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Walter E. Fernald 
State School 

Waverley, Massachusetts 


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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 

Miss Edith C. Onians. 


Massachusetts School 
fcr Feeble Minded, 


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SIXTEEN years' work among the newsboys of Melbourne 
made me realize intensely the necessity of under- 
standing the great problem of Child Rescue Work. I was 
anxious to know what others were doing to help in its battle 
of life the child handicapped from birth. 

Although my work had chiefly been among boys, I felt 
that in order to grapple with the boy problem I must study 
children — boys and girls — and learn the best ways of helping 
them to realize and make the best of themselves. I believed 
that One— 

Who builds in boys builds lastingly in Truth, 
And "vanished hands " are multiplied in power, 
And sounds of living voices, hour by hour, 
Speak forth His message with the lips of Youth. 

And so for a while I laid down my work here in order to 
better equip myself for it in the future. 

Two years' study and inquiry in England, America and 
on the Continent, and many valuable and varied experiences 
have taught me that although one may take hold of the fringes 
of this great problem — many lifetimes must be spent unravel- 
ling these fringes before the problem will be solved — yet 
every serious effort in the right direction must help towards 
this great result. 


It is in order that my inquiries and experiences in 
different parts of the world may help and interest other 
social workers in Australia that they now appear in book 

Newsboys Hall, Melbourne, 
Easter Day, 1914. 

PORTIONS of various notes used in these papers have 
already appeared in the Melbourne Herald and the 
Argus. For permission to reprint them, I express my 
gratitude and thanks to the Editors of those widely-read 

I should also like to thank especially the following for the 
photographs used : — 

Judge Ben. B. Lindsey, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

Mr. Newton Baker, Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Mr. John E. Gunckel, Newsboys' Association, Toledo, 
Ohio, U.S.A. 

Mr. M. L. Waller, Prison Committee, Home Office, 
Whitehall, London. 

Mr. W. Pett Ridge, Oakley Square, London. 

Mr. Housden, Barnes Industrial School, Manchester. 

Mr. J. G. Legge, Director of Education, Liverpool. 

Sears' Studios, Melbourne, Australia. 





I Introduction ..... 

II Judge Pinckney .... 

III St. Charles' School for Boys 

IV The Juvenile Protective Association 
V Court of Domestic Relations 

VI The Settlement Movement in Chicago 

VII Hull House Boys' Club 

VIII The Chicago Hebrew Institute 

IX Impressions of Judge Ben. B. Lindsey 

X Chicago Boys' Clubs 

XI The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy 57 

XII Other Activities of Chicago . 

XIII Toledo 

XIV Cleveland ...... 

XV Boston 

XVI Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded 100 

XVII New York . . . . . . . 107 








I London Settlements . . . . .116 

II The Borstal Institutions for Lads. . . 124 

III Three Interesting Personalities . . . 137 

IV The National Conference on the Prevention 

of Destitution . . . . .155 




V The London County Council .... 173 

VI Special Schools in London, Liverpool and 

Manchester 188 

VII Industrial Schools, Training Ships, Reforma- 
tories, and Borstal Institutions under 
the Jurisdiction of the Home Office 

VIII Hospitals 

IX Homes for Boys 

X First International Eugenics Congress 

XI Other Institutions .... 

XII The Child on the Continent . 





2 59 




Miss Edith C. Onians . . . . Frontispiece 
Melbourne Newsboys' Carpenters' Shop .... 2 
Judge Ben. B. Lindsey 50 

Mr. Gunckel and the Original Members of the Toledo 

Newboys' Association ...... 72 

Service Quadrangle of the House of Correction at Colony 

Farm, Cleveland ....... 86 

Getting Out Foundations at the Borstal Institution, 

Feltham 128 

George the First ........ 146 

Ambulance for Conveying Physically Defective Children 

to and from School . . . . .192 

Bakers' Shop, Barnes Industrial School, Heaton-Mersey . 204 



ON March 14, 1912, towards the end of one of England's 
coldest winters, I set sail for America, plunged right 
into the midst of the equinoctial gales, and, in consequence, 
landed at New York on March 24, just two days later than 
we had anticipated. From there I took the first train I 
could get to Chicago, and journeyed 1,000 miles through the 
centre of this wonderful country. 

Everything was very new and very strange. We had left 
England in the early spring and had suddenly been pre- 
cipitated into the depth of a winter with the most severe 
frost America had known for many years. For mile after 
mile we ran close along the Hudson River, which presented 
a picture of frozen desolation. In some places the river 
was one solid mass of ice, in others the ice was gradually 
breaking up into huge blocks, which were piled up against 
the banks. 

It was a Sunday and the snow was falling heavily, laying a 
whiter mantle on the already white country. As I passed 
through some of the towns I heard bells ringing and made 
this note in my diary. " The snow was falling heavily 
and the church bells ringing as I left Albany/' To my 
astonishment the bells went on ringing long after church 
hours, and at last I asked a conductor if these were the 
church bells we heard. " Well," he said, " I guess they are, as 



it's Sunday." In the middle of the night I still heard bells, 
and when I said to my friend the conductor, " Those bells 
are ringing now ; they can't be church bells, surely ? " he 
remarked that : he " didn't hear no bells." It was only when 
the daylight came that I found each engine- was equipped 
with a huge bell, which rang incessantly to warn people of the 
train's approach ; for in America the distances travelled are 
so great that the railway lines are often in the open country, 
and the level crossings in many towns are not fenced. At 
Chicago, (after twenty-six hours of continuous travel) I was 
met by Mr. Thomas Chambers and stayed with him and his 
wife for a few days. Mr. Chambers had been a social worker, 
and before I arrived made arrangements for me to visit 
twenty-three settlements and other institutions. I did not 
here need the letters of introduction which were so kindly 
given to me by Mr. Watt, the Victorian Premier, Captain 
St. John, of the Penal Reform League, Sir George Reid, 
G.C.M.G., High Commissioner for the Commonwealth, and 
the Victoria League, but they subsequently made friends 
for me wherever I went and opened many doors that 
otherwise might have been closed to any one conducting 
purely personal and unofficial investigations. 

Almost the first institution for protecting and safeguarding 
the interests of children to claim my attention in Chicago 
was the Juvenile Court. 

To Australians, who know the Juvenile Court system and 
for what it stands, a minute description of the Juvenile 
Court laws of America will not be necessary. They differ 
from those of Australia in several respects, and vary, too, 
in the different states, as with us. 

The following extracts from the report of the Juvenile 
Court of Chicago indicate the ideals by which it is 
animated. To quote from the report of the Juvenile Court 


law in relation to the family and to earlier legislation : — 
" Specific provisions of the Juvenile Court law indicate 
clearly that its purpose is to reduce to a minimum state 
interference with normal relations of children in natural 
homes. The theory upon which the whole Juvenile Court 
movement rests requires that every effort be made to keep 
children with their parents, and in the case of removal, to 
restore their normal relationship at the earliest moment 
consistent with proper care. 

" If after a child has been committed to an institution, 
facts are presented to the Court indicating that advantages 
of the institution over the child's natural home have been 
magnified, or, in the case of unfit parents, that they have 
reformed, or that the parents have moved from a bad 
environment — in short, if the situation offers expectation 
of proper control and care — the child should be restored." 
Under the Parents Act of 191 1, a fund was instituted 
which provides that parents who are " otherwise proper 
guardians," but too poor to care for their child properly, 
shall be financially helped by order of the Court. Next to 
a natural home the Juvenile Court law of Illinois regards 
a suitable foster-home as the most effective instrument for 
realizing its aim or purpose. 

An amendment of the Juvenile Court law recommended 
that any person under the age of twenty-one years, regard- 
less of previous contact with the Court, should be brought 
into the Juvenile, rather than into the Police Court. The 
report in regard to Court procedure says, " The object of 
the Juvenile Court law is to make procedure for Juvenile 
cases as dissimilar as possible to cases in the Criminal Court." 
With regard to probation the report says : — 
'■' Parental care is the one ideal by which the Juvenile 
Court movement is inspired. The function of a probation 


department is not to place the children in institutions, but 
to leave them at home ; not to bring them to Court, but to 
keep them away ; and to help them enjoy the most whole- 
some family life which environment permits. The more 
successful a probation department, the larger is the pro- 
portion of cases handled out of Court.' ' 

The Illinois Juvenile Court law became effective on July i, 
1899. The law provided for the organization of the 
Court and for the establishment of a probation system ; 
but failed to make provision for salaried probation officers. 

At the first session of the Court two ladies appeared. 
One (Mrs. Lucy L. Flower) offered to raise a fund from 
which the salaries of probation officers might be paid ; the 
other (Mrs. Alzina P. Stevens) offered her services as the 
first probation officer. So the Juvenile Court Committee 
was formed. 

The law forbade the detention of young children in gaols 
and at police stations, but provided no other place of 
detention. For six years the Juvenile Court Committee 
maintained a Detention Home, assisted by appropriations 
from the city and country. Through the home about 2,600 
children passed yearly. 

As time went on the Committee felt that the work of 
directing and paying probation officers was properly a 
public function, and on its own initiative secured a law 
placing the probation officers on the country's pay roll. 
When I visited Chicago there were thirty-eight probation 
officers, paid for by the country, and forty police probation 
officers, paid for by the city. The very responsible task 
of conducting a place of detention for various classes of 
dependent and delinquent children, the Committee considered 
should be done by the public for the public ; and, as a result 
of the efforts of the Juvenile Court Committee, the city and 


country joined in erecting the Juvenile Court and Detention 
Home, in Ewing Street, which was opened in October, 1907. 
The officers of this Detention Home are appointed under 
the County Civil Service law, and the home is maintained 
entirely by public funds. 

The Chicago Juvenile Court and Detention Home is 
situated in a central position, in the midst of a very poor 
quarter. It is an unpretentious-looking building in which 
the court is held. Inside are the rooms in which children 
from a distance await " trial." These rooms are down- 
stairs ; while upstairs are the detention rooms, consisting of 
school-rooms and dormitories, which accommodate sixty 
children who are on probation. 

The Court was held in a long room. At one end of it were 
seats for any who cared to come and hear the cases tried ; 
but they heard little of the actual cases. The Judge 
sat in an ordinary easy chair. Near him were the clerks 
and those officers of the Court concerned. The children 
were in turn brought in, with their parents and the pro- 
bation officer, and the policeman in charge of the case. 
A low railing partitioned the part of the room in which 
the Judge and his clerks sat from the rear of the Court. 
There was a little gate in the railing, so that if the child 
were tiny or frightened, or did not seem to understand 
what he was asked, the Judge might open this little gate, 
bring the child near to him and talk gently and quietly to 
the little one to give him confidence. If it were necessary, 
in order to get at the truth of a matter, to question the child 
privately, or to make arrangements between the child and 
his parents, the Judge sent him into one of the rooms which 
opened off the Court, with his probation officer and friends. 
These plans were afterwards reported to the Judge, who 
gave advice on, and suggestions concerning them, although 


during the consultation he had been busy with another 

The Court sits every day except Saturday, and about 
fifty cases are dealt with daily. At first it was only held 
twice a week, but its sphere of influence has become so much 
greater that the extended time is fully occupied. The 
Judge can now send a boy home on parole for a week, at 
the end of which time he is required to come before the Court 
again. If he is trying to do better he is not detained ; or, 
if it is thought desirable, he is sent to the Detention Home 
upstairs and again brought before the Court in a week's 
time or more. 

If a boy persists in stealing in the same line — from a 
railway car, from persons, or from houses — the Judge deals 
more severely with him than if he committed an entirely new 
offence. The welfare of the child, nevertheless, not the 
vengeance of the law, remains the controlling thought. 

For boys who play truant there are what are called 
Parental Schools. To these truant players are sent ; and 
they are detained till they assume regular habits and can 
be trusted to return and attend ordinary, outdoor school 
regularly, thenceforward. 

For orphan, or neglected children there are Dependent 
Homes, the Glenwood Home for Dependent Boys being 
a splendid institution. 

For delinquent boys and girls — boys and girls with 
criminal instincts — there are special schools excellently 
arranged and equipped. In each of these different homes 
the nature of a boy's or girl's wrongdoing is studied and 
the forces which lie beneath are considered. A cure is 
prescribed on scientific lines. Different homes have charge 
of different cures and study the special causes of the moral 
infirmity of their proteges. 


William Byron Forbush truly says, " The mischief in a 
boy is the entire basis of his education. The boy could be 
made into a man out of the parts of him that his parents 
and teachers are trying to throw away." 

In connexion with the Juvenile Court of Chicago a 
mother's pension has lately been granted. By means of it 
children, until they are fourteen, or wage earners, may be 
boarded out to their own mothers. Poor mothers are thus 
enabled to keep their children about them, as in Victoria, 
and in other Australian states, where this beneficent provision, 
in the shape of regulated payments, has long been in force. 

Girls under eighteen years of age and boys under seventeen 
come under the jurisdiction of the Chicago Juvenile Court. 

The difficulties of this Court are manifold. There are 
forty-three nationalities in Chicago, and, in all cases of 
erring or delinquent foreign children, interpreters are 
necessary. Negroes alone have a probation officer of their 
own race. 

In connexion with the Juvenile Court are the Juvenile 
Protective Association and the Court of Domestic Relations, 
of which I will speak later. 


SOON after my arrival in Chicago I met Judge Pinckney, 
Judge of that Juvenile Court. He very kindly in- 
vited me to go and see the Court whenever I had an hour 
to spare. He said, " I will give you the chair next to me and 
then you can hear everything." 

Talking of methods, he said, "The difficulty in Chicago 
is that our law wants amending so that we will have power 
to punish the man who sells the beer as well as the boy who 
gets drunk." 

I took advantage of the Judge's kindly offer and spent 
three most interesting afternoons at the Court, being much 
impressed with all I saw. 

The Judge is a great man, so broad, human, and sympathe- 
tic. He talked to and advised each child in turn ; but when 
firmness and severity were needed, he used them too. 

I wish I had time and space to give accounts of all the 
cases that I heard, but the following will be illustrative of 
his ways of dealing with them. 

A Hungarian girl of fourteen, who had only been in Chicago 
five months, and who it was discovered had come with a friend 
under a false passport as his daughter, was tried for stealing. 
She had no relations and could not speak a word of English. 
Through a boy of fifteen, who acted as intrepreter, she said 




she had stolen a parcel of spoons from the place in which she 
was working, because a girl friend told her they would be 
so useful to her when she got married. She sobbed bitterly 
when the Judge asked her through the interpreter if she did 
not know she was doing wrong. He decided to place her 
with a respectable Bohemian family to be trained and 
taught. If a suitable home could not be found she was 
to be sent back to Hungary. 

A boy of Polish parents told a strange story. He said 
that he had been drugged and taken out by some young 
men who threatened to shoot him if he would not go with 
them. He remembered nothing of what happened, he said, 
but, when he came to himself, found a revolver and watch 
in his pocket. He and two young men were arrested in 
connexion with a robbery. The officer gave the boy and his 
parents an excellent character. 

The Judge spoke to him about being made to do what he 
knew was wrong. When I was your age, he said, " no one 
could make me do a thing I did not want to do." The boy 
was let off on condition that he reported himself every 
month and helped the police as a witness in their evidence 
against the men, who were awaiting trial. He was very 
grateful. The Judge shook hands with him. The old 
father was so overcome that he tried to kiss the Judge's 
hand. This case was passed in for sixty days. 

Three boys who, with older boys, had stolen seventeen 
pairs of boots, gloves, and other articles from a car were 
brought up together. Some of the things had been worn ; 
some they had thrown away. Each boy told his story, 
saying that some elder boys who had a gun, and with whom 
they had been hunting, had made them steal and had 
threatened to shoot them. 

The Judge said no one could make a boy steal if he didn't 


want to. The police officer said that two horses, which had 
been grazing on the prairies all through the winter, had been 
looked after by a faithful sheepdog, which was deliberately 
shot by one of the boys. The Judge spoke very earnestly 
to each boy about the wanton cruelty of this act. 

The eldest boy was let off on probation, as it was his first 
offence. The youngest, a black-eyed sharp little nut of a 
foreigner who had not been to school for twenty-four and a 
half days, was sent to the Parental Schools. The other 
boy's case was held over for a week to make inquiries about 
his home. He went to the Detention Rooms in connexion 
with the Court. 

An amusing case was that of a black boy about twelve, 
whose parents were both dead. A black aunt befriended 
him. She was dressed in great style and spoke very volubly, 
rolling her eyes and showing her white teeth. A small 
white girl, as fair as a lily, testified against him. She was 
very shy, and the Judge brought her close beside him, and 
when she said another boy was going to give the one before 
the Court a black eye, the Judge said that it was a funny 
thing to do, to give a black boy a black eye. The boy was 
sent away from Chicago to an aunt in the country who had 
offered to keep him. 

An interesting case was that of a girl of seventeen who had 
stolen a coat worth twenty-five dollars and several other goods. 
Her brother, a well-dressed man, pleaded for her. They 
both cried and seemed to feel their situation acutely. The 
constables who had investigated the case gave their version. 
The goods stolen were produced, among them the chief 
cause of the trouble — a long blue coat. Judge Pinckney 
said : " The girl has been untruthful all through." But 
after some discussion and much pleading, she, her brother, 
and the man from whom the articles had been stolen, were 


sent into an adjoining room and when they returned a little 
later it was announced that the brother had agreed to pay 
the full value of the things stolen. 

The Judge spoke very kindly to the girl about the love of 
dress which had led her to steal, and earnestly asked her 
to try and direct her thoughts to things that would be helpful 
to her, and to others. He finally decided to send her back 
to her home in Illinois, on condition that she did not return 
to Chicago for two years. But before leaving, I smiled to 
hear her ask, if she "might keep the blue coat." 

Two or three cases of young girls who had been away from 
home, some for weeks, living with different men, were heard. 
One girl, only fifteen, had no mother and did not seem 
intelligent. She could neither read nor write and was sent 
to one of the Parental Schools. 

Another girl of seventeen, who had a step-mother, said she 
would go anywhere rather than live with her step-mother. 
She was sent to the Delinquent School for girls, where she was 
to stay till she was twenty-one. 

I was particularly sorry for another girl of seventeen, 
whose father and step-mother had the hardest and most 
unrelenting faces I have ever seen. She cried bitterly, and 
said she would not go home. The pathos of the word 
" home " ! She was sent for a month's trial to a lady who 
said she was willing to take her. 

There were many other interesting cases, but I will just 
tell of one more. It was that of a black girl of seventeen 
who had no parents and who had been before the Court at 
different times since she was fourteen. Her name was Susie, 
and she was a really nice-looking girl. 

Susie had said she was married to a man with whom she 
went to a dancing saloon in a very low quarter. She had 
been living with a black aunt and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. 


Diggs by name. They stated the case and said Susie was 
always a good girl and that they had no children and loved 
her. The probation officer, a coloured woman, said she had 
decided not to give Susie another chance. But Susie cried 
bitterly and threw her arms round the probation officer, 
who visibly relented. Susie sobbed and pleaded, the poor 
old aunt and uncle cried too, and I noticed the Judge get up 
for a minute and turn away to hide a smile, for Susie was 
hugging the officer, who at last asked the Judge to give her 
another chance. He gave the girl a fortnight's probation, 
telling her that she must report herself at the end of that 
time. And she, and her aunt and uncle, left the Court 
smiling through their tears. 

Another most amusing case was that of some boys who 
had been tormenting the children at a school. One little 
fellow, to evade the police, ran into an old woman's arms 
and said she was his grandmother. She had said she was 
in order to protect him, although she was not at all. 

The Judge was sympathetic, and kindly in his hearing and 
advice to all the young offenders who had come before 
him, and severe only in one case — that of a boy of fifteen 
who had shot at a man with a revolver. 


THE day after my first visit to the Juvenile Court 1 
went out to St. Charles' School for Boys, where 
delinquent boys from ten to seventeen years of age are 
sent from the Court. 

At 9 a.m. I met at the station a police officer and two 
boys whom I had seen in Court the day before. After an 
hour's ride by express train we started for a four miles' 
drive to the Home. A typical American carriage, like a 
phaeton, with a flat, cloth-covered top, edged with fringe, 
and a pair of piebald ponies were waiting for us. The 
roads were the worst I have ever seen. The ponies 
were sometimes knee-deep in mud ; the ground, which had 
been frozen three or four feet deep all the winter, was 
beginning to thaw. 

The boys were very interested in all they saw, and had 
quite forgotten their tears and fears of the day before. 

One of them, a fair-haired bright-faced little chap only 
ten years old, had eight charges of burglary against him, 
and when arrested had all sorts of burglarious tools in his 
possession. He sat in the back of the trap with me and 
showed the keenest enjoyment and interest in everything. 
Here I felt instinctively was no criminal, only a little child 
whose intelligence wanted wise directing and understanding. 

He told me his history, or as much as he knew of it. His 



father was an unknown quantity to him, his mother was in 
California, and so he lived with his sister — a really beautiful 
girl by whom I had been much impressed the day before 
in the Court. I said, " Your sister is a very pretty girl, 
isn't she ? " " Gee, yes ! " he said; " two or three young 
men wanted her to like them, but she wouldn't. She was 
seventeen last month, and has been married a year. I 
stayed with her, but I didn't like the school, so I just 
didn't go." He broke off to say, " Gee, there's a blackbird ; 
isn't he pretty and cute ? I know all about birds and I 
just love them, and dogs and horses too ! " (He said 
" Gee " almost every time he opened his mouth.) When I 
talked to him about stealing, he said, " Gee, it's not worth 
while. You can do a little thing all right, but that's not 
much good to you ; and if you do a big thing, sure you get 
caught." "\ | 

It was a cold drive, for although the sun was shining, 
deep drifts of frozen snow were lying all along the road. 
I was not sorry when at last the building of the Home 
loomed up in the distance, and we entered the road through 
the six farms, consisting of just 1,000 acres, that have been 
acquired by the St. Charles' School authorities as reforming 
grounds for delinquent boys. 

Mr. Peckham, the officer in charge of the boys, who 
had taken the first two boys to St. Charles seven years 
ago, pointed out to me the different farmhouses as we 
passed. Each farm is presided over by a " Mother " and 
" Father" and takes as many boys as the house will accom- 
modate. One we passed had twelve boys, another six, and 
so on. It took some little time to come to the central group 
of buildings, which comprises twelve cottages, a gymnasium, 
hospital, schoolhouse, laundry, trades shops' or industrial 
building, bakery, cold storage, and administration building. 


All these are separate buildings some distance apart, and 
with the stables, dairies, and other outbuildings form quite 
a little town. The fine macadamized drives and wide 
cemented pavements are all the work of the boys. 

We drove right through the street to the administration 
building where boys in uniform came and took the horses. 
Then we passed on to the office. Here the two boys we had 
brought went through a minute examination, all of 
which was entered up on a history sheet. The officers in 
charge told me many interesting particulars of the work. 
There is, for instance, a large increase in the number of boys 
of foreign parentage who go to the School, a slight decrease 
in boys of American parentage, and the percentage of Afro- 
American boys is small. He mentioned individual cases of 
boys that had done splendidly when they left the School ; 
and told me, too, of two little chaps, eight and nine years 
of age, theyoungest boys in the school, who had been sent 
out for attempting to wreck a train. When questioned, 
they said that they had " wanted to see the trains run into 
each other and smash up like they do in moving pictures.' ' 

Before we commenced our tour of inspection, we had 
dinner. I met then all the teachers and officers in charge. 
Some of the boys, dressed in white, waited on us, and waited 

The officers are all resident. Their rooms are in the 
administrative building, and there are five lady teachers, 
whose quarters I went over. I was much impressed by the 
excellent arrangements and by the fine airy rooms each 
teacher occupied. The lady who showed me around had 
been at St. Charles three years and was very keenly in- 
terested in her work among the boys. 

The twelve " cottages " which I have already mentioned 
are in reality quitejarge buildings, handsomely and sub- 


stantially built of red brick with red-tiled roofs. Each of 
these cottages cost about $25,000 (£5,000) and is presided 
over by a house Father and a house Mother, a married couple 
who try to be father and mother to the boys while they are 
at the school. Those I saw seemed particularly adapted to 
their work. The boys called them Mother and Father, and 
the foster-parents take a keen interest in each of their boys. 

On the first floor of each cottage were the officers' sitting- 
room, the kitchen, and dining-room. On the second floor 
were the house Father's and Mother's rooms and a large dormi- 
tory for the boys. One long room adjoining the dormitory 
was lined with cupboards. Each boy had a number on his 
cupboard and the arrangements for keeping the clothes in 
order were excellent. The boys dressed in this room and 
slept in separate white enamelled beds. These are made at 
the Penitentiary and could not be nicer. 

There were three boys, aged fifteen, in the house I visited, 
who had never slept in a bed before they came to the school. 

In the basement of each cottage is a large toilet room with 
plunge and shower baths, and a large play room well lighted 
and sanitary. The whole of the building was particularly 
bright and airy. The windows were gay with flowers and 
beautiful pot plants. 

It was dinner hour when I went around, and the cottages 
seemed swarming with boys, some playing games, some 
reading, all very orderly and happy-looking. Fifty boys are 
grouped to each cottage and are classified according to age 
and to the crimes which they committed. The cottages are 
known by letter, A, B, C, D, and so on. Each cottage forms a 
company and a bright lad with executive ability is in charge 
of the boys under the guidance of the house Father and 
Mother. He assembles his men for drill, and has charge over 
them at all times. 


At 5.30 each morning the boys are wakened by a military 
call, and all are at breakfast at 6 o'clock. From then until 
6.50 they do their housework, make the beds, wash the 
dishes, sweep the floors, etc., and at seven all are assembled. 

Half of the boys are then sent to school, and the other half 
to various work. Each boy is placed at the trade to which 
he is most suited. At 11 a.m. the morning work is done, to 
start again at 12.30 o'clock, when the boys who went to 
school in the morning go to work at the trades, and vice versa. 
All time between is spent in sports. The work is through at 
4.30 in the afternoon. 

Leaving the cottages we went into a large hall, where all the 
boys were assembled. Each house Father was at the head 
of his squad. 

There were large placards, upon which was written in 
plain letters Garden, Dairy, Stable, School, Blacksmithing, 
Tailoring, Printing, Bakery, and so on. When all the ofhcers 
had finished their reports the boys, at a given word, took their 
stand under the placard to which they were allotted, and all 
filed out to their respective duties. 

I was amused to hear how accurately the boys kept count 
of the time they had been in the Home. The Superintendent 
asked several boys how long they had been in. Each said 
the exact time, such as two months three days, eleven months 
and four days, and so on. 

Colonel Adams, the head of the school, believes in the play 
spirit and the spirit of playing fair, and says that before you 
can build up a boy morally or mentally you must build him 
up physically. For this reason the gymnasium is the finest 
gymnasium in the state. It was the gift of the Commercial 
Club of Chicago, which gave $50,000 for its erection. The 
floor space is 175 by 125 feet and provides for basket ball 
courts, indoor base ball, and running, as well as indoor drill 


in bad weather. A large swimming bath and shower baths 
are a feature. 

Every officer and every boy is required to take physical 
instruction. The manual training building was complete in 
every detail, and I saw the boys at work at tailoring, boot- 
making, carpentry, blacksmithing, printing and many other 
trades. In the mending-room boys were mending, by 
machine, shirts, overalls, etc. They used up every scrap of 
old material and mended 700 pieces a week. 

An interesting department was the tool department. Here 
the tools are kept together, sharpened, and always ready for 
use, so that every officer may hand in an order saying how 
many, and which tools he wants for his workers. 

Then as each boy files past he gets his tools. The list is 
given to the officer, who has to account for every one. In this 
way 200 boys can be equipped in half an hour. 

The laundry was very up to date. It had washing 
machines, wringers and electric irons ; no tables, but shirt, 
bodice and sleeve boards fixed by hinges to the wall. All 
the work was done by the boys under a woman superin- 

In the printing department the monthly paper called the 
Boy Agriculturist is set up. Here also all the printing of the 
school is done. 

The blacksmith's shop is well equipped with eight forges, 
the blacksmith and his boys keep forty horses and mules 
shod, repair all wagons, ploughs, etc., and all iron imple- 
ments used on the farms. The painting class is always busy 
painting the barns and other buildings and decorating the 
walls of the cottages. Most valuable work is done in the 
agricultural department. Farms are cleaned, fences built, 
land redrained, and crops sown. In fact, practically all the 
work of the school is done by the boys in order that they may 


acquire habits of industry, and learn trades which they can 
follow after leaving school. They have a fine band. It 
was practising vigorously " Onward, Christian Soldiers " 
when I heard it. 

Athletic sports are encouraged, and the boys of each 
cottage compete against each other. At the end of each six 
months the boys in the cottage that gets the highest marks 
have a chicken dinner, and a whole day's holiday. I was 
greatly impressed with the school and the quickness and the 
brightness of the boys. A fine hospital at a cost of $15,000 
was recently built, and a doctor from St. Charles visits daily 
when necessary. The matron in charge showed me the 
wards, and operating theatre, isolation rooms, surgery, store 
rooms, etc. There were thirty-three inmates when I 
visited the hospital, an unusually large number ; for it 
is a significant fact that only the new boys are in need of 
medical treatment. After a boy has become acclimatized, 
the healthy food, the open air and the excellent social and 
sanitary condition keep him in good health. 

The whole system of the Home impressed me greatly. A 
boy enters this school with 6,000 marks against him and an 
indeterminate sentence. For each day of good behaviour 
ten bad marks are taken off the total ; for each three months 
of good behaviour an additional 300 is taken off. There are 
also other ways in which the number may be reduced. For 
instance, one of the officers just previous to my visit dropped 
a purse on the farm. This was found by one of the boys, who 
took it immediately to the officers, and for this honest act 300 
marks were taken off his total. The boy who does well each 
day in school and at work is thus able to work out his salva- 
tion in sixteen months, and may then be put on parole. The 
head of the institution is then made his guardian, and has 
control over him until he is twenty-one years of age. 


There is no high stone wall round the school, no locks, nor 
bars in it. All the boys are trusted. 

Only occasionally a boy runs away. The last who did 
so tried to board a moving train and was cut to pieces. 

The officer in charge of the school is responsible for the 
boys under him. 

If one of them runs away the officer is punished, so if the 
officer and his boys are friends, the boy thinks before he gets 
his officer into trouble. 

The whole method employed at St. Charles is that of per- 
sonal contact and sympathy between boys and officers. The 
wonderful part of the system is the fact that the boys have a 
great reverence for the school. It is " Home/' to them, and 
nearly all who are paroled come back at some time to visit 
their officers and "Father" and "Mother." 

The religious education of the boys is well looked after. 
The Protestant ministers from towns near by conduct ser- 
vices for the Protestants. A Roman Catholic priest and 
Jewish rabbi take charge of those of their religion. Every 
Sunday afternoon all boys assemble and march to an unde- 
nominational service, where a good moral talk is given them. 

The St. Charles School was first advocated by Judge R. S. 
Tuthill, the prominent Juvenile Judge of Chicago, who 
realized that the state of Illinois should have an institution 
for the management of incorrigible boys. St. Charles is built 
on the broadest and best foundations. Its watchwords are 
mutual help and kindness. It aims at reforming delinquent 
boys by giving them liberty, a home, a father and mother, 
and the chance to learn a trade in the best environments. 
Corporal punishment is not one of the weapons of its 

One has only to look at the long list of boys who are now 
successful and useful members of society to realize how its 


aims have been fulfilled, and how by turning the misdirected 
energy of children in right channels, inculcating habits of 
truth, honour and industry, the St. Charles School has served 
its country in the most patriotic fashion by supplying it with 
good citizens every year. 


THE Juvenile Protective Association works in conjunc- 
tion with the Juvenile Court. The name of the organi- 
zation known as the Juvenile Court Committee was on June 4, 
1909, changed to that of the Juvenile Protective Association. 
Its purpose is to take a step still further on behalf of the 
children, and to remove as far as possible the temptations and 
dangers which carelessness and greed place about them. It 
is estimated that each year between 3,000 and 4,000 children 
pass through the Juvenile Court, and that about another 
7,000 young persons between sixteen and twenty years of age 
pass through the other Courts. Each year brings another 
10,000 children to live in the same environment and to 
inherit the same tendencies. A large proportion are more 
sinned against than sinning. 

The Juvenile Protective Association aims at securing the 
protection from evil influence that every child has a right to. 
To this noble end the city has been divided by the Committee 
of the Association into eleven districts, with a paid officer in 
each, whose duty it is in every way to protect and safeguard 
children. In addition to these officers Local Protective 
Leagues have been organized by interested citizens to assist 
the officers in their work at all points. In all parts of the 
city their workers found that the forces for good were far 
less organized and active than those that work injury and 



destruction. What wonder is it that boys and girls, whose 
dreary home surroundings drive them into the streets for 
recreation, should be attracted to the bright lights and open 
doors of cheap theatres and dangerous pleasure resorts ! 
The officers said that they felt the need of places of the right 
sort in which young people might amuse themselves, and 
many social centres in the poor and squalid districts have 
been arranged. It is interesting and pathetic to find that 
in almost every neighbourhood where these wholesome 
attractive spots have been provided for children, the parents 
have come forward and asked for a club, or a similar place 
of rest and recreation for themselves. 

I should like to give in detail an account of the great 
work this Association is doing ; but will only touch some 
phases of it. 

The work of the Association is divided into three main 
sections : Investigation, Repressive Work and Constructive 

During 1911 the Association dealt with 5,821 cases in 
which the welfare of children was concerned. As I have 
already mentioned, eleven district officers, and, in addition 
to these, two special officers, are employed by the Associa- 
tion. During the year these thirteen officers paid 27,367 

Their principal investigations were made to determine the 
physical and moral conditions which surrounded working 
girls. This study included the personal histories of 200 
shop girls, 200 factory girls, 200 office girls, 200 immigrant 
girls and 100 girls who had become delinquent. They 
also studied the home surroundings of 100 Juvenile Court 
children to ascertain if there were anything in the home 
surroundings to contribute to their delinquency. 

The Lake excursion boats, the soldiers' encampments, 


parks, dance halls, cheap theatres, and disorderly hotels 
were investigated among other places, and many unhappy 
conditions in connexion with them were discovered. 

The Repressive Work included a repressive campaign 
against selling liquor and tobacco to minors, selling obscene 
postal cards, using gambling slot machines, etc. It tried to 
awaken a sense of responsibility in the cases of 4,604 cases of 
parents who had contributed to the delinquency of their 

The Association Constructive Work has resulted in the 
founding of the Chicago Girls' Club, open every night in the 
week ; and the opening of ten public school buildings as 
social and recreation centres. A boys' band has been 
formed, a bathing beach for boys has been arranged for, and 
several reading rooms have been opened. An employment 
bureau has been organized, and arrangements have been 
made for preventing boys and girls under seventeen from 
attending court rooms during the trial of criminal cases. 

Other fine helpful movements have been started by the 
Association. Its noble work and high ideals one cannot 
sufficiently appreciate. It is generally declared that much 
of its success is due to the splendid personality of its Superin- 
tendent, Mrs. James A. Britton, and the officers associated 
with her. 

The first note I had from her in answer to mine asking if I 
might call to see her gives some idea of the quality of this 
wonderful social worker. In it she said : "I shall be very 
glad indeed to see you and talk with you about our work. I 
have always felt that Australia was a leader in child rescue 
work, and I am sure I shall get more from our interview than 
I shall be able to give." 

Mrs. Britton, herself, explained to me the work of the Asso- 
ciation in its various departments. One could not but feel 


that it was indeed a privilege to meet and talk with her. 

One case out of the 5,821 dealt with by the Juvenile 
Protective Association may be given — not because it is 
typical, but because it is interesting and encouraging. 
The following is an extract from the President's address : — 

" A few years ago, a little boy of fourteen lived with his 
family in an Indiana town. His home was not a happy one, 
for his stepfather was cruel, and the lad determined to run 
away from home. He came to Chicago, found a job, and 
applied for admission to the Naval Militia, swearing he was 
sixteen years of age, and, as he was large and well grown for 
his years, this was not disputed. He had no money to cover 
his railroad fare and was obliged to walk several hundred 
miles. Late one night, as he was passing through a little 
Indiana village, tired, hungry and cold, he saw a light in a 
baker's shop. He opened the window, entered the shop and 
began to eat. He was seen by a policeman, and was shot in 
the shoulder, arrested, convicted of burglary, and sentenced 
to twenty years in the penitentiary. 

" When he was sent to prison he was put to work in the 
machine room. As he was still weak from his wound, he fell 
against some machinery, and had two of the fingers of his left 
hand taken off. After he had been at the penitentiary for a 
year and a half, his mother came to the office of the Associa- 
tion, and asked if something could not be done for him. She 
showed us his last letter, and it was one of the most pathetic 
letters I ever read. In it the boy spoke of his longing for 
home and mother, sent his love to all his brothers and sisters, 
inquired after the health of the old family dog, and ended the 
letter by saying, ' Cheer up, mother, I shall soon see you, for 
I have only eighteen and a half more years to serve.' 

" One of the officers of the Association went to Indiana, 
verified the mother's story, wrote East and obtained (at the 


boy's birthplace) affidavits of his real age, because, of course, 
it had been illegal to send a sixteen-year-old boy to the peni- 
tentiary. With her information the officer visited the 
Governor of Indiana, and obtained from him the boy's parole. 
She went to the prison with a suit of clothes, brought the boy 
to Chicago, put him to work in the office of this Association 
(in order that he might learn how to bear himself in the 
world) and then secured for him a position at seven dollars a 
week. He was soon promoted, and now has been at work 
for six months, and earns $11 .88 a week. He has started a 
banking account, and before the year is out he will probably 
receive a pardon. He is going to be a respectable, and, I feel 
sure, a useful citizen. Incidentally, it cost this Association 
$18.50 to save this boy from spending eighteen and a half 
of his best years behind prison bars/' 


ANOTHER helpful agent in connexion with the Chil- 
dren's Court of Chicago is the Court of Domestic 
Relations. The Judges of the Municipal Court decided 
on October 31, 1910, to establish this branch Court, which 
was opened on April 3, 191 1. The first Judge appointed 
was Judge Charles N. Goodnow. 
The new Court aims at — 

1. Uniformity in decisions and in treatment of offenders. 

2. Removal of women and children from the evil influence 
of a police court environment. 

3. A more intelligent understanding of conditions and 
environment surrounding each case, and consequently a 
more just and sympathetic treatment of each offender. 

4. A vigorous searching out of the causes of delinquency 
and dependency in children, and, by promptly checking 
the cause, lessening the effect. 

5. An effort to make the Court equally as good an agent 
for keeping husband and wife together as for separating 
them, and thus give the children the home influence which 
courts of law, in the past, have been instrumental in 
depriving them of. 

6. To inaugurate a system whereby delinquent deserters 
may be promptly compelled to support their wives and 
children, thus forcing the one upon whom that obligation 



rests to perform that duty, and so relieve the charitable 
public of another burden. 

7. To exercise a watchful care over deserving and unfor- 
tunate women and children, by seeing that they are placed 
under the protection of some person or organization that 
should extend to them such help, advice and direction as 
will put them in the way of becoming self-supporting. 

8. To keep a complete system of records regarding each 
case, so that in time, from the composite whole, some useful 
results may be obtained and some beneficial laws enacted. 

9. To give prompt trials, especially when juries are de- 
manded, and thus give more speedy justice than heretofore. 

There are many interesting features in connexion with 
this movement, one being the appointment of Mrs. Marie 
Leavitt as a Clerk in the Court to act as social secretary. 

I had the pleasure of meeting one of the officers in the 
office of the Juvenile Protective Association. The new Court 
of Domestic Relations has been established as a direct 
result of this organization and is worked from the same 

The ideal that the Juvenile Protective Association and 
Court of Domestic Relations aim at, is the gradual uplifting 
of children's environments in the home, the street, and the 
playground, so that eventually there will be no need for 
a Juvenile Court. 

The Court of Domestic Relations really acts as a buffer 
between the Home and the Court, and when the officers 
explain to the parents that they only wish to help them 
and to keep them beyond the reach of the arm of the law, 
they are always well received. 

I was shown a most comprehensive map, which plainly 
illustrated the Destructive and Constructive Agencies of 
Chicago affecting the welfare of children, so that when 


there is a complaint regarding a family, it is only necessary 
to look at the map to see by what influence the child is 

At the time of my visit one of the lady officers whom I 
met was engaged in interviewing all boys in the prisons 
under twenty-one years of age, for the purpose of finding out 
their personal histories and the story of their crimes. In one 
case only was a boy detected in a lie and that was almost 
excusable, for he had murdered his father. In every other 
instance the story was verified at the boy's home and at 
the Courts. 

On the invitation of Miss Alice Henry, who is well known 
in Melbourne, I prolonged my stay in Chicago for a few 
days in order to be present at the banquet held in honour 
of the work done during its first year by the Court of 
Domestic Relations. 

More than 800 men and women, jurists, philanthropists, 
and members of many charitable associations, attended this 
banquet, which was held at the Auditorium Hotel, facing 
Lake Michigan. 

The banquet was presided over by Mr. Homer E. Still well, 
a former President of the Chicago Association of Commerce, 
and there were present Judge Goodnow, Judge Pinckney, 
Stephen S. Gregory (President of the American Bar Associa- 
tion), Miss Jane Addams of Hull House, Dr. Emil G. Hersch 
(Pastor of Sinai Congregation), Dean W. T. Sumner of the 
Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, and Judge Harry Olson, 
Chief Justice of the Municipal Court, who were among the 
speakers. In reviewing the year's work, Judge Goodnow 
said : — 

" The organization of the Court of Domestic Relations 
has marked an epoch in the advancement of jurisprudence 
in this country. Never before has a court been organized 


and equipped not only to administer the law but to co- 
operate with all those forces that exist for the social better- 
ment of the city and the uplifting of humanity. Co-opera- 
tion has been the keystone of the success of this Court. We 
have builded it upon the idea that the family is the unit ; 
that all things that touch the home are for good, or for 
evil. We have sought more to cure the ills than punish 
the offenders." 

Judge Pinckney (with whose fine work I was so impressed 
in the Children's Court) spoke with great feeling. He said : 
" When I look at all the faces before me, I feel there is still 
a God in Israel " ; and went on to explain how the Court 
of Domestic Relations and the Juvenile Court worked on 
parallel lines. He said the cause of juvenile delinquency 
was in the home and attributable to the adult. During 
his term of office, 12,000 dependent and delinquent boys 
and girls had come before him, and he considered the cause 
of delinquency in 75 per cent, of the cases to be parental 
neglect and incompetence.' ' 

It was a fine speech, and I wish I had the space to give 
all the notes I took of it. He finished up by saying: 
" The past is ours to learn from, the future to create. 
We want a Court in the future to deal with Juvenile and 
Domestic Relations." He gave an example of one family 
which had been before four separate Courts — the hus- 
band for neglecting his children, before one Court ; 
the husband and wife for domestic quarrels, before another 
Court ; the wife sued her husband for cruelty in the 
Divorce Court ; and the children were before the Juvenile 
Court. As a last resource, they were all referred to the 
Juvenile Court. 

Mr. Stephen S. Gregory, in his speech, said : " Every- 
thing new is born in doubt and nourished in pessimism. 


If the Court of Domestic Relations prevents the breaking-up 
of families, a great good has been accomplished.' ' 

.Miss Jane Addams, in a fine speech which met with a 
magnificent reception, mentioned among other things that 
it had been proved that the intermittent husband — the 
husband who appears and disappears — can be made to 
contribute to the home. From April 3, 191 1, to March 
31, 1912, at least $75,000, she said, had gone to the sup- 
port of deserted women and children that otherwise would 
have been spent elsewhere, while the families were living 
on charity. 

> There were other fine speakers, and I met some splendid 
social workers during the evening, including Mr. Thurston, 
who is at the head of the movement for boarding out depen- 
dent children ; Mr. Millbanke, the acting Superintendent 
of United Charities, and the authority in America on the 
" homeless man " ; Dr. James Britton and others, all 
of whom were most interested in my quest. 



HULL House is one of the greatest powers for good 
in the city of Chicago. It is the largest settlement 
in the world, and through it I was introduced to the settle- 
ment movement in America. Toynbee Hall in London 
provided the germ of the American settlement idea, but 
the child has become the father to its English parent ; 
for, in America, settlements have extended in all direc- 
tions and are now a real, living and moving force for 

In the poorest quarters of the great cities, public-spirited 
citizens have established these educational and recreation 
centres. Many of the settlements have residential quar- 
ters. There social workers and those interested in the 
settlement idea, live, and try, by their own busy, useful 
lives and kindly ways, to influence and uplift all those 
with whom they come in contact. 

There are no less than forty -three different nationalities in 
Chicago. The aim of those interested in the work is to 
establish a settlement in each quarter, so that the Poles 
should have one, the Italians one, the coloured race another, 
and so on. Because of the difference in creed of the 
various nationalities among whom the settlements are 



established, no religious instruction is as a rule given in any 
of them. 

Hull House, where a great number of different nation- 
alities assemble, is open on Sunday, from November to May 
during the year, for special concerts. The Chicago Hebrew 
Institute on stated dates also gives a splendid high-class 
programme on Sundays. This concert hall is always 

For many years the settlements united in a Federation 
called " The Federation of Chicago Settlements." Four 
years ago a more forward step was taken, each settlement 
giving up its separate organization and merging into what 
is known as " The Association of Neighbourhood Workers." 

Whenever Hull House has initiated an activity, it is only 
too pleased to hand the management to public authority, 
its practicability having been demonstrated, and a new 
idea, as it were, set in working order. Among some of the 
activities which it has instituted and handed over to public 
administration are baths for the use of dwellers in certain 
neighbourhoods, playgrounds, a reading-room and public 
library, a lending collection of pictures, and summer 
classes in wood- work and metal. 

Hull House organizers aim at being free from institu- 
tional burdens in order that they may experiment in new 
enterprises. Its investigations were largely responsible for 
enforcement of the laws concerning sweating and child- 
labour in factories. And many reforms in sanitary laws 
have been carried out owing to the searching housing in- 
vestigations it has organized. 

This wonderful institution co-operates with the Health 
Department, the United Charities of Chicago, the Ju- 
venile Court, the League for the Protection of Immigrants, 
the Juvenile Psychopathic Institute, the City Gardens, 


and many other forces for good scattered throughout the 

I lunched twice at Hull House and dined there one even- 
ing. The first luncheon I had was in the public rooms, 
which are most artistically furnished in the prevailing 
brown and blue tones. The tables are all round ones, 
and the polished tops are left uncovered, except that white 
linen doyleys are placed under each dish. I lunched there 
again with Mr. Mills, the boys' director, who introduced me 
to some notable philanthropic workers of Chicago. Another 
evening I had dinner in the residents' dining room — a very 
beautiful room — and had the honour of meeting Miss Addams 
and of sitting next to her. She, as head resident, takes 
the head of the centre table. At the same table were 
seated Miss Mary MacDowell, Miss Breckenridge and 
Miss Abbott, all well known in Chicago as social workers. 
I had the privilege of meeting them, and learning 
much of their work and experience that was of great 

Hull House owes a large proportion of its success to the 
striking personality of Miss Jane Addams, who Chicagoians 
say is the greatest woman in the world. She was practically 
the founder of Hull House, and for over twenty years has 
devoted her life to furthering the welfare of the people of 

Hull House was established in September, 1889. The 
original two residents had a firm belief that a house, easily 
accessible and open to all, planted in the midst of the large 
foreign colonies which are so apt to isolate themselves in 
American cities, would be of great service to Chicago. 
The object of Hull House, as stated in its charter, is : — 

(1) To provide a centre for a higher civic and social 
life ; (2) to institute and maintain educational and philan- 


thropic enterprises, and (3) to investigate and improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago. 

The Trustees are a self-perpetuation body of seven mem- 
bers, each of whom is elected for a period of seven years. 

Forty-four men and women (residents) live at Hull House, 
and defray their own expenses under the direction of a 
house committee on the plan of a co-operative club. These 
philanthropic men and women are engaged in self-support- 
ing outside occupations, and give their leisure time to the 
House. Salaries are paid only for technical services, and 
they are very few. 

As well as those already mentioned, 150 people, each 
week, go to Hull House either as teachers, visitors, or 
directors of clubs. There are 250 volunteers and forty paid 
workers. Naturally, the attendance is largest during the 
winter months, and it is estimated then that 9,000 people go 
every week either as members of an organization, or as part 
of an audience. 

Hull House is an immense pile of buildings, comprising 
private appartments, flats, lecture halls, concert rooms, a 
theatre, class rooms, workshops, reception rooms, labora- 
tories, game rooms, club rooms, kindergarten, a roof-school 
for consumptives, libraries, a labour museum, arts and 
crafts room, and shops, all most artistically and really 
beautifully furnished in schemes of brown and blue. The 
effect of these surroundings alone on the young mind must 
be most developing and educative. 

