; Governor Bull, the first colonial execu- 
tive of the state ; and David Lewis Wardlaw, of the state supreme 

As there was a large family, and his father's means were 
limited, Lewis Parker had some difficulties to overcome in secur- 
ing an education. In his earlier years he attended the public 
schools of Abbeville, but at the age of fifteen he entered a mer- 
cantile establishment in his native town as clerk and served in 
that capacity two years. Later he took the academic course in 
South Carolina university, which he completed in 1885, obtaining 
the B. A. degree with high honors. He then entered the law 
department of the same institution, from which he was graduated 
two years later with the degree of LL. B. While in the law 
school, and for a short time after his graduation, he taught school 
in Columbia and Barnwell. In 1888 he removed to Greenville 
and commenced the practice of law. From the first he was suc- 
cessful. He was in partnership at different times with Honorable 
J. A. McCullough and H. J. Haynsworth, Esquire, two of the 
most prominent attorneys of that city, but Mr. Parker withdrew 
in 18 D7 in order that he might enter the comparatively new and 
very promising field of cotton manufacture. He was confident 


that in this way he could serve his state, and his own interests, 
better than he could as a lawyer. The results of the change 
have fully vindicated his clear foresight and his discriminating 

On his withdrawal from the practice of law, Mr. Parker 
continued to look after certain bank affairs in which he had 
become interested and took the management of the Victor Manu- 
facturing company, of Greer, South Carolina, which had been 
organized a short time before. The Victor mills were prosperous 
from the start, and the plant is now twelve times the size it was 
when he became connected with it. Mr. Parker was also one 
of the organizers of the Monaghan mills, located at Greenville, 
South Carolina, and from the first he has been vice-president and 
treasurer of the corporation. Both mills have model villages, 
with schools, libraries, and places of entertainment for the opera- 
tives. When it became necessary to reorganize what was known 
as the "Whaley group" of cotton mills in Columbia the parties 
in interest made careful inquiry in order to find a man of high 
character and proved ability who would accept the positions of 
president and treasurer of the corporations. After careful inves- 
tigation they selected Mr. Parker. He accepted the positions 
with the distinct understanding that this new undertaking should 
in no wise interfere with proper attention to the management of 
the mill properties in and around Greenville with which he was 
connected. The conditions at the Whaley mills were bad, and, 
on account of the financial and other troubles in which the busi- 
ness was involved, the outlook was discouraging. But by means 
of his knowledge, skill, and efficiency, Mr. Parker solved the 
difficult and complex problems and in a comparatively short time 
put the mills on a paying basis. One of these mills, the Olympia, 
contains 100,320 spindles and is the largest cotton factory in the 
United States under one roof. 

It was a very common custom of young lawyers in his day 
to seek public office, but Mr. Parker did not follow this course. 
He is a Democrat, and has always been willing to aid his party, 
both in local and in state affairs, but he has never desired public 
office. In 1896 and 1900 he did not vote for the presidential 
candidate of the Democratic party on account of the free silver 
issue. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and a deeply 
interested and a very helpful member of the Historical Society 


of South Carolina. His religious affiliation is with the Protes- 
tant Episcopal church. 

The life of Mr. Parker is a marked illustration of the great 
change which has occurred at the South during the past few 
decades. The development of the cotton manufacturing interest 
has drawn many men of ability from professional life to the 
management of cotton factories and the development of other 
industries. Mr. Parker was a leader at the bar when he left 
it, and as a mill manager he now has more spindles under his 
direction than any of his associates. His success is due to his 
natural ability, his legal training, and, in a great degree, to the 
choice of wise methods and close and constant attention to all 
that has to do with his chosen field of activity. The achievements 


of his administration of the mills under his control have made 
him one of the commanding figures in the industrial life of the 

His postoffice address is Greenville, South Carolina. 




PINCKNEY, THOMAS, was born in Charleston, August 
13, 1828. He is the son of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 
of Charleston, and Caroline Elliott, his wife, of Beaufort, 
South Carolina. His father was a lawyer by profession, but 
spent the greater part of his life planting rice. He had no desire 
for political life, but was, nevertheless, once elected lieutenant- 
governor of the state, and was also a member of the Nullification 
convention of 1832. He was a devoted planter, but more deeply 
interested in the welfare of his negroes, both temporal and spir- 
itual, than in the advancement of his material interests. He was 
the first planter in the state to introduce the religious instruction 
of the negroes upon his plantation by the employment of mis- 
sionaries to preach to them on Sundays and catechize the chil- 
dren on week days. He was, moreover, assiduous in his own 
exertions in this direction. An instance of his consideration for 
them is illustrated by the fact that on one occasion a heavy 
rainfall had inundated the lowlands on his farm. One of his 
men, who attempted to return by a causeway across the valley, 
found the w r ater had risen above his depth, and being unable to 
swim, climbed a tree and whooped for assistance. Mr. Pinckney, 
on discovering the situation, mounted his most trusty horse and 
swam out to the tree on which this terrified man had taken refuge, 
and putting him upon the horse, turned it loose. The horse made 
straight back for the shore, landing his rider safely there, while 
Mr. Pinckney breasted the surging current and swam safely to 
the highland. 

The subject of this sketch is a descendant of the Pinckney 
family who were prominent in the early history of this country 
in framing the constitution of the United States, and in repre- 
senting their country in the courts of England, France and Spain. 
Thomas Pinckney, the first of the name to cross the ocean, sailed 
from England to the Barbadoes in 1691, and the year after landed 
in Charleston from the Loyal Jamaica with many other settlers. 
His son, Charles, was appointed chief justice of the province by 
Governor Glenn in 1752. His son, Thomas Pinckney, was a major 
in the Revolutionary army, and after the close of that war was 


appointed by Washington minister to the court of St. James. 
In the War of 1812 he commanded the Southern department, 
and also in the war with the Creek nation. 

Thomas Pinckney, the subject of this sketch, was delicate in 
childhood, but the influence of a country life enabled him to 
outgrow this tendency. His early life was spent at El Dorado, 
a rice plantation on the Santee river, in winter, and in Pendleton 
in the summer. No work or unusual duties were required of him 
in youth, and to the influence of his parents he is indebted for 
his moral and spiritual growth. History and books of adventure 
were the reading most congenial to his taste. His first strong 
impulse to exert himself came from a realization of the fact that 
he could win success in life only by his own exertions, coupled 
with the examples of hard-working, energetic, successful men 
with whom he was thrown in contact in business. No financial 
obstacle stood in the way of his acquiring all the education he 
would take, first at village schools in Pendleton, then at the 
University of Virginia, where he spent two years in the academic 
department, after which he spent two years at the Medical college 
of Charleston, graduating in 1850, and took a subsequent course 
at the Medical college of the University of New York. 

The serious work of his life began when he commenced rice 
planting, which was accomplished by his going heavily into debt 
for negroes to plant some of his father's unoccupied land. A 
balance of this debt he has discharged since the war, although 
some of these very negroes had been enlisted in the ranks of the 
opposing Northern army. On the secession of his native state, 
he raised a cavalry company, and was put on duty by Governor 
Pickens in guarding the seacoast from the depredations of fre- 
quent raiding parties sent in from the blockading fleet. In 1861 
his command was mustered into the Confederate service, merged 
into the Fourth South Carolina cavalry, and after one year's 
similar service at Pocataligo, under General "Live Oak" Walker, 
this regiment was transferred to General Hampton's division in 
the Army of Northern Virginia. In a hotly contested engage- 
ment between Generals Hampton and Sheridan, at Hawes Shop, 
Virginia, Captain Pinckney was captured, and, after seven 
months' imprisonment at Point Lookout, Fort Delaware, Morris 
Island, and Fort Pulaski, he was exchanged, rejoined his regi- 
ment, then with General Johnston's army (General Hampton 


having been promoted lieutenant-general and transferred to com- 
mand all the cavalry of that army). Here he had the misfor- 
tune to have a leg broken a few days before the final surrender 
in 1865. In November he returned to Santee, to resume rice 
planting and face the troubles precipitated upon the South by 
the iniquitous reconstruction acts, and to realize the curse that 
had been visited upon the country by the Fifteenth amendment 
to the Constitution, and the blighting consequences it has entailed 
for all future time. At El Dorado he found the negroes, upon 
their emancipation, had "shared" out the household furniture, as 
well as the planting land, among themselves, and the books from 
the old library were thrown out of doors and strewed around on 
the plea "that the white people had gotten all their sense out of 
them, and should get no more good from them." The planters 
were obliged to call in the aid of Federal troops to dispossess 
them of what they had appropriated, and restore order on the 
plantation, and it was only after their means of subsistence had 
been exhausted that they could be induced to resume work to 
obtain their rations; under which circumstances as laborers they 
were most unsatisfactory and insubordinate, serious collisions 
frequently arising between the two races. 

Captain Pinckney, preferring the quiet, more independent 
life of a rice planter as it existed in ante-bellum days, declined 
propositions made to him to take part in public life, though after 
the war he did his utmost for the preservation of our civilization, 
so seriously threatened by those reconstruction acts which dis- 
franchised our prominent men in both civil and military life and 
enfranchised the negroes, who soon proved themselves utterly 
unfit to be trusted with the ballot. On one occasion only did he 
deviate from this rule, when chosen a member of the Taxpayers' 
convention in 1875, which led to the nomination of Wade Hamp- 
ton for governor, and thus to the redemption of the state. During 
the winter of 1865-66, after returning to his desolated home, he 
supported himself by his gun, selling his game in Charleston 
market, and thus supplying himself with what he was otherw ' se 
unable to buy. 

He is a member of the Masonic order; of the Society of 
the Cincinnati; of the South Carolina society; the Agricultural 
Society of South Carolina; Camp Sumter Veteran association; 


Charleston Library society; the Historical society; Art associa- 
tion; St. Cecilia society; Charleston club; Westmoreland club, 
of Richmond; member of the board of trustees of the Porter 
Military academy ; Church of the Redeemer for seamen ; Church 
Home and Orphanage; Society for the Advancement of Chris- 
tianity for South Carolina; Society for the Relief of Widows 
and Orphans; Bible society, etc., and he has served on the board 
of trustees of the University of the South. 

In educational work he has always taken a deep interest, 
feeling assured that upon the enlightenment and virtuous training 
of the rising generation the future of this country must depend. 

He was always a Democrat, though he could not approve of 
the adoption of the free silver heresy. He has also grown up 
in the faith of his forefathers, as exemplified in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. He has always had a great fondness for 
outdoor sports, especially riding, hunting and shooting. 

As to his advice to the youth of the country, he suggests 
that they must not hesitate to push themselves forward by all 
honorable means in attaining the object of their praiseworthy 
ambitions, and adds: "A strict adherence to principle, even 
though it appear to the disadvantage of the individual, is the 
basis upon which the most exalted characters have been founded, 
and on the preservation of such ideals the future of our country 
will depend." 

He is a strong opponent of the dispensary law as it has been 
administered in this state, for although he admits that the closing 
of bar rooms has done some good, he thinks this is more than 
counterbalanced by the amount of fraud, as well as hypocrisy, 
its administration has engendered, demoralizing those who have 
come in contact with it, as a rule, from the highest to the lowest, 
besides which it has led to many murders at the hands of its 

Thomas Pinckney was married twice ; first to Mary Stewart, 
of Brook Hill, Virginia, in 1870. Of this marriage, six children 
were born, of whom one son alone survives, Charles Cotesworth 
Pinckney, of Richmond, Virginia. The second marriage was to 
Camilla Scott, of Richmond, Virginia, in 1892, of which marriage 
one daughter, Josephine, survives. 


POPE, JOSEPH DANIEL, professor of law in the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, at Columbia, was born April 
6, 1820, in St. Helena parish, on the sea island of the 
same name, upon the coast of South Carolina, upon his father's 
plantation called Mullein Hill, within three miles of the Atlantic 
ocean, in the house that was the home of his grandfather, Joseph 
Pope, in the present county of Beaufort and within eight miles 
of the town of Beaufort. His father's name was Joseph James 
Pope and his mother's maiden name was Sarah Jenkins. His 
father was a sea island planter of comfortable fortune consisting 
mostly of lands and slaves, and though not of great wealth, his 
means were ample. He held few public offices, being averse to 
public life, but in spite of his indifference to office he was several 
times elected a member of the South Carolina legislature, and 
took much comfort to himself for being one of those who voted 
to establish the lunatic asylum in Columbia in 1822, against very 
strong opposition. He also voted for the nullification ordinance 
in 1832. His marked characteristics were great personal dignity, 
high courage and integrity and remarkable conversational gifts. 
He was esteemed by all who knew him as a man of profound 
judgment and was always a leading member of the community. 
Mr. Pope numbered among his ancestors on his father's 
side the distinguished portrait painter, Jeremiah Theus; Colonel 
James Theus, of the War of the Revolution, and Simon Theus, 
who was the first Republican collector of the port of Charleston. 
The Pope family came to South Carolina from Pope's Creek, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, about the year 1700. The earliest 
one of the name was Thomas Pope, who settled on tidewater, in 
the low countrv of South Carolina, where the familv lived and 

*/ ** 

prospered, both socially and pecuniarily, until they were utterly 
broken up and impoverished by the invasion of the Federal army 
in 1861. On his mother's side, Mr. Pope traces his ancestry to 
the Scotts, the Jenkinses, the Adamses and the Ashes, all families 
of great respectability and social standing. 

Mr. Pope grew up upon his father's sea island plantation 
and was a healthy boy, fond of outdoor life and developing no 


special tastes, except for horseback riding, gunning and boating. 
He was not compelled to do any manual labor, as his father was 
in easy circumstances, with the best trained negro servants to wait 
upon the members of the household at every call. Naturally, in 
such conditions, the influence of his parents was paramount in 
his early life. His education began at his mother's knee, and 
after he was eight years old the combined influence of both his 
father and his mother affected the whole of his moral, spiritual 
and intellectual development. When he was twelve years old a 
New England teacher was employed in the family, who, in spite 
of many personal objections to his character and opinions, was 
nevertheless of the greatest service to his scholar in opening his 
mind to knowledge and in teaching him how to study and to 
educate himself. This teacher subsequently left the South, and 
his letters, published after his death, were filled with many 
slanders concerning the Southern people, especially with regard 
to the period of nullification, but Mr. Pope has always felt that 
this did not detract from the intellectual debt which he owed to 
him as above suggested. After his mind had been opened by 
this early training, the books that he found most helpful to him 
for his work in life were the writings and speeches of John C. 
Calhoun, Hallam's Constitutional History, and Gibbon's History 
of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and in a literary 
way the writings of W. M. Thackeray. Without claiming to be 
a classical scholar in the proper sense of the term, Mr. Pope has 
read the usual classical courses of the colleges, and very widely 
and largely in English literature, and has all his life been a 
student of the best models of English style. 

After a time Mr. Pope was sent to what was known as the 
Waterboro academy, kept by the Reverend Mr. Van Dyck, by no 
means a ripe scholar, but an admirable teacher to others of what 
he himself knew, and his pupils were greatly benefited by his 
instruction in the Greek and Latin languages. In 1840, Mr. Pope 
was graduated from the University of Georgia with the degree 
of A. B., while Doctor Church was its president. He did not 
engage in professional study at any institution after his gradu- 
ation, nor did he take any post-graduate course at any college; 
but he received from the University of Georgia the degree of 
A. M., and, in later life, the degree of LL. D. from Furman 


On the llth of December, 1845, he married Catherine Scott, 
the daughter of Doctor John A. P. Scott, of the Parish of St. 
Helena. His married life lasted fifty years and nineteen days. 
Seven children were born to him, two of whom are now (1907) 
living; his daughter, Mrs. Reed Stoney, living with him in 
Columbia, and his son, of his own name, living in Florida. 

Mr. Pope's professional life began as a student of law in 
Charleston, in the office of James L. Petigru, the famous jurist. 
He was subsequently admitted to the bar and practiced his pro- 
fession for many years with marked success. He was for many 
years a member of the house of representatives of South Carolina, 
and held the chairmanship of the committee on federal relations. 
At the time the John Brown raid occurred, Mr. Pope, as chairman 
of that committee, carried the house with his report and speech 
thereupon. Subsequently, Mr. Pope became a member of the 
senate of South Carolina, and his services in that body upon the 
judiciary and finance committees were of the greatest public 
importance. He was a member of the senate during the exciting 
period of secession. He was also a member of the Secession 
convention, and took a prominent part in its deliberations, as will 
appear by its published proceedings. 

During the War between the States Mr. Pope was a member 
of the senate of South Carolina, and was subsequently appointed 
by President Davis chief collector of the Confederate war tax 
for that state, and also, for a time, superintendent for the printing 
of the Confederate notes. After the war was over he returned 
at once to the practice of his profession in Columbia. He deter- 
mined never to hold again a public office of any kind, but this 
did not prevent him from taking a very active part in what is 
generally known as the Hampton movement for the redemption 
of the state from negro rule. About 1886, at the solicitation of 
the trustees of the South Carolina college (now the University 
of South Carolina), Mr. Pope was induced to enter upon the 
laborious task of building up a law school in the college, and 
since that time he has conducted that department with marked 
ability and success. He has graduated about three hundred stu- 
dents in the period indicated, and the law school has added 
greatly to the character, ability and learning of the South Caro- 
lina bar. 

Vol. I S. C. 15 


Mr. Pope having led a busy life in the law courts and in 
public affairs, has not been the author of books, but he has 
written a great deal for the daily press and has contributed 
articles for the magazines. He has delivered numerous literary 
addresses, on sundry occasions, which have always been well 

His postoffice address is Columbia, South Carolina. 




POPE, YOUNG JOHN, chief justice of the supreme court 
of his native state, was born in Newberry, South Caro- 
lina, April 10, 1841. His parents were Thomas Herbert 
and Harriett Neville (Harrington) Pope. His father was a 
distinguished lawyer and statesman, who for several years was 
commissioner in equity, and was also an influential member of 
the South Carolina legislature. His death at the age of forty- 
seven years was a great loss to the legal profession and to the 
state at large. 

In childhood and early youth Young John Pope was rather 
frail, but with increasing years his health greatly improved. He 
was fond of hunting and of other sports that were common to 
boys of his age. But while permitted to engage in them to a 
reasonable extent, he was taught by his mother to be industrious 
and was required to work in her flower garden, and perform 
other tasks, before his hours for play. He had no difficulties in 
obtaining an education. After a preliminary course he entered 
the Newberry Male academy, in which he was prepared for 
college. He then studied at Furman university, Greenville, South 
Carolina, from which institution he was graduated August 6, 
1860. He had chosen the legal profession and immediately after 
his graduation began the study of law under the direction of 
John Belton O'Neall, one of his kinsmen, who was then chief 
justice of the supreme court of South Carolina. Early in the 
following year, when the War between the States began, he left 
his studies and was among the first to enter the military service 
of the Confederate government. He enlisted as a private in 
Company E of the Third South Carolina infantry, and in a short 
time he was promoted its first sergeant. In April, 1862, on the 
reorganization of the regiment, he was promoted adjutant. This 
regiment saw a great deal of hard fighting, and its losses of killed 
and wounded were very heavy. Mr. Pope was wounded seven 
times, and at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, while 
acting adjutant-general of Conner's brigade, he was shot through 
the face with a minnie ball that destroyed the sight of one eye. 


At the close of the war Mr. Pope returned to his home, and 
under the direction of Colonel Simeon Fair resumed the study 
of the law and was soon admitted to the bar. His progress was 
very rapid, and in a short time he gained a high rank in his 
profession. As early as 1865 he was elected district judge for 
Newberry. This position he held with credit for three years, 
when the district courts were abolished and the government came 
under the dominion of the alien and the negro. His general 
practice was large and many of his cases were important. For 
eleven years he was attorney for the National Bank of Newberry, 
and in 1878-79 he was one of the attorneys for the state in the 
famous suits involving the validity of certain bonds issued by the 
"radical" government that dominated South Carolina from 1868 
to 1876. One of the results of these suits was the elimination, 
in a legal and equitable proceeding, of a million and a half 
dollars of fraudulent bonds, thus reducing the valid debt of the 
state by that amount. 