I was taken all through, and saw the work of the whole 
great establishment, from that among tiny kindergarten 
children to the club work among grown men and women. 
There are clubs for men engaged in electrical occupations ; 
a Shakespeare Club ; the Jane Club, which is a co-operative 
club for young women ; the Culver Club, a residential 


club for working boys, which is self-supporting and reserved 
for boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty ; a Men's 
Club, composed of young men over nineteen, which has 
an average membership of fifty ; a Boys' Club of 1,200 
members ; a Women's Club, organized in 1891 with twelve 
members and now containing 350. This club is housed in a 
building of its own, and has its own library and sewing room, 
and a hall of its own to seat 800 people. It organizes many 
parties and entertainments, one being the Old Settlers' 
Party, which has been held at Hull House every New Year's 
Day for the last twenty-two years. It also organizes young 
people's dancing parties. These take place every two weeks 
under the chaperonage of the club members, and give the 
young people the real pleasure of dancing without the 
objectionable features with which it is associated in the low 
dancing saloons of the city. 

The first Wednesday in May of each year is looked upon 
as the happiest day of the club, for on that day all the 
members and their children, to the number of about 700 or 
800, meet and have a great entertainment. 

A Greek Women's Social Club, an Italian Circle, a Russian 
Social Economics Club, and many other social clubs have 
also been organized in connexion with Hull House. 

The wonderfully equipped gymnasium has a membership 
of from 600 to 800. It provides for women's and girls' 
classes and men's and boys' classes, each section having 
its special time for practice and instruction. A staff of 
skilled instructors is in charge. From its opening, the 
director has carefully guided its professional side and 
fostered its hygienic value for the many men and women 
workers who are engaged in sedentary occupations in 
factories and offices. 

Dancing classes have been arranged for at Hull House 


from its earliest years, the residents being convinced that 
the love of amusement is stronger than the desire for vicious 
pleasure. They feel that vice in a great city is merely love 
of pleasure " gone wrong," and so they aim at giving healthy 
recreation to all these young people who naturally are 
hungry for it. 

The Girls' Clubs are held every afternoon after school 
hours. They comprise Sewing Clubs for small and big 
girls ; a Play Club ; a Studio Club ; a Cooking Club ; a 
Dramatic Club, and others. There are twenty-three clubs 
under the heading of Girls' Clubs alone. 

Then there are Day Nurseries, which include the Mary 
Crane Nursery, one of the most interesting undertakings 
in the city. Here a hundred children are housed in separate 
rooms, and provision is made for a laundry, a sewing-room, 
a domestic science room (where mothers receive rudimen- 
tary instruction in housekeeping), and a milk station, where 
mothers can obtain modified and pasteurized milk. The 
nurse who is associated with the milk station visits each 
home to which the milk is sent. There is also a Baby 
Dispensary, where the care of babies is taught, and where 
sick children are attended to throughout the year. The 
Baby Hospital is stationed during the summer on the roof. 
It is in charge of two trained nurses. There is also an open 
air roof school for tubercular children. 

Children who are chronically ill or too crippled to attend 
school are visited in their own homes by competent teachers. 

In addition to all these clubs, there are Trade Unions, 
Branches for research work in Midwifery and in Infant 
Mortality, for Study of the Greek Colony, and for Study 
of Children's Reading. 

I have shortly mentioned the theatres, dramatic associa- 
tions, and different forms of entertainment and music schools, 


because I want most to tell of the Boys' Club, where I 
spent a most interesting evening, the Director (Mr. Mills) 
sparing neither time nor pains in showing and explaining 
every phase of his work to me. 


ONE keen frosty night I visited this Club, which is a 
great institution in itself, for it has 1,200 members 
and is located in a large special building. The building 
is splendidly equipped with class-rooms, a game-room, a 
study-room, a library, bowling-alleys, billiard tables, 
gymnastic appliances, and many shops for different trades. 
It is open every day from 3 p.m. to 10 p.m., and on 
the boys themselves falls the responsibility of preserv- 
ing their various club possessions and maintaining order. 
Admittance to the Club is by ticket, which must be 
renewed on the first of each month. A membership card, 
has to be obtained, and on payment of 10 cents ($d.) in all 
game-rooms and library cards of different colours are given. 
When the boy joins, he is given a card showing the various 
classes and clubs, and he is supposed to mark by two crosses 
the two subjects he would like best to take advantage of, 
and to mark by one cross the two next best. Then from 
these cards the classes are organized. 

I saw at work the Photography Class, which makes its 
own enlargements and moving pictures. 

In the electrical room numbers of fine, alert boys were 
very busy, and, in the next room, boys were being trained 
to manipulate a perfect telephone switchboard apparatus. 
Typewriting and telegraphy are also taught, and in the 



shops I watched classes at clay modelling, brass work, 
blacksmithing, printing, boot making and carpentry, 
which is taught by a woman. 

This carpentry class impressed me very much. It was 
controlled entirely by Miss Uchtman, a German lady, and 
is held four afternoons and four evenings a week. There 
are twelve boys in the class at a time, and they learn all 
manner of woodwork. The number of useful articles 
they turn out is surprising. Miss Uchtman told me that 
there were two other women woodwork teachers in 

In different rooms all sorts of games were being played 
by boys of like ages, so that little boys were together, boys 
over fourteen were together, and likewise those of sixteen, 
and young men. 

I stayed for a short time in the band room, where from 
thirty-five to forty boys were practising on every conceivable 
instrument. This room was separated from the others by 
thick walls, so that the noise, and the boys certainly made 
plenty, did not interfere with the other workers in the build- 
ing. When I admired their music, Mr. Mills said that 
he considered the Australian Boys' Band, which had just 
passed through Chicago, the " best in the world." 

In connexion with the Club there is also a Savings Bank ; 
a periodical edited, printed and published by members ; a 
Boys' Club encampment ; and a Greek Educational Associa- 
tion with nearly 700 members. 

In connexion with the night work are the following 
rules : — A member must attend the Club three times a week. 
He must join a class, and also attend the gymnasium. The 
night educational and technical classes are free. 

On another occasion when I visited the Club, I was much 
impressed by a meeting of one of the boys' clubs. This 


was presided over by a boy president, a fine, brown-eyed 
little chap of about fourteen. He had a mallet and 
hammered on the table for silence when he, or a member, 
wanted to speak; he got it, too. The meeting was in 
order, and admirably conducted by the boy office-bearer ; 
motions were put, and seconded, and all the business of 
the meeting disposed of in the correct way. A dis- 
cussion followed the formal business, the subject of which 
was : " If a lady lost a dog, and advertised a reward, 
should members of this club (if they found the dog) take 
the reward ? " One boy said : " It is only a courtesy to 
deliver up what we find, and members should do 
courtesies without thought of payment." There were one 
or two objectors, and after a spirited discussion the follow- 
ing resolution was put and carried unanimously : " That 
no boy belonging to the club should take a reward for 
courtesy, otherwise a tip." 

I will not attempt to give in detail a description of the 
other Settlements I visited, but will only enumerate those 
with which I was most impressed. 

Chicago Commons is a settlement which has been in 
existence eighteen years. The work here was begun under 
the direction of Dr. Graham Taylor, when three students 
rented rooms of a private family in the neighbourhood and 
spent the first summer in getting acquainted with the people. 
They then began work with a kindergarten ; and so, through 
the little ones, came into touch with the older brothers and 
sisters, then with the fathers and mothers, until ultimately, 
the confidence of the neighbourhood was gained. Now 
Chicago Commons is recognized as the second settlement 
in Chicago. Here individual initiative and independent 
development are encouraged in the life-work of each resi- 
dent. The residents meet for half an hour after the even- 


ing meal, when a hymn, a reading from Scripture, a prayer, 
and a brief address are rendered. 

The classes held are much the same as at Hull House, and 
it is estimated that over three thousand people go to 
Chicago Commons each week. The one aim of the residents 
is to be real neighbours and friends to as many families as 

Chicago Commons is in the most congested part of the 
city, and deals mostly with Italians and Sicilians. Mr. 
Frank Whitehead, the boys' leader, told me also that here 
there are seventy thousand people living in a mile's space, 
and that their mode of living and their homes were of the 
worst. They come to Chicago from small country villages, 
knowing and known by everybody, to find themselves shut 
up in their homes in a great city. They are afraid to speak 
to any one, knowing no one. If it were not for the Settle- 
ment, their lives would be unutterably lonely. 

Two important movements owe their birth to the Chi- 
cago Commons : The Chicago School of Civics and Philan- 
thropy, and The Survey, a publication which keeps its 
reader informed of all interesting events of social work all 
over the world. 

The North- Western University Settlement. This Club 
works principally among Jews and Poles, and has been in 
existence twenty years. 

It is the centre of a densely crowded part of Chicago, 
and works among a population of over eighty thousand 
people. It claims to be in direct touch with about 2,500 
a week, and through them to reach many thousands 

One of the features of the N.W.U. Settlement is a milk 
centre, from which are distributed to the babies of the 
district each year over 83,000 bottles of modified milk. 


Another feature is that in all classes the pupils pay a small 
subscription, running from one cent to seventy-five cents, 
the great object being to help the people to help themselves. 
At Christmas time much joy is brought into desolate 
homes by gifts of baskets containing clothing, toys, etc., 
and sometimes coal. Two or three weeks before the baskets 
are sent, families are visited, so that special needs can be 
catered for and addresses verified. The lists are checked 
by the lists of surrounding Settlements and charities, 
to avoid overlapping. Christmas parties are also given 
to nearly 500 children, all ailing, who are brought by the 
visiting tuberculous and school nurses and probation 
officers. They are the little ones whom Santa Claus 
would certainly miss, if it were not for these great-hearted 
folk of the Settlement. 

I had the pleasure of dining with the residents, and 
afterwards saw all over the establishment. The boys' 
director was a most enthusiastic man, and the work the 
boys turned out was excellent, the brass moulding being 
especially good. 

The arrangements were all in good taste. In one fine 
lecture hall is a piano given by Paderewski. His portrait 
hangs over it. Here a party of Polish men are formed into a 
Paderewski Singing Society. I was interested in meeting 
here two ladies, workers, one hailing from Sydney and the 
other from New Zealand. 

The Henry Booth House has had twenty-five years of 
settlement activity. It is conducted upon broadly humani- 
tarian and non-sectarian lines, works principally among 
the Jews, and is interested in all ethical movements. The 
office of the Secretary of the Chicago Ethical Society is at 
the Henry Booth House Settlement. This is a smaller 
settlement than the ones I have previously mentioned, and 


there are few residents owing to lack of room. The classes 
and clubs do much the same work as is done in other settle- 
ments, but during the summer they mostly suspend their 

I happened to visit the Settlement in passover week, so 
no classes were being held. But from the playground near 
by, which the Henry Booth House did much to establish, 
I saw many happy children with their teachers, making 
jubilant and joyous holiday. 


THE Chicago Hebrew Institute, as its name implies, 
deals principally with Jews. Here are to be found 
members both of the highest and of lowest social rank of 
Chicago. A Judge is among its members, and many profes- 
sional men belong to and enjoy its advantages, paying on 
the same scale as other members. 

Dr. J. Pedott, the superintendent, was exceedingly kind, 
showed me all over the Institution, which, in passing, claims 
to be the busiest in Chicago, and explained its activities. 

The Settlement stands in its own grounds of six acres, 
wherein are basket-ball grounds, a bicycle track and other 
playgrounds, a lake, fountains containing goldfish, tennis 
courts, a bandstand, children's gardens and a bulb garden. 
A most up-to-date library is a great feature of the Settlement, 
and I spent some time there watching the various boys 
and girls getting out books. Here alone the attendance is 
reckoned at 1,800 a month. 

Eight clubs for boys and fourteen clubs for boys and 
girls have been organized for members. There is also a 
Hebrew school, attended principally by boys, which meets 
every afternoon. Advanced electrical classes are provided. 
The Institution has been wired by the pupils. 

In connexion with the Club is a Personal Service Bureau, 
which investigates and gives legal advice, deals with 



juvenile offenders, and, if necessary, sends them to the 
Juvenile Court, deals with neglected children, settles all 
disputes and procures situations for members. 

I very much liked the chairs in their lecture halls, the 
right arms of which, about 10 inches in breadth, could be 
used as tables. Every advantage in this Club is paid for 
by those enjoying them, its organizers absolutely believ- 
ing in the system of making members pay something for 
what they receive. Even for games there is a small charge- 
If a boy, or young man or woman, comes along and wants 
to learn a trade and has not the money to pay for the lessons, 
the Superintendent says, " Very well, we will teach you 
the trade you want to learn, and then when you get work 
you must pay us back." Dr. Pedott, speaking of those 
so helped, said they had always paid, except in one or two 
special cases. 

The Forward Movement greatly impressed me. It 
specializes in summer outing work at Sangatuck, Michigan, 
where the same movement has organized a series of summer 
schools. Their social settlement deals largely with the 
American boy, who, the Superintendent says, is the most 
difficult type of boy ; for while the foreigner feels his ignor- 
ance and wishes to learn, the American street boy thinks 
himself a ruling power and delights in breaking laws. 

The Rev. Dr. George W. Gray, the Superintendent, has 
an impressive personality, and I was very interested in his 
ideals. He said the purpose of the Forward Movement was 
the good of others ; its inspiration, the love of God as 
revealed in Jesus Christ. He believes in a Social Club 
centre that is open from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m., just leaving 
eight hours for sleep and quiet rest for the boys and young 
men of a great city. 
To the summer outing all are invited who are trying to 


leave the world richer in thought, more noble in purpose, 
better in morals, with higher aims, having less sorrow, 
less idleness, less selfishness, less meanness. Neither the 
idle rich nor the idle poor are invited. 

Promoters of the Forward Movement feel that people, 
be they ever so poor, can and will, if trained, undertake 
the care of themselves. Help to self-support, is, they be- 
lieve, the only solution of the pauper problem ; to give 
money to the poor only pauperizes them. All assistance 
that does not tend to develop self-help is worse than no 

The Doctor told me a typical story of one of his boys. 
He had lived among much squalor, in a building hemmed in 
on every side by other smoke-begrimed buildings. He was 
sent to a fine, healthy country home, but he ran away from 
it and was found again in his old haunts. On the Doctor 
remonstrating with him, he said : " Well, I was there three 
days, and I never once saw an engine ! " 

The Frederick Douglas Centre. This is an interesting 
Settlement, because it is for coloured people only. Its 
principal object is the noble one of encouraging a just and 
amicable relation between the white and coloured people of 
Chicago, and of securing equal opportunity for the latter. 


I HAD heard that Judge Ben B. Lindsey, celebrated for 
his wonderful Children's Courts, and the world- 
famous champion of children's causes, was expected in 
Chicago on April 4 ; so I wrote to him saying how anxious 
I was to meet him, and would wait on him at the Auditorium 
Hotel in the hope that he would be able to spare me a few 

I was up early, all expectation, that morning, and 
reached the hotel a little while before 9 o'clock. The Judge 
had not arrived, though the clerk told me that they were 
expecting him at any moment. I found a seat in the lounge 
and waited, watching the streams of people that came and 
went, and studying the types of man America makes ; but 
took two or three trips to the clerk, to be sure that he had 
not forgotten to tell Judge Lindsey that I was waiting to see 

At about ten o'clock, while I was reading, I heard a voice 
say : " Are you Miss Onians ? My name is Lindsey." I 
looked up to realize that one of the greatest desires of my 
life was granted : I had met Judge Lindsey. He is a spare, 
dark man, black-haired, slightly bald and black-eyed. He 
wore black clothes, a frock-coat, felt hat and bow tie. I 
was so pleased to meet him, and am afraid I said so many 
times. I told him too how surprised I was to find him such 
a young man. I had pictured to myself a benevolent, kindly- 



Judge Ben. B. Lindsey. 


looking old gentleman, with a flowing beard and silvery 
hair, and I should think Judge Lindsey is something be- 
tween forty and forty-five. 

He laughed, and said he thought he bore his years well. 
We went into an adjoining room to talk. His outlook is 
broad and splendid. I found myself in perfect sympathy 
with his ideas. 

He says there are no bad boys, but bad things attack good 
boys. He holds that the personal touch is wanted always, 
especially in the Court ; that the Judge must have a per- 
sonal touch ; for the Judge means the Court. A bad judge, 
an indifferent judge, means a lax Court. In Colorado, his 
State, the laws for the protection of children are very far- 
reaching. At the Juvenile Court in Denver a man can be 
tried for child murder, parents can be tried for any offence 
against children, so may saloon-keepers, and so on. He 
told me that in the case of a crime against a child, a man 
was arrested one day, tried the next, convicted the next, 
and on his way to the Penitentiary on the fourth day. 

He had such a broad way of looking at every person, at 

He said Judge Pinckney of Chicago (whose splendid work 
in the Juvenile Courts I had seen) was a fine Judge ; he said 
too, " I must give you a letter to my friend Judge Baker of 
Boston, and you must see Mr. Gunckel of Toledo, and the 
George Junior Republic/ ' Talking later of that, he said, 
" Daddy George (I always call him Daddy) has a great 
institution, a great scheme, but it is not idealistic enough for 
me. Now at Allendale (Captain Bradley's institution) you 
will see things as they ought to be, and at the George Junior 
things as they are. For the boys have a Court and gaol 
and a judge and a jury, and they are great on punishment, 
but that is not the way to overcome evil by good." 


He said, " I will send you one of my books ; unfortu- 
nately, the one you would like best, and which deals with 
child problems, is out of print, but I will try and dig you up a 
copy." In another, called The Beast and the Jungle, of 
which I heard him tell Miss Addams 14,000 copies had been 
sold, he said there were several chapters about children that 
would interest me. 

Judge Lindsey does not believe in corporal punishment. 
He had some years' experience as a Criminal Court Judge 
before he was appointed to the Juvenile Courts, and has 
been at the Denver Juvenile Courts for twelve years. He 
spends three months lecturing, and the other nine in Court. 
While he is away an assistant judge takes his place. He 
has not had a holiday for ten years, but he proposes to take 
one soon and hopes to visit Australia by way of Honolulu. 

After we had talked for some time, I asked if I were not 
taking up too much of his valuable time, for he had come 
straight to me without looking through his letters, although 
the clerk told me they " were holding a pile for him." The 
Judge said that he had several letters and telegrams to attend 
to, but if I would lunch with him at Hull House he would be 
very pleased. We lunched with Miss Jane Addams, who, 
Judge Lindsey says, is not only the greatest woman but the 
greatest man in Chicago. There were ten other distinguished 
people present, including Mrs. Bowen, Mrs. Briton, Captain 
Bradley and Judge Pinckney. It was most interesting to 
hear their conversation. 

Talking of his methods, Judge Lindsey said that when 
first he sent boys to reformatory homes without an officer, 
every one was against him. " But," he declared, " I have 
sent 561 boys up from the Juvenile Court, and every one 
went straight to his destination, in many cases bought his 
own ticket, and took the train he was directed to. Only five 


boys have not followed the instructions that were given to 
them. Three of those came back and apologized ; the other 
two got there eventually/' Judge Lindsey believes abso- 
lutely in trusting to a boy's honour. He mentioned that in 
the same period the police lost forty men. 

After lunch the Judge told me more of his great method of 
overcoming evil with good. He said : " When a boy has 
done wrong, I talk to him about the wrong of what he has 
done and explain to him the good he may do. Then he 
comes to me every two weeks and tells me of the good he is 
trying to do, in the home, the school, the neighbourhood. 
So that I can now praise the boy for good, just as before I 
had to reprove him for evil. If a boy who is dishonest comes 
to me I teach him to be honest, to do the honest thing in the 
home, the school, the neighbourhood. I say to him, ' You 
have done the wrong thing, and have given your neighbour- 
hood a black eye ; now you must do the right thing and cure 
it.' ' He said any strong man, any prize-fighter can use 
brute force, can handcuff a man, push him into a cell and 
lock him up. He told me his idea of an ideal Court. It 
would have three rooms, one for the Judge (he said it does not 
want to be a great place, but just an informal court-room 
where the Judge can hear cases without being crowded), 
another room for parents and officers. He said, " When a 
mother says, ' Johnny didn't do it, I know Johnny didn't do 
it ! ' you have to take Johnny away and talk earnestly to him, 
in order to learn the truth ; so that a third room is needed." 

When a boy or girl comes before Judge Lindsey, he takes 
him, or her, as a delinquent, not a criminal. A child is a ward 
of the State up to the age of sixteen in Colorado, and in 
Denver (Colorado) the Juvenile Court has jurisdiction up to 
the age of twenty-one. 

Denver has a population of 250,000. It is divided into 


150 districts, over which probation officers are appointed. 
Each officer is responsible for a district. The Judge believes 
absolutely in the system of paid probation officers, but 
thinks they should be prepared for their duties in a school of 

Most children of neglected homes and bad environment, he 
declares, come to Court between thirteen and fourteen years 
of age. The period between thirteen and sixteen he said : " I 
call the period of storm and stress." He says some boys 
want great encouragement, and spoke of one boy with 
suicidal mania who had to be given courage. 

He talked of the development of boys of different nations, 
and mentioned a Russian Jew of thirteen who was unusually 
brilliant in debate, and of whom he prophesied great things. 
At nineteen that boy stopped developing. Another, whom 
he spoke of as a " red-headed Gentile" and who was very slow 
at thirteen, the Judge took in hand at twelve, and he said : 
" This boy is now my secretary, and he can write a better 
letter than I can." 

He believes that children have only to be taught, guided, 
and inspired to do great and good things for the benefit of 
humanity and their own kind, and that it is only when they 
have no incentive to do right that they follow the wrong. 

In appearance Judge Lindsey is of medium height and 
alert ; his speech is typically American, but he has a full, 
sympathetic voice. 


THE Chicago Boys' Club, which has the reputation of 
being a workshop rather than a play-house, is a street 
boys' club for the poorest of Chicago's poor boys. There is a 
Central General Office, and from this are worked four branches, 
which are planted in those parts where the neediest boys live. 
This Club is open and free to the type of boy whom the Social 
Settlement and the Y.M.C.A. do not easily reach. He is the 
freelance of the street, so to speak ; he does not readily amal- 
gamate with the other types of boy. He must be specially 
catered for. 

The Superintendent argues that : " a boy has five million 
muscles and nerves, every one of which is calculated to keep 
him going and not one to keep him still," and the aim of the 
Chicago Boys' Clubs is to direct this superfluous energy in the 
best way. Above all, the Club aims at being his friend. The 
Superintendent contends that upon these poor, half-starved, 
neglected, kicked, and cuffed boys of the slums, even more 
than upon the young men of the " Upper Four Hundred," 
depends the future welfare of the nation. 

In the majority of cases, the boys who frequent the Chicago 
Boys' Clubs have homes of their own, though, in one sense, 
they are homeless, for the home is often too dreary to be an 
evening shelter, or the boy is too restless to stay in it. The 
Club meets his need, for it is open every evening and every 



Sunday. There are educational, trade, and other classes and 
a gymnasium in connexion with it. 

During the ten years of the Clubs' existence they have 
enrolled 1,112 boys. 

I visited the Head Office in the heart of the city, and one 
Sunday a small boy came with me to one of the branches 
located in a part that is spoken of as " Little Hell/' The 
neighbourhood is largely peopled by Italians, and the week 
before my visit three men had been shot down in it by the 
Black Hand. Opposite the Club, in an ordinary-sized house 
of three storeys, I was told that no less than twenty-eight 
children under twenty-one years of age lived. There were 
parents and lodgers in the house as well. 

I stayed through the service, which was well attended, and 
after it was over one of the Club teachers, a very earnest, 
enthusiastic young man, showed me over the Club building 
and explained the work carried on. 



IN the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy I spent 
one of my most interesting days. Miss Davis, a very 
bright girl in charge, made me most welcome. The School 
owes its initiation to the Chicago Commons, with the co- 
operation of Hull House. It was conducted by this Settle- 
ment for four years. 

The demand for efficient philanthropic and social workers, 
and the knowledge that enthusiasm in social work, to be 
worth while, must be directed and reinforced by knowledge 
of the principles and economics of methods accepted in the 
most modern social practice, led to the creation of this new 
profession. In 1908 it was incorporated as an independent 
school, having on its Board of Trustees professors of econo- 
mics and sociology from ten of the principal University 
towns of the United States. 

Since the beginning, Professor Taylor has served as Presi- 
dent of the School and as one of the teaching staff. A regular 
diploma course of nine months' training gives the students 
an understanding and a grasp of many subjects, the principal 
being : charitv organization and relief, public health, pro- 
bation and reformatory work, child helping and protection, 
neighbourhood work, public school centre and settlement 
work, playground supervision, factory inspection, social work 



of churches, and expert investigation on housing, civic and 
census work. Regular students who wish to qualify for the 
certificates of the school, must be persons having a general 
education equivalent to that of a good high school, and, 
in addition, (a) must have taken part or the whole of a 
college or university course, or (b) must have shown ability 
in practical experience. 

I After some months' training, the student can then take up 
the branch he or she wishes to specialize in. Fifteen hours 
weekly are assigned to the study of leading social agencies 
where, under expert supervision, the student is put into 
intimate touch with social problems, and learns how best to 
handle them in practice. 

The lecture courses are limited to ten or twelve each week, 
so as to give plenty of opportunity for reading and original 
inquiry into the outside practical work, which Americans 
speak of as " Field Work." 

In connexion with this School is the Bureau for Finding 
Employment for Children who leave the Grade Schools to go 
to work. Every year thousands of children when fourteen 
years of age leave school to go to work, and, recognizing the 
fact that the " first job ", or the first year of work will often 
have a decisive influence on the child's whole working lkfe 
and may make, or mar his character, this institution seeks 
to assist and direct the child in finding the best and most 
suitable situation. 

At this critical period of life there are so many important 
questions to be considered ; among them that of the kind of 
occupation to which the child is best adapted, though the 
present social system in requiring a child to work at all is to 
be deplored. Then the work which^contains the best promise 
for the future has to be found, and also the employer who will 
understand boys and girls, give them his sympathy and look 


to their promotion. One other consideration aimed at by 
the Bureau is to form a connecting link between the school 
and the employer. 

In Chicago, each scholar on leaving school is given a work- 
ing certificate with his school certificate. It was recognized 
that if a boy in search of employment was expected to be- 
come a steady and honest working citizen, it was a mistake 
to let him walk about the streets till he saw a card in a win- 
dow : " Wanted a Boy/' or hang round newspaper offices 
with crowds of men and other boys looking through the 
advertisement columns. The boy who does this thinks 
himself lucky if he is chosen out of all comers, never 
considering if the work is suitable or unsuitable to him. 
Needless to say, nine times out of twelve it is not, and he 
leaves — to find another job in the same way. Little 
wonder that, under these circumstances, he cannot " settle 

The condition of things is still more unsatisfactory for the 
young girl who goes out alone to look for work, as greater 
perils lie before her. 

The work of finding suitable employment for children is 
only in its experimental stage/as the Bureau has only been 
established a year, but its investigations have already done 
much good, and the results obtained will doubtless be of far- 
reaching value when operations are carried on upon the scale 
that is contemplated. 

It is found that to place a child leaving school in a suitable 
situation a thorough investigation into the opportunities of 
employment open to children under sixteen, and also a study 
of the particular child seeking employment, must be made. 
There must be interviews with the child and with his parents 
and teachers before he leaves school, interviews with em- 
ployers, interviews for special information as to what the 


child wants to do and what his parents and teachers think is 
best for him mentally and physically. Even after the work 
has been selected, the Bureau desires to keep in touch with 
him, encouraging and advising him to stick to his billet unless 
there is a good reason for his leaving. The temptation to 
leave one situation and go in search of another is always a 
factor to be reckoned with, as this band of investigators 
has proved, its motive, perhaps, being a sheer boyish love of 

Boys were found to give up work on the slightest excuse. 
One boy left a good situation and became a messenger be- 
cause he did not like the shape of the packages he was asked 
to carry. Another boy, who was being taught a trade, went 
into a large factory which offered nothing but unskilled work 
for men or boys, because he resented associating with an alien 
boy in the shop. In such cases the employer is seen and 
asked to give the boys another trial, and jf he be of the 
right, understanding sort, he will. 

The chief result of the investigation has been that there is 
no work worth while for a child between fourteen and sixteen 
years of age. It has proved that boys and girls who are 
turned out to work then, are the children of poor parents, in 
urgent need of even the small wage a child is able to earn. 
At a tender age children are not competent to distinguish 
good from bad in employers, or employment, and do not 
stop to think if an occupation is, or is not a blind-alley one 
which will leave them, at seventeen or eighteen, often un- 
trained and weakened in health and initiative. 

This Association for finding children employment has 
found, after studying the statistics of the Juvenile Court, 
that the great majority of delinquent boys brought before 
the Court were those who left school to go to work at four- 
teen. It therefore advocates the raising of the school age 


from fourteen to sixteen, or else the compulsory school 
attendance of boys of that age who are out of work. The 
former is preferable ; for principals of schools do not care for 
the intermittent attendance of the pupil past fourteen and 
find his influence a bad one on the younger boys, especially 
as regards truancy. The idea of the Bureau for finding 
employment for children is to form a Juvenile Employment 
Agency, so that those interested in the welfare and progress 
of children may keep in touch with them from the time they 
leave school until they go to work, and also play the part of 
friendly adviser to them while they are at work'. 

A splendid work in connexion with the " Finding Em- 
ployment for Children" is the Big Brother and Big Sister 
movement, which is well advanced in Milwaukee. As the 
name implies, the idea of it is to get older men and women to 
take brotherly and sisterly interest in homeless and friendless 
children, when they go out into the world to earn their living. 
Big Brothers and Sisters wear a button of membership, and 
are called ' ' Big Brother ' ' or ' ' Big Sister. ' ' They work under 
a chief Brother or Sister, and besides helping the children 
try to give them pleasure and amusement. Many lonely 
men and women, who take up this work, find that they have 
a new and vivid interest in life. 

The housing problem of Chicago is another important de- 
partment under the control of the Chicago School of Civics 
and Philanthropy. Here social investigators have made 
careful and minute inquiries throughout the different dis- 
tricts, and have published (through Miss Sophonista P. 
Breckenridge and Miss Edith Abbot) some exceedingly 
interesting and extensive reports relating to the housing 
problem in the different districts as regards overcrowding, 
insanitation, and so forth. House-to-house visits have been 
made among the houses of the respectable working poor, and, 


while studying this phase, the worst streets where vice was 
known to exist, were avoided. 

A study has also been made of families living in furnished 
rooms, without reference to the furnished room in so far as 
it provided cheap lodging for single men and women, or is 
associated with the city problems of vice and immorality. 
The purpose of the study is rather to discuss the problems 
growing out of the fact that, in all these districts, large num- 
bers of families with children make their homes in furnished 
rooms. And as these rooms are generally to be found in 
houses which in the first instance have been private resi- 
dences, they were found to be most unsuitable for several 
different families on account of the lack of sufficient accom- 
modation, inadequate, or filthy sanitary arrangements, and 
the fact that one room was used for living, eating, 
sleeping, washing, etc. 

The most interesting questions arising from the furnished 
rooms study, to quote from the report, are : — 

i. The sanitary condition of households readjusted from 
their original purpose. 

2. The probable degradation of the family through the 
lack of privacy and dignity, and the general irresponsibility 
of its mode of life. 

3. The inevitable familiarity with vice. 



TT was with an Australian, Miss Alice Henry, who is 
-*■ greatly interested in and has helped to further the 
Playground movement, as Editor of Life and Labour, that 
I visited the most important playground centre in Chicago. 

Up to eleven years ago there were no proper playgrounds 
for Chicago children. Now there are sixteen playgrounds 
supported by the Park Boards, also sixteen municipal 
playgrounds or special parks in the more congested parts 
of the city, and five municipal bathing beaches. All along 
the east side of Chicago runs Lake Michigan, and this great 
inland sea is well adapted for beach bathing. 

There are 640,000 children in Chicago under sixteen years 
of age. To many of them, especially to those mites living 
in the congested districts, these playgrounds are the only 
bright spot. A while ago their only playground was the 
street. So unused are some of the children to playing, 
that when left to themselves they are at a loss to know 
what to do. One little boy when brought to a sand-pit 
and given a bucket and spade, turned a puzzled little 
face to the conducter and asked : " What do I have to do 
wif 'em ? " Trained teachers look after and direct the play 
Qf all these Ijttle. ones. 



The ages of the children are considered, and everything 
is done to cater for each group's particular needs. The 
organizers know that a small child likes to have a plaything 
of its own ; then boys of ten differ from those of fourteen 
in their tastes. Up to ten years of age boys and girls play 
together ; after that, they are divided into groups according 
to age. 

About one-third of the play space of the small parks and 
playgrounds is reserved for little children. For them there 
are wading pools ; for the older children swimming pools, 
which are the most popular amusement in summer, while 
skating in winter is a great attraction. 

There are many other attractions in connexion with the 
playgrounds — halls, libraries, club-rooms, gymnasia, luncheon 
rooms, baths, etc. The baths are especially well equipped. 
Each bather receives a new piece of soap and two clean bath- 

The Assembly Halls may be used for any purpose except 
religious, or political meetings. Persons in the district 
wanting the use of the Hall apply, and get it in turn. 
For a dance the Club decorates the Hall. For a lecture 
it finds the lantern and operator — in fact, everything but 
the speaker. 

The Public Library has branches in connexion with 
several of the playgrounds. Altogether, there are twenty- 
four library branches in different parts of the city. 

Each branch makes a special provision for children. As 
soon as a child is five years old or can sign his name, he 
can become a member, but he must be recommended by a 
ratepayer. He is then given a card on which are entered 
his name, address and the number of the books taken out. 
A fine of a cent each day on all over-due books is charged. 
If a book is not returned, the librarian writes once to the 


borrower, gives him three days' grace, then writes to the 
guarantor twice. If the book is not restored after these 
three reminders, the borrower is struck off the books. I 
was interested to hear that at Buffalo the method is different- 
There they do not trouble so much about a book that is 
not returned, reckoning that the real value of one book is 
so small that they would rather lose it altogether than that 
the child should be cut off from the education he must gain 
from reading. 

Library assistants are trained at Colleges, where they take 
what is called a library course in cataloguing, classification, 
etc. The course occupies sometimes more than a year. 
Six years are necessary to complete the training of a 
librarian for one of the public libraries. These assistants 
help the children to select suitable books. The attendants 
in charge of branches also visit the homes, and so know the 
sort of book that will be helpful to the child and suitable 
for the neighbourhood he lives in. The free reading-rooms 
in connexion with the libraries are thronged after school 
hours and on Saturdays. 

At some of the libraries there are story hours for the 
children, and once a month, and on special occasions, gaily- 
coloured picture designs, and bulletins, painted and decor- 
ated by the assistants, explain what subject is being dealt 
with. I was shown some excellent designs illustrative of 
Easter, Gardening, New Year, Birds' Nests, Christmas, 
St. Valentine's Day, and so on. It happened to be the 
centenary of Dickens' birth, and at the libraries his greatest 
works were shown in their original parts, and all children 
were recommended to read his books and were told about 
his life. The Americans are great lovers of Dickens. 

That these play centres are a force for good has been 
proved. Juvenile delinquency in districts having play- 


grounds has decreased 39 per cent., while districts that 
have none have shown an increase. A striking fact which 
in itself should do much to convince citizens of Melbourne, 
and other capitals of the Commonwealth, that, although 
we have open spaces in our cities, we have a great deal to 
learn from Americans in their appreciation and organization 
of the forces of play ! There is no doubt that playgrounds 
on the American system, in co-operation with our Free 
Kindergartens, would go a long way towards ridding us of 
any juvenile delinquency problem at all. 

Though playgrounds have done much to make the lives 
of children happier, healthier, and their hours of play less 
full of danger in the streets of Chicago, there are still large 
districts with congested populations in which — at present, 
at least — it is impossible to arrange for playgrounds. A 
movement which aims at creating play zones, where play- 
grounds cannot be provided, has been inaugurated. Child- 
ren are allowed to play on some of the boulevards. Baseball 
is permitted on Garfield Boulevard, and on parts of Michigan 
Avenue, and in some cases the streets are marked out for 
baseball and other games. 

Needless to say, though, the poorer children — who really 
need these playing spaces — live far away from the wide 
avenues, and their play is in the dangerously thronged streets. 

What the philanthropists of Chicago urge is the reser- 
vation of parts of those thoroughfares from which traffic 
can be diverted without loss or inconvenience, the exclusion 
of motor-cars (as well as heavy wheeled traffic) from these 
sections, and the gift of the space thus insured against 
danger, to the children of the streets. They urge that petty 
larceny in the streets would be almost done away with if 
children" had more legitimate playing spaces, and had not 
to play in the streets. 


Young Men's Christian Associations cater for respectable, 
well-brought-up boys, more than for boys of the streets. 
The Y.M.C.A. clubs all through the States are wonderfully 
managed and equipped. This fact struck me very forcibly 
when I visited one in Chicago in a well-to-do neighbourhood. 
The boys' clubs of the Y.M.C.A. have a fourfold aim. 
Their ideal is to develop the boy in physical, educational 
and spiritual directions. In Chicago 3,500 boys are under 
Y.M.C.A. control ; one-half of these are members of the 
Association, the others are not members, but are brought 
in touch with it through some form of the extension work. 
Most of the clubs have large swimming pools, and in- 
structors are doing much by their teaching to overcome 
what is almost a national deficiency, the knowledge of how 
to swim. It is estimated that the annual total of lives lost 
through drowning in Illinois is 4,000. In 1910 nearly 31,000 
boys and young men were taught to swim in the Y.M.C.A. 

I will not further describe Y.M.C.A. methods and 
organizations, because, as branches of the Association have 
been established in Australia, these are pretty well-known 
and understood. 

A picturesque movement I met with was that under the 
name of the Boy Scouts of America. Though the movement 
is not much more than two years old in the U.S.A., it 
has already a membership of nearly half a million boys. 
Its ideals and activities are bound to touch and influence 
more boys than any other movement. Chicago has 4,350 
boy scouts, organized in one hundred and twenty-one 
companies. In charge are 115 Scoutmasters and nearly 
450 older boys, who act as Patrol Leaders. 

Street traders are quite untouched by child-labour 
legislation in the State of Illinois and city of Chicago. 


Some of the States regulate street trading by children, but 
in Illinois a boy or girl too young to be allowed to do any 
other work may stand round newspaper offices, the cheap 
shows, theatres and hotels, selling papers and chewing- 
gum, etc., until all hours of the night. 

A movement is on foot to introduce a Bill prohibiting 
boys under ten years, and girls under sixteen, from selling 
anything at all in the streets. Children under fourteen 
are prohibited from working in all mercantile institutions, 
stores, offices, laundries, bowling alleys, passenger or 
freight lifts, theatres, concert halls, places of amusement, 
hotels, manufacturing establishments, factories, work- 
shops, or as messengers, in the State. Children under 
sixteen are prohibited from working, (i) more than eight 
hours per day, or forty-eight hours per week ; (2) between 
7 p.m and 7 a.m. Two improvements in child labour laws 
urged by Chicago philanthropists are : (a) The regulation 
of street trading ; (b) To raise the age limit for occupations 
not classed as street trades. 

Then there is home work, another form of labour which 
robs the city child of his chance of natural development. 
Cigars, flowers and clothing are manufactured in many 
homes without regulation, or inspection, and whole 
families work, eat, and sleep in one room. 

New York has the problem of home work to face in a much 
greater degree than even Chicago, and during the Child 
Welfare Exhibition in 1910, the Committee made an 
exhaustive study of home industries, without being able to 
come to a satisfactory solution of this great problem. 

American schools have only recently taken up this 
important work for children who are under weight, and 
below grade in their school work. Plenty of rest, plenty of 
food, and above all plenty of fresh air, are the means used 


in the open-air schools to build up body and mind alike. 

Children arrive at school at 8 a.m., are seen by a nurse 
and given something to eat ; for generally they have not 
had a satisfying breakfast at home. After an hour and a 
quarter of school in the open air, they have fifteen minutes' 
rest. Then there is another lesson, then dinner. In cold 
weather they are put into blanket wraps, woollen trousers 
and woollen boots, and wear a hood and warm mittens. 

A feature of the school is the time for rest. Every day 
after dinner, low canvas cots are placed in the open air, 
and the children, wrapped in warm blankets, sleep for an 
hour and a quarter. No home studying is allowed, and 
the time spent in school work is much less than the time 
spent by normal children. Cripple children are brought 
to school in wagons, and are taken home again in the 
wagons after the day's lessons are over. 

The results of the first year's work have been most encour- 
aging. All the children who entered were very backward, 
and brought records of irregular attendance, slow progress, 
and trouble with teachers. They seemed all destined to 
become failures ; but under the open-air conditions their 
health improved, and they made rapid progress in their 

There are only two of these schools in Chicago at present. 
They were established by private philanthropy, and now 
have the support of the Board of Education. 

The study of Eugenics is warmly advocated everywhere in 
America. I happened to be in Chicago when Dean Summer 
married the first couple under the regulation requiring 
health certificates from a prospective bride and bridegroom. 
Before the ceremony, the Dean had examined the certifi- 
cates signed by a physician, who pronounced both bride 
and bridgegroom to be sound, in mind and body. 


The public spirit of co-operation in Chicago is most 

As I have already mentioned, the Settlements all 
co-operate and help each other, which prevents much 
overlapping. Through the Registration Department of 
the United Charities, the work of the various agencies is 
simplified, and real co-operation is established. The 
neglected child thus profits ; its parents are spared much 
unnecessary irritation ; and there is a great saving of time 
and money. 


FROM Chicago I went by train to Toledo (Ohio), a 
journey of about six hours. As soon as I arrived I 
rang up the Newsboys' Club, to find out the best time to 
visit it. The telephone was answered by the President, Mr. 
John E. Gunckel, who said he was leaving Toledo that 
night for Moline (Illinois), but very kindly offered to 
put off his trip till the following day in order to show me 
over the building, and explain his methods of work. 

The Toledo Newsboys' Association owes its origin to Mr. 
John E. Gunckel, who, on December 25, 1892, gathered 
together 102 boys (known as newsboys) and gave them a 
Christmas dinner. On that occasion, notwithstanding the 
presence of six policemen to preserve order, there were 
four stand-up fights. A splendid tea was prepared, and 
when the tables were cleared the boys were asked to 
adjourn to another room for entertainment. They went 
with a rush, and forks, spoons, bananas and oranges fell 
from their waistcoats and pockets as they fought their way 
<over each other and into the chairs provided ! On the 
stage was a sleight-of-hand performer. When he asked 
two of the boys to come up and assist him, and unbuttoned 
their coats, all sorts of articles that they had taken from the 



tables fell on the floor. At that time, swearing and smoking 
were considered necessary qualifications for becoming a 

Twenty years of Mr. Gunckel's splendid system of self- 
government has changed all that. When I visited the Club, 
I was struck by the order and discipline of all its arrange- 
ments, and of the boys themselves. All the boys are under 
the charge of other boys ; Mr. Gunckel told me that he 
simply sits in the office, registers each newcomer, and then 
passes him on to other boys, who all have their work allotted 
to them. 

The first Boys' Committee elected after that memorable 
tea was rather, what boys call a " tough lot." The vice- 
president had a reputation for stealing and gambling, but 
he was a leader of the gang, so was elected unanimously. 
The secretary, so the other boys said, " swiped newspapers." 
The treasurer had several articles in his pocket which he 
was alleged to have stolen. These, with twelve other officers 
of a more or less lurid celebrity, constituted the first 
Committee. Mr. Gunckel was elected President for life. 

He had only one object in view in organizing the Associa- 
tion ; it was to regenerate the so-called bad boy, to find 
the good he had in him and develop it. The central idea 
upon which he founded the Club was self-government. 
He wanted the boys to learn to govern themselves rather 
than rule or govern them ; to lead and help forward, rather 
than to drive. 

^|The form of application for membership — which can be 
signed by any boy between eight and seventeen years of 
age — runs thus : — 

" I desire to become an active member in the National 
Newsboys' Association. I do not approve of swearing, 
stealing, gambling, lying, drinking intoxicating liquors, or 

Gunckel and the original members of the Toledo Newsboys 


smoking cigarettes, and I will obey all the rules of the 

Mr. Gunckel does not make a boy swear he will give up a 
bad habit, because he says : " We know the boy is human, 
and so, though he is trying to overcome swearing, or any 
other bad habit, he may, in a fight, or in a moment of 
excitement, swear, and then he would feel that he had 
broken his word." 

He showed me some typical letters from boys. One boy 
said : "I have some bad habits ; I swear, I smoke, and 
I want to try and quit them. Can I be a member, and I 
will try my best to improve ? " 

I went all through the building, and saw the boys at 
their games and also at band practice. They played a 
selection for me, and played it well. There was no dis- 
orderly element anywhere. Over each group of boys were 
elder boys, and all seemed to work together and under- 
stand each other thoroughly. 

i The Club has physical exercise classes, a band, a library, 
a dramatic club, a cadet corps, and a sports' union. All 
sorts of outings and entertainments are arranged for, 
the Sunday one being always crowded. The work has 
extended, so that now the club has an enrolment of over 
8,035 boy s - 

I noticed one remarkable illustration of the success of 
its self-government plan, and the respect in which the 
boys hold the President and their building. There was 
not a single scrap of writing, or disfiguring drawing, on 
the walls of the clubrooms, inside or out. 

Another forcible illustration was given on the occasion 
of a recent holiday, when 2,000 boys were taken to the 
Toledo beach. Some 1,500 boys were bathing at one 
time, there were 2,000 lunch packages, ice creams, etc., 


and not a fight was recorded, not a boy hurt, not an oath 
heard ; no one was seen smoking cigarettes, and there was 
not a policeman within seventeen miles. All the super- 
vision was done by the newsboy officers, and the boys 
governed themselves. 

A record has been kept of all the articles found by the 
newsboys and returned to the Association, though there 
is no rule requiring the members to return them. The 
value of articles found by members and returned to owners 
during five years amounted to $52,000 which included 
cash, jewellery, valuable papers, merchandise of every 
description, and one motor-car. 

Through the influence of the Association, an average of 
one hundred boys per year have secured good positions and 
fourteen members are paying their own expenses at different 
colleges in the United States. 

So far-reaching has the work of the club become that 
Toledo, for the Club's own purposes, has been divided into 
five districts. The boundaries are defined, and over 
each of these districts are placed five auxiliaries and twelve 
officers, who report all boys resident in their district, 
Thus a total of sixty boys are working officers. These 
boys see that gambling, begging in the streets, swearing, 
and so on, are not indulged in by the younger members. 
They take the little boys home early at night, and if they 
persist in breaking the laws, have the power to bring them 
before the Juvenile Court. 

I had an interesting experience of these boy officers' 
methods. Two of the elder lads were taking me to my 
hotel, when just passing outside a music-hall a policeman 
called one of them aside. When he rejoined me, I asked 
if anything were wr6ng. " Oh ! " said the lad, " he has 
just told me of two boys in my district who are playing 


truant and staying out late at night. I must look them 

The boys do not pay any fees, not even a cent for their 
cards and badges. " It is enough," according to Mr. 
Gunckel, " if they cut out their bad habits." 

At Toledo, too, I met Mr. Brand Whitlock, its several 
times elected Mayor. He is known to many Australians 
through his powerfully written novels. Mr. W. D. Howells, 
the noted novelist, in an article in the North American 
Review, of which the title is " A Political Novelist and 
More," says : " What we really needed for the creation of a 
good political novel was a good politician, able, from his 
conscience as well as his knowledge, to divine the shape of 
the things pretty constantly before the eyes of all. Such a 
politician brought fine literary skill, right literary method, 
and true literary ideal to the enterprise when Mr. Brand 
Whitlock wrote The Thirteenth District, and possessed us 
of a novel as yet unmatched by its English antitypes." 

Mr. Howells goes on to say : — 

" One thing that Mr. Whitlock's book distinctly teaches 
us is that a man's public life and private life are of a sole 
texture ; that there is no official personality ; that a man 
cannot be innerly true and outerly false ! " 

The teaching of his books you recognize instinctively in 
Mr. Whitlock's wonderful personality. He is a great 
social worker and a great man. When I called on him, he 
asked me many questions about Australia, which he said 
" always seemed a most unreal place to him." He and his 
secretary were wonderfully well informed in our history, 
and asked me about some of our poets and writers, whose 
works they seemed to know intimately. 

Mr. Whitlock introduced me to several men holding 
important offices in Toledo, among others Mr. Mooney, the 


Chief of Police, who is called the Director of Public Safety. 
He invited me to see the workings of the Toledo gaol, or 
workhouse, as the Americans call it. 

It was a privilege and pleasure to meet Mr. Whitlock. 
He was kindness itself, and opened many doors to me, not 
only in Toledo, but in other States. I was very much 
struck with the love and respect with which he was spoken 
of all through the city. He is practically a young man 
yet, only about forty, and very boyish in appearance. 