Judge Pope also rendered efficient service as mayor of New- 
berry for five terms of one year each. During his administration 
there was a marked improvement, not only in the outward 
appearance, but also in the general spirit of the municipality. 
In 1887 he was elected a member of the lower house of the state 
legislature. The following year he was elected to the state senate 
after one of the greatest contests ever known in his county. His 
opponent was highly popular and up to that time had never been 
defeated in an election. In 1890 Mr. Pope was elected attorney- 
general of South Carolina and entered upon the duties of that 
office on December 3 of that year. In December, 1891, he was 
elected by the legislature one of the associate justices of the 
supreme court of the state, and in January, 1896, he was unani- 
mously reelected to this position. On January 20, 1903, he 
received a unanimous election as chief justice of the state, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Chief Justice Mclver, and 
on January 23, 1906, he was, without opposition, reelected for the 
full term of eight years. In the same month and year the South 
Carolina college conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. 

Judge Pope has always been a Democrat, and for many 
years, including the remarkable campaign of 1876, he was county 
chairman of Newberry. Since his elevation to the supreme court 
he has, very properly, kept entirely aloof from political manage- 


ment. His religious affiliation is with the Baptist church, of 
which he has been an honored and efficient member for many 

On December 3, 1874, he was married to Mrs. Sallie H. F. 
Rutherford, daughter of Colonel Simeon Fair, and widow of 
Colonel W. D. Eutherford, of Newberry. Of their two children, 
one is living in 1907. 

The postoffice address of Judge Pope is Newberry, South 


PURDY, EGBERT OBADIAH, was born February 11, 
1857, at White Plains, near Lawrenceville, Brunswick 
county, Virginia. His father is James Purdy, and his 
mother Jane Wells Purdy. His father is a farmer, characterized 
by honesty, sobriety, great industry and decision of character. 
The father and mother came from County Down, Ireland, after 
they were married, and are both living. 

Robert Purdy's tastes were literary in his youth. He grew 
slowly, but enjoyed the advantages of life in the country. Here, 
on the farm, he was inured to toil. Before going to school in 
the morning and after returning in the evening, a distance of 
three miles each way, he was required to perform his daily tasks. 
The means for school expenses up to seventeen years of age were 
furnished by his father. After that he paid all of his expenses, 
including the cost of a course in the University of Virginia, 
earning the money by his own effort. In 1873 he attended the 
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical college (now the Virginia 
Polytechnic institute). In December, 1874, lack of means neces- 
sitated discontinuing his studies, but on October 1, 1880, he 
was able to resume college work, and entered the University of 
Virginia. Here he took the full law course, and after one year, 
on June 30, 1881, received his diploma. 

Among the books which most influenced him may be men- 
tioned Scott's novels, Warren's "Ten Thousand a Year," and 
other literature of this class which he read between the time of 
his leaving the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical college 
and entering the University of Virginia. Home was the greatest 
influence in shaping his character, though he feels that, while 
school was a valuable factor, his education consists largely of 
what he has learned from men by association and contact. At 
seventeen years of age he resolved to study law; and, through 
poverty and discouragements, never gave up the idea, and never 
thought of entering any other calling or pursuit. 

On December 5, 1881, at Manning, South Carolina, he began 
the practice of law. In 1886 he removed to Sumter to take the 
position of partner of the late Senator Joseph H. Earle. When 

'm& L ?. 


Senator Earle removed to Greenville, South Carolina, Judge 
Purdy formed a partnership with Mark Reynolds. Judge 
Purdy's life as a lawyer was not different from the life or expe- 
rience of a busy county lawyer, enjoying a full general practice. 
From 1890 to 1892 he was mayor of Sumter; he was also several 
times alderman. In January, 1902, he was elected judge of the 
circuit courts of South Carolina by the legislature, commencing 
his term of service in December, 1902. He is a member of the 
Pi Kappa Alpha college fraternity. 

Through life Judge Purdy has been, of course, a Democrat. 
He was not identified with the Reform movement inaugurated by 
Mr. (now Senator) Tillman. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. His legal and judicial pursuits he 
varies with fishing and bird hunting. To the young he commends 
honesty, industry and faithfulness, and promptness in business 
matters of all kinds. "A prompt, honest and energetic man can," 
he declared, "and will, meet a full measure of success here." 

On December 18, 1883, he married Hattie H. Ingram, of 
Manning, South Carolina. They have had nine children, of 
whom eight are now (1907) living. 

His address is West Hampton avenue, Sumter, South Caro- 


RAYSOR, THOMAS MIDDLETON, was born in the 
county of Orangeburg, South Carolina, May 26, 1859. 
His parents were P. A. and Annie M. Raysor. His 
mother died while he was an infant. His father was a noted 
planter of Orangeburg, who, at the outbreak of the War between 
the States, enlisted in one of the South Carolina regiments and 
served with distinction until the close of that memorable struggle, 
during which he reached the rank of captain. He was graduated 
from the Citadel academy, Charleston; was a ready writer and 
a fluent speaker, and took a prominent part in all the political 
movements of his day in which the interests of the Palmetto 
State were especially involved. After the close of the war he 
went to Texas, where he remained until the time of his death. 

Thomas Middleton Raysor's ancestors on his father's side 
were English ; on his mother's side, Scotch-Irish. They came to 
America about the year 1731 and settled in South Carolina. 
Public life and state affairs seem to have engrossed the attention 
of the Raysors for generations past, for we find that the great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch was a member of an 
early legislature of the state, while his grandfather was a state 
senator, and, as above noted, his father was conspicuous in social, 
military and political life. 

The early years of Thomas M. Raysor's life were spent in 
a little village and on his father's plantation nearby. Though 
not required to engage in any regular manual labor, he enjoyed 
working occasionally in the fields. For recreation and exercise 
he spent many hours in swimming, fishing and hunting. There 
were no difficulties in his way in acquiring a good education, for 
his father was possessed of ample means to send him to the best 
schools. After leaving the village school he was sent to Wofford 
preparatory school, at Spartanburg, and later to Orangeburg 
academy. In the class of 1878 he was graduated from Wofford 
college with the degree of A. B. After leaving college, Mr. 
Raysor began the study of law in the office of the Honorable 
Samuel Dibble. Law was his choice among the professions. He 


was always fond of reading, history, poetry and biography being 
his favorite subjects. The reading of Plutarch's "Lives" made 
a deep and lasting impression upon his mind when he was quite 
young, and later the teaching of Doctor James H. Carlisle had 
a great influence over him for good. 

Mr. Raysor was a member of the South Carolina state legis- 
lature for three terms, 1884 to 1890; is now (1907) serving his 
second term as member of the state senate from Orangeburg 
county. He is attorney for and a director of the Bank of Orange- 
burg, and attorney for and a director in several other financial 

From early manhood he has been a public-spirited citizen. 
He took a very prominent part in the work of establishing a 
graded system for the public schools of the city of Orangeburg 
that has been exceedingly satisfactory to the citizens of the 
place; he has ever been a strong advocate and supporter of 
South Carolina college and Citadel, and he introduced a bill in 
the legislature to provide for the rebuilding of the west wing of 
the Citadel. As a member of the senate, he is regarded as an 
earnest, faithful representative, loyal to the best interests of his 
own district, yet not overlooking the claims and merits of his 
fellow-citizens in every other part of the state. 

His literary work has consisted chiefly of articles for the 
newspapers upon such topics as engaged the attention of the 
public at the particular time. He is a member of the Chi Phi 
fraternity; he is a Mason, a Knight of Pythias, and a member 
of the Orangeburg Business Men's club. 

He married Miss Mattie Mandeville Rogers, of Darlington 
county, South Carolina. In politics he has always been a Demo- 
crat. His religious connection is with the Episcopal church. 
Much walking, an occasional day's fishing, and frequent horse- 
back riding are his favorite methods of recreation and amusement. 

In a retrospect of his own life, though yet in the vigor and 
prime of manhood, Mr. Raysor feels that he has failed in some 
of his more youthful aspirations, principally because he did not 
take advantage of opportunities as they came in his way, and also 
through a lack of persistent, unflagging industry, which alone 
can win the coveted prizes. To young Americans who desire true 
success in life, and wish to accomplish some good work for the 


benefit of mankind, Mr. Raysor tenders the following excellent 
advice: "Let every one for himself cultivate the great virtue of 
self-control and lead a life of service and earnest high endeavor." 
Mr. Raysor's address is Orangeburg, South Carolina. 


REAVES, GEORGE ROGERS, of Mullins, Marion county, 
banker, merchant, and member of the legislature, was 
born in Marion county, near Mullins, September 3, 1863. 
His father was a planter, George W. Reaves, who filled acceptably 
the office of magistrate, and was known as a liberal giver to 
church work in his town. His mother, Mrs. Emma (Rogers) 
Reaves, had a strong influence for good on her son. His great- 
grandfather, Solomon Reaves, who came from Virginia about 
1790, was a famous Baptist preacher of the Revolutionary days. 

Born on a farm, he early learned farm work. He says: 
"My father lost everything in the war, and as he was growing 
old, I had to help early to support the family; and I took the 
plow as a regular hand at twelve years of age. As a consequence 
I had only such opportunities for an education as were afforded 
by the common schools." In 1884, however, he took, at the 
Commercial college of the University of Kentucky, a course in 
business principles and methods, bookkeeping, and elementary 
commercial law, which has been of great use to him in managing 
Ms own business and that of the bank of which he is president. 

From the reading of the Bible he got, in his boyhood, his 
rirst and strongest impulse to make his life count for something. 
Biographies of successful men in all lines of life also stirred his 
ambition to succeed. 

He took the first position in business which was open to 
him; and as the merchant to whom he engaged himself proved 
an honest and fair man, Mr. Reaves continued in his employ until 
the time came when he himself was ready to assume directing 
control. Then he planned the incorporation of the business, and 
was made president and general manager of the Mullins Hard- 
ware company. 

Upon the organization of the Bank of Mullins, Mr. Reaves 
becames its president. In 1904 he was elected a member of the 
legislature, and was reflected in 1906. 

In politics he is a Democrat, and he has always acted with 
that party. He is a member of the Baptist church. He is a 


Knight of Pythias, and has filled several important offices in that 

He was married February 15, 1893, to Katie Daniel, daughter 
of W. H. Daniel. They have had six children, five of whom are 
living in 190T. 

Like many other men who have succeeded in commercial life 
and as bankers, Mr. Keaves feels that he owes much to the excel- 
lent health and the habits of systematic work which were acquired 
by his early life on a farm. He writes: "My own experience 
leads me to the conviction that early life on a farm, with regular 
employment, is the best possible life for boys. They come nearer 
to Nature there." 




RHETT, ROBERT GOODWYN, lawyer, banker, financier, 
was born in Columbia, Richland county, South Carolina, 
March 25, 1862, son of Albert Moore and Martha (Good- 
wyn) Rhett. He is descended from an old colonial family, whose 
earliest American representatives were Thomas Landgrave Smith, 
governor of South Carolina in 1693, and his brother, George 
Smith, who came to Charlestown, Massachusetts, about 1670. 
These two Smiths were the grandsons of Sir George Smith, of 
Exeter, who was also the grandfather of George Monck, Duke 
of Albemarle. The grandson of George Smith came to Carolina 
and married his second cousin, Sabina Smith, the granddaughter 
of Governor Thomas Smith. In 1744 their son, also named 
Thomas, married Sarah Moore, the granddaughter of Colonel 
William Rhett, and his grandchildren, amongst whom was 
Thomas Moore, the grandfather of Robert Goodwyn, adopted the 
name of Rhett, about to become extinct. 

William Rhett attained to most creditable distinction in the 
pioneer days of the colony of South Carolina, and in 1706 was 
speaker of the house of commons of that colony. In the same 
year he received a commission as vice-admiral of an English- 
Colonial fleet fitted out against the French, and in 1717 he com- 
manded the expedition which resulted in the capture of the pirate 

The paternal grandfather of Mr. Rhett, Thomas Moore, was 
a planter, and took no part in public life. Two of his brothers, 
however, attained considerable distinction Albert Moore and 
Robert Barnwell. 

The rise of Albert Moore Rhett in his profession and in 
public life was one of remarkable rapidity. In the same year 
that he was admitted to the bar he entered the state legislature, 
where he took rank with the ablest debaters in the state, and at 
the end of his four years' service he had also risen almost, if not 
quite, to the head of the bar. In 1843 he removed to Charleston, 
and in October of that year was stricken with yellow fever, and 
died at the early age of thirty-four years. 


In an article from the pen of an early friend of Albert Moore 
Rhett, high praise is given to his abilities as a public speaker. 
"In his address," says this writer, "Mr. Rhett was self-possessed, 
grave, and earnest ; but when he was warmed by debate his logic 
and invective were overwhelming. His fine voice and tall, hand- 
some person added not a little to the graces of his elocution; 
while his choice and pregnant English reminded one by turns of 
the terseness of Tacitus and the solid periods of Milton. He was 
as severe in the selection of his phrases as in the order of his 
logic, and when he spoke on the spur of the occasion, or after 
much preparation, no link ever dropped from the chain of his 
argument, and his periods were filled up and rounded with all 
the completeness that rhetorical art could impart. If he had 
lived to old age, he would have been one of the first men and 
one of the greatest orators of South Carolina." 

Robert Barnwell Rhett was also a distinguished lawyer and 
advocate of states' rights. He was in congress for a number of 
years, and upon the death of John C. Calhoun he succeeded the 
latter in the United States senate. He was a rival of Jefferson 
Davis for the presidency of the Confederate States of America 
after the ordinances of secession had been passed. 

Robert Goodwyn Rhett's father is a native of South Caro- 
lina, and was born in 1834. He was one of the pioneers in the 
manufacture of fertilizers from the phosphate rock discovered 
near Charleston in the late sixties, and constructed the largest 
of the factories there. Upon the acquisition of nearly all the 
fertilizer factories in South Carolina by the Virginia- Carolina 
Chemical company, he was placed in charge of them all, which 
position he now occupies. His mother was a daughter of Doctor 
Robert Goodwyn, of Virginia, who fought with gallantry in the 
Florida war, and afterwards settled in Columbia, South Carolina, 
where for more than twenty years he was president of the branch 
of the State bank located at that place. 

The early life of Mr. Rhett was spent in and about Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, where he grew up amid a cultured environ- 
ment. He fitted for college at Porter academy, Charleston, and 
at the Episcopal high school, near Alexandria, Virginia, and 
entered the University of Virginia in the fall of 1879. In 1883 
he was graduated from that institution with the degree of M. A., 
and in the following year took his degree in law. Immediately 


thereafter he entered the law office of Brawley & Barnwell, of 
Charleston. In 1886 he formed a partnership with George M. 
Trenholm, under the firm name of Trenholm & Rhett. In 1893 
W. C. Miller, and in 1899 R. S. Whaley, were admitted to the 
firm, which was then styled Trenholm, Rhett, Miller & Whaley. 

It was not long after his admission to the bar before Mr. 
Rhett attained a prominent position in the profession, but his 
energies were not confined to the practice of law. The business 
of fertilizer manufacturing attracting his attention as one which 
could be profitably extended, he became instrumental in the 
establishment of two large factories, and continued to take an 
active and leading part in this industry until it was concentrated 
in the ownership of the Virginia- Carolina Chemical company. 

In 1896 he was elected president of the South Carolina Loan 
and Trust company, and in 1899 he acquired a controlling interest 
in and became head of The Peoples National Bank of Charleston, 
the oldest national bank in Charleston. The latter position he 
still retains. 

Mr. Rhett's faith in the future of Charleston has never 
wavered. His interest in its commercial life has been wide and 
deep. In the relation of a private citizen he has touched the 
business of the city at many points, and has unsparingly devoted 
his time, thought and means to its support. He has been at one 
time upon the board of direction of not less than twenty-five 
Charleston companies. 

Believing that building and loan associations, when honestly 
and intelligently managed, are important factors in the upbuild- 
ing of a community, he has lent them his hearty support, and has 
himself been the president of eight such associations. One of 
the most notable achievements by the business men of Charleston 
in recent years has been the establishment of the Commercial club 
of Charleston. This club was shaped and organized under the 
direction of Mr. Rhett, and he enjoyed the honor of being its 
first president. 

In politics Mr. Rhett is a conservative, though aggressive, 
Democrat, and has taken an active part in local, state and national 
campaigns. He was alderman from 1895 to 1903; mayor of 
Charleston from 1903 to the present (1907), and has again been 
reflected for another term of four years in the office of mayor; 
and was delegate-at-large to the Democratic national convention 


held in St. Louis in 1902. In 1905 he was elected president of 
the League of American Municipalities. The most important 
public enterprises under consideration during Mr. Rhett's term 
of office as alderman were the construction of a navy yard by 
the United States government, and the location and building of 
a new system of waterworks by the Charleston Light and Water 
company. Mr. Rhett manifested an absorbing interest in each 
of these measures, and in the case of the waterworks, its final 
accomplishment was due in no small measure to his untiring 

Fraternally, he is a member of the Charleston, Commercial, 
and Country clubs, of Charleston, and in religion holds member- 
ship in the Protestant Episcopal church. He is fond of music, 
golf and society when disengaged from professional and business 

On November 15, 1888, Mr. Rhett married Helen Smith 
Whaley, daughter of William B. and Helen Smith Whaley, of 
Charleston, South Carolina. To this union four children were 
born, three of whom, Helen Whaley, Margaret Goodwyn, and 
Robert Goodwyn, Jr., are now (1907) living. Mrs. Rhett died 
April 26, 1904. On August 8, 1906, he married Blanche Sally, 
the daughter of D. Hammond and Ida E. Sally, of Aiken county, 
South Carolina. 

His address is Number 116 Broad street, Charleston, South 



ROBERTSON, EDWIN WALES, lawyer and banker, was 
born in Columbia, South Carolina, September 3, 1863. 
His parents were Thomas J. and Mary O. (Caldwell) 
Robertson. His father was a successful planter and a member 
of the State Constitutional convention. He was elected to fill 
out an unexpired term in the United States senate, and was 
reflected for a full term, thus giving him continuous service in 
that body from 1868 to 1877. 

The preparatory studies of Edwin W. Robertson were taken 
at the Emerson institute at Washington, District of Columbia, 
and the Hopkins Grammar school, of New Haven, Connecticut. 
In 1881 he entered Yale university, and was graduated therefrom 
in 1885. In the year last named he entered the law department 
of South Carolina college, from which he was graduated in 1887 
with the degree of LL. B. He soon afterward formed a partner- 
ship with M. Herndon Moore, under the firm name of Robertson 
& Moore, and secured a large and profitable practice. But Mr. 
Robertson had long been thinking, and in 1893 he became fully 
convinced, that in the wider field of finance, with the industrial 
development which it would produce and sustain, he could cer- 
tainly be of greater service to the public, and could probably win 
a greater measure of success for himself than would be possible 
if he continued to practice law. Foreseeing that in the near 
future the South was to become a magnificent field for manu- 
factures, commerce, and agriculture, he gave up the law and with 
energy, skill and enthusiasm, he entered upon what has proved 
to be a brilliant career as a banker and a manager of industrial 

Until 1861 the Commercial bank, of which John Crawford 
was president, and the Branch bank of the state, of which Robert 
H. Goodwyn was president, were the best known and the most 
successfully conducted financial institutions outside of Charleston 
in the state of South Carolina. Then, as now, Columbia was the 
seat of the state government and the home of many wealth}^ 
planters, as well as the town in which wealthy merchants had 
made their fortunes. It was not, however, a large and growing 

Vol. I S. C. 16 


manufacturing and railroad center, and the two banks which have 
been named were able to furnish all the money which was needed 
to conduct the business operations of the time. But Mr. Robertson 
saw great opportunities to develop various industries which would 
require a large amount of capital and make additional banking 
facilities necessary. Consequently, in May, 1893, with Gilbert 
M. Berry as his associate, he established the Canal Dime Savings 
institution with a capital of thirty thousand dollars, which was 
increased to fifty thousand dollars in the fall of 1895, when the 
name was changed to the Canal bank. On January 1, 1898, 
the Canal bank bought a controlling interest in the Loan and 
Exchange bank, of which Colonel A. C. Haskell was the founder 
and president, and the two institutions were merged into the Loan 
and Exchange bank of South Carolina, with Mr. Robertson as 
president, which position he has since held, and Colonel Haskell 
as vice-president. The bank then had a capital of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. In February, 1902, the bank bought 
a controlling interest in the Central National bank, and the two 
institutions were merged into the Loan and Exchange bank, with 
a capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars, and on July 
4, 1903, a national bank charter was obtained with a capital of 
five hundred thousand dollars, the largest bank capitalization in 
South Carolina. Dividends of ten, twenty, and thirty-three and 
one-third per cent, have been declared by the Loan and Exchange 
bank, in addition to its regular semi-annual division of profits. 
In October, 1903, the bank took possession of its new and perma- 
nent home, on the site of the modest building in which the Canal 
Dime Savings institution originated, in a superb structure. The 
building is constructed of Columbia brick, of which over one 
million and a quarter were used, steel, and Indiana Bedford stone. 
It has thirteen stories, including the commodious basement, and 
measures one hundred and eighty-four feet from cellar to roof. 
The first suggestion of erecting such a magnificent home for the 
National Loan and Exchange bank was made by its president, 
Mr. Robertson. The almost marvelous development from a Dime 
Savings bank, with only thirty thousand dollars capital, into 
South Carolina's strongest national bank, with a capital of five 
hundred thousand dollars, and showing the largest deposits of 
any institution of the kind in the state, in a period of only ten 


years, is indisputable evidence of excellent judgment and remark- 
able financial ability on the part of the manager of its affairs. 