Mr. Whitlock's reply to a letter from representatives of 
" The Federation of Churches " on the " Enforcement of 
Law in Cities " should be read by every one interested in 
social work. 

Among those Mr. Brand Whitlock introduced me to, no 
one impressed me more than did Mr. Mooney, the Chief 
of Police. I was introduced through him to the Superin- 
tendent of the gaol, the Minister for Public Works, and 
some other prominent men. 

The Superintendent, Mr. Stevens, is a most unusual man, 
most human. He treats his prisoners like men, allows 
them freedom of intercourse, and even to sleep in the same 
dormitory. They work outside, do the carting for the 
prison brick-making industry, and are generally trusted. 

There were only a few prisoners in the women's quarters ; 
I had a talk to them. They were playing cards, and I 
showed them how to play a game of patience ! 

The men wore no uniform, and had their meals together. 
Of course, there are penitentiaries for grave offenders, but 
most of the prisoners I saw had been drinking, or were 
vagrants, or had committed small thefts. None had com- 
mitted grave crimes. 

It was Parole Day. Every other Friday this takes place. 
Mr. Mooney asked me to come and sit with him and hear 


the cases. The kindly man-to-man way he spoke to each 
one was splendid, and the whole system is one of uplifting, 
of getting each person to try and govern himself, not simply 
a system of shut-up and punish. Mr. Stevens says to them 
sometimes, " Now, if you don't behave, we won't let you 
stop here, you know." 

Prisoners are fed on the best of everything, and the store- 
room was stocked with many appetizing eatables. 

When prisoners are paroled, they report once a week by 
letter or in person, and Mr. Stevens gave me several cards 
from men and women on parole. They must work and sign 
a paper promising several things. 

The room Mr. Mooney saw them in was just an ordinary 
office. The Superintendent, who was very stout and 
pleasant-looking, walked in and out in his shirt sleeves, 
smoking a cigar. The assistant superintendent called in 
each prisoner in turn. Mr. Mooney addressed Mr. Stevens 
as " Charlie," and altogether it was a pleasant sort of 

The first man to come in was John H , a man about 

forty. He had been fifteen years in prison, ten years at 
Toledo. He had only one arm, and was the sort of man 
who, when he got drunk, was very dangerous. He came 
in wearing neither coat nor vest, and sat down in front of 
Mr. Mooney, just the table between them. Mr. Mooney 
had before him the history of the case. 

" Well, John," he said, " so you want me to give you 
another chance, do you ? Well, you know we want to help 
you, but what I do for you and what Charlie (the superin- 
tendent) does for you doesn't matter. What does matter 
is what you do for yourself. Now what are you going to 
do for yourself ? You must think and decide ; if you go 
on like this, you have nothing ahead of you but old age 


and infirmity. You must be a man and do something for 
yourself. Has your sister been to see you ? " 

" No, and I don't blame her/' said John, looking down at 
his toes. 

" Now," went on Mr. Mooney, " the last time I paroled 
you, what did you do but go straight to the saloon and get 
drunk ? You made a bee-line there. You were only 
away a day when you were brought back." 

" I wasn't drunk," said John, " I own I had been 

" All right," said Mr. Mooney, "I'll parole you, John." 

As John went out I shook hands with him and wished 
him good luck. 

The next to come in was a young coloured man called 
Albert. He had been guilty of a graver offence. Some one 
had wanted to pay his fine for him. 

" We are not here to punish you," said Mr. Mooney, " but 
to help you. We don't feel that any amount of money paid 
into court does any good, but what we do feel is that if 
you will try to have more control of yourself, if you will 
try to do better, some good has been accomplished. Every 
time you misbehave you affect some one. Now you have 
served 112 out of your 223 days. As far as I am concerned, 
I don't care whether you are on the inside or the outside, 
but now it all depends on yourself, and I want you to get 
work and try and help some one." 

The next was a taking well-set-up boy of twenty-three. 
He had five convictions against him. He told the judge, 
as they called Mr. Mooney, that he had been a teamster. 

" How much did you earn ? " 

" Two dollars a day." 

" How much was the bicycle worth you stole ? " 
■' Twelve dollars." 


" Do you know how much you've paid for that bicycle ? 
One hundred and twenty dollars, for that is the time you 
have spent in here, when you might have been earning 
good money. Now, taking things gets a habit, and you've 
got to quit it. You are either going to get a whole lot 
worse or better." 

The boy seemed really sorry. He told me when I spoke 
to him afterwards that his mother had died when he was 
four years old. 

Mr. Mooney said, " All right, Harry ; you get back to the 
country where you say you can live honest. I'll parole 

The next to come in were two inebriates — men of forty 
years of age. To one Mr. Mooney said, " Now, Pat, did 
you ever know an Irishman that could drink ? Give 
it up, Pat." The other prisoner said he didn't always 
drink, but had been at it all the winter. They were 

Then came a boy of nineteen, who had stolen a case of 

" What f or ? " asked Mr. Mooney. 

" To drink," said the boy. 

" Were you ever drunk before ? " 

" Yes, once," said the boy. 

" Well," said Mr. Mooney, " was there anything so nice 
about being drunk that you wanted to get drunk again ? 
Have you a mother ? Does she love you ? " 

" Yes." 

" A good mother ? " 

" Yes." 

" Do you love your mother ? " 

" Yes ; " and tears were running down the boy's cheeks. 

" Well, I'll tell you what your poor mother did this 


morning. She brought some money to pay your fine, 
but we wouldn't take it. She works hard, and we wouldn't 
take her money. Now what I want to tell you to do is to 
love your mother and help her. Now while you've been 
here you've been pretty comfortable, eh ? Had a good 
bed, good meals, slept well ? Now, I'll tell you who has 
suffered, not you, but your mother. When you have 
slept, she has been awake thinking of you, troubling over 
you. By the time you are the age of those two men just 
gone out, what are you going to be ? Yes, I'll parole you. 
Go home and be good to your mother. Good-bye." 

Then came a young fellow of highly-respectable, well- 
known parents. He had married at nineteen or twenty a 
wealthy girl of seventeen. Her people sent her money. 
She was never satisfied. He took to drink. He talked 
glibly enough to the judge. 

" You know I never took to drink," he said, " until 
two years after I was married ! " 

" Do you know, Bob," said Mr. Mooney, " if it wasn't 

for your uncle, Dr. J , and the others coming to me, I 

wouldn't parole you — you ought to know better. Now 
remember, if you do wrong, it's me they'll blame, not you. 

Now you go and see Dr. J and talk it over with him. 

If you can't get on with your wife, go home — mind, I'm 
not advocating divorce, but you can't do as you've been 
doing. Think of your two children." 

There were two women and another man. To one 
woman, Mr. Mooney said, " What are you doing for 
humanity ? Nothing ! Do you see this lady ? She has 
come here from Australia to learn all she can to help 

He said so much more that I felt ashamed of how little I 
have yet done. He said to the woman, "You are forty-four? " 


" No," she corrected him, " thirty-four ! " 

He smiled and said : "lam glad you still have so much 
self-respect that you want to keep young." 

Of all the cases this was the only one in which Mr. 
Stevens intervened. He had hitherto said nothing, but 
when the woman said she would try to keep her parole, 
he exclaimed : " I don't believe her ! " 

" I can't trust her," he added. " She promises a thing, 
but does not keep her promise. I don't understand her 
at all, and I don't believe if you parole her she'll go 

Mr. Mooney talked to her for some time very earnestly, 
very helpfully. She had a son of eighteen, and so Mr. 
Mooney gave her the chance to go to her son, to start a new 

I had seen something of the work in the Public Schools 
in Chicago, and in Toledo I spent an exceedingly interesting 
morning seeing all over a school of 800 children, from 
Kindergarteners to the eighth, or final grade. The Super- 
intendent was a fine, sympathetic, alert young man, who 
took a real interest in each child. 

In America teachers are so alive, so enthusiastic about 
their work. What struck me in all the schools I saw was 
the teachers' love for their pupils, and this personal touch 
makes the dullest lesson of interest. 

In the Kindergarten class we saw tiny tots folding paper 
squares. It had suddenly begun to rain, and so the 
teacher suggested they should make the purple squares 
into umbrellas, which they did as we watched. Every- 
thing in the room was suitable for the tiny child, the pic- 
tures on the walls, the low chairs and tables, etc. All the 
rooms were lofty and bright and well ventilated. 

From the^Kindergarten room we went into the next 


grade, where older children were cutting out animals in 
paper and colouring them. 

In the next room they were reading; in another they 
recited for me ; in another they went through physical 
exercises to a march played by a gramophone. I was 
shown some excellent samples of mat making, and in one 
room the pupils were working from their own designs. 

In a higher grade the teacher asked the scholars at 
random : " What he, or she, thought the most interesting 
thing in the United States." One said, " New York," 
and gave a very clear description of its sights. Another 
said : " Niagara Falls," which she described ; another 
declared for a newly-opened mountain railway. In the 
highest grade, a boy of fifteen gave a splendid account of 
a battle between the English and the French Indians. 

American boys and girls, as well as their teachers, are 
able to stand up and give their impressions easily, without 
that self-consciousness which marks Australian and English 
children, and even some of their elders. 

In every room the Superintendent introduced me to the 
class, saying I had come from Australia, and I was able to 
tell each class something about our country, its trees, birds, 
and animals. But the children had learned about Aus- 
tralia, and knew more of it than other children I met in my 

After we had inspected all the classes, they assembled and 
marched out in perfect order, the Superintendent and I 
standing on the steps while they filed past. 

I saw several of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions in the States, but was specially taken with their 
building in Toledo, which was practically new, and furnished 
and equipped better than any I saw. 

The furniture was most artistic; and there were many 


sitting-rooms specially furnished and decorated by different 
ladies of Toledo. There was a fine reading room and 
library, very good hot and cold baths, a gymnasium, concert 
hall, good comfortable bedrooms, and a fine staff of sym- 
pathetic workers. In one of the rooms a dear girl, whom I 
met at the Newsboys' Association, gave free instruction in 
physical exercises to the sisters of members of the Toledo 
Newsboys' Association. 


ARMED with a letter of introduction from Mr. Brand 
Whitlock to Mr. Newton Baker, the Mayor, I left 
Toledo about 8 p.m., arriving at Cleveland, the capital of 
Ohio, at ii p.m. It is a fine, well-built town with a popula- 
tion of just a million people. Much of its prosperity it 
owes to the work and personality of its Mayor, who, I 
found, was as young as, if not younger than, Mr. Whitlock. 
They are great friends, and Mr. Whitlock was very anxious 
that I should see Cleveland, their capital. 

When I arrived at the Mayor's office early next day, I 
found he was presiding at a very important meeting ; but 
he left for a minute to send for the Secretary of the Director 
of Public Safety, who gave me letters to the heads of the 
Cooley Farms, which include — 

The Colony Farm, for the aged and infirm. 

The Overlook Farm, which is a Sanatorium for Tubercu- 

The Correction Farm, on which is the gaol or, as they call 
it, the Workhouse, or House of Correction. 

The Highland Park Farm is also in this group, on 
which had been laid out a municipal cemetery ; but I only 
managed to visit the first three. 

The farms are situated ten miles from the city, and each 
one of them is separate and consists of about 500 acres. 



Together they cover more than three square miles, so the 
environment and varied opportunities for work are most 
favourable to the residents of the villages. These groups 
are kept quite distinct. ^1 

The idea of the citizens of Cleveland in sending their aged 
and sick back to the land is, that the normal life and open 
air environment of the country have a strong tendency to 
restore men and women to normal mental and physical 
condition. They say : " This form of treatment will not 
always cure, but its efficiency is being recognized more 
and more in tuberculosis, insanity, and all forms of abnormal 
development/ ' 

I first visited the Colony Farm, which comprises four 
substantial buildings plastered in grey, with red tiled roofs. 
These buildings are built 600 feet above the city, and have 
a beautiful outlook. Mrs. Quinn, the matron, a very 
capable woman, showed me all over the buildings. 

The service quadrangle (the centre of activity of the 
village) is two stories in height, and covers an acre of 
ground. Here are the bakery, pantry, laundry, refrigera- 
tor, kitchens, baths, and other service rooms. In the 
centre is a large open court, entirely surrounded by a covered 
archway. Grouped around this court are the quarters of 
the aged, helpless, crippled, and some of the mentally defi- 
cient of Cleveland ; on the left, the women, on the right, the 
men. On the first floor of the women's apartments are the 
old and crippled. Above are those who are better able 
to look after themselves. Sixteen private rooms are 
reserved for old couples. These rooms, on the ground floor, 
have outside porches which, in summer, give the effect of a 
small cottage. The old couples have a plot of garden to 
themselves, and over the entrance of their cottages is the 
motto : " To lose money is better than to lose love." 


As long as the old people can look after each other they 
stay in these rooms. I looked into several and found the 
old inmates very bright and cheery, though often crippled 
and doubled-up with rheumatism. Sometimes the man 
is the stronger and sees to things, sometimes the woman. 
Their surroundings throughout were very cheerful and 
comfortable ; the old women were knitting, crocheting, 
and sewing in groups, and seemed quite contented with 
their lot. All the mentally afflicted women are in separate 
quarters. In the hospital were three very old women, 
one being ninety-two. 

The men's quarters are on the same principle as the 
women's. They have a fine barber's shop, a large reading- 
room, and spacious dormitories. 

The Colony Farm gives to these people, not only a good 
place to live in, but a place in which to live in some comfort 
for the declining years of their lives. Instead of being 
inmates of an almshouse, they have become residents of the 
Farm. They can work in the field and garden, or work at 
handicrafts, as they please. All the people who live on 
the Farm have excellent food, are well dressed (but not in 
uniforms), and have as many liberties and privileges as a 
considerate and wise provision for their interests will allow. 

The permanent Tuberculosis Sanatorium, which is 
called the Overlook Farm, was not quite ready for 
patients. It is built on a high ridge, just half a mile from 
the Colony group, and is protected on the North and 
North- West by a forest of seventy acres. I saw over 
the temporary building, which has been in use for over six 
years and has accommodation for about eighty patients. 
There are three lean-tos, which are used as sleeping places 
for fifty patients — who thus spend their days and nights, 
practically speaking, in the open air. The windows are 

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always open to the East. All the patients I saw were 
young men. In the first three years of the Sanatorium's 
existence, nine hundred cases were treated. One-third of 
these have shown marked improvement, and many have 
been sent to their homes, strong and well. 

It was quite a long drive from the Colony Farm to the 
Correction Farm, for, owing to the dreadful state of the 
cross-country roads, we had to go up to the main road and 
then back to the Farm. 

My Jehu, an inmate of the Colony Farm, was very lame 
with rheumatism, but had been, so he told me, in a travel- 
ling circus, and had been used to horses all his life. He was 
all right as soon as he got up in the buggy. Driving along, 
he told me his history, how he had travelled all through 
the States with the show ; how he had a wife and two little 
girls whom he lost by death in one year ; how he had come 
to the Farm Colony homeless and helpless ; how, by degrees, 
he had been able to help with the horses employed on the 
place, and how he was always chosen now to drive the 
Governor and any visitors about the different farms. 

The House of Correction, standing about a mile from 
the main road in its own farm, is built on the same principle 
as the service quadrangle at the Colony Farm. When 
completed, the great court in the centre is to be used for a 
recreation ground for the prisoners. There are three 
divisions of the prisoners — the Trustees, the Semi-Trustees, 
and those under regular prison supervision. 

The fundamental thing in this House of Correction's 
treatment of prisoners, so the organizers believe, is the 
attitude of friendship of those in charge of them, and the 
giving to prisoners the opportunity of coming back to 
the best in themselves, and to normal life. 

This House of Correction (like the House of Correction in 


Toledo) is most fortunate in its Superintendent, Mr. Mack, 
who received me and showed me all over his huge establish- 
ment. He was one of the most humane of men. He pointed 
out, with great pride, the paved roads and the concrete 
work the men had done. They were at work paving the 
courtyard, and we stood for a long while and watched 
them, while Mr. Mack told me some of his ideas. 

He said : " Not one of these men has done any of this work 
before ; they are butchers, bakers, and all sorts. You 
can't expect men to work — to work willingly and with 
interest in what they are doing — if you stand over them 
and order them about. The great thing is to say, ' Now, 
boys, we'll do this together ! ' " That the men respond to 
this method of treatment is seen by their whole-hearted 

In the penitentiaries there are no separate cells. The 
men eat together in a big, pleasant hall, and sleep in a long 
dormitory like a hospital ward. No warders stand guard 
over them, only a night watchman sees that lights are 
put out. The men wear no uniforms, and are free to come 
and go about the farm and drive carts into the town ; 
but they must report themselves at night. This they all 
know well, and also know that if they are not in their place 
to answer to their name at roll-call, they will have a longer 
and a more severe term of detention. In the fine chapel 
on the estate, different religious services are held. 

The only approach to dungeons are three isolated rooms 
in one of the towers, which is called " The Thinking Tower." 
They are not dungeons but strong white rooms, full of light 
and sunshine and fresh air. A pathetic touch in the centre 
of one room was an unfinished dolls' house on the table, 
which Mr. Mack explained to me was the work of an old 
man who had been an inmate of the room. 


Mr. Mack told me of several Tvery interesting instances 
in which men had responded to the humane treatment of 
the House of Correction. His whole wonderfully under- 
standing and compassionate attitude towards the men of 
whom he found himself the director was summed up, I 
think, when he said to me: " Why, I'm no better than 
these men, and it's just a chance that I am not in with 

He had been in the prison service for years, and told me 
how once the officials were given guns and cartridges with 
orders to shoot if there were any disturbance among the 
prisoners. He tried one cartridge on a post, and said, " I 
couldn't blow a man to pieces like that, so I told my men if 
they saw a man running away they were not to shoot, but 
to throw down their guns and run too." 

The surrounding farm gives the men employment. They 
rear sheep and fowls, and grow all sorts of vegetables and 
fruit. They make roads, do the grading, dig ditches, clear 
the dead timber, and do general farm work. The aim of the 
organization is in time to make the farm self-supporting. 

When finished, the House of Correction will accommodate 
women as well as men ; the women then will do all the 
cleaning, making, mending, and attend to the dairies and 
fruit preserving. 

At the end of a very long and interesting day, one of 
the prisoners drove me to catch my train back to the 

In connexion with the House of Correction is the Brother- 
hood movement, which is under the leadership of the Parole 
Officer. Its object is to find employment for released 
prisoners, giving them a comfortable home until they can 
pay their own way. Those who have been helped, in their 
turn help others. In regard to this organization it is 


interesting to learn that in seventeen months those men 
who some people say are worthless, paid into the Home 
more than $i 0,000 that they had earned by honest work. 

Buffalo is four or five hours' journey from Cleveland. I 
spent four days there, and had several talks to the boys 
in the streets. 

There was no properly organized newsboys' " club," but 
one was being formed. While I was talking to a group 
of boys one evening, their President came along. He 
was an ex-newsboy, and about thirty-three. His ideas 
were very primitive. He threw out a boy that was " bad," 
and said he would not listen to any argument in his favour. 
While a boy did well it was all right ; if he lapsed, there 
was no room for him in his club. He pointed out a bright 
little chap of fourteen as his secretary, and told me that 
many of the old Buffalo newsboys were almost millionaires. 
All the Buffalo newsboys I spoke to were very bright and 
obliging, and told me everything I asked about their work, 
among other things that they make five cents (2\d.) on a 
dozen papers. 

East Aurora, a most interesting village — whose head and 
founder is Elbert Hubbard — is 18 miles from Buffalo. 

I had one long, delightful day there, and was shown all 
over the workshops, the inn, the cottages, the farm and 
the Boys' Home, by Elbert Hubbard, himself, to whom 
Mr. Brand Whitlock had given me a letter of introduc- 

We all know Elbert Hubbard by repute. He is famous 
both for his writings and for the original and artistic style 
of the books and furniture that he turns out of his work- 
shops, and that have such a ready sale all over the 
world. Elbert Hubbard's is a most interesting personality. 
He is helped in his ideals and his work by his wife, who 


works equally with him. But I will talk only of his 
methods of dealing with the boys who come to the Roy- 
croft School for boys ; for these methods were chiefly 
interesting to me. 

His idea is that each boy should go to school a part of the 
day, studying the usual book subjects, and that the other 
part should be devoted to outdoor work on the farm and 
garden, or employed in building houses and barns, laying 
out roadways, constructing bridges, taking care of live 
stock, and doing all the usual necessary work that intelli- 
gent and successful farmers do. He does not consider 
sending a boy to school is enough. He says : " He is 
educated in his spare moments away from the schoolroom 
quite as much as in the schoolroom/' From twelve to 
sixteen or eighteen years of age is the creative period, and if 
we do not allow the creative period to manifest itself 
naturally, the same tendencies will find vent in destructive 

Mr. Hubbard adds : " City boys take more kindly to 
the business of farming than country lads, for the reason 
that farmer boys have had a double dose of farm/' He 
believes : " Military schools will discipline all right, but 
they do not foster initiation and invention/' 

Boys are taken at the Roycroft School, and, under Ray- 
mond Riordan, the Principal, spend one-half of the day 
among books and the other in the workshops and on the 

These boys' quarters are furnished and arranged with 
the same artistic sense as the other buildings. Their dining 
room is all in brown, with brown polished tables and quaint 
high-backed chairs. Their bedrooms are equipped with 
every modern comfort. 

Scholars of the Roycroft School pay $500 a year and 


supply their own linen ; the Roycrofters find them in 
everything else. Mind, body, soul, head, hand and heart 
are given opportunities of expressing themselves under the 
Roycrofters' wholly admirable system of education. 



I LEFT Buffalo on April 17, at 7.30 a.m., for Boston, 
and travelled all day. We passed through some 
large towns, and of these, Albany, where I changed trains, 
Syracuse, Pittsburg and Springfield looked the most impor- 
tant. The latter part of the journey was through hilly 
country with pine ridges, and we ran along some large rivers 
rushing over rocky beds. In the distance we could see 
clearly the blue Andironachs. It was past 9 p.m. when I 
reached Boston. Rain was falling in torrents, and lasted 
all through the next day and night. 

Boston is full of historical interests, being the oldest Ameri- 
can city. It prides itself on being more Conservative and 
English than any other town in America. The streets 
are narrow and very winding. It is said that they were the 
old cow-paths, and that the town grew up on each side of 
them. There are many monuments and tablets erected in 
commemoration of well-known events of the War of Inde- 
pendence. Bunker's Hill is on the outskirts of the town. 
All the soldiers' graves in the cemeteries are marked by 
little flags placed on them. 

Miss Mabel Willard, who, it will be remembered, visited 
Victoria nearly two years ago with Mrs. Charles Park, 



showed me many of the sights of Boston, and was most 
kind in every way. She took me to dinner at the College 
Hall, at which the women graduates of Harvard University 
may meet and entertain their men friends. I went several 
times over the bridge on which Longfellow wrote his well- 
known poem, but I did not actually stand on it " at mid- 

The first club I visited, you will not be surprised to hear, 
was the Newsboys' Club. 

The Boston Newsboys' Club works on different lines 
from any other I have seen. Their headquarters is a fine 
building. A superintendent is in charge, and many volun- 
tary workers assist him, among whom are ex-newsboys. 
It is estimated that there are 4,000 newsboys in Boston. 
They are divided according to age into two ranks. Those 
of compulsory school age are licensed and supervised by 
the school committee, while boys of over fourteen and under 
twenty- one are under the care of the City Council. The 
beginners generally sell for other boys on a commission basis, 
and thus get the protection and advice of the elder boys for 
a start. They are called " strikers," and they receive one 
cent for every four they take. Many boys going to school 
sell papers between 4 and 6 o'clock, and in this way earn 
sufficient money to enable them to attend a High School. 
In the " English High School " there are over three hundred, 
newsboys, and all the other schools and even some of the 
Colleges have their share of newsboys. 

Years ago, all boys congregated at the several offices 
for their papers. This system had its disadvantages, as. 
bullies and big boys could press to the front, get their 
papers first, and often have them sold before the smaller 
boy had a look-in. Then again, whilst waiting for papers, 
gambling, fighting and other bad habits were acquired 


Now things are changed. Allied with the newsboys are 
the " Canada Points/' i.e. ex-newsboys employed by 
certain papers for a fixed salary to distribute papers whole- 
sale, at certain selected central points. At any of these 
twenty points papers can be obtained, and thus there 
need be no delay. 

I called one morning at the Club and was asked to come 
again at night. I went. It was a pouring wet night, and 
I was shown all over the building by an ex-newsboy, a fine 
young man, and a graduate of Harvard University. The 
building is given up to games, clubs and athletics, princi- 
pally. There are also a reading room, and two study rooms 
for newsboys, who at home would have difficulty in finding 
a warm, quiet corner to study in, or an adult adviser compe- 
tent to guide them. In charge of the two latter rooms 
is the winner of the Newsboys' Harvard Scholarship, who 
devotes his evenings to coaching High School pupils. 

But the most interesting feature of the Club is the Boston 
Newsboys' Trial Board. This court is held once a week at 
7.30 p.m. Presiding over it are three judges, elected by 
the Grammar School newsboys (under fourteen) from among 
the captains — who are elected captains by the newsboys 
attending all the Grammar Schools. The Court is governed 
by three newsboy judges and two adult judges chosen by 
the Boston School Committee. A supervisor of licensed 
minors is also chosen by examination ; he is paid $ 1,400 
per annum, and sees that the rules made by the School 
Committee are enforced. He brings to the Trial Court all 
those who break the rules, and acts as prosecuting attorney. 
The greatest power this Board has is to take away the badge 
provided by the School Committee. Other penalties are the 
suspension of badges for a few days, 

It happened to be Court nightt oil the. occasion of my 


visit, so I sat with the judges and heard all the cases. About 
thirty boys were present. The parents and elder brothers 
of those on trial are always asked to attend, and some 
of these availed themselves of the invitation. The three 
boy- judges — Michael Belman, Abram Resnick, and Henry 
Brown — who, by the way, was a coloured boy — the Clerk and 
the Supervisor of Licensed Minors, Mr. Regan, were seated on 
a raised platform at one end of the room, with all the papers, 
etc., before them. Order was called, and the Clerk read: — 

" All having business before Newsboys' Court give atten- 
tion. God save the city of Boston ! " 

The truant officer then read the history of each case, 
and the boy who had received a summons came up to the 
front of the table, and the judges questioned and dealt 
with his case. 

The first thing each boy was asked was whether he had 
written out a copy of the regulations of the Public Schools 
of the city of Boston. These refer to licensed minors, and 
include all laws and restrictions relating to licences, badges, 
etc. The principal ones are these : — 

" All licences shall expire at the end of the year during 
which the minor reaches his fourteenth birthday. The 
licensee shall return his badge to the principal of the school at 
which he attends on or before the date on which his licence 

" He shall not sell or lend his badge to any one, nor fur- 
nish any unlicensed minor with newspapers. He shall not 
sell newspapers in or on a street car before 6 o'clock in the 
morning, nor after 8 o'clock in the evening. 

" He shall not, at any time, fail to wear his badge con- 
spicuously in sight. 

" Licences shall not be issued to girls nor to boys under 
eleven years jrf age. 


" A charge of twenty-five cents is made for each badge 

Among the cases I heard was one of a boy under fourteen 
years of age, who was before the court for selling on 
a street car. Another was summoned for selling after 
8 p.m. 

A coloured boy named Moses, who was accused of selling 
during school hours, pleaded that his father was ill in 
hospital, and that he was keeping the family. He was 
put on probation for two years, as he had been before the 
Court before. 

If a boy does not respond to the first summons delivered, 
a second and a third are sent. If he still absents himself, his 
case is referred to the Juvenile Court. 

The following is a copy of the summons issued by the 
Boston Newsboys Trial Court : — 


You are complained of for ... , and you are hereby 
notified that the Newsboys' Trial Board will give you a 
hearing on this complaint at their rooms in the Newsboys' 
Club, 277 Tremont Street, Boston, on . . . at . . . o'clock. 
You are ordered to appear at this time and place, otherwise 
you may lose your licence or be sent to the Juvenile Court. 
Witness, Mitchell Freeman, Chief Justice. 

When I met Judge Lindsey in Chicago, he said, " If you 
go to Boston, you ought to meet my friend Judge Baker. 
I will give you a letter to him." I forgot to remind Judge 
Lindsey of the letter, but did have the pleasure of meeting 
Judge Baker, and of spending a morning with him in the 
Boston Juvenile Court. This is held every day, from 9 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., in the State House, a gorgeous building, on the 


topmost pinnacle of which is a large golden ball that can 
be seen from all parts of the city. It was a more formal 
court than in Chicago. Outside was a waiting-room, where 
a number of boys and girls were awaiting trial. Some were 
with their parents, some with officers in uniform. The 
judge was in an inner room on a raised platform seated 
before a desk, which ran along the whole front of the plat- 
form. He very kindly gave me a seat next to him. 

Each case was taken separately. The Judge spoke 
to each child, got his version, then sent the child out, and 
had in the police officers or probation officer in charge. 
Different bells beside the Judge, or a speaking tube, called 
in the officer, who, as he came in, stood at the end of the 
platform close to the door. The Judge then wheeled his 
chair round, and spoke to each probation officer. There are 
three attached to this Court, two men and one woman; 
the latter, a Jewess, is paid by the Jewish women of Boston. 

There were several groups of boys before the Court for 
playing ball in the street. They had broken windows. As 
each boy came in, separately, the Judge said : " Now, tell 
us all you know, without saying anything about any other 
boy. Were you playing ball in the street ? " 

In one case, three boys denied being within twenty feet 
of the window, or even knowing it was broken. They said 
they had not even played ball. The fourth boy, when 
asked what he knew, said frankly, " Yes, I know who 
broke the window. I did." 

The Judge thanked him for his frankness, and said he 
considered all who were playing should join in paying for 
the window. He told the boy to tell the boys playing with 
him at one time that they must all share. He said, "You 
say the Judge says you have not ' squealed ' on them, and 
he does not even know their names. But if they will not 


pay their share the Judge will ask for their names, and they 
will all be served with summonses." 

As I went out of the Court I had a talk to the lady 
probation officer, who told me how they dealt with some 
of the cases, and directed me as to the best way to reach 
the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-minded, which I 
had heard a great deal of, and was very anxious to see. 



THIS is a most wonderful institution, situated about 
an hour's distance by tram from Boston, and close to 
Waltham, the great watch-making centre. The school com- 
prises many buildings devoted to different branches of the 
work, all the inmates, male and female, being graded accord- 
ing to age and mental capacity. It is really a haven for the 
mentally and morally deficient of Massachusetts, who are 
transferred here from the schools, reformatories, and often 
from private families, all over the State. The superintendent, 
Dr. E. Fernald, has made the feeble-minded his careful study 
for many years, and has written some most enlightening 
articles on their treatment, from the special public school 
classes onwards. He says that, " at least one per cent, of 
the children in public schools are defective/' and strongly 
advocates special public school classes for defectives, and also 
the training of teachers to understand the symptoms of 
mental deficiency at an early age, for he says : " The earlier 
these children are placed under proper training, the more can 
be accomplished by and for them." He says emphatically 
that, though the majority of trained defectives may become 
self-supporting, by far the greater number need oversight and 


1 PR u. FERNALD 5»A^ - 


supervision as long as they live, no really feeble-minded 
person having been entirely cured. 

That an institution like this is necessary is exemplified 
every day. It is well known that numbers of boys and girls, 
in reform schools, the great army of police-court chronic 
drunkards, criminals, tramps, vagrants, and prostitutes, 
are recruited from the class of those slightly mentally 
deficient who were neglected in their youth. 

Under the management of the Feeble-minded School of 
Massachusetts are 1,495 males and females. Of these, 1,255 
were in the departments I went over, for it was quite 
impossible, in the one day which I was able to give to visit- 
ing, to see every department of this huge institution, which 
covers so much land, and is like a village in itself. The 
inmates are divided into eleven families, each having dis- 
tinctive and peculiar needs, and are all under the one 
general management. 

In the girls' dormitory are the girls of school age ; in the 
boys' dormitory and boys' department are boys of the 
school grade also. Separated from these, in another 
building, are the adult males requiring much personal care 
and attention. In another building are young and feeble 
boys and females of the lower grade. At the girls' home 
are the adult females, many of whom have graduated at 
the school departments, and are employed in the domestic 
work of the institution. At the farmhouse are the higher 
grade adults, employed in farm work. In the hospital, 
which is always full, are the feeble and sickly children. 

The school children are separated into eleven well-defined 
grades. I saw their work from the time they enter the 
school and are first taught by education of the senses ; 
and the progress they make in passing from the lower to the 
higher grades of mentality is marvellous. No pupil is in 


the schoolroom more than half a day. The rest of the time 
is spent in manual or industrial training, physical drill, 
and recreation. As a rule the pupils come to the institu- 
tion with poorly developed bodies, so nearly all receive 
systematic physical training every day. 

Dr. Fernald's theory is that the feeble-minded do not talk 
because they have no ideas to express. He works on the 
Montessori system. The doctor, who showed me over the 
schools, and of whose kindness and courtesy I cannot speak 
in sufficiently high terms, explained to me some of these 
methods. A very important one consists in trying to raise 
the curiosity of the pupils. To this end, objects for lessons 
are contained in separate bags. In one bag are objects, by 
handling which the children are taught to observe the 
difference between light and heavy weights. In another 
bag are objects to teach the difference of shape; in another, 
coloured articles from which they learn difference of colour. 
So, by patient, loving teaching, and by a skilful playing on 
the five senses, light and understanding are introduced into 
the poor minds that otherwise would be doomed to grope in 
chaos and darkness. 

Some boys are taught, and take great interest in farm and 
garden work. Others assist the baker, carpenter, engineer 
and painter. They do all the printing of the school, mend 
the shoes of all the inmates, and a number who wear 
distinctive red caps serve as errand boys. 

The girls do all the laundry work, and make much of the 
children's clothing, and any girl at all bright is expected 
to keep her own clothing in repair. In the domestic science 
class-room, girls receive instruction in ordinary house- 
work, learn to wash dishes, make fires, clean stoves, prepare 
and boil, or bake potatoes ; and other vegetables, and lay a 
table and serve a meal properly. When I saw this room with 


its up-to-date equipment, and the clean, almost bright girls 
employed there, I could hardly believe that they had deve- 
loped from children of the low grades of intellect such as I 
had seen earlier in the day. I was particularly struck, too, 
with the work of these girls in the sewing room, where they 
make most artistic mats and really beautiful lace. Each 
ward has its distinct playground. At play or at work all are 
under the constant supervision of an attendant. 

The boys were at tea when I visited them. They seemed 
very happy. Their dining, class and play room and their 
sitting-rooms were splendidly built, airy, and most artistically 
furnished, with pictures on the walls and pot plants on the 
tables. Some younger boys outside were having a noisy, 
rollicking game of football. 

In the elder girls' sitting-room, which was very attrac- 
tively furnished, some of the girls, in the hour after tea, were 
grouped round a piano, while one of their number played 
the accompaniment to a new setting of " The Bridge." 
We stopped to listen to a fair-haired girl singing this 
exquisite song, and noticed the pleasure on the faces of the 
listening girls, many of whom were reclining in rocking-chairs 
and knitting. The whole institution was a demonstration of 
what can be done for feeble-minded and mentally defective 

After I had seen all through the workshops, laundry, gym- 
nasium, game rooms, enjoyed the magnificent view and 
drunk in the beautiful pure air, I could not help wishing 
that every normal child had the advantages that 1,500 of 
the sub-normal children of Massachusetts have in this 

At Newton, near Boston, I spent a day with one of my 
old boys, a Melbourne newsboy named Sydney Chant; 


" Chantey " the boys used to call him. I had not met him for 
eleven years, and the change in him in those years was good 
to see. In Melbourne he sold Heralds at the Royal Mail 
corner. He is now an electrician, and earning £4 sl week. 
I had dinner with him and his mother and sisters at their 
home, one Sunday. Sydney asked after ever so many of 
his old friends. I was the first Australian whom he had 
known that he had seen since he came to America, nearly 
twelve years ago. He told me he was still an Australian, 
body and soul, and was saving up to come back to the 
" best country in the world.'' 

Both in Chicago and Boston I heard much of the Woman's 
Suffrage movement. In Chicago I had the pleasure one day 
of helping Miss Jane Addams to fold up some circulars about 
different meetings. The American women I met all want 
Woman Suffrage, but they did not agree with the methods of 
the militant suffragettes ; they said militancy might " go 
down " and help the cause in England, but it certainly 
would not do in America. 

In Boston, I arrived on the eve of the Equal Suffrage mass 
meeting. Mrs. Charles Park and Miss Mabel Willard, 
whom many Victorians had the pleasure of meeting in Mel- 
bourne, were two of the prime workers. Strange as it may 
seem, a Chinese woman addressed the meeting. It was 
open to the public, and was called for the purpose of arousing 
interest in the suffrage work of five American States — Ohio, 
Michigan, Kansas, Oregon and Wisconsin — where consti- 
tutional amendments granting suffrage to women have passed 
the legislature, and were to be voted on. Mrs. Charles 
Park, secretary of the Boston Equal Suffrage Association 
for good Government, presided. 

One Sunday during my visit to Boston, I went to the 
Charles Street Church, the congregation of which is composed 


of coloured people. Every one in the church was black, or 
some shade of black. Negroes at the door, with huge white 
cotton gloves and large white rosettes, ushered people to 
their seats. The women of the congregation were all very 
stylishly dressed in the latest fashion. Little girls of five 
and six were there in white frocks with blue or pink sashes, 
and there was one small baby in long clothes, all white, except 
for the tiny oval of its face. The organist and choir were 
coloured, and hymn after hymn was sung with deep pathos 
by many musical voices ; and, when the choir sang as an 
anthem, " Trust and obey, for there's no other way to be 
happy in Jesus," the congregation joining in, sitting down, 
one was touched and carried away by the real and deep 
devotional feeling. 

There were coloured paper decorations all over and above 
the pulpit, and yellow and lavender stars, crosses, suns, and 
other ornamentations were festooned about the chancel. 
Three or four dignitaries of the church spoke at different 
times. These all sat on the "raised platform near the 
pulpit. Before the sermon, one made an announcement of 
different services to be held, and referred to some members 
of the congregation who had absented themselves from the 
usual service. He said : " My eye is very quick to notice 
who is here and who is away." After several more remarks, 
some of a lengthy nature, he said : " Our usual penny col- 
lection will now be taken up." And it was a penny (cent) 
collection, pure and simple. A cent is equal to a halfpenny 
in English money. One man I noticed put down a dime (10 
cents) and took nine cents change from the plate. It was 
the Sunday after the Titanic disaster, and in the sermon 
the pastor made frequent references to it. 

Later on, in New York, when I mentioned, in the course 
of a conversation with W. D. Ho wells, the famous novelist, 


how much I had been impressed with the Charles Street 
services, he said, " So was I when I was in Boston, and one of 
my novels, called An Imperative Duty, I wrote as an outcome 
of its effect on me/' 


FROM Boston I came to New York. This city is so well 
laid out, that a stranger has no difficulty in finding his 
way about. All the avenues run in numbers, so do the 
streets. The avenues cross the streets, so it is always easy 
to pick up your bearings. 

The day after my arrival I went to Harper Bros., the home 
of Harper's Monthly, in Franklin Square, as Mr. Brand 
Whitlock had given me a letter of introduction to W. Dean 
Howells, the novelist, author of Their Wedding Journey, 
A Chance Acquaintance, and many other clever novels. 
Mr. Howells was not in his office, but a clerk rang him up at 
his private residence, and I was asked to come to E. 58th 
Street. Here, he and his daughter were living in a flat, 
and I went by the elevated railway to see them. Mr. 
Howells said he was glad to see me, and I had a long talk 
with him. 

I was just as delighted with him as I had expected to be, 
and his mind was as beautiful as I had imagined it from his 
books. He told me he was seventy-five and that he had lost 
his wife two years before. His daughter Mildred lives with 
him. She is a charming woman, and devoted to her father. 
Both of them are so simple and great-hearted. Besides this 
daughter, Mr. Howells has a married son and a grandson, 



" Billy," whom he adores. On the eve of my visit they 
were all just off for a trip to the seaside together. 

Mr. Howells said that when he is writing, his children 
always come along and read each day what he has written. 
They are devoted to him. He is an Oxford man, but has 
lived in Boston for many years. He often goes to England 
and to the Continent. He is of Welsh descent, and was 
interested to know that my father came from Shropshire, 
which he knows well. 

When Miss Howells came in Mr. Howells introduced me, 
saying: " We have had such an interesting talk." He was 
anxious to hear all I could tell him about Australia. He 
has a quaint and delightful sense of humour, and was very 
quick at seeing a point and turning a joke. I remarked on 
the number of engravings in the room, and asked if he was 
particularly fond of engravings. He said : " You would 
think so, wouldn't you ? As a matter of fact, all these 
pictures belong to my landlady." Then he showed me the 
only two that were his. Both of them had been painted 
by his daughter and were dainty water-colours of fairies 
and mystical subjects. 

During our talk Mr. Howells remarked how usage makes 
forms of speech that our school teachers condemned, cor- 
rect, citing, for instance, how one says quite commonly in 
England now, "It is me," not "It is I." We discussed 
the charm of natural people, and he said he had never 
known any people so natural as the Shakers. He had 
lived among them once, and said : " They always say 
what they mean, even if you do not like it." 

I stayed on to luncheon, and we had soup, chops, Bermuda 
potatoes, and strawberry corncake — which was a cake with 
stewed strawberries between the layers of it. Mr. Howells 
was very disappointed when I declined to venture on it. 


The lunch was served in the American fashion, on a polished 
round table with doyleys under the plates. 

Miss Alice Henry, now of Chicago (old friends will remem- 
ber her home was once in Melbourne), had given me a letter 
to Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Gillman, one of the greatest workers 
in movements for the benefit of women and children in the 
world. While I was with the Howells, I told Miss Howells 
that I thought of going to call on Mrs. Gillman, and she said 
that Mrs. Gillman was a friend, and she would ring up and 
find out if she could see me that afternoon. A- message 
came back that if I were to go right away, she would be 
pleased to see me, but that later in the day she had to go and 
see a sick friend. Her house was not far away. It is on 
Riverside Drive, and faces the river. It was very windy that 
afternoon, and I blew into two or three houses before I 
finally found hers. 

She is a woman of good physique but not tall, and of most 
magnetic personality. Her face is pale, her eyes dark and 
flashing ; her black hair, touched with grey, is parted over 
her forehead. She received me in cordial, good-comradely 
fashion. She owns and writes entirely that remarkable 
paper, The Forerunner, of which she gave me several 
copies, and lectures throughout the States on feminine 
subjects ; her lectures are much sought after. The books 
by which she is best known are The Man-made World, 
Women and Economics, and What Diantha Did. 

I shall never forget hearing her read her poem on " Child 
Labour " to me. Her face was tense with feeling, her dark 
eyes flashing. Here are some of the verses I remember : — 

Only the human father — 

A man, with power to think — 
Will take from little children 

The price of food and drink. 


Only the human mother — 

Degraded, helpless thing ! — 
Will make her little children work, 

And live on what they bring. 

No fledgeling feeds the father-bird, 

No chicken feeds the hen ! 
No kitten mouses for the cat; 

This glory is for men. 

We are the wisest, strongest race, 

Loud may our praise be sung ! 
The only animal alive 

That feeds upon its young. 

Mrs. Gillman loves children, and says, " The child is the 
most important citizen." 

She said that she hoped to visit Australia some day. 
When going out to see her sick friend, she took me through 
the Central Park and round some of the principal streets 
of New York, pointing out to me places of interest. 
She is intensely observant and sympathetic. As we 
entered Central Park a child in a pram lost its ball, which 
came rolling down the bank towards us. Though we were 
talking earnestly at the time, Mrs. Gillman was not too 
absorbed to see it. She stopped, picked it up and gave it 
to the little one as we passed. When we got to Fifth 
Avenue, she showed me my car, and we waved to each other 
till we were out of sight. 

Of course, another incident of my stay in New York was 
a visit to the New York Newsboys' Club. It had just 
been moved into a new building. A friend had presented 
the building, which cost £16,000. The Club only exercises 
itself in the direction of providing entertainments, games 
and a summer camp for the boys. In another part of the 
city was a Newsboys' Home, where boys slept at night. 


From a study based on inquiries into the antecedents of 
boys at two of the New York juvenile asylums, Mr. J. C. 
Goldmark points out that : " The early ages of street workers, 
the irregularities of their lives and the lawlessness of their 
environment, are ruining a large number of those boys in 
New York who are engaged as newsboys, pedlars and 

A Child Welfare Exhibit was organized by New York 
philanthropists two years ago. This was a remarkable 
exhibition of the conditions of child-life in New York, and 
took three years to organize. It showed how often housing 
conditions were unhealthy, home life bad, education too 
ineffective, work too warping, and play too dangerous. 
The dangers of street play in New York, where the streets 
are often the child's only play-grounds, are illustrated by 
the following figures : sixty-seven children were killed in 
ten months, and 196 seriously injured in street play. Motors 
killed twenty-nine, wagons eighteen, trolleys twenty. 
The importance of the Exhibition was that it made clear to 
thoughtless people what were really the conditions under 
which thousands of little children were trying to live, and 
that it indicated the State's duty in regard to them. The 
New York enterprise was imitated by Chicago the following 
year, and a Child Welfare Exhibition was organized in 
England for 1912. It would perhaps be as well if pro- 
blems connected with the welfare of children were regularly 
ventilated in a similar fashion in Australia. 

The Charity Organization Society of New York issues a 
splendid catalogue entitled The Bulletin of the New York 
School of Philanthropy. One department gives a list of 
books on the Causes and Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency, 
and these are most helpful to persons wishing to study that 
phase of child-life. 


My varied, interesting and valuable experiences in the 
United States ended with my visit to New York. Every- 
where I was received with the most wonderful kindness. The 
people I had introductions to were goodness itself, and 
most sympathetic and helpful. I talked of Australia 
wherever I went, and found that as a rule Americans had a 
great opinion of our country. 



ENGLAND, with its huge population, its tremendous 
social problems, and its appalling poverty,, has per- 
haps more child-saving institutions than any other country 
in the world. 

Her child-saving, rescue and reformatory work is carried 
on by nearly fourteen hundred institutions, many of which 
are under independent management. In these institutions 
there are about ninety thousand inmates. 

In London alone there is no limit to the number of the 
various Government, County Council, and private charities, 
and just when you think you have grasped at least one 
side of the question and have seen all there is to see bear- 
ing on it, you hear of other organizations acquaintance 
with which is equally necessary to the thoroughness of 
your quest. 

Accordingly, after months of search and study, I have 
selected only such schools as are typical of each phase of 
child-life, and have tried by describing those which most 
impressed me to give an idea of what England is doing to- 
wards the welfare of her great family of children. 



AFTER the American settlements those of London seem 
small. Toynbee Hall was, as we know, the very first 
in the world, and from it all the others have originated. It 
was started by an Oxford man, and those who have followed 
its workings and results are convinced that it has been a 
power for good. Toynbee Hall is in the heart of the East 
End of London, and is worked mostly by students. When I 
visited it one bitterly cold night in the depths of winter, 
eighteen young men were in residence there. Many outside 
organizations also are worked from this settlement, therefore 
a visit to the Club House only, does not give one a comprehen- 
sive idea of what is really being done by it. I saw a men's 
night school at work, a Boy Scouts' singing class, and listened 
some time to speakers at a crowded meeting of the De- 
bating Society which was discussing the Government's 
Insurance Bill. This Debating Society is open to all 

The Passmore Edwards Settlement is in the opposite 
direction — in the West Central district, and not very far 
from the British Museum. I visited it twice. On the first 
occasion in the morning when, as there were no classes being 
held, I had an opportunity of going all over the buildings, 



and seeing the class rooms, club rooms, concert hall, library, 
etc., and learning something of the history and work of the 
organization. On the outside, the building impresses one by 
its solidity and general air of comfort and compactness. It 
is built of red brick and the front is flush with Tavistock 
Place, but from the dining-room, which is situated at the back, 
there is a charming view of garden and trees and lawns. The 
Duke of Bedford has allowed the Settlers the use of his large 
and beautifully kept garden, and it is one of the great charms 
for the Settlement workers and all those who live in that 
densely crowded corner of London. 

The founder of the Settlement, Mr. Passmore Edwards, 
who gave it the splendid building wherein its work is housed, 
died on April 22, 1911, the day after I left Melbourne. He 
was a great man — the whole neighbourhood testifies to 
that — and gave all the working men, women and children 
in the district opportunities for evening education, and the 
interests of music and club life, which they would have 
had no chance of obtaining otherwise. The Settlement 
was founded in 1890, its principal aim being : "To pro- 
vide a centre of education, recreation and social work in 
the neighbourhood." 

Mrs. Humphry Ward has filled the position of Hon. 
Secretary since its foundation, and it was mainly owing to 
her exertions that the Settlement, in conjunction with the 
late London School Board, opened the first public school in 
London for crippled and invalid children. This supplied a 
long-felt need, and, following the good example, there are 
now thirty-six such schools in London under the London 
County Council, attended by about 3,000 children. 