In all that pertains to the well-being of his native city and 
state, Mr. Robertson is always deeply concerned. He is financially 
interested in important enterprises which are designed to promote 
industrial, commercial and agricultural prosperity, and in several 
large corporations he is a leading spirit. He is president of the 
Electric Street Railway Light and Power company, the Columbia 
Gas company, the Columbia Real Estate and Trust company, the 
Public Service company, the Union Cotton mills, the Buffalo 
Cotton mills, the Union Manufacturing and Power company, 
and (1906) receiver of the Union and Glenn Springs Railroad 
company. He is vice-president and director of the Standard 
Warehouse company, and of the Capital City mills, a director in 
the Olympia mills, the Prudential Building and Loan association, 
the Land and Investment company, the Interstate Trust company, 
Hermitage Cotton mills, Home bank, and the Steamboat company 
which has opened an active trade by river between Columbia and 
Georgetown, thus securing for Columbia cheaper freight rates. 
The facts and figures which have been given show that Mr. 
Robertson has secured a high rank as a financier, and the records 
show that his success has been honorably won. A notable evidence 
of wide recognition as a man of character and a financier of 
ability is manifested by his appointment as a director of the 
Equitable Life Assurance society of the United States, when 
that society was in process of reorganization, in company with 
such men as Valentine P. Snyder, Paul Morton, George Victor, 
Thomas Randolph, and others of the highest standing in the 
financial world. And it is vastly to the credit of Mr. Robertson 
that he has won this high degree of eminence without the spur 
of necessity. He had ample means and could have lived in the 
most comfortable manner, without following a profession or 
engaging in business of any kind. But he preferred to be a 
laborer rather than a drone, and in early manhood he determined 
to do great things for his city and his state. And this record, 
though necessarily incomplete, shows that his purpose has been 
fully accomplished. 

The Robertson home, an elegant and costly structure built 
in the colonial style, crowns one of the lofty hills upon which 
Columbia is built. From its spacious collonade one can see far 


over into Lexington, perhaps into Sumter county, across the 
valley of the Congaree, and the smoke curling from many mill 
stacks reminds the beholder, who may chance to be Mr. Robert- 
son's guest, what an all-important factor his host has been in 
rebuilding, in larger proportions and in greater beauty than it 
had known before, the Columbia which in 1865 was only a mass 
of smouldering ruins. 

Mr. Robertson, although a busy man, is far from being an 
ascetic. He believes in meeting with his fellows, and he holds 
that man should be of a social disposition. He is a member of 
the Pi Sigma Tau and Psi Epsilon fraternities ; of the Yale ; the 
University, New York city ; the Columbia, and the Metropolitan 
clubs; and is a Mason and Knight of Pythias. 

In September, 1886, he was married to Miss Evelyn P. 
Titcomb, of Kennebunkport, Maine. Of their four children, all 
were living in 1907. 

The postoffice address of Mr. Robertson is Columbia, South 




RODDE Y, WILLIAM JOSEPH, banker and manufacturer, 
was born in Chester county, South Carolina, October 2, 
1861. His parents were William L. and Anna Cousart 
(Baskin) Roddey. His father is a prominent business man and 
capitalist, a man of clear foresight and excellent judgment. He 
resides at Rock Hill, and has long been closely identified with 
its interests and has done much to promote its prosperity. In 
addition to various minor positions which he has held, he has 
been president of the following named corporations: The First 
National bank, the Victoria Cotton mill, and the National Union 
bank, in all of which his son has also been an officer. The earliest 
known ancestors of the family in this country were of Scotch- 
Irish blood. They settled in South Carolina about the time of 
the Revolutionary war. 

When a boy, William J. Roddey enjoyed good health. He 
took part in various outdoor sports, but was especially fond of 
reading. His preparatory studies were carried on at Rock Hill. 
When sufficiently advanced, he entered Erskine college, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1880, with the degree of 
A. B. Later he passed two years in post-graduate study at the 
University of Virginia. 

The active work of life was commenced in 1884, when he 
became a partner with his father in the banking business, under 
the firm name of W. L. Roddey & Son. Three years later he 
organized the First National bank of Rock Hill. This succeeded 
the above-named banking firm. Mr. Roddey was the first cashier, 
and later became vice-president of the bank. Soon after the 
First National bank was succeeded by the National Union bank, 
in 1898, he became president of the latter institution, a position 
which he still holds. Since 1889 he has been general agent and 
local manager of the Equitable Life Assurance society. In July, 
1904, he became vice-president and active manager of the Victoria 
Cotton mill, of Rock Hill. He is also a director in various other 
local enterprises. In 1895 he was made a trustee of Winthrop 
college, and in 1905 he was elected to a similar position in 


Davidson college. In May, 1906, he was elected president of the 
South Carolina Bankers association. 

On August 6, 1890, he married Miss Perry D. Roddey. They 
have six children living in 1907. He is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias. In politics he has always been a Democrat. His 
religious affiliation is with the Presbyterian church. In the 
choice of his life work, Mr. Roddey was free to follow his own 
inclination. He still retains his early love for books. Outside of 
reading, and the simple pleasures of the home circle, he finds his 
principal relaxation in hunting and other field sports. In all of 
his affairs Mr. Roddey has been characterized by strong common 
sense and well-balanced business judgment, as well as by a 
sterling integrity of character and fidelity to principle. As a 
typical, level-headed business man, of clear mind and energetic 
disposition, he is fairly representative of the young men who are 
building up the South upon a basis of greater prosperity than 
it has yet known. 

The address of Mr. Roddey is Rock Hill, South Carolina. 



president of Xewberry college, author of "Four Princes," 
"Japan Today," "Young Japan," "The Holy Grail," and 
"What is Japanese Morality?" -while one of the youngest college 
presidents in the country, has already won for himself an honor- 
able distinction as author, preacher, missionary, lecturer, and 
successful administrator and executive. The college of which 
he is president is the property of the Lutheran synod of South 
Carolina, and was chartered by the legislature on the 20th of 
December, 1856, having developed naturally and vigorously from 
the "Classical and Theological Institute," which had been main- 
tained by the Lutheran church for many years at Lexington. 
The preparatory department was opened in October, 1858 ; and 
the college proper began its w r ork in February, 1859. Before the 
outbreak of the War between the States there were one hundred 
and seventy-five students in attendance and the prospects seemed 
most flattering. But a very large proportion of students volun- 
teered for service in the Confederate army, and the institution 
was greatly hampered for several years. Occupied by a Federal 
garrison, in the summer of 1865, the original building was 
seriously damaged and the school removed to Walhalla. In 1898 
the Federal government appropriated fifteen thousand dollars to 
the college in somewhat tardy reparation for the loss thus expe- 
rienced. It was not until 1877 that the institution was reopened 
in Newberry, citizens of that tow r n having offered grounds and 
funds for a building. 

The college has had six presidents, Reverend Theophilus 
Stork, D.D., 1859-60; Reverend J. A. Brown, D.D., part of 1860; 
the Reverend J. P. Smeltzer, D. D., 1861 to 1877; the Reverend 
George W. Holland, D. D., 1878 to 1895; and Doctor George B. 
Cromer, from 1896 to 1904. Finally, in January, 1904, after the 
resignation of President Cromer, Doctor Scherer, who was then 
pastor of Saint Andrew's church, of Charleston, was elected 
president, and his administration during the last three years has 
tended to the prosperity of the college financially, in numbers, 


in its hold upon the denomination and upon its alumni, and in 
its influence on affairs in the state and throughout the South. 

Doctor Scherer comes of good stock. His father, his grand- 
father, and several of his uncles and great-uncles were Lutheran 
preachers; and he has three brothers in the Lutheran ministry. 
He was born in Salisbury, North Carolina, on the 22d of May, 
1870. His mother was a sincere and devout Christian woman, 
whose influence on the character of her son was strong. The first 
known ancestor of the Scherer family in America came from 
Germany in 1748. President Scherer's mother was Miss Harriett 
Isabella Brown; and her ancestors came to the Carolinas from 
Great Britain, early in the eighteenth century. His father, 
Keverend Simeon Scherer, a preacher and synodical debater of 
great force, and a man of the strictest integrity and of sound 
business judgment, died when his son was very young. But the 
lad was not to be prevented from acquiring an education by any 
difficulties with his surroundings or his mother's lack of means. 
When a boy of but eleven years he took a place as clerk in a store, 
and soon learned the lesson of hard work. For a short time he 
was a student in the preparatory department of Pennsylvania 
college, at Gettysburg. The climate proving too severe, he con- 
tinued his studies at Roanoke college, and in 1890 was graduated 
with the degree of A. B. 

During his college course at that institution he not only made 
many friends, both among students and professors, by his genial, 
social nature and his lovable character, but he also distinguished 
himself for scholarship. As a writer he was recognized as easily 
the first man in his college. He took the scholarship in English 
literature; received a medal for oratory; and gained the distinc- 
tion of graduation with absolutely perfect marks in English, as 
well as with "first distinction." He took a prominent part in 
all the Christian work of the undergraduates during his college 

After graduation from Roanoke, he was engaged in mis- 
sionary work in Pulaski City, Virginia, for a year and a half, 
meanwhile reading theology. He was examined and ordained to 
the Christian ministry by the South Carolina synod in 1891. 
The next year he was sent by the Southern Lutheran church as 
their pioneer missionary to Japan. There he continued the 
careful reading of theology while most actively engaged in the 


study of the Japanese language and of mission methods. After 
some months spent at Tokio he removed to Saga and inaugurated 
the work of the Lutheran mission. He made rapid progress in 
the language and was soon a ready speaker to the Japanese in 
their own tongue. While at Saga he performed a most valuable 
piece of work for missions in Japan, in the translation into 
Japanese of Luther's "Small Catechism." For several years this 
was the compend of theology regularly used in the Lutheran 
missions in Japan ; and through this book Doctor Scherer is still 
a missionary force in that country. 

On the 5th of July, 1894, he married (in Japan) Miss Bessie 
Brown, a talented and accomplished missionary teacher, daughter 
of the Reverend Faris Brown, of New Concord, Ohio. Two 
children have blessed this union. In the spring of 1896, to the 
great regret of all friends of missions in Japan, Doctor Scherer's 
health broke down. Several months spent in the cooler climate 
of North Japan did not effect any permanent improvement; and 
after some time in Tokio he was compelled to follow the advice 
of his physicians and permanently withdraw from the field. 
During four or five years spent abroad, Doctor Scherer was in 
the employ of the Japanese government, while engaged in his 
duties as missionary. After some time spent in rest and recuper- 
ation at home, he accepted a call to the pastorate at Cameron, 
South Carolina ; and after a year of successful work there he was 
unanimously called to Saint Andrew's church, Charleston, where 
for six years he was the useful and beloved pastor of a united 
people, discharging at the same time the duties of professor of 
church history in the Southern Theological seminary. 

While in Japan he had taken up one of the post-graduate 
courses prescribed by Pennsylvania college, at Gettysburg, and 
he received from that institution the degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy in 1897. Roanoke college had already conferred on him 
the degree of A. M. in 1895, and in 1905 South Carolina university 
gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. President 
Scherer is not only known as a strong and eloquent preacher and 
a thorough scholar, but he has made a reputation for himself as 
an author, especially by his books on Japan, which have been read 
by the thousand, both here and abroad, several being published 
in Europe. Besides writing the books mentioned in the first 
sentence of this sketch, President Scherer has contributed to many 


magazines and periodicals, writing especially upon historical and 
literary themes. As a public lecturer he is well known and is 
warmly welcomed in various parts of the country. In describing 
a great international convention which assembled at Toronto in 
the summer of 1905, the editor of the "Sunday School Times" 
wrote as follows: "The program at Massey Hall was a fitting 
climax to all that had gone before. A young college president, 
Dr. James A. B. Scherer, of Newberry college, South Carolina, 
virile and keen in the fire and consecration of young manhood, 
sounded the call of Japan. He drew a picture, forceful, burning, 
flaming, of Japan's leap, as the 'fore-ordained leader of the Far 
East,' from the medievalism of half a century ago into the 
civilization of today." 

In politics Doctor Scherer is a Democrat of the Cleveland 

While in college he was a member of the Phi Delta Gamma 
fraternity. He is chaplain of the Washington Light infantry, 
at Charleston; and belongs to many learned societies. Under 
his able and inspiring leadership, the reputation of Newberry 
college is spreading from year to year, while all the work of the 
institution and the life and character of the students feel the 
effect of his sound scholarship, his high character, and his gifts 
as a writer and public speaker. 


SCHUMPERT, OSBORNE LAMAR, son of Jacob Kinard 
Schumpert and Harriet Abney Schumpert, was born at 
Newberry, South Carolina, July 26, 1845. His father was 
a mechanic and farmer, a trustee of Newberry college, and for 
many years, and to the day of his death, an elder in the Lutheran 
church, of which he was a member. He was a man to whom 
religion was a matter not only of observances, forms and cere- 
monies, but of life. He was temperate in all things, and con- 
scientious to the minutest detail, in the discharge of every duty. 

The father's practical bent manifested itself not only in his 
personal character and life, but in the training he gave to his 
children. Like the Apostle Paul, he believed that if any man 
would not work neither should he eat, and he required of his 
children regular work fitted to their several capacities. The 
subject of this sketch, healthy and robust, and passing his early 
life in the country, was trained to labor on the farm, a discipline 
for which he has many times in subsequent life been grateful. 
Work, however, was mixed with play and outdoor sports, includ- 
ing the riding and training of horses, hunting and fishing. 

The mother was a woman of strong characteristics, and 
impressed herself upon the plastic nature of her son. "Whatever 
of good," he says, modestly, "there be in me, I owe in major part 
to her influence and discipline." 

Among others of the formative influences which affected his 
tastes and life should be mentioned "Todd's Students' Manual," 
and addresses of great men, both of which aroused his deepest 
interest and enthusiasm. To them, in fact, he traces his first 
strong impulse to accomplish results in life. He also enjoyed 
the privilege of association with eminent public men. 

The subject of this sketch found the path to academic culture 
prepared for him. When ready, he attended Pagesville academy, 
Newberry college, and the University of Copenhagen, in Den- 
mark, from which he was graduated in June of 1871. Newberry 
college conferred upon him the honorary degree of A. B. 

Mr. Schumpert's active life work began at Newberry, in 
1871, when he entered upon the practice of the law. Among the 


positions to which he has been called, and the activities which 
have claimed his attention, may be noted the following : Member 
of the general assembly of the state of South Carolina, 1884-85; 
solicitor of the seventh judicial circuit from 1888 to 1896, and 
special judge to hold Spartanburg court in the fall of 1903 ; the 
latter position he owed to his appointment by Chief Justice Pope, 
which was confirmed by Governor Heyward. Mr. Schumpert 
was also elected a trustee of Newberry college in 1872, a position 
which he still holds. He was also a member of Governor 
Hagood's staff. In 1876 he was president of the Democratic club 
of his county, and in connection with this office he delivered 
numerous political addresses in his section of the state. He 
was also commandant of Newberry county's quota of clubs to 
Columbia in 1876-77. In addition he has served as a delegate 
to state and county conventions. 

Mr. Schumpert served in the War between the States in the 
Third regiment of infantry, Kershaw's brigade, Longstreet's 
corps. He served as private, sometimes as a courier for General 
Kershaw and General Longstreet, and as the orderly of the 
regiment. He is a Mason and Knight Templar, and has held 
the office of master of his Masonic lodge for four years. 

Mr. Schumpert has always been a Democrat. In religion 
he is a Lutheran. His principal exercise and amusement is 
walking or riding in the country. Of his accomplishments in 
life, he speaks in terms of reserve and self-depreciation, holding 
that what he has done would be of little interest or inspiration 
to any one a view with which his friends do not coincide. 

On the 5th of January, 1876, Mr. Schumpert was married 
to Miss Mamie Estelle Pool. Four children were born of this 
marriage, two of whom are still (1907) living. 

Mr. Schumpert's address is Newberry, South Carolina. 






SEIGNIOUS, JAMES MARSH, cotton factor, banker, 
financier and expert accountant, was born in the city of 
Charleston, South Carolina, November 4, 1847, son of 
Francis P. and Martha Hester (Wightman) Seignious. He is 
of French lineage on his father's side, and English and Scotch 
on his mother's side. 

His paternal grandfather was born in Alsace, France, and 
during the Revolution of 1789, in the reign of Louis XIV, with 
other Huguenots, he fled from his native country and took refuge 
on the Island of Martinique, near Hayti. Shortly after his 
arrival in Hayti the historical negro insurrection in San Domingo 
took place, in which he was wounded. Subsequently, he took 
passage, with other refugees, in an American vessel bound for the 
American coast, suffered shipwreck shortly thereafter, and was 
finally rescued by a passing vessel and landed in Charleston, 
South Carolina. Here he lived, married, and died, both he 
and his wife having been interred in Trinity church cemetery, 

His maternal grandmother (mother of Martha Hester Wight- 
man), Eliza Stoll, was born in Charleston, January 25, 1800, 
and died in the same city, August 13, 1834. She was a daughter 
of Elizabeth (Douglas) Stoll, who came from England in the 
seventeenth century, and was of English and Scotch parentage. 
Her father, Justinus Stoll, was a man of large wealth, and owned 
a large part of the South Battery, of Charleston, in his lifetime, a 
relic of which is Stoll's alley, which bears his name at the present 
time. His wife was a noble and remarkable woman, the history 
of whose life reads like a romance. 

John Thomas Wightman, Sr., Mr. Seignious' paternal grand- 
father, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, March 25, 1784, 
and there died August 28, 1875. He w T as a son of Major William 
Wightman, who was major of a regiment in the American Revo- 
lutionary army, and a son of William Wightman, of Harrow- 
on-the-Hill, County of Middlesex (near London), England, who 
was consul at Tunis, Algeria, under the British crown, about the 
year 1735. 


Major Wightman owned considerable property at the corner 
of Chalmers and Meeting streets in Charleston. He resided in 
a large brick house just north of his place of business, both of 
which buildings are still (1907) standing in their original places. 
He is described as a portly and handsome man, of quiet demeanor 
and moral repute. His wife was a daughter of an old Charleston 
family, whose mother, during the battle of Fort Moultrie, when 
the troops were drawn up along the battery, passed along the 
line encouraging the soldiers and fresh recruits in their struggle 
against the British. 

The Wightmans are from a very old family stock, both in 
this country and England. It is thought that they originally 
came from the Isle of Wight. Books of heraldry give three 
families English, Scotch and Welsh but the Charleston branch 
comes direct from the English, and was one of three branches to 
be established in this country. Of the other two, one settled in 
New England, and one in New Jersey. The New England 
Wightmans were loyal to the British crown, fought in the Amer- 
ican Revolution, and Captain John Wightman was wounded at 
the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, South Carolina. He was a son of 
Colonel John Wightman, of the "Loyal New Englanders," who 
returned to England at the close of the war, where he died. 

The coat-of-arms and crest of the Wightman family were 
granted to William Wightman, Esquire, of Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
Middlesex county, England, in London, on July 14, 1562. The 
crest of the family was still retained and used on the family 
coach by Mr. Seignious's great-grandfather, during his lifetime, 
in Charleston. Mr. Seignious has in his possession a copy of the 
coat-of-arms and crest. 