Attached to the Settlement is a body of more than 500 
Associates, drawn from the working men and women of St. 
Pancras. It has a Men's Club, non-alcoholic and self-support- 


ing ; two Boys' Clubs, one for boys of fourteen and one for 
boys between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one (the latter 
fills a much needed gap, existent till a year ago, between the 
Boys' and Men's Clubs) ; a Women's Club ; a Girls' Club ; 
and an evening recreation, or play centre. All children are 
free to come and go at the Settlement up to the age of four- 
teen. On an early winter's evening it is alive with happy 
children, dancing, playing all sorts of games, making toys, 
knitting, sewing, drilling, learning how to mend their own 
boots, looking at books and pictures, listening to fairy stories, 
in fact, doing everything that a child loves to do. The 
summer holds different attractions. For then, from May 
onwards, they play in the Duke of Bedford's beautiful gar- 
den, which the Settlement opens on to at the back. Here 
they have all sorts of games — skipping, dancing and digging 
in the sand-pit. 

Other Clubs in connexion with the Settlement are an 
Athletic Club, Chess Club, Coal Club, Cycling Club, Cricket 
Club, Dramatic Club, Factory Girls' Club, Football Club, 
Minstrel Club, Penny Savings Bank, Scientific Society, 
Shakespeare Club, Swimming Club, Travellers' and Walking 

I spent a very pleasant Sunday evening at the Settlement. 
Arriving at 6.45 p.m., I went straight to the Library, where a 
lecture on " The World's Philosophy " was to be given by Sir 
John Hynde Cotton. The Library was a large comfortable 
room lined with book-cases, and for a few minutes before the 
lecture I had an opportunity of seeing what a splendid collec- 
tion of books the readers had to choose from. In a big open 
fireplace a bright coal fire sent a glow over the room, and by 
the time the lecturer had arrived there was a very good 

It was the second lecture of the series, and Sir John, after 


introducing the audience to a map and chart illustrating 
where the philosophers lived and the era they lived in, gave a 
brief resume of his former lecture, and carried the audience to 
480 B.C., giving a short history of the Greek philosophers, and 
dwelling principally on Socrates and his teaching. It was a 
most interesting, instructive lecture, and held the audience 
enthralled till 8.15, when members were at liberty to ask 
questions, which liberty a few took advantage of. Sir 
John answered the questions, and the friendly gathering then 

At 8.30, in the concert room, a concert was being given, and 
I turned my steps there, passing on the way the long dining- 
room, where some of the Settlers were at dinner. One 
of them good-naturedly showed me the way to the hall, 
which was a large room with a suitable stage, on which were a 
piano and all needful accessories. There were on the walls 
copies of pictures by the great masters, and the hall was 
fairly well filled with men, women and children. Six boys, 
about fourteen years of age, were sitting at the back of the 
hall near me, and in between the items in the programme we 
became great friends. They were most interested in hearing 
of Australia. One wanted to know "if it was a dangerous 
country," and if "kangaroos attacked you in the street/' 
They all said they would like to come out. Two of the boys 
were messenger boys, one worked at a bakery, and another 
was learning to be an engineer. This last, thought he would 
some day be able to work his passage to Australia. I 
had with me some of the Australian postcards which are 
distributed by the Commonwealth Office Authorities, and 
hundreds of which I had given to boys in the schools and 
institutions I visited. I gave some to these six new friends, 
who escorted me to the railway station when the concert 
was over. 


A very interesting woman I met at the Eugenics Confer- 
ence, detailed later on, was Miss Sarah Bennett. She was the 
Hon. Secretary of the Freedom League ; but had relin- 
quished that post just before my meeting her. She is an 
ardent Suffragette, giving all her time, attention and money 
to the movement. Formerly a member of the School Board, 
she takes a sincere interest in every movement for the up- 
lifting of humanity. It was Miss Bennett who told me of the 
Tolstoy Settlement, and of Honor Moreton, the organizer and 
founder of it. 

Miss Honor Moreton is a broad-minded, great-souled 
woman, who has had a nurse's training, has been on the 
Board Schools' Committee, and has studied almost every 
phase of child-life in England. Some years ago, her health 
necessitated her giving up some of her more arduous town 
duties, and so she started, in a small way in the country, a 
holiday home for London's defective children. She was 
given £100 for the experiment, and rented a furnished cot- 
tage. This proved such a success that she instituted the 
Tolstoy Settlement in 1905, which is, in reality, a group of 
cottages, which offers a temporary retreat to women who 
wish to lead a simple, useful and healthy life, and also serves 
as a holiday home for defective children from the slums of 
London. Miss Bennett very kindly took me one day to see 
the Settlement. We left Victoria station in the early morn- 
ing, and had a beautiful ride through the loveliest country 
for an hour and a half, passing through Croydon and Eden- 
bridge, which is close to Tunbridge Wells, till we reached 
Rotherfield in Sussex, where the Tolstoy Settlement is. 

At the station we found Miss Moreton waiting for us. She 
is of medium height, with brown eyes and brown hair, and 1 , 
was dressed all in brown. She wore a small round hat, long 
Inverness cape, and brown walking shoes, for though it was, 


August and midsummer, it was raining steadily. Miss 
Moreton led the way up a winding path to her cottage, which 
is the nucleus of the other cottages. In these different 
cottages, two of which we visited, reside the Sisters, who pay 
a guinea a week and do their own work, and also wait on the 
children. Each cottage accommodates not more than five 
or six children. Miss Moreton explained that her idea is not 
to build on to a cottage, but to build another cottage. She 
has a great dislike of the institution idea, and thinks cottages 
are much more home-like than big, barrack-like -buildings. 
So whenever she sees a suitable piece of land for sale, she buys 
it and builds, provided, of course, that the necessary funds 
are forthcoming. The principal maintenance of the cottages 
comes from the sale of books which Miss Moreton writes. 
Her books on children are well known and widely read, 
The Cry of the Children being, perhaps, the best known. 

The children in the cottages are all friendless, deaf, blind, 
and mentally defective — all of them unwanted by other holi- 
day homes. They go from the Board Schools, and are recom- 
mended by friends to Miss Moreton. Some go every year, 
and look forward all through the year to the lovely summer 
holiday. For in lovely Sussex they are supremely happy and 
well-cared for. We first met some of them on our way to the 
cottage. They ran to meet us with smiling bright faces. 
One fair-haired little girl, dressed all in blue, was Miss More- 
ton's special care. The child had no parents, and Miss More- 
ton had made herself responsible for her schooling and cloth- 
ing. She always came to the Tolstoy Settlement in holiday 
time. She was about eight years old, and was quite deaf ; 
but read what was said by watching lips. She recited a piece 
of poetry for us, very correctly, but in a high, unnatural 
voice. The children walked on with us to the cottage, which 
was very prettily situated in a garden of climbing roses and 


lovely, old-fashioned flowers, with rustic seats set about it, 
Inside, the cottage was plainly but very artistically fur- 
nished ; the windows were arched, and had small square 
panes of glass. There was a bedroom for each of the three 
Sisters in charge, and two bedrooms for the five children who 
stayed there. There was a tiny rest room for the Sisters, 
and a dining-sitting room. The kitchen was big and bright. 
At the end of the dining-room a wide bay window overlooking 
the garden was the children's play corner. 

While Miss Moreton helped to prepare lunch, we looked 
through her splendid collection of books. All one side of the 
sitting-room was lined with them, and some of the volumes 
were very rare. One was a first edition of Shakespeare, with 
his name in print as acting in two of the plays in 1594. 
Honor Moreton's mother was a sister of William Black, the 
novelist, and she has one of his MSS. beautifully bound. It is 
written in the neatest way, on unusually thick paper, 
pages about the size of an ordinary book page. There were 
other valuable books we might have seen, but lunch was 
announced, so we turned from the books to consideration of 
that. After luncheon we went to see the children in their 
rooms. Two girls, quite blind, were threading beads. It 
was very pathetic to see them ; and yet they seemed happy 
and interested. One girl had a glorious head of auburn 
hair. Miss Moreton told us that her mother and father had 
deserted her, and that she had not a relation or friend in 
the world. Many of the children who go to the Settle- 
ment surfer from chronic sores. Miss Moreton attends to all 
these, her training as a nurse enabling her to do just what is 

After a rest, Miss Moreton, Miss Bennett, three little deaf 
girls and I, went for a lovely walk over the heather-clad hills,, 
for the rain had ceased and the sun was shining brightly- 


We walked up steep lanes with high hedges on each side, 
passing some quaint thatched cottages and lovely old-world 
houses, till at last we came on to the moors, from where we 
had a glorious view of the surrounding country. The hills 
were purple with heather. We picked large bunches of it, 
with the children skipping about and running beside us all the 
time, and making, as deaf children are wont, funny little 
noises in their throats. We came back laden with heather 
and flowers ; had tea, visited a cottage near by, and then 
went back to London by the time the long twilight was 


I HAD been much struck, as I went through the industrial 
and reformatory schools under the Home Office, with 
the men and women in charge, who all seemed to love their 
work and to be particularly adapted to it. I noticed the 
same personal interest, only with a keener sense of discipline, 
in the Borstal institution which Mr. Waller gave me the 
privilege of looking over. 

Borstal institutions are provided by the State for the 
reformative treatment of those boys and girls, between the 
ages of sixteen and twenty-one, who must be placed under 
forcible control during their development into men and 
women. At this age they are too old for admission into 
reformatories. The Borstal institutions, therefore, aim at 
supplying a place of detention different from a prison, which, 
while detaining these young people, will not check, but assist, 
their development. They are thus taught to control 
themselves, and to realize and develop their bodies and 
minds in the most healthy and most hopeful surroundings. 
The Borstal authorities are convinced that the present 
system of short sentences is by no means an effective treat- 
ment, and consider that the element of time is necessary to 
create a lasting reform. They experimented with the shorter 
sentences, and found that some boys took little interest in 
their work, and evinced no desire to improve, knowing they 



only had six months or a little longer to serve. Now magis- 
trates are sentencing the boys to a term of not less than two 
or three years, recognizing that such a period is necessary to 
wean a boy from his own methods of living, and also to teach 
him a trade, armed with which he may, on release, begin a 
new life. 

The Borstal methods were started in a private way about 
ten years ago by a few gentlemen who met weekly and 
visited the prisons. They were instrumental in having boys 
kept apart from adults. If they saw in prison boys, whom 
they felt would respond to friendly help, they met them on 
their release and helped them to live a decent life. In 1902 
a Borstal institution was acquired for young offenders, and 
from experiments conducted there by the Prison Commis- 
sioners, the Borstal institutions were in 1909 made part of 
the English penal system. In the Act they are defined as 
" places in which young offenders, whilst detained, may be 
given such industrial training and such instruction and be 
subject to such disciplinary and moral influence, as may 
conduce to their reformation and the prevention of crime.' ' 

There are four of these institutions now established in 
England. One is near the village of Borstal, from which 
they take their name, and where there are 400 lads. Another 
is at Feltham, where there are over 200 boys. At Aylesbury 
there is a third, for girls only, while at Canterbury a wing of 
the prison is set apart for unsatisfactory cases. 

When a lad arrives at Borstal, he is seen in turn by the 
chaplain, the doctor, and the governor. The last, before 
sending him to the work for which he seems best suited, 
explains the objects of Borstal and advises the lad how to 
make the most of his time there. 

Each boy wears a distinctive dress, according to the grade 
he is in. There are three grades — penal, ordinary, and special. 


When a lad enters he is given an ordinary dress, which con- 
sists of brown corduroy pants, brown knitted sweater, and 
brown, narrow-shaped cap. He sleeps in a separate cubicle. 
A boy may be promoted to the " special grade " through in- 
dustry and good conduct. He then wears an all-blue uni- 
form, and is allowed many privileges. The well-conducted 
in this grade are placed by the Governor in posts of trust and 
confidence on the farm or about the building, and they may 
also be placed on parole. 

The " penal grade " dress is grey, and boys must wear this 
dress by order of the Governor, if they are believed by him 
to be exercising a bad influence. At the same time, no 
inmate is kept in this grade any longer than necessary, both 
in his own interest and in that of others. 

The day's work begins at 5.30 a.m., and ends at 8.30 p.m., 
and it is specially arranged to prepare lads for a full day's 
work when they leave the institution. It includes atten- 
dance at school for any lad who has not reached Standard V. 
In the evenings technical classes are held, which include 
geometry, experimental science, drawing and mathematics. 
Every minute of the day is employed in strenuous labour, 
and the authorities feel that through this stimulating and 
educative system, the unwholesome solitude and monotony 
of the boy's life in a prison is done away with. A lad sent 
to a Borstal institution can, by continuous good conduct, be 
released on licence at any time after the first six months, a 
girl after three months. This power of licensing is freely 
used, so that only the incorrigible, or those sent for short 
periods, serve their whole term of detention. 

The mentally and physically defective are not admitted 
to Borstal, as the authorities know that while they can make 
an ordinary robust boy into an efficient labourer in eighteen 
months, it would take years of training to make a cripple self- 


supporting. It is hoped that special institutions will be 
opened later on for these sub-normal lads. As it has been 
proved that the great majority of youths who lapse are 
mentally deficient, this gathering together of the unfit would 
in itself help to prevent the making of criminals. 

In connexion with the Borstal institutions is the Borstal 
Association, whose headquarters are in Buckingham Street, 
Strand, London. I called here one afternoon, and learnt 
much of interest regarding the boy's care when he leaves the 
Borstal institution. The Association comes into contact 
with the lad after he is promoted to the " special grade." 
His home is then visited, and inquiries are made as to its 
character and his prospects if he returns. A member of the 
Committee visits the lad in his cell, and talks over his pros- 
pects. If the lad has a bad home, or it would not do for him 
to return to the neighbourhood of his old bad companions, 
work and lodgings are found for him in another quarter. 

When all arrangements are made, the lad is visited again 
at the institution, provided with an outfit of clothes suitable 
for his work, and, on the day of his discharge, he is brought 
to the Borstal Association Office and handed over to its care. 
The care of the boy does not stop here, for frequent visits 
are paid to his home or lodgings and place of work by the 
Association visitors during the year following his discharge. 
The after-care of the boys is also seen to in the cases of lads 
at sea. The Mission to Seamen undertakes to give the 
lads a friendly hand, and to procure a welcome for them 
at the different ports. The Home Secretary has issued a 
circular to the police all through the country, asking them 
to receive any Borstal boy who comes to them without 
resources, and to communicate at once with the Association 
and keep him till his future is arranged for. 

During a short period, it is difficult to gauge accurately the 


permanent results, but from records kept between August, 
1909, and June, 1910, 70 per cent, of the lads discharged are 
known to have done satisfactorily. 

Armed with a letter of introduction from Mr. Waller of the 
Home Office, I visited the Feltham Borstal institution in 
Middlesex, one cold, misty day in early December. The 
building was originally the home of the oldest and largest 
industrial school in England, and was taken over by the 
Prison Commission in October, 1910. It was then a most 
unsuitable structure with many dark narrow passages, but 
since its opening as a Borstal Institution the lads have 
been busy making alterations, and now it is more suited 
for their requirements. 

We were received at the entrance gate by an official who 
conducted us up a long, winding drive to the headquarters, 
standing in very extensive grounds, including a farm, gardens, 
and workshops, all of which are surrounded by a wall three 
miles in circumference. 

At the time of my visit 285 boys were in residence, and we 
saw them at work in the bakery, where they are taught to 
bake all the bread used at the institution and also at the 
Brixton prison. They are given white bread one day and 
wholemeal another. The bread is made into rolls, so that 
each boy has the same amount of crust and crumb. The 
baker in charge was a fine type of man, and seemed to have a 
real understanding and love for the boys. He said that he 
had some splendid boys under him, and pointed out a parti- 
cularly nice-looking, brown-eyed boy who was leaving the 
next day to go to a situation at sea. I had a little talk to 
him, and he told me something of his history. He was an 
orphan, and had had no home and no proper care or advice 
till he came under the Borstal wing, which he was leaving 
with renewed hope and courage. 


In the laundry many boys were busy washing and 
mangling. In the workshops they were learning carpentry, 
blacksmithing and other useful trades. 

All boys going to sea are prepared, as much as they can be 
on land, for that calling, and they have a large model of a 
ship set up in the grounds. In the kitchen, boys are taught 
every branch of cooking. Many boys go to sea from here 
with all the knowledge of first-class sea cooks. The boys 
work in gangs with an officer in charge. I noticed in the 
workshops that, as well as the officer, there was a civilian, who 
acted as instructor. 

The ordinary grade boys sleep in separate cubicles, with a 
wire netting covering the top of each. Each cubicle con- 
tains a bed, a table, on which was a Bible and several other 
articles which every boy has to keep clean. The handbasins 
are made of tin, and some of them were so highly polished 
that they could have easily been used as looking-glasses. 
The clothing of each bed was rolled into a tight, compact 

When a boy gains 2,200 marks in the ordinary grade, he is 
placed in the special grade, where he wears a blue sweater, 
trousers and cap. These boys are known as " blue boys." 
They have a special dormitory with an iron bedstead, a strip 
of carpet, and a looking-glass each, and cards and photos 
adorned their particular bed space. We met many of these 
" blue boys " moving freely about the grounds, without any- 
one in charge. One fine boy was leading along a horse. 
Another was driving a cart. 

In two schoolrooms we found numbers of boys at their 
lessons, and passed on to a large dining-hall, where the boys 
are entertained in the evenings by friends, who give lantern 
lectures, etc. 

If medically fit, the boys have daily physical drill or gym- 



nasties. A good cricket and football ground is provided for 
their recreation. 

In the ground is built a beautiful little chapel where ser- 
vices are conducted by the chaplain. I noticed some striking, 
storied glass-windows in the chapel. 

When a boy has to be punished, he is placed in the 
special punishment cell, and sentenced to bread and water 
for a certain time. It is not a bad cell on the whole, and 
the boy is allowed to read books while there. At the same 
time he is put into the penal grade, and wears a grey 

No corporal punishment is inflicted in a Borstal institu- 
tion. That boys are responding to this more humane treat- 
ment and to the trust placed in them is shown by the follow- 
ing interesting incident, which Mr. Waller himself told me. 
At the time of the Coronation, the authorities of the refor- 
matory school, three miles from Bristol, wished the boys to 
see the illuminations, but knew it would be impossible to 
take them round in companies. So the Superintendent 
called them together and said if they would give their /word 
of honour that they would be home by 10 p.m. they would be 
allowed to go alone. 

They gave their word and all went to see the illumina- 
tions. Every boy was home by 10 o'clock, except two who 
missed their train. They sent a telegram and turned up by 
the next train. 

The only day industrial school I visited was in Liverpool. 
These schools are, as I have mentioned before, principally for 
truant children, and the one I went over was under the 
Education Committee of the Liverpool Municipality. 

There are four of these schools in Liverpool ; the first was 
built in 1884. The one I visited was built in 1900. The 
children attending this school are recruited from the very 


poor, and from those homes where parental control is not 
sufficiently strong to compel the attendance of children 
at school. Most of them come from such poor homes that 
the parents have not the means to provide them with proper 
or sufficient food. The children admitted are over five 
years of age and under fourteen. They must be at school at 
8.30 a.m., in time for breakfast. Some of them arrive as early 
as 6 a.m., being left by mothers on the way to work, who 
call for them at a quarter to six in the evening, when all 
the children are expected to leave. Three meals are 
provided, and I saw the dietary scale, which was a very 
appetising one. 

Miss Clegg, the Superintendent, a very bright and en- 
thusiastic woman, said that the difference in the children 
after two months of a regular, proper diet, was marvellous. 
At this school are taught all the educational subjects of an 
ordinary Board School. Industrial trades, such as carpen- 
try, tailoring, and boot-making, are also taught. 

I went all through the kitchens where the meals were pre- 
pared. The boys do all the roughest and hardest of the 
kitchen work, and the girls help with the preparation and 
cooking of the meals. 

One boy was busy stoking the huge baker's oven in the 
kitchen. In another room some girls were having lessons in 
cooking. They gave very intelligent answers as to the pre- 
paration of certain dishes. One little girl told us that she 
made rice puddings at home ; several said they helped their 
mothers to cook the dinners. All the cooking in the 
school was done by steam. 

From the kitchen we went to the dining-room, which was 
in beautiful order. The boys scrub the tables after each 
meal. Attached to the tables were forms, which shut 
into the sides after use, 


Each child has a bath on its arrival at school every day, 
so the establishment is well fitted with bath-rooms. 

I saw a dressmaking class at work. The girls are taught 
to make all their own clothes, and through the kindness of 
different people, who supply some of the material a girl 
can make herself a whole rig-out — a dress, petticoat, and 
underclothing — of good and serviceable, though necessarily 
plain, material, for two and sixpence. 

In the tailoring department the boys can get an outfit for 
two shillings. They all learn to tailor, and there was a fine 
class in this room. A splendid man was in charge of the 
carpentering class. 

Most of the children in the rooms I had been in were very 
ragged and miserably clad. I shall never forget the pathetic 
object one boy was in the carpentering class ; he was practi- 
cally naked. Miss Clegg said that his people were terribly 
poor, but that he was saving up for a suit. I asked him 
how much he had towards it. He said " Threepence/ ' He 
had been saving up since Christmas, and it was May when I 
met him. A present of sixpence took his breath away. It 
seemed a fortune to him. 

I have never seen so many ragged children as in this 
school ; some boys had only part of a shirt on, one only half. 
Miss Clegg said that the children were especially short of 
clothes because they were all saving up for their summer 
holiday, when as many boys and girls as could possibly scrape 
the money together bought new clothes for their summer 

I visited several class-rooms where lessons were going on. 
In one a little girl recited very well, Kingsley's poem, " I once 
had a sweet little doll, dears." From her appearance I 
should not think the dear little soul had ever possessed a doll 
of her own. A penny sent her into raptures. 


When we were in one room, set apart for very tiny children 
and for those who had evaded all schooling, Miss Clegg 
said : " I call this my university class, because they know 

In each of the classes I spoke to the children about Aus- 
tralia. In the carpentering class I was surprised to find how 
much they knew about it. One boy told me some of the 
names of our rivers, and mentioned among others the Mur- 
rumbidgee and the Darling. The former name seemed to 
hold a sort of fascination for him. They were very inter- 
ested to know I came from Australia. One boy had a boy 
friend who had just gone out. 

There are 209 children on the roll of this school, and most 
of their parents live in the greatest poverty. If a father is 
working he has to pay sixpence a week towards the child's 
maintenance, but many of the children attending the school 
are the children of widows and deserted wives. 

Miss Clegg does not consider this system of feeding and 
taking care of the children makes the parents less inclined to 
keep a home together. 

The whole school had a fresh, alert and hopeful outlook. 

Manchester Gaol is an immense pile of buildings. The 
governor in charge, Major Nelson, was exceedingly kind, and 
took me over the gaol himself. We went first to the men's 
quarters, which consist of three tiers of cells, all well kept and 
light and airy. There were several boys in their cells, some 
undergoing punishment, others awaiting trial. The Gover- 
nor asked me to speak to several of them, and I went in and 
did so, while he remained outside. They were all boys under 
twenty-one years of age, and would eventually go on to 
Borstal institutions. 

The first boy I saw was picking cotton in his cell. He was 
a short, sturdily built, nice-looking young fellow of eighteen. 


He told me that he had been stealing. Another boy said he 
was in for cruelty to a cow. " But/' he explained, " we 
wasn't cruel ; we was only trying to get her out of a ditch, 
when the police came along/' 

A boy of seventeen confessed that he had been stealing. 
He had had three previous convictions, and said that he was 
the leader of the other boys with him. He answered every 
question clearly, and said that he never told lies. His code 
of honour seemed to be that it was a crime to tell a lie, but 
not to steal. 

These boys under twenty-one work in association cellular 
labour. The first offenders have a red star on their caps and 
coats. All the boys and men wear a neat khaki uniform, and 
a three-cornered cap. 

On each boy's door outside his cell was a card, showing how 
the occupant's time was employed. One ran : — 

Chapel Tuesday Half an hour. 

Drill (daily), one hour. 
School „ 

Working out, 4J hours. 
Cellular labour, 4 hours, 
„ task, 2 hours. 

The cells were light and airy and well ventilated. When 
prisoners are first admitted, they sleep on a plank for fourteen 
days, that is, a wooden frame with a pillow on it. After 
fourteen days they have a mattress. As we passed through 
the corridors, men in neat khaki-coloured uniforms were 
seated on camp-stools outside their cells working busily. 
There is a splendid library of 1,000 books, with paid librarians, 


in connexion with the gaol. The prisoners are allowed one 
story book a week after they have been in a month. They 
can have educational books always. It was most interesting 
to know what books had solaced so many hours, and I was 
surprised to hear that the favourite writer of most prisoners 
was Mrs. Henry Wood. The librarian said that her books 
were in constant demand, and that he had just got a fresh 
edition of all her works. A short time ago, a list was taken 
of all the books read in English gaols to see which 
were the favourite authors of those who drift there. Mrs. 
Henry Wood was found to be first favourite ; Dickens and 
Thackeray came second on the list. 

From the men's portion of the gaol we passed on to that 
of the women, where the Governor introduced me to the 
Matron, Miss Logan, a sweet-faced woman in a nurse's bon- 
net. We passed down lines of women and girls sewing and 
knitting. One girl, with an interesting face, showed me a 
beautiful jersey of brown wool which she was knitting for the 
Borstal boys. They were making all sorts of women's and 
men's clothing, and, saddest of all, tiny baby clothes and 
dresses of red twill. For there are always babies in the gaol \ 
some are born there. The matron told me that as many as 
fourteen babies are sometimes in at one time. The women 
make all the Borstal boys' suits, and we saw many samples 
of finished clothing. For men accustomed to flannel shirts 
and drawers special underwear is made. All the women 
wore white caps, something the shape of a Dutch cap, and 
dresses of a dark material. There were 289 women in the 
gaol, serving sentences up to two years. An excellent hos- 
pital, with trained nurses in attendance, is maintained in 
connexion with the gaol. In it is a ward specially set apart 
for the nurses when they are ill. There is also a modified 
Borstal for girls. 


We went over the well-equipped laundry and through 
the cells, which are arranged in three tiers like the 
men's, and I saw several tiny babies. One, born in the 
hospital and called John, was a great favourite with the 
matron and nurses. He was fourteen months old, and 
saluted the Governor, who was conducting us, with the air of 
an old man. Later on we found John crying bitterly. It was 
shutting-up time, and the poor little fellow was resenting 
strongly, being shut up in the narrow cell with his mother. 

The matron had just been making up her returns, which 
dealt with 200 girls from sixteen to twenty-five years, and 
kindly allowed me to copy the following particulars : — 

2 were married ; 

55 went to friends ; 

23 had situations found for them ; 

21 were sent to homes and refuges ; 
50 were reported doing well ; 

27 " " " fairly well ; 

22 " " " badly. 

The aim of the gaol authorities is to keep in touch with girls 
up to twenty-five years of age. Mrs. Partington, the agent 
of the Discharged Prisoners Society, meets all girls from 
sixteen to twenty-five years old, and if they are willing, she 
takes them to homes, or finds them situations. 


CAPTAIN ARTHUR ST. JOHN, who, with his wife, 
devotes his life to the uplifting of humanity, is one 
of the most idealistic and spiritually minded of the social 
workers I met in London. He is still a young man, but has 
had great experience. He has a wide outlook and a very 
keen sense of humour. In appearance, he is of about middle 
height, spare, with a thin face lit up by expressive grey-blue 
eyes. His dark hair is just touched with grey, and he wears 
a moustache. He happened to read of an interview that 
one of the daily papers had with me, and wrote expressing 
a wish to see me. I called on him at his house in Harrington 
Square early in March. It was just before my visit to 
America, and as he had lately returned from a trip through 
Canada and the United States, studying social problems, he 
very kindly gave me letters of introduction to several of 
his friends and well-known people in America. He is best 
known, perhaps, through his great work as honorary secretary 
of the Penal Reform League, which, owing principally to 
his unremitting care and great effort, has done much to 
awaken the British Legislature to the inhumanity of its 
prison system. 

Associated with Captain St. John as Vice-President of the 
Penal Reform League are the Earl of Lytton, the Ven. 
Archdeacon Wilberf orce, Earl Grey, Mr. Cecil Chapman (the 
Magistrate of the Children's Courts), Mrs. Annie Besant, and 



twenty-eight other well-known and influential persons. The 
general object of the Penal Reform League is "to interest 
the public in the right treatment of criminals, and to promote 
effective measures for their care and rehabilitation, and for 
the prevention of crime/' In connexion with the move- 
ment a monthly record is printed. This gives an account of 
prison methods and reforms all the world over, and is exceed- 
ingly interesting, showing, as it does, the evolution of the 
idea of punishment from the old, narrow ideas of treating 
men and women as criminals and locking them up for 
small offences, to the new and more humane method of 
nourishing what is good in them, sifting out the mentally 
deficient, and teaching the brotherhood of man. The 
Record also treats of the feeble-minded and acquaints its 
readers, from time to time, with the progress of legislation 
on the subject. In an article for August-September, 1912, 
Mr. W. H. Dickinson mentions that : " The subject of the 
feeble-minded has been quietly permeating public opinion 
for several years, and has now burst into prominence in the 
shape of no less than three bills introduced in the House of 
Commons." Of these one is a Government measure, and 
two are promoted by private members. The titles are : 
(1) "The Mental Deficiency Bill" ; (2) "The Mental Defect 
Bill " ; (3) " The Feeble-Minded Control Bill." Of these the 
most complete Bill is No. 2. This Bill was prepared by a 
committee of persons interested in passing into law the 
recommendations of the Royal Commissioners on the Care 
and Control of the Feeble-Minded. " The main feature of 
these recommendations," Mr. Dickinson continues, "was 
the concentration, under one system of Government con- 
trol and local administration, of matters affecting all classes 
of persons suffering from mental ailments. The Com- 
missioners proposed that in future all lunatics, idiots, 


imbeciles, and feeble-minded persons should be termed 
' mentally defective/ and that in England and Wales there 
should be one ' Board of Control/ and in each country one 
Local Authority, responsible for seeing that all individuals 
in this class were properly looked after/' 

This Bill, carrying with it other exhaustive proposals, 
was of so voluminous a character as to make it almost help- 
less for a private member to get it passed into law. No. 3 
was drafted on much narrower limits, in order to render it 
possible to carry it through Parliament. 

The Penal Reform League Monthly Record has more 
recently taken a practical interest in matters relating to 
" The White Slave Traffic." 

I met Captain St. John many times, and I feel that it is 
to his interested and kindly help that I owe many valuable 
experiences and opportunities of acquiring information in con- 
nexion with the work and problems in which I am concerned. 

Captain St. John invited me to the first general meeting 
of the League of Redemption, which has been founded to 
study the causes and cure of the social evil, with a view to 
suitable action. The social evil is that now so prominently 
before the British public, the White Slave Traffic. At this 
meeting, Captain St. John gave a very able and simple 
explanation of the work that the League of Redemption 
hoped to accomplish. All those present were asked to help 
by attending the police courts, meeting trains and liners, and 
thus extending their protection and sympathy to young 
and innocent girls. During his address, Captain St. John 
said that " as well as ' fallen women ' there were ' fallen 
men ' and a f fallen human society/ for/' he said, " only 
a ' fallen human society ' indulges in prostitution." Sixty 
thousand girls were decoyed and procured for immoral pur- 
poses during last year alone. Captain St. John said that 


" the procurers must also be understood before they could 
be treated, for no normal man or woman who had had a 
happy, normal childhood could lend himself, or herself, to 
such a debasing life/' He urged : " that all children should 
be taught from the very first that the right ways of living 
were the best ways of living." 

The following resolution was unanimously passed : " That 
this League utterly repudiates the idea that prostitution 
must be." 

Captain St. John gave me a most enlightening paper which 
he read before the Sociological Society in January, 1912, 
entitled " The Community and its Children ; their Co-opera- 
tion in their own Training." I shall give just a few of his 
ideas : — 

" The chief duty of a community is to afford to the next 
generation the best chance possible of a full life. 

" It seems almost to be forgotten that a child wants some- 
thing more than a good home. Nearly as important is a 
good neighbourhood. 

" The defects of present-day homes emphasize the need. 
Here economic, political, social, religious considerations 
come in. It were well if it were more generally recognized 
that the welfare, or ruin, of the child is involved in these 
matters, and that, while politicians and the churches wrangle 
over matters largely irrelevant to real politics or true religion, 
the child is left crying out for the bread of life. 

" The longer the right guardianship is postponed, the 
more drastic may be the measures required to repair the 
results of neglect or injury. But to be successful, the 
measure, however late and however drastic, must always be 
on the same lines, viz., free and responsible self-expression 
under friendly guidance and inspiration, not repression, not 
arbitrary dictation from above." 


Captain St. John illustrates how Dr. Montessori, in 
Italy, has shown that by giving children of about two and 
six or seven years of age, a free choice from amongst a 
number of carefully prepared forms of play, they may be 
grounded in the elements of good manners, self-direction 
and useful activity, and may be led to learn, without undue 
strain, many things which older children have been learning, 
hitherto, with difficulty. The games are ingeniously 
devised to exercise the powers of perception, comparison, 
and expression. Each child goes to whichever game it 
prefers, and may leave off when it likes. It is rare, under 
such circumstances, for a child to be naughty. If it is, 
Dr. Montessori has a very effective manner of dealing 
with a naughty child ; she places it apart to play by itself, 
where it can, however, see the other children playing. This 
child then becomes the object of special attention and care, 
as if he were sick or delicate. Coming into the room, 
the teacher will go first to this child and attend to 
its wants before turning to the others. Those measures 
have proved effective, and Captain St. John advocates 
these principles in dealing with refractory persons of all 

Coming to the elementary school ages, this paper illus- 
trates Miss Finlay- Johnson's methods of dealing with her 
scholars, and tells how she brought her school to a condition 
in which the inmates had really forgotten and lost the 
relationships of teacher and scholar, and replaced them by 
those of fellow- workers, friends, and playmates. " We 
are told/' Captain St. John goes on to say, " that the joy 
of heart of those children went with them when their school- 
days were over/' So the child is brought with loving, 
sympathetic guidance to the age of adolescence when he 
may, with some confidence, be launched on the world, and 


so go on learning how to enjoy and make the best use of the 
life before him. 

Captain St. John then takes the other view, and illustrates 
how the boy will develop when deprived of this fostering 
and guidance in his growth. He says such boys between 
the ages of ten and fifteen, if they have any chance, will 
form organizations of their own ; but lacking the inspiration 
or guidance of a wider outlook, their supposed enjoyment 
will be apt to be obtained at the expense of other people's 
comfort. They will probably be voted a nuisance, and this 
will add zest to their exploits, thus dividing them against 
their neighbours. So we have hooligans. And some of 
them become wastrels and even serious criminals. 

" But," says Captain St. John in conclusion, after explain- 
ing the treatment of different Boys' Societies, " the real 
relationship between the adult and the child is not the 
autocratic, despotic, punishing one ; but the right relation- 
ship of the grown man or woman to the young is always that 
of a friend and comrade." And the moral he draws is this : 
" The earlier we begin to make friends of our children, to 
observe them reverently and to foster their growth, the 
better it will be for the future generation and the present 
community, and the less cause will there be for drastic and 
unnatural measures to put right that which has gone wrong." 

He also adds that the great thing is "to secure for the 
growing people the guardian friendship of men and women 
of deep spirituality, and such men and women, being 
spiritually minded, will be careful not to trespass on the 
individuality of another person, however young." 

Soon after I came to England I had the good fortune to 
meet Mr. Pett Ridge, who was exceedingly kind to me. He 
and his wife are two of the most earnest and sincere social 
workers I have met, and they told me of and introduced me 


to many interesting centres, and invited me to their house 
several times. 

Mr. Pett Ridge has a very kindly, humorous way of tell- 
ing all sorts of anecdotes. You almost feel, as you are 
talking to him, that you are reading some of his inte- 
resting child-life studies ; for he understands the child- 
life and boy-life of London, seeing all its possibilities better, 
perhaps, than any of his contemporaries. He is of short 
stature but squarely built, and has brown hair just tipped 
with grey, and parted in the middle. His eyes are brown. 
He has a singularly quiet, convincing way, and you feel 
instinctively that he is a man who understands life and sees 
its humour. He told me many quaint stories about boys, 
and gave me several of his books, including one called A 
Ward of the State. He says the most natural thing left 
in London is the street boy. 

Among the institutions he is interested in is a " Home for 
Wasting Babies " at Hoxton (N.E. London), which he was 
instrumental in founding, and towards the upkeep of which 
he gives lectures all through England. He goes at stated 
times to the Borstal institutions and talks to the boys there, 
and he says they are the most appreciative audience he has. 
He is also interested in the " Happy Evenings," and in the 
St. Pancras School for Mothers. His is a very busy life. 
I asked him how and when he managed to write his books. 
He said that he always spends his mornings writing. He has 
a dear little girl, just two years old, whose name is Olga, 
but who is always called " Chippy." 

I went, one dark, foggy, winter's afternoon, with Mr. and 
Mrs. Pett Ridge, to see how the Happy Evenings were spent. 
These " Evenings " are for very poor children, and are 
held from 5.30 to 6.30, when great-hearted men and women 
gather in from the streets all the poor little mites of the 


neighbourhood and play games with them, teach them to 
dance and sing, and give them at least a taste of the love and 
happiness which every child should know. 

Happy Evenings were started twenty-two years ago by 
Ada Heather Briggs and her sister, Lady Bland Sutton, and 
are held during the winter only, when the London County 
Council lends its schools free to the promoters. One even- 
ing is set apart for boys, another for girls. Wednesday, 
the night I went, was the boys' evening. 

When we arrived at the large brick Board School, numbers 
of eager boys were waiting outside. They were admitted 
by ticket, and marched in a very orderly manner into 
separate rooms, which beforehand had been arranged for 
different pastimes by the workers. In one room, called The 
Quiet Game Room, the younger boys sat at the desks and 
played dominoes and race games, threaded beads, built up 
blocks of many varieties and colours, had fishing games, and 
tried their skill at draughts. Another room contained a shoot- 
ing gallery, which was a great attraction to the elder boys, 
who, under a fine, athletic-looking young man, spent the 
evening shooting for a prize which he was giving them. 
Boxing was in full swing in another room. In one of the 
large schoolrooms sixty earnest young hopefuls, equipped 
with a sheet of paper each and a box of colours were turning 
out some fearful and wonderful pictures. I took temporary 
charge of this room, and told the boys some stories of 
Australia in which they seemed most interested. Later 
on they showed me illustrations of their ideas of Australian 
snakes, blacks, gum-trees, and laughing jackasses. They 
had a very hazy idea of Australian geography. When I 
asked them where Australia was, one boy said it was in 
Europe ; another said in Asia. A bright little fellow held 
up his hand and said that it was eight hundred miles from 


New Zealand. But he had no idea where New Zealand 

An interesting outcome of the Happy Evenings are com- 
petitions by the different schools. The winning team gives 
a display at the Guildhall, and receives a valuable prize. 
In connexion with this, Mrs. Pett Ridge was training a 
number of little girls in a flower song and dance. For this 
she had composed the music, and Mr. Pett Ridge the words. 
The girls represented different flowers. There were groups 
of daisies, roses, forget-me-nots, etc., all dressed to represent 
these flowers. The flowers at the opening of the song were 
discovered asleep. Then a bevy of little girls, dressed as 
butterflies, flew near the sleepers and awakened them by 
singing ; then they all danced and sang gaily together. 

I also went with Mr. and Mrs. Pett Ridge to The Babies' 
Home and Day Nursery, Hoxton, which I was told is the 
only place in London where a wrongly fed, or insufficiently 
fed infant, can be taken in hand, and given the close attention 
and careful treatment it could not receive in its own home. 
Even after convalescence the baby is still under the care of 
the Home ; for then it is passed over to the Day Nursery of 
the establishment, where it remains under observation. The 
movement was started as an experiment in a small way by 
Mr. Pett Ridge nearly four years ago, and is now housed in 
a very comfortable Home. During that time between three 
hundred and four hundred babies have been cared for, with 
wonderful results, considering that the accommodation is 
limited, and the Sister is only able to take in the most urgent 
cases that are brought. 

We first visited the Dispensary. The medicine from this 
is, in most cases, given free, as the mothers are too poor to 
pay anything. The Out-patient Department is open on 
Thursday afternoon, and during last year 1,424 ailing babies 



were attended to, there. A splendid supply of milk is pro- 
cured regularly for the Home. This branch of the work was 
started by some understanding sympathizers, and is provided 
for by what is called " The Compassionate Fund." Milk 
is supplied free in cases where payment is impossible, and 
the pure fresh milk is a great boon. 

Upstairs we found the two wards, where the ailing wasting 
babies are specially cared for. The cots all had pink curtains, 
and on the tables and mantelpiece were bowls full of beautiful 
pink roses and carnations. The tiled walls of the wards were 
green. The babies were dressed in pretty pale pink gowns. 
We went to each cot, saw its little inmate and heard its 
pathetic story. All the stories were not pathetic, though, 
and now and again we came to a cot where the baby was 
learning to live. Ninety-five cases during the year had 
been admitted to these two wards, and a large number of 
these had been nursed, with much love and care, back to 

The Sister, who told me she had been in charge of the 
Home from its inception, is a very capable and intensely 
sympathetic woman. She loves all her babies and says 
that, considering how very ill the babies always were when 
admitted, it was wonderful how many little lives were saved, 
though in the case of some of these wasting babies the cure 
entailed a considerable time, covering a period of months, 
Her face brightened as she told me of one little patient who 
a year ago, was a wasting baby, and who had recently 
secured first prize in a large baby show in Bethnal Green. 

Another example of what the Home can do is a fine little 
fellow of four. He is the Sister's special care, and was one 
of her first babies. There were several more children in his 
home, and his mother had willingly handed him over for good 
to Sister's care. She said that she got tired of seeing his 



George the First. 


" ugly face " in bed. Far from being ugly, the little chap 
has now grown into a splendid boy specimen, and he and 
Sister are pledged to each other for life. He has just 
commenced to go to school, and considers himself the 
champion of all babies, whom he adores. 

Parents visit babies in the Home every Sunday afternoon, 
or, if these are very ill, they are allowed in each night. The 
Sister takes this opportunity of giving them advice, and also 
when she can spare an hour goes round the homes, and tells 
the mothers and fathers how best to take care of 'their little 
one's health. 

The cost for each baby is from £10 to £15 per annum. 
For this the babies have the best of everything, and after 
they are well enough to be discharged mothers can have 
milk for them at half price, or free, if they are destitute. 

In connexion with the Home, and in another part of the 
building, is the Day Nursery, which is open every day except 
Sundays and holidays. Here, no fewer than 3,496 babies 
were taken care of during last year, while their mothers were 
at work. The mothers bring the babies on their way to 
work, and call for them in the evening. The charge is 
4^. a day for each baby, and they are taken in till they reach 
the age of three. At the back of the Home are gardens for 
the children to play in on fine days. 

Another most interesting institution Mr. Pett Ridge 
introduced me to, was the St. Pancras' School for Mothers. 
The name that this institution is best known by is, " The 
Mothers' and Babies' Welcome," and that it is a veritable 
welcome every one who visits it can testify. I was much 
struck by the friendly personal sympathy extended to 
mothers, fathers and babies, by every person on the staff 
of this most excellent and needful institution. The School 
was first projected in 1907. The idea grew from papers 


read on " Dinners for Nursing Mothers " in Chelsea, and 
the " School for Mothers/' in Ghent. It was decided to 
combine both of these features in a scheme for the benefit of 
mothers and babies in St. Pancras, North London, a poor, 
thickly populated district. It was decided also to encourage 
the natural feeding of babies by their mothers, and to dis- 
courage bottle feeding. With the help of lady health 
visitors, the projectors found that during the summer 
months infant mortality was greatly reduced. Now, after 
five years, over one hundred of these institutions, having 
for their object the reduction of infantile mortality and 
sickness, are being successfully carried on throughout the 
United Kingdom. 

The following are some of the activities of the St. Pan- 
cras School for Mothers : — 

i. The notification of births. 

2. Sending cards of " Advice to Mothers " to the addresses 
furnished by the notification of births. 

3. Selecting from the births the most suitable cases to 
visit, commencing with the poorest houses in the poorest 

When these particulars are gathered together, the lady 
visitors go from house to house, inquire into the hygienic, 
sanitary, and domestic circumstances of the mother and 
infant, give the mother general information, and, in case of 
desire for further knowledge — perhaps of how to wean babies 
— cards of introduction to the School for Mothers are given 
and, in the more serious cases, cards to doctors, hos- 
pitals, etc. 

When a mother, or prospective mother, is introduced 
to the " Welcome," she can take advantage of : — 

j. Consultations and weighings of babies and mothers, 


2. Dinners for mothers nursing their babies. 

3. Lessons on food, and food values and prices. 

4. Classes on simple cookery. 

5. Lessons in making babies' clothes. 

6. Provident Maternity Club. 

In addition to these classes for mothers, there are fathers' 
evening conferences on the duties of a father to the mother, 
the babe, the children and the home. At these fathers' 
conferences smoking is allowed, and coffee is handed round 
after the end of the debate. 

The Committee find the after- visiting of homes a necessity ; 
for the generality of mothers do not observe the advice given 
them. Babies fare badly after they are weaned, and they 
are often given most unsuitable food. " The Pudding 
Lady," as the children call her, is a visitor who goes from 
home to home, and teaches practical economical cooking, 
uses the mothers' own ingredients and utensils and teaches 
them the art of buying food wisely. 

I happened to visit " The Welcome " on baby- weigh- 
ing day. This comes twice a week. In the first airy, 
cheerful room I entered, were a number of mothers with their 
babies in different stages of undress. There were all sorts 
of babies — fat and strong, prize-fighting babies and delicate, 
peevish, ailing mites. Each child was undressed and slipped 
into a warm red flannel dressing-gown before being weighed. 
Mothers waited their turn to be called into the next room, 
to consult with the doctor about the little one. I went on 
into this room and sat by the doctor — a lady — who gives her 
time and talents freely to the work. As we sat and listened, 
baby after baby was brought in. It was first weighed and 
the weight entered on a card, which was given to each mother, 
who brings the card again, for reference, with the baby 


when she comes again. The lady doctor questioned the 
mothers and gave them simple, kindly advice. If a child's 
condition was serious, a letter was given to the mother for 
a hospital. Some of the babies objected very much to the 
weighing and cried lustily ; others only smiled, as though 
vastly amused at the whole business. 

After the weighing and consultations were over, we went 
into the nursery, in which were cots and playthings. Here 
babies were sleeping, playing, and being generally looked 
after by the lady helpers whilst the mothers were attending 
a lecture upstairs. In the lecture room, a nurse was giving 
a First Aid lecture on bandaging. The lesson was very 
simply expressed and illustrated, and everybody seemed to 
take a great interest in trying their hand at bandaging. 
In the lecture room were some long tables used for cutting- 
out. Here women learned to make baby clothes and were 
especially interested in a knitting class. Prizes are given 
to those mothers who attend the lectures and classes regularly. 

The dinners for mothers are an excellent institution. 
Expectant mothers, or women nursing their babies, pay i \&. 
each for these dinners. Before they were instituted many 
expectant mothers were almost starving. The Committee 
feel that this branch of the work is one of the most cheering ; 
the gratitude of the women and the good results are so 
evident. A mother may come for these dinners for two or 
three months before the birth of her child, and often she 
comes for nine months afterwards. A pleasant part of the 
afternoon's programme was a tea, to which all comers were 

The aim of the whole movement is to help mothers to help 
themselves, and so the Committee strongly object to par- 
ticular help being given to individual mothers. If a case is 
known to be very distressing it is handed over to a relief 


society. This humane institution, so appropriately named 
the " Mothers and Babies Welcome/' is uplifting to all 
who come into contact with it and must have a beneficial 
influence on the future generation. 

As Mr. John Galsworthy is one of the ablest writers and 
deepest thinkers on social problems in London, I considered 
it an honour when he invited me to come and see him at his 
home in Kensington. I went one afternoon in July, and 
had the great privilege of talking to him and hearing his 
views for more than an hour. He lives in Addison Road 
when he is in London, but he spends much of his time in 
Manaton in Devonshire. His London house is in a very 
quiet street, and stands back from the road ; it is all ivy- 
grown and very picturesque from the outside. But I was 
too occupied with the prospect of meeting the master of the 
house to notice much of its exterior. 

It was just the hour between tea and dinner, and the room, 
as I see it now and shall always see it in my mind, was parti- 
cularly cool and restful. Two long French windows, with 
dainty white curtains, opened on to a velvety lawn of the 
greenest grass. Ivy climbed in at the windows, and the 
soft curtains shivered ever so gently in the breeze. On one 
side of the windows was a table covered with books, and 
many book-stands were scattered about the room. Seated 
in an easy chair, with his back to the light, was Mr. John 
Galsworthy. He is a slightly built man, and rather tall, 
with a refined and intellectual face. His slightly thinning 
hair is just touched with grey ; he has blue eyes and wears 
an eye-glass, which somehow does not seem to suit his 
serious and intensely interesting, clean-shaven face. I was 
surprised to hear that he had visited Australia some years 
ago. He had heard that The Silver Box had been pro- 
duced in Adelaide, and was pleased to hear that the Mel- 


bourne University Students had also produced it in Mel- 

Mr. Galsworthy is in favour of technical colleges, and 
asked how we dealt in Melbourne with our boys when 
they left school. He laughed heartily at some of the stories 
I told him about Australian boys, and was pleased when I 
said he had many readers in Australia. 

We discussed social questions. He had been in America 
just before I had. I heard of him particularly in Chicago, 
where he had dined with Jane Addams at Hull House. 
I was able to ask him what he thought of many of the 
American institutions that had interested me. He was 
intensely interested in the American Children's Courts and 
had visited one in New York. He regretted very much that 
he had not had the opportunity of meeting Judge Lindsey. 
He asked me if I had ever seen worse, or more hopeless, 
poverty than in England. He seemed deeply concerned 
about it all. He said, " We drop boys at fourteen, and don't 
pick them up again till they are nineteen or twenty-one. 
Messengers, paper sellers, drivers, work in blind-alley 

He referred to the Borstal methods in dealing with 
refractory boys, and said that he had visited the institution 
at Borstal. He added, " It is a great improvement on prison, 
only I would like to see the boys dealt with individually, and 
not in batches." 

Speaking of the drink evil, he said that he had studied 
that too. When I said that the intemperate use of alcohol 
seemed to me to be itself one of the most appalling evils 
and at the same time the cause of most of the other evils of 
our day, he said : " You will find there is not the same craving 
for drink in southern countries as^ there is in the northern 
countries that have dark, damp climates like England and 


Scotland/' In the south of France, he explained, drunken- 
ness is rarer than it is in the north of the same country. He 
said too : " A moist climate seems to create the craving for 
drink/ ' 

We talked of class antagonism in England, and the problem 
of the strikes. Mr. Galsworthy said that he thought that 
while the rich and the poor keep aloof things would never 
be better. " The rich must hold out a hand to the poor ; 
the poor cannot do that to the rich," he said : " The strong 
must help the weak." He stressed this point in some 
splendid articles written for the Daily News and Morning 
Leader at the time of the railway strike. In one of these he 
declared that the great public schools of England act as 
" caste factories/' He said, " In life, where a fortunate 
person is brought into contact with one less fortunate, it is 
obvious that the first step towards cordial relationship must 
come from the fortunate. For human nature is happily so 
constructed that the less fortunate feels ashamed to make 
advances which, liable to misconstruction, are not com- 
patible with self-respect. Every man of any worth can test, 
indeed is testing, this truth continually in his own life ; it 
cannot indeed be doubted. Again, where advances are 
made by the fortunate from sheer friendliness and without 
ulterior motive, it is common knowledge that they evoke 
response in the same spirit from all save exceptional churls." 

In these articles Mr. Galsworthy speaks of the class feeling 
as first fostered in the homes, and then in the great " caste 
factory " of the public schools, where the feeling becomes 
intensified. He said : " Boys are high-spirited, generous, and 
malleable creatures ; but how few teachers in school and 
college days turn that high spirit, generosity, and malleability 
of the boy into a state of mind that regards his good fortune 
as a thing to be held in trust to share to the full with the less 


fortunate ? " Mr. Galsworthy says, " No national improve- 
ment can come from outside. It must come from within, 
from gradually improved feeling in the body politic. But 
improved feeling has no chance of spreading through the 
body politic without that machinery of infection which we 
know by the name of education. Therefore education is 
the more sacred concern — indeed, the only hope of a nation." 

Critics say that in Strife, Justice, and the Silver 
Box, Mr. Galsworthy has produced three of the most 
remarkable social dramas of this era. I could not help 
recalling these great social dramas as he talked to me on 
social questions. He was, I remember too, very interested 
in the Australian system of universal military service for 
boys, and asked me many questions about it. I was ignorant 
of most of them, but later was able to get the Defence Act 
and forward it him. 

The long English twilight was almost ended when I 
reluctantly rose to go. Mr. Galsworthy came to the outer 
door with me. My talk with him is one of my most delight- 
ful memories. 



CAPTAIN ARTHUR ST. JOHN (the Hon. Secretary of the 
Penal Reform League) introduced me as an honorary 
member of this Conference, which lasted from June n to 
14, 1912. I attended the sessions at which papers on Crime 
and Inebriety were read and discussed, and was especially 
impressed with one paper by C. E. B. Russell, M. A., the Hon 
Secretary of the Heyrod Street Lads' Club, Manchester, 
about whose work I had heard a great deal, and some of whose 
books on boys I had read with much interest. The title of 
his paper was " The Juvenile Delinquent, and How to make a 
Useful Citizen of Him." I shall quote a few thoughts taken 
from his paper. 

Mr. Russell believes that the early environment of the 
child is far more responsible for its delinquency in later years 
than is any inherited criminal taint, and thinks that the real 
cause of many a boy's and girl's appearance in the police 
courts is to be found in the total lack of any sense of parental 
responsibility, or any conception of decent living on the part 
of the adult members among whom the children grow up. 
He dealt principally with the anti-social acts of youths 
between sixteen and eighteen years of age, their delin- 
quency having been his careful and almost daily atten- 



tion for many years. He summarized delinquency on the 
part of such youths under three headings : — 

1. Purely venial offences against local by-laws, such as 
loafing, street obstruction, and the like ; 

2. Acts of vagrancy, principally sleeping out and begging. 

3. Petty theft. 

" It must never be forgotten," he said, " that very fre- 
quently the more serious acts of juvenile delinquency are the 
illegitimate expression of perfectly natural impulses/' He 
is convinced " that the want of adequate playing fields and 
opportunities for healthy recreation has much to do with 
many cases of petty theft, which are really the outcome of a 
certain spirit of adventure and daring/' and that " there is 
great hope for this type of offender, if he is sensibly dealt 
with when first brought face to face with authorities." 

Mr. Russell considers the cases of the vagrant and offender 
against local by-laws are a far greater problem, for while 
the petty thief often has a respectable home, the vagrant 
and street-loafing lad has frequently never known a real 
home at all, and further, he has often, from one cause or 
another, lost the training and discipline resulting from regu- 
lar attendance at an elementary school. Mr. Russell's 
opinion is that the most undisciplined, flabby, feckless, and 
difficult to raise of all delinquent youths are those who habi- 
tually live in common lodging-houses. The improvement 
that he would suggest in the present mode of treatment of 
these youths is that the age for sending such youths to gaol 
should be raised to eighteen years instead of sixteen as it is at 
present, for, as he truly says : " How can a boy be a man and 
treated as a man at sixteen ? " 

Another senseless system Mr. Russell deplores is the send- 
ing of boys and girls to gaol for a week or a fortnight, for 
offences which are in no sense criminal, in lieu of payment of 


paltry fines. He spoke very highly of the Borstal institu- 
tions, whose aim, he said, is not punitive, but reformative and 
educative, the whole scheme being designed to turn the lads 
out reformed in character and able to earn their own living. 

He considers that probation officers, being as a rule men 
and women engaged in other works, have not the time, and 
are often not the right men or women for the work, 
" Probation, used unwisely," he said, "is as unkind and 
really as cruel a method of dealing with an erring child 
as could be devised, for a child is often sent back home on 
probation when his home is usually the cause of his having 
fallen into evil ways." No child, he thinks, should be sent 
home on probation until proper inquiry has been made 
into his home, circumstances and surroundings. He de- 
clared that probation officers should be keen, able and sym- 
pathetic men and women, who, to properly fulfil the task 
allotted to them, should devote the full time of their service 
to the work, and that they should receive good pay. 

He urged the setting up of a central " After-care Agency," 
which would have for its object the after-care of poor law, 
industrial and reformatory school, and Borstal institution 
children. Another reform Mr. Russell suggested was the 
closing of the lowest common lodging-houses to young people, 
apparently under twenty-one years of age, and the selection 
of certain houses in every locality, as houses suitable for 
young persons to live in. In the case of youths, he advo- 
cated the appointment of an ex-policeman, who would record 
all that he could elicit regarding the history of new-comers, 
with a view to restoring them to their relations or friends if 
they have run away from home. He said that it is a well- 
known fact that industrial school, reformatory, and Borstal 
institution cases which fail are those who find their way back 
to their old environment. The question, therefore, is not so 


much what is to be done with the juvenile delinquent, as 
how to remove the causes which go to make him a physical 
and moral failure, a parasite, or a criminal. 

" The Relation between Crime and Destitution and the 
Effects of Imprisonment " was a paper I heard read by Dr. 
James Devon, Medical Officer to H.M. Prison, Glasgow. 
He said that the great majority of people in prison are there 
because they cannot pay fines, and he considers that poverty 
and destitution play much greater parts in the causation of 
crime than any criminal intent. If the destitute person 
begs he breaks the law. If he steals, he commits a crime for 
which a greater penalty is exacted, but the chances of detec- 
tion may be less. Dr. Devon quoted one of his patients' 
philosophy on the point. The man said : " If you beg, only 
one in ten may give you anything, and you have in each 
case a chance of being caught. If you steal, you always 
get something, and you are not always caught." He 
preferred to steal and was caught occasionally. On libera- 
tion he continued a thief, for he was known. His oppor- 
tunities were lessened, and so were his chances of honest 
work. He continued a thief, but he had simply drifted into 
crime through destitution. The starting-point of the careers 
of many habitual criminals is their destitution, Dr. Devon 
declared. His paper also referred to the drink evil as the 
cause of many crimes. 

He mentioned the housing of the poor, and said how the 
inability to pay rent forced people to live in over-crowded 
dwellings. Many women who had been convicted of cruelty 
to their children, and had been sent to gaol had, Dr. Devon 
said, been found, on examination, to have broken down 
mentally as a result of the strain imposed upon them by the 
conditions of their life. In some cases they had behaved 
well for years, and then slowly they had sunk into a condition 


in which, far from their being able to care for their children, 
they became unfit even to care for themselves. They had 
taken to drink as a result of their breakdown, and their 
wrongdoing was wholly attributable to that fact. Sober and 
in prison, the true state of affairs became apparent. Dr. 
Devon concluded that " imprisonment does not cure men of 
their vices." He also said that, " our treatment of criminals 
tends to produce insanity in them. Imprisonment leaves a 
man or a woman in the end more helpless than he or she was 
before it was suffered." 

A paper on " Unnecessary Imprisonment and its 
Effects " was read by Mr. Thomas Holmes, Secretary of 
the Howard Association. 

Mr. Holmes was convinced that prison begets prisoners, 
and quoted the Prison Commissioners who say that, out of 
every hundred fresh offenders who are committed to prison, 
forty return to prison more or less frequently. He mentioned 
that nearly a million people were imprisoned in ten years in 
England and Wales because they could not at once pay their 
fines. Speaking later of the offences committed, he said, in 
one year 3,000 young people were imprisoned for non- 
criminal offences. Mr. Holmes contended that prison should 
be reserved for really serious offences, that are worthy the 
name of crime, and that detention should be a serious and 
solemn matter. He was absolutely against short terms of 
imprisonment for the young, and thought that probation 
should be extended to adults of every age. 

"Modifications in Prison Regime and Conditional Re- 
lease " was the theme of my friend, Captain Arthur St. 
John's paper, which was eminently progressive and was 
listened to with great interest. He began by assuming that 
imprisonment had already been found to make the prisoner 
less fit to live a useful, self-supporting life, and thought that 


the easiest and perhaps the wisest course would be to : 
" Pull down the prisons." He granted that prison is not 
the place for the insane, epileptic, feeble-minded, inebriates, 
vagrants, prostitutes, or debtors ; and that caution, release 
on own recognizances, opportunities of work, change of 
surroundings, well-organized probation, fines to be paid in 
instalments, temporary or prolonged detention in various 
kinds of hospitals, homes, industrial farms, etc., would 
probably meet all the above cases. After all these were 
removed from the prison, Captain St. John said many 
alterations would be possible in prison administration. In 
the meantime, he advocated : " Shorter hours with much 
more leave of absence, higher pay, and abolition of punish- 
ment, for warders, much more responsibility placed on, and 
confidence shown in, every officer. The addition to the 
staff of all prisons of carefully selected gentlewomen as 
trained nurses, and as supervisors of catering, cooking, and 
serving departments ; also that the governors, doctors, and 
other high officials of women' 's prisons should be women." 

Captain St. John suggests that every endeavour should be 
made to secure the co-operation of the desirable relations 
and friends of prisoners, and that visits at convenient times 
should be arranged. He also thought that prisoners should 
not be cut off from all news of the outside world. Another 
point he urged was that prisoners should be trusted more. 
In confirmation of this, he quoted what many prisons in the 
Unites States and Canada were already doing with their 
short-sentence prisoners, and how they were put " on their 

In Ontario a new prison is arranged in this way : " Some 
cells are retained for refractory prisoners, but the majority 
will go into small dormitories with a big bay window in 
each, which serves as a kind of sitting-room. The opposite 


wall is of glass, so that the officer patrolling the corridor can 
see through ; for the trusted prisoners there are private 
rooms with doors they can open and shut themselves." 
He considers dietary punishment more insidious in its 
mischief than corporal punishment, and would discontinue 
both. If a prisoner is refractory, he should be temporarily 
or permanently segregated. Captain St. John believes that 
all able-bodied prisoners, at least after a period of probation 
or apprenticeship, should receive wages, should be charged for 
their keep, and should be required at least to make some 
semblance of paying their way. Another matter he urges 
is conditional release, so that before a prisoner is finally 
released there may be some assurance that he can be returned 
with advantage, or at least safety, to the community. For 
this purpose, before being finally discharged the prisoner 
should be released conditionally, that is, he should be sent 
out on probation under effective supervision, and be liable 
to recall. 

" Inebriety and Crime " ; " The Minor Courts in their 
Relation to Public Health " ; " Inebriety and Feeble- 
Mindedness " ; " Education and Crime," were the subjects 
dealt with by other readers of papers under the Crime and 
Inebriety Section. I will, however, confine myself to one 
written by Harriet Findlay Johnson (Mrs. Weller), whose 
methods I have already referred to in Captain St. John's 
paper on " The Community and its Children, their Co- 
operation in their own Training," which was read before the 
Sociological Society in January, 1912. 

The title of Harriet Findlay Johnson's paper was : 
" Beginning and Causes of Juvenile Delinquency." 

She began by saying that the proper, natural environ- 
ment of children is that which is provided for in Nature's 



own scheme of things, viz. freedom to grow and develop on 
all sides under the guardianship and guidance of parents. 
But she feels that civilization and the growth of the com- 
munal way of living have broken up Nature's home plan, and 
substituted another. So long as children are protected in 
good homes, says Miss Johnson, the only place where they 
can come in contact with wrongdoing is outside. It is 
when the child leaves home to attend schools, clubs and other 
places, that trouble commences. Miss Johnson would first 
insist on a properly trained teacher, specially gifted with an 
understanding of children, earnest, kind, sympathetic, 
long-suffering, bright. She thinks that schools should be 
more homelike, with smaller classes, allowing each child to 
learn without too insistent teaching. 

As well as reorganizing the day schools, the Sunday schools, 
and boys' brigade, and other movements should be organized 
and supervised. Miss Johnson quotes one case she knew 
of a boy becoming profane through attending a Sunday 
school and hearing other boys, in his class, jesting on holy 
subjects in the presence of a weak-minded teacher. 

Her whole ideas summarized are : 

(i) Organize and attune schools to present-day needs on 
the " home plan." 

(2) Provide properly organized institutions for the " after- 
school time," if they are needed. 

(3) Educate the parents of all classes by all means to 
work with the schools. 

(4) Discourage the irresponsible and wrong-headed 
amateur in all things that pertain to childhood. 

All these papers after being read were liberally discussed 
by large and interested audiences. 

I had heard much, before I went to America, of the George 
Junior Republic, and had gone there armed with two letters of 


introduction to the heads of that self-governing community. 
I felt before I went that the George Junior was certainly 
one of the places that I should visit. Accordingly, I mapped 
out a scheme whereby I should take in the George Junior 
at Freeville on my way from Buffalo to Boston. But in 
America I changed my plans and this for various reasons, 
the principal perhaps being that three of the finest people 
I met in the States led me to think I would be disappointed 
in the scheme, seeing that it was not conducted on the 
idealistic lines I felt to be the most progressive. Even after 
hearing arguments against it, I hoped to visit the community 
and to meet the remarkable founder, so as to see him and the 
work he was doing, and thus form my own opinion ; but I 
could not get a train connexion. As my time was limited, 
I had reluctantly to give up all hope of meeting " Daddy 
George," and of seeing his wonderful organization, where 
boys and . girls who infringe the State laws are taught to 
govern themselves. 

When I returned to England, I found that there was a 
movement on foot to establish a George Junior Republic 
on English lines in Dorset. Mr. George Montague is Chair- 
man of the Committee and with him is associated Mr. Harold 
Large, who is intimately acquainted with the machinery 
of all the American George Junior Republics. He is to be 
in charge of the organization in England. I had heard 
both Mr. Montague and Mr. Large give brief outlines of their 
proposal during the discussion of Mr. Russell's paper on 
" The Juvenile Delinquent, and how to make a useful 
Citizen of him," and while the Conference was in progress, a 
huge reception was held at the Duchess of Marlborough's 
town house, in order to bring the scheme before the public. 
All members of the Conference were invited. 

At the door of the beautiful house in Curzon Street on the 


day of the reception we were met by powdered footmen in 
red plush liveries, and wearing silk stockings and shoes with 
large bright buckles. Passing through a wonderful hall 
and up a broad marble staircase, carpeted with a soft grey- 
blue velvet pile, we were directed by other footmen to the 
handsome marble ball-room, which was rilled to overflowing 
with a well-dressed assemblage of women and a goodly 
sprinkling of men. 

Earl Grey, late Governor-General of Canada, presided 
over the meeting. The Duchess of Marlborough was present, 
and so was Lord Sandwich, who has presented Flower's Farm 
in Dorset as a home for the new George Junior Republic. 
The guests included the Dowager Countess of Dunmore, 
Admiral the Hon. Victor Montagu, the Countess of Cromer, 
and other influential people. 

Mr. Montagu explained the working of the Freeville 
Republic, and told how its motto was : " Nothing without 
labour." He explained that the Committee of the English 
scheme were going to try a farm on the same fundamental 
principles, only adapting their methods to English life and 
traditions. Commencing with a handful of boys, they 
would educate them to the duties of self-government. 
He said that it was to be the aim of the community to take 
difficult cases of boys and girls who could not be controlled 
at home. It was suggested that the farmhouse on the estate 
should become the nucleus of a small village ; around it 
cottages would be built as numbers increased and funds 
allowed, each cottage housing ten children. Thus the ideal of 
home life would be sought after, more than the institutional. 
Besides farm work and the teaching of trades, a good 
school education is to be provided for the boys and girls 
who come into the Republic. Mr. Montagu is confident of 
the success of his plan, and gave two instances of what the 


Freeville community had evolved by its system of self- 
government. Solely on their own initiative, the children 
had passed two laws : One that the school age should be 
increased from fourteen to twenty-one ; and another pro- 
hibiting smoking in the Republic. These laws were passed 
by the boys and girls without any help or suggestion from 
the authorities. 

Mr. Harold Large said in his speech that the more 
responsibility you put on an individual the more he rises 
to it. He gave an instance of a truancy officer in one of the 
States, who, before an illness, captured truant boys to the 
average of fifty-three per week. When it was announced 
that he was too ill to go after truants, a remarkable thing 
happened. Other boys volunteered to hunt up their truant 
mates. No one knew so well as they where to look for boys, 
and they unearthed them from all their hiding-places. The 
first week of the truant officer's illness, the number of truant 
boys went down to fifteen ; the next week to thirteen, and 
from that day truancy ceased. But no sooner was the 
officer able to take on his work again, than back went the 
numbers to fifty for the first week, showing, said Mr. Large, 
how boys can look after other boys. 

The ideal of the organizers is this : " First and foremost 
the training of individual character, to direct into good 
channels the natural energy, which through bad environ- 
ment, or love of adventure, has hitherto been misdirected ; 
and, by means of the advantages of self-government, 
coupled with a wage system, to create not only a sense of 
personal responsibility, but an appreciation of the value of 
membership in the community." 

The Duchess of Marlborough, in a charming little speech, 
suggested that a good name for the farm would be " From 
Service to Freedom," and asked all her friends to help the 


enterprise with funds. She promised £450 for building a 
girls' cottage. Incidentally it was mentioned that a capital 
sum of £6,000 was necessary for the inauguration of that 
scheme, and that when established the annual cost of 
maintenance would amount to from £3,000 to £4,000 a year. 

An overflow meeting was held on the stairs and in the 
entrance hall, and at the conclusion the house was thrown 
open to the guests. At the entrance to the ball-room, a 
beautiful model of the English George Junior Republic, in 
which trees, cottages, buildings were all represented, was 
on view. 

Other sections of the National Conference were the Public 
Health Section, the Education Section, Housing Section, 
and the Unemployment and Industrial Regulation Section. 

I attended the Housing Section and heard papers read on 
Town Planning and Housing from the Imperial standpoint, 
and on Town Planning in Australasia. This latter paper was 
read by Mr. C. C. Reade, late editor of the New Zealand 

Mr. Henry Vivian (Chairman of the Co-Partnership Tenants, 
Ltd.) pointed out that the great prosperity of Canada would 
be its own undoing. That 40,000 people were going there 
annually, the great majority to towns, which were being built 
rapidly, with no forethought for the future. He considered 
that the Empire, as a whole, should set its face "against the 
tenement, and said public bodies do not represent public 
interests in housing. 

Mr. Reade gave a brief outline of New Zealand and Aus- 
tralian town planning, criticizing the want of artistic 
planning and the lack of open spaces in most of the 

Co-partnership in housing is exercising a good deal of 
thought throughout England. It certainly is time. The 


interminable rows of drab-coloured houses in most of the 
English and Welsh cities, under leaden skies, must have a 
most depressing and demoralizing effect on the dwellers, and 
especially on the little children. 

A most interesting enterprise of co-partnership in housing 
is practically and beautifully illustrated at the Hampstead 
Garden Suburb. This is the outcome of a syndicate under 
Mr. Barnett, who purchased open fields on the fringes of 
Hampstead Heath and built this suburb, which is now one of 
the Meccas of visitors to England, from all parts of the world, 
with an interest in beautifying the dwellings of the people. 
The King and Queen have visited the Garden Suburb. Earl 
Grey is one of its sincerest admirers. Last summer, under 
the auspices of the University of London Board to promote 
the extension of University teaching — the summer school of 
town planning was held at the Hampstead Garden Suburb. 
The Marquis of Crewe delivered the inaugural address, and 
mentioned that he had assisted at the birth of the Suburb. 
He recalled the strides Continental cities have made in town 
planning for many years, and concluded with the words : 
" All the great national problems come back to the question 
of the homes in which the people live." 

Letchworth and Hull are two towns which are taking up 
town planning enthusiastically. At the Hull Garden 
Village, rents vary from 4s. 6d. to 18s. weekly, inclusive of 
rates, rents being fixed to provide a return of 3 per cent. 
In this way, the Directors are able to build good houses and 
provide gardens at practically the same rent as was once 
paid in other parts of the city for slum dwellings. 

Delegates of the National Conference reserved an after- 
noon to visit the Hampstead Garden Suburb. We went 
by the Hampstead Tube to Golder's Green, London, N.W., 
and then by tram to the Garden Suburb, where we were met 


and shown round the town. We were walking for nearly two 
hours, and then had not seen all of this delightful suburb. 
The streets were wide, and planted with trees ; the houses 
detached, and built with artistic exteriors. Their gardens 
were glorious with flowers, the back gardens, as well as the 
front, being made the most of. It was more like one of our 
best suburbs than any English town I have visited. One part 
of this beautiful village has been set apart for the aged poor. 
We went over their model homes, which form a picturesque 
building, divided into several small flats, containing a large 
bed-sitting-room, a kitchen, etc., for each couple. There 
was a common bakehouse where all their cakes, meats, 
etc., were cooked, if desired, at a most moderate charge. 
There were separate bath-rooms, a huge laundry, all beauti- 
fully kept and open to all the dwellers at a nominal charge. 
Surrounding these old folks' dwellings were beautiful 
gardens, each inmate having his own strip of land. The old 
people seemed to vie with each other in producing the finest 
flowers and vegetables. 

In the village is a Church of England and also a large Free 
Church. There are also spacious buildings and an up-to- 
date school. As we passed the school, a dramatic enter- 
tainment was going on, and we stepped inside to listen for a 
few minutes. 

Many advantages are offered to Co-Partnership Tenants, 
Ltd. The various estates working in connexion with the 
Company employ 1,000 to 1,500 building operatives. Twice 
a week there is an evening class for the workmen on the 
estate, held at the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, 
at which the employees may study geometry and building 
construction. At nineteen different institutes in London the 
employees study technical subjects and subjects of a general 
character, such as carpentry, builders' quantities, brick- 


work, building construction, architectural design, sanitary 
engineering, plumbing, surveying, electrical wiring, cabinet- 
making, and many other subjects bearing on the building 
industries ; scholarships are offered as an incentive to the 
men attending these classes. 

Through the winter months the Hampstead Garden 
Suburb Institute publishes a most attractive Entertainment 
Programme which includes debates, picture talks, and con- 
ferences. The speakers at these conferences include such 
distinguished men as Lord Courtney and Mr. Sydney Webb. 
During this winter also the School of Music is organizing a 
Foreign Study Society, a Shakespeare Society, a Child 
Society and a Natural History Scoiety. 

Among the entertainments the delegates to the National 
Conference on the Prevention of Destitution were invited to, 
was an evening reception at Mr. and Mrs. Waldorf Astor's. It 
was held at their town house in St. James' Square, an 
immense, gorgeously furnished mansion with a ball-room and 
many sitting, drawing, and music-rooms, all most beautifully 
decorated with a rich profusion of the choicest hothouse 
flowers. Footmen in brown-and-gold livery, with powdered 
hair, gold-coloured stockings and shoes with big, broad 
buckles, directed the guests to the top of a wide, beautifully 
decorated staircase, where Mr. and Mrs. Astor received. 

The Right Hon. Sir John Brunner, M.P., also invited the 
delegates to a garden-party held in Kensington Gardens, and 
on another occasion a number of Members of Parliament 
entertained small parties of delegates at tea on the terrace 
of the House of Commons. 

Miss Margaret McMillan, one of the greatest women 
authorities on child labour in England, is the founder of The 
Deptford Clinic, which is planted in one of the dreariest 
and poorest of London's many poor and dreary quarters. 


This Clinic is right in the heart of dockland. When I 
visited Deptford it was, perhaps, at its very worst, for it 
was the week after the great strike had ended, and the 
gaunt, ragged men and women of the district bore the traces 
of the great struggle with starvation that they were just 
emerging from. 

It was Miss Sarah Bennett who told me of Miss McMillan 
and her great work. She told me of her influence for good in 
the north of England, where she had done much by her 
writings and her own deep devotion to the cause of little 
children. Miss Bennett wrote asking Miss McMillan if we 
might visit the Deptford Clinic, and I had a letter from Miss 
McMillan saying that she was ill and regretted not being able 
to show us round herself. However, she made arrangements 
with one of the workers, who received us and took us round 
the Clinic and explained its different activities. 

As we walked, on a raw, cold and misty morning from the 
station to the Clinic, we saw tribes of ragged boys and girls 
and many squalid men and women. The streets were 
swarming with little children, clinging like bees to passing 
carts and running along the edge of the pavements. The 
little girls were some of them nursing diminutive babies that 
I thought at first were dolls. One small girl, about six years 
old, was nursing what looked so like a doll that it was not 
till I went up and spoke to her that I saw what she was 
really holding was a baby. In sordid public-house bars, 
which are only dram shops, men and women were drinking 
together, while little children, mere babies, crawled on the 
pavement outside the doors. A recent Act of Parliament 
prohibits the children from Jbeing taken inside the doors. 
Further on we met groups of poorly dressed factory girls 
with their hair in curling-pins, coming home for their 
midday meal. 


Amid these surroundings Miss McMillan has founded a 
clinic. Here two doctors attend one afternoon each week. 
Each sees from thirty to forty patients per week, and in two 
months they have treated between four and five hundred 
children. In addition to the doctors, a nurse attends every 
day for three hours, and physical culture is taught by a com- 
petent teacher for five or six hours weekly. Miss McMillan is 
greatly encouraged by the results, and we were told of one 
spinal case which was cured in five weeks by exercises. Many 
other encouraging cures have been effected. ' This Clinic 
treats over 2,000 children each year, and the cost per child 
per annum works out at 3s. 

From the Clinic we went to the open-air school, which is 
held in the only available open-air space, an old churchyard, 
thickly strewn with graves and head-stones. There have 
been no burials in it for a hundred years. Miss McMillan 
had loads of rubbish cleared out of it before she could make a 
start. Now, in one corner are workshops where boys are busy 
carpentering, in another, on the graves of the forgotten dead, 
children plant seeds and make gardens. Some of these 
gardens were bright with flowers. It was a strange sight, 
this association of the dead and the living. 

At the " Home," which is in another street, we saw where 
the physical exercises were given, also an open-air sleeping- 
place for girls. Very few things were required for this. 
Two long iron rods were fixed into grooves in the side of the 
building, their other ends fitting into a box which contained 
the bedding for each girl. This bedding consisted of canvas 
sewn together at one side and through it the poles were 
thrust, making a mattress, a blanket made into a sleeping- 
bag for the child to get into, a blanket to put over her and a 
pillow. The boys' sleeping-out quarters were behind the 
Clinic, and were much larger and better equipped than the 


girls'. Their sleeping-ground was also provided with shower 

Miss Margaret McMillan has written a very helpful book 
on " The Child and the State," in which she voices the wants 
of the child. In an article, from Virginia, which she was 
visiting when I left England, that appeared in the Daily 
News, Miss McMillan draws attention to the child labour in 
cotton-land and says, speaking of the " awakening " of 
people to the horror of child labour, and the passing of 
laws to regulate the employment of children : "In the 
course of this new movement England is cited as a warning. 
' Her awakening ' says a member of the Child Labour Com- 
mittee, ' has come too late.' She has paid for her prosperity 
with her capital — that is to say, with her own children." 


MR. WATTS' letter of introduction was an Open 
Sesame to the heads of the council schools, 
formerly board schools, which in England occupy the same 
place as our state schools, and I was given opportunities of 
seeing at representative schools some of the principal branches 
of the London County Council's educational work. In 
past years the great weakness of all school training has 
been its failure to give due consideration to individuality. 
The authorities once thought that a standard in book learning 
was all that was necessary, and only looked at two aspects 
in the life of the individual child — the growth of character 
and the growth of the mind. Now they understand that 
to give a child this information, without teaching him to 
understand its meaning, and without being able to apply the 
facts learnt, is sheer waste. Modern thought now recognizes 
that each child must be treated as a distinct individual ; 
that it is the teacher's task to see that the child is assimilat- 
ing the knowledge he gains ; and that the child's environ- 
ment is of a kind that will not entirely undo the effect of 
school training. And so the Council has also taken on the 
following duties : — 

I. The provision of meals. 



2. Medical inspection, medical treatment, and cleansing 
of children. 

3. General welfare of children, including provision of play 
centres and vacation schools. 

A Sub-Committee, consisting entirely of members of the 
Council and the Education Committee, undertakes the 
greater part of remedial and ameliorative work which is 
being carried on in the London schools, and is known as the 
Children's Care (Central) Committee. There is also, acting 
in conjunction with this Central Committee, a Children's 
Care (School) Committee, formed in connexion with each 
public elementary school, the local managers providing not 
less than two and not more than three of their number to 
serve on the Children's Care (School) Committee. This 
nucleus co-operates an equal number of voluntary workers. 
This scheme was formulated in 1909, and the appeal for 
voluntary workers has met with a most gratifying response. 

Since 1906 meals have been provided for necessitous 
children ; but careful inquiry is first made into the home 
circumstances of the children before they are permanently 
placed on the free list for meals. These free meals to ill- 
fed children have had in many cases an ill effect on their 
mothers, relieving them of their natural responsibilities and 
allowing them extra money and time to spend in the public 

Much attention is given to medical inspection in all 
schools. If children are found requiring special medical 
attention, the parents are told, and the Council passes the 
children on to certain of the London hospitals and to special 
doctors and dentists. 

A further forward step is the establishment of Central 
Schools for pupils wishing to specialize in a particular indus- 
trial or commercial training. 


Owing to the diminution in the number of cases of truancy, 
it is now only necessary to provide accommodation in one 
day industrial school for about a hundred boys of this class. 
I had heard at the Home Office also that truancy was dying 
out in England, and I asked one of the officers at the Educa- 
tion Office what he considered the reason of there being 
comparatively few truants these days. He said emphati- 
cally, " Children do not play truant now, because school 
work is made more interesting and attractive than it used 
to be." 

For advanced pupils there are many polytechnic and 
technical institutes receiving grants from the Council. A 
large number of evening schools too are conducted in the 
buildings of the Council's elementary schools. The total 
number of these schools is 280. 

There are eight industrial schools under the care of the 
Council, and in addition it has entered into contracts with 
about fifty-five industrial schools throughout the country 
for the reception of London children. 

In addition to the usual elementary and central schools, 
there are schools for the mentally and physically defective, 
and also two open-air schools. These last are necessarily 
limited in London, partly owing to the difficulty of securing 
suitable sites, and partly owing to the expense of their main- 
tenance. The Council has devoted considerable attention 
to the organization of play-ground classes in ordinary 

The teaching staff for all kinds of schools and institutions 
under the Council's jurisdiction numbers about 20,000. 
About 8,400 of these are men, and about 11,530 are women. 

The London County Council spends annually about six 
millions sterling in education — about five millions on ele- 
mentary, and one million on higher education, 


From a pamphlet which is issued for the guidance of 
teachers, parents, and employers (containing the by- 
laws made by the London County Council under the Employ- 
ment of Children Act, 1903), I excerpt the following : — 

" The expression ' child ' means a person under the age 
of fourteen years." 

" A child under the age of eleven years shall not be em- 
ployed/ ' 

" No boy or girl under the age of fourteen years, and 
liable to attend school full time, shall be employed : 

A. On days when the school is open — 

1. For more than 3 J hours in any one day. 

2. Between 8 in the morning and 5 in the evening. 

3. Before 6.30 in the morning and after 8.30 in the 

B. On days when the school is not open : 

1. For more than 8 hours in any one day. 

2. Before 6.30 in the morning and after 9 in the evening. 
" A child shall not be employed on Sundays except 

between the hours of 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. for a period not 
exceeding 3 hours." 

The following are some of the by-laws as to street 
trading of persons under the age of sixteen years : — 

" No girls under the age of sixteen years shall be employed 
in or carry on street trading. 

" No boy under the age of fourteen years shall be em- 
ployed in, or carry on street trading. 

" No boy under sixteen shall be employed in street trad- 
ing before 6 in the morning or after 9 in the evening. 

" No boy under the age of sixteen shall be employed in or 
carry on street trading unless : 

1. He is exempt from school attendance ; 

2. And he first procures a badge from the London County 


Council, which he shall wear, whilst engaged in trading, on 
the upper part of the right arm in a conspicuous place. 

" A boy under the age of sixteen years, whilst engaged in 
street trading, shall not enter any premises used for public 
entertainment or licensed for the sale of intoxicating 

In Manchester, street trading by children is organized in 
the following manner : — 

Once a year the boys and girls of Manchester receive 
licences for street trading. No such licence is granted to 
any child under twelve years of age. Children up to the 
age of sixteen can obtain a licence, providing : — 

1. That they intend to trade in the streets of the city. 

2. That they are not unfit to trade through being sickly, 
blind, deaf, dumb, deformed, or mentally deficient. 

3. That they have the consent of their parents or guardians. 
If it is found that the parent or person having the charge of 

the child is not a fit person, that person's consent is not con- 
sidered. Every child that is licensed receives a badge. 
These are of two sorts, one for children attending school, 
and one for those who have left school. The badge is not 
charged for, but the child must leave a deposit of 6d. when 
it is received. The money is refunded when the badge is 
returned. No licensed child is allowed to sell after 8 p.m. 
in the winter, and after 9 p.m. in the summer. The child 
who has a licence must be decently clothed, must not sell 
in hotels, nor allow any unlicensed child to help him with 
his sales. He must always wear his badge in a conspicuous 
place, and is not allowed to alter, deface, lend, or sell it. 
He must never trade in the street without this badge. These 
regulations came into effect in March, 1902, and are strictly 
observed. I spoke to several boys with badges who were 



selling papers in Manchester. They were very bright, 
very eager, and very obliging little fellows. 

The London County Council also interests itself in the 
after-care of children leaving school to go to work. Several 
years ago, one of the London Settlements wished to help 
crippled or handicapped children to find suitable work, and 
out of this movement grew what was called a " Skilled 
Employment Committee," which undertook to find work 
for normal children too. The idea proved so successful 
that the Charity Organization Society began to form ap- 
prenticeship and skilled labour committees for its various 
branches. Now, these committees have been organized 
into an independent Society called " The Apprenticeship 
and Skilled Employment Association." This organization 
has led the public to realize the need of protecting and 
advising children who have to earn their own living after 
they leave school. There are now more than twenty of 
these Committees which work, in conjunction with juvenile 
departments, in different parts of London, advising and 
finding suitable vacancies for children desiring work. In 
November, 1910, Parliament passed the Education (Choice 
of Employment) Act, and since then the local education 
authorities have had power to make arrangements for assist- 
ing boys and girls under seventeen years of age to find 
suitable employment when leaving school. 

At the beginning of 191 1, the President of the Board of 
Trade and the President of the Board of Education, after 
conferring with the societies then formed, issued a joint Mem- 
orandum of a scheme of co-operation between them. Later 
on, a Report issued by the Education Committee showed 
the purposes of the Juvenile Advisory Committees which 
are under the joint direction of the London County Council 
and the Board of Trade. The following are some of them : — 


1. "To see that the children on leaving school enter, as 
far as possible, the trades for which they are best suited. 
This necessarily involves a knowledge of the child's mental 
and physical qualification and his own and his parents' 
wishes as to employment. 

2. "To see that children who enter ' blind-alley ' employ- 
ment qualify themselves, when possible, to undertake other 
work by attending at evening continuation schools and 

3. "To provide for each child in need of advice and 
guidance, a friend who will endeavour to keep the child in 
touch with healthy ideals and pursuits and watch over his 
industrial progress." 

The London County Council, acting through its educa- 
tional committee, has arranged a system of reaching all 
children on the eve of leaving school with the object of 
assisting their future. I will only quote a few of the princi- 
pal plans of the procedure in connexion with the after-care 
of children leaving public elementary schools : — 

1. Before a child is expected to leave school, the head 
teacher sends to the Secretary of the Children's Care 
(School) Committee a school-leaving form which gives in- 
formation regarding the child's record in school and fitness 
for work. Care is taken not to disturb the child by in- 
quiries which may suggest to him the possibility of leaving 
school before it is absolutely necessary. 

2. The parents of the child are either visited at home or 
seen at the school by the Children's Care (School) Committee, 
to discover if there is any need for outside advice. 

3. If the parents wish the child to be advised as to finding 
employment, the school-leaving form is sent to the Appren- 
ticeship and Skilled Employment Association, the Metro- 
politan Association for befriending young Servants, etc.. 


as long as possible before the child leaves school, two weeks 
at least. 

4. The rota of the Juvenile Advisory Committee en- 
deavours to place the child in the most suitable employ- 
ment, and to obtain periodical reports from the employer 
as to its progress. 

5. A supervisor appointed by the Children's Care (School) 
Committee reports on the child's progress every May and 
November till he is eighteen years of age. 

In connexion with this method of finding employment for 
boys, the Daily News and Leader pointed out in a leading 
article a few months ago the vastness of the juvenile labour 
problem and drew attention to the extent of the organization 
which has been created in London for the avoidance of 
" blind alley " employments. This article mentions the 
co-operation of the Mansion-House Advisory Committee 
for Boys, which consists of representatives of organizations 
comprising a total membership of over 40,000 boys, with 
the Board of Trade Labour Exchanges. Employers of 
labour have been sent circulars, and the Committee hope to 
send to parents monthly reports of employments open to 
boys. " Get the boy, train him, and find him suitable 
work," are the three main points of the Committee's pro- 
gramme. They hope for a systematic linking-up of schools, 
clubs and brigades, with a sympathetic understanding 
between the school teachers and club managers. The article 
ends by saying, " To ensure that every boy shall be intro- 
duced to and prepared for a progressive employment and 
shall be brought, if possible, within the ranks of associations 
which exist for the physical and moral improvement of the 
rising generation, is an excellent way of conserving and 
developing one of the most important elements of the 
national wealth." 


I was very interested in the Central Schools, as they are 
quite a new departure ; for the report of the Education 
Committee was only approved of by the Council as recently 
as March i, 1910. These Central Schools are taking the 
places of the higher elementary, or certain higher grade 
schools, and are, so I was told at the Education Office, only 
to be found in London. There was a widespread feeling 
throughout the community that more attention should be 
given to the development of " practical " education in the 
elementary schools. Both educationalists and men of 
affairs agreed that education can be made more effective if 
the pupils can be taught more by " doing " and less by listen- 
ing. Thus, after a special all-round training of the faculties, 
the boy or girl should have acquired a readiness and adapta- 
bility which will enable him or her to turn readily to work 
in factory or workshop. The Committee therefore recom- 
mend the establishment, as part of the elementary school 
system in London, of a series of higher schools to be called 
" Central Schools." These schools would, it was said, take 
the place of the existing higher elementary and higher grade 
schools, and they would be fed by contributions from the 
surrounding schools. The curriculum should provide in all 
cases for manual and practical work, and, in the case of girls 
for instruction in domestic subjects. 

In many cases the original school buildings have been 
added to and adapted for the uses of these central schools, 
and ten new schools have also been built. It is proposed 
that there should be about sixty such departments set apart 
for Central Schools, and that they should, as far as practic- 
able, be distributed uniformly throughout London. The 
pupils are selected from the ordinary schools at about eleven 
years of age, and they are chosen partly on the results of 
the competition for Junior County Scholarships, and partly 


on their previous progress and conduct. These selected 
pupils are then supposed to go through a complete four 
years' course at the Central Schools with a special curricu- 
lum. The total number of Central Schools that had been 
organized, up to the time I visited the Education Office, 
was forty-four. Of these sixteen have an industrial bias, 
nineteen a commercial bias, and nine both an industrial 
and commercial bias. 

The Central School I visited was situated at West Kensing- 
ton. Mr. Cox, the head master, had been a teacher under the 
Department for twenty-eight years, and was very interested 
in his boys and his work. In the same building, but in a 
separate part, were girls under a head mistress and a special 
staff of women teachers. I visited both schools. The 
scheme of work in each was to prepare the pupils for com- 
mercial pursuits. Mr. Cox, during my interview with him, 
lamented that though it was deemed necessary for all pupils 
to stay for the four years' course, in many instances they 
were withdrawn as soon as they reached fourteen years of 
age. He was of opinion that attendance should be com- 
pulsory for boys and girls till they are fifteen or sixteen years 
of age. He told me he had 353 boys in his division, and 
that the course included Scripture, English language and 
literature, commercial arithmetic, algebra, commercial 
geography and history, drawing, practical science, French, 
music, shorthand, bookkeeping, office routine, type- 
writing, handicraft, swimming, and general physical 
training. In the first, second, and third years French is 
taken during four hours per week, and in the fourth year 
five hours per week. In the third and fourth years, book- 
keeping, office routine, shorthand and typewriting are 
taken. The boys themselves publish a Chronicle every 
three months, which was very well got up and very original. 


A very interesting feature of this school is the Old Boys' 
night, held during the first week in December. Mr. Cox 
showed me a paper that he had passed round on the occasion 
of the last meeting. On this paper every boy present had 
written his name, and what occupation he was engaged at. 
As I glanced over it I saw that many were in the Civil 
Service, some in the Admiralty, some studying for 
doctors and lawyers, one a bricklayer, many in offices as 
clerks, and so on. 

I went through several class-rooms, and saw the boys at 
their works. In one class they were all busy at algebra; 
in another having a lesson from Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe ; 
in another, a French teacher discoursed in French ; the 
boys spoke French well, and some quite fluently. The 
science room was very interesting, and off this opened 
the laboratory. 

The manual training room was particularly interesting. 
Here forty boys, under two instructors, were making all sorts 
of woodwork ; some were inlaying, some making boxes, 
some boats, some shelves. Every boy was thoroughly 
alert, and very keen about his work. The head instructor 
said that though it was called manual training, he called it 
motor (or mind) training. The prominent idea was to 
develop the mind. He said : " We are here more as advisers 
than instructors. We give the boy the wood, and he evolves 
the working of it very soon." 

From the boys' I went to the girls' school, and saw them 
at work in their art class. They were designing a 
pattern for a Peter Pan collar. Violets were used for the 
design. The girls each had a collar, and the design had to 
fit that collar ; several were very good, and one drawing 
in particular was most uncommon and effective. So 
interested were the girls in their work that though it 


was play-lime one or two sat on finishing their designs. 
The art teacher showed me a large portfolio of the girls' 
sketches ; some, done in holiday time, showed much in- 
dividual talent. 

From the art class I went to the cookery class, where 
the lesson for the afternoon had been " The Care of the 
Meat Safe." Several girls were making little apple-pies, 
while others were writing up the subject of the lecture. A 
decidedly appetizing smell of cooking pervaded the air. 
One girl told me how she tried the oven, to find when it was 
hot enough for cooking. At the conclusion of the lesson, 
they all showed their aprons to the teacher to see how clean 
they had kept them. 

From the cooking I went on to the laundry, where the girls 
learn to wash, iron and starch any articles they care to bring. 
A very capable young woman was in charge of this room. 
She showed me all over it, and explained all her lessons. 

Across the road was a house which the Council had 
specially purchased for girls to learn housework in. Here 
they scrubbed and swept and dusted, cleaned windows, and 
learnt everything necessary for good practical housekeeping. 

I told several of the boys and girls about Australia, and 
gave Mr. Cox and them, some of the High Commissioner's 
postcards. Mr. Cox was most enthusiastic about these and 
said he could do with hundreds ; so the next day Mr. Frank 
Savage of the Commonwealth Office kindly sent him a 
goodly packet, and also some books and pamphlets adver- 
tising the resources and virtues of Australia. 

The Cookery Technical School for boys has been estab- 
lished by the London County Council with the object of 
providing a course of scientific and technical instruction 
for boys in all branches of cookery and the making of 
pastry and confectionery. The full course of instruction 


covers a period of three years and includes technical or 
professional training for the pupils under a skilled chef and 
instructors. The improvement of their general education 
is also aimed at. Admission to the school is restricted to 
boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age who must 
also have passed Standard VI. Each pupil pays £9 gs. 
a year, and is entitled to the 'free use of cooking appli- 
ances, textbooks, materials for cooking, etc. 

I went over the school (which is at Westminster) about 
two years after its inception. Even then it was well ad- 
vanced, and the boys were all as busy and interested 
in their work as if they had been cooking all their 
lives. Fifteen new boys are admitted each year. The 
maximum number that there is room for in the school at 
one time is forty-five. The school is fully equipped with 
the latest culinary appliances — including a central cooking 
range, gas stoves, grillers, steamers, etc. etc., also a modern 
pastry, confectionery and ice-making department, together 
with the necessary larder and store for food accommodation. 

I went first to the kitchen, which is arranged exactly on 
the lines of an hotel kitchen. The idea of this arrangement 
is that the boys may get accustomed to the position of every 
article, and so not feel strange in new surroundings. An 
experienced Dutch chef was in command. He and all the 
boys wore at their sides a sheath in which were stuck the 
various knives, skewers, etc., used at work. The chef and 
boys wore white coats, white aprons and white caps. When 

1 entered they were busy making soups, and preparing 
vegetables and meat. 

The menu was written in French, and that language has 
to be learned by the boys. They have practical work till 

2 p.m. and then, for the remainder of the afternoon, take 
theoretical work. They learn how to " draw " a side of 


beef, and then how to cut it up. As well as being taught 
cooking, they are given some general education. 

From the kitchen I went on to the pastry, confectionery, 
and ice-making department. This is in charge of a French 
chef. Here boys were making many varieties of pastry and 
confectionery, and I saw them converting orange peel into 
candied peel. 