Four of the Wightman brothers left the old home in Eng- 
land, namely, John, Thomas, William, and Nicholas. The two 
former were the founders of the Northern branch of the family 
in America, and William of the Southern branch. Nicholas was 
murdered in Charleston, South Carolina, about 1788. A full 
account of this event is inscribed on his tombstone in the old 
St. Philip's church graveyard in Charleston, South Carolina. 

Major William Wightman, and Elizabeth, his wife, had two 
sons, whose names were William and John Thomas, named, 
respectively, after their uncles, both born in Charleston. William 


was the head of the Bishop William M. Wightman branch of 
the family, which had numerous descendants. 

John Thomas, the other son, founder of the Charleston 
branch, and who, as before stated, married Eliza Stoll, had the 
following named children : Martha Hester, born 1819, died 1905 j 
William Edward, born 1821, died in California, 1870, unmarried; 
Reverend John Thomas Wightman, D. D., born 1825, married 
and now (1907) living in Baltimore, Maryland; Harriet Eliza- 
beth, born 1830, widow, residing with her son in the West; Ann 
Eliza, born 1832, married, and died a few years ago; and Charles 
Christopher, born 1834, married, died 1905. 

The Southern branch of the Wightman family has been 
remarkable for the number of wives of ministers that it has 
supplied to the different churches. They were a highly educated 
and intelligent family, of high moral character, and held high 
positions in the domain of military, literary, and civic affairs. 

The early life of James Marsh Seignious was, for the most 
part, passed in the city of Charleston. The influence of his 
mother was particularly strong on his moral and spiritual life, 
and his father's personality impressed upon him the more ragged 
virtues. His father was a manufacturer and merchant, who 
confined himself closely to his business interests. He was a man 
of firm and sincere friendships, conservative in his opinions, 
fearless in the discharge of duty, prompt in meeting every obli- 
gation or promise made, industrious, persevering, quick in action, 
genial in manner and of a pleasant and jovial temperament. 

There were eight children in the family, four of whom are 
now (1907) living. James M. was the fourth child. He was of 
robust constitution, fond of outdoor sports, studious of habit, 
ambitious to succeed, and was particularly fond of mathematics, 
debate and oratory. He attended the public schools of the city, 
later studied under private tutors, and in 1863 entered the first 
class of the Charleston high school, from which he was graduated 
in his seventeenth year, with high honors, and delivered the class 
anniversary address. 

Immediately after his graduation he entered the Confederate 
army, and remained therein until the close of the war. Upon 
his return home he found that his father had suffered the loss 
of all his property, except his home and place of business, and 
was without means to conduct his former enterprises. The son, 


thus placed upon his own resources, accepted a position, at a 
small salary, in the office of the Charleston "Daily News." Later 
he was promoted assistant bookkeeper, and became cashier and 
general office manager, at a good salary, before he had reached 
his majority. 

In 1868 he was a tutor in what is now the Porter Military 
academy, intending to study during leisure hours, but in the 
following year he entered the bookkeeping department of the 
First National bank, of Charleston, and continued there until 
1870, when he formed a copartnership with J. B. E. Sloan as a 
cotton factor. In 1881 he established an independent business 
of his own in the same line, which has been so successful that at 
the present time (1907) he is ranked among the leading cotton 
factors and commission merchants of the state. 

Mr. Seignious, in addition to his cotton interests, is a member 
of the board of directors of the Bank of Charleston, National 
Banking association, and chairman of the examining committee 
of said association; director of the Bank of Orangeburg, South 
Carolina, since its organization in 1887 ; and for many years was 
director of the Bank of Edgefield, South Carolina; and vice- 
president of the Royal Bag and Yarn Manufacturing company, 
of Charleston, South Carolina, to which latter position he declined 
reelection in recent years; president of the Charleston Cotton 
exchange for seven years, and president now ; member of the 
board of harbor commissioners; member of the dock commission 
for Charleston; was made manager of the ways and means 
department of the South Carolina Interstate and West Indian 
exposition, during 1901-1902, by unanimous request and vote of 
the directors; is a member of the Charleston chamber of com- 
merce; the Young Men's Business league; Commercial club, and 
many leading societies, and has represented the city of Charleston 
in many business conventions in other cities. 

Politically, Mr. Seignious is an unswerving Democrat. He 
has been a delegate to the county and state Democratic conven- 
tions, representing the county of Charleston, in nearly all the 
conventions held during the past twenty years. In 1902 he was 
appointed to the Danish vice-consulship for South Carolina by 
the foreign ministry of Denmark, and confirmed by the president 
of the United States. 


In 1895 Mr. Seignious was solicited by representative citizens 
of Charleston to become a candidate for mayor, but he declined 
to enter the race under the conditions that then obtained. Four 
years later he entered a vigorous but unsuccessful contest against 
the administration candidate, who was in complete possession of 
the political machinery. 

To his tireless efforts not a little of the success of the 
Charleston exposition in 1901-1902 is due. He served without 
pecuniary compensation throughout the entire period of the 
exposition. At its close, resolutions were passed speaking in the 
highest terms of the services rendered by him in its behalf. 

The name of Mr. Seignious is a synonym of progress and 
public spirit. He has given of his time and energy and money 
to almost every movement for the advancement of the educational, 
the civic, the commercial, and the moral life of the city. 

"I would suggest," he once said, "to every young man starting 
out in life that the first necessary thing is to have a well-defined 
purpose. Your vocation once selected, stick firmly to it, and give 
it your time, your energy, your best abilities. Improve your 
education, cultivate a pleasant demeanor, be truthful and honest 
in all things, industrious, frugal in your expenditures, and asso- 
ciate with men of honorable life and refined tastes. Don't neglect 

Mr. Seignious has been twice married. First, November 19, 
1868, to Christiana H. Pelzer, daughter of Francis J. Pelzer, of 
Charleston, South Carolina. She died in 1889, after having 
borne nine children, four of whom Eva Antoinette, wife of 
Vanderhorst B. Murray; Mattie, wife of Joseph L. Barry; and 
one daughter and one son unmarried are now (1907) living. 
His second marriage was to Esther Barnwell Heyward, daughter 
of Honorable Nathaniel B. Heyward, of Beaufort, South Caro- 
lina, to whom he was married in 1891. 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 

Vol. I S. C. 17 


SHANNON, CHARLES JOHN, JR., merchant, planter and 
banker, was born at Camden, Kershaw county, South 
Carolina, July 1, 1863. His parents were Charles John 
and Mary (Ancrum) Shannon. His father was a physician and 
surgeon, a man of good judgment, fine intellectual attainments, 
and who served as a surgeon in the Confederate States army. 
His mother was a woman of fine qualities of mind and heart and 
exerted a strong and enduring influence for good upon her son. 
The earliest paternal ancestors of the family to settle in this 
country were Charles John Shannon, who came from the north 
of Ireland about 1780, and Joshua English, who came from 
England in the early part of the eighteenth century. Two of 
the maternal ancestors, George Ancrum from England, and Isaac 
Porcher from France, also came over early in the eighteenth 
century. These families have been noted for culture and char- 
acter for two centuries. 

In childhood and youth the subject of this sketch enjoyed 
good health. He lived in a town of about three thousand inhab- 
itants, and his tastes and interests were those of the average boy 
of that time. His father died when he was but seven vears of 


age, and from that time he felt that he must do all that was in 
his power for his mother and sisters. As he was obliged to 
commence work at an early age, it was impossible for him to 
take a course of study at a college or university, which he would 
have been glad to have done, but for several years he studied at 
night under the direction of his mother. His favorite books at 
this time were mathematics and history, and to these studies he 
gave more attention than to others. After a time he was able 
to attend the private school of F. Leslie McCandless in Camden 
and completed its course of study, but he was never able to 
obtain a liberal education. 

He began the active work of life as clerk in a shoe store in 
his native town. His preference would have been for profes- 
sional life, but as circumstances were such that he could not 
properly equip himself therefor, he decided upon a line of work 
in which he could do credit to himself and benefit his employer. 


He was ambitious to rise in the world, and by faithful attention 
to his duties he obtained a good reputation and soon fitted himself 
for a higher position. He advanced rapidly, and in 1889 he 
became a member of the large cotton, banking and mercantile 
firm of Springs, Heath & Company. Two years later the firm 
name was changed to Springs, Heath & Shannon, and in 1900 
to Springs & Shannon, which name it still retains. Mr. Shannon 
is president of the Commercial bank, of Camden; president of 
the Shannon-Stevens-Boykin company, at Cheraw; a director in 
several corporations, and since 1894 he has been president of the 
Camden board of trade. Several years ago he engaged in the 
production of cotton, and is now probably the most extensive 
planter in Kershaw county. 

Mr. Shannon traces the first strong impulse to strive for the 
prizes of life to self-respect, pride in his family, and a desire to 
regain its fortune. Estimating the relative strength of certain 
influences which have helped him in preparing for and carrying 
on the work of life he names home as by far the greatest; private 
study as the next in importance, and then contact with men in 
active life. He is fond of all athletic sports, but has been too 
busy to devote any time to them. As all the exercise required 
is found in supervising the operations of his cotton plantation, 
no attention has been given to any system of physical culture. 
He is a Mason, and is a member of several social clubs. In 
politics he has always been a Democrat. His religious affiliation 
is with the Protestant Episcopal church, and he has held the 
office of vestryman in the church at Camden since 1889. On 
April 30, 1895, Mr. Shannon was married to Emily Jordan 
Nesbit. They have had two children, both of whom are living 
in 190T. 

In reply to a request that he would say something in the way 
of suggestion that may help in their efforts the young Americans 
who read his biography, Mr. Shannon says: "I consider short 
cuts to success very dangerous. They are likely to lead to much 
trouble and disappointment." He lays great stress upon "a 
determination to attain some object so fixed as not to be turned 
aside by disappointment or failure. The 'get up and try again' 
spirit is essential to a young man's success. To this must be 
added rigid honesty, clean personal habits, and self-respect." 

The home of Mr. Shannon is at Camden, Kershaw county, 
South Carolina. 


SHEPAED, CHARLES UPHAM, M. D., of "Pinehurst," 
Summerville, Dorchester county, South Carolina, chemist 
to the state board of agriculture, expert upon phosphatic 
deposits, tea planter and special agent for tea culture, United 
States department of agriculture, is the son of a noted miner- 
alogist and chemist, and was born at New Haven, Connecticut, 
October 4, 1842. 

His father, Professor Charles Upham Shepard, filled the 
chair of mineralogy and chemistry at Yale college, and at 
Amherst college, Massachusetts, and also at the South Carolina 
Medical college, at Charleston, South Carolina. He was one of 
the most noted of the early American mineralogists. His collec- 
tion of minerals was world-famous ; and he had a keen perception 
of the properties of minerals, which enabled him to discover more 
species than has any other mineralogist, except Breithaupt. His 
father's ancestors were among the earlier English settlers in New 
England. For several generations most of the men of the family 
have been lawyers, ministers, physicians, or professors in institu- 
tions of learning. As a family, they have held higher ideals in 
life than the mere attempt to make money. 

The early life of the son was passed partly in the town and 
partly in the country; and while he was still a boy he made 
several trips to Europe with his father. He writes of his boy- 
hood: "I was always glad to do any out-of-door work. While 
this was not necessary, I enjoyed it; and it is probably this love 
of out-of-door work which has brought me in second childhood 
to the tillage of mother earth." "No, I had no difficulties to 
overcome in acquiring an education; the difficulties were for my 
teachers; I was fond of the usual boy's books, but I disliked 
Latin grammar at ten years of age." His classical studies were 
completed at that celebrated classical school, the Phillips academy, 
of Andover, Massachusetts, from which he was graduated in 
1859. Entering Yale college at once, in 1863 he was graduated 
with the degree of A. B. Several years of study at German 
universities followed, and in 1867 he received from the University 
of Gottingen the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Several years 
later he studied agriculture at the University of Halle, Germany. 


Keturning to America in 1867, he became assistant professor 
of chemistry at the Medical college of the state of South Carolina, 
at Charleston, South Carolina. His first and strongest impulse 
to strive for academic honors and a place in the annals of science 
came, he says, from "my father's unflagging application to 
science." The wish of his father, as well as his own preference 
and choice, led to his association with his honored father in the 
work of the chemical class room and laboratory of the Medical 
college at Charleston. Throughout his life he has found pleasure 
and relief in constant occupation in professional work. 

For years Doctor Shepard served as chemist to the board of 
agriculture of South Carolina. As an analytical chemist and an 
expert upon phosphates, he has rendered great public service to 
his state and to the country at large by his professional work in 
discovering and developing the phosphate deposits and fertilizers 
which have enriched South Carolina. He has also been deeply 
interested in experimenting in the field and in the factory upon 
the culture of tea. For years he has been a tea planter at "Pine- 
hurst," Summerville, in Dorchester county. He has been for years 
the special agent for the United States department of agriculture 
for tea culture, and so persistent have been his inquiries and 
investigations and so unflagging his correspondence in the interest 
of tea culture in the United States, that the tea planters of India 
and Ceylon have dubbed him "that pertinacious tea pioneer." 
So enthusiastic an advocate of tea culture is Doctor Shepard, that 
he regards the title thus bestowed on him as his most highly 
valued "honorary degree." 

During the Prusso-Austrian war of 1866, Doctor Shepard 
served as a volunteer surgeon in the Hanoverian army. He has 
made various inventions in chemistry, and in processes of curing 
tea and preparing it for the market. He is the author of many 
reports and scientific articles, privately and publicly printed. 
Future reports of his upon tea experimentation are awaited with 

Professor Shepard is not identified with any one of the 
political parties; indeed, he is so far from taking the American 
view of the necessity and the importance of "parties," that he 
declares: "I never found any material difference among them, 
except that between the 'ins' and 'outs.' When asked "What 
is the sport, amusement, form of exercise, or mode of relaxation 


which you enjoy and find helpful?" he replies: "Charity schools 
for both races (separate)." For physical culture, he recommends 

Speaking seriously of the possibilities of partial failures, he 
writes: "My life has not lacked disappointments, which have 
taught me to endeavor to wear my harness with contentment, in 
the wish to better the condition of my fellow-men." 

Doctor Shepard was married, January 18, 1872, to Ellen 
Humphrey, daughter of the late Honorable James Humphrey, of 
Brooklyn, New York. 

In reply to the request that he offer a suggestion to the 
young people of his state which may help them to attain true 
success in life, he offers this : "I regret to write that the average 
young American might profitably entertain more respect for 
parental and governmental law than is usually the case. By so 
doing, he would suffer no loss of self-respect, but advance his 
own happiness and the welfare of the community." 


SLOAN, BENJAMIN, LL. D., son of Thomas Majors Sloan 
and his wife, Nancy Blassingame, and grandson of David 
McCurdy Sloan and his wife Susan Majors the former 
born in Ireland and the latter in England was born near the 
village of Old Pendleton, Oconee county, South Carolina, April 
15, 1836. His father was a successful farmer and eminent for 
varied usefulness to the community in which he lived, and was 
not only deservedly held in high regard by his neighbors and 
friends, but widely in his state, in the legislature of which he 
served acceptably and efficiently for a number of terms. 

He grew up a strong and vigorous youth, inured to outdoor 
exercise, as his father required of his sons their aid on his farm, 
entrusting chiefly to them the care of the farm stock cattle and 
horses. Naturally young Benjamin was fond of horses and all 
outdoor sports, but he was also of studious habits, fond of general 
reading, with a bias for the study of ancient languages. 

His mother was a woman with the highest virtues of her 
sex, a model as wife and mother, and she exercised a potent 
influence in molding his character for usefulness in life, and he 
gratefully records: "My mother was of the salt of the earth." 

His education was commenced in Pendleton academy, which 
he attended until 1849 ; he was then a student at the Citadel 
academy, Charleston, South Carolina, from 1852 to 1854. He 
entered West Point Military academy, July 1, 1855, and was 
graduated from that institution in the class of July 1, 1860. 
Among the members of his class were Generals Wesley Merritt, 
James H. Wilson, A. C. M. Pennington, and Horace Porter, of 
the United States army, and General Stephen D. Ramseur, of 
the Confederate States army, and many men who became distin- 
guished in civil life. He was appointed lieutenant of dragoons 
and served on frontier duty at Albuquerque and Taos, New 
Mexico, in 1860. He resigned, March 2, 1861, to enter the 
Confederate States army. He served first as adjutant in Orr's 
South Carolina rifles, and subsequently as captain and major of 
ordnance, gallantly and faithfully throughout the war. He was 


appointed superintendent of the Columbia and Greenville rail- 
road in 1866, and so continued until 1868, when he relinquished 
the position and engaged in farming until 1872. He then became 
the manager of the Pendleton Cotton mill, which position he 
held until 1878, when he engaged in teaching. He was professor 
of mathematics in Adger college from its establishment until 
1880, when he was elected professor of applied mathematics in 
South Carolina college. He became president of the college in 
1902. His course of study was selected with the advice of his 
relatives and friends, and his strong desire has ever been to 
perform to the best of his ability the duties of life as they arose, 
choosing as models and standards of excellence the best citizens 
in the several communities in which he has lived and served. 

He advises all young men who earnestly desire to succeed in 
life to be truthful in all things, faithful in every performance 
undertaken, loyal ever to their community, their state and their 
country, and, above all, reverential of the laws of the land. 

In recognition of his abilities and his services in the cause 
of education, the honorary degree of LL. D. was conferred on 
him by Wofford college in January, 1904. 

He was married December 1, 1862, to Annie Moore Maxwell, 
daughter of Captain John Maxwell and Elizabeth Earle. They 
have had two children, neither of whom is now living. They 
have one grandson, Benjamin S. Beverley. 

The address of Doctor Sloan is University of South Carolina, 
Columbia, Eichland county, South Carolina. 

-- I ..--... 

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SMITH, JOEL ALLEN, banker and financier, son of 
William Joel Smith and lone Allen Smith, was born at 
Abbeville, South Carolina, March 4, 1856. His father 
was a planter before and a merchant after the war. He was a 
colonel on the staff of General A. M. Smith, of the State militia, 
before the war and served faithfully throughout the War between 
the States. He never sought but persistently declined all other 
public offices. He was characterized by firmness, concentration 
of purpose and a marked ability to give close attention to detail. 

The great-grandfather of J. Allen Smith, William Smith, 
was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, November 5, 1762, and 
married Lucy Wright, of the same state. He was a planter and 
slave owner. He settled in South Carolina, in 1794, at Stony 
Point, Abbeville county, now Greenwood county. Joel Smith, 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was one of the most 
successful men of his day. He was a prime mover in inaugu- 
rating and carrying to a successful issue the building of the 
Greenville and Columbia railroad, one of the first built in the 
United States. He was a director of the same, and was also a 
leading spirit in building the Graniteville Cotton mills, near 
Augusta, Georgia. He was ^or years a member of the legislature 
from Abbeville county, was an elder in the Presbyterian church 
and esteemed for his high integrity and uprightness of character. 

Young Allen Smith was a robust, healthy and active boy, 
fond of outdoor exercises and athletics. His early life was passed 
in the village, with vacations spent in the country, at the old 
homestead at Stony Point. His parents, having ample means, 
required no manual labor of their son. The influence of his 
mother was especially strong on the ethical side of his nature. 
He was rather fonder of reading than of hard study, and read 
much of history, general literature, and biography, especially 
delighting in the latter. The influence of home, of school and 
early companions tended largely to form his disposition and to 
develop the amiable and softer side of his nature, thus serving 
as a check against too great sordidness. From private study he 
obtained his ideals, these rather tending to hero worship and 


the romantic. The character of Julius Csesar was his youthful 
beau-ideal, the genius, daring and personal magnetism of the 
Roman hero taking strong hold of the boy's youthful heart and 
imagination ; and many a youthful escapade received its inspira- 
tion from this source. The expression "Always I am Csesar," 
borrowed, perhaps, from Shakespeare, and the motto, "Every 
day begin again," have exerted no small influence throughout 
his whole life, but it was from contact with men in active life 
that the sterner and no less necessarv traits of character were 


developed, which have entered very largely into the degree of 
success he has attained. He feels that he has had little to do 
with results, these having come to him unknowingly while his 
attention has been confined to matters in hand. 

Educational advantages came to Allen Smith with no 
material difficulty. He attended the celebrated school of Mr. 
Edward R. Miles and King's Mountain Military school. After- 
ward he attended Washington and Lee university at Lexington, 
Virginia, and studied law privately. Though never admitted to 
practice, he found the knowledge and training thus gained of 
great assistance in the work of life. 