Another interesting room was the larder where the meat 
and stores were kept. One of the boys was in charge of this. 
A boy from each of the other departments brought him in 
every day a list of the things wanted, and the boy in charge 
who was most business-like, saw to the ordering of the 

At the Cooking and Food Exhibition, held in the Horti- 
cultural Hall, October, 1912, boys from fourteen to sixteen, 
who had been trained by the L.C.C., cooked and served 
entirely the luncheon provided on a certain day. 

Connected with the institution were several other techni- 
cal classes, and I was specially interested in the one for book- 
binding, where several women were busy binding books and 
working designs in leather. 

It costs the London County Council £6,000 a year to run 
the Westminster Technical Institute ; £1,500 was spent in 
equipping the kitchen, etc., and in making the necessary 
alterations for holding cooking classes. Strangely enough, 
there is no institution of the kind for girls ; they learn 
ordinary domestic cookery in various other schools, but 
instruction in the art or science of cookery is reserved for 

The London County Council's Education Committee pro- 
vides play centres, etc., which afford recreation facilities 
after school hours for children ; and also Vacation Schools 
which are under voluntary management. 


The Council is now considering the advisability of promot- 
ing the training of London boys for the Mercantile Marine 
service. The desirability of training boys for the Merchant 
Service was recommended by Lord Mersey in his report on 
the Titanic disaster. It was proposed to give the boys a 
two years' course, but when I left London no special 
arrangements had been decided on. 



THESE schools are also under Municipal Control, but 
as they are conducted on much the same lines in 
the above cities I will not describe them all in detail. The 
Special, or, as they are sometimes called, Sub-normal, 
schools minister, as the latter name implies, to those children 
who are mentally or physically defective and their standard 
is therefore below the normal school grade. These sub- 
normal children are taught in special schools centrally 
situated, where they may have all the extra care and 
patience and comfort that are necessary to develop their 
dormant faculties. 

The London County Council makes special arrangements 
for the education of afflicted children who are taught in 
special schools. These schools are divided into three 
classes : those for the blind and deaf, those for the mentally 
defective, and those for the physically defective. There 
are 415 blind and 701 deaf children between the ages of five 
and sixteen in the London elementary schools. In a few 
instances these are sent to institutions not under the Coun- 
cil's control. This course is usually taken in the case of 
Jewish or Roman Catholic pupils. The Council provides 
six day schools for the blind, seven day schools for the deaf, 
two residential and day blind schools, and eight residential 



and day deaf schools. A few blind or deaf children, who 
live too far away from the schools to attend as day pupils, 
are boarded out by the Council with foster parents living 
near the schools. In the blind schools instruction is given 
by means of Braille writing and reading, and the instruction 
in the deaf schools is on the oral system. The Superintendent 
of the London Special Schools is Mrs. Burgwin, who is much 
beloved by all the teachers. 

The Education Committee gave me cards to visit one of 
each of their special schools, and I went first to Beaufort 
House, which is for elder mentally afflicted boys between 
the ages of twelve and sixteen. This age has been lowered 
in recent years, and many boys of eleven are now admitted 
to this special school, if they are recommended for admission 
by Mrs. Burgwin, the Superintendent. It is estimated 
that there are under instruction in London 7,071 mentally 
defective children. These are provided for in ninety special 
day schools. The number of children taught by each teacher 
averages about twenty. 

The classes had just reassembled for the afternoon work 
when I reached Beaufort House. They assemble at 1.30 p.m., 
for, as many of the pupils come from a long distance, dinner 
is provided for all at the school. As soon as I sent in my 
card, the head master, Mr. Cooper, came to me. He spared 
neither time nor pains in explaining the workings of the 
system, showed me his time-tables, explained the division of 
classes and, before we went round the classes, showed me 
much of the pupils' work. This was exhibited in show- 
cases in the outer hall, where he received me. The hall 
really was in the centre of the building, the class rooms 
leading off it on both sides. 

The school had accommodation for 115 pupils, but there 
were 128 present. Mr, Cooper divides this number into 


three divisions, so that each division may have the advan- 
tage of being taught by a certificated teacher through the 
day. These three divisions are again divided into eight 
classes. Six of these are engaged each lesson in some 
manual occupation, so that facilities are afforded for every 
boy to have a fair amount of instruction in some practical 
work, such as boot-making, tailoring, carpentry, metal- work, 
etc. A third of the time is given to education, and the 
remaining two-thirds to manual training. In this way 
every boy gets constant change of occupation. If the boys 
can master reading, writing, and arithmetic, the authorities 
feel that something has been accomplished, and they all 
agree that the different trades develop the mind more than 
book learning. All the pupils, Mr. Cooper said, are trans- 
ferred to him from the elementary schools, after they have 
been medically examined by the L.C.C. doctor. Mr. Cooper 
keeps them at this special school till they are sixteen years 
old. If a boy lives too far away to walk to school, the L.C.C. 
provides him with a free railway ticket. Seated at a table 
in the hall where we were talking were four boys of thirteen 
years of age, laboriously copying out of a simple school book 
words of one syllable. " They were," Mr. Cooper said, 
" boys who literally lived on the streets." 

In the tailoring room one boy was machining aprons in a 
most professional manner. They were for the use of the 
boys employed in the kitchen. Others were learning to 
backstitch — the first lesson. One fair-headed, smiling boy 
was sitting on the floor with his coat off, attempting to 
mend it ; but it was very ragged. Except this boy's, 
which had a certain amount of intelligence, most of the faces 
wore a very vacant expression. 

In another room, boys were making and mending boots, 
and I was surprised to hear that they had made 130 pairs 


of new boots and repaired 1,030 boots in this class during 
the year. The new boots were all an order from one of the 
L.C.C. Girls' Industrial Schools. The scholars bring their 
boots to mend, and pay cost price for repairs. The clothing 
made in the tailoring department, and all the wooden articles 
made, are also sold to the boys at cost price. 

In a large class-room about twenty boys were having a 
drawing-lesson, a lesson they are very fond of, though Mr. 
Cooper thinks boot-making is the favourite lesson. " It 
certainly is," he says, " the best paying one." These class- 
rooms, with the kitchen and one other class-room, were 
in the main building. 

We crossed the playground to the wood-working class, 
which was divided into three sections, held in three different 
rooms. Some of the work the boys were doing was really 
good, though the instructor said that they had to supervise 
carefully the whole time. I saw a very well-made piano 
stool and a medicine cabinet that had just been completed. 

The wonderful part of this class was that the boys had 
learnt to draw the design, according to standard measures, 
of the article they were to make later. Some of the drawings 
were firmly and correctly drawn, though naturally in other 
cases they were weak and faulty. All the pupils showed 
a surprising grasp of their work, owing to continuous teaching 
and patience, and the fact that each boy has a drawing 
lesson every day. 

From the Mentally Defective School I took a 'bus , and 
after a quarter of an hour's ride came to a school for physically 
defective boys and girls. According to the Act, " Children 
to be admitted to the Mentally and Physically Defective 
Schools must, by reason of mental or physical defect, be 
incapable of receiving proper benefit from the instruction in 
the ordinary public elementary schools, but not incapable, 


by reason of such defect, of receiving benefit from the in- 
struction in special schools." There are 3,100 physically 
defective and invalid children treated in thirty-five day 
schools and three special hospital schools in London. In 
this particular school, as in the Mentally Defective School 
I had just visited, a great deal of the time is given to manual 
occupations. Though the children were very bright in com- 
parison with the one I had just left, it was an infinitely 
sadder sight, for every boy and girl had some physical defect. 
A great many were on crutches, others wore irons, while 
others, who could not use their limbs at all, were wheeled 
about in specially made chairs. 

The classes were held in one long room, with class-rooms 
off one side. In this large room was served the midday 
meal, for all the children have their dinner at school, many 
of them being brought in the morning and taken home at 
night by ambulances. The walls in this large hall were 
decorated with many designs done by the pupils. The boys 
often draw and originate the designs, which the girls copy 
in needlework. One design in particular of bluebells, 
which had been embroidered by a girl on a dress, was parti- 
cularly effective, as also was some hand-made lace which 
had been designed and copied by two of the pupils. It is a 
well-known fact that the children attending this school are 
specially clever at designing and all kinds of fancy work. 
I saw some big boys and girls painting flowers with great 
taste, and they were all very intent and interested in their 

In one class-room some of the children lay on cane couches 
with rests fixed on them for their books. One tiny girl, 
whom the head teacher said was their " baby," and who 
had come to them a month previously very, very ill, was lying 
back on a chair on wheels. This dear child had never walked, 


and never would, though her teacher said she was a little 
better and a little heavier than when she arrived. All the 
other boy and girl occupants of this room were small, and 
all had specially made comfortable cane chairs. The school 
might have been a little hospital, for every child was maimed. 
Each pupil seemed to be doing what he or she liked best. 
Some" were at sums, some at painting, some at needlework. 
They were waiting for the ambulances to come and take 
them home. I waited too, and saw two ambulances come 
and go off loaded with their child freights. 

The ambulances were like 'buses, only of a dark colour, 
with " L.C.C." painted on the sides. They had seats 
along each side, and one had a bed for a child who could not 
sit up. The sides of the ambulance were of glass, and the 
children seemed to enjoy looking out of the windows 
during their drive home, one little crippled boy having a 
special seat near the door, so that he could have a good 
view as they drove along. An attendant always goes with 
them, or the nurse in charge ; for, beside the head teacher 
and assistants in the school, there are two attendants and 
a nurse on the school staff. The nurse caters, and the 
attendants do the cooking and waiting on the children 
at meal time. It was a strange family, and though they 
were so sadly crippled, the children seemed happy ! 
School was evidently the one bright spot in their lonely 

The head teacher, Mrs. Turner, walked part of the way 
home with me. She was born in Western Australia, though 
she had spent much of her life in England. She said that 
the school tried to equip the children for some occupation 
after they left school, but so far it had failed to pass them 
on to any remunerative employment. 

Mr. Legge, the Director of Education in Liverpool, was 


extremely kind in giving me all the information I wanted, and 
in introducing me to the heads of the special schools under 
his care. Mr. Lucas, in whose department these schools 
are, saved me much time and trouble by giving me some 
most interesting photographs. 

Mr. Legge has had great and varied experience with child 
life in England. He was at one time Inspector of Industrial 
and Reformatory Schools, and is quoted as an authority 
on many phases of the education and uplifting of children. 
He thinks that if a trade school were instituted, it ought to 
take the place of the practically dead apprenticeship 

Mr. John Ray, of Liverpool, in his presidential address 
on the problem of education in slum districts at the Confer- 
ence of the National Association of Head Teachers at Stoke- 
on-Trent, in May, 1912, advocated compulsory continuous 
education for minors until the age of eighteen. I have 
quoted these men to show that the Liverpool Education 
Committee have progressive thinkers on their board of 

There are four special or sub-normal schools in Liverpool. 
They owe their existence practically to the wonderful per- 
sistence of Miss James, who, in spite of many diverse 
opinions, saw that much could be done for the betterment of 
physically and mentally defective children. She has been 
at the head of the special schools for sixteen years. She 
received me most kindly, and showed and explained to me 
all her methods of dealing with these unfortunate little ones. 
I found her at the head schools in Chetham Place, where 
there are 283 children under the charge of thirteen teachers, 
specially adapted to teach the backward pupils that come 
under their care. One side of the building is used for the 
mentally, the other side for the physically defective children. 


It was dinner-time, and I saw first the physically defective 
little ones having their meal, and then the mentally defective 
children have theirs. There were a few bright faces among 
them, but very few. They all brightened up when Miss 
James came in, were well behaved, ate their food well, and 
did not spill much on the table cloth. Some children were 
mentally as well as physically defective ; it was very sad 
to see them in their prams and high chairs. The cripples 
are brought to school and taken home each day in ambu- 

After dinner, we went into the playgrounds, where the 

children were playing under supervision, cripples together, 

boys and girls playing separately. Many, of course, were 

in prams or on crutches, so could only look on. I met three 

boys all of one family, in the playground, and spoke to 

many a sad-faced child. Considering the subnormal state 

of these mites, it was astonishing how readily they responded 

to discipline. At the first bell, there was silence and attention, 

and each little face was turned towards the teacher, who 

gathered her class together and marched them in separately 

to their respective class-rooms. While they were settling 

down to the afternoon's work, Miss James took me round the 

garden, which is on the opposite side from the playground, 

and of which she is very proud. The children love it. 

Alongside is a sand-pit, a vast source of delight to 

the smaller children. The little ones are taught to dig, 

plant or sow seeds in their gardens. They are taught to 

name the different parts of each plant, and they watch its 

development with great eagerness from the time the seed 

germinates. They sow oats, wheat, and other grains, and 

have vegetable and flower gardens. In one corner of the 

garden was an apple-tree, quite a young one. When it 

blossomed last year there was great excitement, for it was 


the first time the children had seen apple blossom. Later 
on, when two baby apples made their appearance, their joy 
knew no bounds. Miss James arranges for as many open- 
air lessons as possible, some of which I saw. I have drawn 
attention to the garden, because in London the need of 
attractive playgrounds and a garden was most evident 
in the special schools I visited there. In the class-rooms, 
educational and manual training classes were carried on 
under the tuition of patient, sympathetic men and women. 
A novel idea was that the attendance card was placed on 
the door outside each class-room, so that the teacher whose 
duty it was to superintend the marking of all those present 
could record the attendance without entering the room and 
disturbing the class. 

Another feature of this school is the fact that the different 
denominations are in charge of teachers of their own religion. 
The Jews have a Jewish teacher ; the Church of England 
children, a teacher of their own church; the Roman 
Catholic, a Roman Catholic teacher ; the Nonconformists, a 
Nonconformist, and so on. 

The children in this school were much younger than I had 
seen in the London Special Schools. A twenty minutes' 
lesson is only given for each subject, so that the little minds 
can have many changes and interests. 

We went all through the educational class-room, and saw 
the children at work, from those in the kindergarten school 

The industrial classes are in another part of the building. 
Men are in charge of these, and the boys are taught 
tailoring, carpentry, and boot-making up to the age of 

In connexion with the school is a surgery, with a nurse in 
charge. The nurse dresses the sores, and looks after all 


ailments of the sick children. I saw in the surgery a little 
white-faced cripple lying in his chair, fast asleep; He had 
been desperately ill, owing to having been given improper 
food at home. 

The cost of special school treatment per child in Liverpool 
is from £20 to £21 per annum. 

Miss James thinks a subnormal child placed in a class 
with normal children will learn much more quickly than in 
a class with others mentally afflicted, and gave me an in- 
stance of a little boy mentally afflicted who was taught in 
the cripples' school, where he made great progress. Con- 
sidering, as she says, that in many cases all the teacher's 
love, energy and patience are waste labour, it is a wonderful 
demonstration of what patient, noble men and women can 

In connexion with these special schools is a beautiful 
country home, where each summer the medical officer 
sends about 200 of the physically defective boys and 
girls whom he thinks will be most benefited by the 

I found that though the special and truant schools of 
Manchester were in some respects on the same lines as those 
of Liverpool, the special schools of Manchester for afflicted 
children were especially well equipped. 

There are four schools for the mentally afflicted in this 
chief city of Northern England. The special schools deal 
with : — 

Blind and deaf children. 

Mentally defective children. 

Epileptic children. 

Crippled children. 

Stammering children. 

Blind and deaf children are instructed by the local educa- 


tion authorities up to the age of sixteen years. They are 
taught, as far as possible, in the residential schools in which, 
according to their affliction, they are placed. As there was 
no suitable accommodation for classes for blind children 
in the ordinary institutions, it was found necessary to estab- 
lish a day-school for blind, or partially blind, children. They 
go home from this school at nights, and when necessary 
are taken by guides. A simple midday meal is provided at 
a charge of one penny, which covers the cost of providing 
and preparation. 

The mentally defective children are educated in specially 
built schools. These are small one-storey schools to accom- 
modate eighty children, and contain class-rooms (each for 
fifteen or twenty children), bath-rooms, kitchen, cloak 
rooms, teachers' rooms and a central hall. These are not 
residential but only day-schools, caring for the child from 
the age of seven to sixteen, and the Committee feel grave 
anxiety as to the future of these children, who are set free 
and left practically under no supervision at that most critical 
period of a boy's or girl's life. In the more serious cases 
they are sent on to residential schools for the feeble-minded, 
but the Committee feel strongly that the residential 
school, with provision for permanent cure, is the most 
perfect form of institution for the feeble-minded. Such 
schools provide means for the continuous study of the 
children, whose lives are ordered on healthy home lines, of 
which the constituent characteristics are cleanliness, plain 
food, regular hours, and country life, which cannot be 
secured in the special town day-schools. It has been proved 
that the improvement in the physical condition of the 
children is most marked after their admission to these 
residential homes, and their conduct is very satisfactory. 
The Committee say : " The only real difficulty is the cost, 


which is quite three times that of the day-school ; but, 
considering all things, even those cases where there is an 
after-care Committee to supervise the day-school children 
when they leave school at sixteen, it is felt that there is 
nothing to equal the results obtained by the permanent care 
of the residential school/' The ultimate cost to the State, 
which later on has to resume the care of these deficient and 
their offspring, proves the economy as well as the wisdom of 
the residential school. 

Epileptic children are received at the Manchester 
" David Lewis Epileptic Colony," Sandlebridge, and the 
Education Committee has made provision for the day-school 
instruction of the children there. It is interesting here to 
note the report of Dr. McDougall, the medical superinten- 
dent : — 

" Our experience seems to show that the policy of sending 
children, even at public expense, to a special residential 
school on the first appearance of epileptic symptoms, is a 
policy of true economy. Quite a number of the children 
sent from Manchester to this colony have become quite 
free from fits, and are now earning their living. It seems 
certain that, but for their removal to the special school, 
they would have developed chronic epilepsy, and have 
become a lifelong burden on the rates. At holiday 
time we get many visits from children who have passed 
through the school and are free from fits. We find 
that they have become self-supporting, and have not 

Owing to the need for more extensive accommodation, 
there has lately been built a new residential school for 
epileptic children consisting of four houses, each house to 
accommodate twenty-five children. In these homes all the 
accommodation for the children is on the ground floor, thus 


doing away with the danger of stairs, which are a cause for 
anxiety in the case of epileptics. There are day and night 
women attendants. 

The annual cost, including capital charges, works out at 
£35 per head per annum. The Education Committee feel 
that with the effective carrying out of the system of medical 
inspection, all afflicted children will be in time sent to 
these schools, which should receive generous assistance from 
the Government. 

As far back as 1903, the Manchester Education Com- 
mittee took up the question of crippled children 
suffering from paralysis, and from spinal or hip trouble. 
It particularly exerted itself on behalf of those children 
who, after hospital treatment, have to spend long 
periods in bed. Children suffering from hip diseases at 
an early age are operated on and cured. During the time 
the children are confined to bed, if they are able to learn 
they are taught by special teachers. There are now two 
residential schools with beds for 120 crippled children. The 
results achieved by these schools are most satisfactory. A 
number of children have been discharged cured, and marked 
improvement is noticeable in the great majority of the other 
children. The Manchester Children's Hospital speaks in 
the highest terms of the schools. Its Committee recognizes, 
however, that very often, after leaving the hospital, children 
do not receive proper treatment in their homes because of 
the thoughtlessness or ignorance of parents. 

Stammering children have since 1905 been also specially 
treated, and classes for them have been held with excellent 

The annual cost of dealing with defective children is as 
follows : 


Mentally defective child in day school 
Mentally defective child in residential school 
Crippled child in residential school 
Epileptic in residential school 










R. WALLER, one of the Commissioners for Prisons, 
and Mr. Pearson, Inspector of Industrial Schools 
and Reformatories, both of the Home Office, were exceed- 
ingly kind in granting me letters of introduction, and 
opportunities for visiting the industrial and reformatory 
schools, training ships and Borstal institutions under 
their care. 

In the industrial schools are the smaller and neglected 
boys, and boys who are placed there for petty offences, such 
as sleeping out, wandering about the streets, pilfering off 
barrows, or the hundred and one things that boys who have 
no proper care will alv/ays do. Some of the industrial 
schools take only quite young boys, some take those from 
eight to eighteen years of age. In the day industrial 
schools the larger percentage of the boys are truants from 
other schools. These day industrial schools take boys up 
to the age of sixteen. In all industrial schools they are 
taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and all the ordinary school 
subjects up to a recognized standard, certificated teachers 
under the Education Committee being employed. They are 



also taught trades — such as carpentering, boot-making, 
seamanship, printing, tailoring, engineering, plumbing, 
cooking, or are trained for the army bands. When the 
time comes for the boy to leave, a suitable situation is found 
for him at the trade which he has been taught at the school, 
and to which the superintendent thinks he is best adapted. 

I visited five of these industrial schools, two in London, 
two in Liverpool and one in Manchester, but will only fully 
describe the work done at one of these, as all are worked on 
the same broad lines, though they differ in some slight 

Barnes Industrial School for Boys is a splendidly con- 
ducted school for boys from four to sixteen years of age. 
It is situated at Heaton-Mersey, near Manchester, and I 
visited it in May, on my return journey to London from 
America. Outside, the building is most home-like, for there 
is not the markedly institutional character about it that I 
had noticed in other industrial schools I had seen. The 
building is approached by a winding drive through a well- 
kept garden of beautiful shrubs and flowers. In the centre 
of the institution is a high clock tower. The Governor, 
Mr. Housden, is a man keenly interested in his work, and is 
a real friend to the boys. He seemed genuinely glad to see 
me, and we went all over the building and grounds and saw 
everything there was to be seen, lingering quite a long 
time in some rooms. I noticed particularly how each boy 
brightened up when Mr. Housden spoke to him. He had a 
kind word for them all. 

There are 275 boys in the school, or home as it is generally 
called, and they are taught all the usual trades and also 
receive instruction at educational classes that I had seen in 
other industrial schools under the Home Office. 

The tailor's shop was one of the rooms I stayed longest in. 


Here a particularly intelligent, interesting lot of boys were 
at work. They owed much of their brightness, no doubt, to 
their instructor, a fine-looking intellectual man, who had 
worked with Mr. Housden for many years. He showed me 
with great pride many samples of the boys' work, and 
newspaper cuttings relating to their exhibits and progress. 
The boys go through a three years' course, and by that time 
are well qualified to enter a tailors' shop. 

I soon made friends with the boys, and had a long talk to 
them about Australia and America. They told me about 
their work, and I was introduced to the crack shot of the 
school, who was busy sewing the seams of a coat. He was 
a bullet-headed, sandy-haired, freckle-faced boy called 
Notts, who rejoiced in the nickname of " Notty." They 
used some words I had not heard used by any boys before. 
They told me several of their nicknames, and their special 
names for different things. Instead of a boy speaking of 
his mate as a " chum," or " pal," or " cobber," as the 
Australian and English boys do, these boys, who were 
gathered at this home from all parts of England, spoke of 
their mates as " whackers." I made one friend in this class 
who gave me his photo, and has written to me many times 

In the carpenters' shops the boys were doing good work. 

From there we went to the boot-making class, where a 
very good idea was made use of. Instead of the stands being 
placed in a row, they were in a circle, with the instructor 
in the centre, so that he had every boy practically under his 
eye at once. These young boot-makers wore aprons with 
leather bibs, and made all the boots used in the Girls' 
Industrial School near Manchester, as well as their own. 

As we passed through the playground to the gymnasium, 
we saw groups of little chaps playing at games. Some 


looked quite babies, though they must have been four or 
five. One boy, who ran up in response to a call, had the 
remains of an old ugly scar across his cheek and forehead. 
I noticed this, and Mr. Housden asked the boy to tell me how 
he got it. " My father hit me there with a poker," said the 
child. As we passed on, Mr. Housden said : " The little 
fellow has never really recovered from the effects of that 
awful blow." 

I liked the arrangement of the gymnasium. It was a 
huge separate building, kept exclusively for physical exer- 
cises and drill and gymnastics. Quite a new, and to me 
splendid, idea were the mats under the rings. These were 
large cocoa-nut mats two yards by one and a half yards. 
They were made with handles underneath, so tnat they 
could be moved about easily. They had been six years in 
constant use, and cost £2 2s. each. 

The baker's shop was another interesting department. 
Here, instead of the usual long-handled shovel for bringing 
the loaves of bread out of the oven, the baker used what he 
called a steel blade " peel." He explained that this bent 
more easily than the shovel which is customarily used. 

In the band-room, the boys played us two first-class 
selections. One of these they read at sight. There were 
thirty-five boys in the band, who are drafted on, as they are 
ready, into the Royal Navy Band. 

In the schoolrooms different lessons were being taught. 

We went all through the dormitories. For beds, felt is 
used instead of mattresses. It can easily be washed, and 
is swung like a hammock. 

There were several boys ill in the hospital, which the 
matron told me was very unusual, as Heaton-Mersey is 
famous for its healthy air. 

A novel idea in connexion with this home was a toffee 


shop, which was on one side of the playground. This shop 
is opened twice a week, and on holidays. The school 
authorities buy the sweets wholesale, and sell them at 
retail prices. All the profits go to the boys ; for with the 
money made, Christmas presents are bought and given all 

A staff of twenty-four men and women are employed for 
the administration work of the whole institution. 

As this school is in the country there is plenty of land 
about, and all along one side of the huge building ran a well 
cultivated vegetable and fruit garden, worked entirely by 
the boys. 

While we were at tea in a pleasant dining-room over- 
looking the front garden, Mr. Housden told me different 
experiences he had had in his sixteen years of work at the 
Barnes Home. One boy had been sent to him from a 
lunatic asylum. With care and love by mixing with the 
other boys he became quite sane, and was now earning his 
own living. The home he came from was responsible 
for the child's state, Mr. Housden said. " He was treated 
as mad, and the boy responded to that treatment/ ' 

Mr. Housden believes in corporal punishment in extreme 
cases. He told me a story of two of his senior boys who 
were discovered giving out stores, etc., to other lads, and 
permitting them to go out at prohibited hours. When they 
were found out they ran away. They were caught and 
brought back. Mr. Housden spoke privately to them and 
gave them a cane to hold, saying, " Boys, that's all the stick 
I'm going to give you." " How did they take that treat- 
ment ? " continued Mr. Housden. " Well, I'll tell you. 
One said, ' The Gov's too soft,' and ran away again. The 
other improved from that day, and responded to the trust 
placed in him," 


Mr. Housden has control of the boys till they are sixteen 
years old. As they leave school they are placed in situa- 
tions. Some go to the country, where they are visited by 
Mr. Housden's confidential clerk. He pays these country 
homes " surprise visits," so that he can see just how the 
boy is treated. He sees the boy and his employer separately. 
In this way, if there is any complaint to be made he hears 
both sides of the question. 

At the Holy Trinity Industrial School, Liverpool, were 
200 little boys from four to thirteen years of age. They 
were recruited principally from neglected children. 

Mr. Tom Robinson, the Governor, and the matron, his 
wife, are particularly fitted for their work. Mr. Robinson 
struck the keynote of all his work for the boys in a few words. 
" I like them," he said, " to feel this is their home — for all 
the boys I get have never known what the word ' home ' 
really means." 

The schools have been established forty-two years. Educa- 
tional and trade classes are held as in the other industrial 
schools I visited. 

All through this establishment there was a distinct effort, 
with good results, to ally the schoolroom work, v/here 
possible, with the technical training of the trade shops. 
Swimming, rifle shooting, football and cricket are enjoyed, 
and the boys go away every year to a summer camp. 

When a boy is admitted, Mr. Robinson asks him what he 
would like to be. If he says a carpenter he is put in the 
carpenters' shop. If he likes it and shapes well, he specia- 
lizes in carpentry. As a rule, after a trial, the boy says he 
would like to try another trade. So Mr. Robinson lets 
him go on till he finds one that he likes and is adapted for. 

There was a splendid swimming bath on the premises. 
I liked Mr. Robinson's method of organized bathing. Officers 


see that the boys are properly washed ; one sees to the face, 
another to the feet and so on. These officers report if they 
see any marks or bruises on the boys. After all are well 
soaped, they pass on in turn to the shower which washes the 
soap off, and they may then have a final plunge and swim 
in the huge swimming bath. 

A splendid feature of this school is the way the old boys 
cling to the home. It was Saturday afternoon when I 
happened to call, and in the playground numbers of big 
boys were playing games. Mr. Robinson said every Satur- 
day and Sunday twenty or thirty old boys come along and 
join in the games and visit the school. They have the 
whole of Liverpool before them, but prefer to come back to 
their old home. 

Every year there is an annual reunion of old boys on 
December 30, when about 130 men and boys assemble from 
all parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and even from London. 
Some of these " old boys " are fifty-two years old. Mr. 
Robinson says they have a great influence for good on the 
boys in the school, whom they talk to and encourage. 

Mr. Robinson believes in trusting the boys. Every 
Saturday and Sunday 180 of them are at liberty to go to the 
parks, and visit the town alone ; but they are not allowed 
to go to their homes. All these boys come back at a stated 
time, and never get into any trouble. 

The cost of administration, food, clothing, etc., works out 
under £20 per annum for each boy. A savings bank is 
another interesting feature of this institution. 

A splendid continuation of this work is the home for old 
boys next door. This house was given by a member of the 
Committee in memory of his son, who lost his life in the Boer 
War. It is for boys who have left school and gone to work, 
but whose wages are not yet sufficient to keep them. They 


are usually boys with no homes, or bad homes. There were 
twelve boys in residence when I was at the Home. Each 
has his own most comfortable room, and is cared for by a 
homely, motherly woman. 

At the London County Council Industrial School (High- 
bury Grove, London, N.), boys from eight to eighteen 
years are admitted. A superintendent is in charge, and 
there are twenty-one assistants. There is accommodation 
for 200 boys. The system of training is very thorough, 
and the work rooms are all well equipped. There was a 
special room devoted to the instruction of those boys who 
would later on be sent to sea. In this room was a splendid 
model of a ship. There was a wheel and compass too, and 
all the gear used for steering a ship. The boys were busy 
here learning as much as possible of a seafaring life as 
they could be taught on land. They were making sails, 
matting, and wire ropes (hemp is little used now, I was told). 
Two boys, who were leaving the following week, were making 
their kit-bags. 

The carpenter's shop was excellently equipped. There 
was provision for two boys at each bench. Two rows of 
benches ran down the entire length of the room, and between 
each set of two was a stand, each side of which was fitted 
with all necessary tools. This stand had sufficient tools for 
the pupils working at the two benches. At one end of the 
room were the grindstones used by the class. 

There are twenty boys in this class, and before they make 
an article they are required to draw a design. The article 
must be made to coincide with all measurements given in 
the design. It cost £yo to equip this room. A qualified 
instructor, who receives a salary of £60 a year and lives at 
the school, is in charge. 

In the bakery the bread is made in seven oz. rolls, an 



excellent idea, as each boy gets his own little loaf and plenty 
of crust. 

The institution has a beautiful swimming-bath, forty feet 
long and graduated to six feet in depth. All the boys are 
taught to swim and the water is changed once a week. 

In one room we found a number of boys mending shirts 
and darning socks under the tuition of a woman. They 
darned and mended very well. 

There were two large schoolrooms full of boys. Many 
were very backward ; some quite big boys were unable to 
read or write. The rooms were well arranged with small 
desks ; each desk seated two boys. In the second room a 
drawing lesson was in progress. I asked the boys if they 
knew where Melbourne was. No one knew. Next I 
tried Sydney, with the same result. I further asked, " Does 
any boy know where Australia is, then ? " Up went one 
boy's hand. " Well," I said. " Where is Australia ? " 
" Please, miss, south of England," was the answer. 

Each boy over twelve years of age, or who is in the fourth 
standard, has half time in school, and spends the other half 
in one of the different workshops. 

In the big laundry, which is well equipped with all con- 
veniences, drying cupboards, etc., boys wash and iron every 

The bath-rooms present novel features. Each bath holds 
six boys at a time. It is thought more hygienic for the 
boys to wash under a tap than in a basin, so there are no 
washing basins. The taps are fitted with sprays, and the 
water runs away into an inverted drain. Each boy has his 
own tap and towel, so that there is no danger of any con- 
tagious disease being passed on. Each boy has his own 
toothbrush. His clothes, towel, and all articles belonging 
to him are marked with a number^regarded as specially his. 


A splendid system of encouragement is employed at this 
institution. When a boy is admitted to the school he is rele- 
gated to the fourth class. Here he receives no money for three 
months. If he improves at the end of the three months, he is 
moved into the third class, where he receives 2d. a month. In 
the second class he is given 4^., and, in the first class, 6d. Also 
in the first class he can earn a star, which entitles him to 2d. 
extra for the month. Or, he may, if his behaviour is ex- 
ceptionally good, receive two stars. If a boy misbehaves, 
marks are taken off. So if he loses twelve marks, he only 
receives a penny. 

Corporal punishment is only used for very bad behaviour, 
and the boy who receives it is set back to class four, which 
is the lowest grade in the school. Half of the money the 
boy earns he is allowed to spend ; the other half is banked 
and given to him, with interest, when he leaves. 

Parents are allowed to visit their boys once a quarter. 
But in almost every case, the authorities do all they can to 
prevent the boy going back to his home, as the consequences 
of his doing so are nearly always disastrous. 

The reformatories take charge of boys up to the age of 
nineteen years. I visited two of these institutions, the 
Cornwall, which is a training ship in Essex, and the Heswall 
Nautical School in Cheshire, near Liverpool. 

The Cornwall is the only reformatory training ship 
now under the Home Office Department, though they 
have six others for training industrial school boys. The 
Cornwall is moored in the Thames at Purfleet, in Essex. 
After about five minutes' walk from the station, I arrived 
at some high gates which were shut but not locked, and 
passed on to the water's edge to a small jetty, from where a 
man signalled for a boat, which was put off from the ship, 
and manned by the boys. I was soon on board, and was 


met by the chief officer and taken to the captain's quarters, 
where he and his family live. 

Captain Steel, who has been in command for nine years, 
gave me the history of the ship and explained the work 
among the boys. 

The Cornwall is a wooden ship, was built at Bombay 
in 1 8 15, and was in the China War in 1841. Now her seventy- 
two guns have been taken out of her, and she is moored on 
the spot where the original training ship of the same name 
was first moored, fifty-one years ago. In these fifty years 
4,420 boys have been trained on the reformatory ship. 

Boys from twelve to sixteen years of age are received here 
from the courts, and are wards of the State till nineteen 
years of age. This does not necessarily mean that a boy 
must stay on the ship all these years. If his behaviour is 
good, he is drafted on to a merchant ship in some capacity, 
or into the army, or to other situations, but he is kept under 
supervision and has to report himself every three months. 

There is accommodation for 275 boys on board, and the 
ship is always full. As one boy is placed in a situation 
another is waiting to take his place. In 1910, ninety-eight 
boys were sent to sea and these mostly in small vessels, 
such as brigantines, schooners, and ketches, the advantage 
of this being that these smaller vessels retain their " hands " 
when they are being repaired. At these times, and while on 
shore, the captains keep an eye on the boys. 

Some boys are naturally not fitted for the sea, so they are 
placed in other suitable employment. 

There are three schoolmasters on board, the lads' educa- 
tion being very carefully and systematically considered. 
It is estimated that 6 per cent, of the boys coming on 
board can neither read nor write. 

A practical navigation class is taken by the captain. 


Ship's carpentry and tailoring are learnt, and all the boys 
are taught to mend their own clothes. A suit costs about 
ten shillings. 

The physical training includes signalling, gunnery in- 
struction, and free and applied gymnastics. Rifle shooting 
and swimming are also taught. 

The boys have the use of a large strip of land along the 
banks of the Thames, where they indulge in athletic sports 
and games. Twice a week they are landed here for games 
and on Sundays may go for walks. 

The boys sleep in hammocks on the orlop and main decks. 
They have a blanket over them, and their clothes for a 
pillow. The daily fare is plain and good ; the boys on the 
whole look healthy. 

I noticed one boy with a very pale face, and asked him 
how long he had been on board ; he said, " Two days." 
" Ah," said the captain, S( we'll soon make you fat and 
strong here." 

If a boy's conduct is good and the home influence good, 
he is allowed home on leave for a week at a time. It is felt 
that these home visits are often an influence for good on the 
parents, some of whom try to improve their homes, so that 
they may have their boys home on leave. 

The letters from old boys abroad are very interesting and 
encouraging. In one I read from Wycliffe College, Toronto, 
the boy spoke of having successfully passed his second year. 

The comparative cost per boy, including all expenses, 
both of maintenance and management on the Cornwall, 
for the year ending June 30, 191 1, was £29 8s. <\d. 

A careful list of the boys visited or heard of during the 
year is kept. Many former inmates revisit their old 

On leaving the ship, I visited the hospital on the river 


bank. Here I saw nine beds ; three of these were occupied. 
But the sister in charge told me that there were very few 
serious cases of illness among the Cornwall boys. 

Ten years ago, when I was in Liverpool, I went several 
times on board the Akbar, which then lay anchored in 
the Mersey. It was a reformatory training ship that 
had once been a wooden battleship. In May, 1912, as I 
returned from America, I spent an intensely interesting day 
at the Heswall Nautical School. This school now takes 
the place of the Akbar, which has been disbanded. 
The improvement in all the methods used for the boys' 
training in these ten years was most noticeable. Here, 
the most difficult boys to manage are sent from the courts 
and from other reformatories. 

Heswall is in Cheshire, and some distance from Liverpool. 
At this quiet out-of-the-world station I was met one 
Sunday by two petty officers from the school, in uniform. 
One was in the Marines, and the other in the Nautical 
School. A carriage was in waiting, and we drove through 
a very picturesque village to the school, which is over the 
brow of a hill, facing, and close to the broad stream of the 
River Dee. The school is quite new, and is a large, square, 
grey, cement building. The land for it was donated, and 
the building alone cost £17,500. There are no other houses 
near, except two or three detached cottages in which the 
officers live. 

Arrived at the school we were met by Captain Beutler, 
the Superintendent, who, though quite a young man, has a 
most distinctive personality. He is a strict disciplinarian. 
He took me through his office, which commands a view of the 
quadrangle and is in direct communication by telephone 
with every room and department, and introduced me to 
Mrs. Beutler. It was interesting to hear that they had 


both been in Melbourne, and that they had first met each 
other on the steamer coming to England. 

Every Sunday morning Captain Beutler holds an inspec- 
tion, and Mrs. Beutler and I went round with him. We 
were preceded by a bugler, who announced our arrival at 
each quarter. Everything was just splendid. 

The school is especially famous for its magnificently 
equipped Marconi wireless room. Adjoining this is the 
room where the boys are instructed in this branch. They 
become so efficient and are so well trained that' they are in 
great demand. When I mentioned this department par- 
ticularly at the Home Office in London, Mr. Waller, one 
of the Prison Commissioners, smiled and said : " Yes, and 
their kit is quite an item/' For, of course, on board ship 
they rank almost as officers and have to be suitably dressed. 
The boys sent several messages as we watched them. 

An up-to-date signalling room was another important 
feature of the school ; the boys signalled with flags and 
with different coloured lights. In this room are most 
complete models of cardboard ships. At the mast-heads 
of these are all the different coloured lights used at sea. 
As the boys signalled, an electric current connected with the 
mast-heads showed the varying colours of the lights. 

Across the lawn, in front of the school, was a perfect mast 
of a ship with all the ropes and gear, This also has its head- 
light, and so the boys learn to read the language of lights. 

From the Marconi and signalling rooms we went to the 
dining-hall, or mess room. Each boy in charge of a mess 
sees to the laying of the table, and also sees that his mess, 
which consists of twelve boys, get their meals properly- 
At the end of the table, fixed on to the wall, was a circular 
wooden frame. On this were hanging up, in order, the 
mugs, knives, forks and spoons for each table. Holes were 


bored in the handles of the cutlery, which hung on hooks. 
The mugs were of aluminium. Captain Beutler does not 
believe in enamelled ware, says it chips and is liable to cause 
appendicitis, so all the articles used in cooking at the school 
are of china, or tin. China plates are used, and each boy 
has to pay for his own breakages. 

Off the long dining-hall was the kitchen, where some of 
the boys, dressed in white and with white caps on their 
heads, were preparing the dinners under a chef. Later on 
these boys go to sea as cooks, and are thoroughly qualified. 

From the kitchen we passed on to the storerooms, and 
then upstairs to one set of dormitories. At the end of each 
dormitory there is an officer's room, and there are always 
officers on sentry duty. 

There are 210 boys in the school, and four dormitories 
with fifty-two boys in each. They sleep in hammocks, 
swung in groups of threes. There is less chance of conspiracy, 
says Captain Beutler, with three than two boys. The 
boys roll in a rug when they turn in, and then have 
another rug to throw over themselves. I noticed that 
they had no sleeping suits and inquired why. Captain 
Beutler said : " I'm glad you asked ; we don't have them 
because we can't afford them." 

We next went to the bath-rooms, which were in splendid 
order, with plenty of shower-baths and basins of yellow 

Then we crossed the huge quadrangle to the other side of 
the building, and went over other dormitories. They were 
arranged on the same principle, the only distinguishing 
feature being the different coloured rugs and decorations. 
The boys and officers vie with each other in the arrangement, 
and colour of their different dormitories. 

Our next visit of inspection was to the shooting range. It 


was in a long special room, and was cleverly designed. At 
one end, hills and valleys and semaphores and different 
signalling points were introduced. All these ideas are 
Captain Beutler 's own, and make the instruction much 
more interesting. 

The boys learn seamanship on the hull of a ship. They 
learn wire, not rope splicing. Captain Beulter pointed out 
that ropes are being discarded at sea now. No pains or 
opportunities are spared to make a boy ready for sea when 
he leaves the school. 

While we had been inspecting the different rooms, the 
boys were being massed below in the quadrangle, ready for 
the march past. This was magnificent. 

Preceded by the band the boys marched by in squads. 
They moved as one man, and all wheeled round in companies 
and saluted. It was a sight I shall never forget, for I have 
never seen more perfect uniformity. The boys belonging 
to the Marines wore red bands on their caps, to distinguish 
them from the others. All were in nautical uniform, and 
all carried themselves splendidly. They are drilled on the 
Swedish system, and Captain Beutler believes in keeping 
the boys so busy all the while that they have no time for 

Captain Beutler says brass bands are of no ultimate good, 
so he has formed a bugle band, as boy buglers are always 
in demand. While the march past was in progress, some 
boys for a punishment had to stand apart with their faces 
to the wall. 

An ideal little chapel is attached to the school, and there 
is a resident chaplain in charge of it. After the march 
past the boys marched into chapel. Mrs. Beutler, one of 
the Board of Committee and I sat on seats in the front, 
near the choir, which consisted entirely of the boys. There 


was a surpliced choir of twenty boys, who sang extremely 
well. One of the officers acted as organist, and the boys 
listened and behaved very reverently all through the service. 

After the service we saw the boys march to their dinner, 
and waited till they were all served. They had a very 
substantial appetising dinner, and we left them at it while 
we went to our own. 

I was interested to hear that the boys are arranged in 
detachments by size, not ages. So all the little boys are on 
one side of the quadrangle, and the big boys on the other. 
Over the 210 boys, are twelve paid officers, and some of the 
elder dependable boys are made into petty officers. 

The boys at this school, being recruited from the most 
difficult of reformatory boys, many of the faces were of a 
low type. Captain Beutler believes firmly in corporal 
punishment, and says he would not undertake an institution 
of this kind without it. He says he likes the ugly boys best ; 
they turn out the best men. They are encouraged by a 
system of marks, and as they improve they receive money 
for good conduct. It is compulsory for each boy to have 
a bath every day. They also attend school. 

After dinner Mrs. Beutler took me through the two 
small wards set apart for a hospital. Each bed was 
occupied, and a nurse was in charge. A boy attendant in 
a white uniform helped her. 

Both Captain and Mrs. Beutler are keenly interested in 
their boys, and the whole alert, up-to-date, orderly air 
of the institution impressed me very strongly. 

Mr. Sedgwick, a worker among boys in London, gave 
me much valuable information about boys' homes in Lon- 
don, and introduced me to the Reformatory and Refuge 
Union or Children's Aid Society, which has its central offices 
in Victoria Street, Westminster. 


This Union is a central organization, through which the 
various institutions of England for child-rescue work co- 
operate for purposes of common interest. Here, rescue and 
reformatory workers can procure any kind of information 
they require. The Union issues a classified list of child- 
saving institutions, which has already gone through twenty 
editions, and which I found extremely helpful in my re- 

The Union is also in touch with a large staff of probation 
officers who work through this centre. It has six mission 
houses in different parts of London, a Provident and Benevo- 
lent Fund, and an Emigration Agency in Canada. It is also 
more or less responsible for " The Anchorage" (a home for 
young women), the ''Grotto Home " (a home for poor working 
boys), " The Girls' Protective Home," which gives girls domes- 
tic training, and many other institutions for men and women. 

I was received most kindly at the central offices by Mr. 
Arthur Maddison, the Secretary, who gave me much interest- 
ing information, and explained to me that the chief aim of 
the Union is to reclaim the neglected and criminal by educat- 
ing them in the fear of God and in the knowledge of the Holy 
Scriptures. Mr. Maddison was an elderly man who had seen 
many years of service, and so he was well qualified to give 
information and advice as to the best managed children's 
aid societies. 

One of the homes he advised me to visit was the " Grotto 
Home for Working Boys " at Paddington. " If you want to 
see the boys, you had better goat about 8 p.m.," he said, 
" for they are home by then." 

I went one evening, arriving just at 8 o'clock. The Super- 
intendent took me straight through to the large room, where 
all the boys were assembled after their day's work. 

Mr. Herbert, the Superintendent, was just splendid with 


the boys, who all treated him, as he did them, as a friend. 
There were forty-five boys in the Home, that being all it 
could accommodate ; but applications are always being 
received from boys who want to go to this Home. 

The boys are all very poor lads, between thirteen and six- 
teen years of age who go out to daily work, but whose earn- 
ings are too small for them to lodge at any boarding house. 
They are boys who have for the most part been trained in 
industrial homes, and are drafted into the working homes 
as soon as suitable situations can be found for them. 

At the Grotto Home, after work is over, the boys receive 
evening instruction in school work, on certain nights. All 
sorts of games are provided for them, and their life is made 
as homelike as is possible in an institution. 

The boys contribute to their support according to their 
earnings, so that if a boy gets 5s. a week, he gives 4s. ; if his 
wage is 6s., he gives 5s. The wages of the boys average 
Ss. 6d. per week. 

After Mr. Herbert had told me this, we stood and talked 
in the midst of a group of boys, who now and again joined in 
the conversation. I said : " And so each boy has is. a week 
pocket money ? " " Oh, no," said Mr. Herbert. " We di- 
vide that up again ; 2d. goes for the holiday fund, 2d. to- 
wards clothes, and 2d. goes into the bank ; and then the boy 
has 6d., which he can spend or save." The boys are en- 
couraged to save. Mr. Herbert gives them in turn different 
work about the Home to do, for which he pays them. He 
has a monitor, whom he trains to help him. He says the boys 
never give him any trouble at all. They always come 
straight home from work, and on Saturday and Sunday, 
when they may go where they please, are always in on the tick 
of the clock, if not before closing time. 

Mr. Herbert aims at getting every boy he can into a 


trade, or into some situation that he can progress in. He 
does not care to let them be employed temporarily as errand 
boys. The boys all listened eagerly as we talked, and, at 
Mr. Herbert's request, those around told me in turn what 
they worked at. One boy said that he worked at an um- 
brella-maker's, another at a watchmaker's, and so on. 

The boys have their breakfast in the Home before going to 
work, at times to suit them, and dinner is on from 12 till 2 
p.m. Mr. Herbert makes a point of always being in to dinner, 
and carves himself. He says he gets the best meat and the 
best food for his charges, and it always pays in the long run. 

We went upstairs and saw the three dormitories where the 
boys sleep. They all make their own beds. 

Friday night is called laundry night. Every boy has to be 
in at 9 p.m. that day, to hand over his washing. 

Mr. Herbert told me while we were looking over the dormi- 
tories that one Friday night he was out, and, before he was 
aware of the time, found it was 10 p.m. He felt annoyed, 
and said to his wife : " There's a bother ! Laundry night ! 
We won't get the boys to bed till all hours ! " But when he 
arrived home everything was as still as the grave, and all 
lights out. What happened was this. When 9 o'clock had 
passed, and he was not in, the monitor and his children's 
nurse (a girl of eighteen) gathered the boys together, took the 
laundry list, and then the nurse read prayers to the boys, 
who all went to bed as usual ! 


THE principal London hospital I visited was the London 
Hospital at Whitechapel for men, women, and chil- 
dren. It is a wonderful institution, and intensely interesting 
— an immense place ; we were more than two hours walking 
through its different departments. There are 1,000 patients, 
and the number of outpatients seeking relief amounts on some 
days to 1,500. They wait their turn to see the doctors in 
a spacious hall, like a lecture hall. The old patients 
are seated in one part, the new in another. Each portion is 
described by a huge placard. Adjoining the hall are refresh- 
ment rooms, where those who have a long time to wait can 
have meals at reasonable rates. Special diseases are at- 
tended to on different days. A day is set apart for ophthal- 
mic diseases, another for affections of the throat and ears, 
and other days for other ailments. We saw rows and rows of 
women and children in this room. In another room were a 
number of men, all patiently awaiting their turn. 

We went through the huge store-rooms which house the 
supplies of the institution, and on to the X-ray room, where 
we saw some children being treated for ringworm. In the 
radium room every chair was occupied by young and old 
men and women. All were being treated for cancerous 
growths, and others were waiting their turn. 

There is a special room for the treatment of ophthalmic 



patients. In another room post-nasal growths are removed. 
There are numerous operating theatres. 

An interesting portion of the Hospital is that for Jews only, 
the money for which was donated by a rich Jew. It has two 
wards, all beautifully tiled, airy and light. Each bed is 
fitted with a pair of curtains which can be drawn at pleasure, 
and has a red flannel coverlet, reaching half-way up the bed, 
which gives a warm cheery look to the whole ward. Half- 
way across the bed is a brass rod ; on this are hung the 
patient's name, dietary scale, etc. In addition, a very in- 
genious table can be placed when required, and can be 
pushed to the foot of the bed when not in use. In conjunc- 
tion with these wards is a special kitchen, where all the food 
for Jewish patients is prepared. 

We went through the men's and boys' wards. In one 
there were a number of boys, one only seven. The children's 
ward is beautiful. Here were babies and little ones up to 
three years of age. Some were such white-faced, shrunken 
children. All sorts of toys are provided for them. One 
little girl of three was proudly carrying a beautiful doll up 
and down the ward. Another little sufferer in bed was crying 
to have that doll. 

Last of all, we visited the nurses' quarters, which are very 
comfortable and most artistically furnished, with big com- 
fortable chairs and couches for resting. There are 700 nurses 
on the Hospital staff ; 250 of these are called private staff 
nurses, and are sent out to nurse private cases. All the 
sisters and nurses off duty were busy preparing for Christmas, 
when they vie with each other in making their wards beautiful 
with all sorts of devices and pretty decorations. 

The Hospital is built round a huge square. In the centre 
of this is a garden, in which the convalescent patients sit in 
the summer. 


The Infants' Hospital at Vincent Square, Westminster, 
was founded in 1903, for the scientific treatment of young 
babies suffering from the diseases and disorders of nutrition. 
The Committee aim at making it a centre for the treatment of 
infantile diseases, and for the study of all the factors con- 
nected with the rearing of a strong people. I had heard of 
this Hospital at the Conference for the Prevention of Destitu- 
tion. At the Eugenics Conference it was brought again to 
my mind, for Mr. Robert Mond, who entertained the members 
of the Conference at a garden-party, is the Treasurer of the 
Hospital. I visited it just before I left London, and was 
much impressed by its methods and up-to-date arrange- 
ments. There are fifty cots in the Hospital ; an outpatient 
department ; a lecture theatre ; a milk laboratory ; a re- 
search laboratory ; a board-room and office ; and accommo- 
dation for the nursing and domestic staff. Mr. Robert Mond 
built and equipped the present building in 1907 as a memorial 
to his wife, who took a deep interest in the work from its 

The matron, Miss Grasett, who showed me over, took me 
first to the lecture room, where lectures on all matters con- 
nected with infant feeding and management are delivered to 
nurses, lady visitors, and others interested in the study 
of infant life. She told me that the lectures were much 
appreciated and largely attended. The training of nurses 
for the care of infants is an important part of the work of 
the Hospital. 

We next went upstairs to the wards ; there are two of 
these, one above the other. Each ward holds twenty-five 
cots. The wards are beautifully bright and airy, and the 
babies looked very comfortable in their tiny cots, all except 
two little sufferers from bronchial pneumonia, who were 
inhaling steam from kettles. The rooms were gay with 


flowers which, the matron said, were brought principally by 
the parents of the babies. She told me that the Hospital is 
entirely free. No payments of any kind, nor letters of ad- 
mission are required. But only infants of the very poor, 
suffering from disorders, or diseases of nutrition, are eligible 
for admission. Patients are seen by the house-doctor, with 
a view to admission, every week-day at 1.30 p.m. 

The milk laboratory is most interesting. It is fitted with 
all requisite appliances, including sterilizing apparatus for 
the bottles and other utensils, and refrigerating machinery 
with specially adapted contrivances for keeping the milk at a 
low temperature. I saw all the bottles here which had been 
prepared according to the percentage of milk prescribed for 
each infant. Since November, 1909, all the milk used in the 
Hospital has been received from a farm at Sevenoaks in Kent 
established by Mr. Robert Mond. At this farm the strictest 
requirements as to the quality and purity of the milk are en- 
forced. Even the diet of the cows is highly specialized and 
the Committee claim that " the arrangements connected 
with the production and handling of the milk before it comes 
into the wards are the nearest approach to perfection yet 
attained in England or any other country/' 

The up-keep of the Hospital amounts to £3,000 per annum, 
and the Committee in their report for 1911 were able to say 
that the income of the Hospital was sufficient to meet the 
expenditure. It is entirely supported by voluntary contribu- 

I also went over the Victoria Hospital for children at Chel- 
sea. It is for boys and girls, and has accommodation for no 
patients. It was nearly bedtime when I arrived, and I saw 
all the children being bathed and prepared for the night. 
The wards were very cheerful looking, and were tiled in 



green ; the floors were highly polished, and so were the brass 
plates on each cot, which gave the name of the cot and by 
whom it was given. I noticed the charts were all at the foot 
of the bed, and the matron explained that they were kept 
there because the children sometimes tore them when they 
were over their heads. Some of the small patients were 
sleeping on the balconies. This Hospital recruits the chil- 
dren from the poorest parts of Chelsea. 

Naturally, my first inquiry when I came to London was, 
" What work is being done among the newsboys ? " And so, 
just four weeks after my arrival, I was introduced to the Lon- 
don Newsboys' Club, and from that time till I left, I had the 
great pleasure of working among and of knowing the London 
newsboys almost as well as I do my own boys in Melbourne. 

In 1 91 1 the selling of papers in the streets was restricted 
to boys over fourteen years of age. So the majority of the 
London newsboys are, perhaps, a little older than those of 
Melbourne. But in all their best characteristics they are 
very much alike. They have the same battle, the same 
work, the same bright intelligence, the same grateful hearts, 
and the same loyalty to each other. Only in London the fight 
is so much more severe, the daily battle against actual starva- 
tion, a much grimmer thing. That was explained in a few 
words by a boy in my night-school class. I was reading to 
it a letter I had from one of Melbourne's fortunate news- 
boys. He mentioned that he made 25s. a week. Every 
boy looked quickly up, amazed at the idea of such a 
princely income. A bright little boy said, " Twenty-five 
shillings ! Why, we're lucky if we can take 3d. a night to 
take home to our mothers ! " 

The Newsboys' Club was opened in October, 1910, it 
being made possible by the generosity of Mr. Hamilton 
Edwards, who has always been greatly interested in the 


welfare of newsboys and was anxious to help them in the 
strenuous life they live. It will illustrate the great need, and 
the wonderful appreciation of the Newsboys' Club by London 
street boys, to mention that though there were only 200 
members enrolled at its inception, the membership had 
rapidly increased to 1,000 boys at the end of 1911. 

The club was started, in the first instance, to provide a 
place of refuge for the hundreds of little boys and older lads 
employed upon the streets selling the evening papers, and 
for those employed in similar occupations. The club aims 
at giving them recreation, instruction and above all, a shelter 
which they can turn to in all weathers and at all times, and 
where they will always find a helping hand and sympathetic 
helpful advice. The home of the Newsboys' Club is in Far- 
ringdon Street, E.C., and is a four-storied building, with a 
large basement. The basement is fitted with three shower 
baths. Hot and cold water is laid on, and there are three 
large baths and several washbasins. Forty boys can bathe 
in one hour if necessary, and the management encourage 
every member to have a bath at least once a week. The 
basement also contains a miniature rifle-range, wash rooms, 
a boiler-house, and drying room for boys' clothes on wet 
days, and the building is heated throughout from this 

On the ground floor is the gymnasium. This room is also 
used for a game room and concert room, and can accommo- 
date 300 boys. 

The dining-room is on the first floor ; 200 boys can be 
seated in it at a time. Meals are served over the counter 
by a woman in charge, from 11 a.m. till 10 p.m., so that boys 
can get good wholesome food all day at a very small cost. 
The second floor is used for drilling scouts and cadets, 
and for the evening classes. The third floor is occupied by a 


billiard room for the elder lads. There is a well equipped 
dispensary and also a carpenter's shop. 

The kitchen is on the fourth floor and is fitted up with gas 
cookers, soup boilers, ovens, larder, etc. On the occasion of 
a Christmas dinner given to the lads, over 500 dinners were 
cooked here, consisting of goose, roast beef, two vegetables, 
Christmas pudding, and mince pies. A lift connects the 
kitchen with the dining-room, so that everything cooked can 
be served hot. 

The principal activities of the club are technical classes in 
boot mending, metalwork and woodwork ; other educa- 
tional classes are also arranged for. A scout troop has been 
formed and there is a Cadet Company for the senior lads. 
Concerts, gymnastic displays, and lectures are given during 
the week, while on Sunday afternoon there is now a bright, 
interesting Bible class, taken by a lady. A good library 
is another feature. 

The organization and its work are in charge of Mr. Godfrey 
Halsey, a splendid man, who loves the boys and the work, 
and is in every way adapted to the training and influencing of 
these little fellows who look to him in all their troubles and 
difficulties. The working of the club, situated, as all news- 
boys' clubs must necessarily be, in the heart of the city, 
requires a large income, and the expenditure is about £1,500 
per annum. Each boy on joining the Newsboys' Club, if 
under sixteen, pays id. a week until his annual subscription 
of 2s. is paid ; if over sixteen, he pays 2d. a week, his yearly 
subscription being 4s. 

Old clothes sent in are sold to the members very cheaply, 
not given away. In connexion with the boys' own clothing, 
which is generally very ragged, Miss Grierson, a warm- 
hearted young lady who is deeply interested in the boys, 
especially in the scouts, attends voluntarily on certain even- 


ings during the week, and while she is busy patching and 
darning dilapidated garments, she teaches the boys how to 
mend their own clothes. 

All through my stay in London I spent every Wednesday 
evening with the boys, and had Sunday-school with them. 
We had all sorts of lessons, and many interesting talks. They 
were particularly interested in hearing of Australia, and after 
a time acquired a fair knowledge of Australia's geography and 
productions. I encouraged them to write to the Melbourne 
newsboys, who promptly responded, and before I left several 
of them had begun regular correspondences with Melbourne 
boys. They naturally, after being interested in Australia, 
wished to get there, and Miss May Parker, who has always 
been a generous friend of the Melbourne newsboys, very 
kindly offered to pay the passages of three of the brightest 
boys, whom she saw in school one evening, to Victoria, where 
their wish is to go on the land. We hope, as opportunities 
open, that many of the boys will find their way to the wide 
expanses of the Sunny South, where life holds brighter pros- 
pects for them than ever it could in overcrowded London. 

During my stay I was able to visit many of the boys' 
homes. They were in the poorest quarters, and after thread- 
ing my way under guidance out of the maze of courts and 
lanes and alleys to where was the only place the boys could 
call " home," I marvelled that, in spite of such surroundings, 
so many fine young characters had lived and thrived. Some 
of the mothers told me that they themselves had never been 
out of London in their lives, and yet they willingly gave 
their consent to their sons going to Australia, when they 
thought it would mean more chances and a better future 
for them. 

One of the brightest and happiest days the London news- 
boys and I spent together was in the summer, when some 


Australian friends helped me to take forty-five of them for a 
happy day in the country. 

We took those who had attended my Sunday and night- 
school classes to Epping Forest, and there, on a gloriously 
bright summer day, they revelled to their heart's con- 
tent, playing games, riding donkeys, and running races. 
We finished up with a real Australian tea. The boys' 
height of happiness was reached when they found that, 
amongst other good things, we had provided real meat 
sandwiches for the tea. It was a happy day, and yet it had 
its pathos to those of us for whom picnics were no rare and 
new joy. When the boys took off their coats for the races, 
several had only parts of shirts underneath, and their boots 
and stockings, when they had any, were in a pitiable condi- 
tion. I was deeply touched the next night we had school, 
when the boys, of their own wish, wrote to thank the friends 
who had helped to give them such a happy day. One little 
fellow finished up his letter by saying : " Dear Sir, it is the 
first and very best picnic I have ever been to." 

Although during my stay in London I visited many news- 
boys' homes, I remember especially some I went to just be- 
fore Christmas-time. 

I was escorted by two of the boys, for I could never have 
found my way through the labyrinth of lanes and alleys 
and courts without them. Outside squalid public-houses I 
noted many women with babies in their arms. Beer was 
handed out to the women who could not find any one to 
hold their children. For since the passing of the Act pro- 
hibiting children under fourteen years of age from entering 
bars, a mother cannot now take her child in with her. 
Inside other public-houses mothers sat drinking, while tiny 
children crawled about on the dirty pavements outside, or were 
looked after in groups by some of the " little mothers " of 


London. These little girls, as soon as they can nurse a 
baby, have entire charge of all the younger members of the 

In the first house I entered there were ten children, six boys 
and four girls. The mother and father both worked and 
made £1. ys. a week between them. Mrs. G. told me that 
her husband was once a cab driver, but that he had lost his 
work because taxis were supplanting cabs. She was of the 
virago type, and smelt strongly of drink. In the small 
crowded kitchen that I was asked to go into, there were lines 
of clothes suspended from the ceiling. All were dripping 
wet. Another woman, who lived up three flights of narrow 
winding and filthy stairs, had quite a clean room, with 
another leading off it. There was a bed in each and a table, 
but no proper kitchen or scullery, and not a sign of a bath- 
room anywhere in these houses. One knocked four times 
for the fourth floor, three times for the third, twice for the 

In one of the poorest rooms I visited, a tiny girl lay dan- 
gerously ill with congestion of the lungs, contracted after 
measles. She was in a high state of fever, and had only 
a little petticoat on. Her hands were black with dirt, and her 
mother, a kind-hearted creature, seemed beside herself with 
anxiety. The room was in darkness, with the exception of a 
fire. I found out afterwards that they had not a penny in 
the house to put in the gas slot. Two little half-starved boys 
from this family were very regular attendants at my school 
class. They were nearly always half naked. I asked these 
little boys one night however they managed at home, while 
their father was ill in hospital for six weeks. They shook 
their little heads, and there was a world of meaning in their 
answer : " Rough, miss, rough ! " 

These are only two or three cases, but they are typical of 


hundreds of others. All hopeless, it seemed to me ! Drink 
was a cause of misery in almost every house, but it was 
drunkenness induced by poverty. The misery and squalor of 
the surroundings and insufficient nourishment were only too 
evident. The women did not resent my going to see them 
at all. They all told me of their troubles and all wished me a 
happy Christmas over and over again. It seemed mockery 
to say to them in return: " The same to you, and many of 



DR. BARNARDO'S homes for boys are so' well known 
and have been so often described that I will not 
devote much space to them, as they have no specially 
modern feature, and I am only dealing with experiments 
likely to be helpful to Australian reformers. I twice visited 
the huge institution at Stepney, which is specially for boys, 
and which is also the head office and centre from which 
are worked the country homes and other branches for boys 
and girls in England and Canada. At the Central Agency in 
Liverpool and other large cities, the late Dr. Barnardo insti- 
tuted what are known as " Ever-open Doors/' and all orphan 
and neglected children who apply to these are sent to the 
homes specially adapted for them. The Girls' Village Home 
at Ilford is particularly progressive, and is built on the 
cottage principle. I was told a good deal about its 
methods by one of the workers, but had not an opportunity 
of seeing it myself. 

At Stepney, which is in the very heart of the East End, 
besides the Boys' Homes and offices, there are a creche and a 
very fine hospital. The creche, which was established by 
Mrs. Hilton, was the first to be opened in London. On the 
death of Mrs. Hilton, Dr. Barnardo took over the work, which 
is still carried on in the building adjoining the Boys' Home. 
To the creche are brought every day between twenty and 



thirty babies and tiny tots up to three years old, who are 
cared for while their mothers are at work. In the first room 
I saw the smallest babies. Some were sound asleep in a 
square enclosed bed-cot on the floor. Others were making 
merry, or sleeping, in small cradles all round the room. The 
nurses seemed very fond of their charges, and told me that 
as soon as the babies were brought to them in the morning, 
they took off their clothes and bathed them, then dressed 
them in the Barnardo Home clothes, putting their own cloth- 
ing into specially disinfected cupboards. Then, when the 
children were called for at night they were dressed again in 
their own clothes. There were four or five rooms in the 
creche, and children of different ages were in separate 
rooms. The charge to the mothers is 2d. for each child, 
per day. 

From the creche I was shown all through the Boys' Home 
by the Chief of the Staff. In the bootmaking class the boys 
make and repair all the boots for the 9,400 children who are 
at present under the Society's care. There are three benches 
in this class-room. New boys are placed at the one at the 
back of the room, and as they improve gradually work their 
way to the front bench. 

The tailoring department is a very hive of industry, for 
from it are turned out all the boys' uniforms which are 
made at the Home. This uniform is of navy blue cloth, 
piped with red, the band boys' uniform being distinguished 
by broad red stripes down the seam of the trousers. This 
class also makes the outfit of all boys going abroad. 

In the bakery, bread is made for all the boys — for all the 
homes, indeed, under the care of the management. Here 
800 4-lb. loaves (ij tons) are turned out every day. 

The blacksmiths make and mend carts, do all iron work 
connected with the institution, and also take in outside work. 


The mat-making work is most interesting ; boys in this 
department make mats by hand, or loom, and were busy on 
the mats for the White Star Line when I saw them. 

In the brush-making class are made all sorts of brooms and 
brushes for the use of the different homes, and also for sale. 

The tinsmiths' shop makes kettles and kitchen utensils. 
The carpenters were turning out boxes for boys who were soon 
going to emigrate. 

In a large class-room, a history lesson was in progress, and 
questions put were answered correctly and brightly. There 
are 390 boys in residence in this Home alone. 

In each class the instructor in charge seemed specially 
adapted for his position, and I was particularly struck with 
the sympathetic way instructors treated the boys. Most of 
them had been associated with the Home for many years. 

Across the narrow street is the Hospital where babies, 
boys and a few girls, are treated ; for the Girls' Village Home 
has its own hospital, which is quite an institution in itself. 

I was interested to learn from the matron that " Babies 
Castle," in Kent, had been abandoned. The Committee 
found that babies did not thrive under institutional manage- 
ment. Babies that come under the institution's care now 
are boarded out in homes, with the result that they thrive. 

The Foundling Hospital, a private foundation, was founded 
in 1759 by Charter of King George II, so it is now over 150 years 
old. The statue of its philanthropic founder is placed before 
the iron gateway at the entrance. Only illegitimate children 
under twelve months old are admitted, and over these children 
the authorities have full and sole legal control up to the age of 
twenty-one. When the infant first comes to the institution, 
it is boarded out in a supervised home till it is five years old. 
After that age it takes its place in the Hospital, which is 
really a Home. The children are given the usual Board 


School education. For the boys the principal training seems 
to be a musical one, so that when they leave they can join 
the army bands. The girls are placed in situations at 
sixteen, and the boys at fifteen years of age, the girls 
having been first trained for domestic service. There are 
over 600 inmates in the Home at a time. The maintenance 
and upkeep for 1910 cost £27,233 8s. lod. ; but no appeal is 
made to the public, as the Hospital was so handsomely 
endowed by its founder. 

On my second visit to the Hospital, I attended morning 
service in the chapel. It is a plain building ; the visitors 
sit in enclosed seats facing the aisle. All the boys and girls 
resident at the Hospital who are old enough to attend church 
were seated in the gallery — the boys on the right side of the 
organ, the girls on the left. They formed the choir, with the 
assistance of six professional singers, and the music was of a 
high order. The girls all wore white starched Dutch caps, 
white aprons, and brown homespun dresses with short sleeves, 
finished with a white band. On their hands they wore long 
brown mittens, and round their necks red collars. The boys 
were all dressed in brown homespun suits, with turndown 
collars and red ties. During prayers, the girls put their 
aprons before their eyes. It was a pretty and touching 

After the service we went through to the dining-rooms, 
and saw the children at dinner. The girls and the tiny 
boys were in one room, the bigger boys in another. Before 
they commenced their meal the children stood up. They all 
shut their eyes, put their hands together, and said a simple 
grace. The food was good ; but I was struck with the lack 
of warmth and sympathy on the part of the Matron and 
attendants. I had noticed the same absence of personal 
interest when I visited the institution the week before. 


There was no enthusiasm ; the staff seemed to work like a 
huge, emotionless machine. 

The day I visited the " Homes for Little Boys," I could 
almost have imagined myself transported back to the Roy- 
crofters' village at East Aurora ; for here is an ideal village, 
ideally situated, with a most competent and progressive 
secretary, whu with his wife controls this organization which 
gives a " Home," in the fullest sense of the word, to over 
three hundred little boys. These boys, who are admitted as 
young as two and a half years, are either orphans or the 
younger sons of widows. I first met Mr. Percy Roberts, the 
Secretary, through our Government emigration office. He 
was sending some of his older trained boys to Victoria, and 
wanted to know whether there was any one in Melbourne 
who would take a personal interest in them, with whom he 
might communicate on the boys' behalf. Mr. Roberts 
asked me to go and see " his boys " ; so I went on the first 

Farningham is about an hour by rail from Victoria, through 
Dulwich, Bromley and Beckenham. It was autumn, and 
the woods we passed through were all in the glory of their 
red, brown and gold leafage. At the station, I found a 
brougham waiting for me, and after a quarter of an hour's 
drive through the narrowest winding lanes, and up and down 
steep hills, we arrived at the gateway of the Home. It is 
built on a rise, and surrounding it are stretches of hill and 
dale, on two or three sides, without buildings of any sort, 
as far as the eye can see. The air was bracing and clear after 
a week of London fogs, and as we drove up the avenue of 
chestnuts to the Secretary's house, I was full of admiration 
for all I saw. 

The Home is on the cottage principle, and was the first 
institution in England to adopt that plan; in fact, I think 


Mr. Roberts told me it was the first cottage home in Europe. 
There are eleven cottages with accommodation for thirty 
boys in each. In this Home, which is really a village, 
imagine these cottages as gabled, two-storied, detached houses 
in gardens. Scattered among them are the school house ; 
workshops, hospital, gymnasium, dining hall, which is the 
original old schoolhouse, central offices, greenhouses, and a 
beautifully designed little church. On the outskirts are the 
farm buildings. All this I took in as we drove through the 
principal street up to the Secretary's creeper-clad house, 
which stood in the midst of a many-hued flower garden. 
Needless to say there are no fences ; no dividing hedges 
round the gardens of the different cottages, and this gives 
them a friendly attitude towards each other. 

We drew up at what is known as " Central." Here Mrs. 
Roberts received me, and explained that Mr. Roberts had 
been unexpectedly called away, but that she herself would be 
glad to show me over the Homes. We had an hour before 
luncheon, so went round one of the pathways to the green- 
houses, and on to the cowsheds, stables and poultry yards, 
where the boys who are being trained for farmers get their 
practical experience. In our walk we met several groups of 
little boys, dressed in ordinary clothes, not in uniforms, and 
wearing white collars. They were bareheaded, and all 
looked very happy and well cared for. As we turned home, 
Mrs. Roberts told me something of the methods and of the 
history of the Homes. 

The organization was founded in 1861. At first the work 
was carried on in Tottenham, London, but after two years 
of city life, the present site was bought, and the boys were 
taken to this beautiful, health-giving spot in the country. 
At the head of each cottage is a matron, as the Committee 
believe that better results are obtained when a woman only 


is in charge. Each cottage is known by a number, and the 
boys have their breakfast and tea in their own cottage ; 
their dinner, or midday meal, they all, except the babies, take 
together, in the large central dining-hall. The children are 
admitted from the age of two and a half years, and kept 
and cared for till they are trained in some work by which 
they can earn their own livelihood. Thus they have every 
chance to grow into good and useful citizens. Those chosen 
are taken from the poorest homes. 

When a widow is left with a large family to 'provide for, 
the " Homes Committee " help her by taking her youngest 
boys. It is in this way made easier for her to provide for 
herself and her other children. 

One of the mottoes of the Home is : " Not to make money, 
but to make men is the noblest purpose in life." Accord- 
ingly, the work of the Homes is for the most part preventive. 
Up to the time of admission many of the little lads have 
received all the care and love that a good mother can give 
them. The Committee aim at continuing this care, and 
encourage the mothers to visit the boys and to keep in touch 
with them all the time they are being trained. At holiday 
time those who have homes spend a month with their 
mothers. Those not so fortunate are taken by Mr. and Mrs. 
Roberts to a summer camp. 

When the boy leaves school, he is either apprenticed to 
one of the many trades taught in the Homes, or a situation 
is found for him either near the Homes, or close to his 
mother's home. In the latter case he has his mother's 
guidance through the most critical years of his life. A 
feature of this work is the great interest taken by the old boys, 
who show their attachment to their old home by spending 
their holidays in the grounds, where they have an encamp- 
ment each year, 


As we were talking the dinner bell rang, and we followed 
the stream of boys from all parts of the village to the large 
dining-hall, where an excellent dinner was served. At the 
head of each table of thirty boys was their House Mother, 
who, with an attendant, waited on them. It was a great 
sight to see over three hundred little boys eating their dinner 
in perfect silence. Lentil soup in basins was the first course, 
and very good it smelt. The vegetables are, of course, grown 
on the estate, and Mrs. Roberts told me that the cost for 
food for each boy and nearly ioo teachers, including matrons 
and other members of the staff, was $d. per head each day. 

After lunch we went systematically round the workshops, 
and saw the boys shoemaking, carpentering, tailoring, 
baking, and printing. This last trade is a great favourite ; 
all the printing for the Homes is carried out here at Farning- 
ham. An Old Boys' Monthly Journal is printed, and 
orders are taken for outside work. Out of doors the boys 
learn to do quickly and well all sorts of farm work, gardening 
and poultry keeping, and all that a farmer has to do and is the 
better for knowing how to do. 

For the boys' indoor education, the school, a fine new 
building, was opened by the Duchess of Albany last year. 
The class-rooms are admirably designed with all the latest 
furnishings in desks, etc., and are for tiny kindergarteners 
as well as boys of the seventh standard. The rooms are built 
round a central court, which is used for a playground, and 
on the right of the building are the boys' school gardens. 
Just below is the cricket ground, and in a large field a little 
further on we stopped for a minute to watch the boys playing 
football. The different cottages compete for a cup ; after 
dinner, in the interval before the afternoon lessons and the 
trade classes begin, is the time for playing off the heats. 

We next passed on to the cottages, pausing to look in at 


the large gymnasium, that is also used for the band to prac- 
tise in. There the boys were busy changing from football 
kit into their working gear ; for they are never allowed to 
play in their ordinary clothes. The cottages are all built in 
the same style. We went over two of them. Downstairs 
are the dining-room, kitchen, play-room, and matron's 
room. Upstairs are the dormitories, containing three large 
airy rooms, with beds for ten boys in each. Instead of 
mattresses, canvas, laced underneath, such as I had seen in 
many other homes, was used for the beds. In the cottage 
home for the youngest boys we found all the little boys 
singing. A rosy-cheeked baby of two and a half years old 
was stood on the table to sing to us. But shyness overcame 
him, and so the other boys sang an action song instead with 
much spirit. 

It was a most interesting day, made especially so by the 
great kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, whose whole heart 
is in their work. They follow the fortunes of their boys all 
through their after-life, and are very proud of the excellent 
positions many of them now hold. One boy, after being 
an assistant in Kew Gardens, went out as botanist with a 
rubber expedition to Uganda. Another is managing a large 
estate in West Africa ; and another a property of 27,000 
acres in the Argentine. During the last year, two have gone 
north to be apprenticed to an engineering firm ; six have 
been apprenticed to silversmiths and jewellers ; many others 
have gone into the Royal Navy ; while numbers have been 
sent to Canada, the three I saw off being the first to go to 
Australia. The Home is an excellent institution, excellently 
managed. Its organizers are convinced that a religious train- 
ing is necesssary to teach boys how to become good and 
great men. That conviction is the foundation of their 
successful work. 



In connexion with the Farningham Homes are the Swan- 
ley Homes, a few miles nearer London, where boys who are 
going to sea receive a nautical training, and where gar- 
dening is also specially taught. The number of boys cared 
for and trained in both schools is nearly 500 ; of whom 
350 have mothers living. 

It is not my intention to describe at length those institu- 
tions from which, after inspection, I feel that we in Australia 
have little to learn, and for that reason I will only deal briefly 
with the Shaftesbury Ragged Schools, of which Sir John 
Kirk is the director. I went over their headquarters at 
John Street, Theobald's Road. From this centre are con- 
trolled other branches of work devoted to the welfare of 
children, one of the most important works being among 

Lady Kirk kindly took me to Bognor, to see one of their 
seaside homes known as " Arthur's Home." It is a girls' 
holiday home, very beautifully situated and overlooking 
the sea. It was built by a lady in memory of her only boy, 
after whom it is called. Here thirty-five little London 
girls were enjoying a happy seaside holiday ; each 
had a separate bedroom, and all were spotlessly clean. 
Downstairs was a big game room for evenings and wet 
days, and outside was a large playground fitted with 

The first free meal I saw was a tea given to 1,500 of Lon- 
don's poorest children, under the auspices of the Alexandra 
Mission. One of the Shaftesbury School workers took me, 
with various other visitors, to see this tea, which is given free 
every night during the winter. The sight was a most 
pathetic one. Every child was scantily clad ; many liter- 
ally in rags. Small wizened-faced girls carried babies with 
preternaturally old faces, or dragged along younger brothers 


and sisters. The " tea " consisted of cold meat and potatoes, 
and boiled currant pudding. 

Another evening I was asked to a New Year's tea given by 
the Shaftesbury Ragged Schools to 1,100 poor children at 
South Kensington. All the guests were very little children, 
and they were given cold beef, potatoes, plum pudding and 
lemonade. The children could hardly cut the meat, per- 
haps because the knives were so blunt. Naturally I was not 
impressed with the wisdom of that sort of meal for young and 
almost starving children. 

The Shoeblacks' Home is in connexion with the Shaftesbury 
Ragged Schools and is in Stepney, East London. It is a 
very comfortable homely place, being in reality several small 
houses grouped round a tiny square. This square has been 
converted into a bright flower garden, and comes as a plea- 
sant surprise after emerging from the grimy streets in the 
vicinity. The houses are two-storied and are all connected, 
some of the shoeblacks having their own rooms, and others 
sleeping in dormitories. They each have a separate bed, 
and every sheet and towel, etc., has the number of the bed 
worked on it, so that every man keeps to his own linen. 

There are thirty-eight inmates, and the majority are lame 
or hump-backed. They pay, if possible, 8s. a week towards 
their board. They breakfast early and start off to their 
respective stands, where they spend the day, sometimes earn- 
ing a good sum ; sometimes but little. In the evening they 
come home for their tea, and spend the time before bed in 
reading, playing draughts, or in otherwise amusing them- 

Field Lane Institute is an old-established institution that 
cares for little children, boys and girls, mothers and fathers. It 
is affiliated to the Shaftesbury Ragged Schools. There is a day 
creche in connexion with it, and several halls where classes and 


meetings are held. Destitute people are fed and lodged, and 
free meals are given. The one bright and hopeful spot in con- 
nexion with this institution is the Boys' Industrial Home at 
West Hampstead. It has the appearance of a true home. 
The outside walls are covered with ivy and Virginia-creeper. 
It is not at all like a barracks, as so many institutions are. 
The superintendent and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor, have 
been in charge for seventeen years and are admirably fitted 
for their position. 

The Home has been established twenty-four years. 
When I visited it there were 120 boys in residence. It can 
accommodate 132, and when full is self-supporting. 
It is a certified Industrial School, and is thus under the 
jurisdiction of the Home Office. Little boys are sent 
here, under the age of ten years for preference, and Mr. 
Taylor has control of them till they are eighteen years 
old. They learn to make their own stockings, shirts, suits, 
and to bake their own bread, and do their own washing and 
ironing. They also learn carpentry, drill, boot-making, 
tailoring and gardening. They do all the housework, and 
have formed a splendid military band among themselves. 

I went all through the Home, and saw the different classes 
at work. In the carpentering class the boys draw a design of 
each article before they make it. 

In the schoolrooms we saw samples of the boys' drawings 
and lesson work, and the teacher asked each boy his favour- 
ite subject. As his name was called the boy stood up, 
saluted, and answered promptly and without hesitation. 

When boys leave the Home, Mr. Taylor finds situations 
for them ; for he says that if they go to their homes, or back 
to their old surroundings when their time is up in the Home, 
all the work and time that have been spent on them are 
lost, and they relapse into their old evil ways. 


There was an alert and happy air and an absence of cant 
all through this living institution. The whole building was 
a model of cleanliness, and Mr. and Mrs. Taylor were with 
good reason proud of their boys and their Home. 


I HAD the honour of being a delegate to this Conference, 
which was held at the University of London Buildings 
during the last week in July, 191 2. 

It was considered an honour to England that the first 
International Eugenics Congress should be held in London. 
Men and women came as delegates from America, France, 
Germany, Norway, Italy, Spain, Greece, Japan, Australia, 
and New Zealand, to discuss methods that would raise the 
health and moral standard of the world. 

Sir Francis Galton says : " Eugenics is the study of the 
agencies under social control that may improve or impair 
the racial qualities of future generations, either physically 
or mentally/ ' 

It is recognized that as long as our degenerate population 
increases, poverty will increase ; and though the study of 
Eugenics is regarded by some with suspicion, it is felt among 
the greatest scientists and thinkers of the day that the time 
is coming when parenthood for the biologically unfit will be 
discouraged. Many children are now born of unhealthy 
and often undeveloped parents. These children are im- 
properly fed, and have no chance from the beginning of 
leading decent lives. As babies, they are kept quiet or sent 
to sleep with spirits, stay up till all hours of the night, and 
have no regular attention in their young lives. They, in 
turn, grow up to be parents and add to the degeneracy of the 



race. Some schools in America and England are already 
teaching Eugenics by means of lectures, and demonstrations 
with flowers as to the effects of careless growth. In the 
elementary schools boys and girls are taught the marvels of 
birth and life, and the grave responsibilities involved on 
them when they in their turn reach the age of parenthood. 

The knowledge that the progeny of the feeble-minded are 
usually habitual drunkards, epileptics, or criminals, will, it 
is hoped, pave the way to removing habitual inebriates, 
criminals, and epileptics to shelters where they will be 
guarded and cared for ; and where they will be taught trades 
and occupations which will train their minds, their eyes, and 
their hands, and give them interests in life. But it is re- 
cognized that they should be restrained from casting their 
shadow over future generations by becoming parents. 

The Congress opened officially on July 24, 1912, with a 
banquet at the Grand Hall of the Hotel Cecil to between 
four hundred and five hundred guests. Mr. A. J. Balfour 
spoke for twenty minutes on many interesting points 
in the study of Eugenics. He said that Eugenists must 
convince the ordinary man that : " Eugenics is one of 
the greatest and most pressing questions of our day, and 
also one of the most complex which science has ever under- 
taken to solve." Speaking of the survival of the fittest, he 
said, survival was not everything ; that a feeble-minded 
man who survives is not so good as a good professional 
man, even if the professional man does not keep up his 
numbers by an adequate birth-rate. 

Major Leonard Darwin, the President of the Congress, 
urged that the aims of the Eugenists were as practical as 
those of politicians. 

The Daily News, in a leading article on July 25, said : 
" We do not reject the teachings of science in any other 


sphere of culture. To reject them in the sphere of human life 
is not to fulfil a divine law, but to outrage it. The Eugenics 
movement has a great and valuable task to perform. We can 
trust the instinct of individual liberty in man to prevent it 
from ever exceeding its task." 

At the London University the following day, we all 
gathered early to receive our badges as delegates, or associate 
members, and the scene was a very busy one for some time 
before Major Leonard Darwin began his address. He is the 
son of the great Darwin, and although prematurely grey, 
has a striking military presence. In his address he sur- 
veyed the whole field of discussion before the Congress. 
He wondered if, after all, civilization stopped the progress 
of a nation ; for, as he pointed out, among the early races 
the unfit were killed off by hunger and disease, while in 
recent times our social methods have been doing their best 
to cherish the unfit, thus enabling them to produce their 
kind, however bad that kind may be. He said : " We must 
not be blind ourselves to the danger of interfering with 
Nature's ways." 

After the presidential address, a very interesting paper 
was read by Professor V. Guiffrida Ruggeri (Naples), on, "The 
so-called Laws of Inheritance in Man." He pointed out 
that it was now certain that the races of man acted exactly 
as the races of animals. Two grey mice produced grey mice, 
and it had been shown that two albino parents had only 
albino children. Blonde parents had only blonde children. 
Other interesting facts were those verified by the colour of 
the eyes and the smoothness of the hair. The children of 
parents with blue and dark eyes might themselves have 
dark eyes, with the blue latent ; and if they married amongst 
themselves, one child in four, it was found, had the blue 
eyes of the grandfather. 


The paper on " The Inheritance of Epilepsy," by David 
R Weeks, M.D. (Medical Superintendent and Executive 
Officer of the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics, U.S.A.), 
was full of interest. To arrive at the data he quoted, it 
was stated that field workers had interviewed in their 
homes, the parents, relatives, and all others interested in the 
epileptic patient. The study was based on the data derived 
from 397 histories, covering 440 matings. The following 
conclusions were drawn from the study : — 

The ordinary types of epileptics lack some element neces- 
sary for complete mental development, said the lecturer, 
and this is also true of the feeble-minded. Two epileptics 
produce only defectives. When both parents are either 
epileptic or feeble-minded, their offspring are also mentally 

Epileptics tend, in successive generations, to form a 
larger proportion of the population. Alcohol may be a 
cause of defect, because more children of alcoholic parents 
are defective than those of parents who are not intemperate 
drinkers. Neurotic and other physical and nervous condi- 
tions of the unfit are closely allied to epilepsy. 

Professor Ruggeri strongly advocated in the case of the 
feeble-minded and epileptic the segregation of either sexes. 

Another very interesting paper was that of Professor 
Antonio Marro, Director of the Lunatic Asylum, Turin. It 
was entitled, " The Influence of the Age of Parents on the 
Psycho-Physical Character of the Off spring/ ' He explained 
that to demonstrate the pernicious consequences to the 
psycho-physical character of the children of parents too 
young or too advanced in age, was not difficult. At the 
younger period, the organism is still in process of formation ; 
the incomplete development of the skeleton, as of all the 
other organs, continually absorbs a mass of plastic materials 


necessary for the formation of offspring. He said that the 
faults of children born of too young parents are due to an 
incomplete development, because of the insufficiency of 
plastic material. Old age, he declared, has a disastrous 
influence on the germinal elements of the parents, and pre- 
disposes the descendants to various forms of physical and 
moral degeneracy. Some of the results of unions between 
the too young prove that among criminals the children of 
too young parents are found, in large numbers, guilty of 
offences against property. This is natural, as the first im- 
pulse to that may not be due to wickedness which impels 
them to inflict harm on others, but to a love of pleasure, of 
revel, or idleness, all characteristics of youth, during which 
period the inborn instincts are very active. They have not, 
apparently, the necessary restraint with which to repress and 
subjugate these instincts. 

Children of aged parents, the lecturer said, swell the 
ranks of assassins, swindlers, and those who show the com- 
pletest absence of sentiments of affection and often suffer 
from delusions of persecution. The children of aged parents, 
the lecturer stated, furnish more cases of serious crime than 
are furnished by all other classes of delinquents. The 
proportions are as high when the fathers as when the mothers 
are of advanced age. Among the insane, moral idiocy in 
particular and the degenerate forms in general, appear more 
frequently in children of aged parents. Professor Marro 
said he had noticed that the minimum of good conduct and 
the maximum of better developed intelligence coincides 
as a rule with the possession of youth by both parents. The 
age of complete development of parenthood corresponds to a 
maximum of good conduct and a minimum of bad conduct in 
their offspring. In the age of decline of both parents, good 
conduct in children is observed in a smaller proportion than 


in the preceding period, and high intelligence in a very small 

The following day, the two most interesting papers I 
heard were one on " Marriage and Eugenics," and another 
on " The Preliminary Report of the Eugenics Section 
American Breeders' Association to study and report as to 
the best practical means for cutting off the defective Germ 
Plasm in the Human Population." This latter paper was 
read by Mr. Bleecker Van Wagenen, Chairman of Committee. 
He gave the history of the movement for sterilizing defective 
males and females in the U.S.A. Already eight States had 
passed laws making this operation a legal one. Indiana 
was the first to undertake this reform, and New York the 
latest. He said that no real results could yet be arrived at, 
but gave some examples of men and women who had im- 
proved physically after operation. 

A very interesting discussion for and against sterilizing 
the unfit then took place. Dr. Saleeby, a prominent 
Eugenist, suggested that segregation would meet the case. Sir 
John Macdonald thought that confirmed criminals were 
manufactured in slums, and protested against sterilization. 

The other paper that was interesting to all present was 
that on " Marriage and Eugenics," read by Dr. C. P. Daven- 
port, Director Eugenics Record Office, U.S.A. 

In Norway, a marriage-permit system has almost reached 
the stage of practical politics. 

One suggestion made to the meeting was that the pros- 
pective bride and bridegroom should each produce a declar- 
ation signed by a doctor, and dated not more than six years 
before the wedding, to the effect that he or she does not 
suffer from disease or weakness that would constitute a 
danger to partner or offspring. 

Dr. Saleeby said that Eugenics should work through love. 


Another speaker said it was useless passing laws to prevent 
the feeble-minded from marrying. " So long as a feeble- 
minded person is at large," he said, " he will find another 
feeble-minded person to live with him." 

A paper of most vital interest was that on " Practical 
Eugenics in Education," read by Dr. F. C. S. Schiller, of the 
Oxford University. In the discussion following, several 
well-known men and women educationalists took part. 

Dr. Schiller said that we should educate public opinion to 
look favourably on all scientific researches. That the real 
cause why so many youths of the upper classes go in for 
over-indulgence is because we have not provided them with 
high motives. He spoke of the British athletic system, 
and recognized the ideal of " fitness," which, he said, had 
great eugenic value. That ideal merely needed to be 
intellectualized and spiritualized, by including in the notion 
of fitness all exercise of human faculty, even of brain. 

All the speakers agreed that the silence which had for so 
many years been practised between parents and their 
children with regard to the mysteries of life should be broken 
down. The speakers said : " Because we have not told our 
children what they should know, this black cloud of disease 
and prostitution is over the country." All agreed that 
children should be well born and well educated. That so 
many of the greatest men in the world have weak bodies 
was recognized as a proof that future generations of great 
men need not in every case have physical strength to match 
intellectual capacity. Sir Isaac Newton was given as an 
instance. One may inherit a strong brain from a father 
and a weak body from a mother, and so a strong brain may 
have to struggle throughout life with a weak body. The 
speaker went on to condemn the absurd and criminal belief 
that ignorance and innocence are good preparation for a 


child's life. He said the best, the most imaginative children, 
are liable to be the ones who suffer most fatally from ignor- 

Mrs. Housley (President of the New York Mothers' Club) 
said that she lectured to mothers on their duty of telling 
their children the mystery of their lives as soon as they 
showed any curiosity on the subject. The obvious time to 
answer a question was when it was made. It is dangerous 
to put aside a question, for the child will still be curious, and 
will get his or her information from the wrong quarters. 
She affirmed that the proper teaching of sex problems to chil- 
dren is right, and very desirable. She gave us an instance of a 
New York mother who said she would not tell her dear little 
innocent girl of nine such things, and how it was found, a 
little later, that this same child had developed the lowest 

Another interesting speaker, the Rev. Mrs. MacCoy Irwin, 
who has been lecturing through England, both to men and 
women, on Eugenics and the desirability of teaching children 
the mysteries of life, dealt with the delicately important 
subject in an intensely sympathetic manner. She made 
every one present feel that his or her duty to the race was a 
holy thing. She said maternity conferred a dignity, and 
that the problem of parenthood should be determined by 
physical control, not by the use of preventives. She con- 
cluded by saying that every child should not only be well 
born, it should be " manger-born." However a child is 
born, it should be conceived in love, carried in joy, and born 
in love, and unless it is born in this way it is not well born. 
If the child is carried under the mother's heart with joy it 
is indeed a manger babe, and the mother may understand 
the song of Mary of old, " My soul doth magnify the 


One speaker informed the meeting that the subject of 
Eugenics was already taught in a Manchester school. 

Mr. Crooke said that he considered " Education is evolution, 
not revolution." 

Another speaker remarked that it is now recognized that 
education is not merely book learning. Education should 
be individual, and what is good for the average individual 
is not good for the whole class. 

Dr. Devine, in referring to the relation between Eugenics 
and education, said, " From this point, the men in the 
wreck of the Titanic made a mistake in giving way to the 
women. For the primary need of society is to get men who 
are strong enough to conduct affairs. The primary need 
of society is the protection of the weak from the exploitation 
of the strong. What is wrong with those youths who make 
shipwreck of their lives is, that they have not had a fair 
and decent opportunity." 

Mr. Gladstone (master of a well-known preparatory school) 
gave his personal interesting experience of how he taught 
boys the mystery of their lives. He strongly advocated 
the telling of children when they are quite young. He said 
it was quite easy to talk to boys between ten and fourteen. 
Their curiosity was easily allayed, and they looked at the 
sex problem in an abstract way. Another important point 
in teaching the young was the fact that, later on in life, at 
about eighteen or nineteen, they came back to the teaching 
of their early life. He said his experience of teaching boys 
on these subjects, from fifteen to nineteen years of age, was 
most unpleasant. Then a boy had found his individual- 


All the speakers but one were in favour of having children 
told the essential facts of life in a proper way, all agreeing 
that the period of adolescence should not be left to chance. 


Mr. H. G. Wells was quoted as saying, " Our schools and 
colleges exist to give our youth high ideals/' 

It was also suggested that the Eugenic Education Society 
should, as soon as may be, draw up a book for teachers, and 
send a free copy to every headmaster in the Kingdom. It 
was suggested that this book should contain a clear, sober 
statement of how children may be slowly led to the eugenic 
point of view. Such a book, which is now being prepared in 
America, is needed all through Europe and America. 

As an outcome of the meeting, two special meetings were 
held by all those interested in the " Desirability of the 
Instruction of Children.' ' At these, the following resolu- 
tions were passed : — 

1. " That this meeting expresses its opinion that boys and 
girls should be prepared for the responsibility of parenthood. 

2. " That matters pertaining to the transmission of human 
life be told at as early an age as questions are asked. 

3. " That such instruction be blended with high moral and 
spiritual teaching, having due regard to both individual and 
race responsibility. 

4. " That the elements of sex hygiene sufficient for the 
maintenance of health, without undue emphasis on the 
pathological aspect, be taught. 

5. " That girls have instruction on the rearing and care of 
children, and boys some instruction on requirements of child- 

After some discussion it was decided that instruction ought 
to be given before the age of puberty, and that this instruc- 
tion ought to be given by parents. Where it was found that 
parents were not suitable to give that instruction, specially 
selected teachers of elementary schools should be instructed 
to impart this knowledge to the children. 

One American woman spoke on what she called " this 


awful ignorance with regard to questions of sex/' and said 
that in New York, a Mothers' Society met once a month, at 
which a doctor spoke on the way to impart sex knowledge 
to children. It was stated that in Glasgow four lady doctors 
had already given their time to imparting this necessary 
knowledge to the children in schools. Ten lessons are 
given in each term. 

Another paper of great interest was that read by Samuel 
G. Smith, Professor of Sociology, Minnesota University, 
U.S.A. He declared that the teaching of sex hygiene to 
young persons of suitable age was very important, but per- 
haps even more important was a more elemental view of the 
proper terms of human marriage. He said society, on the 
whole, suffered more from the vices of the rich than the 
vices of the poor. And then he made this remarkable 
statement : " If I were to choose my own father, I would 
rather have a robust burglar than a consumptive bishop/' 
He said what the world owed to its invalids would provide 
material for one of the most remarkable histories ever written 
and gave as one example, Sir Isaac Newton. He said, 
" Inheritance is either strength or weakness." 

Continuing, Professor Smith stated : " The Englishman's 
home is no longer his castle. Owing to the parents' ignor- 
ance and the defects of children, the State has invaded the 
home, and has set standards, both moral and physical, for 
the family. It is the duty of the State to secure the proper 
physical environment for the home. It is a municipal prob- 
lem. It is a problem of public health. 