In choosing a pursuit, Mr. Smith's preference was for the 
law; circumstances, however, led him into banking. He was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits and banking at Abbeville, South 
Carolina, from 1876 to 1906; was president and treasurer of the 
Abbeville Oil and Fertilizer company, president and treasurer of 
the Enterprise Ginnery company, president of the Upper Long 
Cane society, president and treasurer of the Athens Oil and 
Manufacturing company, of Athens, Georgia, and president of 
the National Bank of Abbeville from 1889 to the present time 
(1907). He has always manifested much interest in education 
and was a member of the county board of education, and was a 
trustee of Abbeville graded school and of the Presbyterian college 
of South Carolina. He was first a deacon in the Abbeville 
Presbyterian church, and afterwards an elder in the same. In 
addition, he has joined the following associations: The Sons of 
Confederate veterans, and chosen commander of the local camp; 
also the society of the Sons of the Revolution. In college he was 
a member of the Delta Psi fraternity, in which he was gradually 
advanced to the highest positions. In politics he has always 
been a Democrat, and, though esteeming the game of politics the 


most engaging, scientific and intricate of all games, Mr. Smith 
has never sought or held a political office ; though in each genera- 
tion some member of his family has represented the state in the 
general assembly. His relaxation is found in reading, traveling, 
and association with kindred spirits; he has also constantly, 
throughout life, indulged much in outdoor exercises and in the 
use of the free arm movements, finding them of great benefit. 

To the young he commends "faith in a Supreme Being 
the only living and true, Triune, God; great reverence for and 
unremitting study of the Bible (with a good commentary), which 
aside from its immeasurable religious benefit, is the most inter- 
esting of all books ; as much and as accurate an acquaintance with 
history and general literature as is possible ; lofty and true ideals, 
eliminating, as much as possible, the selfish, and encouraging 
patriotism, especially love of one's own state." He advises, also, 
"the cultivation of the ability to write essays, and to speak one's 
thoughts forcibly while standing before an audience. As for the 
rest, I should say it is all contained in the words: concentrate, 
concentrate, work, work." 

Mr. Smith has been twice married: First, in early life, to 
Rebecca, daughter of the late Judge James S. Cothran, of Abbe- 
ville, South Carolina, of which marriage were born three children, 
all of whom were living in 1907 ; second, to Mary Baker, daughter 
of the late Judge Edward J. Harden, of Savannah, Georgia; 
five children were born of this union, all of whom are living 
in 1907. 

His address is Abbeville, South Carolina. 


SNYDER, HENRY NELSON, LL. D., educator, was born 
January 14, 1865, in Macon, Bibb county, Georgia. His 
father, Henry N. Snyder, was a business man and merchant 
of sterling honesty and unfailing high-mindedness, and served 
through the War between the States as captain in the Confederate 
army; his mother, Anne (Hill) Snyder, was a woman of strong 
intellect and piety, and decidedly influenced his life on its intel- 
lectual and moral sides. His early American ancestors were from 
Holland, England and Scotland, and he is related to the well- 
known Powell, Hill, Taliaferro, Harrison and Robertson families 
of Virginia. One of the latter, General James Robertson, was 
one of the first settlers in middle Tennessee and the founder of 
the city of Nashville. 

The subject of this sketch passed his early life in the city, 
and, though active in every form of outdoor sport, was always 
somewhat "bookish." He received his primary and academic 
education in private schools, and the Edgefield (Tennessee) high 
school. At the age of fourteen he went to work as clerk in a 
book store in Nashville, Tennessee, where he remained eight years 
(counting his college vacations as years), and learned lessons of 
business which have been invaluable to him in his career. After 
careful consideration of his tastes, inclination and fitness, he 
decided to devote his life to educational work in the South. 
With that purpose in view, he, in 1883, entered Vanderbilt 
university, Nashville, from which institution he was graduated 
A. B. in 1887, and A. M. in 1890. He remained at the university 
as instructor in Latin until the fall of 1890, when he became 
professor of English language and literature in Wofford college, 
Spartanburg, South Carolina. After serving the college in this 
capacity for twelve years he became its president, which position 
he still (1907) holds. He was lecturer on English literature in 
the South Carolina summer school for teachers, 1896-1898; in 
the summer school for the South, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1903-04; 
and at Chautauqua, New York, and the University of Chicago, 
1906. He is a member of the board of education of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, for the term 1898-1910; a member of 


the joint hymnal commission of the Methodist church, 1903-04, 
and of the Inter-church Federation congress, 1905. He took a 
special post-graduate course of one year at the University of 
Gottingen, Germany. The South Carolina college has conferred 
upon him two honorary degrees, Litt. D. in 1902, and LL. D. 
in. 1905. 

He is one of the leading educators, not only of South Caro- 
lina, but of the South, and is one of the highest authorities on 
English literature in the United States. His lectures and writings 
are marked by purity and beauty of language, clearness of diction 
and thorough knowledge of the subject-matter. As a college 
president, he has been so successful that greater things are confi- 
dently expected of him. He has not consciously striven for any 
prize, as such, but has simply worked hard on the task in hand, 
from a sense of duty, and with the steadfast purpose of always 
doing his best. He rates as the three strongest influences in his 
life, in the order named, home, contact with a few great teachers 
and scholars, and private study. He thinks the requisites for true 
success are training, thoroughness and accuracy; fixedness of 
purpose ; unselfish devotion to the work in hand for its own sake, 
and, above everything, sound morals, based upon intelligence. 

He is a frequent contributor to magazines and reviews on 
literary and educational subjects; a member of the Southern 
Historical society, the Modern Language association of America, 
the Religious Educational association, and of the college frater- 
nities, Chi Phi and Phi Beta Kappa. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat. His favorite form of exercise and outdoor recreation is 
playing lawn tennis. 

On July 9, 1889, he married Lula Eubank; three children 
have been born to them, two of whom are now (1907) living. 

His address is Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


SPENCER, CHAELES EDWARD, of Yorkville, South 
Carolina, lawyer and bank director, was born July 30, 
1849, in Sumter (now Lee) county, South Carolina. His 
father was Elisha Spencer, who married Mary Alice Fraser. 

Attending in his boyhood the country schools within reach 
of his home, and, like other boys of his age, losing, through the 
troubled years of the War between the States, many of those 
opportunities for study which in the years between twelve and 
sixteen are so important, he was, nevertheless, prepared to enter 
college in 1867, and he was graduated from the University of 
South Carolina, with the degree of A. B., in June, 1869. He 
received the degree of Bachelor of Laws from that institution in 
June, 1872. 

In February, 1870, he was appointed to an instructorship 
in the King's Mountain Military school, at Yorkville, and he 
remained connected with the teaching corps of that institution, 
meanwhile reading law, and for the last three years practicing 
law, until January, 1877. Beginning the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1874, in 1877 he laid aside teaching, and for the last thirty 
years he has devoted himself exclusively to the practice of his 
chosen profession. In that year (1877), he formed a partnership 
with the late Judge I. D. Witherspoon, which was dissolved when 
Mr. Witherspoon was elected to the bench in 1882. 

Mr. Spencer was secretary of the York county Democratic 
executive committee during the memorable campaign of 1876; 
and for several years, in the early eighties, he was a member of 
the state Democratic executive committee. His character and his 
devotion to his profession early gave him the confidence of his 
fellow-townsmen; and he was intendant of Yorkville for two 
years, in the late seventies. Since 1900 he has been a trustee of 
the University of South Carolina, his alma mater. He is a 
Presbyterian. He is a Knight of Pythias and a Mason; and for 
several years he was the chief officer of the Masonic lodge of 
Yorkville. Since the reorganization of the Yorkville Loan and 
Savings bank, in 1900, Mr. Spencer has been a director of that 





In April, 1873, he married Miss Sallie H. Clawson, of York- 
ville, who died in February, 1883. Five years later, in December, 
1887, he married Miss Agnes Currell Moore, of Yorkville. 

Mr. Spencer's principal law office (as well as his residence), 
is at Yorkvillej South Carolina; but he is also a member of the 
law firm of Spencers & Dunlap, of Kock Hill, South Carolina, 
where his son, Charles W. F. Spencer, and Walter M. Dunlap, 
are the resident members of the firm. 


SPRINGS, LEROY, banker and merchant, was born on 
Springfield plantation, near Fort Mill, York county, South 
Carolina, November 12, 1861. His parents were A. Baxter 
and Julia B. (Baxter) Springs, who were third cousins. His 
father was educated for the law, but in early life he turned his 
attention to planting on an extensive scale and also became largely 
interested in banking and in railroad affairs. He held the office 
of president of one railroad and was a director in two other roads, 
and while conscientiously performing the duties required by these 
positions he also managed his plantation with intelligence, care 
and skill. The qualities which made him successful in private 
business led to his election as representative and later as senator 
in the legislature of South Carolina and to membership in the 
convention which passed the ordinance of secession. As a man 
as well as an official he was widely known and greatly esteemed 
for his high aims and upright life. The earliest ancestors on 
the paternal side to come to America emigrated from Holland 
and located in New York about 1700. Later they removed to 
Pennsylvania and to Delaware. Two brothers removed from 
Delaware; one to Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, and the 
other to the Panhandle of Lancaster county, South Carolina. 
The family of the latter did much to build up the town of 
Charlotte, where many of his descendants now reside. On the 
maternal side the ancestors came from Scotland, settled in Penn- 
sylvania, removed to Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, and 
afterward settled in Georgia, in the country tributary to Sparta, 
about 1810. The great-grandfathers of the subject of this sketch, 
on both sides, were officers in the Revolutionary army, and his 
grandfather Baxter was an able and distinguished lawyer and 
became a member of the supreme court of Georgia. 

Leroy Springs passed his early life in the country. His 
health was good and his tastes and interests were those of the 
average boy of his age and locality. He was taught to be indus- 
trious, and even when quite young he had duties to perform 
before and after school hours, and as he grew older he passed 


his vacations working the farm crops. This outdoor work main- 
tained his health, and the knowledge of practical agriculture 
which he thus obtained he considers of great value. His education 
was commenced at an "old field" school on his father's plantation 
and was continued there until he was thirteen years of age. 
About this time his father moved to Charlotte, North Carolina, 
and there the son attended the high school for a time and then 
entered the sophomore class in the University of North Carolina. 
Here he remained through the junior year and then went into 
active business as a clerk and salesman for a large wholesale 
grocery house of Charlotte. In January, 1884, he moved to 
Lancaster, South Carolina, and opened a wholesale and retail 
mercantile business under the name of Leroy Springs & Company. 
In September, 1885, this business was merged with that of Heath 
Brothers under the name of Heath, Springs & Company, and at 
the same time, and by the same men, the business of Springs, 
Heath & Company, Camden, South Carolina, was organized. The 
business improved from year to year, and in 1888 Mr. Springs 
bought out two of his partners, but continued the business under 
the same firm name. At the same time he organized the Kershaw 
Banking and Mercantile Company, at Kershaw, South Carolina, 
and the firm of Springs & Heath, at Heath Springs, South 
Carolina, taking J. M. Heath into partnership with him. In 
1899 he bought out J. M. Heath's interest in all these firms and 
incorporated the Lancaster house under the name of the Lancaster 
Mercantile Company, the Heath-Springs house under the name 
of the Springs Banking and Mercantile Company, the Kershaw 
house under the name of the Kershaw Mercantile and Banking 
Company, and the Camden house under the name of Springs & 
Shannon, associating with him in these various enterprises several 
young men who had been faithful employees for years. Mr. 
Springs is now (1907) at the head of these institutions. In 
addition to the above, the following named corporations were 
organized by him, and, largely on account of his excellent judg- 
ment and wise administration, have been very successful ; in 1889 
the Bank of Lancaster, of which he became president; and in 
1896 the Lancaster Cotton mills, of which he was made president. 
In the year last named he reorganized and became president of 
the Lancaster and Chester railway, which was purchased by 

Vol. I S. C. 18 


himself and his associates, and in 1904 the Bank of Kershaw, of 
which he also became president. He is also president of the 
following named corporations, all located in South Carolina: 
The Springstein mills, and the Eureka Cotton mills, Chester; 
the Millfort Mill company, Fort Mill; the Columbia Compress 
company, Columbia ; the Landsf ord Water Power company, Lan- 
caster. He is connected, as a director, with the following named 
financial institutions in the same state: National Loan and 
Exchange bank, Columbia; Exchange bank, Chester; Bank of 
Rock Hill, Rock Hill; Southern Trust company, Spartanburg; 
Commercial bank, Camden; Savings bank, Fort Mill; Peoples 
Bank and Trust company, Rock Hill; and Bank of Fairfield, 
Winnsboro. At the time it was merged with the Southern rail- 
way he was a director of the Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta 
railroad. He is a member of the New York and New Orleans 
Cotton exchanges, and a trustee of the Mutual Life Insurance 

Throughout all his active life he has been interested in 
political affairs and has always been a Democrat. In 1888 and 
again in 1904 he was a delegate to the National Democratic 
convention, and at the one last named he was a member of the 
notification committee. He served for four years on the staff of 
the late Governor John P. Richardson, with the rank of colonel. 
Much of his success in life he ascribes to the influence of home 
and early companionship, and he has been greatly helped by the 
knowledge of human nature which he has acquired by contact 
with men in active life. His religious affiliation is with the 
Presbyterian church. 

Mr. Springs believes that the best suggestion that can be 
made to young Americans in the direction of the strengthening 
of sound ideals in our American life is the formation of good 
habits, strict attention to all business responsibilities, good asso- 
ciates, strict integrity, and honest dealing, and setting business 
before pleasure. His ambition in life is to make a success of his 
every undertaking, let it be small or great. He believes that 
South Carolina is badly in need of a compulsory education law 
and of good public roads throughout its domain. These two 
things he considers essential to the prosperity of the state and 
the development of a higher civilization. 


On December 28, 1892, Mr. Springs was married to Miss 
Grace Allison White, daughter of Captain Samuel E. White, of 
Fort Mill, South Carolina. They have one child, Elliott White 
Springs, living in 1907. 

The address of Mr. Springs is Lancaster, South Carolina. 


SPRUNT, ALEXANDER, D. D., Presbyterian clergyman, 
was born in Glasgow, Scotland, July 10, 1852. His father, 
Alexander Sprunt, a merchant, whose marked character- 
istics were rigid exactness and faithfulness to every trust 
committed to him, came from Scotland to Wilmington, North 
Carolina, in 1853, where he served as British vice-consul. His 
mother, Jane Dalziel Sprunt, was a woman of strong intellect, 
high morals, and great piety, and to a great extent she molded 
her son's character after her own. The family left Wilmington 
in 1862 and went to live on a farm in Marion county, South 
Carolina, where they remained four years. Of this, the hardest 
period of young Alexander's life, he says : "Though a mere child, 
I plowed many a day, but never regretted it in after years." 

In 1866 the family returned to Wilmington and he again 
entered school. In 1869 he went to Upper Canada college, 
Toronto, Canada. He returned to the United States and entered 
Davidson college, North Carolina, from which he was graduated 
A. B. in June, 1875. Later he took a course at Union Theologi- 
cal seminary, Hampden-Sidney, Virginia, graduating in 1878. 
Davidson college conferred the degree of D. D. upon him in 1897, 

He began his career as minister in Winchester, Virginia, in 
1878, as assistant to Reverend H. M. White, D. D., pastor of 
Loudon Street Presbyterian church ; the following year he became 
pastor of Augusta church, Augusta county, Virginia, where he 
remained until 1885, when he went to Henderson, North Carolina, 
to take charge of the Presbyterian church, remaining there until 
1891. In 1891-92 he was superintendent of evangelistic labor in 
the synod of North Carolina ; in 1892 he was the stated supply of 
the First Presbyterian church, Memphis, Tennessee, and from 
1892 to 1901 he was pastor of the First Presbyterian church, 
Rock Hill, South Carolina. In the year last named he became 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church, Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, which position he still (1907) retains. 

Doctor Sprunt thinks the most potent influences in his life 
have been his home and his contact with men leading active lives~ 


He finds his most enjoyable and healthful relaxation in athletics, 
for which he acquired a love during his college days. 

As so frequently occurs, "circumstances over which he had 
no control," and not himself, chose his profession, but he is 
composed of the stuff of which successful ministers of the Gospel 
are made. His faith is of the same sturdy and uncompromising 
kind that enabled the original Scotch Covenanters, among whom 
some of his ancestors may have been, in spite of the most bitter 
persecution, to uphold their church and increase its membership. 
He is what has been aptly called a "Bible-preacher," which means 
that he seeks inspiration for his sermons in the Scriptures rather 
than in sensational newspapers. Charleston is proud of him, 
both as a citizen and as a minister. No movement for the better- 
ment of the city or any class of its people ever asks in vain for 
his moral support or his active personal assistance. 

He was married to Ellen Richardson Peck, second daughter 
of the late Reverend T. E. Peck, D. D., LL. D., of Union 
Theological seminary, in Virginia, April 30, 1879. They have 
had six children, five of whom are now (1907) living. 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 


STACKHOUSE, JAMES, son of E. T. and Anna E. Fore 
Stackhouse, was born January 17, 1849, near the town of 
Marion, Marion county, South Carolina. His father was 
a farmer, and a member of the house of representatives from 
Marion county. He was characterized by great energy and firm- 
ness of character. 

The earliest known ancestors of the family in America were 
Herod and Isaac Stackhouse, from Pennsylvania, whose ancestors 
came from Glasgow, Scotland. One of the later members, E. T. 
Stackhouse, was distinguished as a planter, and as a soldier in 
the Confederate army. 

James Stackhouse was brought up in the country, where, 
among wholesome surroundings, he laid the foundation of sound 
physical health. Reared on a farm, he was trained to do all 
kinds of farm work. His habits were regular, and to these, thus 
early formed, he attributes the physical vigor which has blessed 
him through life. In addition, he was the son of a noble mother, 
whose influence upon him was all that a mother's influence could 
be. The War between the States interfered materially with his 
early education, inasmuch as it prevented his father from sending 
him to school. He found it possible, nevertheless, to attend the 
common county schools, from which, alone, his schooling was 
obtained. His active life work was begun as a clerk for J. W. 
Dillon & Son in their store at Little Rock, South Carolina. For 
a time he engaged in mercantile business on his own account ; but 
during the past twenty-five years he has dealt in live stock and 
agricultural implements. For two terms, 1876 to 1880, he was 
mayor of Marion, and in 1900 he was elected to the state senate; 
in 1904 he was reflected to this office. He was elected chairman 
of the Marion county Democracy, 1902, 1904 and 1906, which 
position he now holds. 

In 1865 Mr. Stackhouse belonged to a battalion of Citadel 
cadets, but was paroled in the following April. He is a Mason, 
a member of the Blue Lodge, of the Chapter and Commandery, 
and is also a Shriner. He declares his political faith in the 



laconic but expressive phrase of the statesman from New York, 
"I am a Democrat." In religion he is a Methodist. 

On June 8, 1871, Mr. Stackhouse married Florence E. 
McAlister. Of the eight children born of this marriage, six are 
now (1907) living. 

His address is 107 South Main street, Marion, South Caro- 


STONE, J. THEODUS, of Honea Path, Anderson county, 
South Carolina, member of the board of aldermen of his 
town, and secretary and manager of the Honea Path 
Lumber company, was born in Anderson county, South Carolina, 
on the 1st of August, 1868. His father, Laban M. Stone, was 
an industrious farmer descended from English immigrants to 
South Carolina. His mother, Mrs. Luany (Martin) Stone, was 
of Irish descent. Born on a farm and passing through a healthy 
and happy boyhood, in which he describes himself as "strong and 
ready for mischief," he worked upon a farm until he was twenty 
years old, being accustomed from his boyhood to systematic daily 
labor, and early counting as a regular "hand" in the farm work. 
During a part of each year he attended the country schools which 
were within his reach. 

From his early boyhood he had been fond of "making useful 
things with his hands, and attempting to build things." This 
inclination toward building led to the choice of a life work, and 
in early manhood he became a contractor and builder. 

Among the more important buildings which he has con- 
structed, he names the Brogan mills at Anderson, South Carolina, 
whose building in 1903 he superintended; and he has erected 
many other buildings in Anderson and in different parts of the 

He has interested himself for some years in lumberingj and 
since its organization, in September, 1904, Mr. Stone has been 
secretary and manager of the Honea Path Lumber company. 