" The question of maternity among the poor must be con- 
sidered. Hard work must be forbidden to the expectant 
mother ; she must have nourishing food, her surroundings 
must be wholesome. The economic problem is solved in 


the increased vitality, and consequent earning power, of 
the coming generation. The problem of the parenthood 
of the better classes is just as important, but much more 

Papers on Environment and Heredity were read and 
widely discussed. Interesting views on both sides were put 

In a paper on " Alcohol and Eugenics," Dr. Alfred Mjoen 
(Christiania) gave some striking effects of drink on subsequent 
generations, and strongly advocated the division' of alcoholic 
liquors into classes according to their injuriousness. He 
declared that alcohol over a certain percentage is injurious 
to the quality of the offspring, not only where the mother 
alone drinks, but also where the father alone is a drinker. 
He had found by his researches that only ten out of fifty- 
seven children of drunkards were normal. 

" Alcoholism and Degeneracy " (Statistics from the Central 
Bureau for the Management of the Insane, Paris) showed 
that numbers were driven to insanity by alcohol. Many of 
these owe their insanity entirely to excessive drinking ; 
the others are, for the most part, descendants of alcoholics. 

M. Magnan and Dr. Fillassier, the compilers of the statis- 
tics, urge the necessity of an implacable war against alco- 
holism, which crowds the asylums, the hospitals, and the 
homes for insane persons, and sends a constant stream of 
men, women, and children to prisons and reformatories. 

In connexion with the Congress, an Exhibition was held 
in two of the large halls. This Exhibition included charts, 
pedigrees, photographs and specimens of heredity, especially 
in man. Relics of Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton, and 
Gregor Mendel, as well as portraits of notable workers were 
shown. Many of these exhibits were received from America, 
France and Germany, and all parts of the United Kingdom. 



It was interesting to note from the charts that New Zea- 
land was the only country in which the fall of the birth-rate 
has not produced a fall in the death-rate. In New Zealand 
infantile mortality was the lowest in the world, less than 
ten per 1,000, which gives an ideal we can reach in all coun- 
tries by lowering the birth-rate sufficiently. 

During the Congress, interesting entertainments and 
receptions were given to members by the Lord Mayor and 
Lady Mayoress at the Mansion House, by the Duchess 
of Marlborough, Major Leonard Darwin, Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitelaw Reid, and the Co-Partnership Tenants of the 
Hampstead Garden Suburb. Mr. Robert Mond gave a 
luncheon and garden-party in the beautiful grounds of 
Combe Park, Sevenoaks, providing special trains for the 
guests, and conveying them to and from the station by 
motors and carriages. 


SOON after I arrived in London, I called on Miss Talbot, 
the secretary of the Victoria League, who was exceed- 
ingly kind in giving me letters to various institutions in Lon- 
don and America and enabling me to visit some of the 
beautiful country homes of England. She was anxious for 
me to co-operate with her in sending young men to Mel- 
bourne, and, in common with representatives of several 
societies for boys, spoke of the great need of a personal touch 
at the end of their journey for boys emigrating to Australia. 
That young people coming from England should be met and 
have some person or persons to apply to as friends if they 
are in trouble, is the opinion of people in England interested 
in the welfare of boys and girls who emigrate to Australia. 
These officials feel very strongly that there should be some 
one who would communicate with the boys' friends in 
England. They complain that many of their charges come 
to us, and, after their arrival, are lost sight of altogether in 
our vast continent. 

An interesting institution I visited was the House-Boys' 
Brigade in Chelsea. There are several of these House-Boys' 
Brigades in different parts of London. Boys are trained 
here to be waiters and house-boys. Any one ringing up the 



institution can get a boy for 8d. an hour to do odd jobs, 
carry coal, light fires, clean boots, etc. They are trained 
for, and allowed to do all sorts of house work, except clean 
windows. Window-cleaning is a special profession in London , 
in the hands of different private syndicates. It is a splen- 
didly paying business, as businesses of this sort go in Eng- 
land. Men, who must be honest and have good references, 
are engaged. They are generally discharged army men of 
good character. The charge for each window cleaned is 
2d., and one young man who was cleaning my windows told me 
that he received 5s. a day for wages, but that he always 
earned for the Company at least a pound a day. Owing 
to the height of the buildings and the numbers of people who 
live in flats, it is impossible for maids to clean the windows 
in the great cities of the United Kingdom; so window- 
cleaning agencies and window cleaners are a necessity of 
e very-day life. 

The Children's Courts of London have only been in force 
for about three years, and they are in their infancy com- 
pared with those of America. I visited the one at Tower 
Bridge, which I was told by experts was the most advanced, 
and found it conducted much on the principles of an ordinary 
Court. Children are, of course, separated from adult 
criminals and have their own magistrate and officers. But 
the Court, which was built for the trial of children only, 
has much the appearance of a police court. The magistrate 
sits in a gown on a raised seat, around which are grouped 
the witness-box, the railing for the child to stand behind, 
and a few seats for visitors. The police about the court are 
in uniform, except those directly in charge of the children. 
Each witness enters the box, kisses the Bible, and takes the 
usual oath. The child before the Court, on the occasion I 
visited it, was always referred to as " the prisoner," The 


magistrate, Mr. Cecil Chapman, a very fine man, dealt very 
sympathetically with each case, but there was no doubt in 
the child's mind, I am sure, that the attitude of the Bench 
was not friendly. 

I sat in the Court throughout the afternoon and heard 
all the cases, and there were many. It was the Board 
Schools' holiday- time, and all the culprits before the Court 
were boys, who had been pilfering from carts in the streets, 
or were guilty of other petty offences. The boys' mothers, 
and in some cases their fathers, gave evidence. Among 
them all I only saw one mother whose influence one could 
imagine would be helpful to her boy. Most of these children 
had been launched upon the turgid streams of London and 
Tower Bridge life, and had to look after themselves and 
take care of themselves as best they could. 

One finely-grown boy of fourteen, who had been stealing 
from a shop, had given himself up to the police. Two little 
chaps were arrested for begging ; two tiny youngsters for 
stealing from a barrow. A peculiar case was that of a boy 
of twelve years old, who had stolen 21s. from his mother. 
She had given it to him to pay the rent, and he had yielded 
to temptation and stolen it. He asked his mother before 
the Court to let him go to a Home, as he could not keep 
straight on the streets. 

Two neglected children, whose parents had simply de- 
serted them, were bright little chaps of three and four, and 
seemed quite happy with the kind-hearted people who had 
taken charge of them. They appeared in the Court when 
their case was called, with a bag of biscuits which they 
enjoyed throughout the proceedings. 

The case that interested me most was that of a boy who 
had been pilfering from the railway cars. He had a nice 
face, but was very pale, half-starved looking, and stood 


before the Court, quivering with fright. His mother, a poor 
miserable under-fed creature, pleaded for him and said that 
he had always had a good character in school. He was 
remanded for a week, so that inquiries could be made into 
his home and surroundings. 

Hearing the cases and the revelations of poverty they 
brought, was very depressing, and, as a grand woman who 
works among these poor people and their children, said : " It 
is all so hopeless, for though you may help one or two, there 
are so very many more in just the same misery and poverty 
whom you cannot reach." I learnt later that the Children's 
Court at Birmingham is considered the finest exemplar of the 
idea in England. 

The Girls' Church School at Islington was a very interest- 
ing school. It is in connexion with the Church of England, 
and its pupils come from very poor homes. I was shown 
all over it by the head-mistress, and in each room the girls 
sang, recited, and showed me their needle-work, painting, 
etc. It was just before Christmas, and the little girls in one 
class were dressing penny dolls for a Christmas tree. They 
were very short of material, and some of the little dresses 
had four and five pieces of print joined together to make a 
tiny skirt. Their paintings of flowers and objects were 
from life studies, and showed much originality. 

In the kindergarten class tiny boys and girls were busy 
with a piece of chalk and a square of brown paper. These 
little ones had just been told a story about some sheep, and 
each was trying to draw his conception of a sheep on a piece 
of paper. Some had gone right away from the subject and 
drew just as they felt inclined. One was drawing a wonder- 
ful Father Christmas. All were expressing some thought on 
the paper before them. I was chiefly struck by the desks 


in this class, which were small and specially adapted and 
fitted for little children. In between the class-rooms were 
sliding-doors, which moved back so as to give the appearance 
of one long room. The doors were slid back at the opening 
of school every day for morning prayers. 

A Girls' Physical Exercise Club, for little girls under four- 
teen, was started by Miss Daisy Lester, a young school 
teacher who had a drill-hall lent her in a very poor part 
of Chelsea. Here, every Wednesday night, she gathers 
in all the poorest little girls of the neighbourhood, 
and in this bright cheerful room she drills them and 
teaches them all manner of breathing and physical exer- 

It was on a cold wintry evening that I visited this club, 
and I shall never forget the apologies for boots these poor 
children were wearing. As they tripped hither and thither, 
pointed their toes and pirouetted about, the shameful cover- 
ings, called by courtesy, boots, on their feet were too, too 
evident. Not one child in the class had a pair of water- 
tight boots. Their clothing too was pitifully poor and 
scanty. I happened to be wearing a bunch of violets, and 
when I gave them to a little pale-faced girl who was sitting 
by the fire too ill to join in the exercises, her face flushed 
with pleasure. She held them and looked at them as 
though they were sentient things. 

It was a fine voluntary work this young teacher was 
doing. She told me that when they were fourteen years of 
age all these girl- women had to earn their living in factories 
or elsewhere. By physical exercises, breathing lessons and 
talks to them, she hoped to be able to make them more 
happy in the hard lives they would have to lead. For the 
girls over fourteen she and her sister conducted a class at 


their own home, where they taught them sewing and tried 
to influence them in wtu 3some ways. 

Besides its other features of interest, Chelsea has a Royal 
Hospital for old soldiers, which I thrice visited. Its Governor, 
who died in 1912, and whose funeral procession I witnessed, 
was Field-Marshal Sir George White of Ladysmith fame. 

The British Institute of Social Service is a most useful 
institution. It provides full information on every side of 
social life. No matter what a person's creed, colour, or 
convictions, he or she, is cordially welcomed at the institu- 
tion's home in Tavistock Square, near the Passmore Ed- 
wards Settlement. A splendid library of books on social 
questions is maintained, and books are lent free to any one 
who comes into the library. The library contains books 
on every subject, just as many on Socialism as against it. 

People from all parts of the world write to the British 
Institute of Social Service for information. Last year about 
2,000 inquiries were received. The largest number referred 
to public health ; but all sorts of inquiries as to settlements, 
labour colonies, child life and education, were also received. 

I called one evening on my way to the Newsboys' Club 
at the office of the Federation of London Working Boys' 
Clubs. Mr. Charles Wrench, the Hon. Secretary, acquainted 
me with the objects and work of the Federation. 

They are : — 

(a) To consolidate and extend the important work of 
Boys' Clubs in London. 

(b) To promote competitions and friendly intercourse 
between the members of the affiliated clubs. 

(c) To provide opportunities whereby those interested in 
the management of London Working Boys' Clubs may inter- 
change opinions as to the best way of conducting them. 

Membership is open to members who have left schools of 


any Working Boys' Club in London. Each club affiliated 
to the Federation pays 2d. per head per member half-yearly. 
The Committee of the Federation say that they want the 
members of the Working Boys' Clubs to acquire that esprit 
de corps which is the chief characteristic of the English 
public schools. So they are invited to compete in f.jotbaii, 
cricket, gymnastics, physical training, chess, draughts, 
map-drawing, freehand drawing, essays, reading, recitations, 
first aid, boxing, field sports, rifle shooting, swimming 
and life-saving. A challenge cup is played for in each 
division, the winning team having the honour of holding 
it. In addition, every winning member is presented with a 

I also visited the Y.M.C.A. headquarters at Tottenham 
Court Road, a very fine new institution which was only 
opened last year. 

In my many visits to the Home Office I had several con- 
versations with men in charge of the boys' departments, 
who had much of interest to tell me. They consider that 
truancy is dying out in England, and are all very much 
opposed to short term sentences for lads. 

In the People's Palace, Whitechapel, I expected to find a 
recreation centre for the very poor ; but found that it is 
given over to the respectable poor, and what is now known 
as the East London University, where students may take a 
course for £10 10s. per quarter. As far as I could ascertain 
the only activities for the people remaining at the People's 
Palace are a children's playground and night entertain- 
ments, which are poorly attended. 

One of the most depressing places I saw was the Padding- 
ton Workhouse. In bed, there were the saddest-looking 
women I have ever seen. The whole atmosphere of the 
place was drab and depressing. 


In Newport, Monmouthshire, I went to a Christmas dinner 
given to 2,500 poor children in a large drill-hall. Boys and 
girls of seven to fourteen were the guests, and among them I 
found a number of newspaper boys, to whom I naturally 
gravitated. They had canvas bags with a canvas strap, 
which they wore over their shoulders to hold their papers. 
The boys said they always used these bags, and that they 
kept the papers clean and dry. 

I spent a week in the South of Ireland, and was greatly 
struck by the backwardness of the educational system in 
two of the National Schools in Cork subsidized by the Parlia- 
ment of the United Kingdom. 

In one, in an upstairs room of an old building, about 100 
boys and girls were gathered together under a head mis- 
tress and an assistant teacher. The boys and girls here 
paid a small fee for their schooling, but the school and 
system were ancient history. They certainly did freehand 
drawing, which I was shown, and some specimens of 
writing, but there was no enthusiasm and no quick intelli- 
gence in the teaching and learning such as one saw in 
America. The head teacher was a modern edition of the 
" school marm " in a dame's school long ago. 

From this school I went to a school for boys only, in the 
poorest part of the town. The approach was through a 
number of dirty, ill-paved, narrow streets, and the school 
was so small that a class of elder boys was having a reading 
lesson in the playground. It was certainly infinitely 
better than the inside of the school, which was primitive, 
dirty, badly ventilated, and overcrowded. The head 
master spoke bitterly of the English indifference towards 
education in Ireland. He said that his boys were the children 
of the poorest and most irresponsible of parents, and that 
they attended very irregularly. I had a long talk with this 


class. The boys told me how they smoked cigarettes and 
played pitch-and-toss. They were truthful and very 
bright, and were keenly interested in all I had to say of our 
far-away Australia, but they all seemed to me dreadfully 

Inside the schoolhouse a nice girl teacher was trying to 
cope with a very large class, full of the youngest and dirtiest 
schoolboys I have ever seen. Some were only babies. They 
were sitting in a row with match-boxes of beads, which they 
were threading " to keep them quiet," their teacher said. 
Another class crowded into a small room was having a 
geography lesson. Not one boy in the three classes of the 
school had on a pair of boots. 

I met in Killarney a gentleman who had had long experi- 
ence with boys in Dublin and Cork ; he told me that at an 
industrial school of which he was a committeeman, each 
boy's maintenance cost £18 10s. a year. 

I spoke to several policemen in Cork. One told me there 
was no end to philanthropic institutions in Cork, but there 
was nothing for newsboys. Crowds of newsboys and ragged 
boys and girls wandered about the streets and wharves. I 
spoke to numbers of them. What impressed me was the 
few papers each boy had for sale, and the way in which he 
begged one to buy. The selling really only seemed a cloak 
for begging. Any boy who likes sells papers. They mostly 
sell evening papers, which are a half-penny each ; they get 
2d. a dozen on the sales. These children are supposed to go 
to school till they are fourteen, and they may sell papers 
under that age or at any age out of school hours. In March, 
1911, an Act was' passed that children trading in the streets 
must wear a badge, but from articles I read in the papers, 
and from my own observations, the new regulations did not 
seem to be taken seriously. 


The Juvenile Courts of Ireland had only been in existence 
for eighteen months at the time of my visit. 

Cigarettes are prohibited for boys under sixteen years of 
age, but one schoolmaster told me the law prohibiting the 
smoking of cigarettes for boys under sixteen was not enforced. 

The Shops' Act for compulsory closing for half a day in 
the week had just come into force. The shopkeepers closed 
just which day suited them best. One shop closed on Mon- 
day, another on Tuesday. I noticed that Monday and 
Wednesday were the favourite closing days 


IN September, 191 1, I travelled through Belgium, Holland, 
Germany and France, and whenever I could find the 
opportunity inquired into the various countries' methods of 
educating, reforming, and caring for children. I had letters 
of introduction from Sir George Reid to the British Consuls 
in the different Continental cities. 

In Brussels I called at the Consulate. Mr. Jeffes was 
away, but I saw his wife who made inquiries for me. She 
wrote to me, saying she could hear nothing of street boys' 
clubs or reformatories, and sent me a list of guardian schools, 
but as they were principally for tiny children, and as my 
time in Brussels was limited, I did not see over them. I 
learnt that the schools in Brussels, as in Bruges and Ant- 
werp, were principally under Roman Catholic control. 

In Antwerp the Vice-Consul gave me a great deal of 
information. He said, " There are no workhouses in 
Antwerp, no old-age pensions. The Municipality looks 
after all its employees when they become too old to work. 
The peasantry are very ignorant. The only beggars are a 
few children sent out by worthless parents, who trade on 
their children. There should be no beggars," he continued, 
" as there is work for all, and though poverty is seen in some 
streets it is generally caused by drink. The Municipality 
runs nearly all the charities, but there are also some private 


enterprises." The feeble-minded are boarded out with 
working families, at an isolated place called Gheel (pronounced 
Gale). These feeble-minded persons are practically segre- 
gated. They are under constant medical supervision, and 
must not leave Gheel. They have their own hobbies, and 
as a rule seem quite content. 

Lady Hertslet, the Consul's wife, was exceedingly kind. 
She was the best type of Englishwoman, broad-minded, 
and very womanly and sympathetic. She took me to see 
the Lady Bountiful of Antwerp, Madame Osterrieth, who, 
Lady Hertslet said, would give me information about all 
social reform movements in Belgium. As we went along to 
to this lady's residence, Lady Hertslet told me that Madame 
Osterrieth was very rich, and spent all her time and her 
money for the poor of Antwerp. She had an office, and 
there, from all parts, came to her the poor and the suffering. 
Madame Osterrieth listened to all their stories of poverty 
and sadness, and never sent any one empty away. Unfor- 
tunately, when we reached the Lady Bountiful's residence, 
we were told by her confidential servant that she was out of 
town. However, Lady Hertslet introduced me to another 
social worker of the city, who told me something of the work 
and the problems that the people of Antwerp have to deal 

I was interested in the messenger boys, dressed in suits 
of maroon corduroy, who were stationed at the markets and 
principal shopping centres, some having bicycles. These boys 
carry home parcels, flowers, etc., for ladies, and receive two 
or three cents for each parcel. 

In Cologne, the Consul could give me no information of 
any special work among boys or children, as most of this is 
under Roman Catholic supervision. But it was interesting 
to learn that dental clinics are established in Berlin, Cologne, 


and Strasburg. These clinics here and in other German 
towns have generally been established by the Municipal 
authorities, and free treatment is given to all elementary 
school children. In most instances extractions are free, 
but a small charge is made for stopping teeth, unless the 
parents are known to be unable to make any payment. 
The general opinion appears to be held that the care of 
children's teeth can best be effected by the organization of 
town clinics, as greater interest is shown by teachers, 
parents, and officials when the school organization is linked 
with the municipality's clinic organization. 

Continuation schools and Juvenile Labour Exchanges in 
Germany are receiving attention, so says a recent report, 
not only for the sake of the individual prosperity of the 
town concerned, but as part of the national policy of securing 
the future greatness and prosperity of the Empire. 

In most of the large German cities, a close system of 
co-operation is carried on between the schools, the Labour 
Exchanges, and the " Handwerkershammer." The most 
important feature in the German educational scheme are 
the Continuation Schools. Compulsory attendance at 
these is insisted on in many parts of Germany ; thus the 
schools retain control over the children after they go to work. 
They know whether the children are working, and what 
kind of employment they are working at. Germany seems 
to have grasped the same fact as England — i.e. that the 
care and supervision of juvenile labour is a national respon- 
sibility, and whether that care be divided between school 
authorities, private philanthropists, or industrial organiza- 
tions, it is universally recognized that the supervision of the 
working child must be undertaken by the State. 

In regard to juvenile delinquency in Germany, there is an 
institution for the Protection of Minors, This organization 


is presided over by a specially selected magistrate, and has 
on its staff ladies and gentlemen who are voluntary workers. 
When a child is arrested, the magistrate informs this Institu- 
tion. One of the volunteers then visits the child's parents 
or guardians, and inquires into his environment. The 
interesting feature of this Court is that inquiries are made, 
and a report presented, before the child is tried. 

In Munich, till recently, attendance in the elementary 
schools was compulsory for boys up to fourteen years of age, 
but not for girls. Now, by a unanimous vote, the school 
authority has made attendance compulsory for girls also up 
to the end of the fourteenth year. When the children are 
in their fourteenth year, the boys are specially trained in 
the use of tools and the girls in household work. It is in- 
teresting to note that one of the reasons for making the 
longer attendance of girls compulsory was because working 
men complained that, since so many women have now 
to work in mills, they cannot get wives who can manage 
their homes, unless they have been taught household work 
at school. 

When I was in Antwerp, Lady Hertslet introduced me to 
a German lady who told me of the interesting work among 
children in Elberfeld. So from Cologne I went by train 
there, a little more than an hour's journey distant. The 
train ride was most interesting, but unfortunately I could 
not speak German, and it took some little time before I could 
find any one who could speak English. Eventually I was 
directed to a Home for girls, where I found a lady who spoke 
French and a few words of English. She very kindly took 
me through some of the poor quarters of Elberfeld, of which 
there seemed to be many, for, as my friend told me on our 
way, there are many poor in Elberfeld, and many charitable 


We went to a very interesting kindergarten school. 
Two capable women were at the head of this, and we spent 
quite a long while watching the children at their lessons and 
at play. They sang us action songs, and also recited for 
us. Outside was a large heap of sand for them to play in, 
while inside the rooms were specially designed for little 
tots, some for schoolrooms, others for play, with any 
number of dolls for the girls and blocks and trains for the 

I learnt from a doctor I met on my travels that in Berlin 
the newsboys are drawn from those who have more home 
advantages than the ordinary newsboy as we know him. 
They are dressed in a special uniform and are hired by the 
newspaper companies. These boys each wear a badge on 
their caps, and have a permit which allows them to ride on 
the trams from block to block to sell their papers. 

In Switzerland, the Government exercises special care 
over children during what Judge Lindsey so aptly calls, 
" the storm and stress period." In most of the Swiss cities 
the Government has appointed guardians, who hold what 
are called " Guardians' Classes." In Basle one hundred 
of these Guardians are appointed by the Municipality. 
Their object is to take care of children, and to keep them 
off the streets out of school hours. The classes conducted 
by these Guardians begin at six o'clock in the morning, and 
last till school time ; after school they begin again, and last 
until bed time. The children are taken in groups into the 
schools on wet and cold days, and are put into classes where 
they are told stories or allowed to dance and sing. At 
other times they are taken to the parks and playgrounds, 
where they are taught games and compete in athletic 

From the British Embassy in Paris I obtained a letter 


of introduction to " Monsieur le Directeur " of all the 
hospitals, maternity homes, and child-rescue institutions in 
the city. They are all under the jurisdiction of the " Ad- 
ministration publique." The Director gave me a special 
order to visit the homes for children. Armed with this, I 
went straight there by taxi, and was shown the French 
system of dealing with children, from the tiniest of babies 
till they reach the age of twenty-one years. Every aban- 
doned child, every illegitimate child, or any child whose 
parents cannot keep it, is sent straight to the Homes I 
visited, which are the headquarters. From there the 
little ones are sent to special homes in the country, or, if 
applied for by a private institution, are transferred there. 
If any private person wishes to adopt a child, she applies 
to the " Administration publique," and is referred to this 
Home. Each child when it is admitted has all its (known) 
history written up, and is identified with a number. It is 
then, if under seven years, given a blue, red, or white neck- 
lace. Naturally, not all the children sent to this Home are 
what we should call " abandoned." If a woman is arrested, 
and her husband cannot look after the child, it is sent to 
the Home during the mother's detention in prison ; if a 
woman is ill in a hospital, or in the Maternity Home, the 
children are sent to the Children's Department of this great 

All these babies wear coloured necklaces with their 
number on a small coin attached to it. The baby boys of 
the mothers who are only away for a short period wear blue 
necklaces, the baby girls red necklaces. Those children 
who have been abandoned, or given over to the State, or 
who are foundlings or orphans, wear white necklaces. They 
wear these until they are six or seven years old, according 
to their intelligence. In this huge establishment there is 


accommodation for 865 children. Some are housed there, 
others are transferred to the various homes of the Adminis- 
tration. From twelve to twenty children are received 
every day ; among these are also juvenile delinquents. 
These young offenders against the law are treated as first 
offenders, and after a period of probation are allowed to go 
free. But if they lapse again and come up for trial, the first 
conviction is added to the subsequent one, and they are 
sent to the " Maison de Correction/' 

In the babies' hospital I saw the saddest sights. Many 
of the mites were terribly puny, disfigured, ill nourished and 
malformed. A seven-months baby was being reared in an 
incubator. A great many babies were in the hospital, and 
the faces of these suffering and unhappy children formed one 
of the most pathetic sights I had ever seen. 

From the hospital we went to a room full of children 
under two years old. They were playing and crawling about 
the floor, or sitting patiently on little chairs. They were 
all dressed alike, and their hair was cut short. The only 
distinguishing mark between the boys and girls was the red 
or blue necklace. 

It was sad to see among these mites so many who wore 
white necklaces. They were the ones who would never 
know a mother's love or care — the abandoned babies who 
had been given up to the State. As I smiled at these little 
atoms of humanity and touched their sweet little faces, they 
came closer to me, and some, playing in a little group, came 
and stood near me, their baby souls seeming to be crying 
out for love. 

When possible and practicable, the boys and girls are 
sent to foster homes, where they are nursed till they are old 
enough to go to school. They remain in the foster homes if 
advisable during school age, and when they leave school 


employment is found for them. The State has control 
over them till they are twenty-one. 

The elder boys and girls in the institution were in different 
divisions. Good and bad boys, and good and bad girls, were, 
so the official told me, dealt with separately. 

I saw over the good boys' quarters. They receive educa- 
tion if under school age and work about the house and 
garden, but receive no money. They all sleep together in 
one dormitory. 

What the official called the bad boys were treated very 
much as we treat criminals. They slept in separate cubicles, 
and an officer slept in each dormitory to keep order. Close 
to these cubicles were cells where boys who misbehaved 
were locked up all day, or for a number of days, according 
to the term of punishment allowed. They were released 
at night to sleep in their cubicles. If they continued incor- 
rigible, they were sent to prison. I saw these boys at dinner, 
and noticed several of them at work. 

I only saw what were called the " good " girls. Some were 
in school, and later on I saw them at dinner. Some of them 
had very sweet faces. My attendant told me that " when 
girls are bad, they are worse than the boys." 

The children were of all religions ; there were Jews and 
Mohammedans among them. They are received into 
whatever faith the parents wish, if they have parents. 
I did not ask what happened to those babies who could 
claim relationship with nobody. 

The French system, embracing all child-rescue work as it 
does, is an admirable one. It is the only thorough system 
of State care for children. 



Abbot, Edith, 61 

Addams, Jane, 31, 33, 36, 52, 104, 

Administration publique, 274 

Afro- American boys, 17 

After-Care agency, 157, 272, 273 
and juvenile employment, 61, 
178, 271 

Akbar, 214 

Alcohol and eugenics, 257 

Alexandra Mission, 242 

Allendale, 51 

" Anchorage, The," 219 

Apprenticeship and skilled em- 
ployment, 178, 180 

Arthur's Home, 242 

Association of neighbourhood 
workers, 35 

Association, Juvenile Protective, 
24-28, 30 

Baby dispensary, 39 

Hospital, 39 
Babies' Castle, 235 

Home and Day Nursery, 145 
Baker, Judge, 51, 52 
Baker, Newton, 84 
Balfour, A. J., 247 
Barnes Industrial School, 203 
Beast and the Jungle, 52 
Beaufort House, 189 
Bennett, Sarah, 120 
Big Brother movement, 61 
Big Sister movement, 61 
Bland Sutton, Lady, 144 
Board Schools, 131, 144, 173 
Booth, Henry, House, 44 

Borstal Association, 127, 130- 
134, 152 
Institutions, 123', 143 
Boston, 93-99 
Boy scouts, 67 
Boys' club, 38, 55, 264 
Homes, 233-245 
Industrial Home, 244 
Boys' societies, 142 
Bradley, Captain, 51, 52 
Breckenbridge, Sophonista, P., 61 
Brotherhood movement, 89 
Buffalo, 65-90 
Bulletin of New York School of 

Philanthropy, in 
Bureau for Finding Employ- 
ment, 58 
Burgwin, Mrs., for Children, etc., 

Canada, 233, 241 
" Canada Points," 95 
Central Schools, 181, 184 
Centre, Frederick Douglas, 48 

Social club, 48 
Chapman, Cecil, 261 
Charity Organization, 111-178 
Charles Street church for 

coloured people, 194 
Chicago, 3-63 

Boys' club, 55 

Children's Courts of, 4-33 

Commercial club, 19 

Commons, 43, 44, 57 

Ethical Society, 45 

Girls' club, 26 

Hebrew Institute, 46 




Chicago School of Civics and 
Philanthropy, 44, 57, 62 

Child labour and legislation, 68, 
109, 172 

Child on the Continent 269-276 

Child Welfare Exhibition, 11 1 

Children's Aid Society, 218 

Children's Care Committee, 174, 

Children's Courts, 50, 138, 152, 
260, 262, 268 (see also Juve- 
nile Court) 

City Gardens, 35 

Cleveland, 84-92 

Clinics, 170-172, 271, 271 

Colony Farms, 84 

Colorado, 51, 52 

" Community and its children," 

Continuation schools, 271 

Cookery school, 185 

Cooley Farms, 84 

Co-operation of public and pri- 
vate philanthropy, 70 

Co-operative Club, 37 

Cornwall, The, 211 

Corporal punishment, 52, 130, 
206, 211, 218 

Correction Farm, 87 

Correction, House of, 89 

Correction, maison de, 274 

Court of Domestic Relations, 

9, 29-33 
Creches, 233, 244 
Crime and Destitution, 158 
Cripple and invalid schools, 117, 

Culver Club, 37-38 

Davis, Miss, $y 
Day industrial school, 39, 130 
Day nurseries, 39, 144, 147 
Delinquency child, 8, 15, 25, 26, 

2 9, 32, 59, 65, 66, 112, 155, 

271, 275 
Delinquent child, 8, 15, 25, 26, 

29. 32,s59, 65, 66, 112, 155, 

271, 275 

Delinquent schools, 13 
Dental clinics (see Clinics) 
Denver, 51-53 
Dependent Homes, 8 
Deptford Clinic, 170-172 
Destitution, National Conference, 

Detention Home, 6-8 

rooms, 12 
Director of Public Safety, 76 
Discharged prisoners, 136 
Dispensary, baby, 39 

East Aurora, 90-92 
Elberfeld, 273 
Epilepsy, 249 
Epileptic children, 199 
Equal Suffrage, 104 
Ethical Society, 45 
Eugenics, 70, 246-258 

Farningham Homes, 242 
Federation of Chicago settle- 
ments, 38 
of Churches, 76 

of London working boys' clubs, 


Feeble-minded, 100-106, 138, 

189, 194, 197, 198, 252, 269 

Feeding of school children, 69, 

174, 189, 194, 198 
Fernald, Dr. E., 100-103 
Finding Employment for Chil- 
dren, 61 
Finlay- Johnson, Miss, 141, 162 
Forward Movement, 46 
Foundling Hospital, 235-237 
Frederick Douglas Centre, 48* 

Galsworthy, 151-154 
Garden suburb, 167-169 
George Junior Republic, 51, 163- 

Germany, 271 
Gilman, Charlotte P., 109 
Girls' Church School, 262 
Clubs, 39, 118 



Girls' Physical exercise club, 263 

Protective Home, 219 

Village Home, 233 
Gladstone, Mr., 254 
Goodnow, Judge Charles N., 29, 

Gray, Dr. George W., 48 
Greek Education Association, 42 

Women's club, 38 
Grotto Home, 219 
Guardians' classes, 273 
Gunckel, John E., 51, 72-75 

Hampstead Garden suburb, 167 
Happy Evenings, 143 
Harvard, 94-95 
Health department, 35 
Heaton-Mersey, 205-207 
Hebrew Institute, 46 
Henry Booth House, 45 
Henry, Miss Alice, 31, 63, 109 
Herbert, Mr., 220 
Hersch, Dr. Emil G., 31 
Hertslet, Lady, 270 
Heswell Nautical School, 214-217 
Heyrod Street Lads' Club, 155 
Holy Trinity Industrial School, 

Home for wasting babies, 143 
Home industry, 68-69 
Homes Committee, 239 
Homes for boys, 233-245 
Hospitals, 200, 222-232, 235-237, 

Housden, Mr., 203-207 
Houseboys' Brigade, 259 
House of Correction, 87-89 
Housing problem, 61-62, 158, 166 
Howells, W. D., 105-107 
Hubbard, Elbert, 90-92 
Hull House, 34, 35, 43, 52, 57 

Illinois, 4, 36, 68 
Industrial schools, 202-211 
Infants' Hospital, 224 
Italian circle, 38 

Jews, 44, 45, 46, 196, 122 

Juvenile Advisory Committee, 

Juvenile Court, 4, 33, 35, 48, 51, 
52, 59, 74, 97-99, 268, 261- 
Juvenile Court Committee, 6 
Employment Agency, 61 
Labour Exchanges, 271 
Labour organization, 178-179, 

Protective Association, 9, 24- 

Psychopathic Institute, 35 

Kindergarten, 37, 81 

League for the Protection of 

Immigrants, 35 
League of Redemption, 139 
Leavitt, Mrs. Marie, 30 
Legge, Mr., 193 
Life and Labour, 63 
Lindsey, Judge Ben. B., 50-54 
Liverpool Education Committee, 

London County Council, 173-187 

MacCoy Irwin, Rev. Mrs., 253 

Mack, Mr., 88 

McMillan, Margaret, 170 

Maison de correction, 275 

Manchester gaol, 133 

Mansion House Advisory Com- 
mittee, 180 

Marriage and Eugenics, 250-251 

Marriage permit system, 251 

Marro, Antonio, 249 

Mary Crane Nursery, 39 

Massachusetts school, 100-103 

Maternity Home, 274 

Medical inspection, 174-179 

Men's clubs, 38, 117 

Mentally defective schools, 189- 
201 (see also Feeble-minded) 

Metropolitan Association for be- 
friending young Servants, 



Milk centre, 44 
Mills, Mr., 36 
Milwaukee, 61 
Montagu, George, 163 
Montessori, 102 
Mooney, Mr., 76 
Moreton, Honor, 120 
Mother clubs, 253 
Mothers' and Babies' Welcome, 
1 48-15 1 

National newsboys' association, 

New York, 10 7-1 11 
Newsboys, 71, 90, 103, 273 
clubs, 71, 72, j 5, 90, iio-iii, 

Harvard Scholarship, 95 
homes, 231 
Trial Board, 95 
North-Western Settlement, 44 

Ohio, 73, 92 
Olson, Judge Harry, 31 
Open-air schools, 39, 69, 175 
Organization of juvenile labour, 

Osterrieth, Madame, 270 

Paddington workhouse, 265 
Paderewski singing society, 45 
Parental schools, 8, 13 
Parents' Act, 5 
Park, Mrs. Charles, 93, 104 
Parole, 8, 21, 28, 77, 90, 126 
Passmore Edwards settlement, 

Pedott, Dr., 46 

Penal Reform League, 137, 155 
Penitentiary, 18, 51, 76, 88 
People's Palace, 265 
Personal Service bureau, 46 
Pett-Ridge, W., 143 
Pinckney, Judge, 10, 31-32, 51- 


Play centre, 118, 174 

Grounds, 63-66, 175, 195, 242 

Zones, 66-67 

Prison commissioner, 125, 128, 

159, 202, 215 

Regime and conditions relating 

to, 75-81, 84-90, 124-136, 


Probation, 5, 6, 7, 54, 98, 215, 

Protection of minors, 271 
Psycho-Physical character, 249 
Public library, 63 
Public schools, 81-82 

Quinn, Mrs., 85 

Reformatories, 202-221 
Ridge, W. Pett, 143 
Riordan, Raymond, 90 
Robinson, Tom, 207 
Roycrofters, 90-92 
Ruggeri, Professor V. Guiffrida, 

St. Charles' school, 15-23 

St. John, Captain Arthur, 137- 

139, 154, 159 
St. Pancras school for mothers, 

143, 147-159 
Saleeby, Dr., 251 
Savings bank, 42 
Scouts, 67 

Settlements, 34-49, 55, 1 16-123 
Sex instruction, 254-256 
Shaftesbury Ragged schools, 242 
Shakers, 108 
Shoeblacks' home, 243 
Skilled employment committee, 

Smith, Samuel G., 256 
Social club centre, 48 
Social economics club, 48 
Sociological society, 140 
Special schools, 188-201 
Stevens, Mr., 77 
Street traders, 68, 176-177 



Subnormal schools, 188-201 
Survey, The, 44 
Swanley Homes, 242 
Switzerland, 273 

Talbot, Miss, 259 
Taylor, Graham, 43 
Thinking Tower, 89 
Thurston, 33 
Toledo, 51-72 

Tolstoy settlement, 120-123 
Toynbee Hall, 34, 116 
Trade union branches, 39 
Training ships, 202-211 
Truancy, 165, 175, 263 
Tuthill, Judge R. S., 22 

Uchtman, Miss, 42 
United Charities, 33, 35 

Victoria Hospital, 225 
Victoria League, 59 

Waller, Mr., 124, 202 
Ward, Mrs. Humphry, 117 
Weller, Mrs. {see Miss Finlay- 

Whithead, Frank, 44 
Whitlock, Brand, y$ 
White slave traffic, 139 
Willard, Mabel, 93, 104 
Women's club, 38, 118 
Women suffrage, 104 

Y.M.C.A., 55, 67, 265 
Y.W.C.A., 83 

Zones, play, 66 

The St. Abbs Press, London. 


Mr. Frank Tate, M.A., I.S.O., Director of Education, Education 
Office, Melbourne. 

" I am returning the typed notes of your observations of special 
schools and institutions in England and America. 

" I have to thank you very much for allowing us the full use 
of the varied and valuable information the notes contain. Mr. 
Gates and Mr. Porteous have read them through completely and 
have made notes for future use. 

" I am sure your experience will help you to carry out your self- 
imposed labours among the newsboys with greater effect than 
before, and I hope we shall be allowed to call upon your energy and 
special knowledge again in related fields of work." 

Judge B. B. Lindsey, Judges Chambers, Juvenile Court, Denver, 
Colo., U.S.A. 

" Your very welcome letter and the newspaper came to me 
some time ago. The activities of a busy Court, public life, and a 
whirl of work has delayed my correspondence very much. But I 
do want to thank you a thousand times for your thoughtfulness in 
remembering me. I enjoyed your letter very much, and the write-up 
in the paper was most generous and kind. 

" I do want to congratulate you and the City Newsboys' Society 
of Melbourne upon the splendid work you are doing. It is pre- 
ventative work like that which counts more than Juvenile Courts — 
however important they are becoming in our modern city life." 

Mr. M. L. Waller, Prison Commission, Home Office, Whitehall, 

" Thank you for your letter of June 13, with its enclosures, which 
I was most glad to receive. I am much interested in your paper, 
which gives an excellent description of our Borstal system. Con- 
gratulations to you once more on being engaged in one of the happiest 
occupations that anybody can have, and upon the success you have 
attained in it." 

Mr. Brand Whitlock, The Mayor, The City of Toledo, Ohio, 
U.S.A., writes : — 

" It was very pleasant to have your letter and the copy of the 
newspaper with your very nattering sketch, and I thank you with 
all my heart. Australia does not seem so far away now, since I 
may feel that I have friends there too. Mr. Mooney was as much 
interested as I in your article and in your letter, and he begs me to 
send to you his compliments and best wishes. It was a very great 
pleasure to us both to meet you and to have contributed, even in 
the smallest degree, to your pleasure on what has, I hope, proved to 
be a most profitable and interesting journey." 

Alexander McKinley, Chairman Children's Court, Melbourne 
and President of the Special Magistrates' Association, Melbourne. 

" I have read several of your papers on work done by the Children's 
Courts in America, and have found them very interesting and also, 
helpful to the child-saving work in Melbourne and Australia. 

" I trust your book will be successful." 




Thomas C. Lothian, 




Australians Yet. 

Blue Sky Philosophy 

Bush, The. 

Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes 

Dark Tower, The 


Dominions of the Boundary 

Eating for Health 

Ginger Talks on Business . 

Guide to the Study of Australian Butterfh 

House of Broken Dreams, The 

Keeyuga Cookery Book, The 

Later Litanies . 

Litanies of Life. 

Mateship .... 

Mosquitoes : Their Habits and Distribution 

No Breakfast ; or, the Secret of Life 

Peradventure .... 

Platform Monologues 

Poems by Jennings Carmichael . 

Poems by Hubert Church . 

Poems by Bernard O'Dowd 

Poems by William Gay 

Poems of Henry C. Kendall 

Poems by Jessie Mackay . 

Poems by Ella Wheeler Wilcox 

Poetical Works of William Gay . 

Poetry Militant .... 

Rosemary . . 

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, The 

Sappho ..... 

Satyrs and Sunlight . 

Sea and Sky .... 

Sea Spray and Smoke Drift 

Seven Deadly Sins, The 

Silent Land and Other Verses, The 

Stranger's Friend, The 

Spirit of the Child 

Things Worth Thinking About . 

Told in the Dormitory 

Woman's Work. 



Pott 4th. 224 pages. Price, 5/-; posted, 5/4 

Every Home in Australia should 
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teacher and child lover everywhere. 

This is a distinctly original book, with quaint gleams 
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A father, ordered abroad for his health, and realizing 
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By T. G. TUCKER, Litt.D. (Camb.) 

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By T. G. TUCKER, Litt.D. (Camb.) 

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Author of " Litanies of Life." 
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5 U 



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SEA SPRAY AND SMOKE DRIFT, by Adam Lindsay Gordon. 

POEMS, by Henry C. Kendall. 

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MATESHIP, by Henry Lawson. 

THE STRANGER'S FRIEND, by Henry Lawson. 

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" In Hubert Church we have a poet who worthily upholds the highest 
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" In Mr. Le Gay Brereton's ' Sea and Sky,' " says the Bookman, " one 
has some of the most delicate and essentially poetical work that has yet 
been written in Australia." 


With Biographical Sketch by J. Glen Oliphant. 
Bound in Full Cloth, Gold Blocked, Gilt Top. Crown 8vo. Price, 3/6; 
posted, 3/9. The authentic and only complete edition. 
This Scotch born poet, driven like so many, before and since, to seek 
health across the sea, has left a rare memorial in the land of his adoption. 
We cannot call him an Australian poet. " His poetry," says his bio- 
grapher, " was universal, not local, and might have been written any- 
where," but as his life was linked with Australia, we are glad to count 
him among her sons, and to remember that he found under her skies 
greater spiritual peace, and a measure of physical strength sufficient to 
leave this legacy. 



Crown 8vo. 254 pages. Clearly printed on good white paper, and attractively bound. 
Lettered in gold. Gilt top. Price, 3/6 ; fost free, 3/8. 

" This is a volume of vigorous ballads, chanting the praise of Australia, a creed of 
hard work, and a love of women, in long, rollicking lines. He sings manfully, with 
a good ear for a chorus." — Times. 

" His verses are good reading." — The Bookseller. 

" This is jolly hearty Colonial stuff, by one who sees that Australia needs an arch 
interpreter." — The Daily Chronicle, London. 





(Of The Age and The Leader.) 
{Price, 1/6; posted, 1/8. 
Strongly Bound in Grease-proof Cloth. 

This is the long-looked-for Australian Cookery Book. Once used, you will find it a 
practical necessity in your kitchen. Every recipe has been tried, proved and found 
good. It is well printed, clearly written, and the directions can easily be followed. 

It can be claimed with confidence for the " Keeyuga " that it is the cheapest 
and most practical cookery book ever sold. What is wanted in these days of scarcity of 
domestic help is a cookery book that will serve in an emergency, one that contains well- 
tried reliable recipes that can be depended upon ; these are to be found in the " Keeyuga," 
as well as all the recipes necessary for a full-course dinner. 

Whatever the difficulty in the culinary department may be, one can turn to the 
" Keeyuga " with absolute confidence ; whether it is helpful recipes that are needed, or 
how to vary the children's school lunches, or what to take to the pleasant week-end 
camping out picnics, or how to make up an Australian fruit luncheon, the " Keeyuga '" 
will help every time. 

These are some titles taken from its invaluable contents : — 

" Meals Make the Man " For Breakfast, Lunch, or Supper 

Emergency Meals Soups Puddings Pastry 

Cookery for Children Cold Puddings and Sweets 

School Lunches Cakes Teacakes Sandwiches 

Camp Life and Week-end Cookery Jams, Jellies, Marmalades, 
Household Cookery — Joints Fruit Cheeses and Preserves 

Poultry Fish Sauces, Pickles and Chutneyc 

Spiced Meat, Sausages, etc. Salads Drinks 

Curries Invalid Cookery Sweets Sundries 

Vegetables Fruit Things Worth Knowing 

And many other interesting Chapters. 



Price, i/-; posted, i/i. 

"The Publisher has pleasure in placing upon the market a book of such eminent import- 
ance and usefulness as this book on Woman's Work. 

The aim of the writers has been to set before the prospective worker the ways and 
means by which she may secure thej work best ruited to her,and some idea of the remuner- 
ation she may expect to receive as a return for her investment of time, study, work and 

The writers are probably the two most able women in Australia for the subject in 
hand. Miss H. C. McGowen, by her long experience in connection with the Age and 
Leader, has been brought into close practical touch with the condition*, and possibilities 
of private women workers, while Miss Cuthbeitson, in her capacity of Inspectress of 
Factories, is peculiarly fitted to speak with authority upon this particular class of work- 




164 pages. Post 4to. Printed on art paper, with attractive paper cover. 
Price, 3/6 ; posted, 3/9. 

A book that is a pleasure to handle as it is an education and inspiration 
to read. Mr. Strong does not belong to the School of Dryasdust, he 
treats his books as human documents, and his literary friends as beings 
of flesh and blood. The breadth of his range and the freshness of this 
point of view are seen by a glance at the titles of his Essays, which range 
from " The Devil " to " The Faith of Shelley," and from " Rabelais " 
to " Neitzsche." 

" Both in its grave and gay moods the book is one of unusual charm." 
— Literary World. 


By ALAN D. MICKLE. Author of "The Great Longing." 

Bound in Art Cloth. Crown 8vo. 152 pages. Price, 3/6; posted, 3/8. 

" The Dark Tower " is a new and original volume of short essays ; 
stimulating, good, attractive. All thoughtful people who are interested 
in living thought should obtain a copy of this new book. 

These essays deal with a variety of things and people, but the value 
of this book lies in the author's forceful sincerity and his advocacy 
of fearlessness in thought. 

SOME OF THE BEST CHAPTERS : The Supreme Virtue ; Tolstoy 
and Turgeneiff ; Don Quixote, Mr. Pickwick and Hamlet ; Hedda 
Gabler ; Nietzsche ; William Blake ; Pontius Pilate ; Gallio ; Cleo- 
patra ; The Venus of Milo ; The Sphinx. 

"... gives the impression of genuine sincerity." — Athenceum. 

" A book worth buying and worth keeping." — The Triad. 

" Those who have read ' The Great Longing ' will welcome Mr. Mickle's 
latest work, as, indeed, anything that comes from his pen. He stands 
in the front rank of philosophical essayists, and is doing more for Australian 
literature than all the many poetasters and their kind who yearly publish 
many books, but write little poetry. Regarded only for their literary 
merit his essays have high place. ... It is good for Australian literature 
to have the books of Mr. Mickle, which will win him permanence of posi- 
tion. He is making a very real and valuable addition to the best in our 
literature." — Hobart Daily Post. 

" Certainly a striking little book." — The Australasian. 


By " Gossip." 

Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo. 94 pp. Antique paper. Attractive cover 
in two colours. Price, 1/-; posted, 1/1. 

When a book of this description goes into a Fifth Edition we realize 
that the gospel it preaches is one that has been accepted and proved to 
be true by thousands of readers. This is not surprising when one con- 
siders that this is the actual story of a man's own experience. Gossip 
writes of what he knows to be true, he has proved it — is proving it every day. 

" This little book," says the Sydney Morning Herald, " has been a 
continuous success since its first appearance in 1905, and it deserved 
to be so, for the argument is lively, sound and helpful throughout. It 
is a vigorous expression of the philosophy of common sense. The plea 
is for more simplicity, for moderation in all things." 

How to live and how to get the most out of life : Those are the problems 
that confront every one of us. This little volume helps to solve them. 
You will be glad to read it. 


Massachusetts School 
for Feeble M indeed