He is a Woodman of the World, and a Mason. He belongs 
to the Democratic party. 

On September 1, 1887, Mr. Stone married Miss Celestine 
Lena Strickland, daughter of M. S. and Ebbie Strickland, of 
Anderson county. They have had five children, four of whom 
are living in 1907. 

Mr. Stone offers to the young people of South Carolina as 
two most important suggestions if they would win true success 


in life: "Be strictly honest, fulfil every promise made; select 
early some profession or trade, learn it thoroughly, and follow 
it earnestly ; do not be changing from one occupation to another." 
His address is Honea Path, Anderson county, South Caro- 



AALBIRD, THOMAS, attorney-at-law, for several years 
attorney for the county commissioner, for two terms judge 
of probate, and from 1897 to 1905 state senator from 
Beaufort county, South Carolina, resides at Beaufort, where he 
was born on the 3d of July, 1855. His father, Franklin Talbird, 
was an architect and builder who volunteered at the outbreak of 
the War between the States, enlisting in the Beaufort Volunteer 
artillery, and had charge of the "hot-shot" battery in the fight of 
Port Royal entrance, in Fort Beauregard, against the Federal 
fleet. After two years of active service in the artillery he was 
employed in the war department at Columbia. Marked ability, 
a high sense of honor, and yet a retiring disposition, seem to his 
son to have been his leading characteristics. He had married 
Miss Joanna M. O'Grady. The earliest American ancestor of the 
Talbirds was Henry Talbird, who came from Ireland to Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, early in the eighteenth century, and soon 
removed to Beaufort county. His son, Thomas Talbird, great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a captain in the 
Continental army in the Revolutionary war. 

At the outbreak of the war, when he was a boy of but six 
years, he left Beaufort with his father's family and took refuge 
at Chick Springs, Greenville county, upon an estate in which his 
father then owned a half interest. Here the family remained 
while the father served in the army during the war. In 1865 
they returned to Beaufort, where Thomas Talbird has since 

The disturbances which attended and followed the war had 
most seriously hampered his father's property; and he had to 
encounter such difficulties as stood in the way of a liberal educa- 
tion for most boys of his years in the decade which followed the 
war. But he was able to complete his preparation for Washington 
and Lee university, at Lexington, Virginia, and after two years 
passed in the study of the law he was graduated with the degree 
of LL. B. in 1879. He at once began practice as an attorney at 
Beaufort, South Carolina. His early inclinations would have 
led him to qualify for the work of a civil engineer; but the 


strong desire of his mother that her son should be a lawyer, he 
writes, "influenced me more than anything else in the choice of 
my profession. Home influence was the strongest in my life; 
school and college, private study, and contact with men engaged 
in the active affairs of life ranked after home influence with me." 

Continuing to reside at Beaufort in the practice of his chosen 
profession, he served for several years as attorney for the county 
commissioner, and also as attorney for the town of Beaufort. A 
Democrat in his political convictions and relations, he has always 
voted for the candidates and measures of his party; and he has 
served for several years as chairman of the Democratic county 
committee. He was judge of probate for Beaufort county for two 
terms, from 1897 to 1905. In 1897 he was elected state senator 
from Beaufort county; and in 1901 he was reflected. Thus for 
eight consecutive years he served his county in the state legis- 
lature, interesting himself actively in all measures for the 
improvement of the schools, the enlarging of the manufacturing 
interests and the bettering of the social conditions of the people 
of his state. In 1900 he was a delegate to the National Demo- 
cratic convention at Kansas City, which renominated Mr. Bryan 
for president. 

Mr. Talbird served as captain of the Beaufort Volunteer 
artillery for several years, from 1888 to 1895. 

He was married to Miss Josephine J. Canter, daughter of 
William Canter, of Nice, France, on the 28th of June, 1888. 
Mrs. Talbird died in 1893, leaving two daughters, both of whom 
are living in 1907. Mr. Talbird has not married again. He is a 
member of the Roman Catholic church. Asked for his "favorite 
sport, amusement, or form of exercise," he writes : "I find more 
pleasure in general reading than in anything else." 

Mr. Talbird, as a stimulus to his young friends and to the 
young people of South Carolina in general, commends these 
virtues: "Sterling integrity, faithfulness and fearlessness in the 
performance of duty, loyalty to country and to friends, and a 
lively faith in the justice of God." 



clergyman, lawyer, educator and soldier, was born May 
13, 1846, in Columbia, Richland county, South Carolina. 
His father, Reverend James H. Thornwell, D. D., LL. D., Pres- 
byterian clergyman and educator, president of South Carolina 
college, professor of theology in Columbia Theological seminary 
and pastor of the First Presbyterian church, Columbia, was a 
many-sided man, distinguished as a student, an orator, a philos- 
opher, a teacher, a preacher and a theologian ; his mother, Nancy 
White (Witherspoon) Thornwell, a talented woman of the highest 
character and ideals, was a powerful and lasting influence on all 
sides of his life. His blood is Welsh and Scotch ; the Thornwells 
came from Wales, and the Witherspoons, who can trace their 
ancestry to King Robert, "The Bruce," came from Scotland. 
The founder of the American branch of the family, his triple 
great-grandfather, John Witherspoon, born in 1670, in Scotland, 
settled in Kingstree, South Carolina, in 1734; his great-grand- 
father, Captain James H. Witherspoon, commanded a company 
in the War of the Revolution and fought so well that he was 
commended by General Marion for gallantry in action; his 
grandfather, Colonel James H. Witherspoon, was lieutenant- 
governor of South Carolina in 1826, and his uncle, Colonel J. H. 
Witherspoon, was a prominent member of the Confederate States 

He was reared in the city of his birth. He was rather frail 
and delicate, fond of reading and filled with an intense love for 
his state and the South. At the breaking out of the War between 
the States he was only a boy, but he simply could not be kept 
out of the Confederate army; he was a lieutenant at sixteen, 
one of the youngest, if not the youngest, commissioned officers 
in either army, and served most creditably as such until the 
surrender of Smithfield, North Carolina, where he was doing 

He received his primary and preparatory education from 
some of the best instructors in Columbia, Professors Ford and 
Brumby, J. W. Davidson, and Boyd and Stuart; then went to 


South Carolina college; studied law, was admitted to the bar, 
and in 1869 began the practice of law. Though the law had been 
his own personal choice for a profession, after a year or two of 
practice as good as a young lawyer could expect, he decided to 
abandon it, follow in his father's footsteps, and become a Pres- 
byterian minister. In 1871 he entered Columbia Theological 
seminary. He completed the prescribed course in 1874, and was 
ordained a minister. Davidson college, North Carolina, and the 
Presbyterian college of South Carolina, conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of D. D. in 1889. 

His first charge was the Poplar Tent Presbyterian church, 
near Concord, North Carolina, and he has had the churches of 
Fort Mill and Ebenezer since 1882. From 1902 to 1905 he was 
the chancellor of the Presbyterian college of South Carolina, at 
Clinton, a position he filled with credit to himself and profit to 
the college. In the performance of its duties he found his 
experience as a lawyer useful. 

Looking back over his career, he has regretfully expressed 
the opinion that timidity and lack of self-confidence have kept 
him from doing his full share in the work of life. The books 
in general literature that helped him most when fitting himself 
for his life work were Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and the 
writings of Moody, and standard novels. He is a Mason; a 
member of the Knights of Pythias, of which he has been grand 
keeper of records and seals, and of the Woodmen of the World. 
In politics he is a Democrat. 

On October 26, 1869, he married Florence Earle, daughter 
of Elias and Harriet Earle. Ten children have been born to 
them, of whom nine are now (1907) living. 

His address is Confederate street, Fort Mill, South Carolina. 


TILLMAN, BENJAMIN KYAN, industrial, educational, 
and political reformer, and statesman, was born at Edge- 
field, South Carolina, August 11, 1847. He is the youngest 
of eleven children and the son of Benjamin Ryan Tillman and 
Sophia Ann (Hancock) Tillman. His father was a farmer, a man 
of bright mind and nervous temperament, and a great reader; 
he died when his son and namesake was but two years of age. 

Mr. Tillman's ancestors, both paternal and maternal, came 
to South Carolina from Virginia before the Revolution. The 
paternal ancestors were German and Irish ; the maternal, English. 

As a boy, young Tillman was strong and healthy. He early 
developed a taste for good reading and was fond of all outdoor 
sports. His early life was passed in the country. Brought up 
on a plantation of eighty slaves, he worked, as did other Southern 
boys similarly placed, only when he pleased. The striking traits 
which have characterized this remarkable man are to be traced 
primarily to the influence of his mother. She was a woman of 
phenomenal strength; mentally, morally and physically, and, in 
every way and for good, she impressed herself powerfully upon 
her son. All he is, he attributes to his mother and his wife. 

The son's schooling was obtained at Bethany academy, under 
George Galphin. Much of his early education was received from 
reading. He had access to a good library, and from it drew at 
will. He read voraciously and omnivorously, especially works 
of fiction and poetry. 

Mr. Tillman's active life began in 1866, when he assumed 
the management of his mother's farm at Edgefield, South Caro- 
lina. Shortly after she bought a farm in Florida, to which her 
son removed in 1867 ; he was married the following year, but the 
climate disagreed with him ; his health failed, and he returned to 
the South Carolina farm, and continued on it until the evolution 
of conditions in his state forced him, contrary to all his previous 
expectations, tastes, and ambitions, into politics. The Rubicon 
once crossed, however, he has continued uninterruptedly in this 
absorbing pursuit until the present time (1907). 


Before entering politics, Mr. Tillman was devoted to the 
peaceful pursuit of agriculture, a work which, though entered 
upon from necessity, he has always loved. In this, however, he 
saw more than mere individual sowing and reaping. Farming 
in the South he recognized to be in a backward condition, and he 
set himself to solve the problem of its redemption. The solution, 
he finally decided, lay in education, but of a different sort from 
that which consists chiefly in second-hand knowledge of dead 
languages and in abstract studies in general. He became con- 
vinced that the farmer boy should be taught to farm. This 
necessitated a school providing facilities, it is true, for general 
culture, but focusing its energies upon the work of preparing 
young people to live normal lives in the country and extract their 
livings from the soil. This conviction once formed, Mr. Tillman 
started an agitation for the establishment of an agricultural 
college in South Carolina, a work greatly facilitated by the 
passage of the Morrill Agricultural and Mechanical College Act 
of 1862 by the national congress. Mr. Tillman's efforts culmi- 
nated in the establishment of the Clemson Agricultural and 
Mechanical college, at Calhoun's old home, "Fort Hill." 

The demand for educational reform now broadened into a 
demand for other changes in state affairs. The conditions which 
in the West and South developed the Farmers Alliance and 
Peoples Party were present in South Carolina. Mr. Tillman 
became a leader of what was called the "farmers movement" in 
his state. In 1890 he became a candidate for governor. After 
an exciting and heated canvass, he received the nomination in 
the Democratic convention bv a vote of 270 to 50 cast for his 


opponent, and was elected in the following November. This was 
his first political office. In 1892, before the expiration of his first 
term, he was reflected by an overwhelming vote. 

Governor Tillman's administration was especially signalized 
by the passage of the dispensary law for the control of the liquor 
traffic by the state. 

The success of Clemson college, exclusively for men, created 
a demand and prepared the way for the establishment of an 
institution on similar lines for women. This demand was vigor- 
ously voiced and its supply made possible by the action of 
Governor Tillman ; the result being the establishment in 1891 of 
the Winthrop Normal and Industrial college for women, also at 


Rock Hill. This institution now bids fair to lead all similar 
schools. In 1894, Governor Tillman entered the race for United 
States senator against General M. C. Butler. The choice was 
referred to the people of the state. The two candidates canvassed 
the state, county by county, and presented to throngs of listeners 
their respective views of public policy. The result of this 
campaign was the election of Governor Tillman by the state 
legislature by a vote of one hundred and thirty-one to twenty-one 
for his opponent. In 1901 he was reflected, no one opposing him. 

The independence which through life has characterized him, 
Mr. Tillman displayed as United States senator against the 
national administration, although it represented the party to 
which he belonged. Some of President Cleveland's policies 
clashed with the Senator's conception of the public good, a fact 
to which he gave utterance in the senate chamber in no uncertain 
tones. In consequence he became a leader of the independent 
wing of the Democracy, which repudiated the Cleveland admin- 
istration, and, at the Chicago convention of 1896, adopted the 
famous Chicago platform and nominated William Jennings 
Bryan for president. Senator Tillman, who had participated in 
the national Democratic convention of 1892, was a prominent 
factor in the convention of 1896, and an active campaigner in 
the subsequent contest. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic convention in 1900, which met at Kansas City and 
renominated Bryan; and again he participated actively in the 
campaign, speaking in various states. In 1904 he was a delegate 
to the St. Louis convention, which nominated Alton B. Parker 
for president. The celebrated "gold telegram" sent by the 
candidate immediately following his nomination at first aroused 
Senator Tillman's vigorous resentment, but, after consideration, 
he accepted the situation and was selected by his fellow -delegates 
to pour oil upon the troubled waters of the convention, an act 
which he performed with singular tact. He also campaigned for 
Parker as he had done for Bryan. 

Mr. Tillman is a staunch believer in the doctrine of white 
supremacy, and is one of its leading champions. He encouraged 
the suppression of the negro vote and promoted the calling of 
South Carolina's State Constitutional convention in 1895. This 
convention, strongly representative of his views, drafted the 
constitutional amendment under which, since that date, by means 


of educational or property qualifications, the large numerical 
negro majority is controlled by law. In 1903, Senator Tillman, 
in company with Senator Burton, of Kansas, traversed several 
states discussing the question of negro disfranchisement, Senator 
Tillman advocating the repeal of the fifteenth amendment of the 
national constitution. 

Senator Tillman was the first prominent man in the South 
to give voice to the doctrine of white supremacy on the floor of 
the senate. In a speech of five hours, in February, 1903, he 
challenged the Republican view of the negro with such an array 
of facts and force of argument that no one even tried to answer, 
and frequently, before and after, he in short speeches dwelt on 
the subject in connection with our policy in the Philippines. His 
speech in the senate is considered his masterpiece. Not only 
has Mr. Tillman been a conspicuous figure in the United States 
senate, to which he was reflected for the full term of six years 
by the South Carolina legislature in January, 1907, but he has 
also attained considerable distinction as a platform lecturer. 
During the present (1907) recess of congress, as in several pre- 
vious years, he has discussed the race question in many and widely 
separated localities. He has commanded the attention and held 
the interest of a multitude of hearers, but his views have been 
too extreme to be accepted by the great majority of conservative 
people in his native state or in the country at large. 

Senator Tillman has also seen military service, having been 
private, lieutenant and captain in the militia fourteen years. 
His chief relaxation is the culture of flowers. 

Senator Tillman's advice to young Americans is to be in 
earnest ; to be willing to work and to stick to it ; to learn to speak 
the truth and practice no guile; to deal honestly with all men, 
and to live soberly and simply. 

Senator Tillman was married, January 8, 1868, to Sallie 
Starke, of Elbert county, Georgia. They have had seven chil- 
dren, five of whom are living in 1907. 

His address is Trenton, Edgefield county, South Carolina. 

VoL I S. C. 19 



19, 1837, in Robeson county, North Carolina. He is the 
son of Jacob Rhodes and Sophronia Buie Townsend. 
His father was a farmer, characterized by honesty and good, 
hard sense. 

Daniel Townsend's health in early life was good. This was 
fortunate, for his youth was one of unremitting toil, unvaried by 
the sports and pastimes which render the lives of many boys 
joyous and glad. This labor was performed on a farm, side by 
side with the negro hands; and so continuously that, to the boy, 
hard work appeared to be the natural and inevitable lot of youth. 

The influence of his mother upon the development of his 
higher nature was helpful. No serious difficulties were encountered 
by him in securing the rudiments of an education. He attended 
the county schools, and, July 15, 1858, was graduated from 
Davidson college with first honors and the degree of A. B. His 
choice of occupation was determined in part by the wishes of his 
parents, but more, doubtless, by necessity. His serious life work 
was begun as a teacher in the schools of Marlboro county in 
1856. He pursued this calling in Marlboro county in 1859-60-61. 
For a time his work as a teacher was interrupted by the call to 
arms. During the early part of the war he served in the infantry 
in the Confederate army. When the war was ended he returned 
to the schoolroom, teaching in Marion, South Carolina, from 1865 
to 1870. From 1876 to 1878 he was county school superintendent, 
and from 1882 to 1885 mayor of Union, South Carolina. On 
December 4, 1890, Mr. Townsend was appointed assistant attorney- 
general by the then attorney-general, Y. J. Pope, now Chief 
Justice Pope of the supreme court of South Carolina. In Decem- 
ber, 1891, he was reappointed assistant attorney-general by the 
then attorney-general, John L. McLaurin. In December, 1892, 
he was elected attorney- general of South Carolina, and filled this 
high position so acceptably that on December 11, 1893, he was 
elected by the general assembly of South Carolina judge of the 
seventh judicial district for four years, beginning December 15, 


1893. In this work his record was so acceptable that he was 
reflected until he had served three terms. 

Judge Townsend is a charter member of the Beta Theta Pi 
college fraternity. In politics he is an unchanging Democrat. 
In religion he is a Methodist. 

The severe experience of his boyhood but foreshadowed the 
subsequent history of Judge Townsend. Amusement, relaxation, 
rest and recreation, have found no place in his life; for, year in 
and year out, the task master of toil has driven him like the 
galley slave at the oar. Fortunately, he has not fallen short of 
his expectations. To the young he commends sobriety, honesty, 
and steady work. He possesses all the qualifications of a judge. 
Not only is he well versed and learned in the law, but he knows 
how to apply it, always taking care of the unprotected. He is 
honest and upright in all his dealings with his fellow-men. 

On November 4, 1864, Judge Townsend married Sallie Belle 
Douglass, daughter of Doctor George Douglass. Of their three 
children, two are now (1907) living. 

The address of Judge Townsend is Mountain street, Union, 
South Carolina. 


TRACY, CARLOS CHANDOS, of Walterboro, Colleton 
county, South Carolina, intendant of Walterboro from 
1880 to 1884, school commissioner of Colleton county 
from 1885 to 1888, and one of the presidential electors of South 
Carolina in 1892, was born at Grahamville, Beaufort county, 
South Carolina, on the 27th of January, 1856. His father, 
Clemm C. Tracy, was a lawyer, who married Miss Emma H. 
Parker, daughter of H. M. Parker, of St. Luke's parish, Beaufort 
district. The earliest known American ancestor of the family 
was Lieutenant Thomas Tracy, who came from England in 1679 
and settled at Norwich, Connecticut. Judge Thomas Heyward, 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, who had 
been educated at Temple Inn, London, was his maternal great- 
grandfather. His mother also numbers among her ancestors 
Arthur Middleton. 

As a boy he was feeble in health ; and since he was thus cut 
off from many of the active enjoyments of boyhood, perhaps his 
natural love of reading and books became more intense by reason 
of his poor health. His early years were divided between life 
in the country and in a village. His mother died when he was 
but eleven. Her influence had been strong in shaping his intel- 
lectual life. The circumstances of his father were such as to 
make easy for him the way to good preparatory schools and to 
college. He began his preparation for college at Mt. Zion insti- 
tute, Winnsboro. He entered Washington and Lee university, at 
Lexington, Virginia, but he did not complete the course of study 
for a degree. 

He was admitted to the bar in February, 1875, by especial 
act. He began his active work as a man by serving as an 
organizer of Democratic clubs in 1876. In 1880 he was chosen 
intendant of Walterboro, and he filled that position until 1884. 
In 1885 he was made school commissioner for Colleton county, 
serving in that capacity for three years. He had been secretary 
of the Democratic executive committee of his county from 1878 
to 1882. He was made one of the presidential electors of South 
Carolina for the Democratic party in the campaign of 1892. He 


has represented his party in several state conventions. He served 
as supervisor of registration for Colleton county from 1892 to 
1903. From 1878 to 1880 he was captain of a troop of cavalry in 
the state militia. 

Mr. Tracy is a Knight of Honor. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat; and he uniformly supports the platform and the nominees 
of his party. By religious conviction he is a communicant of the 
Protestant Episcopal church. His favorite form of amusement 
and relaxation has always been hunting. 

On the 20th of April, 1880, he married Miss Annie Caroline 
Williams, daughter of O. P. Williams, of Walterboro. Of their 
five children, two are living in 1907. 


VEDDER, CHARLES STUART, D. D., pastor of the 
Huguenot church at Charleston, South Carolina, was 
born in Schenectady, New York, October 7, 1826. His 
father was Albert A. Vedder, and his mother Susan Fulton 
Vedder. His father was a farmer in early life and was for many 
years a magistrate in his native county. He was a man of sturdy 
integrity, as became his Holland-Dutch extraction, and of great 
gentleness and courage. The first paternal ancestor to come to 
America was Harmen Albert Vedder, who emigrated from Hol- 
land and settled in New York city in 1562. Two ancestors, John 
and Albert Vedder, were carried captive to Canada in the French 
and English wars. John subsequently fought in the Revolu- 
tionary war in 1776. 

The subject of the sketch was a studious youth and possessed 
a passionate love of reading. His health was vigorous from early 
childhood until his twentieth year, when it was impaired by 
overstudy. His early life was passed in the cities of New York 
and Schenectady. He determined to train himself for editorial 
life, and left the academy at which he was studying to learn 
practical printing with a view to that end. He spent four years 
at the Harpers' establishment and in the offices of the New York 
"American" and "Evening Gazette." At this time he had no 
taste for other professional life, and chose printing as most likely 
to be useful to him in his future career. Home influences, 
especially the influence of his mother, were very efficient in the 
development of his character. He had no difficulty in acquiring 
his education except such as arose from his impaired health. All 
through his life he has set the Bible above all things, and that 
book and the Imitation of Christ, by Thomas a Kempis, were 
most potent and helpful in his intellectual development. He 
entered the Schenectady Lyceum academy at an early age, and 
subsequently Union college, Schenectady, from which latter insti- 
tution he was graduated in the year 1851, becoming, after his 
graduation, one of the tutors of the college. He took a post- 
graduate course at the Theological seminary at Columbia, South 
Carolina, from which he was graduated in 1861, and was licensed 


to preach the same year. He has received the honorary degree 
of D. D. from the New York university and the Charleston 
college, and also the degree of LL. D. from the latter institution. 
On the 7th of June, 1854, he married Helen Amelia Scovel. 

Doctor Vedder began the active work of life in New York 
city and Schenectady. His impulse toward the ministry was 
wholly spontaneous, though the early influences of the Sunday 
school had suggested it. His service as a minister of the Gospel 
began in Summerville, South Carolina, in 1861, and he remained 
there through 1866, at which time he was called to the pastorate 
of the Huguenot church in Charleston, South Carolina, a post 
which he has held for forty years and which he now (1907) 
occupies. He has been the president of many social and civic 
societies, such as the New England society, of Charleston, the 
Charleston Ministerial union, the Howard association, the Train- 
ing School for Nurses, the Charleston Bible society, and the 
Charleston lyceum. 

During the War between the States, Doctor Vedder served 
as chaplain of the Eighteenth regiment of state troops, and is 
now chaplain of Camp A. Burnet Rhett, United Confederate 
veterans. He has written and published many sermons, poems and 
addresses. He has been a Mason for fifty years and a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa society for a like period. Among the 
official positions he has held are those of president of the New 
England society for twenty years, and master of St. George's 
lodge, F. A. M. He has always been a Democrat and a Presby- 
terian, and while giving no especial attention to athletics, he is 
able to enjoy a good game of baseball. 

A leading belief of Doctor Vedder's has always been that 
God helps those who help themselves, and any failures that may 
be chargeable to his own account are traceable only to the neglect 
of this maxim. His favorite motto has been those words of John 
Ruskin, "All things beautiful and good are possible to him who 
believes in their possibility and who will bend every energy to 
make them realities." In this belief he has lived, and he would 
commend it to all who desire to form a sound ideal and to attain 
true success in life. 


A brief biography of Doctor Vedder has been published in 
the "Presbyterian Cyclopedia," to which reference may be had 
for further particulars as to his long, busy and useful career. 

His postoffice address is 116 Church street, Charleston, South 

" 4 * i T 

o * '* r 

rt f /Vt ,. 

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WALLACE, WILLIAM HENRY, editor and teacher, 
was born in Newberry county, South Carolina, Novem- 
ber 4, 1848. His father, John Wallace, was a farmer, 
well known for his industry, honesty and kindness. He brought 
up his son to the ordinary labor of a farmer, requiring systematic 
labor on the land when the boy was not at school, and expecting 
daily attention to "chores" even in school-term time. A strong, 
healthy boyhood with its share of outdoor sports, and particularly 
with much horseback exercise, gave to the growing youth a sound 
constitution, which has stood him in good stead in the later labors 
of life. 

His father sent him to a good preparatory school ; and later 
to Wofford college, from which institution he was graduated in 
1871 with the degree of A. B. 

He pursued post-graduate studies under the advice and 
direction of the faculty, and in 1874 received the second degree 
in arts, A. M., in recognition of this work. 

As a boy he had been fascinated by the style and subject- 
matter of Macaulay's History of England; and to the essays of 
Macaulay, as well as to study of law books, he feels that he owes 
much of such power as writer as his editorial work in middle 
life has shown. 

From 1871 to 1876 he taught; for the first year in the Reid- 
ville male school in Spartanburg county, and for three succeeding 
years in Columbia Female college. From 1876 to 1893 he edited 
a newspaper published at Newberry. Teaching claimed him 
again, and he filled a chair in Columbia Female college from 
1893 until 1895. He was superintendent of the Newberry schools 
for five years, 1895 to 1900. He edited the "Greenville Daily 
News" for a year, 1900-1; and since 1901 he has been the editor 
of the "Newberry Observer," using wisely that relation (of 
friendly critic of the life of the community and guide to public 
opinion) which gives so much of influence to the local editor when 
he is a man of character whom his fellow-citizens respect. 

During the War between the States, Mr. Wallace served for 


six months in the Confederate army, although he was but sixteen 
when the war closed. 

He was a member of the Kappa Alpha fraternity, as an 
under-graduate at college; he is a member of the Knights of 
Honor; and in both fraternities he has held official positions of 
prominence. He is identified with the Southern Methodist 

On December 26, 1872, he married Alice A. Lomax, daughter 
of Lucien H. Lomax, of Abbeville. Of their two children, one 
is still (1907) living. 

Mr. Wallace was led by personal preference to his life work 
as editor. The profession of teaching and superintending schools, 
which has claimed several years of his time, he has regarded as 
closely allied to his work as editor in shaping public opinion and 
chronicling and endeavoring to better the life of the communities 
in which he has lived. It would be hard to say whether a larger 
number of "old pupils" or "old subscribers" are to be numbered 
among the host of friends who feel personally indebted to Mr. 
Wallace for instruction and good influence. 

His address is Newberry, South Carolina. 



WANNAMAKER, JOHN EDWARD, planter and farmer, 
who has a firm and most cheerful faith in farming 
as a paying business, and in modern, intelligent farm- 
life as the very best school for character, in these years when 
manufactures, trade and town-life attract most Carolinians, is an 
interesting character. Not only by reason of his pronounced 
convictions upon the attractiveness of farming and planting, but 
also by reason of his public spirit and his active interest in 
education and public morals, John Edward Wannamaker has 
made a place for himself among the men of mark in South 

He was born at Poplar Spring, near Orangeburg, South 
Carolina, on September 12, 1851. His father, John Jacob Wan- 
namaker, was a local preacher and farmer, whose honesty and 
fidelity to duty had won him the respect of all his neighbors, and 
led to his election as a member of the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. His mother, whose maiden 
name was Mary K. Salley, was a most potent influence in forming 
his character and his ideals of life. His mother was of Scotch 
lineage, his father of German stock. 

A strong, healthy boy, fond of outdoor sports, books of 
adventure had a charm for him in early boyhood; and a warm 
interest in biography, awakened then, has continued and grown 
deeper in his mature years. He says of his boyhood: "I have 
always considered it a great misfortune that I had no tasks 
required of me which involved manual labor. We had plenty 
of servants, and it was not then the fashion to work. I did 
voluntarily learn to plow, and I planted and worked with my 
own hands patches on the farm for pocket money. This was 
very helpful. It strengthened the body, clarified the mind, and 
gave me a better appreciation of labor and its deserts. Every 
boy should be required to do some manual labor to give fiber to 
his muscle and strength to his mind, and for the good of his 

"The period between 1865 and 1872 in the history of our 
state tried men's souls," he writes; and Mr. Wannamaker had 


to encounter serious difficulties in acquiring an education. The 
neighboring country schools and private tutors finally prepared 
him for college, and he was graduated from Wofford college in 
1872 with the degree of A. B. 

He began his chosen life work as a farmer, in 1873, on the 
plantation which he inherited from his father, who had died 
before the close of the War between the States, leaving two 
daughters and two sons to be reared and educated by their 
widowed mother. As the oldest of these children, John Wanna- 
maker felt it at once a privilege and a duty to relieve his mother 
of this load of anxiety in as far as he could, and he took charge 
of the plantation. From his earliest boyhood, prompted by the 
earnest desire "to be of some service to his fellow-men," he began 
the management of this property with the hope of not only 
gaining a livelihood for his family, but of making his life as a 
planter and farmer tell upon the ideals and interests of his neigh- 
bors and his fellow-citizens. He says: "To keep 'from going to 
seed' on the farm, I do not confine my reading to agricultural 
works exclusively, but try to keep in touch with the broader 
thought of our time; and I am slowly building up a library of 
choice books poetry, history and fiction." 

In January, 1878, he married Miss Martha Nelson Duncan, 
daughter of Major D. R. and Mrs. Virginia (Nelson) Duncan, 
of Spartanburg, South Carolina. Of their eight children, seven 
are now (1907) living. 

At college a member of the Kappa Alpha fraternity; by 
conviction and choice a Democrat ; finding healthful recreation in 
"field sport with gun and dog," Mr. Wannamaker has devoted 
himself to his plantation and to the interests of farm-life and 
education, advocating with pen and voice such views as are 
indicated in the closing paragraph of this article, in which he 
speaks to young Carolinians of his convictions and his hopes for 
his state and theirs. A member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, he has served as steward, trustee, and continuously 
since 1879 superintendent of the Sunday school of St. Paul 
Methodist Episcopal church at St. Matthews, Orangeburg county. 

While Mr. Wannamaker has always taken a deep interest in 
politics, both state and national, he has never sought or held 
political office. He served as president of the "Farmers associa- 
tion" of his county. Under his leadership the prime object of 


that semi-political body was the establishment, in South Caro- 
lina, of an agricultural college separate and distinct, and it was 
largely due to their efforts that the Clemson Agricultural and 
Mechanical college was instituted. Although Mr. Wannamaker 
was not acquainted with him, and had no knowledge of his 
intentions regarding his selection of officials, Mr. Clemson, the 
founder of the college, appointed him a life trustee of the insti- 
tution. Mr. Wannamaker is also president of the Orangeburg 
County Cotton association a strong organization which seeks to 
secure fair prices for that unrivaled crop of the South, cotton; 
and at the same time encourages and promotes a sane and safe 
system of diversified agriculture. 

"Plenty of fresh air, day and night, winter and summer; 
pure water, and 'deep breathing,' he commends to his fellow- 
citizens. He says : "If I had to live my life over, I think I would 
devote more time to its social features and not so much to business, 
for 'character is formed in the stream of life.' 

To the young he says : "Let young Americans set their faces 
rigidly against the 'easy dollar' and 'get-rich-quick' schemes. 
Let them regard money as a means not an end. Be a 'live wire' 
but do not make the grievous mistake of measuring all success 
by the dollar-mark. Be 'on time.' Keep engagements religiously 
this enters into the warp and woof of character." 

In the interest of farming and education in South Carolina, 
Mr. Wannamaker writes : "I am essentially a home man, living 
on my farm, and I revel in its delights. Believing that home 
influence makes an indelible impression on the character of chil- 
dren at the formative period of their lives, I strive to make it 
conducive to the making of strong, pure, virile character. Self- 
help is a cardinal doctrine in this home; and the companionship 
of books, papers and periodicals is favored and encouraged for 
all its members. I take delight in my work; I believe heartily 
in the splendid opportunity of the Southern farmer to make a 
good living and to educate his children; and I view with sorrow 
and alarm the tendency of our white people to drift into the 
villages, towns and cities, turning over to the ignorant negro the 
fertile fields of Carolina to be butchered and bled to death by a 
vicious system of farming. Agriculture in this glorious South- 
land has marvelous possibilities. We can grow here almost 
everything that man needs, and we have a natural monopoly of 


the greatest and most wonderful money crop in the world. 
American middling cotton can only be grown extensively in the 
southern belt of the United States, and it stands unique, without 
a rival on the globe. Given a moderate capital; given energy 
and push, brawn and brain; given books and daily papers now 
within the reach of all; given the wonderful telephone, which 
has the ear of all the world; given rural free postal delivery; 
and why should the farmer, in daily contact with nature and 
with nature's God, envy his more polished brother, in the din 
and the depths of a great city ? I have long thought that a great 
deal of human misery and of the woe and wretchedness of great 
cities, with many other perplexing municipal problems, would 
be relieved and solved could some plan be devised to move the 
hundreds of thousands of "the miserables" from the hot-beds of 
sin, corruption and vice in our great cities to the broad and 
friendly bosom of mother earth in the country, teeming with 
fruitfulness and all good things." 

"I am deeply interested in the education of our people; in 
the colleges and common schools of our state. We are strong in 
natural resources and material development; we are weak along 
educational lines. The strength of our state consists not in her 
fertile fields, her mines and factories ; but always in her cultivated 
sons and daughters, in educated brain and noble character. Our 
colleges are liberally supported ; our common schools are not. We 
underpay our teachers, who, in a large measure, are shaping and 
forming the character of our children. We must pay more, and 
'set a higher standard for our teachers.' 


Waring and Anna T. (Waties) Waring, was born 
December 7, 1871, at Charleston, South Carolina. His 
father was in charge of the traffic department of a railroad, and, 
at one time, was county superintendent of education. 

The earliest known ancestors of the family came from Eng- 
land early in the eighteenth century and settled about Charleston. 
In this city, Thomas Waring's early life was passed. His educa- 
tion was obtained at the Porter academy, Charleston, and at 
Hobart college, Geneva, New York, from which he was graduated 
in 1890 with the degree of B. L. His active life work was begun 
in the traffic department of the South Carolina and Georgia 
railroad, in which he worked from 1890 to 1894. From 1894 to 
1895 he was employed in the business department of the "Evening 
Post." From 1895 to 1897 he worked on the reportorial and sub- 
editorial staff of the same paper; and, in 1897 he became editor. 

Mr. Waring is a member of the Kappa Alpha (Northern) 
college fraternity; of the Masonic order, Landmark lodge, No. 
76, of which he is a past master ; of Union chapter, No. 3, Royal 
Arch Masons ; of Enoch council, No. 1, Royal and Select Masters ; 
and of Carolina lodge, No. 9, Knights of Pythias. He is a mem- 
ber of the Commercial club, and of the chamber of commerce. 
In 1906 he was appointed by Governor Heyward a member, from 
the first congressional district, of the South Carolina commission 
to the Jamestown exposition. He is a Democrat in politics, and 
is an Episcopalian in religion. 

On November 23, 1898, he was married to Laura C. Witte, 
daughter of Charles O. and Charlotte Sophia (Reeves) Witte. 
Two children have been born of this marriage, both of whom are 
living in 1907. 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 


WHITE, HENRY ALEXANDER, D. D., Presbyterian 
clergyman, educator and author, was born May 15, 
1861, in Greenbrier county, West Virginia. His father, 
William Orr White, surveyor and farmer, was a strong-minded 
Scot from Ulster, Ireland, of spotless integrity, untiring energy 
and industry, with a talent for mathematics and the surveying 
of lands, and given to quoting poems of Robert Burns; his 
mother, Mary McClure (Irwin) White, was a woman of strong 
piety of the strict Scotch type, possessing rare tact and a great 
desire to send him to college, and exerted a strong influence upon 
his intellectual and moral life. His blood is Scotch- Irish, a 
blend that has produced many distinguished men. His grand- 
father, William White, an officer of Omagh infantry, left Tyrone, 
Ireland, in 1817, and came to Virginia with his wife, Rebekah 
Orr, and their children. This William White was related to 
the Caldwell family, which came from the north of Ireland to 
Virginia; his maternal grandfather, Captain John Irwin, came 
from Augusta county, Virginia, to Greenbrier county, West 
Virginia, about 1820, and became supervisor or county judge and 
an officer of Virginia militia. 

He was reared on a farm, was in perfect health, and from 
early childhood had an insatiable thirst for knowledge, read all 
the books in the house and borrowed all he could from the 
neighbors. He was also fond of outdoor life, and enjoyed the 
management of horses, in which he soon became an expert, both 
as rider and driver. He was taught surveying by his father,, 
was methodical in habits of work, and a close observer of animals 
and men. Most of these early traits he has retained, and he still 
finds his most enjoyable recreation in horseback riding and in 
long walks. His ambition was aroused by successes in the public 
schools and in the academy. 

At the public schools he was fortunate in having unusually 
efficient teachers ; also at the academy, where he was prepared for 
college under Reverend George T. Lyle (a Presbyterian clergy- 
man) and Professor E. H. Marquess. At Washington and Lee 
university, Lexington, Virginia, after taking every scholastic 


honor in the institution and being editor-in-chief of the "Univer- 
sity Magazine," he was graduated M. A. in 1885, and was 
valedictorian of his class; he took a medal for best essay (subject 
was "St. Paul"), orator's medal and medal for special attainments 
in history, philosophy and literature, and delivered the Cincin- 
nati oration, the highest honor given. The following session he 
began a post-graduate course, and was graduated Ph. D. in 1887, 
the thesis for the degree being passed on by Doctor Noah K. 
Davis, of the University of Virginia. In 1887 he entered Union 
Theological seminary, Virginia, and after one session transferred 
to Princeton Theological seminary, New Jersey, where he was 
graduated in 1889. During the last year of his theological course 
he took post-graduate studies in philosophy, at Princeton college, 
under Doctor James McCosh, one of the grand old men of 
American Presbyterianism. The honorary degree of D. D. was 
conferred upon him, in 1891, by the Central university, of 

In the fall of 1889, having been ordained a minister of the 
Presbyterian church, he began his career in the dual capacity of 
minister of the Gospel and professor of history in Washington 
and Lee university, remaining there until 1902. Since the open- 
ing of the school year 1902-03 he has been professor of New 
Testament (Greek) literature and exegesis in Columbia Theo- 
logical seminary, Columbia, South Carolina, where his work has 
fulfilled the promise of his brilliant college record. He is in 
demand as a pulpit orator, but other demands upon his time 
make it impossible for him to accept more than a few of the 
invitations he receives. 

His name has also become widely known as a writer. He 
is the author of "Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy" 
(one of the G. P. Putnam's Sons' "Heroes of the Nations" series), 
published 1897, favorably commented upon by press and public 
of the rest of the country and enthusiastically received in the 
South; "A Grammar School History of the United States" 
(1904) ; "A Beginner's History of the United States" (1906) ; 
"The Making of South Carolina : A School History of the State" 
(1906); "Life of Stonewall Jackson" (1907) ; "The Pentateuch 
in the Light of the Ancient Monuments" (1894) ; "The Gospel of 
Comfort" (sermon) (1895), and a volume of addresses delivered 
before the Scotch-Irish society of America, the Historical society 

Vol. I S. C. 20 


of Massachusetts, and the Northern and Southern synod of Ken- 
tucky at its Centennial celebration, Lexington, 1902. 

He is honorary member of Alpha chapter (William and 
Mary college, Virginia) ; of Phi Beta Kappa Greek letter fra- 
ternity (was initiated in company with Doctor Thomas Nelson 
Page, the distinguished author) ; a member of Victoria institute, 
of London, England, and of the executive committee of the 
Scotch- Irish society of America. In politics he is a Democrat. 

He rates the influences upon his success in life as having 
been, in about equal proportion, home, school, private study and 
contact with men in active life; thinks history and the English 
Bible were the most helpful books in fitting him for his work 
in life. 

On July 18, 1889, he was married to Fanny Beverley Well- 
ford, daughter of Judge Beverley Randolph Wellford, Jr., of 
the circuit court of Richmond, Virginia. 

His address during the school year is Columbia, South Caro- 


WHITE, JOHN GEORGE, of Chester, South Carolina, 
member of the banking firm of John G. and T. H. 
White, was born at Bullock's Creek, York county, 
South Carolina, January 25, 1861. His father was a merchant, 
who held no public office, and transmitted to his sons such 
standards of industry and honor in business-life as have helped 
them to success and to public esteem. 

John George White passed his boyhood in the country, and 
early learned to work with his hands as with his head, having 
daily tasks which inculcated systematic habits and a love of study 
and useful occupation. He attended the common schools near 
his home, in the troubled decade which followed the War between 
the States. Until he was nearly twenty he worked on a farm; 
and in 1881 he began mercantile life as clerk in a store in Chester, 
where he still resides. Within four years he was admitted a 
member of the firm of Joseph Wylie & Company (1885). Subse- 
quently he and his younger brother, Mr. T. H. White, acquired 
the business and continued it under the same firm name. 

Mr. White married Bessie McFadden, daughter of John C. 
and Louise (Waters) McFadden, of Chester, August 18, 1891. 
They have had six children, of whom four are living in 1907. 

For twenty-two years, as a member of one of the leading 
business firms of Chester, Mr. White has been identified with the 
interests of the place. Beside such an influence in local affairs, 
for righteousness and good government, as a merchant of upright 
character and industrious habits must exert, Mr. White has served 
for three years in the local company of South Carolina militia, 
the Lee Light infantry. He is a Mason. His political associa- 
tions are with the Democratic party, and from allegiance to that 
party he has never swerved. He is a member of the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian church. 


WHITFORD, KEID, civil engineer, United States assist- 
ant engineer, was born at New Bern, North Carolina, 
October 26, 1855. His father, John D. Whitford, was 
president of a railroad, mayor of New Bern, North Carolina, 
collector of that port, and state senator ; who had been a member 
of the secession committee a man of decided literary talent, a 
newspaper writer, and a colonel in the Confederate army. His 
mother, Mrs. Jeanie (Reid) Whitford, died while her son was 
still too young to be greatly influenced by her. John Whitford, 
his earliest known American ancestor, came from Scotland and 
settled in Maryland, and later in Virginia, about 1700. Reid 
Whitford's great-grandfather was engaged in the effort to sup- 
press Tories in Eastern North Carolina during the War of the 
Revolution. His son, Mr. Reid Whitford's grandfather, served 
in the War of 1812. 

His early life was passed in the city of New Bern. His 
health was perfect. He had a strong predilection for sports, 
especially for hunting and the management and operation of 
boats. Light tasks in gardening, flower culture and the planting 
of trees, gave him some knowledge of "how things grow," and 
how growing things must be cared for. Books were early a 
delight to him, and books upon architecture and engineering he 
has always enjoyed, although it was rather his father's decision 
for him than a preference of his own, which settled the choice 
of his life work as an engineer. He studied in the common 
schools of New Bern, North Carolina ; and when he was eighteen 
he took up special studies in engineering and joined a class in 
civil engineering which did practical work in the field. 

He began his professional work as a rodman in the engineer- 
ing corps work on the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line railroad 
in January, 1875. Until 1879 he was engaged in engineering 
work for railroads and extensive land surveys. Since 1879 he 
has been engaged on United States river and harbor work, etc. 
He was under Captain Phillips, United States army at Norfolk, 
Virginia ; then under different officers in river and harbor works 
on the South Atlantic coast. He was assistant engineer to the 


state of North Carolina from 1886 until 1896. He was assistant 
United States engineer in the construction of jetties at the 
entrance to Winyah bay, and in the construction of Estherville 
and Minim Creek canal connecting Winyah bay and the Santee 
river, and for other public works in North and South Carolina. 

During the Spanish war he superintended the construction 
of the defence of Georgetown harbor, acting in this capacity as 
assistant United States engineer. 

He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 
He is a Knight of Pythias, and a Mason. His favorite relaxation 
he finds in photography, as an aid in scientific work and as a 
fine art. He is a Democrat in his political relations. In religious 
convictions and affiliations he is an Episcopalian. 

On February 25, 1879, he was married to Miss Marian E. 
Satchwell, daughter of F. J. and Sarah J. Satchwell, of Beaufort, 
North Carolina. They had three children, none of whom long 
survived their mother. He was a second time married, November 
16, 1893, to Miss Mary Ely Vaux, daughter of R. W. and Eliza 
C. Vaux, of Georgetown county. They have one child. 

To young men he offers this advice : "Adopt some calling at 
an early age, pursue it with unfaltering persistency, and attend 
strictly to details." 

His address is Georgetown, South Carolina. 

VoL I S. C. 21 


WILLIAMSON, BKIGHT, of Darlington, South Caro- 
lina, banker and president of the South Atlantic Oil 
company, and other important business organizations, 
was born near Darlington, South Carolina, on the 3d of March, 
1861. His father, Benjamin Franklin Williamson, was a planter, 
a man of first-rate executive ability, of exceptionally good judg- 
ment, and a successful planter and manager of landed property. 
His mother, Margaret (Mclver) Williamson, was devoted to her 
husband and children, and had a strong influence upon the later 
life as well as the childhood of her son. Among his earliest 
ancestors in America were Colonel Alexander McAlester, from 
Kintyre, Scotland, and Evander Mclver, also an emigrant from 
Scotland, who came to South Carolina about 1740. 

As a boy he was especially fond of machinery, mechanics, 
and the study of elementary natural science, with reading upon 
scientific subjects; but his enjoyment of all the sports of boyhood 
was hearty and keen. He learned various forms of work in his 
youth; and his parents made a point of his mastering whatever 
he undertook to do so thoroughly that he should not only be able 
to do it himself, but should also be competent to show others how 
to do it. 

The circumstances of his family were such as to relieve him 
from the need of working for self-support during his years in 
college and in preparation for college. He attended, first, the 
local country schools near his home; and later, at King's Moun- 
tain Military school, he was prepared for a course at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, where he studied from 1879 to 1881. 

In 1881 he began the business of life for himself by under- 
taking the management of a farm in Darlington county. In 1889 
he took the position of cashier of the Bank of Darlington; and 
in 1890 he was elected president of that bank. While he has 
been more widely known in later years through his business as 
a banker and as president of business organizations of Darlington, 
he has been all his life a successful planter. The record of his 
connection with the prominent business interests of Darlington is 
in brief as follows : Cashier of the Bank of Darlington from 1889 





to 1890; president of the Bank of Darlington from 1890 until 
the present time (1907) ; president of the Darlington Phosphate 
company, 1895; president of the Darlington Oil company from 
1899 to 1902; president of the Independent Cotton Oil company 
from 1902 to 1904; was elected president of the South Atlantic 
Oil company in 1906, and of the Darlington Brick company. He 
is also a director in many other organizations. He was president 
of the board of trade of his town in 1899, and has been president 
of the Darlington Historical society since 1905. For a number 
of years he has been a vice-president of the South Carolina 
society, perhaps the leading social club of the state, and of the 
Darlington Agricultural society. 

In his political relations he is a member of the Democratic 
party. His favorite forms of amusement and exercise have been 
hunting, travel, riding and driving, while in his youth he was 
keenly interested in all athletic sports. 

Mr. Williamson is inclined to believe that "every person has 
sufficient ability to succeed in life, but the price of success is 
eternal vigilance." 

To young Carolinians who wish to succeed, he commends: 
"Good associations, industry, promptness, and frugality; the 
highest regard for truth and honesty, and due respect for the 
character, opinions and feelings of others." 

In 1906 Mr. Williamson married Miss Margaret Jones, of 
Shelby, North Carolina. 


WILSON, STANYARNE, statesman and lawyer, was 
born January 10, 1859, in Yorkville, York county, 
South Carolina. His father, William Blackburn Wil- 
son, lawyer and member of South Carolina state legislature, was 
a thorough master of his profession, very religious, eloquent,, 
widely read, of poetic temperament, and loved home rather than 
public distinction; his mother, Arrah Minerva (Lowry) Wilson, 
a most estimable woman, died when he was a small boy. His 
ancestry is English-Irish; the Blackburns, one of whom, George, 
was a professor in South Carolina college, came from England 
in 1760 ; the Stanyarnes, for some generations sea island planters, 
from England in 1720 ; the Millers and the Lowrys, business men 
and famous planters, the first from England and the latter from 
Ireland in 1700, and the Wilsons, doctors, preachers and lawyers,, 
from England in 1800. 

In youth he was slender, but healthy and strong, and 
decidedly studious, a trait he has retained. He received his 
primary education from his father, and his preparatory training 
at King's Mountain (South Carolina) Military school; then took 
a university course at Washington and Lee university, Lexington, 
Virginia. He studied law in his father's office, and in 1880 was 
admitted to the bar and began the practice of law in Spartanburg. 
Until the spring of 1884 he was content with his practice, which 
had been all that a young lawyer had a right to expect, and he 
had no intention of entering politics. Then along came one of 
those insignificant incidents that occasionally change the whole 
current of a man's life. He got into an argument with a candi- 
date for the legislature, which ended in a fist fight between them ; 
though he was not defeated in the fight, his blood was aroused, 
and on the spot he announced himself a candidate against his 
whilom physical opponent, and he won. He made a remarkable 
record in the legislature, getting two bills, of which he was author, 
written into the state statutes: the eleven hour labor law, and 
the present railroad law. In 1894 he was nominated and elected 
representative in congress from the fourth South Carolina district 
and served three consecutive terms until March 4, 1901. He was 



a candidate for renomination in 1900, but lost. In congress his 
ability was recognized by the party leaders, and during his last 
term he successfully led the Democrats of the house in the fight 
against the bill framed by South-hating Republicans, providing 
for a reduction in Southern representation in congress and in 
the electoral college. 

Since returning home from congress he has devoted his time 
mostly to his law practice and business interests, but has not 
entirely neglected politics; his friends do not, by any means, 
regard his political career as closed. He was for several years 
captain of the Hampton guards, a crack Spartanburg military 
organization ; is president of the Carolina Mutual Fire Insurance 
company; a member of the Protestant Episcopal church; a Ma- 
son, and a member of the Phi Gamma Delta college fraternity. 

He rates private study as having been the strongest influence 
in his career; contact with men in active life next, and things 
the books most helpful in preparing him for it were history and 
the speeches of eminent English and American statesmen and 
lawyers. His favorite outdoor recreation is riding ; indoor, read- 
ing. He suggests as a chart by which the young may steer safely 
through the rough waters of life : "Thoroughness in ground work 
and details ; industry and perseverance ; greater concern about the 
present than for past failures or future hopes ; faith in one's self 
and cultivation of the optimistic ; cultivate a good conscience, and 
fear nothing and no man; accumulate all one can, honestly and 
without being mean." 

On November 25, 1896, he married Hattie W. Hazard, 
daughter of B. I. Hazard, of Georgetown, South Carolina. Two 
children have been born to them. 

His address is Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


WITTE, CHARLES OTTO, merchant, banker, and 
representative of foreign governments, was born in 
Blomberg, Principality of Lippe-Detmold, November 
23, 1823. His father was Ernst Witte, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Jena with the degree of Doctor of Law, who, in 1848, 
represented the county of Luneburg in the upper house of the 
parliament of the kingdom of Hanover, being the only member 
of that body not a nobleman. His grandfather, also Ernst Witte, 
was a wealthy merchant of Blomberg and mayor of the city, 
holding office by life tenure. His mother was Lisette Linnemann, 
of Hovededissen. The first of the name of whom the family 
have documentary records was Bernhard Witte, who came with 
Count Simon de Lippe from Saxony- Weimar and settled at Horn 
in Lippe-Detmold in the sixteenth century, subsequently removing 
to Blomberg, where he built a residence. This residence was still 
in possession of the family when the subject of this sketch came 
to America. 

Charles O. Witte was the third child of a family of ten 
children eight boys and two girls. His father, though educated 
for the law, spent his life as an agriculturist, and during the first 
eight or nine years of Charles's life was the lessee of the Domain 
of Blomberg, near Blomberg, having fourteen hundred tenants. 
He then purchased a farm, called Kleefeld, in the suburbs of the 
city of Hanover. Here Charles spent his youth, receiving his 
education in the Hanover lyceum, which he regularly attended 
until he reached manhood, devoting himself especially to agri- 
cultural studies, in part under private instructors, and supple- 
mented, out of school hours and in vacations, by the performance 
of regular tasks on the farm and in the gardens. 

His education completed, he resolved to come to the United 
States and engage in planting, expecting to put to some practical 
use his special agricultural training, but soon after he arrived at 
New York, October 7, 1846, he reached the conclusion that his 
means were not sufficient to engage in farming under favorable 
conditions and determined to become a merchant. He found 
employment in the counting rooms of H. E. Moring, a large 


commission and exporting and importing house, and rapidly 
familiarized himself with the details of the business. The next 
year, 1847, he removed to Charleston, arriving on the last day of 
the year, under an engagement as clerk for Herman Thierman, 
a merchant, who needed the services of a man who had some 
knowledge of the exporting and importing trade, and he has been 
a resident of Charleston since that time. Two years later Mr. 


Witte went into the grocery and commission business on his own 
account. This business included exporting and importing, as 
well as domestic trade, and was conducted with success until the 
breaking out of the War between the States, when, of course, it 
was interrupted. At the close of the war Mr. Witte contemplated 
retiring from active business. A little later this course was fully 
decided upon, and on February 15, 1866, he was married to 
Charlotte Sophia Reeves, daughter of Matthew and Ellen Boune- 
theau Reeves, of Charleston. He closed his mercantile affairs 
and the newly married pair at once sailed for Europe, where they 
remained for a year and a half. Their eldest child, now Mrs. 


Alice Witte Sloan, was born in Germany during this visit. 

Returning to Charleston, the wish of Mr. Witte to escape 
from active business was not to be gratified. His ability was 
widely recognized, and the public claimed his services. So it 
came to pass that on April 13, 1868, he was chosen director of 
the People's National bank, the first national bank organized in 
South Carolina, its charter number being 1621, and on February 
21, 1870, he was elected its president. He was at the head of 
this institution until November 27, 1899, and during his admin- 
istration the bank prospered and became, as it still remains, one 
of the leading banks in South Carolina. Meanwhile, the Security 
Savings bank had been organized and he had been chosen its 
president. This latter position he retained, after selling his 
interest in the Peoples National, and is still (1907) its president. 
The offices are at Number 18 Broad street. 

After the unification of Germany under William I., Mr. 
Witte was commissioned consul for the Empire at Charleston, 
and held the office until November, 1907, having of his own 
motion tendered his resignation in the April preceding. Upon 
his retirement the Imperial government conferred upon him the 
decoration of the Royal Crown, in recognition of merit, making 
him a knight of the order, fourth class. He long held the offices 


of vice-consul for Sweden and Norway, resigning upon the sepa- 
ration of those kingdoms. He has long been and still is consul 
for the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In recognition of services 
in the protection of the commerce of Sweden during the War 
between the States, he was given the decoration of Knight of 
Vase by the king of Sweden. He has also received a decoration 
of lesser importance from the Austrian Empire. He became a 
naturalized citizen of the United States a few years after coming 
to Charleston, when he began to acquire real estate, in which he 
always had a firm faith as a form of investment, and of which 
he is a large holder, in Charleston and elsewhere in South Caro- 
lina and in Florida. 

The home of Mr. Witte, Number 172 Rutledge avenue, is 
one of the handsome places in Charleston; the house, a mansion 
of colonial type a century old, and the grounds being the object 
of admiring interest to visitors. He also has a home on Sullivan's 
Island, where he has for years spent the summers. 

Mrs. Witte died in 1892. There are six daughters, all of 
whom are married and living in Charleston, some of them and 
their families with their father. 

Mr. Witte has always enjoyed vigorous health. His youthful 
fondness for plants and flowers survives, and he takes a lively 
interest in his gardens. He is a wide reader, familiar with 
English as well as German literature, and keeps well informed, 
especially in the line of international politics. He is fond of the 
companionship of his friends, and his home is notable for its 
hospitality. He is a member of the Lutheran church. 

His address is Charleston, South Carolina. 





der of 
d.6sir6 " ; 



WOODWAKD, JOHN FKIERSON, of Bishopville, Lee 
county, South Carolina, planter, banker, manufacturer, 
was born near Bishopville October 4, 1845. His father, 
Jesse Woodward, was a planter, and the son has all his life felt 
a strong influence for good in the memory of his father's piety 
and integrity. His mother, Mrs. Nancy (Stuckey) Woodward, 
interested herself deeply and constantly in the moral welfare and 
the intellectual progress of her son, as well as in his comfort and 
happiness; and to her he professes a great debt of gratitude for 
her influence on him. His ancestors came from England and 
settled in South Carolina before the Revolutionary period. 

He had a healthy and happy boyhood, passed on his father's 
farm, where he learned to do general farm work, and to direct 
others in doing it. But he had the good fortune to be one of 
those boys and young men who enjoy farm-life and find pleasure 
in their daily duties in the changing round of the seasons with 
their differing forms of occupation in farm-life. And he began 
at an unusually early age to be responsible for the management 
of his father's farm. 

The War between the States found him eager to be in the 
military service of his state and his section; and while a boy of 
sixteen he entered the Confederate army and served for fifteen 

The troubles of that period in the history of his state inter- 
fered with his attendance at school. He did not try to prepare 
for a course of advanced study, but attended, as he was able, the 
common schools of the county. In his youth he had access to 
few books, but then, as in his later manhood, he was an interested 
reader of the newspapers and of current literature, with a keen 
desire to "keep abreast of the times" in matters political and 

At eighteen he began business for himself as a planter. And 
of the years which followed he writes : "I simply kept on working 
and waited until assisted by circumstances." 


He was married to Addie J. Wilson, daughter of Hosea and 
Mary Wilson, on October 14, 1875. Of their two children, one, 
Hosea Wilson, is living in 1907. 

In July, 1902, Mr. Woodward became president of the Bank 
of Bishop ville, which position he still holds. In May, 1903, he 
was made president of the Lee County Manufacturing company, 
but he resigned that office in 1904. Since April, 1901, he has 
also been president of the Bishopville Masonic Hall company. 

He is trustee of the Methodist church of Bishopville. He 
is a Mason, and has been treasurer of the Bishopville lodge since 
its organization. In politics a Democrat, he has at no time seen 
any reason to deviate from strict adherence to his party in 
measures advocated or in support of candidates nominated. It 
is his lifelong custom to attend regularly to business for the 
greater part of his working hours, and his only form of recreation 
he has found in an occasional trip of a few weeks to the moun- 
tains or the seaside. 

It is evident from this sketch that Mr. Woodward believes 
in close personal attention by every man to the occupation to 
which he professes to devote his time. 

His advice to young men who would succeed in business, 
after emphasizing the business virtues of promptness, regularity, 
energy, industry, integrity, sobriety, and unceasing vigilance, 
is as follows: "Keep every detail systematized. Give personal 
attention to even the smallest matters." 

List of Full Page Portraits 




















FRETWELL, JOSEPH J. . . . 123 

FURMAN, CHARLES M. . . . 126 






HERBERT, DANIEL O. . . . 169 

HUDSON, JOSHUA H. . . . 172 


JERVEY, THEODORE D. . . . 186 




LATIMER, ASBURY C. . . . 212 








MORGAN, WILLIAM D. . . . 278 








RODDEY, WILLIAM J. . . . 339 
SCHERER, JAMES A. B. . . 343 



SPENCER, CHARLES E. . . . 374 




WOODWARD, JOHN F. . . . 443 

Index to Biographies 































FRETWELL, JOSEPH J. . . . 123 








HERBERT, DANIEL O. . . . 169 




JERVEY, THEODORE D. . . . 186 






LATIMER, ASBURY C. . . . 212 


LEWIS, WILLIAM W. . . . 223 
LINDSAY, WILLIAM C. . . . 225 




MCLAURIN, JOHN L. . . . 241 

McMANus, AMOS 244 

McSwEEN, JOHN 246 










MORGAN, WILLIAM D. . . . 278 
NEWTON, HOPE H. . . . -. 285 







RAYSOR, THOMAS M. . . . 320 



RODDEY, WILLIAM J. . . . 339 
SCHERER, JAMES A. B. . . 343 


SHEPARD, CHARLES U. . . . 360 





SPENCER, CHARLES E. . . . 374 


STONE, J. THEODUS .... 392 





WARING, THOMAS R. . . . 421 






WOODWARD, JOHN F. . . . 443